Somos Primos

110th Issue Online

Editor: Mimi Lozano ©2000-9


Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research



President Barak Obama
44th United States President
January 20, 2009, Washington, D.C. 
Photo by Fidel R. Delgado 


"If you want
to understand today, you have
to search yesterday. "

~ Pearl S. Buck


Content Areas
United States
Ricardo Montalban 
National Issues
Action Item
National Parks Service
Bilingual Education

Anti-Spanish Legends

Military/Law Enforcement 
Patriots, American Revolution
Orange County,CA  
Los Angeles,CA

Northwestern US
Southwestern US 

East of Mississippi

East Coast



Family History



  Letters to the Editor : 

Dear Mimi;

I’ve enjoyed Somos Primos for many years, and wanted to thank you for wonderful work you and the volunteers who assist you with the online information each month, as well as the many advocacy programs you’re involved in behind the scenes.

I wanted to share with you information about a book that I’ve been working on for many years, and finally will see it go to press this month, with availability in February.  It has always been my desire to contribute to my heritage in some lasting way, and the collection of photographs over 20 years has brought this book forward. . . .

Muchas Gracias, Julia Macias Brooks

Hello Mimi,
Congratulations on another fine issue of Somos Primos.  I always find something of interest in each issue.   
Richard Sanchez
In a message dated 1/3/2009 1:43:39 P.M. Pacific Standard Time, writes:
I'm changing my email address and would like to continue receiving your monthly notification. I enjoy reading all the great articles you put together every month. I've been a subscriber for many years and would hate to lose you now. Congrats on the awesome job you do, keep up the good work. From a loyal reader from the Midwest "Happy New Year".
 Frank You                         
Frank Montano
 Somos Primos Staff:   .
Mimi Lozano, Editor
Mercy Bautista Olvera
Bill Carmena
Lila Guzman
Granville Hough
John Inclan
Galal Kernahan
J.V. Martinez
Armando Montes
Dorinda Moreno
Michael Perez
Rafael Ojeda
Ángel Custodio Rebollo
Tony Santiago
John P. Schmal
Howard Shorr 
Ted Vincent

Contributors to this issue:
Dorina Alaniz Thomas
Odie Arambula 
Gil. Armijo
Mercy Bautista Olvera
Irma Lerma Barbosa
Jaime Cader
Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.
Bill Carmena
Lynette Chapa 
Gus Chavez
Fidel R. Delgado
Jose Antonio Esquibel 
Juan Farias
Lorraine Frain
Eddie U. Garcia
Wanda Daisy Garcia 
Raul Garza
Rafael Jesus Gonzalez
Raul Guerra
Walter Herbeck, J.
Ruth Hoese
Win Holtzman
Granville Hough, Ph.D.
John Inclan
Kathie Kennedy
Julia Macias Brooks
Juan Marinez
Debbie Martinez
Rueben Martinez
Frank Montano
Dorinda Moreno
Carlos Munoz, Ph.,D.
Paul Nauta
Paul Newfield
Rafael Ojeda
Felipe de Ortego y Gasca
Jose M. Pena
Rueben M. Perez


Richard Perry
Chris Pineda
Manuel Quinones
Sharon Quirk 
Juan Ramos, Ph.D.
Antonio Rangel
Angel Custodio Rebollo
Armando Rendon
Alfonso Rodriguez
Ben Romero
Benicio Sanchez Garcia
Richard Sanchez
Lourdes Serrano
Benicio Samuel Sanchez
Tony Santiago
Howard Shorr
Frank Sifuentes
Joseph N. Smith
Robert Smith
Sandy Stiassni
William Tapia
Vincent Tavera
Robert Thonhoff
Ernesto Uribe
Richard Valverde
Ted Vincent
Marcus Wilson
Dorothy Yanez 

SHHAR Board:  Bea Armenta Dever, Gloria Cortinas Oliver, Mimi Lozano Holtzman, Pat Lozano, Michael Perez, Crispin Rendon, Viola Rodriguez Sadler, John P. Schmal, Tomas Saenz.



Inauguration of the 44th President of the United States, Barack Obama
Impressions and photos of this historic event by Fidel R. D,
Behind the Scenes with Mayor of Fullerton, California, Sharon Quirk
Hispanics Breaking Barriers, Part II by Mercy Bautista-Olvera
    Colorado Senator Ken Salazar
    U.S. Secretary of Energy Federico Peña
    Stanford University Professor of Law Mariano-Florentino “Tino” Cuéllar 
    CEO of CRA/LA Chief Executive Officer Cecilia V. Estolano
Remembering Dr. Clotilde Garcia by Wanda Daisy Garcia 
Representative Herrero Files Legislation Honoring Dr. Hector P. Garcia
For the Record: Louis Hubbard y Mendez, 1st Hispanic Pres of a U.S. University 
Portraits of the 44 Presidents of the United States. 
White House new Spanish language website
Hero Street, U.S.A. by Marcus Wilson



 Inauguration of the 44th President of the United States
Barack Obama

President Barack Obama delivers his inaugural address after being sworn in by Chief Justice John Roberts as the 44th president of the United States of America at the Capitol January 20, 2009 in Washington, DC. (Jim Bourg-Pool/Getty Images.  

Photo gallery: The Big Picture, News Stories in Photographs by Alan Taylor, January 21, 2009
Sent by Lupe Trujillo Fisher 



mpressions and photos of this historic event 
Fidel R. Delgado 



I had an opportunity to attend the inauguration of Barack Obama.  Here are my impressions of this historic event along with some photos.  Fidel

I went to the National Mall to attend the inauguration of Barack Obama. It was an incredible experience with over a million energized people in attendance.  The atmosphere of the moment was historic, life changing and totally uplifting.  People were so happy and overjoyed.   

Today I felt very patriotic knowing that our country is moving in a more rational direction where our new leaders are truly thinking about the welfare of the country and about our image abroad.  I feel good again about being an American.  The past administration soiled our country’s principles of democracy, fair play and honesty.  The change is so welcomed.  

Let me back track a little as to how my day started.   Initially I decided that I wanted to attend the inauguration and was determined to go on my bicycle.   It isn’t such a big challenge since I go to work regularly by bike a distance of 28 miles per day.  The challenge was the weather with the temperature at 24 degrees when I left home.   I was well prepared for the trip and I had on triple layers of clothes while using my heaviest bike jacket.  The north winds blowing in my face required an extreme effort.  By the time I arrived at the Jefferson Memorial my water bottle had turned to solid ice.  That’s cold. Burrrr!!   

The Washington Area Bicycle Association (WABA) had a bicycle valet or a safe parking area for bicycles.  I estimated that there were over 3,000 bicycles in the parking enclosures.   It was a good service which made me feel secure about leaving my bike with WABA.   

Now I will further describe the scene at the mall.  There were so many people it was difficult to find a good location to observe the inauguration.  Though it was crowded with people standing shoulder to shoulder, every one was polite.  I walked around the Washington Monument trying to find a decent vantage point to view a jumbotron, one of the large screens which were set up.   I picked a spot that gave me a view and I began to observe the program. 
This event was really about people.  What I witnessed was democracy in action and with purpose.  The crowd was very diverse.   I saw all races and nationalities represented.  The most moving to observe were the African Americans.  Some were in tears and they were members of the generation that walked with Martin Luther King. The MLK holiday was yesterday.  I had a chance to talk with some and had a nice conversation with a family from Florida who traveled to Washington for this event. Equal in large numbers were Whites, Hispanics, and Asians.  The throngs were a cross section of America.  The other thing that I noticed was the large number of children of all ages.  

I could feel human electricity super-charging the air.  The feeling was like one’s emotional state after wining a super-bowl or a national championship.  There was a profound depth to emotions of happiness, elation and joy.  I could see it in many people’s faces.  The spectators became one in purpose like one people united in a common collective.  The temperature was below freezing but I did not feel it.  I don’t know whether the group energy kept me warm or the closeness of the crowd.   I had succumbed to the moment and became one with the others..       

On the giant screen Chief Justice Roberts administered the oath of office to Obama.  At the completion of the swearing-in the masses were ecstatic.  At that instant, I viewed a scene that is the most memorable from this inauguration.   A small group of school children were standing together.  At the announcement, two little girls (one black, one white) embraced each other and then holding hands they began spinning in a circle and jumping up and down.  I was so amazed at the reaction of these two little girls.  The two young ladies appeared to be around 10 or 9 years old.   I’m not sure they fully understood the significance of the President being sworn in.  The atmosphere was so charged it may have been their natural response to the emotional outpouring.  I saw tears of joy, hugs of happiness, and shouts of “Obama!”   I couldn’t help myself and yelled “Viva Obama!!”  


Then Barack Obama started his acceptance speech.  Everybody stopped and listened to his every word.  His speech was magnificent and hit all the critical points and issues.  There was a collective understanding and agreement.  Obama’s speech included “We will harness the sun and the winds and the soil to fuel our cars and run our factories”.   And we will transform our schools and colleges and universities to meet the demands of a new age. All this we can do. All this we will do.”  This is exactly my line of work.  I’m a proponent for the use of renewable energy for facilities.  It’s so gratifying that our work is being acknowledged and will be fully supported by the government.   I take these words to be my marching orders.   

The return ride back to the house was easier since I was riding with the wind at my back and the sun had warmed the air.  The bike trail was relatively empty for the most part.  It’s the road less traveled.   I arrived home tired but with a renewed spirit about my country.   America is returning to its original values of democracy, decency and rule of law.   I am personally inspired to do my part.   

Fidel R. Delgado 
January 20, 2009, Washington, DC 

Sent by Juan Marinez, Jose M. Pena, Dorinda Moreno, Walter Herbeck

"Fidel rode a bicycle 56 miles ( from and to ) his home to be a witness of this historic event.  His letter describes what he saw and felt during the event.  The pictures represent a very telling story of the mass of humanity, the moods of the people, and the number of family groups he saw.  Thanks Fidel 
for sharing."
  Jose M. Pena 




Behind the Scenes with Mayor of Fullerton, California
Sharon Quirk 


This week our nation participated in history, the inauguration of President Barack Obama has been televised, photographed, u-tubed, blogged about, written about and will forever be a mark of “HOPE”, for all Americans.  

I would like to share some moments and details of our adventures.

First, this journey started for me so many months ago.  I was able to hear President Barack Obama speak at a conference almost two years ago.  As you know I was also running a campaign to be re-elected.  On Nov. 2nd, I remember being in a room full of Team Quirk members and watching the results come in, tears rolling down cheeks, we knew, and he knew it was, “THE MOMENT”,  that so many lives would change.  I was also happy to be re-elected.  I thought how proud I felt to be listed way down on the same ballot as Barack Obama and also to have a role to help shape our community-“Our Town”.

As soon as the election was over we began trying to figure out how to get to the inauguration.  Congresswoman Loretta Sanchez was a huge help. She has been a mentor and friend in so many ways.   She invited my husband, Jesus Silva, and Pam Keller to join her in DC and even helped us with accommodations.  Jesus and I stayed at the Army/Navy Club and Pam stayed with Congresswoman Sanchez.

Our adventure began on Sunday- Jan.18th at 3:00am- we thought we would try to get on an early flight, in order to get to a fancy ball-no luck!  We boarded the Obama express at 11:00 am.  It was named this because so many on the flight were volunteers or supporters.  The energy was in the air!  Our flight was on time and no problems at the airport or getting to the hotel.  The only issue was food-everything was closed so we settled for Burger King at 11:00 at night!  

Monday, Day 1- Our Hotel, The Army/Navy Club, was very close to the White House. It was cold!!  We were prepared and surprised that it was okay.  We walked and followed the crowd.  Many families, student groups, fur coats, vendors, banners, buttons were to be seen.  The excitement couldn’t be captured on camera: conversations with strangers, photo taking, (We even ran into the Rosary High School Group from Fullerton )!  People were happy, ready to help, and so positive! We spent the day roaming the mall.  People were ice skating at the sculpture garden.  The big event for the day was picking up our tickets a the congress building.  For many this was a long wait!  But Loretta to the rescue- she sent a staff member to greet us at the security door.  We received our tickets and were excited to see that we would be standing in the purple section.  We also were invited to a reception and the New York Ball.

Getting around DC was an event in itself.  We braved the Metro at 4:00, and made it to a fancy reception that we were all undressed for. No problem, there was great food, drinks, and friends.  We met lobbyist, judges, Mickey from the Grateful Dead and had a grand time.  Next, it was off to get ready to go to New York Ball (black-tie).  We transformed and made our way to the Smithsonian (Castle) - a beautiful place for a gathering.  A nice band was playing and the OC group was dancing away.  We were surprised when it looked as if a presentation was about to take place and we were right up front!!  The Governor of New York spoke first and then Hillary Clinton addressed the crowd. I was able to say hi to her and shake her hand!! Day 1- was perfect!!

Day-2 was an exhilarating day.  We found out quickly that it was going to take energy, patience, and perseverance to get to our designated area. We left our room at 6:30 am.  We again followed the crowd, but soon realized it would take every effort we had to get to where we needed and time was passing.  We begged, climbed fences, went through ally ways, got stuck in crowds and almost gave up getting in to our “Purple Section” until Jesus turned into Superman and led the way out of an area that was not moving into another area where we slowly moved along.  People were cold, frustrated, eager, polite, and communicating with each other.  We all wanted the same thing, to be able to see this great event.  Many hats, scarves and gloves went missing and yet many people stopped to call to someone that they had dropped items.  The truth is our fancy purple tickets were okay (people with tickets further behind us had a much easier time seeing and getting in). You saw it much better on TV, but we would not have missed it. 

There were cheers and jeers, there were babies, toddlers, grandmas and grandpas, there were people in trees, on monuments, on shoulders, and for thousands there was a moment when you knew that America can and will move forward.  You knew that Change was here and you truly felt that we were seeing “Goodness”!

After the ceremonies, the party began on the streets with a loud chorus of goodbye to Former President Bush as his helicopter flew over the mall.  Vendors selling, buttons, hats, scarves, magnets, pretzels, turkey legs, hot chocolate and so on were scattered throughout the streets!! People moved slowly through the streets in no hurry- maybe savoring this day!!  Performers, message writers, and well wishers strolled the streets and although cold, the warmth of this day was evident!

 We attended the The Official Inaugural Western Ball It was busy, and packed.  We waited on a dance floor for a few hours to see President Obama and the First Lady.  We were entertained by Marc Anthony and J-Lo. The new VP- Joe Biden and his wife came in to greet us. It was a long wait, but finally we heard the Official Presidential band introducing the President. The First Lady wore a white magical gown and at just before midnight he spoke.  He told us, “Let’s get working together to create “Change”, they danced, smiled, and hugged.  There was a sense that this room was filled with good wishes and love!  It did seem like a Cinderella Dream- did everything we saw really happen?  It did! 

For many it was a dream that they never thought would happen in their lifetime.  For myself and Jesus – who would believe, that a son of immigrants , a daughter of a family of ten and the first in my family to graduate from college, that we would have the opportunity to travel to DC.  We stood 50 ft. from our New President and indeed we were part of this wave of HOPE!!   As a mother, daughter, teacher, elected official, and proud American, I realize the work a head that it will take to recover, but I have never felt more optimistic, YES WE CAN!!!  YES WE DID!!! 

Sent by Sandy Stiassni





Part II


Mercy Bautista-Olvera


In the coming months this series “Hispanics Breaking Barriers” will present the contributions of Hispanics in United States government and leadership. Their contributions have improved not only the local community but the country as well.   Sadly, they have not always received their due recognition. Their struggles, stories, and accomplishments will by example, illustrate to our youth and to future generations that everything and anything is possible.   

Colorado Senator Ken Salazar
U.S. Secretary of Energy Federico Peña
Stanford University Professor of Law Mariano-Florentino “Tino” Cuéllar 
CEO of CRA/LA Chief Executive Officer Cecilia V. Estolano  


Ken Salazar  

D-Colorado Senator Ken Salazar has been selected as Secretary of the Interior. He is expected to balance the protection of Natural Resources; if confirmed by the Senate he would be the second Hispanic Secretary of the Interior. Salazar will head a vast agency whose bureaus manage water, fish, wildlife, mining, public lands and national parks and maintain federal relationships with Native American.  

Ken Salazar was born on March 2, 1955 in Alamoza , Colorado and raised in Manassa , Colorado . Salazar’s parents Enrique (Henry) Salazar and Emma Salazar served in World War II, his father as a Staff Sergeant in the United States Army and his mother in the War Department in Washington D.C., he has four brothers and three sisters, including older brother, Congressman John Salazar. Ken and his wife Hope Hernandez-Salazar have two daughters Melinda and Andrea and one granddaughter, Mireya.  

Salazar’s ancestry can be traced all the way to 12th century Spain . His family settled in the American West before the United States was a country. His ancestors have lived in the American Southwest since the 1500’s.    

Ken Salazar graduated form Centauri High School in Conejos County . In 1977, Salazar earned a Bachelor’s degree in Political Science from Colorado College ; in 1981, he received a Juris Doctorate from the University of Michigan . In 1986, he became Chief Legal Counsel to then Governor Roy Romer. In 1993, Salazar received honorary doctorates of law from Colorado College and the University of Denver in 1999.

Colorado Governor Roy R. Romer appointed Salazar to his Cabinet as Director of the Department of Natural Resources; he authorized the Great Outdoors Colorado Amendment, which created a massive land conservation program and Youth in Natural Resources program to provide for environmental education in public school. Salazar established reforms that forced mining and oil operations protect the surrounding environment.

In 2003, as Colorado Attorney General Salazar led a well-publicized fight against a ballot measure that would have transferred water across the Rocky Mountains from western Colorado to Denver, he created several new branches of law enforcement, the Gang Prosecution Unit, the Environmental Crimes Unit, and the General Fugitive Prosecution Unit. Salazar strengthened the consumer protection and anti-fraud law as well to protect children against crime. He served as chairperson of the Conference of Western Attorneys General and received the "Profiles in Courage" award from his fellow state attorney generals for his dedication to preserving and promoting the rule of law.  

In 2004 Salazar was elected Senator of Colorado, he co-sponsored a bill in Congress to create a new land conservation system under the Interior Department’s Bureau of Land Management for permanently protecting 26 million acres of national monuments, wilderness and wild and scenic rivers.  

At the Senate Salazar has pressed for re-evaluating the military mission in Iraq  for a better national security interest and has worked to strengthen our military to ensure that we are able co confront emerging threats.


Federico Peña  

D-Colorado Secretary of Energy Federico Peña was selected to Obama Transition team to be on President-elect’s Barack Obama Advisory board panel.  Peña served as Obama’s National Campaign Co-chair.     

Federico Fabian Peña was born on March 15, 1947 in Laredo , Texas , the son of Gustavo Peña and Ana Lucila Farias-Peña; he was the third of six children. His father Gustavo was a broker for a Texas cotton manufacturer. Their parents taught their children to have good values of respectfulness, loyalty, and perseverance, they achieved their goals, all completed college; two became lawyers, two became teachers, and one a business accountant. Federico married Cindy Velasquez, previously married to Ellen Hart-Peña; Federico and Ellen have two daughters and a son, Nelia Joan, Cristina Lucila and Ryan.    

In 1965, Federico graduated with honors from St. Joseph ’s Academy High School . In 1969, Peña earned a B.A and a Jurist Doctorate School of Law from the University of Texas at Austin . In 1972, Peña moved to Colorado and became a practicing attorney, where his brother Alfredo was already practicing law, and together they opened a law office. In 1978, the 31-year-old Peña successfully ran for a seat in the Colorado General Assembly, Salazar held the position for two terms, than he served on the House Judiciary Legal Services, Rules, and Finance Committees. During his first term, Peña was named Outstanding House Democratic Freshman by the Colorado Social Action Committee. Peña was elected to the Colorado House of Representatives as a Democrat in 1979-1983, becoming a Minority leader, than, a Democratic Party Leader for the Colorado General Assembly. 

Peña became the first Hispanic mayor of Denver (1983-1991), during his two terms as Mayor the city gained a major league baseball team, a new airport, a convention center, the arts center, a library, numerous parks and public buildings. Peña reversed the city’s budget deficit and led the revitalization of Denver ’s economy. 

In 1993-1996 President Bill Clinton selected Federico Peña for United States Secretary of Transportation than later as United States Secretary of Energy from

1997-1998. Peña was involved in several high-profile aviation issues, including foreign investment in US Air, he also promoted air safety issues such an investigation into Boeing 757 wing turbulence. During his second term, Peña promoted the idea of constructing a new airport as a way of making Denver into a major regional center of trade.   

As Secretary of Energy, (1997-1998) Peña developed the administration’s Comprehensive National Energy Strategy and oversaw the largest privatization in the history of the U.S. Government, the $3.65 billion sale of the Elk Hills Petroleum Reserve to Occidental Petroleum. [During President Bill Clinton’s,   Administration, Peña’s strategy for oil and gas development in the Caspian Sea region and was instrumental in supporting energy investment in Russia .] Peña traveled throughout the world to assist U.S. transportation companies in assessing global Markets. 

Mariano-Florentino Cuéllar

Mariano-Florentino “Tino” Cuéllar  

Professor of Law at Stanford University Mariano-Florentino “Tino” Cuéllar has been named one of the co-heads of the Obama transition’s Immigration Policy Working Group. The transition’s website states Cuéllar will be in charge of “working on a plan to implement the President-elect Obama commitment to fix the immigration system through legislative and executive actions that promote prosperity, enhance our security, strengthen families, and advance the rule of law.” Cuéllar brings experience in how organizations manage complex regulatory, migration, international security, and criminal justice problems.  

Mariano-Florentino Cuéllar is the son of Dr. Alfredo Cuéllar and Graciela Cuéllar. He grew up in the Mexican border town of Calexico , ( Imperial County ). Cuéllar graduated from Calexico High School . In 1993, Cuéllar earned his Bachelor's Degree at Harvard University , his Masters’ Degree in Political Science at Stanford University in 1996, and Juris Doctorate at Yale Law School in 1997 and finished with a doctorate in Political Science at Stanford University in 2000 where he is now a full professor specializing in Administrative Law.  

Cuéllar has considerable experience in the federal government, and his academic work has focused on the analysis of complex organization and the way they administer and devise pubic policy,” “He’ll bring a very keen eye for organizational performance and a very innovative mind,” said Yale Law School Professor Peter H. Schuck. 

Cuéllar has worked as a Senior Adviser in President Bill Clinton’s Treasury Department and on countering domestic and international financial crime, improving border coordination, and enhancing anti-corruption measures.  

The San Jose Mercury News reported that during this year’s campaign, Cuéllar advised the Obama team “on a variety of issues, including immigration, criminal justice and Latino voter outreach.” Agencia EFE (Spanish News Agency) reported that Cuéllar has called the current immigration situation in the U.S. “a humanitarian crisis that we’ve ignored” and one that deserves an appropriate response.  

Cuéllar is on the Executive Committee of the Stanford Center for International Security and Cooperation as well as the Stanford International Initiative. In recent years, Cuéllar has testified before the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee and before Congress on immigration policy and separation of powers. He served in U.S.-Japan Foundation and worked on initiatives for the reform of health and safety regulatory analysis. Cuéllar was selected to work in the Silicon Valley Blue Ribbon Task Force on Aviation Security as well. Cuellar is an elected member of the American Law Institute.      



Cecilia V. Estolano

Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of CRA/LA. Of the California Redevelopment Association Cecilia Valerie Estolano was appointed to the Environmental Protection Agency Review Team for President-elect Obama. Ms. Estolano is the Chief Executive Officer of the Community Redevelopment Agency in Los Angeles , California .  

Cecilia Valerie Estolano is the daughter of Rafael Estolano and Gloria Estolano,

Her ancestry comes from Mexico and Nicaragua . Cecilia’s paternal grandparents were Vicente Estolano and Juana Francisca Pernudi Granados, Cecilia’s paternal grandmother Juana Francisca was born in Nicaragua, (1903-1999). Ms. Estolano has one brother, Rafael and two sisters, Gloria and Isabel.  

Ms. Estolano is a graduate of Boalt Hall School of Law and Holds an M.A. in Urban Planning from the Graduate School of Architecture and Urban Planning at UCLA. She received her undergraduate degree in Social Studies with honors from Harvard-Radcliffe Colleges.  

Ms. Estolano served as Los Angeles Mayor Tom Bradley’s Environmental Policy Advisor from 1991-1993. Estolano’s public sector background includes experience at the local state and federal level. During 1993 to 1995, she served as Senior Policy Advisor with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, she advised the Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation on mobile source regulations on state and local relations and California air quality issues. She served on the California Coastal Commission from 1999-2002 as an appointee of the Speaker of the California Assembly.  

Ms. Estolano was counsel in the Los Angeles office of Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher. She focused on land use, zoning, redevelopment and municipal law and environmental regulatory issues. From 2001-2004 Ms. Estolano served as Special Assistant City Attorney for land use, economic development and environment for Los Angeles City Attorney Rocky Delgadillo.  She presided over a major restructuring of the office to create Real Estate and Economic Development, public finance and environmental matters for the City of Los Angeles and the Los Angeles Community Redevelopment Agency. Ms. Estolano was the City’s lead attorney on all major land use, real estate and economic development projects, she is a top negotiator, achieved a landmark settlement in Clean Water Act litigation brought  by the U.S. Department of Justice.  

In 2001, Los Angeles Business Journal named Ms. Estolano one of “20 Up-and-coming Women in the Latino Community.” In 2003, California Lawyer named Ms. Estolano one of five “High Performing Environmental Lawyers.”   

Ms. Estolano served on Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa’s Transition Team; she served on boards of directors, Lambda Legal, the California League of Conservation Voters and Heal the Bay. She has served on the California Committee of Advisors to the Trust for Pubic Land , the Advisory Board of the Sustainable Cities Program at the University of Southern California .  

Ms. Estolano is currently on the Board of Directors of the California Redevelopment Association, a statewide organization comprised of 350 redevelopment agencies that provides information on legislative proposals and administrative regulations and professional development services to redevelopment agencies throughout the state of California . Ms. Estolano is a lecturer at the UCLA School of Public Affairs, where she teaches courses on urban planning.  


Honorable Judge Cruz Reynoso

Honorable Judge Cruz Reynoso, Professor Emeritus of law at the University of California , USC Davis School of Law has been selected to assist with the Transition Team for President-elect Obama. Former California Supreme Justice Cruz Reynoso will help lead a review of key federal departments, agencies, commissions in the White House, providing information needed to make policy, budget and personnel decisions prior to Obama’s January 20, 2009 inauguration. Honorable Cruz Reynoso was the first Hispanic to serve on the California Supreme Court.

Cruz Reynoso, the son of Mexican immigrants, was born on May 2, 1931 in Brea, California. One of 11 children, he worked together with his family in the fields and orchards as farm workers when he was 9 years old.  He received an Associate of Arts Degree from Fullerton College and a Bachelor’s Degree from Pomona College in Claremont , California . Reynoso served in the Army from 1953 to 1955. He earned a law degree from UC Berkeley and studied Constitutional Law at the National University of Mexico in 1958-59 under a Ford Foundation Fellowship. Reynoso started his career in private law practice in 1959 and by the following year, appointed Deputy Director of the California Fair Employment

Practices Commission. He has also served as Director of the California Rural Legal Assistance, and Professor of Law at the University Of New Mexico School Of Law and a professor at UCLA. After law school, Reynoso settled with his wife Jeannene in El Centro , California , where he built a private law practice and a reputation for fairness, integrity and results that led to prestigious appointments in Sacramento and Washington .   

At the federal level, he served as associate General Counsel to the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunities Commission and as a member of the Select Commission on Immigration and Human Rights. In the latter role, he participated in the first-ever federal hearings on the civil rights of Mexican Americans. In Sacramento , California , he also served as Staff Secretary to Governor Edmund G. (Pat) Brown.  

His publications have included articles on cultural diversity, educational equity, affirmative action and Cesar Chavez.  “Hispanics in the Criminal Justice System, a chapter in “An Agenda for the Twenty-First Century: Hispanics in the United States .” In 1982, California Governor Jerry Brown appointed Reynoso to the California Supreme Court. Reynoso is internationally known as a civil rights leader. In 2000, former President Bill Clinton awarded him the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation’s highest civilian honor. The UC Davis School of Law has established the Cruz & Jeannene Reynoso Scholarship for Legal Access to help students of all backgrounds with financial aid attending law school. In 2003, students organized the La Raza Law Students Association and generous donors established the Cruz Reynoso Social Justice Fellowship that helps Latino law students, attending the UC Berkeley School of Law (Boalt Hall) engage public interest work as a summer interns. Reynoso retired in 2006. On September 15, 2007, Honorable Cruz Reynoso was honored with the UC Davis School of Law Medal, the highest tribute by the campus, for a lifetime achievement.  



Remembering Dr. Clotilde Garcia
by Wanda Daisy Garcia


The Garcia Family of Corpus Christi
Dr. Hector P. Garcia, far right, standing.
Dr. Cleotilde Garcia, far left, seated.

Recently the community of Corpus Christi, Texas honored my aunt Dr. Clotilde Garcia by naming a library after her, the Dr. Clotilde P. Garcia Public Library. The community collected the funds to put the library project together. At the dedication, Tony Canales, Dr. Cleo’s son, said, “The crowd that took part in the opening of the Dr. Clotilde P. Garcia Public Library was a cross-section of community residents who loved Clotilde Garcia.” Dr. Cleo, as the community affectionately called her, was a teacher for 15 years before she went to medical school.  She was involved in the library system in her effort to secure genealogical 
            1980         Spanish-American records.[1]  

Dr. Cleo’s interest in education and history began at home during her early years.  Both parents were educators and inspired Cleo to love education and history.  She graduated from her high school as a valedictorian.  Later she graduated from the University of Texas at Austin. Cleo wanted to become a physician, but could not afford medical school. So, she became a teacher.   Cleo worked as a schoolteacher and rose though the ranks to become principal. She married and had one son Tony Canales.  While working, attending school and raising a son, she received her Masters in Education in 1950. Later she saved enough money to enroll in the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB). During her first year at UTMB, the school board recognized her by naming her the Outstanding Medical Student. Even with this recognition, Dr. Cleo experienced sexism and racism first hand from her peers.[2]   Dr. Cleo told one story of a fellow student in the medical school that told her that women should be at home.  Cleo, who had a razor sharp wit, asked if he was proposing to her.”  The student ran the other was every time he saw Cleo approaching.  Cleo was one of the first Hispanic women doctors in Texas to graduate from UTMB.   

During the span of her long career as a physician, Dr. Cleo delivered 10,000 babies.  Dr. Cleo would joke that every time she delivered a baby, she would stamp “D” for democrat on their behind.  Dr. Cleo gave her services freely to those who could not afford to pay. Besides providing service through her medical profession, Dr. Cleo served on the Del Mar Board of Regents for 22 years. She served on various state commissions.   She was also an accomplished historian writing 10 books about the history of northeaster Mexico and South Texas.  In 1990, United States Senator Lloyd M. Bentsen Jr. honored Dr. Cleo as “A Rediscoverer of Texas” in the 101st Congress.  Dr. Cleo’s rediscovery of the past led her to uncover our Spanish American heritage.  Juan Carlos I, King of Spain presented Dr. Cleo with the order of Isabella the Catholic in honor of her work and contribution to our Spanish American heritage.  In 1990, His Holiness Pope John Paul II awarded Dr. Cleo with “The Benemerenti” Pontifical Decoration Medal.  

Besides my mother, Dr. Cleo Garcia was the other significant woman in my father’s life.  During an interview on the “Porque” Show in August 15, 1986, Dr. Hector acknowledged that he was unable to perform his work without her support. And Dr. Cleo fully supported my father and his work.  Cleo took his calls and attended to his patients besides her own medical practice when he needed to leave town and his patients. She marched beside my father in demonstrations and supported him when necessary. Dr. Cleo was contented to work behind the scenes.  She was unassuming so people tended to underestimate her. But she had an intellect and recollection of facts that astounded the unsuspecting.   

When she first came into my life I was a child.  Cleo was pursuing higher education and raising her son.  On the weekends Dr. Cleo would bring her son Tony to spend the weekends at my parents house on Ohio Street.  Once her medical practice was established, Dr. Cleo turned her interests to genealogical research.  She traveled to Spain and Mexico researching family roots and promoting Spanish genealogy and history.  In 1987, Dr. Cleo, with the assistance of her sister Dr. Dalia P. Garcia, Herbert G. Canales, Elvira Garcia, Minerva Overstreet, and Mira Smithwick, founded the Spanish American Genealogical Association (SAGA). SAGA’s mission was to promote the research, collection, and development of genealogical data on Spanish/Mexican settlers of South Texas.  She amassed a huge collection of genealogical books from Spain and about one thousand volumes she used during research. In 1994, she donated the collection to the library at A&M University with the hope that young generations would use the materials to research their genealogy.  Since Dr. Cleo was the family historian, she told us about the history of the Garcia family.  From her research we were able to trace our roots to Spain and in the Americas. She taught us to take pride in our roots and culture.   

Family was important to Dr. Cleo. When their mother Faustina Perez Garcia died, Cleo raised her younger siblings.  And she continued in the role of the family matriarch until her death.  We affectionately called Dr. Cleo “Mama Grande.”  Cleo invited all the family to the gatherings at her home on Ocean Dr. during the Easter and Christmas holidays.  She kept peace in the Garcia clan which was not small task considering the Garcia nature.  Tony Canales pointed out that members of the Garcia family were highly educated as well as opinionated.  And their attitude was “my way or the high way.”   

Dr. Cleo was a role model for us Garcia children. She held traditional in beliefs, yet she was a trailblazer. 

Being a single mother and a pioneer in a field dominated by males inspired us to climb over the barriers. It was much later in my life that I was able to understand how challenging life must have been for Dr. Cleo. But she never let on and kept on with her pursuits.  Her example taught us never to be defeated or feel sorry for ourselves. I am so deeply inspired by Dr. Cleo and her achievements.  I will always cherish the memory of my dear aunt and the family gatherings


[1] Corpus Christi Caller Times, Library Grand Opening, 1/12/2009
SAGA, Fred Martinez, Date of Publication, 2/15/2007

Photos, courtesy of: Dr. Hector P. Garcia Papers, Special Collections
Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi


Representative Herrero Files Legislation Honoring Dr. Hector P. Garcia


From: State Representative Abel Herrero 
To: State News from Representative Herrero 
Sent: Thursday, January 15, 2009 5:25 PM

Subject: Representative Herrero Files Legislation Honoring Dr. Hector P. Garcia

Rep. Abel Herrero Seeks State Recognition Day To Honor Dr. Hector P. Garcia
Dr. Hector P. Garcia was a man that deserves to be remembered.

AUSTIN, TX--State Representative Abel Herrero (D-Robstown) today filed HB 661 which recognizes Dr. Hector P. Garcia's significant sacrifices and landmark contributions to the Mexican American civil rights movement by establishing a educational recognition day in his honor. 

"With his successes, many others were able to gain respect, opportunities and inclusion", said Rep. Herrero. “The opportunity I now have in being an elected official traces back to Dr. Hector P. Garcia. As such, I look forward to the day when Dr. Hector P. Garcia will officially be honored with a state holiday,” added Rep. Herrero.

Among his many accomplishments, Dr. Hector P. Garcia founded the American GI Forum in 1948 and worked tirelessly for the rights of area Hispanics and veterans who were being denied educational, medical and housing benefits. A World War II hero, he earned a Bronze star with six battle stars. Additionally, in 1984, President Ronald Reagan awarded Dr. Garcia the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest honor given to a civilian by the President.

"We must enlighten our community about those who paved the way for Hispanic leaders today by fighting for equal access to education. "This state-wide recognition day seeks to honor Dr. Garcia's life and legacy and educate the public of his influences to our society, our culture and our country" said Rep. Herrero. 

If passed, Dr. Hector P. Garcia Day will be regularly observed the third Wednesday of September by appropriate ceremonies and activities in the public schools and other places to properly commemorate the importance of the contributions made by Dr. Garcia.

For more information contact: Jaclyn J. Uresti (512) 463-0462


Setting the Record Straight: 
First Hispanic President of a U.S. University
Louis Hubbard y Mendez

Lauro Cavazos was indeed a credit to Hispanics as President of Texas Tech. He was not, however, the first Hispanic to be president of a U.S. University. 

The first Hispanic President of a U.S. university was Louis Hubbard [Louis Hubbard y Mendez], president of Texas Woman's University (Texas College for Women) from about 1925 to 1950. He was born in Puerto Rico just before the Spanish American War of 1898 where his father was stationed as an American diplomat. His mother was a Puerto Rican named Mendez. His formative years as a youngster were spent in El Paso, Texas, where he grew up speaking Spanish and where he delivered the El Paso Times. He and his sister both studied at the University of Texas (his sister retired as a professor of Spanish from UT). 

Hubbard y Mendez served for 25 years as President of Texas Woman's Univesity. (Source: Felipe de Ortego y Gasca, "Hubbard: First Hispanic to Head State University in Texas," Daily Lobo (Texas Woman's University), February 266, 1992).

Moreover, *Dr. Francisco Angel Jr.* — well-known bilingual educator was the first Hispanic president of New Mexico Highlands University in Las Vegas, NM in 1971. He's often touted as the first Hispanic president of a U.S. university. 
Sent by Felipe de Ortego y Gasca


Portraits of the 44 Presidents of the United States


A video with amazing transitions from one portrait to another.

Sent by Armando Rendon
Lynette Chapa
Alfonso Rodriguez



White House new Spanish language website


The White House has put in place a new Spanish language website. 
Read: Obama - en Espanol

Bienvenidos a la nueva página en español de En las semanas y meses venideros añadiremos más y más información en español, así que visite nuestra página con frecuencia. Mientras tanto, puede ver los artículos en español en la lista que aparece abajo.

Sent by Juan Marinez

Need help reaching your Senator?  Call the Capitol Operator at (202) 224-3121 and they will transfer the call to your Senator.  You can also find out who your Senators are at:

From: TransBorder Project [] 
Sent: Friday, January 23, 2009 4:39 PM
Subject: Good News from Nashville: Diversity Not Uniformity | Tom Barry



Economic Times Especially Tough on the Poor and Powerless
Hero Street, U.S.A.
By Marcus Wilson


In my research of Hero Street U.S.A., I found that hard times are especially tough on the poor and powerless. As we endure the current economic crisis, let’s step back in time to 1937 when President Franklin D. Roosevelt said, “I see one-third of a nation ill-housed, ill-clad, ill-nourished.”

Unemployment climbed as high as 25 percent at the peak of the Great Depression, and didn’t fall below 14 percent until the beginning of World War II. 

Unemployment and poverty were widespread in the Depression, but some of the most acute suffering was seen on what is now know as Hero Street U.S.A. –- which in 1937 was unpaved 2nd Street in Silvis, Illinois. 

Nearly all adults living on the street were Mexican citizens who’d fled to the United States during or after the Mexican Revolution. They moved to Silvis to work for the giant rail yard run by the Rock Island Railroad. But in 1933, the railroad had filed for bankruptcy, and drastically cut its workforce, including many of the workers who lived in Silvis’ “Little Mexico.” 

Fear gripped the land. Scapegoats were sought – including foreign workers such as the Mexicans in Silvis. Many states, including Illinois, passed laws that specifically excluded citizens from taxpayer-funded work and relief programs. Many pressured the federal government to force the Mexicans to return to Mexico – and many were sent back across the Rio Grande.

But most of the children of the Mexican workers had been born in the United States – and thus were American citizens. And most of the families in Silvis’ Little Mexico were large, such as Joseph and Carmen Sandoval’s family of 12 children.

In the spring of 1937, one resident of 2nd Street, Joseph Sandoval, spent his last dollar. He had no money to feed his children. He tried desperately, but could find no work. When he couldn’t pay the rent, the landlady evicted the family from their ramshackle house on 2nd Street.

In desperation, Joseph gave his newborn son, Fred, to the boy’s godparents. He took his other children out of school. His sister packed the huge family in an old car and drove them to northern Iowa where a farmer hired the Sandovals to help bring in the sugar beet crop.

The farmer provided the family with a tiny, old trailer and a covered wagon. Most of the children slept in the open. The family ate eggs, beans and potatoes, supplemented by birds trapped by the children.

Joseph and his oldest sons Rueben, 14, and Willie, 12, rose at 5 a.m. to work the fields, returned at 7 for breakfast. Then – joined by all but the very youngest children – they returned to the fields to work the crop. One son, Harry, 11, mysteriously lost the use of his legs that summer. Each day, his brothers carried Harry to the beet field, where he crawled all day working the crop until sunset, when his brothers carried him back to camp.

After the field work ended, the Sandovals moved to southern Minnesota to harvest onions. They spent the night in old horse stalls – one stall per family.

They saved every dollar they earned, and that fall, with $900, bought a house on 2nd street. 

The beginning of World War II in Europe and Asia sparked economic recovery. The railroad re-hired Joseph Sandoval. But disaster struck again in 1939 when his wife, Carmen, died giving birth to twins who died just hours after birth. Daughter Rufina, 14, quit school, to run the family household.

Willie Sandoval graduated from East Moline High in the spring of 1941 and went to work for the Bettendorf Ordnance Steel Foundry. But shortly after Pearl Harbor was attacked on Dec. 7, 1941, he – and many other men from Silvis’ Little Mexico -- enlisted in the army. The Army assigned him to the new air corps, and trained him as a paratrooper.

Willie’s unit, part of the 504th Regiment of the 82nd Airborne, made a spectacular drop in the middle of a battlefield near Salerno, Italy, on Sept. 14, 1943 – two days before Willie’s 20th birthday.

Willie fought on the beaches, then spent the winter in foxholes in Italy’s mountains. The American paratroopers earned their nickname – “devils in baggy pants” – from a diary entry found on a dead German: “American parachutists – devils in baggy pants – are less than 100 meters from my outpost lines. I can’t sleep at night; they pop up from nowhere and and we never know when or where they will strike next.”

In March 1944, Willie’s unit – after suffering massive losses -- was shipped to England for rest. In September 1944, Willie was one of 45,000 Allied soldiers assigned to Operation Market-Garden (made famous by the book and movie A Bridge Too Far). The paratroopers and glider troopers dropped some 60 miles behind German lines in Holland in hopes to capturing a several bridges and a highway leading into Germany.

A German counter-attack blunted the Allied effort. Willie’s unit was assigned to defensive lines along the Holland-German border. He platoon was ordered out on a night patrol on Friday Oct. 6, 1944. As the platoon neared German lines, a flare lit up the night. Then artillery fire from both sides set the woods on fire. 

German machineguns and rifles began firing. Willie’s platoon fled. One fellow fleeing paratrooper remembered Willie -- silhouetted atop a barbed-wire fence -- bullets flying. Then Willie fell.. 

They never found Willie’s body.

Willie was one of eight Mexican-American men from some three dozen houses on 2nd Street in Silvis who died in combat fighting for the United States -- six in World War II and two in Korea. The street is now formally named Hero Street U.S.A. Willie’s face – and the seven others -- are carved in a granite relief on a monument at the base of the street.

I tell you this story at this time of economic stress because we should remember in times of chaos that even our poorest and least powerful residents can – given the opportunity – make great contributions to the common good.

Let us leave no one behind. They could be our next heroes.

Marcus Wilson

Editor:  Marc is the author of the new book, Hero Street U.S.A.  published by 

Ricardo Montalban 


Photo gallery sent by Mercy Bautista-Olvera,0,6286223.photogallery?index=10



'Fantasy Island' star Ricardo Montalban dies at 88

LOS ANGELES – Ricardo Montalban, the Mexican-born actor who became a star in splashy MGM musicals and later as the wish-fulfilling Mr. Roarke in TV's "Fantasy Island," died Wednesday morning at his home, his family said. He was 88. Montalban's death was first announced at a city council meeting by president Eric Garcetti, who represents the district where the actor lived. He died "from complications of advancing age," his son-in-law, Gilbert Smith, later said.

"He was so gracious, and Aaron was always humbled by Ricardo's gratitude for 'Fantasy Island," said Candy Spelling, wife of the late Aaron Spelling, who created the show. "I miss him already, and wish his family well."

Montalban had been a star in Mexican movies when MGM brought him to Hollywood in 1946. He was cast in the leading role opposite Esther Williams in "Fiesta," and starred again with the swimming beauty in "On an Island with You" and "Neptune's Daughter."

But Montalban was best known as the faintly mysterious, white-suited Mr. Roarke, who presided over a tropical island resort where visitors fulfilled their lifelong dreams — usually at the unexpected expense of a difficult life lesson. "I am Mr. Roarke, your host. Welcome to Fantasy Island," he told arriving guests.

Montalban had already coined a cultural catchphrase before the show, which ran from 1978 to 1984. As the celebrity spokesman for mid-1970s models of the Chrysler Cordoba, Montalban unwittingly opened himself up to endless imitation when he described the car's optional seats as being "available in soft, Corinthian leather."

More recently, he appeared as villains in two hits of the 1980s: "Star Trek: The Wrath of Khan" and — in line with his always-apparent sense of humor about himself — the farcical "The Naked Gun: From the Files of Police Squad."

Montalban's longtime friend and publicist David Brokaw said the actor was "exactly how you'd imagine him to be" off camera. "What you saw on the screen and on television and on talk shows, this very courtly, modest, dignified individual, that's exactly who he was," Brokaw said.

Raul Yzaguirre, longtime president of National Council of La Raza, called Montalban "a hero" and noted the actor's contributions to his community. Montalban helped found the ALMA Awards, which honor and encourage fair portrayals of Latinos in entertainment.

"He was just a marvelous human being and an inspiration to be around," Yzaguirre said. "I hope his spirit pervades more of Hollywood — the spirit of humility and excellence and giving back to the community and just plain decency."

Between movie and TV roles, Montalban was active in the theater. He starred on Broadway in the 1957 musical "Jamaica" opposite Lena Horne, picking up a Tony nomination for best actor in a musical.

Montalban also toured in Shaw's "Don Juan in Hell," playing Don Juan, a performance critic John Simon later recalled as "irresistible." In 1965 he appeared on tour in the Yul Brynner role in "The King and I."

"Fantasy Island" received high ratings for most of its run on ABC, and still appears in reruns. Mr. Roarke and his sidekick, Tattoo, played by the 3-foot, 11-inch Herve Villechaize, reached the state of TV icons. Villechaize died in 1993.

In a 1978 interview, Montalban analyzed the ethereal quality of his character: "Was he a magician? A hypnotist? Did he use hallucinogenic drugs? I finally came across a character that works for me. He has the essence of mystery, but I need a point of view so that my performance is consistent. I now play him 95 percent believable and 5 percent mystery. He doesn't have to behave mysteriously; only what he does is mysterious."

In 1970, Montalban organized fellow Latino actors into an organization called Nosotros ("We"), and he became the first president. Their aim: to improve the image of Spanish-speaking Americans on the screen; to assure that Latin-American actors were not discriminated against; to stimulate Latino actors to study their profession.

Montalban commented in a 1970 interview:

"The Spanish-speaking American boy sees Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid wipe out a regiment of Bolivian soldiers. He sees `The Wild Bunch' annihilate the Mexican army. It's only natural for him to say, `Gee, I wish I were an Anglo.'"

Montalban was no stranger to prejudice. He was born Nov. 25, 1920, in Mexico City, the son of parents who had emigrated from Spain. The boy was brought up to speak the Castilian Spanish of his forebears. To Mexican ears that sounded strange and effeminate, and young Ricardo was jeered by his schoolmates.

His mother also dressed him with old-country formality, and he wore lace collars and short pants "long after my legs had grown long and hairy," he wrote in his 1980 autobiography, "Reflections: A Life in Two Worlds."

"It is not easy to grow up in a country that has different customs from your own family's."

While driving through Texas with his brother, Montalban recalled seeing a sign on a diner: "No Dogs or Mexicans Allowed." In Los Angeles, where he attended Fairfax High School, he and a friend were refused entrance to a dance hall because they were Mexican.

Rather than seek a career in Hollywood, Montalban played summer stock in New York. He returned to Mexico City and played leading roles in movies from 1941 to 1945. That led to an MGM contract.

"Movies were never kind to me; I had to fight for every inch of film," he reflected in 1970. "Usually my best scenes would end up on the cutting-room floor."

Montalban had better luck after leaving MGM in 1953, though he was usually cast in ethnic roles. He appeared as a Japanese kabuki actor in "Sayonara" and an Indian in "Cheyenne Autumn." His other films included "Madame X," "The Singing Nun," "Sweet Charity," "Escape from the Planet of the Apes" and "Conquest of the Planet of the Apes."

Montalban was sometimes said to be the source of Billy Crystal's "you look MAHvelous" character on "Saturday Night Live," though the inspiration was really Argentinian-born actor Fernando Lamas.

In 1944, Montalban married Georgiana Young, actress and model and younger sister of actress Loretta Young. Both Roman Catholics, they remained one of Hollywood's most devoted couples. She died in 2007. They had four children: Laura, Mark, Anita and Victor.

Montalban suffered a spinal injury in a horse fall while making a 1951 Clark Gable Western, "Across the Wide Missouri," and thereafter walked with a limp he managed to mask during his performances.

Despite the constant pain that grew worse as the decades wore on, the actor was able to take a role in an Aaron Spelling TV series, "Heaven Help Us." Twice a month in 1994, he flew to San Antonio for two or three days of filming as an angel who watched over a young couple.

And when asked to play the grandfather in "Spy Kids 2" and "Spy Kids 3," Montalban told filmmaker Robert Rodriguez in his self-effacing way: "I'm old. I'm in a wheelchair. And I have a Mexican accent. Three strikes and you're out," recalled Joel Brokaw, another of the actor's spokesmen.

"But Robert Rodriguez idolized Ricardo, and came up to his home in the Hollywood Hills to convince him to do the role," Brokaw said. He did, and despite his obvious pain while waiting to do a scene, "something miraculous would happen," Brokaw said. "As soon as Rodriguez said 'Action,' his pain would completely disappear, time and time again. I asked him about this. He smiled and said, 'It's impossible for my mind to do two things at once.'"

Montalban is survived by daughters Laura and Anita, sons Victor and Mark and six grandchildren.  AP entertainment writer Sandy Cohen contributed to this story.

Sent by Dorinda Moreno,0,4189863.story


Ricardo Montalban Los Angeles Times Obituary by Lorenza Muñoz
January 15, 2009

Ricardo Montalban, the suave leading man who was one of the first Mexican-born actors to make it big in Hollywood and who was best known for his role as Mr. Roarke on TV's "Fantasy Island," has died. He was 88.

Montalban died Wednesday morning at his Los Angeles home of complications related to old age, said his son-in-law, Gilbert Smith.

Within the entertainment industry, Montalban was widely respected for his efforts to create opportunities for Latinos, although he and others believed that his activism hurt his career. In 1970, he founded the nonprofit Nosotros Foundation to improve the image and increase employment of Latinos in Hollywood.
"He paved the way for being outspoken about the images and roles that Latinos were playing in movies," said Luis Reyes, co-author of "Hispanics in Hollywood" (2000).

On Wednesday, actor Edward James Olmos called Montalban "one of the true giants of arts and culture."

"He was a stellar artist and a consummate person and performer with a tremendous understanding of culture . . . and the ability to express it in his work," Olmos told The Times.

Montalban was already a star of Mexican movies in the 1940s when MGM cast him as a bullfighter opposite Esther Williams in "Fiesta" and put him under contract. He would go on to appear alongside such movie greats as Clark Gable and Lana Turner.

When major film roles dried up for him in the 1970s, he turned to stage and eventually TV, where he was familiar to millions as the mysterious host whose signature line, “Welcome to Fantasy Island,” opened the hit ABC show that aired from 1978 to 1984.

While "Fantasy Island" was renewing Montalban's career and giving him financial stability, he also won an Emmy for his performance as Chief Satangkai in the 1978 ABC miniseries "How the West Was Won."

In the 1970s and '80s, Montalban was also familiar to TV viewers as a commercial spokesman for Chrysler. He was later widely spoofed for his silky allusion to the “soft Corinthian leather” of the Chrysler Cordoba, although no such leather existed.

While making "Fantasy Island," Montalban also gave one of his best movie performances -- as Khan Noonien Singh in the “Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan” (1982), a follow-up to a beloved 1967 “Star Trek” television episode that also featured Montalban.

New Yorker magazine critic Pauline Kael said Montalban's performance as Khan "was the only validation he has ever had of his power to command the big screen."

Born Nov. 25, 1920, in Mexico City, Montalban was the youngest of four children of Castilian Spaniards who had immigrated in 1906 to the city, where Montalban's father owned a dry goods store.

Montalban came to Los Angeles as a teenager with his oldest brother, Carlos, who had lived in the city and worked for the studios.

"I felt as if I knew California already, because of the movies," Montalban said in "Reflections: A Life in Two Worlds," the 1980 autobiography he wrote with Bob Thomas.

Montalban studied English at Fairfax High School, where an MGM talent scout noticed him in a student play. He was offered a screen test, but his brother advised him against taking it and took him on a business trip to New York City.

The handsome Montalban soon found himself the star of a short film that was made to play on a screen atop a jukebox. That three-minute movie, which debuted at the Hurricane Bar in midtown Manhattan, led to small roles in plays.

When his mother's illness took him back to Mexico, Montalban got a one-line role in a parody of "The Three Musketeers," starring Cantinflas. Around that time, he also met Georgiana Belzer, a model and Loretta Young's sister, whom he married in 1944. She died in 2007.

Montalban intended to stay in Mexico, where his film career was taking off, but MGM wanted him for "Fiesta." In the 1947 musical, he had a memorable dance scene with a young Cyd Charisse.

"Fiesta" led to a contract at MGM, where he had a friendly rivalry with Fernando Lamas -- later Williams' husband off-screen -- as the studio's resident "Latin lovers." Bill Murray immortalized the duel between the two men with his classic "Saturday Night Live" skit, "Quien es mas macho, Fernando Lamas o Ricardo Montalban?"
Montalban appeared as the Latin lover with Williams in two other late-1940s films, "On an Island With You" and "Neptune's Daughter." The blatant typecasting continued in the 1953 film "Latin Lovers" with Turner.

"He was incredibly handsome, he gave a style and dignity to all of his roles -- no matter what role he played," said author Reyes.

Director John Sturges gave Montalban the leading role of Lt. Peter Morales in "Mystery Street" in 1950 and, that same year, a starring role with June Allyson and Dick Powell in "Right Cross."
But, as Montalban wrote in his autobiography, he was never cast in the dramatic role at MGM that would have made him a major movie star.

"He appeared to have everything else -- a marvelous camera face, the physique of a trained dancer, talent, a fine voice (he could even sing), warmth and great charm," Kael wrote. "Maybe the charm was a drawback -- it may have made him seem too likable."

While making the 1951 Gable western "Across the Wide Missouri," Montalban fell from a horse and injured his spine. The injury caused him to walk with a limp, which he tried to mask during performances. In recent years, he had been confined to a wheelchair.

After MGM dropped him in 1953, Montalban went on the road with Agnes Moorehead and others in George Bernard Shaw's "Don Juan in Hell," which was revived 20 years later on Broadway with him in the lead. In 1955, he appeared on Broadway in the short-lived "Seventh Heaven" and in the late 1950s starred with Lena Horne in "Jamaica" and earned a Tony nomination.

He played a Kabuki theater actor in the 1957 movie "Sayonara" and co-starred with Debbie Reynolds in the 1966 film "The Singing Nun." Decades later, he played the evil tycoon in the 1988 comedy hit "Naked Gun: From the Files of Police Squad!" and had a prominent role as the grandfather in "Spy Kids 3-D: Game Over" (2003).

Later TV appearances included the "Dynasty" spinoff "The Colbys" in the 1980s, and he voiced Señor Senior Sr. on the Disney Channel's animated series "Kim Possible," which debuted in 2002.

But "Fantasy Island" created his lasting image.

Elegantly attired in a white suit and black tie, Montalban fashioned such an iconic -- albeit somewhat kitschy -- figure that he often reprised the character in subsequent films and television shows.

The show's executive producer, Aaron Spelling, told TV Guide in 1980 that Montalban gave Mr. Roarke the "otherworldly quality we needed." Many credited the repartee between Mr. Roarke and the character of Tattoo, played by 3-foot-11-inch Herve Villechaize, for pulling in viewers. Villechaize died in 1993.

Montalban said in TV Guide that his character "manipulates everything and everyone. In the eye of the fantasizer, Roarke has the power of life and death."

Spelling's widow, Candy, said Wednesday in a statement: "Aaron was always humbled by Ricardo's gratitude for 'Fantasy Island.' "

Although Montalban expressed appreciation for his success, he complained that Hollywood lacked respect for Mexican American actors. He said that while under contract at MGM, he portrayed Cubans, Brazilians and Argentines, but almost never Mexicans.

"Mexican is not a nice-sounding word and Hollywood is at fault for this because we have been portrayed in this ungodly manner," he said. He challenged Hollywood to stop stereotyping Latin actors by casting them only as prostitutes, maids, gang-bangers and bandidos.

Through Nosotros -- "we" in Spanish -- Montalban attempted to highlight and recognize Latino participation in the arts and entertainment. In 1970, the foundation created the Golden Eagle Awards, which annually honors Latino stars, shows and movies.

From 1965 to 1970, Montalban served as vice president of the Screen Actors Guild.

After the Ricardo Montalban Foundation was formed in 1999, the organization purchased the former Doolittle Theatre near Hollywood and Vine to stage Latino productions and named the theater after Montalban.

Judd Bernard, who was Montalban's publicist in the mid-1950s, told The Times that the actor "was the kindest man, with a lovely sense of humor, a religious man, a marvelous family man."

The deeply spiritual Montalban once said that the guiding force in his life was his Catholic faith. In 1998, Pope John Paul II made him a Knight Commander of St. Gregory, the highest honor bestowed upon non-clergy in the Roman Catholic Church.

Montalban is survived by two daughters, Laura Montalban and Anita Smith; two sons, Mark Montalban and Victor Montalban; and six grandchildren.

Muñoz is a former Times staff writer. Times staff writer Valerie J. Nelson contributed to this report.   Sent by Mercy Bautista Olvera

Ricardo Montalban

In a 1955 photo, Ricardo Montalban and his wife, Georgiana, are shown with their children, Mark, center left; Laura, center right; Victor, foreground left; and Anita in Los Angeles.





Texas Department of Transportation Vehicle Used to Carry Drugs
Mexico sentences migrant smuggler to 60 years
Ofrece Obama apoyo a Calderón contra el narcotráfico  
Another Major Anti-Latino Hate Attack Makes the News
Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 
More Latino immigrants seeking office back home
Catholic Church Launches New Campaign for Immigrants
Undocumented in America, interview with Jesse Diaz & Javier Rodriguez



Texas Department of Transportation Vehicle
Used to Carry Drugs


A Texas DOT vehicle was stopped by an alert DPS Trooper on I-10 between San Antonio and Seguin , TX? 

At this point it was not determined who was responsible for cloning a Texas DOT vehicle and using it for for smuggling drugs. 



The bags of drugs were stored both inside and outside of the truck.


The duration of time whereby this strategy was being used to transport drugs has not been determined.


These last two photos are pictures taken after a raid on a drug dealer's house in Mexico. Notice that nearly 100% of this money is U.S. currency!!! 

Editor: I know that this might seem very simplistic, but if the US wasn't a market for purchasing drugs, this money would stay in the US and the drug traffic would disappear.  Maybe Nancy Regan's "Just SAY no!" is a strategy that makes sense.  

Sent by 


Mexico sentences migrant smuggler to 60 years. MEXICO CITY (AP, 12/28/08)

Mexican prosecutors say they won a 60-year prison term for a human smuggler who helped about 200 people sneak into theU.S., including   Hezbollah supporters. Salim Boughader Mucharrafille was arrested in 2002 and convicted on organized-crime and immigrant-smuggling charges. Boughader, a Mexican of Lebanese descent, ran a cafe in the city of Tijuana, across the border from San Diego. Among those he smuggled were sympathizers of Hezbollah, a Lebanon--based group that U.S. authorities have labeled a terror organization. The Mexican federal Atorney General on Sunday said Boughader also was fined $6,000. Mexican prison terms are sometimes reduced for good behavior.

Ofrece Obama apoyo a Calderón contra el narcotráfico  

El Siglo de Torreón | Ofrece Obama apoyo a Calderón contra el narcotráfico  
Por: AP/EFE/ Washington, EU.
Inicio :: Nacional 12 de ene, 2009  




El presidente Felipe Calderón y el presidente electo Barack Obama se reunieron el lunes en un almuerzo de trabajo en el Instituto Cultural Mexicano en Washington, donde analizaban dos problemas críticos para México y Estados Unidos: narcotráfico e inmigración. (Fotografía de AP)

El presidente electo de Estados Unidos, Barack Obama, expresó su compromiso para trabajar de manera estrecha con México, especialmente en temas como la seguridad y la lucha contra el narcotráfico.

El presidente Felipe Calderón y el presidente electo Barack Obama se reunieron el lunes en un almuerzo de trabajo en el Instituto Cultural Mexicano en Washington, donde analizaban dos problemas críticos para México y Estados Unidos: narcotráfico e inmigración. (Fotografía de AP)

Incluso Obama aseguró que el gobierno que encabezará está dispuesto a ayudar a México en esa batalla contra el crimen organizado, que enfrenta el país.

Ambos políticos se reunieron en la biblioteca Matías Romero del Instituto Cultural de México, en esta ciudad, donde Obama reconoció que México es un país líder en Latinoamérica.

Obama, que habló de pie junto a Calderón en uno de los salones del Instituto, sonrió al prometer que, pese a las "tensiones en los últimos años" en las relaciones con América Latina, su mandato abrirá "una nueva página, un nuevo capítulo" en ese ámbito.

Con respecto a México, el presidente electo insistió en que el país vecino es "un aliado firme", con el que EU. mantiene una "alianza fuerte" que durante su mandato será "aún más fuerte".

Entre otros aspectos, Obama citó la colaboración con México en materia de energía y medio ambiente.

Su Gobierno, aseguró Obama, estará "preparado desde el primer día" para mantener una "fuerte relación" con México.

En su conversación, de casi dos horas y que comenzó con un almuerzo a base de sopa de tortillas, lenguado y filete con salsa de cilantro, los dos mandatarios abordaron "de manera general" cuestiones como el comercio, la inmigración o la violencia procedente del narcotráfico que afecta a México.

Obama alabó el "extraordinario valor" del mandatario mexicano en su lucha contra el narcotráfico, mientras que Calderón sostuvo que la conversación de hoy representa "el principio de una extraordinaria época de cooperación y de relación" entre ambos países.

Calderón indicó que ha pedido a Obama una alianza estratégica entre ambos gobiernos para afrontar problemas comunes, principalmente la seguridad y la lucha contra el crimen organizado.

Tras el almuerzo el jefe del Estado mexicano expuso que "entre más seguro esté México, más seguro estará Estados Unidos", al tiempo que subrayó la necesidad de enfrentar juntos temas en el ámbito económico.

Calderón fue el anfitrión de Obama en el almuerzo, al término del cual en un mensaje, aseguró que este primer encuentro permitirá una relación más estrecha y es el inicio de una extraordinaria época en las relaciones entre México y Estados Unidos.

Sent by Mercy Bautista Olvera 



Another Major Anti-Latino Hate Attack Makes the News

Posted in Anti-Latino by David Holthouse on January 12, 2009 

Four reputed white supremacist gang members have been arrested in connection with the vicious beating of a Latino man on Nov. 19 in Hemet, Calif. The victim, a 19-year-old whose name police would not release, was knocked unconscious and then repeatedly stomped and kicked in the head. He suffered permanent brain damage and has been placed in a long-term care facility. According to investigators, the attack was random, unprovoked and motivated purely by racial hatred.

Hemet is located in the region of California known as the Inland Empire, which, as the Intelligence Report documented in 2005, has become a hotbed of white supremacist activity during an ongoing phase of rapid demographic shifts.

But the attack is also part of a frightening national pattern of rising anti-Latino violence. Hate crimes targeting Latinos have increased 40% since 2003, according to the most recent FBI statistics, which are known to undercount total hate crimes but nevertheless do indicate real trends. Whatever its exact level, the sharp rise in violence against Latinos has paralleled the spike in anti-immigrant propaganda on both the right-wing extremist margins of society and within the so-called mainstream media.

Last July, for instance, three white teenagers shouting ethnic slurs allegedly beat to death a 25-year-old Mexican immigrant in Shenandoah, Pa. Six weeks later, the nativist extremist group Voice of the People held a “pro-immigration enforcement” rally in Shenandoah, near the site of the murder. The attending crowd of roughly 50 included several members of the Keystone State Skinheads, a Harrisburg, Pa.-based racist skinhead gang.

More recently, in November, seven teens in Patchogue, N.Y., six of them white, decided to “go fight a Mexican” and randomly attacked an Ecuadorean immigrant who died after one of the assailants rushed at him with a knife, authorities said. As The New York Times reported last week: “The attacks were such an established pastime that the youths, who have pleaded not guilty, had a casual and derogatory term for it, ‘beaner hopping.’ One of the youths told the authorities, ‘I don’t go out doing this very often, maybe once a week.’” Times reporters interviewed 11 Latino men in the area who detailed 13 similar — though non-fatal — attacks before the “beaner hopping” finally turned deadly.

The upswing in anti-Latino violence does not seem to be abating. The first documented anti-Latino attack of 2009 occurred on New Year’s Day, when a Vallejo, Calif., motorist was arrested for gunning his vehicle toward a crowd of Latino day laborers. No injuries were reported. Frederick Martin, 31, was charged with assault with a deadly weapon and committing a hate crime. Martin told police he was “trying to scare” the workers.
    Sent by Juan Marinez


Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 


Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (almost 45 years ago; see first sentence of the article below) and subsequent program guidance state that agencies receiving federal financial assistance are required to provide meaningful access to services for persons with Limited English Proficiency (LEP). This includes mental health agencies that receive federal financial assistance and are required to provide meaningful access to persons with Limited English Proficiency (LEP) needing mental health services. Consider the negative consequences to generations of persons, their families and communities of denial of meaningful access to services and discrimination. Shame, shame.

The above attachments are: 1) Executive Order 13166 – Improving Access to Services for Persons with Limited English Proficiency signed by President Clinton on August 11, 2000, that led to 2) the Department of Health and Human Services (as well as other Department such as Labor, Education and Housing and Urban Development) issuing guidance – Guidance to Federal Financial Assistance Recipients Regarding Title VI Prohibition Against National Origin Discrimination Affecting Limited English Proficient Persons (issued August 8, 2003); and 3) Mechanisms and Organizational Practices that Impact on Cultural and Linguistic Competence that must be addressed and changes made (Change that We can Believe – the real work).

It's the law: California patients can have an interpreter at their side
By Bobby Caina Calvan   
Published: Saturday, Jan. 03, 2009 | Page 1A 

Millions of Californians with limited English proficiency now have the right to an interpreter from their commercial health and dental plans – made possible by a first-in-the-nation law aimed at dismantling the language barriers that get in the way of good medicine.

The new regulation – implemented New Year's Day after five years of hearings, delays and wrangling among insurance companies, regulators and consumer advocates – is widely hailed as a milestone in reducing mistakes because of miscommunication.

"This is really huge, especially in California where we're getting more and more diverse," said Martin Martinez, policy director for the California Pan-Ethnic Health Network. "Even if you speak English well, it's really hard to understand what your doctor is saying." 

As many as 7 million Californians – about half of them enrolled in health maintenance organizations, or HMOs – lack English fluency and could benefit from the new language service.

Patients rights advocates applaud the new rules but fear non-English speakers won't be told about the help now available to them. To spread the word, the state is launching a publicity drive in the coming weeks.

"This law has been some time coming," said Anthony Wright, executive director of California Health Access. "Our big concern now is whether people have adequate notice about their rights and can actually use them."

Doctors' orders will now have to be translated, at least orally, into Spanish, Mandarin, Hmong, Russian – any spoken language.

The scope and cost of the task – estimated by insurers to be about $25 million – make it the biggest regulation effort undertaken by the California Department of Managed Health Care, which oversees HMOs.

The law, Senate Bill 853, was signed in 2003 but shelved as part of a moratorium imposed by Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger when he took office. It was finally dusted off, but insurers balked at the cost.

"Obviously, we know this is a diverse state and people speak many different languages," said Nicole Kasabian Evans, spokeswoman for the California Association of Health Plans. The insurers' concern, she said, was about balancing access and affordability. Some insurers plan to contract out the language services.

Some of the building blocks were already in place because federal law requires health plans to offer interpreters to those enrolled in Medi-Cal or Healthy Families.

For years, larger hospitals have had interpreters standing by. Kaiser Permanente, for instance, has 50 at its Northern California facilities and has 3,400 employees with second-language skills.

But many patients did not have guaranteed access to interpreters.

For that reason, California's law is broad in its sweep. It requires health, dental and specialty insurers to provide subscribers with translators, at least by telephone, while visiting their doctor, pharmacist, ophthalmologist or dentist.

"The intent is that better communication leads to better health care. To the extent we can make that possible, we're going to work to do that," said Ben Singer, a spokesman for Anthem Blue Cross, which provides dental and medical insurance to 8 million Californians.

More than 40 percent of the state's 37 million residents speak a language other than English, according to U.S. census estimates. A fifth of the population say they do not speak English "very well."

The new law could help lift the burden from immigrants such as Natasha Vakulchik of Rancho Cordova, a pre-kindergarten teacher whose Russian-speaking family depends on her to translate.

"My parents use me, my parents-in-law use me. I translate for everybody," said Vakulchik, 30. "It's hard. You can't expect me to know everything.

"I don't know medical terms. Even if I know English well, half the time I didn't even know what they're talking about," she said, referring to doctors. "If they're talking about organs, I wouldn't even know what they are in Russian. Sometimes, they had to show me using pictures."

When her brother, hurt in an accident, couldn't understand why he was receiving letters and bills from the hospital and insurance company, Vakulchik tried to help.

The insurer "would not talk to me," she said. "Sometimes they would even hang up on me. They told me that my brother needed to be on the phone. I told them that he couldn't speak English, so how can he talk to them?"

Cindy Ehnes, director of the state Managed Health Care Department, said she was moved by the testimony at hearings across the state.

"It was an incredible eye-opener to me," she said. "Often these people who can't speak English are told to go home unless they bring somebody who can. It was like being treated by a system as if they had no consequence."

At a Los Angeles hearing in February 2006, Ehnes heard a Spanish-speaking woman describe how her cancer spread after going undetected in 2000 because doctors were examining the wrong breast – and how her request for a translator was ignored. Ehnes herself is a cancer survivor.

The woman returned to the hospital four years later when her cancer was already at an advanced stage. She brought her daughter to translate, but the sobbing child could not bear to tell her mother the severity of the cancer and merely said that things were fine.

"Nobody really tracks all of the errors being done because of language miscommunication and lack of language services," said Ellen Wu, executive director of Pan-Ethnic Health Network.

Meanwhile, the California Healthcare Interpreting Association in Sacramento is pushing for a certification program to ensure that interpreters used by health plans are well-versed in medical lingo and the languages they translate.

The new regulations require interpreters to have demonstrated proficiency but don't "say what that level of proficiency is and how it should be demonstrated," said Don Schinske, the association's executive director. 


More Latino immigrants seeking office back home

More Latino immigrants seeking office back home
By RUSSELL CONTRERAS - 23 hours ago

CHELSEA, Mass. (AP) - Almost three decades ago, a pregnant Merlin Pena landed in Boston with her husband and two children after escaping El Salvador's bloody civil war. Pena cleaned offices, got groceries from food pantries and eventually went to night school to learn English.

This month, the 51-year-old will return to El Salvador - to run for vice president.  "I've lived here 28 years but I still have feelings for my country,"  Pena said. "I have a unique experience and I think I have a lot to offer."

Immigration experts say a growing number of migrants, who have toiled in the United States as laborers, janitors and car mechanics, are being recruited to run for office in their homelands. Their working-class immigrant stories resonate in Latin America where many residents have family members in the United States, many of whom send home financial support.

"They represent the U.S. experience and these are people who have done well from the perspective of those back in their former countries," said Nestor Rodriguez, a sociology professor at the University of Texas.

Recruiting candidates from the United States can also tap into a richer pool of political contributions from other expatriates. Most previous Latino leaders who lived in America were wealthy and came
to the U.S. primarily for their formal education.

Salsa singer and actor Ruben Blades famously ran for president in Panama in 1994 after living in the United States for years. Boston-born Hector Ricardo Silva was elected mayor of San Salvador in 1997 and Jose Rafael Espada, a former Houston cardiothoracic surgeon, was elected vice
president of Guatemala in 2007.

But the new crop of migrant candidates comes from working-class backgrounds and likely didn't consider running for office until approached, Rodriguez said. In 2004, Andres Bermudez became the first migrant living in the United States to win a Mexican mayor ship after being recruited by an
opposition party. He came to the United States illegally in the 1960s stuffed in the trunk of a car, and became a millionaire after inventing a tomato planting machine.

Nicknamed the "Tomato King," he was elected to Mexico's Congress in 2006.  Since Bermudez, at least four others have sought offices in Mexico and El Salvador, including Los Angeles resident Salvador Gomez Gochez, who is running for mayor of his hometown of Atiquizaya, El Salvador.

In a YouTube campaign video, Gomez Gochez talks about leaving wartorn El Salvador and his advocacy on behalf of immigrants in Los Angeles to the tune of the Eagles' song "New Kid in Town." In another YouTube video, Gomez Gochez promises to bring U.S.-style democracy and revive the countryside with his acquired U.S. contacts.

Pena, who works as a resource specialist at the Massachusetts General Hospital clinic in Chelsea, said for years she was mainly concerned about taking care of her family and helping fellow Latino immigrants adjust to life in Massachusetts.  More recently, she has pushed for immigration reform in the U.S., worked as an election monitor in El Salvador, and helped organize the massive
immigration rallies three years ago. Since 1986, she visited El Salvador at least once a year but never joined a political party.
Her mini-celebrity status among U.S. immigrants caught the attention of Carlos Rivas Zamora, the former mayor of San Salvador, and candidate for president under the Christian Democratic Party, the fourth-largest party in El Salvador. Party officials asked her to join the ticket.

"I was surprised," said Pena, who became a U.S. citizen in 1996 but maintained her Salvadoran citizenship. "I told them my party was the Salvadoran people. That's my party."

But then she met Zamora and felt "connected" to him and his causes. He asked her personally to join him. It didn't matter that political observers considered the Christian Democratic Party a long shot at winning the presidency, she said. "I wouldn't be running if I didn't think we could win," Pena said.

The real attraction of expatriates for political parties are the money they can help raise in the United States, said Cecilia Menjivar, a sociology professor at Arizona State University. Before Pena leaves for El Salvador to campaign for the March 2009 national elections, the Christian Democratic Party has set up a fundraiser at a night club in Lynn, Mass., where there is a large concentration of Central American immigrants.

Sent my Juan Marinez



Catholic Church Launches New Campaign for Immigrants


Univision Online, Posted: Jan 06, 2009
MIAMI – With masses, prayers, lectures and discussions in churches across the country, the U.S. Catholic Church on Sunday launched a new campaign in support of immigration reform that includes a path to legalization, reports Univision. The initiative will culminate on June 10 with a request to the president-elect, Barack Obama, to encourage Congress to take up the issue this year. The Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB) is also calling on the government to treat immigrants in the United States more humanely. Undocumented immigrants, they say, are one of the most vulnerable groups in American society.

Sent by Howard Shorr <  Posters on Immigration Rights 



Hispanics and the New Administration: 
Immigration Slips as a Priority; Latinos Optimistic About Obama


A year and a half after a lengthy, often rancorous debate over immigration reform filled the chambers of a stalemated Congress, the issue appears to have receded in importance among one of the groups most affected by it-Latinos. Only three-in-ten (31%) Latinos rate immigration as an "extremely important" issue facing the incoming Obama administration, placing it sixth on a list of seven policy priorities that respondents were asked to assess in a nationwide survey of 1,007 Latino adults conducted from December 3 through December 10, 2008, by the Pew Hispanic Center, a project of the Pew Research Center. The top-rated issue among Latinos is the economy; some 57% of Hispanics say it is an "extremely important" one for the new president to address.

Looking forward, Hispanics are optimistic about the incoming Obama Administration. More than seven-in-ten (72%) say they expect Obama to have a successful first term. Looking back, Latinos offer a negative assessment of the outgoing Bush Administration. More than half (54%) of Latinos say that the failures of the Bush Administration will outweigh its successes. In comparison, 64% of the U.S. general population holds the same view.

The latest report from the Pew Hispanic Center also examines the ways Latinos were involved in the historic 2008 presidential campaign such as using the Internet to research a candidate, trying to persuade someone else to vote for or against a particular party, and displaying material or wearing clothing related to a political campaign.

The report, Hispanics and the New Administration: Immigration Slips as a Priority,
authored by Mark Hugo Lopez, Associate Director, and Gretchen Livingston, Senior Researcher, is available at the Pew Hispanic Center's website, 

The Pew Hispanic Center, a project of the Pew Research Center, is a nonpartisan, non-advocacy research organization based in Washington, D.C. and is funded by The Pew Charitable Trusts.

From: Pew Hispanic Center [] 
Mary Seaborn  202-419-3606  or 
Paul Fucito   2-419-4372 
Sent by Juan Marinez


Undocumented in America,
 interviews with Jesse Diaz & Javier Rodriguez

 This is the fifth piece of a series of historical and analytical articles written to assist and humbly give today's  immigrant rights movement a historical and analytical Framework to part from, especially now that we are about to enter 2009, the last stage of a 22 year struggle for the empowerment of the millions of undocumented immigrant workers in the United States. I urge you to read it and critique it and distribute to your lists.
Javier Rodriguez, December 29, 2008
World Monthly Review A Progressive Worldwide Journal  based in London Sept 2007
Has the mass immigrants rights campaign of 2006 been asphyxiated by the Democrats embrace? Two Los Angeles activists recount the movements progress since the Chicano struggles of the 60s, and current defence of Americas sans-papiers(without papers) from state and vigilante attacks.

By Prof  William Robinson and Xuan Santos UCSB

QUESTION: Could you tell us about your backgrounds as Latino immigrants rights activists in the United States, and how you were radicalized? [1]

I was born in 1944 in Torreón, Coahuila, but my family comes from the northern mountains of Durango. My father was a Communist and a trade union leader. When I was five we moved to Ciudad Juárez, on the border. In 1953 my father went to work in the us as a farmworker, under the Bracero quota scheme that was in place then. [2] That same year, when I was nine, I got deported from the us. I was working as a shoe-shine boy and had gone over to El Paso for the day, but was picked up within a few hours. Three years later, in 1956, I crossed the border for good with my mother and brothers, arriving in Los Angeles that August. We lived in the city centre, and could smell the noxious fumes from the meatpacking plants and other industries. I went to the public junior high school; there was no English as a Second Language program then, just Foreign Adjustment schemes. My first act of rebellion was in music class, when we were forced to sing patriotic American songs; I refused. As a punishment they put me at the back of the class. Mexicans were constantly being reminded of their difference: we would be called wetback and TJ  short for Tijuana. We all felt the discrimination and exclusion, and began to think about fighting back against it. In 1965 we held a demonstration against police brutality in our neighborhood. From there I jumped into political activity, entering the radical Latino wing of the Civil Rights movement.

Díaz: My family is originally from Aguascalientes, Mexico, but I was born in la in 1964, one of seven children. I was raised in Chino. We had a big house, but we lived poor: we didnt get our first television until I was fourteen. As I was growing up I saw my parents help a lot of immigrants: they lived in a trailer at the back of our yard, worked with my father in landscaping or helped my mother round the house. As a child I was aware of the Chicano movementI would see the Brown Beret marches going down Central Avenueand experienced discrimination and racism, especially from the police. But I didn't really connect with the movement until I got to college in 2000.

QUESTION:  How did you become involved in the struggle for immigrants rights?

Rodríguez: After 1965 I became involved in a local Chicano organization called Casa Carnalismo Mexican slang for brotherhood which mobilized people from the neighborhood and college students. The struggle for Latino labor and civil rights was gathering pace at this time: in California, César Chávez of the National Farm Workers Association led the grape pickers strike in 1965, and the next year, Rodolfo Corky Gonzáles, a former prize-fighter, set up the Denver-based Crusade for Justice, one of the first Mexican American civil rights organizations; in 1967, Reies López Tijerina and his Alianza Federal de Mercedes (Federal Alliance for Land Grants) seized a courthouse in New Mexico. Student groups began to form on campuses. In California, Chicano organizers came into contact with Black activists the Panthers, George Jackson, Angela Davis and played a role in the wider struggles against discrimination, racism, police brutality and the Vietnam War. 

In 1970, the Chicano Moratorium movement against the war organized a big march in East la which the police broke up in an infamous rampage, killing three people.
In mid 1971, several of us from Carnalismo decided to join forces with Bert Corona, a legendary figure in the immigrants rights movement. He was born in the bi-national community in El Paso-Ciudad Juárez, but had come to California in the 1930s, working as a longshoreman before becoming a labor organizer. In 1968 Corona,  Soledad Alatorre, Humberto Camacho and many other activists founded CASA, the Centro de Acción Social Autónomo, which aimed to organize the immigrant community and provide them with legal advice, documentation, help with housing and so on. The number of undocumented Mexican workers had increased substantially after the end of the Bracero Program in 1964. CASA was the first to organize undocumented immigrants, though it also focused  generally on working-class Mexican-Americans. CASA eventually disintegrated amid major political divisions in 1978.

QUESTION: How has the movement evolved since then?

Rodríguez: The first phase of the movement runs from 1968 to 1986 up to the passage of the Immigration Reform and Control Act (irca), which amnestied immigrants who could prove they had been in the country for four years. That was a real milestone. Throughout the 1970s we had organized against a succession of bills aiming to curb or criminalize immigration. We held marches, started petitions and a lobbying campaign, set up mailing lists; we defended people who had been fired for being undocumented, and went to challenge Immigration and Naturalization Service raids when they took place.

The US Supreme Courts clampdown on temporary rights for applicants for permanent residency was the spark for a wider protest movement in the early 80s.. In May 1984 we organized a march in downtown la for a general immigration amnesty and against the Simpson Mazzoli Bill on immigration, as it then stood. Jesse Jackson, a candidate for President marched and spoke at the rally, which drew 10,000 people. Then the biggest crowd that had ever gathered in support of immigrants up to that point. This had an important effect, in pressing the Latino establishment, historically very moderate, to come out against the Bill. At the Democratic Convention in San Francisco in July 1984, the Latino delegates forced Candidate Walter Mondale and the Party to take a stand against the Bill. Some time after, thirty undocumented migrants and leaders of the Coalition for Visas and Rights for the Undocumented occupied the offices of a prominent Democrat law firm in Beverly Hills for several days. There were intense negotiations over proposed amendments to Simpson-Mazzoli, which eventually became the Simpson-Rodino Bill, the IRCA of 1986. This still included sanctions on employers who hired undocumented immigrants, but much more significant was that it legalized the status of about 3 million people. The amnesty also included children, spouses and other family members, and allowed you to apply for citizenship within five years. Farm workers were allowed to qualify with a very liberal requirement of 3 months work in the fields within two prior to November 1986.
After that we entered a new phase. In California, the debate was pushed to the right, with figures such as Senators Diane Feinstein and Barbara Boxer and right wing columnist  Pat Buchanan sounding the anti-immigrant alarm. The critical moment here was Proposition 187, a Californian ballot initiative of 1994 that aimed to deny medical care and other public services to undocumented immigrants, and public education to their children. The movement developed a two-pronged strategy to try to defeat Proposition 187: electoral lobbying and massive street demonstrations. At the same time, there was a wave of walkouts in immigrant blue-collar high schools, and the beginnings of a new student movement. In May 25,000 marched in LA and then on on October 16, 1994 150,000 people protested against the Proposition in also in LA, but it was voted through in November. It was  overturned by a district judge in 1998. But we the movement gained a lot of experience from the mobilizations, and made connections with the unions, local communities and Spanish-language Latino media.

QUESTION: What impact did nafta have on immigration patterns, and on the movement itself?

Rodríguez: Within Mexico, the Salinas government pushed through a massive wave of privatization and deregulation from 1988 onwards. NAFTA meant even more public services being sold off, labor protections dismantled, and many tariffs being reduced or eliminated. Mexican agriculture was opened up to heavily subsidized us importers, and hundreds of thousands of farmers were driven off the land, just as countless small businesses were crushed by the arrival of US chains such as Wal-Mart. In the border zones, where most of the maquiladoras were established, government clamp-downs on union organizing combined with high unemployment meant that wages actually dropped. One result of this was a surge in people coming to the US. The number of undocumented immigrants has more than doubled since NAFTA came into force, from under 5 million in 1994 to over 12 million today. Well over half of them come from Mexico, with another quarter from Central and Latin America. Of course, there are also a lot of children, 3.3 million born in the US into undocumented immigrant families. As these communities have grown, they have begun to feel their needs, aspirations, frustrations, and look for ways to articulate them.

Organizing immigrant workers is a response to this an effort to prevent exploitation, to improve conditions and reduce impoverishment. But we also try to unite the immigrant and the native worker. Back in 1975 I attended a conference organized by the la County Federation of Labor, where a keynote speaker, the AFL-CIO National Director of Organizing claimed that immigrants both legal and undocumented could not be organized. Yet today there are unions with over 80,000 immigrant members, and Latino trade unionists head many Locals; a real process of change is taking place. The Justice for Janitors campaign that started in the late 80s is only one example of the visibility and resources that unions have provided.

QUESTION: What other issues have you organized around?

Díaz: One of my first activities after I got to college was to join the struggle for drivers licences undocumented immigrants had been barred from obtaining them since 1993, but in early 2003 the California State Senate approved a bill reversing that decision. The bill became a key issue in the October recall referendum against Gray Davis, and we started mobilizing in support of it. In December 2003, we organized a three-day march from Claremont to downtown la. But Schwarzenegger had repealed the bill as soon as he became Governor, and has vetoed the compromises proposed since then by State Senator Gil Cedillo.

In late 2003 I worked with a small group of activists in Ontario, California to organize walkouts of immigrant workers and consumer boycotts to demand drivers licenses for the undocumented. On December 12 day of the Virgin of Guadalupe, Mexicos national saint we managed to shut down a number of factories and restaurants across California, including the American Apparel plant. At this time, we also made contact with other groups in Atlanta, Arizona and Texas working on similar actions. But serious divisions emerged in the movement from the start of 2004, when Bush announced his plan for guest workers.

QUESTION: What has the movement's response been to anti-immigrant groups?

Díaz: A large number of these groups have emerged in recent years notably Save Our State (sos) in California, which was formed in late 2004 to lobby firms and politicians supporting immigrants rights. In 2002, I had started travelling to Arizona, where Anglo landowners had been detaining hundreds of immigrants on their ranches along the border. There were shootings; dead bodies were turning up. The local sheriffs refused to do anything about it, so we sent human-rights delegations to the area. In 2004 we also started mobilizing in response to actions by sos, who would, for instance, go to a day labor centre to harass immigrants looking for work. We would send 400 or so people there to face them down.

The Minutemen vigilantes were set up in California in late 2004 by Jim Gilchrist, a former Marine. They copied the name from an extreme-right militia that carried out terrorist attacks on the left and the anti-Vietnam war movement in the 1960s, though it originally comes from the American War of Independence. In April 2005, Minutemen began patrolling the Arizona border with Mexico, reporting undocumented immigrants. Governor Schwarzenegger came out publicly in support of the Minutemen, saying they were doing a great job, and that he would welcome them in California. In response, in May 2005 we formed a coalition called La Tierra es de Todos The Land Belongs to Everyone working with a group called Gente Unida (People United) from San Diego. The Coalition for Humane Immigrant Rights in Los Angeles (chirla) also took up the vigilantes issue, setting up workshops and meetings with congressmen.

That same month, the Minutemen marched on Washington, dc, and were painted as heroes by the mainstream and conservative media. When the Minutemen actually decided to gather at the us Mexican border in Calexico in the summer, we took hundreds of volunteers to disrupt their training exercises. It was confrontational, and many of our undocumented base decided against participating. But it helped to draw some attention to the connections between the vigilantes and anti-immigrant organizations such as Barbara Coes California Coalition for Immigration Reform and John Tantons Federation for American Immigration Reform (fair), as well as their links to Congressional figures such as the Colorado Republican Tom Tancredo, who organized the Immigration Reform Caucus, and James Sensenbrenner, who put forward House of Representatives resolution 4437 in late 2005.
Rodríguez: In fact, the Minutemen and many other similar right-wing organizations were the shock-troops, used by anti-immigrant establishment forces to create the political environment for the passage of HR4437.

QUESTION: What did HR4437 propose?

Díaz: It would have made it a felony to be in the us without documentation, and would have applied criminal sanctions to anybody who even supported an undocumented immigrantreligious leaders, social service workers or humanitarian groups, for instance. If you drove a cab, say, and you knew that your ride was an undocumented immigrant, you could be charged with a felony. Teachers could be charged for having undocumented students in their classrooms; hence the big mobilization of teachers against the bill. hr4437 also called for the construction of a militarized 2,000-mile fence along the usMexico border, gave power to local law officials to enforce federal immigration law, and called for the deportation of 12 million undocumented people.

QUESTION: Was this what prompted the formation of the March 25 Coalition?

Díaz:  HR 4437 was passed by the House on 16 December 2005, catching everyone off guard. Luckily Gloria Saucedo, a former student of Bert Coronas and head of the immigrant advocacy group Hermandad Mexicana Nacional in San Fernando Valley, had set up the Placita Olvera working group that November, which helped to coordinate the response.
Rodríguez: A meeting was held at La Placita Church in Los Angeles in January 2006. Apart from Jesse and myself, those present included Saucedo, Father Richard Estrada from the Church itself, Angela Zambrano from carecen (Central American Resource Center), and some people from the International Socialists. We all sensed the urgency of responding to hr4437. Some of the proposals were for vigils, a conference, a drive for petitions, a resolution pushing the la City Council to take a stand. The first meeting resulted in a picket of the Federal Building, a press conference, a petition. Then, on January 17 I wrote the article On Immigration History is on Our Side, Take it, It's Yours, in La Opinión, the largest and most important Spanish-language newspaper in the country, calling for mass mobilizations in the hundreds of thousands and for an economic boycott. The piece was widely circulated on the internet, and played a role in framing the next steps. In mid-February, we proposed a plan of action for March 25. The idea was to galvanize not just Southern California, but the whole country. It was a radical move and it sounded the alarm. Immediately the moderate and mainstream groups within the Coalition raised the red flags and began to block the move. The traditional two schools of thought, CASA's and the UFW that had clashed since 1968, emerged once again. In retrospect the March 25 Coalition was formally baptized in La Placita Catholic Church on February 14 and was inherently born in an intense and divisive political ambiance. The moderate and mainstream groups, including CARECEN, UFW, CHIRLA, SEIU Local 660 did their best to stop the call. They had two problems. 

They could not see or feel the momentum and it was the radical wing of that diminutive working group who was taking the lead. On Wednesday March 1st, at the Coalition meeting, the United Farm Workers delegate audaciously introduced a motion to cancel March 25 and moved to adopt the 26th of March, the Cesar Chavez' Anniversary March held annually in LA. The Coalition voted 11 to 10 approving both dates. It was then that the tensions intensified and the move was "to destroy the village in order to save it". We kept our end of the approved motion. The following day Thursday March 2, 2006, we kicked off the 23 day campaign and called for a National Day of Protest for March 25. We held the press conference at La Placita Kiosk and through the Latino and Asian media outlets we reached an estimated 2 million people.   Over the next two weeks, more and more organizations joined the Coalition and  by the second week there were over 100. In real political terms, the divisions never really healed and they began to stage both suttle and outright tactics of sabotage, with attempts to block media events, press releases, and irresponsibly SEIU not coming through with their 500 trained security union members the day of the 1.7 million immigrant rights march.

Díaz: By this time protests had been taking place in other cities. From mid-February to early March there were rallies in Philadelphia, Oakland, Houston and Washington, DC, the numbers growing from 1,200 to 20,000 or so. Then on March 10 in Chicago, as many as 500,000 people came out onto the streets. Here in Los Angeles, we put a lot of energy into organizing, and had an enormous turnout on March 25: the la Times and lapd reported 500,000 people; the Spanish-language Channel 22 commissioned a professional digital count, according to which there were 1.7 million on the march. More demonstrations took place in New York the next day, in Detroit the day after, in Oklahoma, Kentucky and Las Vegas.

In the meantime, the Somos AméricaWe are America Coalition had called for a National Day of Action for Immigrant Rights, April 10. Somos América was set up in March 2006 in direct opposition to our plans. Its mastermind is Congressman Luis Gutiérrez from Chicago, and it is backed by the Service Employees International Union (seiu), ufw and various ngos that constitute the mainstream wing of the movement: the National Council of La Raza, the League of United Latin American Citizens (lulac), the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund (maldef), as well as the Catholic Church. They called for a path to citizenship, as opposed to an unconditional amnesty, which was our position. On April 10 itself, over 50,000 people turned out in Houston; in Phoenix, as many as 200,000; in New York, at least 30,000. The biggest mobilization, though, was in Washington, dc, where 500,000 people marched from Meridian Hill Park to the National Mall.

The April 10 marches were an attempt to co-opt the mobilization by the mainstream groups. We pressed ahead with our plans. During the March 25 mobilization and rally program, we announced and proposed to the people the May 1st National Great American Boycott/A Day Without an Immigrant. The name was inspired by the title of the 2004 Sergio Arau movie, in which the Latino population suddenly disappears from California, which has to learn to cope without them; it was a huge success in Mexico, and really hit home here too. We began to speak to the country directly through the Latino radio stations..

Rodríguez: There are hundreds of these stations across the us, and at least two dozen just in Greater Los Angeles. Getting the djs on board was a key part of our strategy from the start. By the time March 25 came around, we had about 25 of them supporting the movement, including Eddie Piolin Sotelo and Marcela Luévanos who have the most popular morning shows on ksca, the top-rated la station, Ricardo El Mandril Sanchez and Pepe Garza on kbue, Hugo Cadelago and Gerardo Lorenz on ktnq, and many others.
díaz: We also did a lot through the internet, using list serves to build contacts, especially the National Immigrant Solidarity Network. Then there were the churches, community groups, unions and the labor movement. It was a loose form of organization, but it gave us the basis for a nation-wide action.
What were you calling for?

Díaz: The demands behind the May 1 boycott were agreed at a national conference on April 22, as a series of ten points. First and foremost was an immediate and unconditional amnesty for all undocumented immigrants. Among the other points were: no fence on the border, no increase in the number of immigration agents, no criminalization of the undocumented, an end to the raids and to deportations that divide up families.
What was the turnout on May 1, and how widely was the boycott observed? How did employers react?

Rodríguez: There were big demonstrations in Chicago, New York and the Univisión network estimated the total turnout here at over a million and smaller ones in cities across the us, from Florida to Washington State. Over 70 cities nationwide participated in the boycott, but it was most effective in the Southwest. In LA, in almost all the industries employing Latino labor, 75 per cent of production was stopped, and 90 per cent of truckers working out of the Los Angeles and Long Beach ports didn't show up for work, construction, gardening, garment, home care, home care, hotel and restaurants came to a stand still. On farms in California and Arizona, fruit and vegetables went unpicked, and across the country, meat-packing and poultry plants, fast-food franchises and other businesses were forced to close. In a lot of cases, employers supported their workers: all over Los Angeles businesses started putting up signs saying they would be closed on May 1. All the principal arteries of southern California were shut down and high percentage of  students from middle and high schools also joined in the boycott.

But the mainstream Latino establishment once again tried to split the movement. The Latino mayor of LA, Antonio Villaraigosa spoke at the rally but refused to march with us on March 25, although many of us had supported his mayoral campaigns, both in 2005 and the unsuccessful one of 2001. He also came out against the May 1 boycott, along with Cardinal Mahony and Somos América, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and President George W.Bush. They had called for a march in the evening, so that people could come after work instead of taking part in the boycott. It was an outright scabbing position.. Their slogan on May 1 was Today We March, Tomorrow We Vote ignoring the fact that non-citizens and undocumented immigrants, who are a hugely important part of the movement, cannot vote. But on November 4, 2006 Latinos voted against the Republicans and 84% did to voice their concern against the war in Iraq.

QUESTION: It is estimated that there are between 12 and 15 million undocumented immigrants in the us, out of a total of 3540 million immigrants. Could you tell us about this community?

Rodríguez: Mexican immigrants predominate for historical reasons they account for 65 to 80% of the undocumented arrivals. But there are many others: from Central and South America, Asia, Eastern Europe. Around 7 million of the undocumented have jobs of some description. They make up something like 90% of the workforce in agriculture, and a significant proportion in food processing, textiles, construction, domestic service and cleaning. The immigrant community is primarily bilingual, primarily working class, though there is a growing entrepreneurial class within its ranks: at least a million US businesses are run by immigrants. And there are immigrant students throughout the country.

Díaz: Many people thought May Day 2006 was a day without a Mexican or a day without a Latino. But our movement is internationalist: it includes all the undocumented, without distinguishing between ethnic or national groups. This was one of the keys to the success of the March 25 Coalition here in la we had Koreans, Filipinos, Chinese and Central Americans on board.

QUESTION: Mexican immigration nevertheless predominates. Does the immigrants rights movement have links to organizations in Mexico? What role has the Mexican government played?

Rodríguez: The Mexican government has been attempting to co-opt us for a long time. There was an especially strong push under Salinas after 1988, as the pace of neoliberal reforms quickened, and especially when they wanted us to line up behind NAFTA. Much of the US Latino establishment, Southwest Voters Registration and Education Project-SVREP, MALDEF, NALEO, NCLR, ONE STOP IMMIGRATION, La Opinion, the US Hispanic Chamber of Commerce, the Hispanic Caucus, in spite of the predictions of a dramatic increase of poverty, suffering, deaths and mass immigration from Mexico, the Establishment saw an opportunity for its own advancement in promoting the NAFTA agenda and demagogically parroted the Mexican government's line of "Mexico will enter the first world and immigration will stop". Astonishingly, they traded misery and death for Mexicans, their people, for the open doors to the Salinas and Clinton governments and 14 years after NAFTA went into effect, not a single one of those organizations and leaders have apologized to Mexican people, here or on the other side of the border. After Salinas, Presidents Ernesto Zedillo continued on the same neoliberal line, and the PRI defeat by the PAN in 2000 brought only a shift further to the right, under Fox.. Calderón promises more of the same.

We have made trips to Mexico to organize there, and have connections with a number of Mexican unions the Unión Nacional de Trabajadores and the STRM,  SME, the telephone workers union as well as with the PRD, through figures such as the Parliamentary Deputy José Jacques Medina. We also have links to unions and other social movements in New Mexico, Texas and Chihuahua through the Border Social Forum. Links like these enabled us to spread the boycott across the border, and effectively close down several ports of entry. Over 40,000 Mexican Laborers refused to cross into El Paso from Ciudad Juárez on May Day 2006, and hardly anyone went from Tijuana to San Diego. The boycott had a wide resonance in Mexico as a whole. Everyone there knows that the country's second-largest source of income is remittances, and there are millions of people with family members or friends in the US, not only from northern Mexican states, but also from further south
especially Jalisco. On May 1, a lot of people across Mexico also refused to buy products from American companies like Sears or Wal-Mart.

QUESTION: Are there divisions between the Hispanic and Black communities?

Díaz: Black leaders took an active part in the 2006 May Day mobilization. But there are definitely tensions in the unions, the high schools, prisons, and in the wider community as a whole. The divisions have a lot to do with labor conditions. Black workers are no longer being sought after, since businesses can now hire immigrants who cannot speak up for themselves because they don't have citizenship. With this threat hanging over them, Black workers have in many cases been intimidated out of demanding their civil and labor rights. The employers have been able to divide us along race lines. The argument that immigrants are taking jobs from Black people has even meant a handful of African-Americans joining the Minutemen, which is a real travesty. But it shows how much we need to prioritize this, because in class terms were all facing the same conditions; were all in this together.
What was the impact of the mobilizations on immigration legislation?

Díaz: The spring 2006 mobilizations effectively killed off hr4437. But since then the focus of new legislation the KennedyMcCain Bill and S2611 in 2006, the strive Act and Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act (cira) in 2007 has been the idea of a pathway to citizenship. [3]

This means a restricted process for legalization, through payment of fines and back taxes, which could take as long as 14 years. In the meantime, there would be stepped-up border security, deportations, and criminalization of undocumented immigrants arriving. In fact, raids were launched right after the May Day boycott, with 1,800 people rounded up for deportation within a day or two.

QUESTION: What has happened to the movement since spring 2006?

Rodríguez: Like any mass protest movement in the US, the immigrants rights movement always ran the risk of being diverted into the Democrats electoral machine. The legislation put forward since after HR4437, in offering a limited track to legalization, succeeded in drawing the support of many mainstream Latino leaders for example Raúl Murillo from Hermandad Mexicana Nacional and Juan José Gutiérrez from Latino Movement USA gave qualified backing to the strive Act as well as the SEIU and organizations like the National Council of La Raza, though the AFL-CIO and 80% of the NGOs have been opposed. This co-optation of one wing of the movement by the Democrats, along with raids and deportations later in 2006, made us lose a lot of the momentum we had built up during the spring. As a result, the battle in Washington since 2006, has been between the mainstream and the Republican Right and by the summer of 2007 it was clear it was the Right who gained the offensive. They managed to mobilize and unify their grassroots through talk radio stations, massive email lists and the Grand Bargain Senate Bill was effectively strangled by Republican legislators in June.

This division between the pro-amnesty forces and the Democratic establishment is the background to the demonstrations we organized this year. The actions on March 25 and May 1, 2007 were both a lot smaller than in 2006. On May Day there were again two demonstrations: ours(100,000), which went to City Hall, and another one backed by the Latino establishment and Cardinal Mahony, which ended up in MacArthur Park. The MacArthur Park march at 4,000, was violently broken up by the police, who injured over 100 demonstrators and several journalists. It showed all the claims that the LAPD  had been reformed to be completely empty though the widespread public anger over this may make it more difficult for them to clamp down on immigrants in the same way in the future.
Between them, the two May Day marches this year drew up to 100,000 people, but we the March 25 Coalition, had 95% of all demonstrators in addition to the boycott. which closed Downton LA, the garment district, the ports of Los Angeles and other smaller sectors. Additionally  mobilizations took place in 75 cities; besides the major urban centers, there were marches in places like Denver, Phoenix and Milwaukee. These were also much smaller than in 2006, though still significant. The May boycott wasn't observed nearly as much as last year, but we did manage to shut down Downtown LA, the LA and Long Beach Harbors and the garment district, as well as stopping many cargo deliveries across la county.

Díaz: All along, the fundamental principle of our movement has been full, unconditional amnesty for all undocumented immigrants, and full labor and civil rights for anyone working here. But Somos América, which is little more than a cover for the Democratic Party, used the mobilizations to push forward a set of legislative proposals totally at odds with this; they essentially switched to supporting the guest worker program. This would, of course, serve the interests of the big corporations the Latino establishment is linked to if you go to one of the National Council of La Razas events, for example, there is corporate sponsorship from the likes of Wal-Mart and Home Depot, and they get millions in grants from Citibank, Pepsi and Ford. When we sent a delegation to Washington, DC in April 2006 to lobby against the proposals then being debated, we found the mainstream Latino NGOs and activists and the SEIU working hand in hand with the Congressional
Hispanic Caucus, promoting legislation that would criminalize undocumented workers, pushing them underground and making it easier to exploit them. This comes on top of deportation raids that would break up families and leave hundreds of thousands of people without a livelihood, and the massive militarization of the border.

The Hispanic Caucus and figures like Gutiérrez have not spoken out against the violence on the border, the construction of the border wall or the raids. Meanwhile, the ufw and the seiuincluding its vice president Eliseo Medina, himself a Mexican immigrant have given their backing to a blue card scheme for agricultural laborers, which is being promoted in Congress by the California Democrat Senator Dianne Feinstein. This has led to something of a backlash from the seiu rank and file against the leadership, who are now planning a new push in favour of these temporary schemes.

In the meantime, there have been splits on our side. Hermandad Mexicana Nacional has fractured as regional leaders of hmn have taken different positions on the proposed immigration bills. A large part of the movement has been absorbed by the legislative cycle. It has to be said that at this point in time the movement is a shadow of its former self.
What challenges does the immigrants rights movement face now?

Díaz: At the moment the priority is to defend our communities against raids and deportations. Beyond that, we have to get back to ground level organizing small- scale forums, organizing from within the community, local marches. The spring 2006 mobilizations showed us how easily the movement can be co-opted by mainstream groups. Many people put their faith in the Democrats, who simply sold us out. We werent able to sustain the momentum of 2006 into 2007. Now, all the leading Democrats have one eye on the 2008 elections, and are trying to stall the immigration debate. We have applied for a permit to march on the Capitol on May Day 2008, and are now focusing our efforts on that. Many of our people feel discouraged, that their efforts were fruitless, or that their leaders let them down. We need to learn from this anger at what has happened over the past year if we want to mount any kind of challenge in future.

September 2007
With all due respect to William, Xuan and the Magazine editors, this is an edited version for distribution on the series of historical and analytical pieces by Javier Rodriguez December 29, 2008

[1] Interview conducted by William I. Robinson, author of A Theory of Global Capitalism (2004), and Xuan Santos; both teach sociology at uc Santa Barbara.
[2] Bracero Program: from 1942 to 1964, this allowed a quota of Mexican farmworkers to come to the United States.
[3] cira 2007 incorporated much that was in previous, failed bills, and was strongly backed by the White House as well as a majority of Senate Democrats. The Security Through Regularized Immigration and a Vibrant Economy (strive)Act, proposed by Congressman Gutiérrez, is presently under discussion in House subcommittees.

Partial List-Articles and Position Papers by Javier Rodriguez
Unducumented In America: Interview Jesse Diaz & Javier Rodriguez
To All Coalition Members:
On Immigrants, Labor, Union Democracy and the Rank and File
To the National Strategy Conference on Immigrant Rights
A position Paper by Javier Rodriguez H.
Steering Committee March 25th Coalition August 11, 2006
On Immigration, History Is On Our Side, Take It, It's Yours Pt. I
Immigrants are the bedrock of America.
On Immigration History is on Our Side Part II
The Immigrant Rights Movement at a Crossroads
The Strive Act is Corporate Designed Immigration Reform
Are Latinos Being Co-opted by The Mexican Government LA TIMES Op-Ed 1992
See Blog on and soon on
Sent by Dorinda Moreno





"A Class Apart" Documentary
Defend the Honor
Find Out Who Else Supports this Initiative a National Museum of the American Latino
A Forgotten Injustice
VA officials assist veterans with health care costs
Juan Reynosa's Environmental Mission: You Voted: Now What?



 “A Class Apart" documentary to air on Feb. 23  


On February 23, 2009
, people around the country will gather to watch A Class Apart on PBS’s “American Experience” (check local listings). In living rooms and auditoriums, in dorm rooms and cultural centers, they’ll meet  the group of Mexican American attorneys who changed history in 1954. 

A Class Apart, the new documentary by celebrated filmmakers Carlos Sandoval and Peter Miller, is the first major film to bring to life the heroic post-World War II struggle of Mexican Americans against the Jim Crow-style discrimination targeted against them. Raising important questions about inclusion, American identity, and equality before the law that are as resonant today as ever, A Class Apart dramatically interweaves the story of its central characters - activists and lawyers, returning veterans and ordinary citizens, murderer and victim- within the broader history of Latinos in America during a time of extraordinary change. 
HACU is encouraging its member institutions and chapters to host screenings of A Class Apart on the night of the broadcast and in post-broadcast events. HACU is working with the film’s producers and with Active Voice, a nonprofit media strategy company, to develop these “A Class Apart, A Night Together” house parties and community screenings. Please e-mail HACU at if your institution will be hosting a screening.
Take a tip from our new President and make this one of your first community action events of 2009! Visit or email to download an “A Class Apart, A Night Together” toolkit with words from the filmmakers, discussion questions, event planning tips, resource lists, action suggestions and more.
The American Constitution Society 
Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities 
Latino Public Broadcasting 
The Mexican-American Legal Defense and Education Fund
For more email:
Sent by Juan Marinez
Armando Rendon 



Ken Burns spoke on Visions of Race


Defend the Honor 
January 14, 2009 

To: Esther Foer Judith S. Goldstein
Executive Director Executive Director
Sixth & I Historic Synagogue Humanity in Action
600 I Street, N.W 1088 Park Avenue
Washington D.C. 20001 New York, NY 10128
1-202-266-3231 1-212-828-6874
Fax: 202/408-5124 FAX212.410.4969 

And to Defenders of the Honor 

On first hearing about plans to ask the poster boy of Latino and Latina public documentary film exclusion to share his "VISIONS OF RACE IN AMERICA," as part of the festivities surrounding President Elect-Barack Obama's historic inauguration on January 20, 2009, some thought it was simply a joke in poor taste. After all, there was a well-publicized national outcry in 2007 when Ken Burns left Latinos out of his 14.5-hour documentary about World War II. 

But on further investigation (See: , it appears to be a fact: Humanity in Action and the Washington D.C. Sixth and I Historic Synagogue have asked Ken Burns to speak about a topic on which he is an anti-authority. Ken Burns has demonstrated repeatedly a peculiar blindspot to Latinos, so his "Vision of Race" is not only incomplete, it is wildly inaccurate and a slap in the face to Latinos. 

Hard to believe it escaped anyone who keeps up with the news that in 2007, Burns united Latinos and non-Latino supporters to decry the absence of Latinos in his WWII documentary. We knew that an estimated 500,000 Latino and Latina patriots fought, while other Latinos and Latinas supported the war effort on the homefront - and those contributions are too often left out of books, movies, etc. about WWII. But the issue was larger, than World War II -- it focused attention on the historic omission of Latino contributions to our nation. So when the Ken Burn documentary was set, Latinos reacted loudly and proudly: The voices of our community against Ken Burns and PBS were strong and included over thirty national Latino organizations, and thousands of individuals and elected officials from the country. In the end, Burns did add on two short Hispanic and one Native American film bits-- at the end of three episodes, after the screen went to black and the theme began. Many felt his addition was passive-aggressive; it was not the "seamless addition" he had promised in an April 2007 meeting in Washington with Latinos, including elected officials and representatives of major Latino organizations, as well as Defend the Honor. We came to know that Burns is a serial eraser of Latinos -- he did the same in previous documentaries on baseball and on Jazz. 

That he would be chosen to discuss race in America is painful. Latinos made a difference in Obama winning the 2008 election and we are celebrating his inauguration enthusiastically. But news that Burns has been chosen as a major speaker on the topic of race in America is a bleak reminder that Latinos are not considered, by some, an important part of our own country. 

The question we have for the event sponsors, Sixth & I Historic Synagogue and Humanity in Action is simple: why was Ken Burns, of all people, chosen to speak on this topic at this event when there are many others who are knowledgeable and considered experts on the issues of "race" in America and the world? 

Humanity in Action's mission statement reads, in part: "Humanity in Action believes that an important test of a genuine democracy is how it treats its racial, ethnic, and religious minorities..." Does that not include Latinos in our country? Inviting Ken Burns to speak about race raises doubts about Humanity in Action's respect for the Latino community.

We are deeply disappointed by the Washington D.C. Sixth and I Synagogue's involvement in co-sponsoring the "VISIONS OF RACE IN AMERICA" presentation. We express our concerns over what appears to be a lack of sensitivity on the part of the well-respected Historic Synagogue, representing a community that has been active in establishing a Latino-Jewish Dialogue. This inter-ethnic community effort has been advanced over the last seven years by the American Jewish and the Latino communities. In fact, the results of a "landmark survey" in Latino-Jewish Relations released in 2001 by The Foundation for Ethnic Understanding under the leadership of Rabbi Marc Schneier states the findings "provide a roadmap for Latinos and Jews to address of mutual cooperation and concern." The Ken Burns/Latino issue is important and must be addressed by all Latino-Jewish Dialogue groups in the country.
The San Diego Latino-Jewish Coalition is building relationships among and between our communities and was one of the first to expressed concern and dismay over Ken Burns exclusion of Latinos and Latinas in his PBS The War documentary. 

Those of us involved in the Defend The Honor campaign and many others involved in building community relations between ethnic groups call on the Humanity in Action and Sixth and I Synagogue to reconsidered their invitation of Ken Burns to speak on "VISIONS OF RACE IN AMERICA." If Burns is provided a forum to speak about a matter that we consider sacred, then there should representation by Latinos who may address the continuing omission of Latinos in our nation's historical narrative. We will be glad to provide a list of knowledgable speakers.

We request that the Executive Directors of the Sixth & I Historic Synagogue and the Humanity in Action organizations to reach out and invite representatives of Defend The Honor to meet and discuss our mutual concerns and interests. We also request all supporters of Defend The Honor to express their sentiments on this issue and their vision of race in America to the Executive Directors of Sixth & I Historic Synagogue and Humanity in Action and to Defend the Honor. Please send us a copy of any correspondence. Constructive change requires constructive dialogue.

For additional information and perspective on Defend The Honor and the contributions of Latinos to the WWII effort, go to

Gus Chavez, Co-founder Defend The Honor & member of the San Diego Latino-Jewish Coalition  P. O. Box 7907 | Austin | TX | 78713 

Defend the Honor asked for letters to be written to the two organizations.  Some comments must have reached Burns because a witness at the event reported that Burns opening statement included a comment that he valued Hispanics. Unfortunately, it was the only inclusion observed.

REMINDER:  Burns is producing the series on the National Parks.  Burns stated: 
According to AP story, Burns Burns is augmenting the 1994's "Baseball" documentary, which will re-air in spring 2010 with a new chapter titled "The Tenth Inning," catching up on what's happened in the sport in the past 15 years. The story refers to Felipe Alou as an interviewee.

Sent by Armando Rendon


Find Out Who Else Supports this Initiative
A National Museum of the American Latino


There are many elected officials, community leaders, and key stakeholders who support a National Museum of the American Latino. Go to:

Loiza a Osun by Antonio Broccoli Porto

A National Museum of the American Latino could create a home for the historical artifacts, images, and personal stories documenting over 500 years of American Latino contributions to the United States. The Museum would serve as an educational tool for the thousands who visit the museum each year, as well as instilling a sense of pride in the Latino community today and in the future.

Ask Congress to Fully Fund the National Museum of the American Latino Commission 

One key way for you to help the Latino museum effort is urging the 111th Congress to fully fund and provide the National Museum of the American Latino Commission the resources necessary to complete its work.

The enacted bill authorizes $3.2 million over two years for the Commission but that does not guarantee that Congress will actually fund the Commission at this level. We encourage you to send a letter of support, or issue a resolution of support if it is more applicable to the work of your organization, and ask your congressional leaders to fully fund the Latino museum commission. You may also call the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Appropriations at (202) 225-2771 or the U.S. Senate Committee on Appropriations at (202) 224-7363 to voice your opinion. 

For more information on the legislation and appropriations effort, please contact Melody Gonzales at (202) 225-6235 or email at Feel free to visit to view letters that have already been submitted.


A Forgotten Injustice

Dear Mimi Lozano:

First of all, I would like to introduce myself. My name is Lourdes Serrano and I am the promoter of MeChicano Films in California. I am currently in charge of a very interesting and educational project, I thought of you because seniors and people in our community need to know what happened during the 1930's when the Great Depression hit. MeChicano Films is proud to bring to California, the first documentary that talks about the Mexican Repatriation of the 1930's. As you already know, this is a very remarkable part of our history that not many people knows about, we strongly believe that is time to uncover :
A Forgotten Injustice. Let people know that over 2 million of Mexican-Americans and Mexicanos were deported during the 1930's, only for one reason: They happened to be "Mexican".

If we don't do anything, History will repeat itself because when the economy goes bad in the United States, they use Mexicans as the scapegoats to blame them for what is causing the economic problems.

We are asking that you visit our website ( to learn more about the documentary and the people supporting it, also please take a moment to review the attachements and if you are interested either in helping us by giving us ideas or sponsoring the documentary, please let me know. Even better if you would like to meet in person to discuss more about the project please let me know, I will be more than glad to do so. Thank you in advance for your time.

Sincerely, Lourdes Serrano
MeChicano Films  
(714) 398-4674


VA officials assist veterans with health care costs

WASHINGTON (AFRNS) -- For veterans struggling financially because of a job loss or decreased income, Department of Veterans Affairs officials offer an assortment of programs that can relieve the costs of health care or provide care at no cost. 

Veterans whose previous income was ruled too high for VA health care may be able to enter the VA system based upon a hardship if their current year's income is projected to fall below federal income thresholds. The fall must be caused by a job loss, separation from service or some other financial setback. 

Veterans determined eligible because of hardship can avoid co-pays applied to higher-income veterans. Qualifying veterans may be eligible for enrollment and receive health care at no cost. 

"With the downturn in the economy, VA recognizes that many veterans will feel the effects," said Secretary of Veterans Affairs Dr. James B. Peake. "Therefore, it is important that eligible veterans learn of the many ways VA has to help them afford the health care they have earned."

Also eligible for no-cost VA care are most veterans who recently returned from a combat zone. They are entitled to five years of free VA care. The five-year "clock" begins with their discharge from the military, not their departure from the combat zone. 

Each VA medical center across the country has an enrollment coordinator available to provide veterans information about these programs. Veterans may also contact VA's Health Benefits Service Center at (877) 222-VETS, or 8387, or visit the VA health eligibility Web site at (Courtesy of VA)  
Release No. 01-02-09  Jan. 15, 2009

Sent by Bill Carmena


Juan Reynosa's Environmental Mission: You Voted: Now What?
By Kristina Rizga


December 15, 2008
This article was jointly published by The Nation and WireTap magazine. 

If you talk to the 27-year-old community organizer Juan Reynosa, it becomes obvious why the rhetoric of President-elect Obama mobilized a record number of young voters. Similar to many of his peers, Juan is tired of hearing what he calls the "endless gloom-and-doom scenarios." When he organizes young people in Albuquerque or in his native rural town of Hobbs, New Mexico, he wants to talk about solutions and hope. He doesn't dwell on polar bears drowning--he wants to talk about how young people around the country are retrofitting old, polluting buildings, putting on biodiesel-powered concerts and pushing their cities to support municipal green jobs programs.

This summer, the League of United Latin American Citizens asked Reynosa, the field director of New Mexico Youth Organized (NMYO), to speak to a group of Latino teenagers
about the environment and sustainability. He entered a dark, stuffy classroom filled with more than forty 13- to 17-year-olds, looking at slides of stranded polar bears on the
melting ice caps accompanied by a lecture on the end of human civilization. While the numbers and facts were urgent and terrifying, kids were falling asleep. As someone who'd been organizing young people since 2001, Reynosa knew that pushing teens into the arena of civic action required translating tedious data into engaging stories--and it wasn't happening

Many teenagers today have grown up uploading their opinions, pictures, blog posts and reviews. They expect to participate, to interact. Reynosa and his co-worker Cyrys Gould opened the blinds and windows. "We just asked a lot of questions," Reynosa explains, "and talked about what they could do.... At the end, one young person said, 'I'm going to grow my own garden.' Another said, 'I'll save my allowance to buy some organic food.' Another high school student wanted to open a green club in his school," Reynosa recalls. The best way to
engage young people is not to lecture them but to genuinely solicit and respect their opinion, Reynosa explains.

As field director, Reynosa spends most of his days in the community with high school students, Native American tribes, business club members and audiences at hip-hop shows, having conversations about climate change and, given the current economic recession, a unique opportunity to build a new, green economy that will lift people out of poverty and expand the middle class. While most well-known environmental groups focus on nature preservation and animal protection, for Reynosa the environmental movement is strictly about social justice, first and foremost.

Reynosa grew up in the small, rural town of Hobbs in southeast New Mexico with an ever-present stench of gas in the air and oil delivery pipelines sticking out of the ground. More than 42 percent of Hobbs's 30,000 inhabitants are Latinos, with 24 percent of the city's residents living below the poverty level. Most well-paying jobs--close to 6,000 in 2007--are in gas, oil and mineral mining industries. "When I mention to people where I'm from, they say, 'It's the stinkiest town I've ever been in!'" Reynosa says. When he was a child, an Exxon gas tanker corroded and the contents leached into the water table. Some people got sick. When Reynosa visited his family for the Fourth of July this year and they decided to step outside to look at fireworks, they had to keep moving to different spots to avoid the pungent smell of gas.

Despite the health risks, most jobs in Hobbs--well-paying or not--are in polluting industries. Reynosa's father, Mario Reynosa, worked most of his life at Sunoco Oil Company. "It's a very dangerous job. They work very long hours. Some end up using drugs to stay up. It's just a bad environment--not very well regulated at all," Reynosa says. His mother, Elizabeth Gonzalez, worked in a uniform cleaning factory that he calls a "sweatshop." "There was very poor ventilation, bad lighting and no one was allowed to speak Spanish," he explains. Reynosa wants his seven nephews and nieces to have better
opportunities. He wants cleaner air in New Mexico and jobs that don't make people sick.

Reynosa took some environmental science classes in high school, and in college he decided to focus on the ecology and humans full-time. "My friends and I had high aspirations in
college. We wanted to secure jobs with big companies or publish a big book. No one talked about becoming a community organizer," he syas with a laugh.

In 2001, he went to an antiwar protest organized by the League of Young Voters chapter in New Mexico that later evolved into NMYO. He got hooked. "After a while it [activism], feels so addictive," Reynosa says. He also worked with some environmental groups on campus. After graduation, Reynosa continued to volunteer with the League while holding
different day jobs.

Paid contracts or full-time jobs usually get offered to the most active volunteers first. By 2007, Reynosa started doing contract work for NMYO and soon became a full-time field
organizer. Now he spends his days raising awareness about the potential of a new, green economy, recruits volunteers to work on green projects and events, and works with city and
state legislators to help push funding for green jobs training programs. A recent NMYO and 1Sky study found that nationally, the energy efficiency and renewable sub-industry alone supported 8.5 million jobs with more than $47 billion in tax revenues in 2006.

NMYO and community allies relied on the study to help craft a policy bill with the city legislators in Albuquerque that proposes to train more than 100 young people for green jobs
next year. NMYO is also working with state legislators to introduce similar bills throughout New Mexico next year. That's good news for the 1.7 million youth nationally who were not in school and were out of work in 2005.

This year, Reynosa and NMYO also registered voters. "I've had so many friends who voted for the first time.... People really want to be involved--which is a big, good thing. They
don't want to give up their careers just yet but definitely want to volunteer, to give their time," he says. Reynosa hopes that some of the 3.4 million first-time, young voters will be engaged by activism to get involved in whatever feels right to them. "Just start somewhere-- green business, sustainability, community garden, helping out in a homeless shelter, local church.... So many groups will welcome you with open arms. Just try it."

When Reynosa was looking for a way to become involved with community service in college, he talked to his friends, read local blogs, alternative weeklies, local newspapers and looked for fliers on campus for potential leads. "I'm always out there putting out fliers," he says. He believes those volunteering experiences will get some people addicted to
public-service work. "We are all very capable of doing great things, and those opportunities are out there waiting for us. And once you get involved, there is a snowball effect-- everything gets bigger and better."

[Kristina Rizga is the executive editor of WireTap, a political youth magazine, project director of and a member of the editorial board of The Nation.]

Dorinda Moreno 



United States National Parks Services

Hispanic Heritage Parks, An Iberian Project
Joseph P. Sanchez, Director, Spanish Colonial Research Center
Gabaldon National Campground in eastern Arizona
Tapia, California State Park


Editor: In the fall a documentary series on our National Parks will be aired on PBS stations. The historical information in this section should help in evaluating the series, in terms of exclusion or inclusion of Hispanics.  Burns history of exclusion of the Latino presence is well documented in his works.

The statement below by Burns can be used as a yardstick: 


"Just as many of the lands that make up today's national parks were the spiritual homes for the indigenous tribes who lived there, they had a profound and often spiritual impact on the settlers who first saw them and on the visionaries who fought tirelessly to preserve them as the common
property of the American people," Ken Burns.


Note:  Burns does not say explorers or colonizers who first saw them  . .  but settlers.  This limits who he would HAVE to include.  By this exclusion, Burns does not have to make reference to the early presence of the Spanish, instead he can focus on those who took over areas that had been previously settled by the Spanish. It should be our task to question why the presence of tribal groups were included, but not the contributions of the European Spanish.  Both groups are our ancestors, and both groups contributed to the heritage and history of the United States. 

Thank you to Gil Armijo and William Tapia for sharing their family connections to the Parks systems.



Hispanic Heritage Parks, An Iberian Project
by the National Park Service, 
Department of the Interior

The National Park Service preserves and interprets the heritage of our nation. This heritage includes the history of the Spanish Colonial epoch.

Information on America's legacy (introduction into the National Park System), the Iberian Connection (a glimpse of some units of the NPS with a connection to Iberia), and parks related to Hispanic heritage are the main topics highlighted below. 

America's Legacy: The National Park Service

The National Park Service preserves and interprets our nation’s rich heritage through 388 units (parks) that comprise the National Park System. This is a brief introduction to the “best idea that America ever had.”

America’s National Park System comprises 388 areas and covers more than 84 million acres in 49 states, the District of Columbia, American Samoa, Guam, Puerto Rico, Saipan, and the Virgin Islands. The annual visitation is over 286 million.

Over 23,000 professionals including: naturalists, foresters, engineers, biologists geologists, historians, archeologists, uides, rangers, administrative and support staff. 

While the National Park Service is perhaps best known for Park Rangers and caring for western wilderness parks where millions of Americans and international visitors head for memorable family vacations, the National Park Service also preserves unimpaired the natural and cultural resources and values of the national park system for the enjoyment, education, and inspiration of this, and future generations.

America's National Parks are:
Places where you can walk the battlefield that changed the tide of the American Civil War 
or learn about the man who made civil rights a reality. 
Places that help us remember the pain, historical personages, and the places that forged the American character.
Places that help us learn from ancient civilizations and get away from civilization altogether.
Places with faces – historical, curious and furious and wide open spaces.
Places with inspiring stories.
Places in big cities and small towns and places that give us stories to tell. 

Visit web pages containing information about the hundreds of NPS units at 

An Iberian Connection

The rich Hispanic heritage that exists in different parts of our country – from Puerto Rico to the vast expanses of Alaska – has a direct connection to the Iberian Peninsula. This presentation assists you in experiencing the Hispanic heritage that is preserved and interpreted in some units of the National Park System.

Modern day Portugal and Spain make up the Iberian Peninsula. Iberia is surrounded by water except for its northern boundary where the Pyrenees divide Spain and France. To the east is the Mediterranean Sea and to the west the Atlantic Ocean. The southernmost point of Spain is separated from northern Africa by the Strait of Gibraltar. During the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries two nations, Portugal and Spain, pioneered the European discovery of sea routes that were the first channels of interaction between all of the world's continents, beginning the process of globalization in which we live in today.

The National Park Service dedicates itself to the preservation and interpretation of the heritage of the United States-- a multidimensional heritage represented by 388 units (parks). This multidimensional heritage includes the history of the Spanish Colonial epoch, whose importance is preserved in various units of the system of parks. This important chapter of this North American country is shared with you through the NPS units below.

San Juan National Historic Site – Puerto Rico
This site commemorates the 16th century establishment of one of Spain’s grandest fortifications in the Caribbean, which ran its course from the Spanish Colonial period to the American takeover during the Spanish-American War in 1898. 

Biscayne National Park – Florida
The park interprets the Spanish influence on the Tequesta tribe demonstrating that the European presence may have led to political consolidation among them, as well as the influence that introduction of Spanish goods had on the cultural elements of these peoples.

De Soto National Memorial – Florida
The landing of the Spanish Explorer Hernando de Soto in Florida in 1539 and the first extensive organized exploration of what is now the southeastern U.S. by Europeans are commemorated here.

Castillo de San Marcos National Monument – Florida
In order to provide protection to the fledgling settlement of St. Augustine, this fort with its walls of 10 meters in height was constructed during the years 1672 and 1697. Its purpose was to protect the Spanish claims against the attacks and interests of their French and English rivals. 

Fort Matanzas National Monument -- Florida
This site interprets the history of the Spanish occupation of Florida and the interests and intents of the English to overpower the Spanish in the control of Florida.

San Antonio Missions National Historical Park – Texas 
The park presents the history of the Spanish missionary period during the 18th and 19th centuries in its four missions in the Province of Texas -- Concepción, San José, San Juan and San Francisco -- whose churches still provide religious services to their communicants.

Pecos National Historical Park -- New Mexico
This park presents the history of Spanish exploration in the region during the 16th century as well as the history of the Spanish missionary efforts during two centuries -- 1630 - 1830. 

Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument -- New Mexico
The history of the Spanish missionary period in three Indian Pueblos -- Abó, Quarai and Gran Quivira -- during the 17th century is presented at the three sites.

El Morro National Monument – New Mexico
“Inscription Rock” is a soft sandstone monolith, rising 200 feet above the valley floor, on which are carved hundreds of inscriptions of historical personages dating from the Spanish Colonial period to the territorial days.

Coronado National Memorial – Arizona
The first European explorations of the Southwestern U.S. by Francisco Vásquez de Coronado in 1540 - 1542, are commemorated and interpreted at the site, which is near the point of entrance in what is now the United States.

Tumacacori National Historical Park -- Arizona
The park commemorates the missionary story in the northern end of a chain of Jesuits and Franciscan missions that led to the Spanish settlement of the Sonora-Arizona region.

Cabrillo National Monument -- California
In the year 1542 the Portuguese, Juan Rodríguez de Cabrillo, sailing under the flag of Spain arrived by sea at this point defined today as Cabrillo National Monument. This story of the discovery of the coast of California is preserved and interpreted there.

Channel Islands National Park – California
The first expedition in the 16th century by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo along the coast of California is represented and interpreted at the park. The remains of Cabrillo are buried in San Miguel Island, one of the Channel Islands.

John Muir National Historical Site -- California
This site interprets the late Spanish Colonial and early Mexican period history of this area of the Province of California. The site provides a fine example of Spanish Colonial architecture in the Martínez House.

Point Reyes National Seashore – California
The seashore preserves an important part of the western coast of the United States and commemorates the 1595 shipwreck of the San Agustín, a Manila galleon, commanded by Sebastían Rodríguez Cermeño.

Fort Point National Historic Site -- California
The original fort was constructed on this site during the years 1793 – 1794 to augment the defense of the Presidio of San Francisco founded in 1776 against British, Russian and Anglo-American expansion.

Parks with Hispanic Heritage 
Choose from a list of National Park Service Units, with Hispanic heritage themes, below to view information about them:
Biscayne NP
Cabrillo NM
Castillo de San Marcos NM
Chamizal NM
Channel Islands NP
Coronado NMem
De Soto NMem
Dry Tortugas NP
El Morro NM
Fort Matanzas NM
Fort Point NHS
Golden Gate NRA
Gulf Islands NS
John Muir HHS
Juan Bautista de Anza NHT
Padre Island NS
Palo Alto Battlefield NHS
Pecos NHP
Point Reyes NS
Salinas Pueblo Missions NM
Salt River Bay NHPEP
San Antonio Missions NHP
San Juan NHS
Tumacacori NHP

For additional information on all Spanish Colonial Heritage sites within the National Park Service, visit the Spanish Colonial Research Center. 

Credits: The original presentation in CD ROM format was produced and arranged by Ernest W. Ortega, State Director-New Mexico, and Patricia Pacheco Turley, Public Affairs Specialist, Regional Director’s Office, Intermountain Region. Textual and linguistic support was provided by Dr. Joseph Sánchez, Dr. Jerry Gurulé and Edwina Abreu of the Spanish Colonial Research Center, NPS, at the University of New Mexico. Park information was assembled by John Lujan, Superintendent, El Malpaís National Monument. The presentation was adapted for web page compatibility by Eric Sheetz, Information Technology Specialist, OCIO, NPS, Washington, D.C.

Information sent by Rafael Ojeda


Joseph P. Sanchez, Director 
Spanish Colonial Research Center

National Parks Service

The Spanish Colonial Research Center (SCRC), publisher of CLAHR, was established by the National Park Service (NPS) in 1986 in partnership with the University of New Mexico. Directed by Dr. Joseph P. Sánchez, the center facilitates the research requirements of Spanish Colonial Heritage Sites of the National Park Service as well as other pertinent local, state, and regional entities. 

The center also cooperates with research organizations in Spain, Portugal, Mexico, and other Latin American countries to further the study of colonial Luso-Hispano history. 

The SCRC has collected thousands of microfilmed colonial documents, maps, architectural plans, and sketches from Spanish and Mexican archives. This invaluable collection provides an essential source of information for those interested in colonial Latin American history. 

Dr Joseph Sanchez, is Un Cabellero baja la Orden de Isabella La Catholica.  
He the the Director of the National Parks for Hispanic Historical dept.  

His published works include: 

“The Rio Abajo Frontier, 1540-1692,”  
“Spanish Bluecoats: The Catalonian Volunteers in Northwestern New Spain, 1767-1810,” 
“The Aztec Chronicles: The True History of Christopher Columbus by Quilaztli of Texcoco,” 
“Explorers, Traders, and Slavers: Forging the Old Spanish Train, 1678-1850, ” 
“Don Fernando Duran y Chaves's Legacy: A History of the Atrisco Land Grant, 1693-1968,” 
“Exploradores, comerciantes y tratantes de esclavos: la forja de la Vieja Ruta Española, 1678-1859.”

Information about Dr. Joseph Sanchez

Mail correspondence: 
Joseph P Sanchez, Director
Spanish Colonial Research Center, NPS, MSC05 3020
Zimmerman Library 
1 University of New Mexico
Albuquerque NM 87131-0001 

For further information about the Spanish Colonial Research Center, please contact staff members at (505)346-2890; 
fax: (505)277-4603; 

Sent by "Buen Exito". . .  Rafael Ojeda.


Gabaldon National Campground, Arizona

The Gabaldon National Campground in eastern Arizona is named after my grandfather Juan Gabaldon in honor of his 40 years of service with the National Forest Service. He was first generation, arriving in the U.S. when his father Pedro Gabaldon arrived here from Spain through Florida.

The site is extraordinarily beautiful.  It is at the foothill of a 10,000 foot peak with a large meadow that with he summer rains is alive with a diverse bounty of mountain wildflowers. 

Sent by Gil. Armijo



TAPIA  Park, a California State Park

Good morning Mimi and Happy New Year to you and all your family.   
I just thought I'd bring to your attention the beautiful Californnia State park TAPIA PARK. It is in the Malibu area which at one time was part of the Tapia Ranch. You can Google Tapia Park for more information about the park. In has a stream that runs though it and a picnic ground that is a favorite of Los Angeles residents.
May this year bring you good health and happiness and may God bless you and all the good work you do on your website.
Cordially, William Tapia
3720 Shinarump Drive,
Golden Vally, AZ 86413


Tech Innovator and Entrepreneur David Segura
Lydia Villa-Komaroff, Breaking Barriers: Molecular Biologist Blazes New Trails
Border Businesses Thrive amid Recession, Violence
Living Under the Trees


A Vision for Change: Tech Innovator and Entrepreneur David Segura 
He was young, charismatic, and making great money at a Fortune 500 company. At 23, Detroit-native David Segura was living the good life.

But like so many entrepreneurs, Mr. Segura had fire in his heart and a yearning to do something more. He walked away from his job at Ford Motor Co., where his father and grandfather were both executives, in search of something more personally enriching.

More than a decade later, there's no doubt that he made the right move.

The affable Mr. Segura, founder and CEO of the $107 million company VisionIT, won the Hispanic Business Media 2008 Entrepreneur of the Year (EOY) award, in a thrilling ceremony at the Millennium Biltmore Hotel in Los Angeles.

"We have been able to accomplish so much in such a short period of time," Mr. Segura said. "We are now a destination for top-notch people."

VisionIT, a staffing and service firm based out of Detroit, Michigan, acts as a type of IT general contractor, gathering suppliers together for major companies and government entities.

Formed 11 years ago, VisionIT provides IT staffing, vendor management, and contract services to many Fortune 500 corporations and major government agencies. Segura's clients include EDS, an HP company, as well as the city of New Orleans and Detroit Public Schools.

The company's success has resulted in revenues soaring from about $6 million in 2003 to $107 million in 2007. The company is on track to increase revenues another 10 percent by the end of 2008. With 10 offices nationwide, the company now has 850 employees and through its subcontractors manages more than 1,500 IT professionals.

It's been a dramatic and meteoric rise for Mr. Segura, who started the company with $100, "a prayer," and a defiance of expectations. Mr. Segura, 38, came from a long line of Ford Motor Company executives. His father and grandfather worked more than 70 years combined as managers at the company. The expectations were high.

"They wanted me to be an executive at Ford," Mr. Segura recalled.

For a time, he was set out to follow in their first steps. After earning a bachelor's degree in computer science from the University of Michigan-Dearborn in 1993, Mr. Segura landed a job at Ford, as Systems Engineer and Project Team Leader.

He was part of a team that wrote the original technology for vendor management software at Ford.

Despite his success, satisfaction remained elusive. He noticed that many Hispanics, African-Americans, and Native-Americans were under-represented in the world of information technology. Somehow, he wanted to reach them.

"I can make a bigger impact in the community," Mr. Segura said.

He began to volunteer his time, teaching technology to inner-city Detroit youth. Eventually he left his job, and with the help of an investor, started VisionIT in 1997.

Through strategic deal-making, VisionIT skyrocketed to phenomenal success through a series of key partnerships, including Ball Park brands, their first major client.

Despite the success, Mr. Segura has not lost sight of his desire to give back. One of his company's main goals is to help minorities understand and master the world of IT through internships, scholarships and hiring practices.

In addition to the work he does through his company, Mr. Segura is also a founder and current vice chairman of the Hispanic IT Executive Council, the country's first professional, senior-level IT organization for Hispanics.

Christine Rice, Mr. Segura's sister, remembers praying with her brother many moons ago before he started the company, as he tried to figure out his calling.

"It has been a tremendous journey," said Ms. Rice, who is president of the company. "Being an entrepreneur takes a lot of hard work. Nothing is easy. It's a sacrifice."

No one knows that better than Mr. Segura. He's battled the odds his whole life. Whether it's being a varsity Hispanic basketball player at his high school or becoming a whiz in the traditionally Hispanic under-represented world of information technology.

"I like breaking stereotypes," he said, with a proud smile.

For more stories covering the world of technology, please see Hispanic Business' Tech Channel.  Source: Dec. 3, 2008 (c) 2008. All rights reserved


Lydia Villa-Komaroff
Breaking Barriers: World-Renowned Molecular Biologist Blazes New Trails
Jan. 7, 2009, Joshua Molina--Associate Editor, Hispanic Business Magazine


Troubled by her low chemistry grades, a young girl by the name of Lydia Villa turned to her adviser at the University of Washington for some career direction. She got it. But not in the way she expected.

"He turned to me and said, 'of course you are doing badly. Don't you know that women don't do well in chemistry'?" she recalled.Puzzled and confused over the blunt comment, she changed her major to biology.

"It wasn't until several years later that I realized how inappropriate that comment was," she said.  But that misguided advice only served to motivate the New Mexico native into becoming one of the country's foremost and influential scientists.

In an extravagant ceremony with more than 700 people in attendance, Lydia Villa-Komaroff won Hispanic Business Media's Lifetime Achievement Award, at the 18th Annual Awards gala at the Millennium Hotel in Los Angeles.

The honor was in recognition of Ms. Villa-Komaroff's stream of scientific achievements.

Only the third Mexican-American woman to earn a doctorate in science from an American university, Ms. Villa-Komaroff has led or been part of teams that have made some revolutionary breakthroughs in molecular biology.
Most notably, Ms. Villa-Komaroff set the scientific world on fire in 1978 when she showed how bacteria could make insulin, an amazing breakthrough that has assisted diabetes patients around the globe.

The discovery launched her career into the scientific heights and helped erase a stigma that she had long sought to eliminate.

"If you ask a child to imagine a scientist, the first thing they think of is a bald white man with glasses in a white coat," Ms. Villa-Komaroff said. "Scientists come in all shapes, colors and sizes."

The eldest of six children, Ms. Villa-Komaroff is currently CEO of Cytonome, a biotechnology company building the first optical human cell sorter for therapeutic use, particularly for bone-marrow transplants. One of the biggest challenges with bone-marrow transplants is that the body's immune system often rejects the new marrow. The new cell sorter will separate the bad cells that attack one another from the good ones, which assist in the transplant.

"This will be huge in the field," Ms. Villa-Komaroff said.  The 61-year-old has held several titles during her illustrious career. She holds a doctorate from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

She has held appointments at MIT, Harvard University, University of Massachusetts Medical School and Harvard Medical School, throughout her 20-year research career.

But some of her most meaningful work, she said, was as the founder of the Society for the Advancement of Chicano and Native Americans in Science. She has continued to seek and recruit Hispanics into the sciences and encourage students to complete their degrees.

"Every now and then someone will come up to me and say 'I am in graduate school because of a talk I heard' " Ms. Villa-Komaroff said, "and that is very, very rewarding." 

To view a photo gallery featuring 2008 Lifetime Achievement Award winner Lydia Villa-Komaroff, and other luminaries in attendance at Hispanic Business Media's EOY awards ceremony, visit

Source: HISPANIC BUSINESS Magazine and, Copyright (c) 2008 All Rights Reserved.  Sent by Dorinda Moreno



Border Businesses Thrive amid Recession, Violence
Commerce News, January 13, 2009


For some businesses on this side of the US-Mexico border, not all is doom and gloom. Offering a 2 for 1 deal like a Happy Hour special, a Nissan dealership in Laredo, Texas, is doing a brisk business with Mexican customers. With the purchase of an Armada SUV from Paul Young`s Family Nissan of Laredo, buyers are given an Altima car to take home for three years.

Company salesman Jaime Aguilar said Armada sales have jumped three or four hundred percent in recent months. Of 67 Armadas sold, Aguilar said, about half were purchased by Mexican nationals, including residents of Queretaro, Monterrey and Nuevo Laredo. Mexican comedian Carlos Villagran even snatched up one of the specials, the salesman said.

“No down payment is (always) required,” Aguilar affirmed, adding many Mexican customers obtain bank loans.

The Laredo Nissan dealership’s new bonanza constrasts with the luck of counterparts across the border. In Mexico, new auto sales dipped 6.8 percent in 2008.

Under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Mexican citizens are allowed to import new automobiles and trucks tariff-free as long as they obtain a certificate of origin that shows their new vehicle was manufactured in one of the three NAFTA member nations. Mexican citizens still must pay a 15 percent value-added tax in addition to registration and import fees on new vehicles.

Hundreds of miles to the north, in El Paso, Texas, another business sector that is witnessing bust elsewhere in the US is exhibiting suprising vibrancy. El Paso real estate agents report a healthy market due in good measure to the presence of home and property buyers from Ciudad Juarez, many of whom are presumably fleeing the violence that claimed more than
1,600 lives in their city in 2008.

Although no precise numbers are immediately available on the percentage of new homebuyers who hail from El Paso’s sister city, some agents report showing more and more homes to interested Juarenses.

El Paso business leaders say other infusions of new cash from Ciudad Juarez are circulating in the local economy. For instance, real estate broker Juan Uribe said investors from Ciudad Juarez recently financed the construction of five shopping centers in the Texas border city. According to the El Paso Hispanic Chamber of Commerce, a dozen new Mexican-owned businesses have opened their doors on US soil.

Like El Paso, different migration and capital flight trends emerged around San Diego and Laredo during the last four or five years, as a still-undetermined number of well-off Mexicans fled narco-fanned violence in Tijuana and Nuevo Laredo.

Sources: Agencia Reforma, January 12 and 13, 2009. Articles by Martha
Cazares and Sara Cantera. Dallas Morning News, January 12, 2009. Article
by Alfredo Corchado and Monica Ortiz Uribe. WorldNow and KVIA (El Paso),
January 10, 2009. Article by Angela Kocherga.

Frontera NorteSur (FNS): on-line, U.S.-Mexico border news Center for Latin American and Border Studies New Mexico State University Las Cruces, New Mexico

For a free electronic subscription email 


Living Under the Trees
A photoessay by David Bacon
From Contexts, journal of the American Sociological Association


About 30 million Mexicans survive on less than 30 pesos per day-not quite $3. The minimum wage is 45 pesos per day. The Mexican federal government estimates that 37.7 percent of its 106 million citizens-40 million people-live in poverty. Some 25 million, or 23.6 percent, live in extreme poverty. In rural Mexico, more than 10 million people have a daily income of less than 12 pesos-a little more than one dollar.

It's no accident the state of Oaxaca is one of the main starting points for the current stream of Mexican migrants coming to the United States. Extreme poverty encompasses 75 percent of its 3.4 million residents, according to EDUCA, a Mexican education and development organization. 

Thousands of indigenous people leave Oaxaca's hillside villages for the United States every year, not only for economic reasons but also because a repressive political system thwarts the kind of economic development that could lift incomes in the poorest rural areas. Lack of development pushes people off the land. The majority of Oaxacans are indigenous people-that is, they belong to communities and ethnic groups that existed long before Columbus landed in the Caribbean. They speak 23 different languages.

"Migration is a necessity, not a choice," explained Romualdo Juan Gutierrez Cortez, a teacher in Santiago Juxtlahuaca, in Oaxaca's rural Mixteca region. "It is disheartening to see a student go through many hardships to get an education here in Mexico and become a professional, and then later in the United States do manual labor. Sometimes those with an education are working side-by-side with others who do not even know how to read."

In California, migrants have become the majority of people working in the fields. Settlements of Triquis, Mixtecs, Chatinos, and other indigenous groups are dispersed in a Oaxacan diaspora. This movement of people has created larger transnational communities, bound together by shared culture and language, and the social organizations people bring with them from place to place.

Living Under the Trees is a project that documents the experiences and conditions of indigenous farm worker communities. It focuses on social movements in indigenous communities and how indigenous culture helps communities survive and enjoy life. The project's purpose is to win public support for policies to help those communities by putting a human face on conditions and providing a forum in which people speak for themselves. It is a joint effort of California Rural Legal Assistance, its Indigenous Farm Worker Project, and the Indigenous Front of Binational Organizations. An exhibition of photographs and oral history panels from this project has been touring throughout California for two years.

These particular photographs highlight the relationship between community residents and their surroundings, as well as their relations with each other. They show situations of extreme poverty, but are also intended to depict people who are capable of changing conditions, by organizing themselves and creating social change. 

David Bacon is a documentary photographer and journalist. He is the author of Illegal People How Globalization Creates Migration and Criminalizes Immigrants. All photos and text are © David Bacon. s
Articles and images on immigration, see

See also the photodocumentary on indigenous migration to the US Communities Without Borders (Cornell University/ILR Press, 2006) 

See also The Children of NAFTA, Labor Wars on the U.S./Mexico Border (University of California, 2004) 

David Bacon, Photographs and Stories 
Sent by Dr. Carlos Muñoz, Jr.



Francisco  Cigarroa, 1st Hispanic named as Chancellor of a University system
The Hispanic Development Fund of Greater Kansas City



First Hispanic in the nation to be named as Chancellor 
of a University system

I do not know if you have heard of this or not, but know you will be thrilled.  Regents for the University of Texas System officially named Francisco  Cigarroa, a transplant surgeon from Laredo, as chancellor on Friday,  making him the first Hispanic in the nation to lead a large public  university system.  

Article by Melissa Ludwig, found at:

Sent by Ruth Hoese


Francisco Cigarroa named sole finalist for UT chancellor
By Ralph K.M. Haurwitz, Claire Osborn
Friday, December 19, 2008
In South Texas, some Spanish speakers call Francisco Cigarroa the surgeon with "manos de oro" — hands of gold. On Thursday, the governing board of the University of Texas System decided that Cigarroa also has the right touch to lead the system's nine academic and six health campuses, naming him the sole finalist for chancellor.
The vote by the Board of Regents, meeting in Austin, was unanimous for Cigarroa, 51, a pediatric transplant surgeon from a Laredo-based family of doctors who has been president of the UT Health Science Center at San Antonio since 2000.
Although state law requires the regents to wait 21 days before firming up the appointment, Cigarroa is all but certain to become the next chief executive of the state's largest and most prestigious university system, with an annual operating budget of $11.5 billion, more than 194,000 students and more than 81,000 employees.
"He's a wonderful academician, he's a top surgeon and he's been very successful as president of the health science center," said Raymund Paredes, the state's higher education commissioner. "He's turned that center into a major research institution. He's got the kind of academic stature you would want in a chancellor of the UT System."
The regents settled on Cigarroa after a nearly five-hour, closed-door session during which they interviewed him and one other candidate, John Montford, a telecommunications lobbyist who was previously chancellor of the Texas Tech University System and a state senator.
The selection of Cigarroa is something of a setback for Gov. Rick Perry, who made a rare comment on a pending job search when he said in April that Montford would make a good chancellor.
Regent Janiece Longoria, perhaps alluding to some division of opinion among the regents, said the choice was "a very difficult decision." Regents James Huffines, Robert Rowling and Paul Foster said both candidates were outstanding.
More than 50 nominations and applications were considered for the position.
Anthony de Bruyn, a spokesman for the UT System, said Cigarroa's salary and start date would be determined after the 21-day period. Mark Yudof, who resigned in June to lead the University of California system, was paid $775,000 a year.
Cigarroa was attending a retreat of UT System presidents and regents Thursday evening at the Hyatt Regency Lost Pines Resort near Bastrop and could not be reached for comment.
He would be the first Hispanic chancellor for the UT System and was the first Hispanic to lead a major academic health center in the United States. He announced in October that he would be stepping down as president to spend more time in the operating room, but it's doubtful the chancellorship would afford him much time for surgery.
Colleagues, philanthropists and others who know Cigarroa described him as a consensus-builder who wouldn't flinch from tough decisions. Such qualities could come in handy, as the system is facing challenges on several fronts.
The system's endowments have dropped in value by several billion dollars as a result of the worldwide economic meltdown, and the system has been sued for authorizing the layoffs of 3,800 employees at the UT Medical Branch in Galveston.
With a state legislative session beginning next month, system officials will try again to scale back a state law guaranteeing admission to Texas high school students graduating in the top 10 percent of their class.
Joe Long, an Austin businessman and philanthropist who with his wife, Teresa, donated $25 million to the San Antonio health center in 2007, said he had worked with Cigarroa for seven or eight years and pronounced him more than up to the task of leading the system.
"He understands the political process and what he needs to do to persuade the Legislature to part with money," Long said.
William Henrich , dean of medicine and vice president of medical affairs at the San Antonio center, said Cigarroa is among perhaps a dozen surgeons in the nation who have undergone intensive training in pediatric transplantation of kidneys and livers.
"He has been wonderful to work with," Henrich said. "His style is deliberative and consultative. But he is very courageous about making decisions, very much a consensus-builder, sincere in his relationships."
Cigarroa comes from a family of physicians. His father, Joaquin , who is in his 80s, still sees patients in Laredo. Three brothers are also doctors.
"He comes from a very distinguished family in Laredo," said state Sen. Jeff Wentworth, R-San Antonio, who described Cigarroa as an "articulate and superb spokesman" who has been a prodigious fundraiser for the health science center.
U.S. Sen. Kay Bailey Hutchison, R-Texas, said that, as a member of the Institute of Medicine, Cigarroa is a nationally recognized academic. She said he has had a "remarkable record of success, including nearly doubling research funding" at the health science center.
State Sen. Leticia Van de Putte , D-San Antonio, said Cigarroa moves easily in many circles: "He's the type of man comfortable with million-dollar donors and country clubs and with parents without health insurance who have to take public transportation to the hospital."

The Hispanic Development Fund of Greater Kansas City


This is a very interesting, some of those organization who are interested in set up a system to educate future Hispanics, might be interested in looking at the Kansas City model. 
Juan Marinez

The Hispanic Development Fund (HDF) has served the Greater Kansas City community since 1983. We currently have an Advisory Board of 10 individuals that meet on a monthly basis to select projects and funding levels. HDF has a current endowment of approximately $3 million that the Fund plans to grow to $4 million by 2010. 

Latino KC, is a local giving circle, is a group of philanthropic and civic-minded Latinos dedicated to making an impact to the well-being of the Kansas City Hispanic community that leverages the strength and power of a team beyond just the sum of the individuals. 


A Story of Identity-Making of a Mexican American Bilingual Educator in Texas

Editor:  Although the date is past, the focus research is on "identity-making" which I believe is needed for our youth . .  active, instead of re-active.    

The Center for Mexican American Studies Of the College of Liberal Arts at the University of Texas at Austin Presents Graduate Portfolio Plática Series Featuring:

Linda Guardia Jackson, Doctoral Candidate in Curriculum and Instruction with a Graduate Portfolio in Mexican American Studies

“Becoming an Activist Chicana Teacher: A Story of Identity-Making of a Mexican American Bilingual Educator in Texas”

In this portfolio plática, Linda Guardia Jackson presents the findings from a person-centered ethnography focused on an exemplary veteran Mexican American bilingual educator. The study, framed by Chicana feminist theories, examines her life history and classroom practices to explore the trajectory of identity-making.

Wednesday, January 28, 2009  12:00 noon – 1:00 p.m.
Cissy McDaniel Parker Dean’s Conference Room, George I. Sánchez Building 238

For more information about the Graduate Portfolio Program in Mexican American Studies, contact Luis Guevara, CMAS Program Coordinator at 512-475-6769 or visit the CMAS website at 

Center for Mexican American Studies
The University of Texas at Austin
West Mall Building 5.102
1 University Station F9200
Austin, TX 78712
(512) 471-4557
(512) 471-9639 Fax



Wickenburg Hispanic Pioneer Families by Julia Macias Brooks and Christine Maxa
Moctezuma's Children: Aztec Royalty Under Spanish Rule, 1520-1700
The Last Supper of Chicano Heroes, Selected Works of José Antonio Burciaga
Publications by University Presses
Full Text Online Libraries
Click to:  Hero Street, U.S.A. by Marcus Wilson
Click to: Chicano Drama by Jorge Huerta



Wickenburg Hispanic Pioneer Families 
by Julia Macias Brooks and Christine Maxa


Photo of Beatriz Garcia, born Vulture City, Territorial Arizona
First communion, 1895


Wickenburg was founded after the Gold strike in 1863 of Vulture Mine by Henry Wickenburg, the town founder.
  While the more flamboyant pages of Arizona history like to linger around Wickenburg’s gold mining days and the colorful characters and stories of the time, some of the town of Wickenburg’s most memorable moments of courage, faith, and public service come from its familias. Convinced they could find a better life than what the social inequities that roiled before the Mexican Revolution could offer, Hispanic pioneers traveled from their Sonora, Mexico homes to this northern reach of the Hispanic ranching frontier.  Authoress Julia Macias Brooks' great-great grandfather Ramon Macias arrived in 1857 to establish his 6M Ranch and she states, "our family has roots in those that followed by marriages."

Wickenburg Hispanic Pioneer Families – Nuestras Memorias celebrates Wickenburg’s rich cultural heritage with photographs of and anecdotes about the Mexican pioneers that helped tame this desert mining town, as well as their descendants that still live there today. These homesteaders established ranches along the fertile Hassayampa River; labored at the Vulture Mine; donated land for the town’s first school, St. Anthony Padua Catholic Church and the cemetery; and celebrated life with family and friends. These are the people who helped make Wickenburg the culturally rich town it is today. Meet the people, their stories, the legends, and the traditions that make Wickenburg the kind of place where people put down roots to stay.  

This city which was founded after the Gold strike in 1863 of Vulture Mine by Henry Wickenburg, our town founder.  

Size: 11 x 11 · Soft Cover ·160 Pages, Perfect Bound · Saddle Stitched
ISBN 978-0-9790814-1-5  Price $25.00
Contact Information: 602-370-7473
Jamax Publishers Press · P.O. Box 12054, Prescott, Arizona 86304
Contact authors, Julia Macias Brooks and Christine Maxa at: TIA@W3AZ.NET




Moctezuma's Children: Aztec Royalty Under Spanish Rule, 1520-1700
By Donald E. Chipman

This book furnishes us with a rich, valuable appreciation of the circumstance and heritage of the great Emperor Moctezuma Xocoyotl's most prestigious descendants." American Historical Review Though the Aztec Empire fell to Spain in 1521, three principal heirs of the last emperor, Moctezuma II, survived the conquest and were later acknowledged by the Spanish victors as reyes naturales (natural kings or monarchs) who possessed certain inalienable rights as Indian royalty. For their part, the descendants of Moctezuma II used Spanish law and customs to maintain and enhance their status throughout the colonial period, achieving titles of knighthood and nobility in Mexico and Spain. So respected were they that a Moctezuma descendant by marriage became Viceroy of New Spain (colonial Mexico's highest governmental office) in 1696. This authoritative history follows the fortunes of the principal heirs of Moctezuma II across nearly two centuries. Drawing on extensive research in both Mexican and Spanish archives, Donald E. Chipman shows how daughters Isabel and Mariana and son Pedro and their offspring used lawsuits, strategic marriages, and political maneuvers and alliances to gain pensions, rights of entailment, admission to military orders, and titles of nobility from the Spanish government. Chipman also discusses how the Moctezuma family history illuminates several larger issues in colonial Latin American history, including women's status and opportunities and trans-Atlantic relations between Spain and its New World colonies.
Published: Univ of Texas Press, 2005   ISBN 0292706286, 9780292706286   200 pages


The Last Supper of Chicano Heroes, 
Selected Works of José Antonio Burciaga

The Last Supper of Chicano Heroes
Selected Works of José Antonio Burciaga
José Antonio Burciaga; Edited by Mimi R. Gladstein; Daniel Chacón
256 pp. / 6.0 x 9.0 / 2008
Cloth (978-0-8165-2661-1) [s]
Paper (978-0-8165-2662-8)  

Widely considered one of the most important voices in the Chicano literary canon, José Antonio Burciaga was a pioneer who exposed inequities and cultural difficulties through humor, art, and deceptively simple prose. In this
anthology and tribute, Mimi Gladstein and Daniel Chacón bring together dozens of remarkable examples of Burciaga’s work. His work never demonstrates machismo or sexism, as he believed strongly that all Chicano voices are equally valuable. Best known for his books Weedee Peepo, Drink Cultura, and Undocumented Love, Burciaga was also a poet, cartoonist, founding member of the comedy troupe Cultura Clash, and a talented muralist whose well-known work “The Last Supper of Chicano Heroes” became almost more famous than the man. This first and only collection of Burciaga’s work features thirty-eight illustrations and incorporates previously unpublished essays and drawings, including selections from his manuscript “The Temple Gang,” a memoir he was writing at the time of his death. In addition, Gladstein and Chacón address Burciaga’s importance to Chicano letters. A joy to read, this rich compendium is an important contribution not only to Chicano literature but also to the preservation of the creative, spiritual, and political voice of a talented and passionate man. 

"Burciaga seeks the roots of his Chicano heritage in Mexico and Texas, telling today’s Mexican Americans how the Chicano movement has changed their lives for the better. His personal anecdotes of growing up a stranger to both of his native lands speak to today’s immigrants, especially the second and third generations."—Library Journal

University of Arizona Press





Mexican American Religions : Spirituality, Activism, and Culture
Author: Gaston Espinosa (Editor), Mario T. Garcia (Editor) 
Format: Hardcover 
Publish Date: July 2008 
ISBN-10: 0822340984 
ISBN-13: 9780822340980 
List Price: $94.95   Pages: 443  Publisher: Duke University  Press 

Book Details Summary: The title of this book is Mexican American Religions : Spirituality, Activism, and Culture and it was written by Gaston Espinosa (Editor), Mario T. Garcia (Editor). This edition of Mexican American Religions : Spirituality, Activism, and Culture is in a Hardcover format. This books publish date is July 2008 and it has a suggested retail price of $94.95. There are 443 pages in the book and it was published by Duke University Press. The 10 digit ISBN is 0822340984 and the 13 digit ISBN is 9780822340980.

A Dolores Huerta Reader
Author: Mario T. Garcia (Editor) 
Format: Paperback 
Publish Date: December 2008 
ISBN-10: 0826345131   ISBN-13: 9780826345134   List Price: $27.95 
Pages: 350   Publisher: Univ of New Mexico Press 

Book Details Summary: The title of this book is A Dolores Huerta Reader and it was written by Mario T. Garcia (Editor). This edition of A Dolores Huerta Reader is in a Paperback format. This books publish date is December 2008 and it has a suggested retail price of $27.95. There are 350 pages in the book and it was published by Univ of New Mexico Pr. The 10 digit ISBN is 0826345131 and the 13 digit ISBN is 9780826345134.

Catolicos : Resistance and Affirmation in Chicano Catholic History
Author: Mario T. Garcia 
Format: Hardcover   Publish Date: October 2008 
ISBN-10: 0292718403   ISBN-13: 9780292718401  List Price: $60.00 
Pages: 366  Publisher: University of Texas Press 

Book Details Summary: The title of this book is Catolicos : Resistance and Affirmation in Chicano Catholic History and it was written by Mario T. Garcia. This edition of Catolicos : Resistance and Affirmation in Chicano Catholic History is in a Hardcover format. This books publish date is October 2008 and it has a suggested retail price of $60.00. There are 366 pages in the book and it was published by University of Texas Press. The 10 digit ISBN is 0292718403 and the 13 digit ISBN is 9780292718401.

White But Not Equal
Mexican Americans, Jury Discrimination, and the Supreme Court
Ignacio M. García
248 pp. / 6.0 x 9.0 / 2008
Cloth (978-0-8165-2750-2) [s]  Paper (978-0-8165-2751-9) [s]
[December 2008 / University of Arizona Press] 

In 1952 in Edna, Texas, Pete Hernández, a twenty-one-year-old cotton picker, got into a fight with several men and was dragged from a tavern, robbed, and beaten. Upon reaching his home he collected his .22-caliber rifle, walked two miles back to the tavern, and shot one of the assailants. With forty eyewitnesses and a confession, the case appeared to be open and shut. Yet Hernández v. Texas turned into one of the nation’s most groundbreaking Supreme Court cases.

Ignacio García’s White But Not Equal explores this historic but mostly forgotten case, which became the first to recognize discrimination against Mexican Americans. Led by three dedicated Mexican American lawyers, the case argued for recognition of Mexican Americans under the 14th Amendment as a “class apart.” Despite a distinct history and culture, Mexican Americans were considered white by law during this period, yet in reality they were subjected to prejudice and discrimination. This was reflected in Hernández’s trial, in which none of the selected jurors were Mexican American. The concept of Latino identity began to shift as the demand for inclusion in the political and judicial system began.

García places the Hernández v. Texas case within a historical perspective and examines the changing Anglo-Mexican relationship. More than just a legal discussion, this book looks at the whole case from start to finish and examines all the major participants, placing the story within the larger issue of the fight for Mexican American civil rights.


Full Text Online Libraries - 25 Places to Read Free Books Online

Author: By Melissa Kahney
Published Aug 21, 2008
More School Choices: Westwood College Online 
Colorado Technical University Online

Think it's impossible to find free books online? Think again. There are tons of online libraries that provide fiction, nonfiction and reference books at no charge. Here is a list of the best 25 places to read free books online.

1. The Online Books Page
* Free Books on the Online Books Page
The University of Pennsylvania's Online Books Page is one of the best places to read free books online. There are more than 30,000 English works available. All of them are formatted nicely and can be read right on your computer.

2. Project Gutenberg
* Free Books at Project Gutenberg
Project Gutenberg is the original producer of free electronic books. There are currently more than 25,000 books in the site's online catalog and 100,000 more titles available from Gutenberg's many partners and affiliates.

3. Questia
* Free Books at Questia
Questia is probably best known as a resource for students and writers, but the site also hosts an outstanding library with more than 5,000 free books that can be read online. Offerings include classics and rare books.

4. Classic Book Library
* Free Books in the Classic Book Library
This free online library stocks the world's most treasured classics. Books are sorted by genre--children's literature, romance, mystery, science fiction and historical fiction--and include the writings of authors like L. Frank Baum and Jane Austen.

* Free Books at offers thousands of unabridged books that can be read for free online. All of the books are sorted by title. also includes links to sites that have free reference books, science books and biographies.

6. Internet Public Library
* Free Books in the Internet Public Library
The Internet Public Library is a great place to access magazines, newspapers and reference works. Site visitors can also find nearly 100 links that will take them to websites offering free books online. Links are updated on a regular basis and include descriptions that make it easy to find what you are looking for.

7. Classic Reader
* Free Books from Classic Reader
With nearly 4,000 free books, Classic Reader is a great place to find classic books, plays, poems and short stories. You can read the books for free on the site and add your own annotations.

8. Authorama
* Free Books at Authorama
Authorama features free books from a wide variety of authors. All of the books in this online library are public domain books in XHTML, which means that formatting and illustrations have been preserved. There are currently more than 100 free books available and new books are added on a regular basis.

* Free Books at is exactly what the name implies--a site for people who are bored online. The site offers thousands of free books can be stored on your computer and read online. Book offerings include but are not limited to American literature, British literature, children's books, cookbooks, textbooks and reference books.

10. Read Print
* Free Books at Read Print
Read Print is a free online library designed for students, teachers and readers of classic books. The well-organized site has thousands of free books sorted by author. Other site features include literature articles and a special section on Shakespeare.

11. The Literature Network
* Free Books from The Literature Network
The Literature Network has thousands of free books, short stories and poems that you can begin reading immediately. The site also includes a slew of author biographies, quizzes and user comments.

12. LibriVox
* Free Books at LibriVox
LibriVox is a unique online library that caters to both readers and listeners. The site offers free audio books as well as links to text versions that can be read online. Other site features include author bios, book summaries and links to additional book-related content.

13. Bartleby
* Free Books at Bartleby
Bartleby is one of those sites that you want to bookmark the moment you discover it. This Internet publisher has a huge collection of free books that can be read on your computer. Offerings include, but are not limited to: fiction, nonfiction, verse and reference works.

14. Classic Bookshelf
* Free Books on the Classic Bookshelf
The Classic Bookshelf is an especially nice place to read classic books online because of the site's easy readability program. Users can bring up the free book of their choice and decide how they want the screen to look. Things a reader can customize include the color of the page, the color of the text, margin size, print size and font.

* Free Books at
Although this website could be prettier, it is a good place to read free books online. The site has more than 1,000 books by hundreds of different authors. Offerings include the best of American, British and Irish literature.

16 Chest of Books
* Free Books in the Chest of Books
If fiction isn't your thing, Chest of Books is the place for you. This free online library has tons of nonfiction books on a wide range of topics, including art, business, computers, finance, gardening, health, history, home improvement, real estate, science, sports and travel.

* Free Books from has a great selection of free classic books that can be read for free online in a user-friendly interface. The site also features works from accomplished authors around the world. Reading categories include children's, classics, comedy, fiction, nonfiction, plays, poetry and sci fi.

18. Biblomania
* Free Books on Biblomania
Biblomania has over 2,000 novels, poems, short stories and plays that can be read for free online. New books are added every month. Biblomania also provides study guides, literature articles and a wide range of resources for students.

19. International Children's Digital Library
* Free Books from the International Children's Digital Library
The International Children's Digital Library Foundation has a growing collection of free books for children around the world. Books are available in multiple languages and most include user-submitted activities and other content that can be viewed in conjunction with the books.

20. Public Bookshelf
* Free Books on the Public Bookshelf
Public Bookshelf has something to suit you no matter what your interests. This online library gives users the chance to read classic books and discover new authors. Free book categories include but are not limited to fantasy novels, history books, mysteries, romance novels, teen fiction and horror stories. Public Bookshelf also features an impressive collection of nonfiction.

21. Perseus Digital Library
* Free Books in the Perseus Digital Library
Perseus Digital Library, from Tufts University, is an evolving digital library with a wide range of materials. New content is constantly being added. Current works include classics, modern English Literature and science papers.

22. DailyLit
* Free Books at DailyLit
DailyLit offers a unique service to people who want to read free books online. This site lets you choose the classic and contemporary books you want to read. Then, they send the books to you in installments via email or RSS feed.

* Free Books at is a wonderful place to find free novels online. Books are split into chapters so it is easy to remember where you left off. The site also offers a nice range of poetry, plays and picture books.

24. Page By Page Books
* Free Books from Page By Page Books
Page By Page Books features hundreds of classic books that can be read for free online. Books can be sought by author and title.

25. Lookybook
* Free Books at Lookybook
Lookybook is a fantastic resource for anyone who is searching for children's books. The site allows users to see entire books--including illustrations--for free. Lookybook also offers book reviews and the opportunity to buy the books you like.
School Choices for 'Online Libraries - 25 Places to Read Free Books Online':

* Westwood College Online
* Colorado Technical University Online
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Romero String Quartet
Channeling Mexican pop stars
Manuel Diosdado Castillo changed the face of San Antonio
Jorge Huerta, Ph.D., leading authority on contemporary Chicano theater

Romero String Quartet


Photo: Romero String Quartet
A veritable institution in the world of classical music, the quartet has dazzled countless audiences and won the raves of reviewers worldwide. Celedonio Romero, founder and creator of The Romeros guitar dynasty, died on May 8, 1996 in San Diego, California. As the family says, "the spirit of the quartet is him; all our concerts now will be to pay homage to him"; his sons and grandsons continue Celedonio's legacy.

To some fortunate musicians, it is given to rise to the peak of a musical art form; to some very few musicians, it is given to originate an art form. The Romeros have achieved both. In a lengthy feature article The New York Times said: "Collectively, they are the only classical guitar quartet of real stature in the world today; in fact, they virtually invented the format."

The legendary Celedonio Romero, with his sons Celin, Pepe and Angel, founded the internationally renowned ensemble known to millions as "The Royal Family of the Guitar." With the introduction of Celin's son, Celino, into the quartet in 1990, and Angel's son Lito joining his father in duo recital, The Romeros encompasses three generations of concert artists. To have so many virtuosi of the same instrument in one family is unique in the world of musical performance, and in the realm of the classical guitar it is absolutely without precedent.

Those who are privileged to hear these world-renowned musicians perform have the delightful opportunity to experience a musical phenomenon: "One of the enduring mysteries of musical talent is how skills seem to flow genetically from musical parent to musical child. In the Romero family the flow has been swift and unimpeded. The virtuosity of the four Romeros was uniformly solid and finely considered, as if these techniques had derived from a single mold" (The New York Times).

Celedonio Romero was a renowned soloist in Franco's Spain. As each of his sons reached the age of two or three, they began learning the guitar from their father. All of his sons had made their debuts in Spain by the time they were seven years old. In 1957, the family immigrated to the United States where "The Romeros" walked onto the world stage as its first guitar quartet while the boys were still in their teens. Since then The Romeros have given hundreds of concerts all over the world and have consistently dazzled audiences everywhere and have inspired enthusiastic praise from critics coast to coast. They continue to this day to produce music, which is extraordinary.

The sterling reputation of the Romeros has been continually confirmed by repeated appearances with virtually every major symphony orchestra in the United States including those of Boston, Cleveland, Chicago, Philadelphia, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Pittsburgh, Detroit and many others. The family has twice been invited to the White House; in 1983 they appeared at the Vatican in a special concert for His Holiness Pope John Paul II, and in 1986 they performed for His Royal Highness Prince Charles, Prince of Wales. Regular festival appearances include the Hollywood Bowl, Blossom, Wolf Trap, Saratoga, Flagstaff and Garden State.

After a performance at the prestigious Gewandhaus in Leipzig, Germany in November 1996 the Leipzig Volkszeitung stated "The Romeros: Guardians of the Holy Grail of the Classical Guitar. What the 'Three Tenors' are to the world of opera, The Romeros are to the classical guitar." Whether performing as a quartet, duet, or as soloists in recital and with symphony orchestra, The Romeros prevail as champions in the realm of classical guitar.

The 2001-2 season finds The Romeros performing in every corner of the United States. Orchestral engagements include the Louisiana Philharmonic, the Tacoma Symphony, the Philadelphia Chamber Soloists, and the San Diego Chamber Orchestra. The Quartet will also be found playing recitals in major cities around the US including Washington, DC, Indianapolis, St. Louis, and Charlottesville.

In addition to The Romeros' active performance schedule, the 2001-2 season offers their audiences the opportunity to see and hear the Romeros on TV and CD. September 2001 brought the national release of the KPBS/PBS biographical documentary "Los Romeros: The Royal Family of the Guitar" shown on Public Broadcast Stations throughout the US. The long awaited recital CD of The Romeros is scheduled for a Spring 2002 release. Consequently, there will be a release of Lorenzo Palomo's concerto for four guitars "Concierto de Cienfuegos", performed by The Romeros with Maestro Frühbeck de Burgos conducting the Real Orquesta Sinfonica.

His Royal Majesty King Juan Carlos I of Spain, knighted Pepe and Celin into the Order of "Isabel la Catolica", Spain's highest honor. The official ceremony took place at the University of Southern California on February 11, 2000, and included a gala concert performed by The Romeros.

The Romeros are extremely popular with college audiences and make regular appearances on university music series throughout the country as well as on the fine arts series nationwide. In New York they have appeared at Carnegie Hall, at Alice Tully Hall in Lincoln Center, at the Metropolitan Museum of Art's Grace Rainey Rogers Auditorium, at the Cloisters in upper Manhattan's Fort Tryon Park and on the distinguished Artists Series at Rockefeller University. Additionally, they regularly tour throughout Europe and the Far East playing in every major city. Their most recent tours of Europe and the Orient included more than forty concerts; virtually all of the performances were sold out, and one concert in Taipei was attended by over 10,000 people.

For over 40 years three generations of Romeros have inspired composers to enrich the repertoire of guitar quartet with orchestra, which includes works by such distinguished composers as Joaquín Rodrigo, Federico Moreno Torroba, Morton Gould, Francisco de Madina, Lorenzo Palomo and others. Television fans have seen and heard the Romeros many times on television among them, the Tonight and Today shows as well as on PBS specials and PBS's telecast of Evening at the Boston Pops with The Romeros performing Vivaldi and Rodrigo.

In the words of Spanish composer Joaquin Rodrigo, "The Romeros have developed the technique of the guitar by making what is difficult to be easy; They are, without a doubt, the grand masters of the guitar."

Sent by Rafael Ojedo



Channeling Mexican pop stars
By Matt O'Brien 
Contra Costa Times, 01/06/2009 


BAY POINT — By day, she cleans other people's houses. By night, Juanita Figueroa is one of the reigning stars of the East Bay's growing Mexican karaoke scene.

The rest of her life has become a nonstop rehearsal for her three-nights-a-week role as karaoke maven at Los Gallitos restaurant.

"I am always practicing," she said. "In the car, in the shower, while I'm working."
On a recent evening, as a curtain behind her shimmered with a disco-light glow, the 51-year-old Concord resident was the first of the night to take up the microphone. She approached the stage from her dinner table like a newly confident wallflower, standing still as she launched into a sad, romantic ballad.

The lyrics scrolled along a TV screen above the restaurant's food counter, but she rarely needed to read them. Diners glanced her way, continued their conversations and joined in applause when she finished.  "It's like a second home for me," Figueroa said. 

When owner Jorge Huezo opened the Mexican-Salvadoran restaurant about two years ago, making savory pupusas was on his agenda — karaoke was not. But conversations with Figueroa, a customer, helped spark an experiment that has transformed the restaurant into a casual weekend cabaret that attracts a multigenerational crowd. The venue, formerly a diner called Aunt Catty's Farm House, sits next to a Mexican-style supermarket on Willow Pass Road. 

Dressed up in wingtip shoes, Pittsburg gardener Francisco Guevara is one of the night's regulars. Guevara, who moved to California from El Salvador a decade ago, said he happened upon Los Gallitos by accident one night. 

He returned with enough confidence to sing "La Mujer Que Sone", a love song by Mexican pop group Los Temerarios. Now, he visits Los Gallitos about three nights a week, but even that has not satisfied his urge to sing. He bought a karaoke machine at a store several weeks ago so he can practice at home, he said.

Concord nanny Aida Saldate grew up loving to sing. As a youth, she joined a traditional orchestra in her hometown of Hermosillo, Mexico. These days, she can be found hopping from one Contra Costa County karaoke joint to another — other local venues that cater to Spanish-language tunes include Bay Point's nearby El Guamuchilito and Concord's La Cabana on Wednesday nights.

On a recent night at Los Gallitos, Saldate sang a showstopping ranchera by Mexican singer Alicia Villareal.

Los Gallitos differs from typical karaoke bars in the variety of activity that follows its amateur singers. When the songs are finished, the lights dim and a fresh crowd arrives — twentysomethings hustling through the entrance and past a Christmas tree to take up the restaurant's empty booths and tables. They crowd the dance floor, bouncing to the sounds of cumbia and banda.

Later, they, too, will move to the sidelines — at least on Fridays, when the restaurant invites a musical comedy trio of transgender performers who call themselves the Queens of the Night. The group's leader, Tony "Jacqueline" Alvarado, evokes both Rocio Durcal and Cyndi Lauper, wearing a striped tank top, flowered pants and purple sandals.

"Here the people pay more attention to the show," Alvarado said, preparing backstage with lipstick in one hand and a glass of Michelada — beer and Clamato —in the other. The mostly straight but open-minded crowd pays them a lot of respect, Alvarado said.
For Figueroa, nights at Los Gallitos are frequently a family affair. Her son, Amaury Contreras, 29, serves as the karaoke jockey, managing the sound system and introducing guests. But he is also one of the venue's top stars, winning first place in the restaurant's last karaoke tournament.

With his dulcet voice, mustache, boots and cowboy hat, Contreras regularly channels his favorite singer, the superstar crooner Vicente Fernandez, whose Tres Potrillos ranch Contreras used to live near while growing up in Mexico.

Figueroa's daughter, Diane Aguilar, 19, also shows up some nights. She stays away from the microphone but enjoys watching her mom.

As the night progressed, the seemingly mild-mannered Figueroa moved from slow ballads to brash dirges by Paquita la del Barrio that had her strutting across the restaurant.
"I'm proud of her, you know," Aguilar said as her mother took to the stage again. "She's doing her thing. I'm just watching. I'm proud. She's proud."

Reach Matt O'Brien at 925-977-8463 or

Manuel Diosdado Castillo Jr.
  • Born: Nov. 23, 1968, in San Antonio
  • Died: Jan. 6, 2009, in San Antonio
  • Survived by: His parents, Manuel and Rafaela Castillo; a brother, Rene Castillo; a sister, Diana Farias, and her husband, Manuel, all of San Antonio.

By Elda Silva - Express-News Staff Writer

Though not a visual artist himself, Manuel Castillo changed the face of San Antonio.

The executive director of San Anto Cultural Arts, an organization responsible for more than three dozen murals on the West Side, Castillo died Tuesday evening after a short battle with cancer. He was 40.

The graduate of Holy Cross High School was a founder of San Anto Cultural Arts, which grew out of Inner City Development, a nonprofit group run by former City Councilwoman Patti Radle and her husband, Rod.

“He seemed happiest when he brought the community together to do good things — to share food together, to share art together, to share music together, and he did so much of that through San Anto,” Patti Radle said.

After news of Castillo’s death, Radle was among his friends who gathered outside the squat, neon-green house that is home to San Anto Cultural Arts. At the vigil, some mourners tucked bouquets into the chain-link fence. Others simply stood in the yard illuminated by streetlights and shared memories.

“He’s always been a guy who took good risks and had an amazing love for what it meant to be community,” said artist Cruz Ortiz, a close friend.

Castillo knew the importance of being grass-roots, Ortiz said, although he never used that word. He kept his programs quiet and low-key, much like himself.

“But you walk around these streets, they all know what the impact was,” he said.

Castillo enlisted friends including Ortiz and artist Juan Miguel Ramos to get San Anto Cultural Arts off the ground. The organization’s first mural was celebrated with a blessing in 1994. In 1997, San Anto Cultural Arts was established as a nonprofit organization, and Castillo was hired as executive director.

“I had some idea of doing public art murals because there wasn’t anything like that going on in the city,” Castillo said in an interview in 2007.

In addition to the mural program, San Anto has a media arts program and publishes El Placazo, a community newspaper featuring articles, poetry and art.

Castillo also was a mainstay on the San Antonio music scene, most recently as the drummer in the experimental rock band Snowbyrd.

“I’m dealing with it,” said a somber Chris Lutz, who sings and plays guitar in Snowbyrd. “The greatest and loudest lead drummer in San Antonio underground rock has left the planet.”

The band recently recorded a seven-song album. A tribute show is planned for Friday at Limelight.

Radle said she used to tease Castillo by referring to his band as his wife.

“He just loved his band so much, loved music so much, loved drumming and loved what music did for people,” she said.

Arrangements are pending with Castillo Mission Funeral Home.

Express-News staff writers Elaine Ayo and Hector Saldaña contributed to this report.

Sent by Dorinda Moreno


Chicano Drama by Jorge Huerta

Jorge Huerta, Ph.D.
Associate Chancellor and Chief Diversity Officer at University of California San Diego, a leading authority on contemporary Chicano theater, and also author of Chicano Theater: Themes and Forms (1982)

Sent by Dorinda Moreno





    By Vicente Riva Palacio, 
from Volume II of
his encyclopedia, 
Mexico a través de los Siglos,

translation by Ted Vincent


 ANO  1600/  THE YEAR 1600    




The population of New Spain at the end 
of the 16th Century was composed of a confusing mix of races.  Although the Indios had power in superior numbers they did not enjoy the social and political influence they deserved, owing to the state of abjection and  misfortunes they encountered, and by the profound divisions and antagonisms between the kingdoms and tribes that originated in the times before the conquest. 

 In a world that recognizes and reveres the sacred and noble principle of the universal fraternity, and when the progress of civilization has established the principle of equality before the law as the base of institutions among all peoples and beliefs, 
the division of the people into races and sub-species is, perhaps, unnecessary in 
either religion or in politics.  But for the 
study of the formation of a nationality, accuracy requires one to refer back to the cold and bare axioms of zoological philosophy, and to the doctrines of the young but robust science of anthropology.

      A thinker of our times has said that to constitute a nationality, it is not enough to have a unity of language and religion, of community of interests, and of geographic position of a territory occupied with a grand community of families, and perhaps even of the race - taking that word in the sense of a remote source of individualities.  And 
neither is it enough to have a common 
heritage of memories, of glories or of 
national sufferings in order to form the soul 
of a nation, as would believe this thinker.  In fact, it is in the concur rence of all these factors, because nations as with individuals ought to have a spirit, a national soul, but 
also a body, a material organism equally national.  While one can find a multitude of individuals that live in the same country, subject to the same government and to the same laws, as happened in New Spain in the 16th Century, yet one portion of them that were held down, because of their group, and suffered from distinct diseases and 
necessities from the other portion, not as a particular anomaly, but as physiological law of race...In such situation there can not be 
real nationality, nor can there exist a national 
soul, nor patriotic and political  sentiments that represent the passions of this soul and 
that can give impulse to a people to form a grand unifying personal morality.
   Because of this fractured situation the plot of the children of Hernando Cortes failed,  although they succeeded in their uprising to dominate the city of Mexico and some of the provinces.  Their rebellion turned out to be 
no more than that of Francisco Hernandez, or Gonzalo de Pizarro en el Peru, because they only had for possible followers Spaniards and Indios, antagonistic races, and of those neither the Indios remained in line, owing to seeing in them representatives of the conquistadores, nor did the Spaniards follow because they considered them as enemies of their native land and their King.  

All steps toward independence were futile while the crossing of the races had yet to produce a new people, exclusively Mexican.  The people felt and thought and believed and wanted, not only according to their own  particular body, but according to the race to which they pertained.  There is in men, besides individualistic idiosyncracies, an idiosyncracy of race, as a film over a 
painting that gives an harmonic intonation to all the figures, conserving in each on of 
these, never the less, their own colored tint.  Each race sees things and people through a crystal that has for each of these a different matrix, and for more than the illustration, diffusing itself through the civilized world, trying to erase the differences, yet not being able to make disappear the romantic and fantastic features of life given by the hot 
spirit of the Latin race, nor of the cold tints of men of the Saxon race, features discovered always in all the historical accounts and  the concepts of science.

   In order to have a true nationality, it is indispensable that its individuals have relatively similar aptitudes,  tendencies in harmony, and are similarly constituted organisms that are subject, in general, to the same morphological  vicissitudes, functionalities, and the same epidemiological dangers and that the individual anomalities 
in their construction and their  intellectual manifestations are no wider than found in generalized variations of the race.
    All peoples that lack these conditions can not present themselves as a nation, though 
they can consider themselves as confederations, as hegemonies more or less intimately united by a community of interests, by social necessities, or by force, but not as 
a true nationality.  They are blocked from having movements toward national independence by the spirit of race, or by the separation that breeds attraction to neighboring clans in whose behalf they 
would fight, or find greater interests, or 
more probably find assimilation with the more proximate people of common origin.
     The population of New Spain in the 16th Century was composed of races and castes, that took their names that were then used about them, and that while lacking scientific certitude, and less clarity, were expressive and known.  The term races was applied to the Spaniards, to the Indios, to the Blacks to the Chinese and to the natives of the 
Filipines who began to arrive in growing number on the fleets at the port of Acapulco.  The crossing of these races and the mestizos that from th is resulted gave origin to a multitude of castas, que already in the 
official registries already in the popular language they had their own names, many of which have disappeared and are forgotten.  But all these castas were as gullies from which flowed forth the fountains of a self mixed and subdivided people for to come through the force of repeated crossings to reunite themselves and confuse themselves, forgetting back to the memory of their origins in one solo river bed and in a new race that formed the Mexican nationality.

Confusa mescal de razas componía la población de Nueva España al terminar el siglo XVI, y aunque por su número era superior la de los indios, sin embargo, por el estado de objeción en que por sus desgracias se encontraba, y por las profundas divisiones y antagonismos entre reinos y tribus que traían su origen desde tiempos anteriores á la Conquista, no gozaba de la influencia social y política que debía tener.

En religión ó en política la división de los hombres en razas o sub-especies, quizá no tiente razón de ser cuando el mundo reconoce y acata el sentó y noble principio de la fraternidad universal, y cuando el progreso y la civilización han sentado como base de las instituciones en todos los pueblos cultos el principio de la ig ualdad ante la ley; pero para estudiar la formación de una nacionalidad, preciso es recurrir á
los fríos y descarnadas asimos de la 
filosofía zoológica y a las doctrinas de la joven pero robusta ciencia de la antropología.

   No basta para constituir una nacionalidad, como has dicho un pensador de nuestros tiempos, (1) ni la unidad del lenguaje y de religión, ni la comunidad de intereses, ni la posición  geográfica de un territorio 
ocupado por un gran comunidad de familias, y quizás ni aun la raza, tomándose esta palabra en el sentido de remota fuente de individualidades;  pero tampoco basta tener en común una herencia de recuerdos, de glorias o de sufrimientos nacionales, como quiere ese pensador, para formar el alma de una nación:  preciso es el concurso de todos estos factores, porque las naciones, como 
los individuos, deben tener un espíritu, un alma nacional, pero también un cuerpo, un organismo material igualmente nacional.  Mientras en una muchedumbre de individuos que vivan en un mismo país, sujetos a un mismo gobierno y a unas mismas leyes, como  sucedía en Nueva España en el siglo XVI, hay una porción de ellos que estén sujetos por su organización a sufrir enfermedades y necesidades distintas de la otra porción, no como anomalía particular, sino como ley fisiológica de la raza, eso no puede ser una nacionalidad, ni allí puedo existir el alma nacional, ni los sentimientos patriótica y políticos, que representan las pasiones de esa alma, pueden aparecer dando impulso a aquel pueblo y formando 
de el una gran personalidad moral.

    Por eso la conjuración de los hijos de Hernán Cortés, aun en el caso de haber estallado dominando la ciudad de México y algunas de las provincias, no hubiera pasado de ser otra cosa que una rebelión semejante 
a las de Francisco Hernández o Gonzalo de Pizarro en el Perú,  porque no había quien seguirle podiera, sino españoles o indios, razas antagonistas, y de las caules ni los indios podían pertenecerle, porque veían 
en el al representante de sus conquistadores, ni los espa ñoles seguirle porque le consideraban como enemigo de su patria y de su rey.  

   Toda tentativa de independencia era infructuosa mientras el cruzamiento de las razas no produjese un pueblo nuevo, exclusivamente mexicano.  Los hombres sienten y piensan y creen y quieren, no sólo según su particular organismo, sino según la raza a que pertenecer;  hay en el hombre, además de las idiosincrasia particular, una idiosincrasia de raza, como una veladura sobre un cuadro que da una entonación armónica a todas las figuras, conservando cada una de ellas, sin embargo, su propio colorido;  cada raza ve las cosas y los hombres a través de un cristal que tiene para cada una de ellas diferente matriz, y por más que la ilustración, difundiéndose en el munso civilazadok procura  borrar esas diferencias, no llega a desaparecer el colorido romancesco y fantástico que da a los acontecimientos de la vida el espíritu ardiente de la raza latina, ni esos tintes fríos que los hombres de la raza sajona descubren s iempre en todos los acontecimientos de la historia y en todas las concepciones de la ciencia.   

Para que exista una verdadera nacionalidad es indispensable que sus individuos tengan relativamente entre sí aptitudes semejantes, tendencias armónicas, organismos constituidos similarmente, que estén sujetos en lo general a las mismas vicisitudes morfológicas y funcionales, a los mismos pelearos epidémicos y que no presenten entre sí mas que anomalías individuales en su construcción, como una variación de la raza, ni en sus múltiples manifestaciones intelectuales una facultad que no posea la generalidad de la raza.
  Todos los pueblos que sin estas condiciones se presentan como una nación pueden considerarse como confederaciones, como hegemonías más o menos íntimamente unidas por la comunidad de intereses, por 
las necesidades sociales o p or la fuerza, pero no como una verdadera nacionalidad, 
al abrigo de movimientos de independencia hijos del espíritu de raza o de desmembramientos producidos por la atracción de pueblos vecinos a cuyo favor militen, o majores intereses o mas probabilidades de asimilación o más proximidades de común origen.

   Componías la publicación de la Nueva España en el siglo XVI de razas y castas, tomando estos nombres de los que entonces se usaron, y que no por dejar de ser científicos, so menos claros, expresivos y conocidos.  Llamábanse razas a los españoles, a los indios, a los negros, a los chinos y a los naturales de las Filipinas que comenzaron a llegar en crecido numero con las naos por el puerto de Acapulco.  El cruzamiento de estas razas y de los mestizos que de ellas resultaban dio origen a multitud de castas, que ya en los registros oficiales, ya en el lenguaje popular tuvieron sus nombres propios, muchos de los cuales desaparecieron y están olvidados.  Pero todas estas castas eran como arroyos que nacidos de lejanas fuentes se20mezclaban y se subdividían para vener en fuerza de repetidos cruzamientos a reunirse y confundirse, olvidándose hasta la memoria de sus orígenes en un solo cauce y en una nueva raza para formar la nacionalidad mexicana.

The names the castas received, according to their sources were these:  

(In Mexico ) the children of Spaniard and a Spanish woman could not be considered a casta, they were called criolles.
The child of Spaniard and Indian was called mestizo, or coyote.  
Of mestizo and Spanish woman, castizo
Of castizo and Spanish woman Espanol
Of espanol with Negra mulato
Of mulato with Spanish woman morisco


The alta-atras (jump back)  had characteristics of a Negro born of a white family.  Generally, it was believed that this phenomena of atraism produced itself in the third or fourth generation, from a black grandmother with a white, although there is no data to aid this belief.
Of the salta-atras or torna-atras married with India, was born a son who was named chino. 

El “salta-atrás “ era el que tenia caracteres de negro, nacido de una familia blanca.  Generalmente se creía que este fenómeno de atavismo se producía a la tercera o cuarta generación, de una abuela negra con un blanco, aunque no hay dato que apoye esa creencia.  

Del salta-atrás o torna-atrás casado con india, nacía un hijo a quien se llamaba “chino.”  


Of the chino with a mulata came the lobo.

Of the lobo with mulata the gibaro.
Of the gibaro with India the albarrazado
Of the albarrazado with negra the cambujo
Of cambujo with India the zambo or zambaygo
Of negro with zamba the zambo-prieto
Of zambo con mulata calpan-mulata  
Of calpan-multat with zamba
the tente in the aire (all up in the air)
Of tente en el aire with mulata
no te entiendo (don't know what it is)
Of no te entiendo with India
ahi te estas ( there you are, or stay there).
To such a large and ridiculous collection one could add the names of the castes that are mixed with Chinese and inhabitants of the Filipinas with the other races.  But no such additions have been presented to us, nor does one find them in the manuscripts, nor in the books that carry the names of the mestizos listed.
A tan larga y ridícula clasificación pudieran agregarse los nombres de las castas en que se mezclaban los chinos y habitantes de Filipinas con las otras razas, pero no ha llegado hasta nosotros ni se encuentran en los manuscritos ni en libros los nombres que esos mestizos recibían.

Postscript:  Caste paintings

There are many lists of caste types, of which many hundreds of paintings were produced, each showing a mother, father and a child, or two.  Most were sold to Spaniards working in Mexico to bring back to their homeland after their tour of duty to put on the wall to display the “quaint breeds”in the new world.  The paintings were typically made in sets of a dozen different combinations on one framed canvas.  The quality of the work ranged from that of top artists to quick sketches, and the interracial combinations are not always given the same names in the lists.  Riva Palacio’s list is much republished.  However, his                Of Spaniard and Black, Mulato
introduction in which he describes the 
evolution of a mixed race Mexican nationality that transcends the various parts is rarely included with his list.

Of Mestizo and India, Coyote    

(In other caste lists, including Riva Palacio’s,  a coyote is Spaniard and India, and in still other tabulations a coyote is a mix with African.   The Spaniards used the animal coyote to signify a racial mix because they, at first, believed a coyote was a mix of a dog and a wolf, in the manner that a horse and a donkey makes a mule, thus the origin of the Spaniard’s racial term, mulato, or mulata..)


  The caste paintings are one of the only sources that historians of Colonial Mexico have found of depictions of ordinary people in daily life.  Instead, there are portraits of Viceroys, Bishops, and others of the upper classes, who are depicted in proud posture, which contrasts with many caste paintings.  The scenes of home life, though often endearing, as with the father shown here trying to calm his crying baby with a display of feathers, are just as often crude, as with the mother cleaning baby’s bottom.  There is no known painting of the wealthy showing a baby’s bottom being wiped, nor do the pictures of     
the elite show  a mother and             Of Mestiza and Mulato, cuadroon, a..k.a. quadroon.
father in a fist fight while their 
child cries, a common scene in caste paintings of a Spaniard with a black, the above sample of this mix being an exception.                                  
A framed set of a dozen caste paintings of assorted combinations hangs in the National Museum of History in Chapultepec Park in Mexico City.  Passing through the museum a father was overheard calling to his son of about eight years of age to view the painting, “Come over here and see what we are.”





By Felipe de Ortego y Gasca

Scholar in Residence and  Chair,Department of Chicana / Chicano and Hemispheric Studies, 
Western New Mexico University;

 [In America’s Defense--Number 7 in a series on La Leyenda Negra]



Given the circumstances in Europe, by the beginning of Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s 2nd term in 1936 Americans were pretty sure the country was headed for war. By 1940 the repatriation of Mexicans in the United States had eased up. From 1936 to 1940 vital stakeholders in the economy of the country saw the necessity for a larger workforce especially for jobs of last resort. Part of that larger workforce would include Mexicans, so much so that in 1942 the United States and Mexico signed a workforce agreement that brought Mexican workers to the United States under the label of the “Bracero Program”—the Helping Hand Program which ran from August 1942 to 1964 employing 4 million Mexican workers in the United States. Braceros worked essentially as farm workers though they worked in a number of other areas due to the labor shortage engendered by the war. Despite the aura of goodwill this program emanated, the presence of these braceros in the United States fomented increased antipathies toward Mexicans and Mexican Americans.

With so many Americans involved in the war effort (troops and manufacturing) the harvests of America were in the hands of Mexicans. In 1942 Mexico declared war on Germany and by war’s end had aerial and ground forces in the Pacific. Counting the number of Mexican Braceros who stayed in the United States after the end of the Bracero Program and the number of Mexicans who managed to stay in the United States despite the repatriation efforts of the federal government during the 30s to return them to Mexico added to the original population of the Conquest Generation and you have the foundation population of Mexican Americans today.

From 1940 to 1945 American Hispanics played a crucial role in America’s defense, especially Mexican Americans. Of the 16 million Americans who served in the armed forces during World War II, almost a million of them were Hispanics, mostly Mexican Americans. As a group, Hispanic members of the armed forces won more medals of honor during World War II than any other group. Hispanics served in the Army, the Army Air Corps, the Navy, the Marines, the Coast Guard, and the Merchant Marine. They were pilots, navigators, bombardiers, gunners. On the home front they were Air Rid Wardens, led War Bond Drives, served at UWSO’s, handed out donuts and coffee to American GI’s at train stations and military bases, scored of Hispanic mothers placed Gold Stars on their windows, and dutifully covered their windows at night in compliance with “blackout” instructions.

Across the country, American Hispanics played crucial roles in the victory of World War II by working in defense plants building planes, tanks, jeeps, and other military equipment. In Pittsburgh, Mexican American women from the Ohio Valley communities of Mexican Americans built gliders in the Heinz plant which converted its ketchup machines to the war effort. From the founding of the nation, American Hispanics have served in the American armed forces and have responded to American crises in overwhelming numbers. More than half the complement of the Rough Riders with Teddy Roosevelt were Mexican Americans. The first draftee of World War II was Aguilar Despart, a Mexican American from Los Angeles. Among the first casualties of World War II after Pearl Harbor was Private Jose P. Martinez killed at the battle of Attu in the Aleutians, an action for which he received the Medal of Honor posthumously.

Despite this outpouring of patriotism, in June of 1943 Mexican Americans were fleeing for their lives in Los Angeles in what came to be known nationally as the Zoot-Suit Riots. American sailors and marines began beating up Mexican Americans who were dressed in zoot suits, a sartorial style popular with Mexican Americans (called Pachucos) during World War II. Rationalizations to the contrary, the riots were sparked by the roots of the Black Legend. Instead of commenting on the race-based reasons for the riots, Lt Ayres of the Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department commented on the uses of knives by Mexican Americans by asserting that “the Caucasian, especially the Anglo-Saxon, when engaged in fighting, particularly among  youths, resorts to fisticuffs and may at times kick each other, which is considered unsportive, but this Mexican element considers all that to be a sign of weakness and all he knows and feels is a desire to use a knife or some lethal weapon. In other words, his desire is to kill, or at least let blood” (Ralph Guzman, “The Function of Ideology in the Process of Political Socialization: an Example in Terms of the Mexican American People Living in the Southwest,” Unpublished manuscript, 1966, 35).

Incredibly, Ayres’ report was duly endorsed “as an intelligent statement of the psychology of the Mexican people, particularly the youths” (36). His report to the Grand Jury stressed that Mexican youths are motivated to crime by certain biological or “racial” characteristics.

Just as racism was responsible for the mass detention of Japanese Americans in 1942, racism bred by the Black Legend was responsible for the outbreak of Anglo hostilities toward Mexican Americans during World War II. In 1942 Mexican American youngsters in Los Angeles were convicted on fabricated evidence in the Sleepy Lagoon murder case, serving almost 2 years in San Quentin before their convictions were reversed by the California District Court of Appeals. Carey McWilliams who served as Chairman of the Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee described the proceedings as “more of a ceremonial lynching than a trial in a court of justice” (North From Mexico, 1948, 231).

During World War II in the Hispanic Southwest—in Texas particularly—Mexican Americans were forced to sit in theater sections reserved for “Mexicans”—it didn’t matter if the “Mexicans” were in American uniforms (George I. Sanchez, “Pachucos in the Making,” Common Ground, Autumn 1943). Anglos sat in the middle, “Mexicans” on the sides, and African Americans in the balcony. In Texas a Mexican American G.I. tells the following story: We went to a restaurant to eat, we sat down and the whole thing you know, and started ordering. The waitress asked me if I was Italian. I said, "No, no I'm not, I'm Mexican." And she said, "Well I'm sorry, sir, we don't serve Mexicans" (David López, “Saving Private Atzlan: Preserving the History of Latino Service in Wartime,” Diálogo Magazine, Center for Latino Research, Fall, 2005:9).

In September of 1945, Private Benigno Aguirre, in uniform, was brutally beaten by “white rednecks” in San Angelo, Texas, and left for dead. When Mexican Americans sought help for Private Aguirre from the San Angelo community the response was “Aguirre is Mexican. Ask Mexicans for help” (David Montejano, “The Beating of Private Aguirre” in Mexican Americans in World War II edited by Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez, 2005, 41). Fifty years later Benigno Aguirre could only say, “estaba carajo en esos dias” (58).

Despite their inordinate numbers in the military, Mexican Americans encountered difficulty in finding employment during the war. Anglos were placed ahead of them in jobs for which they were qualified. Some state employment agencies considered certain jobs “out of bounds” for Mexican Americans (125). Community recreation centers with swimming pools were closed to Mexican Americans. Not until 1948 were the public swimming pools of Fort Stockton, Texas, open for Mexican Americans.

It’s relatively easy to dismiss out of hand these incidents as part of the racial heritage of the United States, but given the historical context of the Black Legend, one discerns the grip of the Black Legend in the pattern of these incidents. At the end of World War II in 1945, Gonzalo Mendez sued Orange Grove school districts over school boundaries that created de facto segregation. In 1946, the California Supreme Court ruled in favor of the plaintiff, and in 1947 the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit affirmed the California decision, making Mendez v. Westminster a precedent for Brown v. Board of Education in 1954. In the trial testimony, the defending Superintendent characterized Mexican American children as inferior in “personal hygiene”, “scholastic ability”, and “economic outlook” ( Vicki L. Ruiz, Nuestra America: Latino History as United States History, Journal of American History, December 2006, 669).

It has taken years of litigation for Hispanics to chip away at the vestiges of the black legend in America.




Latinos/Latinas - Ultimate Sacrifice, Part XII
Lt General Elwood "Pete" Quesada
General Wainright and Pvt Eusebio Reyes
Honor the Fallen Hispanics/Honra a nuestros Caidos.
Soldiers under twin eagles/Soldados de Dos Águilas
Hispanic Americans & The U.S. Coast Guard
Army Expands Military Funeral Honors for Soldiers 



- Ultimate Sacrifice

Part XII


 Mercy Bautista-Olvera



In the coming months this series “Latinos/Latinas Ultimate Sacrifice” will present the stories and contributions of heroes who have sacrificed their lives for United States . The reason for me to be interested in writing about Hispanics, who lost their lives in Wars, I want to be one of their voices. We do appreciate their sacrifice. It is my sincere belief and commitment, that these heroes are never forgotten. Take time to look at their faces, read their histories, and keep their spirit alive…





Army Pfc. George Delgado 21, of Palmdale , Calif. , died on March 24, 2008 Baghdad from wounds sustained when his vehicle encountered an improvised explosive device. Assigned to the 4th Battalion, 64th Armor Regiment, 4th Brigade Combat Team, 3rd Infantry Division, Fort Stewart , Georgia .


George Delgado graduated from Desert Christian High School in Lancaster , California after graduating enrolled in college but he made a decision and joined the military instead and in November, he shipped out for Iraq from Ft. Stewart , Georgia , four months later Army Pfc. George Delgado was killed in Baghdad . At his funeral, Capt. Luis Juarez offered his right arm to Delgado's mother, Maria Calle; they walked toward the casket, followed by Calle’s sisters and brothers. Delgado’s father Elias divorced from Calle many years ago. The long train of cars following the hearse made its way across the high desert; the procession passed Desert Christian High School . More than 100 students and teachers lined the curb, some holding flags.  


Marine Sgt. Merlin German 22, of Manhattan , N.Y. , died on April 11, 2008, at Brooke Army Medical Center in San Antonio , Texas of wounds sustained while conducting combat operations in Anbar , Iraq on February 22, 2005.  Assigned to the 5th   Battalion, 11th Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division, I Marine Expeditionary Force, Camp Pendleton , He had been medically retired on Sept. 28, 2007, because of his injuries.


Merlin German was born in Manhattan, New York, grew up in Washington Heights, his parents Hemery and Lourdes German, immigrants from the Dominican Republic had eight children. Merlin moved with his family to Hartsdale as a teenager. He graduated from Woodlands High School . He had a sense of humor, he did not have a date for the senior prom, “but he said it was okay because, “I’ll dance with someone else’s date,” said his school Counselor Joe Foy.

Marine Sgt. Merlin German was wounded in February of 2005 when Iraqi insurgents blew up his humvee. The Doctors had given him a 3% chance of survival. German surprised his doctors by fighting back and recovering to the point that he was able to leave intensive care and walk on his own. His parents Hemery and Lourdes were always with him, they relocated in Texas , so they could take care of him. “He was never really scared of anything, said his mother Lourdes . Marine Sgt. Merlin German wanted to surprise his mother, knowing about the hospital’s holiday Ball, he asked Norma Guerra, public affairs representative, who became known as German’s “ Texas mom,” to help him learn a dance he wanted to surprise his mother by taking her for a twirl on the dance floor. Norma thought it could be painful for him to do so, but she agreed to help him. They rehearsed for months, without his mother knowing, He chose a love song to be played for the dance. “Have I Told You Lately?”  by Rod Stewart.


Merlin’s toughness, says his brother Ariel showed up even when there were kids growing up in New York . He had so many dreams that will go unrealized; he wanted to become an FBI agent, going to college, starting a business, even writing comedy. However, he did accomplish one major goal, he set up a foundation for burned children called “Marlin’s Miracles,” to raise money for kids, whether it was getting an air conditioner for their home or taking a trip to Disney World, a place he loved.


Marine Sgt. Merlin German became known as the “Miracle Man,” he survived his burns 97% of his body, had 150 operations. “I think all of us had believed in some way, shape of form that he was invincible,” says Lt. Col. Evan Renz, who was German’s surgeon and friend. “He had had beaten so many other operations… it just reminded us, he, too, was human.”


Army Sgt. Guadalupe Cervantes Ramirez 26, of Fort Irwin , Calif. , died on April 23, 2008 at Camp Arifjan , Kuwait , of injuries sustained in a vehicle incident. Assigned to the 2nd Transportation Company (Heavy Equipment Transport), Echelons Above Brigade Support Battalion, National Training Center Support Brigade, Fort Irwin , California .


Guadalupe Cervantes Ramirez was born in Mexicali , Mexico ; his family immigrated to United States in 1989. He Joined the Army in 2001. He was first deployed to Iraq in 2003 and also served a year in Korea before his second departure to Iraq . 2001   Army Sgt. Guadalupe Cervantes Ramirez received an Army Commendation Medal with Valor for entering a burning vehicle while deployed in June of 2007.  He attempt to remove a soldier who had been killed in an IED attack, it was not until other soldiers pulled him away that he was forced to release his hold on the soldier’s body,” the sergeant’s battalion commander, Lt. Col. Richard Ellis said. “Army Sgt. Guadalupe Cervantes Ramirez was a loving man, who was eager to learn and absorbed knowledge like a sponge,” He was a loving husband, father, son and a great soldier,” said Army  Brig. Gen. Manuel Ortiz. He leaves behind his wife Amber, their two children Amy and Guadalupe Michael and his parents. Guadalupe. Cervantes Ramirez, “Lupe” to his friends, was on deployment to Kuwait with Fort Irwin ’s Second Transportation Company when he died. Army Sgt. Cervantes Ramirez, “Lupe” to his friends, was on deployment to Kuwait when he died.



Marine Cpl. Miguel A. Guzman 21, of Norwalk , Calif. , died on May 2, 2008 in Anbar , Iraq , while supporting combat operations.  Assigned to Combat Logistics Battalion 1, Combat Logistics Regiment 1, 1st Marine Logistics Group, I Marine Expeditionary Force, Camp Pendleton , Calif.   


Miguel A. Guzman was born in United States ; his parents are from Mexicali , Mexico and naturalized citizens. .Miguel A. Guzman graduated from John H. Glenn High School in Norwalk , California . He was a soccer and tennis player, was in a college-prep program, nevertheless, after graduation in 2004 he enlisted in the Marine Corps, eager to defend his country. Miguel Guzman, who was a mechanic in Karma, a onetime insurgent stronghold outside Fallouja -- west of Baghdad that lately had been considered safe. His convoy was not on a combat mission, but in Iraq , no mission "outside the wire" is routine or entirely safe. Marine Cpl. Miguel A. Guzman was on a late night assignment to recover a vehicle in need of repair.

Army Sgt. 1st Class David Nuñez 27, of Los Angeles , Calif. , died May 29, 2008 in Shewan , Afghanistan , of wounds sustained when he encountered small-arms fire while conducting combat. Assigned to the 3rd Battalion, 7th Special Forces Group, 7th Special Forces Group (Airborne) at Ft. Bragg , North Carolina .  He was a Special Forces Operational Detachment-Alpha team engineer sergeant  


David Nuñez was born in Mexico ; he enlisted as an airborne infantryman in February 1999. He served with the 82nd Airborne Division and a military intelligence company before earning his Green Beret and getting his current assignment as Fort Bragg in 2005. Nuñez enlisted as an airborne infantryman in February 1999. He served with the 82nd Airborne Division and a military intelligence company before earning his Green Beret and getting his current assignment at Fort Bragg in 2005. Army Sgt. David Nuñez arrived in Afghanistan in May for his second deployment to the country. He had also served in campaigns in Iraq and Kosovo. Army Sgt. 1st Class David Nuñez awards and decorations the Bronze Medal, three Army Commendation Medals, three Achievement Medals, three Army Good Conduct medals, National Defense Service Medal, Kosovo Campaign Medal with Bronze Service star. Afghanistan Campaign Medal, Iraq Campaign Medal, Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Medal, Global War on Terrorism Service Medal, two Noncommissioned Officer Professional Development Ribbons, Army Service Ribbon, NATO Medal, Combat Infantryman Badge, Expert Infantryman Badge, Parachutist Badge, Ranger Tab and the Special Forces Tab.  His sons, David Jr., and Julian, of Raeford , N.C. ; father, Julian from Raeford , N.C. ; and mother, Silvia, of Los Angeles , California survive him. 


Army Sgt. John D. Aragon 22, of Antioch , Calif. , died June 12, 2008 in Balad , Iraq , of wounds sustained when his vehicle encountered an improvised explosive device. Assigned to the 1st Squadron, 75th Cavalry Regiment, 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault), Fort Campbell, Kentucky .


John D. Aragon attended Antioch High School . Enlisted in the U.S. Army in March 2006, said a member of his family. "He just always wanted to be in the Army," said his mother, Denise, a pair of her son's dogtags hanging around her neck. "He went to the recruitment office when he was still a senior in high school without telling me. I found out and made him go to (Los Medanos) College for a year and then make a decision. "I told him maybe you'll meet the girl you're going to marry. You don't know what will happen." The extra year did nothing to diminish Aragon 's passion for the military. After arriving at Ft. Campbell , Ky. , he called his parents. "He said, 'I love the Army and the Army loves me.” Denise Aragon said. "The two just clicked."  An American flag hangs outside the Aragon family home on Gentrytown Drive . A black flag with a white eagle's head, the emblem of the 101st Airborne, hangs by the front door. Aragon shipped out to Iraq on Oct. 16, 2007. Aragon 's father, John, said his son wanted to be near the action. "He would say, 'A true soldier is a fighting foot soldier. Although proud to serve in the military, he did not harbor any romantic notions of war. "He'd tell us it was pure hell," John Aragon Sr. said. "Those were his words: 'pure hell.'"


Army Sgt. Alejandro A. Dominguez 24, of San Diego , Calif. , died June 25, 2008 in Mosul , Iraq of wounds sustained when his vehicle encountered an improvised explosive device.  Assigned to the 1st Squadron, 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment, Fort Hood , Texas


Alejandro A. Dominguez graduated from Southwest High school in 2002, he joined the Army for the college benefits, but he also loved the Army, he listed “my tank manual” as his favorite book on his MySpace Page. The Army came in second only in his   love for his family.  The family said Alejandro, who was in his second combat tour in Iraq , never talked about joining the military before telling his family in the summer of 2002 that he had already signed up. The 24-year-old sergeant would be coming home to reunite with his wife and daughter in Texas , where he was stationed, and to see about buying a house during his mid-tour visit from Iraq . Instead, the Army announced Friday that Army Sgt. Alejandro Dominguez died when their vehicle was blown up by a roadside bomb, his father Antonio Dominguez said Army officials told him his son was leading a mission in Mosul when his truck ran over an explosive. The choice of the military as a career was not entirely surprising in hindsight. “I was surprised. I asked him why. We were at war and he was joining the military,” his father said. He just said, 'I just feel that I want to do this.'”  “He was the type of guy who was always taking care of someone, he was always protecting someone,” said his father Antonio. Alejandro’s uncle Fred and a World War II veteran who fought in Italy , recalled a fearless boy who loved racing through the desert on anything with wheels and an engine. “He Loved Motorcycles, He loved to ride quads, He Loved cars.”


Army Staff Sgt. Alex R. Jimenez 25, of Lawrence, Mass., Assigned to the 4th Battalion, 31st Infantry Regiment, 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division (Light Infantry), Fort Drum, N.Y.; was captured May 12, 2007 by enemy forces in Jurf es Sakhr, Iraq, when his unit was attacked by insurgents using automatic fire and explosives. His body was recovered July 8, 2008 in Iraq .  


Alex R. Jimenez was born in New York , he lived in Lawrence from ages 8 to 13, with his father and then he moved to the Dominican Republic with his mother. He returned to Lawrence after graduating from high school and joined the Army shortly afterward. Staff Sergeant Alex R. Jimenez was listed as missing in action on May 12, 2007. He was captured after his convoy was ambushed as it traveled west of Mahmudiyah , Iraq , the military said in a statement. Four soldiers were killed in the attack. Jimenez was captured along with two other men. Two other soldiers were also kidnapped and later found.  The body of 20-year-old Joseph Anzack Jr., of Torrance , California was found later in the Euphrates River . The bodies of Jimenez and 19-year-old Specialist Byron J. Fouty of Waterford , Mich. , were found west of Jurf As Sukhr on July 8.The attack also killed a member of the Iraqi Army and four other U.S. soldiers.  


Army Staff Sgt. Alex Jimenez funeral was emotional, the casket arrived covered by an American flag and atop a horse-drawn carriage, escorted by fellow member of 10th Mountain Division, a pair of fire truck. A group of bagpipers played patriotic tunes. Many people gave speeches about Army Staff Sgt. Alex Jimenez. “He was wise and mature, learned some Arabic for his second tour in Iraq , which began a year ago. He helped platoon medic Sgt. Michael Morse communicate with Iraqis he was treating. Jimenez instructed and gave newer troops tips on how to scan the ground for buried bombs.” "He was one of the best," Army Spc. Samuel Rhodes says. "One of the elements of the Army's Soldiers Creed is that we will never leave a fallen comrade behind," affirmed Army Chief of Staff Gen. George Casey. "We take those words very seriously, for our Soldiers, their Families and this Nation. We will never leave a fallen comrade behind.” "On Aug. 2, Jimenez, laid to rest at the Long Island National Cemetery in Farmingdale , New York .  




Army Pvt. Jair De Jesus Garcia 29, of Chatsworth , Calif. , died on august 1, 2008 in Chowkay Valley , Afghanistan , from sounds sustained when his vehicle encountered an improvised explosive device. Assigned to the 6th Squadron, 4th Cavalry Regiment, 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 1st Infantry Division, Fort Hood , Texas .


Jair de Jesus Garcia attended Birmingham High School in Van Nuys. He grew up in the San Fernando Valley, was drawn to the fine arts, he also loved soccer and dreamed of winning a spot as a goalie with the Los Angeles Galaxy.  It did not happen but eventually became an assistant soccer coach at Robert Fulton College Preparatory School in Van Nuys, and as part of the ‘Riot squad,” a boisterous group of professionals that root for the Galaxy.  “When it came to his own artistic endeavors, Jair was more fickle, recalling the procession of rented instruments: a piano, trumpet and saxophone, he settled on his favorite instrument the Sax.” said his mother Maria Luisa Avneri. “His transformation into a soldier really began during his early adulthood in the immediate aftermath of the Sept. 11 attacks,” said his mother. Army Pvt. Jair de Jesus had been in Afghanistan less than two months when military officials announced that he was among four soldiers killed on August 1st. His wife Gabriella, his son, Noah, from a previous relationship, his father, Guadalupe Garcia, his stepfather Jacob, two brothers Ricardo and Eduardo Garcia, and a sister Celeste Garcia survive him. Several days after receiving the news, an e-mail came that gave his mother a measure of peace, Avneri said it was a sign. “I felt like he was embracing me,” she said. “He told me, ‘I’m OK, I’m fine.’ He died doing what he wanted to do. He was fulfilled.”


Army Sgt. Federico G. Borjas 33, of San Diego., died on October 16, 2008 Bermel District Center , Afghanistan , of wounds sustained from small-arms fire during a dismounted patrol. Assigned to 416th Civil Affairs Battalion, 351st Civil Affairs Command , U.S. Army Reserve, San Diego


“He was called to duty in Afghanistan in August and was scheduled to return the following summer, said his brother-in-law, Daniel Veiga; in an online message, said Borjas was in a convoy to set up post somewhere when a man disguised as an Afghanistan border patrol agent stopped them. The imposter opened fire on the soldiers, killing Borjas. Federico Borjas dedicated his life to serving others – first as a Marine and later as a San Diego police officer. Borjas, 33, died this week when his convoy was ambushed. He is the first San Diego police officer to die in the Iraq or Afghanistan wars. “He touched everyone he worked with and worked around. He was the sort of guy who really left an impression on people,” San Diego police Capt. Chris Ball said. “We all respected him for who he was as a person and as a man.” Borjas was hired by the Police Department in 1999 and was a member of the SWAT team and color guard. He most recently served as a patrol officer in the department's central division. Ball said Borjas loved being a cop, bringing enthusiasm and a “can-do” attitude to the job daily.



 “The department is very saddened by his loss, and we are working with the family to bring him back so he can rest with all the dignity and honor he deserves as a person in the military and as a police officer,” San Diego Police Chief William Lansdowne said yesterday. “He was very well respected, and we'll miss his commitment and sense of humor.”





The memorial service at the Rock Church featured a closed casket draped with the American flag. Wreaths at both sides of the casket and a slide show were projected on a large screen. An audience of about 1,000 law enforcement and military officers in uniform and family members and friends filled the room. Hundreds of them were police officers from San Diego , around the county and as far away as Los Angeles . Representatives of the city fire department, the Marines and the Army also paid their respects. Mayor Jerry Sanders, who was among the first speakers, said Borjas “served with distinction as all of us knew he would.” San Diego police chief William Lansdowne thanked the Borjas family for his service. He said Borjas, who often proclaimed it was “Rico-Federico time,” was confident and often sought out challenges. “He was a winner in life. He was a winner here in the San Diego police department,” Lansdowne said. Most of Borjas' colleagues recalled his devotion to his family, especially his 11-year-old daughter, Yvette. At the funeral Sgt. Federico Borjas, images of Borjas playing on a screen behind them, relatives and colleagues of the 33-year-old Army reserve sergeant shared stories of a man they described as courageous and selfless; who they said volunteered repeatedly, to serve his community and country.  “Rico,” as his family members and friends called him.  He joined the Army reserves in 2007 and had been deployed less than a month before he was killed in action. It was his first time serving overseas. Army Sgt. Federico Borjas daughter Yvette stood before the crowd, next to her uncle, Raimundo Borjas, and her grandfather, Jose Borjas, and read a letter she said she also included in her father's casket. “I can't wait to see you up there in heaven, OK?” she read from the letter. “Well, thank you for everything that you have done for me. You will always be my No. 1 and my handsome dad. “Dad, I love you and I will always do my best for you, I promise.” Raimundo Borjas was at a loss of words at one point, saying, “Everybody here said everything that I would have said about him and his career. . . . But my little brother was my little brother.” His parents, his daughter, a brother and two sisters, survive Army Sgt. Federico G. Borjas. . Flags lined part of the procession route along Rosecrans Street to Fort Rosecrans Cemetery , where he was buried with full military honors.



Special thanks to Alan Lessig, Director of Photography, for the website, “Military   Times, Honor the Fallen” ( for granting permission to reproduce photos for this article.




Lt General Elwood "Pete" Quesada

The dedication of the FAA Auditorium honored Lt General Elwood "Pete" Quesada.
Beautifully done video using old photos to tell Lt. Quesada's story.
Sent by Rafael Ojeda


General Wainright and Pvt. Eusebio Reyes


As history tells General Wainright was also captured athe surrender of Bataan. Years later after the war, Gen. Wainright came to the Naval Air Station for some function. As usual everyone was telling him who he should meet. To verybody's surpise his one remark was that, "Before I leave I want to meet and talk with PVT Eusebio Reyes who was with me in a couple of concentration camps. I want to see and talk to him. I want ou to find him for me." The General insisted and it did happen. Eusebio Reyes was brought to him and they had a personal meeting and a great conversation. 

Did this make the papers? Hell no, He was just a janitor at the University.

Have a nice day!
Raul Garza


Honor the Fallen Hispanics/Honra a nuestros Caidos.



The Honor Roll of Fallen Hispanics since 2001, Global War on Terrorism. |
This list is complied from The Department of Defense, The Military Times  
(Army, Navy and Air Force),  the Iraq War Heroes, Military City and the Washington Post web sites. (Copyright materials to be use only for personal non commercial use.)

      (Faces of the fallen.)

The last two links have photos, BIOS, Newspaper articles and videos..  
Extracted and Compiled by Rafael Ojeda:  Tacoma,WA  (20 pages  567 names)  

2002: (2)  
APR 15,2002  Army SGT 1st Class Daniel A. Romero age: 30, Lafayette, CO  Quandahar, Afghanistan NOV 07,2002 Army Spc Pedro Lazaro  Pena-Suarez  35, Miami, FL  Kuwait

2003: (72) |
FEB 23,2003 Army SPC Rodrigo Gonzalez-Garza   26, (Nuevo Leon,MX)  San Antonio, TX   Kuwait MAR 21, 2003 Marine LCPL Jose Gutierrez  22, Los Angeles, CA  Umm Qasar, Iraq (Guatemala)  
MAR 23, 2003 USAF 1st Lt Tamara Archuleta 23, Las Lunas, NM  Afghanistan  
MAR 23, 2003 Army Pvt Ruben Estrella-Soto 18, (Cuidad Jaurez,MX) El Paso TX  Nasiriyah, Iraq  
MAR 23, 2003 Army CWO  Johnny Villareal-Mata 36, Pecos, Amarillo, TX Nasiriyah, Iraq  
MAR 23, 2003 Army Pfc Lori Ann Piestewa 23, Tuba City, AZ (Hopi Tribe & Mexican) 

Nasiriyah, Iraq  
MAR 23, 2003 Marine Cpl Jose A. Garibay 21,  (Jalisco,MX) Costa Mesa, CA Nasiriyah, Iraq  
MAR 23, 2003 Marine Cpl Jorge A. Gonzalez 20, Los Angeles, CA (Rialto) Nasiriyah, Iraq.  
MAR 23, 2003 Army Edward J. Anguiano 24, Brownville, TX  Iraq  (MIA until Apr 24,2003)  
MAR 25, 2003 Marine Pfc Francisco A. Martinez-Flores 21 Los Angeles, CA  (Native of Mexico)
                         Eupharates River, Iraq  
MAR 27, 2003 Marine Cpl Robert Marcus Rodriguez 21, Queen, NY (Puerto Rico)  

  Eupharates River NW of Nasiriyah, Iraq.  
MAR 27, 2003 Marine Lcpl Jesus A. Suarez del Solar 20, Escondido, CA (Native of Mexico) Iraq.               MAR 28, 2003 Marine Sgt Fernando Padillo-Ramirez 36, Yuma, AZ (Native of Mexico) 

Nasiriyah, Iraq  J(MIA until Apr 10,2003)  
MAR 29, 2003 Army Sgt Orlando Morales 33, Manati, Puerto Rico  Afghanistan  
MAR 29, 2003 Army Pfc Diego Fernando Rincon 19, Conyer, GA (Native of Columbia) Najaf Iraq. |
MAR 30, 2003 Marine Capt Aaron J. Conterras 31, Sherwood, OR (HMLA-169 pilot)
                         Southern Iraq.  
APR 02,2003 Army Msgt George A. Fernandez 36, El Paso, TX  Northern Iraq.  
APR 03, 2003 Army Ssgt Nino D. Livaudais 23, Ogden, UT  Iraq.  
APR 03, 2003 Marine Cpl Erik H. Silva 22, Chula Vista, CA  Iraq.  
APR 04, 2003 Marine Sgt Duane R. Rios  25,  Griffith, IN  Baghdad, Iraq.  
APR 07, 2003 Marine Lcpl Andrew Julian Aviles 18, Palm Beach, FL  Central Iraq.

Page  1  of   20    Honor the Fallen.

APR 07, 2003 Marine Cpl Jesus Martin Antonio Medellin   21, Ft Worth, TX  Central Iraq.  
APR 08, 2003 Army Pvt Juan Guadalupe Garza, Jr 20, Temperance MI (San Benito,TX) Baghdad.  
APR 11, 2003 Marine Ssgt Riayan A. Tejeda 20, New York, NY  (Native of Dominican Republic)                        
NE Baghdad, Iraq. (Posthumously Citizenship).  
APR 12, 2003 Marine Cpl Jesus A. Gonzalez 22, Indio, CA (Native of MX) Baghdad, Iraq.  
APR 13, 2003 Army Spc Gil Mercardo 25, Paterson, NJ (Isabela, PR)      Iraq  
APR 14, 2003 Marine Cpl Armando Ariel Gonzalez 26, Hileach, FL (Native of Cuba) Southern Iraq.  
APR 17, 2003 Army Cpl John T. Rivero 23, Tampa, FL  Kuwait.  
APR 25, 2003 Army 1st Lt Osbaldo Orozco 26, Delano, CA   Iraq  
APR 28, 2003 Army First Sgt Joe J. Garza 43, Robstown, TX  Baghdad, Iraq.  
APR 28, 2003 USAF A1C Raymond Losano 24, Del Rio, TX  Afghanistan.  
MAY 12, 2003 Marine PFC Jose Franci  Gonzalez-Rodriguez 19, Norwalk, CA  Iraq.  
MAY 18, 2003 Marine Cpl Douglas Jose Marenco Reyes  28, Chino, CA  Smawah, Iraq.  
MAY 28, 2003 Marine Cpl Jose Amancio Perez III 22, San Diego, TX  Taji, Iraq.  
JUN 03, 2003 Army Sgt Atanacio Haro Marin 27, Baldwin Park, CA  Balad, Iraq.  
JUN 06, 2003 Army Sgt Melvin Y. Mora  27, Columbia, Missouri  
JUN 26, 2003 Army PR National Guard Spc Richard P. Orengo 32, Toa Alto, PR Najir, Iraq.
                         (Bronze Star & Purple Heart)  
JUN 27, 2003 Army Cpl Tomas Sotelo, Jr 20, Houston, TX  Baghdad, Iraq.  
JUN 28, 2003 Army Spc Kelvin E. F. Gutierrez 21, Anasco,  PR  Orgun-E,  Afghanistan  
JUL 09, 2003 Army Melissa Valles 26, Eagle Pass, TX  Balad, Iraq.  
JUL 13, 2003 Army Sgt Jaror C. Puello-Coronado 36, Born: Dominican Rep. Pocono Summit, PA
                       Camp Edson, Iraq.

JUL 16, 2003 Army Spc Ramon Reyes-Torres 29, Caguas,  PR  Baghdad, Iraq.  
JUL 17, 2003 Navy HC3Class David J. Moreno 26, Gering NB  Hamishiyah, Iraq.  

(Pediatraic Wing at Balboa Naval Hosp. San Diego, CA named in his honor).

JUL  24. 2003 Army Sgt Juan M. Serrano 31, Manati, PR   Baghdad, Iraq.  
JUL 24, 2003 Army Ssgt Hector R. Perez 40, Corpus Christi, TX  Hawd, Iraq.  
JUL 26, 2003 Army Spc Wilfredo Perez, Jr  24, Norwalk, CT (Queens,NY)  Baghdad, Iraq.  
AUG 06, 2003 Army Zeferino Eusebio Colunga 20, Bellville, TX  Iraq. 

  (Died at Homburg University Hosp. Germany).  
AUG 25, 2003 Army Pfc Pablo Manzano 19, Heber, CA  Dogwood, Iraq.  
AUG 27, 2003 Army Spc Rafael  L. Navea 34, Pittsburg, PA  Fallujah, Iraq.  
SEP 11, 2003 Army Sgt Henry Ybarra III 32, Austin, TX  Balad, Iraq.  
SEP 18, 2003 Army Spc Richard Arriaga 20, Ganado, TX  Tikrit, Iraq.  

Page   2  of   20    Honor the Fallen.

SEP 25, 2003 Army Capt Robert L. Lucero 34, Casper, WY  Tikrit, Iraq.  
OCT 01, 2003 Army Analaura Esparza Gutierrez 21, Houston, TX  (Born in MX)  Tikrit, Iraq.
                                            (see Jul 09,2003 Milissa Valles’s articles).  
OCT 01, 2003 Army Spc Tamra J. Ramos 24, Quakertown, PA   WA D.C.  
OCT 06, 2003 Army 2nd LT Richard Torres 25, Clantsville, TN  Baghdad, Iraq.  
OCT 13, 2003 Army Pfc Jose Casanova 23, El Monte, CA  Baghdad, Iraq.  
OCT 24, 2003 Army Spc Jose L. Mora 26, Bell Gardens, CA  Samaria, Iraq.  
OCT 26, 2003 Army Pvt Joseph R. Guerrera  20, Dunn, NC  Baghdad, Iraq.  
OCT 26, 2003 Army Pfc Steven Acosta 19, Calexico, CA  (Mexicali,MX)  Baghdad, Iraq  
OCT 30, 2003 Army Sgt Michael Paul Barrera 28, Von Ormy, TX  Baqubah, Iraq.  
NOV 02, 2003 Army Ssgt Paul A.(Tony) Velazquez  29, San Diego, CA  Fullujah, Iraq.  
NOV 02, 2003 Army Sgt Frances M. Vega 20, Ft Buchanan, PR  Fallujah, Iraq.  
NOV 02, 2003 Army Sgt Joel Perez 25, Rio Grande, PR  Fallujah, Iraq.  
NOV 04, 2003 Army Sgt Francisco Martinez  28, Humacao, PR  Baghdad, Iraq.  
NOV 05, 2003 Army Sgt 1st Class Jose A. Rivera 28, Bayamon, PR Mumuhdyah, Iraq.  
NOV 08, 2003 Army Ssgt Mark D. Vasquez 35, Port Huron, MI  Fullujah, Iraq.  
NOV 08, 2003 Army Sgt Linda C. Jimenez 39 Brooklyn, NY (Phoenix,AZ)  
Walter Reed Hospital, WA D.C.

NOV 11, 2003 Army Spc Genaro Acosta 26, Fair Oaks, CA  Taji, Iraq.  
NOV 14, 2003 Army Spc Ivrving Medina  22, Middletown, NY (Mexico City,MX) Baghdad,Iraq.  
NOV 28, 2003 Army Sgt Ariel Rico  25, El Paso, TX  Mosul, Iraq.  
DEC 28, 2003 Army Pvt Rey D. Cuervo 24, Laguna Vista, TX  Baghdad, Iraq.  
DEC 28, 2003 Army Capt Ernesto M. Blanco 28, San Antonio, TX   Qaryat Ash Shababi, Iraq.
                           (Bronze Star)

2004: (100)  
JAN 01, 2004 Army Sgt Dennis A. Corral 33, (born: San Diego, CA) Kearny, NE  Baghdad, Iraq.  
JAN 14, 2004 Army Sgt Roland L. Castro  26, San Antonio, TX  Camp Cedar II, Iraq.  
JAN  21,2004 Army  Spc Gabriel T. Palacios  22, Lynn, MA (Nicaragua)   Iraq.  
JAN 29, 2004 Army Pfc Luis A. Moreno 19, (Born: Dominican Rep.) Bronx, NY  Baghdad, Iraq  
JAN 31, 2004 Army Sgt Eliu A. Miersandoval 27, (Born:Durango,MX) San Clemente,CA  

Kirkuk, Iraq  
JAN 31, 2004 Army Cpl Juan Carlos Casral Banuelos 25, (Born: Jeres,MX) Emporia, KS (Ogden UT)        FEB 01, 2004 Army Pfc Amando Soriano 20, Houston, TX  Haditha, Iraq.  
FEB 10, 2004 Army USAF Msgt Jude C. Mariano 39, Vallejo, CA  Doha, Qutar.  

Page   3   of   20    Honor the Fallen.

FEB 11, 2004 Army Pfc William C. Ramirez, 19 Portland, OR   Baghdad, Iraq.  
FEB 12, 2004 Army Spc Erik Ulysses Ramirez 31, San Diego, CA  Gireb, Iraq.  
FEB 16, 2004 Army Michael M. Merila 23, Sierra Vista, AZ (FT Lewis,WA) Talifar, Iraq.  
MAR 13, 2004 Army Spc Jocelyn L. Carrasquillo  28, Wrightsville, NC   Iraq.  
MAR 26, 2004 Marine Pfc Leroy Sandoval, Jr  21 Houston, TX  Fullujah, Anbar Province Iraq.  
APR 04, 2004 Army Spc Robert R. Asiaga  25, Midland, TX  Baghdad, Iraq.  
APR 04, 2004 Army Spc Israel Garza 25, Lubbock, TX  Baghdad, Iraq.  
APR 05, 2004 Marine Pfc Christopher Ramos 26, Albuquerque, NM   Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
APR 06, 2004 Navy PO 3rd Class Fernando A. Mendez-Aceves 27, (Born: Mex. City, MX) Ponce, PR                        
Ramadi, Iraq.

APR 06, 2004 Army Sgt Gerardo (Chito) Moreno 23, Terrell, TX  Ashula, Iraq.  
APR 06, 2004 Army Isaac Michael Nieves 20, Unadilla, NY  Bani Saad, Iraq. (Bronze Star, Purple Heart
                        National Def. Service Medal and GWOT medal).  
APR 09, 2004  Marine Lcpl Elim Torrez III 21 Veribest, TX   Iraq.  
APR 10, 2004 Army Spc Adolfo C. Carballo 20, Houston, TX  Baghdad, Iraq.  
APR 11, 2004 Marine Cpl Daniel R. Amaya 22, Odessa, TX  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
APR 11, 2004 Marine Pfc George D. Torres 23 Long Beach, CA  Anbar Prov. Iraq  
APR 11, 2004 Marine 1st LT Oscar Jimenez 34, San Diego, CA  Anbar, Prov. Iraq (Natl. Def Ser. Medal) APR 13, 2004 Army Ssgt Victor A. Rosales-Lomeli 29, (Born: Mex.City, MX) Westminster, CA  Iraq. APR 14, 2004 Army Sgt Christopher Ramirez 34, McAllen, TX  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
APR 15, 2004 Marine Ssgt Jimmy J. Arroyave 30, Woodland, CA  Ramadi, Iraq.  
APR 17, 2004 Marine Lcpl Ruben Valdez, Jr 21 San Diego, TX  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
APR 27, 2004 Army Ssgt Abraham D. Pena[Medina  32, Los Angeles, CA  Baghdad, Iraq.  
MAY 01, 2004 Army Spc Ramon C. Ojeda 22, Ramona, CA  Amarah, Iraq.  
MAY 01, 2004 Army Ssgt Oscar D. Vargas-Medina  32, Chicago, IL  Amarah, Iraq.  
MAY 08, 2004 Army Spc Isela Rubalcava 25, El Paso, TX (3rd Stryker Brigade Ft Lewis,WA) 

Mosul, Iraq. ( See Jul 09, 2003 Melissa Valles BIOS & Articles)  
MAY 15, 2004 Army Ssgt Rene Ledesma 34, Abilene, TX  Baghdad, Iraq.  
MAY 18, 2004 Army Cpl Marcos O. Nolasco 34, (Born: Guadalajara,MX) Chino, CA  Baji, Iraq.  
MAY 19, 2004 Marine Cpl Rudy Salas 20, Baldwin, CA  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
MAY 23, 2004 Marine Jorge A. Molina Bautista 37, Rialto, CA  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
MAY 25, 2004 Army Pfc Richard H. Rosas 21, Saint Louis, MI  Fullujah, Iraq.  
MAY 29, 2004 Marine Lcpl Rafael Reynosa-Saurez 28, Santa Ana, CA  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  

Page   4  of   20    Honor the Fallen.

MAY 29, 2004 Marine Lcpl Benjamin R. Gonzalez 23, Los Angeles, CA  Ramadi, Iraq.  
JUN 21, 2004 Marine Lcpl Juan Lopez 22, Whitfield, GA (Mexico) Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
JUN 22, 2004 Marine Lcpl Pedro Contrerras 27, Houston, TX Anbar Prov. Iraq. (Natl Def.Ser medal) JUN 26, 2004 Marine Lcpl Manuel A. Ceniceros 23, Santa Ana, CA  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
JUL 05, 2004 Mrine Lcpl Michael S. Torres 21, El Paso, TX  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
JUL 11, 2004 Army Sgt 1st Class Linda Ann Tarango-Griess 33, Sutton,Neb. (Clovis NM)
                 Samarra, Iraq. (Promoted to Msgt, awarded the Bronze Star & Purple Heart).  
JUL 12, 2004 Army Spc Juan M. Torres 25, Houston, TX  Bagram, Afghanistan.  
JUL 14, 2004 Army Pfc Jesse L. Martinez 20, Tracy, CA   Talafar, Iraq.  
AUG 01, 2004 Army Spc Armando Hernandez 22, Hesperia, CA  Samarra, Iraq.  
AUG 02, 2004 Marine Sgt Juan Calderon, Jr   20, Weslaco, TX Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
AUG 05, 2004 Army Sgt Moses D. Rocha 33, Roswell, NM (Orange Co. CA) Najaf, Iraq (Purple Heart) AUG 05, 2004 Marine Sgt Yadir G. Reynoso 27, Wapato, WA  Najaf, Iraq.  
AUG 05, 2004 Marine Cpl Roberto Abad 22, Los Angeles, CA  Najaf, Iraq  
AUG 12, 2004 Army Sgt Daniel Lee Galvan  30, Moore, OK  Salerno, Afghanistan  
AUG 15, 2004 Marine Pfc Geoffrey Perez 24, Los Angeles, CA  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
AUG 15, 2004 Army Spc Mark Anthony Zapata 27, Edinburg, TX  Najaf, Iraq.  
AUG 15, 2004 Marine Cpl Nicanor Alvarez 22, San Bernardino, CA  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
AUG 24, 2004 Marine Lcpl Jacob R. Lugo 21, Flower Mound, TX  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
AUG 25, 2004 Marine Cpl Alexandro S. Arredondo  20, Randolph, Mass  
AUG 27, 2004 Army Pfc Luis A. Perez 19, Theresa, NY (East Chicago, Il ) Fallujah, Iraq.  
AUG 28, 2004 Marine Sgt Edgar E. Lopez 27, Los Angeles, CA  Babil, Iraq.  
SEP 03, 2004 Marine Lcpl Nicholas Perez 19, Austin, TX  Anbar Prov Iraq  
SEP 06, 2004 USAF Capt John J. Boria 29, Baroken Arrow, OK   Doha, Qatar. 
KC-135 Air Refueling Pilot. U.S. Air Force Academy Graduate.  
SEP 06, 2004 Army Spc Tomas Garces 19, Welasco, TX  Baghdad, Iraq.  
SEP 08, 2004 Army Spc Laruo G. De Leon    20, Floresville, TX  Balad, Iraq.  
SEP 08, 2004 Marine Lcpl Cesar F. Machado Olmos 20, Spanish Fork, UT  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
SEP 08, 2004 Army Spc Michael A. Martinez  29, Juana Diaz, PR  Baghdad, Iraq.  
SEP 24, 2004 Marine Lcpl Ramon Mateo 20, Suffolk, NY  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
SEP 27, 2004 Army Sgt 1st Class Joselito O. Villaneuva 36, Los Angeles,CA  Samarra, Iraq (Purple Heart).  
OCT 01, 2004 Army Sgt Michael Uvanni 27, Rome, NY  Samarra, Iraq.  

Page   5  of   20    Honor the Fallen.

OCT 12, 2004 Marine Pfc Oscar A. Martinez 19, North Lauderdale, FL (Born in Dallas, TX)                          (Parents from El Salvador). Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
OCT 13, 2004 Army Lcpl Victor A. Gonzalez 19, Watsonville, CA  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
OCT 13, 2004 Army Spc Jaime Moreno 28, Round Lake Beach, IL  Baghdad, Iraq.  
OCT 15, 2004 Marine Cpl William I. Salazar 26, Las Vegas, NV  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
OCT 15, 2004 Army Spc Jonathan J. Santos 22, Bellingham, WA  Karabilah, Iraq. 
(Purple Heart, Natl. Def. Svc Medal and GWOT medal)  
OCT 27, 2004 Army Cpl Billy Gomez  25, Perris, CA  Naka, Afghanistan 
(Died at Landstuhl, Germany  Reg. Med. Ctr.  
NOV 04, 2004 Marine Cpl Jeremiah A. Baro  21, Fresno, CA  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
NOV 05, 2004 Army Sgt Carlos M. Camacho-Rivera 24,  Carolina, PR  Fallujah, Iraq.  
NOV 09, 2004 Marine Lcpl Juan E. Segura  26, Homestead, FL  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
NOV 10, 2004 Marine Cpl Romolo J. Jimenez II  21, Miami, FL  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
NOV 10, 2004 Marine Sgt Gene Ramirez 28, San Antonio, TX  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
NOV 13, 2004 Army Spc Jose A. Velez 23, Lubbock, TX  Fullujah, Iraq.  
NOV 14, 2004 Marine Cpl Andres H. Perez 21, Santa Ana, CA  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
NOV 15, 2004 Maine Sgt Rafael Peralta 25, San Diego, CA  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
NOV 15, 2004 Army Pfc Jose Ricardo Flores-Mejia  21, Santa Clara, CA   Mosul, Iraq.  
NOV 18, 2004 Marine Lcpl Luis A. Figueroa  21, Los Angeles, CA  Anbar, Iraq.  
NOV 20, 2004 Marine Cpl Joseph J. Heredia  22, Santa Ana, CA  Anbar Prov. Iraq  
NOV 24, 2004 Army Spc Sergio R. Diaz-Varela  21, Lomita, CA  Ramadi, Iraq.  
NOV 27, 2004 Marine Lcpl Joshua E. Lucero 19, Tucson, Az  Fullujah, Iraq.  
NOV 28, 2004 Army Sgt Trinidad R. Martinez-Luis  22, Los Angeles, CA  Fullujah, Iraq.  
NOV 29, 2004 Army Pfc Wilfredo F. Urbina  29, Baldwin, NY  Baghdad, Iraq.  
NOV 30, 2004 Army Sgt Jose Guerreca, Jr 24, Missouri, TX  Fallujah, Iraq. (Bronze Star & Purple Heart).
NOV 30, 2004 Army Pablo A. Calderon 26, Brooklyn, NY  Fullujah, Iraq.  
DEC 01, 2004 Army Spc Isaac E. Diaz 20, (Born: San Benito, TX) Rio Hondo, TX  Sharona, Iraq.  
DEC 01, 2004 Marine GSgt Javier Obleas-Prado Pena  30, Fall Church, VA  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
DEC 12, 2004 Marine Lcpl Hilario F. Lopez 22, Ingleside, TX  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
DEC 14, 2004 Army Spc Victor A. Martinez 22, Bronx, NY  Baghdad, Iraq  
DEC 19,2004 Army Sgt Berry Kenneth Meza 23, League City, TX  Shuaybah, Kuwait.  
DEC 21, 2004 Army Spc Jonathan Castro 21, Corona, CA  Mosul, Iraq.  
DEC 27, 2004 Army Spc Jose A. Rivera-Serrano 26, Mayaquez, PR  Baghdad, Iraq.

Page   6  of   20    Honor the Fallen.  

DEC 28, 2004 Navy Seaman Pablito Pena-Brionez  22, Anaheim, CA  Fullujah, Iraq.
DEC 29, 2004 Army Pfc Oscar Sanchez 19, Mosesto, CA  Mosul, Iraq (1st Stryker Brigade, Ft Lewis, WA)  
(Natl. Def Svc Medal, GWOT, Bronze Star & Purple Heart).

2005: (102)

JAN 02, 2005 Army Sgt 1st Class  Pedro A. Munoz  47, Aquada, PR Shindand, Afghanistan                        (Born:Quebradilla,PR) Bronze Star, Purple Heart, Meritorious Svc Med 2 Oak leaf clt.

JAN 06, 2005 Marine Cpl Julio Cisneros Alvarez 22, Pharr, TX  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
JAN 13, 2005 Marine Lcpl Juan R Rodriguez-Velasco 23, El Cenizo, TX Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
JAN 17, 2005 Army Pfc Jesus Fonseca, Jr 19, Marrietta,  GA  Ramadi, Iraq.  
JAN 24, 2005 Army Jesus al Leon-Perez 20, Houston, TX  Mohammed Sacran, Iraq.  
JAN 24, 2005 Army Javier Marin, Jr 29, Mission, TX  Mohammed Sacran, Iraq.  
JAN 26, 2005 Marine Lcpl Tony L. Hernandez 22, Canyon Lake, TX  Rutbah, Iraq.  
JAN 26, 2005 Marine Lcpl Hector Ramos 20, Aurora, IL  Ruibah, Iraq.  
JAN 26, 2005 Marine Capt Paul C. Alaniz 32, Corpus Christi, TX  Rutbah, Iraq.  
JAN 27, 2005 Army Pfc Kevin M. Luna  26, Oxnard, CA  Mugddiyah, Iraq.  
JAN 28, 2005 Army Ssgt Joseph E. Rodriguez 25, Las Cruces, NM  Baghdad, Iraq.  
JAN 28, 2005 Amry Pfc Stephen a. Castellano 20, Long Beach, CA  Mosul, Iraq.  
JAN 28, 2005 Army Capt Orlando Bonilla 27, Killen, TX  Baghdad, Iraq. |
JAN 30, 2005 Marine Lcpl Nazario Serrano 20, Irving, TX  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
FEB 04, 2005 Army Sgt Daniel Torres 23, Ft Worth, TX  Bayji, Iraq.  
FEB 10, 2005 Marine Lcpl  Richard A. Perez, Jr 19,  Las Vegas, NV  Anbar Prov. Iraq  
FEB 17, 2005 Army Sgt Frank B. Hernandez 21, Phoenix, AZ Talafar, Iraq    

(1st Stryker Brigade Ft Lewis, WA)  
FEB 18, 2005 Army Sgt Carolos J. Gil 30, Orlando, FL  Humanlyuh, Iraq.  
FEB 28, 2005 Army Sgt Julio E. Negron 28, (Born: San German, PR) Pompano Beach, Fl  Bayji, Iraq. MAR 01, 2005 Army Spc Lizbeth Robles  31, Vega Baja, PR  Bayji, Iraq.  
MAR 04, 2005 Army Ssgt Juan M. Soloria 32, Dallas, TX  Mosul, Iraq. (1st Stryker Brigade Ft Lewis,WA) MAR 20, 2005 Army  Spc Francisco G. Martinez 20, Ft Worth, TX  Tamin, Iraq.  
APR 05, 2005 Army Sgt Javier J. Garcia 25, Miami, FL  Baghdad, Iraq.  
APR 06, 2005 Army Msgt Edwin  A. Matos-Colon 42, Juana Diaz, Pr  Ghazni, Afghanistan  
APR 06, 2005 Army CWO David Ayala 24, New York, NY  Ghazni, Afghanistan  
APR 07, 2005 Marine Lcpl Juan C. Venegas 21, Simi Valley, CA  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
APR 12, 2005 Army Spc Manuel Lopez III 20, Cape Corral, FL  Baghdad, Iraq.  

Page   7  of   20    Honor the Fallen.

APR 15, 2005 Army Spc Aleina Ramirez-Gonzalez 33, Homigueros,  PR  Tikrit, Iraq.  
APR16, 2005 Army Sgt Angelo L. Lozada, Jr 36 Brooklyn, NY (Puerto Rico) Ramadi, Iraq 
(Bronze Star, Purple Heart and Army Commendation Medal).  
APR 30, 2005 Army Ssgt Juan de Dios Garcia-Arana 27 Los Angeles, CA  Khaladiyah, Iraq.  
MAY 07, 2005 Marine Sgt Aaron N. Cepedos, Sr  22,  San Antonio, TX  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
MAY 23, 2005 Marine Sgt Christopher S. Perez 30, Hutehinson, KS  Ramadi, Iraq.  
MAY 26, 2005 Marine Major Ricardo A. Croker 39, Mission Viejo, CA  Haditbah, Iraq.  
MAY 31, 2005 Army Sgt Miguel A. Ramos 39, Mayaquez, PR  Baghdad, Iraq.  
JUN 03, 2005 Marine Cpl Antonio Mendoza 21, Santa Ana, CA    Ramadi, Iraq.  
JUN 05, 2005 Marine Lcpl Daniel Chavez  20, Odessa, TX  Haglaniyah, Iraq.  
JUN 08, 2005 Army Ssgt Justin L. Vasquez 26, Manzanola, CO  Baghdad, Iraq.  
JUN 08, 2005 Army Pfc  Emmanuel C. Hernandez 22, Yauco, PR  Shkin, Afghanistan  
JUN 08, 2005 Army Sgt Roberto Arizola, Jr   31, Laredo, TX  Baghdad, Iraq.  
JUN 09, 2005 Marine Lcpl  Daniel Chavez  20, Odessa, TX   Haqlaniyah, Iraq.  
JUN 09, 2005 Marine Lcpl Mario A. Castillo 20, Brownwood, TX  Saglawiyah, Iraq.  
JUN 10, 2005 Army Sgt 1st Class Victor H. Cervantes 27, Stockton, Ca  Orgun-E Afghanistan  

(Bronze Star, Purple Heart, Meritorious Svc Med. Joint Svc Cmd. Med, Natl. Def. Svc Med & GWOT.  

JUN 15, 2005 Navy HCorp 2nd Class Cesar O. Baez 37, Pomona, CA  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
JUN 15, 2005 Marine Cpl Jonathan R. Flores 18, San Antonio, TX  Ramadi, Iraq.  
JUN 23, 2005 Marine Cpl Romona M. Valdez  20, Bronx, NY  Fullujah, Iraq.  
JUN 24, 2005 Marine Cpl Carlos Pinera   23, Los Angeles, CA (El Salvador) Fullujah, Iraq.  
JUN 25, 2005 Army Sgt Manny Horedo 27, Brooklyn, NY  Tikrit, Iraq.  
JUN 28, 2005 Army Spc Rafael A. Carrillo, Jr  21 Boys Ranch, TX   Baghdad, Iraq.  
JUL 16, 2005 Army Ssgt Jorge L. Pena-Romero  29, Fallbrook, CA  Baghdad, Iraq.  
JUL 17, 2005 Marine Lcpl Efrain Sanchez, Jr  29, Port Chester, NY  Ramadi, Iraq.  
JUL 24, 2005 Army  Pfc  Ramon A. Villatoro, Jr  19, Baskerfield, CA  Baghdad, Iraq.  
JUL 29, 2005 Army  Pvt  Ernesto R. Guerra, Jr  20, Long Beach, CA  Baghdad, Iraq.  
AUG 03, 2005 Marine Lcpl Michael J. Cifuentes  25, Fairfield, OH   Haditha, Iraq.  
AUG 04, 2005 Army Pfc Damian J. Garza 19, (Midland,TX) Odessa, TX  Jalalabad, Afghanistan.  
AUG 07, 2005 Army Pfc  Seferino J. Reyna  20, Phoenix, AZ  Taji, Iraq  (Tollono O’odham Nation)                          (Natl. Def. Svc Medal, GWOT medal and the Army Cmd. Medal)  
AUG 08, 2005 Marine Ssgt Ramon E. Gonzales-Cordova 30 Davis, FL  Ramadi, Iraq.  

Page   8   of   20    Honor the Fallen.  
AUG 08, 2005 Army Pfc Hernando Rios  29, Queen, NY  Baghdad, Iraq  
AUG 09, 2005 Army Spc Miguel Carrasquillo  25, River Grove, IL  Baghdad, Iraq.  
AUG 10, 2005 Marine Lcpl Evenor C. Herrera  22, Gypsum, CO (Honduras)  Ramadi, Iraq.
AUG 15, 2005 Army Spc Jose L. Ruiz  28, Brentwood, NY  Mosul Iraq  (Ft Lewis, WA)  
AUG 22, 2005 Marine Pfc  Ramon Romero  19, Huntington Park, CA  Fullujah, Iraq.  
AUG 23, 2005 Army 1st Lt  Carlos J. Diaz  27, Juana Diaz, PR   Baghdad, Iraq.  
AUG 27, 2005 Army Spc Joseph L. Martinez   21  Las Vegas, NV  Talafar, Iraq.  
AUG 29, 2005 Army 2nd Lt Charles R. Rubado  23, (Clearwater,FL) Calexico, CA  Ramadi, Iraq.  
SEP 15, 2005, Army Spc William V. Fernandez  37, Reading, PA  Ramadi, Iraq.  
SEP 26, 2005 Marine Lcpl Steven A. Valdez   20, Merea, Ark.  Camp Blessing, Afghanistan.  
SEP 26, 2005 Marine Pvt Elijah M. Ortega  19, Oxnard, CA  Baharia, Iraq.  
OCT 03, 2005 Army Pfc Robeto C Baez 19, Tampa, FL  Haglaniyah, Iraq.  
OCT 09, 2005 Marine Lcpl Sergio H. Escobar  18, Pasadena, CA  Ramadi, Iraq.
OCT 12, 2005 Army Sgt Lorenzo Ponce Ruiz  26,  El Paso, TX  Balad, Iraq  
OCT 12, 2005 Army Spc James T. Grijalva  26, Burbank, IL   Baghdad, Iraq.  
OCT 14, 2005 Navy Builder 3rd Class Fabracio Moreno  26, Brooklyn, NY  Manda Bay Kenya  
OCT 16, 2005 Army Pfc Joseph Cruz  22, Whittier, CA  Organ-E, Afghanistan  
OCT 19, 2005  Army Sgt Arthur A. Mora, Jr  23, Pico Rivera, CA  Balad, Iraq.  
OCT 19, 2005  Army Spc Russell H. Nahui  24, Arlington, TX  Balad, Iraq.  
OCT 19, 2005 Army Spc Jose E. Rosario   20, St Coris, Virgen Island   Balad, Iraq  
OCT 26, 2005 Army Sgt 1st Class Ramon A Acevedo-Aponte   51,  Penuelos, PR     
Hometown: Watertown, NY   Rustamiyah, Iraq.  
OCT 29, 2005 Army Pfc Kenny D. Rojas  21, Pembroke, FL   Bayji, Iraq.  
NOV 07, 2005 Army Pfc Mario A. Reyes  19, Las Cruces, NM    Baghdad, Iraq.  
NOV 10, 2005 Army Sgt Joshua A. Terando  27, Morris, IL  Alkhalidiyah, Iraq.  
NOV 11, 2005 Army Pfc Antonio Mendez-Sanchez  22, Rincon, PR  Kirkut, Iraq. (Ft Lewis, WA)  
NOV 12, 2005  Marine Lcpl David B. Mendez-Ruiz  20, Cleveland, OH  Amiriyah, Iraq.  
NOV 14, 2005 Marine Cpl John M. Longoria  21, Nixon, TX  New Ubaydi, Iraq.  
NOV 14, 2005 Marine Major Ramon J. Mendoza, Jr   37,  Columbus, OH  New Ubaydi  
NOV 16, 2005 Army Alexis Roman-Cruz  33,  Brandon, FL  Taji, Iraq  
NOV 16, 2005 Marine Lcpl John A. Lucente  19, Grass Valley, CA  New Ubaydi, Iraq.

Page   9  of    20    Honor the Fallen.

NOV 17, 2005 Army Ssgt Ivan V. Alarcon  23, Jerome, ID   Talafar, Iraq.  
NOV 18, 2005 Army Sgt  Luis R. Reyes 26, Aurora, CO  Ali Al Salem, Kuwait  
NOV 19, 2005 Army Pvt Christopher M. Algozer  21, Dekald, IL   Mosul, Iraq.  
NOV 19, 2005 Marine Lcpl Miguel Terrazas  20, El Paso, TX  Bayji, Iraq.  
NOV 22, 2005 Army Sgt Denis  J. Gallardo  22, St Peterburg, FL  Talafar, Iraq. 
(Bronze Star) ( Was 11 years old when he immigrated to the U.S.)  
NOV 24, 2005 SPC Javier A. Villanueva  25, Temple, TX  Hit, Irag.  
NOV 24, 2005 Army Pfd Marc A. Delgado  21, Lithia, FL  Baghdad, Iraq.  
DEC 01, 2005  Marine Lcpl Robert A. Martinez  20, Splendora, TX  Fullujah, Iraq.  
DEC 08, 2005 Army  Ssgt Milton Rivera-Vargas  55, Boqueron, PR  Kalsu, Iraq. 
Army Natl. Guard Sabana  Grande PR  
DEC 09, 2005 Army Sgt Adrian N. Orosco  26, Corcoran, CA   Baghdad, Iraq.  
DEC 13, 2005 Army Spc Peter J. Navarro  20, San Benito, TX  Ramadi, Iraq.  
DEC 18, 2005 Marine Lcpl Samuel Tapia  20, Wildwood, MO  Taji, Iraq.  
DEC 22, 2005 Army Spc William Lopez-Fecliciano  33, Quebradillas, PR  Baghdad, Iraq.  
DEC 25, 2005 Army Spc Sergio Gudino  22, Pomona, CA  Baghdad, Iraq.  
DEC 26, 2005 Army CWO Isaias E. Santos  28, Ancon, Panama  Baghdad, Iraq  (Ft Hood, TX)  
DEC 31, 2005 Army  Spc Marcelino R. Corniel  23, Puente, CA  Baghdad, Iraq.  

2006: (126)

JAN 05, 2006 Army Pvt Robbie M. Mariano  21, Stoctkton, CA  Najaf, Iraq.  
JAN 05, 2006 Army Sgt Johnny J. Perelez, Jr  25, Kingville, TX (Falfurria, TX)  Najaf, Iraq.  
JAN 05, 2006 Army Sgt Jason Lopez-Reyes  29, Hatillo, PR  Baghdad, Iraq.  
JAN 07, 2006 Army Major Michael R. Martinez  43, Missoni/ Ft Carson, CO  Talafar, Iraq.  
JAN 07, 2006 Army Sgt Radhames Camilo Matos  24, (Carolina,PR) Monnrovia, CA  Taji, Iraq                           (Last name:  Camilomatos)  
JAN 20, 2006 Marine Cpl Carlos Arellano- Pandura  22, (Bronx,NY) Rosemead, CA  Haglaniyah, Iraq. JAN 27, 2006 Marine Lcpl Hugo R. Lopez-Lopez  20, La Habra, CA Rawah,Iraq /Brooke AMC TX JAN 28, 2006 Army Sgt David L. Herrera  26, Oceanside, CA  Baghdad, Iraq.  
JAN 28, 2006 Marine Cpl Felipe C. Barbosa  21, (Borvin,Brazil) High Point, NC  Fallujah, Iraq.  
FEB 01, 2006 Army Spc Marlon A. Bustamente  25, Corona, NY    Baghdad, Iraq.  
FEB 03, 2006 Army Spc Jesse M. Zamora  22, Las Cruces, NM  Bayji, Iraq.  
FEB 04, 2006 Army Spc Roberto L. Martinez-Salazar  21, Long Beach, CA (Born in Mexico) Mosul, Iraq                         Bronze Star & Purple Heart   (Ft Lewis, WA)

Page   10   of   20    Honor the Fallen.

FEB 05, 2006 Army Spc Sergio A. Mercedes-Saez  23, New York, NY   Baghdad, Iraq. (Bronze Star)                         (Born in PR and raised in San Pedro de Macoris, Dominican Rep.)  
FEB 09, 2006 Marine Pfc Javier Chavez, Jr  19, Cutler, CA   Fullujah, Iraq.  
FEB 12, 2006 Army Spc Felipe J. Garcia- Villareal  26, Burke, VA  Ramadi, Iraq.  
FEB 13, 2006 Army Sgt 1st Class Chad A. Gonslavez  48, Turlock, CA  Deh Rawod, Afghanistan.  
FEB 17, 2006 Army Capt Anthony R. Garcia  48, Ft Worth, TX (Hudson Oaks, TX)  Tikrit, Iraq.  
FEB 17, 2006 USAF  Ssgt Luis M. Melendez-Sanchez  33, Bayamon, PR  Siyan Djibouti, Iraq.  
FEB 20, 2006 Army Sgt Jesse Davila  20, Greenburg, KS   Baghdad, Iraq.  
FEB 28, 2006 Army Msgt  Emigaio E. Elizarras   37, Pico Rivera, CA  Tarin Kont, Afghanistan.  
MAR 07, 2006 Army Pfc Ricky  Salas, Jr  22, Roswell, NM  Mosul, Iraq.  
MAR 13, 2006 Army Ssgt Marco A. Silva  27, Alva, FL  Ramadi, Iraq.  
MAR 16, 2006 Army Spc Carlos M. Gonzalez  22, Middletown, NY  Tikrit, Iraq. 
(2-Bronze Stars, Purple Heart, Natl. Def. Svc Med.,GWOT medal & Army w/2 Oak leaf) MAR 18, 2006 Army Ssgt Ricardo Barraza  24, Shafter, CA  Ramadi, Iraq. (Ft Lewis, WA)  
MAR 28, 2006 Army Ssgt Robert Hernandez  47, Silver Spring, MD  (Puerto Rico) Taquaddum, Iraq. MAR 29, 2006 Army Pfc Joseph J. Duenas  23,  Meza, AZ  Kirkuk Prov. Iraq.  
APR 01, 2006 Army Sgt Israel Devora Garcia  23, Clint, TX  Baghdad, Iraq.  
APR 02, 2006 Marine Cpl Andres Aguilar, Jr  21  Victoria TX  Alsad, Iraq.  
APR 02, 2006 Marine Lcpl Felipe D. Sandoval-Flores  21, Victoria, TX  Asad, Iraq.  
APR 08, 2006 Marine Lcpl   Juana Navarro-Arellano  24, Ceres, CA   Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
APR 11, 2006 Army Cpl Joseph A. Blanco  25, Bloomington, CA  Taji, Iraq.  
APR 12, 2006 Army Pfc Roland  E. Calderon-Ascensio  21, Miami, Fl   Msiab, Iraq. 
                   (Parents are from El Salvador). |
APR 13, 2006 Marine Lcpl Stephen J. Perez  22, San Antonio, TX  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
APR 15, 2006 Marine Cpl Pablo V. Moyorga  33, Margate, FL  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
APR 27, 2006 Army 1st Sgt Bobby Mendez  38, Brooklyn, NY  Baghdad, Iraq.  
APR 28, 2006 Army Sgt Jose Gomez  23,  Corona, NY  Baghdad, Iraq. 
MAY 05, 2006 Army 1st Sgt Carlos N. Saenz  46, Las Vegas, NV  Baghdad, Iraq.  
MAY 05, 2006 Army Spc Teodoro Torres  29, Las Vegas, NV  Baghdad, Iraq.  
MAY 11, 2006 Marine Lcpl David J. Gomes-Sanchez  22, Ft Wayne, IN  Anbar Prov. Iraq.                       
(Last name: Grames-Sanchez)  
MAY 14, 2006 Marine Lcpl Jose Marin-Dominguez, Jr  22  Liberal, KS Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
MAY 21, 2006 Marine Lcpl Benito A. Ramirez  21, Edinburg, TX  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  

Page   11  of   20    Honor the Fallen.

MAY 27, 2006 Army Spc Adan Garcia  20, Irving, IL  Baghdad, Iraq.(Died at Bethesda, Md NMC).  
MAY 31, 2006 Army Sgt Benjamin E. Mejia  25, Salem, MA  Romadi, Iraq.  
JUN 08, 2006 Army Cpl Luis D. Santos  20, Rialto, CA  Buritz, Iraq.  
JUN 09, 2006 Army Sgt Jose M. Velez  35, Bronx, NY  Kirkuk, Iraq.  
JUN 09, 2006 Marine Lcpl Salvador Guerrero  21, Los Angeles, CA  Qaim, Iraq.  
JUN 11, 2006 Army Cpl Bernard P. Corpuz  28, Watsonville, CA  Ghazni, Iraq.  
JUN 14, 2006 Marine Cpl Michael A. Estrella  20, Hemet, CA  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
JUN 14, 2006 Army Sgt Roger P. Pena, Jr  20, San Antonio, TX  Musa Qulan, Afghanistan.  
JUN 16, 2006 Army Sgt Ian T. Sanchez  26, Staten Island, NY  Peoh River Valley, Afghanistan.  
JUN 16, 2006 Army Pfc Kristian Menchaca  23, San Marcos, TX  Baghdad, Iraq.  
JUN 17, 2006 Army Sgt Reyes Ramirez  23, Willis, TX   Ramadi, Iraq.  
JUN 24, 2006 Army Sgt Alberto A. Sanchez  33, Houston, TX  Balad, Iraq.  
JUN 24, 2006 Army Sgt Virrueta A. Sanchez  33, Houston, TX  Balad, Iraq.  
JUL 08, 2006 Army Ssgt Omar D. Flores  27, Mission, TX  Ramadi, Iraq.  
JUL 09, 2006 Army Spc Damien M. Montoyo  21, Holbrook, AZ  Baghdad, Iraq.  
JUL 12, 2006  Army Sgt Irving Hernandez, Jr  28, New York, NY   Mosul, Iraq.  
JUL 15, 2006 Army Spc Manuel J. Holquin  21, Woodlake, CA  Baghdad, Iraq.  
JUL 15, 2006 Army Sgt Andres J. Conterras  23, Huntington Park, CA  Baghdad, Iraq.  
JUL 19, 2006 Army Ssgt Eric Caban  28, Ft Worth, TX  Southern Afghanistan.  
JUL 20, 2006 Marine Cpl Julian A. Ramon  22, Flushing, NY  Ramadi, Iraq.  
JUL 25, 2006 Army Spc Andrew Velez  22, Lubbock, TX  Sharona, Afghanistan.  
JUL 26, 2006 Marine Cpl Julian A. Ramon  22, Flushing, NY  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
JUL 27, 2006 Marine Pfc Enrique C. Sanchez  21, Garner, NC  Ramadi, Iraq.  
AUG 03, 2006 Marine Sgt George M. Ulloa, Jr  23, Austin, TX  Tagaddum, Iraq.  
AUG 04, 2006 Army Sgt Leroy Segura, Jr   23, Clovis, NM  Habaniyah, Iraq.  
AUG 06, 2006 Army Cpl Jose Zamora  24, Sunland Park, NM  Baghdad, Iraq.  
AUG 09, 2006 Army Spc Ignacio Ramirez  22, Henderson, NV  Ramadi, Iraq.  
AUG 11, 2006 Army Spc Rogelio R. Garza  20, Corpus Christi, TX  Nangalam, Afghanistan.  
AUG 17, 2006 Army Pfc James J. Arellano  19, Cheyenne, NY  Baghdad, Iraq.  
AUG 18, 2006 Army Sgt 1st Class Ruben J. Villa, Jr  36, El Paso, TX  Baghdad, Iraq.  

Page   12   of   20    Honor the Fallen.

AUG 20, 2006 Marine Cpl Adam A. Galvez  21, Salt Lake City, UT  Rawah, Iraq.  
AUG 26, 2006 Army Spc Edgardo Zayas  29, Dorchester, MA  Baghdad, Iraq.  
AUG 27, 2006 Army Sgt David J. Almazan  22, Van Nuys, CA   Hit, Iraq.  
SEP 01, 2006 Army Ssgt Angel D. Mercado-Velazquez  24, _________   Puerto Rico   Yasifiyah, Iraq. SEP 02, 2006 Army Sgt Ralph N. Porras  36, Merrill, MI  Yasifiyah, Iraq.  
SEP 04, 2006 Army Lt. Col. Marshall A. Guitierrez  41,  _____________, NM   Camp Virginia, Kuwait. SEP 04, 2006 Marine Cpl Eric P. Valdepenas  21, Seekonk, MA    Fullujah, Iraq.  
SEP 07, 2006 Army Sgt Luis A. Montes  22, El Centro, CA  Abu Ghraib, Iraq.  
(Died at Brooke Army Med Ctr San Antonio, TX)  
SEP 15, 2006 Army Cesar A. Granados  21, La Grand, CA  Baghdad, Iraq.  
SEP 20, 2006 Marine Cpl Yull Estrada-Rodriguez  21, Alegre Lajas, PR  Barnanall, Iraq.  
SEP 23, 2006 Army Ssgt Carlos Dominquez  57, Savannah, GA  Taji, Iraq.  
SEP 24, 2006 Marine Lcpl Rene Martinez  20, Miami, FL  Habbaniyah, Iraq.  
SEP 26, 2006 Army Jose A. Lanzarin  28, Lubbock, TX  Ramadi, Iraq.  
SEP 30, 2006 Army Cpl Luis E. Tejada  20, Huntington Park, CA  Hit, Iraq.  
OCT 02, 2006 Army Spc Raymond Santos Armijo  22, Phoeniz, AZ  Taji, Iraq.  
OCT  02, 2006 Army Ssgt Joe A. Narvaez  26, San Antonio, TX  Baghdad, Iraq.  
OCT 03, 2006 Army Ssgt Jonathan Rojas  27, Hammond, IN  Baghdad, Iraq.  
OCT 04, 2006 Marine Cpl Benjamin S. Rosales  20, Houston, TX  Anbar Prov. Iraq.
OCT 09, 2006 Marine Sgt Julian M. Arechaga  23, Oceanside, NY  Andar Prov. Iraq.  
OCT 18, 2006 Army Ssgt Jesus M. Montalvo  46, Rio Piedras, PR  Baghadad, Iraq.  
OCT 18, 2006 Army Spc Jose R. Perez  21, Ontario, CA  Ramadi, Iraq.  
OCT 19, 2006 Marine Pvt Edward J. Lopez  21, Aurora, IL  Andbar Prov. Iraq.  
OCT 22, 2006 Army Spc Nathaniel A. Aguirre  21, Carrolton, TX  Baghdad, Iraq.  
OCT 31, 2006 Army Pfc Alex Oceguera  18, San Bernadino, CA  Wygal Valley, Afghanistan.  
OCT  31, 2006 Marine Pfc Jason Franco  18, Corona, CA  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
NOV 05, 2006 Marine Cpl Jose A. Galvan  22, San Antonio, TX  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
NOV 07, 2006 Army Ssgt Richwell A. Doria  25, San Diego, CA  Kirkuk, Iraq.  
NOV 09, 2006 Army Spc  Luis Enrique Leiva  28, (El Salvador) Beaverton, OR   
NOV 09, 2006 Army Sgt 1st Class Rudy Augustine Salcido  31, Ontario, CA  Baghdad, Iraq.  

Page   13  of   20    Honor the Fallen.  

NOV 11, 2006 Army Ssgt Misael Martinez  24, Chapel Hill, NC  Ramadi, Iraq.  
NOV 11, 2006 Army Angel De Jesus Lucio Ramirez  22, Pacoima, CA  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
NOV 14,2006 Army Spc Justin R. Garcia  26, Elmhurst, NY  Baghdad, Iraq. 
3rd  Stryker Brigade Ft Lewis,WA  
NOV 14, 2006 Marine Lcpl Mario D. Gonzalez  21  Atlantic, NJ  Ramadi, Iraq.  
NOV 14, 2006 Army Spc Eric G. Palacios-Rivera  ___, Atlantic City, NY Ramadi, Iraq.  
NOV 20, 2006 Army Spc Luis Enrique Leiva  28, (La Puente,CA) Beaverton, OR Anbar Prov. Iraq.                          (Died at home of an enlarge heart).  

NOV 21, 2006 Army Spc Eric Vizcaino  21,  New Mexico  Samarra, Iraq.  
NOV 22, 2006 Marine Lcpl  Joshua C. Alonzo  21,  Dumas, TX  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
NOV 24, 2006 Army Pvt Reece D. Moreno  19, Prescott, AZ   Balad, Iraq.  
DEC 04, 2006 Army Pfc Roger D. Suarez-Gonzalez  21, Miami, FL  Ramadi, Iraq.  
DEC 23, 2006  Army  Pvt  Bobby Mejia   22 ,  Saginaw, MI      Salman Pak, Iraq.  
DEC 23, 2006 Marine Spc Elias  Elias  27,  Glendora, CA  Baghdad, Iraq.  
DEC 28, 2006 Army  Spc  Luis G. Ayala  21, Southgate, CA  Taji, Iraq.  

2007: (108)

JAN 14, 2007 Army Sgt Paul T. Sanchez  32, Irving, TX  Baghdad, Iraq.  
JAN 17, 2007 Navy Ops Spc 2nd Class Joseph D. Alomar  32, Brooklyn, NY  Baghdad, Iraq.  
JAN 19, 2007 Army Sgt 1st Class Russell P. Borea  38, El Paso, TX (Tucson, AZ) Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
JAN 20, 2007 Marine Lcpl Luis J. Castillo  20, Lawton, MI  (Milford,MI) Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
JAN 20, 2007 Army Cpl Victor M. Langarcia  20,  Decartar, GA   Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
JAN 21, 2007 Marine Lcpl Emilian D. Sanchez  20, Santa Ana  Pueblo, NM  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
JAN 24, 2007 Army Ssgt Hector Leija  27, Houston, TX   Baghdad, Iraq. ( 3rd Stryker Brigade Ft Lewis WA                           (born in Raymondville, TX).  
JAN 27, 2007 Marine Lcpl Anthony C. Melia  20, Thousand Oaks, CA  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
JAN 30, 2007 Marine Sgt Alejandro Carrillo   22, Los Angeles, CA  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
FEB 07, 2007 Navy Corpsman 3rd Class  Manuel A. Luiz  21, Federalsburg, MD   Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
FEB 07, 2007 Navy PO1 Gilbert Minjares  31, El Paso, TX  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
FEB 07, 2007 Marine Sgt James R. Tijerina  26, Beasley, TX  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
FEB 17, 2007 Marine Lcpl Brian A. Escalante  25, Dodge City, KS  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
FEB 19, 2007 Army Sgt Pedro J. Colon  25, Cicero, FL   Baghdad, Iraq.  
FEB 21, 2007 Marine Lcpl Angel R. Ramirez  28, Brooklyn, NY  Quaim, Iraq.  
FEB 26, 2007 Marine Lcpl Anthony Aguirre  20, Channelview, TX  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  

Page   14   of   20   Honor the Fallen.

FEB 27, 2007 Army Ssgt Karl O. Soto-Pinedo  22, San Juan, PR  Baghdad, Iraq.  
FEB 28, 2007 Army Pvt  Daneil  Zizumbio  27,( Born: Jaurez,MX) Chicago, IL  Bagram, Afghanistan. MAR 02, 2007 Army Spc Luis O. Rodriquez-Contrera  22, Allentown, PA  Baghdad, Iraq  
MAR 03, 2007 Marine Lcpl Raul S. Bravo, Jr  21, Elko, NV  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
MAR 07, 2007 Army Spc Michael D. Rivera  22, Brooklyn, NY  Baghdad, Iraq.  
MAR 13, 2007 Army Pfc Alberto Garcia, Jr  23, Bakerfield, CA   Baghdad, Iraq  
MAR 13, 2007 Marine Pfc  Angel Rosa  21, Portland, Maine (Puerto Rico)  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
MAR 14, 2007 Marine Lcpl Steven M. Chavez  20, Hondo, NM   Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
MAR 17, 2007 Army Spc Marieo Guerrero  30, Ft Worth, TX  Baghdad, Iraq.  
MAR 25, 2007 Army Pfc Orlando E. Gonzalez  21, New Freedom, PA  Baqubah, Iraq  
MAR 25, 2007 Army Cpl Jason Nunez  22,  Naranjito,  PR  Baqubah, Iraq  
MAR 29, 2007 Army Spc Agustin Guitierrez  19, San Jacinto, CA  North Kabul, Afghanistan.  
MAR 31, 2007 Army Spc Wilfred Flores,  Jr   20, Lawton, OK  Baghdad, Iraq.  
APR 01, 2007 Army Ssgt David B. Mejias  26, San Juan, PR    Baghdad, Iraq.  
APR 01, 2007  Army Pfc Miguel A. Marcial III  19, Secaucus, NJ  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
APR 03, 2007 Army Pfc Gabariel J. Figueroa  20, Baldwin Park, CA  Baghdad, Iraq.  
APR 06, 2007 Army Pfac Daniel A. Fuentes   19,  Levittown, NY  Baghdad, Iraq.  
APR 06, 2007 Army Pvt Damian Lopez-Rodriguez  19, Tucson, AZ  Baghdad, Iraq.  
APR 06, 2007 Army Capt Anthony Palermo  26, Brockton, MA.  Baghdad, Iraq.  
APR 06, 2007 Army Spc Ismael G. Soloria   21, San Luis, AZ  Baghdad, Iraq. (2- Purple Hearts).  
APR 11, 2007 Army Sgt Edelman L. Hernandez  23,  Hyattsville, MD  Korengal Valley Afghanistan.  
APR 16, 2007 Marine Lcpl Jesse D. De La Torre  29, Aurora, IL  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
APR 16, 2007 Army Sgt Mario K. DeLeon  26, San Francisco, CA  Baghdad, Iraq.  
APR 18, 2007 Army Pfc Jason M. Morales   20, La Puente, CA  Baghdad, Iraq.  
APR 18, 2007 Army Cpl Michael M. Riojas   21, (Clovis,NM) Fresno, CA  Taji, Iraq.  
(3rd Stryker Brigade Ft Lewis, WA)  
APR 23, 2007 Army Spc Michael J. Rodriguez  20, Sanford, NC (Knoxville,TN) Diyala Prov. Iraq.  
APR 27, 2007 Army Spc Eddie D. Tamez  21, Galveston, TX  Fullujah, Iraq.  
MAY 02, 2007 Army Spc Astor Sunsin Pineda  20, (Honduras)  Long Beach, CA  Baghdad, Iraq  
MAY 03, 2007 Army Sgt Felix G. Gonzalez Iraheta  25, Sun Valley, CA  Baghdad, Iraq.  
MAY 06, 2007  Army Ssgt Virgil Chance Martinez  33, West Valley, UT  Kadhimiyah, Iraq.  

Page  15   of   20   Honor the Fallen.

MAY 12, 2007 Army Spc Alex R. Jimenez  25, Lawrence, MA  (MIA until JUL 10,2008)  
MAY 18, 2007 Army Cpl Joshua G. Romero 19, Crowley, TX  Tahrir, Iraq.  
MAY 18, 2007 Army Sgt Anselmo Martinez III  19 Robstown, TX   Tahrir, Iraq.  
MAY 19, 2007 Army Pfc Alexander R. Valera  19, (Sacramento,CA) Fearmly, NV Baghdad, Iraq.  
MAY 22, 2007 Army Pvt Oscar Sauceda, Jr  21, Del Rio, TX  Baghdad, Iraq  
MAY 23, 2007 Army Cpl Victor Toledo-Pulido  22, (MX) Hawford, CA  Nahrawan, Iraq.  
MAY 25, 2007 Army Spc Alexander Rosa, Jr  22, Orlando, FL  Mugdadiyah, Iraq.  
MAY 26, 2007 Army Cpl Michael L. Jaurique  20, Texas City, TX  Samarra, Iraq.  
MAY 27, 2007 Marine Lcpl Emmanuel Villareal  21, Eagle Pass, TX  Kuwait Naval Base, Kuwait.  
MAY 28, 2007 Army Cpl Junior Cedeno Sanchez  20,  (Dominican Rep) Miami, FL  
Abu Sayda, Iraq. (4th Brigade Ft Lewis, WA)  
MAY 30, 2007 Army Sgt Bacilio Cuellar  24, Odessa, TX   Baghdad, Iraq.  
JUN 01, 2007 Army Ssgt  Juan F. Campos  27, McAllen, TX  Baghdad (Brooke AMC, San Antonio TX) JUN 02, 2007 Army Cpl Romel Catalan  21, Los Angeles, CA  Amariyah, Iraq (4th Brigade Ft Lewis,WA) JUN 05, 2007 Army Pfc Justin A. Verdeja  20, La Puente, CA  Baghdad, Iraq.  
JUN 16, 2007 Army Sgt  Danny R. Soto  24, (Hondurus) Houston, TX  Rashidiyah,Iraq. 
4th Brigade, Ft Lewis, WA  
JUN 18, 2007 Army Sgt  Frank M. Sandoval  27, (Palo Alto,CA) Yuma, AZ  Tikrit, Iraq.  
JUN 21, 2007 Army Sgt Alphonso J. Montenegro II   22, Rockaway, NY  Baghdad, Iraq.  
JUN 22 Army Spc Dominic N. Rodrigues  23, Klamath Falls, OR  Baghdad, Iraq.  
JUN 28, 2007 Army Sgt Michael J. Martinez  24, Chula Vista, CA  Baghdad, Iraq.  
JUN 28, 2007 Army Sgt Giann C. Joya Mendoza  27, (Honduras) North Hollywood, CA  Baghdad, Iraq. JUL 01, 2007 Army Cpl Victor A. Garcia  22, Rialto, CA  Baghdad, Iraq (4th Brigade, Ft Lewis, WA)
 JUL 02, 2007 Marine Lcpl Juan M. Garcia-Schill  20, Grant Pass, OR  Tagaddum, Iraq.  
JUL 06, 2007 Army Spc Roberto J. Causor, Jr  21, (Rio Rancho,NM) San Jose, CA  Samarra, Iraq.  
JUL 10, 2007 Army Capt Maria Inez Ortiz  40, (Bayamon,PR) Pennsauken, NJ (Nurse) (Bronze Star)                         Baghdad, Iraq.  
JUL 18, 2007 Army Spc Daniel E. Gomez  21, Warner Robin, GA  Adhamiyah, Iraq.  
JUL 18, 2007 Army Sgt 1st Class Luis E. Gutierrez-Rosales  38, Bakerfield, CA  Adhamiyah, Iraq.  
JUL 22, 2007 Army Pfc Juan S. Restrepo  20, Pembroke, FL  Korengal Valley, Afghanistan.  
JUL 26, 2007 Army  Spc Jaime Rodriguez  19, Oxnard, CA  Saqlawiyah, Iraq.  
JUL 27, 2007 Army Cpl Julia Anita Diaz  21, Salem OR   ___________.  

Page   16  of   20   Honor the Fallen.

JUL 29, 2007 Army Ssgt Wilberto Suliveras  38, Humacao, PR    Taji, Iraq.  
JUL 31, 2007 Army Spc Zachariah  J. Gonzalez  23, Indiana, Baghdad, Iraq  
(3rd Stryker Brigade, Ft Lewis, WA)  
JUL 31, 2007 Army Spc Daniel F. Reyes  24, San Diego, CA   Tunis, Iraq.  
AUG 02, 2007 Army  Ssgt  Fernando Santos   29, San Antonio, TX    Baghdad, Iraq 
(3rd Stryker Brigade, Ft Lewis, WA)  
AUG 02, 2007 Army Spc Eric D. Salinas  25, Houston, TX  Baghdad, (3rd Stryker Brigade, Ft Lewis WA AUG 02, 2007 Army SPC Christian Rojas Gallego  24, Loganville, GA  Baghdad, Iraq. 
(3rd Stryker Brigade, Ft Lewis, WA)  
AUG 02, 2007 Army Msgt Julian Inlges Rio  52,  (Aquadillo,Pr) Anasco, PR  Baghdad, Iraq.                   

AUG 02, 2007 Marine Lcpl Christian Vasquez  20, Coalinga, CA  Qaim, Iraq.  
AUG 06, 2007 Army Cpl Juan M. Alcantara  22, NY  Baqubah, Iraq (3rd Stryker Brigade, Ft Lewis, WA) AUG 13, 2007 Army Cpl Juan M. Lopez, Jr  23, (Florence, SC) San Antonio, TX  Qayyarah, Iraq.                           (Bronze Star and Purple Heart)  
AUG 22, 2007 Army  Pfc Omar E. Torres  20, Chicago, Il  Baghdad, Iraq,  
AUG 22, 2007 Army Spc Edgar E. Cardenas  34,  Lilburn, GA  Abu Ghraib, Iraq.  
AUG 23, 2007 Army Sgt 1st Class Adrian M. Elizalde  30, (Renton,WA) North Bend, OR  
Aziziyah, Iraq (1st Special Forces Group Airborne Ft Lewis, WA) Bronze Star &  Purple Heart. AUG 26, 2007 Marine Lcpl Rogelio A. Ramirez  21, Pasadena, CA  Saglawiyah, Iraq.  
AUG 28, 2007 Army Sgt 1st Class Rocky H. Herrera  43, Salt Lake City, Ut  Jaji, Afghanistan (Ft Lewis,WA  
SEP 02, 2007 Army Sgt 1st Class Gregory A. Rodriguez  35,Weilman, MI  Ana Kalay, Afghanistan.  
SEP 05, 2007 Army Cpl Javier G. Parades  24, San Antonio, TX  Baghdad, Iraq.  
SEP 07, 2007 Army Spc Mirasol Heredia  19, El Monte, CA  Baghdad, Iraq (Brooke AMC San Antonio) SEP 07, 2007 Army Cpl Jason J. Hernandez   21, Streetboro, OH  Mosul, Iraq.  
SEP 10, 2007 Army Sgt Omar L. Mora  28, Texas City, TX  Baghdad, Iraq.  
SEP 10, 2007 Marine Cpl Carlos E. Gilorozco  23, San Jose, CA  Ashraf, Iraq.  
SEP 14, 2007 Army Cpl Jonathan Rivadeneira  22, Jackson Heights, NY  Baghdad, Iraq.  
SEP  27, 2007 Army Cpl Julia Anita Diaz  21, Salem, OR  
OCT 04, 2007 Army Sgt Ricardo A. Rodriguez  23, Arecibo, PR  Bakji, Iraq.  
OCT 06, 2007 Army Cpl Gilberto A. Meza  21, Oxnard, CA  Baghdad, Iraq  
OCT 17, 2007 Army Spc Vincent A. Madero  22, Port Hueneme, CA  Balad, Iraq.  
OCT 22, 2007 Navy Seaman Annamarie Sannicolas-Camacho  20, Panama City, FL  Bahrain.  
OCT 26, 2007 Army Spc Hugo V. Mendoza  29, Glendale, AZ  Korengal Valley, Afghanistan.

Page   17  of   20   Honor the Fallen.  

NOV 18, 2007 USAF Tsgt Alejandro Ayala  26, Riverside, CA  Kuwait  
NOV 18, 2007 Army Cpl Marius L. Ferrero  26, Miami, FL  Ba’quabah, Iraq.  
NOV 20, 2007 Army Sgt Alfred G. Paraedez, Jr  32, Las Vega, NV  Baghdad, Iraq.  
NOV 27, 2007 Army Isaac T. Cortez  26, Bronx, NY  Amerli, Iraq.  
DEC 04, 2007 Army Sgt Erik J. Hernandez  26, Waldwick, NJ  Bavji, Iraq.

 2008:  (53)

JAN 08, 2008 Army  Spc  Juan E. Merlo  19, San Marcos, GA  Mugdadiyah, Iraq.  
FEB 05, 2008 Army Cpl  Miguel A. Baez III   32, Bonaire, GA  Mugdadiyah, Iraq.  
FEB 05, 2008 Army Ssgt Rafael A. Alicia Rivera  30, Bayamon, PR  Tallil, Iraq.  
FEB 20, 2008 Army Sgt  Conrad Alvarez  22, Big Spring, TX  Baghdad, Iraq  
(Army Commendation Medal, Natl. Def Svc Medal & GWOT medal).  
FEB 24, 2008 Army Spc  Orlando A. Perez  23, Houston, TX (parents from El Salvador) Baghdad, Iraq. MAR 07, 2007 Army Sgt  Jose A. Paniagua-Morales  22, Rell Gardens, CA  Balad, Iraq. 
(4th Brigade Ft Lewis, WA )  
MAR 08, 2008 Army Sgt Gabriel Guzman   25, Hornbrook, CA  Gholam Haydar/Orgun-E Afghanistan. MAR 10, 2008 Army Ssgt Ernesto Guadalupe Cimacursti  25, Douglas, AZ  Baghdad, Iraq.  
MAR 24, 2008 Army Pfc George Delgado  21, Palmdale, CA  Baghdad, Iraq.  
MAR 24, 2008 Army Cpl Jose A. Rubio Hernandez  24, Mission, TX  Baghdad, Iraq.  
MAR 26, 2008 Army Cpl Steven L. Candelo  20, Houston, TX  Baghdad, Iraq.  
MAR 27, 2008 Army  Cpl Joshua A. Molina  20,  Houston, TX  Baghdad, Iraq  
APR 06, 2008 Army Capt  Ulises  Burgos-Cruz  29, Puerto Rico      Balad, Iraq.  
APR 14, 2008 Army Spc Arturo Huerta-Cruz  23, Clearwater, FL  Tuz, Irag  
(Posthumously Citizenship).  
APR 21, 2008  Navy Airman/Apprentice  Adrian M. Campos   22, El Paso, TX      Dubai.  
APR 23, 2008 Army Sgt Guadalupe Cervantes Ramirez  26, Ft Irwin, CA (Born:Mexicali, MX)                       Camp Arifjan, Kuwait.  
MAY 02, 2008 Marine Cpl Miguel A. Guzman  21, Norwalk, CA    Kamah, Iraq.  
MAY 02, 2008 Marine Sgt Glen E. Martinez  31, Boulder, CO  Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
MAY 06, 2008 Army Spc Alex D. Gonzalez  21, Mission, TX  Mosul, Iraq.  
MAY 09, 2008 Army Sgt Isaac Palomarez  26, Loveland, CA  Kapisa Prov. Afghanistan.  
MAY 14, 2008 Army Ssgt  Victor M. Cota  33, Tucson, AZ   Baghdad, Iraq.  
MAY 29, 2008 Army Sgt 1st Class David Nunez  27, Los Angeles, CA  Shewan, Afghanistan.  
JUN 11, 2008 Marine Cpl Javier Perales, Jr  19, San Elizario, TX  Balad, Iraq.

Page  18  of   20   Honor the Fallen.

JUN 12, 2008 Army Sgt John D. Aragon  22, Antioch, CA  Balad, Iraq.  
JUN 20, 2008 Marine Sgt  Matthew Mendoza  24, San Antonio, TX  Helmand Prov. Afghanistan.  
JUN 21, 2008 Army Sgt  Nelson D. Rodriquez-Ramirez  22, Revere, MA  Kandahar, Afghanistan.  
JUN 25, 2008 Army Sgt Alejandro A. Dominquez  24, San Diego, CA  Mosul, Iraq.  
JUN 26, 2008 Marine Sgt Edgar A. Heredia   28,  Houston, TX  Farah Prov. Afghanistan (Purple Heart) JUN 29, 2008 Army Sgt 1st Class Jeffery M.  Rada-Morales  32, Naranjito, PR   Kandahar, Afghanistan.
JUL 08, 2008 Army Sgt Alex R. Jimenez  25, Lawerence, MA (Dominican Rep.)  Juqfes Sakha, Iraq.  
JUL 13, 2008  Army Pfc  Sergio S. Abad  21, Morganfield, KY  Wanat, Afghanistan  
JUL 18, 2008 Army Sgt  Israel Garcia  24, Long Beach, CA  Wanat, Afghanistan.  
AUG 02, 2008 Army Pvt Jair De Jesus Garcia  29, Chatsworth, CA  Asadabad, Afghanistan. 
(ChowKay Valley)  
AUG 03, 2008 Army Sgt Jaime Gonzalez, Jr  40, Austin, TX    Kabul, Afghanistan.  
AUG 07, 2008 Marine Cpl Stewart S. Trejo  25, Whitefish, MT  Kamah, Iraq.  
AUG 14, 2008 Marine Lcpl  Juan Lopez-Castaneda  19, Mesa, AZ (Born: Zacatecas,MX)  
Sanqin, Afghanistan   (Natl. Def. Svc medal, GWOT medal and Purple Heart.)   
AUG 19, 2008 Army Sgt Jose E. Ulloa  23, New York, NY  Sadr City, Iraq    
AUG 28, 2008 Army Spc Michael L. Gonzalez  20, Spotswood, NJ  Baghdad, Iraq.  
AUG 28, 2008 Army Spc Jorge L. Feliz Nieve  26, Queens Village, NY  Mosul, Iraq.  
SEP 02, 2008 Army Sgt 1st Class Gregory A. Rodriguez  35, Weidman, MI (Mt Pleasant,MI)                         Ana Kalay, Afghanistan  
SEP 17, 2008 Army Sgt Jason A. Vasquez  24, Chicago, IL  Gerdia Seria, Afghanistan.  
SEP 18, 2008 Army 1st Lt Robert Vallejo II  28, Richland, TX  Tallil, Iraq (CH 47 Chinook pilot)  
SEP 18, 2008 Army 1st Sgt Julio C. Ordonez  54, San Antonio, TX  Tallil, Iraq.  
SEP 20, 2008 Army Pfc  Joseph F. Gonzalez  18, Tucson, AZ  Korengal Valley, Afghanistan                           (Natl. Def. Svc medal and GWOT medal)  
SEP 20, 2008 USAF  Major  Rodolfo I. Rodriquez   34, El Paso, TX  Bombing of the Marriot Hotel in Islamabad, Pakistan (Bronze Star, Purple Heart, Meritorious Svc medal & AF combat action medal.)  
SEP 29, 2008 Army Sgt 1st Class Gary J. Vasquez  33, Round Lake, IL  Yakhchal, Afghanistan.  
OCT 11, 2008 Army Cpl Reuban M. Fernandez III  22, Abilene, TX  Mojar Al Kabir, Iraq.  
OCT 16, 2008 Army Sgt Federico G. Borjas  33, San Diego, CA  Bermel Dist Ctr. Afghanistan.  
OCT 22, 2008 Marine Cpl Adrian Robles  21  Scotts Bluff, NE  Helmand Prov. Afghanistan.                          (Purple Heart)  
NOV 12, 2008 Army Sgt Jose Regalado  23, Los Angeles, CA  Mosul, Iraq.  
NOV 13, 2008 Army Spc  Armando A. De La Paz  21, Riverside, CA   Baghdad, Iraq.  

Page  19  of  20  Honor the Fallen.

NOV 19, 2008 Marine Gunnery Sgt  Marcelo R. Velasco  40, Miami, FL   Anbar Prov. Iraq.  
DEC 28, 2008  Army  Spc  Tony J. Gonzales  20, Newman, CA  Sadr City, Iraq.  

Page  20   of   20   Honor the Fallen.

Compiled by: Rafael Ojeda

I hope that this will inspire other to write about their love ones that have given the ultimate sacrifice  for our country. Please register your Purple Heart Recipients in the NY Purple Heart Hall of Honor.   or

If you have photos or BIOS of any of these Fallen Heroes that don’t have a complete BIOS, please submit copies to Honor them. I urge you to support financially and with records of your Veteran love ones to the Proposed: Hispanic Military Museum in San Antonio, TX.

Please help widows to obtain the VA benefit to which they have a right.
VA benefits for the surviving spouses of veterans.

Thank you.  Rafael Ojeda



Soldiers Under Twin Eagles . . . . Soldados de Dos Águilas

Copyright Armando B. Rendón


Soldiers under twin eagles

America has been blessed by heroes

With eagles engraved on their hearts.

From the world wars to the present day

Their boundless valor has been her boon.

We sing of the warriors' grand resolve

taking on the threat against freedom—

twin forces of fascism and tyranny—

to ensure that their lands would thrive.

Imperialism sundered their homeland

Into two nations but in one heart united.

Still they defend both their countries

Thus fulfilling their duty as patriots.

Most Americans fail to recognize

The sacrifices of Chicano and Latino

Soldiers who have risked their very lives;

Even their deaths are still dishonored.

They bond: the méxicano born on this side,

Who bears an eagle blazoned on his chest,

And the other whose eagle mounts the nopal:

Warriors bound together in a timeless cause.

We pray their part in history is understood

With the same respect and honor demanded

By all valiant sons and daughters who gave

Their all, even unto their final breath.

Lastly, we plead that all the world’s leaders,

even those hungry for greater power, agree
that never again should the young be spent

To create more heroes in their wars. Enough!


Soldados de Dos Águilas


América se ha beneficiado de héroes

Llevando dos águilas en sus corazones.

Desde las guerras mundiales hasta hoy día,

La han defendido con un valor sin medida.

Cantamos de guerrilleros de gran voluntad

Que enfrentaron el riesgo a la libertad—

Las fuerzas del fascismo y la tiranía—

Para asegurar que la patria sobrevivía.

Por el imperialismo su patria fue dividida

En dos países aunque en corazón unida.

No obstante defienden ellos esas ambas naciones

Para cumplir como p at riotas sus obligaciones.

No reconocen la mayoría de Americanos

El sacrificio de los soldados Chicanos

Y los Latinos que han arriesgado sus vidas:

Hasta sus muertes no son reconocidas.

Se juntan: el méxicano nacido de este lado,

El que lleva un águila entre su pecho armado,

Y el otro con un águila montada en nopal:

Guerrilleros unidos en una causa inmortal.

Ojalá que su parte por la historia sea entendida

Al mismo nivel de respeto y honor como les pida

todos los valientes hijos e hijas que han ofrecido

todo—hasta sus vidas en un último suspiro.

Al final les pedimos a los líderes del mundo

Los que son hambrientos por un poder profundo

Únanse a decidir que la juventud jamás se presta

Para crear héroes en sus conflictos. ¡Ya basta!



Hispanic Americans & The U.S. Coast Guard


Coast Guard Boatswains Mate 3rd Class Carlos Cruz, 25, of Staten Island, N.Y.The history of  Hispanic Americans in the U.S. Coast Guard may be traced as far back as the early 1800s.  Hispanic Americans performed duties at light house stations as keepers and assistant keepers, such as Keeper José A. Ramirez, who was the Head Keeper of the Windward Point Light Station in Cuba, prior to World War II.  Others served on board Revenue Service cutters and as surfmen at Life-Saving Service stations along the coast.  Many gave their lives in the performance of their duties and others were decorated for their heroism.

In 1914, Hispanics sailed on the Revenue Cutter Algonquin.  The cutter was stationed in the Caribbean and assisted the city of San Juan twice.  In 1920, after the formation of the Coast Guard, two Hispanic crewman of the cutter Acushnet, Mess Attendant First Class Arthur J. Flores and SN John E. Gomez, volunteered to save survivors of the schooner Isaiah K. Stetsen, which sank off the coast of Massachusetts during a storm.  The Treasury Department awarded both of them the Silver Lifesaving Medal for their heroism.  

Many served with distinction during World War II as well.  The Sanjuan family, including the father, Vivencio, and two of his sons served in the Coast Guard.  Vivencio Sanjuan served on board the Coast Guard-manned attack transport USS Samuel Chase during the invasions of North Africa and then Salerno, Italy.  His son, Pedro, was stationed on board the attack transport USS Bayfield and saw service during the Normandy invasion and the invasion of Southern France as well.  Another son, Ramon, served on board four Coast Guard cutters during his career and retired from the service in 1969.  Another son, William, served in the Coast Guard in the Vietnam conflict.  He was awarded the Purple Heart for a combat injury received while under a Viet Cong mortar attack.

Other incidents and persons of note:

May 17, 1893: Nicholas Servas and Albert H. Cariher, both surfmen from the Cleveland Life-Saving Station, were killed in the line of duty when their lifeboat capsized during a rescue attempt.

November 4, 1901: Bailey T. Barco, the Keeper of the Dam Neck Mills Life-Saving Station, died from a disease contracted in the line of duty.

February 5, 1908: Francisco Silva, a surfman from the Woodend Life-Saving Station, died from a disease contracted in the line of duty.

Two Hispanic American Coast Guardsmen, Seaman Richard E. Cordova and Fireman Julius M. Vallon, gave their lives when their cutter, the USCGC Tampa, was torpedoed and sunk with all hands by a German U-Boat during World War I.

Justo Gonzalez became the first Hispanic-American to make the rank of chief petty officer when the Coast Guard promoted him to Chief Machinist's Mate (acting) on 16 February 1944.  The promotion was made permanent on 16 October 1948.

Valentin R. Fernandez, the coxswain of a landing craft, was awarded a Silver Lifesaving Medal for "...maneuvering a Marine landing party ashore under constant Japanese attack" during the invasion of Saipan, which began on 15 June 1944..

Louis Rua was awarded the Bronze Star  Medal for "...meritorious achievement at sea December 5-6, 1944, while serving aboard a U.S. Army large tug en route to the Philippines.  He craft went to the rescue of another ship which had been torpedoed by enemy action and saved 277 survivors from the abandoned ship."

Gunner's Mate Second Class Joseph Tezanos was awarded a Navy & Marine Corps Medal during World War II for "...distinguished heroism while serving as a volunteer member of a boat crew engaged in rescue operations during a fire in Pearl Harbor, Oahu, T.H. on 21 May 1944.  Under conditions of great personal danger from fire and explosions and with disregard of his own safety he assisted in the rescuing of approximately 42 survivors some of whom were injured and exhausted from the water and from burning ships.

Gilbert Cardenas and Thomas Cavadas were both awarded with a Commandant's Letter of Commendation for service during World War II.

In Vietnam, Heriberto S. Hernandez, a crewman aboard the USCGC Point Cypress which was assigned to Operation Market Time, was awarded the Purple Heart medal after sustaining a wound while in combat with the Viet Cong. 

Boatswain's Mate Third Class Pedro Albino, USCG, retired from the Coast Guard after 32 years of military and civilian government service.  He was stationed at six different lighthouses throughout Puerto Rico and the Caribbean during his distinguished career.  He was a champion for working and salary improvements for lighthouse keepers throughout Puerto Rico during his career.  His dedicated service contributed greatly to the success of the lighthouse service in Puerto Rico in the years prior to World War II.  He was commended for his assistance to the crew of the grounded sloop Continente in 1929. He was born in 1886, served in the U.S. Army for three years, joined the Lighthouse Service in 1916 and he retired from the Coast Guard in 1944.  

Chief Engineman Justo Gonzalez had a distinguished career in both the U.S. Lighthouse Service and the Coast Guard that stretched over 30 years.  He was born in 1906 and joined the Lighthouse Service on the tender Columbine in March 1926.  After leaving the service for a year, he rejoined the Lighthouse Service.  On 29 June 1937 while off duty in San Juan, Gonzalez observed three men in the water holding on to a capsized boat  just off the coast near El Morro Castle.  Ignoring the obvious risks he entered the water and was able to save one of the men (the other two were rescued by others).  The U.S. Lighthouse Service commended him for his meritorious and selfless actions to save others.  He entered the Coast Guard when the Lighthouse Service merged with the Coast Guard in 1939.  He survived the sinking of his tender Acacia by a German U-boat in March, 1942.  He became the first Hispanic-American in the Coast Guard to be promoted to chief petty officer when he was promoted to Chief Machinist's Mate (acting) on 16 February 1944.  The rank was made permanent on 16 October 1948.  He served as Officer in Charge to the Mona Island Light Station and retired after 30 years of honorable service on 1 April 1957.

Boatswain's Mate First Class Carlos Valdivia was awarded  the Coast Guard Medal (Extraordinary Heroism citation) for "...heroism on the night of 21 October 1970 while serving as a crew member in USCGC ACUSHNET, [WMEC-167] engaged in the perilous rescue of a fellow shipmate who had been washed overboard into the Pacific Ocean off the coast of California.  Though darkness, high winds and 12-foot seas severely affected the search, the victim was sighted only minutes after the accident with the ship’s searchlight.  Petty Officer MOLINA donned his wet suit while enroute to the boat lowering detail and volunteered as coxswain of the recovery boat.  While the boat was almost lost in launching because of adverse weather conditions, Petty Officer MOLINA, realizing the plight of his shipmate, vaulted over the ship’s railing into the boat. Although suffering a serious fracture to his right leg, he started the motor and skillfully maneuvered the boat within 15 feet of his shipmate.  A large wave then crested over the boat and disabled the motor.  Disregarding his injuries, Petty Officer MOLINA began using the boat’s paddles in his continuing efforts to reach the man who was trying to swim toward him. Moments later another boat from the ACUSHNET arrived on scene and rescued both men.  Petty Officer MOLINA, by his rescue efforts, demonstrated unusual initiative, exceptional fortitude, and heroic daring in spite of imminent personal danger throughout the operation.  His unselfish actions and unwavering devotion to duty reflect the highest credit upon himself and the United States Coast Guard."

A photograph of SA William Flores, USCG

Seaman Apprentice William Ray "Billy" Flores (left) died in the line of duty while saving the lives of many of his shipmates when his cutter, the Blackthorn, collided with the tanker Capricorn, on January 28, 1980.  The Blackthorn and the tanker Capricorn collided near the entrance to Tampa Bay, Florida. The Blackthorn capsized before all the cutter’s crew could abandon ship. Twenty-seven of Flores’ shipmates did escape the sinking ship.  After the ships collided Flores and another crewmember threw lifejackets to their shipmates who had jumped into the water. Later, when his companion abandoned ship as the Blackthorn began to submerge, Flores -- who was less than a year out of boot camp -- remained behind and used his own belt to strap open the lifejacket locker door, allowing additional lifejackets to float to the surface. Even after most crewmembers abandoned ship, the 19-year-old Flores remained aboard to assist trapped shipmates and to comfort those who were injured and disoriented.  He was posthumously awarded the Coast Guard Medal. [ Click here for more information;  also click on the photo at left for a larger image.]

The first Hispanic-American female advanced to E-7 was YNC Grisel Hollis, who was promoted on 1 May 1991.  The second was Sonia Colon, who was promoted in 1992.  Hollis was later promoted to CWO(PERS) on 1 June 1995 while assigned to the USCGC Hamilton as the YNC.

In 1991 LTJG Katherine Tiongson (nee Faverey) took command of USCGC Bainbridge Island, becoming the first Hispanic-American female to command an afloat unit.  She was also the first Hispanic-American female intelligence officer in the Coast Guard.

The first Cuban-born Coast Guardsman promoted to Chief Warrant Officer (Aviation) was Angel L. Martinez, who was promoted in 1999.  Click here for his biography.

A photograph of LCDR Jose Luis Rodriguez, USCG

Then-Lieutenant Jose L. Rodriguez was the first Hispanic to command a TACLET when he took command of TACLET South, 1996-1998.  He was also the first Coast Guardsman to command a U.S. Marine Corps unit when took command of the Riverine Training Center, Special Operations Training Group, II MEF at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina in July 1999.  He was also the first Hispanic-American Coast Guardsman to earn his Gold Navy/Marine Corps jump wings while in the Coast Guard and assigned to a Jump Billet (USMC Majors Billet at Special Operations Training Group II MEF).  He earned his wings that same year.  He also became the first commanding officer of one of the two MSSTs commissioned in the Coast Guard [see the next entry]

The first MSSTs ever commissioned in Coast Guard history, MSSTs 91101 and 91102 (East and West Coast), were commissioned by two Hispanic officers: Lieutenant Commander Quique Ramon Ortiz and Lieutenant Commander Jose Rodriguez.

LT Angelina Hidalgo

In 2002, Lieutenant Junior Grade Angelina Hidalgo became the second Hispanic female to command an afloat unit.

Lieutenant Jorge Martinez assumed command of the USCGC Maui on 5 June 2003, becoming the first Cuban-American to command a Coast Guard cutter.

The first Hispanic-American to be promoted to flag rank was Rear Admiral Ronald J. Rábago, who earned his first star in 2006. 

In 2006, LT Isabel Papp became the first female medical officer to be assigned to a PSU.  She was also the first Hispanic female MD to be assigned to a PSU.  She had also been the first Hispanic female Physician's Assistant in the Coast Guard Reserve.

A photo of Juan Rivera

BMC Juan J. Rivera served for two tours as the OIC of the CGC Line.  He had also commanded ANT Potomac in St. Inigoes, Maryland as a First Class Boatswain's Mate.

LTJG Miranda Pierce was the second female Hispanic Intelligence Officer.



Army Expands Military Funeral Honors for Soldiers 
By Sara Moore, American Forces Press Service, 
17 Dec 2008 


WASHINGTON, Dec. 17, 2008 - Starting early next year, the Army will allow full military funeral honors at Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia for all soldiers killed in action. 

Full military honors include a caisson, band, colors team and an escort platoon in addition to the standard honors of a firing party, bugler and chaplain. In the past, the caisson was available only for officers killed in action because of limited availability, Paul Boyce, an Army spokesman, said. 

The cemetery has two caissons, or horse-drawn vehicles, which now will be available for officers and enlisted soldiers killed in action on a first-come, first-served basis, Boyce said. The limited availability may delay the funerals, he said, so families of deceased soldiers may decide to go forward with the funeral earlier without a caisson. 

In response to requests from families of deceased service members, soldiers and veterans, Army officials have been looking at changing the policy for military honors at Arlington since April, Boyce said. Having the change in place now means the policy will take effect early next year. 

"This brings a much more common standard to anyone who is killed in action or the family of anyone killed in action who want to use Arlington National Cemetery ," he said. 

The policy change affects only funerals at Arlington , Boyce said, because Arlington is the only military cemetery controlled by the Department of the Army and has unique assets. It also only applies to soldiers killed as a result of: 

-- Any action against an enemy of the United States; 

-- Any action with an opposing armed force of a foreign country in which U.S. armed forces are or have been engaged; 

-- Serving with friendly foreign forces engaged in an armed conflict against an opposing armed force in which the United States is not a belligerent party; 

-- An act of any such enemy of opposing armed forces; 

-- An act of any hostile foreign force; 

-- An international terrorist attack against the United States or a foreign nation friendly to the United States, recognized as such an attack by the secretary of the Army; 

-- An act of any hostile foreign force during military operations while serving outside the territory of the United States as part of a peacekeeping force; or 

-- Action by friendly fire, defined as weapon fire while directly engaged in armed conflict, other than as the result of an act of an enemy of the United States, unless the soldier's death was the result of the soldier's willful misconduct. 

" Arlington National Cemetery is an expression of our nation's reverence for those who served her in uniform, many making the ultimate sacrifice," Army Secretary Pete Geren said in an Army news release. " Arlington and those honored there are part of our national heritage. This new policy provides a common standard for honoring all soldiers killed in action." 

More than 300,000 people, including veterans from all the nation's wars, are buried at Arlington National Cemetery . The cemetery conducts about 6,400 burials each year. 

The new policy applies only to soldiers, though officials are awaiting word from the other services on whether they wish to adopt a similar policy. 

Sent by Joseph N. Smith, Director
Colonel, USMC (Ret.) 
Military & Veterans Affairs 
2615 So. Grand Ave., Suite 100 
Los Angeles, CA 90007 
(213) 744-4827 
(213) 748-5473 Fax 

Source: American Forces Press Service  



Eight Villarreal Tejanos accepted as Sons of the American Revolution
Jose Antonio Curbelo
Henry Yanez, re-enactor with the Tucson Presidio Trust for Historic Preservation
General Bernardo de Galvez and Cuba
Patriots of Peru During American Revolution, by Granville Hough, Ph.D.  # 16, Sa through Sh surnames



Eight Villarreal Tejanos accepted as Sons of the American Revolution


Dear Mimi:  I am very pleased to announce a groundbreaking event that will please many Americans of Hispanic descent.
On December 20, 2008, eight members of the Villarreal Family of Texas were formally accepted and inducted into the Austin Patrick Henry Chapter No. 11, Texas Society of the Sons of the American Revolution on the basis of the important roles of their Tejano ancestors in the winning of the American Revolution, from which our great nation gained the freedom and opportunity that we still enjoy—and defend—today.
They all descend from Spanish Texas soldiers and/or ranchers who helped provide Texas Longhorn cattle that were trailed from the ranches in the San Antonio River Valley to the Spanish forces of General Bernardo de Gálvez in Louisiana, who defeated British forces in battles at Manchac, Baton Rouge, Natchez, Mobile, and Pensacola during the American Revolution.
Pictured above are the eight Villarreal family members and their SAR sponsor, Mr. Dan Stauffer. Left to right: Santos S. Villarreal; Mr. Dan Stauffer (SAR sponsor); Jesse O. Villarreal, Sr.; Rene Villarreal (son of Paul Villarreal); Orlando Mora (son of Janie Villarreal Mora); Leonard Brennan Rodriguez (son of Teresa Villarreal Rodriguez); Santos H. Villarreal (son of Santos S. Villarreal); Jesse O. Villarreal, Jr. (son of Jesse O. Villarreal, Sr.); and Dr. Ruben Mora (son of Janie Villarreal Mora).   
This line of the Villarreal family descends from Francisco Hernández, an original settler of the Villa de San Antonio de Béxar in May 1718, whose son, Andrés Hernández, was given the first and oldest Spanish Royal Land Grant on record in the Spanish Province of Texas on April 12, 1758.  Called El Rancho de San Bartolo, it supplied a number of the cattle, trail drivers, and military escorts for the cattle drives from Texas to Louisiana, 1779-1782.
By their acceptance and induction into the Sons of the American Revolution organization, the Villarreal family has opened further an important door of recognition through which many other people of Hispanic ancestry might follow if they but do their genealogical homework.
For those not familiar with the vital role of Spain, including Texas, in the winning of the American Revolution, I suggest that they read my essays on the subject in .
Congratulations to the Villarreal Family of Texas!    y Viva Gálvez!
Robert H. Thonhoff
 Karnes City, Texas




Born: May 1, 1746, San Fernando de Bexar

Died:    September 4, 1789, San Fernando de Bexar  



                Jose Antonio Curbelo born in the Villa of San Fernando de Bexar.  His parents were Juan Curbelo, born in Lanzarote, Canary Islands and married to Garcia Pardomo Umpienes, also born in Lanzarote.   The family homestead was located adjacent to the Bexar County Courthouse and later referred to as “La Quinta”, during the Texas Revolution.   Jose Antonio married Rita Flores and had five children.  The Lipan Indians killed Jose Antonio Curbelo along with five other citizens of Bejar in 1789. 

               Jose Antonio Curbelo is known as a soldier, cattleman, (alcalde) mayor, Lieutenant Governor of the Province of Texas, and patriot of the American Revolution.  In January of 1780, Joseph Antonio Curbelo was Lieutenant Governor of the Province of Texas.  Upon his return from Spain, after taking buffaloes to the King of Spain, as a token of service to the king, he was appointed to the active rank of lieutenant in December 1, 1786.

               He was listed as a cattleman and rancher in the Petition of Cibolo Ranchers in October 5, 1778 in the Spanish Archives of the General Land Office.  While fighting and defending the Gulf Coast against the British, Bernando de Galvez sent an emissary to San Antonio to request the delivery of cattle from Texas to Louisiana to supply his troops.  Criox, Commander of New Spain Province granted permission to the Texas Governor Cabello in 1779.  Jose Antonio Curbelo, asked and received permission to export two herds of cattle totaling over one thousand head of cattle.  Records showed that in 1781, Joseph Antonio Curbelo trailed and delivered cattle from Bexar to Louisiana to support the efforts of the American Revolution against the British.  He is listed as San Antonio Spanish American, Patriotic Service to the cause of the American Revolution. 

Submitted by:
Rueben M. Perez
Sons of the American Revolution



Texas State Daughter's of the American Revolution
to Honor Jose Antonio Curbelo and other Hispanics 


Hi Mimi: 
Basically, what that refers to is that the Texas State Daughter's of the American Revolution were identifying and verifying names of the revolutionary soldiers and patriots that they would honor in the event in March. The monument is already there and the names would be engraved on it. I guess it also means like you said, the connections for those lines have been accepted into DAR. I believe there were a total of 42 names and 4 or 5 were Hispanic that would be honored in this event. In our situation, it is an honor for Jose Antonio Curbelo to be recognized by DAR and SAR as an American Revolution Patriot and second, to have him honored in this manner. Not knowing where his grave site is, that adds to the difficulty of honoring him at his grave site. Rueben

On Jan 2, 2009, at 10:47 PM, wrote:

Rueben, I don't fully understand what this means . . Does it mean that individuals can put a DAR or TSDAR plaque on it? Does it also mean that connections have been confirmed for those lines for acceptance to DAR and TSDAR?? Mimi

These Revolutionary Soldiers/Patriots have been granted 
Permission to Mark a DAR Grave and/or The TSDAR Revolutionary Monument in the State Cemetery, Austin, TX:

In a message dated 12/28/2008 10:25:00 P.M. Pacific Standard Time, writes:

The names that are bold are the ones I found with Hispanic surnames to be honored. You can go to and see if there is any other information. It has been awhile since I saw the list and not sure if it is still on the web page. 

Rueben M. Perez


General Bernardo de Galvez and Cuba

"  Como se había dicho antes, don Bernardo tenía bien guardado en secreto el mensaje recibido de la Capitanía de Cuba de que Inglaterra había declarado «oficialmente» la guerra contra España. Los otros dirigentes y subalternos no lo sabían todavía, y don Bernardo no se lo diría hasta que las circunstancias fueran propicias, como se indicará más adelante. De inmediato, Gálvez dio órdenes de que la expedición «ofensiva» se llevara a cabo por dos rutas: por agua y por tierra.

"  Nombró a Julián Álvarez, experto artillero, que, aunque enfermo, dirigiera la pequeña flota marina, mientras él, don Bernardo, capitanearía la columna terrestre. Contaba solamente con 170 guerreros veteranos. A estos se añadieron 330 reclutas, 20 carabineros y 60 ciudadanos voluntarios. En el camino se le juntarían 600 hombres más, muchos de ellos colonos alemanes radicados en Acadia, Atacapas y Punta Cortada. Más tarde se le unieron unos 160 indios de la región y otro grupo de negros y mulatos. En total, logró reunir una fuerza militar de 1450 hombres.




# 16, (Sa through Sh surnames)
by Granville Hough, Ph.D.  


José Saavedra. Sgt, Mil Discip de Inf de Cuzco, 1792. Leg 7284:V:32.
José Ventura Saavedra. Sgt, Bn prov de Mil de Pardos Libres de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXV:16.
Juan Gregorio Saavedra. Capt, Comp Sueltas Mil Discip Inf de Ica, 1800. Leg 7288:XIX:2.
Pablo Saavedra. Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de Urubamba, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXVIII:17.
Gabriel Saenz. Cadet, Comp Sueltas Mil Discip Inf de Ica, 1800. Leg 7288:XIX:25.
Ignacio Saenz. SubLt de Bandera, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:72.
Lino Saenz. Lt, Inf del Real Asiento de Paucartambo, 1798. Leg 7286:XIX:23.
Tomás Saenz. Cadet, Comp Sueltas Mil Discip de Inf de Ica, 1800. Leg 7288:XIX:24.
José María Saenz del Castillo. Alf, Mil Discip de Cab de Ica, 1800. Leg 7288:XX:28.
Tomés Saenz de la Peña. Capt, Grad, Bn Prov Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1788, Leg 7283:I:12.
Marcos Saenz de Rusco. Dapt, Bn de Mil Prov Discip Inf de San Miguel de Piura, 1795. Leg 7285:XXI:12.
José Saenz Uribe. Sgt, Mil Discip de Cab de Ica, 1800. Leg 7288:XX:38. 
José Sagardui. Alf, Mil Discip de Cab Arnero de Chancay, 1800. Leg 7288:XXX:25.
Felipe Salas. Lt, Mil Discip Cab de los Valles de Palpa y Nasca, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXI:19.
Félix Salas. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip Cab de Arequipa, 1797. Leg 7287:II:54.
Ignacio Salas. Sgt, Mil Discip Cab Arequipa, 1792. Leg 7284:XIII:46.
José Salas. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip Cab de Arequipa, 1797. Leg 7287:II:50.
José Manuel de Salas. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Quispicanchi, Cuzco, 1798. Leg 7286:XX:29.
José Vicente de Salas. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Quispiccanchi, Cuzco, 1798. Leg 7286:XX:37.
Juan de Dios Salas. Lt, Mil Prov Discip de Cab del Valle de Chincha, 1797. Leg 7287:XII:16.
Lucas Salas. Sgt, Mil Urbanas Dragones de Pal a Partido de Jauja, 1800. Leg 7288:XXI:30.
Rafael Salas. Cat, Colmp sueltas Mil Discip Inf de Ica, 1800. Leg 7288:XIX:3.
Justos Salas de Ordoñez. Capt, Comp Cab Mil del partido de Santa, 1799. Leg 7286:XXIII:1.
Lorenzo Salas de Valdes. Alf, Mil Urbnas Dragones de Quispichanci, Cuzco, 1798. Leg 7286:XX:19.
Andrés de Salazar. Lt Col, Mil Discip de Cab, Prov de Cañete, 1797. Leg 7287:VI:2.
Francisco Salazar. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip Cab de Cuzco, 1792. Leg 7284:XVII:37.
Francisco Salazar. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:74.
Francisco Salazar. SubLt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:43.
Francisco Salazar. Capt, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:18.
Jacinto Salazar. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de San Antonio de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:III:37.
Joaquin Valerio Salazar. Lt, Escuadrones Cab Mil Urbanas de los territorios de Huancabamba y Chalaco, Piura, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXIV:8.
José de Salazar. Capt, Mil Discip Cab Provincia de Cañete, 1797. Leg 7287:VI:5.
Juan de Salazar. Capt, Mil Discip de Cab, Prov de Cañete, 1797. Leg 7287:VI:6.
Juan Salazar. SubLt, Inf, Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:82.
Juan Ventura Salazar. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de San Antonio de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:III:33.
Mariano Salazar. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Carabayllo, 1800. Leg 7288:IV:28.
Nicolás Salazar. Capt, Mil Prov Dragones de Caraveli, 1796. Leg 7287:VIII:8.
José Salazar y Baquijano. Capt, Bn Prov Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIII:24.
Juan Salazar y Baquijano. Capt, Mil Discip Dragones de Lima, 1796. Leg 7286:XI:20.
Manuel Salazar y Baquijano. Capt, Mil Discip inf Española de Lima, 1796. Leg 7286:X:17.
Miguel de Salazar y Baquijano. Capt, Mil Discip Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:21.
Andrés Salcedo. Capt, Mil Discip Cab de Camaná, 1798. Leg 7286:XIV:6.
Juan Salcedo. Capt, Mil Prov Discip inf de San Miguel de Piura, 1800. Leg 7286:XXV:9.
Marcos Salcedo. Sgt, Mil Dragones Prov de las Fronteras de Tarma, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIX:43.
Toribio Salcedo. Lt, Mil Discip Cab de Ica, 1800. Leg 7288:XX:16.
Manuel Lorenzo Saldamando. Portaestandarte, Mil Prov Discip Cab de Qrequipa, 1797. Leg 7287:II:48.
Ambrosio Félix de Aldaña. Capt Jil Urbanas Cab San Pablo de Chalaquez, 1798. Leg 7287:XI:5.
Francisco Délix Saldaña. Lt, Mil Urbanas Cab de San Pablo de Chalaquez, 1798. Leg 7287:XI:13.
Juan Pedro Saldias. Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Carabayllo, 1800. Leg 7288:IV:18.
José Salgado. Sgt, Mil Discip Dragones de Lima, 1792. Leg 7284:XIX:18.
Eduardo José Salguero. Portaguión, Mil Prov Discip Dragones del Valle de Majes, 1797. Leg 7287:XXV:24.
Marqués de Salinas. Sgt Major, Bn Prov Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIII:8.
Vicente Salinas. Lt, Mil Discip Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:38.
José Salvador. Sgt, grad Alf, Mil Discip Dragones de Lima, 1792. Leg 7284:XIX:14.
Silverio Salvatierra. Sgt, Mil Urbanas Inf de Huancavelica, 1800. Leg 7288:XVI:23.
José María Salvi. Cadet, Inf, Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:131.
Conde San Carlos. Lt Col Prov Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIII:5.
Conde San Javier y Casa Laredo. Comandante, Mil Discip Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:10.
José Antonio San Miguel. Sgt, Bn Prov Mil de Pardos Libres de Lima, 1796. Leg 7286:XII:51.
Marqués de San Miguel. Capt, grad Lt Col, Mil Discip Cab de Ica, 1797. Leg 7287:XX:7.
Buenaventura Sanchez. Capt, Comandante, Mil Discip Dragones de Querocotillo Piura, 1795. Leg 7285:XXIII:1.
Cipriano Sanchez. Sgt, Mil Urbanas Inf de Huancavelica, 1800. Leg 7288:XVI:21.
Fernando Sanchez. Capt, Mil Prov Discip Dragones del Valle de Majes, 1797. Leg 7287:XXV:8.
Francisco Sanchez. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Celendín, Partido de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IX:36.
Jacinto Sanchez. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Cayllo, 1797. Leg 7287:VII:32.
José Domingo Sanchez. Cadet, Mil Prov Discip Dragones del Valle de Jajes, 1797. Leg 7287:XXV:41.
Juan Sanchez. SubLt de Bandera, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Huánuco, 1796. Leg 7286:V:27.
Lorenzo Sanchez. Alf, Comp Cab Mil del partido de Santa, 1792. Leg 7284:XXIII:13.
Lorenzo Sanchez. Lt, Mil Prov Inf de Castro Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:45.
Luis Sanchez. Lt de la 7th Comp Mil Prov Inf Lambayeque, 1795. Leg 7285:XVII:15.
Miguel Sanchez. Sgt, Mil Discip Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:72.
Nicolás Sanchez. Sgt, Bn Mil Urbanas Inf de Andahuaylas, 1801, Leg 7286:XXII:28.
Patricio Sanchez. SubLt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Castro Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:74.
Pedro Sanchez. Lt, Inf, Real de Lima, 1790. Leg 7283:VIII:43.
Santiago Sanchez. Capt, Comp Cab Mil del partido de Santa, 1792. Leg 7284:XXIII:5.
Pedro Sanchez Baamonde. Mil Discip Dragones de Lima, 1792. Leg 7284:XIX:19.
Pablo Sanchez de la Barra y Silva. Lt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1792. Leg 7284:III:33.
Miguel Sanchez Cossio. Lt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:41.
Aniceto Sanchez de la Cruz. SubLt, Mil Discip de Inf de Cuzco, 1800. Leg 7286:XXIV:31.
José Sanchez Foncaliente. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Huambos, Partido de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:XVII:8.
Juan Leandro Sanchez Pareja. Lt, 1st Comp Mil Urbanas Inf de Moyobamba, 1797. Leg 7287:XXIX:10.
Evaristo Sanchez de la Peña. Lt, 5th Comp Mil Urbanas Inf de Moyobamba, 1797. Leg 7287:XXIX:13.
Fernando Sanchez de la Peña. Capt, 5th Comp Mil Urbanas Inf de Moyobamba, 1797. Leg 7287:XXIX:8.
Pedro Telmo Sanchez de la Peña. SubLt, 5th Comp Mil Urbanas Inf de Moyobamba, 1797. Leg 7287:XXIX:24.
Juan Sanchez Quiñones. Capt, 6th Comp, Mil Discip de Cab Prov de Cañete, 1797. Leg 7287:VI:4.
Joaquin Sanchez Riamban. Lt, Veterano, Bn Prov Mil Inf Española de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIII:12.
Pedro Sanchez Servileon. Alf, Mil Discip de Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:45.
Camilio Sanchez Tagle. Alf, Mil Discip de Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:59.
Manuel Sanchez de Tuesta. Capt, Mil Inf Española de San Juan de la Frontera de Chachapoya, 1792. Leg 7284:VI:9.
Felipe Sancho Davila. Lt Col, Mil Prov Urbanas de Dragones de Carabayllo, 1800. Leg 7288:IV:2.
José María Sancho Davila. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Dragones de Carabayllo, 1800. Leg 7288:IV:11.
Marcos Sande. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Calca, 1797. Leg 7287:V:18.
Pedro Sandi. Lt, Mil Prrov Urbanas Inf de Calca, 1797. Leg 7287:V:8.
Nolvento Sandoval. Sgt, Mil Dragones Prov de las Fronteras de Tarma, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIX:38.
Hermenegildo Santa Cruz. Capt, Mil Discip Cab de Arnero de Chancay, 1800. Leg 7288:III:8.
??? Santa Cruz Jaramillo. Sgt, 1st de la 9th Comp Mil Españolas de Cab de Luya y Chillaos, Prov de Chachapoya, 1792. Leg 7284:XX:20.
Juan Santa Maria. SubLt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de Huánuco, 1796. Leg 7286:V:21.
Manuel Santa Maria. Sgt, 1st, Inf Real de Lima, 1793. Leg 7284:IX:87.
Marqués de Santa Maria. Col, Mil Discip de Cab Provincia de Cañete, 1797. Leg 7287:VI:1.
Manuel Santalla. Lt, Mil de Dragones Prov de las fronteras de Tarma, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIX:17.
Juan Santayana. Sgt, !st, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:66.
Manuel de Santayana. Alf, Mil Discip Cab de Ica, 1800. Leg 7288:XX:31.
Vicente Santayana. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip Cab de Arequipa, 1797. Leg 7287:II:56.
Manuel de Santiago. Lt, Mil Discip Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:33.
Francisco Santibañez. Ayudante Mayor, Mil Urbanas Dragones de Palma, 1800. Leg 7288:XXI:11.
Lucas Santillan. Sgt, Comp de Mil Discip Pardos Cab del Regimiento de Ferreñaffe, 1797. Leg 7287:XV:5.
Miguel Santillana. Sgt, Inf Real de Lima, 1797. Leg 7287:XXIV:143.
Domingo Santillana de Rosas. Capt, Mil Prov Discip Cab de Cuzco, 1797. Leg 7287:X:9.
Santiago Santisteban. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf San Antonio de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:III:6.
Miguel Santiuste. Alf, Mil Discip Cab de Cañete, 1797. Leg 7287:VI:21.
Antonio de los Santos. Sgt, Escuadrón Dragones de Pacasmayo, 1800. Leg 7288:XXVIII:8.
Felipe Santos. Lt, Inf, Real de Lima, 1790. Leg 7283:VIII:54.
José Santos. Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Abancay, 1793. Leg 7284:II:20.
Pedro Santos. Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Quispicanchi, Cuzco, 1798. Leg 7286:XX:16.
Pedro Pablos de los Santos. Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Huambos, Partido de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:XVII:14.
Ildefonso Santos de Arregui. Lt Col, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Quispicanchi, Cuzco, 1798. Leg 7286:XX:1.
Pablo Santos Mercado. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Cab de Huanta, 1798. Leg 7286:XVII:31.
José Santurio. Lt, Mil Discip Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:32.
Ignacio Benito Sanz. Ayudante Mayor, Mil Urbanas Inf de Huamanga, 1800. Leg 7288:XV:16.
José Sanz. Sgt, Inf Real de Lima, 1788. Leg 7283:II:118.
Antonio Sañartu. Capt, Mil Prov Cab de Huamalies, 1800. Leg 7288:XVII:8.
Miguel de Sarachaga. Cadet, Mil Urbanas Cab San Pablo de Chalaquez, 1792. Leg 7284:XVIII:43.
Juan Aarmiento y Loredo. Sgt 1st de Fusileros, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IV:35.
Tadeo Sauregui. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Cajamarca, 1791. Leg 7284:I:7.
Manuel de Secada. Lt, Mil Dragones Prov de las Fronteras de Tarma, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIX:15.
Juan Sedamanos. Sgt, Mil Inf Española San Juan de la Frontera de Chachapoyas, 1792. Leg 7284:VI:34.
Domingo Segarra. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:67.
Felipe Segarra. Lt, Mil Discip Cab de Arequipa, 1792, Leg 7284:XIII:23.
José Segarra. Sgt 1st de la Comp de Guazacachi, Mil Discip Cab de Arequipa, 1792. Leg 7284:XIII:40.
José Segarra. Sgt, Cab de Arequipa, 1797. Leg 7287:II:50.
José Segarra. Capt, Mil Discip Cab de Camaná, 1798. Leg 7286:XIV:5.
Juan Justo Segarra. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones Celendín, Partido de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IX:10.
Valentín Segarra. Cadet, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Celendín, Partido de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IX:41.
Pedro Segovia. Sgt, Mil Discip Inf de Cuzco, 1800. Leg 7286:XXIV:42.
Gabriel Seguin. Sgt, Inf Real de Lima, 1800.. Leg 7288:XXII:107.
Asensio Segura. Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Cab de Huanta, 1798. Leg 7286:17:9.
Gregorio Segura. Alf, Mil Prov &rbanas de Cab de Huanta, 1798. Leg 7286:XVII:20.
Julián Segura. Sgt, Mil Discip Dragones de Aacari y Chala, 1796. Leg 7286:I:26.
Mariano Segura. Lt, Mil Prov de Cab de Huanta, 1798. Leg 7285:XVII:14.
Simón Seguro. Alf, Mil Discip Cab de Camaná, 1798. Leg 7286:XIV:17.
José Seijas y Varela. Alf, 2d Comp, Mil Discip de Cab, Provincia de Cañete, 1797. Leg 7287:VI:20.
Juan Bautista Semeroya. Capt, Mil Discip de Inf de Cuzco, 1792. Leg 7284:V:12.
Jerónimo Seminario. Capt, Mil Discip Dragones de Piura, 1795. Leg 7285:XIII:8.
Pedro Seminario y Correa. SubLt, Bn de Mil Prov Discip Inf de San Miguel de Piura, 1800. Leg 7286:XXV:23.
Leandro Sepulveda. Sgt, 8th Comp, Mil Urbanas Inf de Moyobamba, 1797. Leg 7287:XXIX:28.
Rafael Seren de Urbina Ayudante Mayor, Mil Discip de Inf de Cuzco, 1800. Leg 7286:XXIV:18.
Melchor Serna. Sgt, Bn Mil Urbanas Inf de Andahuaylas, 1801. Leg 7286:XXII:25.
Pedro de la Serna. Cadet, Mil Prov de Dragones de Celendín, Partido de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IX:44.
Pedro Serrados. SubLt, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:67.
Juan Serrano. Lt, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:49.
Luis Serrano. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Dragones de Carabayllo, 1800. Leg 7288:IV:26.
José Siberichi. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:68.
José Sierpe. SubLt, Escuadrón Mil Discip de Cab de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:X:7.
Manuel Sierra. Ayudante Mayor, grad Capt, Mil Discip Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:25.
Remigio Sierra. AubLt, Bn Prov Mil Pardos Libres de Lima, 1796. Leg 7286:XII:36.
Antonio Silva. Sgt, Comp de Cab de Milicias del partido de Santa, 1799. Leg 7286:XXIII:20.
Casimiro Silva. Capt, Bn de Mil Prov Discip Inf de San Miguel de Piura, 1800. Leg 7286:XXV:8.
Domingo Silva. Lt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:38.
Francisco Silva. Capt, Mil Prov Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:14.
Gregorio Silva. Sgt, Mil Discip Dragones de Arica, 1800. Leg 7288:II:48.
Juan de la Cruz Silva. Alf, il Prov Urbanas Dragones de Celendín, Partido de Cajamarca, 1792. Leg 7284:XV:27.
Lucas Silva. SubLt de Bandera, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Abancay, 1793. Leg 7284:II:3.
Luis Silva. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Dragones de Celendín, Partido de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IX:11.
Marcelino Silva. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Urubamba, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXVIII:34.
Rafael Silva. Alf, Mil Prov Urbanas de Dragones de Chota, 1797. Leg 7287:XIII:35.
Ramón de Silva. SubLt de Bandera, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Abancay, 1792. Leg 7284:II:4.
Tibercio Silva. Alf de Granaderos, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Celendín, Partido de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IX:24.
Domingo Silva y Mogollon. Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de Urubamba, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXVIII:16.
Carlos Silva Santisteban. Cadet, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Celendín, Partido de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IX:47.
José Calixto Silva Santisteban. Cadet, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Cenendín, Partido de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IX:45.
Manuel Silva Santisteban. Sgt Mayor, Mil Prov Urbanas de Dragones de Celendín, Partido de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IX:4.
Vicente Silva y Santisteban. Ayudante Mayor, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de San Antonio de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:III:14.
Gregorio de Silva Santisteban y Caballero. Cadet, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IV:41.
Manuel Sobrino. Alf, Mil Discip Cab de los Valles de Palpa y Nasca, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXI:30.
José Solano. Alf de la 7th Commp, Mil Discip de Cab, prov de Cañete, 1797. Leg 7287:VI:19.
Andrés del Solar. Lt, Bn Prov de Mil de Pardos Libres de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXV:7.
José del Solar. Sgt, 1st, Veterano, Mil Discip de Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XSIV:52.
Pedro del Solar. Capt, Mil Discip Dragones de Arica, 1800. Leg 7288:II:14.
Esteban Solis. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Cab de Huánuco, 1797. Leg 7286:VI:6.
Ignacio Solis. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Abancay, 1793. Leg 7284:II:76.
José Soliva. Lt, Bn Prov de Mil Discip de Inf Española de Lima, 1790. Leg 7283:VII:3.
Félix Solorzano. Sgt, Bn Prov Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIII:55.
José Solorzano. Sgt, Bn Prov Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIII:51.
Felipe Sopena. Sgt Mayor, Mil Urbanas de Dragones de Palma, Partido de Jauja, 1800. Leg 7288:XXI:4.
Manuel Soriano. Capt, Inf Real de Lima, 1793. Leg 7284:IX:33.
Agustín Sorogastua. Sgt, Escuadrón Dragones de Pacasmayo, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXIII:10. 
Ramón de Sos. Lt de Granaderos, Mil Discip de Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:30.
Santiago Sosa y Oviedo. Cadet, Mil Discip Dragones de Arica, 1800. Leg 7288:II:62.
Rafael de la Sota y Manso. Capt, Mil Discip de Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:22.
Apolinar Sotelo. SubLt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de Urubamba, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXVIII:31.
Atanasio Sotelo. Capt, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:21.
Matías José Sotil. Ayudante Mayor, Comp Cab Mil del Partido de Santa, 1792. Leg 7284:XXIII:2.
Matías Miguel Sotil. Capt, Comp Cab de Milicias del partido de Santa, 1799. Leg 7286:XXIII:6.
Angel Soto. Capt, Mil Urbanas Inf de Huamanga, 1800. Leg 7288:XV:7.
Domingo Soto. Lt, Mil Discip de Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:40.
Joaquin Soto. Sgt, Momp sueltas de Mil Discip de Cab de Calbuco, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:VI:4.
Lorenzo Soto. Sgt 1st de Granaderos, Mil Prov Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:99.
Mariano Soto. SubLt de Granaderos, Comp sueltas Inf Española Mil Discip de Inmemorial del Rey, 1792. Leg 7284:VII:6.
Miguel Soto. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:84.
Pascual Soto. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:90.
Segundo Soto. Lt, Mil Prov Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:29.
Antonio Suarez. Capt de Granaderos, grad Lt Col, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:11.
José Suarez. Sgt de Ganaderos, Mil Urbanas Inf de Huamanga, 1800. Leg 7288:XI:18.
Juan Suarez. Cadet, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:136.
Luis Suarez. SubLt de Fusileros, Mil Prov urbanas Inf de Huánuco, 1796. Leg 7286:V:23.
Manuel Suarez. Alf, Mil Prov Discip Cab de Arequipa, 1797. Leg 7287:II:43.
Francisco Suarez Malvar. Sgt, Mil Urbanas Inf de Huamanga, 1797. Leg 7286:IV:39.
Feliciano Suarez de Orihuela. Sgt, Mil prov Discip Dragones del Valle de Majes, 1797. Leg 7287:XXV:37.
Juan Suarez Robledo. Capt, Mil Dragones Prov de las Fronteras de Tarma, 1800. Leg 7283:XXIX:11.
Andrés Suarez de Villamil. SubLt, Mil Discip Inf de Cuzco, 1800. Leg 7286:XXIV:29.
Adrian Sueldo. Lt, Mil Prov Discip Cab de Cuzco, 1797. Leg 7287:X:17.
Francisco Suero. Capt, Mil Prov Discip Cab de Arequipa, 1797. Leg 7287:II:15.
(to be continued).





Wednesday, December 2, 1992 * EXCELSIOR  *

Volviendo a Nuestras Raices




An ancient surname, Guerra, is found in Castilla, Galicia, and Burgos. The original form of the name was de la Guerra. The origin is Castallian and had its beginning in the mountains of Santander. It is derived from the German Prankish word "werra" meaning war, hostility, profession of arms. It was used as an identifier for one active in military operations. One branch went to the Canary Islands, from the islands to Cuba, and from Cuba to the rest of the Americas.

In 1620, Antonio Guerra Canamar entered Mexico, assigned by the Spainish government to serve as the Royal Notary to the Vice Regal Court in Mexico City. He served in that capacity for many years. Among the children bom to him and his wife, Luisa Femandez de Rio Frio, was his son, Ignacio Guerra, who distinguished himself also through service to the goverment.

Ignacio Guerra was bom in Mexico City about 1636. As a soldier he participated in many expeditions, entering Nueva Reino de Leon in 1659. In his early career Ignacio served as Captain of the preside la Villa de Cerralvo. On numerous occasions, he served on the Monterrey City Council. In 1671 he was Alcalde mayor, served as a notary for many years and eventually rose to Chief Justice.

RAUL J. GUERRA, JR. a Huntington Beach, California resident is a direct descendent of Ignacio Guerra. Ignacio enjoying a long life, married twice, fathering 8 children with each wife. Mr. Guerra found in doing his family research, that he descended from 5 of the 16 children. His direct line is through Christobal Guerra-Canamar, a son of Ignacio, born in 1677. Christobal married Nicolasa Baez Trevino, daughter of General Francisco Baez de Trevino, who was Governor of Nuevo Leon.

Christobal and Nicolasa's son, Joseph Ramon, was one of the founders of Mier, entering in 1750 into the lower Rio Grande valley with the Escandon expedition. The portion of land that Jose Ramon received was on both side of the Rio Grande. Although control of the area changed hands from Spanish rule, to Mexican government and then United States acquisition, descendents of Joseph Ramon Guerra have maintained ownership and continuous occupation over portions of the original land grants.
Mr. Guerra's ancestors, up and including his grandparents and parents ENGAGED in ranching, raising cattle and crops. It was the way of life in Nuevo Santander. Records reveal that Mier in 1757 had a population of a scant 274 inhabitants, but counted 44,015 head of livestock, cattle and sheep.

"There have been 12 generations of Guerras in the new world. My ancestors persevered. They lived many long prosperous years, even though the environment was harsh." Mr. Guerra noted, "Through the centuries and in all cases there seemed to have been a respect for education."

Mr. Guerra's grandparents Enrique Guerra and Fidela married in Rio Grande City, Texas in 1909. His parents, Raul (senior) and Beatrice married in McAllen, Texas where Raul Guerra, the first of 5 children was born in 1940. 

Raul served in the Air Force and married his American born wife while serving in Germany. They have two girls and a boy. The oldest daughter has just graduated from the University of California at Berkeley in English literature.

Prior to entering the service Raul attended Texas A & M, receiving a Bachelor's in Mathematics. Retiring from the Air Force in 1983, as a Major. Mr. Guerra currently is a Safety Engineer on the McDonald Douglas Space Station Project.

In pursuit of personal family research, Mr. Guerra's dedication has resulted in a valuable ' contribution for any Hispanic researcher in South East Texas and Northern Mexico. He co-authored the book Index to the Marriage Investigations to the Diocese of Guadalajara. Pertaining to the Provinces of Coahuila. Nuevo Leon. and Nuevo Santander. Texas. 1653-1750. This volume is a scholarly cross reference of data collected from hundreds of films and thousands of documents.

Compiled by Mmi Lozano, member of the Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research.

Update: Raul lives in San Antonio and will be the editor for the 2009 Los Bexareños Genealogical Register.  
Below is a recent sharing by Raul on the web.   



by Raul Guerra


I have just published, in the December 31, 2008 edition of Los Bexareños Genealogical Register, an article on the GUERRA CAÑAMAR family.  It especially is focused on Juan GUERRA CAÑAMAR, the husband of Elena CAVAZOS and the father of Vicente GUERRA CAÑAMAR, who was the founder of Revilla, Nuevo Santander, Mexico.  In the article the parents of Juan GUERRA CAÑAMAR are identified and a copy of the first
page of the document is included in the Register.  This information came from an “Informacion Matrimonial” that is in the archives of Santiago Apóstol Catholic Church in Monclova and is dated 21 Nov 1693.  The parents are identified as Joseph GUERRA and Aldonza de VIDAURRI from Lagos, Jalisco, Mexico.  From other information that was
included in the Register (Juan’s baptism certificate and Joseph GUERRA and Aldonza de VIDAURRE’s marriage certificate) we are able to show that Joseph’s parents are Antonio GUERRA and Luisa HERNÁNDEZ de RÍO FRÍO.  This makes Joseph GUERRA and Ignacio GUERRA (another major GUERRA family tree in Northeast Mexico and South Texas) brothers and most of the GUERRA families on the Mexico-Texas border cousins.

The children of Juan GUERRA CAÑAMAR and Elena CAVASOS are:

1.  Joseph Antonio GUERRA CAÑAMAR + Maria Efegenia de los Santos de la
2.  María Josefa GUERRA CAÑAMAR + Nicolás de la GARZA
4.  Juan Amador GUERRA CAÑAMAR + Juana Francisca RODRÍGUEZ de
5.  Vicente GUERRA CAÑAMAR + María Micaela Jerónima de la GARZA FALCÓN


The Marine and the girl next door, a love story by Tony Santiago
My Day with History by Tia Maria from Marvilla 
The Circus by Ben Romero



The Marine and the girl next door

A love story

  By  Tony (The Marine) Santiago



December 31, 2008, it is 11:30 PM and I am at Thunderbird Hospital with my wife. She was hospitalized on Christmas Day with double pneumonia and placed in the special care unit. Our children and grandchildren are home waiting for me, but I did not want to leave my wife alone on New Years Day. I wanted to be by her side when the clock struck 12. You see, we have been married for 38 years and I thank God everyday for giving me such a wonderful wife. Even though we have grown old together, I can still remember the first day that I laid my eyes on her.        

The year was 1971, our country was still scarred with the racial riots of the 1960s during the Civil Rights movement, political assassinations and the Vietnam War. It seemed as the whole world was a mess when I was discharged from the Marine Corps. I was a  native New Yorker, and who had served two tours in Nam. During this time my father (my parents were divorced) had moved to Puerto Rico and founded The Puerto Rico Real Estate Corp., a small business with a big name. When I was asked at Camp Pendleton, where did I plan to go upon my discharge, I had a choice, I could have returned to New York City where I had a job waiting for me in a bank or take a short vacation and visit my dad in Puerto Rico (my mother who had re-married had also moved to the island). I thought about all the horrors of war that I and my fellow men had been through for an ungrateful nation. I thought about how badly and unfair our soldiers were being treated by the media and war protesters. I thought about the discrimination which I had witnessed and been subject to just because I was Puerto Rican. I then decided go to Puerto Rico, not knowing what fate had in store for me.  

The day was March 28, when I arrived at San Juan International Airport. Here I was, a  young 21 year old Marine in my uniform with a chest full of medals waiting for my father to pick me up. Even though I didn’t know much Spanish, since we barely spoke it at home and the island was hot and humid, it felt great to be in the land where my parents were born. I thought to myself “In the United States people could tell me Go Back to Puerto Rico, even though I was born in New York, in Puerto Rico, I figured that no one can be prejudice against me for being Puerto Rican”. Well, my father finally arrived and after the required hugging, loaded my bags in his car and took off.    

After about an hours ride, we were finally in the town of Bayamon where my father lived. I was busy enjoying the view and as we were getting closer to my father’s house, my father suddenly turned to me and said: “See that girl walking over there?” I looked and for a moment I couldn’t believe my eyes. There was this beautiful girl, walking alone on the sidewalk, her golden hair so nice and long, her body so perfect, she was wearing an outfit that was called something like “Coolot” which was a short pants that resembled a mini-dress. And when I saw her face, My God! I had never seen such a beautiful face in my life. She was a goddess, I kid you not. You ever hear the 1963 song “Just one look, and I fell in love, love, LOVE” sung by Doris Troy?, well, that’s how I felt. Anyway since I was so cool (at least I thought I was), I answered my dad’s question: “Yes, she is very pretty”. Then my dad said: “She is our next door neighbor”  My mind went wild and  I thought to myself “WHAT!, Holy S--t”. Then I turned to my father and I told him the following: “She is? Well you know what? She is going to be my girlfriend and my wife”. My father laughed and said “Tony, you always say that about all the girls” and I answered, “Not this time, this is the one”.          

The next day I went out to my fathers porch, hoping to get a glimpse of her and there she was on the porch of her house. We looked at each other and you know that saying “I must be in heaven because I just saw a angel looking at me” well it’s true, this was love at first sight. I waved and said “Hi” and she looked at me and smiled and waved then she went inside her house. So I went to the back yard and started shooting some hoops. That is when I realized that someone was checking me out. Yep, some one was behind the window blinds in her house starring and I knew that it just had to be her. Despite the fact that I was and still am a terrible basketball player, I tried my best to impress the stranger checking me out. Soon this little 8 year old boy from the neighborhood called  “Peter” came to my door with a note from her. She wanted to know my name, in Spanish! (she didn’t know English). Of course I didn’t waste any time and I sent her a note in return with my name and in turn asked for her name. Peter returned with another note and that is when I found out that her name was “Milagros” which in English means miracle. What a beautiful name, the most beautiful name that I have ever heard.  

I then did what any red blooded American of Puerto Rican descent would have done in my place. I took a crash course in Spanish. I started by reading a Spanish bible and watching Spanish T.V. If something came up that I didn’t understand I would ask my dad. I found out that she was seventeen, she had just recently celebrated her seventeenth birthday that March 25th. You remember that song by the Beatles “She was just seventeen, and you know what I mean, the way she looked was beyond compare”?  Well, I think that they had her in their mind when they wrote it, plus we were both born on March, I took that as a good sign.   

Now let me tell you, in New York I was the type of guy who would go up to any girl, put my arm around her and end up going out with her. But, in her case she made the first move by sending me notes and I felt like a wimp, so a week later I finally asked her for a date. I didn’t dare go to her house because she was an only daughter and her father didn’t strike me as the friendly type, so we decided to go separately and meet at my mother’s house in Levittown in the nearby town of Toa Baja. I arrived first and waited for her at the bus stop. After she arrived we walked together and talked. I introduced her to my family and we went with my sister Greta and her boyfriend to this place called Isla de Cabra. (Goat Island, romantic isn‘t it?) Once we were there, I whispered to my sister to get lost and then finally I was alone with the girl who would turn out to be the love of my life. We talked for a while, she had the most amazing smile and when I looked into her beautiful eyes it was as if we were the only two people in the world. Yes, it was like that song made popular by the Flamingos “I only have eyes for you”. Then we kissed and I told myself “Oh my God, I am in love and I barely know her”. I knew then that I was going to marry this girl and spend the rest of my life with her. I asked her to be my girlfriend right there and then. Do you know what she answered? She said yes!



                                     Milagros and Tony Santiago

We would call each other everyday and talk for hours, plus she would tell her parents that she was going to visit a friend and we would see each other secretly. During this time we agreed to be completely honest with each other and we told each other all of the details of each others live, both the good and the bad. We promised to always be faithful and if one of us fell out of love we promised that we would break up before double crossing each other with some one else.  

By May, Milagros’ mother finally allowed me to visit her at her house as long as her father was not there. Her mother was really nice and even felt sorry for me because I was so skinny. That worked out to my favor because I was invited (when her father wasn’t there) for dinner almost everyday. Then one day, I asked Milagros to marry me. I told her that I was very serious about this and that if she married me it would be until death do us part. You see, my parents divorced when I was a child and I didn’t want any children that we may have in the future to go through what I did. I also promised that I would find a job at a bank (I was unemployed) and go to college. You know what? She said yes! Then she told her mom. I thought for sure that she was going to kill me or something, but to my surprise she became happy as hell. The father did not know.  

June arrived and I decided to ask her father for his daughters hand in marriage. Now picture this: Milagros was seventeen and an only daughter. We had only known each other for only three and a half months. We were planning on getting married in August, exactly five months after we first met. When I went to her house Milagros and her mother told me that the father was in the driveway cutting open a coconut. They promised that they were going to be behind me when I went in there to talk to him and I said “Let’s go”. I quietly walked up to him and said “Mr. Rivera, I would like to talk to you” He had this huge machete in his hand and was hacking away at this poor coconut like it was his worse enemy. He looked mean and didn’t even look up to me when he asked “What do you want to talk about?”  I took a deep breath and said “I would like your daughter’s hand in marriage”. He just kept hacking away and asked “When?” That is when I looked around and realized that I was all alone with a man with a machete in his hand. Milagros and her mother were nowhere in sight. I told myself “Oh man, this is it! This is the end of the road, this is where I die” and then I answered “In August“. He then took one great swing at the poor coconut and said “O.K.”. I couldn’t believe it, I got out of there as fast as I could (No, I didn’t pee on myself) before he changed his mind and mistook me for the coconut.  

Needless to say, we were married that August and now thirty seven years later we have three wonderful children, two sons Antonio and Jose, a daughter Nilda and two beautiful granddaughters Isabel and Nina. My wife is fine now, she is out of the hospital, but every time that I look at her, my partner, my best friend, the love of my life, I think about the tune sung by the Everly Brothers which goes “God Bless the day I found you, I want to stay around you, now and forever, let it be me”.  Happy Valentines Day to all.         




My Day with History

Recollections of RFK are forever embedded in my memory

By Tia Maria from Maravilla
Published on LatinoLA: January 14, 2009



Next week will mark another day in history. For those fortunate enough to attend the inauguration of President Barak Obama, it will certainly be a day
they will remember for the rest of their lives. I, along with millions of others, will watch the ceremonies from the comforts of our homes. But I had my day with history back on June 4, 1968.

I was attending Our Lady Queen of Angels High School in the Chinatown section of Los Angeles. On this particular warm summer day, we got out of school early since it was finals week. My friend Liz and I left school and walked/ran towards Broadway as we knew that Robert F. Kennedy's motorcade would be driving by. Not wanting to miss the event, we got there as quickly as possible, walking east on Orr St., then going south on Broadway. Although this was quite a distance from school, we were accustomed to taking this route since boarding the bus home on Broadway was the "in" thing to do.

We decided that the best place to watch the parade was in front of the Bradbury building, just across the street from the Million Dollar Theatre, near 3rd St. Plenty of other people also had the same idea but that didn't stop us. There were businessmen, lawyers, secretaries, street vendors but not too many students. The carnival atmosphere only added to the excitement as everyone eagerly awaited the motorcade.

The convoy was driving north on Broadway, towards City Hall. The anticipation grew as the policemen's sirens blared, clearing the foot traffic from the street. Los Angeles's finest drove by in their shining motorcycles, looking proud as ever. Several cars carrying some politicians quickly drove by as they waived to the crowd. Since we were both somewhat short, we were able to make our way to the edge of the street and could see the advancing motorcade. Someone shouted "Here he comes!" as the convertible car that RFK occupied was in plain sight.

RFK was tall and lanky, somewhat pale, with his graying light brown hair parted to the left side, with a wave as it was swept across his forehead. He was smiling and waving his hands at the crowd. A man shouted "¡Que Viva Kennedy!" and crowd responded "¡Que Viva!" As his car passed us up, he was bending over, shaking the bystander's hands. I reached out to touch his hand and his fingertips touched mine, as the car slowly drove away. I was so excited that I was in a frozen state of shock. The future president of the United States touched my fingertips!

I was still excited when I got home. I told my Mom what happened but she wasn't too interested. She was more concern with me going to downtown when I should be at school. My parents had just become legal residents. They were never interested in politics. No one at home seemed to be as excited as I was.

Later on that night, as I was watching TV, a news flash came across the screen. Robert F. Kennedy had been shot at the Ambassador hotel. I could not believe what I was hearing. A pain pierced my heart as I saw the images of newscaster's try to explain the tragedy. From our house you could hear the neighbors sigh in disbelief. First it was JFK, then it was MLK and now it was RFK.

I remember crying myself to sleep that night. The next day at school, everyone was in a somber mood. Instead of sharing my exciting adventure, we said a rosary for the soul of Robert F. Kennedy. His fingertips had just touched mine and now he was dead. My recollection of that sunny day in June will be embedded in my memory forever.

About Tia Maria from Maravilla:
Not another angry writer from ELA


Ben Romero


Elephants, clowns, trapeze artists, magicians, jugglers, death-defying acts under a big top: these were items boldly printed on flyers and pasted on store windows all over the small town of Española, New Mexico. A purchase at the store enabled you to receive a discount coupon to the greatest show in the valley. That meant that for seventy-five cents I could see a real circus in person.

In the spring of 1966, I was thirteen, and probably too old to be as excited about the venture as I was. My parents and older siblings didn’t share my enthusiasm. As my mother made tortillas that afternoon, I sat at the kitchen table and pled my case.

“But it’s a circus, Mom, a real live show with elephants and clowns and everything, and we’ve never seen one in person. There’s only two shows and they’re only going to be here for one day. Just one.”

“We took you to a circus once in Los Alamos, don’t you remember? You met a clown named Coco.”

“Mom,” I pleaded, “I was only five. The clown is the only part I remember.”

“That’s because you slept through the whole thing,” interrupted my sister, Marcella. “We ate a snow cone while you were asleep.”

At that moment I regretting having asked her to help me convince Mom to talk Dad into letting me go.

“I have the money, Mom. Ramona gave me seventy-five cents last week when I helped her sweep her In-law’s garage.”

Mom‘s eyes darted in my direction. “You took money from your sister?”

“I didn’t ask for it. She just gave it to me on her own. See? I still have it. With the coupon and the seventy-five cents I can see the show.”

“I don’t know, Mijo. How would you get there? What if something happens?”

“It’s not that far. David said if I go, his mother will let him go, too. We’ll walk together. I’ll wear a sweater and everything.”

The best part of the circus was the big top, itself, standing out white and tall in the middle of a large field. Cars and old pick-up trucks raised dust as they parked haphazardly in all directions. 

David and I made it to the early show and were ushered in, and directed to folding chairs. A mixture of canvas, straw, and body odor filled the air. David and I eventually gave up our seats to grown-ups. We ended up on the ground, up front, surrounded by sticky-fingered children with slicked hair and melting chocolate bars.

As the lights dimmed, loud music erupted from two large speakers and the announcer pranced in, illuminated by bright spotlights. Tipping his black top hat and swinging his cape as only a true showman can, he opened his arms as if to say, welcome to the show of shows. His ivory white teeth gleamed under the lights and his bellowing voice hurt my ears.

“Ladies and gentlemen, boys and girls, you are about to witness the most sensational show of your lives!”

The crowd cheered, many people whistled, children shrieked, and the applause was deafening. I couldn’t help but focus on his choice of words. He didn’t say greatest show on earth as I’d expected. He said sensational. Was that better, or was it less?

Early on, a lady wearing a tight red dress and thin shoes, walked on a wire, high above the crowd, although not above our heads. The same lady later rode a galloping horse in a circle, doing tricks that included riding standing up at full gallop with outstretched arms. 

Her movements were impressive, but her smile was forced and her expressions sad. I guessed she was about forty.

The acrobats were my favorite, although nobody came close to falling. It was a routine so finely practiced and precise that it seemed surreal. 

Clowns stole the show between sets, including a clown parade, where they drove tiny cars in a circle and came within inches of wrecking into each other. And finally, a small car filled with an impossible number of clowns drove to the center of the arena and everyone counted as they climbed out of the tiny door…nine, ten, eleven. A full dozen, plus the driver. How did they do it?

Following the juggler and magician, a large cage holding a roaring lion, was carried in. A daring young man with a whip and chair entered the cage as the announcer proceeded to explain the dangers of being so close in proximity to the king of the jungle. This young man, it seems, was raised in the wilds of Africa and had a way with the beasts. I saw the hero slip a few snacks to the big cat as he cracked his whip and made him sit like a child on the chair, then roll over. As a grand finale, the young man (he didn’t look that young to me) opened the lion’s mouth with his bare hands and put his head inside the lion’s mouth for at least two seconds. I think he got a standing ovation.

The best was saved for last. Everyone wanted to see the decorated elephants and finally, they came in. Riding the lead elephant was no one other than the lady from the tight rope. Her red dress sparkled with the lights and I suspected it was not the same red dress she’d worn earlier. Although there were only three elephants, two adults and one baby, they walked in a wide circle, then stopped and bowed to the audience - even the small elephant. They didn’t do much, except strut to the sound of the music, holding on to each other’s tail with their trunk. Before exiting, they lined up next to each other and stood on their hind legs. The lady riding the big elephant leaned forward and held on to the leather strap with one hand and waved with the other.

As we left the tent, David and I discussed the circus. We both agreed something was missing, but neither of us could point out what it was. I guess we could call the show sensational.

In the summer of 2008, my wife and I took two of our granddaughters to the circus in Fresno. This one claimed to be the greatest show on earth, and was held inside the Selland Arena. Unlike the circus of my youth, this one was non-stop, three ring action, accentuated by modern lighting, computerized technology, and the best in sound systems.

Parking cost eight dollars, and entry tickets were outrageous, but so what? This was a circus. Each of my granddaughters pulled out a ten dollar bill when the concessions vendor passed by, and each ordered a snow cone. They cost nine dollars apiece. My jaw dropped. My wife and I ordered lemonade, instead, but they cost nine dollars apiece, too. 

Looking around at the crowd of people, I saw sticky-fingered children eating cotton candy, spilling popcorn, and gnawing on candied apples. Eyes lit up when a herd of decorated elephants paraded in a circle, danced to music, and bowed to the audience. As we gawked in awe at daredevil motorcyclists riding at breakneck speeds inside a large circular dome and other death-defying acts, I wondered what the families would be giving up to afford a trip to the circus. Was it worth the price? I suspect that forty years from now, these children may carry the memory they made that day and think it was the greatest.

Ben Romero
Author of Chicken Beaks Book Series


February 7, 9-12 am, Start Your Family History Research
Libreria Martinez Bookstore Makes a Small Move
Hurricane in a Bottle, Breath of Life Latina Theater Ensemble



February 7, 9-12 am
Start Your Family History Research
Drop-in Workshop
Orange Family History Center
674 S. Yorba, Orange, CA

I will be facilitating the workshop and would LOVE to get you started. Crispin Rendon will be helping also, with a database of thousands of connected Tex/Mex families.

We might have a drop in visit by Frank Sifuentes ( whose Los Cuentos de Kiko stories can be heard on  thanks to Joseph Puentes, web master.

Bring copies of family information. Call if you have any questions, Mimi . . 714-894-8161
The telephone at the Center is: 714-997-7710


Libreria Martinez Bookstore Makes a Small Move


Dear Mimi,

This past year was defined by changes both large and small, and it is in the spirit of change, that we here at Libreria Martinez, are making a few changes of our own, including moving into a new facility, and adding to our list of services we are offering through our L.E.A.P Foundation.  One thing I promise will remain constant, as we head into the new year, is our commitment to the success of your bookstore, art gallery, children's books center, community center, and ground zero for the campaign to get our communities reading.
Our new address as of February 1, 2009 will be:
1200 N. Main St Ste D
Santa Ana, CA 92701
Right next door to our present location. Our store numbers and hours will remain the same.
So thank you all , and rest assured that as we enter the new year, we do so with an optimistic view of things to come and a revitalized commitment to our journey that started many years ago.  We hope we can count on your continued support in helping bring literacy and a promise for a brighter tomorrow to all the members of our community.
Sinceramente, Rueben Martinez
 Owner & Founder


Hurricane in a Bottle 
Breath of Life Latina Theater Ensemble
2009 Season Opens
Kimberly del Busto's HURRICANE IN A GLASS – A World Premiere & Winner of the 2008 BOFLTE New Works Festival, Friday, February 13th.
Trapped in a Miami nursing home during a howling hurricane, three generations of Cuban-American women struggle to preserve their fading culture. Ofelia, the matriarch, is stricken with Alzheimer's and thinks she is in Cuba; Maria Jose attempts to bring her down to earth with round the clock care; young Dolores wants to visit the island she has never seen, wondering if she will still feel Cuban once Abuela dies.
The production opens Friday, February 13th and runs through Saturday, March 7th. Show times are Friday and Saturday nights at 8pm. There are two Sunday matinees at 3pm (Feb 22 & March 1st).



Early Photos of Los Angeles
Curriculum materials for the history of Early Los Angeles
7th Annual African American Family History Conference 












Online El Pueblo de Los Angeles curriculum guide


Links to the El Pueblo de Los Angeles curriculum guide, which is available in print, on CD or downloadable, chapter by chapter:  

Online pueblo history: 
Sent by Bob Smith 



7th Annual African American Family History Conference 

SAVE THE DATE March 14, 2009 


On Saturday, March 14th, in LA.  Pre-registration $25; Same day registration is $30.
For more info go to

Same location as last year: 1209 South Manhattan Place, Los Angeles, CA 90019



Chicano Cultural Center is Selected for Renovation
Trail Dust: Anza a vigorous leader in trying times
Ramona Pageant 
Leo Avila Obituary
Saturnino Barrios Lerma  Obituary
CA Spanish Missions and Presidios.

Murals get rescue plan

Chicano cultural center is selected for renovation

By Jeanette Steele Union-Tribune Staff Writer,  January 17, 2009


Sal Barajas, 65, an original muralist of the Centro Cultural de la Raza building, held a slide of the mural taken in 1989. The group Rescue Public Murals has selected the building as one of its projects. (Nelvin C. Cepeda / Union-Tribune) -

Centro Cultural de la Raza
Location: 2125 Park Blvd., San Diego
Hours: noon to 4 p.m. Tuesday to Sunday
Phone: (619) 235-6135
BALBOA PARK — The paint is peeling around Geronimo, the fierce-faced warrior who has guarded the eastern flank of the Centro Cultural de la Raza for nearly 30 years.
But help is coming for the larger-than-life murals fading on the outside of the center's quarters, a former Balboa Park water tank. The group Rescue Public Murals has chosen the cultural center as one of its projects.
"It's tremendously significant historically," said Timothy Drescher, a Berkeley-based scholar who is co-chairman of the mural group. "It's part of the Chicano movement of the early 1970s, which really was the first time that Chicanos stood up and started talking about what concerned them. Chicanos who could paint started having that discussion in their murals."
One of those artists was Sal Barajas, a South Park resident who was one of four muralists in the 1970s who flipped coins to decide which quadrant of the building they would paint.
"We wanted to beautify it . . . to identify it as a cultural center," said Barajas, 65, who went on to a long career as an advertising art director.
The gigantic empty water tank was given to the center as an exhibit space for visual artists, dancers and musicians. At the time it was Army green and wasn't doing much visually. Barajas chose several simple but iconic figures as his subjects: a husk of corn, a coyote, a pyramid and a taloned bird holding a snake, which is an image from the Mexican flag.
More than three decades later, some of the paint is so faded that it's hard to discern the images. The building's southern side, on either side of the front door, got the worst of the sun's damage.
Portions of the murals got face-lifts over the years.
Geronimo, painted by San Diego artist Victor Ochoa, was a later addition in the early 1980s. The famous Apache warrior covers an image that some found objectionable: a skeleton injecting drugs.
The murals occupy a certain place in history, said Stephanie De La Torre, the cultural center's executive director. Young artists have embraced graffiti as their version of public art instead of murals, she said.
Yesterday, a chemist assessed the state of the center's images, which were done with acrylic paint on concrete. By month's end, he will issue a report prescribing a treatment plan and a cost, which is expected to be somewhere in the mid-six figures.
Rescue Public Murals, which is a program of Washington, D.C.-based Heritage Preservation, will try to raise money for the work. The group is funding assessments of nine other murals, including pieces in Atlanta, Los Angeles, Philadelphia and New York City.
Separately, murals in San Diego's Chicano Park are scheduled to be restored with $1.6 million in federal funds.
At the cultural center, peeling paint will have to be removed and replaced in some places. But other spots that aren't as weathered can be sprayed with a clear topcoat to stabilize the paint and add longevity, said Duane Chartier, the Culver City-based conservator hired to assess the artwork. 
De La Torre said there's a responsibility to save the images that have millions have seen as they passed by on Park Boulevard.  

"It's not just preserving Chicano cultural history for the Centro, but we are part of the park," she said. "So it's preserving a bit of San Diego's history.

Dorinda Moreno




Trail Dust: 
Anza a vigorous leader in trying times


A statue honors the idealized explorer and soldier, Don Juan Bautista de Anza, in Riverside, Calif.  Photo courtesy of Richard Young

Marc Simmons | For The New Mexican, 1/16/2009 -  1/10/09

At a historical gathering not long ago, Richard Young of Tesuque approached me and introduced himself. We fell into conversation about Southwestern history, and the subject of Gov. Juan Bautista de Anza came up.

Young asked whether I was familiar with Anza as an explorer and colonizer in California before he became governor of New Mexico.

I nodded yes, and then he told me something of which I was wholly unaware: In Riverside, Calif., was a life-size statute of Anza, honoring him for his contribution to the state. I was pleasantly surprised to hear that.

Juan was born in 1735 in the colonial province of Sonora, which then extended northward to the Gila River and took in today's southern Arizona. The descendant of frontier soldiers, the young man entered military service and by 1759 was captain and commander of the Tubac presidio south of Tucson.

Later, he organized and led the first overland expedition across vast deserts to the Spanish missions and settlements of upper California, heretofore only accessible by sea.

Anza followed up that success by conducting 240 colonists on an expedition to settle San Francisco in 1776. That achievement brought him to the attention of the Spanish king, Carlos III, who selected Anza to become governor of New Mexico.

On May 19, 1777, his majesty issued a royal title of appointment to Don Juan Bautista de Anza, granting him the rank of commander of armed forces of New Mexico and the office of governor.

The legal document, signed "I The King," was quite lengthy and filled with the appropriate flowery language of the time. It also required Anza to take an oath and pay homage to the king at a formal ceremony.

As it happened, that occurred at Chihuahua City on Aug. 24, 1778. There, the superior military commander of the northern frontier provinces, Gen. Teodoro de Croix, had called a high-level war council.

Its purpose was to devise a strategy for rescuing New Mexico, then besieged on all sides by raiding Apaches, Comanches and Navajos. Anza was to be the agent to carry out the plan.

As required by the king's decree, Croix administered the solemn oath of office to Juan Bautista de Anza "according to the custom of Spain." Thereupon he sent him northward on the Camino Real with instructions to win over both the Comanches and Navajos to vanquish the Apaches. It was a tall order, but Anza proved equal to the task.

Reaching Santa Fe in late 1778, the new governor found challenges galore awaiting his attention. The most pressing the Comanche threat.

In mid-1779, he headed a military expedition into Colorado, where he soundly defeated the tribe and killed the war chief Cuerno Verde and most of his lieutenants. After a long period of delicate diplomacy, the Comanches were won over and accepted a lasting peace. The Navajos, Utes and Jicarilla Apaches, at least for the short term, followed their example.

Anza at the beginning of his term attempted to consolidate for defensive purposes the sprawling capital of Santa Fe. That had been part of his instructions from Croix. However, uncooperative residents opposed the governor at every turn and his "urban renewal" efforts failed.

He next tried to abandon Santa Fe entirely and move its population down river to a new capital he proposed to build. That proposal, too, was scuttled by hardheaded New Mexicans.

Nor did Anza have much better luck in trying to convince the Hopi, independent since the revolt of 1680, to recognize again Spanish authority over them.

Notwithstanding setbacks, the Anza administration had a positive effect on the province, mainly because of his strong leadership in other areas and his honesty. As a result, historians have long recognized him as one of the most able and vigorous governors of the 18th century.

In 1787, Juan Bautista de Anza was relieved of his office, owing to ill health, and returned to Sonora. Briefly, he served as provisional commander of armed forces there.

Death followed on Dec. 19, 1788, when Anza was 53. Burial took place inside the main church in the town of Arizpe. Anza went to his grave wearing around his waist the cord of the Third Order of St. Francis, a lay brotherhood to which he belonged.

Today, one can view public statues of colonial governors Oñate, Peralta, DeVargas and Curevo y Valdés. Anza, I believe, clearly deserves to be honored in similar fashion.

Historian Marc Simmons is author of numerous books on New Mexico and the Southwest. His column appears Saturdays.

Sent by Juan Marinez



Ramona Pageant  

April 18-19, 25-26, May 2, 2009

27400 Ramona Bowl Road - Hemet, California 92544


Welcome to the 86th jubilee of the nation's longest running outdoor drama. You and your family will enjoy the experience of this classic story of the many struggles of early California. The natural beauty of the Ramona Bowl Amphitheatre and the love of land and family all combine in this award winning presentation of RAMONA, California's official state outdoor play.
Adult $30.00 +  Senior (62+) $28.00 + Child (12 & under) $16.00 + Local Discount* $16.00 +   *Local Discounts available for all dates and include the Hemet San Jacinto Valley only. Applicable Zip Codes: 92543, 92544, 92545, 92546, 92548, 92549, 92581, 92582, 92583 & 92596     Local discounts are only available through the box office.

Sent by Lorraine Frain 


Fremont Obituary: Leo Avila 


In all the commotion over the elections and just the fact that we don't communicate often enough, it may be that most of us did not take note of Leo's passing, but now we should certainly not fail to honor him in some way, a contribution to his causes, a visit to one of our own veteranos who has died, or a small prayer of thanks for their sacrifice. 

Fremont Obituary: Leo Avila 
Passed away September, 15th, in Fremont, Ca. at the age of 83. He was born in El Paso, Texas and resided in Fremont and Oakdale, Ca. His parents were Leocadio Avila Sr. and Rumalda Garcia Avila. He proudly served in the Air force during WWII. 

Leo began his working career at Bell Brand Foods in Santa Fe Springs, Ca. He worked for Bell Brand in Sacramento and Hayward, Ca. He retired at the age of 62 from Sunshine Biscuits, Oakland. 

Leo participated in the following groups: Chair Ser Board, Greenlining Institute, Latino Issues Form, Hispanic Association for Cooperate Responsibility (HACR), Latino Institute for Cooperate Inclusion, Housing Authority of Stanislaus County, State Commander and National Vice Commander of the American GI Form, National Veterans Outreach Program, and Fremont Planning Commissioner. 

Leo is preceded in death of his wife of 61 years, Eliza Anita Avila. He is survived by his children Diana Hernandez (Alfred), Jacob Avila (Joanie), Robert Avila, Terry Galvan (Daniel). He is survived by his sisters Ramona Munoz, Angie Williams, and his brothers Steve, Jimmy, and David Avila. His brother Charlie and sister Margaret preceded him in death. He was the dear grandfather of Paul, Jacob, Amy, Freddie, Bobby, Celeste, Daniel and Anthony. He was the great-grandpa of seven. Numerous nieces, nephews, and dear friends will deeply miss him too. 

Family and friends are respectfully invited to attend a Memorial Mass at Holy Spirit Church; 37588 Fremont Blvd; at 10am on Saturday September 20th. A military honors service will be held Monday, 1PM at San Joaquin National Cemetery, Gustine, CA 95322. In lieu of flowers the family requests donations for scholarships to American G.I. Forum Women, 4005 Wareham Way, Modesto, CA 95356. Fremont Chapel of the Roses 510-797-1900.  

Sent by Armando B. Rendón

Leo Avila Tribute Videos:

Leo Avila is a role model that will live within the spirits of thousands of young leaders in California and throughout the country for decades to come.  His passion and dedication to social change will continue through the tasks of others that will follow in his footsteps.


Saturnino Barrios Lerma
Nov. 29, 1922 - Dec. 30, 2008

Sacramento Bee on 1/4/2009

Saturnino Barrios Lerma, age 86, born in Miami, Ariz., passed away at Sutter Memorial Hospital due to complications with pneumonia and kidney failure. He was preceded in death by his mother Maria Luisa Lerma, father Natividad Lerma, brothers Patricio Lerma and Lupe Lerma, and sister Vera Caraway. He was married for 64 years and survived by his wife Alejandrina R. Lerma, brother Natividad Jr. Lerma and sisters Mary Meacham and Marylou Fernandez, sons Anthony Lerma and Mario Lerma, daughters Irma Barbosa, Cristina Loeffler and husband David Loeffler, Alicia Enos and husband Rick Enos, grandchildren Anthony Lerma and wife Heather, Amber Lerma Wilson, and husband Michael, Michelle Barbosa, Vincent Barbosa, Gino Enos, Laina Lerma, Angelo Lerma, Isiah Lerma, Alexander Loeffler and Chelsea Loeffler, great-granddaughter Madison Lerma and great-grandson Joey Lerma along with many loving nieces, nephews and cousins.

Saturnino will be remembered for his great sense of humor, gift of giving and for always making himself available rain or shine to lend a helping hand to friends and family in need. Saturnino worked for the Southern Pacific Railroad for 39 years 1945-1984, was a member of the Masons and Veteran of the U.S. Army. He had a great passion and love for music playing the violin, guitar and accordion and listening and singing to his favorite musica Ranchera! He enjoyed the outdoors, camping, fishing and gardening. His favorite past time was playing Solitaire and 21. He was greatly loved and will be truly missed at his "Oval" office of retirement by his entire family. The family would like to thank the Doctors and entire Staff at Manor Care and Sutter Memorial Hospital for their extraordinary care provided to Saturnino.

Friends and family are invited to attend a visitation on Wednesday, January 7, 2009, from 4:30 - 7:00 p.m. and the Rosary at 7:00 p.m. at Lombard and Company Chapel,1550 Fulton Ave., Sacramento. Saturninos's Mass of Christian Burial will be at Our Lady of Guadalupe Church located at 711 ''T'' Street in Sacramento on Thursday, January 8, 2009, at 10:00 a.m., followed by internment at the Fair Oaks Cemetery 7780 Olive St., Fair Oaks, Calif.

Source: Irma Lerma Barbosa
Sent by Frank Sifuentes




CA Spanish Missions and Presidios.

Another good link sent by Rafael Ojeda



P'urhepecha Indians in Portland hold fast to their identity 
Multiracial families see Barack Obama as 'Other' like them



P'urhepecha Indians in Portland hold fast to their identity
Expatriate Michoacans celebrate their culture with a trancelike dance


December 29, 2008  Gosia Wozniacka, The Oregonian Staff

Clack! Clack!
Sandals with wooden soles land on a concrete garage floor. Homeboys in hoodies, a throng of young schoolkids and middle-aged men pull the sandals onto their feet.
One of the men turns on the boombox. He grabs a canelike wooden stick with a sculpted root instead of a handle. Others follow with their sticks, squaring off in two lines.

Clack, clack, clack! More than 30 pairs of feet stomp, accelerate, in unison and with a deafening thud. Dust rises. Sweat drips off dancers' faces.

Men, women and children watch from the sides, as if still standing in the dusty plaza in Cocucho, a village high in the mountains of Michoacan in central Mexico. In this Southeast Portland garage, a second Cocucho thrives, carried by the rhythm and din of an ancient dance called Los Viejitos, the trancelike "dance of old men."

Los Viejitos is a stubborn, loud repetition in the face of possible disappearance. Cocucho, and now the Portland area, are home to the P'urhepecha Indians, an indigenous community from Mexico -- also known as Tarascans -- that retained its unique language and culture even after the Spanish conquest, only to be threatened by the forces of globalization and migration.

In Oregon, where most of Cocucho's expatriates live, three worlds grind against one another: the indigenous, the Mexican and the American. Most parents still speak P'urhepecha, but their children prefer Spanish or English.

To keep the link with the Mexican Cocucho and a sense of identity, Oregon's P'urhepecha organize in a tight web of cooperation. They also teach the Los Viejitos dance and -- just like it happens in their village in Mexico -- hold a dance competition in Portland every year on Christmas Day.

"We don't want to lose our culture," 42-year-old Herlinda Pasaye says in a muddled singsong Spanish, wrapping a blue rebozo, a hand-woven shawl, tighter around her shoulders against the draft in the garage. "The young ones are dancing; they are learning our tradition."

The dance leader shouts: Ya muchachos! A bailar! Let's dance!

Days of empire

The Kingdom of the P'urhepecha was one of the largest and most prosperous empires in the pre-Hispanic Mesoamerican world until the Spanish invasion in the 16th century, according to historians. The P'urhepecha language is not part of any known language family and is not related to Spanish.

Isolated villages safeguarded the indigenous culture, so that today more than 100,000 people in Michoacan still speak P'urhepecha, Mexican census figures show. But poverty and the demands of globalization led many P'urhepecha to clear forests for farmland, causing severe deforestation and upending the community's way of life, said Carlos Molina Santos, one of the P'urhepecha leaders in Portland.

Half of the Michoacan forest vanished during the past five decades, according to a study by that state's government. And P'urhepecha men, who could no longer rely on the traditional manufacturing of wooden crates, wood furniture and crafts, started migrating north.

The path from Cocucho to the Portland area was forged in the mid-1980s, Molina Santos said. Today, more than 300 heads of families are part of a Cocucho phone list, including 200 families from the metro area, 50 from Madras and a few more from California and Washington. Others from P'urhepecha villages also have settled in the Northwest.

Oregon P'urhepechas' tight social-cooperation network harks back to their village, where all men and women participated in unpaid community labor. In Oregon, they regularly activate their phone tree and gather to decide how much money to collect for a renovation project in Cocucho, to help those who stayed behind. And when a village member passes away, they all pay to send the body to be buried in Mexico.

"Whatever happens, we are there for each other," Carlos Molina said. "The idea is that we all cooperate and don't let anyone fall behind."

The efficient social network also re-creates a sense of home. Molina Santos and Pasaye, his wife, invited a Los Viejitos dance troupe called Los Tareris -- Tareris means "those who sow" in P'urhepecha -- to practice in the couple's garage. The dance provides distraction from the daily grind of American life, Molina Santos said, and "it reminds me of Cocucho."

Crossing cultures
In order to win the Los Viejitos competition, "dancers must be united and organized, like our community," said Pedro Blas Molina, leader of Los Tareris. Feet clad in wooden soles must clack in unison.

The dance Los Viejitos was once a pre-Hispanic religious ceremony, according to David Rojas, a retired anthropologist who taught dance history at the University of California at Santa Barbara. The dancers would honor and communicate with Huehueteotl, the Old God, Rojas said, revering the wisdom of old age. But after the "spiritual conquest" of Mexico by Spain, the dance became a Christian celebration.

"We were a nation that used to worship our gods by dancing and singing to them," Rojas said. "It was very hard to stop the P'urhepecha from doing that. So today they are replicating the old ceremonies."

During competitions, dancers still don old men masks, embroidered pants, the wooden-sole sandals and serape ponchos. They hunch over and lean on homemade wooden canes -- but then, joined by beautiful women dancers known as Maringuillas, they turn vigorous.
The dance's pre-Hispanic significance and name have been lost, but dancers say the performance in Portland -- as in Cocucho -- is a celebration of the birth of Jesus Christ. Another interpretation says the Viejitos mock Mexico's Spanish conquerors, and the woman dancer is La Malinche, the indigenous translator and lover of Spanish conquistador Hernando Cortes.

Many people join a Los Viejitos troupe because they "promise" the dance to the Virgin Mary in return for good health, a successful trip or another assurance, Blas Molina said. In Oregon, the dance is in its sixth year. Community members pay for the space rental, orchestra, food for hundreds of people and prizes. Women cook traditional corundas, a P'urhepecha specialty similar to tamales.

In the end, dancing or watching Los Viejitos is more than a distraction. It's a survival mechanism, because American and Mexican influences seep in, Molina Santos said, threatening the survival of the P'urhepecha language and identity.

Ironically, emigration offers the prospect of revival. Many of the men have learned to dance Los Viejitos only once they came to Oregon, making sure their community thrives despite its dispersal.

"We are proud to dance here," 28-years-old Miguel Ascencio Rodriguez said. "We're representing our village and keeping our culture alive."

Gosia Wozniacka: 503-294-5960; gosiawozniacka@ 
Send email to / Envía mensajes a:

Gabriela Erandi Rico
Doctoral Candidate
Dep't of Comparative Ethnic Studies
University of California, Berkeley
506 Barrows Hall
Berkeley, CA 94720
(510) 643-0796 [Tel]
(510) 642-6456 [Fax]

Dorinda Moreno 


Multiracial families see Barack Obama as 'Other' like them


Multiracial families see Barack Obama as 'Other' like them
Some consider the president-elect's rise as a form of vindication in a society that hasn't always been kind to those who aren't easily defined by race.
By Don Terry, Los Angeles Times, November 28, 2008

Reporting from Chicago - A rainbow runs through Tyler Winograd's veins.

His mother, Maile, is half black and half Chinese American. His father, Jeff, is white and grew up Jewish in Evanston, Ill.

"I always check 'Other' on my college applications," Winograd said.

But on election day, Winograd was filling out a different kind of form. The 18-year-old accompanied his parents to the polling place across the street from their Glencoe, Ill., home to cast a ballot for president for the first time.

Winograd was excited just to be voting -- a simple act of citizenship that his African American grandfather told him people had died for. His parents were even more excited. The head of the Democratic ticket looked like their son. All of the Winograds voted for Barack Obama.

"I totally feel proud that he's a black man and he's mixed," Maile Winograd said of Obama. "I identified with him so much. What he went through as a biracial person, I went through. And my son must look at Barack and say, 'He looks like me.' That's a good thing. A very good thing."

For the parents of multiracial children, Obama's rise has been a vindication of sorts, a presidential rebuttal to a society that has not always been kind to their offspring, labeling them "half-breeds," "tragic mulattoes," "mutts," "mixed nuts," according to Susan Graham, the white mother of two multiracial children and the founder of the California-based Project Race, a 17-year-old nationwide group that advocates for a multiracial classification on all school, employment, census and other forms.

"Our membership has grown since the election," Graham said. "We've been fighting for a long time. This is a great boost for us."

But for Tyler Winograd, Obama's biracial background is no big deal. Winograd is the legal and psychological beneficiary of past struggles for racial and social justice. He and his friends look at race and culture through a different lens than their parents, who lived through the not-so-distant days of segregation, rioting and political assassinations.

"I think it's interesting that Obama is biracial," Winograd said. "But I think it's much more of a sense of pride for mixed-race people who are older or black people who are older, for people who went through the civil rights movement. . . . They had to fight for their rights. My rights were essentially handed to me."

Race, however, continues to be a stubborn puzzle. It wasn't until 2000 that Americans were allowed to check more than one box for race on U.S. census forms. At that time, about 6.83 million people, or 2.4%, checked two or more races on census forms out of a population of about 281 million.

Carolyn Liebler, a sociology professor specializing in family, race and ethnicity at the University of Minnesota, said she expected that the numbers of people identifying as multiracial would be higher in 2010 than they were in 2000 "because the number of mixed-raced marriages are going up" and because of Obama.

Tom W. Smith, an expert on race and demographics at the National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago, calls it the "Obama effect."

"He's made being multiracial salient," Smith said.

Glenna Reyes, 20, grew up on Chicago's North Side, the daughter of a Jewish mother and a Puerto Rican father. She calls herself a "Jewican."

"Most of the people I know are mixed," Reyes said. "Barack Obama represents what a lot of the people I know are. But my friends and I don't see him as the face of biracial pride. We refer to him more as black than biracial. We compare him to Martin Luther King."

Obama, 47, has historically described himself as "black" or "African American." (Now he describes himself as "president-elect.")

But younger multiracial people, such as Winograd, Reyes and Victoria Rodriguez, 27, seem more comfortable identifying themselves as multiracial.

"I personally feel if you're mixed, you should say you're mixed," said Rodriguez, who is half black and half Latino. "Growing up, I had a lot of issues with race -- people trying to define me, saying I wasn't black enough. But I decided I love my mother, I love my father, so I'm mixed."

Like Obama, Melissa Harris-Lacewell, 35, a professor of politics and African American studies at Princeton University in New Jersey, identifies herself as black, although her mother is white and her father is African American.

"I was raised to be a black woman with a white mother, like a tall person with a short mother," she said. "I was raised in the South. Biracial was not really an option."

Harris-Lacewell said she did not "normally have mixed-girl emotions," but added: " I had more emotions about being biracial during this campaign then I've ever experienced."

Eddie Heward-Mills, 38, a disc jockey and drummer, never thought he'd live to see a black U.S. president, let alone a black president with a white mother. In other words, a president with a story like his.

"I've heard for years people say, 'I don't see color.' Now I'm starting to believe there are at least some white people who really do feel that way. More than before, that's for sure."

Sent by Carlos Muñoz, Jr. Professor Emeritus, Department of Ethnic Studies


Raul H. Castro, Arizona's only Latino governor reflects on career
Henry Yanez, re-enactor with the Tucson Presidio Trust for Historic Preservation
Sosa Albornoz and Zaldivar reports by Jose Esquibel
The Little Ice Age and the Alamo in Winter Garden History

Raul H. Castro
Arizona's only Latino governor reflects on career

Governor Castro, 2nd from left
14th governor from 1975 to 1977


January 18th, 2009 @ 9:32am by Associated Press

He lives not far from where it all began. Raul H. Castro, former judge, governor and ambassador, lives in a 102-year-old house in Nogales, Ariz., just footsteps from the Mexican border. On the other side lies the country where he was born. But it is in this country where he 
would make his mark.   Prevailing against often stifling racism, he would rise to serve two U.S. presidents, as 
well as the people of Arizona.   

The second-youngest of 14 children born to Francisco and Rosario Castro, Castro, now 92, moved with his family at 
a young age from Cananea, Sonora, to Pirtleville, Ariz., near Douglas.   His father, who worked for Phelps Dodge in Douglas, died when Raul was 12.   

He persevered, enrolling at what was then Arizona State Teachers College in Flagstaff on a football scholarship. He also served as captain of the track team and was the undefeated Border Conference boxing champ.   The same year he graduated - 1939 - he became an American citizen. But when he returned to Douglas hoping for a teaching job, he was turned down. The schools, he says, would not hire a Mexican-American.   

Disheartened, Castro took to riding the rails.   ``I was boxing on the road for a couple of years _ New Orleans, Pennsylvania, New York. I would fight at carnivals, wherever, get $50 or $100.''   And so it might have ended there.   But then fate intervened in the form of Castro's youngest brother.   ``He was in school in Flagstaff,'' says Castro. ``He said, 'I'm going to drop out. You got a degree and you're nothing but a hobo and a boxer.' ``   

Castro told him to stay in school, returned to Arizona and soon went to work with the U.S. State Department as a foreign service clerk in Agua Prieta, Sonora.   Five years later, fate intervened yet again.   ``The consulate-general of Juarez came there on an inspection and said I was doing a great job but I was wasting my time because I could never go any farther there,'' says Castro. ``I hadn't gone to an Ivy League college.''   

In 1946, he enrolled in law school at the University of Arizona, working his way through school by teaching Spanish.   Not that it was easy getting into law school. ``The dean told me no, that Mexican-Americans just did not graduate.''   So he called the president of the university and told him to cancel his contract as a Spanish teacher, something the university desperately needed. Castro got into law school.   

``If I get offended, I am motivated,'' he says.   After passing the bar in 1949, Castro, a Democrat, went into private practice, then became deputy Pima County attorney. In 1954, he was elected Pima County attorney. Four years later he was elected as a judge of the Pima County Superior Court, serving until 1964, when he became a U.S. ambassador, first to El Salvador, then to Bolivia.   

After resuming his law practice in Tucson, he was elected governor of Arizona in 1974, resigning in 1977 to serve as ambassador to Argentina.   He quit the ambassadorship in 1980 to work for Jimmy Carter's failed re-election campaign, then returned to Arizona, practicing law in Phoenix.   In 1993, he and wife, Pat, moved to Nogales. ``I couldn't stand living in Phoenix,'' says Pat, now 84. ``I wanted something cooler with less traffic.''   Her husband was less than thrilled. ``I did not want to go to Nogales,'' he says. ``I was born near the border.''   But he relented, opening a law office across the street and helping Pat fill the house with furniture and antiques from their many travels.   

Today, he no longer practices law. Even so, his calendar is filled with appointments and speaking dates, many of them at schools throughout the state.   ``I talk to kids at low-income schools who feel they don't have a chance,'' says Castro.   His life says otherwise.   A little over 34 years ago, Raul H. Castro was elected governor of Arizona, the first Mexican-American to do so. He was 58 years old.   Local newspapers hailed the achievement while dutifully chronicling his rise from poor Mexican immigrant to successful attorney, judge and ambassador.   

In 1964, Castro was appointed ambassador to El Salvador.   In 1965, the country was hit with an earthquake that killed more than 100 people.   Even more earthshaking, perhaps, was the phone call Pat Castro later received while visiting in Tucson.   ``It was the State Department telling me, 'Mrs. Castro, you must return to El Salvador at once. President and Mrs. Johnson are staying with you for a week.' ``   

When she returned, she learned that there would be a conference of the presidents of several Central American countries.   ``There were Secret Service men all around and a destroyer off the coast. We had to move out of the house so the Johnsons could move in,'' says Pat, who remembers Lady Bird as ``the nicest person.''   Not so, perhaps, for LBJ.   ``We had a reception at a hotel and were lined up perfectly,'' says Castro. ``I was first in line, then the president, then my wife and his wife. 

He told me to give him the name of every person and what they did.   ``There were 300 people there. I was talking to all of them until the president gave me a kick and said, 'What are you doing? They came here to see me, not you.' ``   During the visit, Pat also had a little face-off with Liz Carpenter, Lady Bird's press secretary.   ``I had five presidents' wives. We had a bus coming to take us to see various sites and get lunch. Liz Carpenter gave me a whistle and told me, 'I want you to blow the whistle to get the ladies on the bus.'   ``I said, 'Look, I've got presidents' wives here and I'm not blowing a whistle to get them on the bus.' `` And she didn't. ``I stood patiently and waited until they got in.''  

In 1968, Castro was appointed as ambassador to Bolivia.   In 1977, President Jimmy Carter appointed Castro U.S. ambassador to Argentina, where he served for three years.   ``I loved it,'' says Pat. ``We had a staff of 20 and two Italian chefs.''

Even so, she is adamant when she says today, ``I don't ever want to go to another cocktail party in my life.''
Copyright Bonneville International. All rights reserved.
Dorinda Moreno


Henry Yanez, re-enactor with the 
Tucson Presidio Trust for Historic Preservation ®
Accent  Retiree helps out with lots of groups
Tucson, Arizona | Published: Dec 23, 2008
Today's gift: Henry Yanez, 61.
Nominated by: His wife of 35 years, Dorothy Yanez.

Why he's special: "He listens," said Dorothy. "He is such an incredible father. The man just gives and gives and gives. He has a huge heart." 

"Who told you that big ol' lie?" Henry asked. He doesn't like talking about what he does. "I'm a humble guy," he said. So we'll tell you: Henry is a re-enactor with the Tucson Presidio Trust for Historic Preservation. He has portrayed a colonial soldier, Pancho Villa, and soon he'll portray a peasant. But it's not about dressing up for Henry. 

"If we don't know who we were, we don't know who we are," he said. He has also worked with the Arizona Historical Society, the Brichta Neighborhood Association, National Alliance for Mental Illness, and Read & Seed, where he helped school children with their reading comprehension. 

"You find more things to do when you retire," explained Henry, who retired six years ago after 30 years with Tucson Water.  As he talks, it's clear the native Tucsonan doesn't like to take credit; the word "I" is rarely used.

Asked about his work with the neighborhood association, he answers, "You get to know your neighbors. We got speed bumps and sidewalks in so the children can walk safely. It's no big thing. It's just giving back to the community."  
— Kathleen Allen  Copyright © 2008


Sosa Albornoz and Zaldivar reports by Jose Esquibel

In a message dated 1/10/2009 
Eddie Garcia wrote:

Hi,  Received a remarkable set of documents from Jose Antonio Esquivel, a genealogy family researcher, who shares mutual ancestors with me. Some of his research can be found online. Mr. Esquivel even pointed out an incorrect name for a spouse in a Lineage Chart I provided him with. The different sources/references for his information is documented, like a term paper, in the Sosa Albornoz and Zaldivar reports, email and attachment. 

I had never seen so so much genealogy data being condensed a few pages. I was given permission to share the data.    Eddie 

1/10/09, Jose Esquibel 

Señor García, 

Yes indeed, we do have common ancestors.  The information you have complied concerning the Longoria, González, and Oñate lineages looks very good. 

On the Oñate lineage, there is one correction to be made. As it turns out, María de Oñate was married with Rodrigo de Zaldívar, not Ruy Díaz de Zaldívar. The Ruy Díaz name is an error that occurred in print and continues to be passed on. The original records for the Zaldívar family clearly give the name of Rodrigo de Zaldivar as the husband of Maria de Oñate.

You will find more details on the Oñate-Zaldívar family in my articles:

José Antonio Esquibel, “The Zaldívar, Díaz de Mendoza, and Oñate Families, 1450-1650: New Genealogical Findings,” Part I, Los Bexareños Genealogical Register, Vol. XXI, No. 4, December 2004, 10-22. 
José Antonio Esquibel, “The Zaldívar, Díaz de Mendoza, and Oñate Families, 1450-1650: New Genealogical Findings,” Part II, Los Bexareños Genealogical Register, Vol. XXII, No. 1, March 2005, 1-10.

In regard to the Sosa Albornoz ancestry, it is very unfortunate that incorrect information continues to be circulated and posted online. The royal lineage is completely false.

The father of Alonso de Sosa Albornoz was Francisco de Sosa Albornoz, not Francisco de Sosa Guevara. I located the record of passage for Francisco de Sosa Albornoz and examined other records that verify that Francisco de Sosa Albornoz was a son of Esteban de Sosa and Ana de Albornoz. Although my correction to the Sosa Albornoz lineage has been published since 1998, the incorrect information is still going around.

Attached is a synopsis of the corrected genealogy of the Sosa Albornoz family based on my research into primary documents. Although the revised lineages does not connect us to Alonso de Estrada, please note that we are descendants of the conquistador Captain Andrés de Tapia, the right-hand man of Hernén Cortés and a prominent figure in the history the fall of Tenochtitlán. Andrés de Tapia even wrote an account of his experiences that has been published in Spanish. 

Also, more research is occurring into the Sosa family history and genealogy in Spain. Once the research is completed there will be a very impressive amount of historical and genealogical information and we may make good progress in dissolving the false lineage 
of the Sosa Albornoz family.

Feel free to pass along the attached file to anyone else who is researching the Sosa Albornoz and Zaldívar families.  Let me know what you think.

Amiably, José Antonio Esquibel 

Sent by Eddie U Garcia



Richard G. 


Weather the last week of 2008 and first week of 2009 has been typically erratic. The 30 degree difference from night to mid afternoon was upset only twice when two strong fronts swept the area. In those cases, the high temperature for the day actually occurred at dawn and the temperature dropped thereafter. Non Winter Garden residents are frequently heard to say that this is “pneumonia weather”. It is not. It is typical Winter Garden winter. It must also be noted that the coldest (or lowest temperatures) usually occur during January 12 through 24. So we shall see what happens these next two weeks. Will there be sleet or snow? Will it freeze for more than a brief over night period? Most important (because it is sorely needed) will we get any rain? We shall see. 

Weather-wise, we can point out that most people are totally unaware that climate in the North American Continent has changed drastically these last 150 years. Historians, anthropologists and sociologists in writing about society and events from the mid 1700’s to late 1800’s fail to consider the impact and effect of the Little Ice Age. It was composed of long extended winters, short springs and even shorter summers. The Winter Garden Area was no exemption. Fortunately, we get glimpses of this in various diaries of expeditions, military reports and even the writing of Franciscan missionaries residing or traversing the area. The severe winters of 1772 through 1776 and the blizzard of February 1836 stand out as prime examples. 

On February 8, 1836 at 7:30 AM, Mexican General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna with a 40 man escort left Saltillo, Coahuila with the 1500 man Vanguard Brigade heading toward Monclova. The rest of the Army of Operations Against Texas was stretched from Saltillo to Matehuala The daytime temperature was recorded at 51 degrees as a northern swept the area dropping the temperature for the rest of the day and night. Anxious to get to San Antonio de Bexar undetected with the Vanguard Brigade, Santa Anna rushed ahead but was delayed by bad weather and did not reach Monclova until four days later. 

The rest of the army was faring worse as (1) the conscripted men from central and southern Mexico were suffering from fatigue, (2) hunger, (3) diarrhea, (4) lack of doctors and medical supplies, (5) periodic Native American Native raids on the supply wagons and herds, and most of all (6) a slow moving pace because the women and children trailing the units could not keep up with the army’s pace. The freezing temperature that first night and subsequent sleet for the next two days began to take its toll. Hence on February 12, when Santa Anna reached the Rio Grande, the army at the rear was beginning to feel the climatically harsh Little Ice Age. He had no choice but to rest. 

On February 16 Santa Anna, his escort and the Vanguard Brigade crossed the Rio Grande heading to the Nueces River. He was shortly informed by advance scouts that the Tejanos had burned the bridge over the Nueces River but there were no rebels to be found. Santa Anna had no choice but to avoid the Camino Real del Presidio de Rio Grande Crossing located off present FM 1433 in Dimmit County. He used an older crossing upriver. 

The hail that had become sleet became snow by mid morning. According to  military reports and communiqués between the units we learn the storm extended from Monclova, Coahuila to beyond the Nueces River in Dimmit and Zavala counties. The conscripted Native Americans and mestizos, their wives and families from the warm tropical areas of southern Mexico suffered the most. First, they were not accustomed to the low temperatures, hail, sleet or snow. Second, because many had been taken off village streets, ranchos, jails or churches (wherever they had been conscripted) they did not have any winter clothing, shoes or food. Third, by eating cacti, wild plants, wild berries and whatever small game they could catch (rats, snakes, rabbits, etc), many were ill with fever, diarrhea and were simply described as having el malecito (cold with light fever). Those trembling with high fever were said to have el telele (flu). Making matters worse, fearing the conscript might escape or cause a problem (desertion, slowness, rebel, etc), they were kept tied one to another with a noose around their neck. The blizzard continued for the next three days and desertions were reported. However, it was not the conscripts who were tied to one another, but regular soldiers and wagon drivers who abandoned their units and assignments.

The mornings of the 14th and 15th were horrendous. The officers awoke to find many men, women, children, burros and even horses frozen and stuck to the ground. They also found that some of the regular soldiers had broken the wooden boxes holding provisions and ammunition and used the wood to build camp fires for warmth. Consequently, much of the food and ammunition had been ruined and could not be salvaged. The snow was described a being “over one vara high” with drifts as much as “over 40 inches high”. Things were so bad that General Gaona apologized to Santa Anna over the delay in sending his daily report as the ink had frozen. He had to wait until the morning warmed a little and then warm the ink bottle and write as best he could.

As if the storm was not enough, a hostile Commache party of unknown number attacked a wagon carrying the Musquiz family traveling from San Antonio de Bexar to the Rio Grande. They left the family stranded without any supplies or food stuff. As much as the Musquiz complained, at least they were not killed. That was not the case with straggling or deserting soldiers who were killed outright. Their horses, clothing and all belongings were taken. No one bothered to note that local Coahuiltecan and Lipan Apaches of the Winter Garden Area seemed to have disappeared from sight. At the same time, no one bothered to count the number of Mexican soldiers, conscripts, women and children lost in the blizzard. There is also no mention of any burials in the official daily reports. Nonetheless, the Camino Real from Monclova, Coahuila to the Nueces River in present Dimmit County was littered with bodies, animals and supplies. 

Separated from the three army Divisions to the rear, Santa Anna and the Vanguard Brigade took the “smugglers’ Road” along present U. S. Highway 90 to reach the Medina River on February 22nd at present Castroville. The rest of the army built bridges over the Nueces and Leona rivers and crossed the Frio River at present Frio Town which is now an abandoned ghost town and not accessible to the public. 

On February 23, 1836 General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna and the Vanguard Brigade entered the Villa de San Antonio de Bexar. Most local residents had left claiming they were going to their ranchos outside of town. The rebel Tejanos and Texians numbering some 150 men, some with their wives and children, had repositioned themselves at the abandoned Mission San Antonio de Valero commonly known as the Alamo. The rest of the Mexican army was still stretched from the Frio to Nueces rivers.The blizzard of February 1836 had ended and the siege and taking of the Alamo has begun. As for the Little Ice Age, the temperature began to rise in the late 1850’s and has continued ever since. It is not known how long the present earth warming will continue but every day we see evidence of melting polar caps, regional droughts and expansion of semi deserts (as in the Winter Garden Area) and deserts.   

For those wishing more detailed data on the Texas Revolution search for my book Santa Anna’s Campaign Against Texas and/or Alamo Countdown published as a series by the San Antonio Express News.  

Published by Zavala County Sentinel ……….. 7-8 January 2009

Sent by Juan Marinez




Poet Rafael Jesús González speaks on Inauguration Day 


Yesterday I celebrated the feast of Martin Luther King Jr. (the only holy man this country has ever produced, according to a friend) as I have for the last eleven years at the Taylor Memorial United Methodist Church in Oakland and sat, as I have for about as many years, with my beautiful friend Harriet in the second pew. I saw dear friends, Matthew Fox and others I now see but once in a while, many of them on this day once a year.

It was a celebration different from the others. I thought back to the 6th Annual Celebration five years ago when it was I who gave the keynote address* and how much different the celebration was then. I thought back to an August day forty-five years ago when the martyred man this day honors spoke about his dream in the nation's capital.

There was a swelling in my heart and my eyes were wet, the disenchantment of so many dreams shattered or deferred sweetened by the hope that they may be mended and accomplished, for the next day would be inaugurated as the 44th president of the United States one Barack Obama of direct African descent, something that in my lifetime of almost three-quarters of a century I did not think that I would live to see.

This morning I awoke early and made my way to the Oakland Museum of California, across the street from Laney College where I had spent thirty years of my life teaching, to witness with colleagues the inauguration projected on a large screen in the museum's theatre. There was again that swelling in my heart, a knot in my throat, and wetness in my eyes. I am of that generation who first undertook civil disobedience for the sake of civil rights for all and Dr. King's dream of justice and peace which had also been mine ever since I could remember.

It would have perhaps sufficed that the president is "black" (though he has as much claim to being "white"), but that he is also poised, intelligent, eloquent, kind, beautiful, and gracious makes my heart sing. I did not stand when the anthem was played (the betrayals have been too many and too great and the atonement and healing have yet to come) but I experienced hope renewed, made cautious though it be by the skepticism of a lifetime in the struggle for the dream.

But the president spoke of hope while stating starkly the obstacles (the betrayals) we must overcome and he spoke of a unity in the nation devoutly to be wished, and of our place in the community of nations and of peoples who must realize justice and peace and healing of the Earth if we are to live. And I rejoiced for hope was burnished in me.

This afternoon my compadre John called from New Mexico; the students of his school would hold a formal ball in gowns and coats purchased at thrift stores to celebrate the day. And my dear friend Dobré called from New Orleans to express her joy (though she said too many of her co-workers in the clinic said they would not watch the inauguration because it would make them sick - racism a cancer in the national psyche that persists, yet to be eradicated.)

But today, there is hope and joy. Tomorrow that hope and that joy must inform and renew our struggle for the imperative dream. The task is but begun.

© Rafael Jesús González 2009


Mescalero Apache leader took a gamble that paid off
Lakota Gather Peacefully at Mount Rushmore National Memorial
Historical Video: Indians Invade Mount Rushmore-1970
MadonnaThunder Hawk-Spoke at The Mount Rushmore Reunion



Mescalero Apache leader took a gamble that paid off

Influential and innovative, Wendell Chino, right, was tribal president of the Mescalero Apaches for more than 40 years. He died in 1998. Associated Press Archives, Jan 18, 09

The Apaches, with a rich history that includes such famous leaders as Cochise and Geronimo, were the last to surrender to the U.S. Army and the first to achieve economic success.

The change in fortunes started with Mescalero Apache tribal president Wendell Chino. Charismatic and controversial, he led the tribe into the 20th century and liked to joke that "the Navajos make blankets, the Zunis make jewelry and the Apaches make money."

The year after Chino's birth in 1923, the United States granted citizenship to American Indians. Eleven years before, his parents were freed by the U.S. Army after they had been incarcerated as prisoners of war.

One of the most innovative and influential American Indian leaders, Chino advanced the philosophy of "red capitalism" and encouraged tribes to regain control of their lands to attain economic freedom. He was an advocate of American Indian rights and tribal sovereignty. He demanded that the federal government honor the treaties it made with Indian nations.

During his tenure, Chino helped raise the tribe from poverty, making it one of the most prosperous in American history. He was re-elected president 16 times until his death in 1998.

For Indian tribes across the nation, the advantages of tribal gaming include providing revenue for schools, infrastructure, and health and social services. "Our diverse business enterprises not only provide jobs for tribal members but many non-natives in the region as well," said Tommy Baca, public relations director at the Inn of the Mountain Gods.

He added that the tribe partners with the state's Department of Tourism in boosting the region as a travel destination. So, gone are the plastic bubble tents and bare interiors of Indian warehouse casinos. As millions of dollars are poured into building elaborate and beautiful facilities that reflect their cultural heritage, once-impoverished Indian nations are experiencing the economic independence that helps preserve their traditional concepts and values.

— Kathy Pinto,  Special to the Star-Telegram
Sent by Dorinda Moreno



Lakota Gather Peacefully at Mount Rushmore National Memorial, 
But Still Insist that the Black Hills Belong to Them


Posted September 4th, 2008 by Bob Janiskee 
The Lakota insist that the Black Hills and Mount Rushmore National Memorial belong to them. Photo by Jim Bower via Wikipedia. 

In 1970, Indians led by United Native Americans (UNA) organizers occupied South Dakota's Mount Rushmore National Memorial for more than a week and asserted the right of the Lakota (a Sioux tribe) to reclaim the Black Hills. On August 29, the 38th anniversary of the occupation's onset, a small group of Lakota peacefully gathered at the memorial's amphitheater to share cultural experiences and commemorate the historic event.
The historical roots of Native American displeasure with Black Hills developments like the Mount Rushmore National Memorial run very deep. The Black Hills of southwestern South Dakota were sacred to the Lakota and other plains Indians long before rapid economic exploitation of this landscape got underway with the gold rush of the 1870s.
It is highly germane that this incursion was illegal, and that Indians were wantonly killed or driven from land that had been treaty-promised to them in perpetuity. The Indian viewpoint is now, and for over a century has been, that the Black Hills were stolen and should be returned to the Lakota. (The UNA website link provided above portrays this viewpoint quite stridently.) 

In the 1960s and 1970s, some Native American groups became quite confrontational as they asserted perceived rights to reclaim lands taken long ago by chicanery or outright theft that was condoned (if not sanctioned) by the state and federal governments. Primarily to get media attention and perhaps sway public opinion to their side, Indian groups held demonstrations at various state- and federally-owned sites. Some sites, including a few national parks or parks-to-be, were even occupied for a time. Among these were Alcatraz Island (occupied for 18 months in 1969-1970 and now part of Golden Gate National Recreation Area) and the Mount Rushmore Memorial (occupied for 10 days in 1978). 
Many of us older folks have vivid memories of the American Indian Movement (AIM), which was responsible for the 1972 seizure of the Bureau of Indian Affairs headquarters in Washington, DC, and 1973's 71-day standoff at Wounded Knee, a historically-significant town on South Dakota's Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. This latter incident, a particularly ugly one, led to some shootings and several deaths.

Native Americans and Native Hawaiians have recently begun to reassert more often and more vigorously their tribal or ethnic claims to various national park lands as well as their desire for more respectful treatment of their cultural history in park exhibits, programs, and other features (including park names). Regular readers of Traveler will recall that we've recently reported on native people issues at Badlands National Park, Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Haleakala National Park, and Puuhonua o Honaunau National Historical Park. 

Lakota culture is already on display at Mount Rushmore five days a week at Heritage Village, a cluster of three tipis off the Presidential Trail walkway. Native Americans work there as cultural interpreters, practicing traditional arts and answering questions about Indian history and culture. community. The park's superintendent (himself a Native American) has taken some heat from critics who believe that the Indian exhibit at Mount Rushmore is inappropriate and provocative. 

Event anniversaries of special significance offer tribes or Indian organizations opportunities to gather at meaningful places to share cultural experiences, express solidarity, and draw public attention to their continuing claims for land restoration and more respectful treatment. This past Friday, August 29, was just such an occasion. 
On that date, a United Native Americans-sponsored contingent staged a small, brief, and peaceful gathering in the amphitheater at Mount Rushmore to commemorate the UNA occupation of the memorial in 1970. Exercising his First Amendment rights, Quanah Parker Brightman, whose father Lehman Brightman (a Lakota) organized the occupation in 1970, had obtained a permit for the event. The gathering drew about 30 Indians, lasted four hours, and featured some speeches, ceremonies, and special musical performances. 
Permitted Special Event Held By United Native Americans

This past Friday, August 29th, marked the 38th anniversary of the occupation of Mount Rushmore by members of the United Native Americans (UNA) to reclaim the Black Hills of South Dakota for the Lakota people. In remembrance and healing, the UNA obtained a First Amendment permit to honor the "historic event," to recognize women of the Red Power movement, and to provide an opportunity for younger tribal members to experience living history in the oral tradition from elders who were part of the original occupation. The permit was issued to Quanah Parker Brightman, the youngest son of Lehman Brightman, who organized the occupation in 1970. The four-hour event was held in the park amphitheater and was attended by approximately 30 tribal members. In addition to a number of speeches, including one made by Lehman Brightman himself, there were a number of special musical performances and ceremonies. Unfortunately, many of the honored speakers for the event, including Madonna Thunder Hawk and Clyde Bellecourt, were unable to attend. The entire event occurred peacefully, with little impact on park operations and normal visitor activities. 

More on the subject: 
Historical Video: Indians Invade Mount Rushmore-1970

Black Hills FOX News - News Stories, 29 Aug 2008

Ceremony at Mt. Rushmore remembering Native American protest 


Madonna Thunder Hawk

Take a Listen and Support The Women of The Red Power Movement.
KPFA RADIO Archives August 6th 2008 Bay Native Circle 2:00PM-3:00PM
http://www. kpfa. org/archives/index. php?arch=27714  
{Madonna Thunder Hawk BIO }

Community Organizing in Native America
Madonna Thunder Hawk (Two Kettle Lakota) is a veteran of every modern Native American struggle, from the occupation of Alcatraz to the siege of Wounded Knee.

One of the original members of the American Indian Movement(AIM), she is a long-time community organizer with a range of experience in Indian rights protection, cultural preservation, economic development and environmental justice.

Thunder Hawk grew up during the 1940s and 50s on the Cheyenne River reservation in South Dakota. She came of age in a society dominated by poverty, alcoholism, government schools and restriction of Native American tradition and ceremony.

On the reservation, traditions could only be passed on secretly and all traditional items and clothing were hidden. Rituals such as the Sun Dance were performed underground in secrecy. Madonna became disillusioned with a life of few opportunities. She left the reservation in the 1960s and moved with her three children to San Francisco. Amid love beads, civil rights actions, and anti war slogans, Madonna found a home in a culturally diverse climate of openness andsocial activism. Here she began a lifelong commitment to the survivalof her cultural heritage and traveled throughout the U.S. as an advocate of Native American Treaty rights. Madonna then returned to South Dakota and raised her family there.

Thunder Hawk was a co-founder and spokesperson for the Black Hills Alliance which blocked Union Carbide from mining uranium on sacred Lakota land. She co-founded Women of All Nations and the Black Hills Protection Committee (later the HeSapa Institute). Thunder Hawk continues to be an eloquent voice for Native America.

Dance is also important in her life as a means of self-expression and cultural celebration. Madonna designs traditional regalia for her children who dance on the Powwow dance circuit. Using new fabrics and contemporary sewing techniques, she produces regalia that are complex and colorful. She also designed for the TNT production of 'Crazy Horse.

United Native Americans Inc. since 1968.
2434 Faria Ave  Pinole, California 94564 
(510)758-8160 or (510)672-7187

Sent by Dorinda Moreno



Archaeologists find lost city of 'cloud people' in Peru
Ancient ship found buried near Argentine river
DNA tracks ancient Alaskan's descendants
Ancient American Indian remains found in Friant
Una Nueva Civilizacion en Mesoamerica?

Archaeologists find lost city of 'cloud people' in Peru


Archaeologists have discovered a lost city carved into the Andes Mountains in Peru by the mysterious Chachapoya tribe, which is also known as the 'cloud people'.  According to a report in the Telegraph, the settlement covers some 12 acres and is perched on a mountainside in the remote Jamalca district of Utcubamba province in the northern jungles of Peru's Amazon. 

The buildings, found on the Pachallama peak, are in remarkably good condition, estimated to be over 1,000 years old and comprised of the traditional round stone houses built by the Chachapoya, the 'Cloud Forest People'. 

The area is completely overgrown with the jungle now covering much of the settlement, but explorers found the walls of the buildings and rock paintings on a cliff face. The remote nature of the site appears to have protected the site from looters as archaeologists found ceramics and undisturbed burial sites. 

"The citadel is perched on the edge of an abyss. We suspect that the ancient inhabitants used this as a lookout point from where they could spot potential enemies," according to archaeologist Benedicto Perez Goicochea. 

The ruins were initially discovered by local people hacking through the jungle. They were drawn to the place due to the sound of a waterfall.  "The local people armed with machetes opened a path that arrived at the place where they saw a beautiful panorama, full of flowers and fauna, as well as a waterfall, some 500 meters high," said the mayor of Jamalca, Ricardo Cabrera Bravo. 

Initial studies have found similarities between the new discovery and the Cloud Peoples' super fortress of Kulep, also in Utcubamba province, which is older and more extensive that the Inca Citadel of Machu Picchu, but has not been fully explored or restored.  Little is known about the Chachapoya, except that the mighty Incas had beaten them into submission in 1475.




Ancient ship found buried near Argentine river


BUENOS AIRES, Argentina – Workers digging to lay the foundation of a luxury apartment complex in Argentina uncovered a Spanish ship believed to be from the 18th century.

It was found in Buenos Aires' upscale Puerto Madero neighborhood, on the banks of the Plata River. The area used to be the city's old port, but was eventually filled in and developed.

Mayor Mauricio Macri announced the ship's find at a news conference Tuesday.

Urban archaeologist Marcelo Weissel says it probably dates back to 1750 or earlier. But he says it likely does not contain any treasure, beyond its archaeological value.

Experts will work carefully to rescue the ship so that it can be sent to a museum.

Sent by John Inclan




DNA tracks ancient Alaskan's descendants

10,300 YEARS OLD: Tests of Southeast Natives challenge prior anthropological results.



Published: December 28th, 2008 11:01 PM

An ancient mariner who lived and died 10,000 years ago on an island west of Ketchikan probably doesn't have any close relatives left in Alaska.

But some of them migrated south and their descendents can be found today in coastal Native American populations in California, Mexico, Ecuador, Chile and Argentina.

That's some of what scientists learned this summer by examining the DNA of Tlingit, Haida and Tsimshian Indians in Southeast Alaska.

Working with elders at a cultural festival in Juneau, they interviewed more than 200 Native Alaskans who allowed them to swab tiny amounts of saliva from their cheeks to capture their mitochondrial DNA, the genetic material that's passed from mothers to children.

Preliminary examination of those cell particles indicates:

• None of the participants possessed DNA similar to that extracted from On Your Knees Cave man, the 10,300-year-old Alaskan whose remains were discovered 12 years ago in a shallow cavern on Prince of Wales Island.

• But some participants appear to be closely linked genetically to coastal Indian tribes in British Columbia and Washington state, in spite of anthropological studies that claim Tlingits were originally an Interior people, like the nearby Athabascans.

"We haven't seen connections inland yet ... looking at just the very first couple of samples," said Washington State University Assistant Professor Brian Kemp, the molecular anthropologist who led the research. "That doesn't mean we won't. But right now we only have these long-distant connections." Apparently On Your Knees Cave man only has long-distant relatives too.


Bones of the ancient Alaskan were first discovered in 1996 by Alaska paleontologist Tim Heaton during an archaeological survey on the northern tip of Prince of Wales, the nation's third largest island.

They are among the oldest human remains ever found in North America -- a 13,000-year-old woman's partial skeleton was discovered 50 years ago in an island cave off the south coast of California -- and the oldest ever discovered in Alaska.

Heaton's team recovered a male pelvis, three ribs, a few vertebrae and a toothy, broken jaw, along with some ancient tools. With the help of archaeologist E. James Dixon, they eventually pieced together the caveman's story.

His teeth indicate he died in his prime, possibly in his early to mid-20s. The content of his bones revealed that his primary food came from the sea. The nearby stone tools, consisting of materials not found on the island, suggest a long-distance traveler, a mariner.

Then the geneticists went to work. Laboring two years as a graduate student, Kemp finally succeeded in extracting mitochondrial DNA from one of the caveman's teeth, the oldest DNA sample ever recovered in the Americas at the time.

It clearly placed On Your Knees Cave man in the "haplogroup-D" branch of the human family tree.


Population geneticists trace all humans alive today back to common ancestors who lived in Africa about 60,000 years ago. As they migrated north out of Africa, then east and west across Asia and Europe, the common DNA they carried with them would occasionally mutate.

Different populations that migrated to different destinations carried different sets of mutations, which scientists have categorized into haplogroups and sub-haplogroups. The first people to migrate to the Americas all belonged to one of five primary haplogroups: A, B, C, D or X.

Just knowing that On Your Knees Cave man was a D reduced the chances that he would have any close relatives still living among present-day Native Alaskans, Kemp said. Previous DNA sampling of Eskimos, Athabaskans and Southeast Indians had traced nearly all of them to haplogroup A, with a tiny scattering of Bs.

The only known haplogroup D people in Alaska were the Aleuts. But that made them only distant relatives to On Your Knees Cave man -- very distant, since scientists believe the D mutation appeared for the first time about 50,000 years ago in Asia.

On closer inspection, however, Kemp found that On Your Knees Cave man belonged more specifically to the genetic sub-group D4H3, which may have shown up as recently as 20,000 years ago. Still, it's an exclusive group. Less than 2 percent of all Native Americans share that signature.

Aleuts living today don't appear to be that closely related to the caveman, Kemp said. Of the 163 tested so far, none were D4H3.

"The Aleuts are more closely related to the On Your Knees Cave individual than anyone who is not a member of D," he said. "But that has nothing to do with what happened in the Americas. It happened way before."

According to Kemp's research, part of what happened in the Americas is this:

Some of the caveman's relatives decided to head south from Alaska. Members of his specific genetic lineage have been found among the Chumash people of Southern California, the Cayapa of Ecuador and the Yaghan of Tierra del Fuego.

The fact that most of them landed at seaside destinations lends a lot more credence to scientists who believe the Lower 48 states and South America were populated first by coastal mariners -- Ice Age migrants from Asia who skirted around land-blocking glaciers in Alaska as early as 20,000 years ago


Did some of those first Alaskans remain behind in the North? In terms of present-day Native Alaskans who might share the same specific genetic marker as On Your Knees Cave man, the jury is still out, Kemp said.

That's because genetic genealogy is still in its infancy. Very few Native Americans have been checked so far.

The DNA testing of 234 Southeast Alaska Indians that occurred in June -- one of the largest samples ever collected in the Americas -- nearly doubled all the previous data scientists had on Alaska Native populations, Kemp said.

It's possible the right person with the right match simply hasn't been tested yet, said Rosita Worl, president of the Sealaska Heritage Institute, the nonprofit Southeast Alaska Native group that sponsored the research.

It's also possible that the Tlingits and Haidas -- migrating either from the south or the Interior -- arrived in Southeast Alaska after the cave man's people had already passed through.

Worl's research suggests that the Tlingits of today used to be two separate populations. Tlingit society has long been divided between two groups, called "moieties" -- the Eagles and the Ravens -- based on the mother's ancestry. It's possible that one group preceded the other.

"Our oral traditions always talk about the presence of an older population being here when they arrived," said Worl, a Juneau-based Tlingit who teaches cultural anthropology at the University of Alaska Southeast.

"The hypothesis is that the Eagles and the Ravens represent two different populations."

Kemp is anxious to continue his research on his Tlingit DNA samples, to see if the matrilineal branches based on DNA match the matrilineal branches based on culture.

"We collected as much information as we could about individual moieties," Kemp said. "So a cool test will be to see if it (matches) the population genetics. And that may clarify the separate origins."


NewsPaleontologist Tim Heaton holds a plastic cast of a human lower jaw at the site of a cave dig on Prince of Wales Island in 1998.

Find George Bryson online at or call 257-4318.


Ancient American Indian remains found in Friant

The Fresno Bee, Dec. 29, 2008
Archaeologists have found prehistoric American Indian remains on the Big Sandy Rancheria in Friant, according to a news release.

In coordination with the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the tribe designated the site as culturally sensitive. A tooth and jawbone were found on the site this month. The project director said the find was "somewhat expected and routine," but nevertheless confirmed the site's significance.

Under federal law, archaeologists can study the remains briefly before returning them to the site.
orinda Moreno



Una Nueva Civilizacion en Mesoamerica?

Ha sido una de las 10 noticias arqueológicas más importantes del año 2008 según National Geographic y no es para menos. En el Valle de Tulancingo en el estado mexicano de Hidalgo se han encontrado una serie de esculturas que parecen pertenecer a una civilización desconocida hasta el momento.
Carlos Hernández, arqueólogo del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (INAH) de México ha comentado que:  to no encaja en ninguna de las culturas conocidas del Valle de Tulancingo o del Altiplano Central de México.
Muchas de estas esculturas representan a personas sentadas con sus brazos en las rodillas. Algunas tienen un sombrero cónico con serpientes en su base que pueden representar al Dios Ehecalt-Quetcalcoatl. Además una de las esculturas muestra a un hombre emergiendo de los colmillos de un Jaguar.
La datación de las esculturas las ha situado en el Perioódo Epiclásico (entre los años 600 y 900 d.C.)
Carlos Hernández explicó: Juntando todas las características que las hacen diferentes como su localización en Tulancingo y su periodo de creación, nos permite decir que deben ser consideradas como un producto de una cultura distinta llamada Huajomulco.
Algunas de estas esculturas fueron encontradas cerca de una pirámide cuyo origen también está siendo fuente de discusión. Sus proporciones junto con unas estructuras pequeñas pintadas en negro y blanco no la hacen pertenecer a culturas como la Teotihuacana o la Tolteca. 

publicado el 10 de Enero de 2009
texto: y National Geographic
fotografía: National Geographic
enlace permanente
Sent by Benicio Samuel Sanchez Garcia
Presidente de la Sociedad Genealogica del Norte de Mexico
Cel: 04481-1667-2480




Nobel Prize Winner for Medicine Details Gene Modification Work
Brotherhood of the Light: A novel of the Penitentes and Crypto-Jews of New Mexico.  
Sephardic Jewish Carvajal Family of Mexico
Calahora, a remarkable Sephardic family in Poland 
13th NY Sephardic Jewish Film Festival, February 5-12, 2009

Mario Capecchi, Ph.D.
Nobel Prize Winner for Medicine Details Gene Modification Work 


This year's Nobel Prize in medicine was awarded Monday to a trio of scientists  for modifying genes in mice and creating better animal models for understanding human disease. The Nobel Committee said the scientists' work is "being applied to virtually all areas of biomedicine." 

One of the recipients, was Mario Capecchi, professor of biology and human genetics at the University of Utah.   

Editor:  A power point presentation on Dr. Capecchi was sent to my by Alfonso Rodriguez.  Dr. Capecchi's early life and his strength of character to overcome is remarkable.  

During the war in Italy, Dr. Capecchi was just a toddler.   Tragically he was separated from his mother who being a Jew was put into a concentration camp. At 4 years old he is completely abandoned by his temporary care-givers to live in the streets by himself, and does so for five years.  Fortunately, his mother was one of the few that survived the concentration camp.   At age nine he was finally united with his mother.  Dr. Capecchi was 13 years old before he had the opportunity and was able to learn to read.

If you want something inspirational and uplifting to share with others, this is is it. 
Dr. Capecchi is is an amazing man.

PPP was sent by Alfonso Rodriguez




Brotherhood of the Light: 
A novel of the Penitentes and Crypto-Jews of New Mexico. 
By Ray Michael Baca


0-915745-66-6  Floricanto Press New Titles 

A novel about the un-easy and often misunderstood relationships of Crypto-Jews and Hispanos in New Mexico and their deep common roots in Spanish history--conquest and colonization--and religious faith and shared values.

Brotherhood of the Light follows the lives of three men from one family who lived in different centuries but were inexorably bound by the legacy of a cross that was brought from the Old World to the New. A relic that had come to prominence at the battle for Granada, when Spain united to expel the Moors. Descendants of Sephardic Jews who fled the Inquisition in Spain, the family joined Los Hermanos Penitentes. This secretive society of lay Catholic men in Northern New Mexico, who believe in emulating Christ’s Passion, his trial, his walk, and his suffering on the cross at the end of each Lenten season, was used for a dozen generations as a shield by the family to disguise their Crypto-Jewish identity while they struggled with the legacy bestowed upon them.  


Sephardic Jewish Carvajal Family of Mexico


Hi Mimi, I've been reading the Somos Primos newsletter for years with great interest.  I had also hoped that eventually, I could submit something of value to the newsletter.  Accordingly, I wanted to ask whether the following family tree that I've worked on can be posted in the newsletter: 

Please let me know your thoughts.  I'm aware of a previous entry that was done of this family on Somos Primos, but it didn't have the documentation I have, nor did it have as many later generations. Thanks, and I look forward to hearing from you.

Chris Pineda, MPP
Boston University School of Law
JD Candidate, 2009

Hi Mimi, Thanks for getting back to me.  I guess I'm hoping that you could just direct people to the listserv, with this introduction: 

"Like many students of northeastern Mexican genealogy, I came across the story of the Sephardic Jewish Carvajal family of Nuevo Leon as an undergraduate, and wanted to learn all I could about this family. Over the years, as an on-off again hobby, I have tried to go beyond the Inquisition documents and look at the genealogical record to determine if there were survivors and descendants. I think this is important given the Spanish/Mexican Inquisition's efforts to destroy this family in the late 16th and 17th centuries. While I am certainly not the first to research this family, I am not aware of any other researcher who has examined the genealogical record about descendants and posted the documentation online. Please add a comment if you have additional information or if you find an error."

Also, if it wasn't clear, I'm not related to this family, but just found that an interesting subject...I look forward to hearing from you,  Chris



Calahora, a remarkable Sephardic family in Poland
What does the name of a Spanish city, 2 Jewish martyrs and a Socialist activist have in common?

My upcoming paper (now over 30 pages and growing) explores the history and genealogy of Sephardic Jews who settled in Eastern Europe. It is a subject that I find fascinating and I believe is woefully unexplored.

In the course of my research I stumbled across a remarkable family -about whom I will cite here only several tidbits- namely the Kalahora family of Poland.
Dr. Solomon Kalahora, Personal Physician to the Polish Monarch Sygmund August(1520-1572) and his successor King Stephen Bathory (1533-1586), was a Sephardic Jew (in some sources a Converso/Anusi) who settled in Cracow, Poland in the 16th century. Though the Kalahoras (The name would later undergo many variations and changes including: Kolhari, Kolchor, Kolchory, Kalvari, Landsberg, Posner, Zweigenbaum, Rabowsky, Olschwitz, and Misky)had come to Poland from Italy, the family name was based on the name of the Spanish town of Calahorra from where the family originated.
Of the Patriarch Solomon's six children, Moses continued the family branch in Cracow, and Israel Samuel, the Rabbi of Lenchista, founded the Poznan branch. One of Israel Samuel's sons was Matitayahu Calahora (pictured, second fom top), who according to the contemporary Polish historian, Kochowski, was a "well-known physician with an extensive practice in Christian and even clerical circles". Matituahu's life came to a violent end when he became embroiled in a religious dispute with a Dominican friar named Havlin. The Russian Jewish historian Simon Dubnow describes the event, disturbing in its sheer brutality:
The priest invited Calahora to a disputation in the cloister, but the Jew declined, promising to expound his views in writing. A few days later the priest found on his chair in the church a statement written in German and containing a violent arraignment of the cult of the Immaculate Virgin. It is not impossible that the statement was composed and placed in the church by an adherent of the "Reformation or the Arian heresy" both of which were then the object of persecution in Poland. However, the Dominican decided that Calahora was the author, and brought the charge of blasphemy against him. The Court of the Eoyal Castle cross-examined the defendant under torture, without being able to obtain a confession. Wit- nesses testified that Calahora was not even able to write German. Being a native of Italy, he used the Italian language in his conversations with the Dominican. In spite of all this evidence, the unfortunate Calahora was sentenced to be burned at the stake. The alarmed Jewish community raised a protest, and the case was accordingly transferred to the highest court in Piotrkov. The accused was sent in chains to Piotrkov, together with the plaintiff and the witnesses. But the arch-Catholic tribunal confirmed the verdict of the lower court, ordering that the sentence be executed in the following barbarous sequence : first the lips of the " blasphemer " to be cut off ; next his hand that had held the fateful statement to be burned; then the tongue, which had spoken against the Christian religion, to be excised ; finally the body to be burned at the stake, and the ashes of the victim to be loaded into a cannon and discharged into the air. This cannibal ceremonial was faithfully carried out on December 13, 1663, on the market-place of Piotrkov. For two centuries the Jews of Cracow followed the custom of reciting, on the fourteenth of Kislev, in the old synagogue of that city, a memorial prayer for the soul of the martyr Calahora.
Matityahu's son Michael and his two grandsons were also notable physicians in Poland. Of the the Poznan branch of the family, Solomon Calahora (d. 1650) and son of the aforementioned Israel Samuel) married the daughter of the Posen physician, Judah de Lima (another Sephardic family that settled in Poland, of whom we shall talk more later). Solomon's grandson, Aryeh Leib, a preacher in Posen was the founder of the Landsberg and Posner families. Aryeh Leib became the second member of this family to be martyred when he was arrested and tortured by the Catholic authorities in 1735 in the course of a blood libel. Aryeh Leib died in prison after refusing an offer to convert in order to spare his life. Aryeh Leib's great-grandson, Solomon Posner (1780-1863) was the author of a family chronicle, Toar Penei Shlomo.

Stanislaw Posner (pictured, third from top), pseudonym: Henryk Bezmaski (1868-1930) was a grandson of the aforementioned Solomon Posner and a Polish socialist activist, senator, lawyer and publicist. He also authored Poland as an Independent Economic Unit. See more about him here.
[1]. Calahora was only one of a number of Jewish physicians who settled in Poland at that time. Other notable personages include: Samuel de Lima, Samuel bar Meshulam, Shlomo Ashkenazy, the brothers Levi-Lieberman Fortis Ostila, and Moses Montalto.
[2]. History of the Jews in Russia and Poland by Semen Markovitch Dubnow, 1916.




ZRUBAVEL Winner of Best Film Award - The 2008 Haifa International Film Festival
Shmuel Beru, Israel's first Ethiopian film director, will join us for a Q&A following the film. Meskie Shibru-Sivan, singer/actress, will perform traditional Ethiopian and Israeli songs. 

The first Israeli film created by a team of Ethiopian Israelis. Itzhak, soon to be a bar mitzvah, dreams of becoming the Spike Lee of Israel and films a documentary about the neighborhood's residents. He comes from an Ethiopian immigrant family led by his grandfather, Gita, who rules the family and cherishes the Ethiopian customs. The younger generation wants to assimilate with Israeli culture. A chain of events ignites a clash of the generations. 

Another film in the series is about the exodus of Moroccan Jews in the early 1960s after Morocco obtained independence from France. In the small town of Bejjad, the entire Jewish population prepares for a secret departure. When the manager of the only bar in the town finds out that the Jews are leaving, he panics. With all the non-Muslims gone, he will be forced to close. How can he save his business? An historical-political film that's alternately sad and funny! phone: 212.868.4444
phone: 212-294-8350 


February 21:  George Washington Parade and Celebration
30th Texas Hispanic Genealogical & Historical Conference
Tell'em Who You Are: In Defense of Land and Family
Tejanos in Texas Heritage Exhibit held in Austin, Texas
Hebbronville, Jim Hogg County, Vaquero Capitol of Texas 
Yznaga family
Domingo Pena
Texas History Quiz
Laredo Morning Times Editor, Odie Arambula writes on Land-Grants


Welcome to the Washington's Birthday Celebration in Laredo

February 21st, 2009 

Welcome to the Washington's Birthday CelebrationTM, in Laredo, Texas! The Washington's Birthday CelebrationTM, founded in 1898, is the largest Celebration of its kind in the United States with approximately 400,000 attendees annually. The month-long celebration includes parades, a carnival, an air show, fireworks, live concerts and many other fun and exciting events for every member of the family.
Join us for a blast on the border as we throw the biggest party for George Washington and find out why we're the Celebration with Something for Everyone!
After one hundred and twelve years, the Washington's Birthday Celebration Association (WBCATM) has become a Laredo institution, with its history closely tied to the history of the community. Our focus is to foster a greater understanding between the people of the Americas, to promote Laredo as one of Texas' most patriotic and culturally alive cities and to facilitate a greater sense of civic and national pride within our community and region. We consistently strive to encourage economic growth, tourism and awareness of our great City through the organization of our annual events.


30th Texas Hispanic Genealogical & Historical Conference

September 24-27, 2009 

New web site for the Conference

Dorina Alaniz Thomas
HOGAR de Dallas
P.O. Box 570244
, Dallas, Texas 75228
(214) 324-3677


''Tell'em Who You Are: In Defense of Land and Family''

 A Screening and Lecture with Michelle Garcia
February 2, 2009
7:00 PM-10:00 PM
Free and Open to the Public


“Tell’em Who You Are: In Defense of Land and Family” is a documentary film rooted in the journey of a native daughter to the embattled borderlands of South Texas, to recover memory of the Tejano-owned land that will be lost to the Border Wall. The film combines a personal narrative with investigative journalism to connect the current wall construction with an age-old Tejano struggle to defend a unique identity and be seen as truly Texan.  Director Michelle Garcia will discuss the project and show clips from the film, which is currently in development.
Hosted by The Center for Mexican American Studies Of the College of Liberal Arts
& Senior Fellows Honors program of the College of Communication
Joe C. Thompson Conference Center Auditorium (TCC 1.110)  UT Austin campus

Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.




Tejanos in Texas Heritage Exhibit held in Austin, Texas
Held: Jan. 20th - 21st, 2009 at the Austin Convention Center.

(San Antonio, Texas) January 19, 2009 - Texas, a San Antonio-based Tejano History research and publishing company is proud to announce today its partnership with TEA - Region 13 (Austin, Texas) for the display of the world-class Tejanos in Texas Heritage Exhibit that will go on exhibit at the annual PASA Conference beginning Tuesday, Jan. 20th - 21st, 2009 at the Austin Convention Center.

Coming off a successful engagement at Texas A&M University in San Antonio, the Tejanos in Texas Heritage Exhibit continues its mission of filling in the gaps of Texas history by telling the true story of the Tejano founders of the state.

"This is truly an incredible honor not just for Texas, but for all Tejanos," says Texas President and Founder Rudi R. Rodriguez. "Five years ago, Texas was privileged to bring its debut exhibit on the life of Jose Policarpio 'Polly' Rodriguez to the State Capitol. This time, we are telling the story of ALL Tejanos from the beginning of Texas."

The Tejanos in Texas Heritage Exhibit chronicles over 150 years of Tejano and Texas history from beginning with its founding in 1690 through a collection of historical maps, documents, photos as well as original artwork, tells the life story of Tejanos from the beginning. From its humble beginnings as the northern most province of New Spain, through the efforts of early Tejano exploration, colonization, ranching and revolutions starting with hero Bernardo de Gálvez during the American Revolutionary War, moving on to the epic Battle of the Medina and ultimately concluding with the Texas Revolution.

For more information on Tejano Heritage Month or Texas please visit or contact them at (210) 673-3584.
Media contact Vincent Tavera



Jim Hogg County, "Vaquero Capitol of Texas"


Recently, the state legislature designated the ranching community of Hebbronville, Jim Hogg County as the
"Vaquero Capitol of Texas">.

The House resolution authored by State Representative Juan Escobar and passed concurrently by the House and Senate firmly establishes Hebbronville as the cultural center of the state's historical Vaquero culture.
Check out the website for La Mota Ranch in west central Jim Hogg County (20 miles south of Hebbronville).  The website is
Personal comment of Ernesto Uribe;
 I'm familiar with La Mota Ranch, it's between Hebbronville (where I was born) and Bruni. The Uribe family owned some acreage (Los Angeles Ranch) just one mile south of Bruni until our grandmother's estate was broken up and the land surface was divided among her children's heirs a few years back. That Bruni property was part of my grandmother's -- the Jovita Cuellar Uribe Estate a few years back. 
The land in that Hebbronville area is a very sandy loam that is wonderful for growing watermelons and other crops with just natural rainfall.. The Bruni ranch acreage was divided by the Hebbronville -Laredo highway and the old Tex-Mex Railroad tracks that run parallel to the highway.  I remember the giant watermelons that were harvested at our Bruni ranch and how much I loved going there as a small boy where I rode an ancient white horse named Tony. I also remember the giant five and six foot rattlesnakes they frequently killed in the barn.. giants to a boy.
Thanks for the article with the wonderful old pictures of real vaqueros.
Ernesto Uribe



Yznaga family

Subject: Yznaga family
Date: Friday, December 19, 2008
Message Board URL:
Message Board Post:
Antonio Yznaga, tenía un negocio en la calle Ward nº 2 de Brownsville con
Cornelius Stillman, hermano de Charles Stillman ( fundador de Brownsville).
Iznaga o Yznaga, procedía de Cuba desde que tuvo que huir de la isla por
instigar la ocupación de la misma en 1850 por los estados del Sur. Desde
Brownsville, instigó la independencia de los estados del Sur para poder
recuperar sus posesiones en Cuba. Su plantación mas importante estaba en La
Louisiana desde donde extraía el algodón que cambiaba por armas para la
independencia del Sur. Lo siento pero así es como fué. Mas información en



 Domingo Pena

Hi Mage,
This morning we were discussing Domingo Pena and I wanted to share this interesting website that talks about him and his accomplishments. He was very popular in the 1950's while I was growing up in Alice, TX. Our radio was always on at home! 
Enjoy, Tom - Cached

PEÑA, DOMINGO (1917-1983). Domingo Peña, radio and television personality, was born on December 16, 1917, in Kingsville, Texas, the son of Placido Peña and Rose Everrett. He moved with his family to Robstown in the early 1920s, and then to Taft, where he attended grade school. Because of the depression, his father moved the family to Corpus Christi in 1932. Peña attended school intermittently in Corpus Christi and dropped out in sixth grade. He contracted tuberculosis as a teenager and took treatment in a San Angelo hospital. He began his career in media before World War IIqv as an advertising announcer on a Corpus Christi radio station. At age twenty-eight he became a disc jockey at the city's Spanish-language radio station, KCCT. In the mid-1950s he hosted a variety show with live musical entertainment on KVDO, Corpus Christi's first television station. He also promoted dances in Corpus Christi and across South Texas that became popular social affairs. In 1964 he began a talk and variety program on KIII-TV. This program, the Domingo Peña Show, was a highly rated Sunday-morning feature for more than sixteen years, during which Peña's name was a household word in the city and its environs. The program featured prerecorded musical artists and live performers; it also included a full range of guests, whom Peña interviewed in his unrehearsed, free-form manner. Using his television program as a community forum, Peña was especially important in spotlighting the activities of the League of United Latin American Citizens, the American G.I. Forum,qv and many other civic and charitable organizations, as well as allowing local Hispanic business, civic, and political leaders to reach the Mexican American television audience. He regularly helped people who were in financial distress by having them appear on his program to publicize their situation. It was his practice to give his own money to assist these individuals, thus prompting others to contribute. Altogether, he promoted the fortunes of numerous musicians, entertainers, community leaders, and average citizens. During its time, the Domingo Peña Show was recognized as the most effective way to reach the Corpus Christi-area Hispanic community. Peña's show was successful in large part because of his spontaneous (sometimes outrageous) style, humor, and openness.

In January 1968 Peña led a twelve-person troupe of entertainers on a seventeen-day tour of Vietnam to entertain American service personnel. Appealing especially to the large number of Mexican Americansqv stationed there, this tour was reportedly the only one conducted by a Hispanic during the Vietnam conflict and brought Peña much acclaim. So great was his popularity that in 1968, while away on his Vietnam tour, Peña won election to the board of the Lower Nueces River Water Supply District. He resigned this position to accept appointment as a Nueces County deputy constable. Governor Dolph Briscoe also appointed him to the Texas State Health Advisory Committee in the 1970s. Peña was married to (and later divorced from) Ofelia Palacios; they had four daughters. Suffering from arteriosclerosis, he retired from his television show in 1981. The station changed the program's name from "Domingo Peña Show" to simply "Domingo." He died on January 12, 1983, and is buried in Corpus Christi.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Corpus Christi Caller-Times, November 17, 1978, December 4, 1981, January 12, 1983.


Texas History Quiz

Five questions from the October 1936 issue of Naylor's Epic-Century.
Answers follow questions. 
1. How was a pig the cause of trouble between France and Texas?
2. What was the most important result of the Battle of San Jacinto?
3. Why was the settlement of Nacogdoches important?
4. What was the purpose of the founding of San Antonio?
5. What were the Turtle Bayou Resolutions?
Quiz Answers 
1. Until 1841, Texas and France were on friendly terms. Then an Austin hotel-keeper let his pig enter one day into the stable of Monsieur de Saligny, the Minister of France. The pig ate part of the corn stored there and was killed for this indulgence by the hostler of M. de Saligny, who in turn was horsewhipped by the hotel-keeper. M. de Saligny, angry at the treatment of his servant arranged to have the landlord to appear in court. Later, while Saligny was in the hotel, he was ordered out by the landlord. The Minister, as minister, would not accept such an insult, and left the country when his feelings were not salved by our government, and through him Texas was not allowed a large loan from France. The President made things run smoothly again finally, by satisfying Saligny demands.
2. This battle practically established the Independence of Texas.
3. It served the purpose of advance guard for Spain, after the loss of Louisiana.
4. There are three uppermost reasons: (1) Father Olivares had always wanted to establish a mission in Texas, and this would give him his chance. (2) The viceroy wanted reinforcement for settlements in East Texas. (3) The best way to prevent French occupation of Lavaca Bay was to be there first. The Viceroy expected the settlement to be located, instead of near the head of the San Antonio River, on the coast.
5. On June 13, 1832, in order to prevent Mexico's placing an army to watch them after the troubles at Anahuac with Bradburn, the Americans made up the Turtle Bayou Resolutions at Turtle Bayou proclaiming loyalty to Mexico, even though they were not satisfied with conditions prevailing at the time.
Dallas Historical Society | P. O. Box 150038 | Dallas | TX | 75315



Laredo Morning Times Editor, Odie Arambula writes on Land-Grants

Mi amigo R. J.,
Thanks for sending these two fine articles, written by Editor Odie Arambula, in the Laredo Morning Times.   I am forwarding them to my friends and relatives who might not have access to LMT..
Like you say, Odie has captured and discussed a complicated subject (on Land-grants) that is gaining much historical interest because of what happened before and after the U.S./Mexican war, the deletion of one important Article from the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, and the theft, confiscation, and the Kaleidoscopic ways the U.S. court ruled. 
All these actions were later complicated by the swapping of debts, in 1941, between the U.S. and Mexico.  The swapping of debts, and a later ruling by the U.S. Court of Appeals, resulted in "the Reclamantes" no longer having any valid Real Estate properties in Texas.  Thus, the Reclamantes could not get any of the $193 million (over $2.0 Billion in today's money) from Mexico (with its "Mañana te pago" attitude) or sue either the U.S or Texas. 
Indeed, the subject of Land Grants is a complicated subject that Odie is doing an extremely good job of discussing. 
Odie, thanks for citing my discussion of this subject in my book "Inherit the Dust From the Four Winds of Revilla."   Like you say, It did take me 5 chapters to try and explain this most complicated subject.
Best Regards,  Jose M. Pena  
Documents shed light on Galan land

By ODIE ARAMBULA, Laredo Morning Times, January 5, 2009

To shed light on the events and questionable circumstances surrounding the loss of thousands of acres of land owned by Joaquin Cayetano Galan and his family, numerous documents surfaced through the years until after the deed was done.

Some pieces of this untold history of Texas surfaced in early conferences and court cases, but the full story never really saw the light of day, according to genealogists and historical researchers who dug into the history of land grants in the former possessions of first Spain, then Mexico, in the southwestern stretches of the U.S.

In Texas, then part of the province of Coahuila, these events - some outright frauds - impacted the border areas of South Texas and the lands between the Rio Grande and the Nueces, as well as land tracts along the Gulf Coast and East Texas.

"We all know that through history, the United States badly lusted (after) the land owned by Spain in America," said Hiram Jacques, a descendant of Joaquin Galan who has extensively researched the Galan ancestry and land grants on both sides of the Rio Grande frontier.

He added: "This even goes back to the late 1700s. The U.S. was always looking for revolutionaries in Spanish-America to somehow get a foothold.

After Napoleon took over Spain, this started the process of Spanish-America's breaking away from Spain.

Napoleon sold off the Louisiana territory (purchase) to the U.S. Americans (flooding) into that region.

(Miguel Hidalgo) started (the uprising) in Mexico in 1810, (and) revolution sprouted in Texas, but it was crushed in 1813."

In his research, Jacques discovered, among other things, that kin of Luis Galan helped put down the revolt.

"He was not from our Galan branch, and he was probably some other distant cousin going back to Fernando de Leon's wife side of the family tree.

The father of Luis Galan was named Cristobal Perez," Jacques said.

The Texas history taught in public schools never told the real story of Spanish-Texans and Mexican-Texans, known as Tejanos, and their lands - properties that in many instances were stolen from them by men perceived to be honorable in their times.

To be sure, the differences and disputes between the two population groups were initially felt with the arrival of norteamericano settlers to lands granted by the Coahuila province.

An impresario named Moses Austin obtained permission from Joaquin de Arredondo, governor of Nuevo Santander, to settle a region in East Texas on the west side of the Mississippi.

It was Moses Austin's son, Stephen F. Austin, who guided the first Anglo-American settlers to the area in 1821.

While history tells that life for the mejicanos tejanos began to take a bad turn after San Jacinto and Texas independence in 1836, it actually began years earlier, when these very same Anglo-Americans started expanding their tracts.

Spanish and Mexican-Texans learned to understand the English word for intrusos and invasores.

They were dealing with land squatters, more popularly known in modern Mexico as paracaidistas, or skydivers.

One of these Tejanos was Manuel Becerra, born in La Bahia in Refugio County in 1765.

Becerra served as a guide for Stephen F. Austin and the first Austin settlers. In many respects, his tale parallels the story of Joaquin Cayetano Galan's loss of a land grant.

And like in the case of Galan of Palafox and Balconcitos, it was a descendant who did the research on how a sixth-generation great-grandfather, Manuel Becerra, lost his 8,856-acre land, which included Rancho El Alamito in Refugio County.

Don Manuel's story of his heritage stolen from his descendants was told by one of his descendants, Abel G. Rubio, in the book, "Stolen Heritage, A Mexican-American Rediscovery of His Family's Lost Land Grant." Becerra's land grant from Mexico, dated 1832-33, is marked with the seal of the province of Coahuila-Tejas.

Interestingly, in Rubio's book, the author quotes from a report Manuel Becerra made to his superiors on his work as a guide for Stephen F. Austin.

Becerra lived through the mid-19th century, but he did not live long enough to witness what was to become of his land grant.

"As a portent of things to come," Rubio wrote, "Manuel Becerra reported to his superiors that these newcomers were not 'not what they purport to be' and he felt that they would be of more harm than benefit to Mexico."

The Becerra book also touches on the involvement of another prominent Tejano family of the time, the De la Garza family of La Bahia and Refugio.

"They were contemporaries of Becerra, but they were even more rawhide tough," Rubio wrote.

"They were noble and gallant frontiersmen who held their lands against all comers in the early and mid-1800s.

The head of this clan, Don Carlos de la Garza, and his brothers were deeply involved in the turbulent times of the Texas Revolution.

The family itself was split in its loyalty - a faction supported the Texas rebels, while another part remained loyal to Mexico.

Tragically, this division among the family could only have come from Mexico's long neglect of the Mexican frontiersmen.

Left unprotected on the frontier by their government and surrounded by savage tribes, some members of the de la Garza family had no recourse but to turn their backs on their own family and government."

Jacques, of Sweetwater, like Houston author Rubio, assembled several documents to illustrate what Texas history has never told about the Galan land.

It describes the life of hundreds of families who settled the mining and ranching community of Palafox, whose story, a mix of record, myth and legend, is history yet to be told completely.

We'll get into more of this untold Texas history, including some Hiram Jacques documents that detail surveys of record from 1857 and 1874, and maps, as well as records submitted to state and federal courts since first litigation in 1898.

That's another aspect of the work of the Bourland-Miller Commission from research done by Armando C. Soto, of New Mexico; Jose Maria Peña, of Austin; and Francisco Maria Moreno, of Monterrey.

(Odie Arambula may be reached at 728-2561 and e-mail at

Galan case cited Garner as a defendant

By ODIE ARAMBULA, published by the Laredo Morning Times

Sunday, January 11, 2009

The topics of Spanish and Mexican land grants discussed in recent "Visiting the Past" columns continue to draw comments from U.S. and Mexican readers.

It should not surprise anyone among the reading public, particularly South Texas history buffs, because of the thousands of descendants linked to the original land grantees.

That part of Texas history has not been fully told, according to knowledgeable people who have spent a lifetime researching the material.

For instance, the most recent focus by many people of interest has been the more than 300,000 acres that encompassed a land grant authorized by the Spanish crown for Joaquin "Cayetano" Galan.

The tract was in a northwestern sector of modern-day Webb County and upriver land in Dimmit County that included areas of El Indio and Eagle Pass.

There's another aspect of history tied to this land, because it was initially owned by one Don Juan de Palafox y Mendoza in 1642, according to the original title.

It was a mix of good and not-so-good land, and that's probably one of the reasons it was abandoned when Joaquin Galan appeared on the scene.

The real reason, however, was the Apache tribes, who, among other things destroyed the town that was Palafox in Webb County.

But, again, it is another story yet to be fully told.

One of the most poignant observations that reached the Art of Living desk recently came from a Galan descendant, Hiram Jacques, of Sweetwater, in West Texas.

Jacques' message closed with: "One day all of this history will make an interesting story."

Zillions of words have been written by learned scholars, international academics and legal experts, but the Jacques statement put the Galan land drama in perspective.

"Texas was a dangerous place for most Hispanics during the 19th century, especially after the Americans invaded Mexico in 1846 and eventually took all the Nueces Strip land," Jacques wrote.

"I assume it was dangerous for Galan heirs to try to enter Texas to claim their land.

This was probably true even into the 20th century.

But some of the Galan heirs got the courage to go forward into U.S. court at Laredo to try and get rights to their land."

The first attempt of record was in 1898, when a descendant of Francisco Galan - a son of Joaquin Galan - brought the issue to federal court in Laredo.

Thereafter, history witnessed a series of similar actions in the 1930s by other Galan descendants.

It also involved a Galan association of reclamantes, or declaimers, of San Antonio.

Descendants tried again in 1945-1949 in Laredo federal court, where the main attraction was not the land dispute but the name of a national political figure.

That person was none other than John Nance "Cactus Jack" Garner, the former congressman (1902-1933) who served as House Speaker (1931-1933) and became vice president (1933-1941) on the Roosevelt ticket in 1932.

Garner's role as a defendant in this litigation drew interest because of his connection to part of the land known as Garner State Park.

Little else emerged from this court case other than the fact that in 1941, President Roosevelt signed a treaty with Mexico to swap the land claims.

It prevented Hispanic U.S. citizens from fighting for their lands in court.

There were no further developments in this legal dispute until 2007, when the matter came before a visiting judge, Solomon Casseb, in the 111th District Court in Laredo.

Another writer, Jose Maria Peña, of Austin, devoted five chapters of his book, "Inherit the Dust from the Four Winds of Revilla," to the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the work of the Bourland-Miller Commission and Mexico's debts to heirs of Texas grant landowners.

Peña, a descendant of Revilla settlers, outlined statistical details on Bourland-Miller and the Asociación de Reclamantes de Mexico.

Peña, an heir in one of these lawsuits, underscored the Mexico-U.S. treaty, signed Nov. 19, 1941, wherein the presidents, FDR and Manuel Avila Camacho, had agreed to switch the claims.

In effect, Peña wrote, "the international debts of the two countries became domestic debts."

For Mexico, it was tantamount to one of those familiar border promises of "mañana te pago." ("I'll pay you tomorrow.")

Obviously, no one thought of the other question, "When do we get paid?"

In an effort to make amends, the U.S., nevertheless, created the American Mexican Claims Commission in 1948 and paid "all the Anglo claims."

Mexico made $40 million in timely payments to the United States. President Avila Camacho, the gentleman that he was, signed the treaty acknowledging his country's debt and instructed his secretary of Foreign

Relations to write into law the process to pay $193 million, plus interest, that Mexico owned the Texas land-grant heirs.

The arrangement was detailed in the Bucarelli Agreements.

"President Avila Camacho received an award from the Mexico Chamber of Deputies (camara de diputados) for the way he negotiated the switching of the claims," wrote Chemita Peña.

Peña researched the Diario Official, or the Official Daily, to confirm, in fact, what the two presidents had agreed to and what each directed to be done to settle the debts.

To quote the rural farmer after a tornado hit his barn, the agreement sounded like a "chicken go" conclusion. Mexico never paid a centavo on the $193 million debt.

The issue didn't die there. Camacho was followed by Miguel Aleman, Adolfo Ruiz Cortines, Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Gustavo Diaz Ordaz and Luis Echeverria.

Historians, meanwhile, recalled that the sounds of Las Golondrinas continued through succeeding administrations with promises to investigate.

The late Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza, a Tamaulipas genealogist-historian, used to lecture on the subject in Laredo and elsewhere.

One of his trusted fans at this newspaper was Jim Parish, the gentleman reporter and history buff.

Gonzalez de la Garza was well-versed on the history of land grants on both sides of the Rio Grande.

In his "Mil Familias," his genealogy work on Joaquin Galan included the celebrated land grant that date back to 1803.

Don Rodolfo had copies of several documents pulled out of archives in Mexico City, Monterrey and Saltillo.

In his archivo in his Nuevo Laredo study, he preserved papers that related to the porciones and sitios, or tracts, cited in Spanish land grant audits conducted by Jose Tienda de Cuervo.

The writing was in Castillian Spanish, also known as castellano, of the Old World, which he could read and interpret.

Transcripts of land titles included one in which the hacienda treasurer documented the dates and details of the land to be granted to Joaquin Galan and amounts paid in pesos and reales.

A South Texas genealogist and author more recently cited the same documents, including one of the Galan land title, transcribed from handwritten Spanish to typewritten form.

A copy of the Galan land title transcript is part of the record developed in the 2007 district court hearing in Laredo.

(Odie Arambula may be reached at 728-2561 and by e-mail



Western PBS documentary on Cuyahoga Valley
Two Hundred Twenty-Five Things to Do in Baton Rouge, Louisiana



Western PBS documentary on Cuyahoga Valley
Adjunct to "America's Best Idea: Our National Parks" 


Here's what one station is doing regarding Burns documentary on national parks. 

Stories, photos sought for PBS documentary on Cuyahoga Valley
Whether it was a family sledding trip at Kendall Hills, a marriage proposal at Brandywine Falls or an entire childhood growing up nearby, memories related to Cuyahoga Valley National Park abound. 

In preparation for a new documentary, Western Reserve PBS invites people to share their memories of the Cuyahoga Valley.

The station will hold oral history collection events on three Sundays: Jan. 25, April 26, and May 17 from 1 p.m. to 5 p.m. each day at the park's Happy Days Lodge, 500 W. Streetsboro Road (Route 303) in Peninsula. Participants are invited to share memories, home movies, photos and memorabilia. 

Western Reserve PBS will record the interviews and scan the photos on site. Home movies offered will be converted to DVD format at the station and returned with a complimentary DVD copy.

A limited number of interviews will be used in the one-hour documentary. The interviews are by appointment only and can be scheduled by calling Western Reserve PBS at 800-554-4549 during regular business hours.

The documentary will air in the fall of 2009 in conjunction with the national premiere of the 10-hour series, "America's Best Idea: Our National Parks," produced by renowned PBS filmmaker Ken Burns. 

Given the focus of Burns' upcoming production, Cuyahoga Valley National Park and many others will not be featured prominently. 

However, Western Reserve PBS is producing a local documentary featuring the park because of its importance to northeast Ohioans.

"This is the first full-length broadcast documentary about Cuyahoga Valley National Park," said Duilio Mariola, Western Reserve PBS production/local programming manager. "It will celebrate the past, present and future of this invaluable Northeast Ohio resource."

Armando Rendon


Two Hundred Twenty-Five Things to Do in Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Sent by Bill Carmena



Ms. Rosa Acevedo-Rodriquez
Demographic Changes in Lehigh Valley Pennsylvania 
Good News from Nashville: Diversity Not Uniformity 



Latina Women Of NASA of The Month - Rosa Acevedo-Rodriquez

Ms. Rosa Acevedo-Rodriquez is an Associate Chief for Strategic Planning in the Procurement Operations Division at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC).  NASA GSFC is located in a Maryland suburb (Greenbelt) outside of Washington, DC, manages many of NASA's Earth Observation, Astronomy, and Space Physics missions.
To read more about Ms. Rosa Acevedo-Rodriquez, visit
NASA Civil Servant Latinas who are interested in participating on the LWON web site should contact


Demographic Changes in Lehigh Valley Pennsylvania 


Editor: Very extensive and exacting data and information about the demographic and social changes taking place on the East Coast in Pennsylvania. Tables, graphs, and summaries make the information clear and easily understood.  Below is just excerpts of information from one area of the research.  Great body of information.  Go to the website and select the specific area of interest for other areas of study as well:

Latinos in the Lehigh Valley

Dynamics and Impact of this Growing & Changing Population

by Lillian Escobar-Haskins, MHS  Researcher/Writer 
George F. Haskins, Historical Research/Editor Alegre Research and Demographics
Lancaster, PA 

Lehigh Valley Demographics: 4
Population Characteristics and Family Profiles

The growing proportion of Hispanics in the U.S. population constitutes one of
the most dramatic demographic shifts in American history.

U.S. News & World Report, “Hispanics' Don't Exist”, May 11 1998

In 2005, taking into account the acknowledged census undercount and the continued growth of the Latino population in the first half of this decade, documented by school district student census, the percentage of Latinos can be conservatively estimated to be nearly one-third of the city of Allentown, one-quarter the city of Bethlehem and
15% of Easton.
Latino key informants who work and live in the Lehigh Valley describe the large Latino
communities in Allentown and Bethlehem as very distinct and separate populations that generally function independently of each other.
In the last two decades, the number of Latinos in the suburbs almost quadrupled from 2,365 in 1980 to 8,977 in 2000.
The data indicates that there is an out-migration of Whites from the cities who are settling in the suburbs and more rural areas. Locals are viewing this as a case of “White flight”.
While the Puerto Rican population still predominates, Latino residents in the Lehigh Valley comprise an increasingly diverse population.
The 2000 Census reports that the Latino population in the cities of Allentown and
Bethlehem are overwhelmingly native U.S. citizens-85% and 93% respectively.



Good News from Nashville: Diversity Not Uniformity 


Good News from Nashville: Diversity Not Uniformity 
If the Nashville vote is any indication, the issue of the increasing presence of other languages in the country may be losing its emotional and ideological hold on Americans. Voters defeated an English Only amendment that would have made English the only language for government business in a Southern city that is taking new pride in its diversity. Both at a national and local level, diversity—not uniformity—has a new power in American politics.

See complete article at:

TransBorder Project Immigration Analysis
Border Dispatches - News from the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands 

Center for International Policy (1717 Massachussets Ave NW, Washington DC 20036) 


Poster of Esquadron 201
Muere Ricardo Montalbán a los 88 años
Invita Calderón a Obama a México 
Pierde Archivo General de la Nación documentos históricos
The Church of Los Reyes de Juarez
Research of Jose Antonio Esquivel

Royal Ancestor of the Sosa/Sousa Family of New Spain
El portal Genealogico de los Cuellar
Monclova Census 1823



Poster of Fighter Squadron 201
Scroll down


Each print is personally signed by pilots of Fighter Squadron 201 of the Mexican Expeditionary Air Force who flew and fought in the Philippines in 1945, including: General Angel Sanchez Rebollo, Coronel Carlos Garduno Nunez and Captain Miguel Moreno Arreola. The result of five years of research, this is the only fine art edition depicting the Mexican Air Force in World War II and the only edition ever published in English and Spanish. Only 650 copies (English versions) and 350 copies (Spanish versions) have been signed - order yours today!

Squadron 201 - the "Aztec Eagles" - an elite unit of the best military pilots in Mexico, recruited by the President to fight with the Allies. Overcoming the obstacles of language, discrimination and differing procedures, they trained in the U.S. before going overseas. They flew close support missions, assisting American and Filipino troops in the liberation of Luzon. The unit was decorated by the U.S., Mexico and Philippines for valor. It was the only Mexican military force to serve outside of that country; its participation in the war led to better relations between Mexico and the U.S. To learn more, please read the story of Squadron 201 in World War II. 
The "Aztec Eagles" pose with a framed print after signing the limited edition "Strike of the Aztec Eagles!" at Club France, Mexico City. L-R: Mr. Sig Unander, Publisher, Col. Carlos Garduno, Capt. Jaime Zenizo Rojas, General Angel Sanchez Rebollo, Capt. Miguel Moreno Arreola, Capt. Raymundo Perez Gallardo, Col. Joaquin Ramirez Vilchis, General Julio Cal y Mayor. 


Muere Ricardo Montalbán a los 88 años

Por: EFE/ Los Ángeles, EU.



El actor mexicano Ricardo Montalbán, popular por su papel en la serie de televisión "Fantasy Island", murió hoy a los 88 años en su residencia de Los Ángeles.

El actor, una de las grandes estrellas de la Metro Goldwyn Mayer en las décadas de 1940 y 1950, posee su nombre inmortalizado en la Avenida de las Estrellas, a la altura del 7021 de Hollywood Boulevard.

La muerte del conocido intérprete fue anunciada por Eric Garcetti, presidente del Concejo Municipal de la ciudad.

"El Teatro Ricardo Montalbán de mi distrito, donde las próximas generaciones de actores participan en obras de teatro, musicales y conciertos, se mantiene como un tributo a este consumado artista", dijo posteriormente Garcetti en un comunicado. Garcetti no reveló la causa de la muerte.

En su dilatada trayectoria profesional, que comenzó en 1942, Montalbán se alzó con un premio Emmy al mejor actor secundario por la serie "How the West Was Won" (1978), y recibió el galardón del Sindicato de Actores de EE.UU. a su carrera en el año 1994.

El actor, una de las grandes estrellas de la Metro Goldwyn Mayer en las décadas de 1940 y 1950, posee su nombre inmortalizado en la Avenida de las Estrellas, a la altura del 7021 de Hollywood Boulevard.

Su personaje más recordado es el del misterioso Mr. Roarke en la serie de la cadena ABC "Fantasy Island", que se emitió desde 1978 a 1984.

En Hollywood filmó películas como "Fiesta", "On an Island With You", o "Neptune's Daughter", todas junto a Esther Williams.

También alcanzó gran popularidad en EE.UU. como portavoz en televisión de la compañía Chrysler y con el papel de uno de los villanos de "Star Trek", tanto en televisión como en cine.

Sent by Mercy Bautista Olvera



Invita Calderón a Obama a México

Por: El Universal/ Washington, EU.

Inicio :: Nacional 13 de ene, 2009  



l titular del Ejecutivo mexicano, Felipe Calderón, ofreció una conferencia de prensa en el avión presidencial, a su despegue de esta ciudad para regresar a México, en la que hizo una evaluación de su visita a este país y su primer encuentro con el mandatario electo, Barack Obama, reunión que calificó de “cálida, provechosa y constructiva”.

El mandatario mexicano aprovechó para invitar a Obama a viajar a México para asistir a la cumbre del Grupo de Norteamérica. (Fotografía de EFE)

Incluso, el mandatario mexicano aprovechó para invitar a Obama a viajar a México para asistir a la cumbre del Grupo de Norteamérica, en la que participan Estados Unidos, Canadá y México que tendrá lugar en nuestro país, invitación que el presidente electo aceptó.

“Por cierto, le manifesté, le extendí una invitación para visitar México y en particular en ocasión a la reunión del Grupo de Norteamérica, Canadá, Estados Unidos y México, que tiene lugar cada año y que en esta ocasión toca organizar a nuestro país, y él aceptó con mucho gusto visitar nuestro país, y a la vez le extendí una invitación para realizar en el momento oportuno una visita de Estado, de Estados Unidos, que formalmente no hemos realizado y que seguramente la realizaremos más adelante”, indicó.

Después de 15 minutos de haber despegado el avión presidencial, de manera inusual, Calderón pasó a la parte posterior de la aeronave donde viaja la prensa que lo acompaña a sus giras, por lo que se le habilitó un equipo de audio para que pronunciara un mensaje y respondiera algunas preguntas.

El mandatario mexicano aseguró que la visita fue “un éxito”, pues se abordaron temas de interés binacional como la criminalidad, el tráfico de armas, la economía, el comercio y la migración.

Obama y Calderón, dos visiones

Por: José Santiago HealyJosé Santiago Healy


Dos políticos jóvenes en cuyas espaldas gravitan enormes responsabilidades, parecen actuar de manera distinta y por lo mismo distintos podrían ser los resultados.

En el lado sur el presidente de México, Felipe Calderón, llega a su segundo año de Gobierno en medio de un clima cargado de violencia e incertidumbre.

Ante ello recurre a la fuerza policiaca y militar, se atrinchera con sus simpatizantes de partido y lanza mensajes de amenaza y desafío.

No es para menos, la ola de muerte que envuelve al país es inédita, sólo comparable a los tiempos de la Revolución Mexicana. El enemigo o los enemigos son gigantes, pero quizá la estrategia no es la más adecuada o no ha sido aplicada correctamente.

Al Norte de la frontera, el presidente electo de Estados Unidos, Barack Obama, a mes y medio de iniciar su Gobierno sorprende por su liderazgo y capacidad de sumar fuerzas.

Obama se ha dedicado a tender puentes y buscar consensos. A escasas horas de su triunfo recibió a su adversario John McCain y días después visitó a su rival George W. Bush con una amigable actitud que ya la quisieran para un domingo los políticos mexicanos.

Días más tarde incluye en su Gabinete a su principal adversaria demócrata Hillary Clinton y a miembros de la actual Administración. Recuerda sin complejos que Abraham Lincoln nombró en su Gabinete a sus contrincantes en señal de unidad del pueblo norteamericano.

El señor George W. Bush ha recibido una dura lección de humildad política por parte de Obama y como tanto se ha rumoreado en los medios norteamericanos, al texano le urge dejar la Casa Blanca que abandonará con el índice de popularidad más bajo para un presidente de Estados Unidos. En México no cantan mal las rancheras. El presidente Calderón no ha logrado tender los puentes necesarios para darle la vuelta a la actitud de revanchismo, resentimiento y división que priva entre la clase política mexicana.

Ahí están Andrés Manuel López Obrador y sus huestes, el regente Marcelo Ebrard, algunos gobernadores de Oposición, el panista Manuel Espino, entre otros personajes con los que Calderón no ha logrado una tregua, vaya ni siquiera un acercamiento.

El mandatario mexicano se rodeó en el arranque con figuras reconocidas del panismo y salvo el caso del secretario de Comunicaciones, Luis Téllez, no incluyó a miembros de otros partidos ni a sus adversarios de Acción Nacional.

¿Qué habría sucedido de haber designado a Manuel Espino Barrientos en la secretaría de Seguridad Pública a Santiago Creel en el IMSS e incluso a sus rivales Roberto Madrazo y Andrés Manuel López Obrador en puestos de relevancia?

Hace cuatro meses el nivel de antagonismo y rivalidad entre Hillary Clinton y Barack Obama parecía irreconciliable. ¿Pero qué pasó después? Obama abrió las puertas a todos sus adversarios y hoy en día la señora Clinton “es una de mis mejores amigas”, según describió el presidente electo. Obama tendrá roces con sus colaboradores de primera línea, pero de entrada ha logrado crear un clima de apertura en su nuevo Gobierno.

Mientras en México se mantengan las prácticas políticas del pasado con revanchismo, rencores y soberbias, ni el Gobierno ni el país podrán llegar lejos.

¿Pero quién sería el indicado para abrir primero las puertas y extender los brazos cuando las aguas están tan revueltas y el ambiente tan enrarecido?

La puerta más grande está en Los Pinos y es el presidente Calderón quien debe tener la magnanimidad y tacto político para abrirla y dar cauce a todas las corrientes en pugna por el bien del país y de los mexicanos. De lo contrario el señor Calderón ya puede verse en el espejo de Bush y observar cómo concluirá su Gobierno en cuatro años si los políticos en México siguen montados en su soberbia y arrogancia.

Envía tus comentarios a


Pierde Archivo General de la Nación documentos históricos.


"El Archivo General de la Nación se halla en situación trágica. Lecumberri
no cumple con ninguna de las normas internacionales para la conservación de
documentos. Sin presupuesto, ya sufrió la desintegración de documentos
pertenecientes al Expediente Banco de Avío de Lucas Alamán de 1831. Era un
gran proyecto para industrializar al país. ¡Paradoja! Alamán creó el Archivo
General de la Nación. Entonces Archivo General y Público de México en 1824.
¡Qué tristeza que nosotros no supimos conservar sus documentos¡"
El Mexicano, 2 de Enero de 2009.
Sent by Benicio Samuel Sanchez Garcia
Presidente de la Sociedad Genealogica del Norte de Mexico
Cel: 04481-1667-2480



Church of Los Reyes de Juárez
Exploring Colonial Mexico
The Espadaña Press Web site




Church of Los Reyes de Juárez, As is customary, our first page of the year features a church dedicated to the Three Kings, or Los Santos Reyes, whose feast day on January 6 is the highlight of the Christmas season throughout Mexico.

This year we return to Puebla, to the church of Los Reyes de Juárez, noted for its splendid
baroque facade and gilded altarpieces with images of the Three Kings.

The town of Los Reyes, known in ancient times as xonacacomac ( Place of the Onion Jars) is a busy market town in central Puebla state, located south of the city of Puebla beside the autopista, opposite Acatzingo. At the heart of this workaday pueblo stands the ornate folk baroque church of the Three Kings

Richard Perry  




Research of Jose Antonio Esquivel


Hi,  Received a remarkable set of documents from Jose Antonio Esquivel, a genealogy family researcher, who shares mutual ancestors with me. Some of his research can be found online. Mr. Esquivel even pointed out an incorrect name for a spouse in a Lineage Chart I provided him with. The different sources/references for his information is documented, like a term paper, in the Sosa Albornoz and Zaldivar reports, email and attachment. 

I had never seen so so much genealogy data being condensed a few pages. I was given permission to share the data. 

Eddie U Garcia

Date: Saturday, January 10, 2009, 6:31 AM

Señor García, 

Yes indeed, we do have common ancestors.  The information you have complied concerning the Longoria, González, and Oñate lineages looks very good. 

On the Oñate lineage, there is one correction to be made. As it turns out, María de Oñate was married with Rodrigo de Zaldívar, not Ruy Díaz de Zaldívar. The Ruy Díaz name is an error that occurred in print and continues to be passed on. The original records for the Zaldívar family clearly give the name of Rodrigo de Zaldivar as the husband of Maria de Oñate.

You will find more details on the Oñate-Zaldívar family in my articles:

José Antonio Esquibel, “The Zaldívar, Díaz de Mendoza, and Oñate Families, 1450-1650: New Genealogical Findings,” Part I, Los Bexareños Genealogical Register, Vol. XXI, No. 4, December 2004, 10-22. 
José Antonio Esquibel, “The Zaldívar, Díaz de Mendoza, and Oñate Families, 1450-1650: New Genealogical Findings,” Part II, Los Bexareños Genealogical Register, Vol. XXII, No. 1, March 2005, 1-10.

In regard to the Sosa Albornoz ancestry, it is very unfortunate that incorrect information continues to be circulated and posted online. The royal lineage is completely false.

The father of Alonso de Sosa Albornoz was Francisco de Sosa Albornoz, not Francisco de Sosa Guevara. I located the record of passage for Francisco de Sosa Albornoz and examined other records that verify that Francisco de Sosa Albornoz was a son of Esteban de Sosa and Ana de Albornoz. Although my correction to the Sosa Albornoz lineage has been published since 1998, the incorrect information is still going around.

Attached is a synopsis of the corrected genealogy of the Sosa Albornoz family based on my research into primary documents. Although the revised lineages does not connect us to Alonso de Estrada, please note that we are descendants of the conquistador Captain Andrés de Tapia, the right-hand man of Hernén Cortés and a prominent figure in the history the fall of Tenochtitlán. Andrés de Tapia even wrote an account of his experiences that has been published in Spanish. 

Also, more research is occurring into the Sosa family history and genealogy in Spain. Once the research is completed there will be a very impressive amount of historical and genealogical information and we may make good progress in dissolving the false lineage of the Sosa Albornoz family.

Feel free to pass along the attached file to anyone else who is researching the Sosa Albornoz and Zaldívar families.

Let me know what you think.
Amiably, José Antonio Esquibel 


Royal Ancestor of the Sosa/Sousa Family of New Spain:  
Coahuila   Nuevo Leon – Tamaupilas –  Texas


Alfonso II, King of Portugal, Princess Urrea y Castilla   
  Alfonso III, King of Portugal & Dona Perez de Enxara      
Alfonso Dinis y Maria Pais Ribeira (Lady, House of Sousa)  
Pedro Alfonso de Sousa & Elvira Ines de Novoa  
Vasco Alfonso de Sousa & Maria Gomez Carillo 
 Diego Alfonso de Sosa & Maria Alfonso de Cordoba
Juan Alonso de Sosa & Isabel Fernandez de Mesa
Lopes de Sosa & Ines de Cabrera

Juan Alonso de Sosa & Ana Estrada de la Caballeria,
daughter of Alonso de Estrada, Royal Treasurer to N.S.
Juan Alonso de Estrada & Mariana de Guevera Barrios
Mariana Saldivar Sosa & Diego de Ayala y Valverde 

Leonor de Ayala y Valverde & Diego Trevino y Quintanilla


Descendants of
Juan Alonso de Sosa
Descendants of
Alonso de
Descendants of   
Juan Perez de
Juan Alonso de Sousa 
+ Isabel Fernandez de Mesa                                              
Gobernador Lopes de Sosa    
+ Ines de Cabrera
Ferdinand II, King of Aragon
& mistress, Luisa de Estrada                      
Alonso de Estrada
+ Mariana Gutierrez Flores

Juan Alonso (Sosa¹) de Cabrera  
+ Ana Estrada de Caballeria  

Juan Alonso (Sosa¹) de Estrada 
+Mariana Guevara  de Barrios 

Esbaban de Sosa Guevara 
+ Ana de Albornoz   


Francisco de Sosa Guevara   
+ Ines de Tapia y Sosa 

Capitan Alonso de Sosa Albornoz     
+ Dona Beatriz Navarro Rodriguez        

Maria Ana Sosa Albornoz
+ Alferez Alonso Frias Trevino  

 Maria de Sosa 
Capt. Vicente Saldivar y Reza 

Mariana Saldivar de Sosa
+ Diego Garcia de Quintanilla

Agustina Garcia de Quintanilla
+ Pedro de Longoria

Ana Estrada de Caballeria      
 + Juan Alonso (Sosa¹) de Cabrera
Juan Alonso (Sosa¹) de Estrada +Mariana Guevara  de Barrios                             
Esbaban de Sosa Guevara 
+ Ana de Albornoz

Francisco de Sosa Guevara   
+ Ines de Tapia y Sosa  


Capitan Alonso de Sosa                
+ Beatriz Navarro Rodriguez 

Maria Ana Sosa Albornoz
+ Alferez Alonso Frias Trevino    

Maria de Sosa 
+ Capt. Vicente Saldivar y Reza

Mariana Saldivar de Sosa
+ Diego Garcia de Quintanilla

Agustina Garcia de Quintanilla
+ Pedro de Longoria

Pedro de Baeza
+  Maria Yrarrazaula   

Cristobal Perez Narriahondo 
+ unknown    
+ Osana Martinez de Gonzalez           

Maria de Onate  
+ Ruy Diaz de Saldivar

Lt. Captian Vicente de Salvidar 
+ Magdelena de Mendoza  

Ana Maria Magdelena Salizar 
 + Juan Guerra de Reza

Capt. Vicente Saldivar y Reza  + Maria de Sosa

Mariana Saldivar de Sosa
+ Diego Garcia de Quintanilla

Agustina Garcia de Quintanilla 
+ Pedro de Longoria


12 Joseph Santiago LONGORIA + Maria CHAPA
13 Maria Rosa LONGORIA + Jose Francisco Javier SALINAS 

14 Maria Petra SALINAS + Jose Antonio de Jesus MONTALVO 

15 Maria Antonia MONTALVO + Jose Prudencio Vital SALINAS 

16 Pio Jose SALINAS + Maria Gregoria GUERRA   16 Ma. de Sanjuan SALINAS + J Francisco GARCIA
17 Maria Isabel SALINAS + Pedro Jose GARCIA      17 Jose Alvino GARCIA + Maria Francisca GARCIA
18 Maria Francisca GARCIA + Jose Alvino GARCIA  18 Herlinda GARCIA + Amando C GARCIA 
19 Herlinda GARCIA + Amando C GARCIA                 19 Arturo A (Amando) GARCIA + Sofia GARCIA
20 Arturo A (Amando) GARCIA + Sofia GARCIA    20 Arturo Antonio GARCIA + Esmeralda MALLETT
21 Arturo Antonio GARCIA + Esmeralda MALLETT     20 Eladio (Eddie) URESTI GARCIA
21 Eladio (Eddie) URESTI GARCIA

 ¹ Did not use Sosa surname  


For more on many of these family lines, please go to the research of  John Inclan:


El portal Genealogico de los Cuellar


Amigos, Arturo Cuellar me ha informado que recientemente ha cambiado su pagina
genealogica y esta ofreciendo la informacion que tiene de forma gratuita.

Esta solicitando informacion complementaria. si tienes genealogia CUELLAR se te agradecera que la agregues a la base de datos que se tiene.

El portal Genealogico de los Cuellar esta organizado asi:
Portal Principal:

Arbol Genealogico de los Cuellar de Mexico
Es donde esta la base de datos de los cuellar que se van localizando en la partidas de bautismo, matrimonio, etc para que se vaya organizando el arbol

Arbol Genealogico para la Familia de Arturo Cuellar.
Foro de Discusiones:

Podran visitar este portal iniciando el 2009 (aunque yo lo visite hoy y funciona perfectamente)
Sent by Manuel Quinones



Compañeros, Adjunto este link que trae algunos censos de Monclova y alrededores por 1820, ojalá y lo encuentren útil: 

Saludos, Antonio Rangel

Censo del Municipio de Monclova en 1822-1823

Censo del Pueblo de San Francisco de Tlaxcala. 1823

Censo de la Hacienda de Castaños y Bajan. 1822-1823

Censo de la Hacienda del Alamo. 1823

Censo de la Hacienda de Encinas. 1823

Censo de la Hacienda de San Vicente el Alto. 1823

Censo de la Hacienda de Santa Ana. 1823

Censo de la Hacienda de San Juan Bautista. 1823

Censo de la Estancia de San Juan Bautista 1849.

Censo de la Hacienda de San José. 1823

Censo de la Hacienda de San Ignacio del Paso Tapado. 1823




She blazed a medical trail

Dr. Isabel Estrada once was a rarity; a female physician. 
As she turns 90, about half the people in medical school are women.


She blazed a medical trail
Doctor Isabel Estrada, third row, second from left, earned a fellowship for 
OBGYN pathology at the Free Hospital for Women in Boston in 1951.