Somos Primos

106th Online Issue

Mimi Lozano ©2000-8

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research

 Rafael Peralta 
April 7, 1979 - November 15, 2004

Marine Sgt. Rafael Peralta denied the Medal of Honor, 
Congressional Committee seeking a review of the case. 

Table of Content Areas

Sgt. Rafael Peralta

United States 
National Issues
Action Item
Bilingual Education
Witness to Heritage

Anti-Spanish Legends

Hispanic Heritage Month

Military & Law Enforcement Heroes
Patriots of American Revolution


Orange County,CA
Los Angeles,CA

Northwestern US
Southwestern US 
East of Mississippi



Family History



Quote for the Month:

"When men yield up the privilege of thinking, 
the last shadow of liberty quits the horizon."
Thomas Paine



Sgt. Rafael Peralta

Some upset Marine sergeant won't receive Medal of Honor
By Gregg Zoroya, USA TODAY

WASHINGTON - A rare decision by Defense Secretary Robert Gates to reject a Marine Corps recommendation that one of its heroes receive the Medal of Honor has angered Marines who say Sgt. Rafael Peralta sacrificed his life to save theirs.

Peralta's family was notified of the decision Wednesday by Lt. Gen. Richard Natonski, a top Marine Corps commander. Col. David Lapan, a Marine spokesman, said he was unaware of any recent award nomination that was denied in this way.

A Gates-appointed panel unanimously concluded that the report on Peralta's action did not meet the standard of "no margin of doubt or possibility of error," Pentagon spokesman Bryan Whitman said. The argument about whether to award Peralta the nation's highest military honor centers on whether a mortally wounded Marine could have intentionally reached for the grenade after suffering a serious head wound.  

There are four specialist: a brain surgeon,  two neurosurgeons and a neurologist who  refute what this one panel concluded. Read below.]

For his actions during a Nov. 15, 2004, firefight in Fallujah, Iraq, Peralta will receive the Navy Cross, the service's second-highest award for valor. The citation said Peralta, 25, covered a live grenade thrown by insurgents. 

The decision is "almost like somebody called me a liar," said Marine Sgt. Nicholas Jones, 25, who was with Peralta that day. Jones, a recruiter, said Peralta's actions have become part of Marine Corps lore, as drill sergeants and officer-candidate instructors repeat it to new Marines. "His name is definitely synonymous with valor," said Jones, who was wounded by the grenade blast. 

"I know for a fact that I would have been killed … and that my daughter, Sophia, our new baby, Sienna, would not be here or coming into the world. And that my son, Noah, would have grown up without knowing his dad," said Robert Reynolds, 31, a corrections officer and former Marine who was with Peralta that day.

In a Marine Corps investigation of the attack, Natonski said, "I believe beyond a shadow of a doubt" that the gravely wounded Peralta covered the grenade.

Natonski, commander of the U.S. Marine Corps Forces Command in Norfolk, Va., appeared disappointed by the news he brought the family, said David Donald, Rosa Peralta's son-in-law. "He felt like Rafael deserved the Medal of Honor," Donald said.
Peralta's heroism has become Marine Corps legend, Lapan says. He said those closest to Peralta are likely to be upset by the decision, while others will see the Navy Cross award - given to only 17 other Marines in the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts - as quite an honor. 
Peralta had been shot in the head before he covered the grenade, a Marine investigation said. The report concluded he was hit by a ricochet that likely came from the gun of another Marine while they were clearing insurgents from a local home.

After he was wounded, the report said, Peralta scooped an insurgent grenade under his body, absorbed the blast and died, according to five of the Marines who were with Peralta during the firefight.

Gates appointed a five-member panel led by retired Lt. Gen. John Vines, the former commander of multi-national forces in Iraq, to reinvestigate reports of the battle. The panel also included a Medal of Honor recipient, a retired military neurosurgeon and two civilian forensic pathologists, Whitman said. He declined to provide their names.

After the panel made its recommendation, Gates made his decision last week, Whitman said. He declined to provide any explanation other than the facts did not meet the standard for a Medal of Honor.

Five men have been awarded the Medal of Honor for service in Iraq, one for service in Afghanistan. All were posthumous.

Peralta first came to the United States from Mexico without legal documentation as a teen and joined the Marines the day he got his green card on April 17, 2000. He later became a naturalized citizen. 

The Marine Corps assembled extensive material supporting its Medal of Honor request, including witness statements, ballistic and forensic evidence and several medical opinions. 
According to that investigation, Marines scrambling for cover after an insurgent threw a grenade toward them plainly saw Peralta reach with his arm to "scoop" the grenade under his body. 

Scorch marks were later found on his flak jacket, along with embedded pieces of shrapnel and a part of the grenade fuse, the reports show. "There's no way that grenade got under the center of mass of his body without him putting it there," said Reserve Marine Lt. Col. Scott Marconda, who investigated the incident in 2004 as a major and judge advocate. "I'm not a cheerleader. It is what it is. And my point is: I believe that he did that."

The Marine investigation highlighted a key area of controversy: whether the gunshot wound to the back of Peralta's head from a ricochet left him unable to function. 

Col. Eric Berg, an Army pathologist who autopsied Peralta's remains, said in the 2005 report that the head wound would have been "nearly instantly fatal. He could not have executed any meaningful motions."   

Berg said Monday that he stands by his conclusions. Four other experts - Peralta's battalion surgeon, and two neurosurgeons and a neurologist who examined the autopsy reports - said Peralta could have knowingly reached for the grenade. They say the ricochet was traveling at a "low velocity" and would not have immediately killed him.

Regardless, Jones said, Peralta is still a hero. Not receiving the Medal of Honor "won't change what he did out there."  Contributing: Alan Gomez


"This is outrageous, an insult to the heroism of Rafael Peralta. 
I hope everyone will take action. This demeaning of our men's bravery must be stopped."
Rick Leal, President
Hispanic Medal of Honor Society


                   Big thank you to the legislatures from California who have moved quickly on this injustice.  

Washington, DC  20515

September 19, 2008

The President
The White House
Washington, D.C. 20500

Dear Mr. President:

        We are writing to express our extreme disappointment with the decision to posthumously award Marine Corps Sergeant Rafael Peralta with the Navy Cross instead of the Medal of Honor. Sergeant Peralta was killed during combat operations in Iraq when he deliberately used his body to protect his fellow Marines from a grenade blast.

        As you know, Sergeant Peralta was awarded the Navy Cross after the Department of Defense conducted a lengthy review of the circumstances surrounding his death and determined his actions are not deserving of the Medal of Honor. It is our understanding that the review panel could not confirm whether Sergeant Peralta's actions were deliberate, despite the fact that several eye witness accounts verify that he knowingly picked up the grenade and absorbed the full explosion with his body.

        The selflessness and combat heroism of Sergeant Peralta is also recognized by the Navy Cross citation itself. According to the citation, Sergeant Peralta used his body to shield his comrades, who were only feet away from the grenade, "without hesitation and complete disregard for his own personal safety." Clearly, Sergeant Peralta, as confirmed by the award citation, made a deliberate decision to absorb the grenade blast in order to protect the lives of the Marines fighting directly by his side.

        Mr. President, last year, you posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor to Corporal Jason Dunham for the same act of heroism in Anbar province. Intentionally absorbing a grenade blast to protect one's comrades in arms has been traditionally recognized by awarding the Medal of Honor. The sacrifice of Sergeant Peralta manifests the same devotion to one's comrades and country as that displayed by Jason Dunham.

        We therefore request that a review of Sergeant Peralta's case be undertaken and that, unless a strong distinction is drawn between his actions and those of Corporal Dunham, Sergeant Peralta be posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor. We thank you for your attention to this request and look forward to your response.


Editor: I could not capture the signatures, but the following signed this letter.  Their party affiliation was not indicated.  I've included the information to show that this effort is totally bipartisan

(R) U.S. Congressman Brian P. Bilbray       (R) U.S. Congressman Duncan Hunter
(D) U.S. Senator Barbara Boxer                   (D) U.S. Senator Dianne Feinstein
(D) U.S. Congressman Bob Filner                (D) U.S. Congressman Joe Baca
(R) U.S. Congressman Darrell Issa               (D) U.S. Congresswoman Susan Davis

Copy of the letter was posted on:


Telephone calls and faxes of support to the following would be very helpful:
Joe Baca  
DC 202-225-6161 Fax: 202-225-8671  CA 909-885-BACA (2222) Fax: 909-888-5959
Brian P. Bilbray
202-225-0508 Fax:  202-225-2558 CA  858-350-1150  Fax:  858-350-0750
Barbara Boxer 
DC 202-224-3553  Fax: 202-224-0454   CA 415-403-0100  Fax: 916-448-2563 
Susan Davis
DC 202-225-2040  Fax: 202-225-2948  CA 619-280-5353 Fax: 619-280-5311
Dianne  Feinstein
DC 202-224-3841  Fax: 202-228-3954  CA 415-393-0707  Fax: 415-393-0710
Bob Filner  
DC 202-225-8045 Fax: 202-225-9073  CA 619-422-5963  Fax: 619-422-7290

Duncan Hunter
DC  202-225-5672  Fax: 202-225-0235  CA 619-448-5201  Fax:  619-449-2251
Darrell  Issa 
DC  202-225-3906 fax: 202-225-3303  CA  760-599-5000  fax: 760-599-1178

Link to
Letters that can be used as models, and other information concerning the Peralta issue.  Write letters of support to the congressional committee above, and to President Bush or anyone else involved,  or that should be involved in righting this wrong.  Click to

Letters to the Editor:

Mimi,  Again,  I thank you for your ongoing efforts to educate the ever growing minorities.  The longer I live in Japan the more I realize how much Japanese have business ties with Mexico and other Latin Countries.

As I pass your web link along to help others open their eyes,  I get a warmer feeling about how diverse not only America is,  but the world.  I seem to break the common stereotypical  assumption that all Mexicans are dark colored.  I have become very comfortable about my light skin color.  I am proud to say I am not White, but TEJANO.
With Mexican origins.  I was just born on the other side of the fence.

I will get you photos of other Latinos from Japan doing good things, from helping the US Navy spread friendship in other parts of the world with Community Relationship projects to playing sporting games with other countries.

Keep the light shining Mimi.....I love you for it!!!!
Sincerely, Robert Gonzalez del Valle(RGV)

Una gran obra es esta publicacion prima. Mil gracias!
Clemente Lozano

Mi querida Mimí:
Hoy recibí tu correo agradecido y sobre todo emocionado de ver como la comunidad latina sigue participando de manera sobresliente en ese país. Tengo la seguridad que nuestra hermandad latina permitirá ir logrando mejores espacios en todos los rincones, económico, político, social, académico e ir dando forma al sueño de libertad y justicia que siempre hemos anhelado

Un abrazo fraternal y que Dios te bendiga.

Anacleto Villarreal

Ms. Lozano,    
    I happened to come across your website and I think it is one of the greatest websites that I have found. Please send me monthly notices of Somos Primos. Keep up the good work. 
Sin Fin, Richard Ortega

Somos Primos Staff:

Mimi Lozano, Editor

Mercy Bautista Olvera
Bill Carmena
Lila Guzman
Granville Hough, Ph.D.
John Inclan
Galal Kernahan
J.V. Martinez
Armando Montes
Dorinda Moreno
Michael Perez
Rafael Ojeda
Ángel Custodio Rebollo
Tony Santiago
John P. Schmal
Howard Shorr 
Ted Vincent

Contributors to the October Issue:

Judge Fredrick Aguirre
Dorina Alaniz Thomas
Juan Alvarez 
Martina Ayala
Mercy Bautista Olvera
Hector Becerra
Jerry Benavides
Eliud Bonilla
Eva Booher
Scott Braley 
Juanito Burns, Jr.
Jaime Cader
Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.
Gloria Candelaria 
Bill Carmena
Arturo Chapa
Lynette Chapa
Gus Chavez
Robin Collins
Steve Delgadillo
Salvador DelValle 
Richard Esquivel
Lorri Frain
James E. Garcia
Mickey Garcia 
Daisy Wanda Garcia
Margaret Garza 
Sally Gidaro
Robert Gonzales 

Robert Gonzalez del Valle
Benita Gray
Edward Grijalva
Luis V. Guevara
Walter Herbeck
Lorraine Hernandez
Elena M. Herrada
Granville Hough, Ph.D.
John Inclan
Vicente Jimenez
Maria Krueger 
Clemente Lozano 
Caroline Maddock
Juan Marinez
Analía Montalvo
Armando Montes
Carlos Montes
Magdalena Morales
Dorinda Moreno
Eric Moreno
Carlos Muñoz, Jr. Ph.D.
Fernando Muñoz Altea
Paul Nauta
Rafael Ojeda
Richard Ortega
John Palacio
Willis Papillion
Elsa Pena Herbeck
Richard D. Perry
David Pogue
Candace Quijas Yxayotl
Cruz Ramos Perez
Anthony Ray
Ángel Custodio Rebollo
Sulema Riojas Ramos 
Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez
Alfonso Rodriguez Ramos
Joe Rodriguez 
Ben Romero
Robert Rosebrock 
Norman Rozeff 
Tom Saenz
Angel Sequin Garcia
Benicio Samuel Sanchez Garcia
Richard G. Santos 
Pepe Serna
Jose Solarez
Dorina Thomas
Carol Trujilla Hadley
Ricardo Valverde
Lupe Velasco
Anacleto Villarreal 
Ted Vincent
Margie White

SHHAR Board: 

Bea Armenta Dever, Gloria Cortinas Oliver,  Mimi Lozano Holtzman, Pat Lozano,  Michael Perez, Crispin Rendon, Viola Rodriguez Sadler, John P. Schmal, Tomas Saenz


Dr. Hector P. Garcia's birthday Honored by U.S. Senate
We Will Not be Overlooked by Wanda Garcia 
American G.I Forum National Archives and Historical Foundation
Vicente Jimenez Remembers Dr. Garcia's Major Contributions
Wanda Garcia, Ph.D. - Mrs. Hector P.  Garcia
Latino issues are American issues 
Olympic Winners
About the Honorable Mario G. Olmos
Nicasio Idar (1855-1914): Newspaper editor and publisher and civil-rights advocate


In the American G.I. Forum home page (, under the "Congressional Records" this Senate Resolution can be found in a large poster size which can be posted for Hispanic Heritage Month.
Sent by Rafael Ojeda. 


We Will Not Be Overlooked
By daughter Daisy Wanda Garcia

Sent: Friday, August 29, 2008 4:49 PM

Subject: Hispanics are not Invisible

My father, Dr. Hector Garcia was a Democrat his whole career.  When John F. Kennedy ran for the Presidency, he sent his brother Bobby Kennedy to ask for my father's support.  My father formed the Viva Kennedy clubs and Kennedy was elected to the office.  After the election, Bobby Kennedy and my father had many conversations about the lack of Hispanics appointed by the administration.  Hispanic overwhelmingly voted for JFK.  When Lyndon Johnson ran for the Presidency, he asked for my father's support and was elected. Bill Clinton who was Jimmy Carter's advance man worked out of my father's office during the Carter run for the White House.  In every case, my father felt that not enough Hispanics were appointed once the candidate won office.
My father was involved in every Presidential and state election and supported the Democratic ticket.  When my father died, Garry Mauro, Texas General Land Commissioner, placed my father's name in the Democratic Hall of Fame.  Thus, it always puzzled  me when the Republican Party gave my father the major recognition.  President Reagan awarded Papa the Presidential Medal of Freedom. 
I understand that my father's contribution to the Democratic Party was not mentioned in the film shown at the Democratic convention.  Both parties say that Hispanics will determine the outcome of this election.  Yet neither party has considered what we Hispanics would like to happen.  They are taking us for granted, but want our vote.  Just as we are expected to shed our blood in wars for this country, but not be recognized. Such as being overlooked in the Ken Burns documentary "The War".  We are not invisible! We will not be overlooked!!
Daisy Wanda Garcia
Daughter of Dr. Hector P. Garcia


Editor:  Wanda distributed the above letter shortly after the Burns documentary on Ted Kennedy was aired during the Democratic convention.  She received the following from Vicente Jimenez, giving permission to share with you:

Sunday, 31 Aug 2008 
Wanda: You may publish my letter to you and forward to those you want to reach on the matter of the Democratic National Committee's omission of Dr. Garcia's contribution. Dr. Garcia made history and the one organization that
*benighted the most was the National Democratic Party.

Vicente Jimenez



Saturday, August 30, 2008

Wanda: As you know, your father was my best friend, mentor, and successfully recommended me to direct the Viva Johnson Clubs of America out of the Democratic National Committee, U.S. Commissioner of Equal Employment, and indirectly the White House Cabinet Committee on Mexican American Affairs. Dr. Garcia's story has been written in the press, the television, and three books by Kells, Garcia, and Pycior. Therefore it is not as if the information and knowledge of Dr. Garcia is not available to everyone at the Democratic National Committee, the press, historians (Goodwin, Cato, Beschloss, Burns, etc.), and those who plan the program of the convention. 

There was plenty of room and time to insert the contribution of Dr. Garcia to the Democratic Party during the convention. I saw a parade of heroes of the Democratic Party who would not come close to the number of votes that Dr. Garcia brought to the Party during the election of Kennedy, who recognized only one Mexican American, Reynaldo Garza, an Eisenhower Republican and ultra conservative. Garza
was appointed over the objections of Dr. Garcia and every Mexican American organization in Texas. Dr. Garcia brought more votes to the Lyndon Johnson election than he had brought for Kennedy. 

However, it was not until Dr. Garcia after waiting patiently for some recognition of his contribution that Johnson in l967 opened the doors of the Federal Government to the Hispanic and Mexican American. I know that the Texas and Southern Johnson constituency kept Johnson from openly coming out with specific Hispanic and Mexican American appointments. Johnson felt that he was doing enough for us by passing Headstart, Medicare, War on Poverty, Model Cities, 1964 civil rights act, and the 1965 Voting Rights Act (eliminated the poll tax). Johnson opened up Congressional districts for Roybal, Gonzales, and de La Garza and a host of other things, but he always was careful about alienating his conservative and racist constituency. It was not until the speech of the Voting Rights Act that he decided to shed his fear of the Texas and Southern constituency. 

I literally cried when he finally said "I mean to use my power to help the Mexican American" during the Voting Rights Speech. The significance of that speech is that Richard Goodwin was the speech writer, and Johnson kept sending it back with notes to include the words he wanted about helping the Mexican American. I can relate countless stories where Hispanic and Mexican American were ignored even though the event or presentation called for a Hispanic or Mexican American presence. The 2008 Democratic Convention was an event that should have presented Dr. Garcia as one of the heroes of the Democratic Party.

Wanda, you touched a nerve. Thanks, say hi to you mom.



 Wanda F. Garcia, Ph.D.
Widow of Dr. Hector P. Garcia
November 15, 1919 - September  20, 2008

Wanda Fusillo Garcia died Saturday, September 20, 2008 in San Antonio, TX after a brief illness. She was born on November 15, 1919 in Caserta, Italy, the daughter of Aida Botacchi Fusillo and Angelo Fusillo. She grew up in Naples, Italy and studied at the University of Naples, ultimately receiving a doctorate in classical literature from that institution. Wanda Garcia recalled having to take her research books in the bomb shelters in order to complete the work for her dissertation.

During World War II, the United States Armies employed Wanda Fusillo as a secretary. It was there that Wanda met her future husband, Army Physician, Major Hector P. Garcia. Dr. Garcia was an stationed in Italy. They were married in June 1945 in Naples, Italy. In 1947 after the birth of their first child, Wanda joined Dr. Hector in Corpus Christi, Texas. He set up his medical practice in Corpus Christi, TX, purchased a home, and settled down to the task of supporting a family, his new medical practice, and political activism. 

In 1948, Dr. Garcia founded the American G.I. Forum. Wanda was active in the American G.I. Forum and held the office of treasurer. During the early years, Mrs. Garcia traveled with Dr. Hector to help him organize chapters in the state of Texas. Later when the work became dangerous, she elected to devote her time to the care of her family so that Dr. Garcia could continue his work. 

After a life-time of seeking justice for Hispanics, Dr. Garcia died in 1996. 
In 2002, Mrs. Garcia, Wanda moved to San Antonio, Texas. 

Wanda was a devoted wife and mother, instilling in her children an appreciation for beauty, music and gardening. Her strength, love and guidance will be greatly missed by her family, friends and those who loved her. She was a member of St. Patrick's Catholic Church.  

Daughter Daisy Wanda Garcia stated, "Our mother loved life and approached it with positive anticipation. They are both together now." 

Information shared by daughters, Daisy Wanda Garcia of Austin, Texas, Cecilia Garcia Akers of San Antonio, TX and Susanna Patricia Garcia of Lafayette, Louisiana who survive her. Both her husband Dr. Hector Perez Garcia and her son, Hector Garcia, Jr. preceded her in death.






Latino issues are American issues 
Extract from Presidential Campaign, Latinos could swing election in key states 
Juan Castillo, American-Statesman Staff, Monday, September 15, 2008 

Long regarded as the slumbering giant in American politics — a commentary on their underachievement and their potential as an electoral force — Latinos are now finding themselves the focus of intense interest in the presidential campaigns.  Never before have presidential candidates paid Latino voters so much attention, said Luis Fraga, a political scientist at the University of Washington and an expert on Hispanic outreach in presidential elections beginning with John F. Kennedy in 1960. Despite being the country's biggest and fastest-growing minority group, being 15 percent of the U.S. population, Latinos make up just 9 percent of eligible voters, according to the Pew Hispanic Center.

Common themes:
The quest for the Latino vote evokes expectations, at least from the pundits' perspective, that candidates can tap into a singular, likeminded force. But the nation's 47 million Hispanics — plus another 4 million in Puerto Rico — comprise a disparate assortment of nationalities, class, politics, gender, income, educational achievement, language, family history and other delineations, not unlike the country as a whole.

"Latino issues are American issues."  That could be the title of the playbook for both campaigns. Though McCain and Obama differ on the issues, both campaigns are filtering their messages through what they see as universal, core values that Latinos share with all Americans. Each also emphasizes issues they say strike a chord with all Hispanics.

Sent by Daisy Wanda Garcia


Mission of the


By his daughter 
Daisy Wanda Garcia


No series about the American G.I. Forum would be complete without the mention of the American G.I. Forum National Archives and Historical Foundation (AGIF Archives).  The AGIF Archives was a project close to Dr. Garcia’s heart.   


Photo, circa late 1980s, courtesy Dr. Hector P. Garcia Papers, Special Collections &
Archives, Texas A&M University- Corpus Christi, Bell Library

Dr. Hector P. Garcia was concerned about preserving his legacy.  He amassed voluminous quantities of memorabilia and documents about his work in the Hispanic Civil Rights Movement. These papers documented the major issues faces by the Mexican Americans since 1948. Besides his personal papers, Dr. Garcia wanted to include in this collection the memorabilia and papers from all the AGIF chapters. Also, he wanted scholars to have a place where they could research the Civil Rights Movement. He wanted the AGIF Archives to purchase his clinic upon his death to be used as the said repository.  

On May 8, 1978, Dr. Hector Garcia created the American G.I. Forum National Archives and Historical Foundation.  This Foundation is independent of the American G.I. Forum of the United States. The purpose of the Foundation was to set up a repository for this collection and a center for the study of the Civil Rights Movement.   

At the start, Dr. Garcia intended the American G.I. Forum National Archives and Historical Foundation to house the entire collection. When he learned how labor intensive and prohibitive the cost to preserve such a vast collection, Dr. Garcia decided to give most of his papers to a major university.  The AGIF Archives and Historical Foundation would house the memorabilia and papers from all the American G.I. Forum chapters. So, the search began for the right university.  Every major university contacted Dr. Hector wanting his papers when the word got out about Papa’s papers. Each University had a special incentive for my father to donate his papers. Thus, he accrued many honors during this period including an endowed chair from Yale University in 1985.  On October 6,1989, the University of Texas Ex-Students Association recognized Dr. Hector as a “Distinguished Alumnus”. University officials “wined and dined” my father. On many occasions, I was privileged to join my father and university officials at these functions.  On April 3, 1992, Dr. Hector donated his papers to Corpus Christi State University (CCSU). Later, Texas A&M University acquired CCSU.   

In the end, Dr. Hector selected CCSU because he did not want his papers to be far away from him.  The University gave my father an office to conduct the arduous task of organizing his vast collection. On one occasion, I arrived from Austin, TX, and found my father in the reception area in his clinic.  He had many file boxes with labels on the outside.  He was filing his documents accordingly. Then, asked me to join in helping him. “Here Kiki” put these in that box.”  I pointed out to Papa that he had triplicate copies of most documents.  He said the triplicates were reserved for the AGIF Archives.   

While Dr. Garcia was Chairman of the AGIF Archives, the Board focused on providing low income and deserving students with educational scholarships.  Annually Dr. Hector bestowed scholarships on deserving students at a scholarship luncheon usually held at the Holiday Inn on Broadway Blvd, in Corpus Christi, Texas.  Usually he gave 20 scholarships at the luncheon.  

After the death of Dr. Hector in 1996, Amador Garcia and the Board of Directors elected to create the Dr. Hector P. Garcia Historical and Education Center located in Corpus Christi, Texas.  The Board purchased Dr. Garcia’s clinic for this purpose. The center would honor the historical contributions of Dr. Hector and the AGIF and also other leaders and organizations that pioneered in the Civil Rights Movement.   

The building was in need of restoration.  So, the Board adopted the restoration of the Garcia building as its number one project. In 1999, I assumed my father’s membership on the Board of the Archives.   

At the present time, the AGIF Archives lists as the future projects the establishment of:

v A conference center,

v The restoration of Dr. Garcia’s personal office,

v Archive storage and workroom,

v Reception area,

v A display area for exhibits and pictures,

v And a library of books about Mexican Americans and other Mexican American issues.  

v Recovery of furniture in Dr. Garcia’s private office.

For five decades, Garcia cared for thousands of patients at his medical offices on Bright Street and Morgan Avenue in Corpus Christi, Texas.  He treated over five hundred families.  Some patients he treated for no charge because they were poor. In addition to providing medical care, he used his office as a meeting place to address and alleviate the social ills plaguing the South Texas communities and the nation, and to plan strategies to change these situations.  For many years, Dr. Garcia held weekly meetings of the AGIF groups.  Community leaders and politicians contacted Dr. Hector for advice about the issues of the day-discrimination, improved educational, and job opportunities for Mexican Americans.  Candidates for political office visited “El Doctor” to seek his support.  Presidents John Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson conferred with Dr. Garcia regarding concerns affecting not only Mexican Americans but also the country as a whole. Dr. Martin Luther King contacted my father as well.  Bill Clinton, a future president, worked out of Dr. Garcia’s office during the Carter campaign.  As a community leader, it was Dr. Garcia who almost single handedly saved the military bases from closing during the President Carter administration.  Dr. Hector Garcia received the Presidential Medal of Freedom and honors from many national and international groups.   

The restoration of his offices represents the most fitting tribute to a real American hero.  This is what my father wished.  If you are interested in helping make Dr. Garcia’s dream a reality, please contact me at 



14 U.S. Hispanics Win Olympic Medals  


Jessica Haro--Assistant Editor, Hispanic Business, Aug. 29, 2008  
With the political season moving in, the 2008 Olympics are fading fast from the front pages. Before they do, though, we wanted to give you one last unique look at how our athletes did in Beijing.
compiled our own list highlighting U.S. Hispanics who won medals for Team USA. With five gold, seven silver and two bronze medalists, for a total of 14, our U.S. Hispanic athletes had a fine showing. Here is a quick look at those who gathered the gold, silver and bronze for the USA in 2008.

Carmelo Anthony, Gold, Basketball
Twenty-four-year-old Carmelo "Melo" Anthony won a gold medal with the men's basketball "Redeem Team." The forward scored 13 points to help Team USA win 118-to107 over Spain.

Henry Cejudo, Gold, Wrestling
In an emotional finish, freestyle wrestler Mr. Cejudo became the first American ever to win gold in the 55kg weight class wept upon winning and wrapped himself in an American flag in one of the most dramatic moments in the entire Olympics.

Stephanie Cox, Gold, Soccer
Ms. Cox, maiden name Lopez, played in five of the team's six matches including the gold medal final, and completed the only assist in the team's 1-0 win over Japan earlier in the Games.

Amy Rodriguez, Gold, Soccer
Forward Amy Rodriguez, the second youngest member on the women's soccer team, helped the team prevail over Brazil in overtime by gaining an assist in setting up the winning goal.

Diana Taurasi, Gold, Basketball
Though she played only 11 minutes in the women's basketball final against Australia, Ms. Taurasi was instrumental in getting the team there. She won her second Olympic gold after scoring 21 points and making nine rebounds in the semifinal versus Russia.

Crystal Bustos, Silver, Softball
A returning Olympian, Ms. Bustos hit six home runs during the Beijing games. Though the team lost in the finals to Japan, her three-run home run in the ninth inning was ranked 27th in Fox Sports' Top 50 moments of the Games.

Jessica Mendoza, Silver, Softball
Ms. Mendoza helped the team win the silver medal and is now active in organizing a plea for the return of softball to the Olympic Games.

Andrea Duran, Silver, Softball
Ms. Duran played third base as is one of the younger members of the American softball team.

Vicky Galindo, Silver, Softball
A first-time Olympian, Ms. Galindo earned her silver medal by hitting a single at the bottom of the seventh, though she was the only American player to reach a base during the final inning of the gold medal match.

Patty Cardenas, Silver, Water Polo
Attacker Patty Cardenas, scored two goals as a first-time Olympian.

Brenda Villa, Silver, Water Polo
The women's water polo team captain, Ms. Villa added a silver medal to her collection, now totaling two silver and one bronze. Villa has been a member of every U.S. team since women's water polo became an Olympic sport in 2000.

Mark Lopez, Silver, Taekwondo
One of a trio of siblings who won medals for taekwondo in Beijing, Mark Lopez won silver in the men's featherweight division, despite breaking two bones in his left hand during the first exchange of his first match.

Steven Lopez, Bronze, Taekwondo
The two-time defending Olympic welterweight champion suffered his first loss in six years after a questionable call during the quarterfinal. The oldest of the three Lopez siblings who competed in Beijing, Steven went on to win the Bronze Medal.

Diana Lopez, Bronze, Taekwondo
The first of the Lopez siblings to compete in Beijing, Ms. Lopez took home a bronze in the women's taekwondo featherweight division. After her 3-2 victory, Lopez nearly lost her voice cheering for her two brothers.
Source: (c) 2008. All rights reserved.  

Sent by 


About the Honorable Mario G. Olmos
Law & Cultural Diversity Memorial Lecture
September 11, 2008

Eric Yamamoto
Professor of Law, University of Hawai'i
William S. Richardson School of Law

This annual lecture honors the Honorable Mario G. Olmos '71 who dedicated his life to promoting equality and justice for people from diverse national, economic, racial, and cultural origins. Born on July 24, 1946, in Nogales , Arizona , Judge Olmos graduated from Reedley Junior College and University of California , Berkeley where he was named to Phi Beta Kappa. At Boalt Hall he was an Ayer fellow and a Regents Scholar. Although he was nominated to the California Law Review, he chose instead to work in the community and to recruit students of color to Boalt.

Upon graduation from Boalt, Judge Olmos worked as an attorney at California Rural Legal Services in Madera , and then as a Justice Court Judge in Parlier and Selma . In December 1982, he was appointed to the Fresno County Superior Court, where he was elected presiding judge for three consecutive years. He also served with distinction on the California Judicial Council.

During the 1980's, Judge Olmos became known as a leader who sought to bridge the gap between cultures and races. In 1990 he died at the age of 43 in a tragic automobile accident. After his death, Judge Olmos' family, friends, and colleagues established a trust fund to support a permanent lecture series at Boalt Hall to perpetuate the Judge's abiding commitment to the development of law promoting equality and justice for all people. Past Olmos lecturers include the Honorable Sonia Sotomayor, Professor Peter Edelman, Joaquin G. Avila, Professor Derrick Bell, the Honorable Thelton Henderson, the Honorable Richard Paez, the Honorable Cruz Reynoso, Kamala Harris, and Monique Harden.

For more information about this event:

The Equal Justice Society is a national organization of scholars, advocates and concerned individuals advancing innovative legal strategies and public policy for enduring social change. We generate critical analysis on issues of race and social justice through research, public education and bringing together individuals from diverse backgrounds and disciplines. Our goal is to reshape jurisprudence to ensure that the rights of all are expanded, rather than diminished, by our courts and policy makers.

Equal Justice Society, 220 Sansome St, 14th Flr, San Francisco, CA 94104, Ph (415) 288-8700



NICASIO IDAR (1855-1914)

Newspaper editor and publisher and civil-rights advocate

Nicasio Idar, newspaper editor and publisher and civil-rights advocate, was born in Point Isabel, Texas, in 1855, either on December 11 or 14, the son of Manuel and Eleuteria Espinoza Idar. He moved to Laredo in 1880 after attending school in Corpus Christi. He and his wife, Jovita, had eight children, of whom three, Jovita, Clemente, and Eduardo Idar,qqv were involved in the publication of Idar's La Crnicaqv in Laredo. Idar's seventeen-year publishing career also included La Revista, a Masonic newspaper with an international distribution. He was active in nearly all local social and fraternal Texas Mexican organizations in Laredo and helped found the Caballeros de Honor and the Sociedad Hijos de Juárez. He also served as a justice of the peace and assistant city marshall in Laredo.

La Crnica probably began publication in the 1890s, though Idar perhaps did not assume the role as publisher and editor until 1910. Under his leadership the paper took on major political, social, economic, and educational issues facing Mexican Texans in the early 1900s. The newspaper's logo reflected this commitment: "We work for the progress and the industrial, moral and intellectual development of the Mexican inhabitants of Texas." La Crnica documented the segregation, lynchings, and denial of civil rights of Texas Mexicans. In a series of articles that ran during late 1910 and early 1911 under the rubric "The Mexican Children of Texas," Idar spoke out against separate schools and neighborhoods for Mexican Americans,qv who by linguistic segregation were "isolated and kept ignorant." He also reported social and working conditions of Mexican Texans in the interior of the state. Often La Crnica pointed out that most Mexican Texans labored in menial jobs in agriculture or domestic work and that the few professionals among them lived along the border. The paper covered incidents of injustice, including the "barbarism" in the case of Antonio Rodrguez,qv who, after being accused of killing an Anglo woman near Rocksprings, was burned and hanged by a mob. Idar sought also to make La Crnica a mouthpiece for the organizations in which he was involved and for news on the cultural life of Laredo. The newspaper often reported on theater groups from Mexico and other artistic ventures. Like other Spanish-language newspapersqv La Crnica was a literary vehicle for poets and is an important record of Texas Mexican literature of the early twentieth century.

Idar organized the Gran Concilio de la Orden Caballeros de Honor not long after 1910. The council was meant to unite Mexican Texans for cultural and intellectual discussions and to gain the respect of the "americanos." The group called for members that were noble, generous, and patriotic persons who would also provide assistance and fraternity to other Mexican Texans. Idar and his family organized a conference in Laredo to address racial discrimination on September 14-22, 1911. The Congreso Mexicanistaqv focused on the need for teaching Spanish in schools, women's groups, and protection of the lives and land rights of Mexican Texans. Through La Crnica the Idars urged Caballeros de Honor lodges and other Mexican-Texan groups to send delegates to the convention. They tried, evidently without success, to establish a group called La Gran Liga Mexicanista; its intended motto, "por la raza y para la raza," foreshadowed the Raza Unida party.qv

Idar continued to publish his newspaper until he fell ill with an intestinal disorder. He died in his family home in Laredo on April 7, 1914. At his funeral, which was attended by many townspeople and members of social fraternities, he was eulogized as "a good father, noble friend, and benevolent counselor."

BIBLIOGRAPHY: La Crnica, December 17, November 26, 1910, January 2, February 2, 1911, April 18, 1914. José E. Limn, "El Primer Congreso Mexicanista de 1911," Aztlán 5 (Spring, Fall 1974).

Teresa Palomo Acosta

The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

Handbook of Texas Online, s.v. "," (accessed September 9, 2007).

(NOTE: "s.v." stands for sub verbo, "under the word.")

The Handbook of Texas Online is a joint project of The General Libraries at the University of Texas at Austin (



Southern California's dual citizens see little conflict
Hispanics are one-in-five of all Public School Students Nationawide.
Potential Creation of the National Museum of the American Latino Act
Joe Sheriff, Maricopa County, Arizona by Tomas Custer
Border DVD by Chris Burgard
Defend the Honor Leadership Recognized

Southern California's dual citizens see little conflict

El Salvador, citizens, immigration

Mario Fuentes poses at outside of Trinity Episcopal Church where they run their community organization. Fuentes, an El Salvadoria immigrant has joined the mainstream middle class, as a homeowner, fluent English speaker and labor/community organizer.


With dual citizenship on the rise, many residents who are also citizens of other countries say their status doesn't make them any less loyal to the U.S.

By Teresa Watanabe, Los Angeles Times Staff Writer
September 11, 2008

Salvador Gomez Gochez was 25 when he first came to Los Angeles with $3 in his pocket and painful memories of his Salvadoran homeland torn apart by repression and war.

Working his way up from a parking lot attendant to a manager, he learned English, bought a home, volunteered for a Salvadoran community organization and became a U.S. citizen, grateful to the country he says saved his life.

But Gomez Gochez, now 54, also retained his Salvadoran citizenship. Now, as a dual citizen, he has made the dramatic decision to return to his impoverished hometown in El Salvador and run for mayor after nearly three decades away. His hope: to revive his town's agricultural base with his U.S. contacts and empower the villagers with U.S. practices of participatory democracy.

"America is the country that gave me the opportunity to be alive, and I'll be loyal to it until the end of my life," said Gomez Gochez in a phone interview from his home in Atiquizaya, a bedroom community of 52,000 about 50 miles west of San Salvador, the capital. "But I also want to give something back to my hometown. I want to teach them about the U.S. political process and how we as U.S. citizens use our rights, respect the Constitution and participate in the democratic process."

As international business, travel and communications explode, a growing number of nations are allowing dual citizenship, and more immigrants are claiming it. Some, like Gomez Gochez, aim to use their bilingual and bicultural experiences to infuse their homelands with U.S. values and strengthen bonds between both countries.

Others cite personal benefits, such as easier travel and better business opportunities. At a U.S. citizenship ceremony last month in Los Angeles, Ben Raposas, 38, a Simi Valley nurse, said he would apply for dual citizenship from his native Philippines to save tax dollars, have wider job choices and retain the right to return and retire. As an American, he said, it will be easier to get visas to travel and qualify for more jobs.

But the trend is also stirring some unease. Some argue that dual citizenship weakens a person's commitment to the United States, threatens a common national identity and violates the oath of allegiance taken by every naturalized citizen to "absolutely and entirely renounce" fidelity to any foreign government. A person cannot be loyal to two countries any more than to two spouses or two religions, critics say.

"For me, the idea of being American means your primary attachment is to the United States and not your country of origin," said Stanley A. Renshon, a political science professor at City University of New York Graduate Center. "The harm that comes from dual citizenship reflects the question of which identity will be primary."

Although the U.S. government does not keep statistics on dual citizens, some studies suggest that the number is large and growing. A 2007 study by Florida and Chicago researchers estimated that 77% of first-generation Latino immigrants who are U.S. citizens have dual citizenship. Renshon estimated that more than 90% of immigrants from the top 20 sending nations between 1994 and 2002 who are naturalized U.S. citizens had dual citizenship.

More than 150 nations allow some form of multiple citizenship, including Canada, Mexico, the Philippines, the United Kingdom and France, according to Renshon. The number has particularly increased in the last 15 years in Europe and Latin America.

The U.S. government does not require a person to renounce the former country when becoming a citizen. But it does not recognize or encourage dual citizenship because of the problems it could create over potentially conflicting obligations for military service and the like, said Chris Bentley of the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Service. He cited as one example Japanese Americans in Japan during World War II who were drafted into the Japanese military.

"There are serious ramifications, and that's why we don't encourage it," Bentley said.

Both sides in the dual-citizen debate see validation for their arguments in recent studies by Florida State University political science professors Jeffrey K. Staton and Robert A. Jackson, and Damarys Canache of the University of Illinois. In a 2007 study examining claims that dual citizenship weakens ties to America, the researchers found that Latino immigrants who were dual citizens were less likely to be fluent in English, identify as U.S. citizens, consider the United States their homeland, register to vote and vote in a U.S. election than Latino immigrants who were sole U.S. citizens.

But the researchers' latest findings, scheduled for publication this year, show that those differences disappear among the U.S.-born second generation, Staton said. "If these differences go away across generations, it doesn't strike me as a matter that is all that worrisome," Staton said.  And community activists assert that the massive energy invested in the last two years to register immigrants to vote, get them to the polls and better integrate them into U.S. society has deepened their connections to their new nation.

Renshon, who argues that citizenship without emotional attachment is the "civic equivalent of a one-night stand," advocates deepening the integration of new U.S. citizens through free universal English classes. He also argues that dual citizens should be discouraged from voting in foreign elections, holding foreign office and serving in foreign militaries.  But many dual citizens themselves dismiss such concerns and say their binational connections richly benefit both nations.  "The U.S. is my home and El Salvador is my home. It's not either/or, it's both," said Mario Fuentes of the Salvadoran American National Assn. in Los Angeles.

The organization actively promotes binationalism as a way to connect people to the riches of their joint heritage. The group hosts frequent delegations between the two nations, holds an annual Salvadoran Day, sponsored a historical tour to El Salvador last month and brought El Salvador's most important religious icon, a statue of the Divine Savior of the World, to Los Angeles churches. The group promotes immigrant participation in U.S. civic affairs with voter registration drives and other activities.

Salvadoran association members aim to share their U.S. democratic experiences and know-how with compatriots in El Salvador. Gomez Gochez's mayoral campaign, for instance, is based on grass-roots organizing skills he learned on the streets of Los Angeles.

Gomez Gochez said he had talked so far with more than 4,000 people in 167 home meetings to seek their input -- a new political style, he said, in a country with a history of repression and political oligarchy.  "No one ever did that before in El Salvador," he said. "I learned a different kind of politics in the United States."

Some dual citizens admit to emotional twinges, however, at the ultimate moment when they raise their right hand, renounce all fidelity to other countries and pledge allegiance to the United States. "You get a little ripped in the middle. You say you're putting the other guys behind you," said Gene Hernandez, 40, a Valencia physical education instructor who became a U.S. citizen last month.

But Hernandez said there was no question where his primary allegiance lies. He left Mexico when he was 5 and has never returned. He grew up on U.S. football and speaks English with his wife and three children.  Although proud of his native Mexico, he said he became even more patriotic toward his adopted homeland after the 9/11 terrorist attacks.

"I love America and I hold it really close to me," he said. "You mess with America, and you're messing with me."



Potential Creation of the 
National Museum of the American Latino Act


July 12,2008

The Honorable Norman Dicks, Chair
Subcommittee on Interior, Environment, Rlated Agencies
House Committee on Appropriations 
B-308 Raybum House Office Bldg.  
Honorable Dianne Feinstein, Chair
Subcommittee on Interior, Environment, Related Agencies
Committee on Appropriations
131 Dirksen Senate Office Building

The Honorable Todd Tiahrt 
Ranking Minority Member 
Subcommittee on Interior, Environment and Related Agencies 
House Committee on Appropriations 
1016 Longworth House Office Building 
Washington, D.C. 20515

The Honorable Wayne Allard
Ranking Member
Subcommittee on Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies
Senate Committee on Appropriations
125 Hart Senate Office Building
Washington, D.C. 20510

Dear Chairs and Ranking Members:

We write to share our enthusiasm for the final passage of The Commission to Study the Potential Creation of the National Museum of the American Latino Act, S. 500. The bill included in the Consolidated Natural Resources Act of 2008 (S. 2739), which passed the Senate on April 10, 2008 and the House of Representatives on April 29, 2008 and was recently signed into law by the President on May 8, 2008.

We write to respectfully request that the Commission to study the potential creation of Potential Museum of the American Latino be fully funded at $2.1 million in Fiscal '009 to carry out its function. The Commission would help us determine how we can properly recognize the contributions of Hispanic Americans to our nation's history by studying the potential creation of a national museum dedicated to the art, culture, and the Hispanic Americans.

Though American Latinos' contributions span centuries and economic sectors, many people are unaware of the role Americans of Latino descent played, and continue to play, building of this great nation. Now that more than 48 million Americans are of  Hispanic descent in this country, there is a stronger interest in ensuring that America's national museums portray an inclusive picture of our current and future nation.

The Commission would study the impact of the potential museum and the cost of construction and maintenance. It would also develop an action plan, a fundraising plan, a recommendation on whether to proceed with construction of the museum. Commission members, selected by the President and Congress, will be comprised of  leaders with a commitment to the American Latino community and with experience planning for and administrating similar museums.

Museums in our nation's capital should reflect the history, culture, and achievements of people of the United States, yet there is no substantive permanent Latino presence in any of the exhibits. Even with the many challenges and opportunities facing the Latino community, the importance of proper representation of Latinos and their contributions in our nation's foremost cultural institutions cannot be underestimated. Just as troubling is that millions of schoolchildren and families as well as tourists from all over the world can visit Washington, D.C. without ever encountering a single museum, monument, or collection that helps to educate them about this nation's largest minority.
When Americans travel to Washington, D.C., they expect the museums, monuments, and national parks to reflect the complete American experience. Providing the resources necessary for the Commission to do its work would be a major step toward ensuring that every American has the opportunity to learn the full history of our nation.
Sincerely,                             ,

The Honorable Nancy Pelosi, Speaker of the House of Representatives
Honorable John Boehner, House Minority Leader
Honorable Harry Reid, Senate Majority Leader
Honorable Mitch McConnell, Senate Minority Leader
Honorable David Obey, House Appropriations Chairman
Honorable Jerry Lewis, House Appropriations Ranking Member
Honorable Robert Byrd, Senate Appropriations Chairman
Honorable Thad Cochran, Senate Appropriations Ranking Member 
Honorable Senator Ken Salazar
Honorable Representative Xavier Becerra


Sheriff Joe of Maricopa County

Maricopa County was spending approx. $18 million dollars a year on stray animals, like cats and dogs. Sheriff Joe offered to take the department over, and the County Supervisors said okay.
The animal shelters are now all staffed and operated by prisoners. They feed and care for the strays. Every animal in his care is taken out and walked twice daily. He now has prisoners who are experts in animal nutrition and behavior. They give great classes for anyone who'd like to adopt an animal. He has literally taken stray dogs off the street, given them to the care of prisoners, and had them place in dog shows.
The best part? His budget for the entire department is now under $3 million. Teresa and I adopted a Weimaraner from a Maricopa County shelter two years ago. He was neutered, and current on all shots, in great health, and even had a microchip inserted the day we got him. Cost us $78.
The prisoners get the benefit of about $0.28 an hour for working, but most would work for free, just to be out of their cells for the day. Most of his budget is for utilities, building maintenance, etc. He pays the prisoners out of the fees collected for adopted animals.
I have long wondered when the rest of the country would take a look at the way he runs the jail system, and copy some of his ideas. He has a huge farm, donated to the county years ago, where inmates can work, and they grow most of their own fresh vegetables and food, doing all the work and harvesting by hand.
He has a pretty good sized hog farm, which provides meat, and fertilizer. It fertilizes the Christmas tree nursery, where prisoners work, and you can buy a living Christmas tree for $6 - $8 for the Holidays, and plant it later. We have six trees in our yard from the Prison.
Yup, he was reelected last year with 83% of the vote.

Now he's in trouble with the ACLU again. He painted all his buses and vehicles with a mural, that has a special hotline phone number painted on it, where you can call and report suspected illegal aliens. Immigrations and Customs Enforcement wasn't doing enough in his eyes, so he had 40 deputies trained specifically for enforcing immigration laws, started up his hotline, and bought 4 new buses just for hauling folks back to the border. He's kind of a 'Git-R Dun' kind of Sheriff.
Sheriff Joe Arpaio (In Arizona ) who created the ' Tent City Jail':
He has jail meals down to 40 cents a serving and charges the inmates for them.
He stopped smoking and porno magazines in the jails.
Took away their weights.
Cut off all but 'G' movies.
He started chain gangs so the inmates could do free work on county and city projects.
Then He Started Chain Gangs For Women So He Wouldn't Get Sued For Discrimination.
He took away cable TV Until he found out there was A Federal Court Order that Required Cable TV For Jails So He Hooked Up The Cable TV Again Only Let In The Disney Channel And The Weather Channel.
When asked why the weather channel He Replied, So They Will Know How Hot It's Gonna Be While They Are Working ON My Chain Gangs.
He Cut Off Coffee Since It Has Zero Nutritional Value.
When the inmates complained, he told them, 'This Isn't The Ritz/Carlton.....If You Don't Like It, Don't Come Back.'

More On The Arizona Sheriff:
With Temperatures Being Even Hotter Than Usual In Phoenix (116 Degrees Just Set A New Record), the Associated Press Reports: About 2,000 Inmates Living In A Barb ed-Wire-Surrounded Tent Encampment At The Maricopa County Jail Have Been Given Permission To Strip Down To Their Government-Issued Pink Boxer Shorts.
On Wednesday, hundreds of men wearing boxers were either curled up on their bunk beds or chatted in the tents, which reached 138 Degrees Inside The Week Before. Many Were Also Swathed In Wet, Pink Towels As Sweat Collected On Their Chests And Dripped Down To Their PINK SOCKS.  'It Feels Like We Are In A Furnace,' Said James Zanzot, An Inmate Who Has Lived In The TENTS for 1 year. 'It's Inhumane.'
Joe Arpaio, the tough-guy sheriff who created the tent city and long ago started making his prisoners wear pink, and eat bologna sandwiches, is not one bit sympathetic. He said Wednesday that he told all of the inmates: 'It's 120 Degrees In Iraq And Our Soldiers Are Living In Tents Too, And They Have To Wear Full Battle Gear, But They Didn't Commit Any Crimes, So Shut Your Mouths!'  Sent by Sally Gidaro

Editor: Nearly $3 million is being spent on electronic monitoring devices so nonviolent offenders can serve home detention and help ease crowding in Los Angeles County jails.  The idea is to keep violent offenders in jail longer; while seeing to it that others cam go home to serve their entire sentences. About 350 of the county's nearly 20,000 inmates are now serving sentences at home under electronic monitoring.  The new devices will allow for adding another 2,000. Source: The Orange County Register, Sept 11, 2008


HispanicTips has 43,803 stories & 115,000+ visitors a month.
Check out today's 65 stories - Knowledge is Power!

tomasTomas Custer: Web Master of HispanicTips

Please join me on this adventure that I call HispanicTips.

I started this site when I couldn’t find all the information and news that I knew was out there about Hispanics and Latinos in any single spot. After a year, I realized that this site was unique and needed. I am proud to have started and maintained this site (trust me, not an easy job), collecting thousands of news items to create a useful tool for my community.

Through HispanicTips, I have gone to the Latin Grammys, been interviewed on NPR’s Weekend Edition Sunday and am going to the Democratic National Convention to mention a few highlights.   Who knows where I might go next.

I am a Hispanic Gen-Xer. I was born and bred in Chicago to a mother of Mexican descent and an American father. I was very lucky to attend good schools and have good parents, family and friends.  Unfortunately, I grew up not speaking Spanish as it wasn’t as politically correct back then. Yes things good and bad have occurred in my life and I am sure more will come.  


Documentary ‘Border’ Delivers Rarely Seen Side of Illegal Immigration
Posted on: September 15th, 2008  on HispanicTips


 Documentary Border shows human cost of human smugglers who rape and enslave those seeking a better life in the US as limited enforcement and porous borders enable the tragedy.

Fort Worth, TX (—The shocking documentary ‘Border’ shows how a porous border and limited enforcement enables human smugglers and drug traffickers to extort, rape, murder and humiliate those seeking a better life in the United States.

Destroying the notion that those who want to secure the border are racist xenophobic bigots, filmmaker Chris Burgard shows how the predominantly Hispanic property owners and law enforcement personnel on US side of the border are fighting a war against drug cartels that move people and drugs across the unforgiving and desolate desert terrain.

Contrary to the talking points of the so-called ‘immigrants rights’ groups, Burgard shows how illegal immigrants are sometimes locked into indentured servitude to the smugglers who’ve delivered them to safe houses in cities like Tucson and Phoenix. The smugglers, commonly known as ‘Coyotes,’ threaten to kill the families of the newly arrived immigrants if they don’t pay extortion money. Sometimes, this servitude can go on for years.

Burgard, a former bull rider and native of Wisconsin, decided to make the documentary after working with a group of laborers, who turned out to be illegal aliens. Shocked by the stories the immigrants told about their journey into the US, Burgard discovered that Coyotes would often sexually assault women in the migrant groups, and display the victim’s undergarments on ‘rape trees’ near the border. This sick display is a competition that human traffickers engage in to one-up each other.

The lack of a solid, border fence and limited enforcement actually contribute to the carnage that these smugglers have wrought. In the sector that Burgard covers in the film, border ranchers routinely talk about finding corpses of illegal immigrants on their vast properties. Some have died at the hands of the Coyotes while others die of dehydration after walking for days in the desert.

The Mexican government may be complicit in helping drug cartels smuggle aliens and terrorists into the US. An example Burgard cites is that para-military groups have violated US sovereignty and held American border patrol agents at gunpoint, preventing them from stopping the smugglers.

Editor:  I received information on HispanicTips, the same morning that the following information appeared in the Orange County Register, September 17: 
Morelia, Mexico. 7 killed in Mexico Independence Day grenade attack  
Assailants threw two grenades into a crowd of Independence Day revelers, killing seven and injuring more than 100 in an attack that escalates the war between the army and drug gangs.  

The fragmentation grenades shattered a gathering of thousands in the streets not far from where President Felipe Calderon grew up.  He pledged an immediate military response.

"Those who believe they can use fear to hold our society hostage and immobilize us are mistaken . . , "Calderon said Tuesday. "They are doomed to fall."

Since taking office in 2006, Calderon has sent 25,000 soldiers to confront the cartels, and the gangs have responded with shooting-outs, assassinations, beheadings, and massacres.  

The latest came during the traditional "grito," or shout for shout for independence, late Monday night, Michoacan Gov. Leonel Godoy had just finished shouting "Viva Mexico!" from a balcony, when the two grenades exploded simultaneously in the crowd, blocks apart. 

For more information, go to the web:

"The attack comes only days after 24 bodies were found bound and killed execution-style in a rural area outside Mexico City in one of the largest massacres in recent history."

BORDER producer Chris Burgard sent this message about a Washington, D.C. trip: 

" I met with an Admiral at the Pentagon and screened for the US Senate on Sept. 10th.......the eve of Sept. 11..... Senator Ted Kennedy's staff member was very positive. 
I wished her boss blessings in his fight against cancer, and gave her a DVD for him."


Dear Rogelio and other friends,
thanks for the lovely gesture. I've not been letting people know about the wonderful recognition that has rained down on me in connection to the Ken Burns/PBS issue -- mostly because I don't want anybody to think I've gotten the big head. (I've got a 12-year-old and a 13-year-old to keep me grounded.)

But I really should have let you all in, because it took all of us to make PBS and Ken Burns capitulate. I also recognize that the recognitions are ways for our larger community to acknowledge what we did. When I make acceptance speeches, I always always always talk about what this means, the larger issue, larger than Ken Burns or PBS, and that is about how our people are treated in our own country. . . 

So here is the list of the beautiful awards I've gotten in connection:

1. NCLR- Ruben Salazar Communication Award (summer 2007)
2. NAHJ-Leadership award (fall 2007)
3. NALIP-Lifetime Achievement Award (spring 2008)
4. American Association of Hispanics in Higher Education Outstanding Support of Hispanic Issues in Higher Education (spring 2008)
5. Defend the Honor got a Community Service Award from the National Association of Chicanas and Chicanos Studies
6. NAHJ-Hall of Fame (summer 2008)

So when you see these organizations, please know that they have stood with us in solidarity.  

your friend, Maggie

ACLU Challenges 
State Department's Refusal to Issue Passports to U.S. Citizens
ans From Southern Border States Face Delays & Denials

September 9, 2008

CONTACT: Maria Archuleta, national ACLU, (212) 519-7808 or 549-2666;
                 Dotty Griffith, ACLU of Texas, (512) 478-7300 x 106 or 923-1909;

McALLEN, TX – Today nine American citizens sued the federal government, challenging the U.S. Department of State's refusal to issue them passports because of their race and ancestry and because their births were attended by midwives. The class action lawsuit, filed by the American Civil Liberties Union, the ACLU of Texas, the international law firm Hogan & Hartson LLP and Refugio del Rio Grande, Inc., builds upon a complaint filed earlier this year.

The lawsuit charges that the State Department categorically questions the citizenship of virtually all midwife-delivered Mexican-Americans born in southern border states. According to the lawsuit, the State Department has been forcing these applicants to go to unreasonable lengths to prove their citizenship by providing an excessive number of documents that normally are not required. Then, even after the applicants supply further proof of their citizenship, the Department responds by summarily closing their applications. 

"Based on blanket race-based suspicion, the State Department is sending this select group of passport applicants on a veritable scavenger hunt and then refusing to issue them passports without a fair examination of their individual cases," said ACLU Immigrants' Rights Project attorney Robin Goldfaden. "Denying passports to U.S. citizens in this way is clearly against the law and violates our core American values of fairness and equality."

The need for a passport has become particularly urgent for citizens who need or wish to travel outside the U.S. By virtue of the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative (WHTI), every American who wishes to enter or reenter the U.S. must have a valid U.S. passport or passport card by June 2009. Prior to WHTI, only a U.S. driver's license was required to enter or reenter the U.S. from Canada or Mexico. As a result, there has been a surge in passport applications. Americans who must cross the border daily for work or family obligations but have not yet received their passports will be effectively barred from conducting the everyday business of their lives.

For countless Latinos who were delivered by midwives in the Southwest, however, trying to obtain a passport has become an exercise in futility. Although midwifery has been a common practice for more than a century, particularly in rural and other traditionally underserved communities, the U.S. government has imposed unsurpassable hurdles on midwife-delivered Latinos to prove their citizenship and eligibility for U.S. passports – even when their citizenship has already been established in the past. The government has demanded documents that never existed, like a 1935 census report; that no longer exist, like elementary school records that school districts long ago destroyed; and documents that only the government itself could produce, like immigration documents returned to the Immigration and Naturalization Service years ago.
The lawsuit contends that this pattern and practice by the State Department amounts to discrimination on the basis of race and ancestry in violation of applicants' right to equal protection under the law. The lawsuit also charges that the Department's practices violate due process and the Administrative Procedure Act, which was enacted as a safeguard against arbitrary and capricious government agency procedures.

"The U.S. government has effectively reduced a whole swath of the population to second-class citizenship because of their last names and because they happened to be born at home with a midwife," said Vanita Gupta, ACLU Racial Justice Program staff attorney. "Our clients have more than satisfied the requirements for a U.S. passport. It's wrong for the government to raise the bar to impossible heights and then arbitrarily shelve the applications for an entire group of people."

David Hernandez, a plaintiff in the case, is a U.S. citizen and was born in San Benito, Texas in 1964. Hernandez lived and attended school in the Rio Grande Valley and served honorably in the U.S. Army, earning various medals and ribbons. Hernandez's passport application was closed even after he responded to the Department's demand for additional documents by providing further evidence of his birth and baptism in the U.S., evidence of his mother's residency in the U.S. at the time of his birth, his immunization records, school records, and even a letter from the Mexican Civil Registry stating that there was no record of Hernandez being born in Mexico.
"I thought that in America everyone was supposed to be equal," said Hernandez. "I was born here. I've lived and worked here and served in the Army. I feel betrayed, like my country is stabbing me in the back just because my mother didn't have the luxury of having me in a hospital."

Juan Aranda, also a plaintiff in the case, was born in Weslaco, Texas in 1970 and has lived and worked in the U.S. his entire life. He works as a supervisor at a U.S. company that sells drinking water in Mexico and must frequently cross the border as part of his job. In anticipation of the new passport requirement, he applied for a passport last year and included his birth certificate in the application. He received a letter from the Department stating that more documentation was necessary to prove he was born in the U.S., including records of prenatal care that his mother did not have. Aranda sent in school records, immunization records, his baptismal certificate and a letter explaining that his mother did not receive prenatal care because she could not afford it.
"The cases of Mr. Hernandez, Mr. Aranda, and the other plaintiffs in this case are just the tip of the iceberg," said Lisa Brodyaga, the attorney for Refugio del Rio Grande, Inc. "There are countless other passport applicants like them who have done everything in their power to track down extra evidence, only to be told that their applications were being closed."

ACLU of Texas Legal Director Lisa Graybill said, "For citizens living on the border, a passport is as necessary as a driver's license. It's wrong for the government to deny people their basic rights because their parents could not, or chose not, to have them delivered in a hospital."
Defendants in the case before the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Texas are Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, Under Secretary for Management Patrick F. Kennedy, Assistant Secretary of State for Consular Affairs Maura Harty, Passport Services Directorate Managing Director Ann Barrett and the United States of America.
Lawyers on the case, Castelano, et al. v. Rice, et al., for the plaintiff class include Goldfaden of the ACLU Immigrants' Rights Project; Gupta of the ACLU Racial Justice Program; Graybill of the ACLU of Texas; Adam K. Levin, Melissa Henke, David Weiner and Robert Wolinsky of Hogan & Hartson; and Brodyaga of Refugio del Rio Grande, Inc.

The complaint is online at:

Podcasts with community leader Father Mike Seifert, Hernandez and Goldfaden are available online at:

Roberto Lovato
Contributing Associate Editor
New America Media
244 Madison Avenue, #149
New York, NY 10016


Luis Ramirez Murder Case Update
Brown Beret


Luis Ramirez Murder Case Update

Members of Latina stand in support of the widow and family of Luis Ramirez outside the Schuylkill County Courthouse, in Pottsville, Pa., Monday, Aug. 18, 2008. A Preliminary hearings was held for three suspects charged in the beating death of Luis Ramirez, a 25-year-old Mexican immigrant who was severely beaten on July 12, in Shenandoah, Pa. (AP Photo/Matt Rourke, Aug 18)



Crystal Dillman, the fiancee Luis Ramirez, 
is moved to tears as members of Latina show their support for the couple outside 
the Schuylkill County Courthouse, in Pottsville, Pa., Monday, Aug. 18, 2008. A preliminary hearings was held for three suspects charged in the beating death of Luis Ramirez, a 25-year-old Mexican immigrant who was severely beaten on July 12, in Shenandoah, Pa. Latina is a Chicago-based grass roots  organization working to defend Latino immigrant rights.  (AP Photo/Matt Rourke,
Aug 18

4th Pa. teen charged in killing of immigrant
Sat Sep 6, 2008                                                      Crystal Dillman, fiancee of Luis Ramirez
                                                                                                  walks to the Schuylkill County Courthouse
Authorities in Pennsylvania say a fourth teenager has been charged in the fatal beating of a Mexican immigrant.
Schuylkill County prosecutors charged the teen in juvenile court Friday with aggravated assault, ethnic intimidation and other offenses. His name and age are not being released.
Three others are charged as adults in the July attack in the town of Shenandoah on 25-year-old factory worker Luis Ramirez.
Homicide charges are filed against 16-year-old Brandon Piekarsky and 17-year-old Colin Walsh. Eighteen-year-old Derrick Donchak faces aggravated assault and other charges.
A local school district has agreed to provide Piekarsky    and Walsh with 12 hours of in-home education per 
week while the case against them is pending.
Information from: Pottsville Republican and Herald,
Copyright © 2008 The Associated Press.;_ylt=ApHEqIiZE_ODK0PRn3TsrfOs0NUE

Judge grants bail in Shenandoah beating death

August 26, 2008  

Two teens charged with third-degree murder in the beating death of a Mexican immigrant in Shenandoah were granted bail today by a Schuylkill County judge. 
Judge William E. Baldwin set bail for Brandon Piekarsky, 16, and Colin Walsh, 17, at $50,000 and set several conditions. The boys will need to comply with a 7 p.m. curfew and cannot have any contact with anyone else involved in the case. They will be subject to random drug and alcohol testing and monitoring by the county's probation office.
Video  Related links  

Bail was set after Piekarsky testified that he is a straight-A student at Shenandoah Valley High School and a member of the National Honor Society. Piekarsky has no family outside Schuylkill County and is totally dependent on his mother, who is a widow. After Baldwin granted his bail, both the prosecutor and Walsh's lawyer agreed to the same conditions for Walsh. Baldwin then accepted the conditions.

Walsh's father plans to mortgage the family's home to meet bail. The judge said Walsh's father would need to prove that the family's home is worth $50,000. Walsh is also a student at Shenandoah Valley High School. Piekarsky and Walsh are charged as adults in the death of 25-year-old Luis Ramirez, an illegal immigrant from Mexico who was attacked July 12. A third defendant, 18-year-old Derrick Donchak, is charged with aggravated assault and other offenses. Authorities say a fourth teen was involved and plan to charge him as a juvenile.

--Reporting by John Moser, The Morning Call,0,2658324.story  


 More than 40 activists, who arrived about 9 a.m., supporting immigration and civil rights chanted and carried banners outside while a preliminary hearing for three Shenandoah teens charged in the July 14 death of an illegal Mexican immigrant was under way within.

The anti-immigration group Voice of the People held a “pro-immigration enforcement” rally in Shenandoah. Read the whole article at
Republican Herald
Demonstrators rally outside courthouse. Demonstrations at the Schuylkill County Courthouse on Monday morning briefly interrupted court proceedings, incited several verbal clashes and honored a Shenandoah murder victim's fiancee.


Published: Tuesday, August 19, 2008 10:14 AM EDT

Demonstrations at the Schuylkill County Courthouse on Monday morning briefly interrupted court proceedings, incited several verbal clashes and honored a Shenandoah murder victim's fiancee.

Brandon J. Piekarsky, 16; Colin J. Walsh, 17, and Derrick M. Donchak, 18, were facing a preliminary hearing for the beating death of Luis Eduardo Ramirez Zavala, 25, of Shenandoah. Ramirez died July 14 from injuries he suffered in a beating July 12.

As the demonstrators chanted in Spanish, Magisterial District Judge Anthony J. Kilker recessed the hearing at 9:50 a.m. because of the noise. He asked the sheriff's department to control the situation.

"So we asked them to keep it down so the hearing could continue," Schuylkill County interim Sheriff Harold J. Rowan said.

Emma Lozano, executive director of Centro Sin Fronteras, Chicago, Ill., said, "Our goal was not to stop the preliminary hearing, but to show support to Crystal (Dillman, Ramirez's fiancee) and to make a statement against hate crimes. So we did quiet down so they could continue."  The hearing resumed after about five minutes.

"There were a couple in-your-face arguments, but there were no altercations," said Schuylkill County Sheriff's Deputy Maj. Dennis Kane, who patrolled the parking lot during the demonstrations.  "They're peaceful. We anticipated something like this happening and we had no problems," Rowan said.

Members of Somos Latinas 100 and Centro Sin Fronteras, both of Chicago, Ill., the New York-based May 1 Coalition and Pittsburgh Friends of Immigrants said Ramirez's death sparked their visits.

Just after noon, Dillman met with the demonstrators. Somos Latinas 100 presented her with a monetary donation, one of their flags and a round of applause. The group would not release the amount of the donation.  "Thank you," Dillman said, after being applauded by the group.

"She's a white woman who had the courage to say (Ramirez) was a human being," Lozano said.

The demonstrations angered a few other visitors to the courthouse, including Ron Hannivig, Simpson, Lackawanna County, and Debby Rabold, Effort, Monroe County, who said they were concerned about illegal immigration. "We are in support of the Shenandoah boys," Rabold said.

"What I'm seeing here, I wouldn't wish upon my worst enemy. If there's a standoff here, it's going to get ugly," Hannivig said.

Ceci Wheeler, a member of Pittsburgh Friends of Immigrants, represented her group Monday at the courthouse. She said she's shocked some people aren't recognizing Ramirez's beating as a crime.  "That's inhumane. That's intolerable and we hope the judges serve justice," she said.

"We're not here to judge the youth," said Lozano. "We're here to say that the real criminals that caused this situation are not even on trial: those who created this situation that manipulated young people and other people into thinking they have to fear the Latino community, that it's an invasion and all of this other stuff. And people are starting to believe that."

While members of the May 1 Coalition carried banners, Somos Latinas 100 was fronted by a contingent of 15 women, ages 14 to 27. They dressed in black, wore identical fuchsia-colored berets and marched in time.

Representatives of Somos Latinas 100 would not identify themselves by name, since the organization is about unity and members want to avoid having one individual stand out from the rest.

"They're at war against the hate crimes and racial profiling," Lozano said.  Four male representatives of Somos Latinas 100 carried the flags of Mexico, El Salvador and Puerto Rico.

When asked why they didn't fly an American flag as well, a 21-year-old Somos Latinas representative said: "It wasn't a matter of not being patriotic. It was about uniting people of Latino decent for the Latina campaign."

The May 1 Coalition was formed after millions of people marched on May 1, 2006, in Los Angeles and New York City for basic rights for all immigrants, according to member Arturo Perez, New York.

The group speaks out against Immigration and Customs Enforcement raids, calling the raids a violation of basic civil rights.  Members left New York at 3 a.m. Monday to drive to Pottsville.

Outside the courthouse, members carried signs reading, "Justicia para el Mexicano Luis Ramirez asesinado en Shenandoah" - "Justice for Mexican Immigrant Luis Ramirez killed in Shenandoah."

Heather Cottin, 65, of Long Island, is a white woman and a history teacher at a community college in Long Island. She's also a member of the May 1 Coalition.

"It's not as if this is the latest news - racism. Unfortunately it's in the history of this country," Cottin said. "If you can't potentially love all human beings, then what do you have here?"

She said the U.S. immigration and trade systems are broken and legalized government immigration raids are making it worse.  "It's really a government policy right now to stir up hatred against immigrants," she said.

Mike Gimbel, a delegate to the New York City Central Labor Council, called deportations "vicious bigoted attacks." Gimbel, a Pennsylvania native living in the Poconos, said real change is needed in rural areas.

"The big efforts have to take place in a rural community like this..." Gimbel said. "The city is more sympathetic to the labor movement."  "We want to unify people of all nationalities, colors and genders. Without unity we can't fight for our rights," Gimbel said.

Wheeler said the Ramirez case prompted Pittsburgh Friends of Immigrants to attend and stand up for all immigrants who have experienced hardship. "We are all advocates for immigrants' rights ... So anything that happens to members of our immigrant community, we're going to be there," Wheeler said.

Also standing outside were Mickey and Dottie Redmond, Ringtown. They said their 17-year-old son was a witness in the case, but they couldn't get into Courtroom 5 because it was overcrowded. "I hope they send it to juvenile court, at least," Mickey Redmond said.

About 12:20 p.m., many demonstrators for the Latino community departed, marching clockwise from the courthouse entrance just off Sanderson Street, south on North 2nd Street to a charter bus, waiting on Laurel Boulevard. 
Lozano said demonstrators from Somos Latinas 100 and Centro Sin Fronteras were heading to Philadelphia.


 Brown Berets

One day someone asked me about the Brown Berets, if they were still active. Coincidently, the very next day I received an email from a Brown Beret.  I asked if he could send me a little information.

             I had wanted to be a "Brown Beret" since I was a kid. I grew up in Oakland, California.   I looked up to the Brown Berets of the Oakland Chapter.  I saw them as the heroes del Barrio. Unfortunately by the time I was old enough to join, they had disbanded the chapter.  There wasn't much talk anymore about the Brown Berets in my neighborhood. But, about 3 months ago I stumbled upon a story about the Brown Berets that stated they were recruiting.

I thought okay, let's see if I can make contact with anyone. I sent out an e-mail and was told that there weren’t any CHAPTERS in Nuevo Mejico .  I then spoke with Prime Minister Victor San Miguel of the San Antonio, Tejas Chapter.  After an extensive interviewed with me Victor anointed me as The Prime Minister of Nuevo Mejico.

He then told me about someone that he felt could fill the same chanclas in Colorado. His name was Dominic Mendez.  El Victor had already spoken to Dominic but, hadn't yet anointed him. Victor, the  smooth soldado  had already made up his mind on Dominic; however, he told me to interview Dominic and decide whether to anoint him or not. I did not know Victor was testing me to check on my judge of character, my instinct.   I interviewed Dominic and just knew right away he would be the perfect vato for the Colorado Chapter. I then anointed Dominic to be The Prime Minister of the Colorado Chapter. Then I reached Victor to inform him and hoped I made the right decision.  Victor told me he had the same thoughts about Dominic as I did. He said I did well.  

Then Victor Brought up an IDEA that we three form a three-chapters alliance, which we have done.  We are now the "Tri-State Alliance, Tejas-Nuevo Mejico-Colorado.  We will be making all decisions together and speak as one, The Tri-State Alliance.  The other two Ministers are, Victor San Miguel and Dominic Mendez. Victor is an original Brown Beret from the Sixties.  We learn more and more from Victor every day, a very intelligent man.

Our group is more into Protecting LA RAZA and helping to Preserve our cultura and Historia in the Communities. We are trying to Change things from how it was in the 60's and 70's to a much more Peaceful Organization. "KNOWLEDGE" is The "Biggest weapon you can have. Spreading the WORD to los "Jovenes" to stay in school, to take advantage of the Grants and Loans that are out there for them. Things can’t get Better if we don't make them better. You have got put your Future and the Future de Nuestra Gente in your Own Hands.

Much Love and Respect to my Gente, 
Juanito Burns Jr.
Prime Minister: Los Brown Berets de Nuevo Mejico
y La VOZ del Tri-State Alliance: -Tejas-Nuevo Mejico-Colorado
Phone Number-575-751-1184
or E-Mail Address


Below is historical Information extracted from a site with the web master identified as Carlos Montes, co-founder and former minister of information for the Brown Berets.

Brown Berets evolved from a youth group called Young Citizens for Community Action, to Young Chicanos for Community Action then to the Brown Berets. We evolved from civic participation and assimilation to revolutionary nationalism. 

The brown beret was a symbol of the pride in our culture, race and history. It also symbolized our anger and militancy and fight against the long history of injustice against the Chican@ people in the U.S., especially the Southwest.  We claimed the Southwest as Aztlan, the original homeland of the indigenous Aztec ancestors and founders of Mexico City, Tenochtitlan. We were from poor working class families growing up with the racism and police abuse.

Fight Back!: Why did you join?
Carlos Montes: My family came to L.A. from Juarez, Mexico in 1956. I grew up in the barrios of South L.A. and East L.A. and experienced the racist conditions in the schools, police abuse, drugs, and the poor living conditions. This led me to get involved in the first Chicano student group, the Mexican American Student Association (MASA), at East L.A. College in 1967 which saw using education as the solution to injustice. 

I was also working as a youth center director and came across Young Chicanos for Community Action and La Raza newspaper, which were starting to voice opposition to the racist conditions in the barrio. I was drawn to the more active and direct action approach of Young Chicanos for Community Action, which became the Brown Berets in late 1967. 



Jude Gabbard y Munoz, Designer with a World Perspective

Designer with a World Perspective

Hello Mimi,

I wanted to take this opportunity to introduce you to a young designer from San Francisco, with much to offer: Jude Gabbard y Munoz.  Jude produces under the line of "modnik" and will be appearing in a documentary which will be airing in September.  The documentary was filmed in China and Jude is one of the designers staring in the film.

His mother is Mexican and his grandparents were born in El Monte, CA.  He was the first American to be accepted to the University of St. Petersburg, Russia and has also studied in San Miguel Allende, Guanajuato, Mexico.   

For examples of Jude work, go to or call him at 415-810-5543

Sent by Margie White  

Editor: I really enjoyed viewing Jude's design line. I found the collection interesting in the rather unusual combinations of patterns, textures, and colors. I liked the feminine feeling, casual, easy  comfortable fit.  The influences on his work were clearly shaped by extensive travels throughout the world. He was the first American admitted to one of Russia's most prestigious design schools, he made his history with his award winning collection called "kak ya vam vizhu at the International Concourse of Young Designers.  Enjoy.


Texas School Named after S/Sgt. Jose Riojas
Five Exemplary Latinos Into Its Prestigious Alumni Hall of Fame
Address to USC Student Body by Efrén Paredes, Jr.

Texas School Named after S/Sgt. Jose Riojas

Dear Mimi:

I have been very touched by the articles Somos Primos has published that
refer to Hispanics in the military and thought I would send to you some
information on my brother, S/Sgt Jose Riojas, who died in France during 
the invasion of Normandy in 1944. 
With the help of people in the community of Pflugerville, Texas where my family lived and where all seven of us were born (I was the youngest), we petitioned the Board of Trustees of Pflugerville Independent School District to honor him by naming an elementary school in his name.

The school is being built, we have had the groundbreaking and it will be dedicated probably in August 2009 and will be ready for students when school opens in the fall.

Pflugerville is a community of 40,000 people, (this will be the 19th elementary school, 4 high schools and several middle schools).  This will be the first time a Hispanic will be recognized.
There are several parks in the city and many streets but there is no school named after a native Hispanic family.

Somos Primos is very informative, educational and has wonderful articles on the many Hispanics that populate our nation.

Sincerely, Sulema Riojas Ramos (from Dallas, Tx)


Staff Sgt. Jose Riojas was born November 5, 1920 in Pflugerville, Texas. He was the oldest child of Casimiro and Sulema Riojas. He attended school in Pflugerville and because of family necessities caused by the depression left school at an early age. He helped the family by picking cotton and doing whatever work was available. 

Jose enlisted in the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) and was assigned to the CCC camp in Pflugerville. Young men enlisted in CCC did public works in many areas in and around Pflugerville. Their projects included soil erosion prevention, building fences, building and/or repairing bridges and other public projects that benefited the farmers and the community. 

A year before World War II started, Jose enlisted in the Army and was stationed at Ft. Sam Houston in San Antonio. After completing basic training he was assigned to the Military Police, completing his MP training on May 3, 1941. After the war started, he was assigned to the infantry.

He was assigned to the Second Division, Company B, 23rd Infantry. In 1943 he was transferred to Camp McCoy in Sparta, Wisconsin and stayed there until he was sent to England to prepare for the June 6, 1944 invasion of Normandy.

While Jose was in Wisconsin, he was promoted to Staff Sergeant. On July 28, 1944 he was killed by a shell fragment while engaged in combat in St. Jean des Baisants, France. His parents were presented the Bronze Star,Good Conduct Medal, Combat Infantryman's Badge, World War II Victory Ribbon, European-African and Middle Eastern campaign ribbon, and battle Stars for Normandy, the Ardennes and Northern France in a ceremony at Pflugerville High School. He was also posthumously awarded a Purple Heart. Jose's body was returned to Pflugerville in 1947 and both he and his dad are buried at Ft. Sam Houston National Cemetery in San Antonio

Jose comes from a family of veterans. His father was a veteran of World War I and suffered serious wounds while serving in France. His brother, Jesus, enlisted in the Navy and was serving in the Pacific at the same time Jose was in Europe. His youngest brother, Felipe, enlisted in the Air Force and served in the military for over twenty years. His great grandfather, Placido Olivarri, was a scout during the Texas War for independence. His four brothers-in-law were war veterans. The family tradition of serving in the military continues with the younger generations.

Jose Riojas was an eighth generation Texan. His paternal grandmother's ancestors settled in San Antonio in 1731.

In March, 2007, the Pflugerville Independent School Board of Trustees voted to name an Elementary school in Pflugerville, Texas, Jose Riojas Elementary. The School is currently under construction and will be dedicated in August, 2009. The school is located in a new subdivision a few miles from the family home. This will be a first for Pflugerville, never before has a Hispanic name been used in naming streets, buildings, parks or any other public facility.

Submitted by his sister,
Sulema Riojas Ramos
Dallas, Texas

Editor:  We are a patient people, A 268 years wait for Hispanic recognition. 
Good for you and your family Sulema, you persisted!!  





Hispanic Scholarship Fund to Induct Five Exemplary Latinos Into Its Prestigious Alumni Hall of Fame

Accomplished professionals 
honored at annual event to inspire Hispanic youth

WASHINGTON, Sept 02, 2008 /PRNewswire via COMTEX/ -- Five extraordinary Latinos will be inducted into the Hispanic Scholarship Fund (HSF) Alumni Hall of Fame at its seventh annual gala September 17, 2008 at the Pierre Hotel in New York City. They will join a select group of Latino professionals who have been recognized for their personal achievements, contributions and service to America, including former Surgeon General Richard Carmona, U.S. Ambassador to Mexico Tony Garza and Time Warner Vice President Lisa Quiroz.

This year's inductees include an educator whose work goes beyond the classroom; a leader in education, community involvement and philanthropy; a Cuban immigrant who became President & CEO of a leading telecommunications company; a recognized researcher in drug safety; and an acclaimed pianist who performs and composes Latin Classical music.

HSF, the nation's preeminent organization supporting Latino higher education, aims to inspire future generations of Latino college graduates by honoring Latinos who have excelled in their fields. The HSF Alumni Hall of Fame was created in 2002 to honor Hispanics who demonstrate the power of higher education and to highlight how attaining a college degree can change individual lives and society as a whole for the better. The honorees' lifetime challenges and subsequent accomplishments illustrate the possibilities unleashed through higher education and personify the mission and values of HSF.

Each year, HSF selects four outstanding HSF alumni who were aided by an HSF scholarship while in college. A fifth individual, while not a former HSF Scholar, is selected for his or her success and excellence. Awards are given in five categories (translated from Spanish): The Optimist, The Humanitarian, The Victor, The Motivator, and The Rising Star.

This year's awards and respective inductees, representing achievements in the medical, academic, corporate and public policy fields, will go to:

-- The Optimista, Joan Sotero Alvarez, High School Principal, Corpus Christi, TX. As an English teacher, Joan provides his students much more than grammar lessons. He has mentored more than 150 students who were at risk of failing or dropping out. He is teaching his students to care for and respect their community by founding King Productions, an organization that promotes community involvement. The teenagers clean fences and walls marked by graffiti, as well as learn and perform hip-hop at community events. He was awarded the CCISD Teacher of the Year award within the two years of beginning to teach. He is a teacher despite repeatedly failing to meet the Texas state testing scores as a high school student; he persevered and became the first person in his ancestral family to earn a college degree. Proving to his students that an education is possible, he invited them, along with their parents, to his graduation ceremony when he received his master's degree.

-- The Altruista, Luis Ubinas, President of the Ford Foundation, New York, NY. Luis uses his leadership skills and experience to inspire others and to guide the foundation's support for thousands of non-profits working to create opportunities and improve lives in marginalized communities around the globe. Before becoming the ninth president of the Ford Foundation in January 2008, he was a director at McKinsey & Company, a global management consulting firm where he worked for 18 years. To introduce and cultivate diverse talent, Luis founded McKinsey's Latino recruiting and mentoring group. He has served on the boards of Leadership Education and Development (LEAD), a national organization that provides educational opportunities to low-income African American and Latino high school students, the Bay Area United Way and the Steppingstone Foundation.

-- The Triunfador, Ralph de la Vega, President and CEO of AT&T Mobility. A native of Cuba, Ralph came to the United States by himself at the age of 10. Despite being separated from his family, living in a foreign country and not being familiar with the language or the culture, Ralph was able to earn a B.S. in Mechanical Engineering from Florida Atlantic University and an MBA from Northern Illinois University. He also completed the Executive Program at the University of Virginia. In 1974, Ralph began his distinguished career in telecommunications as a Management Assistant with BellSouth (then Southern Bell). He worked his way up to directing all of BellSouth's Telecommunications Network Operations for Alabama, Florida, Louisiana and Mississippi. He then served as President-BellSouth Latin America, with overall responsibility for BellSouth's Central and South American operations in 11 countries. Appointed as Chief Operating Officer of Cingular Wireless in 2004, he led the company through the largest merger in the history of the wireless industry. In late 2007, he was named president and CEO of AT&T Mobility, helping revolutionize the industry with the launch of the iPhone.

-- The Inspirador, Evelyn Rodriguez, Vice President and head of Global Pharmacoepidemology, Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals, Mountain Lakes, NJ. Evelyn is a recognized leader and researcher in drug safety and the science of pharmacoepidemiology. She has over 34 years' experience in clinical medicine and is board certified in Pediatrics, Public Health and General Preventive Medicine. She also demonstrates leadership, organizational and management skills through studies, publications and presentations at scientific meetings, public hearings and FDA-sponsored advisory committee sessions. For 13 years, she has provided federal service as a Commissioned Officer in the U.S. Public Health Service. In 2000, Evelyn received the Arthur Flemming Award for Excellence in Science. She has reached out to Latinos, interested in the medical field, for 15 years as an active participant in the Mentorship Program for Hispanic Medical Students with the International College of Physicians and Surgeons. Evelyn has raised three children, who are currently college students despite disabilities they have encountered.

-- The Brillante, Gabriela Lena Frank, Composer and Pianist in Latin Classical Music, Berkeley, CA. Gabriela is a world-renowned pianist and composer. As one of the few Latina composers in a male dominated field, Gabriela regularly incorporates Latin American art, poetry, and folk music into western classical forms that reflect her Peruvian- Jewish-Chinese heritage. She shares her love of music with the community as a performer and teacher, traveling throughout the United States and Latin America. Born with a moderate-to-profound neurosensory hearing loss that was not detected until she was in kindergarten, Gabriela was recently recognized by the American Academy of Arts and Letters and hailed as representing "the next generation of American composers."

"We are proud to honor these inductees because they personify the mission and values of HSF," said Frank D. Alvarez, HSF President & CEO. "They are an inspiration to aspiring Latinos everywhere. Their success stories are testimony to the impact of higher education and the tremendous difference it makes in a life."

Alvarez said the inductees serve as positive role models for Latino students, which is a trademark of previous HSF Alumni Hall of Fame honorees. "Annually, the inspiring stories of HSF's inductees put a face on our work and demonstrate the power of higher education," he said.

About the Hispanic Scholarship Fund

Founded in 1975 as a not-for-profit, the Hispanic Scholarship Fund (HSF) is the nation's preeminent Latino scholarship organization, providing the Latino community more college scholarships and educational outreach support than any other organization in the country. During the 2007-2008 academic year, HSF awarded nearly 4,100 scholarships exceeding $26.8 million. In its 33-year history, HSF has awarded in excess of 86,000 scholarships, worth more than $247 million, to Latinos attending nearly 2,000 colleges and universities in all 50 states, Puerto Rico, Guam and the U.S. Virgin Islands. For more information about HSF, please visit: http://WWW.HSF.NET.

SOURCE Hispanic Scholarship Fund
Copyright (C) 2008 PR Newswire. All rights reserved




Address to the 
Fall 2008 University of Southern California Student Body
by Efrén Paredes, Jr. 


Efrén Paredes, Jr. submitted the following writing addressed to the student body at the University of Southern California (USC) in the first edition of El Centro Chicano Newsletter of the school year. The newsletter will be received by thousands of USC students. Efrén is granting permission to anyone else who would like to use the message in any other publications to address students at other institutions of higher learning. We would like to thank our friend and supporter Arthur Fidel Argomaniz, McNair Scholar/MEChA de USC/CCU (Campus and Community United) and SAJE (Strategic Action for a Just Economy) intern for putting us in contact with the newsletter's editor and suggesting that Efrén submit the writing.

¡Bienvenidos! (Welcome), as you commence a new year of matriculation at one of the nation's most respected institutions of higher learning. I am grateful to send you this message from across the country and proud to stand by you in solidarity as you sojourn through an exciting year replete with a myriad of opportunities.

This message is being delivered from another institution of notoriety in this nation. Unlike your institution that nourishes life and creativity, the one I am in seeks to destroy them. We exist at opposite ends of the spectrum of life and opportunity.

As a consequence of biased policies which target youth of color, many Chicana/o and Latina/o youth end up in prison cells. It is an unconscionable reality we are compelled to confront. Census Bureau statistics reflect that there are 2.7 Latinos living in prison cells compared to every one Latino living in a college dorm.

We have higher dropout rates, lower test scores, and fewer college graduates, which all leads to less involvement in community affairs. According to the U.S. Department of Education, 37% of Latinos do not finish high school, compared to the national average of 15%.

The ACLU Racial Justice Program is currently tackling a disturbing national trend in which children are funneled out of public schools and into the juvenile and criminal justice systems. They characterize this phenomenon as the "school to prison pipeline."

I know firsthand the devastating effects these statistics can have on our community. I have been incarcerated since age 15 for a crime I did not commit and had no role in. I was sentenced to die in prison and I still remain captive after nearly 20 years of wrongful imprisonment.

I am in the battle for my very life. Without the strong support of people of conscience who are committed to defending justice and human rights, I will die in prison.

It is human rights abuses like these that cry out for us to answer the call to service for the betterment of humanity. If we shirk from our responsibility we will be complicit in fostering more injustice and leaving ourselves vulnerable to further abuse and victimization.

I know what it takes to transcend dehumanizing conditions. If not for my independent pursuit of higher learning I would have been defeated long ago by the crushing weight of this experience. Education is vital to our survival and building bridges that enable us to connect the past with the future.

I urge you to not take your education and opportunities for granted. Demonstrate that you are among the worthy who were entrusted with this opportunity that many others have been denied or taken for granted.

You each represent beacons of light to a generation of scholarship that will follow you. The task before you can not be underscored enough as you valiantly carry the torch of victory in the struggle for self-determination, respect and quality education.

Know that you stand on the towering shoulders of a long illustrious line of strong Chicana/o and Latina/o leaders who sacrificed so you could enjoy the fruits of their toils and struggles. We are the descendants of the women who gave birth to one of the greatest civilizations on Earth, the architects who built the colossal Mayan and Aztec temples, as well as great scientists and educators.

You are now the custodians of their legacy and your actions will determine the preservation of their memory. Leave your footprints as signposts along the path as you fulfill your hopes and dreams. In so doing you can help change the world a little at a time and liberate our gente (people) from the stranglehold of dependence and ignorance.

Once you are gone your stewardship will be celebrated by the bright eyes, brilliant minds, and beautiful faces of young Chicana/o and Latina/o children anxiously awaiting to take the baton. Like you, they will be pillars of hope and inspiration to others.

We will not be defeated. As individuals we are strong, but together we are unconquerable!

In Solidarity,  Efrén Paredes, Jr.

To learn how you can help end the injustice perpetrated against Efrén Paredes, Jr. visit To learn more about the shocking details surrounding Efrén's case please visit  Sent by Dr. Carlos Muñoz, Jr.


25th Annual Conference Arizona Association of Chicanos for Higher Education
Dr. George Castro Programs: Chicano Center History
The Center for Applied Linguistics, Informational Brochures



The Arizona Association of Chicanos for Higher Education 
announces its 25th Annual Conference


“Strengthening the Education Pipeline:
Academic and Community Strategies for Latino/a Educational Empowerment: Si se Puede!”

Date & Time: October 10, 2008, 7:30 a.m. to 7:00 p.m.

Location: Arizona State University at the West Campus, 
4701 W. Thunderbird Road , Phoenix , Arizona

 NOTE: This is an updated version, reflecting minor changes in the conference’s agenda. Headshots of keynote speakers are available.

CONTACTS: Dr. José E. Náñez, Sr.; Chair, Conference Planning Committee, AACHE president-elect,, (480) 965-2002 and (602) 543-6012, or James E. Garcia,, 602-496-0441.

  PHOENIX – The Arizona Association of Chicanos for Higher Education (AACHE) will host its 25th annual statewide conference on Friday, Oct. 10, 2008.

The conference is titled “Strengthening the Education Pipeline: Academic and Community Strategies for Latino/a Educational Empowerment: Si se Puede!”

The all-day conference will focus on identifying efforts from pre-kindergarten to the university level and beyond, designed to enhance Hispanic students’ academic success.

Keynote speakers for the event include: Raul Yzaguirre , executive director of the ASU Center for Community Development and Civil Rights and former president and CEO of the National Council of La Raza; Pete Garcia, president of the Victoria Foundation and former CEO and President of Chicanos Por La Causa; Rosie López, founder of the Arizona Hispanic Community Forum; and Linda Brown, (Executive Director: Arizona Advocacy Network).

Conference attendees will participate in break-out group discussions on topics related to the conference theme during the morning and afternoon sessions.  

The all-day conference will be held in La Sala Ballroom at the University Center Building (UCB) at ASU at the West Campus, 4701 W. Thunderbird Road , Phoenix , Arizona .

                In conjunction with the conference, AACHE, ASU at the West Campus and ALAC (Advocates for Latino Arts and Culture), are hosting an exhibit featuring the artwork of numerous Hispanic artists from across Arizona .

The exhibit is called La Cultura Cura/ The Healing Culture and will be on display at the Fletcher Library art gallery (second and third floors) at ASU at the West Campus, Oct. 4-Oct. 30. An opening reception is scheduled for 4:30-6:00 p.m. Oct. 4 on the Fletcher Library Lawn at ASU West, 4701 W. Thunderbird Road , Phoenix , Arizona

Early registration for the conference is $100 through September 30. (Note that the early registration date was extended). Late and on-site registration is $130. Student registration is $25. Conference registration information can be found at the AACHE website at Student scholarships to cover registration cost available by contacting José Náñez.

The purpose of AACHE is to provide a forum for the discussion of issues related to Chicanos/Latinos in higher education and to cooperate in providing workable solutions to these issues.

                A full conference schedule is posted at the AACHE website at





Dr. George Castro Programs 

Chicano Center History


The Chicano Resource Center arose out of planning efforts in 1979 and early 1980, which involved faculty from the Mexican American Studies Department, the College of Social Work, the bilingual program in the College of Education, and the University Library. Dedicated in 1982, the Chicano Resource Center has provided a single focus for books, periodicals, reference tools, pamphlets, and clippings relating to Mexican American History, culture, and community. More...

Chicano Oral History Project

The Chicano Oral History Project at SJSU began in the late 1980’s as a collaborative effort between the Mexican American Studies Department and the Chicano Library Research Center. Funding for the program was provided from library, campus and CSU Affirmative Action & Faculty Development Funds and CSU Research and Lottery Funds. More...

Titles of full articles that can be accessed from:

1996 Hispanic Engineer National Achievement Awards 
2000 Hall of Fame Inductee George Castro from Technica Henaac 
American GI Forum 38th National Convention Publication 
Interview with Dr.George Castro from Informe San Jose Unified School District 
Advanced Light Source Report vol 7 no 1 September 1994 
Latinos in the Lab article from Hispanic September 1996 
1987 Hispanic Engineer cover story on George Castro vol.3 
Hispanic Outlook 2000 George Castro mentoring 
IBM Physical Science San Jose Research Division publication 1982 
IBM Physical Science San Jose Research Laboratory 1980 
Make A Wish Come True 1985 IBM Charitable Contribution Campaign brochure 
Ninth Annual Portraits of Success Awards from San Jose Mercury News 1994 
Portraits of Success 1994 Exemplary Leadership Awards 
SACNAS News Spring 1992 
SACNAS News Spring 1994 
SACNAS News Summer 1996 
Tomorrows scientists are in school today from Washington Square Summer 1995 
White House recognizes SJSUs George Castro from On Campus SJSU November 1999 
White House Recognizes Associate Dean George Castro from The Scientist 2000

The Center for Applied Linguistics
Informational Brochures

The Center for Applied Linguistics has created this series of informational brochures to make it easier to advocate for language learning.  You can download these brochures for free or purchase them in quantity for a nominal fee to cover shipping and handling.
Visit the CAL Store to order print copies.

Why Start and Maintain an SNS Program coverWhy Start and Maintain an SNS Program?
American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese and the Center for Applied Linguistics
Use this brochure to advocate for a Spanish for Native Speakers program in your school or district, start one, or improve one already in place. The brochure can be used with school board members, school and district administrators, Spanish teachers, and parents of Spanish-speaking students.

Working Together to Build a Multilingual Society coverWorking Together to Build a Multilingual Society
Center for Applied Linguistics
This brochure offers tips for parents, teachers, school administrators, and policymakers to help establish or improve a multilingual environment in homes and schools. Doing so not only addresses American security and economic needs, but also creates opportunties for Americans, both at home and abroad.

Why, How, and When Should My Child Learn a Second Language coverWhy, How, and When Should My Child Learn a Second Language?
Center for Applied Linguistics
This brochure helps parents and schools become aware of the benefits of helping children learn a second language at an early age. It can be used with school boards, parents, and school and district staff to advocate for new or improved early foreign language programs.

Sent by Rafael Ojeda




Glasspar Boat Builder
Bosques' War
The Latino Threat: Constructing Immigrants, Citizens, and the Nation
500 years of Chicana Women's History / 500 años de la Mujer Chicana
William W. Warren: The Life, Letters, and Times of an Ojibwe Leader
From Warriors to Soldiers by Gary Robinson and Phil Lucas
Floricanto Press
Glasspar Boat Builder
by Edward Grijalva

Note: forwarded message attached.
The G-3 Owners Association, Glasspar Owners Association, and the Florida Glasspar Club proudly bring you the Glasspar Event of the Decade!
EVENT: International G-3 Rally
TIME: May 1st, 2nd, 3rd 2009. 
PLACE:  Lions Club camp on Tiger Lake in Lake Wales Florida.
Start planning now to attend this Colossal Glasspar Event, "beg, borrow and steal" vacation time because you don't want to miss this event.
Hi Mimi, I want to share a bit wonderful information with you, ever since my book came out great things have come my way, this is one. This Company from back East is going to sponsor and fly me to this great event in Orlando, Florida.
I feel very blessed, take care and God bless,
Eddie Grijalva.

Edward Grijalva was born in el Toro in 1933 and raised in el Toro and Santa Ana, Calfiornia.  he moved to Vallejo in 2003 where he became interested in owning a 1965 Seafair Sedan made by the Glasspar Boat Company.  He took a junked shadow of a boart and refurbished it to a pristine "classic," Glasspar is considered the original fiberglass designer and manufacturer of boars in the 1950s through the 1960s in Santa Ana.  This story is an account of Eddie's experiences while he worked at the Glasspar Boat Company.  Startling in the sanding department, Eddie also worked in research and development, and in all phases of the disng and manufacturing of the Meridian, Ventura, Seafair, Mariner, Trident, Delmar, Avalon, G-3, Tacoma, Citation, Lido Series, Marathon, Superlite, and Balboa.  The inspiration for this book came from the many proud owners of Glasspar boars Eddie has met in recent years.

Order this book on-line at:
Search for Glasspar Boar Builder: Circa 1952-1962

Editor:  I first met Eddie in the mid 1990s.  He was wearing a T-shirt with an image of a native American face's superimposed over a Spanish Soldier helmet's.  I commented that I really liked the historical  message and Eddie answer, "That is what I am and I am proud of it."  We became immediate friends. Eddie sent the following concerning his family history research. 

“When I started to search for my roots, I had no idea what or where I was going, I did not know anything about genealogy. At the Bowers Museum in Santa Ana, I remember seeing on the wall of the California history room information about Juan Pablo Grijalva. Tradition and family history was that our family went back to the colonization of this area, but I really did not know what that meant.  I wondered if I was in some way related to this famous historical figure.
I started asking questions of my families what they knew about our family history. My father gave a little bit of information, but the rest would be up to me to research. I traveled up and down the State of California, Parts of Arizona and Mexico, for about 20 years, and finally I hit pay dirt at the Bancroft Library in Berkeley, California.
A few years later, I met a wonderful lady by the name of Mimi Lozano Holtzman. She opened doors to me, giving me opportunities of sharing my story at state and national events. Eventually, with the help of a dear friend Doug Westfall ( I even was able to produce some print documents and a little booklet with information showing my family connection to Juan Pablo Grijalva.  
A few years ago I moved to northern California to the Napa area, and began to pursue a hobby of boating.  I have been blessed with the friendship of a great Lady by the name of Lydia Cano.  Lydia, would ofte hear me talk with some of my new friends that belong to the Glasspar Boats Owners Association, members from all over the US. Lydia said to me one day, why don’t you write that information down and I will help you write a manuscript for a book.
I never thought that it could happen. I am not a writer, but you know what we say. . si se puede, and I did.  . .   
Eddie Grijalva


Gilberto Bosques (1894 – 1997)

Bosques' War is a translation of an oral history of the World War II experiences of Gilberto Bosques (1894 – 1997), who, as Mexico 's Consul General in Marseilles, France, used his country's neutrality in the early part of the war to protect and save tens of thousands of persecuted people. Grabman, as an introduction to the interview, provides a brief overview of Mexican diplomacy in the 1930s and 1940s to provide the reader with a historical perspective on Bosques' diplomatic activities, which continued with the Cuban missile crisis of the 1960s.

This book should fascinate those interested in World War II history, Mexican history or the well known feats of Raoul Wallenberg, who was specifically sent by the Swedish government to save people from the Nazis. Bosques did it all on his own and is finally being recognized for his effort.

36 pp. Editororial Mazatlán, 2007 $35 MXP (click the image)

Dorina Thomas



The Latino Threat: Constructing Immigrants, Citizens, and the Nation

Are Latinos a threat to the U.S.?
UCI professor's book seeks to dispel image of Hispanics as illiterate illegal immigrants who have too many babies.
By Erin Carlyle
The Orange County Register, Friday, July 25, 2008

Growing up in Orange and Los Angeles Counties, Leo Chavez never felt less than fully American. After all, his father's family came to America from Spain in the early 1600s and his mother's joined them from Mexico four generations ago. His family claims as its ancestor the first Chavez to settle in the American Southwest.

But over the past few decades, Chavez, a 57-year-old anthropology professor at UC Irvine, has watched with alarm as portrayal of Latinos has pervaded popular culture and seeped into political discourse. Chavez calls this portrayal the "Latino Threat" and it goes something like this:

Latinos are a threat to the nation. Latinos have too many babies. Latinos can't or won't learn English. Latinos refuse to integrate. Latinos are replicating their own culture in the U.S. Latinos are part of a conspiracy to take over the American Southwest.
According to Chavez, these ideas are not only biased, they are divisive - even dangerous. They divert attention from a critical national problem - the legal status of 12 million undocumented workers in the U.S. - fueling a political firestorm instead of offering a solution.

In his new book, "The Latino Threat: Constructing Immigrants, Citizens, and the Nation," Chavez examines how the story about Latinos developed, and how it plays out in public life. The narrative, Chavez says, drove the 2005 Minuteman Project to patrol the Arizona-Mexico border; the 2003 controversy over Jesica Santillan, an illegal immigrant who received organ transplants; popular images of out-of-control Latina fertility; and the 2006 marches for immigrant rights.

With Orange County-based data -- drawn from a 2006 survey and a 1997 study on reproductive health -- Chavez attempts to dismantle what he says are the faulty tenets of the Latino Threat Narrative. He claims Latinos, like other immigrants, adapt and conform to the diverse, ever-changing culture of the United States even as they enrich and shape it.
ON CAMPUS: UC Irvine anthropology professor Leo Chavez chats with friends on campus. His new book "The Latino Threat Narrative," discusses immigration marches, minutemen and Latino assimilation.
Here are excerpts from a recent conversation with him:
Q. Tell me how you first got interested in this topic.
A. To a certain extent, this book is an outgrowth of my last book, "Covering Immigration," which looks at the way the media, particularly news magazines, have represented immigration from the mid 1960s until the end of the century. One of my key chapters was on the way Mexican immigration was represented.
I really felt I needed to ask … is there any empirical evidence for the kinds of representation about Mexican immigrants, Latino immigrant in general, and the children of Latino immigrants in the United States - and the idea that they're here to take over the country, they don't really want to become part of the nation, they don't want to assimilate?
And … is it really part of a bigger issue about the fear people are having right now about the changing demographics and the changing nature of what it means to be an American?

Q. Was your method to start collecting images?
A.[In 1981 or 1982], I started collecting images of magazines, newspapers - this was before blogging started on the Internet. From the 70s into the 90s, the sheer number of alarmist images grew tremendously. We went through two major recessions, immigration became a hot topic. Issues of changing demographics became a hot topic. The browning of America became a hot topic.

Q. Where did you grow up?
A. I was born in southern New Mexico. I grew up in Whittier, La Habra.
When I grew up Latino immigrants were only about 15 percent of the population. It's been a major transformation in my lifetime. When I grew up, most Latinos pretty much were speaking English.
Orange County - [when I was in college]probably 80 percent of Santa Ana was Anglo. Now it's 80 percent Latino.

Q. What do you think are the biggest factors here in Orange County that have perpetuated the Latino Threat Narrative?
A. I think, number one, the demographic change was rapid.
Orange County had a major image, when I was growing up, as very much a white community.
After World War II with the real estate covenants [in Los Angeles]being declared illegal, people moved out, to West L.A. and other parts of Los Angeles. So you had a white flight. Orange County became the white alternative to the changing demographics in Los Angeles, in the 50s.
At the same time, you have a booming Orange County economically, which draws in more immigrant labor.
So you have all these things happening at once - development, immigration, demographic change. And I think a place like Orange County becomes an example of the kind of tensions that the rest of the nation is experiencing or will experience because of these similar kinds of changes.

Q. I would like to talk to about the belief that Latinos are forming a separate society. Where does this belief come from?
A. It comes from two different sources. One, it comes from the Chicano movement itself. Remember, back in the 1950s and 60s, it was pretty much a stigmatized population. Jim Crow was very strong in the 40s, 50s. Restaurants, pools were all closed to Latinos. Schools were bad in Latino neighborhoods.

Q. Are you talking about California specifically?
A. California specifically, but even the whole Southwest.
So one of the things the Chicano movement attempted to develop, just like the black movement, was a sense of pride. The ideology that emerged was the idea of Aztlan - that Latinos who are here are in their homeland. They aren't foreigners here.
And for some academic scholars in Chicano studies, they took it even further and said Aztlan is our homeland and we deserve to take it over. They helped introduce the idea as much as those who see, from the outside, that the growth in the Latino population is a threat.
On the anti-immigrant side, those who wanted to develop a rhetoric of fear around the Latino population growing, would go back and take some of these old 1960s [Chicano studies]texts - which were basically just a kind of pride kinds of things - and made it sound like there was some sort of conspiracy that they had started.

Q. What do you think motivates this perception of Latinos as overly fertile, taking over the nation, refusing to assimilate, forming their own society? Why do people feel this sense of threat?
A. If you're talking about people in the media … whooping the wind of the Latino Threat is a sure way to get - and I hate to say this crassly - an audience.
I think politicians have learned that railing against the immigration threat, particularly the Latino Threat, brings in votes.
For the common people who get riled up, let's say the folks who are in the Minutemen … a lot of their constituents, I think what they really feel, bottom line, is that the movement of people in the world across national borders really is a threat to the kinds of rights and privileges they deserve as citizens.
And you'll notice, many of their constituents are the ones who maybe aren't getting the full measure of the benefits of American society. They aren't getting the best health care. They may not even be insured. They aren't getting the great jobs. They aren't getting the great pension plans.

Q. In other words, these are not the ones who are rich and rolling in it?
A. To a certain extent, these are the ones who feel that they should be doing better. I think, for some, who find the anti-immigrant rhetoric so appealing, it is a sense of someone to blame for not doing as well in our society as they feel they should be doing.

Q. How do you think the Latino Threat Narrative affects Latinos and race relations?
Latinos as a group, first of all, are very varied. But one thing that unites them all is that the main source of information is the media. There's a surprising number of Latinos who believe [the Latino Threat Narrative]. It's divisive among Latinos.
It allows you to create policies and treat people in certain ways. Because the assumptions are that they're there to take, they don't really want to become part of us, it's okay to pass laws that push them away, [making it]difficult for them to get health care, pre-natal care, to become legal residents in this country, to get driver's licenses.

Q. What do you think should be done about illegal immigration?
I think, basically, that there should be no illegal immigration in the United States.
Until we do something about the Latino Threat Narrative, the anti-immigrant discourse, the idea that illegals are somehow inherently criminals, we're never going to see immigration for what it is. Basically, an economic benefit for the nation.

Editor's note:
Our readers have responded to this story in a big way, but the discussion started last week with two items off our immigration blog. Take a look and join the discussion.
" Are So.Cal anti-illegal orgs hate groups
" Illegal immigration foes: "we are not racists"
Contact the writer: or 714.796.7722
Sent by Ricardo Valverde



500 years of Chicana women's history/
500 años de la mujer Chicana

by Elizabeth "Betita" Martínez.
 New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2008.
Bilingual Edition,  xii, 332 pp. 600 illustrations, paper, $23.95

   This fascinating book is full of visual sound  bites. Each paired page contains photographs,  drawings, clippings, and explanatory text in two  languages. Together they form a collage of  snapshots telling the history of Mexican women -  a history absent from the standard texts.  It's a panoramic vision - stretching across time and space.
 Mexican is defined broadly from the indigenous  peoples who preceded the Spanish conquest to  those now living in their conquered northern  territories, comprising the states from Texas to  California (which Martinez calls Occupied  California).
 Her history begins with the many creation  stories in which woman was key. A rather sympathetic paragraph on Malinalli Tenepal (La Malinche), an  aide and consort to Cortes whom many Mexicans regard as a traitor, is followed by shorter ones on the many women who resisted colonization.
 Martinez includes the stories of Afro-Mexicans,  acknowledging that the importation of African  slaves made Mexico into a tri-racial society.  Since Church and state accepted intermarriage, a  complex system of castes and classes emerged,  but without the rigid lines of separation found  in the English colonies. Later in the book the author adds the stories of lesbians, which  neither Church nor state accepted.
 Following "The Story of a Great Land Robbery,"  which ended in 1848, 80 percent of the book is  on las Chicanas in los Estados Unidos. Over one  million Mexicans went north between 1900 and  1930 to supplement the scattered population that  remained in the U.S. Once here they formed  mutual assistance leagues and opened their own  schools in order to maintain their culture and  fight exclusion, discrimination and exploitation.
 The Great Depression led to forced deportation so "real Americans" could have the jobs they hadn't wanted during boom times. Nonetheless, Chicanas fought to stay and fought for better lives. Garment workers in LA marched and struck to form a union and get better wages, as did laundry and cannery workers. Their lot improved with World War II, where they served in the Women's Army Corp and on the home front.
 Throughout the 20th Century, Chicanas organized, with and without their men. They helped found LULAC (League of United Latin American Citizens) in 1929, ANMA (National Mexican-American Association) in 1949, the Brown Berets in 1967, la Raza Unida in 1969, and many other associations.
 Mexicans are often thought of as farmworkers and their struggle to organize is a major part of this book. Delores Huerta, co-founder of UFW (United Farm Workers) is featured on two pages; many other women get their own paragraphs and photographs. Their activity in many other workers' struggles is also documented.
 Chicanas were also outspoken feminists. Their Primer Congreso Feminista was held in Mexico in 1916. La Comision Femenil Mexicana National was founded in 1970 and La Conferencia de Mujeres Por La Raza held in Houston in 1971. In 1982 academic Latinas started Mujeres Activas en Letras Y Cambio Social. (Women Active in Letters  and Social Change). These are only a few of the many groups women organized that are described in this book. 
 Although some recognition is paid to  traditionally prominent women (poet Sor Juana
 Ines de la Cruz, the Virgin of Guadalupe), the  women in this book are fighters and theirs is a  story of struggle, collective and individual.  Photos and stories of strikes, marches and  protests abound - though academic activists get  ten pages and producers of culture get 35. The fight for immigrant rights is only the latest
 battle in this history of continual struggle.
 Although Chicanas continue their fight, their repertoire has broadened. Women are now fighting not only in the streets and on their jobs, but through the political system. Over time, their voice as voters and candidates and holders of public office has joined their shouts as protesters.
 You will enjoy reading how Chicanas went from protesters to politicians - in only 500 years.
Dr. Carlos Muñoz, Jr.
and Dorinda Moreno 

William W. Warren: 
The Life, Letters, and Times of an Ojibwe Leader

By Theresa M. Schenck
University of Nebraska Press, 2007, 204 pages
Reviewed by David Thorstad 

Theresa Schenck has written more than a biography of one of Minnesota's most interesting nineteenth-century figures, as the title suggests. It is "rather a study of the man in relation to the times and the events that touched him or in which he played a role." By frequent and lengthy citation of Warren's letters, "I intend the reader to enter into the mind and heart of William Whipple Warren."

She has succeeded. She documents events in Minnesota history that are not well known and that rarely turn up in school curriculums, including the repeated forced removals of Ojibwe westward in response to white encroachment, accomplished with duplicity on the part of territorial governor Alexander Ramsey and other authorities, as well as traders, both white and mixed blood. Ramsey repeatedly lied by claiming that the whites had no designs on Ojibwe lands, but in fact the treaty period was a land grab by whites. Native inhabitants occasionally resisted, but generally responded peacefully to the cultural and territorial assault. Warren collaborated in the removal process, but Schenck reveals the contradictory nature of his efforts to convince Ojibwe elders to agree to removal. Warren did not consider himself an "Indian" (he was three-eighths Ojibwe), even though he looks more "Indian" than many Ojibwe today. In letters to Ramsey, he refers to the Ojibwe as "our Indians," suggesting an identification with the white authorities. Yet at the same time, during the removal of 1851, he claimed that his goal was to unite the Ojibwe bands into one tribe that could negotiate from a position of strength.

While serving as an interpreter, Warren collected oral histories from elders and chiefs, with a view to publishing a storehouse of knowledge about a way of life that was disappearing. His History of the Ojibway People (written in the 1850s, but not published till more than thirty years after his untimely death in 1853 at the age of twenty-eight) is his legacy, but many notes for other works, including on the colorful Mississippi band chiefs Hole-in-the-Day the Elder and Younger, and other chiefs, as well as one on Ojibwe religious and medicinal practices, are mostly lost.

One is struck by how peripatetic the Ojibwe were, traveling long distances at great hardship and loss of life, to accommodate the authorities' stipulated locations for payment of annuities (which amounted to around five dollars) and removal from their ancestral lands. Hole-in-the-Day the Younger alone made six trips to Washington, D.C., between 1855 and 1867—reflecting the widespread belief that the "Great Father" located there would mediate favorably disputes with state authorities.

Striking too is the air of ambition, self-confidence, precociousness, and intelligence that Warren displays from a young age. At age twelve, for example, while beginning studies at Clarkson Academy in New York, his first letter to his father describes how he reached the head of his class after a mere two weeks, and although his spelling is not perfect, and he claims to have already forgotten his French, he confidently predicts that he will surpass his classmates in Latin: "The master says who will beat will have a premium and my Grand father says he will make me a pair of pumps if I shall beat them and there is no question but I will beat them." He concludes: "I wrote this letter without any help but
excuse me for bad writing. Do not expect such bad writing next time." Indeed, by his mid-twenties, some of his letters to the editor were written in eloquent English.

In 1850, Warren was elected to the second Minnesota territorial legislature from the Sixth District, which included Crow Wing and Sauk Rapids. Even today it is hard to imagine a Native American as dark-skinned as Warren being elected to the state legislature. Warren promptly resigned his position as a farmer at Gull Lake (the authorities sought to turn woodland Indians into yeoman farmers, an effort that Warren aided) and moved his family to St. Paul, where they resided at a comfortable boardinghouse-hotel owned by Henry M. Rice at the corner of Exchange and St. Anthony. He served on the Committee on Territorial Affairs and the Committee on the Militia.

Schenck, who also wrote The Voice of the Crane Echoes Afar, which includes a discussion of traditional Ojibwe leadership, has organized her book chronologically. In addition to thoroughly documented notes, it has appendices of Warren's letters and published works, a Selected Bibliography, and an index. Illustrations include a Warren family tree, photos of Warren and some of his relatives, a view of St. Paul, Hole-in-the-Day the Younger, and one of Warren's letters. Two maps, while helpful, are far from adequate: the map of Minnesota Territory (1849–51) does not show Cass County, and the map of Ojibwe country of Wisconsin and Minnesota lacks more than a dozen place-names frequently mentioned, which makes following the narrative frustrating. Occasional errors include the date given for Warren's last letter: 19 May 1853 on
page 169, but 29 May on page 178. No list of abbreviations is provided, though one would have been desirable with the notes and the appendix of Warren's letters. Characters are not always adequately identified (e.g., the missionary Rev. Sherman Hall's Presbyterian denomination is not given). But these shortcomings are minor distractions in a compelling account of a mostly forgotten period of Minnesota Ojibwe history.

David Thorstad is a student of Ojibwe language and culture. He lives in the White Earth Indian Reservation

Sent by Dorinda Moreno



From Warriors to Soldiers
Gary Robinson and Phil Lucas

Reveals Native American Stories of Sacrifice in the U.S. Military

Intensively Researched Work Covers History from Revolutionary War to Modern Times
Santa Ynez, CA — Co-author Gary Robinson recently announced the release of the non-fiction book From Warriors to Soldiers, which reveals the history of sacrifice and dedicated service exhibited by Native Americans in all branches of the U.S. military from the Revolutionary War to modern times. Though this topic has been touched on by various books, movies and documentaries in the past, it has never before been dealt with in such detail and scope.
            "More than simply a history of military service, this book also examines the transition that Native Americans made from the traditional role of warrior in Native American cultures to the role of soldier as defined in military tradition," Robinson stated.  
            The work is divided into several distinct sections that tackle not only the history of native service in the military but personal and cultural reasons for service. Part One, "Native Warriors: Myth and Reality," places Native American warfare within its cultural context and separates movie-based myths from realities. Part Two, "From Freedom Fighters to Rough Riders," examines Indian participation in American wars from the Revolutionary War to the Spanish American War.
            Authorship of the book is attributed to both Robinson and his life-long friend and filmmaking partner, Phil Lucas, who passed away in 2007. The original goal of this award-winning documentary team was to produce a documentary television series on the subject, but no funding could be secured by the pair for that production.
          "My partner and I spent several years researching and writing the material that eventually became this book," Robinson commented. "Though Phil passed away last year, I felt that the material we'd gathered over the years needed to be presented to the public in some form. When Phil died, I decided to transform our research notes, interviews with veterans and television scripts into a manuscript form as a way of honoring Phil as well as Native American veterans."
            Part Three, "Doughboys and Leathernecks," examines American Indian service from World War I to Operation Iraqi Freedom. Part Four, "Enemies and Allies: The Paradox of Native American Service," delves into the complex personal, historical and cultural factors that make up the Native American soldier. 
            The book's cover illustration is an adaptation of a painting by Oklahoma Seminole artist Kelly Haney entitled "Standing Guard." Mr. Haney is in the process of producing a documentary film on some of the topics covered in this book.
            Initial funding for research on this project was provided by Native American Public Telecommunications more than fifteen years ago.  Final publication of the book was made possible in part through the financial support of the United Indians of All Tribes Foundation in Seattle, Washington.
            From Warriors to Soldiers is available from several sources including and Other outlets will be announced in the near future. The hard cover price is $24.95 and the paperback is $14.95. For more information, contact Gary Robinson at 818-381-1059 or garyd1123@....
Gary Robinson
Tribal Eye Productions
P.O. Box 1123
Santa Ynez, CA 93460
ph: 818-381-1059

Floricanto Press

650 Castro St, Ste 120--331

Mountain View, California 94041-2055

415-552 1879  Fax 702-995 1410

Inter American Development Inc.

"Por nuestra cultura hablarán nuestros libros.

Our books shall speak for our culture."  



Undocumented: Latino Immigrant Portraits
A little bit country, a little bit rock 'n' roll but pure Tejano
World United Radio/Membership Conference, Presented by Roots Music Assn 
Animator Bill Melendez Obituary from Whittier Daily News.
Cambalache Teatro en Español
The Warden Memoirs
Quinceanera Ritual Blessing to be Published

Undocumented: Latino Immigrant Portraits
By Rebeca Garcia-Gonzalez

Exhibition dates: August 23 – October 17, 2008
Compass Point, 731 Market Street (2nd floor), San Francisco, CA 94103

Rebeca García-González, a visual artist based in San Pablo, CA, will show her oil portraits of undocumented immigrants at Compass Point, a non-profit organization located in downtown San Francisco. The exhibit was curated by Linette Morales.

US-born García-González did not conceive this exhibit as a forum, but as a space where viewers begin to examine their assumptions about undocumented immigrants. The formal portraits can increase their visibility in the present political climate: "They are people unlikely to commission a painting. In a formal portrait, they are transported into a completely different class context. This juxtaposition is what ultimately persuades the viewer to confront the undocumented worker's humanity and individuality." 

 All sitters were well-informed, in Spanish, of the exhibit's purpose. They were paid at the rate of professional models and gave their consent in writing. Their identities will not be revealed, even though several wanted to share their real names. The exhibit was held at a non-profit space so that the commission that a commercial gallery would have charged for any sales can be donated. It will go to an East Bay organization providing direct services to undocumented immigrants.

Even though she is Puerto Rican and a fluent Spanish speaker, Garcia-Gonzalez confesses her understanding of undocumented immigrants was "very basic" before she began the series. Then she "realized the diversity in this group of workers, and how we all want the same things for our families, regardless of our status." 

To support Centro Legal de La Raza's work, please call: (510) 437-1554 ext. 111. 

Media and Exhibit contact: Martina Ayala (510) 698-4605, 
Sent by Dorinda Moreno



A little bit country, a little bit rock 'n' roll but pure Tejano



Sunday, August 17, 2008
If you want to know what a paradox looks like, take a gander at Tony Guerrero. Known as "Ham" to his friends, Guerrero has been all around the Texas music scene as a performer, arranger, manager — whatever needed doing, he did it.
But unless you're a devotee of the genre known generally as Tejano music, you've probably never heard of him. Even so, Guerrero has sold a ton of records and rubbed artistic shoulders with giants over the course of a career that spans four decades. Like so many other musicians, Guerrero gravitated to Austin after a career that started out in San Angelo. That's right, he's a homey.
In the 1970s, Guerrero's band Tortilla Factory was a hot ticket despite limited promotion and airplay.
At 64, his health is failing. He needs a kidney transplant.
A little thing like that, however, doesn't dull Guerrero's devotion to a unique genre of Texas music influenced by Mexican, jazz, big band, country, R&B and rock 'n' roll.
You can argue about what Tejano music is exactly, but there is no arguing that Tejano musicians had to learn a variety of styles and rhythms because their audiences demanded it. The people who bought their records and paid to dance to the music live embraced Little Richard as well as Little Joe. The result is a musical expression of Texas Chicano attitude with lots of horns.
Though their fans loved them, critics and radio stations generally ignored them. Even the programs with a Latino play list generally snubbed Tejano music and still do — a source of tension between Mexican Americans and radio stations aimed at Mexican immigrants.
It all brings to mind the lyrics to "I Dig Rock and Roll Music": "I think I could say somethin' if you know what I mean / But if I really say it, the radio won't play it ... "
Even if the radio didn't play it, that unique style of music took root and flourished.
Guerrero is seeking to revive the magic that Tortilla Factory conjured back in the '70s. He's produced one CD and just released "All That Jazz." He even lured Bobby Butler, known as "El Charro Negro" back into the game. An African American, Butler sings Chicano style Spanish. He is "the only black American in the world singing the Tejano thing to perfection," Guerrero said. Nat King Cole cut albums in Spanish, but they were Mexican ballads. Butler is puro Chicano.
Guerrero started his own label, Tortilla Records, and thus puts the promotion and artistic direction of the product in his hands. The Web allows Guerrero to bypass radio stations and critics.
"We have reached a point in our lives that the Internet opened up avenues we never had before. Tortilla is loved and appreciated in places like Brazil, the U.K., Mexico. In only two performances we've done in the last two years our attendance was over 1,500 people both times," Guerrero said.
"We don't wear cowboy hats, boots, wranglers, no accordion. Our two most outstanding traits remain our versatility and sophistication."
Guerrero and other Tejano troubadours were the connecting tissue of Chicano culture in their heyday. They provided the bilingual sound track of our lives not to mention all those memories of Saturday night dances that provided rhythmic relief from drab lives.
Sociology aside, it was and is just damn good music.

Sent by Dorinda Moreno




The Stage Is Set For!

The World United Radio/Membership Conference
San Marcos, Texas November 14-15-16, 2008. 

The number one destination in the world 
for real radio & music industry education and networking. 

The World United Radio/Membership Conference will be a premier radio and music industry networking event for radio and music industry professionals from around the globe. This event will focus the national and international radio, music industry and related press on the worldwide music market while providing a platform for musicians and artists to gain exposure and be heard by radio; most importantly attendees will be educated in the business interests of radio and the music industry.

Showcasing Artists will represent multiple genres including Roots Rock, Bluegrass, Folk, Country, Roots/Americana Country, Tejano/Latin, Reggae, Jazz, Blues, Roots Gospel, Zydeco/Cajun, World, Celtic, Western Swing, Cowboy Western, True Country, and more.
Presented by Roots Music Association & The US Entertainment Force, the 2008 Music Conference promises to deliver an event like no other on the planet! This event features 8 large outdoor stages with more than 100 showcasing artists, once in a lifetime performance, networking and educational opportunities for both radio and music industry professionals!
In addition, the Roots Music Association will present the Roots Music Awards on stage at the Embassy Suites/San Marcos Convention Center on Sunday from 6pm to 8pm. The Roots Music Awards are selected by the RMA membership, radio & music industry professionals. Awards will be presented onstage to Record Label of the year (Major & Indie), Radio Station of the year, Disk Jockey of the year, A&R Person of the year, Publishing Company of the year, Record Promotion Company of the year, Artist & Album of the year, Song Writer of the year and Publicity Company of the year that have supported the following list of musical formats from around the world. A total of 120 awards will be presented.

Events will take place in multiple venues including the Embassy Suites Hotel and the San Marcos Convention Center plus the adjoining 300+ acres of music festival fun. Vending and display booths for artists and music industry professionals are still available on a limited basis.

As always, event attendees can expect to meet with Radio Station Representatives from around the world, Film and Gaming Industry Executives, Music Publishing Directors, Music Supervisors for Film and TV, A&R Representatives, Entertainment Attorneys plus much more. If you are a radio or music industry professional, Disk Jockey or Radio Executive and would like to participate on one of our education panels, simply reply to this email and include radio panel in the subject line.

The 300 acre World United Music Festival portion of the event will be open to the public daily from 12pm to 1am with a very large number of music fans expected to attend over the 3 days. Festival Tickets are available on the World United Festival website! 
The World United Radio/Music Industry Conference & Music Festival promises to deliver a totally green event like no other on the planet! 

World United Music Festival
109 E Hopkins, Suite 205
San Marcos, TX 78666
Phone: (512) 392-4997




Animator Bill Melendez Obituary , Whittier Daily News 

SANTA MONICA, Calif. (AP) - Bill Melendez, the animator who gave life to Snoopy, Charlie Brown and other "Peanuts" characters in scores of movies and TV specials, has died. He was 91. Melendez died Tuesday at St. John's Hospital, according to publicist Amy Goldsmith.

Melendez's nearly seven decades as a professional animator began in 1938 when he was hired by Walt Disney Studios and worked on Mickey Mouse cartoons and classic animated features such as "Pinocchio" and "Fantasia."

He went on to animate TV specials such as "A Charlie Brown Christmas" and was the voice of Snoopy, who never spoke intelligible words but issued expressive howls, sighs and sobs.

Melendez was born in 1916 in Hermosillo in the Mexican state of Sonora. He moved with his family to Arizona in 1928 and then to Los Angeles in the 1930s, attending the Chouinard Art Institute.

Melendez took part in a strike that led to the unionization of Disney artists in 1941, and la ter moved to Warner Bros., where he worked on Bugs Bunny, Porky Pig and Daffy Duck shorts.

In 1948, Melendez left Warner Bros. and over the next 15 years worked as a director and producer on more than 1,000 commercials and movies for United Productions of America, Playhouse Pictures and John Sutherland Productions.

At UPA, he helped animate "Gerald McBoing-Boing," which won the 1951 Academy Award for best cartoon short.

Melendez met "Peanuts" creator Charles M. Schulz in 1959 while creating Ford Motor Co. TV commercials featuring Peanuts characters.

The two became friends and Melendez became the only person Schulz authorized to animate his characters.

Melendez founded his own production company in 1964 and with his partner Lee Mendelson went on to produce, direct or animate some 70 "Peanuts" TV specials, four movies and hundreds of commercials.

The first special was 1965's "A Charlie Brown Christmas." The show reportedly worried CBS because it broke so much new ground for a cartoon: It lacked a laugh track, used real children as voice actors, had a jazz score and included a scene in which Linus recited lines from the New Testament.

However, the show was a ratings success and has gone on to become a Christmastime perennial.

Melendez created Emmy-winning specials based on the cartoon characters Cathy and Garfield, and was involved in animated versions of the Babar the elephant books and the C.S. Lewis book, "The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe."

He also was co-nominee for an Academy Award in 1971 for the music for "A Boy Named Charlie Brown."

In all, his productions earned some 19 Emmy nominations, including six awards.

Melendez is survived by his wife Helen; sons Steven Melendez and (Ret.) Navy Rear Adm. Rodrigo Melendez, six grandchildren and 11 great-grandchildren.

Copyright © 2008 The Associated Press
Source:  Nationwide resource for obituaries and Guest Books

Sent by Mercy Bautista Olvera



New Theater Group
4218 Newton Ave. Suite D
Dallas, Texas 75219

The theater group 'CAMBALACHE TEATRO EN ESPAÑOL' was founded in 2008. The members of this group have participated in many other theatre groups, such as 'Cara Mia''Flor Candela', 'MACA', 'Teatro del 
Centro Argentino DFW' and 'Teatro Dallas'.
Our mission is to share the Latin culture and 
the richness of the Spanish language by presenting the works of its great writers in Spanish. The members of our group come from many different Latin American countries, 
which allow us to learn and share our 
traditions and language idiosyncrasies with ourselves and with our public.Later this year we will be presenting the play 'El Método Gronholm' written by the Spaniard Jordi Galcerán at two theater venues: 'Kitchen Dog Theater' and 'Black Box Theater'. So, we 
would like to invite you to a fundraising dinner and silent auction on September 27, 2008 (please see attached invitation for details).We thank you in advance for your help and hope to see you at our next event. If you have any questions, please contact Beatriz Mariel at (214) 526-4618 or e-mail us at regards,Cambalache Teatro en Español


El grupo de teatro Cambalache se creo a principios del año 2008.Los integrantes del Grupo 'Cambalache Teatro en Español' han pertenecido a diferentes grupos de Teatro: Cara Mia, Flor Candela, MACA, Teatro del Centro Argentino DFW, Teatro Dallas. Nuestra mision es expandir la cultura latina, evocar a sus grandes escritores y mantener la riqueza del idioma español, ya que nuestras presentaciones son todas en este idioma. Adicionalmente, el grupo está compuesto por personas de diferentes nacionalidades latinoamericanas, lo que contribuye a la riqueza del mismo. Este año presentaremos la obra 'El Método Gronholm' del autor Español Jordi Galcerán, en el Teatro Kirchen Dog y en el Teatro Black Box de la Biblioteca de Hampton.Por esta razón les enviamos la invitación para nuestra Cena y Subasta Silenciosa, con el propósito de recaudar fondos.Apreciamos su colaboración y esperamos verlos pronto. Si necesita más información, por favor llamar a Beatriz Mariel: 214-526-4618.Cordial saludo,Cambalache Teatro en Español


'The Warden Memoirs'
KRIS HOLLAND/Yakima Herald-Republic

Creative Consultant Ana Maria Correra works with Warden High School student Franky Jimenez during a rehearsal for the theatrical production The Warden Memoirs at Big Bend Community College in Moses Lake, Washington.  
'The Warden Memoirs': Preparing students for college.  Outreach program combines writing, theater and performance  'much of life is a performance' -- to help prepare rural high school students, most Latino, for college 
By James Joyce III, Yakima Herald-Republic, August 21, 2008  

MOSES LAKE -- When it was 17-year-old Franky Jimenez's turn during rehearsal for "The Warden Memoirs," he shifted his weight before taking off across the stage. He began reading his monologue about his experience as a high school wrestler from a 3-ring binder, still walking aimlessly.

A few lines into his story, he was interrupted. Stop. I'm going to ask that you stand still. At least at first," said AnaMaria Correra, a New York-based actress who works as a creative consultant with the student production. "I don't want to get into actors moving (on stage) without a purpose," she said.

Jimenez protested. He said he wanted to be moving on stage because his piece for this part truth-part fiction performance was based on his experience competing at the state wrestling tournament at the Tacoma Dome, and that involved movement.  When it was said and done, Jimenez tried it Correra's way before the two settled on a compromise -- more controlled and calculated movements.

"Advocate for your piece," Correra later urged the 16 Warden High School students putting on the production. "You are the writers of these pieces. These are your stories, so you know what they are going to mean ... In life you're going to have to speak up for yourself."  That's just one of the many parallels between the production and real life.

"The Warden Memoirs," or "Las Memorias de Warden," is part of an outreach program that combines writing, performance and theater to help prepare rural, largely Latino high school students for college.

The program, a collaborative effort between the Warden School District and Washington State University, goes beyond the nuts and bolts of the college application process by building upon skills students need for academic success.

This year it began with Warden High students writing essays on topics of self-discovery, similar to the ones required for many college applications. From there, the students have been putting their personal stories into a script. This weekend, they'll perform the result -- a live performance -- at local colleges in Moses Lake and Yakima.

All 16 students will present "Las Memorias" as a collection of monologues, stories of their lives and personal experiences growing up in rural Washington.

"Much of life is a performance -- even standing up in class and asking a professor a question or visiting a professor during his or her office hours is a performance," John Fraire, director of the production, wrote for the playbill. Fraire is the vice president for enrollment management at Washington State University. He's also a published playwright and former executive director of the New Latino Visions Theatre Company in Kalamazoo, Mich.

He conceived the idea for the outreach project, which he hopes to expand beyond the agricultural community of Warden, southeast of Moses Lake, and into the Yakima Valley in future years. Fraire says having students go through the process of telling their own stories can help develop their self-confidence and public-speaking skills.

The outreach is also designed to help students have pride in their self-identity.  "Their lifestyle and who they are needs to be validated," Fraire said of young Latinos. "There is a lot of pride and importance to being a migrant, to being a poor student from a rural area."

The Warden School District isn't much 
different than some of those throughout the Yakima Valley. Among 970 students, 76 percent are Latino and a similar percentage receive free or reduced price meals. For many Warden High School students, college is a distant dream.

Rolando Rodriguez, 22, graduated from Warden High School in 2004. He was the school's first recipient of a Gates Millennium scholarship, a nationally competitive scholarship that provides low-income minority students with a full ride to college. While the scholarship helped him complete his studies at the University of Washington without having to worry about tuition, books or housing, he had other hurdles to deal with.

Just moving from the tiny town of Warden, with a pop. of 2,500, three-quarters of the residents Latino, to the mostly white UW campus, with nearly 40,000 students, "It was culture shock more than anything. I hadn't been exposed to other cultures," said Rodriguez. "I wish I were a little bit more prepared."  He added, "I wish I had learned to be a bit more independent"

Rodriguez graduated from UW in June with a major in international relations. He is now working with Las Memorias, which is giving high school students a chance to be on a college campus -- Big Bend Community College -- and develop skills that will be useful in college. Rodriguez helps transport the high school students and served as a residence assistant during the students' week-long preparation stint at Big Bend Community College. He'll also serve as translator during five upcoming performances.

Looking back on his own college experience coming from Warden, Rodriguez sees the value of such an outreach program. "This helps transition to college life," he said.

Not only is the outreach program giving high school students skills to be successful in college, it's also teaching Latino parents about college life and the associated challenges.

Las Memorias began earlier this year after Fraire pitched his idea to Robert F. Felton, a 1963 graduate of Warden High School. Felton, who is also on the board of directors for the WSU Foundation, saw Fraire's idea as a way to give back to his former high school.

Although he is not Latino, Felton grew up in Warden, the son of a poor, migrant family. Felton agreed to fund the project.  And it launched soon afterward. "At first I didn't like it because we had to do too much reading and writing" Jimenez said of the program. But since then, his perception has changed. "I talk louder now. I'm not scared anymore," Jimenez said. "There is going be a big crowd (for the performances), so I gotta hit it."

"These are our stories, part truth, part fiction but all very real. ... You have your futures, we are Warden," all 16 students said in unison at the end of an early rehearsal. The same line will be spoken again, at the end of each performance, right before the students take a bow.

* James Joyce III can be reached at 577-7675 or .

Sent by Willis Papillion


Quinceanera Ritual Blessing to be Published

The U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops is publishing a ritual blessing for the quinceanera, the coming-of-age celebration for Hispanic girls on their 15th birthday. Rev. Allan Deck, head of the bishops' cultural diversity office, said the ritual aims to help "Latino Catholics celebrate their cultural heritage and build new bridges to other Catholics." About one-third of U.S. Catholics are Latino, and the percentage of Hispanic Catholics in the country is expected to increase, according to surveys.
Instituto de Los Mexicanos en el Exterior


Anti-Spanish Legends

Cultures in Conflict--Number 3 in a series on La Leyenda Negra
NCLR Launches "We can Stop the Hate" 
Leyendas Negras de la Iglesia Católica por Vittorio Messori



Cultures in Conflict--Number 3 in a series on La Leyenda Negra
By Felipe de Ortego y Gasca

Scholar in Residence, Western New Mexico University
Professor Emeritus, Texas State University System—Sul Ross

 The success of the Spanish enterprise in the Americas was stunning, and as exploits of that success circulated throughout Europe and the rest of the world during the 16th century, resentment toward Spain hardened into virulent propaganda. By the end of the 16th century, Spain ’s dominion in the New World and the riches it amassed therefrom made it one of the world’s most singular powers. It was the first global empire of the 16th century and would remain a superpower for the next 150 years. Fierce competition with Spain over the spoils of the New World fueled the pitch and stridency of The Black Legend emanating from England, Holland, and France. With English, Dutch, and French toeholds in North America in the 17th century, the prejudices of The Black Legend in Europe took root in Colonial America. The clash of cultures was inevitable. 

This bitter war of words has become more pronounced in the 21st century in the form of “hate speech” anent the topic of undocumented Hispanics in the United States . American English-only efforts are a direct outgrowth of The Black Legend. As are the “distorted images that still prevail in American history textbooks, school curricula, radio programs, and political circles nowadays” (Miguel Perez, “The Black Legend Returns,” Creators Syndicate, March 25, 2008 ). The impediment to getting the historical recognition American Hispanics deserve is “an inconvenient truth”—denial of the Hispanic heritage of the United States , a denial “rooted in age-old stereotypes” (Tony Horwitz, “Immigration—and the Curse of the Black Legend,” The New York Times, July 9, 2006 ). According to Tony Horwitz, “most Americans associate the early Spanish in this hemisphere with Cortes in Mexico and Pizarro in Peru . But Spaniards pioneered the present-day United States , too” (Ibid.).This historical amnesia is the crux of the problem today for American Hispanics. To justify the westward expansion of the United States and the seizure of Spanish land, Americans pounced on Manifest Destiny and The Black Legend.

Gendered perceptions of American Hispanics, especially of Mexican origin, in 18th century America saw Mexican males as degenerate and cruel but found Mexican women by and large as exotic, winsome, and sensual. These perceptions were greatly exaggerated in the 19th century, especially after the Texas War for Independence and the Battle of the Alamo . More historians today regard the U.S. War against Mexico (1846-1848) as precipitated by The Black Legend.

Copyright © 2008 by the author. All rights reserved.



Washington, DC—A revamped website launched today by the National Council of La Raza (NCLR) documents how hate groups in the U.S. have been reenergized by the immigration debate and how the growing intolerance fanned by these groups is leading to a record increase in hate crimes against Latinos, spotlights hate in the immigration debate with analyses of the leading groups, spokespeople, and media allies of the anti-immigrant movement. 

The acclaimed website: 

   Leyendas Negras de la Iglesia Católica por Vittorio Messori

Leyendas Negras de la Iglesia Católica escrito hace unos pocos años, por el periodista y gran apologista italiano Vittorio Messori .converso al catolicismo desde el socialismo ( para apologista  nunca nada mejor que un converso)

En este libro- Messori- en capítulos cortos, (son recopilación de artículos periodísticos) en forma clara refuta los argumentos típicos de la leyenda negra en temas como la colonización de America, la inquisición y otros.

En la siguiente página hay parte del libro transcripto:


El Ruco, Chuco, Cholo, Pachuco, One Man Performance
Americans in Focus
Historical First Hispanics in Many Fields 
A Proclamation by the President of the United States of America
Hispanic Month Posters
Latin Jazz Stamp Brightens Up Hispanic Heritage Month Hispanic

Resources and Websites
Google listing of Hispanic events
Americans in Focus: Short Hispanic Month Vignettes


"El Ruco, Chuco, Cholo, Pachuco"
One-Man Performance
Written and performed by Pepe Serna

Serna’s show takes the audience on a journey dating back to the pre-Columbian era and moves forward into the present and future through his cultural exploration of the Chicano experience. Serna’s one-man show is billed as an eye-opening experience that will engage the audience and encourage them to celebrate their own unique cultures.

Serna has appeared in more than 100 feature films and 300 television shows. He has also lent his vocal talents to the Fox series “The PJ’s,” which was created by Eddie Murphy and he starred in “Kingpin” on NBC. Serna is best known for his performances in several motion pictures, most notably “Scarface” with Al Pacino. Other films for which Serna is best known include “The Rookie” with Clint Eastwood; “American Me” with Edward James Olmos; “Silverado” with Kevin Costner; and the science fiction classic “Buckaroo Banzi.”

After many years in front of the camera, Serna has taken his talents behind the scenes as an associate producer for the widely acclaimed independent film “Luminarias.” He is also an artist whose paintings reflect the vibrant and tropical colors of Mexico. His works hang in galleries throughout the Southwest. He was recently commissioned by the Los Angeles Annenberg Metropolitan Project and the Mark Taper Foundation to paint an inspirational canvas on the subject of reading. It was turned into a poster and given to students in the Los Angeles Unified School District.


Acclaimed veteran actor, painter, and Master Teacher 
Pepe Serna
and stars in his one-man show titled:

"El Ruco, Chuco, Cholo, Pachuco".

Through his mystical rhymes, The versatile actor takes you on a journey dating back to the pre-Columbian era that includes the legends from beyond. This universal stage propels him into a variety of characters from his past, present and future as he explores his Chicano experience and roots with split-second intensity.

Editor:  I thoroughly enjoyed this very fascinating presentation, viewed on DVD.  Pepe uses a rhyming text to move from one historical era to another.  His characters epitomize widely accepted universal Latino stereotypes, focusing on and drawing on the  strengths of those characters.  This would be an entertaining, educational experience which will  surely stimulate lively conversation in any classroom.   

"In this live performance, I want to reach out into the audience and celebrate our unique culture through the arts. I believe each and every one of us is an artist in their own lives."

Serna's performance goes in and out of each personality with laser-like clarity, as he jumps from century to century, continent to continent and ranging from the very serious to the comedic. The audience will end up laughing at itself.

"My performance will either give life to the child buried deep inside or reacquaint you with the child within you that begs to be heard. This is an adventure in the joy of your daily life. I perform what I hope to be a bridge to greater understanding from culture to culture and compassion for the soul's ethnic journey because we really are all members of the same American Family."

Through this intense and colorful performance Pepe Serna uses brilliant Mexican colors in his work to transport the audience through him onto the stage.

If his performance were a painting, you would experience the bold and vibrant strokes of his brush become his stage through the use of a magical palette of words in English, Spanish, and Calo (Mexican-American Slang). The audience is his subject and is transformed into the painting with him.


To watch a small sample of Pepe's One Man Show, go to:
For a bio on Pepe Serna, go to:
To Order a DVD, please contact Pepe directly at:


Americans in Focus: Short Vignettes for Hispanic Heritage Month
Hosted by Farmer's Insurance

A vignette on Admiral Farragut is being shown on Fox Sports during the commercial breaks.  Fox did 10 vignettes on Hispanic Americans and they air randomly on Fox Sports.  You can access all 10 on your computer at

Featured are stories about Fernando Barragan, Alex Pels, Dr. Juan Carlos Finlay, BeatricePorto, Civil Rights in the Classroom, Roxana Lissa, Victor Villasenor, Dr. Mayra Sanchez, Irvin Trujillo, and Admiral Faragut.

Sent by Judge Fredrick Aguirre


Historical First Hispanics in Many Fields 
Downloadable PowerPoint Presentation



The White House, President George W. Bush


For Immediate Release
Office of the Press Secretary
September 12, 2008

National Hispanic Heritage Month, 2008
A Proclamation by the President of the United States of America

During National Hispanic Heritage Month, we recognize the many Americans of Hispanic descent who have made outstanding contributions to our Nation.

The rich cultural traditions of the Hispanic-American community have made a remarkable impact on American society. The diverse backgrounds of Hispanic Americans and their dedication to family have become an integral part of America. With a deep commitment to faith and a strong desire to live the American dream, these citizens are realizing the full blessings of liberty. Educational opportunities are helping a new generation work toward success, and many Hispanic Americans operate thriving small businesses.

We also honor Hispanic Americans for their strong tradition of service in the Armed Forces. These proud patriots have fought in every war since our founding, and many have earned the Medal of Honor for their courage. Hispanic service men and women have shown their love for the United States by answering the call to serve, and we owe them and their families a tremendous debt of gratitude. Their patriotism and valor have added to the character of our Nation.

National Hispanic Heritage Month is an opportunity to celebrate the spirit and accomplishments of Hispanic Americans everywhere. To honor those achievements, the Congress, by Public Law 100-402, as amended, has authorized and requested the President to issue annually a proclamation designating September 15 through October 15 as "National Hispanic Heritage Month."

NOW, THEREFORE, I, GEORGE W. BUSH, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim September 15 through October 15, 2008, as National Hispanic Heritage Month. I call upon public officials, educators, librarians, and all the people of the United States to observe this month with appropriate ceremonies, activities, and programs.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twelfth day of September, in the year of our Lord two thousand eight, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-third.



Thank you to Rafael Ojeda for sending along these Resources.

Latin Jazz Stamp Brightens Up Hispanic Heritage Month
Hispanic themes have been featured on more than 50 stamps since 1869 By Louise Fenner, Staff Writer

Latin Jazz commemorative stamp  (USPS)Washington — The sounds of Latin jazz almost seem to jump from the bold graphic design and tropical colors of the new U.S. stamp released just in time for Hispanic Heritage Month. Latin Jazz, designed by San Francisco artist Michael Bartalos, is the first commemorative stamp to celebrate that vibrant style of jazz mixed with musical traditions from Africa, Europe and the Americas. It is the most recent in a long line of commemorative stamps issued by the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) honoring the contributions of people of Hispanic background to the history and culture of the 
United States.

Latin Jazz, issued in September 2008 by the U.S. Postal Service to celebrate Hispanic Heritage Month, was designed by Michael Bartalos of San Francisco. © 2007 USPS. All Rights Reserved.


The new stamp premiered on September 8 so it would be readily available during Hispanic Heritage Month September 15-October 15, said Marie Therese Dominguez, a USPS official who oversees the stamp program and also handles policy and legislative issues. 

Hispanics are the nation's largest and fastest-growing minority — currently numbering around 46.7 million, or 15 percent of the U.S. population. This will jump to 30 percent by 2050, when Hispanics will total 132.8 million, according to U.S. Census Bureau projections.  (See “U.S. Minorities Will Be the Majority by 2042, Census Bureau Says.”)

“Hispanics and Latinos are representatives of the beginnings of this country,” said Dominguez. “Take my own personal history. I am an eighth-generation New Mexican and can trace my family on my father’s side to Cabeza de Vaca.” (The Spanish explorer Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca landed in Florida in 1528 and traveled across what is now the American Southwest and Northern Mexico.)

“Hispanic contributions are really important, and I think the Postal Service will continue to acknowledge that,” she said. “We like to look at it as one of many things that make the American culture unique.”

The Postal Service has issued more than 50 stamps celebrating Hispanic people and culture, said Dominguez.  The first was issued in 1869 and commemorated the landing of Christopher Columbus in the New World (although Italian-born, Columbus sailed on behalf of Spain with Spanish crews).  Topics for the stamps range from the serious – Mexican Independence, civil rights and farm labor leader Cesar Chavez – to the seriously fun, such as Let’s Dance: Bailemos! featuring the merengue, the mambo, the cha-cha-cha and the salsa.

Baseball great Roberto Clemente and Civil War Admiral David Farragut both appeared twice. Several cultural icons have been honored, including artist Frida Kahlo, entertainer Desi Arnez and singer Richie Valens.  Several stamps mark the Hispanic presence in North America, particularly in California, Florida and the Southwest.

This stamp, part of a series on U.S. journalists, honors the life and work of Los Angeles Times reporter and columnist Ruben Salazar. (Ruben Salazar, from the Los Angeles Times Photographic Archive (Collection 1429), Department of Special Collections, Charles E. Young Research Library, UCLA

Ruben Salazar commemorative stamp  (USPS)Latin Jazz is the second Hispanic-themed stamp issued in 2008. In April, a series of stamps honoring U.S. journalists included Ruben Salazar, a reporter and columnist for the Los Angeles Times who was killed in 1970 while covering an anti-war demonstration in East Los Angeles. “He made an incredible contribution to American journalism in covering the Chicano civil rights movement,” said Dominguez.She is also proud of the 2007 stamp dedicated to Mendez v. Westminster, a 1947 federal court case that successfully challenged racial segregation involving Mexican children in Orange County, California, schools.  The case set a precedent used seven years later in arguments in Brown v. Board of Education, which finally struck down state-sponsored racial segregation in U.S. public schools.“Mendez is a really significant case and a lot of people don’t know about it,” said Dominguez. “And what’s great about our stamp program is that we have the ability to highlight some of these significant accomplishments and achievements.”

“We’re so pleased that we had the opportunity with Latin Jazz to feature a unique art form here on a stamp,” she said. “I told Michael [Bartalos] I didn’t know how he had the vision to take something that’s so beautiful and so rhythmic and so multifaceted and capture it in a piece of art that can then be shrunk down to the size of a stamp,” Dominguez said. “I think that’s a great credit to him.”Bartalos said he has been a fan of Latin jazz for many years. “It has such an incredible spirit, it’s very uplifting, I love the rhythm, I love the beat. Most of all, I like how it really transcends cultural boundaries. It has a universal appeal and I was hoping to capture some of that in the artwork as well – and I think I’ve succeeded by the response I’ve been getting.”“I’m extremely happy it’s being used for Hispanic Heritage Month,” he added.

National Hispanic Heritage Month celebrates the histories, cultures and contributions of American citizens whose ancestors came from Spain, Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America. The celebration began on a national scale in 1968 under President Lyndon Johnson as Hispanic Heritage Week. In 1988, President Ronald Reagan approved a bill to expand the celebration to a full month. The dates September 15 to October 15 were selected because that 30-day period encompasses several important events, according to the Library of Congress:  September 15 is the anniversary of independence for Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua; Mexico declared independence on September 16 and Chile on September 18; and Columbus Day, or Día de la Raza, falls on October 12.See also “Hispanic Americans Contributing to the American Mosaic”; and The Latin American Stream, an excerpt from the State Department publication American Popular Music; and Diversity.

Resources and Treasures found by Rafael Ojeda 

National Register of Historic Places Official Website - Part of the National Park Service

The Smithsonian has a wonderful collection of files on Hispanic Heritage Month

To receive Google daily alerts of Hispanic Heritage Month activities, go to:

Or contact:

Examples of Googles contribution to Hispanic Heritage Month: Google News Alert for: 2008 Hispanic Heritage Month Sent through out September 

US Postal Service Celebrates Latin Jazz, Hispanic Heritage
MarketWatch - USA
Altogether, the Postal Service has issued over 50 stamps celebrating Hispanic heritage. The stamp dedication included a special guest performance by 2008 ...
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Votara Usted? The Power of Latino Communities in the 2008 ...
Earthtimes (press release) - London,UK
During Hispanic Heritage Month ( September 15-October 15 ), there will be a great deal of emphasis on the history of the community, but the Latino market is ...
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US Census Bureau issues Facts for Features in observance of ...
Business Wire (press release) - San Francisco,CA,USA
WASHINGTON--(BUSINESS WIRE)--In September 1968, Congress authorized President Lyndon B. Johnson to proclaim National Hispanic Heritage Week, ...
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An artist's evolution: Pembroke Pines exhibit features 30 years of ... - Fort Lauderdale,FL,USA
By Chris Guanche | South Florida Sun-Sentinel Hispanic Heritage Month doesn't officially start for another week, but the Southwest Regional Library in ...
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County's Culture and Heritage Commission Seeks Arts Regrant Applicants
Cape May County Herald - NJ, United States
Fifteen local non-profit groups received 2008 arts regrants totaling $58064 from the Commission. Five groups received GOS regrants. These are used to fund, ...
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MTV Tr3s Takes Hispanic Heritage Out on a Spin

MarketWatch - USA
Hispanic Heritage on MTV Tr3s wraps up on October 11th at 2 PM with the channel's first-ever "Se Habla Espanol" weekend, featuring 24 hrs of Spanish-only ...
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Hispanic Heritage Month
Events Begin Sept. 18

Media Newswire (press release) - New York,NY,USA
This year marks the sixth annual celebration of Hispanic Heritage Month at Texas A&M, a month of celebrating the many contributions Hispanics have made to ...
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National Hispanic Heritage Month celebration at Heights

Kilgore News Herald - TX, USA
As part of National Hispanic Heritage Month, KISD and Kilgore Heights are hosting Family Night 2008. The night's activities will begin with traditional and ...
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Philly Te Ama: Eat, Dine and Explore to Celebrate Hispanic ...
La Voz Nueva - Denver,CO,USA
... community events are all in the works for Philadelphia's Hispanic Heritage Month celebration, taking place from September 15 to October 15, 2008. ...
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Celebrate Hispanic Heritage Month at the University of Arkansas
University of Arkansas Daily Headlines - Fayetteville,AR,USA
FAYETTEVILLE, Ark. – The University of Arkansas and the Hispanic Heritage Month Committee announce the 2008 Hispanic Heritage Month schedule of events on ...
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National Hispanic Heritage Month Begins With Lecture Series
University of Wyoming News - Laramie,WY,USA
8, 2008 -- A National Hispanic Heritage Month lecture series at the University of Wyoming begin Thursday, Sept. 11, with a lecture about the difficult times ...
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Hispanic Heritage Family Festival
Cape May County Herald - NJ, United States
The 2008 Hispanic Heritage Family Festival will also host a free Latino Arts craft workshop that will offer both adults and children information about ...
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Newly formed committee celebrates culture

Paso Robles Press - Paso Robles,CA,USA
As part of Hispanic Heritage month, and in honor of Mexican Independence Day which is Tuesday, Sept. 16, the English Learner Advisory Committee for PRHS is ...
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About Hispanic Heritage Month 2008, Sept. 15 - Oct. 15

RTO Online - Scott City,MO,USA
In September 1968, Congress authorized President Lyndon B. Johnson to proclaim National Hispanic Heritage Week, which was observed during the week that ...See all stories on this topic

Hispanic Heritage Month
Celebrates Influence on Culture, Nation - Santa Barbara,CA,USA
EL PASO -- Celebrating Hispanic Heritage Month is different in El Paso than in many cities. It goes beyond the traditional month of Sept. ... See all stories on this topic

3:05 pm - UA to Celebrate Hispanic Heritage Month

KARK - Little Rock,USA
The University of Arkansas and the Hispanic Heritage Month Committee announce the 2008 Hispanic Heritage Month schedule of events on the university campus. ...See all stories on this topic

Phillies 'Goya Latino Family Celebration' Returns on September 12

MarketWatch - USA
The event -- which pays tribute to Hispanic Heritage Month with musical performances, foods with Latin flavor, and a special ticket discount -- will take ...See all stories on this topic

Prudential Picked as Top Company for Latinas by LATINA Style Magazine

MarketWatch - USA
Our tuition reimbursement program assists employees in attaining higher education and employee resource groups such as the Hispanic Heritage Network help ...See all stories on this topic

National Hispanic Heritage Month, 2008 (press release) - Washington,DC,USA
During National Hispanic Heritage Month, we recognize the many Americans of Hispanic descent who have made outstanding contributions to our Nation. ...See all stories on this topic

Florida students can enter Hispanic Heritage Month essay contest

The News-Press - Fort Myers,FL,USA
Charlie Crist is inviting Florida students in kindergarten through 12th grade to participate in the sixth annual Florida Hispanic Heritage Month essay ...See all stories on this topic

Hispanic Heritage Month

La Prensa San Diego - San Diego,CA,USA
In celebration of Hispanic Heritage Month, comes My Summer With Amanda and Tainos, The Last Tribe by Puerto Rican film director and producer Benji Lopez on ...See all stories on this topic

Hispanic Heritage Month
honors those who give back more than they take

The Tennessean - Nashville,TN,USA
All are Hispanics, and we honor their achievements during Hispanic Heritage Month, which begins Monday. We also celebrate lesser-known, ...See all stories on this topic

AOL Latino Celebrates Hispanic Heritage Month

Trading Markets (press release) - Los Angeles,CA,USA
Volkswagen is the official partner ofAOL Latino's Hispanic Heritage Month coverage, secured byAOL's digital advertising business Platform-A, ...See all stories on this topic

Latino contributions, cultures celebrated

The News Journal - Wilmington,DE,USA
Ruth Ann Minner and the Governor's Advisory Council on Hispanic Affairs will declare Sept. 15-Oct. 15 Hispanic Heritage Month. ...See all stories on this topic



U.S. Census Bureau issues Facts for Features in observance of Hispanic Heritage Month 2008: Sept. 15 Oct. 15

Updated from July 9th

WASHINGTON--(BUSINESS WIRE)--In September 1968, Congress authorized President Lyndon B. Johnson to proclaim National Hispanic Heritage Week, which was observed during the week that included Sept. 15 and Sept. 16. The observance was expanded in 1988 to a monthlong celebration (Sept. 15 Oct. 15). America celebrates the culture and traditions of those who trace their roots to Spain, Mexico and the Spanish-speaking nations of Central America, South America and the Caribbean. Sept. 15 was chosen as the starting point for the celebration because it is the anniversary of independence of five Latin American countries: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. In addition, Mexico and Chile celebrate their independence days on Sept. 16 and Sept. 18, respectively.

Population 45.5 million: The estimated Hispanic population of the United States as of July 1, 2007, making people of Hispanic origin the nations largest ethnic or race minority. Hispanics constituted 15 percent of the nations total population. In addition, there are approximately 3.9 million residents of Puerto Rico.

Source: Population estimates 011910.html and 011109.html

Things to do during Hispanic Heritage Month

60th Anniversary of Desegregation in the Military  

National Register of Historic Places Official Website - Part of the National Park Service

Military and Law Enforcement Heroes

Latinos/Latinas Ultimate Sacrifice Part IX 
Basilio Perez
Observing 63rd Anniversary of a Most Horrific Incident
Officer Velia "Belle" Lopez Ortega

Latinos/Latinas – Ultimate – Sacrifice

Part IX


Mercy Bautista-Olvera

In the coming months this series “Latinos/Latinas Ultimate Sacrifice” will present the stories and contributions of heroes who have sacrificed their lives for United States . The reason for me to be interested in writing about Hispanics, who lost their lives in Wars, I want to be one of their voices. We do appreciate their sacrifice. It is my sincere belief and commitment, that these heroes are never forgotten. Take time to look at their faces, read their histories, and keep their spirit alive…  

Army Spc. Frances M. Vega 20, of Fort Buchanan , Puerto Rico., died on November 2, 2003, in an attack on a CH-47 Chinook helicopter near Fallujah , Iraq . The helicopter, a U.S. transport helicopter shot down by a ground-to-air missile struck in the crash. Sixteen people were killed. Vega assigned to the 151st Adjutant General Postal Detachment 3, Fort Hood , Texas . 

Frances M. Vega was born in San Francisco but Army records show her permanent address in Puerto Rico . Husband Pvt. Abednego Vega II, is a member of Company a, 15th Forward Support Battalion, 1st Cavalry Division. Her father is a retired 1st Sergeant, and her father-in-law is a Command Sergeant Major.

The post office on Camp Victory North in Iraq was renamed Frances M. Vega Army Post Office during a dedication ceremony that took place on Memorial Day 2004. Approximately 100 people attended the outdoor ceremony for Vega.  "Specialist Vega was very outgoing and proud of where she came from," said Spc. Dionn Overton, an administrative specialist who served with Vega. "She was such a beautiful person." Overton and Vega worked together at Fort Hood , Texas . She remembers leaving Killeen for the first time to go to San Antonio with Vega. "She made everywhere we went fun," Overton said, reminiscing about Vega.  Army Spc. Frances M. Vega was buried in Bayamon 's National Cemetery in Puerto Rico , where she received full military honors. Army Representative Jose Pagan said Vega was posthumously awarded a Bronze Star and Purple

Heart. “We feel overwhelmed by her loss but at the same time with pride that she was a soldier who made the ultimate sacrifice,” said her mother.  

Staff Sgt. Jorge L. Pena-RomeroArmy Staff Sgt. Jorge L. Peña-Romero 29, of Fallbrook , Calif. , died on July 16, 2005 when an improvised explosive device detonated near his humvee as his unit was conducting a mounted patrol in Baghdad . Assigned to the 1st Squadron, 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment, Fort Irwin , California .

Jorge L. Peña-Romero graduated from high school in 1995 than join the army, he was a machine gunner “He was well-liked and a mentor to many of the guys in the troop,” said Lindsey Key, whose husband is the commander of Peña-Romero. “He took joy in doing little things on the side to help Iraqis, such as coordinating a clothing drive through his Seventh-day Adventist Church in Fallbrook.”  Jorge L. Peña-Romero was known for staying cool and lifting the moods of people around him. “As an individual this guy was incredible- easy to talk to, always had some kind of smile on his face, and always knew how to lighten people’s moods: said Sgt. Jason Morris.

Army Pfc. Ramon A. Villatoro Jr. 19, of Bakersfield , Calif. , died on July 24, 2005 when an improvised explosive device detonated near his Bradley fighting vehicle in Baghdad . Assigned to 3rd Squadron, 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment, Fort Carson , Colorado .     Also killed was his best friend Ernest W. Dallas of Denton , Texas .

The son of Mexican and Salvadoran immigrants, Ramon A. Villatoro enlisted to get education money so he could become a doctor. Al Capilla, middle school principal urged Villatoro to apply for scholarships instead of enlisting in the Army but Ramon A. Villatoro made a decision   to enlist in the Army.  

Villatoro’s father also named Ramon said his son got the idea to join the Army while watching the World Trade Center collapse. “Dad I’ve go to go and do something,” He met his wife in high school, he was excited to become a dad, he called home and told his father to open the front door. There stood his bride, with

a box in her hand. It contained a positive pregnancy test. “Dad, we’ve got great news,” he said on the phone. “We’re going to have a family.”  



Photo: Courtesy of the family: Morales, Ernest W. Dallas and Ramon Villatoro in Iraq

   Army Sgt. Milton M. Monzon Jr. 21, of Los Angeles , Calif. , died on July 24, 2005 when and improvised explosive device detonated near his Bradley fighting vehicle in Baghdad .  Assigned to 3rd Squadron, 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment, Fort Carson , Colorado .    Also killed were Staff Sgt. Jason W. Montefering, Spc. Ernest W. Dallas Jr. and Army Pfc. Ramon A. Villatoro Jr.  

Army Sgt. Milton M. Monzon''s parents wanted him to go to college and even offered to help pay for it. However, the Los Angeles High School graduate had a different plan that would fulfill a childhood dream, he join the Army. His father was supportive. "It seems like we’re fighting for no reason," Milton Monzon Sr. said. "But as a father, my son made me proud. He made everyone proud because he was doing what he wanted to do." Milton Monzon Jr., deployed for a second tour in March, several months after he proposed to his wife Christy in front of his family at Christmas. She said yes and the couple married. His mother, Cecilia, was worried about her son serving a second tour. "I felt scared," she said. "I was afraid that when he went back, something would happen." 

  Marine Pfc. Ramon Romero 19, of Huntington Park , Calif. , died on August 22, 2005 when the vehicle in which he was riding was struck by an improvised explosive device while he was conducting combat operations near Fallujah. Assigned to the 2nd Battalion, 7th Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division, I Marine Expeditionary Force, Twentynine Palms, Calif. ; attached to the 2nd Marine Division, II Marine Expeditionary Force (Forward)

 Ramon Romero was a 2002 High School graduate; he took Taekwondo lessons for three years at Blue Dragon Taekwondo School . “He was the ideal student disciplined, very respectful and always willing to lend a helping hand,’ instructor Thomas Dueñas said. After boot camp, Romero was shipped off to Iraq with a brief stop in Ireland , where he wrote home. “Never in my life did I dream about going to the other side of the world,” he wrote. “I’m prepared for what awaits, and I will take care of myself. Whatever happens, it will be God’s decision.” Marine Pfc. Ramon Romero wanted to become a police officer after his service in the Army.

  Army Sgt. Alfredo B. Silva 35, of Calexico , Calif. , died on September 15, 2005 when and improvised explosive device detonated near his humvee during patrol operations in Baghdad . Assigned to the 1st Battalion, 184th Infantry Regiment, 40th Infantry Division, California Army National Guard, Modesto , Calif.

 Alfredo B. Silva was born in Chula Vista , California . His father died when he was 4 his mother moved in with her parents in San Diego County . He had a great relationship with his maternal grandfather; they would spend weekends together at the horse races in Caliete or at the family ranch south of the border.  As an adult his own fast-pitch softball career rarely wavered, he would drive west to play in night leagues in Chula Vista or Tijuana , Mexico . His catcher Efrain Arvizu remembered Silva as a man of “heart and determination. “In his high school, he played football and basketball. “Alfredo was a great leader of his teams and his school, he touched the lives of many people,” said Mr. & Mrs. Seckler, his high school Principal and teacher.

Marine Lance Cpl. Raul Mercado 21, of Monrovia , Calif. , died on January 7, 2006 when his vehicle was attacked with an improvised explosive device while conducting combat operations near Karmah , Iraq .  Assigned to 2nd Maintenance Battalion, 2nd Marine Logistics Group, II Marine Expeditionary Force, Camp Lejeune , North Carolina .

 Raul Mercado was born in Los Angeles , moved with is family to Ixtlahuácan, near Guadalajara , Jalisco when he was 7 years old. The family returned to California when he was 17 and enrolled in Monrovia High School as a sophomore. Raul was a member of the school’s Spanish Society and competed in several sports. He played basketball, track and field and cross-country runner and fascinated by mathematics. Raul Mercado worked hard in his English to score well enough on the verbal portion of the SAT to get into West Point , New York .  He was disappointed when he did not make it, so he joined the Marines as a way to achieve his dream. Monrovia High School college adviser Oscar Ibarra said. “That’s what he had his heart set on.” With a 3.5 grade point average, he was accepted at several universities, but he wanted to achieve his goal even if it meant going to Iraq . “This was a young man whose sense of personal self was very strong,” said Mayor Hammond, who had handed Mercado his diploma when he graduated. “He was very determined. He did not make decisions lightly. Monrovia weeps for one of its sons.” Mayor Hammond addressed Raul Mercado’s mother Celia at the funeral; he told her that Monrovians would never forget her son. “Raul Mercado, will remain in all of our hearts.”   

Javier  Chavez Jr.Marine Pfc. Javier Chavez Jr. 19, of Cutler, Calif. , died Feb. 9, 2006 by an improvised explosive device while conducting combat operations near Fallujah , Iraq . Assigned to the 3rd Battalion, 5th Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division, I Marine Expeditionary Force, Camp Pendleton , Calif. ; attached to the 2nd Marine Division, II Marine Expeditionary Force (Forward.)

Javier Chavez Jr.  was born in Visalia ( Tulare County ), but moved to the small town of Cutler when he was 5 years old. His parents divorced and Chavez lived with his father, stepmother, brothers, and sisters until high school. Javier played soccer and took karate when he was younger, his father said. He went to Orosi Union High School in the Cutler area. He also visited and lived with his mother Maria Leon sometimes. “We called him 'Javi", said his stepmother Veronica, He was a smart and thoughtful little boy, very respectful,

and nice. He had a lot of friends." Just before shipping out, Javier turned 19 on New Year's Eve. He was just married he married his girlfriend, Janie in a civil ceremony. They planned to have a big church wedding after he got back from Iraq . Javier Chavez Jr., went to basic training a shy, skinny kid and came back much more mature physically and emotionally. "You could see it just in the way he talked to adults, he had much more confidence," her stepson was mature beyond his age, and a little shy, especially around adults. When his sister, Olga, was having problems dealing with their parents' separation, Javier would comfort her.  "He would tell her, 'it’s OK, we're going to go see mom soon,'   "His wife told me he was scared to tell his mom where he was going," she said.” He wanted to tell her he was going to Japan instead. He had to tell his father, though, and he asked him how he felt about it. Javi said, 'I'm scared but I'm going to come back.' 


Army Staff Sgt. Ricardo Barraza 24, of Shafter, Calif. , died on March 18, 2006 when he came under small arms fire by enemy forces during combat operations in Ramadi , Iraq . Assigned to the 2nd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment, Fort Lewis , Washington . 

Ricardo “Ricky” Barraza was born in Toppenish , Washington . Eventually the family moved to California . He graduated from Shafter High School , (in the Bakersfield area.) Ricardo “Ricky” Barraza  graduated from Shafter High School in 1999, he was an accomplished athlete who played basketball, football and track; Ricky as he was called had a good relationship with his coaches and some of his teachers. He enlisted in the Army after graduation, he loved traveling and seeing the world, Ricky had great respect for the military and was very proud to be a United States Ranger. He chose to dedicate his life in service to his country. Army Staff Sgt. Ricardo Barraza was a squad leader assigned to 2nd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment, Fort Lewis , Washington .  Barraza completed One Station Unit Training, Airborne School and Ranger Indoctrination Training at Fort Benning , Georgia . Army Staff Sgt. Ricardo Barraza was a six-time veteran of the Global War on Terrorism, deploying three times in support of Operation enduring Freedom, Afghanistan and three times in support of Operation Iraq Freedom.


Navy Medic Geovani Padilla-Aleman 20, of South Gate , Calif. , died April 2, 2006   of enemy action in Anbar Province , Iraq . Padilla-Aleman was on patrol, riding alongside Marines west of Baghdad when a roadside bomb exploded. .Assigned to the National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda , Maryland .  Navy Medic Geovani Padilla Aleman was permanently assigned to Bethesda Naval Hospital , USNS Comfort Detachment; operationally. Assigned to 3rd Battalion, 8th Marine Regiment, 2/28 Brigade Combat Team

Geovani Padilla-Aleman was born in Guadalajara , Mexico . He grew up in Boyle Heights and South Gate . An exceptional student in school, graduated from High School, and than he joined the Navy.  Geovani Padilla-Aleman wanted to be a surgeon. During a farewell potluck luncheon, Geovani Padilla Aleman stood up and said he welcomed the opportunity to Iraq and said it as his duty. “All of 20 years old and in the Navy for just two years, he demonstrated maturity and dedication to duty well beyond his years,” said Eugene de Lara, one of his bosses. Padilla-Aleman joined the Navy, sent to Iraq , determined to treat the wounds of his fallen military comrades. “He did not go there to fight, He went there to heal,” said his cousin Salvador . He said Geovani loved adventure and joined the Navy; it was a way to pay for college and explore the world. Rear Adm. Adam. M. Robinson, commander of the National Naval Medical Center said “Padilla-Aleman “died as a hero, a corpsman doing exactly what he was trained to, serving with valor, integrity and purpose.”  Medic Robert Hellman said Padilla-Aleman was a good friend who could make even a monotonous task, such as shredding paper enjoyable, He also recalled snowboarding with Padilla in Maryland; Padilla went down the hardest trail. “He fell down the entire mountain,” At the bottom, Padilla stood up and could not stop laughing, than he wanted to do it again. Rear Adm. Adam. M. Robinson, commander of the National Naval Medical Center said Padilla “died as a hero, a corpsman doing exactly what he

was trained to do. “Serving with valor, integrity and purpose. He epitomized the Navy’s Motto: “Not self, but country.” 

Special thanks to Alan Lessig, Director of Photography, for the website, “Military   Times, Honor the Fallen” ( for granting permission to reproduce photos for this article. 



Richard G. Santos


Please forgive me for stating this has been a most difficult article to write.  It has been more difficult that some of my books such as translating the five versions of the Diary of the Expedition to Texas of the Second Marquis de San Miguel de Aguayo. It has almost been more demanding in detail than Santa Anna’s Campaign Against Texas and Alamo Countdown. And surprisingly, more soul-slicing that Silent Heritage with dealing the Mexico City based Inquisition and the burning at the stake of some of my ancestors. What occurred in the Pacific Ocean 63 years ago has reverberated with the desperation, horror, terror and screams of the dying and surviving crewmen of the USS Indianapolis [CA-35]. 

, Texas
native Seaman Basilio Perez must have been as curious as his fellow crew members at the special attention given to the ship’s cargo upon their arrival at Tinian Island on July 26. Army Air Corps officers and strange looking civilians were acting like stevedores overseeing and helping unload the secret cargo. Unknown to Perez and the other crewmen of the Indianapolis at the time, they had just delivered the key mechanism for the world’s first atomic bombs soon to be dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki , Japan .  

Having delivered their precious secret cargo, the Indianapolis was refueled and re-supplied before setting sail for Leyte Island where they were expected to arrive July 31st. Unescorted and still under radio silence, the ship set off to its assigned position. At the same time, Captain Mochitsura Hashimoto commanding Japanese submarine I-58 was patrolling the waters between Tinian and Leyte Islands . At five minutes after midnight July 30, the first Japanese torpedo struck the Indianapolis . Other torpedoes followed shortly thereafter. Some U.S. seamen were instantly killed, others suffered burns of various degrees and since the Indianapolis was listing and about to sink, the order to abandon ship was issued. 

Of the 1,196 men aboard the ship, 33 were U. S. marines and the remainder Naval personnel. Approximately 880 men jumped ship. Some had life preservers, many did not. Wooden crates used as potato bins and assorted pieces of furniture and other floating items soon became survival rafts. The yelling of men trying to communicate with their fellow crewmen soon filled the night. When possible they gathered in groups of three on up. Those who had suffered burns were already suffering excruciating pain. Others had swallowed oil or salt water and were beginning to show their effect. The worse was yet to come. 

The fins of one, two three and soon what seemed hundreds of sharks appeared in and out of the waves by mid afternoon of the first day. The agonizing screams of men being bitten by sharks soon filled the air. Others were dragged under water before they made a sound. The waters began to churn bloody red as the survivors saw their friends and fellow crewmen falling victims to the men-eating sharks. 

By the second day ( August 1, 1945 ), those who had drunk salt water or oil were violently sick. The retching and coughing of the sick filled the air along with the screams of those being attacked by sharks. Some seamen were now hallucinating and convinced fresh water, food, ice cream and safety could be found on the Indianapolis below the water, they dove underwater never to be seen again. The desperation and terror of the survivors adrift in the sea infested with man-eating sharks drove others temporarily or permanently insane. Adding to their desperation and frustration were the airplanes seen periodically flying high overhead. 

Because the Indianapolis had not yet been reported missing, no one was searching for the ship or survivors. It was not until the fourth day (August 3rd) that a small plane after flying high over the survivors circled back to take a look at the scene. Waving its wing to acknowledge seeing the survivors, the small PV-1 Ventura called base. Soon one other plane appeared and the survivors were finally reported to the nearest base. It was not until near midnight of the fifth day that rescue planes began to arrive. They were soon joined by ships of various sizes. Of the 1,196 crew of the Indianapolis and approximate 880 men who jumped into the sea, only 316 survived. Two days later the survivors rescued by planes must have been at some hospital while those rescued by ship must have still been aboard on August 6 when President Harry S Truman made a social announcement. That is, that a B-29 called from Tinian Island had just dropped an atomic bomb over Hiroshima . Three days later a second atomic bomb, also from Tinian Island was dropped over Nagasaki . For all practical purposes the World War II was over,  only the formalities of signing a surrender treaty agreeable to all remained. Little did the world know then and even fewer today, what an important role the USS Indianapolis played in ending the war and saving millions of lives that would have been lost had the allied forces invaded the Island Nation of Japan. 

At this time when the nation is experiencing an anti-Mexican, anti-immigrant, anti-Hispanic hysteria, and specifically on the 63rd anniversary of the sinking of the USS Indianapolis, we pause to identify the U.S. Navy personnel of Hispanic ancestry. We begin with Winter Garden native Basilio Perez of Pearsall , Texas . From other communities throughout the nation we list Charles M. Acosta, Dante Adorante, Harold D. Allmarás (sic; Almaráz), Lorenzo Armenta, Raymond Barra, Concepción Bernacil, Paul Campana, Paul Candalino, Adolfo Celaya, José Cruz, Verlin Fortin, Vicente Frontino, Juan Gabrillo (Cabrillo?), Angel Galante, Ray Gonzalez, John G. Guerrero, Harold Guyon (Guion?), Ponciano Holden, Daniel López, Sam López, Robert Lucas, Clarence Machado, Sam Murillo, Baltazar Nieto, Mike Obledo, Ernest Ochóa, José Pacheco, Santos Peña, José Saenz, Alfred Salinas, Nuraldo Sámano, Alejandro Sanchez, Fernando Sanchez and Philip Silva. Others with Latin based surnames who may or may have not been Hispanic are Frank Spino (Espino? Espinosa?), Patrick P. Castaldo, Frank Centazzo, Frank Fantasia, Melvin Maas, Joseph Malena, John Olijar and Ralph Sordia. 

Because ethnicity and race are not cited in the U.S. Navy History reports that I used, I have no way of actually determining the race or ethnicity of the known or suspected Hispanic crewmen of the USS Indianapolis. However, as an historian, Tejano and native-born U.S. citizen, I sincerely extend our muchisimas gracias to ALL CREW MEMBERS OF THE USS INDIANAPOLIS regardless of race, ethnicity or religious beliefs who played a little known but important role in bringing an end to World War II. 

In closing this most difficult article, we note Captain Charles Butler McVay III was court-martialed by the U. S. Navy. He was charged and found guilty of not zig-zagging the ship while in enemy waters thus leading to its sinking. As noted by Captain Hashimoto who sank the Indianapolis , it did not matter if the ship had zig-zagged or not. The ship did not have an escort or accompanying submarine spotters. Consequently the USS Indianapolis was doomed from the moment the ship appeared on the Japanese periscope. After a concentrated campaign and lobbying effort by the survivors, the late Captain McVay was exonerated in 2000. May he and the men who died during those horrific five days and the men who have left us since, Rest in Peace. We honor your memory on this 63rd anniversary of your ordeal.

Zavala County Sentinel – 6-7 August 2008.



Velia "Belle" Lopez Ortega, 
20 Jun 1930 - 11 Aug 2008

(1)Houston Chronicle, Tuesday, Aug. 12, 2008.


A retired Houston police officer who was critically wounded in a drive-by shooting last month died Monday evening, authorities said. Velia "Belle" Ortega, 78, died at a long-term care facility about 6:30 p.m., said HPD spokesman Lt. Kevin Gallier.  He said it was unknown at this time if Ortega's death was the result of injuries she suffered from the drive-by shooting on July 21.

Ortega, who used a wheel-chair after suffering a stroke in 2006, was watching television at her daughter's apartment in the 6900 block of South Loop East about 1 p.m. when gunfire struck the front door and the window, authorities said.  The retired officer was struck in the chest and taken to Ben Taub General Hospital in critical condition.

Relatives said the attack apparently stemmed from a dispute about wheel rims on a vehicle that Ortega's grandson had bought. Three men -- Bruno Aviles, 17, Raziel Munoz, 22, and Andrew Garcia, 20 -- have since been arrested and charged in connection with the shooting. Ortega spent 42 years with HPD and was the first Hispanic woman in the department when she joined in 1957.   

(2) . . . Ortega was in critical condition Tuesday at Ben Taub General Hospital, but doctors expect she will survive, HPD homicide investigator Jesus “Jesse” Sosa said.  She has endured two surgeries since the shooting and will undergo a third today.

“it’s just unbelievable, the way it happened,” said Rick Rodriguez, president of the Houston Police Organization of Spanish Speaking Officers, of which Ortega was a founding member. “She was inside, and a stray bullet hit her.”

The barrage of gunfire did significant damage to the apartment, causing a fire extinguisher to explode and putting holes in windows, walls, cabinets and the refrigerator. Relatives said the attack stemmed from a dispute about wheel rims on a vehicle purchased by Ortega’s grandson.  Police were still searching Tuesday for people they wanted to question about the ambush.  Homicide investigators identified Bruno Aviles, 17, and Andrew Garcia, 20, as “persons of interest” in the case.


The shooting was a cruelly ironic twist to Ortega’s life of achievement and accomplishment – a serious crime coming not while she was in the line of duty, but as she was enjoying a well-deserved retirement.

Ortega’s career with HPD spanned 42 years. She was sworn in as an officer in 1957 and faced significant hurdles in her early days with the department, fellow officers said.

“Needless to say, it was a man’s world back then – a machismo thing,” said HPD narcotics Sgt. Rico Garcia, who has known Ortega for his entire 34-year career.  “The Police Department back then was very rooted in its Southern culture.  Minorities always had a very difficult time.

  “She encountered a number of obstacles,” Garcia said. Despite that, “she made a lot of in-roads into the community because of who she was. She’s always been a very charismatic person. She knew how to relate to the community, and they opened up to her.”  “It was a struggle – it was a challenge for her,” said Harris County Precinct 6 Constable Victor Trevino, who worked alongside Ortega for a decade during his HPD career.  “But she just knew she had to make it.  Not only for her, but others.”

In those days, HPD tended to place its female officers in the Jail Division or the Juvenile Division. Garcia said Ortega told him the department’s attitude began to change when women landed patrol assignments on the streets beginning in the early 1970s. In the early 1980s, Ortega was one of the first to be recognized by HPD as Hispanic Officer of the Year.


During her years with HPD, Ortega worked in the Jail Division, Juvenile Division, Public Integrity, the Command Center and the Training Academy. She spent the last 10 years of her career working as a civilian employee in HPD’s Eastside Patrol before retiring in 1999.

She became known for her feisty and spunky attitude, speaking her mind and standing her ground when she believed she was right. “She was not timid when it came to dealing with the male officers or, for that matter, the command staff,” Garcia said. Ortega suffered a stroke in 2006.  Since then, she has used a wheelchair. 

She had just finished lunch Monday when her daughter left the apartment to run an errand. Ortega’s granddaughter, Brianna Salinas, 13, was asleep in her upstairs bedroom when the blast of gunfire awakened her. She ran downstairs to see smoke in the air and her grandmother injured.

“I freaked,” Salinas said.  “I just started crying.  I was trying to get to her.” Garza said she had only been gone from the apartment for five minutes when a young Hispanic man called her cell phone and threatened to do something to her house if she didn’t return the wheels on a vehicle she said her son had purchased.

“I said, ‘I don’t think son’ and hung up,” Garza said. “I called 911.” Minutes later, the young man called Garza back. “Now I want you to see I don’t play – go see what your house looks like,” he told her.  A 911 operator then called Garza’s cell phone and told her of the shooting and her mother’s injuries.           Salinas said a neighbor reported seeing a gray Chevrolet Tahoe outside the apartment before the shooting.


Velia joined the Police Academy Class #15 on October 1, 1956, and served as a Police Officer for over 33 years.  She returned to the department as a Police Service Officer until December 2, 1999, serving a total of over 46 years to the Houston Police Department.  Velia was the first Hispanic female officer for the Houston Police Department and was one of the pioneer members of the Organization of Spanish Speaking Officer's (OSSO), and was always eager to assist with special investigations.  She received the Chief of Police Commendation on 1989 fro assisting with the creation of the Centralized Crime Analysis Unit.  Her Assistance and exemplary analytical skills made the citywide crime analysis system what it is today.  

Beyond her trail-blazing awards, Velia set an example for women in policing way before it was a buzzword.  She indeed led by her example, she had no model to follow, she lead the way with dignity, high ethics, bravery, and still maintained the nickname "Belle."  Forest Park Lawndale Cemetery services were held Saturday, August 16, 2008 at Main Chapel of Forest Park Lawndale in Houston, Texas. [713-928-5141] From Obituary of 
the Houston Chronicle Newspaper in Houston, Texas, August 16, 2008.


NOTE: Velia Lopez is my 2nd cousin and my mother’s first cousin. My mother was Dolores Lopez; her father, Julio Lopez, and Velia’s father, Juan Lopez, were half-brothers. Ironically, my first job immediately after I married in 1957 was with the Houston Police Department, and it was there that Velia and I recognized each other and became close. It was then I learned she was a “police woman” and although I was a police secretary, she made me proud!

Sent by Gloria Candelaria  
Victoria, Texas  
Aug. 30, 2008

Patriots of the American Revolution

The Relations Between Spain and the United States, Louisiana and the Middle  
         West Territory (1763 - 1795), By Antonio R. Peña
Patriots of Peru During American Revolution, Mi-N, # 12, Granville Hough, Ph.D.



The Relations Between
Spain and the United States

Lousiana and the Middle West Territory (1763 - 1795)


This article analyses the political, military and social relations that were established between Spain and the United States on the middle ground territories since 1763 to 1795. A great European power and a new republic fought over those unpopulated territories and the relations between them oscillated between cooperation and confrontation. Two opposite conceptions and political and socioeconomic models clashed and crushed in the same place.

Key words: middle ground territories, Continental Congress, Continental army, Western Conventions, Virginia Assembly, Louisiana, Mississippi, Spanish government, Great Britain, France, James Wilkinson, José Bernardo Gálvez, Esteban Miró, Conde de Aranda, Floridablanca, George Washington, State Board.


El presente artículo plantea las relaciones políticas, militares y sociales que se establecieron entre España y los Estados Unidos sobre unos territorios del medio-oeste o middle ground, muy poco poblados y disputados entre una gran potencia europea y una república que acababa de nacer. Entre estos dos estados se entablaron unas relaciones que oscilaron entre la cooperación y el enfrentamiento. Dos concepciones y modelos políticos y socioeconómicos opuestos coincidieron y chocaron en un mismo espacio físico.

Palabras clave: territorios del middle ground, Congreso Continental, Ejército Continental, convenciones del oeste, asamblea de Virginia, Luisiana, Misisipí, gobierno español, Gran Bretaña, Francia, James Wilkinson, José Bernardo Gálvez, Esteban Miró, Conde de Aranda, Floridablanca, George Whashington.


Editor: Treaty of Nogales in 1793. 
Interesting perspective on the relationship between the indigenous leadership and Spain: 

"The Indian territories had a warrior population of 12.000 Indians: 6.000 Creecks, 4000 Chocktaw, 2000 cherokees and 600 Chikasas [33] , so all together with the Spanish support they could confront the Unites States. Governor E. Miró and Baron Corondelet negotiated with the Indian tribes through Natchez, Gayoso de Lemos and the Spanish agent for Indian territories, Alejandro Mac Gillibray. The matter of an agreement with the Indians was very urgent, because the Yazoo Company (through which the United States acted) was entering more and more in those territories. The Yazoo Company was even entering the Spanish territories and tried to convince the Anglo-Saxons in Kentucky, Tennessee and Ohio to fight against Louisiana. Provocation from the Yazoo Company was constant, and was looking for a direct answer from Spain that could get the United States to declare war [34] .

The danger was so clear, that the Indian Nations accepted to make an alliance. In June 1784 they reached the first agreement in the Mobile and Penzacola Indian Congresses. But the situation didn't change, the agreements were not effective and the traditional Indian arguments upon the territory continued. Only at the beginning of the 1790 decade, when the United States were occupying the territory and storming the border of Louisiana and Florida, the Indian decided to forget their traditional conflicts and to reach an alliance between them and Spain. But then it was too late. It was impossible to stop the demographic, political and military pressure of the United States. The collapse and the disappearance of the Spanish borders were inevitable [35] .

The alliance Spain-Indian nations materialized in the Treaty of Nogales in 1793. The treaty established a confederation between the Creeck, Choctaw Cherokee and Chikasa nations in the central territories to Kentucky. Also it established a federal system of state, with a joint government."

Hispanics in the American Revolution
Sully Historic Site
October 5, 2008

Did you know that Hispanics were significant contributors to the success of the American colonies in their struggle for independence from Great Britain? Did you know that Spain provided funding, supplies, and military intelligence to George Washington’s army? Did you know that Hispanic soldiers from the Americas as well as the Spanish peninsula
fought against the British? You’re cordially invited to attend Hispanics in the American Revolution and learn about these well documented, yet little known, facts of our country’s history.

Activities: 18th century military camp life; Tactical demonstrations with musket fire, cannon fire, and drill; Flamenco dancing by Furia Flamenca; Parade of Fashion; Children’s activities; Tours of the 1794 house.  Sully was the home of Richard Bland Lee, uncle of Robert E. Lee

Time: 11am-4pm
Location: Sully Historic Site 
3650 Historic Sully Way 
Chantilly, VA 20151 
Cost: $6/adult, $4/child
Contacts: Phone 703 437-1794 Alt Phone 703 324-3988
Sent by Eliud Bonilla


(Mi through N)
Part 12

Francisco Mieses. Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas inf de Huánuco, 1796. Leg 7286:V:10.
Andrés Millan. SubLt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Lambayeque, 1797. Leg 7287:XXII:19.
Andrés Minaya. Portaguión, Mil Prov Dragones de las Fronteras de Tarma, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIX:28.
José Miques. Sgt, 1st, Veterano, Mil Discip de Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:71.
Juan José Mirabal. Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Cab de Huamalies, 1800. Leg 7288:XVII:16.
Juan Justo Mirabal. Sgt, Mil Discip de Inf de Cuzco, 1800. Leg 7286:XXIV:35.
Manuel Miramon. SubLt, Inf Real de Lima, 1788. Leg 7283:II:83.
Alberto Miranda. Alf, Mil Discip de Cab Prov de Cañete, 1797. Leg 7287:VI:23.
Francisco Miranda. Lt, Mil Urbanas de Inf de Huancavelica, 1800. Leg 7288:XVI:12.
Francisco Miranda. SubLt, Mil Prov Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:68.
Gregorio Miranda. Portaestandarte, Mil Discip de Bab de Arnero de Chancay, 1796. Leg 7286:III:5.
José Jenaro Miranda. Sgt, 1st, Veterano, Mil Discip de Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:73.
José Lino Miranda. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de San Miguel de Piura, 1800. Leg 7286:XXV:28.
Juan de Miranda. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Dragones de Quispicanchi, Cuzco, 1798. Leg 7286:XX:7.
Lorenzo Miranda. Capt, Mil Urbanas Inf de Huananga, 1800. Leg 7288:XV:6.
Mariano Miranda. Lt, Mil Prov Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:47.
Miguel Miranda. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:96.
Nicolás Miranda. Sgt, Mil Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:89.
Pablo Miranda. SubLt, Mil de Pardos Libres de Lima, 1796. Leg 7286:XII:39.
Patricio Miranda. Alf, Mil Discip Cab de Trujullo, 1800. Leg 7288:XXXI:16.
Rafael Miranda. Sgt, Mil Prov Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:95.
Tomás Miranda. Sgt, 1st de Fusileros, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IV:33.
Miguel Mireles. Alf, Mil Prov Discip de Dragones de Arica, 1800. Leg 7288:II:45.
Pedro Mogo. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Cab de Huamalies, 1800. Leg 7288:XVII:24.
Melchor Domingo de Mogollon. Sgt, Inf del Real Asiento de Paucartambo, 1798. Leg 7286:XIX:38.
José Mohedas. Sgt, Inf Real de Lima, 1788. Leg 7283:II:115.
Antonio Molina. Sgt, Mil Urbanas Inf de Huanta, 1800. Leg 7288:XVIII:66.
Cayetano. SubLt de bandera, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de Urubamba, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXVIII:29.
José Molina. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de San Miguel de Piura, 1800. Leg 7286:XXV:34.
José Antonio Molina. Col, grad of Army, Inf Real de Lima, 1796. Leg 7287:XXIV:76.
Pedro Molina. Cadet, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:139.
Marcos Molleda. Mariscal/Marshal Mayor, Mil Prov Discip de Cab de Cuzco, 1792. Leg 7284:XVII:4.
Nicolás Mollinedo. Capt, Mil Urbanas de Inf de Abancay, 1793. Leg 7284:11:10.
Carlos Moncayo. Lt, Inf Real de Lima. 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:34.
Manuel Antonio Mondoñedo. SubLt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IV:22.
Manuel Mondragon. Sgt, Mil Urbanas Cab San Pablo de Chalaquez, 1797. Leg 7287:XI:47.
Joaquin Montros. Lt, Mil Discip Cab de Trujillo, Perú, 1800. Leg 7288:XXXI:10.
Anselmo Montalban. Sgt, Mil de Pardos Libres de Lima, 1796. Leg 7286:XII:50.
Pedro Montalban. Capt, Mil Urbanas de Dragones de Palma, Partido de Jauja, 1800. Leg 7288:XXI:8.
Eusebio Montalvo. SubLt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de Calca, 1797. Leg 7287:V:14.
Francisco Montalvo. Capt, Mil Urbanas Inf de Moquegua, 1797. Leg 7287:XXVI:5.
José Estaquio Montalvo. Cadet, Mil Urbanas Inf de Moquegua, 1797. Leg 7287:XXVI:46.
José Remigio Montalvo. Cadet, Mil Urbanas Inf de Moquegua, 1797. Leg 7287:XXVI:47.
Matías Montalvo. Lt de Granaderos, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de Calca, 1797. Leg 7287:V:10.
Matías Montalvo. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Huambos, Partido de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:XVII:29.
Ramón Montalvo. Ayudante Mayor Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de Calca, 1797. Leg 7287:V:11.
Pedro Montanchez. Alf, Mil Discip Cab de Camaná, 1796. Leg 7286;XIV:18.
Antonio María del Monte. Ayudante mayor Mil Urbanas de Inf de Huancavelica, 1800. Leg 7288:XVI:7.
Manuel Montellano Basualdo. Alf de la 1st Comp, Mil Urbanas Cab de Moquegua, 1792. Leg 7284:XXII:10.
Conde de Montemar. Col, Mil Prov Discip de Cab del Valle de Chincha, 1797. Leg 7287:XII:1.
Francisco Montenegro. SubLt, Inf Real de Lima, 1790. Leg 7283:VIII:66.
Manuel Montenegro. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Huambos, Provincia de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:XVII:34.
Nicolás Montenegro. Cadet, Mil Urbanas Inf de Moquegua, 1797. Leg 7287:XXVI:42.
Manuel Montenegro y Quesada. Capt, Mil Urbanas Inf de Moquegua, 1797. Leg 7287:XXVI:7.
Antonio Montero. Capt, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:22.
Francisco Montero. Lt, Mil Prov Discip de Pardos de l 8th Comp, San Miguel de Piura, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXIII:2.
Francisco Montero. Lt, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:45.
José Montero. Alf, Mil Prov Urbanas Cab de Huanta, 1798. Leg 7286:XVII:21.
Manuel Montero. Capt, Mil Discip Inf pardos de la 8th Comp de San Miguel de Piura, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXIII:1.
Pedro Monterola. Cadet, Inf, Real de Lima, 1788. Leg 7283:II:130.
Andrés Lino Montes. Capt, Mil Cab del partido de Santa, 1792. Leg 7284:XXIII:7.
Pedro Lino Montes. Lt, Mil Cab del partido de Santa, 1799. Leg 7286:XXIII:9.
Luis Montoya. Lt, Mil Urbanas Dragones de Palma, Partido de Jauja, 1800. Leg 7288:XXI:12.
Manuel Montoya. Capt, Comp Veteranas de la dotacián de Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:XI:2.
Manuel Ignacio Montoya. Alf, Mil Prov Discip Dragones de Caraveli, 1796. Leg 7287:VIII:33.
Rudesindo Montoya. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip Dragones de Caraveli, 1796. Leg 7287:VIII:33.
Juan Antonio Montujar. Sgt Major, Mil Prov Discip Cab de Arequipa, 1797. Leg 7287:II:7.
José María Monzon. Cadet, Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIII:62.
Pascual Antonio Monzon. Lt, Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIII:38.
José Monzon de Aguirre. Sgt, Mil Española Cab de Luya y Chillaos, Priv Chachapoyas, 1792. Leg 7284:XX:18.
Andrés Mora. Capt, Mil Discip Pardos Libres de Lima, 1796. Leg 7286:XII:23.
Juan José Mora. Lt, Mil Discip Cab Arnero de Chancay, 1800. Leg 7288:III:14.
Pedro Mora. Alf, Mil Prov Discip Cab del Valle de Chincha, 1797. Leg 7287:XII:24.
Francisco del Moral. Lt, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:28.
Alonso Morales. Alf, Mil Discip Cab Arnero de Chancay, 1800. Leg 7288:III:19.
Camilo Morales. Lt, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:44.
Carlos Morales. SubLt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Huanta, 1800. Leg 7288:XVIII:46.
Eduardo Morales. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip Inf San Miguel de Piura, 1800. Leg 7286:XXV:32.
Fernando Morales. Sgt, Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XVIII:57.
José Ildefonso Morales. Capt, Mil Discip Dragones de la ciudad de Piura y Puerto Tumbez, 1795. Leg 7285:XXIII:9.
Mariano Morales. SubLt, Mil Prov Urbanas inf de Huánuco, 1796. Leg 7286:V:25.
Pedro Morales. SubLt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Abancay, 1793. Leg 7284:II:59.
Pedro Morales. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Cab de Huánuco, 1797. Leg 7286:VI:26.
Ventura Morales. SubLt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Abancay, 1793. Leg 7284:II:64.
Victorio Morales. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Cab de Huánuco, 1797. Leg 7286:VI:30.
Brigido Moran. SubLt, Mil Discip Pardos y Morenos de Inf Lambayeque, 1797. Leg 7287:XXIII:15.
Tiburcio Morante. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Huambos, Partido de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:XVII:33.
Andrés Moreno. Lt, Mil Discip Cab de Ica, 1797. Leg 7287:XX:17.
Antonio Moreno. Sgt de Granaderos, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:89.
Diego Moreno. Lt de Fusileros, Comp sueltas de Inf Españolas Mil Discip de Inmemorial del Rey, Lima, 1794. Leg 7285:IV:4.
José Moreno. Sgt, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:58.
José Moreno. Lt, Bn Prov de Mil de Pardos Libres de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXV:6.
Juan Manuel Moreno. Cadet, 1st Ckomp, Mil Urbanas de Inf de Huancavelica, 1797. Leg 7287:XVIII:27.
Marcos Moreno. Sgt, Mil de Pardos Libres de Lima, 1796. Leg 7286:XII:48.
Mariano Moreno. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Cab de Huamalies, 1800. Leg 7288:XVII:19.
Tomás Moreno Chocano. Capt, Mil Discip Dragones de Arica, 1800. Leg 7288:II:5. 
José Antonio Mori. SubLt, Mil Inf Española de San Juan de la Frontera de Chachapoyas, 1792. Leg 7284:VI:28.
Juan Mori. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de San Antonio de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:III:31.
Pedro Morillas. Sgt, Mil Discip de Cab de Trujillo, Perú, 1800. Leg 7288:XXXI:21.
Antonio Morillo. SubLt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Abancay, 1793. Leg 7284:II:24.
Brigido Morillos. Sgt, Mil Discip Cab de Ferreñafe, 1797. Leg 7287:XIV:46.
Manuel Moron Ortiz de Uriarte. Capt, Mil Prov Discip Dragones del Valle de Majes, 1797. Leg 7287:XXV:6.
Pedro Moron Ortiz de Uriarte. Lt, Mil Prov Discip Dragones del Valle de Majes, 1797. Leg 7287:XXV:16.
José Manuel Moscoso. SubLt, Mil Urbanas Inf de Andahuylas, 1799. Leg 7286:XXII:16.
Felipe Moscoso y Lobaton. Capt, Mil Discip de Inf de Cuzco, 1800. Leg 7286:XXIV:5.
Manuel Mostacero. Sgt, Mil Urbanas Cab San Pablo Chalaquez, 1798. Leg 7287:XI:44.
Pedro Mostajo. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:70.
Antonio Motino. Sgt, 1st, grad SubLt, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:99.
Vicente Moya. Capt, Mil, Urbanas Inf de Huamanga, 1800. Leg 7288:XV:8.
Gabriel Muchotrigo. Sgt, 1st, Veterano, Mil Discip de Dragones de Lima, 1800> Leg 7288:XXIV:63.
Manuel Muga. SubLt, Mil Prov Discip inf de Lambayeque, 1797. Leg 7287:XXII:22.
Manuel Munarriz. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Carabayllo, 1800. Leg 7288:IV:27.
Tadeo Mungia. Capt, Mil prov Urbanas de Cab de Huanta, 1798. Leg &286:XVII:6.
Antonio de los Muñecas. Capt, Mil Discip Cab de Ferreñafe, 1797. Leg 7287:XIV:14.
José Joaquin Muñecas. Portaestandarte, Mil Discip Cab de Ferreñafe, 1797. Leg 7287:XIV:5.
Gregorio Muñoa. Lt de Granaderos, Mil Prov Discip de Inf de San Miguel de Piura, 1800. Leg 7286:XXV:16.
Domingo Muñoz. Capt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Castro Chilioe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:16.
Félix Muñoz. Sgt, Mil Cab del partido de Santa, 1799. Leg 7286:XXIII:19.
Fernando Muñoz. Sgt, Mil Urbanas Inf de Moquegua, 1797. Leg 7287:XXVI:35.
José Mariano Muñoz. Capt, Mil Discip Cab Arnero de Chancay, 1800. Leg 7288:III:7.
Juan Pablo Muñoz. Capt de Granaderos, Mil Prov Discip Dragones de Caraveli, 1796. Leg 7287:VIII:3.
Nicolás Muñoz. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:85.
Tomás Muñoz. Col, Mil Discip Cab Arnero de Chancay, 1800. Leg 7288:III:5.
José Muñoz Garcia. Lt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:27.
Mariano Muñoz Larrea. SubLt Mil Prov Discip inf de Arequipa, 1792. Leg 7284:III:55.
José Muñoz Romero. Lt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:34.
Pedro Muñoz Valera. Lt, Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIII:37.
Luis Murgao. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Huánuco, 1796. Leg 7286:V:31.
Lorenzo Murguia. Lt, Mil Prov Discip Cab de Arequipa, 1797. Leg 7287:II:31.
Baltasar Moro/Muro. Ayudante Mayor, Mil Discip Cab de Ferreñafe, 1797. Leg 7287:XIV:4.
José Manuel Muro. Alf, Mil Discip Cab de Ferreñafe, 1797. Leg 7287:XIV:32.
José Murrieta. Ayudante Mayor, Mil Discip Dragones de Arica, 1800. Leg 7288:II:15.

Francisco Nandin. Alf, Mil Discip Cab de Ica, 1800. Leg 7288:XX:23.
Manuel Narezo. Alf, Mil Prov Discip Cab de Cuzco, 1797. Leg 7287:X:22.
Manuel Narvaez. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Huanta, 1800. Leg 7288:XVIII:67.
Adriano Narvarte. Alf, Mil Urbanas Dragones de Palme, Partido de Jauja, 1796. Leg 7286:XIII:23.
Francisco Narvarte. Alf, Mil Urbanas Dragones de Palma, Partido de Jauja, 1800. Leg 7288:XXI:22.
Manuel Navamuel. LSgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Ldragones de Carabayllo, 1800. Leg 7288:IV:24.
José Navarette. Alf, Mil Prov Urbanas Cab de Huánuco, 1797. Leg 7286:VI:21.
Juan Miguel Navarette. Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IV:11.
Pedro Navarette. Sgt de Carabineros, Mil Discip Cab de Camaná, 1798. Leg 7286:XIV:31.
Alejo Navarro. Lt, Mil Prov Discip Cab de Arequipa, 1797. Leg 7287:II:22.
Andrés Navarro. Lt, Veterano grad Capt, Mil Discip Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:29.
Francisco Manuel Navarro. SubLt, Mil Urbanas Inf de Moquegua, 1797. Leg 7287:XXVI:25.
Luis Navarro. Alf, Mil Discip Dragones de Acari y Chala, 1796. Leg 7286:I:22.
Manuel Navarro. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Abancay, 1793. Leg 7284:II:47.
Pablo Navarro. Lt, Mil Discip de Dragones de Acari y Chala, 1796. Leg 7286:I:13.
Pedro Navarro. Alf, Mil Discip Dragones de Amotape, Piura, 1795. Leg 7285:XXIII:15.
Tomás Navarro. Alf, Portaguión, Mil Discip Dragones de Arica y Chala, 1796. Leg 7286:I:21.
Francisco Manuel Navarro y Casanova. Cadet, Mil Urbanas de Inf de Moquegua, 1792. Leg 7284:XXIV:35.
Juan Navarro Gonzalez. Alf, Mil Dscip, Dragones de Acari y Chala, 1796. Leg 7286:I:20.
Francisco Navarro y la Helguera. Col, Mil Discip, Dragones de Arica, 1800. Leg 7288:II:1.
Tomás Navarro y la Helguera. Capt de Grenaderos, Mil Discip Dragones de Arica, 1800. Leg 7288:II:6.
Juan Navarro Rospillosi. Lt, Mil Discip Dragones de Acari y Chala, 1796. Leg 7286:I:9.
Manuel Negrillo. Alf, Mil Prov Discip de Dragones de Caraveli. 1798. Leg 7287:VIII:31.
Sebastián Negrillo. Alf, Mil Prov Discip Dragones de Caraveli, 1796. Leg 7287:VIII:23.
José Negron. Ayudante Mayor, Mil Prov Cab de Huianta, 1798. Leg 7286:XVII:8.
Esteban Neira. Lt, Mil Prov Discip Dragones de Caracas, 1797. Leg 7287:VIII:19.
Felipe Neira. Alf, Mil Discip Dragones de Caraveli, 1796. Leg 7287:VIII:28.
José de Neira. Lt, Mil Discip de Dragones de Caracas, 1796. Leg 7287:VIII:17.
José de Neira. Ayddante Mayor, Mil Discip de Dragones de Acari y Chala, 1796. Leg 7286:I:8.
José Antonio de Neira. Lt, Mil Discip Dragones de Acari y Chala, 1796. Leg 7286:I:16.
Patricio Neira. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip de Dragones de Caraveli, 1796. Leg 7287:VIII:39.
Juan de Neira y Carvajal. Ca;t, Mil Discip de Dragones de Acari y Chala, 1796. Leg 7286:I:6.
Pedro Nestares y Palazuelos. Capt, Mil Discip de Cab de Ica, 1800. Leg 7288:XX:7.
Juan Antonio Nevao. Capt, Mil Discip Cab de Ferreñafe, 1797. Leg 7287:XIV:16.
José María Nieto. Lt, Mil Urbanas Inf de Moquegua, 1797. Leg 7287:XXVI:16.
José Nieto y Andrade. Capt, Mil Discip Cab de Arequipa, 1792. Leg 7284:XIII:13.
Antonio Nieto y Roa, Conde de Alastaya. Col, Mil Urbanas, Inf de Moquegua, 1797. Leg 7287:XXVI:1.
Blas Nieves. Lt, Bn Prov de Mil de Pardos Libres de Lima, 1796. Leg 7286:XII:61.
Manuel de las Nieves Rojas. Lt, Mil Inf Española de San Juan de la Frontera de Chachapoyas, 1792. Leg 7284:VI:18.
Manuel Niño de Guzman. Ayudante Mayor, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Quispicanchi, Cuzco, 1798. Leg 7286:XX:14.
Manuel Nocheto. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Carabayllo, 1797. Leg 7287:VII:34.
Tomás Noe. Porta-estandarte, Mil Discip Dragones del pueblo de Amotape, Piura, 1795. Leg 7285:XXIII:6.
Eugenio Noriega. Sgt, Mil Urbanas Cab de los territorios de Huancabamba y Chalaco, Piura, 1800. Leg 7286:XXVI:7.
José Noriega. Capt, grad Lt Col, inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:13.
José Vicente de Noriega. Lt, Mil Prov Discip Cab de Arequipa, 1797. Leg 7287:II:19.
Pedro Noriega. SubLt, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:70.
Pedro Noriega. Sgt, Mil Pardos Libres de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXV:12.
Cleto Noriega de Piñera. Capt, Mil Prov Discip Cab de Arequipa, 1797. Leg 7287:II:10.
Francisco Novoa. Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf San Antonio de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:III:12.
Bernardino Nuñez. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Carabayllo, 1800. Leg 7288:IV:35.
Francisco Javier Nuñez. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip Dragones del Valle de Majes, 1797. Leg 7287:XXV:38.
Jacinto Nuñez. Sgt, Inf Real de Lima, 1794. Leg 7285:IX:96.
José Nuñez. Lt, Comp Sueltas Inf del partido de Carelmapu, 1800. Leg 7288:XIII:5.
Juan Manuel Nuñez. Lt, Mil Urbanas Inf de Huancavelica, 1797. Leg 7287:XVIII:13.
Manuel Nuñez. Lt, Mil Urbanas Inf de Huancavelica, 1800. Leg 7288:XVI:13.
Pedro Nuñez. Cadet, Inf, Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:128.
Francisco Nuñez Gago. Lt, Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIII:34.
José Antonio Nuñez Garcico. Lt, Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1788. Leg 7283:I:19.
Justo Lorenzo Nuñez y Pacheco. Alf, Mil Prov Discip Dragones del Valle de Majes, 1797. Leg 7287:XXV:21.
José Nuñez del Prado. Sgt, Mil Urbanas Inf de Moquegua, 1797. Leg 7287:XXVI:31.
Agustín Nuñez de la Torre. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Urubamba, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXVIII:4.
(to be continued) 


My Uncle Oscar Chapa
Life is a Pickle Jar
Interesting Old Memories of the Good Ole Bad Days Literature



My Uncle Oscar Chapa
Mimi Lozano

One of my First Memory


Does anyone remember these Easter lamb cakes?  Apparently  they are still traditional.   
I found the above photo on the homepage of the Little Goose Haus Bed and Breakfast in Canyon Lake, Texas. 

When I was about 3 or 4, we lived in Los Angeles behind a restaurant. Frequently, at the end of their day, as the restaurant closed, they would some times bring plates of  foods. It was always a special treat. On one occasion, the cook brought over a huge (to me) white frosted lamb cake, cover with coconut.  I was totally awed. It looked like a magic figure to me. I could not believe anything so beautiful was also edible. Uncle Oscar, in his late teens, was left in charge of my sister and me.  Mom warned him.  "Do not cut the cake.  I want Lino (my Dad) to see it."  Very soon after Mom left, Oscar had figured it out, how to obey his older sister and not have to wait.  Oscar very gingerly turned the cake upside down,  and then the three of us even more carefully ate our fill from the bottom.  Setting it back on the tray, you could not tell that the lamb was empty.  Mom and Dad both laughed when they came home.

LOS ANGELES RIVER  . . the family frequently went to the LA river for a picnic.  It was rocky and rushing, but not too deep. I was about 7 or 8 years old.  We found a very rustic raft and Oscar in his early 20s decided he would give us a treat.  He tied a rope to one end of the raft and told us kids to climb on.  He held one end of the rope, releasing it little by little while the water started moving the raft down the river.  It was so exciting.  

All of sudden, Oscar started yelling to the tias.  I could see his expression, he was very upset. He was running along the river bank, trying to hold on to the rope, but it was  slipping slowly away.  The swiftly moving water was getting too strong.  The aunts all came running and together managed to pull us in.  Poor Oscar, he wanted to give us an adventure and got SO bawled out.  "Tonto!"  . . Idiota!" . .  "Estupido!"  The oldest male was always considered responsible.

After training at Ord, Oscar's US Army Air Force company was shipped to Louisiana, via the train, probably a three day trip.  The train must have stopped at some place along the way where alcohol could be purchased at lower prices.  His company commander asked if he and some of the men could put their liquor purchases in Oscar dufflebag.  Oscar had a reputation as a non-drinker and they figured out that his duffle-bag would not get searched. 

Unfortunately, everyone's bags were searched.  He took the blame, lost his rank, and took a pay cut.  However . . . and this is something that even after 65 years greatly touched him. The men in his company made up the money difference every month until he got his rank back and was receiving the salary that he should have been receiving.


When the train and men arrived in Louisiana, everything was in disarray, cooks had not arrived, but boxes of defrosting turkeys had.  Oscar enlisted the help of a couple of the men and jumped right in.  They cooked up all those turkeys, and prepared a complete Thanksgiving dinner for the whole company.  When I asked him, if he had ever cooked a turkey before, he said, "No, I just remember watching my sisters." 

Oscar stood out in many ways.  He was a boxer, representing their company in competitions?  

Oscar had a natural mechanical ability and could fit anything, plus he also had many years of training.  When he was 12 years old, he talked himself into a job at a local garage in Los Angeles as a gofer, sweeper, wiper, whatever was needed.  He watched, learned, retained and built on those skills.  Not surprising, he very quickly rose to Master Sergeant, and supervised the mechanical and working conditions of the planes on the base.

Oscar's reputation of an excellent mechanic followed him.  When he was discharged from the service, the governor of California offered Oscar a job as his personal mechanic.

A big surprise to Oscar when he was being discharged was to find out that he was not an American citizen.  He was told that the records showed that he was not a citizen.   He was shocked and embarrassed.  Oscar said, "All my life, I told people that I was a U.S. citizen.  I thought I was because Grandpa Alberto Chapa was naturalized."  It had something to do with how old Oscar was when Grandpa became naturalized.  Of course, Oscar took care of that problem.

Rather than mechanic for the California governor, Oscar decided to go into business with his sisters, Estella and Elia.  That started out by building from the ground up, a warehouse and the restaurant.  Like everything else, he just jumped in and did his best.  When Mimi asked him how he knew what to do, he said, "We learned along the way.  If we did it wrong, we fixed it."  They had to redo the whole first section of a brick wall, because they did not know to use rebarb. 

Once when the family was making tamales, all of a sudden my Mom gave Oscar a quick elbow to the ribs, "Hurry up."  After, she asked him why he had slowed down. He said that he was figuring out how to make a tamale machine, and we all know that he did.  He also designed a portable booth with a mechanism to raise and lower the booth into place. . .   from mechanic to inventor.

We all know Oscar was always very responsible, dependable, and very fair.  But every now and then, he could not resist the temptation.  One time during the California state fair, my Mom was taking her break and sat down to enjoy a huge slice of cold watermelon.  Tenderly eating around the edge, Mom was leaving the heart for the last.  All of a sudden, Oscar reached over her shoulder, grabbed the whole heart and went running out of the booth, laughing and eating at the same time.  Mom, white apron flapping in the wind, in a fury after him.  Fair goers wondering, "what in the world?"  The family, however, could not help but laugh at a brother and sister still teasing each other. 

There were many, many amusing incidents at the fair, but one that specifically involved me took place at the Stockton Fair.  One late afternoon, two men from the union came to the booth.  They passed me, walked directly into the kitchen and started complaining to Oscar about something.  He kept disagreeing with them.  Suddenly one of them said to his companion, "Come on. Let's go. Look at her nose. Look at her profile.  Of course, she is family."  They left.  

It turned out that because of my age, it was illegal to work the long hours that the fair demanded.  However, family members fall under different rules. Obviously, the Union officers did not think I looked Mexican . When the two men left, Oscar didn't say anything. He just gave me one of those happy smiles, both contented and amused . . .  which said. all is well . . .  life is good.   That was Uncle Oscar, he played by the rules, and was always on the right side.

My Uncle Oscar and me, November 16, 2005 
at an event in Stockton honoring his community involvements.  For more on my incredible uncle, 
go to:\sp2005\spdec05\spdec05.htm





by Ben Romero

My wife has a “thing” for pickle jars. I don’t know when it started, but I suspect it can be attributed to growing up poor. Our children have learned to live with the fact that she’ll never change. Over the years she’s accumulated scores of jars for storing everything from leftovers to buttons. We even used them as drinking glasses when the children were growing up. 

“Mom, why can’t we buy Tupperware like other families?” Victoria used to ask. Eventually she found other uses for the jars, such as storing beads and candy. 

“These watermelon chunks taste like pickles!” Andy used to complain. But in time he discovered that the jars were also great for keeping live bugs, toads, and earthworms.

“Storing food in old jars is not very sanitary,” our intellectual son, Gabe, used to complain. But he found them to be a great place to save his money.

“Yummm, I can smell the pickle juice.” Rebecca had a taste for vinegar. But she also “borrowed” many jars to store her precious, round “bird egg” rocks.

“Yuck! I’m not eating that. I’m a Hot-Pockets kind of girl.” Our youngest daughter, Olivia, is spoiled. Leftovers are not part of her lifestyle. But jars sometimes make their way into her room to store pencils and paperclips.

When we moved from Madera Ranchos to Fresno, Olivia was nine years old. There were days when she arrived home from school an hour or so before her siblings, and the thought of being home alone in town was scary for her. We told her never to open the door to strangers, and we developed a password in case someone came knocking at the door. The code was “sweet pickles”. If we called or rang the doorbell, we knew to speak the code before she’d respond.

Often, our refrigerator holds pickle jars full of salsa, chili beans, sopa de fideo, and fried potatoes. I’ve learned that the pickle taste does not easily leave the jars. I also decided that sweet pickles appeal more to me than dill.

Our son-in-law, Brandon, is a spectacular cook - a favorable trait we recently discovered. The other night he prepared a wonderful, fancy chicken dish, smothered with sauce, vegetables, and grated cheese. My wife went to bed early and missed the meal, but Brandon set some food aside for her so she could take it to work the next day for lunch. Beaming, the following morning he handed Evelyn the meal in a pickle jar - with the label still attached.

Surprised, yet taken aback by the kind gesture, my wife responded with, “isn’t life a pickle?”

Ben Romero
Author of Chicken Beaks Book Series






Richard G. Santos  


Are you old enough to remember the good ole bad days when towns in south Texas were split along a main street or railroad track? Do you remember when the economy was so bad when you carried your shoes to school but did not put them on until you entered the building? Do you remember sharing a coat with your friends when entrance to a dance required coat and tie? What about when movie theatres, churches, schools and cemeteries were divided by language and ethnic-racial lines? In other words, are you over 50 and if not, have you interviewed anyone over 50 who remembers the good ole bad days?  

 Notwithstanding the harshness of the way “things used to be”, many recall those days with a deep felt affection and quickly share their fond memories. Many deal with their playfulness and mischievous behavior in the face of adversity.  This includes recalling the local organization that sponsored dances but male attendees were required to wear a coat and tie. This meant some young men had to share the coat and tie by taking turns entering the dance hall. According to what I was told, each young man got three dances before having to go back to the group waiting outside to allow someone else to wear the same coat and tie. This usually became a comedic problem when the coat was either too small or too large. Consequently, the group of young men sought others of more or less the same build. That, however, did not always work. Therefore, some guys had to wear a coat which did not button over their stomach, or the sleeves were too long or too short. One way or the other, the guys managed to dance and the understanding, tolerant young ladies did not complain or criticize as that meant they also got to dance. The old cliché that states “where there is a will, there’s way” certainly applied in these instances and everyone was happy.  

Depending on the population size of the town, those with substantial minority numbers usually had their own movie theatres, churches, schools and cemeteries. So you might have lived across the street from a particular school or church, but had to attend one much further. Some towns had at least two cemeteries but those did not, buried minorities “on the other side of the fence”. At best, in a one cemetery town, a certain section was set aside for minorities. It was a way of life in rural south Texas that did not begin to change until the late 50’s and 60’s.  

Movie theatres made their appearance as soon as the Spanish population was large enough to support the endeavor. Most towns had one theatre. Others, like Crystal City, had three. Regardless of how many theatres a town might have had, the menu was the same. Mexican movies in Spanish, vaudeville shows featuring singers and/or dancing groups and local talent shows. Mexican movie stars (and especially starlets, dancers, singers and up-coming artists) made the rounds of the towns drawing people to their movies and getting known to develop a following. Recording artist did likewise as they pushed their latest or favorite recordings to boost record sales.  

All along fond memories were being made. The viewers and attendees remember what movie star, singer or group they saw “way back when”. The family and sometimes relatives of the theatre owners remember how they operated the theatres. For some this included hosting the star in their homes due to lack of accommodations or lack of up-front money. To others, like Pepe Treviño it is recalling how every family member had specific jobs and you graduated by age and experience. His mother manned the ticket booth and the concession stand where she sold soft drinks as well as chewing gum and candies for a penny a piece. His older brother in time succeeded his father in running the projector until he had outgrown the job and 14 year old Pepe took over. Up to that day he had been part of the cleaning crew as the youngest son, the “go-fer”.  Manning the movie projector and actually running the movies was a major promotion of which he still speaks with glee.  

Meeting the movie stars, singers and performers was another perk of the owners and their families. Picking them up at San Antonio, Laredo or Eagle Pass and driving them to town was a major responsibility. However, the owner and family still had to house and feed them! All this was done without advance pay and strictly by sharing ticket sales. As could be expected, some personalities drew larger crowds than others. Some also ate more than others.  

As far as the theatres themselves, well, some reportedly had rats and or mice running about. Others did not have roofs so movie goers had to tolerate passing trains, mosquitoes and other flying insects and bats and finally the summer DDT spraying trucks! But who cared? Those things were minor distractions and part of the reality of life. After all, they were in the presence of Pedro Infante, Toña La Negra, Pedro Armendariz, Agustin Lara, Amalia Mendoza or enjoying a movie or serial by Las Tres Calaveras, El Enmascarado, or the comedic movies of Cantinflas or Tin Tan, or perhaps a semi-horror movie of La Llorona and such. Some theatres advertised their movies via a pickup truck and a loud speaker. In Pearsall Mr. Treviño’s loudspeaker was known to frequently drown out the services at the nearby Catholic Church. Guess he took advantage of a captive audience counting on some rushing to the theatre after service. In Crystal City, friends have told me that when they were kids they chased after the pickup carrying La Llorona, El Enmascarado, King Kong or such hurling rocks and teasing the costumed person until the driver stopped and chased them off.  

So the theatre was across the tracks. So the minorities were not welcomed at the English Language theatre. Yet most of that is forgotten when a person over 50 recalls their youth in the good ole bad days in rural south Texas 50 and more years ago. Finally, it should be noted that I cannot relate some of the stories I am told for this is a family oriented newspaper. However, you can well imagine what travesias (mischief) those kids of old got themselves into and fondly recall before they became grandparents! Throwing rocks or popcorn at the villains on screen, whistling, yelling, stomping and of course, those way in the back or corner hot dates usually between a young girl brought to the theatre by her parents who paid for her ticket while the secret boyfriend waited anxiously inside. Well, ‘nuf zed as you can imagine the rest.  

Zavala County Sentinel – 3-4 September 2008  





Click for information on the Jacinto Canek modern band of musicians


Somos Primos series on Vicente Riva Palacio, 
translations by Ted Vincent

   Jacinto Canek led a rebellion in 1761 for Maya independence from Spanish rule . A modern education website for Mexican school children, Redescolar, notes that although the Canek rebellion failed, he is well remembered today. Among others who remember him are members of the punk rock band named  "Jacinto Canek" who provides the banner for this article.  Canek's struggle was also remembered in 1847 when Maya again rose for independence (this time against Mexican rule). As the rebels swept through towns of the Yucatan they scrawled the name Jacinto Canek on the walls of houses.  The revolutionaries of 1847 seized control of a large percentage of the Yucatan penninsula, and they established a capital at Chan Santa Cruz and held out until 1901.
   During the 1847-1901 war writers who defended Jacinto Canek were few.  The press and most politicians in Mexico City labeled the Indigenous warriors "outlaws" and "savages." as in this period the press in the United States labeled Native Americans such as Sitting Bull, Coches and Geronimo.  

  Rising to defend Jacinto Canek in print was Vicente Riva Palacio, who placed the revolt in the context of Maya who lived under slave labor conditions and were losing their land to speculators. The defense of Canek was made in Riva Palacio’s in 1889 encyclopedia, "Mexico a tráves de los Siglos" (Mexico through the Centuries), and the section included strong criticism of the sensationalist writings that depicted Canek merely as a crazy man who took advice from a council of fifteen witches and allegedly said that he not only wanted to kill Spaniards, but cut off their balls and eat them - this statement being obtained under torture from a captured Maya supporter of Canek..

  Canek was born Jacinto Uc, and took the name Canek in honor of an earlier Maya warrior. Riva Palacio placed his account of Canek in the context of other rebellions for freedom by Natives of the continent. Riva Palacio writes at the conclusion of an account of a ten year long revolution against Spain by an alliance of Pimas and Papagos in the state of Sonora.

. . . The following year of 1761 there arose another insurrection, one in the eastern regions, the province of the Yucatan that was then governed by the brigadier don José Crespo y Honorato. The Indios were victims of increasingly bad treatment in this 
peninsula owing to the energetic creation of great estates of enormous size, a 
development that pinched the nerves of the region’s natives to such intensity that they needed no more than a leader to march in revolt. This individual presented himself in the Indio called Jacinto, who was known by his compatriots as Canek, and who lived in Merida. He was a native of Campeche, a bold inquisitive man who received a good schooling thanks to a number of years at the great convent in Merida. But his passionate and independent temperament caused the friars to expel him from the convent, and he was obliged to labor for a modest 
subsistence as a baker.

In the month of November 1761, Jacinto Canek attended a fiesta that the people celebrate in the town of Cisteil, in the territory of Sotuta, and there he propagated the idea of insurrection, and proposed to the Indios that they rise up immediately. Canek found a warm reception to his proposals, to which he added that the fiesta be prolonged three extra days, at the end of which the Indigenous declared themselves in open revolution, led by Jacinto.

Historians attribute this uprising to drunkenness of the Indios, to an orgy that 
was maintained during the fiesta, and to the desire of Jacinto for power and a life providing him freedom for his vices. These evaluations are unfortunately recognized and followed by modern writers, although no more than the expression of hatred of earlier Spaniards or mestizos against those men who tired of slavery and of tyranny and had proclaimed their independence. One always sees the same arguments and the same accusations thrown from the dominators against the leaders of a movement for independence. And although the hand of iron brings death to the rebel, or criminal, there later comes the success of being made a 
hero, a grant from the supreme dispenser of what is called justice to the one who has fallen.
The suffering of the Indigenous race in the Yucatan justified the insurrection, as did the background of Jacinto Canek. We need to investigate if it was for vices that he was expelled from the convent, or, was it that 
this man might have thrown a manifesto of disgust at the dominators, displaying an independent mind and energy not shown by ordinary men found everywhere, those who are accustomed to give respect and submission. No one can organize a rebellion such as Jacinto organized amidst an orgy, a revolt that caused serious tremors to the government of the Yucatan. If it was merely the effect of enthusiastic drunks it would 
have been over with the dispensing of th e effects of licor, and the rebels, comprehending the dangers of their enterprise, would have dispersed, and they would not have made their valiant and angry confrontation against the government of the peninsula.

The rebels of Cisteil murdered a Spaniard named Diego Pacheco, and from that start gave the rebellion a terrible image, and although the historians accuse Canek and his followers of being assassins for the death of Pacheco and other Spaniards, this is what happens in what is called a war of the castes, a struggle without quarter, intense enough to warrant the sentence of death to a man who belonged to the enemy race. The Indios launched the war on these terms because of the many years of enslavement and suffering that they sought to avenge, and they knew, on the other hand, the same terms were held by their enemies.

The priest Miguel Ruela, who had given the mass at Cisteil, escaped the insurgents, and informed the comandante of Sotuta, don Tiburico Cosgaya of the insurrection, who informed the governor and capitan general, who with twenty horsemen marched toward the Indios. Canek was warned of their 
coming and he charged forth and attacked vigorously with two hundred men that he 
had at his command. Cosgaya and ten of his cavalry were killed in combat and the rest, including a hundred infantry who came 
with him fled in retreat raising the alarm throughout the region.

This blow inspired the Indios and Canek fortified the town of Cisteil and awaited the attack of the Spaniards. The violence of the insurrection did not spread, and in spite of Canek contacting all the villages he was barely able to enlist one thousand five hundred men, and no other town seconded the movement in Cisteil. The governor of the Yucatan worked with great energy, gathering forces immediately that were sent against the rebels under the orders of don Cristobal Calderon de Selguera, captain of the region of Tihosuco. The troops of Calderon were superior in number and armaments to those waiting with Jacinto Canek in Cisteil. Acona, in his "Historia de Yucatan" numbers them at... 2,,040 troops.

The captain general added to his precautionary measures. Indios that had not risen were stripped of their fire arms, and were prohibited from selling powder and shot, and many were prohibited from travel beyond their vicinity without a license from Spanish authorities. The whites, mestizos and mulatos were armed with the weapons collected from the Indios, and scaffolds were constructed, in announcement of the expected results in the main square in Merida, San Cristóbal, Santa Ana, Santiago, la Mejorada, and San Juan.. The capitan general declared forcefully that these preparations were for a war of the castes, terrible and without quarter.

This was well understood by the resident Spaniards and mestizos of the province... They had intercepted communications sent 
by Jacinto Canek... that revealed that the 
head of the insurrection intended no less 
than that the people rise in mass and kill all Spaniards and Criollos and destroy all 
affects and memories of European civilization.
But if the Indios of the region intended to second the call of insurrection given in Cisteil, they did not wish to publicize it until an opportune moment. The troops of the captain general marched rapidly and, arrived at the camp of Jacinto before he had received new supporters.

The assault was immediate, and the superiority in arms and discipline gave the triumph to the Spaniards. The Indios resisted with energy, but a number died in the combat and others perished in the flames of the buildings that they defended. Jacinto Canek managed to make his way with a handful of men to the hacienda of Huntulchac, where he found himself faced by his enemies, who easily overran the hacienda, due to Canek having few men and they being exhausted from the previous combat. And yet a new resistence was mounted by the rebel leader who had an indomnible valor and a font of unending energy. His troops, although apparently having just b been defeated, still fought on against victorious enemies.

Canek managed to slip from the hands of his pursuers a second time and seek refuge with the few comrades still accompanying him in the savannas of Cisteil. But the well directed troops of the enemy were determined not t o stop without complete victory, and they sent reconnoscence to locate the dispersed. Luck then ran out completely for Canek, who, worn from the long fight, could neither retreat further, nor defend himself, and he fell prisoner and was taken to Merida, which he entered the day of December 7, 1761.

The governor of the peninsula, don José Crespo y Honorato, would have been the judge to be informed about the prisoner and give the sentence. But he not being literate,. the auditor of war, don Sebastián Maldonado directed t he process and dictated the sentence, which was confirmed by the governor and the capitan general. All the resentment, all the loathing that could be contained in the heart of a man against an enemy came to its ultimate extreme of hatred and they rapidly put it in action to saciate their vengeance, which manifested itself without any veil of tolerance by assessor Maldonado or the capitan general.

Jacinto Canek was sentenced to have his body fractured and torn apart, and burned completely with the ashes thrown into the air. It might, perhaps, be impossible to find a worse torment inflicted at death to a human, because no judge would know how to invent one. The sentence was executed as it had been dictated, in the grand plaza of the city of Merida. Neither in Europe, nor in America is there found in the records of the second half of the eighteen th century a similar punishment.

There was no shortage of people of heart that raised their voice against these barbarous proceedings, and doctor Lorra, confesor of Canek, did so the platform as the victim suffered his cruel punishment.

In the eyes of an impartial historian, Jacinto Canek would have all the proportions 
needed to be a representative of the indignation of an oppressed and tyrannized race desiring to be free. But if he is not so depicted in the histories of the Yucatan, it is because contemporary accounts were written with an emphasis upon the bitter animosity that divided the two races. And yet, these same accounts, read with impartiality and with consideration of the many years that separate us from the event, enables us to comprehend that the caudillo of the unfortunate insurrection in the Yucatan in 1761 was not an anxious and vicious man who only acted to satisfy deranged 
appetitites but one who launched a mortal battle proclaiming the emancipation of an enslaved race.


. . . El ano siguiente de 1761, levantábase otra gran insurrección por el lado de Oriente en la provincia de Yucatán, gobernado allí el brigadier don José Crespo y Honorato. Los malos tratamientos de que habían vuelto a ser victimas los indios en aquella península por haberse restablecido con gran energía los repartimientos, había exaltado el animo de los naturales del país a tal grado, que no necesitaban sino un caudillo para levantarse; preséntaseles este en un indio llamado Jacinto, a quien sus compat riotas llamaron Canek, que vivía en Mérida, era natural de Campeche, hombre atrevido que recibió buena instrucción estudiando en sus primeros anos en el convento grande de Mérida. Su carácter apasionado e independiente fue causa de que los frailes le expulsaran del convento, y obligado a trabajar para proporcionarse la subsistencia, se hizo panadero.

En el mes de noviembre 1761 Jacinto Canek concurrió a una fiesta que se celebraba en el pueblo de Cisteil, en el territorio de Sotuta, y allí comenzó a propagar la idea de insurrección y a proponer a los indios el levantamiento inmediato, consiquiendo par alcanzar sus propósitos que la fiesta se prolongase por tres días mas, al fin de los cuales se declararon los indios en abierta rebelión, acaudillados por Jacinto.

Los historiadores atribuyen esta sublevación a la embriaguez de los indios, a la orgía constante en que se mantenían durante la fiesta y al deseo de Jacinto de poder vivir dando rienda libre a sus vicios; pero esas apreciaciones, por desgracia admitidas y seguidas por escritores modernos, no so sino la expresión del odio de los escritores contemporáneos españoles o mestizos contra los hombres que cansados y de la esclavitud y de la tiranía proclamaban su independencia; los mismos argumentos y las mismas acusaciones se han vertido siempre por todos los dominadores contra los caudillos de un movimiento de independencia, y el éxito, que en el mundo es el supremo dispensador de los que se llama justicia, ha hecho aparecer héroe a aquel cuya causa ha llegado a triunfar, aun cuando haya sido después de su muerte, y rebelde o criminal al que la desgracia ha oprimido con su mano de hierro..

Los sufrimiento de la raza indígena en Yucatán justificaban la insurrección: los antecedentes de Jacinto Canek, tanto pueden probar que por sus vicios había sido arrojado del convento y alimentaba un manifesto rencor contra los dominadores como dar muestra de que su carácter independiente y enérgico no cuadraba a hombres que estaban acostumbrados a encontrar por todas partes respeto y sumisión. En un orgía no pudo haberse organizado un rebelión como la que acaudillo Jacinto, que causo tan serios temores al gobierno de Yucatán, y si efecto solo de la embriaguez y del entusiasmo de una noche hubiera sido aquella sublevación, al disiparse los efectos del licor, los rebeldes, comprendiendo lo peligroso de la empresa que acometían, se hubieran dispersado y no abrían, como los hicieron, afrontado con tanto valor el enojo del gobierno de la península.

Los sublevados de Cisteil mataron a un español llamado Diego Pacheco, y desde el principio tomo aquella rebelión un carácter terrible, y aunque los historiadores tachan a Canek y a los suyos de asesinos por haber dado muerte a Pacheco y a otros españoles, esto es lo que se llama guerra de castas, sin cuartel y bastante para servir de sentencia de muerta de un hombre que pertenezca a la enemiga raza; los indios emprendían aquella guerra porque muchos anos de esclavitud y de sufrimiento tenia que vengar, y sabían, por otra parte, que la misma suerte les preparaban sus enemigos.

Por el presbítero Miguel Ruela, que había ido a decir misa a Cisteil y escapo de los sublevados, supo el comandante de Sotuta, don Tiburcio Cosgaya la noticia de la insurrección; dio part e al gobernador y capitán general, y con veinte jinetes marcho sobre los indios. Canek tuvo aviso de su llegada, salio contra el y le ataco vigorosamente con doscientos hombres que llevaba a sus ordenes. Cosgaya y diez de los suyos murieron en el combate y el resto de los soldados huyo llevando la alarma a todas partes. Cien infantes que venían en auxilio de Cosgaya contramarcharon violentamente.

Aquel golpe alentó a los indios, y Canek, fortificando el pueble de Cisteil, espero el ataque de los españoles. La insurrección no cundió con violencia, a pesar de que Canek escribió a todos los pueblos, pues apenas logro reunir mil quinientos hombres y ningún otro pueblo secundo el movimiento de Cisteil. El gobierno de Yucatán obro con gran actividad, levanto inmediatamente fuerzas que mando contra los sublevados…Ancona, en su “Historia de Yucatán, las enumera…2,040.

El capitán general multiplicaba las medidas de precaución; los indios que no habían levantado fueron despojados de las armas de fuego; se les previno que ninguno saliese de su vecindad sin licencia de las autoridades españoles; los blancos, mestizos y mulatos fueron armados con las armas que se recogieron a los indios, y como anuncio de la suerte que los españoles preparaban a sus enemigos, se levantaron horcas en la plaza principal de Mérida y en las de San Cristóbal, Santa Ana, Santiago, la Mejorada y San Juan. El capitán general hacia con estas disposiciones la mas completa declaración de que aquella era un guerra de castas terrible y sin cuartel.

Así lo habían comprendido los vecinos españoles y mestizos de la provincia,…(de) las comunicaciones que se interceptaban de Jacinto Canek…que bastaba no mas (que) la invitación del caudillo de los insurrectos para que los pueblos se levantaron en masa matando a todos los españoles y criollos y destruyendo hasta los recuerdos de la civilización europea.

Pero los indios, si intenciones tuvieron de secundar la insurrección de Cisteil, no quisieron o no pulieron hacerlo en tiempo oportuno, y las tropas del capitán general caminando rápidamente llegaron al campo de Jacinto antes de que este pudiera recibir nuevos auxilios.

El asalto se dio inmediatamente: la s uperioridad de las armas y de la disciplina dio el triunfo a los españoles; los indios resistieron con energía, pero unos murieron en el combate, otros perecieron entre las llamas de los edificios en que se defendían, y Jacinto Canek logro abrirse paso con un puñado de hombres y llego a la hacienda de Huntulchac, en donde volvió a hacer frente a sus enemigos. La toma de aquella posición era ya mas fácil y segura para los españoles, porque Canek contaba con poco numero de hombres y estaban todos fatigados del combate anterior; pero aquella nueva resistencia es una prueba de que el caudillo indio tenia un valor indomable y una incontrastable energía, supuesto que acabando de ser derrotado todavía presentaba una acción de guerra a sus enemigos victoriosos.

Canek consiguió salir por segunda vez libre de las manos de sus enemigos y busco un refugio con los pocos amigos que le acompañaban en las sabanas de Cisteil; pero las tropas vencedoras bien dirigidas no dejaron incomplete la victoria y comenzaron a hacer una bat ida persiguiendo a los dispersos. Entonces la suerte abandono completamente a Canek, que fatigado de tan larga lucha no pudo ni retirarse ni defenderse, y hecho prisionero fue conducido a Mérida, a donde entro el día 7 de diciembre de 1761.

Dirigió el proceso y dicto la sentencia, con la que se conformo el gobernador y capitán general. Todo el rencor, todo el odio que puede contener contra su enemigo… para saciar en el su venganza, se manifesto sin el velo del disimulo en el asesor Maldonado y en el capitán general: Jacento Canek fue condenado a morir atenaceado y fracturado, quemado su cuerpo y arrojadas sus cenizas al aire. Quizás no se agrego otro tormento más para dar muerte aquel hombre, porque no supo inventarle el auditor. La sentencia se ejecuto tal como se había dictado, en la plaza mayor de la ciudad de Mérida. ¡Ni en Europa ni en America se aplicaba castigo semejante ni se tenia por aplicable en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII.!



No faltaron hombres de corazón que levantaran la voz contra aquel bárbaro procedimiento: el doctor Lorra, confesor de Canek, predicó sobre el cadalso mismo de la víctima censurado la crueldad del castigo.

Jacinto Canek a los ojos de un historiador imparcial tiene todas las proporciones de un héroe y del representante de la indignación y del deseo de libertad de una raza oprimida y tiranizada. Sin en las historias de Yucatán no se le pinta así, es porque las relaciones contemporáneas que han servido de fuente para escribir ese relato están dictadas por la rencorosa animosidad que allí dividió a las dos razas; pero esas mismas relaciones leídas con la imparcialidad y meditación que producen los muchos anos que nos separan del suceso, nos hacen comprender que el caudillo de la desgraciada insurrección de Yucatán en 1761, no era le hombre inquieto y vicioso que solo por satisfacer desordenados apetitos se lanza en una lucha mortal proclamando la emancipación de una raza eslavizada.


   Through the years the image of Jacinto Canek has been evoked in odd ways. Mexican General Severio del Castillo, who fought against the Maya independence fighters in 1867 later wrote a novel about the Yucatan in which the heroine is a native woman, Maria, who is the granddaughter of Jacinto, and therefore "Queen" of the Maya. At t he novel’s conclusion she leaves the Yucatan for Europe with her non-indigenous lover.

      The hesitance shown in many Maya villages to join Canek can be seen in light of a lack of political unity among the Maya from the conquest on into the 20th Century.  Great numbers of Yucatan Maya never joined the 1847-1901 war, known as the "War of the Castas." As for the Maya who did join that revolution, they gained solid control of substantial territory and were able to hold their capital city of Chan Santa Cruz. This impressed the British in neighboring Belize, who bought goods sold by the Maya in return for guns and amunition.  The British also gave political recognition to the Indigenous state. Withdrawl of this diplomatic recognition in 1893 led to an end of trade, and eight years later the Mexican army entered the Maya capital and the war ended..

Today, Canek is a tragic hero in some circles of heavy metal rock. The "Jacinto Canek" band of musicians working out of Italy features Bulgarian, Gypsy, U.S., Japanese, and Bosnian performers. The band web site states that the group is "dedicated to the Maya native who...fought to the death for the freedom of his people."



Martínez, Martinez, Martíniz, Martiniz, Martin, Martins, Martín, Marcial
Locate the distribution of a specific Surnames throughout the world. 


Source of shield:

Wednesday, November 18, 1992 
Volviendo a Nuestra Raices
Part 2

Martinez is the fourth most popular surname found in all of Spain and the former Spanish colonies.  It is derived from the surname Martin. The "ez" added, means son of. As Martin, the surname found in France, Germany and England. In Italy an "i" is added for Martini. The Catalan equivalent for Martin is Marte or Marti. In other parts of Spain, Martino, Marco and Marzo are popular. 

All of the above surnames have a common root in the Latin name of "Martinus," after the Roman god of war, "Mars." However, not all bearers of these surnames are necessarily related. Marti in its most ancient form, originated in Galicia and Asturias. The popularization of the name, no doubt is found in the well loved Saint Martin, born in the year 316.

As a young man, Martin came across a beggar, cold and naked. Filled with compassion for the beggar, Martin having nothing else with him to give, cut his cape in half and gave that to the suffering stranger. The following night, Martin had a vision of the Lord commending him for act of charity. Martin received his religious training in Poitiers and served in Tours, France. From there his fame and name spread throughout the Christian world.

Among some of the earliest explorers is the name of Juan Martinez de Acoque listed as able seaman sailing with Christopher Columbus on the Santa Maria in 1492. Three Martinez men, also with the first name of Juan, served with Hernando Cortes, either in the original Cortes entrada of 1520 and/or the founding of Veracruz.

Not all that participated in the siege of Tenochtitlan survived, many died in the conquest, killed by Indians or hardships, and some returned to Spain. Of those that stayed in Nueva Espana, not all were awarded land.

Linda MARTINEZ-WANGERIN, a Lakewood, California resident has traced her earliest roots to JUAN MARTINEZ involved in the colonizing of early Veracruz. However, no Juan Martinez is found among the first awarded land grants, or encomiendas in Nuevo Espana. A Francisco Martinez Guajardo did arrive in Saltillo in 1604 and was the owner of a Hacienda and a mill. His son's name was Juan.  

The migratory path traveled by her earliest ancestors in Mexico was north from Puebla to Monterey, then northwest to Chihuahua. Following their trek, she found that they migrated  to Mesilla, Las Cruces, Dona Ana, and then Silver City, all within Grant County, New Mexico.

The family settled in Georgetown. Working in the silver mine district. Great Grandfather Gumesindo Martinez eventually purchased the Burro Mine which he kept until his death in 1904. With his inheritance Grandfather Anselmo opened a hay and grain mercantile store, winning the approval of his future father-in- law. He married Felicitas Benavides on December 7,1904. Unfortunately Anselmo died 7 years later at the age of 28. Like many miners of that time, he died of black lung disease.

After the death of her husband in 1911, Felicitas immediately left Grant County, New Mexico and came to California, with her four children. Living with her parents, Epifanio and Adelaida Benavides who was of Comanche-Apache bloodline. Felicitas trained and became proficient as a nurse. She supported her four children and saw them through college, an unusual and outstanding achievement for that time.

Her first born was Jose Reymundo (the son in her world) Martinez. Mrs. Martinez-Wangerin's father,  Reymundo, attended the Spanish Indian Institute in San Diego, graduating in Business Admistration and started "Best of All Cookie Company." After financially establishing himself, Reymundo married Dora Martha Peterson in October 1937.

Family researcher, Mrs. Linda Martinez-Wangerin expressed great love and respect for her ancestors. "I draw strength from my forefathers. Their faith and tenacity taught me that all things possible with an optimistic outlook."

Family sumames on Mrs. Martinez-Wangerin's pedigree: Benavides, Perez, Carbajal, Galas, Parras- Luna, Armijo, Melendres, and Montoya.

Compiled by Mimi Lozano, Member of the Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research.

Locate the distribution of a specific Surnames throughout the world. 
This is so much fun:



Oct 15: Mesoamerican Mythologies
Oct 17: Orange County Hispanic Education Endowment Fund
Light Impressions Archival Workshop
Nov 8: Veterans Day Celebration: A Tribute to Mexican American Patriots 
Nov 14-16: La Cultura Cura: Healing Traditions, Models of Care with Latina/o Families


"Mesoamerican Mythologies"

Lecture by Dr. Michael Coe on Meso American Archaeology.  

Wed. Oct 15, 2008, 7:00 PM 
Beckman Center  
University of California, Irvine  


This lecture FREE to the public is an introduction to a full day of presentation on October 18, a wonderful event featuring 7 of the top Mesoamerican scholars including the renowned Mexican archaeologist Senor Lopez Lujan who is excavating what is the likely tomb of the last Aztec emperor under the Templo Mayor in Mexico City.  

The peoples of ancient Mesoamerica, including the Maya, Mixtecs and Aztecs, recorded their mythological beliefs in a wide variety of media, including screenfold books, murals, painted ceramic vessels, and monumental stone carvings. In addition, sixteenth century chroniclers wrote detailed accounts in both Spanish and native languages concerning the doings of gods and cosmogonic acts of creation. From this rich corpus of information, it is readily apparent that many themes are of great geographic range and antiquity, with many beliefs concerning gods of agricultural abundance, the earth, and celestial bodies continuing with contemporary peoples of Mesoamerica.

There will also be a reception for our guest speakers on Friday evening, October 17th,  at this hotel for our NWAC members and the attendees to our event, that are staying at this hotel.  The Symposium on Sat. Oct. 18 at 8:00-5:00PM and includes full breakfast and lunch also at the Beckman Center .    Forum cost $165.00.

The Symposium is being presented by the New World Archaeology Council, Anthropology Department of UC Riverside and the Archaeological Institute of America - Orange County Society.  Symposium organizers are Russ Block and Caroline Maddock, Co - Directors are members of the New World
Archaeology Council.  For more information, please please contact Caroline Maddock at

Click to article on last emperor to complete his rule before the Spanish Conquest.


Orange County Hispanic Education Endowment Fund
15th Anniversary
Apple of Gold Awards Gala Dinner
Friday, October 17


Carr Intermediate, Santa Ana Unified School District
Excellence in K-12 Educational Leadership

Orange Coast College, Coast Community College District
Excellence in Community College Instruction

Valley High School, Santa Ana Unified School District
Most Promising Young Teacher

Friday, October 17, 2008
Anaheim Hilton
777 Convention Way
Anaheim, CA.

INFORMATION:  (949) 553-4202 Ext. 28
FAX:  (714) 542-5282
"John Palacio"
Orange County Hispanic Education Endowment Fund
c/o Orange County Community Foundation
30 Corporate Park, Suite 410 Irvine, CA. 92606


  Light Impressions Archival Workshop

Old Orange County Courthouse
211 W. Santa Ana Blvd.
Santa Ana, CA 92701

Safeguarding Memories and Preserving our Past
Saturday, October 18, 2008
9 a.m. - 2:30 p.m.

Presented by Orange County Historical Commission and OC Parks
Information (714) 973-6607 or (714) 973-6610.



Veterans Day Celebration: 
A Tribute to Mexican American Patriots 
Nov. 8, 2008 
California State University, Fullerton
For more information:






November 15-16, 2008
Pre-Conference Workshops: November 14, 2008

Westin South Coast Plaza
Costa Mesa, California

The National Latina/o Psychological Associations' 2008 Conference-will be held November 14-16, 2008 in Costa Mesa, California. This year's conference theme is La Cultura Cura: Healing Traditions and Models of Care with Latina/o Families Communities which will serve as an opportunity for Latina/o Psychologists from across the United States to collaborate, learn and share from high quality educational workshops, and contribute to the development of national policy that could affect health care delivery to these communities. We are able to accomplish this task only with generous sponsorships from companies like yours. 

Who are we?
The National Latina/o Psychological Association (formerly the National Hispanic Psychological Association) was established in 1979 by a group of Latino psychologists and colleagues, primarily affiliated with the American Psychological Association. Since August 2002, the organization's membership has increased by 100%. Association membership is open to individuals who are committed to the mission of NLPA, thus, being of Latina/o heritage is not a requirement. Members are professionals, students, institutions, and Life-Time Founding Member contributors.

The association was incorporated in Arizona and has 501(c)(3) status. State and regional associations addressing Latino psychology have also been formed in the Midwest, California, and New Jersey. NLPA is a member of the Council of National Psychological Associations for the Advancement of Ethnic Minority Interests (CNPAAEMI) in affiliation with the American Psychological Association.

NLPA is looking for sponsors. For more information and to register for the conference, please go to:

Sent by Steve Delgadillo



Cardinal Manning's personal collection of Leo Politi's Books with personal artwork 
October Events of Los Pobladores 
Oct 2: Dionicio Morales Foundation Reception
Korean Mexicans learn more of their Asian roots on visit to Southern California
Los Angeles National Veterans Home 

Nov 3, 2008 to January 3, 2009  
                                  Politi Exhibit will include                                          
 Cardinal Timothy Manning's 
personal collection of 
Leo Politi's Books 
h personal artwork.  

Cardinal Timothy Manning once  said "the artistic genius of Leo Politi is his gift of being able to penetrate the heart of a child and to reproduce in his works the innocence and loveliness of those who reflect the Kingdom of God."   




Leo Politi Exhibit

Nov 3, 2008 to January 3, 2009  
The Leo Politi Exhibit will include Cardinal Manning's personal collection of Leo Politi's Books with personal artwork.  

Cardinal Timothy Manning once  said "the artistic genius of Leo Politi is his gift of being able to penetrate the heart of a child and to reproduce in his works the innocence and loveliness of those who reflect the Kingdom of God."   

The information is being posted a month early to facilitate teachers and youth leaders in making arrangements to take children to this very special Leo Politi exhibit.


Editor: The book cover that I've included is one of my very favorite books.  It is the story that takes place in the Bunker Hills of Los Angeles.  A mischievous little monkey, Piccalo, creates a a big problem on Angel's Flight, a trolley that travels uphill.  As a child, my grandparents lived in the Bunker Hills. We lived west of Grand Central Market and many times when returning from shopping, we would ride on Angel's Flight. Those experiences were especially fond memories.  

Sent by Maria Krueger  who writes: 

The Lugonia "Forget Me Not" Garden was created in 1998 by now retired Lugonia elementary school teacher Diana Holly and her 5th grade class. This garden provides students, parents, the community a place to get acquainted with nature and it enhances the school campus environment.  Since its inception, the garden has been a focal point of pride, beauty, and knowledge, not only for the School but for the entire Redland's community. The Smiley Library commissioned a stained glass window to pay special tribute to the Lugonia "Forget Me Not" Garden. The Garden has inspired other Redland's Schools to create their own gardens. For a decade now, the students have been reading Leo Politi's books in the Garden. One of their favorite stories is from Ann Stalcup's book "Leo Politi, Artist of the Angels." This story tells about the weeds in Politi's yard.  Leo Politi found these weeds to be so beautiful and decorative and was saddened when his son had cut them down before he could capture their wondrous beauty on paper. The students wanted to celebrate Leo Politi's centennial by creating garden full of those wondrously beautiful and decorative weeds. The Leo Politi Weeds Garden was a perfect way to honor the life of Leo Politi.


Dionicio Morales Foundation Reception

October 2nd at 6:00 p.m.

I wanted to let you know that the Dionicio Morales Foundation Inaugural Gala will be changed to February 28, 2009 at the Ricardo Montalban Theatre.  The theatre is going under renovation sponsored by Nike.  I'm very excited for Jerry Velasco and everyone at the Ricardo Montalban Theatre.

We will be having a kick off reception for the new Dionicio Morales Foundation at Promerica Bank on Thursday, October 2nd at 6:00 p.m. 888 S. Figueroa, Suite 100, Los Angeles.  An invite will be sent on the next email.  I look forward to seeing you soon.

Magdalena Morales, President
Dionicio Morales Foundation
(323) 988-0151  (323) 908-4097 fax

October Events of Los Pobladores

Boyle Heights Historical Society, will be having an event related to the History of the
Workman and Hollenbeck Family's, on October 3rd, 2008, at 1:30 PM. Location Hollenbeck
Palms, 573 South Boyle Ave., Boyle Heights, CA 90023, just off the 5 Freeway, you exit onto 4th
Street, and to Hillenbeck Park and turn onto Boyle Ave. Point of contact for additional
information, (313) 263-1005, or (323) 269-2668.

Fiesta Del Rio at the Tijuana Estuary, Imperial Beach State Park, on October 5, 2008. The event is related to the 1769 Gaspar de Portola Expedition, with performances by the
Yesteryears Dancers, Los Californianos and Los Soldados and other historical organizations.
(The re-enactment of La Expedicion a Alta California of 1769). For additional information
contact the SHP Park Office, Park Ranger Anne Marie Tipton, at (619) 575-3613, ext. 304.

Los Pobladores 200, 27th Annual Birthday Celebration will be held on Saturday, October 18, 2008 from about 1:00 PM to 5:00 PM, at the San Antonio Winery, Los Angeles, it is estimated to be about 20 members and guests in attendance, but if additional members would like to attend, I will contact the winery for additional space. Cost of meals is on your own, with a cake celebrating our 27th Anniversary as an association. Please RSVPS by contacting either Irene S. Hastings (951) 283-4757, or Bob Smith (me), at (310) 549-9819 or email:


Cordially invites you to join us 
in recognizing distinguished leaders who make a difference.

Getting Involved: Our Families, Our Community, Our City"
Thursday, October 16, 2008 The Grand 4101 E. Willow Street Long Beach, CA 90815 6:00pm - 9:00pm
Network, Invocation & Dinner Live Auction


Advanced Development Investment (IDI) Inc./ Squier Properties
Pacific City Lights Affordable Housing Nuestra Imogen Award

Honorable Mayor Bob Foster & First Lady Nancy Foster 
City of Long Beach

F. King Alexander, President 
California State University, Long Beach

Michelle Molina, CEO, President 
Peace Partners, Inc. 

Honorable Councilmember Bonnie Lowenthal 
City of Long Beach, 1st

Westside Neighborhood Clinic 
Alan Terwey, Executive Director

Ana Sosa, Monic De Anda, Eric Villasenor, Andres Rodriguez |
For more information: Lupe Velasco (562-570-4722

Korean Mexicans learn more of their Asian roots on visit to Southern California  

The visitors are descendants of Koreans lured to the Yucatan Peninsula a century ago by false promises. In ensuing decades, they spread to other parts of Mexico and abandoned the Korean language.

By Hector Becerra, Los Angeles Times Staff Writer, August 16, 2008

The teenagers and young adults struggled as they rehearsed an ancient Korean song, a kind of lamentation to leaving home.

"Uno, dos, tres," began Fermin Kim, 48, a chaperon for the group.
Arirang, Arirang, Arariyo. . . .

The words burbled out in a discordant drone, tentatively and unsteadily -- sounding very much like, well, Mexicans suddenly asked to sing in Korean.

The young Korean Mexicans had arrived from Mexico City, Tijuana and the Yucatan Peninsula on a recent afternoon and come to a sprawling Lynwood shopping center designed to look like Mexico. As they were dropped off by shuttles, they passed a statue of Mexican independence leader Miguel Hidalgo and a replica of the Angel of Independence in downtown Mexico City.

They came, perhaps fittingly, to Plaza Mexico -- a place that was created by a Korean American who has a habit of slipping into Spanglish.

Los Angeles is a city where the large Mexican and Korean communities co-exist in ways that both bring them together and separate them. They share the immigrant experience and communication barriers that come with it. But the different languages -- Spanish and Korean -- can also be an obstacle.

Here, however, the fusion was literal. The teens and twentysomethings bear strong Korean features but consider themselves true Mexicans. Even their older chaperons, Fermin Kim and David Kim, 70 (not related), no longer spoke Korean -- though they are third- and fourth-generation Korean Mexicans who have no Mexican blood.

The group of 20 were to perform that night for Korean and Mexican dignitaries in one of the banquet halls. They practiced the Korean folk song over and over, as Korean Americans and Latino waiters looked on. They only really felt comfortable when they started to consider which Mexican song to perform.

"And all for what, and all for what, if in the end you lose?" Rafael Kim, 23, of Mexico City crooned.

They were the descendants of Koreans lured in 1905 by ship to plantations on the Yucatan Peninsula in southern Mexico. Instead of finding a better life, they were sold to plantation owners and forced to cultivate henequen, a plant whose tough fiber was used to make things like rope.

The Koreans and their descendants would come to be known as the Henequen, in part because they were so hardy and hard-working. They had fled a Korea that was under Japanese rule, and despite their struggle, they sent money back home, hoping to help their countrymen gain independence. But few ever saw their homeland again.

In the ensuing decades, they spread to other parts of Mexico -- and increasingly intermarried with Mexicans. Little by little, they abandoned the Korean language. Alberto King, a 23-year-old college student in Tijuana, said that although his mother looked Korean she spoke only Spanish. Her own parents had stopped speaking Korean.

"The Mexicans at first would not accept them. So their own parents decided to cut off the language and just talk Spanish," King said. "It went really badly for them because of the language."

Fermin Kim said fights were a part of life in grade school, when they would be called chinos (Chinese). In the beginning, intermarriage was strongly discouraged. He said he had a Mexican girlfriend and his grandparents reacted by asking, " 'Where did you find her?' They got mad." He ended up marrying another Korean Mexican. David Kim, his fellow chaperon, said that despite being one of the older Henequen, he married a Mexican woman.

For decades, as Korea struggled under foreign rule and wars, the Korean Mexicans were largely forgotten. Various estimates place their numbers at up to 30,000. But as South Korea began to prosper economically and the centennial of the Koreans' arrival in Yucatan drew near, attention focused on them.

They were visited by South Korean politicians and were invited to their ancestors' homeland. Korean Mexicans were flown to South Korea to get special job training. South Koreans built hospitals and schools in Mexico and were feted by Mexican officials.

"When the centennial happened in 2005, we almost got celebrity treatment," Fermin Kim said. "That's something we never had in 99 years."

That year, a group of Korean Mexicans was brought by the Korean-American Foundation to Plaza Mexico in Lynwood. The visitors were surprised by how many people of Korean descent live in the Los Angeles area.

"We didn't even know there was such a large Korean community so close by," Fermin Kim said. "We didn't even know there was a Koreatown. We hadn't integrated with Koreans here."

Plaza Mexico, which opened in 2002, was the vision of Donald Chae, a Korean American who grew up among Latinos and who has traveled throughout Mexico. Chae tells people that, "I don't speak Spanish. I speak Mexican."

"I am a Korean American Mexican," he quips. "I'm still waiting for my pasaporte."

The center was built with Mexican stone and boasted touches like a swap meet with a facade designed after the colonial-era governor's mansion in Guadalajara and a shrine for the Virgin of Guadalupe.

Chae said that when he spoke to the young Korean Mexicans, he could tell they were surprised he spoke Spanish fluently. He in turn was struck by how strongly their identity was rooted.

"They're real Mexicans," Chae said. "They have a real Mexican way of talking. They use a lot of doble sentidos (double entendres). Mexicans use a lot of double meanings."

But he said it was important that they learn about the other culture that informed their lives and those of their ancestors. "When you don't know your culture," Chae said, "you get lost."

By 6:30 p.m., the spectators had taken their seats. A Korean woman dressed in a blue sequined dress sang the American and Korean national anthems. A few of the Korean Mexican youths tried to gamely mouth the words of the latter.

The consul generals of Mexico and Korea gave speeches. Four of the Korean Mexicans performed a tea ceremony as Hyun Kim led them with hand signals. Then a Mexican folkloric group and a Korean dance troupe took turns on the stage.

Dressed in their mix-and-match outfits, the young Korean Mexicans looked on with mouths slightly agape as the teenage Korean girls used wooden sticks to rapidly beat elevated drums.

Then the 20 Korean Mexicans took the stage.
Arirang, Arirang, Arariyo. . . . The song describing a woman, looking as her husband walked away up a crooked road.

The audience smiled and clapped. Moments later, the youths jumped into the Mexican song they had decided to sing: "Cielito Lindo."
From the brown Sierras,
Heavenly one, they come descending,
A pair of dark eyes, heavenly one. . . . .
Ay ay ay ay, sing and don't cry. . . . .

As people streamed out of the hall, Rafael Kim said he was moved most of all by the Korean girls who danced so gracefully and full of purpose, as if they knew full well who they were.

"You feel a sensation of pride, because you're a Korean descendant, just like them," he said in Spanish. "I see them dance so beautifully, and that I didn't know of things like this as a child, it makes me a little sad. It's a feeling of discovered feelings."

As he walked away, Woo Jun Lee, a stocky middle-aged Korean American, ran over to Kim so they could all take a picture together.  Waving his hand, Lee cried out: "Hey, paisano!"




Los Angeles National Veterans Home 

Dear Fellow Veterans and Friends of Veterans:

This Sunday, August 31st, will mark the 25th consecutive gathering of the "Veterans Revolution" to take back the historic Los Angeles National Veterans Home and restore its revered legacy as a safe haven for America's Military Veterans to heal from war.

Tomorrow, like the past 24 Sundays, a small band of volunteer patriots armed with nothing more than their unabashed loyalty, a 15-foot banner that says "Save Our Veterans Land," and a Document titled the "Declaration of Enforcement" to uphold the promise and principles of the Deed of 1888, will again faithfully and relentlessly gather at the corner of Wilshire and San Vicente Boulevards to defend our Veterans sacred land.

Make no mistake; Veterans are winning this Revolution as we have gained the support of the California American Legion, the American G.I. Forum of California, the National Veterans Coalition, the Gathering of Eagles, a U.S. Presidential candidate, a U.S. Congressional candidate, and loyal community allies. This is already a remarkable feat, but it is only the beginning. Our ultimate victory must precise and conclusive, and in accordance with the Veterans Declaration of Enforcement.

Consequently, this will not be easy.  Remember, if it was easy, somebody else would have already done it. To the contrary, the Veterans Revolution is not an easy battle because it requires sincere and serious dedication, loyalty, and the courage to fight against all odds.
It requires a special breed and it's why less than 10% of our citizenry serve to defend our country.  Thank you for answering the call then, and please answer the call today.

"I Will Never Surrender"
Leading the Veterans Revolution are dedicated World War II and Korean War Veterans who are in their 70s and 80s, while the younger Revolutionaries are in their 50s and 60s and served during the Vietnam War. 

These loyal patriots and serious Veterans who once served in separate branches of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force and National Guard while defending our national homeland, now stand shoulder-to-shoulder defending the sacred land of their National Veterans Home. 

And forever faithful to Article II of their Military Code of Conduct, "I will never surrender," they fight on. And like their soldiering days of old, these old soldiers keep winning!

Please do not sit on the sideline and be a spectator in this great and noble cause. Instead, show up every Sunday so that one day soon, you can proudly say: "I was an Active Duty Soldier of the "Veterans Revolution," and your place in Veteran history will forever be honored.

Know this: We need your help!  Do not wait until October 5th for the Super Rally and Southern California Veterans Celebration to show up. This major extravaganza is five weeks away and it will not "just happen."  No, it will require a lot commitment, organization and donation of time and money to make it happen.  Can you help?  Of course you can, but will you help? 

Please show up tomorrow or e-mail back and say: "How can I help?"

Thank you for your support.
Robert Rosebrock
Co-Director, We the Veterans
"Old Soldiers Who Will Not Just Fade Away"


Heritage Discovery Center -  Pacheco Park Project
Oct 25: Circle of Harmony, Poway
Joe Rodriguez: Artist comes to SJSU to unveil tribute to Cesar Chavez
Cesar E. Chavez Humanitarian Award given to Dorinda Moreno
Did I Make a Difference?
Oscar Chapa  December 15, 1917 - August 11,2008
Conference of California Historical Societies Fall Symposium, 2-4 October
Hemet Family History Fair, 11 October
Chino Family History Fair, 18 October
San Diego,
Legends of Flight, 25 October 
Los Californianos Meeting, 24-26, October
Finales del Concurso de Cantos Karaoke en el Restaurant Los Gallitos

George Ow Jr. to receive community service award
Cruz Gomez to be honored at community celebrations

The Miramontes Family 
Passing of Carmen Miramontes Perruquet
Still alive, Bernardo Yorba's Great Grandchild my Aunt Phoebe! 
Don Juan Pablo Grijalva
Pena Vaca Berryessa Reunion, June 6th, 2009



Heritage Discovery Center -  

                                                Don Francisco Pacheco

During these challenging months for our State and our Country the Heritage Discovery Center is finding even more purpose for the preservation of our early history and a location for families to share meaningful experiences.    At this time we are developing 
a site plan for the HDC at Pacheco State Park , located north of Monterey on Hwy 152 below the San Luis Reservoir.  

This site will include the buildings of the Don Francisco Pacheco family ranch, Rancho San Luis Gonzaga.  There will also be a second site for the Miller Cattle Co. which later leased the Gonzaga  ranch; a line shack still exists from this historic cattle operation. Mr. Henry Miller attempted for years to purchase the famous Rancho Gonzaga from Mr. Pacheco, however the ranch remained with the family members until granddaughter Paula Fatio passed.  Latter Henry Miller founded the town of Los Banos .  

Mr. Pacheco’s granddaughter, Paula donated the remaining part of the land to our State Parks with the dream that it would be used for preservation of our States Wildlife, natural resources and nature’s beauty and also for the use and remembrance of horses and the Gonzaga ranch history.  

Another notable fact that will also be presented is the history of the Butterfield Stage Line that stationed at the barn of the Pacheco family ranch.   

The tale of Sherriff Harry Love attempting to capture the infamous Joaquin Murrietta and Three Fingered Jack in the Pacheco Adobe is also a story that must be shared.  

The Pacheco Pass during California’s transition period from Spanish Colonization and the Californios to the Gold Rush period has many fantastic stories to be presented and preserved.  

The Heritage Discovery Center is working with Hibser Yamauchi Architects, Inc to re-create a plan for the original Pacheco ranch buildings and hopefully a new building for an Information/Museum center for central California at Pacheco State Park .  

Robin Collins is also working with the Native Daughters of the Golden West about the family histories of Monterey , San Benito and Merced Counties during that period.  

We welcome everyone to participate in sharing information about the area or peoples of 
the period.  Please contact Robin Collins at 559 868-8681, Fax 559 868-8682 or e-mail


Circle of Harmony
October 25th


Greetings, If you are up for an amazing experience in music, Xavier brings through an energy of the ancients, his fire flutes are one of a kind (the idea came to him in a vision with his Huichol ancestors in a peyote ceremony)  His clay flutes were bought for the movie, "Apocalypto". From Huichol descent he bridges the energy of the old and new. He is a personal friend. His heart energy poetically enchants you with his flute music.

The blend of R. Carlos Nakai and Xavier Quijas Yxayotl is truly a divine union from the music of the spheres!!! 

Poway Center for the Performing Arts
15498 Espola Rd.
Poway, CA 92064

Peace, Candace & Xavier



Joe Rodriguez: 
Artist comes to SJSU to unveil tribute to Cesar Chavez

Brothers Antero and Abel Recendiz of San Martin work on artist Judith Baca's monument 
in honor of Cesar Chavez at San Jose State University on Wednesday. 
(Maria J. Avila / Mercury News)

"Oh, Tony, the color of the cement is all wrong, it will wash out the arch,'' she told Tony Valenzuela, the campus facilities director. At the same time, she praised the workmen for setting an intricate ribbon of Byzantine tile into the same miscolored cement.

The yellow around the arch was too bright and loud, more like the school's gold logo than the subdued color of maize Baca was looking for. No problem, Valenzuela agreed, it'll be repainted.

By now, 15 years after Chavez's death, nobody is quite sure how many schools, libraries, streets and parks have been named or renamed after the man who organized farmworkers, led the famous boycott of grapes, followed Gandhi, and joined the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. and Robert F. Kennedy as a voice for social and economic justice during the 1960s. 

But when it comes to commissioned, artistic memorials, says Chavez family spokesman Rudy Medina, Baca's Mayan-inspired arch is the largest and most impressive.

"There's nothing bigger than this one," Medina said. "I think it's great. It reflects a lot of roots to the Latino community and to Chavez's life.'' 

About seven years ago the student body proposed a monument to Chavez on campus. The idea was to have art that showed the university's and San Jose's roles in the political and social activism of the 1960s. 

"We see the Chavez archway as reflecting the university's and this area's history in making social progress,'' university spokesman Larry Carr said.

For example, anyone who has visited the campus can't miss the tall, imposing sculptures of San Jose State track stars Tommie Smith and John Carlos, caught in their black-power salutes at the 1968 Olympics. 

Baca's arch joins other pieces of such representative art on campus. I can look at this sculpture and say, "I'm proud to be a Chicano,'' said continuing student Adam Castellano, 44. "And that's not a word a lot of people use or even know today. I think this monument will get a lot of young Latinos to think and ask questions about their roots.'' 

Baca hopes so, too, saying "the purpose of monuments is to preserve the past, inform the present and change the future. '' 

She didn't hesitate to apply when San Jose State asked for proposals five years ago. As a college student in the '60s, she met representatives of Chavez's fledgling United Farm Workers and was so impressed she signed up to paint murals for the union for $5 a day. She went on to create one of Los Angeles' first public mural projects and become a prominent city muralist. Baca now teaches at the University of California-Los Angeles in the Chicano studies department. 

As a scholar of monumental art, she knew the material of choice for memorials to heroes is bronze. And she also thought about the rounded European memorial arches that commemorate events or serve as gateways, but she replaced them with the pointed Mayan version to reflect Chavez's ancient Mexican roots.

The arch also sits in a small plaza with a fountain and some curiously non-political Chavez quotations set into the cement floor. Baca has a spiritual, earthy strategy here. She wants visitors to read one quote, "Soon, the grapes will be sweet once again,'' and make their way past murals of two ordinary, anonymous farmworkers, two more of Gandhi and UFW co-founder Dolores Huerta, and finally a mural inside the arch featuring Chavez and another including Robert Kennedy. Baca ends the circular walk with this Chavez quote: "The end of all education should surely be service to others.'' 

Contact Joe Rodriguez at or (408) 920-5767.

Dorinda Moreno receives Cesar E. Chavez Humanitarian Award

In recognition of Dorinda's lifetime achievements as a dedicated leader who gives of herself without conditions of enrichment or self promotion and has further demonstrated her commitment to social justice, humanitarian efforts and La Causa para nuestra gente. Her special calling has helped launch and document the dynamic history of the great Chicano/Latino Movement.

In Proud Observance of the 40th Anniversary of the San Francisco State University Strike, Los Siete de La Raza, and San Quentin 6.  “There is no greater calling than giving of ones self for others in need"... "Cesar E. Chavez'

Your Friends in San Diego
Barrio Station Theatre
September 9th, 2008
Cesar E. Chavez Vive - Lives

My humble gratitude, siempre.
Not expected and proudly received.

Madrina-Padrino Circle, for 'One Dream 2009'

Rachael Ortiz / Barrio Station: Mario y Beatriz Aguilar, Carlos Castaneda, Gus Chavez, Chunky Sanchez, Ruben Seja, Hector Villegas

The gathering held at the Barrio Station was appreciated by everyone as a ceremony of the espiritu of La Causa, in the path of La Huelga y Si Se Puede!', whose emotive spirit moved each present but not more than the youth from San Rafael in northern California, who returned after first meeting with Rachael Ortiz during the National Council of La Raza, and invited to return for a Madrina-Padrino ceremony honoring their introduction to standing up for their rights. The group, under the tutelage of Dr. Juan Carlos Arauz, guide in the phenomenal launching of this campaign which hopes having l2 million United Nations Human Rights ID cards and keys which represent each undocumented worker in the U.S., and giving these petitions to the incoming president on January 20th. Yet, the gathering was not a political event but a spiritual rite of passage, not just for the youth but for ourselves also as elders of La Causa whose work is not done, but who pass the antorcha to the youth in their newly gained responsibility of carrying the burdons put upon their parents, many undocumented, or in various stages of either gaining citizenship, and they have rewritten the criteria for their compliance to gaining citizenship as they see it, not as it is currently written in the Dream Act. The presentations were moving, inspiring, joyous, and nostalgic, as each honored elder presented their own panorama of experiences which covered the gamut of Ethnic & Chicano/La Raza Studies, El Plan de Aztlan, las mujeres de La Raza, the Walk Outs, The Brown Berets, Danza Azteca, the Quinto Festival de Los Teatros Chicanos, 'Me Voy Pa' Teotihuacan', Los Siete de La Raza, San Quinten 6, Chicano Park, Barrio Logan, MAPA, Peace and Dignity Journeys, y que?! Y que se pudo, y que sigue pa'lante!! Con  fuerza, animo, y exito!! "Estoy Feliz, con fuerte raiz, porque conozco mis deberes, estoy feliz, con fuerte raiz, trabajando con las mujeres!'. Chunky, I promise to write you the verses of that anthem for the Quinto Festival, 'Me Voy Pa' Teotihuacan'! You are the only one I know who remembers that icon song!!

The time passed too swiftly as we wrapped with De Colores in circle. I envisioned hermano Tom Gaytan in the middle finally sharing his poetry, but that was not to be as we let the moment slip by. The time clock ticked beyond everyones need bringing closure with a promise that this was another beginning for the youth and their journeys as it was for we veteranos, individually and collectively, in resolving the separations, the differences in methodology, with a renewed dialogue which has begun and it is not the last. Perhaps, the next will be at Centro de La Raza and Chicano Park, we are open for the many possibilities. With our 'Si Se Puede' corazones engaged.

Otra ves, gracias a Rachel, and thank you to all who came: amongst them friends of a lifetime: Sonia Lopez and her sister Carmen Lopez, Steve Delgadillo (Orange), Enrique Morones, Sadie and Coyle Williams (SF Bay Area and part of the 40 year comadre circle friendship of Rachael Ortiz, Tina Flores, Georgia Quinones and myself; three under one roof was a miracle indeed, and adding Chunky to this mix, un milagro de aquellas!), Gus Chavez, Ruben Seja, Louie Rodriguez (Brown Berets), Oscar Monreal, Xaul Cruz, Anthony Aranda; new friends Tom Gaytan, the whole family of Carlos Castaneda, Gail Perez, Kayla Fajardo, Alberto Vasquez, Ricardo Trujillo, Gregory Morales, MAPA (who I knew from the internet and it is better in persona), the many youth present that participated in the Danza Azteca offering with Beatriz y Mario, Hector Villegas P&DJ, George Lopez (who did a fabulous job with the technology and taped the entire ceremony for our viewing and documentation of this process. Very special were the youth, humbled by the richness of the candle ceremony that each shall cherish in their hearts a lifetime. And, the bouquet of roses, and pinwheels on all the tables... our hearts truly felt as the pinwheels blowing in the wind!

Madrina y Padrino Circle for One Dream 2009

This stellar alliance of Elders from the Raza community represent a broad alliance of advocates extending community service beyond the call of duty from their chosen area of work and professional careers. Many of these dedicated individuals are retired yet continue 'giving back' to the community.

We are proud in presenting the first Padrino, Ernesto Nava Villa, the only living son of Pancho Villa, together with Gracia Molina de Pick, a 50-year border activist and granddaughter of legendary attorney for Benito Juarez; Josephina Lopez (Corazon de Pueblo), Patricia Barba (Consejo Nacional de Comunicadores), and the newest, Rachael Ortiz and Barrio Station: Mario y Beatriz Aguilar, Carlos Castaneda, Gus Chavez, Chunky Sanchez, Ruben Seja, Hector Villegas, amongs others who have entered into a symbolic relationship with the students in giving light and inspiration, paving the way in their new responsibility in challenging the discriminatory policies as the immigration raids brought about by the policies revealed in: "The End Game', the document exposed by author, Richard Vogel, Transient Servitude, an earlier work that described the effects of homeland security and the continental impact of NAFTA, the so called Free Trade policies which resulted in the ensuing ICE raids by immigration and customs.

Pretty heady stuff for these youth whose demonstrated courage grabbed headlines at the recent National Council of La Raza conference in San Diego, meeting both Senators Barack Obama and John McCain, and challenging their immigration policies. And, by this act, winning the hearts of the media and everyone present for their sincere and wholesome attitudes in confronting the most grotesque administration that has stripped Americans of their civic and human rights. Whose death grip over the indigenous workers coming from Mexico, Central and South America, and other devastated parts of the world who are here in a quest for survival and earning a living. Yet, the underlying subject of alarm sharpening the existent divide between the indigenous continent and the white privileged status quo, whose not so silent compliance plays part in upholding the practice of institutional racism ensuring the class warfare of continued exploitation over the original people of this continent, displaced in an inherited legacy of neocolonization paved by the history of corporatization and militarism.

Thoughts for Discussion: Understanding everyone's massive daily responsibilities, we humbly request for a brief written statement of introduction as Madrina's and Padrino's, for our story book and archive, and compromiso as 'Madrina's and Padrino's, and hopeful assistance as it may be planned for participating in the petition campaign of "One Dream 2009' id cards and keys, to be given to incoming president on January 20th. An expression of availability is appreciated in being present for this ground-breaking event regionally and nationally, as practical. We shall be innovative as we plan this date, and we shall work for a landslide victory for Barack Obama.

Madrinas-Padrinos: Juan Carlos Arauz, One Dream 2009, Piece x Peace
Ernesto Nava Villa, Josephina Lopez (Corazon del Pueblo), Patricia Barba (Consejo Nacional de Comunicadores), Aurora Grajeda,
Dolores Sanchez PhD, Luis Diaz de Leon, Felipe De Ortego y Gasca PhD, Warrior Woman, Patricia Lazalde, Sadie Williams;
Rachael Ortiz/Barrio Station: Gus Chavez, Ruben Seja, Carlos Castaneda, Mario y Beatriz Aguilar, Chunky Sanchez

Dorinda Moreno, Co-founder, Fuerza Mundial/We Are the Ones: Vision, Mission Statement
Tina Flores, Board of Directors Compliance
Gracia Molina de Pick, Trabajadora atravez de 50 Anos en asuntos Mexico-Chicano, Fronterizos.
Esteban Delgadillo, Advisor, Board of Directors, Fuerza Mundial; El Dorado Institute
Mazatzin Casas Acosta, Aztecayolokalli, Peace and Dignity Journeys
Mario Torero, Fuerza Mundo, Artist, Muralist, Continental Arts Liaison
Jina Gaytan, Texas Indigenous Rights
Maria Guardado, El Salvador, sobreviviente de torturas de los esquadres de muerte, El Salvador
Georgia Bowen Quinones, Master Trainer in Communication & Conflict Management
Mesha monge Irrizary, Idriss Stelley Foundation, Police brutality/Taser, Prison, Youth/Gangs
Yolanda Miranda, Journalist, Writer, Poet, Peace and Freedom Party

Tina Flores (Articles of Incorporation Compliance/Bd of Directors)
Advisory: Steve Delgadillo, Mesha monge Irrizary, Sadie Williams, Georqia Quinones
Global, Concerned Migrants, Shaukat Mahmood

Recommended: Gail Perez (San Diego), Deyanira Garcia (Rhode Island, Dominican Republic), Jina Gayton (San Antonio, Texas),
Elena Herrada (Detroit, Latinos Unidos), Chole Alatorre (Hermandad Mexicana), Sofia Martinez (Albuquerque, New Mexico)
Linda Aguirre (SF Bay/El Salvador)

A special thank you to Gracia Molina de Pick, for her generous contributions to the growth and development of this developing organization in its process gaining a 50lc3 standing in Sacramento.

Respectfully submitted
Dorinda Moreno
805 934-3884

Did I Make a Difference?
by Carol Trujillo Hadley
Mundo Hispano, Bilingual Weekly
San Joaquin, Stanislaus, California, August 15, 2008, No.052

As we reflect on three people who have recently passed away, we re-flected on the legacy each one left. Were they aware of the impact they had on this city and our lives. John Aguilar was a man that followed a dream and made it come true. Even his finalhours were completed in a true John style, as his friends whisked him away from the hospital so he could realize his desire to die at home and not an impersonal hospital room. He was fun to talk politics with even, if he had a "D" behind his name, and would ask me when 1 was going to add one to mine. I told him when he once again added an "R" behind his name. He even managed to talk at the Latinas United Republican Women Federated, because someone told our Program Chair he was a Republican. I had a good laugh when in the middle of his talk he proudly stated he was Democrat, but no one laughed as hard as John did and even good naturedly took our gift. It was a beautiful T-Shirt with an American Flag on the front and "Latinas United Republican Women Federated" on the back. Said he couldn't wait to wear it and shock his riends. John did love to laugh.

Emil Seifert, Mr. Parks and Recreations could intimidate you with his looks, but once you knew him you knew he was a real teddy bear. We met Emil when we joined me San Joaquin Lions. Happens 1 was the first woman to join this club and Emil would tell me as loud as he could, "We don't need any women in this club,", then give me wink and tell me he was happy I was there. I watched as he tenderly cared for his precious Melba as the dreaded Alzheimer took her away one day at a time. He cared for the City he lived and worked in. How blessed I was to be called his friend. Our parks and recreational facilities have not been as good or run as smoothly since he left office. If they could mourn it would be now.

Tonight, August 11, 2008, the world lost another true champion of this city, 
Oscar Chapa. He too was a member of the San Joaquin Lions, He helped Charter our Club some 50 years ago. He came to mis area to help his sister build a Mexican res-taurant. He was so successful in the restaurant business. Not only as a builder but as a great cook. He was such a great cook he was approached to take his show on the road. For many years he would load up his trailers and feed the masses at County Fairs and Home and Garden Shows up and down me valley. He flew a plane for the Sheriffs Office with little fanfare.

Last year he was honored by being inducted into the Mexican American Hall of Fame. He received every award possible in the International Lions. Two years ago as his health began to fail he was honored at a reception were he received Legislative and State recognition and the International Lions President's Award, which is a lifetime honor few receive. His beloved Alicia of over 50 years was at his side in all of his endeavors. He loved his family and was so proud of his children, their spouses, grandchildren and great grandchildren. He was a giant among men and his poker buddies, Lions and many more will miss him. You struggled long and hard Oscar, and taught us all a lesson by having a positive attitude up to the very end.

None of these individuals ever sought fame, but quietly and effectively gave of themselves and to this community we call Stockton. Each left giant footprints to fill. Each one would have modestly asked, "Did I make a Difference?" Yes, each one did. We are all the better for having, them be part of our lives. Live each day as if is your last. Stand for some thing and do something to make it happen. Don't sit on the sideline and "Whine", roll up your sleeves and make a difference. We shall miss you, John, Emil and Oscar. Thank you for making a difference "Thanks for the memories". :


Oscar Chapa 
Dec.15, 1917 - August 11, 2008

San Joaquin County News, 8/14/08 
Stockton, CA 

Oscar Chapa, 90, died peacefully on Tuesday, August 11, 2008. Born on December 15, 1917 in Monte Mexico, he was the third youngest or twelve children of Alberto and Petra Chapa. The family immigrated to Texas in 1925 and at the young age of 9, Oscar began working in a bakery to help support their large. In the 1930's the family moved to Los Angeles, where Oscar met Alice Reynoso. They were married in 1942, a month after the United States entered WWII. Oscar served his country in the Army Air Corp. in Louisiana being in charge of maintenance and repair of fighter planes, earning the rate of Master Sergeant. After the war the family moved to Stockton where Oscar opened the Mexico Cafe with two of his .sisters. He also started a food concessions business at the state fair, developing a 'soft-shelled taco' that soon became a favorite staple to fairgoers. The business still thrives today and many come to the State Fair and county each year to take home dozens of his original soft tacos.

Oscar had many passions in life. An avid pilot, he served as a member of the San Joaquin County Sheriffs Air Posse making himself and his airplane available in times of need. He was very involved with his own family and inspirational to many who knew him personally. One of his biggest passion was to his community service. Oscar helped to form the San Joaquin Lions Club in 1958. The club served locally and internationally by providing assistance where it was most needed. Oscar and other members helped to replace a roof for the Blind Center, drove truckloads of donated food and clothing to orphanages and contributed six used ambulances to small towns in Mexico. The club also has participated in the 'Su Salud' Health Fair by serving lunches to the volunteers. Oscar served the club in a variety of positions including Club President and remained an active member for 50 years, up until the time of his death. For many years Oscar also helped weekly at St. Mary's dining hall serving lunches to the homeless.

Oscar is survived by his loving family which includes his wife Alice of 66 years; his children Dena Rupert and Eric Chapa, Eric's wife Lynette, and 7 great-grandchildren and his many nieces and nephews.

Oscar's family requests that in lieu of flowers, any memorial donations may be made to either of his two favorite charities, in memory of Oscar Chapa, attn: Central Processing, 1500 E. Duarte Rd., Duarte, CA 91010 or the Community Center for the Blind, 130 W. Flora St '02, Online guest book at

Editor: Oscar Chapa was my dear, dear uncle. I have included some of my childhood and youthful memories under CUENTOS.  I invite you to enjoy my love for him in the cameos.


Conference of California Historical Societies Fall Symposium

Bakersfield, California
Oct 2-4, 2008

Kern County, the heart of California's oil and agriculture industries

Tours include Kern County Museum's historic buildings and exhibits included Black Gold: The Oil Experience, Chronicles of Kern County and Picturing Fashion 1860 to 1920: Highlights from the Museum Collection.  Also visiting the Mojave Airport/Spaceport where Burt Rutan has developed space Ships I and II.  Pass the Tehachapi Loop and Tehachapi wind forms in action.  Information, contact Bill Burke (661) 323-0304


Hemet Family History Fair

11 October 2008  

LDS Chapel  
425 N. Kirby Street
Hemet, CA
(951) 658-8104  


Class Schedule
Registration: 8:00 am -9:00 am

Session #1: 9:00 am - 10:00 am
A. "The New Family Search" -Alan Jones
B. "How to Write a Family History That People Will Read" -Tom Underhill
C. "Census Records" / 2 hours -Larry Bowles
D. "Identifying Old Photographs" - Patti Pipkin-Hacker
E. "Civil War Research: Learning about Your Union Veteran Ancestor" - Jean Wilcox Hibben
F. "Beginning Family History Research" - Camilla Northrup
G. "How to Write a Personal History or Short Family History" - Bud Miner

 Session #2: 10:05 am - 11:05 am
A. "Libraries Online" - Alan Jones
B. "Building a Perfect Index for Your Family History" - Tom Underhill
C. "Census Records" - Larry Bowles
D. "Photo Restoration for the Genealogists" - Patti Pipkin-Hacker
E. "County Websites: An Overlooked Resource" - Jean Wilcox Hibben
F. " The Differences Between English, Irish, and Scottish Research" - Nancy Carlberg
G. "Beginning Family History Research" - Camilla Northrup
H. "How to Write a Personal History or Short Family History" - Bud Miner
I. " Beginning Mexican History Research" - Ernest E. Martinez

Session #3 : 11:10 am - 12:10 pm
A. "New Websites Free at Family History Centers" - Alan Jones
B. "The Forgotten Generation" - Tom Underhill
C. "Italian Research" - Larry Bowles
D. "Passenger Lists: Did They Really Come on That Ship?" - Joan Lowrey
E. "Researching German Records When You Live in America and Don't Speak German" - Jean Wilcox Hibben
F. "Beginning English Research" - Nancy Carlberg
G. " Procedures for Using PAF" - Donna Mata
H. "Regional Research / Virginia, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Maryland" - Paul Pettit
I. 'Paleography - Reading Early American and English Handwriting" - Gene Weston Cheney  

Lunch Break: 12:10 pm - 1:10 pm  

Session # 4: 1:10 pm - 2:10 pm
A. "Technology for Family Historians" - Tom Underhill
B. "Scandinavian Research" / 2 hours - Larry Bowles
C. "The German Empire of 1871 and Why It Is Important in Your Research" - Joan Lowrey
D. "Dead Language / Dead People: Translating Latin Records from the Catholic Church" - Jean Wilcox Hibben
E. "Beginning Irish Research" - Nancy Carlberg
F. " Search Procedures for" - Donna Mata
G. "Genetic Research Using DNA" - Paul Pettit
H. "New England Research" - Gene Weston Cheney
I. "Reading Mexican Parish Records" - Ernest E. Martinez

Session #5: 2:15 pm - 3:15 pm
A. "Finding People Before They Die" - Tom Underhill
B. "Scandinavian Research" - Larry Bowles
C. "Reading German Parish Records" - Joan Lowrey
D. "Beginning Scottish Research" - Nancy Carlberg
E. " Scanning, Editing, Filing and Saving Photographs" - Donna Mata
F. "Genetic Research Using DNA" - Paul Pettit
G. "Netherland Research" - Gene Weston Cheney
H. "New Family Search in Spanish" - Ernest E. Martinez



Oct 18th Chino Valley Family History and Genealogy Seminar

4195 Chino Hills Parkway
Chino Hills, CA  91709

The Chino Valley Family History and Genealogy Seminar is structured very much like the Hemet conference.  There is no charge for the classes.  There are 5 sessions and 9 classes per session.  A syllabus and lunch can be pre-ordered. 

Among the presenters are Crispin Rendon, Mike Brady, Daniel Bartosz, Robert and Miriam Lucero.  There is a Hispanic track, with a class offered each session.

For more questions and or to register, please contact Greg Collinwood. 
(909) 606-7403



45th San Diego Air & Space Museum Hall of Fame
Induction and Gala
October 25, 2008

Congratulation to General Robert Cardenas who will be inducted into the San Diego Air & Space Museum on Oct 25. General Cardenas was one of the pilots for the YB-49 "the Flying Wing". He was also the B-29 pilot that launched Chuck Yeager when he broke the sound barrier.

On October 14, 1947, 
the world of aviation would reach a major milestone 
by going supersonic for 
the first time. The machine and the men involved in 
this achievement are 
forever immortalized in aviation history. The artist chose to represent both elements prior to the historic flight. On the left
 of the composition Major Robert Cardenas confers 
on last-minute details with pilot Capt. Chuck Yeager and engineer/pilot Capt. Jack Ridley. Capt. Yeager is holding the famous broomstick segment 
used by him to secure 
the hatch door on the 
X-1 rocket plane.  

Oil by Henry Godines

It would be wonderful to eventually see General Robert Cardenas in the National Aviation Hall of Fame in Washington, DC .   He was Nominated a couple of years ago, but no action has been taken. Hopefully, being inducted into the San Diego Air & Space Museum will help to move that effort to completion.  Your letters to the National Aviation Hall of Fame would help too.


Each honoree was selected for their historic contributions to aviation, space, or aviation technology.  The will honor the Scott Carpenter, one of the Original Mercury Seven "Right Stuff" Astronauts; The Tuskegee Airmen represented by Roscoe Brown and Lee Archer; John & Martha King, King Schools; Dr. J. Robert Beyster, founder of Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC); Steve Pisanos, of the original Eagle Squadrons; and General Bob Cardenas, USAF Flying Wing Test Pilot.  

General Cardenas was interviewed by Sylvia Bayon of the Univision Network for their Hispanic Heros, 4-hours of TV specials.  

For more information, please go to:
Thank you to Rafael Ojeda

LOS CALIFORNIANOS MEETING,   October 24 through 26th

Los Califomianos will meet October 24 through 26 at the Best Western Seven Seas in Mission Valley. Los Californianos are descendants of the early Hispanic settlers (1769 through 1848) of Alta California. The group is dedicated to the preservation of that heritage and as part of that goal offers researchers a Traveling Genealogy Library specializing in the Hispanic settlers of that time period. The library will be in the Lord Jim room of the Seven Seas and will be open from 3 to 8 p.m. on Friday, October 24 and from 7:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. on Saturday, October 25. The public is welcome to use it for their own genealogy research for the nominal fee of $8 for the weekend. This fee includes the $3 registration tee for the meeting. There will be volunteers in the library to help you.

The weekend program includes self-guided tours of the Cabrillo National Monument on Saturday and a tour of Rancho Los Penatasquitos on Saturday afternoon. Saturday dinner features Richard Carrico, Historian and Anthropologist, speaking on Native Americans and the Californios.  Dr. Lynne Christenson, Historian of San Diego County Parks and Recreation will speak at a Sunday breakfast buffet on Strong and Beautiful: The Women of San Diego County Ranchos. Registration for the meeting will be in the Seven Seas Hospitality Suite, room 129, starting Friday at 3 p.m. For further information contact Benita and George Gray at 858-538-3027 or

Finales del Concurso de Cantos Karaoke en el Restaurant Los Gallitos

 por Jaime Cáder

Winners Noe Escobar, Alejandra Esqueda, and Fredy Gutierrez.

                                                            Front entrance area of Restaurant Los Gallitos.

El día 14 de septiembre de 2008 se actualizó una competencia de cantos karaoke en el Restaurant Los Gallitos en Bay Point, localizado en el este del Area de la Bahía de San Francisco, California.  También se celebraba la independencia de México y Centro América.

Durante semanas anteores varios cantantes habían competido para poder participar en los finales.  Este autor tuvo la oportunidad en varias ocasiones de ser uno de los jueces para decidir quienes serían los ganadores.  Para el día de los finales hubieron cuatro ganadores.  Hubo un empate para el primer premio y ellos fueron Douglas Alvarenga (salvadoreño que canta canciones mexicanas) y Noé Escobar, del Distrito Federal de México.  La ganadora del segundo puesto fue Alejandra Esqueda (mexicana) y del tercer lugar -Fredy Gutierrez (mexicano) que canta canciones animosas de estilo banda.

Tuvimos la presencia de la reportera del canal 14 (para el área de San Francisco): a Blanca Garza.  Ella fue una de las maestras de ceremonias y formó parte del jurado.  Además unos bailarines jaliscienses presentaron el Son de la Negra.

El Restaurant Los Gallitos es un lugar donde cada semana hay oportunidad para los que cantan karaoke y para que todos disfruten de expectáculos y buena comida.  En unas semanas se presentará aquí un conjunto brasileño con la artista Valdira Santos. 

George Ow Jr. to receive community service award

Posted: Wednesday, Aug 20th, 2008
The Watsonville Register-Pajaronian, August 20, 2008

Renowned community philanthropist and real estate developer George Ow Jr. will be honored for his philanthropic work Thursday with the first annual 'Tony Hill Award.'

The community service award was named for Hill, a long-time community activist who fought for social justice in communities throughout Santa Cruz County. 'I'm greatly honored,' Ow said. 'Tony was one of my best friends. Getting an award having to do with him is a pleasure and an honor. Since he was my friend, we had many of the same viewpoints.'

Ow is a well-known real estate developer and investor in Santa Cruz County. He is perhaps better known for his philanthropy, and has actively worked to increase literacy in the Pajaro Valley. He is a founder of On the Same Page, an organization established last year to use literature to inspire Pajaro Valley students, their parents and the community as a whole.

He has also awarded numerous 'American Dream' scholarships to high school students from Watsonville. 'He has really nurtured young leadership and civic engagement in the community,' said Karina Cervantez, co-chair of the Pajaro Valley Cesar Chavez Democratic Club.

Additionally, Ow promotes job growth in Watsonville by taking old buildings and encouraging businesses to come in. These businesses include Fox Racing Shox and Happy Tours. He estimates the efforts have added more than 900 jobs to the area.

'George is basically a humanitarian,' longtime friend Elias Alonzo said. 'He will champion any cause with art, education, libraries and job creation.'  Ow has also been instrumental in the establishment of the Agricultural History Project display that will be housed in the city's new public library.

Though Ow could list dozens of things he's done in the community, he was quick to share the credit with the people he works with. 'Everything I do is in conjunction with a lot of people,' he said. 'If I didn't have them, it wouldn't be as much fun.'

As one of his proudest accomplishments, Ow listed the creation of On the Same Page. The program has brought Latino authors Victor Villasenor and Francisco Jiminez to Watsonville schools.  'I think their stories are inspirational for anyone, but especially for Watsonville, since so many of the young people are Latino,' he said.

The Tony Hill Award is presented to community members who have made gains in social justice in the Pajaro Valley.
Hill was a supporter of the PVCCDC, and helped to build alliances with Latinos and other residents of the Pajaro Valley, Cervantez said.  Hill died in 2007 at age 62, and the PVCCDC established the award in his honor. The award will be presented by Hill's wife, Melanie Stern-Hill.

The night will also feature the 20th anniversary celebration of a landmark civil rights case that changed the face of voting in Watsonville, and paved the way for similar decisions throughout California.

The 1988 case Dolores Cruz Gomez v. the City of Watsonville challenged 'at-large' elections when it was discovered that Latino voters were underrepresented in local government. With the Latino population at 50 percent, no Latinos sat on the City Council.

The case upended the existing system and set the stage for the present one, in which the city is separated into seven districts, each with its own elected representative. The case has been cited several time in various civil rights cases, most recently in June in a case out of Modesto.

'It allowed people to be represented by someone with their interests at heart,' community activist and attorney Luis Alejo said. 'It allowed Latinos to be elected. Today, we have a City Council that is more reflective of the demographics of Watsonville.'

The celebration will feature Joaquin Avila, the lead attorney on the case, and activist Dolorez Cruz Gomez, the lead plaintiff in the case.  The $35 tickets for the civil rights dinner and Tony Hill Award presentation dinner at the Green Valley Grill on Thursday night were sold out..

Sent by Dorinda Moreno

Cruz Gomez to be honored at community celebrations
Celebration honors voting rights advocate who opened doors for Watsonville's Latino politicians

The Santa Cruz Sentinel, August 20, 2008

Donna Jones - Sentinel Staff Writer
Article Launched: 08/20/2008 

Cruz Gomez sued Watsonville to gain Latino representation on the City Council through District Elections.  She is picture here in August 1968 after winning a federal appellate court decision in the voting rights case. 
WATSONVILLE -- Cruz Gomez never made it onto the City Council, but her failed attempt in 1983 led to a historic voting rights ruling that transformed the city's political landscape.
She'll be honored next week at two events marking the 20th anniversary of the landmark decision that forced Watsonville to change from citywide to district elections and opened the doors for Latino leaders.
'What's funny is that people have a different image of me than what is really here,' said Gomez in a phone interview last week from her home in Maine. 'I was willing to take chances but I didn't have a clear vision about anything. I am just a very simple human being. Probably everyone else is too. We need to share that and do the best we can with what we have.'
Gomez, who grew up in Goleta, came to Watsonville in 1979, a time when the city's Latino population was growing and so was its political consciousness. She worked for a nutrition-based nonprofit agency and later Salud Para La Gente and became involved in community organizing. She taught English to farmworkers, helped undocumented workers apply to legalize their status under a federal amnesty program, and walked the picket lines in support of workers during a tumultuous cannery strike.
In 1983, Gomez decided to run for City Council, more as a symbol, she said, than with any real hope of getting elected. She wasn't the first Latino to lose. Throughout the 1970s and '80s, Latinos were shut out of elected office in the city, though they represented a majority of the population. After her loss, Gomez started to work to overturn the electoral system, which Latinos blamed for their failure to gain power reflective of their numbers.  

'We figured we couldn't change it by referendum. The powers that be weren't going to give up power, so we opted for a suit,' Gomez said. The city defended at-large elections all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court and lost. The late Betty Murphy, then mayor, argued district elections would fragment the city and make officials unresponsive to community wide needs.
Daniel Dodge, a city planning commissioner, remembers the struggle. He was in his early 30s at the time and admired Gomez and the other two plaintiffs, Waldo Rodriguez and Patricia Leal, for putting their names on the line, risking being labeled troublemakers and being ostracized.  'You have to realize people don't take a chance,' Dodge said. 'They let somebody else do it.'
After the 1988 Watsonville decision, at-large elections fell in cities, counties and school boards across California.  
In Watsonville, Latinos have held a majority on the council for the better part of a decade. 'It really had an effect, and it started here,' Dodge said.
Some still grumble about the change. Twice in the past five years citizens have launched drives to modify the system so that the mayor could be elected by voters citywide instead of being appointed by the council. Foes argued organizers were trying to reverse the ruling, though backers deny it.
'I have no objection to district elections,' said Betty Bobeda, a former council-selected mayor who was behind a 2004 drive to change the mayoral process. 'People get better representation when they have someone to talk to in their district. But I really feel when you have a mayor at large, everybody in the city gets to vote for the mayor.'
Bobeda said it's about 'giving people a voice.'  That's what plaintiffs in the voting rights lawsuit said they were trying to do in the 1980s.
Rodriguez died in 1991. Leal has dropped out of sight. Gomez came up short in her second bid for City Council in the first district elections in 1989. She said the lawsuit was a beginning. Voter registration and education was the next step.
Today, Gomez said she's happy, doing health outreach in Maine's migrant community. Her activism has shifted, not disappeared, she said. 'Everything's political, the air you breathe, the gasoline you buy, the food you buy,' Gomez said. 'I'm addressing political issues every day, but at the individual or family level.'
Contact Donna Jones at 763-4505 or
Cruz Gomez was one of three plaintiffs in a landmark lawsuit that forced Watsonville to change the way its City Council is elected. Activist Cruz Gomez, left, advocated for migrant workers in the 1980s.  
Sent by Dorinda Moreno 





By Helen B. Collins  


Many of us have memories of meeting a wonderful person named Ernie Miramontes, a descendant of Juan Jose Candelario Miramontes, at the meetings of the Spanish Californian’s Club in San Leandro, where we researched our Bay Area Spanish ancestors and enjoyed the stories of long-ago California. At the Los Californianos meetings Ernie and Lucia Miramontes were among the first people to greet a newcomer like a long-lost cousin. The newcomer usually was a distant cousin, because the Miramontes family was related to about everybody. When Ernie was researching his own history he always thought about other club members, and if he found information about our families, he would pass it on to us.  Ernie was born September 30, 1912 in San Francisco, and when he was sixteen years old he met the love of his life, fourteen year old Lucia Costantini. On June 9, 1935, they were married. Their marriage lasted for over sixty years. When they celebrated their 50th Wedding Anniversary in June 1985, their motto was: Half a century is hardly long enough to say, “I love you.” Ernie Miramontes passed away in San Leandro June 15, 1998. “So Ernie–This one’s for you.”

Juan Jose Candelario Miramontes, was about eight years of age when he arrived in Monterey in 1797 along with four brothers and sisters, his mother, Victoria de Luna and his stepfather, Jose Vicente Mojico. The family was sent to become part of the first settlers in Branciforte at Santa Cruz. There are no records regarding the death of Jose Vicente Mojico, and by 1808 Victoria had married again to Jose Maria Higadero. In 1833, the Miramontes family and their mother, Victoria, were living in San Francisco, where she became known for the large potato patch and the vegetable garden she planted in what later became the location of the San Francisco Plaza.  

The oldest son of Jose Antonio Miramontes and Victoria de Luna, was Juan Jose Candelario Miramontes, who was born about 1789 at Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. His father, Jose Antonio Miramontes, died before the family arrived in California. When Candelario was eighteen years old he enlisted in the Spanish army, and he married Maria Guadalupe Briones about 1808 in San Francisco. In 1841 Governor Alvarado granted Juan Jose Candelario Miramontes Rancho Arroyo de Los Pilarcitos. Later on it was called the San Benito Rancho and was located in San Mateo County. In 1842, at the age of 52, Candelario and his wife, Guadalupe, still remained in San Francisco, and had a family of eighteen children. Juan Jose Candelario Miramontes died in 1846 in San Francisco.  

The Miramontes family lived near the Presidio about three quarters of a mile southeast of the barracks. On their property in San Francisco was a very remarkable spring called Polin, which was an Indian name. The spring was celebrated from a very remote period of time for marvelous virtues, which were handed down from the Indians for several generations and afterwards through the Californians. It was claimed that it possesed the remarkable power of producing pregnancy in women who were childless, if they drank the water from this spring. Many authentic instances have been quoted to support this theory. In proof it was mentioned that the Miramontes family had 18 children, and other families living in the neighborhood were blessed with many children. Many folks who came to the spring from a distance, by advice of friends, to test the wonderful qualities of the water were also rewarded.  

Jose Vicente Miramontes, was the oldest son of Juan Jose Candelario and Guadalupe Briones de Miramontes. He was born December 20, 1809 and baptized at Mission Santa Clara, California. He married Maria de Jesus Hernandez June 29, 1837 at Mission Dolores in San Francisco. Vicente enlisted in the Spanish army and was stationed in the San Francisco Company 1828-1837. Vicente was Elector in 1837, and Alcalde in 1839 in San Francisco. He owned a small lot in San Francisco in 1843 and was Alferez of the Militia in 1844. Vicente moved to Half Moon Bay in 1853 to Rancho San Benito when the squatters and the courts began taking the Spanish-Mexican land in San Francisco. Apparently he missed living in the City of San Francisco because he returned in 1854-55. The date of Jose Vicente’s death was lost in 1906 earthquake and fire in San Francisco. Jose Vicente was Ernie Miramontes great grandfather.  

During the Mexican War, several years before any American homesteaders arrived on the San Mateo coast, Spanish-speaking refugees had established the first village of San Benito along Pilarcitos Creek in San Mateo County. During 1851 because of all the trouble, the absent landlords Guerrero and Vasques moved their families to their ranchos near Half Moon Bay. Soon the Miramontes family followed them and settled on the Rancho property. By this time the Miramontes clan comprised a community all by itself and they lived in the village of San Benito, which consisted of eight adobes that stood along Pilarcitos Creek. The adobe homes were constructed by the labor of Central Valley Indians in 1848. Several marriages took place between the offspring of the Miramontes, Gonzales and Vasques families. Part of Juan Jose Candelario’s ranch property was left to his youngest daughter, Maria Carmen Benita Miramontes, and she married Francisco Chico Gonzales and they raised a large family there. The village of San Benito was an outpost with few ties to the outside world. It stood among the beauty and isolation of the San Mateo coast. Rugged, forested mountains and a rocky shoreline broken by occasional stretches of white beach made access by both land and sea difficult. By the early 1850's U.S. settlers had appeared and were soon marrying into local Mexican families. In 1852, according to one census, San Benito Village had 85 residents. In 1853, James Johnston, a settler from Ohio, bought nearly 1,200 acres of the Miramontes land south of the Village for $14,000. James invited his brothers, Tom, William and John to settle on the San Mateo coast. It was only a short time before other settlers arrived to take advantage of the cheap land. By the 1860's gringos dominated the town and farming flourished and trade with the outside quickened. The name San Benito gave way to Spanishtown and finally Half Moon Bay. Between the Courts and the squatters, the Spanish lost most of their land in San Mateo County.  

In 1889 in Monterey there were still living a number of early California Spanish-Mexican women who were 90 years and upward. Senora Dona Guadalupe Briones de Miramontes was present when William Heath Davis interviewed these ladies. Dona Guadalupe, the wife of Juan Jose Candelario Miramontes, was the oldest lady at 98 years of age. Davis noted that Dona Guadalupe was a former resident of the Presidio of San Francisco near Polin Spring, and was now living in Spanish Town (Half Moon Bay) in San Mateo County. She was hale and strong and able to insert a thread through the eye of a needle in preparation to her habit of daily sewing. It was this woman who cured Davis of a malady and saved his life. Dona Guadalupe’s simple remedy relieved him of suffering, probably for the rest of his life. Maria Guadalupe Briones de Miramontes was born in 1792 in Monterey, California and died in 1901 in Half Moon Bay at the age of 108 years. She was Ernie Miramontes great, great grandmother.

Every day Bay Area citizens hurrying along El Camino Real barely notice an Avenue that runs from Los Altos to Mountain View and crosses El Camino Real. The street is called Miramontes Avenue. It was named after the early Spanish-Mexican family who came to Alta California from Guadalajara, Mexico in 1797. If you happen to be passing by Miramontes Avenue, you can say “This one is for you Ernie.”  

Spanish-Mexican Families of Early California: 1769-1850, Vol II, by Marie Northrop
From Frontier to Suburb, by Alan Hynding
Seventy-Five Years in California, by William Heath Davis 
Historic Spots in California, by Mildred Brooke Hoover & Hero E. & Ethel G. Rensch

 Retyped: August 19, 2008

Sent by Lorri Frain



So sad to learn about the passing of Carmen Miramontes Perruquet

  (Briones family). Published by Half Moon Bay Review
  Published Apr 09, 2008 



It is with great sadness we say goodbye to our beloved Carmen Elizabeth Miramontes Perruquet, mother, grandmother, great-grandmother, great-great-grandmother, sister, aunt, great-aunt, great-great-aunt, cousin and beloved friend.
Carmen Elizabeth Miramontes was born to Alfred Simon Miramontes and Leontine Durand Miramontes on May 26, 1910 in San Francisco. She was second from the youngest with four brothers and one sister. Their names were Edward, Marie, Lloyd, Alfred, and Ernest. Carmen’s father was born in Half Moon Bay in 1866 and was the grandson of Candelario Miramontes who was awarded the Land Grant for Rancho Arroyo de los Pilarcitos later called Rancho San Benito and then Spanishtown. The Land Grant included the area now known as the town of Half Moon Bay. Carmen grew up in San Francisco attending Mission Grammar School and then High School at Lux School of Industrial Training for Women. She married Richard Yoacham in 1927 and had one son named Leon Harold Yoacham. She was quite an accomplished seamstress, dressing many family members and friends and also worked at the phone company. Carmen was married in 1936 to Alfred Perruquet, a general contractor. Together they had two children, Rosalie Ann and Alfred Ernest Perruquet. The family settled in El Granada. During Carmen’s years on the coast she enjoyed being a Cub Scout and Girl Scout leader, served as a trustee on the local school board, and always offered a helping hand to others. She loved being a mother and grandmother, taking care of her family and being very involved with her church. In addition to her family Carmen was blessed with many close friends. She truly loved life and enjoyed every minute. Her positive and joyful spirit was infectious to all who knew her. Carmen and Fred hosted MANY wonderful parties for family and friends over the years.
After residing on the coast for more than 60 years, Carmen moved to South Lake Tahoe to live with her daughter Rosalie Svare in 2000. She continued to enjoy life and traveled to Seattle, British Columbia, Hawaii and also celebrated her last four birthdays at Disneyland! She often spoke of how much she loved living in the mountains and said, “Tahoe is just like heaven.” Carmen passed away at home with her daughter and granddaughter Tiffany at her side on March 10, 2008.
Carmen Elizabeth Miramontes Perruquet
Carmen is survived by her daughter Rosalie Svare of South Lake Tahoe, son Alfred Perruquet of Miramar, daughter-in-law Mariea Yoacham (wife of son Leon Yoacham- deceased) of Etna, sister-in-law Lucia Miramontes of Livermore, grandchildren Rosalie Foster, Mary Jo Anderson, Robert Yoacham, William Yoacham, Theresa Olivera, Annetta Albers, Alfred Yoacham (deceased), Leontine Iverson, Charlene Streibitch, Leon Calvin Yoacham, Patricia Wait, Tiffany Biggs, Alfred James Perruquet, 23 great-grandchildren, 8 great-great-grandchildren, many nieces and nephews, cousins, dear friends, and loving pal Madison.
Lorri Fran



Still alive, Bernardo Yorba's Great Grandchild my Aunt Phoebe!

Her mother, Felipa F. was born on the 'Santiago de Santa Ana Rancho' She married Juan Farias and left Orange Co. for Culver City, CA . to the land-grant of her in-laws, the Talamantes - Farias Family of Rancho La Ballona. Phoebe was child #8. born on the Rancho. Her mother Felipa F. Yorba who was the daughter of Ordocio Vicente Yorba and Marianna Peralta, daughter of Rafael Peralta and Catarina Manriguez, she also had a full brother, Vicente Gilbert Yorba known as V.G. They had some half siblings too. Their father was O. Vicente, he was the son of Bernardo, who was the son of Jose Antonio Yorba from Spain.  

Phoebe Scott was born, Felipa F. Farias. She was born on April  24, 1909 the only one still living out of 11 Farias children. She is 99 years old and in a Rest home now. She had never been sick, she would wake up in the night and think, 'shouldn't I hurt some where, at this age? Up until a few years ago she had never been in a hospital? Neither had her mother Felipa, never seriously ill, living to be 97 years old died 31 October 1968.

Aunt Phoebe was named after her mother Felipa, but known as Phoebe, the English version she said? She was cute, fun, loving person, married at 17 to Gene Scott who was 10 years older than she was. They had no children, but made over 50 years of marriage. First they lived in Culver City  CA on Madison Ave. in a beautiful two story house not far from La Ballona Creek. They held Union cards as Movie extra's at MGM Studios, They played in 'Gone With The Wind' and 'San Francisco' good old movies! Both loved to dance and have fun!

Then before the WW2, bought 165 acre mountain ranch above Oroville, CA It was sight unseen for Auntie, but she moved, with her in-laws and her husband to a place without electricity, no plumbing, no running water and a outhouse! Something like the place where she was born, La Ballona Rancho. We stepped back 150 years when we went to visit them there. All the Farias family and friends found it to be a favorite vacation place, Auntie having more company than we do in the city!

Our children and Grandchildren enjoyed it too. We had the pleasure of going there for over 40 years. We milked cows, churned butter, cooked on a wooden stove, swam in the swimming hole, fished in their pond, drank water from the spring, out of a can. We even petted Uncle Gene's deer herd he tamed, they came right up to the back porch. Uncle made pets out of all the animals. Aunt Phoebe was a good cook, she made the best desserts in the old wood stove. They had a Piano and Uncle and I would play for all to sing along and Auntie would cook, dance and sing while the worked. They made life very pleasant for us.

They moved from there when old age got to them, to an easier life in Sacramento, CA in a house with all the necessities. It was not long until Auntie had beautiful flowers growing there also. It was still fun to visit them there. When Uncle Gene died, Auntie continued to live in the house until she felt help was needed! She went into a Senior Home having her own apartment, She fared well in the change, making even her little apt. a pleasure to visit. We took many trips together and my family visited often. Then came the day she was unable to be on her own, it was hard to believe that this vibrant Senora, had to give up!

No longer getting up and putting on her makeup and beads, that she was known for, always the first thing in the morning, looking beautiful! Even on the rural ranch she was ready to greet you looking her best! Now, she is bound to a resthome in Sacramento, needing full assistance. Aunt Phoebe was my mother after her sister Marion died in 1976. I enjoyed having her for all these years. I miss her so much! If only we could do it all again.

She was so proud of her Heritage and so often we talked of the past, telling me that they took my Grandma Felipa, when aged, to see the old Adobe in Yorba Linda, as it sat in ruin, that belonged to her Grandpa Bernardo Antonio Yorba. I wish I could have seen it? I do remember seeing the Talamantes- Farias Adobe on Rancho La Ballona in Culver City where all of Felipa F.Yorba Farias' children were all born. It was in ruin also.

I loved sharing my Aunt Phoebe and my mother Marion's Family with you, thanks for listening! Maybe Auntie will make 100 years old, she has only 7 months to go. I am wondering if there is any other great-grandchild of Bernardo's still alive? Let me know?

With Love,  Eva, in Santa Monica, CA.



Don Juan Pablo Grijalva
by Eddie Grijalva

California Spanish Genealogy

For the record...

Don Juan Pablo Grijalva, soldier, settler, rancher and pioneer -- came to California with the Anza expedition in 1775. At that time there were only five missions, two presidios and a single Rancho of some 120 square yards (140 varas). Grijalva's heritages dates to the time of Cortez and his legacy includes the only Spanish rancho in Orange County.

"Juan Pablo Grijalva, Alfaréz (second-lieutenant) at the San Diego Presidio, retired from active duty at age 54 in 1796. [He] petitioned for...Rancho Santiago de Santa 1801. Grijalva received concession documents in 1802 [and] died in 1806."  [1]

"Grijalva created the first Rancho in what became Orange County," [2] [and was] "a founding father of Orange County." [3] "He was kind of the Pioneer's pioneer [and] was the first to stake a private claim in Orange County." [4] [In fact] "the first adobe building in Orange County, outside the limits of Mission San Juan Capistrano, was erected by the grantee* of Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana, Juan Pablo Grijalva about the year 1798." [5] "The historical traditions of Orange County begin with the San Juan Capistrano Mission and Juan Pablo Grijalva." [3]  Unlike most soldiers, he was held in high regard: "Lieutenant Grijalva...fills his post with honor and stands in high repute." [6] (* In actuality, grants were given only in the Mexican period; this was a concession.)

The final quote is by Padre Presidente Fermin Francisco de Lasuen. Lasuen founded nine missions, the last of which took away Grijalva's first rancho at Las Flores.

The Grijalva Heritage

The Grijalva story begins in 1518 when Juan de Grijalva led an expedition to the Yucatan. Discovering a large river, the soldiers insisted it be named for Juan and the Rio de Grijalva, so named, flows today. The expedition itself was so successful Gobernador Diego de Velasquez ordered a second command for Hernando Cortez the following year; the result was the conquest of the Aztec empire. [7]

Sebastian de Grijalva, a member of the entrada of Panfilo de Navarrez in New Spain, received his command of Sosola y Tenexpa in 1520 which was preserved in the hands of the family through three generations. [8]

Hernando de Grijalva helped lead the exploration of the west coast of Mexico in 1533. The San Loranzo, a ship captained by Hernando de Grijalva, became separated from Hernando de Cortez' flagship, and later discovered an island about four hundred miles west of Colima, New Spain (Mexico) and later put in at Acapulco in 1534. Cortez discovered California as a part of the expedition. [8]

Presidio Terrenate

Padre Kino, a Jesuit priest, opened the Sonora territory including Northern Mexico, Arizona and New Mexico from 1687 to 1711. Juan Pablo Grijalva, born near Mission Guevavi (Arizona) in 1741, grew up in Prima Alta Sonora. At that time, there were more than 50 Missions, six Pueblos and perhaps three Presidios. [9]

He enlisted in the military at Presidio Terrenate, Sonora, (Mexico) on January 1, 1763. He married Maria Dolores Valencia about a year later and over the course of 12 years, they had two girls. [10]

The record shows that he served honorably for ten years, receiving a promotion to corporal and that he could read and write. During his years of service in the garrison of Terrante, Sonora he had nine campaigns against both the Apaches and Seris, and during which he was twice wounded. [11]

The Anza Expedition

Juan Pablo Grijalva was second corporal of the Presidio Terrenate when appointed by Juan Bautista de Anza as Sergeant of the Expedition to Alta California. An important factor of the trip were the women and children -- four of which were born along the way (Bancroft states eight). [12]

The initial group of 177 people left San Miguel de Horcasitas on September 29, 1775, increasing the people to 240 at Presidio Tubac. From Tubac the march would slowly descend from an elevation of 3,250 to almost sea level at San Francisco. [12]

During the stay at Santa Olaya, Padre Garces overtook the party, having already set out to explore the country toward the mouth of the Colorado. Anza divided his force into three parties under the command of himself, Sergeant Grijalva, and Alfaréz Moraga. [13]

Of Grijalva's family, his wife and two daughters, we know some detail. There is a name of Claudio, listed as Grijalva's son, however it proves to be only a young man who changed his last name to Grijalva so he could come on the expedition. The expedition reached San Francisco on June 27, 1776.

San Francisco

Stationed in San Francisco for 10 years, Grijalva participated " 11 barricades in California [where] he made 10 departures with two terminations, in performing these, [included] eight commands to discipline harmful and fugitive Indians. [11]

Established on September 17, 1776, the Presidio San Francisco stood on the headland of the peninsula. The Mission Dolores [Mission de Nuestro Sera Pico Padre San Francisco de Asis a la Laguna de los Delores] was founded about one month later on October 9.  [12]

Later the next year, a portion of that same group went on to found Mission Santa Clara [Mission Nuestra Madre Santa Clara de Asis de Thamien] on January 12, 1777. That same year, they also started the first pueblo [Pueblo San Jose del Rio Guadalupe] on November 29 - the foremost reason for the Anza Expedition. [12]

During Grijalva's tenure at Presidio San Francisco, both daughters married soldiers at Mission Dolores. Maria Josefa Grijalva, the oldest married Antonio Yorba, then a widower on November 3, 1782. She was then 16, he almost 40, only two years younger than her father. [10]

Maria del Carmen Grijalva married Pedro Regaldo Peralta on October 27, 1785. He had come as a boy on the Anza Expedition with his family. She was 14 he was 21. The following year, Juan Pablo Grijalva was transferred to San Diego. His wife went with him, leaving his two married daughters behind. The Yorba family followed by 1789.  [10]

Presidio San Diego

In late 1785, a vacancy came available at the Presidio in San Diego through he death of Alfaréz Jose Velasquez. Transferring in 1786 to San Diego, Grijalva gained the promotion, and remained active as Alfaréz until his retirement. [12]

The 1788 Registry of the existing Missions, [was taken] by Alfaréz Juan Pablo Grijalva at Presidio San Diego. From Loreto, Baja California to San Francisco, Alta California. [14]

Later, Grijalva led a group to Northern Baja California where "...having founded this mission in the mountain range among the Rosario y Santo Domingo, [we] fulfill the orders of the Viceroy on the 27th of March, 1793. The chosen site was named for the indigenous Casilepe, and now has given it that of San Pedro M rtir de Verona. He returned again in April of 1794. [15]

[Beginning] January 3 1795, [from] San Diego, Grijalva and Grejera, [had] ...taken the census of the missions of the North. Juan Pablo Grijalva on visit(s) to the Escoltas (Military Escorts) de San Miguel, de San Juan, San Gabriel, y de San Miguel. [14]

Padre Juan Mariner in 1795 filed a "report on the survey which we made in company with Alfaréz Juan Pablo Grijalva, Corporal Juan Vicente, etc." Claudio, when in the military, accompanied them to locate the site for the Mission de San Luis Rey de Francia. [16] On June 13, 1798 Padre Presidente founded this his last mission.

Rancho Las Flores

1796 March 1st, San Diego Juan Pablo Grijalva, second-lieutenant to the company of the Viceroy, requests his retirement... On the margin you see the endorsement of Governor Borica.  [11]

An Indian uprising in 1796 brought Grijalva to Mission San Miguel in Baja California where during the foray his horse was shot out from under him. He was 55 years of age, and retired that same year.  [11]

He petitioned for Rancho Las Flores (probably around 130,000 acres) the following year. Founded in 1798, the Mission San Luis Rey claimed Las Flores for agriculture, taking it from Grijalva. We now call Rancho Las Flores, Camp Pendelton.  [1]

Padre Presidente Fermin Francisco de Lausan, who had founded this mission had praised Grijalva only a few years before. [17]

Rancho Santiago De Santa Ana

Not to be daunted, Grijalva traveled up El Camino Real to an area we now refer to as Orange. Receiving a post-retirement promotion to Lieutenant, he again petitioned for land, this time for Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana, only about 60,000 acres, about 1801. [1]

The diseño shown on pages 8 & 9 is the first map drawn of northern Orange County. The original resides in the Bancroft archives in Berkeley. It is made on linen, in color and is the predecessor of the diseño of 1809. Three casas were present on the Rancho. [12]

In Yorba tradition, Juan Pablo Grijalva was the first to occupy the Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana [Paraje de Santiago]. [He] built an adobe on Santiago Creeks south side, just north of El Modena, at the point of the hills. [18]

The adobe ruins and evidences of a vineyard are attested by American pioneers in that vicinity as late as 1900. Old settlers also recall that there were tan and tallow vats on the north side of Santiago Creek opposite the adobe so that the ruin may have had some occupancy by vaqueros, employees of the Yorbas, throughout a period of years. [18]

Grijalva Testament

1806 June 21, San Diego. Juan Pablo Grijalva: his testament. Conferred by the...Lieutenant graduate, Pablo Grijalva. He leaves his goods to his wife and grandsons, Jos‚ Antonio Yorba and Juan Pablo Peralta. Nothing is left to his daughters Maria Josefa and Maria del Carmen. [11]

1806 July, 25 San Diego. Rodriguez and Arrillaga: Death of an official. Advised of the death of the...Lieutenant graduate, Pablo Grijalva. [11]

...I report to his Excellency the Governor, that I have examined the archives of this garrison, and that I have not found the document which the deceased Grijalva presented to the Government in order he might place himself with his property in [Rancho de] Santiago. [12]

...Dona Dolores Valencia [Grijalva], widow of said deceased...replied that she know[s] from the deceased Captain Don Raymundo Carrillo, that [although] it existed in his power; that he did not deliver it to her. She heard her deceased husband say that he had presented for himself alone. [12]

Actually, there is evidence Grijalva's grandson and namesake, Juan Pablo Peralta, lived with the Grijalvas after 1800, working the Rancho which would some day be his.

Casa Remnants

William Wolfskill passed the point [of Hoyt Hill] in 1831 and saw adobe ruins. The ruins [in 1870] were not very different when he first saw it. [20]

Wm. W. Hoyt...on a high spur of the hills just above the present junction of Alameda [Hewes] and Santiago Boulevards, built a ten-room house. It is on the site of the Grijalva Adobe, built about the year 1800. When the Hoyts built their home in 1888 the lava rock that formed the foundation of the adobe was still in place and was used around the new dwelling. Pieces of rusty iron, spurs, bits, etc.
have been found around the site of the first house in Orange County outside the mission village of San Juan Capistrano. [21]

"I was born on Hoyt Hill [in 1889], near where the house still stands. I don't remember them [the adobe ruins], but they were there. It was supposed to be the first house in Orange County. There were terraces. They don't show...[but]...they were made from the stone that was in the [adobe] house and they used the stone to build up the terraces against the driveway. [But the adobe was there]...because the ruins were there...when Father bought the property. I guess they were put together with adobe. They filled the walls with the stones and used the adobe for binding." [22]

In 1992, Eddie Grijalva went home. Not to his, or his fathers -- not even his grandfathers. He went home to 200 years ago, that of Juan Pablo Grijalva. Near the Hoyt Victorian, a rock wall helps to shore up a driveway. A neighbor points to a three car garage and states the adobe was there, about 35 years ago. The owner of the house gives one of the old stones from the wall to Eddie, who donates it to the Bowers Museum in Santa Ana. A piece of the old casa of Juan Pablo Grijalva is now home -- resting in the Bowers Museum. [23]

Rancho Towns

The Peralta Hills are named for Juan Pablo Peralta - the grandson and namesake of Juan Pablo Grijalva - the original Ranchero of the Rancho de Santiago de Santa Ana. North of the hills by the Santa Ana River is Santa Ana Arriba, (Upper Santa Ana) the townsite and adobe of the Peraltas. [24]

Southward near the vicinity of the Portola crossing of the Santa Ana river, is Santa Ana Viejo, (Old Santa Ana) the main town of the area. The name Santa Ana stayed with the river and this place: there is California State Historical Marker #204 near Lincoln and Orange-Olive road. Later, in the early 1800s, a town started up on the site, called Santa Ana. It grew to the point of having a general store and a mayor, but faded away prior to 1850. [25]

The settlement of Santa Ana is mentioned in 1846-47 (Emory), and the name Santa Ana Viejo shows on maps after that time. The modern city of Santa Ana, at its present site south of Santiago Creek, was not founded until 1869. [24]

The river is now west of the old river bed - floods have changed the course several times. Santa Ana Viejo was a real town, essentially started by the Yorba family. The Yorba hacienda site overlooks the location of the old town. One Yorba casa sat on the hill where the old Olive grade school is now on Orange-Olive Road, past Lincoln. [25]

Near Chapman Ave. on the Santa Ana river was Santa Ana Abajo (Lower Santa Ana), an extension of the town to the north. Also here was (and still is) a favored crossing of the Santa Ana River, El Camino Real the forerunner of Highway 101, now the Santa Ana Freeway, I-5. South of here is the junction with Santiago Creek and the site of El Refugio (the Refuge), one of the earliest haciendas. [25]

Edward Trinidad Grijalva

"Grijalva's personal search for his roots has unearthed information that challenges conventional versions of Orange County history." [26] "[He] traces his roots back to his cousin, Juan Pablo Grijalva, a military leader during the De Anza trek and colonization. Juan Pablo applied for the first Spanish land grant in what is now Orange County where Eddie was born and raised." [27]

In 1992 he located the remains of Juan Pablos casa in the city of Orange, where Eddie now lives. In addition, Eddie is a Gabrielino Indian which maintains a direct link between the Spanish and Gabrielino of 200 years ago. [3]

"Presentations by Eddie Grijalva are a testament to California's heritage and inspire individuals to pursue their own history." [2] "Eddie is a bona fide historian/researcher whose credentials include access to the Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley." [28] "Spending time with Eddie Grijalva is like touching history." [3]

References & Bibliography (see footnote numbers next to text above):

1 - Eddie Grijalva, Orange City Magazine, Fall 1994.
2 - Douglas Westfall, Orange County Publisher.
3 - Paul Apodaca, Educator on Native Americans, Chapman University
4 - Jim Sleeper, Orange County Historian & Author.
5 - Don Meadows - Historic Place names of Orange County.
6 - Padre Presidente Fermin Francisco de Lasuan, Padre Serra's successor.
7 - Bernal Diaz, Conquest of Mexico, 1530s.
8 - The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft Vol XV.
9 - Marie Northrop - Spanish & Mexican Families of Early California Vol I.
10 - Cartes del Teniente Grijalva, 1794-1806. *
11 - The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft Vol XVIII.
12 - Padre Pedro Font, 1774.
13 - Explicacion del Registro desde San Diego, 1795. *
14 - Con las Memorias de este Presidio, 1794. *
15 - Informe sobre exploradas pro Pedro Mariner, 1795 *
16 - Wayne Dell Gibson, Orange County Historian & Author.
17 - WPA Historical Project, 1936
18 - Francisco Mar¡a Ruiz, Concession de Arrillaga, 1810.
19 - William Wolfskill - Told to M. Pleasants, 1870c.
20 - Don Meadows - Historic Place Names of Orange County.
21- Jessie Hoyt Campbell - Cal State Univ Fullerton, Oral History Program, 1976.
23- Laura Saari - Orange County Register, 1992.
24- Excerpted from the Orange Addition, Dec 1994.
25- Excerpted from the Orange Addition, Nov 1994.
26- Brian Langston, Publicist, Bowers Museum
27- Mimi Lozano-Holtzman, Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research
28- Joe Osterman, Orange County Historian

* Bancroft Library Manuscript

Submitted and reprinted by permission of Edward Grijalva, 2004



Pena Vaca Berryessa Reunion

June 6th, 2009

Hi All! 

Just wanted to let you know that the Pena Vaca Berryessa Reunion is coming up Saturday, June 6th, 2009 from 12:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. at the Pena Adobe in Vacaville. Join us as we gather together and get to know other cousins, and reconnect with other long lost cousins. There will be special things planned throughout the day. Even if you have no ties to the family, come up and spend the day with us and see the Pena Adobe park and museum, you'll enjoy it!  Please RSVP with Richard Lyon at (preferably before the 15th of October).

 Hope to see you there.  Anthony Ray ~ The Berreyesa Researcher  



Hispanic Family History Research, 18 October 2008 

Seating is limited. To register, send an e-mail to  or call 801-240-4950.
Information sent by Lorraine Hernandez 



Migration of the Mendoza Family from Jalisco, Kansas, California 
Viva el Arte!
Walt Whitman and the New Mexico 333 Celebration
AACHE Announces its 25th Annual Conference
Lineage Society, Early Settlers of Spanish and Mexican Land Grants 
From "Hispanic America USA" Information
Links to photos of Ike  


Migration of the Mendoza Family
from Jalisco, Mexico to Kansas to California

by Ricardo Valverde

My grandfather, Juan Ornelas Mendoza, was born in 1905 in Mexico in a small ranch town called Villa Hidalgo in the state of Jalisco. He had two brothers, older brother Natividad and younger brother Rosalio. His father Cypriano passed away when he was two years old. Due to their loss, the family suffered and lived in extreme poverty. As you can imagine life was very difficult.  He told stories of eating food picked up off the streets to survive and the fact that he went naked when the only clothes he had on his back needed to be washed.

His mother Librada had difficulty making ends meet so my grandfather decided to join his older brother Natividad who had just left for the U.S. with the hopes of working and sending money home. My grandfather was 17at the time.  

He met up with his brother Natividad in Kansas City where he was living. They soon found jobs on the railroad with the Atchison Topeka and the Santa Fe. He often spoke of their adventures on the railroad and their lives on the road, which were reminiscent of scenes in the movie the “Grapes of Wrath.” He connected with scenes in the motion picture depicting life in the camps and on the road in caravans of old model A trucks. His stories always carried some lesson to be learned. My grandfather was a good son. He sent money home to his mother who unfortunately passed away in the mid 1920’s. He tells of the time he wanted to see her but his mother wrote to him forbidding him to visit because at the time the Mexican government was killing and persecuting Christians. It was the time of the Cristeros. He never saw her again and he regretted heeding her words.  

He met my grandmother Trinidad Torres in Kansas while she was with her father, Matilde Torres, on a business trip from Mexico. She stayed and they married in 1928 and had three daughters. They traveled, moving all over the U.S. My mother the oldest is named Ludvina. Her other sisters are Luisa and Socorro. My grandparents and their daughters worked the fields as campesinos. I remember stories about their travels through Stockton, Valle Imperial, Indio, and other towns. They followed the picking seasons migrating crisscrossing California to make a living. The whole family worked in order to make ends meet.  

One story I found interesting was how the family wound up making their home in the City of Westminster. My grandmother at the age of eight wound up in the area while traveling with her father and was a student at the old 17th Street School where she befriended a young girl named Florentina. They became friends and began a relationship that would change the road the Mendoza family would travel. Years later, married and with family in tow, my grandmother remembered her friend and returned to visit her. During the visit my grandparents decided to set up camp at a house nearby that was rented and later purchased. It became the Mendoza home on Olive Street in what was later to be called the City of Westminster.  

With time my grandparents became well acquainted with the neighbors in the predominantly Mexican neighborhood. They used the home as a central hub for family, extended family and friends who followed the harvesting seasons in California. My grandparents also worked side by side with the Japanese farmers in Westminster and recounted the fond memories of the life in the fields. My grandmother served as a midwife and many people claim to have given their first breath in the house I call home. The home was full of activity for many years housed many relatives and friends. My grandparents allowed their daughters and husbands to get out and work to make a living by raising me, my sister Elsa as well as the other four grandchildren. Their home was a 24-hour childcare facility. My parents as well as my aunts and uncles lived there until they saved up monies to purchase their first homes.  

 Being the oldest of the grandchildren and male I was given the privilege to rub elbows with the patriarch of the family, my mentor, my grandfather. He was a well-respected man of whom I never heard an ill word. I learned about the past from him and his friends by listening to their conversations and stories. We were inseparable and were always seen driving around in his green 1955 Chevy truck. I soon learned to drive that truck at age nine in front of the L.P Weber School on Hoover Street. I own the old truck to this day.  

My grandparents, along with grandma’s friend Florentina and her family, as well as many others in the community are considered founders of the Catholic Church down the street called Blessed Sacrament. They as well as many friends are also listed as the builders of Blessed Sacrament Catholic School. They were members of the Progresista Mexicana a mutual aid society that concerned itself with local social and labor issues. They were Guadalupanos a church social group that honored the Virgen of Guadalupe and provided support for the church and its fiestas. The fiestas became famous nationally and attracted many famous celebrities of the period.  

I was in college at UCI in the 70’s and the Gonzalo Mendez case came up in a political science class. I then realized that it had taken place in Westminster and that they were talking about people I knew in the barrio. No one in town, to my knowledge, had ever mentioned the case. I came home and asked my grandparents if they knew about it and they were surprised that anybody remembered the case. They asked why people were interested in Mendez. They had been involved in the group of parents formed (by the different barrios) to support the cause. They didn’t understand the hubbub. It turned out that one of my grandparents was either the secretary or treasurer of the group. Furthermore both grandparents were friends of the Mendez family and helped raise one of the Mendez family members as their own.  

I live in Westminster and will most likely die here. There are many stories to be told about my family and the wonderful people and neighbors of the old barrio. My wife, my daughters and myself continue to stay active and are a part of our hometown. My grandfather instilled in me a sense of community spirit that I, my family, and many others will never forget. I hope I am fulfilling his wishes. He once asked I stay in touch with my roots and work to help the people he fondly called Raza. He stated, “We need to demonstrate we are all equal and deserve to be treated justly.” He didn’t understand why people would get educated and then move away to spare their children from being raised in the barrio. He loved the neighborhood.  

Because of them I have dedicated my life to serve our people, La Raza. I didn’t move away. I have spent most of my life in service to the community. I will retire soon after 31 plus years currently in service as a social worker with the County of Orange. My wife works at the old Catholic School that just celebrated its 60 years from which my daughters, relatives, friends and I graduated. My daughters are now doing their part. They have all worked with The Westminster Community Services Department. One is a currently a school teacher, one works as a counselor with juvenile dependents of the court and the other is planning to work as a police officer.  

 I lovingly remember my grandparents, relatives and friends past and present when I cruise down Olive St. In my office I look up at my grandfather’s picture hanging over my desk and the words of Cesar Chavez, “We cannot seek achievement for ourselves and forget about progress and prosperity for our community… our ambitions must be broad enough to include the aspirations and needs of others, for their sakes and for our own.” If my grandfather had received a formal education he may have been able to express himself like Cesar. He did what he could and I remember his words, he was a wise man.   

p.s. My grandparents and their families stories were deeply impacted by the Mexican Revolution and poverty in Mexico. They traveled and met many wonderful people in Mexico and the U.S. Your wealth in friends was usually measured by the amount of compadres you had. My grandmother once stated they were Godparents to over thirty some children!

Published in the Orange Country Register, California, September  as part of Hispanic Heritage Month.



“Por Amor”… kicks off the first “Viva el Arte” 2008 ALAC Latino Festival. The festival happens Oct. 8 -12 and features live theater, music, dance, poetry and visual arts at the Herberger Theater Center, 222 E. Monroe in downtown Phoenix.  

Wednesday, October 8, 2008 at 7:00 PM
Por Amor/For Love: An Operachi in One Act
Presented by New Carpa Theater (formerly Colores Actors-Writers Workshop)

Written by James E. Garcia, based on an idea by James E. Garcia and Raul Yzaguirre Director: Marcelino Quinonez

Tickets are $15.00 in advance by calling 602-460-1374

Starring: Albert Becerra
Dialogue in English/Songs in Spanish
It's Romeo and Juliet meets the music of the greatest troubadours of Mexico's Golden Age 
Cinema in a frolicking tale of love and the joys and travails of show business.  
1 hour, no intermission. 

Thursday, October 9, 2008 at 7:00 PM
La Calaca Cabaret
$15.00.  For tickets contact Carmen Guerrero at
Written by Zarco Guerrero  Producer: Carmen Guerrero  
A celebration of music, dance, poetry and theater that kicks off the Dia de Los Muertos 
Season. Featuring the Valley's premier Day of the Dead Performances by Zarco Guerrero,
Liliana de Leon, Stella Pope Duarte, Michelle Ceballos and many more Dia de Los Muertos 

Friday, October 10, 2008 at 8:00 PM
El grito de una mascara 
In Spanish (No English subtitles)
Written and directed by Jose Antonio Ocegueda

$15.00. For tickets email

Description: This engaging work is a series of provocative and insightful circumstances, filled with poetic monologues and surprising twists portraying different social issues and cultural shocks of the Hispanic community as they adapt to American society. El grito de una máscara demonstrates the reality of the Latin culture facing the vast diversity in a humoristic manner of its own kind.  1 ¾  hours with one intermission. 

Saturday, October 11, 2008 at 2:00 PM and 8:00 PM 
$20.00.  For tickets contact Gerardo Bru at
Musical  Written by Jim Jacobs and Warren Casey
Directed by Gerardo Bru
In Spanish (English supertitles)
Description: Grease is a musical by Jim Jacobs and Warren Casey about the way rock and roll changed American sexuality and culture during the pivotal moment when America took its first tentative steps out of the conformity and social/sexual oppression of the 1950s and toward the individualism and sexual freedom of the 1960s. Grease embodies this very real-world cultural friction in its two leads, Sandy (as the 1950s) and Danny (as the 1960s).  2 hours with one 10 min. intermission

Sunday, October 12, 2008 at 2:00 PM
The Women of Jaurez
Written by Ruben Amavizca
Directed by Pam Sterling
Tickets $15.00.  
For tickets contact
In English

Description: A Mexican mother searches for her missing daughter in the border city of Juarez where the disappearances of hundreds of women continue unabated.  A gripping, compelling drama ripped from today’s headlines. 
1 ½ hours, no intermission

Sent by JGarcia



Marc Simmons | The New Mexican
9/5/2008 - 9/6/08
Read all the way down to the reference of the Leyenda negra.  

Walt Whitman


On Aug. 5, 1883, the Philadelphia Press ran this brief announcement in its pages: "Our friends at Santa Fe, New Mexico, have just finished their long drawn out anniversary of the 333rd year of the settlement of their city by the Spanish. The good, gray Walt Whitman was asked to write them a poem in commemoration but he was unable to accept the invitation."

Two years ago in this column, I wrote about the grand month long Tertio-Millennial Exposition held in the capital. It was designed to commemorate the "supposed" 333rd anniversary of Santa Fe's founding.  

In reality, the motive for the Exposition was entirely phony, something trumped up by community leaders to lure tourists and investors from afar.  Still, the event succeeded in gaining national attention and drawing large crowds.  

In the planning stage, organizers had come up with the idea of inviting Whitman, the celebrated poet, to compose a poem in honor of the historic occasion. They must have thought his name would add luster to their promotional efforts.  

At that time, Whitman was in fact among the best known literary figures in the country. Born into a Quaker family in 1819, he grew up in Brooklyn, giving little hint of his future fame.  

His Leaves of Grass (1855) was Whitman's only major book. But it went through nine editions before his death in 1892.  

In my column, I quoted from secondary sources Whitman's brief reply to the request from Santa Fe to come and deliver a poem during the Exposition. He wrote: "The invitation reached me so late that I have to decline, with sincere regret."  

However, he added, "I will say a few words off hand." And he attached an essay of six substantial paragraphs under the title, "The Spanish Element in Our Nationality."  

I'd seen reference to this item over the years but had never been able to turn up a copy. Just recently though, Tomás Jaehn, curator of collections at the Angélico Chávez History Library in Santa Fe, was able to locate one for me.  

In reading it, I was surprised to see that Whitman had mounted a defense of Spanish conduct and character. Indeed, he declared no people "show a grander historic perspective — grander in religioness and loyalty, or for patriotism, courage, decorum, gravity, and honor."  

And he went on to say that Spaniards in their history displayed no more cruelty, tyranny, or superstition than a corresponding summary of Anglo-American history. "Nay," he stated, "I think there will not be found so much."  

In concluding, Whitman made this telling remark: "As to the Spanish stock of our Southwest, it is certain to me that we do not begin to appreciate the splendor and sterling value of it."  

On the whole, the author praises Hispanic New Mexicans in their pioneering achievements. Yet, he speaks in flowery rhetoric, born of romantic sentiment, for there is nothing to suggest he had knowledge of the barest rudiments of New Mexico history.  

I have seen no evidence that the poet ever visited New Mexico or had even read much about it. His only trip out West seems to have occurred in 1879 when he crossed the Great Plains to Colorado, riding in "a luxurious palace-car, drawn by the mighty Baldwin engine," as he described it.

On his return, he gave an interview to a St. Louis journalist extolling the beauty of the Rockies and "the untrammeled play of primitive nature" viewed from the car window. Clearly, Whitman was very much the poet and not a pioneer himself.  

Nonetheless, his essay sent to Santa Fe has merit because it was an early attack on the Black Legend, the old myth created by Spain's European enemies in the 16th century when her worldwide empire was at its height.  

It was grounded in Hispanophobia and in the popular belief that Spaniards were innately cruel and depraved. Whitman, as already noted, challenged that widespread depiction.  

So did Professor Phillip Wayne Powell in his 1971 book Tree of Hate, Propaganda and Prejudices Affecting United States Relations with the Hispanic World. With a mountain of evidence, he demolished the worn-out Leyenda Negra. Yet, traces of it linger on in our textbooks, public discourse and in conduct of foreign policy.  

Long out of print, Tree of Hate will be released in a new paperback edition by The University of New Mexico Press in October. It will continue the process of clarifying Spain's colonial record beyond Walt Whitman's modest beginning.

I regret that the renowned poet was unable to attend the Tertio-Millennial Exposition. Had he appeared and delivered an original poem, it would now be remembered as a history-making event.

Historian Marc Simmons is author of numerous books on New Mexico and the Southwest. His column appears Saturdays. Above information courtesy of Marc Simmons.

Sent by Juan Marinez



The Arizona Association of Chicanos for Higher Education (AACHE) Announces its 25th Annual Conference

“Strengthening the Education Pipeline: Academic and Community Strategies for Latino/a Educational Empowerment: Si se Puede!”

Date & Time: October 10, 2008, 7:30 a.m. to 6:30 p.m.  
Location: Arizona State University at the West Campus,  

4701 W. Thunderbird Road , Phoenix , Arizona


PHOENIX – The Arizona Association of Chicanos for Higher Education (AACHE) will host its 25th annual state-wide conference on Friday, Oct. 10, 2008.

The conference is titled “Strengthening the Education Pipeline: Academic and Community Strategies for Latino/a Educational Empowerment: Si se Puede!”

The all-day conference will focus on identifying efforts from pre-kindergarten to the university level and beyond, designed to enhance Hispanic students’ academic success.

Speakers for the event include: Raul Yzaguirre , executive director of the ASU Center for Community Development and Civil Rights and former president and CEO of the National Council of La Raza; Pete Garcia, president of the Victoria Foundation and former CEO and President of Chicanos Por La Causa; Rosie Lopez, founder of the Arizona Hispanic Community Forum; and Olga Aros, deputy director of the City of Phoenix Equal Opportunity Department. Conference attendees will participate in break-out group discussions on topics related to the conference theme during the morning and afternoon sessions.  

The conference will be held in La Sala Ballroom at the University Center Building (UCB) at ASU at the West Campus, 4701 W. Thunderbird Road , Phoenix , Arizona .

            In conjunction with the conference, AACHE and ASU at the West Campus are hosting an art exhibit featuring the work of various Hispanic artists from across Arizona . The exhibit will be on display at the Fletcher Library art gallery at ASU at the West Campus, Oct. 4-Oct. 30.

            Early registration for the conference is $100 (through Sept. 20). Late and on-site registration is $130. Student registration is $25. Conference registration information can be found at the AACHE website at   

Editor: If you decide to go, you might tell them you read it in Somos Primos which was posted September 1st.  Maybe they will not charge you a late fee??

            A full conference schedule is posted at the AACHE website.

CONTACTS: Dr. José E. Náñez, Sr.; Chair, Conference Planning Committee, AACHE president-elect,, (480) 965-2002 and (602) 543-6012, or James E. Garcia,, 602-496-0441. Sent by  



Lineage Society for Descendants 
of Early Settlers of Spanish and Mexican Land Grants  

The following announcement was written by the Early Settlers of Spanish and Mexican Land Grants:

HOUSTON, TEXAS - Organizers announced today the formation of a lineage society for Early Settlers of Spanish and Mexican Land Grants (ESSMLG). This is the first national lineage society that recognizes and preserves the contributions of the Spanish / Latino culture in the early settlement of the United States. Even before Jamestowne was founded and the Pilgrims landed, Texas and the southwestern U.S. were being explored. By the 1600s there was a rich Spanish culture in place. The early settlers of the southwestern U.S. included such diverse groups as Spaniards, Canary Islanders, French, Irish, English, Scots, Jewish, German, Dutch, Portuguese, and Native Americans from both sides of the present day U.S.-Mexico border. Much of the early history of this area is barely taught in schools where the curriculum emphasizes the early English settlement of the eastern U.S.

The mission of ESSMLG is to research, preserve, and promote the lost history, heritage, and culture of the early settlers on Spanish and Mexican grants in land now part of the United States of America. It is the first national lineage society formed:

- to recognize the important contributions of those early settlers from whom our Spanish-speaking culture evolved,

- with a board-certified genealogist confirming all member applications meet accepted genealogical standards,

- with a DNA component for ground-breaking scholarly research and to link family groups,

- and with an all-digital research library.

The official launch of ESSMLG will be at the 29th Annual Texas State Hispanic Genealogical and Historical Conference in Nacogdoches, Texas on 28-31 August 2008 (see for more information).


Membership in ESSMLG is open to all who have established their lineage to a person who received or was associated with a Spanish or Mexican land grant in an area that is now part of the United States of America, prior to the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848. Descendant and Junior Descendant (under age 18) membership categories are available. Supporting members are limited, non-voting individuals, businesses, or companies who wish to invest in the success and future of the ESSMLG.

Lineages Verified By Board-Certified Genealogist

ESSMLG is the first lineage society formed with a board-certified genealogist verifying the lineages of member applications before approval.

Database And Digital Library

The society administers a database of fully-substantiated lineages of early settlers to assist people in locating their ancestors and documenting their family history. The database includes traditional genealogical records as well as DNA profiles of selected members to confirm and support family links.

In addition to preserving family historical documents in our all-digital research library, the society supports the preservation of historical records from Mexico and in American counties where land grants were made by the Spanish and Mexican governments. This digital library will be available online to members in the future.

All documents used as proof in lineage society applications are digitized and available through our digital library. The society actively seeks documents related to the early settlers from both sides of the present day U.S.-Mexico border and supports the preservation of historical records from Mexico and in American counties where land grants were made by the Spanish and Mexican governments.

DNA Project

The goal of the DNA project is to investigate the roots of the original settlers on lands granted by the Spanish and Mexican governments in Texas and other parts of the U.S. The DNA signatures will be compared to others to confirm ethnic origins suggested by traditional genealogical research.

As the DNA database grows it will be used to help determine a person's probable ancestry by finding matches within the database when a documented genealogy is difficult to confirm with a paper trail. This DNA project is not limited to any particular surname, all descendants of ESSMLG are invited to participate.

ESSMLG offers a group rate for DNA testing at Family Tree DNA. We accept results from other testing companies and add them to our database for members who may have tested at other laboratories. The society provides DNA scholarships for key lineage links. The DNA Director approves scholarships based on current project needs.


Early Settlers of Spanish and Mexican Land Grants is a Domestic Nonprofit Corporation organized under the laws of the State of Texas. The organizing board consists of members of well-known Hispanic families who are descendants of early settlers of Spanish and Mexican land grants in the southwest Texas area.

Carolyn Ybarra is the President of the Board of Directors. Ybarra holds a Ph.D. in anthropology from Stanford University.  She is a professional genealogist and principal of Family Research Services, who conducts historical research on movement across the United States by land and sea. Dr. Ybarra is a member of the Association of Professional Genealogists, and teaches memoir writing and family history.  She has attended the Samford Institute of Genealogy and Historical Research.  She is active in several nonprofits supporting individuals with developmental disabilities, and has lectured on genetically-inherited conditions.  Her Ybarra and Garza ancestors settled in the Rio Grande Valley by the mid-19th century.

Dee Dee King, Certified Genealogist, is the Executive Director and Registrar for the society. King is a professional researcher, publisher, and lecturer specializing in forensic genealogy services and kinship determination in heirship matters. She has edited and published 86 genealogical products on CD-ROM.  She is a member of the Association of Professional Genealogists (APG) and was founding president of the Lone Star Chapter APG. She has completed Samford's Institute of Genealogy and Historical Research Advanced Methodology and Analysis Course.

Debbie Parker Wayne is the DNA Director and Webmaster for the society. Wayne is a professional genealogist who spent over 25 years in the computer industry and has been doing genealogical research for more than eighteen years. She has been interested in DNA research since the beginning of the Human Genome Project and has closely studied the use of DNA in genealogical research. She is a member of the Association of Professional Genealogists and an officer in the Lone Star Chapter APG. She has completed several courses at Samford's Institute of Genealogy and Historical Research, including the Advanced Methodology and Analysis course and the Advanced Library Research: Law Libraries and Government Documents course. is the Web address for the ESSMLG Web site. contains contact information for the society and directors.

About Other Entities

Board for Certification of Genealogists® is a registered service mark, and the following are service marks for the Board for Certification of Genealogists ( Certified Genealogist, CG, and Certified Genealogical Lecturer, CGL. These service marks are used under license by associates who meet prescribed genealogical competency standards.

The Association of Professional Genealogists (, established in 1979, represents over 1,800 genealogists and others involved in genealogy-related businesses. The organization also supports the preservation and accessibility of records useful to the fields of genealogy, local, and social history. Its members represent all fifty states, Canada, and twenty-six other countries.

The Samford Institute of Genealogy and Historical Research (IGHR) ( provides an educational forum for the discovery, critical evaluation, and use of genealogical sources and methodology through intensive study led by nationally prominent genealogical educators. The institute is academically and professionally oriented and is cosponsored by the Board for Certification of Genealogists.

Family Tree DNA ( and other cooperative ventures, including the National Geographic Society's Genographic Project and, now comprise the largest non-medical DNA testing program in the world.  Family Tree DNA was founded in 2000 by Mr. Bennett Greenspan, an entrepreneur and life-long genealogy enthusiast, turning a hobby into a full-time vocation.  His effort and innovation created the burgeoning field now known as genetic genealogy. With over 200,000 records, Family Tree DNA has the largest database of its kind in the world.


From "Hispanic America USA" Information

Q. Other than Spanish being a U.S. custom, having a base established continuously from the 1500's and up to the present time in the U.S., are there laws guaranteeing the Spanish language be protected in the U.S.?

A. YES! There is a Federal and International Treaty called the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which guarantees American Citizens the right to speak the Spanish language in schools, courts of law, employment, and every day existence in California, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, and parts of Wyoming..

1) The U.S. Congress ratified the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo March 1848. An act of Congress is the supreme law of the land, and every Judge in the U.S. shall be bound thereby. 

2) The TGH promises to "respect the rights" of the conquered Americans, this includes continuing their culture "Rights" as they and their forefathers before them did (culture includes language), property, and religious rights of Spanish speaking people living in the territory. Officially and unofficially the cultural, and property rights have been at the minimum ignored, either intentionally or unintentionally.

All through history, when another region or country conquered another, the conquered were allowed to retain their language, from the barbarians to the conquering Roman Legions and up through the present. One would at least expect at least this from our great nation The rights of the conquered Californians and South Westerners have been circumvented or completely ignored. Instead our own laws such as the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (TGH Treaty Law) which allowed for the conquered Californians/South Westerners to maintain the lengua franca of the western USA, the Spanish language. The Spanish language was the lengua franca across the region for Indigenous People/Native Americans and every one else. 

The Treaty promised to "Respect the Rights" of the conquered People, and those in charge over time allowed these rights to be trampled on the rights of the Spanish speaking conquered people. Those conquered American citizens had the right to continue speaking Spanish, they knew they had that right under the Treaty; as their numbers dwindled due to squatters, their rights were stripped. Generation after generation kept the hope alive, that someday the Treaty would be honored. I look for my country to honor it today.

Q. Are there other laws which protect the rights of the conquered Americans of Hispanic heritage Southwest and California?

A . YES ! The New Mexico State Constitution 1910 (Arizona is included), authors reiterated the protections for the Conquered Southwesterners and California in their Constitution to read "All teachers be proficient in Spanish ". Others are the California Constitution and the Gadsden Purchase which reiterated the rights of the conquered Californians and South Westerners.
Sent by Dr. Carlos Muñoz, Jr.


Photos of Ike . . in action and results



Pasadena NAACP recognizes John Transviña 
Allensworth, California

Pasadena NAACP recognizes John Transviña

The first week of September, the Pasadena NAACP bestowed its President’s Award upon MALDEF President and General Counsel John Trasviña for his service to the Latino community and efforts to develop new partnerships with African Americans. 

Founded in 1968, MALDEF, the nation’s leading Latino legal organization, promotes and protects the rights of Latinos through litigation, advocacy, community20education and outreach, leadership development and higher education scholarships.
634 S. Spring Street
Los Angeles, CA 90014
Tel: 213.629.2512


Allensworth, California

Dear Friends: 
As some of you know, Mickey Ellinger and I have been working the last two years with Mrs. Alice Royal of Visalia to produce a book about the town of Allensworth.  The book is now published, is beautiful, and available!  
Allensworth, 50 miles northwest of Bakersfield, was founded in 1908, and was the only town in California founded, funded, and governed by African Americans.  Mrs. Royal was born in Allensworth in her grandparents' home in 1923, and has worked tirelessly to bring the history of Allensworth to public attention. 
In 1976, 240 acres of the old Allensworth downtown were declared a State Historic Park, and since then over 20 buildings have been rebuilt and furnished.  
At the end of the 19th century, one of the forms of struggle for Black liberation was to build independent towns.   Between 1877 and 1900, over 200,000 Blacks left the South to found more than a hundred autonomous communities.  Allensworth was one of those towns, named for its founder, Allen Allensworth, whose own life was a journey from being enslaved to chaplain of the U.S. Army's (Black) 24th Infantry Regiment, retiring as a Lt. Colonel.
The town could have changed US history if its vision had been realized: African Americans managing their own affairs, farming, running independent businesses, providing housing for retired and active duty military people, shipping from the railroad depot at the edge of town, and building a trade college, a Tuskegee of the West.
But within a few years the development company reneged on its agreement to provide water, the railroad station moved six miles north, and proposals to the State legislature to build the trade school were defeated.   In 1914, Col. Allensworth was killed by two motorcyclists, in what was probably a racial attack. 
The town held on for another decade, but the depression drove most of its residents into the cities.   By the 1960's downtown Allensworth was abandoned or destroyed, and the rest of the town is now home to about a hundred families, mostly Latino farm laborers.
The book, Allensworth, the Freedom Colony; an African American Township in California, by Mrs. Alice Royal with Scott Braley and Mickey Ellinger, tells the story of the town and its citizens - its conception, it's pioneers, the building of the park, the town of Allensworth today.  Guided by Mrs. Royal, we did dozens of new interviews with children of the pioneers, and found many old interviews and photos.   Mickey did the writing, and Scott has more than 80 full color photos in the book.  There are dozens of historic photos from many personal archives.
The book presents a little-known chapter of African American history. Response has been excellent, and we think it should go into every bookstore and school library in California.  Heyday Books, the publisher, has priced it at $17.95, inexpensive for a full color book.   You can order it from, although getting it from Amazon or Powell's moves it up in the ratings.   Asking for it at your local bookstore is better yet. 
Let us know what you think of it.   And, we hope you can help us get the book into libraries and curriculums.   If you are a parent, teacher, or have friends who work in schools or libraries, please show the book to them, and give us their contact info so we can send them an announcement. 
Scott Braley and Mickey Ellinger
PS- the town's centennial blow-out will be Saturday, October 11th,.    All the buildings will be open, Mrs. Royal will be signing books, and we hope to see you there. If you are interested in an inexpensive one-day bus or train excursion, let us know and we can give you the information.

Freedom Archives
522 Valencia Street
San Francisco, CA 94110
415 863-9977




Go to Circle of Harmony, Poway, California Concert
Crystal Shawanda
Gila River Indian Community
Aztec Mexicolore and Aztec Poetry 
How to Trace Your Native American Heritage Video
Chumash recover their ‘alishtaha’n
International Day of World's Indigenous People, August 9th
Flyer, Mixtec Traditional Medicine Workshop held September 12
Extract: Eagle Feathers
Roque Ramos Quijada

Crystal Shawanda releases debut album
'Dawn of a New Day' dedicated to those in need of hope.

by: Vincent Schilling

Photo courtesy Russ Harrington -- Crystal Shawanda started her journey in Nashville when she was 13-years-old, where she received her first standing ovation. Now the young singer/songwriter is enjoying the success of her debut album ''Dawn of a New Day'' released Aug. 19.

Shawanda's new album is true to her namesake. She is an Ojibwe that grew up on the Wikwemikong reservation on Canada's Manitoulin Island. In her native language, Shawanda literally means what her album proclaims: ''Dawn of a New Day.''

The album has debuted at No. 2 on the Soundscan Top Country Albums chart in Canada and went on sale in the U.S. Aug. 19. Her debut single, ''You Can Let Go'' is already raising eyebrows as it climbs country music radio charts.

Music has always been a way of life for Shawanda. Living on the reservation, she wrote her first song at nine years old.

''Songwriting would become my way of coping with the hopelessness. Growing up, I watched too many people lose hope and leave this earth ... including cousins and many friends of mine. I watched as my brothers lost almost every childhood friend before they were 16. But music was my hope. It saved me, and it became a doorway for me to find freedom from the hopelessness that we all felt on the reservation.''

Shawanda grew up with the influences introduced to her by her mother and father. Her mother was a huge fan of Loretta Lynn.

''Loretta Lynn was my childhood hero ... and she continues to be that for me today. I grew up watching her be a friend to my mom through her music. Mom would sing along with those records like someone understood her. I was born a country music singer. I was driven to sing, and I drove my parents nuts about it.''

Shawanda continued to drive her parents crazy with her drive to sing. Her father drove a truck route from Michigan straight through to Nashville and it wasn't long until she was hitching a ride to the capital of country music in Tennessee.

At age 13, She found herself in Nashville standing outside of Tootsie's Orchid Lounge. Tootsie's has been the starting point for many country artists.

Shawanda took a chance. She walked into Tootsie's and asked to sing and belted out ''Two More Bottles of Wine.'' The drummer was impressed and asked her to sing another song. As it turns out, the drummer went by the nickname ''Sticks.'' He had been the drummer for Loretta Lynn for years.

The crowd at Tootsie's gave Shawanda an ovation. Sticks had remarked, ''I never heard a girl sing a song like that.'' According to Shawanda, ''After that ovation, I was hooked for life. I knew right then and there I would be back.''

Shawanda made several more trips to Nashville with her mother and father. Times were tough and the family often had to spend the night in her father's truck because they could not afford a hotel.  Shawanda returned home obsessed with a mission. There was no music school on her reservation, so she researched and found funding through grants to attend a music program that was five hours from home.

Leaving home was not easy; she loved her family and community, but viewed the move a necessary evil. ''It was the ultimate sacrifice but I knew in my heart that at that young age it was for the best and I wanted to be prepared for my future.''

At age 16, she dropped out of high school and left Canada to pursue her singing career. She admits that it was a mistake to quit school so early because of the lack of job opportunities for high school drop outs. But Shawanda persevered and managed to work and sing regularly at Tootsie's Orchid Lounge. But the gigs were few and far between. ''You can't get a job if you don't have an education.''

She continued to work hard in spite of her difficulties and her persistence paid off. Ultimately she was heard by Scott Hendricks from RCA Records.
The rest is history. The Country Music world is embracing the incredible talent of Crystal Shawanda.  According to RCA Records, Shawanda co-penned several songs on Dawn of a New Day, produced by Scott Hendricks, including the title track as well as ''You Can't Take It Back,'' about second chances, and the vulnerable ''Tender Side.''  The album also features tracks by songwriters including Brett James, Hillary Lindsey, Aimee Mayo, John Rich and Gretchen Wilson, among others.

For more information on Crystal Shawanda, check out:
Sent by Dorinda Moreno . . source:

Gila River Indian Community

I am interested in joining your research efforts.  As a descendant of one of the first Spanish families in Tucson , Arizona , and of indigenous origins as well, I would like to offer my services in this area.  

Thank you, Jose G. Solarez Jr.
Director, Gila River Indian Community
Community Services Department
P. O. Box 2137
Sacaton , AZ 85247

Office: 520-562-9691

Pee Posh (Maricopa)

maricopa_idaRedbird.jpgThe Maricopa people were small bands living along the lower Gila and Colorado rivers. Each of these bands migrated eastward at different times. The Xalychidom (Maricopa of Lehi), left around 1825-1830. The last of these bands is said to have left the Colorado River in the late 1830’s. Eventually these bands came together and became collectively known as the Maricopa. As they migrated eastward, they came upon the Pima tribe and established a relationship. Both tribes provided protection against the Yuman and Apache tribes.

Some Maricopa’s (mostly Xalychidom Piipaash) began migrating to the area now known as Lehi on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community, because water from the Gila River was becoming scarce. When the Salt River Indian Community was established in 1879, the reservation included both tribes within these boundaries. The Maricopa Tribe is known for their red clay pottery work. Various jars and bowls were created for essential needs, made of natural materials. The clay was collected at various locations within the area. Natural dyes were used to depict geometrical designs. Maricopa pottery artwork can be viewed at the Community’s Hoohoogam Ki Museum.






  MEXICOLORE is an extensive website created in England. It includes a wide variety of topics written by experts. It is a wonderful resource for teachers, and for individual research.   I particularly enjoyed the section of Poetry and the wonderful examples.

Aztec Poetry (1): Introduction
This article was kindly written specially for us by John Curl, translator and biographer of Aztec, Maya, and Inca poetry and poets in 'Ancient American Poets' (2006). Author of seven other books of poetry, a memoir, and a history of cooperation in America, he is a boardmember of PEN USA and resides in Berkeley, California.
Commentary and translations by John Curl.

Poetry was a rich cultural tradition in ancient Mexico. Poet-singers, called xochitlahtoanime (flowerspeakers) or cuicapicque (songmakers), performed at almost every ceremony and holiday, as well as at secular entertainments, cultural gatherings, parties, and banquets. Poets would gather frequently in informal sessions where they would present new works-in-progress. Groups of lyric poets would sometimes perform together on a chosen theme, creating what they called “the dialogue of the songs.” Besides their own original poems, they would perform and improvise variations of well-known works by celebrated authors.

Poetry was in xochitl in cuicatl (“flower and song”). Aztec (or Nahua) poetry had two broad categories, secular and religious. Secular lyric poetry, called netotiliztin, or “joyful dances,” could be composed and performed by anyone, a common person or an aristocrat, a man or a woman. Religious poetry, called macehualiztin or “merit dances,” were composed and performed by poets attached to sects devoted to particular deities.

Most of the secular lyric poems that survived the cultural destruction of the Conquest were composed in the previous century. The poets identified themselves in many of their poems, and Native histories have left us accounts of some of the poets’ lives. The religious poetry was anonymous, and thus is from an unknowable antiquity.

The flower-songs combined sacred and ceremonial themes with worldly and social concerns. They were often philsophical meditations on death, life, and love, on friendship, on a personal relationship with the Creator, on the brevity of life and fame, on the joys of poetry and song, on the triumphs and griefs of war. They memorialized great leaders and special occasions, and praised cities. Songs known as “youth dances,” dealing in love, flirtation, and pleasure were reportedly common, but few have come down to us. The sacred hymns were less personal and individualistic. They were a ritual part of religious ceremonies, and sung in and around the temples.

Sent by Dorinda Moreno


How to Trace Your Native American Heritage Video

Highly informative video helps you efficiently trace your Native American heritage including How and where to Research the Dawes Rolls; How to obtain your Tribal Membership; Internet sites to assist your searh; How to obtain a CDIB card (Certificate of Degree of Indian Blood) and more!  This comprehensive Video also lists over 500 federally recognized American Tribes.

#7727 Video $25 or  #6929 EDVD $25, add handling cost for either of $6.20
Southwest Indian Foundation  1-505-863-4037  P.O. Box 86  Gallup, NM 87302-0001

A September happening . . . . 
Cualli Yoali!  
You are invited to the sacred ceremony.  The offering is a sacred commitment between your soul and the Great Spirit.  The Toltec Altar is an insightful revelation of the core of the Toltec tradition, one of the world's richest sources of ancient wisdom.  Let's learn together by attending this sacred ceremony of the Toltec spirtiuality and understand more about of our own presence, as well as how to come into greater harmony with the whole-the holy circle of All My Relations.
We will be attempting to set up 5 altars and we still need volunteers to help set up.  Aquezali from Oakland will be in charge of the North altar representing our Black brothers and sisters, The West altar Patricia Juarez from Mexico D.F. who lives in Berkeley will be in charge of the altar representing our Red brothers and sisters, we are looking into Marisela from Berkeley to set up the East Altar to represent our White Brothers and Sisters but a personal delima has come up for her so I might need a backup help in charge on this in case she can not help.  And last the South to represent our Yellow brothers and sisters and presently I do need to find a dancer who can be in charge of this one. 
I will be in charge of the center Toltec Oracle Altar which I will need some help as well on this because it requires putting various color flowers.  Remember this ceremony represents all nations coming together as one.  We are dancing under the Ometeotl symbol which is the Toltec Altar and we are dancing for all nations to unite as one.  Teotl (Spirit) - Ruling our spirit and the blue color represents the Great Spirit, Tonaktl (Body) Rulling the physical Body and the material world (Red), Teyoli (Emotions) Green Ruling emotions and relationships, Mati(Mind) Yellow Ruling the mind and the workplace. 
All this is what the ceremony will represent plus celebrating the beginning of the Fall Solstice and honoring all the elders that once lived, preserved, continued the tradition of the Aztec danzas in the Fresno area. 

Annamarie Magana De Argumedo
Ana M. <>
Lidia Tlahuixaya Doniz



Chumash recover their

By Steve Chawkins
April 20, 2008  


A generation ago, the ancient Chumash tongue of Samala was all but dead, its songs and sagas buried in a university basement beneath mountains of yellowing research notes. But now Samala is the talk of the reservation.

Thanks largely to a non-American Indian graduate student who was working for pocket money 40 years ago, the tribe has unveiled the first major Samala dictionary, a key moment in the language’s rebirth.

At a lavish event in the Chumash casino’s concert hall Friday night, most of the tribe’s 150 enrolled members lined up for copies of the long-awaited 608-page book.

This is awesome,” said Nakia Zavalla, the 33-year-old cultural director for the Santa Ynez band of the Chumash, handling the volume as gingerly as a sacred text. “We won’t have to constantly go searching for our culture – now it’s right here.”

The dictionary’s 4,000 entries sound as foreign to most of the tribe members as they were familiar to their ancestors. It’s a tough language for English speakers, filled with sharp interruptions called glottal stops. Some words don’t quite roll off the tongue – qalpsik is to braid the hair tight – and more than 100 prefixes can dramatically change the meaning of verbs.

There are so many rules,” moaned Zavalla. “Just a glottal stop – it sounds like uh-oh – can change the meaning of ma from ‘the’ to ‘rabbit.’

The last Chumash fluent in the language died in 1965. For years, speaking Samala carried a stigma, even on the reservation. At the American Indian boarding schools attended by students in past generations, use of native tongues was a punishable offense, a serious violation in an environment that aimed to minimize the value of being Indian.

More recently, some parents saw the language as a needless burden for their children – a reminder of an identity it sometimes seemed better to hide.

I would never even tell people I was Chumash,” said Sarah Moses, 66, the head of the tribe’s education committee. “I would say I was Mexican.”

It was the same story in other tribes. About 30 of the state’s American Indian tongues have no speakers left and another 50 have only a few. Fueled in some cases by revenue from their casinos, tribes have hired linguists to help them bring back languages now limited mostly to guest appearances in scholarly publications.

There’s a huge resurgence of people wanting to get their languages back,” said Leanne Hinton, the retired head of UC Berkeley’s linguistics department and a consultant for several tribes. “This Samala dictionary is going to be an extremely important reference, particularly with no native speakers left.”

At Friday night’s ceremony, state education secretary Jack O’Connell called the dictionary’s unveiling “a truly historic, monumental occasion,” and the crowd burst into applause.

Servers circulated from table to table offering gift bags stuffed with small mementos: A tin of M&M’s stamped with the Samala words for good – choho – and hello – haku; a deck of 52 illustrated flash cards with words like watermelon (santiya), donkey (wulu), to be half-dark (unatixivi); and a butter cookie topped with a four-color reproduction of the dictionary’s cover on sugary, edible paper.

Guests dined on prime rib and lobster. They sipped lemonade from crystal flutes. They listened to speeches. Through a veil of sweet-smelling sage smoke, they watched dancers clad in a cascade of feathers, shells and hides. At evening’s end, many stood before linguist Richard Applegate, asking for his autograph on the volumes they would tote back home.

He signed book after book with a smile, advising his fans to be of good cheer – ‘alishtaha’n – even if they had to wrestle with two glottal stops and a throaty, rasping ‘h’ to do it.

You’ve given us a wonderful gift,” said Elaine Schneider, a Chumash elder. “The first thing I’m going to do is look up the words for my daily prayer: ‘Creator, protect us.’ ”

In his tweed jacket and wire-rimmed glasses, Applegate looked like the academician he’s been for most of his life. What he didn’t look like was the world’s foremost speaker of Samala – a language he’d barely heard of before casting around for a part-time job at UC Berkeley in 1968.

As a graduate student there, Applegate earned money sorting through endless boxes of notes by John P. Harrington, a brilliant and eccentric anthropologist who had poured himself into the study of California’s American Indians. A pack rat, Harrington stuffed 1 million sheets of paper – along with random pieces of laundry and half-eaten sandwiches – into crates that wound up in basements and warehouses all over the West.

But Harrington was a meticulous observer, and what Applegate discovered was a trove of invaluable information on Chumash life and the half-dozen languages of the Chumash groups along California’s coast.

In a sometimes indecipherable scrawl, Harrington recorded several years of interviews with Maria Ysidora de Refugio Solares, a Santa Ynez Chumash woman who told him stories about a bear attack and a mission revolt, the details of childbirth and the proper way for children to dispose of teeth that fall out.

Entranced by the language, Applegate did his doctoral dissertation and a few scholarly papers on Samala. He moved on to other things, but about five years ago, the tribe asked him to start a language program. He eventually chose five “apprentices,” adults who pass Samala words on to their children and to different groups around the reservation.

Applegate’s program also produced the dictionary, which is far more reader-friendly than the dry listing of Samala words he assembled for his dissertation in 1972. Photos of tribal members and their pets illustrate many entries in the dictionary. Beside the entry for texewec – to bask, or sun oneself – is a woman poolside, in sunglasses, reading a copy of Chumash magazine.

In remarks that drew a standing ovation Friday night, Applegate invoked the tribe’s “spirit leaders” – especially Solares, whom he described as being patient with Harrington’s pestering so that vital information could be passed to future generations.

The dictionary is “far too beautiful and useful to sit on the coffee table or the shelf – so use it!” he urged, his voice cracking a little. “My deepest wish is not to be the sole culture-bearer of the language, and this is coming true. So thank you all.”

Scholar: Richard Applegate studied Samala in his doctoral work and compiled the dictionary based on the forgotten, jumbled notes of an acclaimed anthropologist.




Observed on 9 August

In 1994, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed 9 August the International Day of the World's Indigenous People. There were many reasons for this decision, but the fundamental motivation was the Assembly's recognition of the need to place the United Nations clearly and strongly behind the promotion and protection of the rights of indigenous peoples, in order to put an end to their marginalization, their extreme poverty, the expropriation of their traditional lands and the other grave human rights abuses they have faced and continue to encounter. Indeed, the suffering of indigenous peoples includes some of the darkest episodes in human history.

Important as it was, proclamation of the Day was only a prelude to a greater milestone: last fall's adoption by the General Assembly of the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. The Declaration is a visionary step towards addressing the human rights of indigenous peoples. It sets out a framework on which States can build or rebuild their relationships with indigenous peoples. The result of more than two decades of negotiations, it provides a momentous opportunity for States and indigenous peoples to strengthen their relationships, promote reconciliation and ensure that the past is not repeated. I encourage Member States and indigenous peoples to come together in a spirit of mutual respect and make use of the Declaration as the living document it is, so that it has a real and positive effect throughout the world.

As 2008 is the International Year of Languages, this International Day is also an opportunity to recognize the silent crisis confronting many of the world's languages, the overwhelming majority of which are indigenous peoples' languages. The loss of these languages would not only weaken the world's cultural diversity, but also our collective knowledge as a human race. I call on States, indigenous peoples, the United Nations system and all relevant actors to take immediate steps to protect and promote endangered languages and to ensure the safe passage of this shared heritage to future generations.

Forwarded by Les Malezer -
Sent by Dorinda Moreno
Eagle feathers
Posted August 12, 2008 by: DaShanne Stokes  

Congress should expand the eagle feather permit system to include state-recognized tribes.  Under the current law (50 CFR 22.22, commonly called the ''eagle feather law''), only members of the nation's 562 federally recognized tribes are allowed to obtain eagle permits. This oversight leaves another 62 state-recognized tribes out in the cold, unable to obtain eagle feathers needed to practice and preserve traditional ways of life.

To avoid harassment and arrest in the 1800s, members of federally recognized tribes often had to hide their sacred possessions and practice ceremonies in secret.

More than a century later, members of state-recognized tribes must now hide their eagle feathers or face imprisonment for practicing traditional customs. America rightly celebrates the legacy of the civil rights movement and our country's first black presidential nominee, but it's still a crime to be indigenous.

In Virginia, for example, the 1924 Racial Integrity Act declared that only ''whites'' and ''colored'' people existed in the state. Native birth records were altered to identify people as ''colored'' rather than indigenous, effectively eliminating all hopes of state tribes to gain the federal recognition needed to obtain eagles. David, a Sun dancer and enrolled member of the state-recognized Monacan Tribe of Virginia, has experienced the repercussions of this ''paper genocide'' firsthand.

Several tribes in Georgia, for example, were forcibly removed to Oklahoma in the 1830s and consequently cannot document their uninterrupted history - a requisite for federal recognition.

Other tribes fought American expansionism by refusing to be relocated from their homelands, hiding their heritage from state officials and refusing to sign tribal rolls. Not only did they lose all hopes of federal recognition as a result, but their descendants today are denied their heritage, identities and right to obtain eagles.

For others, the inability to obtain eagle permits may stem from economics. In Connecticut, Virginia and North Carolina, for example, state-recognized tribes face political opposition to federal recognition by interest groups opposed to Indian gaming.

Legal scholars like Alexa Koenig and Jonathan Stein have even suggested that federally recognized tribes have been given incentive to oppose recognition of state tribes because it would mean splitting up the economic pie that casino gaming offers.

The result: federal tribes, states and local communities may be set against state tribes who are trying to survive an imperialist legacy that robbed them of their homelands, ways of life and access to eagles.

According to the Division of Migratory Bird Management, only 1.1 percent of the nearly 2,000,000 members of federally recognized tribes have eagle permits. State-recognized tribes are often very small, numbering only a few hundred in many instances.

If the percentage of eagle permit applications remains constant between state and federally recognized tribes, expanding the eagle permit system to include state tribes would not pose a significant increase in the number of eagle permit applications or significantly decrease the number of eagles available. Also, there is no evidence that expanding the permit system would threaten the eagle population or inhibit the government's trust obligations to federal recognized tribes.

I for one believe that the government has a compelling interest in protecting the religious freedom of all its citizens, and its trust duty to protect the rights of Native tribes includes those recognized by the states. If the termination era was any indication, federally recognized tribes are not immune to the possibility of again losing their rights to eagles.

The bill, authored by RFR, would expand the eagle permit system to include state-recognized tribes, thereby helping to protect their cultural survival and constitutional rights to religious freedom. Most importantly for eagles and current permit holders, the bill would maintain the system's current protections of eagle populations and trust responsibilities to federally recognized tribes.

DaShanne Stokes, M.A., is director of the public interest advocacy group Religious Freedom with Raptors (



Editor: I don't usually include queries this, but there are so many interesting facets to the research, I thought it would have some historical aspects of interest to everyone.

I have searched high and low for a baptismal or birth record of my maternal grand father but have been unable to locate either.

My maternal grandfather was ROQUE RAMOS QUIJADA. Family history notes, state that he was born in 1852 and that he was a son of Brenabe Ramos and Josefa Quijada. Documents that I have been able to acquire,do not deal with the birth or baptism of Roque. Most of his known history derives from after his release from captivity of the Ojo Caliente Tribe of the Chihuahua Apache.

Roque Ramos was about 11 years of age, when he was sent from his parents home in Aconchi, Sonora, to live with his brother, Ursulo Ramos at Ursulo's ranch at Cocospera, Sonora, Mexico. In 1866 a band of Apache Warriors attacked the ranch, killed a man and woman that worked for Ursulo, and took Roque and Chonita, an adopted daughter of the man and women that were killed, as captives. Also taken as a captive, was a teenage boy whose name to us is unknown. This individual was subsequently killed as the Apache continued their travel away from the homelands of my grandfather. (I am told that this event was chronicled in an edition of the National Geographic Magazine prior to the year 2000. I have not been able to locate it.)

Roque remained with this band of Apache and became "adopted" by an individual whose name we know as SHAWANO or SHAVANO. During the four years that Roque was with the Apache, he experienced the nomadic life of the Tribe, an d was eventually dealt with as a trusted member of the group, to the degree that he would be left to tend to the horses, while the Apache men were otherwise occupied. As a member of the group, he also experienced the frightening escapes from pursuing U. S. Cavalry.

Eventually, Roque and his captors, came to Ojo Caliente, where the U. S. Government had established the Southern Apache Indian Agency through which the military attempted to deal with the Apache peoples of the area. Ojo Caliente (Warm Springs) was a traditional homeland of this branch of the Chiricahuah Nation. It was located near the Vicinity of Cañada Alamosa (now Monticello, New Mexico) a community populated by Mexican people with whom the Apache were friendly and with whom they traded. The inhabitants of this village recognized that Roque, whose eyes were green and hair was light brown, was not an Indian. Eventually, on an occasion when his keepers were drunk, men of this community managed to assist Roque, and on August 10, 1870, (dia de San Lorenzo), delivered him from his captivity and took him to, Gregorio Sedillo, a rancher at Cantaresio and at Paraje de Fra. Christobal (now in Socorro County) where he remained for several years.

I would like to know if any of your readers/members may have suggestions on where I might search for baptismal records. Records of the church at Aconchi for the year 1852 are not on film. I have looked at film from Magdalena where some Aconchi Baptismal records are located and=2 0again did not find a record for this Ramos Family who were known to have ownd silver mines in Sonora.
Ursulao Ramos was later murdered in his home at Aconchi. The individual who was to have conducted an inquiry into his death mysteriously drowned in the Rio Sonora while on his way to Aconchi to conduct the inquiry. I am told that his death is cronicaled in the ballad "El Corrido de Aconchi".

Cruz Ramos Perez
7817 Kings Ridge Road
Frisco, TX 75035





By Richard G. Santos  


My friends are still convinced I am depraved on account I was deprived for not being born or raised in the Winter Garden Area. Moreover, I was never a farm worker and the only cotton I ever picked was off my belly button and that does not count. Consequently, my coffee-drinking buddies have taken it upon themselves to teach me the proper bilingual/bicultural time telling phrases. Fortunately, my graduate degree in linguistics makes me a dialectologist and that allows me to interpret the historical, cultural and linguistic importance of phrases and words.  

For instance, something which occurred in the very distant past can be described as “más viejo que la luna” (older than the moon). Next oldest time reference in something which occurred “el año del diluvio” (year of the great [Biblical] flood).  The great-great-great parents’ time is referred to as “cuando andaban las vívoras paradas” (when snakes used to walk erect).  “El año de la hebra” (year of the loose thread, or run [as in stockings, shirt, etc.]) seems to refer to the great-great parents’ time. However, does it refer to when “things started to fall apart”?  Or, when “things” got started? Hmmmmmm  

  In Laredo, which is outside the Winter Garden Area, I picked up “el año de la canica” (the year of the marble) which is an obvious reference to the speaker’s childhood. Zavala County Commissioner David Lopez and several others say “el otro día” (the other day). However, that could be referring to last week or five to ten years ago!  Ayyyyy.  

One phrase of Sephardic Jewish origin was told to me by an unsuspecting friend who had no idea of the importance of the phrase he used to tell time. In fact, I almost fell off my chair and went silent when I heard him say “el año de la inquisición” (the year of the Inquisition). Unknown to him, he belongs to a well known Spanish Jewish family of Nuevo León which since 1608 has spread to Coahuila, Tamaulipas, Texas and the United States. In 1652, the parish priest of Saltillo, Coahuila filed a complaint against Captain Diego Villarreal with the Office of the Inquisition. The priest was appalled that Captain Villarreal, whose parents had been converted to Catholicism as adults, owned land, rode a horse, wore silk clothing and jewelry!  To make a long story short, the priest was transferred! Captain Villarreal was married with Beatriz de la Casas, daughter of suspected Spanish Jewish parents Bernabé de la Casas and Beatríz Navarro. Don Bernabé, his wife and daughter had gone to New Mexico in 1598 with colonizing conquistador Juan Pérez de Oñate but by 1603 had moved to Saltillo. As for Captain Villarreal, he claimed to have been born at San Miguel el Grande (now San Miguel Allende) but never revealed the name of his parents or their birthplace. Moreover, no historian or genealogist has been able to find a record of Diego Villarreal’s birth, baptism or parents’ names. Consequently, the history of the Villarreal family begins in 1608 when Don Diego entered Nuevo León. In light of the family’s history, I asked my friend where he learned the phrase. He replied he had learned it from his parents and grandparents in Coahuila. So, was my friend Chema Villarreal referring to when the Inquisition existed in Mexico from 1528 to 1821? Or was he referring to 1652 when the Saltillo priest complained about his ancestor Captain Diego Villarreal?  

One phrase of Sephardic Jewish origin was told to me by an unsuspecting friend who had no idea of the importance of the phrase he used to tell time. In fact, I almost fell off my chair and went silent when I heard him say “el año de la inquisición” (the year of the Inquisition). Unknown to him, he belongs to a well known Spanish Jewish family of Nuevo León which since 1608 has spread to Coahuila, Tamaulipas, Texas and the United States. In 1652, the parish priest of Saltillo, Coahuila filed a complaint against Captain Diego Villarreal with the Office of the Inquisition. The priest was appalled that Captain Villarreal, whose parents had been converted to Catholicism as adults, owned land, rode a horse, wore silk clothing and jewelry!  To make a long story short, the priest was transferred! Captain Villarreal was married with Beatriz de la Casas, daughter of suspected Spanish Jewish parents Bernabé de la Casas and Beatríz Navarro. Don Bernabé, his wife and daughter had gone to New Mexico in 1598 with colonizing conquistador Juan Pérez de Oñate but by 1603 had moved to Saltillo. As for Captain Villarreal, he claimed to have been born at San Miguel el Grande (now San Miguel Allende) but never revealed the name of his parents or their birthplace. Moreover, no historian or genealogist has been able to find a record of Diego Villarreal’s birth, baptism or parents’ names. Consequently, the history of the Villarreal family begins in 1608 when Don Diego entered Nuevo León. In light of the family’s history, I asked my friend where he learned the phrase. He replied he had learned it from his parents and grandparents in Coahuila. So, was my friend Chema Villarreal referring to when the Inquisition existed in Mexico from 1528 to 1821? Or was he referring to 1652 when the Saltillo priest complained about his ancestor Captain Diego Villarreal?  

Joe Cuevas still greets me with “cuantos perros en la horca” (how many dog are there at the gallows). The phrase 500 years ago was “cuantos Moros en Lorca (how many Moors are there at the city of Lorca?). The proper reply is “veinte en el quemadero” (twenty being burned at the stake). The first speaker is supposed to counter-reply “ojalá los quemen por habladores” (hope they burn them for talking). Even though phrase refers to the Mozarabic of Spain, in reality it is in reference to Spanish Jews. The Crypto (secret) Spanish/Portuguese Jews hid their frustration with people who reported them to the Inquisition by calling them Arabs.  

Another phrase with Sephardic Jewish overtones frequently heard in the Winter Garden Area does not refer to time. It/he/she/you can be described as being “tan malo como la carne de puerco” (as bad as pork meat). Many Jewish people do not eat pork products. However, Crypto (secret) Jews who pretended to be Catholic in public but practiced Judaism in secret did not keep kosher. They ate pork products in order not to be reported to the Inquisition. It is interesting to note that in Spain today, (black, green, pinto, etc.) beans whether boiled or baked with pork are called “frijoles judíos” (Jewish beans). In Texas and the abutting Mexican states of Coahuila, Tamaulipas and Nuevo León, many families who today do not practice the Jewish Faith have compromised and will not knowingly eat pork after sunset! Among the reasons given to this historian throughout the area is that pork meat “is too heavy, you’ll get a heart attack and die”.  I have also been told that “there is something in our family blood and if we eat pork after sunset, we die”. In other words, it/you/he/she is “tan malo como la carne de puerco”. Ironically, in my family and therefore upbringing, we ate pork every Friday. I was in my 30’s when I suddenly realized how my Crypto Judaic ancestors and therefore family tradition got started. Catholics did not eat meat on Friday and Jews did not eat pork. So, we (the family) got back at both by eating pork every Friday!  I still do. It is tradition!  

Another phrase commonly heard in northeast Mexico, Texas and wherever the families of the ancient 1580 Nuevo Reyno de León have gone seems to refer to the reality of Jewish history. Does “de mejores lugares me han corrido” (I have been thrown out of better places) refer to the expulsions from Eden (Genesis), Canaan (circa 5000BC), Egypt (circa 4000BC), Babylon (circa 3000BC), Spain (1492), Portugal (1580) and most European countries until 1946? We have taken the phrase for granted without considering its origin. In fact, the same can be said about the song La Golondrina (the swallow) which is a direct reference to the expulsion of the people of the Jewish Faith from Spain in 1492! Until rather recently, the song was the favored farewell song sung at a person’s departure or funeral service. Although the poem was set to music in the late 1800’s if you listen to the lyrics you would realize the singer laments the fact he is leaving his beloved homeland to which he can never return and will never see again! The singer does not know where he/she is going and says he/she is as lost as a swallow without a nest. Yes, de mejores lugares me han corrido and the poem-song La Golondrina refers to one such event. That is, to the 1492 expulsion from Sepharad (Spain) by Queen Isabel la Catolica.  

Song El Quelite (ragweed) also has Spanish Sephardic overtones. The song about the bitter herb/weed, says “Que bonito es el quelite” (ragweed is very beautiful), “bién haya quién lo formó” (blessed is He who made it), “que por sus orillas tiéne” (because on its edges/leaves it has) “de quién acordarme yo” (Someone I recall/think about).  It continues with “mañana me voy, mañana” (tomorrow I will leave, tomorrow), “mañana me voy de aquí” (tomorrow I leave this place), “el consuelo que me queda” (my only consolation), “que se han de acordar de mí” (is that they will remember me).  

So, dear readers, next time you hear either song or any one of the phrases listed above, consider our rich, centuries-old historical and cultural heritage. This we should protect con orgullo y terquedad (with pride and tenacity). Meanwhile, I will add that the song La Golondrina will be the theme song performed several times in my up-coming movie on the trial of the Carvajal y de la Cueva-Rodriguez de Matos by the Mexico City based Inquisition.. In one scene (the way I wrote it and hopefully the director-producer will keep it), Doña Francisca Rodriguez de Matos is being tortured with the door to the chamber wide opened so that her daughters, son and brother (Don Luis, the conquistador) can hear every scream. Alone in her cell, her daughter Ysabel (my aunt 450 years removed) starts singing the song until she breaks down. At that point a rich male baritone voice picks up the lyrics as a collage of scenes of the family members is shown on screen. The actual torture is never seen but hopefully the viewers will feel the psychological torment to which all family members were exposed before being burned at the stake. Just remember, this occurred during el año de la inquisicion.

                                                Richard G. Santos


April 7, 2005 – edited 25 Aug. 2008  

Sent by Juan Marinez




Angel Marie Sepulveda Brown
Descendants of El Cid in Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Texas  
Mundo Latino, The State Fair of Texas
The Musical Legacy of Victoria, TX
The Portal to Texas History
Mexican Enough: My Life Between the Borderlines
Digitized Newspaper Grant 
Colegas de Center for Mexican American Studies, UTA
Royal Ancestor of the Sosa/Sousa Family of New Spain
The Tejano Vigil at the Alamo Fact Sheet   
Oct. 14: Tejanos in Texas Heritage Exhibit at Texas A&M - San Antonio
Historical Drama was Performed at the San Antonio Public Library:   
Sept. 25: HOPE Recognized Descendants of Juan N. Seguin
Rise and Fall of the True First Republic of Texas
Angel Marie Sepulveda Brown 
October 2, 1928 - July 18, 2008 

Angel M. Brown, age 79, of the Pleasant Grove Community in Lexington, Texas passed away Friday, July 18, 2008 at her home after a long and courageous battle with cancer. 

Born October 2, 1928 in Laredo, Texas to Vidal and Olivia (Moreno) Sepulveda, Sr. 

Angel married Rodney C. Brown and was a loving wife, mother, grandmother and great grandmother. She was accomplished seamstress, homemaker and rancher. She was a member of the Pleasant Grove Baptist Church, Eastern Star and Los Bexarenos. 
Angel (left) with friend and co-author, Gloria Cadena

Angel was preceded in death by her parents; her husband, Rodney on November 5, 1994; a sister, Ofelia King; and her brother, Vidal Sepulveda, Jr 

Surviving are her seven children; Angel O. Brown of Temple, Alice F. Brown of The Colony, John R. Brown and wife Judy of Rockdale, Madeline B. Stifflemire and husband Gary of Lexington, Walter "Ricky" Brown and wife Michele of Lexington, Rhonda B. Hosea and husband Eddie of Lexington, and Dr. Rodney "Wynn" Brown and wife Melanie of Waco.   A beloved sister, Elisa S. Martinez of Lexington.  15 Grandchildren: Jason Brown, Rodney Drake, Justin Brown, Amanda Armstrong, Hilary Keeton, Jimmy 
Brown, Jordan Brown Lance Hosea, Loren Hosea, Marcy Stifflemire, Meredyth Brown, Brandon Stewart, Emily Brown, Allison Brown, and Andrew Brown. 8 Great Grand-children: Kinzey Drake, Ashton Drake, Travis Drake, Faith Brown, John Austin Brown, Jason Tyler Brown, Preston Armstrong and Lyllyan Armstrong. She also leaves behind 
numerous nieces, nephews, and in-laws that she loved. 

Pallbearers are her Grandsons: Jason Brown, Rodney Drake, Justin Brown, Jimmy Brown, Jordan Brown, Andrew Brown. Visitation: 5 p.m. to 8 p.m. Saturday July 19, 2008 at the funeral Home in Rockdale, Texas. 

Services: 2:00 p.m. Sunday, July 20, 2008 at Phillips & Luckey Funeral Home, Burial in the Hugh Wilson Cemetery 
in Tanglewood with Rev. Geary McManus and Rev. David Attwood officiating. 

Sent by Mickey Garcia. Photo was taken in Monclova, Coahuila during the book signing of Mickey Garcia's book, Marriages of Monclova, Coahuila, Mexico During the Spanish Colonial Era, 1689-1822. 



Descendants of El Cid

Coahuila - Nuevo Leon – Tamaulipas – Texas

by John D. Inclan


El Cid Rodrigo Diaz-de-Vivar y Dona Jimena de Gormaz

Su hija

Elvira (Cristina) Rodriguez-Diaz-de-Vivar y el Conde de Moncon Ramiro Sanchez II

Su hijo

                              Rey de Navarre Garcia Ramirez VI y Dona Margarita de l'Aigle

                                                                                                     Su hija

Reina de Castilla Blanche of Navarre y Sancho-III Rey de Castilla

                                                                                            Su hijo

                            Alfonso-VIII Rey de Castilla y Eleanor (Leonor) de Inglaterra, Reina de Castilla           

Su hija

Princesa Urraca de Castilla y Rey de Portugal Alfonso II

Their son/Su hijo

Alfonso III, King of Portugal & Dona Perez de Enxara

Their son/Su hijo

Alfonso Dinis y Maria Pais Riberia (Perez Riberia)

Their son/Su hijo

Pedro Alfonso de Sousa & Elvira Anes de Novoa

Their son/Su hijo

Vasco Afonso de Sousa & Maria Gomez Carillo

Their son/Su hijo

Diego Alfonso de Sousa & Maria Alfonso de Cordoba  
Their son/Su hijo                

Juan Alonso de Sosa & Isabel Fernandez de Mesa

Their son/Sue hijo

Gobernnador Lope de Sosa & Inez de Cabrera

Their son/Su hijo

Tesorero Real Juan Alonso de Sosa married/caso con Dona Ana Estrada de la Caballeria, the daughter/hija de Don Alonso de Estrada,

Royal Treasurer/Tesorero Real de Nueva Espana (Mexico)

Their son/Su hijo

Juan Alonso de Estrada (He did not use his Paternal surname of Sosa) & Mariana de Guevera Barrios

Their daughter/Su hija

Mariana de Guevara Estrada & Diego de Ayala y Valverde .

Their daughter/Su hija

Leonor de Ayala y Valverde & Diego de Tremino y Quintanilla


Latino Cultural Exhibit--MUNDO LATINO
The State Fair of Texas
September 26 -- October 19, 2008 


All our Primos and Friends:
Welcome. We invite you to visit us at our Latino Cultural Exhibit--MUNDO LATINO- at The State Fair of Texas--September 26 -- October 19, 2008. This is our daughter's, Cindy Benavides, thirteenth  annual Latino exhibit presented during Hispanic Heritage month at The State Fair of Texas. The theme changes every year with this year featuring--El Mariachi-- Music and Tradition.
It is no surprise why we have scheduled the 2009 State Hispanic Genealogical Conference, here in Dallas, to coincide with the start of The State Fair of Texas and MUNDO LATINO.
Hope you can join us this and next year.   
Jerry and Gloria Benavides 

Mundo Latino, Celebration of Cultures, the Latino exhibit presented during Hispanic Heritage month at The State Fair of Texas, September 26 – October 19, 2008 in Dallas , Texas is produced by Strategic Events.

In its thirteenth year at the State Fair, Mundo Latino features an exhibit highlighting the rich Latino culture. The theme changes every year featuring dance, music, food and educational programs from artists and groups representing the Latin world including Mexico , Spain , Central & South America, and the United States .

The State Fair of Texas, the largest state fair in the country, is the perfect setting for this Latino cultural exhibit. Mundo Latino is presented in the historic Hall of State located in the center of Fair Park on International Boulevard .

Strategic Events is proud to produce Mundo Latino, Celebration of Cultures, for the community in partnership with The State Fair of Texas. Strategic Events is a woman and minority-owned business.





"The Musical Legacy of Victoria, TX"
Museum of the Coastal Bend
Victoria, Texas
Reception, October 9th 


The Museum of the Coastal Bend opened with a Chamber of Commerce Red Ribbon ceremony on October 11, 2003.  During the last five years, the Museum of the Coastal Bend has become an established part of the educational, cultural and tourism offerings in Victoria.  On Thursday, October 9, 2008, the Museum of the Coastal Bend will celebrate five years of serving the community and visitors to the Texas Coastal Bend region.

Through October 11, 2008, the Museum of the Coastal Bend hosts the exhibit, "The Musical Legacy of Victoria, TX, featuring Hauschild Music Company." The exhibit examines early musical traditions, composers, performers and venues in Victoria and the Coastal Bend region, with a focus on early publications of sheet music by the Hauschild Music Company. 

The members' reception for the exhibit will be held on Thursday, October 9, in conjunction with the celebration of the Museum's five-year anniversary. Featured will be a performance by Mary Perez Carabajal and Inez Perez Martinez, 1930s members of the popular band, the Perez Orchestra of Goliad. Their father, Hipolito Perez, founded the Orchestra in the 1890s.

The Museum of the Coastal Bend is located on the campus of The Victoria College, at the corner of Red River and Ben Jordan. Viewing hours are Tuesday - Saturday, 10:00 a.m. - 4:00 p.m. Admission is $3.50 for adults, $2.50 for seniors, and $2.00 for students ages 4 years through 8th grade. Admission is free for museum members, students of The Victoria College and the University of Houston at Victoria, and for children under 4 years of age. For additional information, please contact the museum staff at 361-582-2511

Sent by Gloria Candelaria

The Portal to Texas History, 
Hosted by the University of North Texas Libraries
Portal to Texas History
Mission and Scope | Best Practices | Grants Received | Partners | Tutorials and Resources | Equipment | News | Adopt a Book Digitally! | Texas Digital Newspaper Program

Mission: The Portal to Texas History offers students and lifelong learners a digital gateway to the rich collections held in Texas libraries, museums, archives, historical societies, and private collections. The Portal team at the University of North Texas provides strong leadership by supporting collaborative efforts with its partners, while pursuing the goals of accessibility, best practices, and preservation of historical material.

Scope: Planned content for the Portal embraces all geographic areas of Texas and covers prehistory through the twentieth century. Designed to appeal to historians, students, and lifelong learners, the Portal emphasizes access to primary sources. It features digital reproductions of photographs, maps, letters, documents, books, artifacts, and more. Portal curriculum Primary Source Adventures that comply with TEKS (Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills) standards will highlight relevant materials for classroom teachers.

New Collections

Legacies: a History Journal for Dallas and North Central Texas

Legacies is a biannual publication devoted to the rich history of Dallas and North Central Texas as a way to examine the many local historical legacies—social , ethnic, cultural, political—which have shaped the modern city of Dallas and the region around it. Currently, Legacies is a joint publication of Dallas Heritage Village, the Dallas Historical Society, the Old Red Museum, and the Sixth Floor Museum at Dealey Plaza. This new collection to the Portal gives our visitors access to 38 issues of this brilliant history journal featuring the spring 1989 through fall 2007 issues.

Each issue, comprised of 40 – 70 pages, has its own “focus”. Examples of these include: Architecture in Dallas, Newspapers and Radio in Dallas, Theater in Dallas, George Bannerman Dealey, Dallas in the 1960s, Women Who Made a Difference, Dallas Lost & Found: Hidden Treasures and Forgotten Stories , Dallas Pioneers, and the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. Inside each issue the reader will find historic photos and maps, remarkable stories and book reviews. The Portal includes each issue in its entirety, which can be viewed with our page-turning feature.

Shown are two issues’ covers; One from fall 2006 focusing on the assassination of JFK, and the other with the iconic Dallas Pegasus, from fall 1999 focusing on triumph over adversity.

José L. Castillo Photograph Collection
The Portal to Texas History and the UNT Archives have added 1104 photographic images by José L. Castillo, a Katie award-winning correspondent for the international EFE News Service. This archive of photographs, taken between July 2004 and July 2006, was donated to the UNT Archives in March 2007. It is the first entirely digital photo collection in the UNT Archives.

These splendid, colorful images depict events in the Latino community, including: the 350,000-strong march against immigration reform in Dallas in April 2006, Hispanic community and political leaders, festivals, Latino soccer leagues and other gatherings in the North Texas area. Featured subjects include: Fort Worth Mayor Mike Moncrief, former Dallas Mayor Laura Miller, Dallas ISD Superintendent Michael Hinojosa and former LULAC President Hector Flores.

The Images in this article show Hector Flores, the Dallas Farmers Market, and the Mega March on April 9, 2006 in Dallas. When the project is completed, over 3,000 images from Castillo will be online at the Portal.

The UNT Libraries has received one of five grants from the Texas State Library and Archives Commission for the digitalization of special and unique collections of photographs, newspapers, interviews and other historical documents, making them more accessible to the general public.

UNT Libraries received a $24,637 TexTreasures grant for its project, "Early Texas Newspapers: 1829-1861." Partnering with the Center for American History at the University of Texas at Austin, the UNT Libraries' Digital Projects Unit will microfilm and digitize Texas newspapers that are currently the property of the Center for American History, and place these newspapers on the Portal to Texas History. The portal, administered by the Digital Projects Unit, provides students and others with a digital gateway to collections in Texas libraries, museums, archives, historical societies and private collections and contains primary source materials, including maps, books, manuscripts, diaries, photographs and letters.

Dreanna Belden, coordinator of grants and development for UNT Libraries, says some of the newspapers selected for the project were published before 1836, the year that Texas won independence from Mexico and became a nation. (Left, a map from the Portal to Texas History collection shows the Lone Star State in 1841.)

"Digitizing these rare pre-1836 newspapers will provide valuable resources for those interested in Texas' colonial period," she says. "More than half of the papers selected for this project have never been microfilmed, so in the past only well-credentialed scholars would be allowed to use and access these rare and fragile issues."

Belden says all of the early Texas newspapers held by the Center for American History will be digitized "even if it is just one lonely issue." "For example, one of the papers is one issue from 1832 of the Texas Gazette and Brazoria Commercial Advertiser -- the only surviving example of this newspaper," she says. "For example, one of the papers is one issue from 1832 of the Texas Gazette and Brazoria Commercial Advertiser -- the only surviving example of this newspaper," she says.

Other newspapers that will be microfilmed and digitized include the Telegraph & Texas Register, published in Houston 1835-1845; the Matagorda Bulletin, published 1827-1836; the Redlander in San Augustine, published 1841-1846; the Texas Presbyterian, published in Victoria 1846-48, and pages of the Galveston News, which is still publishing, from 1848-1861.

Belden says that before Texas' revolt against Mexico for its independence, no newspapers survived long in the territory.

"Nine publishers printed newspapers between 1819 and 1836, but only the Telegraph & Texas Register was still in publication at the time of the Texas Revolution. It became the paper of record for the Republic of Texas, and played a major role in keeping citizens informed," she says.

Five years after Texas became a state in 1845, the number of newspapers published grew to 36, she says.

"The collection of newspapers proposed for microfilming and digitization provide critical information regarding the early history of Texas, both as a republic and a state," she says.

UNT also is one of eight universities in the nation — and the only one from Texas — to receive a National Endowment for the Humanities grant to digitize Texas newspapers for the National Digital Newspaper Program, "Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers."

Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.
and Dorinda Moreno



Mexican Enough: My Life between the Borderlands

Reading and book signing by author
Stephanie Elizondo Griest

November 1-2
Texas Book Festival
For details, visit:
Monday, November 3  
Lake Travis Public Library. Details TBA.  

(Washington Square Press, August 2008)
Growing up in a half-white, half-brown town and family in South Texas, Stephanie Elizondo Griest struggled with her cultural identity. Upon turning thirty, she ventured to her mother's native Mexico to do a little root-searching and improve her 'Tarzan Lite' Spanish. She stumbled upon a burgeoning social movement that shook parts of the nation to its core. MEXICAN ENOUGH chronicles her journey, from the narco-infested border town of Nuevo Laredo to the highlands of Chiapas. She investigates the murder of a prominent gay activist, sneaks into prison to meet with resistance fighters, rallies with rebels in Oaxaca, and interviews scores of migrant workers and the families they were forced to leave behind. Travel companions include a Polish thief, a Border Patrol agent, and a Dominatrix. Part memoir, part journalistic reportage, MEXICAN ENOUGH illuminates how we cast off our identity in our youth, only to strive to find it again as adults - and the lessons to be learned along the way.
MEXICAN ENOUGH is the August pick of the National Latino Book Club, sponsored by Borders Bookstore, the Association of American Publishers, and Las Comadres. Check out the first chapter in the August edition of Texas Monthly Magazine:

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Stephanie Elizondo Griest  

Stephanie Elizondo Griest has mingled with the Russian Mafiya, polished Chinese propaganda, and belly danced with Cuban rumba queens. These adventures inspired her award-winning memoir AROUND THE BLOC: MY LIFE IN MOSCOW, BEIJING, AND HAVANA (Villard/Random House, 2004) and guidebook 100 PLACES EVERY WOMAN SHOULD GO (Travelers Tales, 2007). She has explored five continents and once drove 45,000 miles across America in a Honda Hatchback named Bertha. A 2005-2006 Hodder Fellow at Princeton University, she recently won the Richard J. Margolis Award for Social Justice Reporting. Visit her website at
Sent by Dorina Thomas - President of HOGAR de Dallas


      Colegas de
Center for Mexican American Studies, UTA


The start of the fall semester 2008 brings a number of changes to the Center for Mexican American Studies at The University of Texas at Austin, and I want to take a moment at this time to notify the entire CMAS familia of an important staff addition that has taken place. 
Dr. Domino Rene Pérez is our new Associate Director.  She will be charged with faculty development efforts and other duties as required by CMAS.  Effective September 1, 2008, Domino will be an Associate Professor in the Department of English, where she specializes in Chican@ Literature, American Literature, Popular Culture, Cultural Studies, and Film. She recently completed a book on the US/Mexican transnational folkloric figure La Llorona, the weeping woman. Domino is currently at work on a project about Mexican American masculinity in literature and film.
I look forward to working with Domino, and the other members of the CMAS staff, as we begin a new semester

José E. Limón, Ph.D.
Mody C. Boatright Regents Professor in American and English Literature
Professor of Anthropology and American Studies
Director, Center for Mexican American Studies

Luis V. Guevara
Assistant to the Director and Program Coordinator
Center for Mexican American Studies
The University of Texas at Austin
1 University Station  F9200
Austin, TX 78712-0531

(512) 475-6769
(512) 471-9639 FAX



Royal Ancestor of the Sosa/Sousa Family of New Spain

Coahuila - Nuevo Leon – Tamaulipas – Texas

Alfonso II, King of Portugal & Princess Urrea de Castilla  
Their son

Alfonso III, King of Portugal & Dona Perez de Enxara  
Their son

Alfonso Dinis y Maria Pais Riberia  
Their son

Pedro Alfonso de Sousa & Elvira Anes de Novoa  
Their son

Vasco Afonso de Sousa & Maria Gomez Carillo  
Their son

Diego Alfonso de Sosa & Isabel Fernandez de Mesa  
Their son

Lope de Sosa & Inez de Cabrera  
Their son

Juan Alonso de Sosa married Dona Ana Estrada de la Caballeria, the daughter of Don Alonso de Estrada,

Royal Treasurer to New Spain (Mexico)  
Their son

Juan Alonso de Estrada (He did not use his Paternal surname of Sosa) & Mariana de Guevera Barrios , Their daughter

Mariana de Guevara Estrada & Diego de Ayala y Valverde, 
Their daughter

Leonor de Ayala y Valverde & Diego de Tremino y Quintanilla

Their descendents is the subject of this Genealogical Study



4th Annual Tejano Vigil in the Alamo Shrine Hosted by Texas
Held Sept. 10, 2008

Texas Tejano

(San Antonio, Texas) September 2, 2008 – Texas, a San Antonio-based research, publishing, and communications firm, in conjunction with the Alamo Legacy & Missions Association (ALMA), a San Antonio-based, non-profit organization that provides living history reenactments to educate youth and adults about Texas history, are proud to announce today
that they will host the 4th Annual Tejano Vigil inside the Alamo shrine on Wednesday, Sept. 10, 2008 beginning at 7:00pm.

This very solemn and reverential ceremony continues to grow in size and circumstance. This year, Maj. Gen. Alfred A. Valenzuela will serve as the event’s honorary chairman. Scheduled to make remarks this year are Texas Adjutant General LTG Charles G. Rodriguez, State Rep. Joe Farias and Chief Justice Alma L. Lopez.

Created to bring awareness of Tejano settlers’ contributions to Texas history to the public, the Tejano Vigil is just one of the many projects developed and promoted by Texas in celebration of Tejano Heritage Month, the month of September, as designated this year by the honorable Gov. Rick Perry.

“We are proud to once again hold this event inside one of the most sacred landmarks in our state, the Alamo Shrine,” says Rudi R. Rodriguez, Founder of Texas “The sacrifices made by our Tejano ancestors during the fight for independence should never be forgotten. This event and the partnerships that it has fostered will go along way in making sure that this history and their legacies will be remembered for generations to come.”

The Tejano Vigil is just one of many events taking place throughout the State of Texas in honor of Tejano Heritage Month. Texas and its Tejano Heritage Month Partner the Alamo Legacy & Missions Association (ALMA) are proud to have collaborated this year with the Alamo, New York Life Insurance Company, EPI Electrical Enclosures Inc., San Antonio Express-News, Daughters of the Republic of Texas, Citibank and Valero on this year’s Tejano Vigil.


The Tejano Vigil at the Alamo Fact Sheet  

In 1690, when Nueva España created the new Province of Texas, Tejanos became the first families living in Texas. Tejanos built the first roads, forts, towns, laws and ranching economy in Texas. Tejanos are the descendants of the first Spanish, Mexican and indigenous families on the Texas frontier in Texas. Not much has been written about these forgotten Texans, but we are very proud to provide the leadership to help provide this long overdue honor.  

That is the reason Texas created the first ever Tejano Vigil in 2005. Along with our partners we conducted a very auspicious ceremony inside the Alamo Shrine in San Antonio, Texas. Our ceremony is intended to identify, elevate and celebrate Tejanos who were patriots and heroes involved in the Revolution of 1835–1836. Both Tejanos and Tejanas paid the ultimate price for a free and independent Texas.  

Activities conducted during the ceremony include a benediction, the lighting of candles, singing by the children’s choir of the Basilica of the Shrine of the Little Flower and remarks made on behalf of Tejano legacy and heritage as it relates to the development and contributions to Texas history by a litany of distinguished speakers.

Past speakers include: Congressman Henry Cuellar, State Sen. Carlos I. Uresti, State Sen. Leticia Van de Putte, State Rep. Trey Martinez Fischer, Maj. Gen. Alfred Valenzuela (this year’s Honorary Event Chairman), LTG Ricardo S. Sanchez, Judge Monica E. Guerrero, Judge Catherine Torres-Stahl and Alamo Legacy & Missions Assoc. Chairman Charles Lara.  

Preceding this event is a reception held at the historic Menger Hotel ballroom. It was once said: “Texas history can never be complete without the story of Tejanos being told.” For more information of Tejanos please visit  

Tejanos in Texas Heritage Exhibit at Texas A&M - San Antonio

Texas & City's Newest University Partner for Tejano Heritage Month

October 14: Lecture and Documentary

(San Antonio, Texas) Sept. 12, 2008 - Texas, a San Antonio-based Tejano History research and publishing company is proud to announce today its partnership with Texas A&M University - Kingsville System Center San Antonio (1450 Gillette Blvd.) for Tejano Heritage Month, beginning with the display of the world-class Tejanos in Texas Heritage Exhibit that will go on display beginning Monday, Sept. 15, 2008 at the campus' administration building.

Coming off a successful engagement at the Del Valle Independent School District in Austin, the Tejanos in Texas Heritage Exhibit continues its mission of filling in the gaps of Texas history by telling the true story of the Tejano founders of the state.
"This is truly an incredible honor not just for Texas, but for all Tejanos," says Texas President and Founder Rudi R. Rodriguez. "Four years ago, Texas was privileged to bring its debut exhibit on the life of Jose Policarpio 'Polly' Rodriguez to the State Capitol. This time, we are telling the story of ALL Tejanos from the beginning of Texas."

The Tejanos in Texas Heritage Exhibit chronicles over 150 years of Tejano and Texas history from beginning with its founding in 1690 through a collection of historical maps, documents, photos as well as original artwork, tells the life story of Tejanos from the beginning. From its humble beginnings as the northern most province of New Spain, through the efforts of early Tejano exploration, colonization, ranching and revolutions starting with hero Bernardo de Gálvez during the American Revolutionary War, moving on to the epic Battle of the Medina and ultimately concluding with the Texas Revolution.

Further activities include lectures by Texas Historian and Texas President and Founder Rudi Rodriguez on Tejano history on Sept. 17 and Oct. 14 at 2:00pm and 6:00pm as well as screenings of the critically acclaimed A Tejano Son of Texas Documentary on the life of Tejano Pioneer Jose Policarpio "Polly" Rodriguez on Sept. 17 and Oct. 14 at 2:00pm and 6:00pm.

For more information, on Tejano Heritage Month or Texas please visit or contact them at (210) 673-3584.
Sent by Eric Moreno


On September 20th  An Original 
Historical Drama Performed at the San Antonio Public Library: 

Texas Tejanos: A Revolution Remembered


(San Antonio, Texas) Sept. 12, 2008 - Texas, a San Antonio-based Tejano History research and publishing company and its President and Founder Mr. Rudi R. Rodriguez are proud to announce the latest production of the original historical stage play Texas Tejanos: A Revolution Remembered on Saturday, Sept. 20, 2008 at 11:00am in the Auditorium of the Main Branch of the San Antonio Public Library (600 Soledad) as part of September's Tejano Heritage Month festivities.

"From our inception, the goal of Texas has been to get our message and history out to all the people of Texas through a variety of means and mediums," says Texas President and Founder Rudi R. Rodriguez. "I wrote this play to serve as one more way of getting this unique and forgotten history to the public. For the first time ever, we give faces and voices to Jose Antonio Navarro, Juan Seguin, Lorenzo de Zavala and the other Tejano heroes of the Texas Revolution."

Texas Tejanos: A Revolution Remembered, made its world premiere at the Charline McCombs Empire Theater last September during Tejano Heritage Month to rave reviews. Set on the eve of the Texas Revolution at a dinner at Don Jose Antonio Navarro's house, the pla illustrates the coming to accord between the leading Tejanos and Texians of the era, including Navarro, Seguin, de Zavala and Col. Francisco Ruiz, as well as Stephen F. Austin, William B. Travis, Sam Houston and James Bowie.
Texas would like to thank its event partners and sponsors, the San Antonio Public Library, the Alamo Legacy & Missions Association and EPI-Electrical Enclosures. For more information, please visit or contact them at (210) 673-3584.


Cousins Anthony Seguin, Angel Sequin Garcia, and Roger Martinez 
with family members gather in front of portrait of Juan N. Sequin

Hispanic Heritage Month in San Antonio
Hispanic Organization for Public Employees, HOPE
             Recognized descendants of Col. Juan N. Seguin at the             
At the 5th Annual Tribute to  Hispanic Heritage Banquet
      Sept 25, 2008

The Seguin Family was very Honored to have been included in this great event that recognized our Ancestor Col. Juan N. Seguin, 

The Seguin Descendants Historical Preservation Celebrated Hispanic Heritage Month in San Antonio TX.  CPS Energy & HOPE recognized the accomplishments of Retired Lieutenant General Ricardo S. Sanchez, Dr. Joe Bernal,an educator, Beatrice S. Gallego,  community leader,  Fernando Reyes owner of Reyes industries Inc,  advertising guru Lionel Sosa, and Tejano Pioneer  Col. Juan N. Seguin. Many thanks to Hope And CPS energy  for their dedication to our Hispanic Heritage.

" Through Education we all have the power to make a new tomorrow "

Angel Gonzales Seguin Carvajal Garcia
Founder SDHP & 1st Priority Search & Recovery
10076 County Rd, 311 Plantersville Tx, 77363
(936) 894-3238





Richard G. Santos

Presentation given at the Saturday August 16th event.
Battle of The Medina

Contrary to popular opinion, misguided and historically erroneous festivity-oriented Mexican national and U.S. community level activities, Rev. Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla did not issue a Declaration of Independence from Spain or anybody else. The well documented Grito de Dolores given by the priest the night of September 15, 1810 was "VIVA FERNANDO VII, VIVA AMERICA Y VIVA LA RELIGION". In English, what he said was Long Live (Spanish King) Fernando VII, Long Live (the) American (Continent, and Long Live (the Roman Catholic Apostolic) Religion. Making matters worse, in his final confession prior to his execution and was hand copied and distributed widely. In that document, Father Hidalgo's instructs his followers to lay down their arms and remain loyal to the Spanish King. He also stated he never intended or desired the Vice Regency of New Spain to be independent from Spain. 

For the benefit of those who only know political history with its propaganda revisions, like many other Spanish citizens born in the New World , Father Hidalgo wanted New Spain to govern itself in name and loyal to Spanish King Fernando VII. The European born Peninsulares and Gachupinos were the ruling class holding all top positions of power from Viceroy and Archbishop to most provincial governors. The Spaniards born on the New World called Españoles were the second class assistants. Their problems began when Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Spain, dethroned the King, imprisoned his son Fernando VII and placed Joseph Bonaparte as King of Spain. The second-class Spanish citizens of the New World thus pledged their loyalty to Fernando VII and not the Napoleon brothers. 

However, not all were loyal to the King. The San Antonio, Texas city council, for instance, was shocked to meet the representatives of Fr. Hidalgo as they passed the Alamo City on their way to New Orleans supposedly to sell Texas to the U.S.! Consequently, when they learned Fr. Hidalgo and his pro Spanish King army was heading to San Antonio on his way to New Orleans, they dispatched City Council member Enrique Felipe Neri to set up an ambush. The capture of Fr. Hidalgo at Norias de Bejan, Coahuila was successful and the pro-Spanish, anti-independence Hidalgo Uprising came to an end.

Tamaulipas born José Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara had been sent by Hidalgo to Washington D.C. to open negotiations. After Hidalgo's capture, the U. S. government already intending to acquire Texas, promised assistance to the rebels. All Gutierrez de Lara had to do was meet with businessman William Shaler in New Orleans and he would get the necessary financial, volunteer and war materiale assistance. He did not know Shaler was the head of the U. S. Secret Service charged with getting Texas Independence and then annex it to the United States. 

As promised, Gutierrez de Lara with Shaler's assistance was able to recruit a volunteer force of U. S. citizens and militiamen. He also received the war material, equipment, supplies and provisions needed to invade Texas. The 1500 manned Republican Army of the North thus invaded Texas via Nacogdoches in late 1812. San Marcos de Neve fell next and finally Goliad. It as not until April 1, 1813 that the Villa de San Fernando, also known as San Antonio de Bexar, surrendered the province and city to the Republican Army.

Much to the chagrin of the U. S. government and especially Shaler, on April 6, 1813 Gutierrez de Lara issued the first, formal, beyond-the-shadow-of-a doubt Declaration of Independence against Spain "and all other foreign powers". 

Feeling betrayed, Shaler immediately began to engineer the downfall and removal of Gutierrez de Lara. In June 1813, he replaced him with Jose Alvarez de Toledo, a Spanish-born resident of Philadelphia commonly seen and known in the halls of Congress. Among the first things done by Alvarez de Toledo was to split the Republican Army into Anglo, Tejanos and Native American units. The cross-ethnic cohesiveness of the rebel army was destroyed. Consequently, the divided rebel army was defeated by a Spanish force of equal number at what is known as The Battle at The Medina. That occurred on August 18, 1813. The first Republic of Texas thus came to an abrupt end as engineered by the United States. Moreover, little did Shaler or anyone know that Alvarez de Toledo was a Spanish secret agent. On his return to Spain received a pension for life for "services rendered to the Crown". 

After the disastrous defeat, Gutierrez de Lara and a number of survivors managed to reach New Orleans. There they joined the forces of U. S. General Andrew Jackson and participated in the Battle at New Orleans against invading British forces. Thereafter a number moved to Galveston Island where they joined the forces of privateer Jean LaFitte. When Francisco Xavier Mina arrived seeking volunteers to invade the Port of Tampico, they quickly joined and participated in that action. In time, some Tejanos managed to return first to Galveston and Louisiana and after Mexico gained its independence from Spain in 1821, they finally returned to their cases and ranchos in and around Bexar and Goliad. José Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara became the first Mexican Governor of Tamaulipas. It was also during this period that Texas Governor Trespalacios collected and buried some of the remains of the men killed at the Battle at the Medina. In fact, human remains, weapons and miscellaneous artifacts are still found at the battle site which extended from Atascosa County to the banks of the Medina River along the Camino Real de San Agustin de Laredo. 

The First Republic of Texas and the First Declaration of Independence issued in North America against Spain have long been ignored in the textbooks of Texas, U.S. and Mexican History. Mexico in particular had a problem deciding on its first declaration of independence. You see it was Rev. José Maria Morelos y Pavon who issued the first written declaration at Apatzingan on November 6, 1813. That was seven months to the day after Gutierrez de Lara at San Antonio, Texas. Morelos was captured, tried first by the Inquisition and second y the government. The Inquisition found him guilty of heresy, treason and "being a bad priest". Father Morelos objected to the latter charge noting he had sent his son Juan N. Almonte to "a good Catholic Seminary in New Orleans". The civil and military court also found Morelos guilty of treason against the Crown and executed him. 

In 1821 Loyal Spanish Colonel Agustin de Iturbide changed sides and arrested Juan de O'Donaju, last Viceroy of New Spain. Iturbide called for a congress to meet in Mexico City and to make a long story short, his army surrounded Congress, pointed their weapons and convinced the members they should declare Iturbide Emperor of Mexico. Mexico thus gained its independence from Spain in 1821 and became a monarchy under Iturbide I. Three years later Iturbide was overthrown by the youngest Mexican General in history. The enigma known as Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna then called a Congress to form the Republic of Mexico or technically, The United Mexican States of North America. 

You can well imagine the problems facing Mexican historians and the government in deciding who to credit with the first declaration of independence form Spain and creator of the Republic of Mexico. Gutierrez de Lara did his in Texas which after 1836 was no longer part of Mexico. Mulatto Rev. Morelos was a failure and generally ignored by historians and the new government. Iturbide declared himself emperor and had to be overthrown, exiled and later executed. Santa Anna who actually created the Republic of Mexico and had been president 13 times without serving 30 days all total in the office of the presidency, was not in favor with anyone that counted. Sooooooooooooo, Rev. Hidalgo who opposed independence and urged his followers to lay down their arms and remain loyal to the Spanish Crown became "The Father of Mexico". However, the Grito de Dolores had to be altered. Instead of "VIVA FERNANDO VII" as the opening statement, it was changed to "VIVA MEXICO". History was altered by the mighty pen and today history and Hidalgo apologists argue Hidalgo "meant to declare independence". Hidalgo thus became the super hero and Santa Anna the super scoundrel and Gutierrez de Lara ignored. 

In Texas and the U.S. meanwhile, José Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara, his formal and definitely first Declaration of Independence against Spain in North America along with the first Republic of Texas, fell victim to national and international politics. The Declaration of Independence against Mexico and the second Republic of Texas established in 1836 has over shadowed all historical events before 1824. Allow me to remind the readers that in 1986 Texas celebrated is Sesquicentennial observing 150 years of history. That's fine and dandy for 1836 to 1986, but what about the first 150 years? So instead of celebrating 300 years of history dating from 1686, Texas chose to celebrate and observe only the second 150 years of existence. In other words, the Spanish and Mexican periods as well as First Republic of Texas were totally ignored and considered inconsequential. 

Within the last 20 years the Sons and Daughters of the American Revolution and Sons of the Republic of Texas began to observe the anniversary of the Battle of the Medina and First Republic of Texas. They have since been joined by descendants of the Tejano rebels and others who share their desire to recognize the First Republic and honor the memory of the rebels who sacrificed their lives while preserving and disseminating knowledge of this important chapter in Texas history. It has been long in coming.

Zavala County Sentinel – 13-14 August, 2008

Sent by Juan Marinez
and Dorinda Moreno




Memorial Mass for Samuel and Santos Saenz
Mexicans in Michigan
Call for submissions for new anthology focusing on Mexicans/Chicanos in Midwest
Latino/Latina Veterans Photographic Exhibit in Madison, Wisconsin
Free Louisiana Marriage Records
Louisiana State Land Office Documents


Mass Celebrant: Father Ted

 AUGUST 10, 2008


July 21, 2008 marked the 36th anniversary of our Father, Samuel Saenz’ death and on September 15 of 2008 will be the 40th death anniversary for our Mother, Santos Saenz Gonzalez.  In their memory, their children, grandchildren and great grandchildren dedicate this memorial mass.  With this mass we honor their lives together and the fourteen children they had and reared.  Twelve of their fourteen children survived and lived into adulthood.   

Both Samuel and Santos were born and raised in Duval County, Texas, a farming community near San Diego, Texas.  They were simple and humble folks who were educated in large part by their parents.  Their formal education did not go beyond the elementary grades, yet they were able to live successful lives and raised their large family.  This was primarily due to the early upbringing by their respective parents who passed on strong family values coupled with a strong sense of responsibility.  The South Texas environment was rough and survival was hard.  The survival skills that Samuel and Santos learned in their early years proved to be essential in later years as they had their own family.  In their roles as mother and father, they were resourceful and could find a solution to almost any problem they encountered.   I guess one could say that if you survived farm life as it was in Duval County in their days, you could make it anywhere else!  

Following their marriage in Duval County, Samuel and Santos moved to the nearby town of Alice where they raised their family.  By the late 1940’s and early 50’s the few opportunities that existed in Alice began to dry up.  It was then that Samuel and Santos started venturing out to other cities and states where they found greater opportunities.  They spent some ten years as migrant workers.  Eventually, with the support of their children, they decided to settle in Grand Rapids, Michigan where they made they bought a house and enrolled the younger children in better schools.   

The story of our family has been told and re-told a few times but there is no harm to once in a while remind ourselves of where we came from and who our parents were.  In so doing, we find inspiration and motivation to continue improving our lives.  Some of the answers to the modern day problems can be found in the strong family values that our parents passed on to us and which in turn have been passed on to the newer generations.   

It is great to be here with the family celebrating this memorial mass.   We take great pride honoring our parents and we are thankful for the rich family heritage they have passed on to us.  

May God continue to bless their souls throughout eternity!

By Tom Saenz



Mexicans in Michigan

Elena M. Herrada
313 961 0661

Date: Sat, 30 Aug 2008
Shared by Dorinda Moreno

My grandfather , Jose Santos Herrada,an only child of a single mother, came to   the US from Aguas Calientes, Mexico in 1919 and served in the first world war.   He came back and worked on the railroads in St Louis, and then went to San   Antonio, where he met my grandmother, Elisa Hernandez , who was working as a governess for an American family in Texas. She was from San Luis Potosi and had travelled to the US alone. Very little is known of her family. He was lured to work in the auto plants for the promise of $5.00 a day, like thousands of others from all parts of the world. The economy began to fail in 1922 and he was laid off from Ford. He worked all manner of odd jobs to support the growing family.

In 1930, the family went to Mexico. This was the height of the repatriation in Detroit and all the children were born in Detroit. My grandparents were Mexican citizens. They took the children to Mexico and left them with their paternal grandmother, Tomasa Hernandez in Aguas Calientes on a small plot of land. My uncle told me that the Catholic priest in the village knew when the remittance
my grandfather sent was coming and came to collect. When my grandparents heard that their children were starving, they returned to Mexico and picked them up. The family was never allowed to attend church again. The  children, all US citizens, suffered deeply there, and their parents, Mexican nationals came back to Detroit to work and send money to Mexico to support the children. 

They returned to Detroit in 1932. My father, Alfredo Herrada, was born following Alex, Arturo, Amelia, Celia. and before Roberto,Berta and Irene. All four of the men went to work in auto, as my grandfather did. My grandfather and father retired from Chrysler and my uncles, Art and Bob, retired from Ford. My aunts, ages 84 and 85 have worked until this year. They are contemplating retirement.

The Herrada family's motto is: "Freeways were our enemy." This is the joke in the family because they were displaced by freeways three times in our tenure in this Promised Land, Detroit, which is where we have been since my grandparents arrived here to work in the auto and raise their family in 1920. First the house on Sixth Street and Cherry, the Linwood, then Ivanhoe. All taken by freeways.

Following their return from the repatriation in 1932, my father and his siblings all worked in various plants and the four men ultimately became engineers. The Herrada family is typical of their generation of Mexicans; no Spanish, no connection to the community, and always on time, working harder than the gringos. My father and his brother Roberto served in the Korean war, but the two
others were not quite tall enough, so they stayed home and designed war weapons to show support for the US. Art and Alex were intellectual giants, despite their short physical stature.

They were also prize winning dancers in the nightclubs, a job my uncle Bob still does on the cruiseships.

My grandfather wore full Revolutionary regalia to my college graduation from Wayne State University in 1980, when he was 85 years old. He cheered me on in front of my Chicano Boricua comrades because i was the first in the family to finish college at that time.

Michigan State University has a PhD in Chicano Studies. It is only the second such program in the country. I am honored to be in the first cohort, among a group of amazing activists and giants. In pursuing our PhDs in our own field of study, we honor our elders who were denied education and respect on this painful and rich  journey.  


Call for submissions for new anthology focusing on
Mexicans/Chicanos in Chicago and th
e Midwest

To be edited by:  
María A. Beltrán-Vocal, Paul Martínez Pompa, and Irasema  Salinas

Abstract:  This anthology explores the experience of Mexicans/Chicanos in Chicago and the Midwest through their writing.  By telling the stories of Chicano lives’, we create history and provide a foundation for those attempting to understand the needs and experiences of Chicanos.  We also provide direction for self-empowerment.

The purpose of this book is to record the social, cultural, political, literary experience of Chicanos/Mexicans from their own voice and perspective. This anthology will provide writers and scholars with first hand experience and perspective of Mexicans in Chicago and the Midwest.  This anthology will provide Mexicans/Chicanos with the opportunity to explore the presence of Mexicans in Chicago and the Midwest from the end of the XIXth century to today.  The writings will allow the reader to view the experience of workers in the railroads, the mills, and the activism of Mexicans in the sixties and seventies to the immigration marches in the XX1st centuries.  These writings will give a new perspective of the presence and contributions of Mexicans in Chicago and the Midwest.  It will examine the hardships, the struggles and triumphs of Chicanos/Mexicans and how their struggle has changed their perspective of life, politics, activism, education, and gender roles. We are accepting submissions in the forms of essay, poetry, short story, oral histories/testimonies, and autobiographies.

In this second call, we would like to receive submissions of short stories and poetry in particular.  Your work can be in English, Spanish, or both.

Postmarked deadline for submissions is Friday, October 31, 2008.

Send two hard copies of your work.
 Submissions should be double spaced, follow MLA format and must not exceed 20 pages.
 Poets may submit up to five poems
 Writers may submit up to two short stories no longer than 20 pages
 Autobiography/testimony, creative, non-fiction/memoir no longer than 20 pages
 All contributors must submit a brief biography and professional affiliation.

Please send submissions to:
María A. Beltrán-Vocal
Department of Modern Languages
DePaul University
802 West Belden Ave.
Chicago, IL  60614
(773)325-7000 ext. 51866


Latino/Latina Veterans Photographic Exhibit 
in Madison, Wisconsin 

Dear Friends,

The Photographic Exhibit of Latinas and Latinos who served in the military from Wisconsin is, indeed, a historic occasion.  Since we started in January 2008 gathering photographs of men and women who served in the Armed Forces of the United States, we have collected over 100 photographs of military veterans (including those still serving in the military...such as Corporal Ciera Marie Miranda, an outstanding Puerto Riqueña serving with the USMC in Iraq as we speak).  In fact, CPL Miranda's picture will be featured in the September 27, 2008 exhibit. 

How many of you knew that we have three Silver Star Medal recipients from Wisconsin?  One of them is alive and featured in our Photographic Exhibit and the other two have passed away.  Of these two one was a Korean veteran (deceased), and the other is a Vietnam veteran killed in action (KIA).  How many of you knew that one of our Latino veterans spent three years as a Prisoner of War (POW) in Korea?  Several times our POW veteran tried to escape, but was caught each time, and for this he spent most of the three years in solitary confinement in a bamboo cage.  He suffered torture, deprivation, humiliation and disease that scarred him for life.  In addition to this I have had the honor of meeting many of our veterans who received medals for valor, bravery and heroism in Korea and Vietnam.  These are veterans who received Bronze Star Medals, Army Commendation Medals and Marine Achievement Medals with the "V" device (meaning for "valor"). 

Indeed, this is a legacy of valor, honor and duty to country, our country, the United States of America. 

There are three phases to our Latino and Latina Pictorial and Oral History Project.

PHASE I:  Phase I is the Exhibit in Madison, Wisconsin at the Wisconsin Veterans Museum.  Here we will exhibit 22 photographs of Latina and Latino veterans.

PHASE II: Phase II is a Traveling Pictorial Exhibit that will exhibit 40 to 60 photographs of Latino and Latina veterans.  This Traveling Pictorial Exhibit will be displayed in libraries, schools, veteran functions, community events, festivals, etc.

PHASE III: Phase III is a book.  In two years or so we plan to compile all these photographs and collect the individual veterans oral histories to write the stories of each of these veterans alongside their picture or pictures. This is an ambitious project but there are people out there with writing skills, research abilities and other talents, and we intend to look for them and ask them to help us in putting this book together. 

NOW HERE IS THE GOOD PART: All of this work is done by volunteers.  No one is paid to do this. At his point you might be asking yourself, but why are you doing this?  It is very simple. If we wait for someone to recognize us --to recognize our heroes, our service to our country during peace time or war, or our people who paid the ultimate sacrifice (killed in action), the sad truth is it will never happen. This is why we are doing it.  Every one of us has a brother, an uncle, a father, a son, a nephew or a sister, a cousin or a family member who served our country in the military.  Their job may have been a cook, a truck driver, a mail clerk, an infantry man, or an engineer, whatever the job, it was an honorable job, and we served our country in times of war or in times of peace.  And this is what matters.

One week ago, I talked to a friend of mine that I have known since the early 1970s, and discovered that he was a Korean veteran.  He served in Korea with the 65th Infantry Regiment.  The most decorated Regiment in the Korean War history.  The whole 65th Infantry Regiment was made up of Puerto Ricans.  My friend Cesar A. Pabón Pérez was one of these heroes who served with the 65th Infantry Regiment.  I want to thank my friend Israel Acosta for connecting me to Cesar and to others in the community.  The same goes for Domingo Leguizamon (of Paraguayan nationality) and his son, Peter, both of whom served in Iraq together. Or take Carlos G. Cornejo, a Costa Rican, who joined the USMC and served our country honorably. Sometimes, all we have is a name.  Like in the case of Michael Bonavez of Madison who served in the USMC and was KIA in Vietnam.  Bonavez was an only child, and years ago his parents passed away, and left no pictures or story to tell about their son's tour in Vietnam. All his personal belongings and all the deceased parents personal belongings are also gone. The only thing I could get from his friend Roger Boeker was that he knew him from high school, but even Roger had very little information on Michael Bonavez.  Still, we need to recognize him and remember him in our Project even if we have to enter only his name and nothing more.

Please pass the word around to other people about the Photographic Exhibit we are having in Madison on September 27, 2008 at 1:00 p.m.  Please let them know that we need an RSVP because we need to have an estimate as to how many people are coming so we can order enough snack food for everyone. 

They can call me at 414-858-9871 or email me at this email address.

Please mark your calendar, and come and join us as we recognize those who served leaving us with a legacy of valor, honor and duty in the service to our country.  Way too often when our Latino and Latina veterans return home from serving our country we do not honor their bravery and valor or their honorable service with the full measure of respect, gratitude, and recognition that they deserve, this Photographic Exhibit is, at the very least, a token of our appreciation.

Please let's make this a memorable event by inviting everyone we know.  Pass the word to others and please don't forget to RSVP.

Juan Alvarez, Past State Commander
Wisconsin American G. I. Forum

P.S. Just a reminder to everyone that we are still accepting photographs of Latino and Latina veterans, including those still in military service.  We need their photos and background information such as emails, addresses, phone numbers, and military service information to do a brief history of the veteran.  Thanks.  


Free Louisiana Marriage Records
Wonderful resources, can search by Parish (county) Marriage Records




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FIRST TIME USERS - Please download and install the free document viewer. The viewer is required to view document images. Instructions are included in the User Manual.

To search for Historical documents, go to Historical Records. These documents include U.S. and State historical land title information, including information related to: Land Grants; all severance documents of U.S. and State public lands - which lists the first private owner; all U.S. Official Township Survey plats and field notes; the U.S. and State Tract Books - which are an index of all the other documents mentioned; Section 16 School Lands; State Patents; and numerous related documents. These records make up the source of title for every acre of land in Louisiana.

To search for Tax documents, go to Tax Records. These documents include Property Tax Adjudication documents (comprising adjudications, redemptions, cancellations, and sales) relating to lands seized for the non-payment of State property taxes from 1880 to 1973.

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Seeking a home for Fernando Muñoz Altea Book Collection
Compiled Mexican Pedigrees
V Reunion Internacional de Los Elizondo, Octubre 10, 11 y 12 del 2008
The Malila Cross
Cadetes del Heroico Colegio Militar
President Calderon Hails Efforts of Mexican Medalists in Beijing
Pedro Rangel: Paralympics in Beijing



Seeking a home for Fernando Muñoz Altea Book and Research Collection

Querida Mimí :

Como bien sabes, colaboré durante 29 años en el diario EXCELSIOR con una columna  que llevaba por título  "BLASONES.Allí publique más de 7,000 artículos, aunque muchos de ellos los repetí o amplié posteriormente.También tengo gran parte de los originales a máquina y los respectivos diseños en blanco y negro.
Ya hace tiempo que dejé dicha colaboración y a mis casi 83 años, ya cansado  y un poco al margen de estas cosas,me desprendí de la casi totalidad de mi bliblioteca, que era muy importante, y solamente me quedan algunos ,libros sueltos,entre ellos un magnífico tratado de paleografía.Todo ello quisiera venderlo y se que a través de tuyo tal vez se podría conseguir para alguna institución de ese país.
También tengo parte de mi archivo de trabajos realizados en los últimos años.
Con  mis mejores deseos y anticipada gratitud , te mando un cariñoso abrazo
Click to go to a 7 page listing of the books making up the collection:


El archivo de mis artículos en el periódico EXCELSIOR también puede ser interesante.Publiqué unos 7,000 aunque bastantes de ellos repetí por llenar la columna o agregarles mas texto.Tengo también u nos paquetes de los originales que yo enviaba por intyernet, con sus corresponbdientes escudos en blanco y negro.Sobre este lote se podría discutir el costo con quien le interese.

Fernando Muñoz Altea.


Copies of the 7,000 Blasones studies are organized and stored for easy access.


Compiled Mexican Pedigrees 

John Inclan has compiled hundreds of Mexican and Tejano family pedigrees.  If you have not searched his works, I strongly suggest that you do.  Here is a thank you from a grateful researcher:

"To John Inclan and Mimi Lozano: Your work at solved a lost link (generation) from my Chapa family. Nor the mormon surname information or any other could help me out but your excellent work which happens to be the most accurate of all available on internet. I am truly grateful to you."

Regards, Arturo Chapa
Monterrey, Mexico

John Inclan's compilation of pedigrees can be found at:


Octubre 10, 11 y 12 del 2008


Octubre 11  del  2008
9:30 a 10:00               Inscripciones de las Conferencias.     
10:00                          Ceremonia de Inauguración.

10:15                          Presentación del Testamento del Cap. Francisco de Elizondo de Aguilar.
                                                Profr.  Miguel Ángel  Muñoz Borrego.
10:45                           Genealogía Molecular ADN
                                                 Benicio Samuel Sánchez García    
11:15                           Resumen del Testamento del  Cap. Francisco de Elizondo y Urdiñola.
                                                 Ing. Guillermo Garmendia Leal.

12:00                           Exposición del Testamento del General  Pedro de Elizondo González.
                                                 Arq. José Francisco Garza Carrillo.
12:30                           Conferencia sobre la Vida del General Luis Alberto Guajardo Elizondo.
                                                 LAE.  Luis López Elizondo.

15:30   a  17:30                     Mesas Redondas

Octubre 10 del 2008      Bienvenida en el 17:00  a 19:00              
Archivo General del Estado de Nuevo León. |
Juan I. Ramón esq. Zaragoza Macro Plaza de Monterrey 

Octubre 11 del 2008.    Conferencias en el 9:30 a 17:30
Auditorio de la Biblioteca Central "Fray Servando Teresa de Mier"
Zuazua 655 Sur Macro Plaza de Monterrey 

Octubre 12 del  2008.   Convivencia en el 9:30 a 15:00                 
Embarcadero del Paseo Santa Lucia en Cintermex visita al Museo

Museo de Historia Mexicana visita a Las Castas en la Nueva España



The Malila Cross

Perched on a green hillside and perfectly framed by a grassy atrium - reputedly the oldest in region - this picturesque little chapel is enclosed by crenellated walls and an elegant arched gateway. It boasts a steeply pitched roof and a broad, arched doorway carved with angels, vines and rosettes in classic 16th century tequitqui style.

Malila was founded in the mid 1500s as a visita of the great Augustinian priory at nearby Metztitlan, located in the mountainous Sierra Alta region of eastern Hidalgo state. The church appears on the celebrated Metztitlan Map (drawn by Gabriel Chavez in 1579 as part of the Relación Geográfica de Metztitlan )

The Atrium Cross
The atrium cross stands on an elevated base facing the church. A boldly interwoven, stylized Crown relief projects at the crossing of the cylindrical arms and shaft, which are in turn carefully carved with three Wounds inset with round holes and drops of blood in high relief.

An elongated INRI plaque with exaggerated scrolls and an indistinct inscription crosses the neck. In keeping with the local pattern there are no other carvings or finials.
The cross sits on a large stone pedestal (below right) in the form of a scrolled capital. On one side, what appears to be a sepulcral niche has been partially blocked, while a rude, petal-shaped or shell design is outlined on the side facing the church.
This integral and virtually untouched 16th century visita, in its secluded, rustic setting and with its tall cross, is only one among many colonial missions awaiting discovery in the Sierra Alta de Hidalgo.
  • Text & illustrations ©2008 by Richard D. Perry. All rights reserved.
  • See our page on the great Augustinian priory at nearby Metztitlan
  • For more on the churches and missions of the Sierra Alta de Hidalgo, consult the classic Arte y arquitectura en la Sierra Alta by José Guadalupe Victoria (1985)
  • Look for our forthcoming guide to Mexican Stone Crosses
  • For complete information on the churches and monasteries of Hidalgo and central Mexico, consult our classic guidebook, Mexico's Fortress Monasteries
    Exploring Colonial Mexico©
    The Espadaña Press Web site

    Cadetes del Heroico Colegio Militar

    El presidente Felipe Calderón Hinojosa, acompañado del Secretario de Defensa; Guillermo Galván Galván, y el Secretario de Marina; Mariano Francisco Saynez Mendoza, durante la entrega de espadines a cadetes del Heroico Colegio Militar, en el marco de la ceremonia conmemorativa al CLXI aniversario de la gesta heroica de los Niños Héroes de Chapultepec. Notimex


    President Calderón Celebrates efforts of Mexican Medalists in Beijing and Calls for Review and Correction of Sport in Mexico

    Press Room
    Friday, August 29, 2008
    Mexico City , Official Residence


    Their successful participation is proof that with talent, will and discipline, Mexicans are capable of meeting any challenge, he declared. It is government’s priority to make sport and physical activity an engine for Mexicans' development.

    President Felipe Calderón received the Mexican Beijing 2008 Olympic medalists in Los Pinos at midday: Paola Espinosa, Tatiana Ortiz, María del Rosario Espinoza and Guillermo Pérez, whose victories he said, were a source of great pride and satisfaction for all Mexicans.

    In a press statement, at which the athletes’ relatives and trainers were also present, the President said that the medals obtained in Beijing provide clear proof of the fact that with talent, willpower and discipline, Mexicans can meet any challenge.

    President Calderón hailed the determination and confidence with which the Mexican competitors performed every dive and fight and warmly congratulated them because they now form part of the history of excellence of Mexican and international sport.

    He stated that it is necessary to work more as a country to achieve greater success in national and international sports, adding that he favored encouraging sport from childhood and detecting new talents in order to accompany them in both their physical activity and educational training.

    He added that Mexico must transform its sports system, not only to obtain more triumphs and medals but also to improve the population's health conditions, in addition to the fact that playing sports provides a firm social basis for keeping children and young people away from the problem of addictions.

    The President went on to say that sport in this country needs to be overhauled to enable Mexico to achieve the place it deserves at international competitions, in keeping with the size of the population, the economy and young people's strength. 

    “I would ask you four and your trainers and all the athletes who went to Beijing and all the Mexican sportspersons, without exception, as well as the specialists and sports commentators and national trainers to take a long hard look at the national sports system and review it.

    President Felipe Calderón was also accompanied by President of the National Commission of Physical Culture and Sports, Carlos Hermosillo Goytortúa.