Somos Primos


Editor: Mimi Lozano ©2000-9
109th Issue Online

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research



The families of  the five sons of Jesús Navarro 
Los Angeles County and Orange County, California.
Click for an article by son, Ronald Navarro, M.D. 


Content Areas
United States

of the names of Hispanic recipients of the SILVER CROSS and other Medals 

National Issues
FEATURE: National Parks 

Action Item
Bilingual Education


Anti-Spanish Legends
Military/ Law Enforcement 
Patriots Amer Revolution 


Orange County, CA

Los Angeles,CA

Southwestern US 




East of Mississippi

East Coast

Spain International  

Family History



 . . the past is parent to the present.
Lillian B. Rubin

Winter Solstice

And when the darkness is,
we trust upon the gods
that light might be -
but still
we must sing
the light into being.

Solsticio invernal

Y cuando es la oscuridad
confiamos en los dioses
que la luz sea -
pero aun
tendremos que cantar
la luz a ser.

© Rafael Jesús González 2008


  Letters to the Editor : 

I just read "My Ancestors" by Victoria Carrillo Norton in the December 2007 issue of Somos Primos.  I am a descendent of Emilia Vega and have been conducting research on the Vega family and Emilia Vega's first husband, Carlos Cruz Fuentes.  Can you pass my email  ( to Ms. Norton and let her know I appreciated her article and would like to discuss my research with her if possible. 
Thank you,  Gary Dempsey

Dear Mimi,
A quick note from Pais Vasco, we are in Bilbao now having returned from Arrasate. When I logged on here for the first time in 8 days I received Somos Primos. I introduced the several of the Basque people that are interested in history to Somos Primos.God has blessed us with us with spectacular results! Great anthropological, ethnological, familial, genealogical, and historical discoveries resulted from this journey to the Iberian peninsula. I´ll have several articles for your International section soon. We´ll fly back tommorrow.
God Bless You!
Lauro Garza Arzamendi

Dear Mimi,
The December issue of Somos Primos is filled with wonderful, new and newsworthy stories that really inspire and teach us many lessons about life and about our primos and primas who reside in other parts of the country.  I am so thankful to you and your staff for continuing to publish this journal--there is no other one like it!
All best wishes for a Joyous and Happy Holiday Season.
With Love and Gratitude,
Lorri Ruiz Frain 

Dear Mimi,
This will undoubtedly be the most home-made Seasons Greetings uou will receive this year.   Well, it does provide the opportunity for some words of appreciation and admiration for our remarkable accomplishment, SOMOS PRIMOS.   When I count up the years and guesstimate the endless hours, I am amazed at what you have done.   Recognizing PRIMOS is not just understanding more aobut who they are.  It is a kind of self-discovery.  This is the kindness you have done many.  
May the New Year be rewarding and kind to you.
Galal Kernahan 



  Somos Primos Staff:   
Mimi Lozano, Editor
Mercy Bautista Olvera
Bill Carmena
Lila Guzman
Granville Hough
John Inclan
Galal Kernahan
J.V. Martinez
Dorinda Moreno
Michael Perez
Rafael Ojeda
Felipe de Ortego y Gasca
Ángel Custodio Rebollo
Tony Santiago
John P. Schmal
Howard Shorr 
Ted Vincent

to issue:  
Dr. Rudolfo Acuña 
Hector Alvarez Cavazos
Mercy Bautista-Olvera
Bill Betzen
Eva Booher
Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.
Mary Castillo
Bill Carmena 
Juana Bordas
Jaime Cader
Peter Carr
Israel Cavazos Garza, Lic.
Gus Chavez
Pamella Daniel
Sal Del Valle
Gary Dempsey
Joan De Soto
Monica Dunbar Smith
Carlos Ericksen-Mendoza
Socorro Garza
Lauro Garza Arzamendi 
Alfonso González
Rafael Jesús González 
Rudy Gonzales
Odell Harwell,
George F. Haskins
Granville Hough, Ph.D.
John Inclan
Galal Kernahan
Ted Vincent
Rick Leal
Gladys Limon
Mike Lozano
Juan Marinez
Ann Minter
Angela Maldonado
Emma Montemayon
Dorinda Moreno
Paul Nauta
Ronald A. Navarro, M.D.

Rafael Ojeda
Michael A Olivas
Guillermo Padilla Origel
Felipe de Ortego y Gasca
Roberto Perez Guadarrama
Ruben M. Perez
Joseph Puentes
Sam Quinones
Luciano Ramirez
Juan Ramos, Ph.D. 
Angel Custodio Rebollo
Armando Rendon, Ph.D.
Diana Rivera
Jose Leon Robles de la Torre
Patricia Rodriguez
Viola Rodriguez Sadler
Ben Romero
Lorri Ruiz Frain
Samuel Sanchez
Tony Santiago
Louis Serna
Howard Shorr
Frank (Moreno) Sifuentes
Gustavo Toaquiza
Ricardo Valverde
Ted Vincent
Christina Walters


SHHAR Board: BBea Armenta Dever, Gloria Cortinas Oliver, Mimi Lozano Holtzman
Pat Lozano, Michael Perez, Viola Rodriguez Sadler, Tom Saenz, John P. Schmal



Wisdom of Thomas Jefferson, 1802
Hispanic Breaking Barriers, Part I by Mercy Bautista Olvera
    Bill Richardson
    Congresswoman Hilda Solis 
    Louis Caldera, Esq.
    Cecilia Muñoz
    Dr. Juliet Villarreal-Garcia 
Lauro Fred Cavazos, first Hispanic President of a U.S. University
Dr. Hector P. Garcia
Hispanic Link Weekly Report enters its 27th year of publication
Mexican Mother in a Whirling World 
The Farmworker Movement Documentation Project 
Race & Gender in Politics


In light of the present financial crisis, 
it's interesting to read what Thomas Jefferson said in 1802:

"I believe that banking institutions are more dangerous to our liberties than standing armies. If the American people ever allow private banks to control the issue of their currency, first by inflation, then by deflation, the banks and corporations that will grow up around the banks will deprive the people of all property until their children wake-up homeless 
on the continent their fathers conquered."

Sent by Sal Delvalle




Part I



Mercy Bautista-Olvera


In the coming months this series “Hispanics Breaking Barriers” will present the   contributions of Hispanics in United States government and leadership. Their contributions have improved not only the local community but the country as well.   Sadly, they have not always received their due recognition. Their struggles, stories, and accomplishments will by example, illustrate to our youth and to future generations that everything and anything is possible.  

Bill Richardson
Bill Richardson

Governor of New Mexico Bill Richardson has been selected to be Secretary of Commerce by President-elect Barack Obama. Being optimistic despite the recession, he called Richardson a leading “economic Diplomat for America, during his time in state government and Congress, and in two tours of duty in the Cabinet, Bill has seen from just about every angle of what makes our economy work and what keeps it from working better.”  

William Blaine “Bill” Richardson III was born on November 15, 1947 in Pasadena , California , the son of Maria Luisa Lopez-Collada Marquez and William Blaine Richardson Jr., Richardson’s mother was born in Villaviciosa, Spain, and his father William Blaine Richardson Jr., born in Nicaragua , (1891-1972). The family lived in Mexico City . Just before Bill was born his mother was sent to California , where her husband’s sister lived, as Richardson explained, “My father had a complex about not having been born in the United States .” He has one sister Vesta. His 95-year-old mother and sister live in Cuernavaca , Mexico . Three of his four grandparents, were Mexican citizens, he identifies himself as Hispanic. In 1961, a young Bill Richardson left his family in Mexico City to attend high school in Massachusetts . It was tough for teenage Bill to be the new different looking kid at his school; he was the only Hispanic student there. However, with the help of a coveted slot on the Varsity baseball team, and a few good friends, he began to bridge the divide between these two worlds.

Bill entered Tufts University in Boston in 1966. Senator Hubert Humphrey gave a speech at the University and stopped to talk to Bill and his classmates about American values and the power of public service, this inspired his interest in politics. He earned a Bachelor’s degree at Tufts in 1970, majoring in French and Political Science. He went on to earn a Master’s degree in International Affairs from Tufts University Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy in 1971. He married his high school sweetheart Barbara Flavin in 1972.

In 1997, Bill Richardson served in the Bill Clinton Administration as United States Ambassador to the United Nations, the first Hispanic to hold that position. While he was Ambassador, he traveled to North Korea , Iraq , Cuba and Sudan , where he successfully negotiated the release of American hostages. He has been nominated four times for the Nobel Peace Prize. As first Energy Secretary, he created a plan to dispose of nuclear waste. He became Director for Native American Affairs position in the Department in 1998, and in January of 2000 oversaw the largest return of federal lands, 84,000 acres to (the Northern Ute Tribe of Utah). 

As a governor Bill Richardson has made New Mexico a national leader in job growth and economic momentum – with more than 80,000 more New Mexico ’s working class since Governor Bill Richardson took office, and unemployment rate that is the lowest in state history. He was successful in meeting his campaign promises to improve education, cut taxes, build a high-wage economy, develop a statewide water plan and makes New Mexico safe from violence.  



Hilda Solis   
Congresswoman Hilda Solis

Hilda Solis, D-CA Congresswoman from the 32nd District of California has been selected to be Secretary of Labor by President-elect Obama. Sen. Edward Kennedy, D-Mass., will be in charge of Solis’ confirmation as chairperson of the Senate Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Committee. He said Hilda Solis will be “an invaluable asset to President Obama in protecting workers’ rights and restoring economic opportunity.”  

Hilda Solis was born on October 20, 1957 in Los Angeles , California . Solis, the daughter of Mexican and Nicaraguan immigrants, Raul Solis and Juana Barela-Solis, her father, a Mexican union shop steward and her mother a Nicaraguan assembly line worker, her parents and six siblings continue to be a great source of inspiration to Congresswoman Solis. Hilda Solis is married to Sam Sayyad, a small business owner.

In 1979, Solis earned a Bachelor Degree from California State Polytechnic University , Pomona . In 1981, Hilda Solis earned a Master of Public Administration from the University of Southern California . During President Jimmy Carter Administration, Solis worked in the White House Office of Hispanic Affairs as an intern. Solis was later appointed as a Management Analyst with the Office of Management and Budget in the Civil Rights Division.    

Solis served in the California State Assembly from 1992 to 1994 and made history by becoming the first Hispanic woman elected to the California State Senate (1994-2000). In August of 2000 Hilda Solis was the first woman to receive the John F. Kennedy Profile in Courage Award, for her pioneering work on environmental justice issues, she served as the Ranking Democratic Member of the EHM Subcommittee. In 2003 Solis became the first Hispanic woman to serve on the powerful House Committee on Energy and Commerce; she serves as Vice Chair of the Environment and Hazardous Materials (EHM) Subcommittee and a member of the Health and Telecommunications subcommittees. Solis also serves on the House Committee on Natural Resources.  

Congresswoman Hilda Solis is a nationally recognized leader on the environment. Solis is serving her fourth term in Congress representing California ’s 32nd Congressional District in California , which includes the San Gabriel Valley and portions of East Los Angeles . In 2007, Solis was appointed to the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (the Helsinki Commission) as well as Mexico . On the same year, Solis was elected to be Vice Chair of the Helsinki Commission’s General Committee on Democracy, Human Rights and Humanitarian Questions. She is the only U.S. elected official to serve on this committee. Solis’ priorities in congress include expanding access to affordable health care, protecting the environment, education and improving the lives of working families.  

In Congress, Solis has won legislative victories to provide workforce training for “green collar” jobs, (Public Law 110-140). To authorize a federal study, of how the San Gabriel River Watershed’s recreational and environmental opportunities can be improved (Public Law No. 108-042). To remove barriers to U.S. citizenship for non-U.S. citizens serving in the U.S. military and reserves (Public Law 108-136), ban pesticide testing on pregnant women and children; help ensure health care access for Latinos suffering from HIV/AIDS; and promote domestic violence awareness.   


Louis Caldera

Louis Caldera will be serving in President-elect Obama’s administration, as Director of the White House Military Office; he will be responsible for all the military support for the White House operations. “Louis has served his country with distinction in uniform and in government, and his pedigree is second-to-none.” “I know he’ll bring to the White House the same dedication and integrity that have earned him the highest praise in every post, from Army Secretary to University President,” Obama said in a news release.  

Louis Caldera was born in El Paso,Texas April 1,1956, the son of Mexican immigrants Soledad and Benjamin Caldera. The family moved to California when Louis was four years old, growing up in the Boyle Heights neighborhood of Los Angeles before moving to the suburb of Whittier. Louis Caldera earned a Bachelor of Science degree in 1978 from the United States Military Academy at West Point . He earned both Masters in Business Administration and Juris Doctorate Degrees from Harvard University. While at Harvard, he met his future wife, Eva Orlebeke, they have three daughters, Allegra Christine, Sophia Marie, and Camille Grace.  

Louis Caldera practiced law from 1987 to 1990 at the firm of O’Melveny & Myers; he also worked as a Deputy Counsel for Los Angeles County .  Caldera served as California State Assemblyman from 1992 to 1997 representing near 400,000 residents of the 46th District, near downtown Los Angeles, California. As an Assemblyman, Calera served as chairperson of the following committees, Banking and Finance Committee, the Revenue and Taxation Committee, and the Budget Committee. Calera served as United States Secretary of the Army from July 2, 1998 to January 20, 2001. He than served as Managing Director and Chief Operating Officer for President Bill Clinton’s Corporation for National and Community Service. Less than a year later Louis Caldera served as Army Secretary. Later he served as Vice Chancellor for University Advancement in the California State University system, In August 2003 to January 2006 Caldera served as president of the University Of New Mexico School Of Law. The University granted him as a tenured member of the University where he currently serves.  

LCCR Board Meeting by Civil Rights.  
Cecilia Muñoz

Cecilia Muñoz, Senior Vice president at the National Council of la Raza, has been appointed by President-elect Obama as the White House Director of Intergovernmental Affairs.  

Cecilia Muñoz was born in Detroit, Michigan, on July 27, 1962, the youngest of four children. Her parents  Eduardo and Cristina Perou Munoz immigrated to the United States from La Paz, Bolivia. In 1965 the family moved to Livonia, a growing, middle-class, white Detroit suburb. Muñoz attended the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor and completed her undergraduate degrees in English and Latin Studies in 1984. Her time at the University reminded her of her youth in Livonia, where Hispanics were in the minority. Following graduation, Cecilia Muñoz continued her education at the University of California at Berkeley, where she obtained her Master's Degree. She eventually moved from California to Chicago and worked for the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chicago as head of the Legalization Outreach Program for Catholic Charities. The program allowed undocumented immigrants who met certain criteria such as having lived continuously in the United States to become legal U.S. residents. Muñoz helped more that five thousand immigrants obtain legal citizenship in the United States.

In 1988, Cecilia Munoz began her work at NCLR Center (National Council of La Raza) as the Senior Immigration Policy Analyst, an institution that focused on Hispanic Americans. Formed in 1968, the National Council of la Raza is “the largest constituency-based national Hispanic organization, serving all Hispanic nationality groups in all regions of the country.” Cecilia’s husband Amit Muñoz-Pandya, is a Human Rights lawyer, Amit and Cecilia have two daughters Cristina and Meera.


Dr. Juliet Villarreal-Garcia

South Texan Juliet V. Garcia has been selected by President-elect Obama to be part of his Transition Team; she will serve as one of the Advisors. Garcia is Chair of the Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance and president of the University of Texas-Brownsville. In the fall of 2000, Dr. Garcia was inducted into the Texas Women’s Hall of Fame for lifetime achievement in education. Garcia’s Postdoctoral studies include work at the Institute for Education Management, John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University , the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Society of International Business Fellows at the London School of Business.

Ms. Garcia was president of Texas Southmost College , a community college in Brownsville , for six years. She was the first Mexican-American in the nation to become president of a college or university. She was adviser to President Clinton on his education transition team, including issues that affected students in south Texas . Garcia stated “I consider public service to our highest calling, so I am greatly honored to have been invited to take part in the historic transition, our young democracy,” Ms. Garcia has a PhD degree in communications and linguistics from the University of Texas at Austin. Dr. García is responsible for leading the development of the unique partnership in the University of Texas , at Brownsville , then an upper-level university. The Partnership designed to consolidate resources, increase efficiency, eliminate transfer barriers for students and provide improved higher education and opportunities for students. Dr. García is married to Oscar Enrique Garcia. Juliet and Oscar have two grown children and four grandchildren.   



Lauro Fred Cavazos, first Hispanic President of a U.S. University 



I hope you do not mind, but I would like to correct an error made by Emma Perez Trevino, the reporter from the Brownsville Herald who wrote the article pertaining to Juliet V. Garcia, University of Texas at Brownsville President who was recently  named to Obama's team.  In her article, “Garcia on Obama’s team” Trevino stated, “…And now Garcia, the first Mexican-American to head a four-year U.S. university, will be one of the president-elect’s advisers as the presidency transitions from President George W. Bush to Obama….” 

Lauro Fred Cavazos, who was born January 4, 1927 in Kingsville, TX became the nation’s first Hispanic appointed Cabinet member when President Ronald Reagan appointed him Secretary of Education.  He served as Education Secretary from 1988 to 1990, continuing as President George H. W. Bush’s Education Secretary for about a year.  Prior to his appointments as Secretary of Education, he was the first Hispanic President of Texas Tech University, a four -year U.S. university, serving as President from 1980 to 1988.  

Since I am also a Cavazos from Brownsville, I just had to let you know the facts.  Lauro has visited Brownsville several times and articles were written about him in the Brownsville Herald.  His Cavazos grandparents lived in Brownsville.  If you get a chance, read Lauro's book, "A Kineño Remembers, From The King Ranch To The White House." 

By the way, Lauro's brother, Richard Cavazos, I believe also had a distinction of being the first and only Hispanic Four Star General in the US Army.  However, since he retired in the 80's, he may no longer be the only Hispanic attaining that rank.

Respectfully, Hector Alvarez Cavazos  


The White House
1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW
Washington, DC 20500
Phone Numbers 
Comments:   202-456-1111
Switchboard: 202-456-1414 
FAX:             202-456-2461

Special thank you to Ann Minter, Juan Marinez, and Juan Ramos, Ph.D. for forwarding information concerning Obama appointments.  I forwarded them to Mercy to extract any data which she did not have.

Daughter Daisy Wanda Garcia  
Photos, courtesy of:
Dr. Hector P. Garcia Papers, Special Collections
Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi


In the good old days, discrimination against Mexican Americans in Texas existed at all levels including medicine. The University of Galveston Medical Branch (UTMB) accepted only one Mexican American a year. Once graduated, more problems greeted graduates 
of medical schools.  Texas Hospitals would not accept them into residency programs. Once a Mexican American completed his residency and became a practicing physician, discrimination continued. Hospitals had segregated wards; pharmacies would not honor prescriptions written by Mexican      Dr. Garcia Medical School graduation, June 1945
American physicians.   

My father graduated summa cum laude from UTMB. Yet when the time came to practice his residency, no Texas hospital would take him.  Finally, Creighton Hospital in Omaha, Nebraska accepted him into a residency program.   

In 1945, Dr. Hector wrote to his family, “These three long weary years of suffering and pain, and hardships and heartaches have taught me how to be tolerant and how to be patient.  I have seen poverty and cruelty, and I want to place myself above both of them, I do not seek to fight until it is completely right.”*[1]  

Practicing medicine in a poor Corpus Christi barrio in the 1940’s with no air-conditioning, no modern technology and antibiotics was a challenge.  Dr. Hector took the bus to visit his patients because he had no automobile. He performed home surgeries and home deliveries.  

Dr.  Garcia standing in front of his office, late 1940s.


Dr. Garcia’s care for his patients was in part good medical practice, part personal empathy. He too had known poverty.  Medical facilities were non-existent, condemning Dr. Garcia’s four-year-old sister Dalia to die of burns when she fell into a pit of builders’ lime.  Each evening Jose Garcia would tell each of his children to become medical doctors. “You can help other people and you’ll be independent.  No one can take a doctor’s job away.”  [2]  

Dr. Hector Garcia when confronted by the insurmountable obstacle of pharmacies declining to fill his prescriptions, found a solution around the obstacle. For a physician to purchase a pharmacy was a conflict. Therefore, my mother purchased a pharmacy under her maiden name, Fusillo.  They named the pharmacy Botica Garcia. The pharmacy enabled my father to have his prescriptions filled without questions.  He also maintained an account that he used to pay for medicines for his poor clients.  The pharmacy located on Morgan Avenue next to his medical practice was basic old style with many wooden shelves and drawers. In addition to medicine, soaps and toiletries, the pharmacy also sold herbs.   

Four pharmacists worked in Botica Garcia, Mr. Lerma, Dr. Xico Garcia, Mr. George Borrego and Mr. Josue Quintanilla.  Dr. Xico filled in between vacancies. Once my father built his clinic on Bright Street, my mother sold the pharmacy to Mr. Rufino Garcia.  I was fortunate to contact two of the pharmacists who worked in Botica Garcia, Mr. Borrego and Mr. Quintanilla.  The following is an account of what they told me.



Mr. George Borrego began to work in the Botica Garcia in the 1950ies.  My uncle, Xico Garcia who filled in as pharmacist after Mr. Lerma had left, recruited him. George Borrego worked at Botica Garcia until 1962 when he moved to Colorado.  Mr. Borrego worked long hours, sometimes until 7pm or 8 pm except Sundays, because my father saw patients until the late hours. He remembers the many patients and their poverty. Dr. Hector would give them free medical care and medicines. George Borrego also remembered the neighborhood children, such as Tomas Ramirez, Riggs, and Maria Rosales whose families were too poor to feed them. Dr. Hector would have the children run errands for him as an excuse to treat them to Whataburgers.  Mr. Borrego recalls the number of important people who stopped by to visit Dr. Hector and felt that he was very effective in handling them. On one occasion, Dr. Hector was visiting with the Corpus Christi ISD superintendent. Mr. Borrego commented on my father’s firm tone of voice with the superintendent.  

Mr. Borrego left me with this thought: Dr. Hector did work that was unpopular but very important for the Mexican American people. 



Mr. Josue Quintanilla was a graduate of pharmacy at UTA.  Once he graduated, he could not find work in Austin, TX. Therefore, he moved to Corpus Christi, TX and found employment with Dale’s Drugs.  Later, Mr. Quintanilla worked for the Botica Garcia.  Like Borrego, Mr. Quintanilla recalls going home for supper about 6pm and then returned to work until 7pm or 8pm every day except Sundays.  

Mr. Quintanilla recalled the many poor people and the neighborhood children that my father healed and gave medicines to.  He said that the Botica Garcia lost money because of my father’s charity work.  Finally, my father met Arturo Vasquez, a CPA who showed my father how to deduct the losses from their joint income tax returns.  Mr. Quintanilla put in cosmetics and soda water machine and expanded the dry goods to include toilet paper and Kleenex.  Quintanilla said that the addition of these goods turned a profit for the Botica Garcia.     

Dr. Hector treating his patients in his office, 1950s.      

Mr. Quintanilla would travel with Dr. Hector Garcia during his organization efforts throughout Texas.  Like Mr. Borrego, Josue Quintanilla remembered the dangers and unpopularity of Doctor Hector’s work.  But Quintanilla felt that the work was necessary.  


As I drive along Lake Austin Blvd, in Austin, TX, far removed in time from the dramas of the past, I reflect on my Papa’s life and on the tremendous contribution, his work brought to everyone.   Many of this generation of Mexican American would not be here if it were not for the selfless love of Papa and the understanding of my mother.  Their grandparents would have not survived without the free medical care and medicines provided by Papa.  Thus, their children and the present generation would not be here.  I am so proud of both parents that money was never their ultimate goal; but human consideration came first.  My father would not have stood by while people starved or died from lack of medical care because of money.  

Dr. Hector did not see all the fruits of his labor.  However, here it is.  Mexican Americans are holding high offices, are presidents of corporations and society is embracing our heritage. What a change from the past. I am so proud of my father for making a difference!  Bless all of those who sacrificed and worked for us. 

Que Dios los bendiga.


[1] Justice for My People, Pamela J. Edwards, Coastal Bend Medicine, June/July 1998. 



Vol 26 No 49, December 22, 2008

From Left to Right: Hector, Danny, Elena, Elsa, Carlos Erickson-Mendoza

Weekly Report enters its 27th year of publication next month. We’ve been pushed and pulled to this point by a total of 300 staff reporters and 700 other writers who have contributed anywhere from a single commentary to dozens of the 4,667 columns we have run in Weekly Report and syndication to date. 

Lots of very talented Latinas and Latinos got their first boost of confidence to explore journalism careers by having their words published by the Link.

This week, to acknowledge all of those who have kept the Link going and educated thousands, more likely millions, about the Hispanic contribution to this country, we’re running pieces by nine of our ex-staffers and two of our pioneer columnists who helped frame our role as communicators. Here are their pieces, written for us over the past quarter-century — some playful, some profound, and a couple composed with controlled rage.

Their common denominator is respect and love for the Hispanic community and a willingness to guard its progress from interference by agitators. As you read each contribution in this special edition you will savor the writer’s skill and commitment to the Hispanic community. Feel free to email any of the articles or send your friends the whole edition.

To all of those who kept the flame of our candle burning bright, my gratitude. Charlie Ericksen, founding publisher with his late wife Sebastiana Mendoza and their eldest son, Héctor Ericksen-Mendoza.

Ray Rodríguez A Retired Professor’s Letter to Santa
Héctor Ericksen-Mendoza Mexican Mother in a Whirling World
Olivia Muñoz My Love Affair with Mi Gente
José Antonio Burciaga The Inside and Outside of the Tortilla
Antonio Mejías-Rentas A.K.A. Pablo – The Joke’s on Us
Félix Pérez The Politically Incorrect Campus Candidate
Patricia Guadalupe Good Spanish Carries a Good Price Tag
Carlos Morales How Some Policemen & I Spent My Summer Vacation
Steve Padilla Care and Feeding of the Triceratops Piñata
Joe Torres An Encore March for Bert Corona
Kay Bárbaro Ma, They’re Calling Me Names

Héctor Ericksen-Mendoza
Mexican Mother in a Whirling World

Héctor Ericksen-Mendoza, our son, wrote this piece as a composition about his mother Sebastiana while attending George Washington University. At my urging in 1980, he reworked it for Hispanic Link as a Mother’s Day piece, with his four brothers and sisters
chipping in with a few observations of their own. I had persuaded Héctor to abandon his California job with Dionicio Morales’ Mexican American Opportunity Foundation
to help launch the Link. He said he’d stay in D.C. for two years to get me started and then “go home to Califas.” He remained as publisher for nearly thee decades, finally heading back this past summer.  I miss him, too. —Charlie Ericksen

We’re writing this as a committee. It’s about Sebastiana, a Mexican mother whose parents communicated in Zapoteco, who herself speaks Spanish, too, and whose children do best in English.  Her world, since coming to the United States 23 years ago, has been as chaotic as a strange language, foreign culture, telephones, doorbells and five children could make it.

She arrived as the bride of an early-day American hippie. In one quick Jeep trip, she swapped barefoot existence on the beaches of a South Mexico village for the broken sidewalks of East Los Angeles.  

The same transition later killed our uncle, her only brother, when he was still in his 20s. They found his body on one of those sidewalks, a block from our house.

But Sebastiana survived and thrived.

Our father often confessed that when he met and married her, he had visions of spending the rest of his life on the village beach, writing and fishing. More probably, fishing and writing. But Héctor’s birth, a few visits by Mexico’s immigration authorities, and no money coming
in convinced him to head north.

Barely 20, Sebastiana arrived in her first pair of shoes and a dress that hid the toes. She came with no schooling at all, and no acquaintance with the conveniences we consider necessities: plumbing, running water, electricity.  Now she tells jokes on herself: how, the second day she was here, she scoured her Lincoln Heights neighborhood for leña, kindling, to put in the gas stove. And how she’d let the radio play and the telephone ring forever because she was afraid to touch them.

As we came along — Danny, Elena, Elsa and finally Carlos — we added to her responsibilities by falling off walls, catching measles, bringing failure notices from school, and demanding excessive amounts of food and love.  

Our father traveled a lot. He seemed to time his trips so crises would occur when he was away. Our mom would have to rise way above her 4-foot, 9-inch height and resolve them alone. 

To our Mexican relatives, we were the rich “norteamericano” side of the family. When someone asked Sebastiana whether she had room for one more — a bright cousin who ran out of schools to attend in South Mexico — the answer was an automatic yes. When we vacationed in Mexico, we usually brought back an extra passenger or two.

They competed for space with the friends my father brought home, buddies whose wives kicked them out or had lost their jobs. Their “overnight” stays on the couch or, if space was limited, on the living room floor, sometimes stretched to weeks. 

Whether they were drinking or sober, Sebastiana would always treat them with the greatest respect. Only after they left would she sort them out for us, telling us emphatically which of their qualities were to be emulated and which were to be scorned.

After 10 years in Los Angeles, we moved a lot, city to city, state to state. Inevitably, our
father would go first — to start a new job; our mother would do the rest, packing, cleaning,
selling the house, calming our anxieties and convincing us that the only reason we
were moving was because an even better life awaited us ahead.

When we reached wherever we were going, she would make certain that her promise became reality. If tortillas or tamales weren’t in supply, she’d make them by hand.

One spring morning, as she marched us through achilly new city to expose us to its wonders, we followed her right-flank command into a vacant lot littered with broken bottles, old newspapers and garbage, straight to a big pile of trash. 

Her short arms flew over her head. “¡Miran, miran! ¡Qúe bonita!” Look, look. How pretty!

She bent over the pile and pushed a tin can aside, exposing a small yellow flower.

A year ago, as is our father’s habit, he found a new job in Washington, D.C., 3,000 miles from Sacramento, where we had finally re-established some roots in college, working or in
Carlos’ case, finishing high school. This time we refused to budge. So he offered us a deal. “You get the house and I get your mother.”

With her usual wisdom, Sebastiana came up with a better solution. To make certain that none of us miss any little yellow flowers, she commutes. And on this Mother’s Day, she’s ours. (Postscript: Sebastiana died of cancer during Christmas week 1996.)

Hispanic Link News Service, 1420 ‘N’ St. NW, Washington,
D.C. 20005-2895
Phone (202) 234-0280; Fax (202) 234-4090
Publisher: Carlos Ericksen-Mendoza
Editor: José de la Isla
National representative: Héctor Ericksen-Mendoza
Capitol Hill editor: Patricia Guadalupe
Reporting: Ariana Ceballos, Jackie Guzmán, Meghan Sweeney, Aaron Sheperd, Jamie Lazaro, Antonio Mejías-Rentas, Maxwell Torney, Charlie Ericksen
Graphics: Armando Manzanares
Translation services: Maribeth Bandas
Institutions $140 Personal $118  Students $59 Trial (13 issues) $40
CLASSIFIEDS: $1.30 per word. Display ads $45 per column inch. Placed by Wednesday, ad will run the following Monday.

The Farmworker Movement Documentation Project

The Farmworker Movement Documentation Project has published a new Website: "Cesar Chavez: The Farmworker Movement 1962-1993: Primary Source Accounts By The Volunteers Who Built The Movement." The address of the Website is:  

Primary source accounts include: essays, music, online discussion, art, photos, video, cartoons, glossary, etc. The publication of the Website marks the 40th Anniversary of the Delano Grape Strike.  LeRoy Chatfield, Director of the Documentation Project, was a farmworker movement volunteer from 1963-1973. 

Diana Rivera 
Chicano/Ethnic Studies Bibliographer
Michigan State University Libraries
100 Library
East Lansing, MI 48824-1048
517-432-6123 ext. 252

Race & Gender in Politics

By Lillian B. Rubin
Source: Dissent magazine

Race and gender—hot topics, even without the recent primary election that pitted a black man against a white woman. With it, they're incendiary. But even a brief look at the historical record tells us how much the past is parent to the present. The conflicting claims of race and gender, the arguments about who has been this society's greatest victim, whose issues are most immediately in need of redress, have been going on for a long time, most notably dating back to the post–Civil War era when the Suffragists confronted this question: Should they support passage of the Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution that would give black men the right to vote while leaving women out?

In language that reflected the heat of the issue, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who had been a strong and consistent voice for the abolition of slavery, told her followers that it was "a serious question whether we had better stand aside and see 'Sambo' walk into the kingdom first." Further, she argued, women voters of "wealth, education, and refinement" were needed to counteract the effect of former slaves whose "pauperism, ignorance, and degradation" could prove a danger to the American political system.

A century later, when President Lyndon Johnson expanded an earlier  affirmative action order to include women as well as men of color, women and blacks once again found themselves in competition for the jobs that were newly open to them. And now again, we've seen race and
gender cross swords in the most passionately contested political primary campaign in history. For those of us for whom the causes of gender and racial equality are inextricably linked, it has meant
difficult and often painful choices. No matter who won, we lost something.

Yet even as I write those words, a "Yes, but . . ." springs to mind as I recall some of the struggles of the early years—what we felt then, how it looks now. I remember the outrage when the famous Virginia Slims cigarette ad appeared in the late 1960s. It featured a smiling—and, of course, beautiful—young woman smoking a cigarette, with a tagline reading, "You've come a long way, baby."

Never mind that we who had been struggling for gender equality didn't think the right to kill ourselves with cigarette smoke was great progress; we weren't in the mood to celebrate because we didn't think we'd come nearly far enough. Now, looking back, I can see that there was a certain truth to the line. We had come a long way from where we started, just as the civil rights struggle brought important, if not fully realized, gains for black Americans. And it's even more true now than it was then.

It was only a little more than forty years ago—well within the living memory of many of us—that the U.S. Supreme Court declared the statutes banning mixed-race marriage (laws that had been on the books since 1661) unconstitutional. In that same decade, federal law, for the first time in history, prohibited discrimination in employment based on race and sex.

The gains in the courts and the legislatures notwithstanding, racism and sexism were rampant. Civil rights workers were murdered, black Americans were still being denied the right to vote (still are in some places), a married woman couldn't get a credit card in her own name,and even for the young male revolutionaries of the time, equality and justice didn't mean the women with whom they worked, studied, and slept. In one of the most shameful incidents of that period, women were jeered off the stage at the national convention of Students for a Democratic Society with catcalls designed to keep them in their place, which, for the men, was on their backs, at the coffee machines, or
ironing their shirts.

Four decades later, we witnessed the extraordinary, exhilarating—and, yes, sometimes aggravating—spectacle of a black man and a white woman competing to carry the Democratic Party banner into the next presidential election. Yes, four decades is a long time to wait, and
for Hillary Clinton's supporters who dreamed of a woman in the White House next year, it has been maddening to find that the wait will be even longer.

We'll argue into eternity about just how much of a part misogyny played in Clinton's defeat—how much the irrational hatred she generates in some quarters is related to sexism, how much to what I
think of as "Hillaryism," and how much the product of an early misguided campaign strategy that leaned so heavily on the past. At the very moment when Americans—their economic, social, and cultural nerves rubbed raw by a half-century of identity politics and nearly eight years of a failed and divisive administration—were yearning for a different future, the Clinton campaign kept asking them to look back.

Into that longing for something new, something that would bring back some sense of hope, of unity, something that would call to us to end the angry divisiveness and forge another way, stepped Barack Obama—a young, charismatic, biracial, post–baby boomer newcomer who spoke the
language of change and sang a song that told us we were all one, and that together we could reach the mountaintop. In offering a vision of a people united by a shared identity and the common bonds that are our heritage, he mesmerized a nation.

HOWEVER DIFFERENTLY others may see and analyze the trajectory of these two campaigns, it seems undeniable that the role of race and gender in politics today is a far cry from the simple and brutal sexism and racism we knew in the past. So it's worth stepping back from the fray and widening the lens to ask, What impact have these two difficult and contentious areas of our social life had in this political season?

The answer, I think, is a lot and a little. Clinton's gender both helped and hindered her, just as race played a role in Obama's campaign for good and ill. It was gender that brought to Clinton large
numbers of women who might well have been Obama supporters had he been in a contest against a man. Race led equal numbers of blacks and many whites to Obama who surely would have been Clinton supporters against almost any white man. And it was both gender and race—the historic
nature of this election and these candidates—that fostered the media attention (some might say "frenzy") that helped give both candidacies such immediacy.

This simple calculation is itself a big statement about how far we've come on the issues of race and gender. Certainly, gender and racial stereotypes are still with us and create real problems for those who would try to climb past the barriers put before them. But it also may not be too far off to suggest, as Geraldine Ferraro did rather clumsily about Barack Obama, that neither he nor Hillary Clinton would have been contenders if it weren't for their race and gender.

Would the progressive politics of John Edwards have gotten so little attention from Democrats if he hadn't been up against a white woman and a black man? We can blame the media for turning them into superstars and drowning out other voices, but that could only happen because of the electrifying reality that one of these two was the likely candidate of the Democratic Party.

It takes nothing from Obama's or Clinton's talents, or their qualifications to wear the mantle of the presidency well, to suggest that it wasn't just a contest between two people that drove worldwide
interest in this election and brought to the polls the largest number of voters in the history of American primary campaigns. It was race and gender as embodied in these two particular people that generated the excitement. For they represented something new in American politics, something earlier generations never believed could happen—if, that is, they ever even thought about it—and they are, therefore, symbols who stand for something much larger than themselves.

Clinton and her supporters complained that the media were tougher on her than on Obama because the overt expression of sexism is more socially acceptable than racism—a charge that has some merit. The silence was deafening when someone from a right-wing, Clinton-hating organization asked John McCain, "How do we beat the bitch?" and he answered, "Excellent question!" It's safe to say that he wouldn't have dared reply so cavalierly to a similar question about Obama that used
the "n-word." Indeed, it's likely that no matter what the questioner's feelings about the possibility of a black man as president, he wouldn't have spoken them with such ease and assurance that he would
give no offense.

Such sexist episodes and comments are infuriating, and there's no excusing them. But it's also true that gender cut both ways in this election. Clinton herself brought gender front and center into her
campaign, and neither she nor her staff or surrogates were shy about playing the gender card, whether in presenting herself as the gutsy, take-no-prisoners trailblazer fighting the cause of all women against great odds or as a victim with complaints about sexist bias, whether in the media, on the debate stage, or about "the boys" who were "piling it on." We can argue about whether her complaints were valid, were pumped up to suit the politics of the moment, or both. But there's not much doubt that together these images served to stir the passions and outrage that brought women to her side.

IN CONTRAST, from the beginning Obama, mindful of the racial tensions awaiting a black man reaching for the presidency, emphasized his biracial background and quite consciously presented himself as a person who transcends racial categories. And it seemed momentarily possible that he could pull it off, that America was ready to make peace with its agonizing racial history. His race was rarely mentioned openly in the national media, not even after his surprise win in Iowa—one of the whitest states in the union.

But the subtext of race lay just below the surface, waiting to explode. As he piled up victory after victory, scurrilous racist sniping appeared all over the Web; the Clintons vented their anxiety
about the unexpected threat he posed with subtle and not-so-subtle racial references; and a video of words taken from various sermons given by Obama's former pastor, Jeremiah Wright, burst on the scene.

Suddenly, white racial anxieties rose from the ashes of hope. Never mind his white mother and grandparents, never mind his charismatic appeal or his own more complex biracial sense of identity. Barack Obama became a black man who tapped responses ranging from wariness to
outright racial hostility—an effect that holds steady months later, with polls showing that somewhere around three in ten whites say that his skin color makes a difference in whether they can vote for him. And as it became increasingly clear that Obama would be the nominee, campaign staffers and surrogates began to report a rising rate of ugly racist incidents in the field, the word assassination was spoken aloud, and what was background became foreground, as many Americans, white and black, found themselves living with the fear that a white bullet would stop him.

But the influence of race and racial definitions isn't limited to white sensibilities. In his book Shadows of Race and Class, Raymond S. Franklin argues that the respectable, educated, black middle class are forever "shadowed" by the dominant images of the behavior and stereotypes that define the black poor and underclass. That shadow, Franklin argues, follows blacks wherever they go as they're caught between their own black identity and their anxieties not to be seen as "them," those "others" who cast a shadow of discomfort, if not actual shame.

It's in this shadow, I believe, that we find some deeper understanding of Barack Obama's public presentation of self. For it's not only white racism that accounts for some of the difficulty he has had with white working-class voters, but his own internalized "shadow," his anxieties, not about who he is but about how he will be seen. After a lifetime of creating a public presence and identity that defies the stereotypic images of black men, he's caught between competing demands—the internal need to maintain the distance between himself and the shadow and the political need to present himself as "everyman." The bind, then, is this: If he sticks with that public persona, as he has, he's characterized as an elitist, one who can't relate to ordinary people. If he softens the image, leaves behind his contained manner (Some call it uptight or arrogant, but would it look like that if he were white?), and exchanges his $2,000 suit, crisp white shirt, and perfectly knotted tie for a more casual look, he risks becoming a reminder of those other black men, those guys who speak black English and before whom women clutch their purses more tightly to their sides.

THIS ISN'T just a problem for American blacks. It's the cost of wearing a stigmatized identity. The educated German Jews who immigrated in the mid-nineteenth century and assimilated fully into
American culture found themselves shadowed and shamed by the presence later of the alien culture and behavior of large and visible numbers of Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe. For it's nearly inevitable that, when those of different race, ethnic, or religious backgrounds are stereotyped, it's the most visible that defines the entire group. So, if some young black men commit crimes, or the 9/11 terrorists were Muslim, all blacks and all Muslims are tarred with the brush.

The same is true for women. None of us is wholly free from the shadows of the stereotypical images that have defined women for so long. It's at least partly why Hillary Clinton has such a hard time finding the balance between intellect and emotion, between the tough, hard-hitting fighter and the compassionate woman. She's stuck with women's classic double bind that, despite the gains of the last few decades, remains very much in force. If she fights like a man for what she wants, she's
too fueled by raw ambition; if she doesn't, she's not strong enough to be commander-in-chief.

This, then, is one snapshot of our times and the complications andcontradictions that infuse the issues of race and gender in politics today. Others may interpret it differently, but one thing is certain: Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton are the living embodiment of our success in conquering some of the worst aspects of gender and racial bias, while their campaigns—the fears, the biases, the anger, the prejudices they have evoked—remind us of what has yet to be done. Each side has some legitimate complaints, but together they have blazed a trail that will make it easier for those who will surely come after them.

Lillian B. Rubin is with the Institute for the Study of Social Change,
University of California, Berkeley. She is a sociologist, psychologist, and author of numerous books, the latest of which is 60 on Up: The Truth about Aging in America (Beacon Press, 2007).

Sent by Dorinda Moreno



Extracted by Rafael Ojeda (Tacoma, WA) Lists follow: 

U.S. WW II ARMY SILVER STAR Hispanic Recipients
U.S. WW II NAVY CROSS Hispanic Recipients

U.S. ARMY KOREA SILVER STAR Hispanic Recipients
U.S. ARMY VIET NAM SILVER STAR Hispanic Recipients







Army, Navy Cross and Air Force Cross are the second highest Military Combat medals, just below the Medal of Honor. Hispanic recipients: 

This list was compiled by Rafael Ojeda (Tacoma,WA) (

Complied from: members web site. (Index list and citations are in three different sections.) I added the Rank, War, hometowns and other medals awarded to the names. Please join and support the great work of "Home of Heroes". I hope that this list will encourage other to add more names, citations and photos to these lists. Thank you.

Distinguished Service Cross Recipients:

Aguirre, Jimmy Army SP5thC Viet Nam (VN)
Allen, Terry De La Mesa Army LTC VN El Paso, TX
Alvarado, Leonard L. Army SP4thC Bakerfield, CA
Anaya, Fred (KIA) Army PFC
Barela, Felix Army SP4thC
Barrios, James Army SP4thC Lemoorse, CA
Blaz, Juan Army Sgt Major Korea 
Bustamente, Manuel C. Army PFC Broderick, CA
Camacho, Issac (POW) Army SFC VN Fabens, TX
Cano, Pedro Army PVT WW II
Cardenas, Ricardo Army _____ Korea El Paso, TX
Cardenas, Richard Army Capt Korea Puerto Rico (PR)
Cartagena, Modesto Army Sgt Korea PR
Castro, Ignacio H. Army SSGT WW II
Castro, Luis F. Army PFC WW II
Chavez, Gabriel Army ___ WW II Porter County, TX
Cisnereros, Luz Army PFC (Silver Star and Purple Heart)
Colon, Hector E. Army 2nd Lt VN Chicago, IL
Conde-Flacon, Felix M. Army SSGT VN Chicago, IL
Conejo, Lino T. Civilian, Capt WW II
Conteras, Albert Donisio, Jr Army Sgt ______ NY, NY
Cordova, Lawerence Army Sgt Korea
Cruz, Emigdio Army Major WW II
Cruz, Enrique C. Army SSGT VN
DeAnda, Alfred P. Army 2nd Lt Marquette, MI
DeHerrera, Willie B Army PFC WW II
Delgado, Francisco G. Army PFC _____ Conejos, CO
Delgado, Manuel Army PFC WW II
Diaz, Victor F. Army 1st Lt Korea NY, NY
Dominguez, Francisco L. Army PFC WW II
Duran, Jesus S. Army SP4thC VN
Espinoza, Victor H. Army Cpl Korea
Estrada, Bernadino Y. Army PVT WW II Tucson, AZ
Estrada, Esteban D. Army PFC VN Poteet, TX
Estrada, Gilberto C. Army PVT WW II Santa Cruz, CA
Estrada, Willie N. Army SGT Korea Alamogordo, NM
Fabrega, Salvador Army Technical 5th Class WW II
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Page 2
Fernandez, Henry Army PFC WW II Santa Cruz, CA
Fernandez, Manuel, Jr USAF Lt Col Korea Keywest, FL
Fergueroa-Melendez, Efrain Army ___ VN
Florez, Manuel H. (KIA) Army CPL Korea Los Angeles, CA
Gallardo, Macario, Jr Army PVT WW II El Paso, TX
Gallardo, Robaert Army Capt Korea NY, NY
Gandara, Joe Army PVT WW II Los Angeles, CA
Garcia, Amado, Army ____ WW II Acomita, NM
Garcia, Candelario Army SGT VN
Garcia, Eliseo Army SGT Korea Benalillo, NM
Garcia, Fortunato (POW) Army SGT WW II Denver, CO
Garcia, Grabiel Army PVT WW II Sommerville, TX
Garcia, Gregorio Army MSGT VN Los Angeles, CA
Garcia, Joseph Andrew (MIA) Army SP4thC WW II Ely, NV
Garcia, Julio P. Army SFC WW II
Garza, Andres Army SFC VN
Gataino, Issac Army CPL WW I Chicago, IL
Gevara, Albert Jose Army CPL Korea Denver, CO
Gombas, Nicholas (MIA) Army Capt Korea Kern, CA
Gomez, Joe P. Army PFC WW II
Gomez, Eduardo Army SGT Korea
Gonzalez, Florentino (POW) Army PFC Korea Albany, NY
Gonzalez, Benjamin Army ____ WW II Watrous, NM
Gonzalez, Julian Army PFC WW II Edinburg, AZ
Gonzalez, Manuel S. Army SGT WW II Born: Corpus Christi, TX Hometown:Wayne,MI
Gonzalez, Ray B. Army CPL WW II Korea Wayne County, MI
Gozar, Jose P. Army A. Army Air Corps ____ WW II
Granado, John Army CPL WW II Richmond, CA
Griego, Simon N. (MIA) Army SGT Korea Mariposa, AZ
Guermero, Epifanio Army PVT WW II Ventura, CA (2-Bronze Stars & 4- Purple Hearts)
Guerrero, Juan F. Army CPL Korea
Guevara, Jesus J. Army SP4thC VN
Guitierrez, Andres Army 1st LT VN
Hernandez, Frank Army SGT WW II Los Angeles, CA
Hernandez, Guzman M. Army PVT Korea PR
Hernandez, Pauline E. (KIA) Army PVT Korea
Hernandez, William M. Army Lt. Colonel WW II Westmont, NJ
Herrera, Fernando Q. Army SP4thC _____
Lara, Salvador J. Army PFC WW II Riverside, CA (Bronze Star & 2-Purple Hearts)
Lechuga, Martin Army SP4thC VN San Antonio,TX
Lerma, Rosadrio Valencia Army PFC WW II Pasadena, CA
Lopez, David Army SSGT WW II
Lopez, Erasmo E. Army CPL Korea
Lopez, Gabriel R. Army 1st LT WW II
Lopez, John Edward, Jr (MIA) Army SFC WW II
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Page 3 DSC
Lopez, Manuel T. Army SFC VN Oshkosh, WI
Lopez, Marganito G. Army PFC WW II
Malave-Rios, Abelaedo Army First SGT VN NY, NY
Manuel, Herman Army PFC WW II
Manuel, John R. Army SGT Korea Evaneline, LA
Manuel, Thomas Army PFC WW II
Martinez, Albert V. Army SSGT WW II
Martinez, Augustin Army CPL WW I Aztec, NM
Martinez, Domingo Army PFC WW II
Martinez, Gabriel R. Army 1st LT WW II
Martinez, Joseph R. Army PFC WW II
Martinez, Lauriano Army PVT WW I Colmar, NM
Medina, Rumaldo Amry PVT WW II
Medina, Severo Army First SGT WW II
Mendez, Louis Gonzaga, Jr. Army Lt Colonel WW II Fall Church, VI
Mendoza, Henry R. Army PFC WW II
Mendoza, Manuel Verdugo Army SSGT WW II Miami, AZ
Mendoza, Samuel S. Army PFC WW II
Montez, Benito, Jr. Army PVT Korea Travis Co. TX
Moralez, Edward Army PVT WW II Alameda, CA
Moralez, Frank (KIA) Army PFC WW II Polk County, MN
Negron, Juan E. Army MSGT Korea PR
Nieves-Laguera, Fabien Army CPL Korea PR
Noriega, Belisario Army _____ Korea PR
Orosco, Earnest D. Army 1st LT WW II
Ortiz, Concepcion Army PVT WW I Eagle Pass, TX
Ortiz, Raymond Army SP4thC VN
Pacheco, Roberto, Jr. Army MSGT Korea Los Angeles, CA
Padilla, Alfred B. Army SGT WW II
Pagan-Lozada, Wildredo Army SFC VN NY, NY
Pena, Ambrosio Army 1st LT WW II
Pena, Mike C. Army MSGT Korea El Paso TX
Perdomo, Oscar F. Army Air Corps 1st LT Korea Born:El Paso, TX Hometown:L.A., CA
Perez, Danel Flores, Jr. SP4thC VN Marthis, TX
Perez, Gines Army Lt Colonel Korea
Perez, Jack R. Army Air Force 2nd LT WW II Los Angeles, CA
Perez, Jessie F. Army SGT Korea Harris County, TX
Perez, Joseph M. Army SP4thC VN
Pina, Frank Davis Army Capt VN Monclair, CA
Ramirez, Edwardo T. Army PFC WW II
Ramirez, Lorenzo, Jr. Army PFC WW II
Ramirez, Ramiro Army First SGT VN PR
Ramirez, Romero M. Army TSGT WW II Ventura, CA
Renteria, Jess T. Army Technical SP4th C WW II
Renteria, Rudolph Sotelo Army SP4thC ______ San Jose, CA
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Page 4 DSC
Reyna, Frank F. Army Technical 5th Class WW II
Rios, Ricardo L. Army SP4thC VN
Rios, Alfred R. Army SSGT ______
Rocha, Frank Carpa Army CPL Korea PR
Rodela, Jose Army SFC VN
Rodriguez, Clifford R. Army MSGT Korea Santa Clara, CA
Rodriguez. Enrique P. Army Capt VN
Rodriguez, Francisco Army SSGT WW II
Rodriguez, Johnny C. Army PFC WW II
Rodriguez, Reinaldo Army PFC VN Guanica, PR 
Romero, Artencio Amry SFC VN
Romero, Max J. Army PFC WW II
Rosas, Guillermo Army PVT WW II
Salas, Raimundo Army PVT WW II
Sanchez, Thomas Josheph H. Army MSGT VN Pasadena, CA
Santa Cruz, Jose Angel Army PFC VN Glendale, CA
Santos, Alferdo M. Army Capt WW II
Saracino, Frank DePaul M. Army SGT VN Collin, Co
Serrano, Conrad N. Army PVT WW II Harris County, TX
Silva, Augustine Army PVT WW II
Solis, Marcelo Army PVT WW II
Sosa, Aristides Army CPL VN
Sosa, Roberto Army CPL Korea Stanton, KS
Soto, Eugene Army PFC WW II NY, NY
Torres, Joseph R. Army PFC WW II
Urbano, Isidro D. Army 1st Lt Korea San Francisco, CA
Urenda, Manuel Army CPL WW II
Valencia, Armando Army CPL WW II
Vera, Miguel A. Army PVT Korea PR
Villa Rosa, Paul Herman (MIA) Army SFC VN Lake Tahoe, CA
Villareal, Raul Army SSGT VN
Villasenor, Gonzalo (KIA) Army SP4thC VN Ft Worth, TX
Zabala, Manuel R. Army PFC WW II Monebello, CA

Page 4 of 4 DSC


U.S. ARMY WW II SILVER STAR  Hispanic Recipients:
We need the Citations to identify their ranks and hometowns. 
This list of 17 pages was compiled by Rafael Ojeda (
from "Home of Heroes" web site.

Page 1
Abrego, Manel B 
Acompora, Joseph P
Acededo, Robert E
Acosta, Gabriel E
Acosta, Miguel Q
Acosta, Robert J
Acosta, Robert M
Acuna, Raymond
Adamec, Luis J
Adamo, Andrew R
Adamo, Arturo
Aguilar, Abel
Aguilar, Edward J
Aguilar, Jesus
Agustin Marcon V
Alaniz, Leandro
Aluno, Heracleo
Alargon, Amador
Alcantara, Candido, Jr
Aluaraz, Romon
Alejandro, Harry
Alfonso, Alfred
Alfonso, de Mello
Alfreda, Nicholas
Almarz, Jose R
Almedia, Louis R
Almedia, Henry
Almendras, Alejandro
Almocera, Pedro
Alonso, Fernando J
Alonzo, John J
Alvanos, Anthony
Alvarado, Joseph F
Alvardo, Matilde
Alvarez, Daniel V
Alvarez, Frank
Alvarez, Guillemo
Alvarez, Oscar J
Alvizo, Alejandro L
Amador, Monico C
Amanna, Angelo
Amaro, Frank
Amato, Joseph C
Page 1 of 17 WW II Army Silver Star

Page 2
Amato, Ralph, Jr
Amato, Vincent S
Ancira, Florentino
Anselmo, Joseph R
Aponte, Victor D
Aquilino, Frank
Aquino, Frank
Aragon, Andres A
Aranzaso, Alberto B
Arrujo, Alfred S
Araujo, Luis H
Aravia, Robert
Archuleta, Jose T
Arciga, Alejandro
Arevalo, Raul
Argente, Silvio
Armendariz, Victor E
Armentano, Frank
Arruda, William T
Aspiras, Mariano
Aurechio, David
Auseto, Placido
Avalos, Anthony V
Avila, Albento
Avila, Jesus E
Avila, John H
Avila, Manuel B
Avila, Urban P Army SSGT WW II Clearwater KS
Azcona, Fidel P
Azemar, Leon
Azzoto, Victor R
Baca, Ignacio 
Baca, Pete J
Bacazos, Joseph J
Banta, Antonio
Barcelo, William D
Bardelas, Eugenio, Jr
Barrenengoa, Jorge
Rarrera, Catarino
Bentancourt, Raymond
Boaz, Thomas M
Bordalba, Basilio
Caballero, Antonio
Calderon, Jose H
Calderon Arnulfo S
Camina, Armando
Compos, Arthur, Jr
Page 2 of 17 WW II Army Silver Star

Page 3
Compos, Francis T
Compos, Herman D
Canale, Luis M
Canale, Mario
Canalez, Armando
Cano, Candelario R
Cano, Marvin l
Cardenas, Pedro M
Cardenas, Raul T
Carrillo, Joseph
Carrillo, Angel
Carrillo, Eligio C
Carrillo, Meregildo
Castaneda, Avelvino
Castaneda, Edward v
Castaneda, Francisco
Castaneda, Gilbert S
Castano, Frank F
Castellano, Joseph J
Castellano, Peter P
Castillo, Faustino
Castillo, Ines G
Castillo, Jesus
Castillo, Porfirio
Castro, Alfonso A
Castro, August J
Castro, Dominic
Castro, Eugenio
Castro, Ignacio H
Castro, Joe S
Castro, John R
Castro, Leland
Castro, Max
Castro, Ralph G
Castro, Robert R
Catalano, Louis
Catalano, Sam
Cervantes, Lawrence
Cervantes, Manuel V
Cervantes, Robert L
Cervantez, Jose G
Charcon, Ezequiel, Jr
Charcon, Phillip N
Chapa, Juan B
Chapas. Louis G Army CPL WW II Brooklyn, NY
Chavez, Alfonso E
Chavez, Alfonso L
Page 3 of 17 WW II Army Silver Star

Page 4
Chavez, Daniel (2 SS)
Chavez, Ernest L (2 SS)
Chavez, Fred R
Chavez, Jesus
Chavez, Joseph V
Chavez, Mariano R
Chavez, Procopio G
Chavez, Raymond C
Chavez, Rodolfo
Ciro, Sebastiano
Cisnero, Luz A (2 SS)
Conterras, Manuel M
Conterras, Miguel
Conterras, Willie
Cordero, Virgil
Cordova, Jose P
Cordova, Louis
Cornez, Noel L
Cortez, Clyde A
Cortez, James W
Cortez, Jesus A
Cortez, Monico J
Cortez, Salvardore
Cruz, Anthony 
Cruz, Jose R
Cruz, Manuel J
Cruz, Maltilde
Cruz, Presiliano
Cruz, Raymond
Cruz, Vicente S
Cuellar, Eusebio
Dias, Antonio Goncalves
Diaz, Domingo
Diaz, Frank
Diaz, Jorge A
Diaz, Manuel
Diaz, Robert T
Diaz, Roman A (2 SS)
Diaz, Vitiano V
Enriquez, Jesse B
Enriquez, Ramon J
Esperon, Candido
Espinosa, Fred N Army CPL Colorado
Esponilla, Alejandaro C (2 SS)
Esposito, Eugene
Esposito, Frank R
Esposito, Joseph 
Page 4 of 17 WW II Army Silver Star

Page 5
Esposito, Mario A
Esposito, Michael T
Esposito, Robert M
Esqueda, Alberto
Esquivel, Ezequiel
Esquivel, Michael A
Estrada, Lorenzo
Estrada, Louis H
Estrada, Louis R
Estrada, Trinidad G
Estrada, Ynalcio P
Estrella, Edmund
Evangelista, Maurice C
Evangelista, Phillip A
Eziooro, Altivo Antonio
Fechenda, Enrico C
Federico, Frank B
Fernandes, Joseph R
Fernandez, Felix V
Fernandez, Louis
Fernandez, Manuel B
Figueriedo, Antonio
Figueroa, Joseph J (2 SS)
Figueroa, Ross
Flores, Candelario
Flores, Hipolito
Flores, Isable M
Flores, Jesus C
Flores, Joseph C
Flores, Marcelino
Flores, Mickey L
Flores, Simon
Flores, Manuel C
Florez, Manuel C
Fonseco, Pedro
Gaceta, Andres
Gallegos, Fred F
Gallegos, Telesforo
Galvan, Eusebio Army PFC WW II Santa Ana CA (2 SS)
Galvan, Louis
Galvan, Norris C
Garcia, Alejo
Garcia, Alfonso
Garcia, Amarante
Garcia, Anthony E
Garcia, Condeloro B
Garcia, Carlos 
Page 5 of 17 WW II Army Silver Star

Page 6
Garcia, Daniel
Garcia, Eluterio
Garcia, Enrique L (2 SS)
Garcia, Ernesto 
Garcia, Fernando C
Garcia, Francisco G
Garcia, Frank
Garcia, Genaro
Garcia, George
Garcia, John J
Garcia, Jose J
Garcia, Joseph
Garcia, Juan
Garcia, Juan E
Garcia, Louis, Jr
Garcia, Manuel P
Garcia, Martin
Garcia, Mike J
Garcia, Natividad
Garcia, Nicholas M
Garcia, Ramiro D
Garcia, Raymond D
Garcia, Raymond P
Garcia, Reynaldo
Garcia, Robert E
Garcia, Roberto S
Garcia, Santiago
Garcia, Sergio
Garcia, Willie
Garza, Alvar G
Garza, Bonnie C
Garza, Carlos
Garza, Justo
Garza, Robert R
Garza, Sam
Garza, Saragoza
Garza, Willie
Gatano, Joseph A
Gambos, Alex
Gomez, Felix J
Gomez, Glynn C
Gomez, Joe
Gomez, Joseph N
Gomez, Manuel
Gomez, Mariano M
Gomez, Oscar J
Gomez, Raul 
Page 6 of 17 WW II Army Silver Star

Page 7
Goncalves, Joseph M
Gonsalvez, Joseph
Gonzales, Albertino V
Gonzales,Alfred C
Gonzales, Anseimo, Jr Army PFC WW II Pueblo, CO
Gonzales, Augustine, Jr
Gonzales, Bernardo
Gonzales, Doroteor H
Gonzales, Edubigen L
Gonzales, Emiliano
Gonzales, Epifino
Gonzales, Frank A
Gonzales, Gonzalo J
Gonzales, Henry G
Gonzales, Ignacio E
Gonzales, Joe I
Gonzales, Louis G
Gonzales, Pablo F
Gonzales, Raymond
Gonzales, Salvador
Gonzales, Thomas
Gonzales, Vincent G
Gonzales, Walter R
Gonzalez, Arnoldo
Gonzalez, Felipe N
Gonzalez, Gilberto (2 SS)
Guerra, Armado N
Guerra, Pedro
Guerrera, Alfred N
Guerrero, Rafael M
Guevarra, Jose
Guevarra, Jose C
Guillermo, Leopoldo
Guitierrez, Edward O
Guitierrez, Ernest P
Guitierrez, Hilario M
Guitierrez, Oudon P
Guitierrez, Ramon Y
Guitierrez, Raymond G
Guitierrez, Sixto F
Hernandez, Alfonso
Hernandez, Antonio F
Hernandez, Arthur A
Hernandez, Enrique C (2 SS)
Hernandez, Gregorio D
Hernandez, Ignacio
Hernandez, Jesus
Page 7 of 17 WW II Army Silver Star

Page 8
Hernandez, Joe M
Hernandez, Manuel P
Hernandez, Pedro
Hernandez, Rafael T
Hernandez, Ralph
Hernandez, Ricardo A
Hernandez, Thomas E
Herrena, Arturo
Herrera, Francisco J
Herrera, Jimmie L
Herrera, John
Herrera, John R
Herrera, Juan L
Herrera, Trinidad C
Herrera, William P
Hurtado, Emhermenio L (POW) Army Tech 4th Class, WW II Pueblo, CO
Laquinta, John A
LaQuinta, John A
Lara, Elias H
Lara, Ernest R
Lara, Estaban R (2 SS)
Lara, Guadalupe
Lara, Julian M
Lara, Leandaro, Jr
Leal, Elmer E
Leal, Raul G
Leija, Carlos Army PFC WW II Weslaco, TX
Lemos, Robert G
Lemos, Salvardor T
Lengoza, Walter A
Lopez, Andrew P
Lopez, Antonio M
Lopez, Billy
Lopez, Conrado M
Lopez, David V
Lopez, Douglas
Lopez, Edwardo
Lopez, Encarnacion B
Lopez, Guadalupe L
Lopez, Joe
Lopez, John A
Lopez, Juan R
Lopez, Leo F
Lopez, Lionel A
Lopez, Manuel G
Lopez, Margarito G
Lopez, Maurice R
Page 8 of 17 WW II Army Silver Star

Page 9
Lopez, Rafael L
Lopez, Ramon V
Lopez, Robert J
Lopez, Roberto L
Lopez, Salvardor R
Lopez, William A
Lovato, Dan J
Lovato, Theodore
Lozano, Harold J
Lozano, Ollie J
Lucero, Adam
Lucero, Bias J
Lucero, Carlos G
Lucero, Celestino E
Lucero, Gaspar
Lucero, Maximiliano C
Lucero, Orlando T
Lucio, Francisco O
Lucio, Jesus M
Lujan, Juan A
Lujan, Pete
Maestas, Ernest M
Maldonado, Lupe F
Maldonado, Manuel
Manjarez, Dolores
Martinez, Albert
Martinez, Albert V
Martinez, Alfonso C
Martinez, Alfred G
Martinez, Alfredo L
Martinez, Andrew J
Martinez, Angel G
Martinez, Antonio J
Martinez, Arthur E
Martinez, Benjamin, Jr
Martinez, Clarence F
Martinez, Eddie
Martinez, Edward
Martinez, Emilio
Martinez, Felix R
Martinez, Florial M
Martinez, Fred T
Martinez, Gabriel R
Martinez, Jean
Martinez, Joe
Martinez, Joe A
Martinez, Joe S
Page 9 of 17 WW II Army Silver Star

Page 10
Martinez, John H
Martinez, Jose A
Martinez, Jose V
Martinez, Luther
Martinez, Manuel
Martinez, Max
Martinez, Max R
Martinez, Mike A
Martinez, Mike M
Martinez, Nicolas D
Martinez, Ramiro
Martinez, Raul H
Martinez, Raul M
Martinez, Raymond
Martinez, Roberto M
Martinez, Trinidad (2 SS)
Medina, Jesus Luis
Medina, Jose D
Medina, Manuel H
Medina, Salvador N
Mendes, Jose Egidio
Mendez, Antonio A
Mendez, Warren
Mendoza, Felix M
Mendoza, John F
Mendoza, Joseph
Mendoza, Ralph
Mendoza, Simon C
Mercado, Felix V
Misa, Antonio, Jr
Molinar, Gilberto
Molino, Gene V
Montoyo, Carlos
Montoyo, Leandro S
Morales, Agapito B
Morales, Arthur S
Morales, Dionicio C
Morales, Edward (2 SS)
Morales, Jesus H (2 SS)
Morales, Leo P
Morales, Manuel S
Morales, Marcel S
Morales, Miguel B
Morales, Mike M
Morales, Octavio G
Morales, Oscar M
Morales, Reymundo
Page 10 of 17 WW II Army Silver Star

Page 11
Moreno, Antonio
Moreno, Candelario
Moreno, Eddie R (3 SS)
Moreno, Jessie M
Moreno, Raymond
Moreno, Ricardo R
Moreno, Santiago B (2 SS)
Munoz, Amador D
Munoz, Apolonie F
Munoz, Thomas
Navarrette, Gabreil (2 SS)
Navarro, Arcardio
Nieto, Ramon L
Nieves, Antonio
Nobrega, Herbert A
Nunez, Joseph
Nunez, Abraham
Nunez, Jonas
Nunez, Raymond
Nunez, Raymond M
Obera, Hector R
Ochoa, Arnoldo B
Ochoa, Ernesto R
Ochoa, Louis
Ochotorena, Enrique
Orona, Jose C
Oroseo, Baldemar
Orozco, Emil M
Ortiz, Joe G
Ortiz, Porfiro
Ortiz, Joe G
Ortiz, Rudy
Ozuna, Elias G
Pacera, Alfred (2 SS)
Pacera, Fred
Pacheco, Jacabo E
Pachella, Albert
Pagano, Anthony M
Pagano, Stephen C
Palacio, Patrick L (2 SS)
Palermo, Albert A
Palermo, Nicholas L
Palma, Rodolfo
Palo, Angelo
Palo, Jalmer
Pascual, Nicolas
Paz, Henry
Page 11 of 17 WW II Army Silver Star

Page 12
Paz, John Army PFC WW II Los Angeles, CA
Pena, John T
Pena, Pedro
Perelez, Alberto
Perelez, George
Perelez, John C
Perelez, Macario
Perelez, Rudolph B
Perdomo, Louis O
Perea, Preciliano B
Pereira, Teobaldo
Perera, Cyril R
Perez, Alexander
Perez, Alfonso J
Perez, Alfredo F
Perez, Augustine
Perez, Edward
Perez, Gonzalo A
Perez, Henry
Perez, Jesus
Perez, Julio
Perez, Leonardo
Perez, Omar J
Perez, Pedro
Perez, Ralph
Perez, Ralph R
Perez, Rodrigo
Peron, Albert A
Perosa, Anthony
Perra, Francis J
Picaso, Jose H
Pico, Anthony
Pineda, Orlando F
Pinto, Maacilio Luiz
Portero, Bartholomew
Portillo, Rosendo V
Prado, Benito
Puente, Raymond L
Puerta, Frank J
Quintana, Jose
Quintana, Joseph
Quintero, Benny
Rael, Augutin
Rael, Henry J
Rael, Zacarias
Ramirez, Aristo
Ramirez, Caesar G
Page 12 of 17 WW II Army Silver Star

Page 13
Ramirez, Joseph D
Ramirez, Manuel G
Ramirez, Melquradez
Ramirez, Machael A (2 SS)
Ramos, Agripino V
Ramos, Domingo (2 SS)
Ramos, Juan H
Razon, Jose
Requeina, Celso
Requeina, Joseph
Renteiria, Antonio
Reyes, Antonio V
Reyes, Manuel F
Reyes, Reynolds R
Reyes, Vivian
Riojas, Eugenio S
Rivera, Aristides
Rivera, Edward A
Rivera, Jeromino A
Rivera, Manuel R
Rivera, Thomas
Rivera, Vicente
Rivera, Zoilo F
Robles, Jose M L
Robles, Marcelino
Robles, Roberto B
Rodrigues, De Aguirre Onofre
Rodrigues, Charles J
Rodrigues, Edmund P
Rodrigues, George
Rodrigues, John C
Rodriguez, Cleto l
Rodriguez, Frank
Rodriguez, Frank
Rodriguez, Gregorio R
Rodriguez, Jose
Rodriguez, Joseph
Rodriguez, Juan M
Rodriguez, Phillip
Rodriguez, Ramon E
Rodriguez, Telesforo T
Rodriguez, Thomas E
Rodriguez, Tom F
Rodriguez, Ignacio
Rodriguez, Roque
Rojas, Frank Z
Page 13 of 17 WW II Army Silver Star

Page 14
Rojas, Quirino R
Rojero, Julian R
Romano, Francisco A
Romano, Joseph
Romano, Peter
Romeo, Angelo G
Romeo, Tony L
Romer, De Los L
Romero, Albert
Romero, Alvin
Romero, Damacio C
Romero, Jose C
Romero, Manuel
Romero, Marcelino
Romero, Paul S
Romero, Walter L
Romero, William H
Romo, Jacinto
Romualdez, Miguel
Romulo, Carlos P
Roncalio, Teno
Rosa, Ralph
Rosales, Crispin
Rosales, Everett
Rosanio, Victor
Roscon, Roberto G
Rubino, Mario
Rubino, Peter J
Rueda, Jose P
Ruelas, Domingo
Ruiz, Deodato S
Ruiz, Ernest C
Ruiz, Gabriel
Saenz, Frank
Saenz, Muricio
Saenz, Thomas
Salaz, Onecimo
Salazar, George L
Salazar, Juan L
Salazar, Louis
Salazar, Mersed S
Salazar, Pete S
Sale, Alejandro
Sanchez, David
Sanchez, David I
Sanchez, Enrique E
Sanchez, Joe
Page 14 of 17 WW II Army Silver Star 

Page 15
Sanchez, Leonardo
Sanchez, Marcus, P
Sanchez, Mariano
Sanchez, Raymond
Sanchez, Ricardo Z
Sanchez, Rodolpho V
Sanchez, Roman
Sandoval, Porfirio M
Sandoval, Ramon
Sandoval, Santos A
Sandoval, Transito E
Santa Cross, Marco
Santero, Peter J
Santos, Fermino
Santos, Jacinto
Santos, James J
Santos, Serafin
Santos, Terry R
Sarabia, Gilbert C
Sarabia, Jose A
Serafin, Benjamin E
Serafin, Floyd A (2 SS)
Sauseda, Charle A (2 SS)
Serna, Alejandro R
Serna, Philip J
Sevilla, Leon
Servilla, Victor J
Silva, Anthony J
Silva, Antonio
Silva, Elwood
Silva, Evaristo
Silva, Francis (2 SS)
Silva, Gilberto
Silva, Jain Andrade
Silva, Lawrence
Silva, Louis J
Silva, Manuel
Silva, Manuel V
Silva, Raymond A
Silva, Ruben Z
Silva, Walter J
Solis, Henry D
Solis, Florencio
Solis, Olegario C
Soto, Frank E
Soto, Gomeindo
Soto, Robert
Page 15 of 17 WW II Army Silver Star

Page 16 
Sousa, Alfred A
Sousa, Edward J
Teja, Henry J
Tejada, John M
Tejada, Thomas
Telinda, Benjamin E (2 SS)
Tijerina, Charlie T
Tijerina, Eusebio P
Tijerina, Manuel Z
Torres, Edward B
Torres, Flavio R
Torres, Henry
Torres, Pete
Torres, Radames
Torres, Rafael
Torres, Rosendo R
Torrez, Almundo R
Torrillo, Alfonso
Trejo, Jesus
Trejo, Jose R
Trevino, Alfredo
Trevino, Joseph H
Trevino, Raul
Trujillo, Antenio
Trujillo Clifford
Trujillo, Eusebio
Trujillo, Jesus
Trujillo, Juan P
Trujillo, Simplicio
Trujillo, Tony
Trujillo, Ysabel
Uribe, Afonso A
Vaca, Frank
Vaca, John C
Valcazar, :Lupe
Valdespino, Emilio J
Valdez, Fernando B
Valdez, Joe
Valdez, Jose
Valdez, Lando
Valdez, Maximo T
Valdez, Thomas P
Valencio, Henry U
Valentino, Anthony
Valentino, Joseph R
Valenzuela, Jose
Valenzuela, Olegario 
Page 16 of 17 WW II Army Silver Star

Page 17
Vallez, Manuel L
Vallez, Salvardor
Vargas, Alex
Vargas, William L
Vargas, Fidencio
Vargas, Jose, Jr
Vargas, Sipriano R
Vasquez, Enrique
Vasquez, Frank C
Vasquez, George S
Vasquez, Gilbert E
Vasquez, Gilbert G
Vasquez, Thomas M
Vega, Albert
Vega, Albert M
Vega, Gordon P
Vega, Jose
Velasco, Constancio
Velasco, Julian R
Velasquez, Edward
Velasquez, Joe M
Ventura, James j
Villafranca, Fredrick j
Villalobos, Antonio M
Villaamo, Fernando M
Villamore, Jose
Villareal, Pete, Jr
Villogaz, Ysmael
Xavier, Anthony F
Ybarra, Luis G
Ybarra, Tony P (2 SS)
Zamora, Ezequiel C
Zamora, Ishmael A
Zamora, Tony P
Zapata, Genovevo G
Zapata, Marshall P
Zapata, Reynaldo C
Zupancio, Rudolph P
Zurzola, Nicholas

Page 17 of 17 WW II Army Silver Star Recipients.


List compiled by Rafael Ojeda
(Please see "Home of Heroes" web site for credits).


Avera, Benjamim W, Jr USAAF PVT 9th AF Los Angeles CA 1945
Cortez, John C USAAF PVT Contra Costa, CA 1944
Garcia, Jesse USAAF
Garcia, Robert USAAF
Gomez, Manuel US Army Air Corps PVT Fresno, CA 
Gomez, Manuel A. USAAF Aviation Cadet NY, NY
Gonzales, Francisco USAAF 15th AF 1945
Gonzales, Fred E USAAF 
Gonzales, Raymond USAAF
Gonzales, Roberto USAAF
Gonzales, Sus J USAAF
Gonzales, Julio R USAAF
Gonzalez, Manuel E USAAF 5th AF 1943
Lopez, Donald S USAAF 1st LT 14th India,Burma,China (Flying Tigers) Hillsborough, FL 
Oliveto, James USAAF India,Burma,China 1944
Ortega, John USAAF 9th AF
Pacheco, Joe B USAAF 5th AF 1943
Paz, Michael B USAAF 5th AF 1943
Perdomo, Oscar F USAAF 1st LT Bron: El Paso, TX Hometown:Los Angeles, CA 
Rodriquez, Alexander G USAAF 9th AF 1943
Sanchez, Joseph F USAAF 9th AF 1945
Sanchez, Manuel R USAAF 15th AF 1945
Sanchez, Santor S USAAF 8th AF 1944
Silva, Frank L USAAF 15th AF Santa Barbara, CA 1944
Silva, Jesse USAAF PVT 15ht AF Detroit, MI 1944 
Silva, Luis (MIA-KIA) USAAF SGT Marin, CA
Tejada, Alexandra M USAAF 15th AF 1943
Vicente, Manuel E USAAF 9th AF 1944
Villanueva, Jenaro USAAF 5th AF 1943 NY, NY

WW II NAVY CROSS Medal Hispanics Recipients:
This list was compiled by Rafael Ojeda ( from the Home of Heroes web site.

Many of these recipients need their citations. If any of you know any of these WW veterans,
Please sent info to Homes of Heroes and Maggie Rivas "Oral History" at the U of TX, Austin.

Abel, Rondo G. USMC CPL WW II
Aragon, Abel Bidal USMC PFC WW II
Benavides, Adofo USMC PFC Korea Born:Valley Tello,TX Htwn:Ault, CO
Cardillo, Mario Joseph H. USMC PFC Korea NY, NY
Esquibel, Dominic USMC LCPL Iraq Freedom NM
Estrada Manuel A USMC CPL Viet Nam (VN) Phonix, AZ
Fajardo, Theodore USMC 2nd LT WW II Ridgewood, NJ
Fernandez, George E. Navy _____ WW II
Gabaldon, Guy L USMC PFC WW II Los Angeles, CA
Gomez, Ernesto USMC LCPL VN Pasadena, CA
Gonzalez, Daniel G USMC CPL VN Corpus Cristi, TX 
Guerra, Victor J USMC SSGT VN 
Hernandez, Nicholas USMC CPL WW II El Paso, TX
Herrera, Felipe USMC LCPL VN San Antonio, TX
Leal, Armando Garza Navy Hospital Tech 3rd Class VN San Antonio, TX
Lopez, Jose G USMC SGT VN Ft Douglas, UT
Lopez, Steven D USMC PFC VN Spring, MA
Marquez, Equterio J Navy Phamacist Mate 3rd Class VN San Antonio, TX
Marquis, Joseph T.O. (KIA) Navy Chief Aviation Machinist Mate WW II Los Angeles, CA
Martinez, Marco A USMC CPL Operation Iraq Freedom
Martinez, Angel (KIA) USMC PFC VN NY, NY
Montoya, Scott A USMC SGT Operation Iraq Freedom 
Nunez-Juarez, Ramon (MIA) USMC PFC Korea San Sebastian, PR
Ortiz, Pierce (Peter) J USMC Major WW II born: NY, NY (2-Navy Crosses)
Ortiz, Robert Manuel USMC PFC WW II born: La Jollaca, AZ Hometown: Tucson AZ
Perez, Joseph B USMC LCPL Ops Iraq Freedom Houston, TX (Silver Star & Purple Heart)
Pichon, Luis Alfonso, Jr USMC ____ VN
Rivera, Jose L USMC LCPL VN Waukegen, IL
Rivera_Soto, Mayora USMC CPL VN Philadelphia, PA
Rodrigues, Joe G, Jr (KIA) USMC SGT VN Dallas, TX
Romero-Nieves, Enrique (MIA) USMC PFC Ferderiksted, PR
Serrano, Robert Navy ____ Korea El Paso, TX
Solis, Thomas USMC CPL VN Pasadena,CA
Toro, Rafael USMC PVT 2nd Nicaraguan Campaign Humacao, PR
Valdez, Phil Isadore (KIA) Navy 3rd Class Dixon, NM
Valencia, Eugene Anthony Navy Capt WW II )[pilot] San Francisco,CA 
Vargas, Salvador USMC PVT WW II Born:Rancho Santa Fe, CA Htwn: Cardiff by the Sea,CA
Vasquez, Jesus Roberto (KIA) USMC SGT VN El Paso, TX
Viale, Angelo Army ___ WW II San Francisco, CA
Villa, Albert M USMC SGT WW II Born:Pinos Altos,NM Htwn: Los Angeles, CA
Page 1 of 1 Navy Cross Recipients


U.S. ARMY KOREA SILVER STAR Hispanics Recipients:
This list of 10 pages was compiled by Rafael Ojeda (
from "Home of Heroes" web site ( 
Please submit corrections or additional info or names to Home of Heroes 
and Maggie Rivas at the U of TX at Austin "Oral History Project".


Abego, Manuel Army ___ Korea
Acevedo, Manuel J Army MSGT Korea Puerto Rico (PR)
Acevedo, Olivio Francisco Korea PFC PR 2 Silver Stars (2 SS)
Acota, Felix R Army MSGT Korea PR (2 SS)
Acosta, Renaldo E Army CPL Korea PR (2 SS)
Acosta, Roy Army ___ Korea
Acosta-Garcia, Jaime Army ___ Korea
Alarcon, Daniel Army ___ Korea
Aldrete, Joseph Army ____ Korea
Alfonso, Albert F Army ___ Korea
Almanza, Daneil R Army ___ Korea
Almeida, Ramond Army ___ Korea
Alonzo, Francisco, Jr Army ___ Korea
Alonzo, Nichie Army ___ Korea
Alvarado, Timoteo M Army ___ Korea
Alvarez, Raymond L Army ____ Korea
Alves, Manuel A Army ___ Korea
Alves, Vasco J Army ____ Korea
Amaro, Vidal Rodriguez Army 2nd LT Korea PR (2 SS) (Photo in Educator website)
Amy, Armando Henry Army 1st LT PR
Ancheta, Carlos F Army 1st LT Korea PR (2 SS)
Ancheta, Enrique C Army CPL Korea Anctil Geral, PR (2 SS)
Angel, Rivera Army ___ Korea
Aponte_Escribano, Angel Army 1st LT PR
Aragon, William Army ___ Korea
Archuelta, Jose L Army ___ Korea
Arenda, Vernell Army ___ Korea
Aruz-Perez, Catalino Army CPL Korea PR
Atencio, John R Army ____ Korea
Ayala, Issac Paz Army MSGT Korea PR
Baca, Joseph B Army Capt Korea (2 SS)
Bacarro, Florentino Army ___ Korea
Balajadia,Maval P Army ___ Korea
Balinas, Antoino Rodriguez Army 2nd LT Korea PR
Balzac, Rafael E Army MSGT PR
Baptista, D L S Army ____ Korea
Barata, Ventura Army CPL ___ (2 SS)
Bardo, Freddie V Army ____ Korea
Becerrial-Saaveara, Miguel Korea PFC PR
Beitencourt, Ernest D Army SGT (2 SS)
Bonett-Moralez, Carlos (KIA) Army SGT Korea PR
Bueno, Cayetano Army CPL Korea Colorado
Burciaga, Robert C Army SFC (2 SS)
Page 1 of 10 Army Korea Silver Star

Page 2
Caballero, Albino Army CPL (2 SS)
Calbes, Frank J Army ___ Korea
Cabral, Peter Army ___ Korea
Cadena, Robert Army ____ Korea
Calderon, Gilberto Army CPL Korea PR
Caldino, Luiz P Army ___ Korea
Camacho, Jesus A Army ___ Korea
Camacho-Santana, Pedro Army PFC PR
Camoesas, Alfonso J Army _____ Korea
Canada, Charles C Army ____ Korea
Canales, Rudolph M. Army _____ Korea
Caraion-Rivera, Jose A Army PFC
Carillo, Manuel R Army ____ Korea
Carreras, Roberto Army PFC Korea
Cartagena, Victor Army MSGT Korea PR
Casias, Nemencio L Army Capt Korea 
Castellano, Frank V Army ____ Korea (2 SS)
Castillo, Agustine Army PFC Korea (2 SS)
Castorena, Julian Army ____ Korea
Castro, Charles H Army _____ Korea
Castro, Laruro G Army CPL Korea (2 SS)
Cavazos, Ricahrd E Army, 1st LT Korea Kingville, TX
Cena, Librado Army ____ Korea (2 SS)
Centeno, Manuel C Army CPL Korea (2 SS)
Cerro, Nicola Army ___ Korea
Chalupa, Eldon J Army ____ Korea
Chavez, George E Army ____ Korea
Cirino-Rivera, Arthur D Army PFC Korea PR
Claudio, Thomas Rosa Army PFC Korea PR
Coldren, Robert H Army 2nd LT Korea PR (2 SS)
Colon-Fonseco, Candido Army SFC Korea PR (2 SS)
Colon-Maldonado, Pedro J Army ____ Korea
Conti, Pasqueaga, Jr Army 1st LT Korea
Conterras, Liandro Army ___ Korea (2 SS)
Cordero, Juan C Army Colonel Korea PR
Cordova, Daniel P Army ____ Korea
Cortez, Clyde Army _____ Korea
Costa, Albert J Army ___ Korea
Costa, James M Army ____ Korea
Costa, William A Army ___ Korea
Cutillo, Emanuel P Army ____ Korea
Davila, Gilbert V Army ____ Korea
Davila, Juan Corero Army ___ Korea
DeJesus, Gilbert Army ____ Korea
De La Garza, Jose G Army ____ Korea
De La Rocha, Daniel Army ____ Korea
Delgado, Rudolph, Jr Army ____ Korea
Page 2 of 10 Army Korea Silver Star

Page 3
Delgado-Gonzalez, Ramon Army ____ Korea
Della, Mele M Army MSGT Korea (2 SS)
De Maria, Anthony Army MSGT Korea (2-SS)
Dena, Librado Army SGT Korea (2-SS)
Dias, Manuel P, Jr Army ___ Korea
Diaz, David Rivera Army ___ Korea
Diaz, Donald D Army ____ Korea 
Diaz, Fernando Army SFC Korea PR (2-SS)
Diaz, Jose M Army ____ Korea
Diaz, Phillip R Army ____ Korea
Diaz, Victor F Army ____ Korea
Diaz-Diaz, Raul A Army _____ Korea
Domingues, Henry Army PFC Korea (2-SS)
Escobar, George L Army ____ Korea
Escribano-Aponte, Angel Army 1st Lt Korea PR
Espinosa, Jose Army _____ Korea
Estavillo, Peter A Army ____ Korea
Estrada, Mario Army 1st LT Korea CA
Evangelista, Raymond Army ____ Korea
Feliciano, Herberto Army MSGT Korea PR
Fernandes, Pedro P Army ____ Korea
Fernandez, Alberto R Army ____ Korea
Fernandez-Casiano, James R Army ____ Korea
Fernandez, Robert C Army ____ Korea
Figueroa, Felix Army CPL Korea PR (2-SS)
Figueroa, Felix Perez Army PFC NY
Filberto, Rivera Army ______ Korea
Flora, Frank G, Jr Army ____ Korea
Flores, Ramiro G Army _____ Korea
Fonseca-Candido, Colon Army SFC Korea PR
Forty, Juan F Rodrigues, Army PFC Korea PR
Fox, Alonzo P Army ____ Korea 
Funaro, Nicholas M Army _____ Korea
Galindo, Joe Army CPL Korea (2-SS)
Gallando, Robert Army 2nd LT Korea (2-SS)
Galuan, Esuebio Army PFC Korea Santa Ana, CA (2-SS(
Gamboa, Ruben Army ____ Korea
Garbade, Albert Martin, Jr Army 1st LT Korea NY
Garcia, Cayetano Army SFC Korea (2-SS)
Garcia, Cipiano C Army ____ Korea
Garcia, Eliseo Army _____ Korea
Garcia, Ganlos Army ____ Korea
Garcia, George Army ____ Korea
Garcia, Jose Vicente Army CPL Korea NY
Garcia, Raul G Army ____ Korea
Garcia_Perez, Santiago Army PFC Korea
Garcia, Sefferino Army PFC Korea
Page 3 of 10 Army Korea Silver Star

Page 4
Garcia, Steven M Army ____ Korea
Garcia-Torres, Arturo Army _____ Korea
Garza, Adam R Army _____ Korea
Gaspard, Geroge W, Jr Army _____ Korea
Gaspard, Steven Army SFC Korea (2-SS)
Gavilan, Melquiades Army 1st LT Korea FL 
Gelabert, Joseph L Army PFC Korea PR
Gombos, Nicholas Army 1st LT Korea (2-SS)
Gomez, Abraham Army ____ Korea
Gomez, Jesus H Army ____ Korea
Gomez, John Army PFC Korea (2-SS)
Gomez, Paul R Army ____ Korea
Gonzales, Alfonso Army PFC Korea (2-SS)
Gonzales, Angel L Army ______ Korea
Gonzales, Feavio R Army ____ Korea
Gonzales, Fred B Army _____ Korea
Gonzales, Jesus Army _____ Korea
Gonzales, Joe P Army ______ Korea
Gonzales, Louis M Army MSGT Korea NY (Purple Heart)
Gonzalez, Rafael Leon Army 1st LT Korea PR (2-SS)
Gonzalez Ray B Army CPL Korea NY (DSC)
Gonzalez, Ramon Delgado Army PFC Korea PR (could be: Ramon Gonzalez-Delgado)
Gotay, Jose Ramon Army SFC Korea PR
Granados, Nicanor J Army _____ Korea
Guerra, John Army _____ Korea
Guerrero, Toney T Army ____ Korea
Guffain, Thomas H Army Capt Korea PR
Guzman, Salbador, Army ____ Korea
Hernandez, Arier S Army ____ Korea
Hernandez, Derry P Army 1st LT Korea (2-SS)
Hernandez, Ismael Jimenez (KIA) Army SGT PR
Hernandez, Joe B Army _____ Korea
Hernandez, Manuel B Army ____ Korea (2-SS)
Hernandez, Mercedes Army _____ Korea
Hernandez, Pedro N Army _____ Korea
Hernandez, Raymond Army ____ Korea
Hernandez, William Army PFC Korea PR
Hernandez-Guzman, Badel Army ____ Korea
Herrera, Roberto Army _____ Korea (2-SS)
Herrera, Rudolfo P Army ____ Korea
Iglesia, Victor Manuel (KIA) Army MSGT Korea PR
Ignacio, Paul Army _____ Korea
Isidro-Lopez, Rios Army ____ Korea (could be: Lopez-Rios, Isidro)
Janca, Louis E Army ______ Korea
Jarvela, Wallace N Army ____ Korea
Jimenez, Felix Army SFC Korea PR
Jimenez-Hernandez, Ismael (KIA) Army SGT Korea PR (2-SS)
Page 4 of 10 Army Korea Silver Star

Page 5
Juarez, Roger V Army ____ Korea
Julio, Rivera Army ____ Korea (could be: Rivera, Julio)
Lagarimas, Fernando, Jr Army ____ Korea
LaQuatra, Santo J Army _____ Korea
Lara, Steve C Army SGT Korea TX
Lavergne, Paul Army 1st LT Korea PR
Leal, Albaco, SR Army ____ Korea
Leal, Augusto G Army ____ Korea
Lee, Ramiro Army _____ Korea
Lemos, Angel T Army ____ Korea
Leon, Estanisledo Army _____ Korea
Leon-Gonzalez, Rafael Army 1st LT Korea PR (2-SS)
Leos, Felix P Army ____ Korea
Lizardi, Victor Army PFC Korea PR
Lobello, Louis V Army ____ Korea
Lohelo, Reino M Army ____ Korea
Lopez. Baltazzar M Army ____ Korea
Lopez, Carlos Army ____ Korea
Lopez, Conrad Army ____ Korea
Lopez, Conrad F Army ____ Korea
Lopez, Eli Army ____ Korea
Lopez, Elias Army _____ Korea
Lopez, Gilbert L Army ____ Korea
Lopez, Jose C Army ____ Korea
Lopez, Jose D Army MSGT Korea PR
Lopez, Manuel A Army _____ Korea
Lopez. Philip Army ____ Korea
Lopez, Raymond A Army ____ Korea
Lopez-Ruiz, Diego Army ____ Korea
Loquiao, Moises G Army _____ Korea
Lovato, Climaco L Army ____ Korea
Lucero, Ralph L Army ____ Korea
Lucero, Seferino Army ____ Korea
Lucia, Eugene F Army ____ Korea
Lugo, Enrique Vega Army CPL PR (Photo with Gen. J.C. Correro)
Lugo, Oscar Roman Army PFC PR
Lugo-Ortiz, Fred Army ____ Korea
Lujan, Alex M Army ____ Korea
Lujan, Benjamin Army ____ Korea
Lujan, Tim M Army ____ Korea
Macedo, Angelo O Army ____ Korea
Marada, Charles V Army _____ Korea
Maira, Angelo J Army _____ Korea
Maisonet-Zeno, Edwardo Army ____ Korea PR
Maldonado-Matos, Luis M Army CPL Korea PR
Mangas, Cloye L Army _____ Korea
Marquis, Leo H Army _____ Korea
Page 5 of 10 Army Korea Silver Star

Page 6
Marrero, Luis M Army SGT Korea PR
Martinez, Alexander O Army _____ Korea
Martinez, Alfonso Rodriguez Army CPL Korea PR
Martinez, Cuillaula B Army _____ Korea
Martinez, Ernest L Army ____ Korea
Martinez, Fredrico Army MSGT Korea PR
Martinez, Fernando Army ____ Korea 
Martinez, Herbert Army ____ Korea
Martinez, Jose R Army 1st Lt Korea PR
Martinez, Julio Army SFC Korea PR
Martinez, Manuel O Army ____ Korea
Martinez, Ramon P Army ____ Korea
Mata, George Army ____ Korea
Matos, Luis E. Maldonado Army CPL Korea PR (L. E. Matos-Maldonado)
Maricio, Paul F Army _____ Korea
Medeiros, Edmond B Army ____ Korea
Medina, Joy S Army ____ Korea
Medina, Loy L Army ____ Korea
Medina-Olivera Heriberto Army SGT Korea PR (H. Olivera-Medina)
Medina-Pineiro, Pedro Army SGT Korea PR
Mena, Ambrose Army ____ Korea
Mendez, Albert M Army ____ Korea
Melia, Carmelo P Army ____ Korea
Miranda-Rosado, Domingo Army CCL Korea PR
Mireles, Lee O Army CPL Korea TX
Mojica, Antonio Pizarro Army CPL Korea PR (A. Mojica-Pizarro)
Molina, Demetrio R Army ____ Korea
Molina, Val T Army ____ Korea
Montalvo-Marine, Narvaez (KIA) Army PFC Korea PR (N. Montalvo-Narvaez)
Montes-Claros, Melicio Army ____ Korea
Montesinos, Jose Army _____ Korea
Montoya, Enriques Army ____ Korea
Morales, Carlos Bonet Army SGT Korea PR (C. Morales-Bonet)
Morales, Golbert Army ____ Korea
Morales, Pedro Army ____ Korea
Morales, Valente Army ____ Korea
Morales, Albert P Army ____ Korea
Navaro, Guadalupe Army _____ Korea
Navarre, Vincent J Army ____ Korea
Navarro-Rodriguez, Jose E Army PFC Korea PR
Nieves, Felix G Army PFC PR (2 SS)
Nieves-Laguer, Fabian Army ____ Korea
Nocita, John W Army ____ Korea
Ocasio, Angel Luis (KIA) Army SFC Korea PR
Olivio, Francisco Acevedo Army PFC Korea (F. Acevedo-Olivio)
Olmeda, Hipolito Army MSGT Korea PR
Orama, Guillermo L Army _____ Korea
Page 6 of 10 Army Korea Silver Star

Page 7
Orana, Albert F Army ____ Korea
Ortega, Raul, Army _____ Korea
Ortegon, David D Army ____ Korea
Ortez, Ferdinand Lugo Army ___ Korea (F. Lugo_Artez)
Ortiz, Guadalupe Army ____ Korea
Ortiz, Jose N Army 1st LT Korea PR
Ortiz-Cosme, Juan Army ____ Korea
Ortiz-Perez, Domingo Army MSGT Korea PR
Ortogaro, Antonio Army ____ Korea
Oyolo, German (KIA) Army SGT Korea PR
Pabalan, Carlito R Army ____ Korea
Pacheco, Rafael Rodriguez Army PFC PR (R. Rodriguez-Pacheco)
Padello, Alfred Army ____ Korea
Pagan, Benjamin Army 1st LT Korea NY
Pagan, Federico, Jr Army MSGT Korea PR
Pagan, Pedro Army CPL Korea PR
Palermo, Eugene B Army ____ Korea
Panaro, Joe M Army _____ Korea
Pascua, Vicente Army _____ Korea
Paz-Ayala, Isaac Army MSGT Korea PR
Perelta, Manuel R Army ____ Korea
Perdomo, Jose L Army ____ Korea
Perez, Camerino Army ____ Korea
Perez, Gines Army Lt Colonel Korea (DSC)
Perez, Jofrey Army ____ Korea
Perez-Garcia Santiago Army PFC Korea PR
Pina, Ramon B Army ____ Korea
Pineiro, Hector E Army 1st LT Korea PR
Plata, Frank J, Jr Army ____ Korea
Prado, Fidensio S Army ____ Korea
Prado, Lorenzo L Army ____ Korea
Rameriz, Alejandro Army ____ Korea
Ramirez, Frank Army ____ Korea
Ramirez, Lucio, Jr Army ____ Korea
Ramirez, Orland, Jr Army ____ Korea
Ramirez, Pablo Army 2nd LT Korea PR
Ramirez, Rosendo Army ____ Korea
Ramon, Alicea Reyes Army ____ Korea (A. Reyes-Ramon)
Ramos, Fred M Army ____ Korea
Ramos, Ralph Army ___ Korea
Ramos-Cruz, Luis M Army ____ Korea
Reichard, Donato Roman (KIA) Army SFC PR (D. Roman-Reichard)
Reyes, Jesus S Army ___ Korea
Reyes, Vidal Army SGT Korea PR
Reyna, Andrew E Army ____ Korea
Rivera, Fermin G Army ____ Korea
Rivera, Feliberto Army ____ Korea
Page 7 of 10 Army Korea Silver Star

Page 8
Rivera, Julio Army ____ Korea
Rivera, Manuel C Army ____ Korea
Rivera, Norberto Army ____ Korea
Rivera, Noreto Army PFC Korea PR
Rivera-Carrion, Jose A Army PFC Korea PR
Robles De Jesus, Ismael (KIA) Army PFC Korea PR
Rodriguez, Arcadio Santiago Army PFC Korea PR (A.Santiago-Rodriguez)
Rodriguez, Bonifacio Army ___ Korea
Rodriguez, Carlos Army PFC Korea
Rodriguez, Clifford R Army MSGT Korea Santa Clara, CA (DSC)
Rodriguez, Jesus Army ____ Korea
Rodriguez, Jose E Navarro Army PFC Korea PR (J. E. Navarro-Rodriguez)
Rodriguez, Luis R Army 1st LT Korea PR
Rodriguez, Pablo S Army ____ Korea
Rodriguez, Pedro Army MSGT Korea PR (2 SS)
Rodriguez, Robert S Army ____ Korea
Rodriguez-Amaro, Vidal Army 2nd LT Korea PR (2 SS)
Rodriguez-Balinas, Antonio Army 2nd LT (2 SS)
Rodriguez-Forty, Juan F Army PFC Korea PR
Rodriguez-Mantinex, Alfredo Army PFC Korea PR
Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Guillermo Army PFC Korea PR
Rodriguez-Sepulveda, Dario Army SFC Korea PR (D. Sepulveda-Rodriguez)
Rojas, Trinidad Army ____ Korea
Romano, Florentino V Army ____ Korea
Romero, Aristeo Army ____ Korea
Romero, Joseph D Army ____ Korea
Romero, Manuel J Army ____ Korea
Rosa, Armando Army CPL Korea PR
Rosa, Valerio Army ____ Korea
Rosa-Claudio, Thomas Army PFC Korea PR
Rosa-Cordero, Marcelino Army ____ Korea
Rosa-Diaz, Hector Army ____ Korea
Rosado, Domingo Miranda Army CPL Korea PR (D. Miranda-Rosado)
Rosario-Lorenzana, Jose Army 2nd LT Korea PR
Rufus, Roy L Army ____ Korea
Ruggiero, Louis A Army ____ Korea
Ruggiero, Orlando Army ____ Korea
Ruiz, Armando Army ___ Korea
Ruiz, Diego Lopez Army ____ Korea (D. Lopez-Ruiz)
Ruiz, Jose T Army ____ Korea
Salas, Frank S Army ____ Korea
Salas, Jose Army ____ Korea
Salcido, Robert Army ____ Korea
Salgado, Frank, Jr Army ____ Korea
Salinas, Jose A Army ____ Korea
Salinas, Reynaldo A Army ____ Korea
Sanada, Aaron M Army ___ Korea
Page 8 of 10 Army Korea Silver Star

Page 9
Sanchez, Jesus A Army ____ Korea
Sanchez, Marcelino F Army ____ Korea
Sanchez, Paul L Army ___ Korea
Sanchez, Ralph J Army ____ Korea
Sanchez, Steve Army ____ Korea
Sandoval, Leo R Army ____ Korea
Santana-Camacho, Pedro A Army PFC Korea PR
Santacroce, Frank A Army ____ Korea
Santiago, Juan H Army ____ Korea
Santiago-Roque, Ramon Army SFC Korea PR
Santos, Antonio Army CPL Korea PR
Sariano, Fred D Army ____ Korea
Serra, Pablo Army SGT Korea NY
Serrato, Jose M Army ____ Korea
Sierra, Eugene A (KIA) Army SGT NY
Sifuentes, Daniel T Army ____ Korea
Silva, Manuel J Army ____ Korea
Silva, Stanley D Army ____ Korea
Sosa, Cayciano Army ____ Korea
Sotelo, John N Army ____ Korea
Soto, Juan C Army ____ Korea
Souza, Manuel C Army ____ Korea
Tadena, Sinffronio H Army ____ Korea
Talon, Prudencio Army ____ Korea
Tedesco, Joseph E Army ____ Korea
Tejeda, Arthur E Army ____ Korea
Todisco, Laawrence S Army ____ Korea
Torres, Angel L Army Capt Korea PR
Turqueza, Arsencio A Army ____ Korea
Urrette, Samuel Army _____ Korea
Uyeado, Isamu Army ____ Korea
Vaca, Marcello Army ____ Korea
Vacarao, James A Army ____ Korea
Valazques, Lorenzo E Army ___ Korea
Valdez, Ernest O Army ____ Korea
Valdez, Isidro S, Jr Army ____ Korea
Valdez, Solomon, Jr Army ____ Korea
Valencia, Henry B Army ____ Korea
Valente, George K Army ____ Korea
Valenzuela, Conuto Army ____ Korea
Valle, Carmelo Army ____ Korea
Vallez, Charlie H Army ____ Korea
Valvo, Francisco A Army ____ Korea
Vanieperen, John, Jr Army ____ Korea
Varela, Rivera A Army ____ Korea
Vasquez, Jose N Army ____ Korea
Vasquez, Malcom A Army ____ Korea
Page 9 of 10 Army Korea Silver Star

Page 10
Vasquez, Noel Army MSGT Korea PR
Vega-Lugo, Enrique Army ____ Korea
Vega-Vega, Monserrate Army PFC Korea PR
Velez, Alfred M Army ___ Korea
Vera, Jose Army 1st LT Korea PR
Virren, Thomas Army ____ Korea
Vidal, Victor Army ____ Korea
Villareal, Jesus, Jr Army ___ Korea
Ybarra, Albert M Army ____ Korea
Ybarra, Mike Army ____ Korea
Zapico, Emilio S Army ___ Korea
Zaragosa, Ignacio Army ____ Korea
Zayas, Pedro J Army MSGT Korea PR
Zeno, Edwardo Maisnet Army ____ Korea (E. Maisnet-Zeno)
Zuniga, Frank P Army ___ Korea

Page 10 of 10 Army Korea Silver Star Hispanic Recipients.



Marines (USMC) Korea Silver Star Hispanic Recipients. List compiled by Rafael Ojeda ( Please see the "Home of Heroes" web sites for Citations.
Their citation web site is under construction, we need to encourage relatives and friends to submit citations to help them complete these files.

Aguirre, Magdaleno SN: 1179883
Ahumada, Lusio C 1292575
Afleo, Aurelio 1160545
Ambrosia, Eugene J O-48426 (Please note: SN with "O" in front if to identify an Officer)
Canzona, Nicholas A O-488558
Carlo-Perez, Vicente O-8067
Conteras, Andrew
Conterras, Narcisco 667186
Cordero-Cantino Felipe 1210569
Cordorva, Enest J 1095693
Del Toro, Isaac 1226847
Diaz, Robert 652150
Garcia, Rudy G 659652 PFC Missouri
Garcia-Moralez, Ruben 1259946 PFC
Gomez, Robert R 1122474
Gonzalez, Jose 1192989
Guitierrez, Manuel F 446508
Lopez, Thomas 1054994
Lopez, Trinidad M 1115746
Luiz, Carl G 63077
Martinez, David 1107585
Martinez, Jacabo L 611696
Martinez, Oliver G 1202806
Narvaez, Montalvo (2-Silver Stars)
Orozco, Joe S 1171060
Orozco, Pete PFC
Pereles, Pedro J 1259612
Perez, Manuel 316137
Perez-Sosa, Ivan J 1287264
Quadros, Frank A 522472
Quiroz, Arturo 633117
Ramirez, Alvaro, Jr 1084040
Ramos, Joe 665716
Rodriguez Gozalez Rafael 1240178 PFC
Rubio, Juan C, Jr 573071
Salazar, Augustine E 1208286 PFC
Sanchez, Aurelio C 6175447 (2-Silver Stars)
Sanchez, Guadalupe L 659868
Trujillo, Enrique C 1076142
Varela, Joe R 625211 CPL 


List compiled by Rafael Ojeda (rsnojeda@ 
Please see "Home of Heroes" web sites for Citations.


Aguirre, Santiago Army PFC Viet Nam (VN)
Camacho, Isaac (POW) Army SFC VN Faens, TX (DSC,2-Purple Hearts & POW medal)
Diaz, Gary Michael (KIA) Army CPL VN Redondo, CA 
Gomez, Luis G (KIA) Army SGT VN
Gonzalez, Ramon (KIA) Army SGT VN
Gonzalez, William Army PFC VN
Marquez, Carlos E Army Sp4th Class VN
Martinez, Alvaro M Army SGT VN
Ortiz, Angel j Army Sp4th Class VN
Ortiz, John (KIA) Army SSGT VN Chicago, IL
Oviedo, Carl M Army PFC VN
Pacheco, Jaime (KIA) Army Sp4th Class VN Hobbs, NM
Reyes, Angel L (KIA) Army PFC VN
Romero, Artencio, Jr Army SFC VN


Hispanic Recipients


Marines (USMC) Viet Nam Silver Star Hispanic Recipients. This list was compiled by Rafael Ojeda ( Please visit the "Home of Heroes" web sites for the Citations.   (I hope that our readers will help in completing these lists in time for the opening of our Hispanic Military Museum in San Antonio,TX)

Aguilar, Vicente, Jr PFC Viet Nam (VN) Hometown: Tulia, TX
Alvarado, Jose J SSGT VN San Juan, PR
Alvarez, Enrique CPL VN El Paso, TX
Alvarez, Robert (KIA) PFC Clint, TX
Anzaldua, Alberto (KIA) SGT VN Santa Rosa, TX
Apodaca, Ramon Lance CLP (LCPL) VN 
Araujo, Espiridion, Jr LCPL VN Harlingen, TX
Arenas, Lorenzo T CPL VN El Paso, TX
Arizmenden, Daniel M CPL VN Holland, MI
Avallos, Manuel, Jr CPL VN Tracy, CA
Baez, Jose M LCPL VN Adjuntas, PR
Cabrera, Alfredo SGT VN NY, NY
Caceres, Edgardo (KIA) LCPL VN Tacoma, WA
Candelario, Rafael A SGT San Juan, PR
Cantu, Andres, Jr CPL VN San Antonio, TX
Castanada, Robert L SGT VN
Castania, Donace W LCPL VN Fresno, CA
Castillo, Alfredo R LCPL VN
Castillo, Charles Richard LCPL VN Detroit, MI
Cerde, Rene CPL VN Fresno, CA
Cerna, Narcisco R , Jr (KIA) CPL VN San Antonio,TX
Chacon, David Andrew (KIA) LCPL Gilcrest, CO
Chacon, Richard S, Jr SGT VN Houston,TX
Chapa, Richard E 1st LT VN San Antonio, TX
Chavarria, Manuel T SSGT VN San Antonio, TX
Chavez, Allen F (KIA) PFC VN Winslow, AZ
Cisneros, Tony A PFC VN Oakland, CA
Conteras, Anselmo CPL VN San Antonio, TX
Cruz, Luis A (KIA) LCPL VN NY, NY
Figuearoa, Dennis C LCPL VN Concord, CA
Flores, Librado SSGT VN San Antonio,TX
Galindo, Benjamin L CPL VN Acampo, CA
Galindo, Herman CPL VN Leadville, CO
Garcia, Richard (KIA) CPL VN Galveston, TX
Gomez, Harold (KIA) CPL VN : East Chicago, IL
Gonzalez, David CPL VN Ventura, CA
Gonzalez, Edwardo J LCPL VN Sinton, TX
Griego, Cresenciano, Jr PFC VN Albuguerque, NM
Hernandez, Jose F CPL VN 
Hernandez, Leonardo SGT VN Midland, TX
Herrera, Manuel (KIA) PFC VN Pueblo, CO
Herrera, Phil A (KIA) LCPL VN Selma, CA
Hinojosa, Juan N, Jr LCPL VN San Antonio, TX
Horcanjo, Robert Albert (KIA) PFC VN Milpitas, CA
Hurtado, Albert Steven (KIA) LCPL VN National City, CA
Limones, Jesus M (KIA) PVT VN Del Rio, TX
Page 1 of 3 Marine Viet Nam Silver Star

Page 2
Lopez, Adrian Salome (KIA) PFC VN San Martin, cA
Lopez, David L CPL VN Austin, TX
Lopez, Felix R SGT VN Denver, CO
Lopez, Joseph PFC VN NY, NY
Lopez, Joseph Paul (KIA) CPL VN Denver, CO
Maldonado, Robert PFC VN Los Angeles, CA
Mangual, Jose M (KIA) PFC VN NY, NY
Martinez, Donacano F Gunnery SGT VN Dallas, TX
Martienez, Jorge (KIA) PFC VN San Antonio, TX
Martinez, Manuel O. MAJOR VN Corpus Christi, TX
Martinez, Robert LCPL VN Garden City, TX
Mascarenas, Alcadio Norber (KIA) LCPL VN Sapello, NM
Mendoza, Albert R CPL VN Fresno, CA
Mondragon, James W PVT VN Houston, TX
Montague, Paul J (POW) VN Anthony, KS (2-SS, POW medal & Purple Heart)
Montez, Frank James (KIA) CPL VN Salinas, CA
Negron, William P CAPT VN Edison, NJ
Navarez,-Oliveras, Jose A SGT VN Fort Brooke, PR
Nunez, Larry B CPL VN
Ortiz, Jose A (KIA) LCPL VN Corpus Christi, TX 
Ortiz, Melecio (KIA) CPL VN Crystal City, TX
Pacheco, Eugenio CPL VN San Antonio, TX
Padilla, Jose M Gunnery SGT VN Los Angeles, CA
Padilla, Rodney J.A. LCPL VN Albuquerque, NM
Palacios, Benjamin, Jr SSGT VN San Francisco,CA
Perez, Ernesto (KIA) PFC VN Rake, Iowa
Perez, Jesus R (KIA) PFC VN Kingville, TX
Perez-Padin, Juan R (KIA) LCPL VN Quebradillas, PR
Perriguey, Charles D, Jr 1st LT VN San Gabriel, CA
Pineiro, Ismael LCPL VN Newark, NJ
Ramirez, Efrain A LCPL VN Bronx, NY
Ramos, Roberto (KIA) LCPL VN Hartford, CT
Rangel, Roberto (KIA) SSGT VN Gonzales, TX
Rayo, Joseph A SGT VN Houston, TX
Rebelo, Joaquin Vaz (KIA) LCPL VN Newark, NU
Renteria, Joe M LCLP VN Brawley,CA
Rios, Domingo, Jr CPL VN Midland,TX
Rios, Henry A LCPL VN Woodland,CA
Rivera, Antonio G CPL VN Denver, CA
Rivera, Virgilion LCPL VN
Rodrigues, David E CPL VN
Romero, Robert (KIA) CAPT VN San Diego, CA
Ruiz, Jose (KIA) CPL VN NY,NY
Sanchez, Jimmy P (KIA) CPL VN Los Angeles, CA
Sanchez, Manuel CPL VN San Antonio, TX
Santos, Ruben SSGT VN Ponce, PR
Serrano, Francisco C LCPL San Jose, CA
Page 2 of 3 Marine Viet Nam Silver Star

Page 3
Serrano, John Rexito (KIA) CPL VN NY, NY
Saurez, John PFC VN
Telles, Jose A SSGT VN El Paso, TX
Torres, Felipe CPL VN Bronx, NY
Trevino, Elias SGT VN Mercedes, TX
Trujillo, Gilardo, Jr SGT VN Albuquerque, NM
Valdez, Roberts PFC VN San Antonio,TX
Valdez, John B (KIA) SGT VN Rocky FT, CO
Valle, Guillermo (KIA) CPL VN NY,NY
Varelas, Alfred Robert CPL VN Springfield, Maryland (Purple Heart)
Vargas, Manuel S, Jr CAPT VN Winslow, AZ (Congressional Medal of Honor)
Vargas, Pedro R LCPL VN Albuquerque, NM
Vasquez, Jesus Robert (KIA) ___ VN El Paso,TX (Navy Cross & Purple Heart)
Vega, Michael C LCPL VN San Francisco, CA
Villabobos, Arthur Garcia (KIA) LCPL VN Compton, CA
Vivilacqua, Theodore R 2nd LT VN Long Beach, CA
Ynda, Benjamin, Jr CPL VN Los Angeles, CA

Page 3 of 3 Marines Viet Nam Silver Star


This list was compiled by Rafael Ojeda ( 
Please visit the "Home of Heroes" web sites for Citations.


U. S. Army (Silver Star medal)
Alvarez, Jose SPC Hometown: West Orange, NJ
Camacho, Eddie SPC Hometown: Bronx, NY
Camacho, Javier SFC Newport Richey, FL
Cebecro, Gildarho SPC 
DeJesus, Angel CWO2 Ponce, PR
Diaz, Jason SSGT NY, NY
Espino, Erasmo, Jr SSGT Eagle Pass, TX
Felix, Bradley M SFC Corpus Cristi, TX (Purple Heart)
Fernandez, Chirstopher PFC Tucson, AZ
Franco, Kenneth R SSGT Queen, NY
Hernandez, Abram SFC Hidalgo, TX (Purple Heart)
Lara, Peter SFC (Purple Heart)
Molino, Christopher A Capt
Morales, Francisco SFC Palm Desert, CA
Nunez, Octavio SSGT 
Rivas, Jose M SGT 
Rodriguez, Jose R SFC
Velez, Jose (Freddy) (KIA) Lubbock TX (Purple Heart)
Villlalobos, Gary SFC Santa Maria, CA

NAVY: (Silver Star)
Fonseca, Luis E Hospital Apprentice Fayetteville, NC (DSC medal)
Rubio, Juan M. Hospital Corp 3rd Class San Angelo, TX

USMC (Silver Star)
Atrain, Mario Lance CPL El Serreno, CA (Purple Heart)
Baptista, Leandro F SGT Miami, FL
Cardenas, Moses LCPL Fullerton, CA (Purple Heart)
Gomez-Prez, Carlos LCPL born: Mexico City, MX Hometown: El Cajon, CA
Gonzalez, Benjamin LCPL El Paso, TX (Purple Heart)
Lopez, Mathew A LT Colonel Chicago, IL
Martinez, Marco CLP Las Cruces, NM
Mendoza, Michael A SGT Tinley Park, IL
Montoya, Scott C SGT Montclair, CA
Navarrette, Jason L SSGT (Purple Heart)
Perez, Joseph B LCPL Houston, TX (Purple Heart)
Reynoso, Yadir G (KIA) SGT Wapato, WA (Purple Heart)
Sagredo, Ismael SSGT Lansing, MI
Tejada, Riayna A (KIA) SSGT NY, NY (Purple Heart)




National Museum of the American Latino
National Hispanic Veterans Museum
The Latino Warrior Foundation
Mutts Like Me by Patricia J. Williams 

National Museum of the American Latino

Dear Friends and Supporters,  
We would like to thank you for your continued support and enthusiasm for the creation of the National Museum of the American Latino! We are very excited to inform you that President Bush has publicly announced his seven appointees to the National Museum of the American Latino Commission. Below you will find the link to the release issued yesterday and a list of the designated appointees.  
The federal legislation signed into law in May 2008 will ultimately form a 23-member Commission to explore the viability of creating a national museum displaying the important contributions of American Latinos to this country in our nation’s capital. House and Senate leadership are working diligently to appoint the remaining 16 Commissioners. We are hopeful the entire Commission will be named soon and we will be sure to communicate any future advancements.  
We are very excited about the progress being made that takes us one step closer to making this dream a reality for all of us. 
Thank you!  
The President intends to appoint the following individuals to be Members of the Commission to Study the Potential Creation of a National Museum of the American Latino:
Anna Regula Haug de Cablik, of Georgia;
 Gilberto Cárdenas, of Indiana;
 Doreen M. Colon Camacho, of Puerto Rico;
 Dorene C. Dominguez, of California;
 José B. Fernández, of Florida;
 Patrick Alexander López Negrete, of Texas;
 Ricardo Romo, of Texas.

National Hispanic Veterans Museum

The purpose of the National Hispanic Veterans Museum, to be built in San Antonio, Texas, is to educate and inform the public of the existence of the many heroic Hispanics who have proudly served, and continue to serve the United States in its military endeavors during our country's history.

This museum will recognize the sacrifice, valor and patriotism of the hundreds of thousands of Hispanic military veterans who have fought and died for this country and continue to make it the greatest place on earth.

Our mission is to create a lasting tribute to those Hispanic men and women who unselfishly gave of themselves while serving this country.
America's wars and the valiant efforts of the Hispanic military personnel who fought them, have profoundly affected the lives of both the service personnel and their families and friends.

It is our vision to promote the understanding and appreciation of the accomplishments and sacrifices of these Hispanic servicemen and women and their community.
We will create a greater public awareness of the significance of these Hispanic military heroes via exhibits in the museum, public outreach, and educational programs. 
We are losing dozens of our veterans on a daily basis, and most of them leave very little, if any, of their stories behind. Therefore, the National Hispanic Veterans Museum will strive to be a repository of the history of past, present, and future Hispanic veterans.

We will house audio and video documentation of our Hispanic veterans for current and future generations to review for general interest and academic research. 
Besides archived collections of military memorabilia, personal letters and photos, the National Hispanic Veterans Museum will provide presentations, photo exhibits, create publications and posters, design a website and produce a video which will promote strong and positive Hispanic role models for our community, but especially for our Hispanic youth. 
This museum is based on the research by author Virgil Fernandez, for his book, Hispanic Military Heroes, and the collections identified by its contributors, focusing on the 42 Hispanic Medal of Honor recipients, Hispanic Astronauts, Admirals and Generals, as well as Hispanic service-women and future Hispanic military heroes.


The Latino Warrior Foundation
Latino Warrior Foundation is about glorifying the warrior, not the war.

Alert, Alert - Uncle Santos needs you! The Latino Warrior Foundation is looking for a few good stories and pictures. We prefer them typed or even on tape. Tell us about how things were back in the day for you, your parents, grandparents, and ancestors and their experience good and bad in the U.S. military. Latino Warrior will begin to post them on our website sometime around November of 2007. We will let you know when yours will be up. Please send two pictures and copies only.

Do not send original pictures, as we cannot return them to you.
The two ways to get them to us are (1) by e-mail at or (2) by regular mail to:
Latino Warrior
310 S. Twin Oaks Valley Road
Suite 107, #220
San Marcos, CA
92078 (760) 510-9472

Editor: The Latino Warrior has lots of information, strongly suggest that you check it out.




'Mutts Like Me' by Patricia J. Williams 

Obama's wry joke about his heritage sparked a new conversation on Americans' muddled notions of race. Patricia J. Williams explains why we're all 'mutts.'

It was surely meant as a wry aside when, speaking about his daughters’ search for a puppy, Barack Obama observed that most shelter dogs are E2mutts like me.” My first thought, however, was: “Ain’t I a mutt, too?”

In fact, of course, we’re all mutts. As humans, we’re all descended from a common Afric an ancestor, and have been mixing it up ever since. And as Americans, we’ve been mixing it up faster and more thoroughly than anyplace on earth. At the same time, we live in a state of tremendous denial about the rambunctiousness of our recent lineage. The language by which we assign racial category narrows or expands our perception of who is more like whom, tells us who can20be considered marriageable or untouchable.

The habit of burying the relentlessly polyglot nature of our American identity renders us blind to how intimately we are tied as kin, as family, and as intimates.

In the United States’ vexed history of color-consciousness, anti-miscegenation laws (the last of which were struck down only i n 1967) enshrined the notion of hypodescent. Hypodescent is a cultural phenomenon whereby the child of parents who come from differing social classes will be assigned the status of the parent wi th the lower standing. There are many forms—most parts of the Deep South adhered to it with great rigidity, in what is commonly called the “one drop and you’re black” rule. Take for example, New York Times editor Anatole Broyard, who denied any relat ion to his darker-skinned siblings and “passed” for most of his adult life: There were many who expressed shock when it was uncovered that he was “really” black. Some states, like Louisiana, practiced a more gradated form of hypodescent, indicating hierarchies of status with vocabulary like “mulatto,” “quadroon,” and “octaroon.” And even today, and despite our diasporic, fragmented, postmodern cosmopolitanism, there is a thoughtless or unconscious tendency to preserve these taxonomies, no matter how incoherent. Consider Essie Mae Washington-Williams, the daughter Senator Strom Thurmond had by his family’s black maid. She lived her life as a “Negro,” then as an “African American,” and attended an “all-black” college. But in her 70s, when Thurmond’s paternity became publicized, she was suddenly redesignated “biracial.” Tiger Woods and Kimora Lee Simmons are alternatively thought of as African-American or “biracial,” but rarely as “Asian-Ameri can.”

In contrast, many parts of Latin America, like Brazil or Mexico, assign race by the opposite process, hyperdescent. That’s when th ose with any ancestry of the dominant social group, such as European, identify themselves as European or white, when they may also have African or Indian parents. As more Latinos have become citizens of the United States, we have interesting examples of this cultural cognitive dissonance: Just think about Beyoncé Knowles and Jennifer Lopez. Phenotypically they look very, very similar. Yet Knowles is generally referred to as black or African American; Lopez is generally thought of as white (particularly among her Latino fan base) or Latina (among the rest of us), but she is never called black or even biracial.

Among Native Americans in the United States there is a combination of both hypo- and hyperdescent, encouraged by the interventionist history of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Anita Hill, for example, is part Creek, but the narrative about her is entirely about African-American origin. And membership in many tribes remains closed to those who have any discernable mixture of African ancestry, but not to those with European ancestry.

All these designations mask the degree to which at least a third of so-called white people in the United States have “secret” or “passed slave ancestors, and the degree to which almost all blacks in the United States have white slave-masters among their grand-parentage. The habit of burying the relentlessly polyglot nature of our American—and human —identity renders us blind to how intimately we are tied as kin, as family, and as intimates.

Patricia J. Williams has been published widely in the areas of race, gender, and law, and on other issues of legal theory and legal writing. Her books include The Alchemy of Race and Rights; The Rooster's Egg; and Seeing a ColorBlind Future: The Paradox of Race. She is a also a columnist for The Nation. 

Sent by Dorinda Moreno

The National Parks: America's Best Idea

Focus: Individuals that helped Promote National Parks
Hispanics Presence is Minor
January 22, Sneak Preview, Salt Lake, Utah Outdoor Industry Association Conference
Western Reserve PBS and Cuyahoga Valley National Park to produce a documentary
PBS History Detectives seek questions to research 

Click to National Parks Articles 

1513 Ponce De Leon and Dry Tortugas National Park
1541 Hernando De Soto, St Petersburg Florida National Park & De Soto National Memorial
George Melendez Wright, National Park Advocate

Editor:  Thanks to Armando Rendon for alerting us to the fact that Burns has produced another documentary.  Considering the exclusion of Hispanics in all of Burns previous efforts, it suggests diligence in preparing for the airing of  “National Parks: American’s Best Idea.” 

Extract of information from PBS Press Release 8/1/2008 Los Angeles, CA
PBS to Air Ken Burns' Documentary About National Parks

Public Broadcasting Service announced today that it will air the National Parks: America's Best Idea, in fall 2009. The 12-hour, six-part documentary series.  Filmed over the course of more than six years in some of nature's most spectacular locales — from Acadia to Yosemite, Yellowstone to the Grand Canyon, the Everglades of Florida to the Gates of the Arctic in Alaska the documentary is nonetheless a story of people from every conceivable background — rich and poor; famous and unknown; soldiers and scientists; natives and newcomers; idealists, artists and entrepreneurs; people who were willing to devote themselves to saving some precious portion of the land they loved, and in doing so reminded their fellow citizens of the full meaning of democracy.

The narrative traces the birth of the national park idea in the mid-1800s and follows its evolution for nearly 150 years. Using archival photographs, first-person accounts of historical characters, personal memories and analysis from more than 40 interviews.  The series chronicles the steady addition of new parks through the stories of the people who
helped create them and save them from destruction.

Among the lengthy cast of characters profiled in the series is James Mason Hutchings, a magazine publisher who was one of the first people to promote Yosemite and who sought to develop a resort hotel on the land; John Muir, a deeply religious mountain prophet who found inspiration in Yosemite and then inspired generations of parks enthusiasts; George Masa, a Japanese immigrant whose photographs of the Great Smoky Mountains in North Carolina and Tennessee served in the fight to protect the region as a national park; Marjory Stoneman Douglas, who persuaded Congress that a swamp in southern Florida, the Everglades, should be set aside as a national park; George Melendez Wright, a park ranger from San Francisco who recognized the need to preserve the parks' wildlife in its natural state; Adolph Murie, a young biologist and protégé of Wright who was instrumental in reforming park policy so that wildlife — even predators — would have the same protections as the land itself; and Stephen Mather, a wealthy businessman who used his
personal fortune and genius for promotion to create a National Park Service.

These historical accounts are paralleled with contemporary stories of people who continue to be transformed and inspired by the parks today. They include Shelton Johnson, who grew up in Detroit, where the national parks seemed distant, unreachable places until he later became a park ranger; Gerard Baker, a Native-American park superintendent whose tribe has long considered the land sacred; Tuan Luong, a Paris-born Vietnamese rock climber and photographer who fell in love with the parks and dedicated himself to photographing all 58 national parks with a large format camera; and Juan Lujan, who grew up in west Texas during the Depression and joined the Civilian Conservation Corps, with which he would help develop Big Bend National Park in Texas. Also included in the film are interviews with best-selling author Nevada Barr, a former park ranger; writer and
environmentalist Terry Tempest Williams; historians William Cronon, Paul Schullery and Alfred Runte; and many others.

In addition to Peter Coyote's narration, The National Parks features first-person voices read by some of America's greatest actors. Tom Hanks reads the voices of several characters in the film, including Congressman John F. Lacey, who helped push a bill through Congress to protect Yellowstone's last wild buffalo herd. Other voices include Andy Garcia, Josh Lucas, Eli Wallach, Campbell Scott, Sam Waterston, John Lithgow,
George Takei, Philip Bosco, Carolyn McCormick, Adam Arkin and Kevin Conway.

Editor:  It appears that in the 40 interviews, two Hispanic stories will be included, George Melendez Wright and Juan Lujan.   

Two other Hispanic names appear in the press release,  Andy Garcia and Peter Coyote.  However  Peter Coyote appears to be a professional name: “On October 10, 1941, Peter Coyote was born Rachmil Pinchus Ben Mosha Cohon in New York City to Ruth (Fidler) and Morris Cohon, an investment banker.   

Sneak Preview, at Outdoor Industry Assn Winter Market Trade Show

On January 22, a sneak preview of the documentary will be aired for the Outdoor Industry Association's industry breakfast, kicking off the Outdoor Retailer Winter Market trade show. The 7 a.m. event is not open to the public.  OIA officials are requiring participants to pre-register at for the limiting seating available at the breakfast.

There is no indication that the colonial histories of the National Parks areas will be included.  This is unfortunate because most areas in the United States were explored by the Spanish in the 1500s and 1600s. 

There are 391 units (58 national parks, plus 333 national monuments, historic sites and other units), the National Park Service has a presence in 49 of the 50 states (Delaware is the sole exception Somos Primos will be sharing information on the early Spanish presence in our National Parks throughout this year. Please be sure and check the Table of Contents for each issue. ]

PBS has 356 member stations across the nation.  Filming was done in 51 of the 58 National Parks.  It is possible that a site included will be about a National Park with which you might have stories to share, or, perhaps, your National Park will not even be included.  In either case, it may be that your local PBS station is considering support activities tying in with the fall 2009 airing of  “National Parks: American’s Best Idea.”   

Extract:  Western Reserve PBS and Cuyahoga Valley National Park

Reserve PBS is producing a local documentary  featuring Cuyahoga Valley National Park because of its importance to northeast Ohioans, and the fact that the ”Cuyahoga Valley National Park and many others will not be featured prominently in the national parks documentary”

"This is the first full-length broadcast documentary about Cuyahoga Valley National Park," said Duilio Mariola, Western Reserve PBS production/local programming manager. "It will celebrate the past, present and future of this invaluable Northeast Ohio resource."

The station will hold oral history collection events on three Sundays: Jan. 25, April 26, and May 17 from 1 p.m. to 5 p.m. each day at the park's Happy Days Lodge, 500 W. Streetsboro Road (Route 303) in Peninsula. Participants are invited to share memories, home movies, photos and memorabilia.  Western Reserve PBS will record the interviews and scan the photos on site. Home movies offered will be converted to DVD format at the station and returned with a complimentary DVD copy.

A limited number of interviews will be used in the one-hour documentary. The interviews are by appointment only and can be scheduled by calling Western Reserve PBS at 800-554-4549 during regular business hours. The documentary will air in the fall of 2009 in conjunction with the national premiere of the 10-hour series, "America's Best Idea: Our National Parks."

Sent by Armando Rendon


History Detectives PBS, Might be the Answer

Picked up the news item below off the web this morning, and it struck me that this might be a way to preempt Kenny and show how the national parks system owes a debt to early explorers and settlers in the Americas. The History Detectives is a neat show that takes inquiries from anyone with an interesting historical artifact or connection with history but either there's some question about its authenticity or scope of the relationship, etc. Check out the link for more info. Anyone have an idea to submit to the show? I was thinking maybe just to ask for them to confirm the underlying connection of the parks to early explorers and the like--Can anyone help here?
'Detectives' need help

PBS' "History Detectives" is looking for items related to national parks for next summer's season, as part of the promotion for next fall's Ken Burns documentary series, "The National Parks: America's Best Idea." For information on submitting items to the "detectives," who include Tukufu Zuberi, head of the sociology department at the University of Pennsylvania, go to .

Armando Rendon  510-219-9139



BORDER Documentary by Chris Burgard
The Desperation of Life for Many in Mexico

Understanding RACE
Killing of a third Latino Victim of a Hate Crime in Five Months
Eradicating the sexual assault and harassment of female farm workers.
A Class Apart - -  Hernandez v. Texas film
Isabel Garcia: Compassion and courage earn reward
Veterans group plans to fly flag upside down  
Julian Samora Research Institute Website Links



A message from Steven Rubin, producer of  "East L.A. Marine: the Untold True Story of Guy Gabaldon"

Dear Friends, 

Now that Chris Burgard's film BORDER is finally getting some decent distribution opportunities through Netflix and Amazon and others, he's suddenly being attacked by organizations that are unfairly portraying him as a hatemonger and "nativist." (See below). This movie has opened dialogue more than any other film on the immigration issue and these people obviously have no idea where Chris is coming from - they just find it convenient to label him as a racist and hatemonger. 

Editor:  In addition Steve wrote to me and said that . . .   

I would like to include you in a press release that simply states that you recommend that people see Chris's film. You don't have to endorse Chris or the film, I was just hoping that you would encourage people who know nothing about the border issue to see the film and get educated. You may have done this before, but I need to formalize your encouragement at a time when Chris needs friends. 

Anyone who gets to know Chris knows that he's the last person anyone could claim is a racist or "nativist." We need more Chris Burgards in this world!!! 

Best, Steve Rubin

I responded Hi Steve . . 
"I surely do encourage people to see the film to better grasp what is happening on our southwest border with Mexico.  December 17th, Gunmen opened fire in the state attorney general's office in Tijuana, wounding three.  In Ciudad Juarez, a senior police commander was murdered, the 6th killed just this week.  Across Mexico, more than 5,300 people have died in gangland-style killings in 2008, more than double the number last year. (AP Dec. 19)  Usually this information is hidden in small articles on the back pages of most daily newspapers.  Burgard's film explores the historical development of Mexican control of the drugs entering into the United States.  No matter what your political views, BORDER gives needed insight.  There is a MAJOR problem impacting our nation, our youth, our safety, and sadly, it is lawlessness right across the border."

Since I wrote this response, a horrible slaughter took place in Mexico.  December 22, Reuter reported that Mexican police on Sunday found nine decapitated bodies and the army identified eight soldiers who had died fighting powerful drug gangs.  The bodies showed signs of torture. They were left on the side of a highway about an hour north of the tourist resort of Acapulco in the southern state of Guerrero, state police said. Their heads were stuffed in a plastic bag and left outside a shopping centre.

Today (December 29)  in the Orange County Register, a small mention was made of a Salim Boughader Mucharrafille, a Mexican  of Lebanese descent . He was given a 60-year prison term as a human smuggler who helped about 200 people sneak into the U.S. including Hezbollah supporters, a terrorist group.

Chris Burgard's film BORDER touches on the impact the border problem has different groups, the immigrants crossing into the U.S., the human smugglers, the border police, the residents and families on both sides of the border, the police, and the drug dealers.  You many not agree with the concept of a border between the U.S. and Mexico, but BORDER certainly yells out . . .  something has to be done.


The Desperation of Life for Many in Mexico

Dear Sam:
Dr. Calderon (a primo) sent me your email with the information about the robbery video and your personal video on the victims. . .  very, very powerful.  You covered  the lives, history, and economic situation of the victims with kind insight, compassion and tenderness. Their desperate attempts to improve life for family and self, brick by brick, shovel by shovel, moved me both to tears and admiration.
The spirit to cling to hope, against overwhelming conditions, to not give-up. . . .surely there is nobility in that spirit.  Thank you so much for capturing it.
One question, what was the message of the murders in the jewelry story since nothing was stolen?  Was protection money not paid?

Mimi Lozano


Prof. Calderon

I spent a lot of time on this very brutal story about Mexico's drug war, which is just up now on the Los Angeles Times website….

I’m hoping you’ll take some time to check it out, while keeping in mind that it’s a tough topic:

Here’s a link to a video I made about one of the victims in the shooting:

Let me know what you think. Feel free to send the links on to members of your listserv.

Cheers,Sam Quinones


RACE: ARE We So Different? 
Educational Exhibit Doubles in Size and Reach

RACE: ARE We So Different? Educational Exhibit Doubles in Size and Reach
American Anthropological Association to Tour Replica of Successful Exhibit Explaining Race

The American Anthropological Association (AAA) has finalized an agreement with Science Museum of Minnesota (SMM) to develop a clone of its award-winning RACE: Are We So Different? traveling exhibit. The exhibits are a part of the larger public education program developed by AAA. 

The clone of the 5000-square-foot exhibit is being produced as a direct result of overwhelming success and popularity of the original exhibit. Currently on display at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, the original RACE exhibit is touring nationally, with stops scheduled at such renowned institutions as California Science Center in Los Angeles, The Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, and the Museum of Science in Boston.

The tour, which launched in 2007 at the SMM, was set to conclude at the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History in 2011; with this new arrangement the tour will be extended through 2014.

The exhibit , part of AAA's far-reaching public educational program, also includes an interactive website: and an educational DVD-CD set developed to promote informed conversations and a new understanding of race in the US. The exhibit was co-developed with SMM, which will build the clone.

"'RACE' generated a groundswell of passion and engagement here in St. Paul that veteran staff had rarely seen," said Robert Garfinkle, Program Director of Science and Social Change at SMM. "The exhibit touched a nerve in people hungry for a chance to learn and talk about this hugely important topic in our country" explained Garfinkle.

To date, over 1.5 million people have visited the RACE exhibit and website. The addition of the clone exhibit, which will begin touring in early 2010, enables the messages of the RACE project to impact an even broader audience.

Exploring the origins and manifestations of race and racism in everyday life in America, the exhibit inspires dialogue about race and educates the public on a topic not always easy to talk about.

"Our intention through this project has been to challenge the many popularly held assumptions and beliefs about race that have been the source of divisions among us. Our hope has been to build a bridge based on a true understanding of what 'race' is and what it isn't," AAA Executive Director Bill Davis noted.

AAA received grants from the Ford Foundation and National Science Foundation totaling nearly $4.5 million to develop and produce the traveling museum exhibit, a website, and other educational materials.

In addition to the 5,000-square-foot clone exhibit, the RACE Project will produce a smaller 1,500-square-foot exhibit specifically designed to tour universities, smaller museums, and other specialized venues.

For a complete listing of the original exhibit tour dates, please visit: .

To learn more about The RACE Project please visit our website:   or contact Joseph Jones at
  or (703) 528-1902, ext. 1171.

For press kits including an exhibit description please contact Lauren Schwartz at  or (703) 528-1902, ext. 1164.


Founded in 1902, the American Anthropological Association is the world's largest professional organization of anthropologists and others interested in anthropology, with an average annual membership of more than 10,000. The Arlington, Va.-based association represents all specialties within anthropology — cultural anthropology, biological (or physical) anthropology, archaeology, linguistics and applied anthropology.
Sent by Dorinda Moreno

Interactive website: and an educational DVD-CD set developed to promote informed conversations and a new understanding of race in the US.



634 S. Spring Street, Los Angeles , CA 90014                                                          213-629-2512
Press Release for immediate distribution
December 10, 2008
Estuardo Rodriguez: 202-631-2892
Laura Rodriguez: 310-956-2425

LOS ANGELES, CA - Today, Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund (MALDEF) President & General Counsel John Trasviña called upon leaders across all communities to unite and speak out against hate violence: 

“We mourn and are outraged by the murder in Brooklyn , New York of Jose Osvaldo Sucuzhañay, whose life was violently taken by a group of people, and whose crime, according to witnesses, was motivated by hate-filled bigotry.  Only one month ago, 37-year old Marcello Lucero was ferociously beaten and fatally stabbed in Long Island , New York by a group of teenagers who hunted him down simply for being Latino.  In July, 25-year old Luis Ramirez lost his life after he was knocked unconscious and kicked in the head by a group of Shenandoah, Pennsylvania teenagers who yelled racial epithets before and during the brutal beating.  We extend our sympathies to their families and loved ones.   

In the past several years, hate crimes against Latinos have risen 40 percent.  This is a national epidemic whose growth is spurred each day by hate speech and anti-immigrant sentiment expressed on cable shows, local radio shows and across the airwaves.   

National legislation, such as the Local Law Enforcement Hate Crime Prevention Act, must be a top priority for Congress and the new Administration, but it is not sufficient to reach the hate that threatens to pervade local communities.  This drastic rise of hate crimes against Latinos, not coincidentally, has occurred during the same years in which there has been an explosive rebirth of extremist anti-immigrant rhetoric and measures.  The serious topic of immigration has been contaminated by hatred and racism, and has created a toxic climate which fosters and condones violence and civil rights violations motivated by bigotry.  In seeking to enact unconstitutional anti-immigrant ordinances, irresponsible elected officials spew inflammatory rhetoric that depicts undocumented immigrants as parasites and the root cause of the nation’s fallen economy. Television and radio personalities spread misinformation and stereotypes that criminalize and dehumanize Latino immigrants.  Meanwhile, white supremacist groups are using this anti-immigrant wave to promote their racist groups and promote violent acts against Latinos.  Collectively, the messages and norms they seek to establish are that immigrants are less human and less worthy, and do not merit basic human rights protections our Constitution demands.  These messages have begun to infect too many Americans, and they are being manifested through violence.  Unfortunately, our elected leaders have failed to recognize and condemn this national crisis, the media has largely remained silent, and families have not acted to protect their children from being infected from this hatred.     

As proven by this year’s historic election, the great majority of Americans have defeated artificial barriers of racism and ushered us into a new era.  After over a century of struggle for freedom and democracy irrespective of race, Americans have abolished the disease of racial hatred; however, a virus continues to linger with some, and we must not allow it to proliferate.   There are those that may believe that racism and xenophobia will always exist, but it must not exist in our country, in our democratic institutions, in our schools, and in our homes.  We must be ever-vigilant, and stamp it out where we see it.   

MALDEF calls upon our national representatives, faith leaders, educators, and parents to stand up and take immediate action against this national wave of hatred.  We again call on Congress and the next President to fix our broken, archaic immigration system to establish national immigration priorities, including community integration that serves the nation’s interests, allows newcomers to work with legal status and protections against exploitation, and safeguards the nation’s communities.  Local and federal authorities must prosecute hate crimes to the fullest extent under law.  Local officials and media personalities must take responsibility for the consequences of their extremist rhetoric and should spread messages of respect and tolerance.  Most importantly, we call on all Americans to unite against this wave of hatred and defeat the hate and violence.  It is unacceptable and we must stop it now.”

Founded in 1968, MALDEF, the nation’s leading Latino legal civil rights organization, promotes and protects the rights of Latinos through litigation, advocacy, community education and outreach, leadership development, and higher education scholarships. For more information on MALDEF, please visit:  
Sent by Gladys Limon

Field of Panties: Immigrant Workers

Eradicating the sexual assault and harassment of female farm workers.

The next time you sit down to a fresh, healthy salad, consider this: The contents may have been picked by one of the 400,000 women toiling in U.S. fields, nurseries, and packing plants. Attracted to the U.S. by jobs that pay about $11,000 a year — three times what they can make in Mexico or Central America — these women are frequent victims of sexual harassment and rape. Though official stats are hard to come by, given that undocumented workers risk scrutiny and deportation if they report a rape, advocacy groups say the problem is systemic, affecting thousands of women (who are outnumbered by men 20 to 1 in the fields) each year. Workers in Salinas, CA, refer to one company’s land as the field de calzón, or “field of panties,” because so many supervisors rape women there; in Florida, some workers call the farm where they work “the Green Motel,” because they are expected to lie down between rows of plantings. One worker from a group in Iowa, who settled a class-action suit against an employer, told her lawyer, “We thought it was normal in the U.S. that you had to have sex to keep your job.”

Now, a 30-year-old lawyer named Mónica Ramírez is leading an effort to weed out the fear in the fields. She founded Esperanza, the country’s first nonprofit dedicated to eradicating sexual assault and harassment of female farm workers, which has joined forces with the Southern Poverty Law Center to create a network of lawyers, law-enforcement officials, social workers, and religious leaders, serving women in 24 states. As a young girl in Florida, Ramírez, the granddaughter of Mexican immigrants, watched several men sexually assault a member of her family and threaten that if this person didn’t do what they wanted, they’d come after Ramírez, too. Says Ramírez, “I want to see the day when I’ve worked myself out of a job.” To learn more about Esperanza, visit

Sent by Howard Shorr


A CLASS APART- -  Hernandez v. Texas film


In today’s mail, I received a copy of the advance DVD of A CLASS APART, the documentary film about Hernandez v. Texas, directed by Carlos Sandoval, who attended the conference and who has spoken and interviewed many of you. It will be broadcast on the February 23, 2009 PBS American Experience, so watch your local listings and look for it in fine video stores and on tv everywhere.  There will be sponsored showings by Camino Bluffs Productions, so if you wish to discuss a possible showing, feel free to contact Carlos at  or at 212-666-3266.

Best wishes to all of you, Michael Olivas

Isabel Garcia: Compassion and courage earn reward

Congratulations to Isabel Garcia, whose  determined and compassionate service to
 indigenous and immigrant communities finally has  won positive national recognition.
Garcia this week was given the Lannan  Foundation's $150,000 Cultural Freedom Award.
  We would like to supplement that award with 1 million thanks.
Garcia co-founded the local Coalición Derechos   Humanos (Coalition of Human Rights),
 which defends immigrants' rights and publicizes conditions on our border with Mexico.
She also fearlessly puts herself front and  center at every opportunity to raise  awareness about the hostility and maltreatment doled out to indigenous peoples,including illegal immigrants.
Controversy erupted in July, for example, when  she and other activists picketed  outside a book-signing by Maricopa County Sheriff Joe Arpaio, who is accused in lawsuits of targeting Latinos specifically for harassment and arrests. After young activists decapitated a piñata  resembling Arpaio, Garcia carried the
 sheriff's faux head out of the parking lot.
The mere visual incited shrill calls for her to be fired from her job as a deputy  public defender for Pima County. But the  county's review of the incident showed no wrongdoing, and common sense prevailed.
 Garcia even stirred controversy in Mexico when its Commission of Human Rights wanted to give her an award in November 2006.  She would not accept unless Mexico would let her speak on that nation's "silence  and complicity in the deaths of over 5,000 migrants on the border."  Officials agreed but reneged once she was there. So Garcia refused to attend the ceremony and instead held her own news conference.
 Now she has the Lannan Foundation's Cultural Freedom Award, for "people whose extraordinary and courageous work celebrates the human right to freedom of imagination, inquiry, and expression."
 Past recipients include Mahmoud Darwish, Palestinian poet and human rights
 advocate; Helen Caldicott, physician and activist; and Robert Fisk, British
 journalist and author.
 Clearly Garcia, who is investing most of her award back into Derechos Humanos, is in good company. And with her in our community, we're in good company, too.  
Congratulations.  . . . From Arnold Garcia... 
Sent by Dr. Carlos Muñoz, Jr.  Professor

Julian Samora Research Institute Website Links


Site is devoted to the dissemination of public policy oriented research on issues affecting Latinos in both the United States as a whole, and the Midwest, in particular.

Sent by Ricardo Valverde


Carlos Muñoz, Jr., Ph.D. 
Christine Ortiz, Ph.D.  
Dolores Huerta Labor Institute co-sponsoring Student Leadership Academy 
Free Harvard Education for Students from Low-Income Families

Carlos Muñoz, Jr.
Dr. Carlos Muñoz, Jr. 
Professor Emeritus, Chicano Studies
Office Location: 536 Barrows Hall
Office phone number: (510) 642-9134

Dr. Carlos Muñoz, Jr. was born in the "segundo barrio" in El Paso, Texas, and raised in the barrios of East Los Angeles, California. He is the son of poor working class Mexican immigrants. He earned his AA from Los Angeles City Community College, his BA with honors in Political Science from California State University at Los Angeles and his PhD in Government from the Claremont Graduate School.  He is Professor Emeritus in the Department of Ethnic Studies, University of California, Berkeley. After 40 years of teaching in higher education, he has gained international prominence as political scientist, historian, journalist, and public intellectual.

Dr. Muñoz was the founding chair of the first Chicano Studies department in the nation in 1968 at the California State University at Los Angeles and the founding chair of the National Association of Chicana & Chicano Studies (NACCS). He is a pioneer in the creation of undergraduate and graduate curricula in the disciplines of Ethnic Studies. He is the author of numerous pioneering works on the Mexican American political experience and on African American and Latino political coalitions. His book, Youth, Identity, Power: The Chicano Movement won the Gustavus Myers Book Award for "outstanding scholarship in the study of human rights in the Untied States" and has become the classic study of the origins of the Movement.    The 1st edition of the book underwent 12 printings and was a major resource for the PBS television series Chicano! History of the Mexican American Civil Rights Movement. Dr. Muñoz was the senior consultant for the project and was also featured in the series.  A revised and expanded 2nd edition of the book was published in 2007.

Dr. Muñoz is currently working on several new books: Diversity and The Challenge for a Multiracial Democracy In America, a biographical novel on The Life & Times of Dr. Ernesto Galarza (the first Mexican American nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature), and his autobiography Victory is in the Struggle.

Dr. Muñoz is an acknowledged expert on the issues of ethnic and racial politics, multiculturalism and diversity, immigration, civil and human rights, and affirmative action. He has appeared on PBS, NBC, CNN, ABC, CBS, and the Spanish-speaking UNIVISION and Tele Mundo. He has also been interviewed numerous times on Pacifica Radio and National Public Radio stations. He is a syndicated columnist with the Progressive Media Project. His newspaper columns are distributed nationally by the Knight-Ridder news wire service and have appeared online on and on the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) World Service (Europe & Latin America).

As a scholar-activist, Dr. Muñoz has been a central figure in the struggles for civil and human rights, social and economic justice, and peace in the United States and abroad since he was a student activist in the 1960s. He played a prominent leadership role as a founder of the Chicano Civil Rights Movement. Since then he has served as a leading organizer of various multiracial coalitions, including the Faculty for Human Rights in Central America, Faculty Against Apartheid in South Africa, and The Rainbow Coalition. In 1988, he was a key advisor to the Jesse Jackson Presidential campaign. He served on the Board of Directors of the American Civil Liberties Union of Northern California and is a co-founder of the Institute for Multiracial Justice in San Francisco, California. He also co-founded Latinos Unidos, a grassroots community organization in Berkeley, California. Dr. Muñoz is a Vietnam War Era Veteran and is a member of the Veterans for Peace and is active in the Anti-Iraq War Movement.  He is also active in the Immigrant Rights Movement.

In addition to the numerous academic honors he has been awarded during his academic career, Dr. Muñoz is also listed in Who's Who in the West, Who's Who Among Hispanic Americans, Who's Who of Editors, Writers, and Poets, and in the Latino Encyclopedia. In 1996, he received the University of Michigan's Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Cesar Chavez, and Rosa Parks Award. In 1999, Dr. Muñoz received the Scholar of the Year Award from the National Association of Chicana & Chicano Studies. In 2001, the American Political Science Association honored Dr. Muñoz for his "Seminal scholarly contributions to the study of Mexican American and Latino Politics."  In 2005, Dr. Muñoz was honored by the Harvard Graduate School of Education for "Educating others and inspiring them in the Pursuit of their Goals."  The National Black Student Conference honored him with their "Pioneer Visionary Award" in 2007.

In 2003 he was honored in a traveling national exhibition tour as one of 12 "civil rights activists who accomplished extraordinary deeds that changed the face of the nation and gave birth to the Modern Civil Rights Movement." The exhibition is entitled "The Long Walk to Freedom."  It includes a video, historical and contemporary photographs, and a graphic timeline developed by the Schomburg Center for Research and Black Culture. It was organized by Community Works and funded by The National Endowment for the Arts, The California Arts Council, and the Friends and Foundation of the San Francisco Public Library.  In 2008 he was honored as one of the "Americans Who Tell the Truth".

Dr. Muñoz has lectured at most of the prestigious universities, including Harvard, Yale, Stanford, Michigan, Texas, and numerous less known state and community colleges throughout the nation. He has also been a keynote speaker for non-academic institutions including non-profit community agencies, public schools, and professional associations and groups. He has a well-known reputation as a dynamic and inspirational speaker.

Sent by Dorinda Moreno

Christine Ortiz, Ph.D.  

Associate Professor of Materials Science 
and Engineering

Massachusetts Institute  of Technology
77 Massachusetts Avenue , RM13-4022
Cambridge MA 02139
Email :




Professor Christine Ortiz is currently Associate Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Director of the MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) MIT-Israel Program. Professor Ortiz obtained her B.S. from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, NY and her M.S. and Ph.D. from Cornell University in Ithaca , NY , all in the field of materials science and engineering. 

After graduation, she was granted a NSF-NATO post-doctoral fellowship which she used to carry out research in the Department of Polymer Chemistry, University of Groningen, in the Netherlands. Professor Ortiz joined the faculty in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at MIT as an Assistant Professor in 1999 and was tenured in 2006. Her research group focuses on the high resolution imaging and nanomechanics of structural biological materials such as cartilage, bone, seashells, and armored fish.  

In 2002, Dr. Ortiz was awarded a National Science Foundation Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (NSF-PECASE) which was presented to her by President George W. Bush at the White House in Washington DC

Dr. Ortiz has served as a review panelist for NSF (SBIR, NSEC, CAREER, MDSE), NIH, and NASA (NBEI). Her articles have been published in most recently in the journals; Science, Biophysical Journal, Physical Review Letters, Nano Letters, and Nature Materials and also has been featured in Physics Today, Science News, USA Today, the Discovery Channel and on the covers of the Journal of Structural Biology and the Journal of Material Science

She has given 90+ invited lectures including 20+ international in 12 countries and 8 different Gordon Research Conferences.
Professor Ortiz was recently nominated and selected to participate in the 2008-2009 Defense Science Study Group

Professor Ortiz has a strong commitment to teaching, mentoring, and increasing diversity at all educational levels. She has developed and taught a popular new undergraduate course annually each spring semester “Nanomechanics of Materials and Biomaterials” and is a frequent participant in MITES (MIT Minority Introduction to Engineering and Science), MSRP (MIT Minority Summer Research Program), SACNAS (Society for Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science), Institute Diversity Committees, and SHPE (Society of Hispanic Professional Engineers). Professor Ortiz’ full curriculum vitae is located here.

ent by Rafael Ojeda

Dolores Huerta Labor Institute 
co-sponsoring Student Leadership Academy   

  2009 Training Session:  Friday, April 3 - Sunday, April 5
  Internship: June 22 - August 14, 2009
  Application Deadline is February 27, 2009
  Selected applicants will be invited to participate in a group interview.
  Decisions will be announced by March 16.
Information: The Leadership Academy is a training and summer internship program that connects university and college students as well as recent graduates to career opportunities within Los
Angeles labor organizations. Participants gain hands-on experience and develop leadership skills that will be valuable training for a career in civil rights work, social justice, labor, or community organizing.
Students will develop leadership skills and learn more about how the labor movement is leading the struggle for social justice.  a Meet leaders who are driving some of the most dynamic campaigns to empower workers in Los Angeles and apply for an eight-week paid summer internship. Interns will work full time and earn a $450 stipend per week. a Work directly with organization staff and members on campaigns.
For more information please contact: Lanita Morris at  213-480-4155 x212 or
   Applications are available online at
  John Delloro, Executive Director
  Dolores Huerta Labor Institute
  Los Angeles Community College District
  c/o LATTC, LRC 220
  400 West Washington Blvd
  Los Angeles, CA 90015
  Office (213) 763-7070 
"Education functions as an instrument which is used to   facilitate integration of the younger generation into the   logic of the present system and bring about conformity or it becomes the practice of freedom, the means by which men and women deal critically and creatively with reality and discover how to participate in the transformation of their world."  Paulo Freire

Sent by


Harvard Financial Aid Initiative (HFAI)

If you know of a family earning less than $60,000 a year with an honor student graduating from high school soon, Harvard University wants to pay the tuition. The prestigious university recently announced that from now on, undergraduate students from low-income
families can go to Harvard for free! No tuition and no student loans!

To find out more about Harvard offering free tuition for families making less than $60,000 a year, visit Harvard's financial aid website at:  http://www.fao. fas.harvard. edu

Sent by Armando Rendon  Email:  510-219-9139
and Juan Marinez




Una Perla Para Chavez

The efforts to remember César Chávez continue. Pearl St. appears to be one of the best possible alternatives. You may find the 'Una perla para César Chávez" article from the Al Dia front page this past weekend interesting.  
It is linked from .  
That scanned copy of the article is at .  
An English translation is at .
Bill Betzen  
The School Archive Project - A Dropout Cure
Quintanilla Middle School
2700 Remond Dr.
Dallas, Texas 75211
214-957-9739 (cell)



500 Years of Chicana History
New Mexico Colcha Club: Spanish Colonial Embroidery
Federico Villalba's Texas: A Mexican Pioneer's Life in the Big Bend 
The Jews and New Mexico, Centuries of Contact
Salsa, Soul, and Spirit: Leadership for a Multicultural Age
MEChA Leadership Manual: History, Philosophy, & Organizational Strategy
The Latino Education Crisis. The Consequences of Failed Social Policies 
Soccer's Story & A Futbol Fable by Gil Sperry 
The Last Supper of Chicano Heroes: Selected Works of José Antonio Burciaga

500 Years of Chicana History
by Elizabeth Martinez

Elizabeth "Betita" Martinez signs her new book, "500 Years of Chicana History," for Julia Barba, a junior nursing major and MEChA club member, at the Cultural Heritage Center in the Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Library on Monday night.

Activist-author tells untold stories of Chicanas By: Jason Le Miere Posted: 12/2/08

On Aug. 29, 1970, in Los Angeles, Elizabeth "Betita" Martinez stepped up to the lectern to address 30,000 Chicanos protesting the Vietnam War when she saw a hundred police officers running toward her firing tear gas. She ran.

Martinez survived the police backlash that day, but three other Chicanos were not so lucky.

This protest was just one of the many involving Chicanas that Martinez discussed at a talk about her new book, "500 Years of Chicana Women's History," at the Cultural Heritage Center in the Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Library on Monday night.

Martinez, who has previously written books on Chicano history, said there was a gap in the coverage of the females involved.  "I felt there should be more about the women," Martinez said, adding that she feels the role of women has been neglected in reproductions of Chicano history.

The talk was hosted by SJSU's branch of MEChA, the Chicano student movement of those of Aztec descent.  "San Jose State has a history of activism and it kind of went away for a while," said Victor Guendulain, a member of M.E.Ch.A. and co-organizer of the event. "And it was time to bring it back, but bring it back with a whole different perspective: to actually bring in women who have been involved with the movement for a long time."

Martinez talked through a slideshow that was a sampling of the 700-plus images that she presents in her book to about 50 students in attendance.

In addition to discussing her knowledge of Chicana history, Martinez also divulged to students her lifelong affiliation with protest movements.  "She is the quintessential activist," said Julia Curry Rodriguez, an SJSU Mexican-American studies assistant professor.

Martinez talked about how she went to work for the United Nations after college, desiring to bring peace to the world. Then she joined the Civil Rights movement when it exploded in the 1960s.

"She's been involved with so many movements," said Loreana Camarema, a senior sociology major, "not just as she's a Chicana, Chicana movements, but the Civil Rights movement and others. So she's kind of universal. She's more for humankind, rather than differences and just individual struggles."

Martinez said that although her apartment is full of images of Mexican revolutionary Emiliano Zapata, her true motivation to join protest movements comes from a larger source.

"It's not any individual person," Martinez said. "In a way, it's the struggle of a whole people and that's really where the inspiration comes from."

Martinez also fielded questions from students, particularly on the role of women in community activism.  "More Chicana women are aware of what they can be and what they can do than 25 years ago, or 20 years ago," she said. "Seeing examples of other active women is important."

Guendulain, a senior behavioral science and anthropology double major, concurred with this point. "The role of women gets minimized a lot in a lot of the movements that we have," he said. "So I think it's time for women to see that there's a voice out there. There's women that have been organizing and been doing work for a long time."

Martinez also reflected on how the methods of protest among Chicanas have changed. "It's not as hot at the moment as it has been in the past," she said. "I don't think anybody would disagree with that, but we just have to kind of heat it up a little."
© Copyright 2008 Spartan Daily
Sent by Dorinda Moreno



New Mexico Colcha Club: Spanish Colonial Embroidery 
and the Women Who Saved It 
by Nancy C. Benson

New Mexico Colcha Club: Spanish Colonial Embroidery & the Women Who Saved It by Nancy C. Benson is about how the history of settlement, craft, knowledge and tradition combine with Native American traditions and produce a practical art. “Colcha” is the term
for bedspread and the art is how design and textile pattern and craft, patch quilt, and needlepoint embroidering developed into an art form.

The tradition began roughly in the 1700s when Spanish colonial women wanted to add beauty and warmth to their homes and bedding. The bedspreads they sewed were made from yarn they obtained from the Spanish churro sheep grazing in New Mexico. The production animal helped sustain the colonial enterprise of New Spain’s far northern provinces for centuries. New Mexicans used hand spindles to spin raw fleece into yarn.

By the 18th century the women of New Mexico became inspired by their work and made embroidered shawls, shoes, cotton blankets, boots and woolen stockings from their handiwork. New Mexico’s artwork is there to be seen in the embroidery forms, nicely illustrated in this book. It is a way to see the traditions as they were then and as they have come down to our time.

That is clearly seen by the story that unfolds. In 1928, 12 women formed the Arte Antiguo Colcha Club. They specifically intended to rescue and reconstruct the colcha embroidering
traditions. Nancy Benson searched for and was thrilled to find the last living member of the club, who helped her gather and organize much of the information for her book.

Benson talks about how distinct this tradition has been from others in the region and how the culture around the art form was lost in the United States. The uniqueness of the traditions and design were transported to distant lands through their crafts.

With 96 black-and-white and color illustrations, the reader can take an imaginary tour and enjoy a unique kind of art that has been passed down through generations. The book is a biography of New Mexico’s Spanish colonial life through embroidery. The tradition was
dying. It was continued only in Northern New Mexico, where a few families still practiced the craft. “They consider themselves very rich with this tradition,” says Benson, who further relates that after the book appeared, she heard from three groups of women who
want to keep the embroidery traditions alive.

The reader will find through New Mexico Colcha Club’s pages the beginning, the thriving and the decline of embroidery colcha tradition. Perhaps by virtue of the book there is a renaissance coming. 

(Museum of New Mexico Press: jacketed paper bound  $34.95. 156 pages)
Source: HispanicLinks  Vol 26, No.46.pdf  December 1, 2008
Carlos Erickson, Editor


Federico Villalba's Texas: 
A Mexican Pioneer's Life in the Big Bend 

Juan Manuel Casas

In a lively and engaging style, Juan Manuel Casas gives us this narrative history of his great-grandfather, Federico Villalba and his family. Villalba’s life was filled with excitement, challenge, and victory. The Big Bend country was a dangerous place in those days, especially for those of Mexican descent. Men carried guns and were not reluctant to use them.

Sent by Martinez bookstore


"The Jews and New Mexico, Centuries of Contact"
by Lou Serna

I don't know if I mentioned earlier, my latest book is titled, "The Jews and New Mexico, Centuries of Contact"....  The book, (and my lecture), covers the earliest "association" Hebrew / Jews have had with the Spanish culture that developed in earliest Spain..., in fact, back to biblical times... I carry that history forward through the period that the Phoenician / Hebrews founded the city / nation of Tartesus in the south of Spain to produce metals such as tin, silver, copper, etc., thus making them, (and the Basques), one of the earlist "cultures" in Spain... AND..., one of the earliest ancestors of the Spanish people today....!  I then take the Phoenician / Hebrew history into the new world, long before Columbus.... and cite several "settlements" and evidence they left behind.... one place just 26 miles outside Albuquerque..!  I then go into the exploration / colonization period of the Spanish in the New World in the 1500's, the Inquisition, and the "Crypto Jew" period. The Hebrew / Jews have been an integral part of New Mexico's history since the beginning..! 
The book is 290 pages and is loaded with references where the reader can go to pursue more information about all these subjects and more. Due to the high cost to produce, the price is $20.00 + $5.00 postage. I also have it on my website as an E-Book for $10.00. Go to for more info on the book.
Lou Serna


 Salsa, Soul, and Spirit:  Leadership for a Multicultural Age
by Juana Bordas

Hello, Congrats on your website!
We need more Latino connections especially about our heritage!
My book, Salsa, Soul, and Spirit: Leadership for a Multicultural Age won the 2008 International Latino Book Award for best business/leadership book in English.  The book highlights 8 principles of leadership that are found in Latino, Black and American Indian communities.  
I am attaching a short article - can info on my book be included on Somos Primos
Muchisimas Gracias, Juana Bordas 


Salsa, Soul, and Spirit identifies eight leadership principles that spring from Latino, Black, and American Indian communities.  Using a lively blend of personal reflections, interviews with leaders from these communities, historical background, and insightful analysis, the author invites today’s leaders to shift to a multicultural approach that resonates with many cultures and encourages diverse people to actively engage, contribute, and realize their potential.  Leadership in communities of color emerged during Civil Rights and is socially responsible, community-based and people-centered.  This type of leadership is needed today to heal our fragmented world and to tap the power of our growing diversity. 


SwitchCraft by Mary Castillo

To My Family and Friends ~  

Several months ago during a conference, I met a lovely young woman, Mary Castillo, an author and entrepreneur.  We exchanged experiences and books.  One of her works is titled “SwitchCraft” which was fun to read and kept me wondering how the main characters would solve their dilemma.  (A “Guru” had helped them switch bodies and live each other’s lives for a month...).  Mary has also co-authored other books with Latina/women writers.  

Recently, Mary asked if we could do a Question & Answer interview on my book which she posted on her Blog.  It’s titled Between the Pages with Gloria DeLaTorre~Wycoff.

You can read the interview on Mary’s blog at:  After you read it, if you are interested, you can write and post your own comments; just click on Post a Comment.  

You can visit Mary’s website by clicking on the top of the page to search her Blog. Please pass on the Blog information.  It’s a great way to support and promote Latina writers.   

Thanks!  Mom ~ Gramma ~ Gloria  
Gloria DeLaTorre-Wycoff  
DeLaTorre Publishing  
25422 Trabuco Road, #105 - 538  
Lake Forest
, CA 92630-2797  



MEChA Leadership Manual: 
History, Philosophy, & Organizational Strategy
by Roberto Tijerina Cantu

There's a new book out.  It is accompanied by a CD.  I am referring to Roberto Tijerina Cantu, _MEChA Leadership Manual: History, Philosophy, & Organizational Strategy_.  Riverside, California: Coatzacoalco Publications, 2007.  689pp.  Price: $40.00 (Paperback) ISBN-10 0-9793520-0-2 / First Printing - June 2007 / (Hardback) ISBN-13 978-0-9793520-0-3
Table of Contents:
Chapter 1: Who Am I?
Chapter 2:  What Is My Role?
Chapter 3:  When Do I Organize?
Chapter 4:  Where Do I Start?
Chapter 5:  Why a Conference?
Chapter 6:  How to Convey a Message
Chapter 7:  A MEChista Alumni's Perspective
Chapter 8:  How Do I Teach Experience?
Los Planes: The Philosophy of MEChA
Event Worksheet
Tijerina's Terminology
MEChA Mailing List
You can order your copy of the book and CD by contacting the author directly at:
Roberto Tijerina Cantu
Coatzacoalco Publications
PO Box 51236
Riverside, California 92517-2236
The CD is titled: "Brown Pride: Chicano Self Identity."
Website:  E-mail: or (951)369-8182
From the Website: "This book is the culmination of a social, cultural, historical, political, and spiritual journey of a MEChista. The wealth of knowledge goes beyond the value on the front cover of this book. The experience of this book will teach the reader tactical methods to organize and strategize. A simple step-by-step organizing tool in the fundamental understanding of the MEChA structure and its daily functions."
"Throughout the book it is impossible not to see Tijerina's life-long commitment to Raza; the Chicano Movimiento; MEChA as a vanguard for promoting Chicano Leadership; activism; preservation of cultura; educational advancement for the Chicano Community; the mission of service and sacrifice for Raza in the University and the Community".--Richard Lowy, Ph.D., Lecturer, Ethnic Studies, UC Riverside
Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.


The Latino Education Crisis. The Consequences of Failed Social Policies 
by Patricia Gándara and Frances Contreras
The Civil Rights Project/Proyecto Derechos Civiles announces the publication of a new book by CRP Co-Director, Prof. Patricia Gándara and Frances Contreras:  The Latino Education Crisis. The Consequences of Failed Social Policies, from Harvard University Press. 

Latinos are the largest and fastest growing minority group in the nation. By 2050 there will be more Latino than white students if existing trends continue. Yet Latinos drop out of high school at alarming rates and have made virtually no progress in level of college completion over more than two decades. The group with the lowest academic achievement will soon become the majority in significant parts of the country. Some economists have predicted a serious downturn in the economies of those states with high Latino populations by 2020 if something is not done immediately to reverse these trends.

The causes of this educational stagnation have been attributed to various factors –immigration, language differences, and a culture that places a low value on education. The first book to take a comprehensive look at the social and educational landscape for Latinos
in the US, The Latino Education Crisis analyzes existing data and finds support for none of these explanations. Instead, it argues that social policies that have failed to support Latino families as the country has undergone a dramatic reduction in opportunities for low income and working class people appear to be the greatest cause. It highlights programs that show promise and offers policy recommendations that can set the nation on a more hopeful path.
"Gándara and Contreras delineate the Latino education crisis with empirical rigor, conceptual clarity, and humane concern" (Carola and Marcelo Suárez-Orozco).

The Latino Education Crisis can be ordered at

Sent by Hispanic Research SIG



Soccer's Story & A Futbol Fable by Gil Sperry 

"Soccer's Story & A Futbol Fable,"  is the first (and only) book written about the
Chula Vista Elementary School District CVESD and its outstanding soccer league.  Published by: Amigo del Mar Press

An easy-to-read combination of the 2,500 year history of the most beloved sport on the planet and the exciting real-life adventure of how a bunch of mostly "mexicanos" amd their "muy anciano gringo" coach bridged their cultural divide to play for an impossible champioinship.

Can be order from the author or Target at $15 each. 

Other books by Gil Sperry: 
"Fishing Mexico With Both Feet On The Ground"
"Mariachi for Gringos"

The Last Supper of Chicano Heroes: 
Selected Works of José Antonio Burciaga
Review by Jackie Guzman in the New Reads Column of Hispanic Links

The Last Supper of Chicano Heroes: Selected Works of José Antonio Burciaga, edited by Mimi R. Gladstein and Daniel Chacón, is one of the best books I have read in a long, long time. The entries
into this retrospective deserve a reading between the lines.

José Antonio Burciaga is one of the important voices of Chicano literature. Burciaga was also a muralist and creator of memorable pictorial commentary. He was a poet, a humorist, a satirist, a cartoonist and mostly a humanist. An early and frequent contributor to Hispanic Link, Burciaga died of cancer on Oct. 7, 1996.

He was unique in how he treated cultural differences and difficulties, including the inequities he revealed through humor, art, and deceptively simple prose. In this book Burciaga tells us through anecdotes his Chicano heritage and how it ripples in from Mexico. He tells about growing up
between the proverbial two cultures and languages.

Gladstein and Chacon address Burciaga’s importance to Chicano letters. That alone puts this book on a collector’s shelf, to visit and revisit some of his original thought in Latino literature.
Burciaga stretches that rubber band, also. With the turn of a phrase, he takes us into those creative and spiritual depths that get a rise or a laugh from us.

In his essay, “What’s in a Spanish Name?” he describes the pronunciation mistakes that we would
like to pretend aren’t common. How about polamas when trying to say palomas or numberos for – you get the picture. It isn’t beyond him to make fun of our everyday foibles. Very little, if anything, is so sacrosanct we ought not joke about it. There too is a quality of Burciaga. His humor and truths may sting. But they don’t injure.

The Last Supper book can make the reader laugh from beginning to end as it delves into reality and fantasy. The cartoon collection is evidence of Burciaga’s imaginative ways to characterize Chicano
culture. Included is a picture of the book’s namesake mural, “Last Supper of Chicano Heroes,” a DaVinci impression, with Diego Rivera- or José Clemente Orozco-like insertions of the iconic heroes from Latino history.

Pachuco stories aren’t left out. In “Pachucos and the Taxicab Brigade,” Burciaga talks about Mexicans and Mexican-Americans targeted as gangsters. His poetry and art give the reader an unquenching look into what his work was like and why it is remembered. Left to the next generation of writers who discover Burciaga is to place his life in relation to what else was going on in the nation’s culture and the arts. What used to be Chicano morphed into Latino later, and then
becomes mainstream. Transnational. Transcultural. Transcendantal, even. (University of Arizona Press: paperback, 38 illustrations, $16.95. 208 pages.) Explore the latest books
on Latino subjects New Reads

Source: Review in New Reads or New Sounds, Hispanic Link,
1420 N St. NW, Washington, D.C. 20005. (202) 234-0280.  Vol 26 No 48



Dance, Nana, Dance / Baila, Nana, Baila

If you travel to Cuba, the people will greet you with a smile. Right away they’ll want you to come to their home and eat a meal. In the meal, you’ll find a mixture of food and flavors from Spain and Africa—and from many Caribbean cultures as well. In Cuban folktales, you will taste the same delicious mixture of flavors.

Dance, Nana, Dance / Baila, Nana, Baila. Folklorist and storyteller Joe Hayes first visited Cuba in 2001. He fell in love with the island and its people and began to look for opportunities to meet and listen to Cuban storytellers and to share the stories he knew from the American Southwest. He has returned every year, establishing a rich cultural exchange between U.S. and Cuban storytellers. Out of that collaboration came this savory collection of Cuban folktales, which Joe frames with an Introduction and an all-important Note to Storytellers.

Joe Hayes is one of America’s premier storytellers. His bilingual Spanish-English tellings have earned him a distinctive place among America’s storytellers. Joe has published over 20 books. He lives in Santa Fe, New Mexico and travels extensively throughout Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and California.

Cinco Puntos  701 Texas Ave.  El Paso, Texas 79901
Phone: (915) 838-1625  Fax: (915) 838-1635  
Distributed to the trade by Consortium Book Sales & Distribution, Inc.  1-800-283-3572 



Indigenous artist Gustavo Rodrigo Toaquiza Ugsha
Future Landscapes Designed by Women
Proposal for contemporary/conceptual art by local Latino Artists
Latino USA  The Radio Journal of News and Culture
Teatro Chicana: A Collective Memoir and Selected Plays
Rudy Gonzales "Idaho Cowboy Poet  &  Western Humorist"
Suddenly Realized I Have Finally Joined la Gente

Indigenous artist Gustavo Rodrigo Toaquiza Ugsha 


The indigenous artist Gustavo Rodrigo Toaquiza Ugsha is the second son of Julio Toaquiza. He was born in the community of Tigua Chimbacucho, in the Yanacachi region, on March 7, 1971.

There, he grew up with his siblings Alfredo, Alfonso, Targelia, Luzmila, Magdalena, and Wilson. His main occupation as a child was to go to school and to help his parents with their daily chores in the home and in the countryside, such as taking care of the crops, shepherding, etc.

Gustavo began painting from a very young age. He was taught by his father, who is one of the most important Indigenous Painters in the country, and the manager of a vigorous movement of artists who have come out of a small community to create art that is recognized around the world.

Gustavo Toaquiza  

Sent by Dorinda Moreno

Future Landscapes Designed by Women
Call for Submissions
Deadline: January 9, 2009

Solo Mujeres 22nd Annual Juried Exhibition 
"Future Landscapes Designed by Women"
"Paisajes del Futuro Diseñados por Mujeres"
Exhibition Dates: February 20 - March 27, 2009
Juried by MCCLA gallery curator

Solo Mujeres Exhibition titled: "Future landscapes Designed by Women", "Paisajes del Futuro Diseñados por Mujeres" is requesting women artists to submit artwork that some how expresses "How do you as a woman and a creator envision our times yet to come, what landscapes are you designing and how do you see yourself in these times of change? All media will be considered for jurying including but not limited to paintings, drawings, photography, printmaking, sculpture, mixed media, fiber art, new media, conceptual art, video and artists' books. 

More Info: 15 821 1155 

Mission Cultural Center for Latino Arts (MCCLA) was established in 1977 by artists and community activists with a shared vision to promote, preserve and develop the Latino cultural arts that reflect the living tradition and experiences of the Chicano, Mexican, Central and South American, and the Caribbean people. 
Sent by 

Proposal for contemporary/conceptual art by local Latino Artists.
Deadline for Proposal: February 6, 2009.
Call for Curators: Exhibition Dates April 24-May 30, 2009

MCCLA is looking for a curator for an upcoming exhibition scheduled April 24-May 30, 2009, in the Inti-Raymi gallery, located at MCCLA 2nd floor (1,200. sq. ft.). This exhibit will be parallel to an exhibition called "5 x 5 Pluralism" (, curator Luis Cancel, San Francisco Arts Commission Director. 

The gallery is open for curatorial proposals for an exhibition on contemporary/conceptual art by local Latino Artists (Bay Area). The curator selects the theme and media. Please submit a cover letter explaining your project plus your curatorial resume or CD of previous curatorial work. You are also welcome to make an appointment with gallery staff to see the Inti-Raymi gallery before proposing your art project or exhibition. There will be a curatorial stipend of $1000 for this project.

For more information please contact Patricia Rodriguez at (415) 643-2775 

 Latino USA  The Radio Journal of News and Culture 


What is Latino USA?
Latino USA, the radio journal of news and culture, is the only national, English-language radio program produced from a Latino perspective. It is a production partnership of KUT Radio and the Center for Mexican American Studies at The University of Texas at Austin.

Latino USA was launched in 1993 with the following mission:
Provide diverse audiences with multiple perspectives on issues affecting Latinos.
Foster cross-cultural understanding.
Enhance relationships among Latino communities.
Illuminate the richness of Latino cultural and artistic expression.

In its first five years, Latino USA has made significant strides toward these goals. Our weekly, half-hour broadcast of news, cultural programs, and public affairs features has generated a loyal audience and won 15 prestigious national awards from the communications industry for journalistic and production excellence.

Latino USA is distributed by National Public Radio and the Longhorn Radio Network to 172 stations in 31 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Latino USA’s distribution by Radio Bilingüe and the Armed Forces Radio service, expand the program’s reach to other listeners and worldwide audiences.

Where can I hear Latino USA?
Visit our Hear Us page to find the station that airs Latino USA nearest you. If Latino USA is not aired in your city or town, call your local public radio station and request that they add Latino USA to their programming schedule.

Can I hear Latino USA on the web?
Latino USA does publish the entire program, and program segments each week, and the files are available for download or web streaming. Opening the "Listen" link in a new window or tab will play the entire program and its segments in your browser's player. 

How can I order a CD or transcript of Latino USA?
Unfortunately, printed transcripts of Latino USA are not available at this time. We do, however, provide CD copies of the show. To receive a copy of the program, send us a note with the number of the program you are requesting and a $9 check for one program ($9.74 for TX residents) to cover the costs of dubbing, handling & postage. Make your check payable to "University of Texas/Latino USA"  and mail it to: 

Latino USA
1 University Station A0704
2609 University Avenue
Suite 3.108
Austin, TX 78712

How can I contact Latino USA?
Main: 512.471.1817
Production: 512.471.6178
Toll free listener line: 1-800-535-5533
Fax: 512.475.6873
How do I submit work or propose story ideas to Latino USA?
Call us at 1-800-445-4005. If we are not available leave us a brief summary of your story idea, why we should be interested, and your phone number, message line, or fax number. As an alternative, or when our small staff is busy, please fax us at 512-475-6873 or e-mail us at a story description including the story's key points, whom you will interview, how long you need to do the piece, what time-line you propose for producing the piece, when the piece would need to air, and any other pertinant information.

One of our editors will get back to you. Again, we are a small staff, so please be patient. Check out our contributors guidelines for additional information on submitting work to Latino USA.

How can I get information on how to air Latino USA on my station?
If you'd like more information on airing Latino USA, contact Angela Maldonado at 512-471-1817 or via email:

"Teatro Chicana: A Collective Memoir and Selected Plays"  
Chicana Activist Authors, Virginia Balanoff, Guadalupe Beltran, Sandra Gutierrez and Felicitas Nunez did a book reading and book signing in November in Palm Springs.

One scholar wrote, “These memoirs are the personal, honest and riveting testimonials of 17 Chicanas who performed Chicano theater during the 1970s.”  Another scholar wrote, “Their work in teatro is an important contribution to the preservation of the spirit and energy that made the Chicano Movement.”

The 1970s and 1980s saw the awakening of social awareness and political activism in Mexican American communities. In San Diego, a group of Chicanas participated in a political teatro that addressed social, gender and political issues of the working class. Their experiences are distilled into this book.

For more information please contact Luciano Ramirez at 760 323-3778. Please pass this information to other people who might be interested.


Rudy Gonzales "Idaho Cowboy Poet  &  Western Humorist" 

Rudy Gonzales Entertains and shares the education of cowboy life in poetry and music. He also has taught Farrier Science and clinics for horse trainers. Problem solving courses for trainers begins with Honest Horse Savvy. Rudy also publishes the American Cowboy Poet Magazine. In addition to his entertainment programs, he has served on many boards and panels instructing poets and writers. He has also served on panels to demonstrate the hispanic influence on the cowboy.

Publications: Please check out "Some of Rudy's Past Appearances"






Richard G. Santos



            Having had a houseguest for the four and half day Thanksgiving break, I surprising realized I have finally joined “la gente”. First I need to explain that my parents like many of English-Spanish bilingual, bicultural Hispanics did not use dictionary translations of specific words. In this case gente translated as “people” actually means “visitors”. However, when you are kid and not fully developed in the bicultural, bilingual sense you may have problems understanding that although you are a human, you are not people (gente).  

            I am sure you recall your mother cleaning the house the day before the cleaning lady was to come and do her job. Also having to make sure you wore clean and not torn undies just in case you were involved in an accident and had to be taken to a hospital. I mean like what would the cleaning lady think if she found a messy house to clean? The same applied to doctors, nurses and even the special hospital section where people with torn and unclean undies are tended to! Mothers made sure we did not embarrass ourselves and the family with such important issues.

            The same applied to certain items and rooms about the house reserved for la gente. I mean like did you ever reach for a cup, dish or glass and have your mother scream to leave it alone because it was for la gente? Brand new towels, sheets, pillow cases and blankets (if they were spending the night) were reserved for la gente and therefore untouchable and unusable by me because I was not a member of “the people”.

            There were also special dishes or plates prepared only for la gente. These varied from one gente to another. Honey ham with slice pineapple with a red cherry at the center of the pineapple hole, peas, honey yams, Monterrey cheese and grapes was at the same level as the Thanksgiving Dinner. Moreover, it frequently replaced the traditional tamales and buñuelos at Christmas and New Year’s Eve as at home when no gente was around we usually had pork and/or bean with hot chilipiquin tamales. I should mention at this point that when we were visiting and therefore la gente at someone else’s home, we were all reminded not to eat everything on the plate. This was to indicate that we were not dying of hunger and were well fed at home. I still do this. There is always a tidbit of food or desert left and it matters not if it is at someone else home or at a public luncheon or meal serving event. As my parents used to say, we do not want “them” to think we are not well fed or that we are so hungry we will eat everything and leave a plate so clean that it need not be washed!

            Most noticeable to me growing up was the fact we always ate pork in Fridays. That was one bit of information I kept to myself growing up as all my peers avoided meat and ate seafood. To this day I eat pork on Fridays and do not eat seafood at all!  So Friday breakfast usually included bacon, sausage or chorizo. Supper was usually pork chops smothered in a super hot salsa or ham steaks. Also I still remember elementary school in Beaumont , Texas where we were quizzed about our daily breakfast. Those kids who had the proper diet (milk, orange juice, toast or one of two slices of bread) received a gold star posted by their name on the diet chart. You can well imagine I never got a gold star by my name as flour tortilla tacos of fried beans with bacon or chorizo, potato and eggs all with a super hot salsa and of course the pork every Friday never got me a gold star! I should say that by the fourth grade I was taking extra tacos to school and selling them to many of my non-Hispanic friends. Many were the time they could not afford the dollar a taco I was charging so I accepted fifty cents and their home-made sandwiches. Incidentally, by the time I was in high school I was selling bananas at five cents a pound and three pounds for a quarter. That is a different story I might write about later, much later.

            Today, living alone in a three bedroom, two bathroom home I suddenly realized this Thanksgiving break that I might have finally joined “la gente.” Or maybe I have not and like my parents am merely prepared for those rare occasions when gente visit my humble abode. For instance, the full bath by the master bedroom (mine) is the only one I use. The other bathroom is spanking clean, has brand new (unused) towels and always fully equipped with everything in place. Mine is disorganized but I know where everything is.

            Having three dinner guests for turkey dinner with all the trimmings meant we used the special brand new china set aside for la gente instead of my mismatched coffee mugs with logos ranging from Senator Judith Zaffirini and Alamo Area Council of Government (AACOG), colleges and universities where I have taught to different area businesses. The plastic throwaway spoon for stirring my coffee and paper plates I commonly use for snacking were replaced (temporarily) with honest to goodness silverware and gold rimmed china! I even cleaned out my refrigerator making space for all the must-refrigerate ingredients (before preparing the turkey dinner) and for storing the leftovers. In fact I even brought out honest-to-goodness sugar and milk and set aside my packaged creamer and fake sugar that I prefer as neither attracts insects. Of course the three gente who visited never realized they were getting the full “para la gente” treatment and at least two of them left erroneously thinking such is my way of live at home. One of my guests got demoted and is no longer a gente but that is a different story. She is now in a special category. Hmmmmmmmmmmm.

            Moving right along, many non-Hispanic have the same private familial practices regarding visitors. Being mono-lingual (English only) they use the term “visitor” instead of gente (people). Nonetheless, the habitual practices are the same. Certain china, silverware, towels, sheets and pillow cases are not used and kept aside for visitors. Those families with weekly or periodic hired house cleaners frequently see the mother cleaning the home the day before. And special plates and dishes not commonly eaten and enjoyed by the family are prepared for “the visitors”.  Bottom line is that certain family traditions are strong enough to pass from one generation to the other regardless of one’s ethnic, racial, linguistic or cultural background.

            I am interested in hearing from my readers to document what other family practices you might have kept or rejected as you moved from one generation to another. So email me at Bueno bye and hope you did not eat too much and when you say you were watching your waist it does not mean you were watching it expand to the next upper size.


End ……………….. end ………………… end ………………… end ……. End


Zavala County Sentinel – 3-4 December 2008

Sent by Juan Marinez



BALDO by Cantu and Castellanos
Estimating the Contribution of Immigrant Business Owners to the U.S. Economy
Hispanic Business Magazine launches Digital Edition
Grupo Salinas

BALDO by Cantu and Castellanos

I have frequently made reference to my favorite daily cartoon series, BALDO.  Recently Cantu and Castellanos have been running a theme of teen-age Baldo's work experience in an auto parts shop.  Another young teenager, a non-Hispanic has many strategies for getting out of work.  Co-worker Joey's attitude is to perform the least he can do and get away with the most he can get away with.  His antics include hiding under the counter, behind boxes, bathroom or where ever.  Baldo is usually left to complete the unfilled. task.  This is a pattern, observed by Baldo, but not his supervisor.

In the December 6 cartoon, Baldo's supervisor, Mr Rod, informs Baldo that Joey is being promoted.  There apparently might be a racial undercurrent. Baldo's response is not what Mr. Rod expected.  Please look at my comments at the end.


I think Baldo's work experience is a message that our youth have to grasp.  Life is not fair. Racism exits.  Finally, the Mexican hard-working work-ethic is being recognized and admired.  It is an attitude that all work is of worth, noble in many ways.  My concern is that that the Mexican work-ethic is not lost in the process of assimilation into the current work standards of the USA.  

The American worker used to be one of the best in the world, but he is losing in world-wide competitiveness.  We can blame the sift on a myriad of social attitudes, the hippies of the 60s, labor/management relations and/or the growing multitudes of social give-away programs which have produced diverse expressions of attitudes of entitlements. 

Whatever the cause we need to once again share positive, realistic values with our youth.  Using clever means of getting out of work is unfortunately acceptable and  applauded by a many groups in the U.S..  The identity issues with which our youth are dealing is made even more complicated by life and work situations, such as Baldo experienced.

Dr. Maulana Karenga, Professor and Academic Advisor, Department of Africana Studies, California State University, Long Beach developed and promoted a return to values in the promotion and development of the very Kwanzaa celebration.  Kwanzaa is focused on seven principles: Unity, Self-Determination, Collective Work and Responsibility, Cooperative Economics, Purpose, Creativity, and Faith. 

Dr. Henry J. Casso, Educator and Director of Project-Uplift believes Latinos should also identify and promote traditional values to help guide our young people.  It is a combination of heritage and traditional values which form the foundation for understanding who you are.

I am working with Dr. Casso on the concept and developing strategies to share a sense of our values and principles.  Please feel invited to contact Dr. Casso or me.
Dr. Henry J. Casso  505 294-4157
Mimi Lozano 714-894-8161 

Please read the article in this issue by Ronald A. Navarro, M.D. honoring his father, Jesus Navarro.  Dr. Navarro is the Chief of the Orthopaedic Surgery Department, Kaiser Permanente, South Bay Medical Center.

The series on Dr. Hector P. Garcia, founder of the GI Forum demonstrates a life lived in sacrifice for the benefit of the Latino community.  Medical physicians, Dr. Navarro and Dr. Garcia were each shaped by the values of their parents, particularly their father.  We need to acknowledge the role of the Latino father in the home. The strong leadership and guidance of Latino fathers will benefit, not only their own children, but the nation.  Our African-American neighbors and friends have already focused on that great need. Let us follow their lead. Fathers . .   please stand forth, love and guide your sons and daughters to a future worth living.  

. . . .    Mimi

Estimating the Contribution of Immigrant Business Owners 
to the U.S. Economy
by Robert W. Fairlie, Ph.D.
Santa Cruz, CA 95060

Overall Findings
According to Census 2000, immigrants constitute 12.2 percent of the total U.S. work force, and 12.5 percent of the total population of U.S. business owners. The total business income generated by immigrant business owners is $67 billion, representing 11.6 percent of all business income in the United States. Immigrant business ownership is geographically
concentrated in a few states.


• Immigrants are nearly 30 percent more likely to start a business than are non-immigrants, and they represent 16.7 percent of all new business owners in the United States.

• Immigrant business owners make significant contributions to business income, generating
$67 billion of the $577 billion in U.S. business income, as estimated from 2000 U.S. Census Immigrant business ownership is geographically concentrated in a few states. Nearly 30 percent of all business owners in California are immigrants, compared with about 12.5 percent of the population of U.S. business owners. Twenty-five percent of business owners in New York and more than 20 percent in New Jersey, Florida, and
Hawaii are foreign-born.

• In California, immigrants are 34.2 percent of the new business owners each month. Nearly 30 percent of all new business owners per month in New York, Florida, and Tex as are immigrants. 

• Immigrants own 11.2 percent of businesses with $100,000 or more in sales and 10.8 percent of businesses with employees.

• Immigrants' contributions differ across sectors of the economy. They own a large share—more than one-fifth—of businesses in the arts, entertainment, and recreation industry. They also contribute significantly to other services, transportation, and wholesale and retail trade.

• Immigrants also own a large share of businesses in the lowest and highest skill sectors and in several industries.

• Although business owners from Mexico constitute the largest share of immigrant business
owners, total immigrant business ownership, formation, and income originate with immigrant business owners from around the world.

Data. They generate nearly one-quarter of all business income in California—nearly $20 billion— and nearly one-fifth of business income in New York, Florida, and New Jersey.

Dorinda Moreno


Hispanic Business Magazine launches Digital Edition

Dear Hispanic Business Subscriber,

Hispanic Business magazine would like to announce the launch of its digital edition. This convenient new format will benefit business professionals, entrepreneurs, business owners, students, and those interested in the Hispanic economy. We are requesting that you take a look at our complimentary digital edition and subscribe today.

There are good reasons to do so –
FAST – Get the most comprehensive and authoritative news on the Hispanic market weeks before the printed edition arrives.
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Linked inDigital editions allow direct access to people, organizations, companies, products, and additional content via live URL links throughout the magazine.
Plus -- Downloadable issues, searchable content, share issues with friends instantly.

Take a look at our current issue, and enjoy this complimentary offer from Hispanic Business.
See it today: here 

Thank you!
Hispanic Business Inc.
425 Pine Ave, Santa Barbara, CA 93117
You may unsubscribe at
 Hispanic Business magazine
805-964-4554, Ex. 206
 With December issue, full text online: Features stories: Annual Media Report// Why Mainstream Media Doesn't 'Get' White Collar Hispanics// Three Web Entrepreneurs Make Cyber Waves// Top 50 Advertisers 


Grupo Salinas 

Anexo encontrarás nuestra edición de noviembre de GS Update.  Te invitamos a compartir el documento con tus compañeros y amigos.  Esperamos lo disfrutes.

Esta es una publicación mensual. Si recibes este correo por error o deseas que retiremos tu nombre de nuestra lista de distribución, favor de enviar tu petición a la siguiente cuenta:

Attached you will find our November issue of the Grupo Salinas Update. We invite you to share the entire document, or any portion of it, with a friend.  We hope that you enjoy it:

This is a recurring monthly distribution. If you are receiving this document in error or would like to be removed from our distribution list, please reply to this e-mail address:

Anti-Spanish Legends



By Felipe de Ortego y Gasca

Scholar in Residence, Western New Mexico University; Professor Emeritus, 
Texas State University System—Sul Ross

     The Lamp and the Golden Door--Number 6 in a series on La Leyenda Negra



On a tablet within the pedestal on which the Statue of Liberty stands is engraved the poem The New Colossus by Emma Lazarus written in 1883 . Most Americans don’t know the entire poem but are familiar with the stirring lines that end the poem: “Give me your tired, your poor, / Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, / The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. / Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, / I lift my lamp beside the golden door!”  

To commemorate the centennial of the United States and to cement the friendship between France and the United States, a group of leading French admirers of American liberty commissioned Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi, a successful, 31-year-old French sculptor to construct a lasting monument to Franco-American friendship. On October 28, 1886 the 305 foot statue was raised in New York harbor. And in 1903, cast as part of the bronze tablet fastened to an interior wall of the pedestal was the poem by Emma Lazarus that has become the credo for thousands of immigrants to America (Wikipedia).  

Arguably the most impressive global monument to the freedom of immigration, the Statue of Liberty and her poetic message have become tarnished by American xenophobia directed mostly at non-white supplicants of American freedom. An incident that stirred the tentacles of The Black Legend occurred in 1915 in San Diego, Texas, where one Basilio Ramos and others were arrested for fomenting a revolution to free the dismembered territory of the Mexican Cession from American control and organizing it as an independent republic.  

During the hysteria of the Plan de San Diego, more than 300 Mexicans and Mexican Americans were killed in retaliatory actions by hyped-up Anglo Americans (including the Texas Rangers) who saw the plotters of the Plan de San Diego as terrorists and German infiltrators penetrating the soft under-belly of the United States during the bellicose times of World War I (1914-1918) in Europe (The Handbook of Texas Online, Plan of San Diego). According to Arturo Rosales, “Anglo retaliation to the Texas-based Plan de San Diego in 1915 is unparalleled in its degree of anti-Mexican violence by Anglos” (History of the Mexican American Civil Rights Movement, 30-31)  

To defend themselves from the hysterical wrath of El Plan of San Diego, Mexican Americans redoubled their efforts to create organizations which would protect their civil rights. In 1929 the efforts of a decade long struggle culminated with the formation in Corpus Christi, Texas, of the League of United Latin American Citizens, one of the oldest surviving Mexican American civil rights groups.  

Of the million and a half Mexicans who came to the United States between 1910 and 1930 in pursuit of the American dream, more than 500,000 of them were repatriated during the years 1930-1939. Like today’s ICE (Immigration and Customs Enforcement) raids, immigration authorities in the 1930 rounded up “Mexicans” in major American cities and told them to “git” escorting them to the border regardless of their citizenship. Consequently, according to one source, “60% of the people deported were children born in the U.S. and others who, while of Mexican descent, were legal citizens” (http://en.wikipedia. org/ wiki/Mexican_Repatriation).

Another account of the repatriation reports that the campaign “resulted in widespread violation of civil and human rights, including illegally imprisoning immigrants, deporting United States-born children, not permitting returnees to dispose of their property or to collect their wages, deporting many no legally subject o deportation because of their length of . . . residence, separating families, and deporting the infirm” (“Mexican Repatriation in 1930 is Little Known Story” 24/mex%20repat.htm). Alfonso Lara born in the United States tells the story that when his father died in 1932 when he was 7, immigration officials came to his house and told his mother to go back to Mexico since there was nothing for her to do in the United States. Years later after growing up in Mexico he learned during a sojourn in the United States as a bracer that he was an American citizen. All this seems like preamble to the roundup of Japanese Americans in the early days of World War II.  

Indeed, immigration officials made no distinctions in rounding up “Mexicans” during the repatriation raids of the 1930s—a Mexican was a Mexican. There were no raids of these sorts along the U.S.—Canadian border. There are, of course, exigencies to bear in mind when one considers the impetus for the raids. The Great Depression of the 1930s created uncertainty and anxieties for the millions of Americans affected by hard times. Unemployment was at an all-time high, financial institutions were in wreckage, inflation was amok, and, in general, the United States was in shambles. Consequently making scapegoats of “Mexicans” helped assuage the public temper which fanned the flames of the Black Legend.  

Since 2005, however, public expressions of guilt  over the forced repatriation of American citizens during the 1930s has spurred a clamor from Mexican Americans for public apologies for those actions, apologies much like the ones expressed publicly over slavery and the roundup of Japanese Americans during World War II. California Senate Bill 670 in 2005 signed by Governor Schwarzenegger was among the first of those public apologies.  

The 1930s were not the most propitious times for Mexican Americans. However, in April of 1939 American Hispanics convened El Congreso de Pueblos de Habla Española, a national civil rights assembly. Most of the delegates were from California and the Southwest but many were from Montana, Illinois, New York, and Florida. The outcome was a manifesto that “called for an end to segregation in public facilities, housing, education, employment and endorsed the rights of immigrants to live and work in the United States without fear of deportation” (Vicki L. Ruiz, “Nuestra América: Latino History as United States History,” The Journal of American History, December 2006).  

While the vocabulary of America incorporated Spanish words as part of its geography (Nevada) and ranching lexicon (lariat) urban streetscapes (Mesa) and into its architecture as “Taco Deco” and “Mariachi Modern” (David Weber, The Spanish Frontier in North America, Yale, 1994, 353), the Black Legend continued to churn out its propaganda like the little salt machine that spilled into the ocean.  

Copyright © 2008 by the author. All rights reserved.

Military and Law Enforcement Heroes
2LT Francis Ildefonso Cervantes
Lt. William Carrillo
Lt Richard Gomez Candelaria: WW II Fighter ACE
Lt Oscar Francis Perdomo: Last WW II Ace in a Day
Lt Francisco “David” Mercado, Jr. B-24 Bombardier
Sgt.1st Class Luis Morales Receives Silver Star for Valor
Petty Officer 3rd Class Alfonso Chavarrias Receives Navy Cross 
Dr. Luis Walter Alvarez, American Physicist and Inventor
U.S. Military Academy at West Point Launches 'Center for Oral History
Medal of Honor Information

2LT Francis Ildefonso Cervantes
859th BS, 15th Special Group (Provisional),
15th AF, Brindisi, Italy.
Killed in Action 9 February, 1945
near Jablanac, Yugoslavia
My father was born on November 6, 1922, in New Orleans. He was the first-born child of Mexican immigrants and had two younger sisters. His father, Francisco, was a veteran of the Mexican Revolution who had come to this country seeking a better life.
My father's dream was to become an aeronautical engineer. He was a sophomore at Tulane University when Pearl Harbor was attacked. He wanted he to immediately join the service but his parents pleaded with him to stay in school. He reluctantly agreed to postpone his enlistment, but only until the completion of the school year. He eventually enlisted in the USAAF on June 12, 1942.
He met my mother, Paula Andrade while stationed in San Antonio, Texas. He was assigned to Navigator School and she was serving as a volunteer hostess at the downtown USO. They fell in love and were married on Christmas Eve in the base chapel on Brook Army Air Force Base. She followed him throughout the West as he underwent flight training as a B-24 Liberator crew member. She still remembers the dust at Wendover, Utah, the mosquitoes at Mountain Home, Idaho, and the beauty around Casper, Wyoming. They last saw each other in Wichita, Kansas just before he flew off to England in the spring of 1944. Their aircraft was named "Back to the Sack" and featured a painting of Donald Duck in a nightshirt and nightcap, holding a candle and yawning.
Upon arrival in England, this crew was asked to volunteer for the elite 492nd Bombardment Group (Provisional), the now famous Carpetbaggers. This was a unit under the command of the Office of Strategic Services (O.S.S.), not the USAAF. The OSS was the forerunner of today's CIA. All crews were volunteers, and were under strict orders to maintain secrecy about their missions, under penalty of death. Their mission was to fly into the occupied countries and drop spies and supplies to the resistance fighters. They would also, when possible, land behind enemy lines and extract downed Allied airmen. Most of their missions were flown at night, alone, and at low level to avoid German radar. Casualty rates, as expected, were very high. Some crews simply disappeared, probably crashing at sea. They were under strict orders to maintain radio silence, even when in trouble. If captured and identified, they were treated as spies and executed by the nazis.
Several excellent books have been written about the exploits of the Carpetbaggers. Among these are: "They Flew by Night, Memoirs of the Carpetbaggers" as told to Col. Robert W. Fish, "Carpetbaggers-America's Secret War in Europe," by Ben Parnell, and "The Bedford Triangle, US Undercover Operations in Europe in W.W.II", by Martin W. Bowman.
After the liberation of France in December, 1945, my father and his crew again volunteered to fly similar missions in Eastern Europe, this time out of Italy. On February 9, 1945, while on a mission to drop supplies to the partisans fighting the nazis in Yugoslavia, their aircraft exploded in midair as they crossed the Adriatic coast over present day Croatia. There were no survivors and the cause of the explosion was never determined. Their remains were initially interred in the American Cemetery in Belgrade, and eventually re-interred in Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery near St. Louis, Missouri. The individual remains could not be identified and they were buried in a group as comrades-in-arms.
They are:
1st Lt. Robert W. Maxwell, pilot
2nd Lt. Frank E. Marcus, copilot
2nd Lt. Francis I. Cervantes, navigator
2nd Lt. Robert C. Jackson. bombardier
S/Sgt. Lionel A. Tetzloff
S/Sgt. William P. Kavanaugh
S/Sgt. Kyle B. Jones
Pvt. William W. Elliott
I was born three weeks before my father died, and he knew of my birth. Although I never felt his touch or heard his voice, a day seldom passes that I don't think of him in some way. Like many war orphans, I would often dream that he would someday walk back into our lives and tell us it had all been a mistake- that he had been lost, or taken prisoner, or on a secret assignment. I was about ten when I finally realized he really wasn't coming home. Once I dreamt I was standing by his grave, and I remember I awoke in tears. I don't think my mother ever got over losing him. She never remarried.
I am extremely proud of my father. He was and is my hero. He was loved, admired and respected by those who knew him. He was somewhat serious, hard working and quiet, but fun loving and gregarious at the right moments. He once went to pick my mom up for a date, but got too involved in a baseball game with her younger brothers and sisters in the street in front of her home and they never got to go out. He loved making things and was an award-winning model builder. I have a newspaper clipping of him receiving an award for a scale model of the Queen Mary that he built. That model is still in our family.
Dad, I've always loved you and missed you. I have tried very hard to live my life in a way that would have made you proud of me. You have a beautiful daughter-in-law and granddaughter who I both love deeply. Thank you for your sacrifice.
-- Frank Cervantes --

As published in American World War II Orphans Network

Sent by Gus Chavez

Lt. William Carrillo
By Mario Barrera
U.S. Latino and Latina World War II Oral History Project

William Carrillo knew he wanted to go into the Army Air Corps when he enlisted in 1942, but there was a problem. He did not have the required college degree for the Air Corps Cadet program. So on the application form the resourceful Carrillo entered "College of Hard Knox." By the time anybody noticed that Hard Knox was not an accredited institution, Carrillo was on his way to the cadet program. If he had known how many hard knocks were in store for him in Europe, he might have had second thoughts.

After pilot training at various U.S. locations, Lt. Carrillo flew a B-17 bomber to England, where he was assigned to the 100th Bomb Group of the 3rd Division, 8th Air Force. While stationed at a British air base that was sometimes bombed by the Luftwaffe (German Air Force), Lt. Carrillo flew 24 and a half missions, initially over France and then into Germany, usually encountering heavy anti-aircraft fire and attacks by German fighters.

On his 55th mission, May 24, 1944, he was shot down over Berlin. Carrillo still doesn't know how many of his 10-member crew survived that day, but he does know his co-pilot and radio operator were killed by anti-aircraft fire. After bailing out, Carrillo found himself crashing through the slate roof of a Berlin house, ending up with his legs in the attic and the rest of him sticking out of the roof. He was pulled down into the house by an elderly man, a member of the Volkssturm (People's Army), a kind of home guard consisting of those too old or too infirm for the regular army.

The man, who spoke no English, kept poking Carrillo with the bayonet of an old rifle until a gas cartridge went off on his Mae West life preserver, suddenly inflating and startling them both. At that point, Carrillo was sure he was going to die.

Instead, the Volkssturmer turned him over to two members of the Gestapo, who proceeded to interrogate him for the next two weeks, hoping to learn something about the impending invasion of Europe. After beatings and other atrocious tortures that left Carrillo with a set of broken toes and other injuries, the Gestapo concluded that they would get nothing out of him and turned him over to the Luftwaffe.

From then until the end of the war, Carrillo was kept in a Luftwaffe-run prisoner of war camp in Poland and subjected to extended, but less brutal questioning. His chief interrogator turned out to be the notorious "Gold Tooth Major," an American of German descent who had decided that Germany was going to win the war and had gone to join the "Master Race." During this time Carrillo was flabbergasted to learn that the Germans already knew almost as much about him as he knew about himself. The Gold Tooth Major produced a large, thick notebook corresponding to the 100th Bomb group, turned to the William Carrillo section and read out Carrillo's birthdate and birthplace, the names of his parents and siblings, the date of his enlistment, the location of his barracks in England, and numerous other facts about him, all accurate. They had information on him up to a few days before he was shot down.

While in captivity, Carrillo and other captured airmen were offered the choice of joining the Luftwaffe in order to fight the Russians, an offer which he "respectfully" declined, despite being offered inducements that included the promise of free sex with attractive young women.

In 1945, as the Soviet army advanced through Poland, Carrillo and his fellow prisoners were moved to another prisoner of war camp, close to Munich, Germany. There, they were liberated by Patton's Third Army, with General Patton personally driving the tank that smashed through the gates of the camp. Gen Patton returned several times to talk to the prisoners, and to curse General Eisenhower for allowing other military units to enter Berlin before Patton. According to Carrillo's recollections, the only way that Ike was able to keep Gen. Patton from disregarding that order was to restrict gasoline supplies to Gen. Patton's tanks.

Although Carrillo had been promoted to the rank of captain while in captivity, he never received the army wages that were accumulating for him while he was held prisoner, supposedly because of lost paperwork.

Upon his return to California, Carrillo went back to work for his former employer, MJB Coffee of San Francisco. Prior to the war, he had worked at MJB as a janitor, since, according to Carrillo, Mexicans were considered too dumb for other jobs. When it was found out that he had been an officer, however, he was moved to a management position, eventually serving as general manager until his retirement in 1995.

Carrillo married his wife, Veronica, in 1948, and the couple had five children. Today they live in Daly City, south of San Francisco, where they keep busy with various projects and their 12 grandchildren.

Date of Birth: 02-11-1919 
Interviewed by: Mario Barrera 
WWII Military Unit: Air Force 

U.S. Latino and Latina World War II Oral History Project

Sent by R afael Ojeda

Lt Richard Gomez Candelaria: WW II Fighter ACE
Written by Santiago A. Flores


Lt. Candelaria was born on July 14,1922 in Pasadena,CA. He joined the USAAF as an aviation

Cadet and earned his wings on Feb 8,1944 at Williams Field, AZ. He was assigned to the 479th Fighter Group and sent to England. He flew a P-51H, named, “My Pride and Joy”. He downed Two FW-190s on Dec 5,1944 and four ME-109s on April 7,1945. On his 75th mission over Tarnewitz, Germany, he was shot down by ground fire on April 13,1945. He evaded for 10 days, then captured as a POW. After WW II, joined the Air National Guard: commanded the 8195th FS, flying the F-86 Sabres jet.  He retired as a Colonel. He was the co-founder of Taco Bell and Several electronic companies. Colonel Candelaria was featured on the History Channel Dogfights Series.

Please see photos and credits on the web sites below:



Lt Oscar Francis Perdomo: Last WW II Ace in a Day.
Written by Santiago A. Flores


Lt Perdomo was born in El Paso Texas on July 14,1919 Died on March 2, 1976.

He enlisted in the Army Air Force Pilot School in Chandler AZ on Feb 1943. He earned his wings on Jan 7, 1944 and was assigned to the AAF Basic Flight School at Chico, CA, flying the P-47 Thunderbolt. He was transferred to the 464th  Fighter Squadron, 507th Fighter Group and sent overseas to the Pacific Theater at LeShima, Okinawa. The primary mission was to provide Escort cover for the 8th Air Force Boeing B-29. Lt Perdomo was a P-47N-2 RE (#146) which he Named “Lil Meaties Meat chopper for his son namesake. On August 9,1945 Lt Perdomo had 10 combat missions and the U.S, had just dropped the Atomic Bomb over Nagasaki, Japan. 

While waiting for Japan to surrender, the war continued, then on August 13,1945 Lt Perdomo shot down four Nakajima (Oscars) fighters and one Yokosuka (Willow) type 93 bi-plane near Keijo, Seoul Korea. Thus earning him the distinction of being the last WW II Ace in a day.  

Lt Perdomo  was recalled back to duty when the Korean War started and remained in the service Until 1958 and separated as a Major in the USAF.

Please view the web sites below for credits and photos:





    In WW I and WW II the Army Air Corps (AAC) and the Army Air Force (AAF) both had Enlisted Pilots (non-commission officers). Aviation cadets were promoted to Staff Sergeants (SSGT) upon graduation from their Flight Schools. I have only been able to find two Latinos:

Names: SSGT Manuel S. Martinez and SSGT Paul N. Perez. The websites below have only the Names of the Flying Sergeant Pilots. Please let us know if anyone has more info about these and other Flying Sergeant names.


 (Rafael Ojeda  Page 12



Lt Francisco “David” Mercado, Jr. B-24 Bombardier.



Lt Mercado was born in East Los Angles on January 17,1920-Sep 23,2005. With the outbreak of WW II, he volunteered as an Air Corps Aviation Cadet in 1942. His initial flight training was in The Ryan PT-22 and the Vultee BT-13 and later the B-26. He was transferred to the B-24 at Kirkland Airfield, NM where he received his Bombardier wing and commissioned as a 2nd LT.

He was assigned to the 491st Bomb Group and deployed to the 853 Bomb Squadron, 491st Bomb wing, 8th Air Force. Lt Mercardo flew 35 combat missions.He earned the exclusive “Caterpillar Club” when he had to parachute on July 21, 1944 over England while returning with a crippled

B-24.Please see web site below for his Medal awards and credits.

page 14  (Rafael Ojeda


Sgt. First Class Luis Morales Receives silver Star for Valor

Fredericksburg native awarded Silver Star for valor during harrowing April battle in Afghanistan
Date published: 12/13/2008
By Rusty Dennen
Luis Morales will always remember April 6, 2008--a terrifying and bloody day that forever changed his life, and the lives of some of his buddies.
Morales, a Green Beret and sergeant first class in Special Forces Operational Detachment Alpha 3336, who grew up in the Fredericksburg area, yesterday received a Silver Star for valor at Fort Bragg, N.C., for his actions that morning. Nine others involved in the battle also received the decoration--the most ever for a unit in Afghanistan.
Just after dawn that day, the 31-year-old Morales said, his unit of 12 men and several Afghan interpreters headed into the Shok Valley, an insurgent stronghold in Afghanistan's Nuristan Province.
The objective of Operation Commando Wrath was to kill or capture members of the Hezeb Islami al Gulbadin terrorist group.  Helicopters dropped three teams with the 3rd Special Forces Group, and Afghan commandos, below a village. The men--each carrying 30 to 60 pounds of gear--spread out and started making their way up a rocky, steep ridge.
"I saw four guys with weapons running on the elevation above us," Morales said in a telephone interview this week from the apartment at Fort Bragg where he now lives with his wife, Kathryne.
He opened fire, killing one of them. Then a large group of insurgents in the village shot back with rifles, machine guns and rocket-propelled grenades.
Next to Morales was Staff Sgt. Dillon Behr, who fell to the ground. Behr was hit in the leg and the arm.
As bullets whizzed past, "The captain [Kyle Walton] and I dragged him back about 30 feet" to a more sheltered area, Morales said.
"I did buddy aid on Sgt. Behr," Morales recalled, trying to focus on the crisis at hand. "The bullet had shattered the head of his femur. He was in a lot of pain." Morales kneeled on Behr's wound to stanch the bleeding.
As he was talking to Behr about the other wound, Morales was hit in his left thigh.
"I grabbed my leg and thought, 'This is what it feels like to get shot.' It was like a 10-pound sledgehammer hitting me, and it hurt," Morales said. Two other soldiers ran up to help get him and Behr to a more protected spot.

Then, in a moment observed by a combat camera man, Morales got hit again, in the ankle. The cameraman, who later visited him in the hospital, told Morales that he exclaimed, "Are you [expletive] kidding me?"

The whole time, Morales said, "I thought about trying to find a better position, and how to get the team out of the situation." Though he was losing blood, "It was no time to lose composure or for freaking out." A medic came to their aid and, still under fire, they made it down the hill and were evacuated.

During the 61/2-hour battle, four men in his group--Morales, Behr of Rock Island, Ill., Staff Sgt. John Walding of Groesbeck, Texas, and Master Sgt. Scott Ford of Athens, Ohio--were wounded. Walding lost his leg. An Afghan interpreter was killed.  The Army estimated there were about 200 enemy fighters.

Morales spent three months recuperating at Walter Reed Army Medical Center, and only two weeks ago finished outpatient treatment. "I had a big hole in my ankle. They took skin and an artery from the back of my calf. I had a lot of cartilage damage, and there's bone on bone with my ankle. I'm in pain all day," Morales said.

"I give the example of House on TV," he said of the doctor on the Fox medical drama. "He can walk with a cane, but he's in pain. That's what it feels like for me."

Morales plans to stay in the military, continuing his work with Special Forces. "As the war in Afghanistan and Iraq has continued, more jobs are being created for wounded warriors, so that they can stay in the military if they want to," he said.

As for receiving the Silver Star, "It's a humbling experience and honor. I am just one guy doing my duty."

Rusty Dennen: 540/374-5431

Petty Officer 3rd Class Alfonso Chavarrias Receives Navy Cross
Orders, Decorations and Medals - Medals by country - United States - Navy Cross
Bush awards posthumous Navy Cross President Bush has awarded the Navy Cross posthumously to Alfonso Chavarrias for heroic action as a Navy gunners mate on the aircraft carrier Intrepid during a key World War II battle off the Philippines. Petty officer 3rd Class, Chavarrias was gun captain of a 20mm anti-aircraft gun on the Intrepid when a Japanese plane dove at the aircraft carrier during the Battle of Leyte Gulf. May 02



Dr. Luis Walter Alvarez, American Physicist and Inventor


Photograph:Luis AlvarezI would like to conclude our WW II era by including the Grand-daddy of Hispanic scientists: Dr. Luis Walter Alvarez. Dr Alvarez was of Spanish and Cuban descent.  (Born on  June 13,1911 died on Sep 1,1988). Dr. Alvarez was educated at the University of Chicago, where he received his bachelor’s degree in 1932, his master degree in 1934,and his PhD in 1936 in Physics.

During WW II while at M.I.T he was responsible for three important radar system inventions: the microwave early warning system, the Eagle high altitude bombing system and a blind landing system of civilian as well as military value, theGround-Controlled Approach, (GSA). During the war, he worked on the highest classified military technology. He was a key participant in the Manhattan project, including Project Alberta, the actual dropping of the atom bombs. He was on board The Great Artiste, the observation plane for the atomic bombing  of Hiroshima, as a scientific observer.

Dr. Alvarez and his student Lawrence Johnston, designed the exploding-bridgewire detonators for the spherical implosives used on the Trinity and Nagasaki  bombs. For his Inventions on radar and navigation technologies he received the Collier Trophy in 1946, which is the highest American government award honor in aviation. 

Other medals include: the Medal of Merit, 1948, the John Scott Medal in 1953, the Einstein Medal in 1961,  the National Meal of Science in 1964, the Michelson Award in 1965, the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1968 and the Dudley Wright Prize (Interdisciplinary Science) in 1981.

After the war, he invented the synchroton.  During his lifetime, he was granted more than 
40 patents. Among some of these patent were the stabilized opticial system for binoculars or cameras (later the variable-power lens he invented for the Polaroid Spectrum camera.

Among other accomplishments  he begun his long involvement with aviation in 1934, after just three hours of dual instruction, he flew for over 50 years until the age of 73.

Along with his son, Walter Alvarez, a Geologist presented the “Asteroid-Impact Theory” for the Extinction of dinosaur in 1980

His famous Quote: “ The most”, “the best”, “the first”, were important to Dr. Alvarez, in others as well in himself. Quote:, “Valuing honors myself, I’ve worked hard to see to it that my favorite candidates win them as well” and he could point to successes in that field. (Quotes from “Memorial Tribute for Luis W. Alvarez, by Richard L. Graham).

For credits and further reading see web site links below:  


(Rafael Ojeda  Page 13


Abstract: U.S. Military Academy at West Point Launches 
'Center for Oral History,' an Archive of Soldier Experiences, 
from Oldest Living

Center to include interviews from Secretaries of State and Defense on wartime planning strategy; Among advisory board are documentarian Ken Burns and former presidential advisor Brent Scowcroft, as well as Pulitzer Prize war correspondents; Early segments capture vivid sense of being tested in heat of combat

WEST POINT, N.Y., Dec. 5 /PRNewswire/ -- The United States Military Academy at West Point, whose graduates are commissioned 2nd Lieutenants in the U.S. Army, has launched an ambitious Center for Oral History to serve as a living archive on the experiences of American soldiers in war and peace. The Center aims to be a powerful learning tool for West Point cadets and an important research center for historians, as well as a destination for the public to gain greater understanding of the essential and unique calling of the U.S. soldier.

The Center for Oral History, which is supported entirely by donated funds, will exist largely online, with high-definition video and digital audio files, easing access for everyone from campus cadets to scholars, journalists and interested students half a world away. A preview of the site -- including a 12-minute video with excerpts of soldier interviews -- can be seen by linking here:

One of the Center's first projects has been to interview members of West Point's Class of 1967, who, upon graduation, were sent almost immediately to the war in Vietnam . Another has been to interview soldiers who have served in Iraq and Afghanistan as part of a comprehensive, anecdotal account of those current campaigns. Researchers are also gathering material from veterans of World War II, Vietnam and the so-called "forgotten war" in Korea. By definition, the Center will be a work in perpetual progress, continuously updated as history unfolds. 

General Petraeus Comments

Among those welcoming the new Center is General David Petraeus , a 1974 graduate of the Academy who recently assumed his new post as Commander of the U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM) after having served as Commanding General of the Multi-National Force in Iraq .

"Our Army has a proud history, one that is chronicled in innumerable books and films. This Center aims to record our Army's history in a different way, through the personal oral histories of our soldiers captured by thorough, thoughtful interviews," General Petraeus said.

"It is exciting to think what will be preserved for posterity by this endeavor. It will capture moments of introspection by our soldiers, personal recollections of the tragedies and triumphs of combat. I applaud the Center for Oral History's effort to expand our nation's repository of spoken history by recording the experiences of American soldiers from World War II to Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. This is an exciting prospect."

Bridging the Gap between Soldier and Civilian

"In the best West Point tradition, we hope our recorded interviews will speak directly to the soldiers of tomorrow, preparing them for battlefields they might find themselves on," said the Center's director, Todd Brewster . "They will be a primary source archive for historians -- and just as important, for the general public. Ever since the U.S. instituted a volunteer Army, there has been a growing gap in perspective between soldiers and the public whom they defend and represent. An easily accessible archive of soldiers' stories will go a long way toward reconciling the cultural and occupational divide between soldier and civilian."

Mr. Brewster, a veteran journalist who has written for Time, The New York Times , Vanity Fair, Life and The New Republic, has also taught journalism, documentary film and constitutional law at Yale and Wesleyan. He co-wrote, along with the late ABC News anchor Peter Jennings , the best-selling books In Search of America and The Century, the latter a look at the 20th century through oral histories of Americans both prominent and unsung. He also served as an ABC News senior producer for two award-winning documentary series based upon the books he wrote with Mr. Jennings.

"Imagine if we had had an oral history center in 1802, when West Point was founded and the first class of cadets arrived," Mr. Brewster suggested. "Or if we had one during the Civil War, with stories from the armies of Grant and Lee; or from Pershing in World War I; or Eisenhower and MacArthur."

"Eyewitness accounts are among the most riveting and telling parts of any history, but especially those surrounding armed conflict," he added. "Very few non-soldiers have been through the heat of battle. Soldiers' personal stories are a largely untapped mine of military insight and historical testimony."

Serving as the Center's deputy director is Dr. Patrick Jennings , a military historian and former U.S. Marine who as an Army National Guardsman was deployed as a combat historian on three separate tours to both Iraq and Afghanistan , conducting interviews with hundreds of combat soldiers and officers. Dr. Jennings also served as a field historian for the Army at Ground Zero after the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center.

Noted Advisory Board Includes Military Scholars, Journalists

The Center has the benefit of a Board of Advisors composed of military scholars, journalists, government officials and filmmakers to help set its agenda, develop new projects and content, and assist with fund-raising. 

Board of Advisors  for The Center for Oral History, USMA West Point

Rick Atkinson is an historian and journalist who has been awarded the Pulitzer Prize for his work at the Kansas City Times and the Washington Post. He is the author of The Long Gray
Line, (1989), Crusade: The Untold Story of the Persian Gulf War (1993), An Army at Dawn: The War in North Africa, 1942-1943 (2003), In the Company of Soldiers: A Chronicle of Combat (2005) and, most recently, The Day of Battle: The War in Sicily and Italy, 1943-1944.

COL(R) Andrew Bacevich, PhD is a professor of International Relations at Boston University. A 1969 graduate of USMA, he served in Vietnam. He is the author of several books, including American Empire: The Realities and Consequences of U.S. Diplomacy (2002) and The New American Militarism: How Americans are Seduced by War (2005).
Ken Burns is a director and producer of documentary films. Among his most memorable productions are The Civil War (1990), Baseball (1994), Jazz (2001) and The War (2007).

LTC(R) James Carafano, PhD is on the staff of the Heritage Foundation, where he is Assistant Director of the Kathryn and Shelby Cullom Davis Institute for International Studies and Senior Research Fellow for the Douglas and Sarah Allison Center for
Foreign Policy Studies. A member of the USMA class of 1977, he is coauthor of Winning the Long War: Lessons from the Cold War for Defeating Terrorism and Preserving Freedom (2005).

COL David Gray, PhD is Professor of Officership in the USMA Simon Center for the Professional Military Ethic. His most recent assignment was as Executive Officer to the Chief of Staff, Army. A former assistant professor in the Department of History, USMA, COL Gray holds a doctorate in history from the Ohio State University.

COL(R) Jack Jacobs is on the USMA faculty. He has also been a member of the faculty of the National War College in Washington, DC. He is among the most highly decorated
soldiers from the Vietnam era, having earned three Bronze Stars, two Silver Stars and the Medal of Honor, the nation’s highest combat decoration.

COL(R) Pete Mansoor, PhD is the new Raymond E. Mason Jr. Chair in Military History at Ohio State University. A highly decorated officer with more than 26 years of distinguished
military service, Mansoor served as Executive Officer to GEN David Petraeus, Commander of the Multinational Forces in Iraq. He graduated first in his class from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1982, and received an MA and PhD in military
history from Ohio State University.

COL Michael Meese, PhD, USMA Class of 1981, is head of the Department of Social Sciences at West Point. He has worked as a senior advisor to the Commander of Multinational Force-Iraq and written extensively on defense economics, terrorism, and national security. He is a graduate of the National War College, Command and General Staff College, and holds a PhD, MPA and an MA from Princeton University.

Prof. John Morrow, PhD is a member of the faculty of the University of Georgia, where he teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in the History of Modern Europe and War
and Society. Morrow’s book The Great War in the Air (1993) is considered the definitive study of airpower in the First World War. He is currently writing a history of the First World War.

Martha Raddatz is the ABC News Chief White House Correspondent. She has also served as the network’s State Department Correspondent, as its Senior National Security
Correspondent and as the Chief Pentagon Correspondent for National Public Radio (1993-1998). She is the author of The Long Road Home (2007) about a surprise attack on soldiers of the army’s 1st Cavalry Division in Iraq.
Prof. Carol Reardon, PhD is Professor of Military History at Pennsylvania State University, where she teaches various aspects of American military and naval history and the way that memory shapes our understanding of historical events. An expert on the Civil War, she has led many USMA “staff rides” to Civil War battlefields. She is president of the Society for Military History and author, most recently, of Launch the Intruders: A Naval Attack Squadron in the Vietnam War, 1972 (2005).

COL Maritza Ryan, PhD is the head of the USMA Department of Law. A member of the USMA Class of 1981 and a veteran of Operation Desert Storm, she received her law degree from Vanderbilt University before joining the Judge Advocate General’s Corps.

LTG(R) Brent Scowcroft, USMA Class of 1947, is president and founder of The Scowcroft Group, an international consulting firm. He served as the National Security Advisor to Presidents Gerald Ford and George H.W. Bush. Scowcroft has been Professor of Russian History at West Point; Assistant Air Attaché in Belgrade, Yugoslavia; Head of the Political Science Department at the Air Force Academy; and Military Assistant to President Nixon. He is the coauthor, with President George H. W. Bush, of “A World Transformed” (1999).

Prof. Roger Spiller, PhD is a former Ewing Visiting Professor in History at USMA (2007-2008). He has taught at the Army’s Command and General Staff College in Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, and is the author of several books, including An Instinct for War: Scenes from the Battlefields of History, (2005).

Sent by Armando Rendon

More information:


Medal of Honor

The President, in the name of Congress, has awarded more than 3,400 Medals of Honor to our nation's bravest Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen, Marines, and Coast Guardsmen since the decoration's creation in 1861. For years, the citations highlighting these acts of bravery and heroism resided in dusty archives and only sporadically were printed. In 1973, the U.S. Senate ordered the citations be compiled and printed as a Committee on Veterans' Affairs report. This book was later updated and a reprint published in 1979.

The citations provided here are taken from the U.S. Senate Committee on Veterans' Affairs Report, Medal of Honor Recipients: 1863-1978 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1979).

For awards made after 1978, the citations are taken either from the CRS Report for Congress: Medal of Honor Recipients: 1979-2008 dated 4 June 2008, or in some cases, from the citations officially released and published at the time of award by the White House.

N.B.Some minor misspelling and other errors unfortunately, may be duplicated from the 1979 government publication. These were likely the result of the original transcriptions and reflect the nature of the published compilation. Other errors, however, may have crept into the citations during the course of digitizing the original report for website posting, every effort will be made to identify and correct those conversion errors.

The following is an index of the full-text citations by war.

Additional Information

Sent by Rafael Ojeda


Patriots of the American Revolution

Herrera, 9th generation descendents of Spanish Colonial soldiers in Tucson Presidio 
DAR Event, March 15, Austin, Texas
Mexico Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, MXSSAR
Patriots of Peru During American Revolution, by Granville Hough, Ph.D.  #15 R

Chris Herrera (left) & Jeff Herrera (right) in Clan Dunbar kilts - June, 2008
Tumacacori Mission, National Park Service


My sons Jeff Herrera (San Diego) & Chris Herrera (Anaheim Hills) are 9th generation descendents of Spanish Colonial soldiers who served in "El Presido Real de San Agustin del Tucson"', aka: the Tucson Presidio from 1775. Their 9th gr-grandfather, Sargento Cristobal de Francisco Ortega  is listed in the Royal Presidio of Tubac prior to 1767 under Juan Bautista de Anza; his son, Brevet 2nd Lieutenant don Juan Manuel Ortega was the recipient of his 20 year award in 1800 and served until his death in 1817.  He is buried in the church at Tubac, AZ.  

These ancestors are in our maternal line with continuous ties to Arizona from the Spanish period, the Mexican period, & US Territorial period to the present.  The above was taken from Mission 2000 Database, Tumacacori Mission, National Park Service, US Dept of the Interior.

All the best to you, Monica Dunbar Smith


Sent by Ruben M. Perez 



Mexico Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, MXSSAR
Archivo General de Indias
by Judge Edward Butler, 2002 Jun 20 

The entire record collection of Spain's activities in Louisiana and Florida covering the period of the American Revolution (1776-1783), is housed in a building in Seville Spain. But there are microfilm copies of various files, including sets in New Orleans and Baton Rouge, LA. These records include military records, info about marriages, and land grants. Apparently, Louisiana and Florida until 1801 were governed from Cuba and those records were then sent to Spain. They kept very detailed records so there is a wealth of knowledge. 

· Founding · Documentary Holdings · Organization of Holdings · Finding Aids    · The AGI Building   · Consultation of Holdings  · Restoration Laboratory 
· Microfilm Service 

5. Founding
In 1781, King Carlos III decided to found the AGI at the urging of his Secretary of the Indies, José de Gálvez. The goal was to gather at one site all the documents concerning Spanish administration in the Americas and Philippines. The original documents were to be used as source material for writing a new history of the Spanish presence in the Americas. The new history would respond to some of the histories being published abroad that Spanish officials and intellectuals feared were auguring a new episode of the anti-Spanish "black legend." 

6. The move would also free up space at the Simancas Archivo, the central archive of the Crown since the sixteenth century, which was then so overwhelmed it could not offer proper service. 

Documentary Holdings
The first shipments of papers from Simancas arrived in October 1785, forming the initial core of the AGI. They would later be supplemented by new transfers, especially from Madrid and Cáádiz. Today, the AGI holds about eight kilometers of shelving containing more than 43,000 bundles of original papers. 
These documentary holdings are drawn from the metropolitan agencies responsible for colonial administration, primarily the Consejo de Indias (Council of the Indies), Casa de la Contratación (House of Trade), State Secretariats responsible for Indies affairs, and the Consulados (Boards of Trade) of Seville and Cádiz, as well as other agencies. 

Organization of Holdings
The AGI was provided with an excellent series of Ordenanzas (ordinances) promulgated by King Carlos IV in 1790. 

7. Among other functions, these Ordenanzas established what eventually came to be known as the "principle of provenance." This principle obligated the Archives to keep together all the documents generated by each agency, 

8. without mixing them with the documents of other agencies. 

9. Article V of the Ordenanzas reads: "The first division of papers should be into collections corresponding to the remitting offices. Thus, those from Simancas, Víía Reservada, and each of the offices of the Consejo should remain together and be maintained separately from the others." 

10. Although this obligation was observed for the most part, trends in the history of the AGI eventually led to the current organization of documents into 15 sections that usually, but not always, hold all the documents of a unique generating agency. More detail on this organization is given on p. 12. 

Finding Aids
During the first few years of its history, the AGI made a great effort to organize and describe its holdings in order to create a "general inventory." 

11. Although this general inventory was never completed, the AGI today has many guides, inventories, catalogs, and indices that make it possible to control the holdings and facilitate access to the information. Some of the old inventories, painstakingly drawn up at the end of the eighteenth century, have continued to be useful in their manuscript format. 

The AGI Building
The AGI is located in the old building of the Casa Lonja de Mercaderes (Commodity Exchange) of Seville, constructed between 1583 and 1646 as a meeting place for dealers who traded between the metropolis and its colonies. The building was renovated to serve as the headquarters of the AGI at the time it was founded. Besides being a Spanish historical monument, 
12 the site has been declared part of the World Heritage by UNESCO. 

Consultation of Holdings
The AGI is visited daily by an average of 50 researchers. More than 900 different researchers visit each year. Half come from outside Spain; almost 40 percent of all researchers come from the Americas. The AGI fills requests for 300,000 to 400,000 copies on paper and microfilm each year and responds to almost a thousand written requests annually. 

Restoration Laboratory
The AGI has a restoration laboratory to handle its conservation problems. All papers are more than a century old, and some are 500 years old, with a concentration in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The documents have been affected by different storage conditions. Many have also undergone the vicissitudes of a long Atlantic crossing, although great effort was made to ensure optimal packing for shipment. In some cases, the papers and ink themselves have caused degradation. For example, the Philippines Audiencia often used fragile rice paper for documents. In recent years, documents have been excessively handled in the Reading Room. 

Microfilm Service
The AGI also contains a small microfilm laboratory which, because of staffing limitations, generally only fulfills researchers' requests for copies. However, a policy of backup microfilming and microfilm editions has gradually been adopted over the years, so that about two million frames in unperforated 35 mm rolls are currently available. 

13. References

5 The General Bibliography lists useful titles about the AGI's history and holdings. 

6 According to Juan Bautista Muñoz, founder of the Archivo: "In order to fulfill these worthy purposes, to silence once and for all our many fiery defamers and rivals and to show their ignorance to be inexcusable, it was necessary to go to the root of the matter, to the sources, and study irrefutable documents, as if nothing [else] had been written and published." Juan Bautista Muñoz to the Secretary of State of the Indies, José de Galvez, 28 November 1783. Archivo Históórico Nacional, Diversos 29, Doc. 16 

7 Ordenanzas para el Archivo General de Indias [Ordinances for the AGI] Article V (Madrid, 1990). See bibliography on the 1790 Archivo Ordinances in the General Bibliography. 

8 This principle identifies the "fonds", an archival concept widely used in Europe. The ISAD(G) standard defines the term as the "whole of the documents, regardless of form or medium, organically created and/or accumulated and used by a particular person, family, or corporate body in the course of that creator's activities and functions." 

9 The "principle of provenance" is understood today to include not only the separation of documents generated by each agency but also the conservation of their original order. French archivist Natalis de Wailly first enunciated the principle in 1841 as "respect de fonds." The Germans then developed the Strukturprinzip, which later became part of the "principle of provenance." The Ordenanzas clearly expressed this principle in 1790, even though the terms had not yet been developed. 

10 Ordenanzas, Article V. 

11 Ordenanzas, Article XXVII. 

12 The site was declared a national monument by Royal Decree on April 20, 1983, and a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1987. 

13 The list of AGI documents available on microfilm through the Document Reproduction Service of the Ministry of Education and Culture is contained in the Boletíín de Informacióón del CIDA (Centro de Información Documental de Archivos), n. 1 (1993). 

Go to following site for further description from the Council on Library and Information Resources:



Patriots of Peru During American Revolution
by Granville Hough, Ph.D.

 # 15 in Series,  R-Ru



Francisco Racines. Lt, Mil Dragones Prov de las Fronteras de Tarma. 1800. Leg 7288:XXIX:21.
Gregorio Ramirez. Sgt, Mil Dragones de Acari y Chala, 1796. Leg 7286:I:27.
Gregorio Ramirez. Sgt, Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIII:56.
Manuel Ramirez. Capt, Mil Discip de Dragones de Caraveli, 1796. Leg 7287:VIII:6.
José Ramos. Sgt, Mil Discip de Cab de Arnero de Chancay, 1796. Leg 7286:III:25.
Manuel Ramos. SubLt de Bandera, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:73.
Ramón Ramos Delgado. SubLt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de Calca, 1797. Leg 7287:V:15.
Fernando de Ramos y Rivas. Lt, Escuadrón de Dragones de Pacamayo, 1800. Leg 7288:XXVIII:3.
Atanasio Rata y Pinedo. Sgt, Mil Discip Cab de Ica, 1797. Leg 7287:XX:43.
Antonio Raverto. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Cab de Huanta, 1798. Leg 7286:XVII:4.
Manuel del Real. Comandante del 4th Escuadrón, Mil Prov Urbanas de Cab de Huamalies, 1800. Leg 7288:XVII:4.
Marqués Real Confianza. Col, Mil Dragones Prov de las Fronteras de Tarma, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIX:5.
Baltasar Reaña. Lt, Mil Discip Cab de Ferreñefe, 1797. Leg 7287:XIV:20.
Mariano Reaño. Sgt, Mil Discip Cab de Ferreñafe, 1797. Leg 7287:XIV:40.
Bonifacio Reategui. SubLt, 6th Comp Urbana Inf de Moyobamba, 1797. Leg 7287:XXIX:23.
Manuel Reategui. Sgt, 1st, de 6th Comp Mil Urbanas Inf de Moyobamba, 1797. Leg 7287:XXIX:32.
José Mariano Reategui Gaviria. Capt, 6th Comp, Mil Urbanas Inf de Moyobamba, 1797. Leg 7287:XXIX:7.
Severino Recavarren. Lt, Mil Prov Discip de Cab de Arequipa, 1797. Leg 7287:II:20.
José Recuenco. Alf, Mil Discip Cab de Ferreñafe, 1797. Leg 7287:XIV:30.
Rafael Reina. SubLt, Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1796. Leg 7286:X:42.
Ventura Reina. Lt, Mil Inf Española San Juan de la Frontera de Chachapoyas, 1792. Leg 7284:VI:21.
Dionisio Reina Maria. Lt, Mil Españolas de Cab de Luya y Chillaos, Prov de Chachapoyas, 1792. Leg 7284:XX:8.
Pedro Reinoso. Sgt, Mil Discip Cab de Arequippa, 1792. Leg 7284:XIII:47.
Julián de Rementeria. Alf, Mil Prov Dragones de las Fronteras de Tarma, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIX:29
Lorenzo José Remolina. Alf, Mil Prov Discip Cab de Cuzco, 1797. Leg 7287:X:31.
Juan Manuel Renteria. Sgt, Bn Mil Prov Discip Inf de San Miguel de Piura, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXII:29.
Francisco Renteros. Lt, Mil Discip Cab de Ferreñafe, 1797. Leg 7287:XIV:24.
Juan de Dios Repeso. Lt, Mil Prov Discip Dragones de Caraveli, 1796. Leg 7287:VIII:10.
Pío Respaldizar. Alf, Mil Discip Cab de Huara, 1797. Leg 7287:XIX:15.
Manuel Rey de Castro. Cadet, Mil Prov Discip de Cab de Arequipa, 1797. Leg 7287:II:63.
Anastasio de los Reyes. Alf, Mil Discip de Cab de Huara, 1797. Leg 7287:XIX:17.
Domingo de los Reyes. Sgt, Mil Discip Cab de Trujillo, Perú, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXVI:23.
Francisco de los Reyes. Capt, Mil Discip Cab de Ica, 1800. Leg 7288:XX:11.
Manuel Reyes. Sgt, Comp Sueltas Mil Discip de Inf del Partido de Chacao, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:XII:4.
Aniceto Ribera. Sgt 1st, Mil Discip de Dragones de Lima, 1796. Leg 7286:XI:63.
Francisco Rioja. Lt de la 3rd Comp, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Lambayeque, 1797. Leg 7287:XXII:12.
Narciso Rioja. SubLt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Lambayeque, 1797. Leg 7287:XXII:18.
Atanasio de los Rios. SubLt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Carabayllo, 1800. Leg 7288:IV:21.
Dionisio de los Rios. SubLt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de San Antonio de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:III:26.
José Rios. Sgt 1st , Mil Urbanas de Dragones de Palma, Partido de Jauja, 1800. Leg 7288:XXI:35.
Melchor de los Rios. Lt, Escuadrón Dragones de Pacasmayo, 1797. Leg 7287:XXX:4.
Nicolás Rios. Capt, Comp sueltas de Milicias Discip Inf de Ica, 1800. Leg 7288:XIX:5.
Tomás Rios. Sgt 1st, Mil Urbanas de Dragones de Palma, Partido de Jauja, 1800. Leg 7288:XXI:36.
Ramón Riquelme. Sgt Mayor, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de Abancay, 1793. Leg 7284:II:1.
Juan José Risco. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de San Antonio de Cajamarca, 1792. Leg 7284:IV:8.
Vicente del Risco. Sgt, Mil lDiscip de Cab de Trujillo, Perú. 1800. Leg 7288:XXXI:24.
José Rivadineira. Lt, Bn Prov de Mil de Pardos Libres de lima, 1796. Leg 7286:XII:60.
Francisco Rivas. Cadet, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Lambayeque, 1797. Leg 7287:XXII:37.
José Rivas. Abanderado, Mil de Inf Española de San Juan de la Frontera de Chachapoyas, 1792. Leg 7284:VI:5.
Juan Rivas. Cadet, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Lambayeque, 1797. Leg 7287:XXII:36.
Julián Rivas. Sgt, Mil Discip Cab de Ferreñafe, 1797. Leg 7287:XIV:41.
Sebestián de Rivas. Alf, Mil Discip Cab de Ferreñafe, 1797. Leg 7287:XIV:26.
Andrés de Rivas y Lupianes. Capt, Mil Discip Cab de Ferreñafe, 1797. Leg 7287:XIV:15.
Felipe Rivas Mateos. Capt de 4th Comp, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Lambayeque, 1797. Leg 7287:XXII:4.
Justo Rivera. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip Cab del Valle de Chincha, 1795. Leg 7285:XIV:28.
Mariano Rivera. Sgt, Mil Discip Dragones de Arica, 1800. Leg 7288:II:60.
Norberto Rivera. Sgt, Comp Sueltas Mil Discip Inf de Ica, 1800. Leg 7288:XIX:19.
Toribio Rivera. Sgt, Comp Sueltas Mil Discip Inf de Ica, 1800. Leg 7288:XIX:16.
Victor de Rivera. Alf de Bandera, Mil Discip Cab de Trujillo, 1800. Leg 7288:XXXI:17.
Francisco Rivera y Santa Cruz. SubLt, Bn Prov Mil Pardos Libres de Lima, 1796. Leg 7286:XII:43.
José del Rivero. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip Cab de Cuzco, 1792. Leg 7284:XVII:49.
José Rivero. Lt, Mil Discip Cab Arnero de Chancay, 1800. Leg 7288:III:16.
José Rivero. Sgt, Mil Urbanas Inf de Huancavelica, 1800. Leg 7288:XVI:24.
Luis de Rivero. Alf, Mil Discip Cab de Camaná, 1798. Leg 7286:XIV:24.
Antonio de Rivero y Aranivar. Lt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:23.
Francisco José Rivero y Benavente. Lt Col, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:20.
Lorenzo Riveros. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Huanta, 1800. Leg 7288:XVIII:70.
José Rivilla. Sgt, Mil Discip Cab de Camaná, 1798. Leg 7286:XIV:28.
José de Roa y Montenegro. Lt, Mil Urbanas Inf de Moquegua, 1797. Leg 7287:XXVI:15.
Manuel Roas. Alf, Mil Prov Dragones de Caraveli, 1796. Leg 7287:VIII:20.
Esteban Robles. Portaguión, Dragones Prov de las Fronteras de Tarma, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIX:27.
Fermin Robles. Alf, Mil Prov Discip Cab Valle de Chincha, 1797. Leg 7287:XII:31.
Francisco Robles. Capt, Grad Lt Col, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:9.
Francisco María Robles. SubLt, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:77.
Gregorio Robles. Sgt, Mil Urbanas Inf de Huamanga, 1800. Leg 7288:XV:33.
Juan de Robles. Capt, Mil Prov Discip Cab del Valle de Chincha, 1797. Leg 7287:XII:6.
Santiago Robles. Alf, Mil Discip Cab de los Valles de Palpa y Nasca, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXI:28.
José Robles y Torres. Lt, Mil Prov Discip Cab del Valle de Chincha, 1797. Leg 7287:XII:20.
Manuel Antonio de la Rocha. Sgt, Mil Urbanas Dragones de Palma, Partido de Jauja, 1800. Leg 7288:XXI:31.
Pedro Rocha. Sgt, Mil Prov Dragones de Celendin Partido de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IX:38.
José Rodamonte. Sgt, Bn Prov Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1794.. Leg 7285:VIII:47.
José María Rodamonte. Ayudante Mayor, Comp sueltas Mil Discip Inf de Ica, 1800. Leg 7288:XIX:6.
Juan Rodamonte. Lt, Bn Prov Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1800, 7288:XXIII:32.
Agustin Rodriguez. Capt, Mil Dragones Prov de las Fronteras de Tarma, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIX:8.
Antonio Rodriguez. Cadet, Mil Prov. , Discip Inf de Lambayeque, 1797.l Leg 7287:XXII:40. 
Cornelio Rodriguez. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de San Antonio de Cajamarca, 1792. Leg 7284:IV:35.
Cristóbal Rodriguez. Capt, Mil Discip Dragones de Acari y Chala, 1796. Leg 7286:I:2.
Domingo Antonio Rodriguez. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Huambos, Partido de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:XVII:7
Fernando Rodriguez. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Abancay, 1793. Leg 7284:II:66.
Francisco Rodriguez. Sgt, Mil Discip Cab de Trujillo, 1800. Leg 7288:XXXI:23.
Gregorio Rodriguez. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de Urubamba, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXVIII:37.
Hilario Rodriguez. Sgt, Mil Urbanas Dragones de Palma, Partido de Juaja, 1800. Leg 7288:XXI:37.
Hipólito Rodriguez. Alf, Mil Urbanas Cab San Pablo de Chalaquez, 1798. Leg 7287:XI:30.
Isidro Rodriguez. Lt, grad Capt, Mil Discip Dragones de Lima, 1794. Leg 7285:VII:6.
Jacinto Rodriguez. Sgt, Bn Prov Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIII:53.
José Rodriguez. Capt, Comp Cab de Mil del partido de Santa, 1799. Leg 7286:XXIII:5.
Juan Bautista Rodriguez. Alf, Mil Prov Urbanas Cab de Huanta, 1798. Leg 7286:XVII:23.
Juan Ignacio Rodriguez. Cadet, Mil prov Discip Inf de Lambayeque, 1797. Leg 7287:XXII:41.
Leandro Rodriguez. Lt, Mil Prov Discip Cab de Cuzco, 1792. Leg 7284:XVII:18.
Manuel Rodriguez. Ayudante Mayor veterano Bn Prov Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIII:9.
Manuel Rodriguez. Alf, Mil Urbanas Cab de San Pablo de Chalaquez, 1798. Leg 7287:XI:27.
Manuel Rodriguez. SubLt, Plana Mayor de la Plaza del Callao, 1798. Leg 7286:XXI:2.
Martín Rodriguez. Lt, 5th Comp, Mil Españolas Cab de Luya y Chillaos, Prov de Chachapoyas, 1792. Leg 7284:XX:9.
Matías Rodriguez. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip de Dratgones del Valle de Majes, 1797. Leg 7287:XXV:34.
Pedro Rodriguez. Sgt, Mil Discip Cab de Cuzco, 1797. Leg 7287:X:34.
Pedro Rodriguez. Sgt Mayor, Mil Discip de Inf de Cuzco, 1800. Leg 7286:XXIV:3.
Rafael Antonio Rodriguez. Alf de la 6th Comp, Mil Discip de Cab prov de Cañete, 1797. Leg 7287:VI:18.
Juan Rodriguez Ballester. Cadet, Inf Real de Lima, 1795. Leg 7285:XVIII:2.
José Rodrigues Ballesteros. Cadet, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:112.
Juan Rodriguez Ballesteros. SubLt, grad, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:84.
José Rodriguez Cornejo de Echavarria. Lt, Mil Prov Discip de Arequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:24.
Manuel Rodriguez y Palacios. Sgt, Escuadrón Cab, Mil de los territorios de Huanchbamba, Piura y Chalaco, 1800. Leg 7286:XXVI:10.
José Rodriguez Vigil. Lt, Mil Dragones Prov de las Fronteras de Tarma, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIX:16.
José Roig. Lt, Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1788. Leg 7283:I:34.
José Miguel Roig. Sgt, Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIII:54.
Pascual Roig. Capt, Inf Real de Lima, 1790. Leg 7283:XI:11.
Manuel Roiz del Barrio. Alf, Mil Prov Discip Cab de Arequipa, 1797. Leg 7287:II:45.
Félix de Rojas. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de San Antonio de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:III:34.
Fernando Rojas. Lt Col, Mil Discip Dragones de Lima, 1788. Leg 7283:III:64.
Joaquin Rojas. Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Huambos, Partido de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:XVII:13.
José Marcelino Rojas. Lt, Mil Inf Española de San Juan de la Frontera de Chachapoyas, 1792. Leg 7284:VI:20.
Juan Rojas. Sgt 1st de la 8th Comp Mil Españolas Cab de Luya y Chillaos, Prov de Chachapoyas, 1792. Leg 7284:XX:17.
Manuel Rojas. Lt, Bn Prov Mil de Pardos Libres de Lima, 1796. Leg 7286:XII:29.
Nicolás Rojas. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Cab de Huanuco, 1797. Leg 7286:VI:31.
Pedro Rolando. SubLt, Mil Prov Inf de San Miguel de Piura, 1800. Leg 7286:XXV:27.
Eugenio Roman. Capt, Mil Discip Dragones de Acari y Chala, 1796. Leg 7286:I:5. 
Hermenegildo Roman. Lt, Mil Discip Dragones de Acari y Chila, 1796. Leg 7286:I:10.
José Manuel Roman. Portaestandarte, Mil Discip Cab de Ica, 1800. Leg 7288:XX:30.
Juan Roman. Cadet, Mil Discip de Cab de Ica, 1800. Leg 7288:XX:43.
Manuel Roman. Alf, Mil Prov Dragones de Caraveli, 1796. Leg 7287:VIII:27.
Manuel Roman. Alf, Mil Discip Cab de Ica, 1797. Leg 7287:XX:25.
Mariano Roman. Lt, Mil Discip de Dragones de Acari y Chala, 1796. Leg 7286:I:15.
Toribio Roman. Capt, Mil Discip Dragones de Acari y Chala, 1796. Leg 7286:I:4.
Tomás Romani. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Huanta, 1800. Leg 7288:XVIII:56.
Manuel Martín de Romaña. Lt, Mil Prov Discip Cab de Arequipa, 1797. Leg 7287:II:21.
Agustín Romero. Alf, Mil Discip Dragones de Querocotillo, Piura, 1795. Leg 7285:XXIII:19.
Agustín Romero. Alf, Mil Urbanas Cab San Pablo de Chalaquez, 1798. Leg 7287:XI:26.
Alejandro Romero. Lt, Mil Discip Dragones de Lima, 1792. Leg 7284:XIX:49.
Alonso Romero. Lt Col, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Chota, 1797. Leg 7287:XIII:2.
Esteban de los Angeles Romero. SubLt, Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIII:39.
Felipe Romero. Cadet, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Celendín, partido de Cajamarca, 1792. Leg 7284:XV:43.
Hilario Romero. Alf, Mil Discip Cab de Arnero de Chancay, 1800. Leg 7288:III:17.
José Romero. Cadet, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:79.
Juan Antonio Romero. SubLt, Mil prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:55.
Luis Romero. Alf, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Celendín, Partido de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IX:29.
Francisco Romero de Villanueva. Sgt 1st de Fusileros, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IV:32.
Francisco Romo. Sgt, Mil Discip Cab de los Valles de Palpa y Nasca, 1797. Leg 7287:31:35. (This seems incorrect, but it was the way it was recorded.)
Juan Rondon. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Dragones de Carabayllo, 1800. Leg 7288:IV:30.
Juan José del Rosal. SubLt, Mil Discip Cab de la prov de Cañete, 1795. Leg 7285:XIII:1.
José Rosales. Sgt, Mil Prov Di8scip Inf de Lambayeque, 1797. Leg 7287:XXII:30.
Simón Rosales. Sgt, Bn Inf Mil Pardos Libres de Lima, 1792. Leg 7284:XII:7.
Inocente Sosas. Sgt, Comp Sueltas Inf Española Mil Discip Inmemorial del Rey, 1796. Leg 7286:VII:5.
Manuel Rosas. Lt, Mil Discip Cab de los Valles de Palpa y Nasca, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXI:18.
Nicolás Rosas. Capt, grad Col, Mil Prov Urbanas de Abancay, 1793. Leg 7284:II:75.
Tadeo Rosas. Alf, Mil Prov Urbanas Cab de Huánuco, 1797. Leg 7286:VI:20.
Manuel Mariano Rosel. SubLt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Huanta, 1800. Leg 7288:XVIII:48.
Francisco Julio Rospigliazi. Cadet, Mil Urbanas Inf de Moquegua, 1797. Leg 7287:XXVI:39.
Bartolomé Julio Rospillosi. Capt, Comandante, Mil Discip Dragones de Arica, 1800. Leg 7288:II:3.
Gabino Rospillosi. Capt, Mil Prov Discip de Dragones de Caraveli, 1796. Leg 7287:VIII:5.
José Eusebio Rospillosi. Lt, Mil Prov Discip Dragones de Caraveli, 1796. Leg 7287:VIII:18.
Juan de Dios Rospillosi. Sgt 1st de la 5th Comp Mil Urbanas Inf de Moquegua, 1792. Leg 7284:XXIV:34.
Pablo José Rospillosi. Capt, Mil Prov Discip Dragones de Caraveli, 1797. Leg 7287:VIII:4.
Miguel Rospillosi y Salamanca. Sgt, 1st de Granaderos, Mil Discip Dragones de Arica, 1800. Leg 7288:II:56.
Bartolomé Rubin de Celis. Capt, Mil Discip Cab de Ferreñafe, 1797. Leg 7287:XIV:12.
Manuel Rubio. Ayudante Mayor, grad Lt Col, Mil Discip Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:23.
Toribio Rubio. Alf, Mil Discip Cab de los Valled de Palpa y Nasca, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXI:26.
Pablo Rucoba. Sgt, Mil Urbanas Inf Moyobamba, 1797. Leg 7287:XXIX:26.
Domingo Rueda. SubLt de Granaderos, Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIII:43.
Martín Rueda. Sgt, Bn Prov de Mil Pardos Libres de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXV:17.
Agustín Ruiz. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Huánuco, 1796. Leg 7286:V:4.
Domingo Ruiz. SubLt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Castro Ciloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:52.
Félix Ruiz. LubLt, Mil Discip Pardos y Morenos de Inf de Lambayeque, 1797. Leg 7287:XXIII:16.
Francisco Ruiz. Alf de la 9th Comp, Mil Españolas Cab de Luya y Chillaos, Prov de Chachapoyas, 1792. Leg 7284:XX:11.
Isidoro Ruiz. Sgt, Mil Discip Pardos y Morenos de Inf de Lambayeque, 1797. Leg 7287:XXIII:21.
Joaquin Ruiz. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de San Sntonio de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:III:35.
José Ruiz. Sgt, Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIII:59.
Juan Ruiz. Sgt, Mil Prov urbanas Inf de San Antonio de Cajamarca, 1792. Leg 7284:IV:37.
Juan Bautista Ruiz. Sgt 1st de Granaderos, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:100.
Juan José Ruiz. Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de Huánuco, 1796. Leg 7286:V:19.
Laureano Ruiz. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Carabayllo, 1800. Leg 7288:IV:29.
Mateo Ruiz. SubLt de Granaderos, Mil Prov Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:51.
Vicente Ruiz. Lt, Inf del Real Asiento de Paucartambo, 1798. Leg 7286:XIX:24.
José Manuel Ruiz de Aranda. Lt, Mil Discip de Tumbez, Piura, 1795. Leg 7285:XXIII:13.
Ignacio Ruiz Caro. Ayudante Mayor, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Quispicanchi, Cuzco, 1798. Leg 7286:XX:11.
Juan de Dios Ruiz Conyo. Alf, Mil Dragones Prov de las Fronteras de Tarma, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIX:26.
Juan Ruiz Davila. Capt, Mil Discip de Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:17.
José Ruiz de Lara. Lt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1792. Leg 7284:III:44.
Carlos Ruiz de Montes. Sgt, Mil Urbanas Inf de Huamanga, 1800. Leg 7288:XV:28.
Francisco Antonio Ruiz Ochoa. Lt Col, Mil Urbanas de Inf de Huamanga, 1800. Leg 7288:XV:2.
José Ruiz Ochoa. Sgt, Mil Urbanas Inf de Huamanga, 1800. Leg 7288:XV:27.
Manuel Ruiz Ochoa. Col Mil urbanas de Inf de Huamanga, 1800. Leg 7288:XV:1.
José Ruiz de Somocurzo. Capt, Mil prov Discip de Cab de Arequipa, 1797. Leg 7287:II:16.
(to be continued)


My blog: by Viola Rodriguez Sadler
Roaches and Rats: A Nativity Reflection by Miguel A. De La Torre
A Work of Art by Ben Romero
Los Cuentos de Kiko


My blog:
By Viola Rodriguez Sadler 


Editor: I am delighted to share Viola's wonderful Blog.  I am so proud to point to what Viola, a dear friend and SHHAR Board member has produced and is sharing on the Web.  A Blog is a new concept to me.  I hope to learn how to do what Viola has created.  I think it is a great way to share family history, personal philosophy, memories, and comments on current situations and happenings.  You can tell by the great variety of labels under which the stories are filed, that Viola has touched on all aspects of life.  I hope you will read some of these charming memories and be encouraged to write and share of your life in the same way.
Dear Mimi,
The photo is one that was in Mom's collection. The date on the back is March 1941. I had not paid much attention to the photo in years and all I remember Mom saying many years ago was that the picture was of somebody's birthday party. About a year ago I started scanning some of the old photos I got from Mom. As I was scanning some of the picture I was also cropping them. You will notice that the outer edges of this snapshot as very out of focus, so I started to crop this when I realized that the thing in the upper right side was a piñata. Since it was a heart, I knew it must have been my birthday party because my birthday is on February 15th--one day after Valentine's Day. So I decided that instead of cropping it out, I would color it red. The location is Robstown, Texas. It was my 2nd birthday and I am the fifth girl from the left. My sister is the last girl on the row. Although we were 18 months apart, Mom would always dress us alike. As I got older and grew to be as tall as my sister, people would ask if we were twins. We did not look alike, either. Of the fourteen children, my sister and I have identified ten of them.

My daughter is the one who started a blog, and that got me interested in doing the same. It really is not difficult to get started.

The place to begin is: 
Then one just has to follow the three (3) easy steps. And you are correct about what a blog is. A blog is your easy-to-use web site, where you can quickly post thoughts, interact with people, and more. All for FREE.

Un abrazo, Viola
My blog:




Friday, August 8, 2008

School Days Start Earlier and Earlier

I was thinking about school because all the newspaper ads have “back to school” specials. And, it occurred to me that I do not remember my first day of school. One would think that that day would be one of those things never to forget.

I do remember being in the first grade, however, and one of my friends was Obdulia. Her cousin Rosa came later on in the year, and she had a larger box of crayons, and none of the crayons were broken. And she did not let me borrow one of her crayons, when the color I wanted was missing from my box.

St. Anthony’s Parochial School was mainly staffed by the nuns of the parish, and the grades taught were First through Sixth. We did not have Kindergarden, much less pre-K. My teacher in the first and second grade was Sister Manuela, and I don’t recall that we necessarily spoke English or Spanish. Language did not become an issue until I was in the fourth grade with Sister Rosario, who announced that we would speak only in English in the classroom.

But speaking of language, I wondered, but never questioned, why in English we called the nuns “Sisters” but in Spanish they were “Las Madres” or the affectionate diminutive “Las Madrecitas.”

By today’s standards, there were some things at the school that would not be allowed today. In the first year there were no drinking fountains, only a spigot in the central yard. There was a tin cup available for anyone to use. Some of us had a collapsible, telescopic drinking cup we were suppose to use, but that always got lost. It was no big deal to drink from the same cup everyone else did.

Those school days were carefree days. My great-grandmother, La Abuelita, would walk to our school with lunch for sis and me. We would sit in a sunny spot on some benches and ate our lunch. The other children I think brought sack lunches. We had not heard of Burritos, to us they were taquitos con tortillas de harina.

Not all the nuns were teachers. Sister Sofia, a short pudgy lady, was the one who took care of the cooking and domestic chores of the residence. She also taught some of us girls to crochet. For mother’s day, she crocheted a black purse for my mother. My sister and I might have completed a few stitches on the project, but it was actually Sister Sofia who did the most of the work, because it was beautifully done. Mom kept that purse for quite a few years, using it for her dressier occasions.

As we look at the picture, my cousin is on the right, and I am on the left. We are standing next to one of the buildings at school. I find the picture interesting because we are holding hands, as if to reassure each other that it is OK to have our picture taken. I am older than my cousin, and I grew to be taller than she, but in this picture we are the same height.


Roaches and Rats: A Nativity Reflection
Miguel A. De La Torre

What is the first memory you can recall? Mine is seeing my mother sitting on a stool crying her eyes out. “Por qué? Por qué? (Why? Why?)” she mumbled to herself. I looked around the bare room for the cause of her anguish. That’s when I perceived a strange sight, something out of a horror flick. 

The ceiling was moving.  
As I focused on what was causing this illusion, I noticed that it wasn’t the ceiling that was moving, but the hundreds, if not thousands, of roaches crawling along the ceiling that created this false impression. There were so many that it appeared as if the ceiling was an ocean whose waves lapped upon the bordering walls. I must have been about three years old when this image was burned into my mind, and probably it will be the last thing I recall when I lay on my death bed as an old man.
At the time, I discovered much later, we were living in the slums on the east side of New York City, around 53rd Street, an area close to Hell’s Kitchen. These were rat- and roach-infested tenement buildings dating to the early 20th century and located close to the Lincoln Tunnel. There was only one bathroom per tenement floor to be shared by all of the floor’s inhabitants. The conditions were so unsanitary that it was safer to release myself in an old cracker tin can. Our neighbors were pimps, prostitutes, drug addicts and other Hispanic families who, for whatever reason, found themselves in this cold arctic city, far from the tropical climates of our homeland.
All day long, my mother worked like a dog to clean the apartment. She was expecting guests that evening, but when she stepped into the living room, all she saw, in spite of her efforts, were these vermin creatures, taunting her, as if to say that no matter how hard she tried, she was a dirty, poor Latina. Eventually, we were able to move up into a ghetto, then a low-income neighborhood, and finally into a working blue-collar neighborhood. Both my parents worked several jobs for decades just to rise to the level of poor whites. I was a latch-key kid before it was a popular term among Euroamericans. No matter how hard my parents tried to protect me from our poverty, they were unsuccessful. Street violence was too prevalent. On both my physical body and my metaphysical soul, I still carry the stigmata of the mean streets. 
Television provided a reminder that I was different. All I had to do was compare my life with the so-called typical family on the TV show “Leave it to Beaver” to know that something had to be wrong with my family and with me. The images on the small screen were not my experience or reality, so something had to be wrong with me and my people. How else could one explain our poverty and disenfranchisement? Self-loathing and self-ethnic-hatred easily developed as I tried to become white. But no matter how hard I tried, my poverty, my Hispanicness, my inability to master the English language all prevented me from assimilating. I would always be seen as a Hispanic, no matter how much I tried to ape the dominant culture. This child of the barrios, of the underside of the American life, would always be “poor” no matter how many degrees or wealth I might eventually gain.
Yet, the one I call Lord, the one I call King of kings, accepted poverty so that I could be rich. For you know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that though he was rich, yet for your sake he became poor, so that you, through his poverty might become rich (2 Co. 8:9). Jesus could have been born to the house of Caesar, or to the house of the high priest. Instead, Jesus was born into, lived and died in poverty. Like a barn animal, on that first Christmas day, Mary was forced to give birth amid unsanitary conditions.
According to the scriptural text, Jesus was born to a poor family, for Mary made use of the biblical provision for the poor and brought two doves as an offering for her purification (Luke 12). Throughout his ministry Jesus lived in privation, having “nowhere to lay his head” (Luke 9:58). He wandered without money in his purse (Matthew 17:22-27; Luke 20:20-26), relying on the charity of others (Luke 8:1-3). Because Jesus chose solidarity with the poor, I have a God who understands my privation. The miracle of the incarnation is not that God became human; rather, God became poor.
The radicalness of Jesus’ poverty is that he chooses to side with the poor, giving the Gospel message a political edge. My childhood poverty ceases to be a thing of shame due to something defective within me or my family. I can begin to understand our poverty not as the failure of my parents, but as a product of a society designed to privilege one group over another. While not attempting to romanticize poverty (there is nothing romantic about not having enough food to feed your family), I can better deal with my memories because Jesus’ poverty made me rich—richer than those who live in luxury.
Odell Harwell,


A WORK OF ART  by Ben Romero

“What about that old woodstove? Is it complete? I’ll give you twenty bucks for it.”

I glanced at my wife. She gave me the no way look.

“I’m sorry,” I said to the buyer. “It’s not for sale.”

It was our final yard sale before moving from Madera Ranchos to Fresno. Our massive front yard was littered with treasures we’d accumulated over a period of twenty-two years. The old woodstove was rusty and falling apart. We’d “rescued” it several years earlier from my wife’s uncle’s shed when we helped him move from a rural Madera County ranch into town. One leg was broken off completely, and it was missing a couple of the round covers that serve as burners. My wife was able to find replacements at old junk shops, along with a metal handle used for removing them while hot.

We’d set the old stove out in the back yard for a few years, lighting occasional fires in it for fun. My wife made tortillas, fried eggs, and brewed coffee, while the kids and I played games. Eventually, we moved it to our front patio, where we seemed to spend most of our outdoor family time. But years of neglect took its toll until it hardly seemed worth keeping.

“It represents a happy time to me,” my wife had often said. “My grammie used to cook outside on that stove when we all lived in the labor camps. My aunts and uncles were still young and happy. Everyone worked hard, and although we had next to nothing, we had each other. My brothers, sisters, and cousins and I would play outside in the evenings and listen to the grownups talk near the glow of the woodstove. It was like the center of our little universe. I can smell coffee and the smoke from the grape stumps, and I feel sad and happy at the same time.”

As we moved our furniture into our brand new house, I wondered where an old, cast iron relic would fit in. Yet, I found myself attached to it, too. My first thought was to put it in the backyard and use it like a barbeque pit. But I realized any further exposure to the elements might ruin it, so I decided to put it in the garage and refurbish it. When my wife saw I had dismantled it, her eyes saddened, but she didn’t scold me. I’d better not fail, I thought.

The ingenious design of the woodstove is impressive. Small by comparison to others of its era, it is incredibly heavy. It was made to heat a home, as well as cooking. I can only imagine how many loaves of bread and how many pies were baked inside its little oven.

A wire brush, sandpaper, rust inhibitor, J.B Weld metal adhesive, elbow grease, and a lot of patience transformed the old stove into something reminiscent of its glory days. After I’d put all the parts back together, I called my wife out to see it for herself.

“What do you think?” I asked.

Her eyes widened in obvious approval. “Wow. Is it the same stove?”

It found a place of honor in our front room, next to my writing desk. We even have two heavy irons on top of it, reminders of how hard it was to press clothes in the old days. And for all our worry, it doesn’t look at all out of place. In fact, it’s become a conversation piece, not unlike a work of art.

Ben Romero
Author of Chicken Beaks Book Series



Los Cuentos de Kiko
Merry Christmas Everyone. Frank Moreno Sifuentes is wishing us a Merry Christmas with three new oral history shorts. If you haven't heard the story of La Llorona you just have to listen to Frank's account of the story. Listen and give him any feedback at:

     I'm so happy to introduce Frank Moreno Sifuentes to the Nuestra Familia Unida podcast ( community. In this series of Oral History Cuentos expect to hear about one family, but the experiences are those of an immigrant nation.

     Frank Moreno Sifuentes, 74. Born in Austin, Texas when its population was only 38,000 (now around 1,000,000!) In 1950 joined the U.S. Navy during the Korean War. After getting out fell in love with Sarah Diaz; and married in Compton, CA. We had three daughters and three sons; and now have 11 grandchildren and two great grandchildren.

     Both of us had careers in human services. After retiring on Social Security we became resident managers for low-income Seniors in 1997 and now live at the Patrician Apts. and administer a 87 unit complex. Graduated from UCLA 1962 in History & Spanish. Got a Certificate in Youth Counseling at Arizona State University. Was deeply involved in the Chicano Social Movement 1965 to the present.

     Have been writing essays, stories, letters, resolutions, press releases since 1964. The last 10 years worked as Public Relations & Resource Development for Health Education and Children's Services.

===> "Tom Lopez De Hawaii USA" by Frank Moreno Sifuentes

===> "La Llorona" by Frank Moreno Sifuentes

===> "El Grenudo" by Frank Moreno Sifuentes



Vicente Riva Palacio  
Translation by Ted Vincent

One Hundred to One    Ciento por Uno

Vicente Riva Palacio Series
translation by Ted Vincent


One Hundred to One

It was the year of our lord 1546. Some of the famous captains of Nuno de Gizman who had undertaken the conquest of the kingdom of New Galicia in New Spain, today known as the state of Jalisco, began to fall under the scythe of death, as the dry leaves of the trees at the first blast of winter.

Captain Pedro Ruiz de Haro, of the noble family of Guzman, had the bad luck to be taken before he reached advanced years. 
His death left his widow Leonor de Arias in poverty along with three orphaned daughters, as pretty as three rosebuds..

Dona Leonor left the city of Compostela, then the capital of New Galicia, and retired, sad but resigned, to a small hacienda in the countryside near the city called Miravalle, 
the only inheritance that Ruiz de Haro had 
left the family.

There, by the sweat of the labor of her hands, and enduring economic hardships, Dona Leonaor de Arias trained her daughters in the sacred school of honorableness toward a life of poverty and labor.

One afternoon, sitting in front of her house in the shade of a humble porth, and encircled by her daughters, dona Leonor was sewing while taking sips from a refreshing drink. when an old and infirm indio approached, walking heavily with the aid of a crude cane.

The indio asked, not for alms of money, but a morsel of bread to calm his hunger. Dona Leonor had him sit down and with her and the three girls. They were cheerful and noisy, as if it was a fiesta., and they went inside to prepare the mendicant a meal. The banquet that the children of dona Leonor presented to the Indio was poor but abundant in portion. He ate before the others, who watched him with the tenderness that always shines in the eyes of a woman when she calms a p ain or fulfills a need.

“God will pay you, Senora,” said the beggar as he left, kissing the hand of dona Leonor, adding, “and have confidence in God that if you are now poor, he will give you such gold and silver that you have never known existed.”
* * *
Three days passed after this encounter, and neither dona Leonor nor her daughters much remembered the meeting with the Indio, when he returned to present himself carrying stones from a completely unknown mine. The noble widow realized that these stones represented immense riches. The beggar gave the exact place where the mine was located, and he backed aw ay, without anyone ever hearing 
of him again.
* * *
Five years later the widow and the children of Captain Pedro Ruiz de Haro were one of the richest and most opulent of all New Spain.
The Espiritu Santo mine, the first to be discovered in the kingdom of New Galicia, produced astounding quantities of gold and silver. The mule trains brought in packs of provisions and goods of commerce, carrying back loads of gold and silver for Mexico, and the king found it necessary to order the creation of a royal house in Compostela in order to receive the rents that this mine produced for the royal finances.

The hut of dona Leonor was converted into the palace of the counts of Miravalle, and three personages of the kingdom of New Galicia, don Manuel Frenandez de Hijor, nephew of Senor de Riglos and founder of the town of Purificacion, don Alvaro de Tovar and don Alvaro de Bracamonte, and they had the honor to link by marriage with the three daughters of dona Leonor de Arias.

Many times in the palace of the counts of Miravalle, dona Leonor gathered her daughters and her son-in-laws, and her grandchildren and retold completely the story of the begger, ending it always, saying

“Charity is never lost. God gives one hundred to one.”


Corría el año del Señor de 1546. Algunos de los afamados capitanes que con Nuño de Guzmán emprendido habían la conquista del nuevo reino de Galicia en la Nueva España, hoy conocido como Estado de Jalisco, comenzaban a caer y bajo la guadaña de la muerte, como las secas hojas de los árboles a los primeros soplos del invierno.

Tocóle tan dura suerte en no avanzada edad al capitán don Pedro Ruiz de Haro, de la noble casa española de los Guzmán. Su muerte dejó en la pobreza y la orfandad a la viuda doña Leonor de Arias, con tres hijas, tan bellas como tres capullos de rosa.

Doña Leonor abandonó la ciudad, de Compostela, capital entonces de la Nueva Galicia, y retiróse triste, pero resignada, a una pequeña hacienda de campo cerca de la ciudad, que se llamaba Miravalle, única herencia que a su familia había dejado el capitán Ruiz de Haro.

Allí, ayudada por el trabajo de sus manos, y más con privaciones que con economía, doña Leonor de Arias educaba a sus hijas en la santa escuela de la honradez, de la pobreza y del trabajo.

Una tarde doña Leonor, rodeada de sus hijas, cosía tomando el fresco delante de su casa y a la sombra de un humilde portalillo, cuando acertó a llegar, caminando pesadamente con el apoyo de un tosco bordón, un indio enfermo y viejo.

El indio pedía, no una limosna de dinero, sino un pedazo de pan para calmar su hambre; doña Leonor le hizo sentar, y las tres niñas, alegres y bulliciosas como si fueran a una fiesta, corrieron al interior de la casa a preparar la comida del mendigo. Pobre, pero abundante, fue el banquete que las hijas de doña
Leonor presentaron al indio, que comía delante de ellas, que lo miraban con la ternura que brilla siempre en los ojos de una mujer cuando calma un dolor o remedia una necesidad.

—Dios te lo pague, señora -dijo el mendigo al despedirse, besando la mano de doña Leonor—, y ten confianza en Dios; que si ahora estás pobre, te ha de dar tanto oro y plata que no has de saber qué hacer con ello.

*     *     *

Tres días pasaron desde ese acontecimiento, y ni doña Leonor ni sus hijas recordaban lo que había hecho con el indio, cuando éste volvió a presentarse llevándole piedras de una mina completamente desconocida. La noble viuda comprendió que aquellas piedras representaban una inmensa riqueza; diole el mendigo la noticia exacta del lugar en que estaba situado aquel mineral, y se retiró, sin que jamás se hubiera vuelto a saber de él.

*     *     *

Cinco años después, la viuda y las hijas del capitán Pedro Ruiz de Haro formaban una de las familias más ricas y opulentas de toda la Nueva España.

La mina del Espíritu Santo, primera que se había descubierto en el reino de la Nueva Galicia, producía asombrosas cantidades de oro y plata; las recuas que allí llegaban con tercios de víveres y efectos de comercio tornaban cargadas de oro y plata para México, y el Rey tuvo necesidad de mandar establecer caja Real en Compostela para recibir las rentas que de esa mina alcanzaba la Real Hacienda.

La choza de doña Leonor se convirtió en el palacio de los Condes de Miravalle, y tres personajes del reino de Nueva Galicia, don Manuel Fernández de Híjar, sobrino del señor de Riglos y fundador de la villa de la Purificación, don Álvaro de Tovar y don Álvaro de Bracamonte, se sintieron honrados enlazándose con las tres hijas de doña Leonor de Arias.

Muchas veces en el palacio de los Condes de Miravalle, doña Leonor, rodeada de sus hijas, de sus yernos y de sus nietos, refería enternecida la historia del mendigo, y terminaba diciendo s iempre:

—No hay caridad perdida. Dios da ciento por uno.

“Ciento por Uno” was published in a Madrid literary journal in 1892. It is odd that it opens with sympathetic words about Nuno Beltran de Guzman. Four years earlier Riva Palacio wrote in his encyclopedia, “Mexico a traves de los siglos,” (Mexico Through the Centuries) that Guzman was “perhaps the most depraved man ever to set foot in New Spain." 

The treatment of Nuno de Guzman in “Mexico a traves de los siglos” was considered unduly harsh by some historians. Perhaps Riva Palacio intended ”Ciento por Uno” to balance his treatment of the conquistador in the manner that his negative writings about the Catholic church are roughly equaled in number by those that are positive, even sentimental about religion, as above.
Describing Guzman’s conquest of western central Mexico, Riva Palacio wrote, 

“Unleashed ambition and greed and the most despicable envy toward the achievements of Cortes… (marked) the march of Nuno de Guzman, who rapidly swept away whatever obstacles were presented, burning the 
villages in his path, imprisoning and 
branding with the iron of servitude the 
Indios he was able to gather in his cluitches, without respect to age or sex…(while) 
caring little for the pacification of the land, forgetting to establish colonial government, 
or to conduct the propagation of christianity, and seeking always those locations ahead which had the gold to satiate his avid greed.”
The comment in “Mexico a través de los siglos”
Nuño de Guzmán  “…rápidamente arrollando los obstáculos que se le presentaban; incendiando los pueblos que encontraba al paso, aprisionando  y marcando con el hierro de la esclavitud a los indios que podía haber a las manos; sin respetar edad ni sexo; cuidándose poco de la pacificación de la tierra; olvidando el establecimiento del régimen colonial y de la propagación del cristianismo y buscando siempre mas adelante pueblos ricos en oro, para saciar su á vida codicia…”





Numerical Popularity of Spanish Surnames


Wednesday, January 6, 1993 


Volviendo a Nuestras Raices

GUTIERREZ, being a patronymic surname, means "son of Gutierre". In turn, Gutierre means "he who rules or governs". In ancient times, it appeared in the mountain region of Santander, Spain.

In the United States, it is the 18th most common Hispanic surname.
One of the earliest persons to arrive in the Americas with this surname was Isabel Gutierrez. Isabel arrived in Nueva Espana on October 5, 1536 in company of Juan de Segovia. Melchor GUTIERREZ, a ship pilot, traveled to Puerto Rico and Santo Domingo in 1525.

In Cuba, Francisco GUTIERREZ, from San Lucar de Barrameda, Spain, set roots during the first half of the 18th century,   by 1750, he was the Lieutenant governor of Trinidad, Sancti Spiritus, Remedios and Villaclara.

Francisco's descendants married into many of the illustrious families of Cuba such as Aguero, Agramonte, Betancourt, Cisneros, Miranda and Varona.

Mercedes GUTIERREZ, a resident of Highland, California, traces her ancestry to Miguel  Geronimo GUTIERREZ born about 1835 in Santa Clara, Cuba. He married Angela Quiros and had at least one son named Daniel.

Daniel studied medicine and became a doctor. He married Enriqueta Lopez Veitia. One of their sons, born on Christmas Eve 1881 and named Miguel Geronimo GUTIERREZ after his grandfather, studied civil engineering in the United States.

His studies put Miguel Geronimo in touch with various people. This plus his abilities as an engineering allowed him to secure a position in the building of the Panama Canal.

As the lives of Daniel and Miguel Geronimo unfolded, the elder Miguel Geronimo joined the Cuban forces who were trying to gain their independence from Spain. A legacy of his efforts remains in the form of a commemorative fountain pen given to all veterans after the end of the war in 1898.

Ms. GUTIERREZ is a recent arrival in the United States. She say that she can appreciate what fighting for independence is like, since for the past 33 years she lived under a system which violated every basic human right under the guise of socialism.

Other surnames in this line: Carreno, Solis, Rigal, Barre, Bacot, Cruzat, Buisse, Perez, Prado and Urbizu.  Compiled by Peter E. Carr, member of: Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research.

Peter Carr passed away January 9th, 2008 in Florida.  Peter Carr was of Cuban heritage.  He  came to the US as youngster, by himself.  His sister was able to join Peter, but his father and mother were restricted for a couple of years.  Peter was a leader in Cuban research.   His research is among the archives of the: 
Cuban Genealogy Club of Miami, Florida.  
Attn: Martha Ibanez Zervoudakis 
5521 SW 163 Ave.
Southwest Ranches, FL 33331-1433

Numerical Popularity of Spanish Surnames

If you want to be wowed by the number of Spanish surnames, plus research that is going on, do check this website and explore this site for the Numerical Popularity of Spanish Surnames.


2009  . .  Starting Your Family Research
Jesús Navarro, Achiever of the American Dream, Dies at 83
Bill Thom, Anaheim Mayor and Councilman
Family's holiday festivities stretch back 84 years


                                         2009  . .  Starting Your Family Research

Is this the year you are finally going to start your family history? SHHAR will help you.
The first Saturday of the month a SHHAR Board member will be available to help you the Orange Family History Center. . .  674 S. Yorba, in the city of Orange. 

This month Tom Saenz and Gloria Oliver will be at the OFHC  January 3rd, from 9 am to 12 noon. There is no cost.  The center is open to the public and is run by volunteer staff.  

Tomas (Tom) Saenz is a retired educator from the Orange Unified District in Orange, CA where he worked as a High School teacher, District Administrator and Elementary Principal.  He is originally from South Texas and has lived in Michigan and now in California.  For the past ten years Tom has researched his paternal and maternal family history and genealogy.  He has planned and organized family reunions and has also researched land grants that pertain to his ancestors.  Tom has also written family books for his Saenz and Gonzalez families respectively. 
Gloria Cortinas Oliver, also with Texas roots, is a weekly volunteer at the Cypress FHC located at 4300 W. Orange Anaheim between Knott and Holder (where Cypress/Buena Park/Anaheim boundaries meet).  Gloria, a member of the LDS Church served a mission in Mexico in the area of Puebla (3 months) and Mexico City (15 months).  She was able to enjoy the experience of doing family history research right in the records of Mexico, first hand.   Her family research includes the Cortinas, Garcilazo, Sanchez, Flores, Salazar and Mascota lines.

Drop in the center and let Tom and Gloria get you started.  


Jesús Navarro
, Achiever of the American Dream, Dies at 83

Jose de Jesús Navarro of Buena Park died peacefully at home on the evening of November 21, 2008, surrounded by his wife of 56 years, Amelia, and numerous loved ones. 

Jesús was born in Chavinda, Michoacán, Mexico in 1925 and came to the United States in hopes of a better life in 1943. Jesús, well known as Jess or Jesse to friends and family, eventually met his future wife, Amelia Garibay and they were married in 1952. Jess worked diligently, sometimes in two jobs simultaneously, to achieve his life's dreams all while faithfully providing for his family, which had grown to include five sons by 1962. He and his wife raised their boys in Wilmington, California.

After years of manual labor, Jess became acquainted with the waterfront and longshore work in 1959 via his father-in-law, Ignacio Garibay. By 1963 he joined the International Longshoreman's and Warehouseman's Union (ILWU) and enjoyed 34 "good years," eventually running a hammerhead crane for Stevedoring Services of America (SSA) after years as a gearman for the same company. Jess was very proud of his affiliations with both ILWU and SSA, as he saw the fruit of his labor in so far as these entities helped him to provide a wonderful life for his family.

Jess and Amelia sacrificed at great lengths to provide security and opportunity for their five boys. His expectations for the boys always included, education and a commitment to excellence in everything they were involved with. His hard line work ethic paid off, leaving him very proud of the fact that his sons became titans in the defense industry, business, education and medicine with numerous college and advanced degrees. But he was more proud of the men they had become, the women they had chosen as wives, whom he always referred to as the daughters he never had, and the families they raised.

Jess had an incredible drive and will that he has passed on to his family. He taught wise life lessons while having his loved ones "hold the light" or "bleed the brakes." He taught morality in a time when our society seems to be trending in an opposite direction. He came from limited means and created an American footprint of success. His family will honor him by being committed to highest level of effort in everything they do.

In addition to his wife Amelia, Jess is survived by his sons Robert (married to Elizabeth), Edward (married to Lee Ann), Steven (married to Janis), Randolph (married to Nadia) and Ronald (married to Jennifer); fourteen grandchildren; four great-grand children (and one in-utero); two sisters and a brother; and numerous other in-laws, family and friends.

Visitation and burial services will be held at Forest Lawn Mortuary in Cypress on November 25th and 26th, with a memorial funeral service to be held at Saint Pius V Catholic Church in Buena Park on November 26th.

Sent by his son, Ronald A. Navarro, M.D. 
Assistant Area Medical Director- Surgical Services 
Chief of the Orthopaedic Surgery Department 
Kaiser Permanente, South Bay Medical Center




Bill Thom, Anaheim Mayor and Councilman

Thom leaves a legacy of rock 'n' roll and Latino rights

Surgical tech, pilot, furniture store operator and former mayor dies.


The Orange County Register

Tuesday, December 2, 2008

ANAHEIM Bill Thom, an Anaheim mayor and councilman for nearly a decade in the 1970s, left a municipal legacy of prosperity through entertainment and lasting rights for minorities, those close to him said.

"He was a consensus builder," said J.C. Thom, Bill Thom's son. "He really did love the people he served, and he had the ability to bring people together across the whole political spectrum in Orange County. He was constantly fighting for the underdog and making sure no one was left behind. 

He fought to help the Latino, Vietnamese and Arab communities."
Thom died late last month after exploratory surgery on his bladder – doctors were looking for cancer. He was 78.


He served as a councilman from 1970 to '74 and as mayor from '74 to '78.

J.C. Thom said his father was intimately involved with bringing huge concerts and sporting events to the Anaheim Convention Center and Angel Stadium as a way to bring revenue into the city.

Thom helped organize a series of concerts at the center featuring David Bowie, Rod Stewart and Elvis Presley, among others. 

"My dad realized he had to use the assets of the city to bring in revenue," J.C. Thom said. "They made a deal to start motocross in Anaheim Stadium – they were the first to take a risk and bring in all those tons of dirt."

Anaheim under Thom's leadership also helped pioneer arena rock with big, sold-out shows at the stadium featuring the Beach Boys, Chicago, Pink Floyd, Kiss, The Who and ZZ Top. Bill Thom would even emcee some of the shows, J.C. Thom said.

He also spearheaded the effort to make the mayor an elected office separate from the general council election – before that, the mayor was a council member appointed by the panel itself.

Bill Thom, born in Minnesota, started his career as a certified surgical technician in Guam and the South Pacific in the 1940s. He also earned his certification as a pilot in the Army, and he flew light aircraft privately into the 1950s, when he opened his furniture store in Anaheim.

J.C. Thom said his father met Catalina Oceguera-Novoa during one of his ventures to Mexico – Bill Thom would often fly there for vacations. Oceguera-Novoa, the daughter of the Spanish ambassador to Mexico, would later become Bill's wife and J.C.'s mother.

Catalina helped spark Bill Thom's fight against segregation"He realized his own wife and his kids couldn't swim at Pearson Park except on Tuesday when they were cleaning it," J.C. Thom said.

Bill Thom appointed Latino men and women to commissions and posts within the city.

He also helped start Los Amigos, a Latino-rights advocacy group that still exists in the city, said Amin David, the leader of that organization.

Contact the writer: 714-704-3706 or


Sent by Ricardo Valverde  


Family's holiday festivities stretch back 84 years

Four generations gather for 84th annual Christmas celebration.

The Orange County Register,
Sunday, December 21, 2008


The Martinez family gathers for its Christmas celebration 22 years ago. 
Patriarch Manuel Pinedo Martinez, wearing a tan vest and blue shirt, poses with his grandchildren.


HUNTINGTON BEACH – The smell of fresh tamales greeted guests at the Martinez family's annual Christmas celebration on Sunday. The 84th annual, that is.

Hugs, smiles and kisses abounded as young and old – four generations altogether – stepped through the door at a Martinez family member's home in Huntington Beach.  "As a family, we've always had a good time together," said Linda Martinez, 58, who is Santa Ana College president and this year's party host for her extended clan. "I remember going to my grandparents' house for Christmas. That was really special."

The tradition began in the 1920s with Manuel Pinedo Martinez and Victoria Ramirez Martinez, immigrants from Zacatecas, Mexico, and their seven children. Then, the gathering was held Dec. 24, which was special in more than one way for this Christian family: Manuel's birthday was on the 24th.

The family would attend Christmas Eve Mass, then head home to continue celebrating. As the years went by, the gathering was moved to earlier in the day and the family had its own service 
at home. As the family got bigger, the event was moved to the third Sunday of December.

Now, Manuel and Victoria's son Domingo Martinez, 89, is the oldest living family member. He sat at the kitchen table on Sunday, eating pork tamales, rice and beans, and reminiscing with his two surviving siblings, Art and Alicia, about Christmas at their parents' house.
                                                                           Victoria Ramirez Martinez & Manuel Pinedo  Martinez. 
       Photo was taken shortly after they were married.


The best present he ever got, Domingo said, was a pair of wool pajamas when he was about 10. The best present Alicia remembers was from her father, and it came in a big box. It was a set of 12 blue plates. "We used them for many years. They were beautiful," said Alicia, 79.

The most memorable reunion for many was the one 20 years ago. That's when Lori Rodriguez, a third-generation Martinez family member, got married at the celebration. "Everybody was already gathered, and we thought, 'What a beautiful day to get married,'" Lori said. On this sunny and cool Sunday afternoon, children played in the backyard; adults gave each other updates about their lives; cousins joked and laughed. After enjoying the food and the company for a few hours, Domingo Martinez led the family in prayer to commemorate Jesus' birth.

"Can you believe this?" he said. "Eighty-four years ago. That was the first night I remember, and the menu was the same, except for the potato salad."  A few other things have changed since that first party.

Then, the family spoke only Spanish; now, the family speaks English almost exclusively. Before, the tamales were handmade by Victoria from the corn Manuel had planted; now, the tamales are preordered. Before, it was just a dozen or so guests; now, there usually are about 80.

The celebration has evolved from that of a nuclear family to an extended family, said Domingo, but the reason for the gathering is the same.

"The spirit of celebrating Christmas had remained the same, it has strengthened, even."

After the prayer, Bible readings about Jesus' birth were interlaced with songs including "O Come All Ye Faithful," "Away in a Manger" and "Silent Night." 

"When my grandparents started it, they probably had no clue that it'd become such a tradition and such a celebration," said Deann Elder, 54, of Lake Forest. "Hopefully at least some of our children will think it's important to keep it going, too."

Sent by Ricardo Valverde  



A Celebration of Life: The Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Beatriz Valdez, L.A. County's first female registrar-recorder
At the Intersection of Sacred & Civics in East L.A.

Jan 14: A Celebration of Life: The Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Hub City Arts Executive Director Skyy Fisher and the Southwest Community College Theater Club Cordially Invite You to Attend: 

A Celebration of Life: The Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Written and directed by Ms. Melanie Andrews

Wednesday, January 14th 2008
6:00pm – Reception   7:00pm – Show 
Southwest Community College (Little Theater)
1600 W. Imperial Highway
Los Angeles, CA 90045

About A Celebration:  Six days before the Nation's first African-American President is sworn into office, Hub City Arts Executive Director Skyy Fisher, Southwest Community College Theater Club, LAUSD Arts Education Division, and others will join forces to creatively honor the remarkable accomplishments of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., who has helped pave the way for exceptional leaders like Barack Obama. A Celebration of Life, written and directed by Ms. Melanie Andrews, is an original work infusing song and dance with drama; while invoking the powerful speeches of Dr. King to share with all generations his extraordinary wisdom, vision, and courage.

Information and RSVP call (310) 662 – 1046  or e-mail 

About Hub City Arts: Founded more than twenty years ago, Hub City Arts is a community-based organization dedicated to empowering inner-city youth to make positive life-changing decisions through the arts. In areas plagued with gang violence, drugs, poor health provisions, and negative peer influences, Hub City Arts provides youth with the necessary tools and outlets to foster dialogue that creates positive change. Hub City Arts is directed by Skyy Fisher, and has been featured at several schools and community events across the nation.

Christina P. Walter
Director, Public Relations and Events
Innovative Marketing Expressions and Design Group
E-Mail:  Phone: (323) 331.8960

Beatriz Valdez


Beatriz Valdez 
L.A. County's first female registrar-recorder

By Valerie J. Nelson
December 17 2008

Beatriz Valdez, a stenographer who rose to become the first woman to serve as registrar-recorder of Los Angeles County, died Dec. 5 at Beverly Hospital in Montebello of complications related to a heart attack, said her sister, Ofelia Valdez-Yeager. She was 69.  Beatriz Valdez started working in the registrar-recorder’s office directly out of high school.

When Valdez was appointed registrar-recorder in 1993, she also became the first Latino to hold the position since Ignacio del Valle was voted into office in 1850 in the county's first elections, said former U.S. Rep. Esteban E. Torres in the Congressional Record upon her retirement in 1995.
As head of the largest election agency in the United States, Valdez was in charge of 700 permanent employees and directed an annual budget of $60 million. She was responsible for conducting elections within the county for local, state and federal offices and oversaw voter registration.

She found the apathy of the more than 3.5 million voters then registered in the county "just appalling," Valdez told The Times in 1994, pointing out that the county spent $13 million on each major election to inform voters and provide sample ballots.

"It's definitely a problem when you get 70% of the people basically saying the other 30% can decide for me," she said.
In 1957, Valdez joined the registrar-recorder's office as a stenographer and was quickly promoted. By 1975, she was a deputy voting registrar involved in publishing the county's first Spanish-language ballot materials.

The process of translating somewhat legalistic English into what was intended to be easily understandable Spanish could be tricky, she said.

"Smog" and "freeway" defied translation and were part of the linguistic netherworld of "Spanglish," Valdez said in 1976 in The Times. "Small businessman" threatened to describe a candidate's physical stature rather than a modest business enterprise, so the "small" wasn't translated, she said.

The eldest of eight children, Beatriz Eulalia Valdez was born in 1939 in San Ignacio, Mexico, to Miguel and Maria Valdez. Her father was a U.S. citizen who returned to Mexico during the Depression to work in mines.

For about five years, she lived in Tijuana with her mother and siblings and attended parochial school across the border in San Ysidro while her father was a steelworker in the U.S. The family moved to Montebello in 1953.

Valdez was a top student, her sister said, but went straight to work at the registrar-recorder's office after graduating from Montebello High School to help support her family.

When Valdez was offered the top job at what had become the registrar-recorder/county clerk's office 36 years later, she was somewhat reluctant to take it because she preferred to stay out of the spotlight, her sister said.

"Bea was a quick learner and . . . had worked for five registrar-recorders," her sister said. "She knew everything about the position and asked herself, 'Why not be chief?' She would just have to train someone else if she didn't do it."

In addition to Ofelia, Valdez is survived by five brothers, Rudy, Mike, William, Bob and George.

Instead of flowers, the family requests donations to the City of Hope,, or the American Diabetes Assn.,

The complete article can be viewed at:,0,1207320.story

Visit at
Sent by Ann Minter


At the Intersection of Sacred & Civics in East L.A.
By Hector Tobar
Los Angeles Times, December 16, 2008

EAST LOS ANGELES, CA — A lot of us Angelenos take East Los Angeles for granted. We know it as the spiritual capital of Mexican Americans in Southern California. Outsiders like me might visit a few times a year: to buy tamales at Christmas, perhaps, or for a weekend meal on Whittier Boulevard.

But last week I picked up a census map and saw East Los Angeles in a new light. So I got in my car to take a fresh look. I discovered a place of movements and miracles, where the old and the new live side by side. On one corner was a Starbucks with armchairs, Christmas carols on the sound system, and middle-class professionals circulating a petition. On another, a shrine of fresh roses at the spot where neighborhood lore says a man cheated the Angel of Death.

At the same moment, on the same busy day, the people of unincorporated East Los Angeles celebrated the completion of an “independencia” petition drive for cityhood and the annual pilgrimage of the Miracle of the Bleeding Street Vendor.
After crunching some census numbers with my Times colleague Doug Smith, I found out that East Los Angeles had become the most ethnically homogenous place in Southern California. It seemed to be the tragic underside to the happier news we reported last week — that Southern California suburbs were more racially integrated than ever before.

In the center of Southern California, the numbers showed an opposite reality, with a bigger slice of the metropolis a de facto segregated Latino barrio than in any time in history. After studying Census Bureau surveys from 2005 to 2007, Doug and I concluded that about 1 million people live in Los Angeles County communities that are 90% or more Latino. And more than 800,000 of them are in one contiguous area that stretches from MacArthur Park to Pico Rivera and from the fringes of downtown’s Garment District to South Gate.

East Los Angeles, it turns out, had become 98% Latino. The community lost a quarter of the tiny white population it had in 2000. The little liberal in my head told me to be outraged. After all, the numbers seemed to me to confirm a central, underlying injustice of Los Angeles — that the separation of ethnic groups lives on in our 21st century city.

But it’s hard to feel either outrage or pity when you walk among people who look you in the eye and tell you that they are protected by a higher power, and who dare to imagine a renaissance is just around the corner. That was what I found when I visited the most Latino core of the overwhelmingly Latino community, centered near the corner of Eagle Street and Kern Avenue.

There the Rodriguez family dispenses milk, candy, beer and other sundries on the holy ground of a store called Tienda La Milagrosa. “When we tell people where our store is, they say, ‘Isn’t it ugly there? Aren’t you afraid? “ said Maria Teresa Rodriguez, a Mexican immigrant and resident of West Covina who commutes to
the liquor store several days a week. “But it’s very calm here.”

Rodriguez and her husband inherited a legend when they bought the store seven years ago. Back in the 1960s, the story goes, a fruit vendor was robbed at knifepoint nearby. Stabbed and bleeding, he looked up at the mural of the Virgen de Guadalupe painted on the store’s wall, prayed for help and stumbled inside.

An ambulance came and took him away, though not before he left a small trail of blood on the store’s floor. At the hospital, doctors took off his bloody shirt but found no wound. He was hauled off to jail on an assault charge but was soon released because no one else had reported a stabbing.

The vendor returned to the store and shared his story with the owner. They agreed that the Virgin Mary had healed his wounds. People have been coming to pray before the mural ever since. “We have truckers who pray here when they get back from a long drive,” Rodriguez told me.

“And sometimes people come before they have to go to court. Sometimes you see a whole family come to light candles.” Because last Friday, when I visited, marked the birthday of the Virgen de Guadalupe, Mexico’s patron saint, neighbors had organized a day of celebration outside the liquor store. It was the sign announcing those events that first caught my attention: “4 p.m. Pilgrimage . . . 6 p.m. Raffle . . . 7 p.m. Holy Mass . . . 8 p.m. Dinner.”

Near Eagle and Kern, the homes are well-tended, generally speaking, with succulent gardens that mimic the landscape of northern Mexico. About 200 people emerged from those homes Friday: They closed off the street and celebrated a neighborhood Mass and dinner.

Nearby, at the Starbucks on 3rd Street, Oscar Gonzales was collecting the final signatures on a petition to make East Los Angeles a city. In the Starbucks, people checked their BlackBerrys and talked mostly in English. “We’ve been blessed to see this happen in our lifetimes,” said Gonzales, a 40-year-old administrator for the United Farm Workers (UFW), as he collected the final signatures for the drive.

On Friday, Gonzales and other activists submitted 16,500 signatures in support of the creation of a city of East Los Angeles. An L.A. County agency will now decide whether the community is economically viable. If so, a referendum will be scheduled.
For 74-year-old Diana Tarango, it’s the realization of a long-held dream. She also participated in the last East Los Angeles cityhood effort in the mid-1970s but said, “We’re more grown up now.”

The Eastern European and Jewish families who once lived in East L.A. have nearly all moved away, including the “White Russian” man Tarango dated in her youth. But at least some who left East Los Angeles and lived in the integrated city beyond have
returned to their roots. Josie Cervantes moved to the Westside some years ago to get her chemistry degree at UCLA. She heard, she said, the dismissive way people there talked about the Eastside. Now she’s back in East L.A. and working for a volunteer agency.

“For me, this is reality, and entering the Westside is like entering a movie scene,” she told me at the farmer’s market she now runs at the East Los Angeles Civic Center. She’s come back, she said, to help make life better in that real and imperfect place she calls “home.”
Sent by Rick Leal




Week of the Cuban Culture by Jaime Cader
Los Californianos Meeting -- January 23rd through January 25th 2009
NP: George Melendez Wright
Phoebe Farias Scott: Descendant of Yorba, Peralta, Farias and Talamantes

Week of the Cuban Culture

by Jaime Cader

Poster designed by Rafael Aruzaga

It was with great pleasure that I attended some events scheduled for the second annual "Week of the Cuban Culture-La Semana Cubana" at Las Positas College in Livermore, California, which took place from the first to the sixth of December, 2008.

I was fortunately informed about this program by a Cuban friend of mine, Rafael Matos, whose mother I met in Cuba in October of 2008. Matos along with his work associate, Rafael Aruzaga, presented their short film about Cuba on the first day of the week's presentations. Matos said that his film would show scenes in his homeland that the average tourist usually does not see.

Surely the most important event during that week was a panel type of presentation titled "Voces Cubanas" in which five Cubans spoke about their experiences in Cuba. These individuals had emigrated to the United States during different decades and they represented various ethnicities from Cuba. One mentioned that he was the son of Haitian immigrants to Cuba, while another said he was of Scandinavian descent on his father's side. The two Cubans of African ancestry said that they were educated in the communist educational system, one of them being a professor of Russian and English and the other stating that Cuba sends doctors and teachers to                     Artists Rafael Aruzaga, Marina De Silva-Lopez
underdeveloped countries -                                      and Rafael Matos
that no other country does that. 
All of the panelists were in agreement that the U.S. embargo on Cuba should be lifted, although one said this should be done so that Cuba would no longer have an excuse for constantly blaming the U.S. for its situation. Also another said that it is a myth that in the first years after the Cuban revolution, that only the "cream of the crop" left the island. At the end of the discussion, all of the panelists were asked to describe what scents they remember from their homeland. Smells of the sea, coffee, etc.                      "Voces Cubanas" panel presentation
were recalled. 

Other highlights in the week's schedule were the performances of musicians. Ivan Camblor played the tres cubano and gave an explanation of this instrument. He is a member of the Cuban band "Pellejo Seco." One of the definitions of "pellejo" is the skin that covers the head of a drum. Many of the musical pieces recorded on two Pellejo Seco CDs are excellent and it is admirable that members of this group have been able to continue the Cuban musical tradition in California. 
The group's website is: .

                                                                                             Ivan Camblor, Pellejo Seco band member     

Present too during the festivities was Las Positas College dance instructor Luis Valverde who is originally from Guantanamo, Cuba. He said that there are ways in which Americans can travel legally to Cuba and he recommended contacting the U.S Treasury Department to find out the different options one has to travel to that country. He also said that people can find out about organized tours by going to the website 

The Las Positas College website has information on the "Week of the Cuban Culture." There one can find the website which says "The Las Positas Spanish Department, with the generous support of the Alameda County Arts Commission, the Las Positas Foundation, the Campus Change Network and, will be celebrating the Week of the Cuban Culture- La Semana Cubana from December 1 to December 6. This week-long celebration will focus on the Cuban people, their history, art, dance, music and religions...Catherine Suárez, Coordinator for the Foreign Language Department, and Luis Valverde, dance instructor at Las Positas College, are combining their efforts for the second year in a row to bring the cultural richness of our island neighbor to Las Positas and the Tri-Valley...All events are free to the public. Donations will be collected for Project Shoes and Socks, a program that provides new shoes and socks to school children in rural areas of Cuba."

Thus the purpose of "La Semana Cubana" is both cultural and humanitarian. For more information, contact Catherine Suarez at (925) 424-1212 or by e-mail at or at

Sent by Jaime Cader



Los Californianos Meeting -- January 23rd through January 25th 2009
Los Californianos will hold its next quarterly meeting in Monterey California, featuring the Royal Presidio Chapel of Monterey. The meeting will be held at the Hilton Garden Inn Monterey on January 23rd through 25th, 2009. The organization¢s traveling library of early California genealogical resource materials will be open from 3 to 8 p.m. on Friday and from 7:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. on Saturday.

The weekend program includes a tour of Mission San Carlos Borromeo featuring the Munras Family Heritage Museum on Saturday morning and tours to the Monterey Royal Presidio Chapel and the Monterey Maritime and History Museum on Saturday afternoon. The Saturday evening dinner banquet, speaker Dr. Ruben Mendoza, Ph.D., Director, Institute for Archaeological Science, Technology and Visualization, California State University, Monterey Bay, will speak on "Archaeology, Art, and Conservation at the Royal Presidio of Monterey" describing the restoration of the Royal Presidio Chapel and the extraordinary discoveries made during that effort. At the Sunday morning breakfast banquet, Mr. Alan Kemp, a retired engineer and maritime research historian at the Monterey Maritime and History Museum, will speak on "The Vessels and History of the Naval Department of San Blas." 

Nonmembers are invited to participate. The registration fee is $6. A fee of $5 (good for both days) is charged for use of the traveling library. For further details and possible meal reservations contact Joseph Sepulveda Barnes at or 661-254-1642 or at the hotel from January 21st on. 

Los Californianos are descendants of Hispanic persons who arrived in Alta California prior to the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, February 2, 1848. The organization was created for the purpose of preserving the heritage of early Hispanic Californians in Alta California.
Sent by Joseph Barnes 

George Melendez Wright

George Melendez Wright  1904-1936:

George Melendez Wright worked in Yosemite working as an assistant naturalist for the Park Service from November 1927 to October 1929.

George Melendez Wright was born on June 20, 1904, in San Francisco, California. His mother, Mercedes Melendez Wright, was born in El Salvador and died in 1906; his father, Captain John Tennant Wright, a native New Yorker, died in 1912. His great aunt, Cordelia Ward Wright, helped raise the young boy from an early age and officially adopted him in 1913. George M. Wright had two brothers, Charles and John, who returned to El Salvador to live with relatives. His brothers also died relatively young, but their families, and some of the relatives of Mercedes Melendez, still live throughout that country—living reminders of George M. Wright’s Latin American heritage.  . .  Cordelia Wright

Source: A Voice on the Wing by Jerry Emory and Pamela Wright Lloyd

Wright was independently wealthy and in 1929, concerned about an almost complete absence of scientific data to inform park management, he proposed that there be established a wildlife survey office and program for the NPS. It was to be funded by him until the program's value could be demonstrated and the program provided for as a regular part of the NPS budget, which occurred in 1933. Director Horace M. Albright approved the proposal and strongly supported it. Wright's personal expenditures on this project were well over $20,000. 




Phoebe Farias Scott: 
Descendant of Yorba, Peralta, Farias and Talamantes

Descendant of Yorba, Peralta, Farias and Talamantes
Our Aunt Phoebe Farias Scott, Great Grand-daughter of Bernardo Antonio, son of Jose Antonio Yorba Landgrant holder of Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana in Orange Co.  CA where he mother was born, has died at the age of 99 years old.
She was the Daughter of Juan Farias and Felipa F. Yorba. from both families, who were early settlers of CA. She was born on the Rancho La Ballona, a Landgrant given to her Father's family in Culver City.  This landgrant was given to Talamantes and Machado Families. It included also area's of W. Los Angeles, Palms, Cheviot Hills, to the ocean of Playa del Rey, Venice, to the Santa Monica border.
She attended La Ballona and Venice High Schools, married and lived in Culver City, Oroville CA. and Sacramento where she died. Preceeded in death Her husband Eugene Scott, Her Mother and Father and all her brothers and sisters, 10 in all. she was child number #8 in line of birth.
Aunt Phoebe was a happy, funny, wonderful, lovely person, who every one loved. she had no children.  She has three  nieces and two nephews still alive who will miss her very much. She would have been 100 years old in April 24, being born in 1909, died on December 4, 2008. She will be buried with her Mother and Father in the Woodlawn Cemetery in Santa Monica according to her wishes. No date set.
Her niece, daughter of her sister Marion. 

For more information on Phoebe, please go to the October 2008 issue of Somos Primos.



The Loneliness of Writing History by Dr. Rudolph Acuna
Rudy, Don't Be Lonely, I Could'a Been Born in Tucson by Rosalio Munoz
Más New Mexico Brings Bilingual News to Albuquerque, Santa Fe
Preserving California's WW II Military Heritage, CA Military Museum 
Return to Military
New Mexico, WW II Deaths of New Mexico
Tucsonans Killed in World War II    



The Loneliness of Writing History
by  Dr. Rudolfo Acuña 
LatinoLA: December 11, 2008



I thought you might like to see these -- two writers writing about Tucson & Arizona-Sonora. The first writer is perhaps the foremost Chicano historian in the nation (The book mentioned here is from U of A Press). The response is of equal renown, the founder of the
National Chicano Moratorium. They were published online on I don't know if they would want their works published in the Tucson Citizen... but I suspect they would...You can ask them. Their e-mails are included (along with Patty Hartman's from the U of A Press).  12/13/08, Rosalio Munoz 

The Loneliness of Writing History
Writing is ... frustrating. It is probably because I am needy, and as a child I always looked to my parents and teachers

By Dr. Rudolfo Acuña | Published on LatinoLA: December 11, 2008

I am often asked whether I enjoy teaching or writing more. It has never been an issue with me – teaching is my first love. I like writing but it does not give me the same sense of intellectual or personal fulfillment. I am addicted to the caritas (faces) of students.

Writing is much more frustrating. It is probably because I am needy, and as a child I always looked to my parents and teachers for the approval. This is something that got me into trouble because I would act up to get attention.

The most frustrating part of publishing a book is when the reviews start rolling in; there is no real mechanism to clarify points raised by reviewers, and similar questions that you are certain that readers  might have. A give and take never really happens.

I recently received a review by a Brown University graduate student, Mark W. Robbins, published in the "Southern California Quarterly", of my book "Corridors of Migration: The Odyssey of Mexican Laborers, 1600-1933" (U Arizona Press). The review was fair and comprehensive – unlike so many that give the impression that the reviewer hurries the
reading of the book and then throws a report together.

Putting the "Corridors" book into perspective, it was forty years in the making, and I had to cut it down from 1,500 manuscript pages to about 450 pp. Publishers today rarely publish books longer than 350 pages. Thus, I had to cut a lot of background material and tuck
information into the footnote comments. I stored a lot of the material that I cut in my archives at the California State University Northridge library.

But to get back to the questions Robbins' raises; he writes "Acuña occasionally operates under the assumption that ethnicity should prevail over class affiliation." He cites my saying that the indifference of the Tucson Mexican elites to Mexican laborers during
the late 19th nineteenth made it easier for whites to exploit the workers. Gibbons concludes that I seem to expect the middle class to identify more with the workers than with the white middle and upper classes.

In a perfect world, I would expect this. However, all too often Chicano and friendly white scholars have not distinguished between the the upper and working classes. I once told Leonard Pitt who wrote one of the best books on Mexicans in California, "The Decline of the Californios" (California U), that while I condemned the lynching and other injustices committed toward the Californios, I could feel little sympathy for them. Few advocated for the Indian or the poor, and indeed discriminated against them.

I am not surprised that the Tucsonenses acted out of concern for their own self interest. But for a long time this was hard for me to deal with since many of the Tucsonenses are my ancestors.

The question of Mexican identity on the border as I attempted to explain in "Corridors" is very complex. Nogales, Sonora is much closer to Tucson than Tijuana is to Los Angeles. You had family on both sides of the border. This is complicated because the population of Sonora for most of the nineteenth century out numbered that of Arizona. During this period, most Mexicans identified as Sonorans rather than Mexicans.

The only thing that many had were their pretensions. They were from familias buenas.

While the white and Mexican elites often had business and personal relations, it was American feelings of superiority (reinforced by a heavy migration of Texans) that maintained the Mexican identity and retarded assimilation. Racism had the positive effect of reinforcing identity and foster a resentment toward white people who they often
considered below them.

As Carlos Velez-Ibanez has shown between 1870 and 1890 intermarriagerates between mostly Anglo males and Mexican females was almost 24 percent which accounts form a lot of interclass and intercultural relations. Between 1890 and 1910 it was 9.1 percent and falling.

The Sonoran and Mexicans formed their own newspapers banks, and other separate organizations. I show this in "Corridors" through the formation of mutualistas and finally la Alianza Hispano Americana in the 1890s which were in response to American nativism. After this point "amor propio," self-respect, became the over riding factor

In this context, Mexicans could not have become Americans even if they wanted to.

Robbins is correct that the elites cooperated with whites in small ways. Some of these ways were very negative such as their participation in the Camp Grant Massacre in 1871. They served as foremen, interpreters, merchants and brokers for the white establishment. Most their fortune depended on the Mexican market onboth sides of the border -- and being part of it..

Some of Robbins' questions from my vantage point are obvious. He cites me as saying that Mexicans were 22 percent of the registered voters in Clifton-Morenci in 1904, and asks what were the implications? Given that the camps were 80 percent Mexican, I would ask, just 22 percent? On the other hand, this suggests that many Mexican workers by this point were citizens and stable members of the community rather than transients as portrayed by the mine owners and others.

As for the support for Republican candidates, I expressed my ambivalence to Republicans throughout the book. But let's face it, the labor movement until recent times was white and Democrat, and the Western Federation of Miners that had a reputation as a radical union
was racist and xenophobic to the core. The WFM and other unions supported the Eighty Percent Law that required 80 percent of the miners to be American citizens. (Also see my treatment of the formation of the American Federation of Labor's Pan America Federation
of Labor).

Here is where the sense of the Mexican elites' identity was offended. They rightly perceived the law as anti-Mexican. They had no problem condemning Pancho Villa and the radical trade unionist, but when the discrimination spilled over to all Mexicans, even those of "familias buenas", they drew the line. It is not that the elites were devoid of any sense of community or familial pride. They also formed alliances with Republicans because of business and political interests; they bartered votes for programs such as adult and bilingual education.

I thank Robbins for raising his concerns. He made me think. As I mentioned before, the border is a complex place. My grandfather lived on the border for 90 years working in Agua Prieta, Sonora, Nogales and Tucson. He refused to learn English, and though his children were born on this side, always considered himself a Sonoran. Acuna can be
reached at:

"Corridors of Migration: The Odyssey of Mexican Laborers, 1600-1933"
(U Arizona Press) Find this story online at

Dorinda Moreno,




Rudy, Don't Be Lonely, I Could'a Been Born in Tucson.
Most of the Tucsonense gentry had no idea about monopoly capital, much
less state monopoly capital

By Rosalio Munoz 
Published on LatinoLA: December 12, 2008


Compa Rudy,

There need be no shame in being declasse. (See "The Loneliness of Writing History" by Dr. Rudolfo Acuña) Karl Marx was a professor, his wife noble, they died in poverty fighting for the working class. As you know, he taught that capitalism was more progressive than
feudalism, that yankee capitalism was better than dixie plantation capitalism, but that eventually socialism would become possible and necessary. Marx was just beginning to see the outlines of monopoly capital when he died. The Tucsonenses didn't see it, not right away anyway. Southern Pacific and its predecessors brought progress, prosperity. The land poor got dowries from intermarriage, que no?

As you have warned others about Chicano nationalism, presentism often misses the positives of the past. My great grandfather helped organize dieziseis de septiembres and cinco de mayos, he played in the orquestra Symphonica de Los Angeles or something like that. He and contemporaries were merchants selling from US companies to Mexicano
workers, some whites and Afro Americans (a presentism). They would picnic in the Catalinas on the Ronstadt wagon with the Ronstadts. My mother remembers the family borrowing the Ronstadt wagon a generation or more later for such trips. When we got her Linda's album of songs her father taught her she remembered when he was a Senior at Tucson HIgh she was a freshman. "He sang at an assembly," she said holding her hands to her heart, "He was so handsome."

Mom remembered how in the twenties her older brother ran into the house and turned on the radio so all could hear Gershwin with Paul Whiteman do Rhapsody in Blue! Mom played the piano well, cantos Mexicanos, Rachmaninoff, she loved to hear Ella Fitzgerald do
Gershwin. Her younger brother Rudy would take his friend Lalo Guerrero to help him serenade Artemisa who became my aunt Arty.

The depression made a big difference. My grandfather died the night the bank foreclosed on their home. The women wore mourning for months, in the twenties it would have been a year and more. Mom thought that working in CCC camps helped break his spirit and health, he was middle aged. Most of the older brothers had got their start in the business world in the twenties as artisans and salesmen, the darkest featured one became a worker. The four young daughters married a Southern Pacific worker (they lived on Bean Ave), another a Sears bilingual salesman from Guaymas, mom married an immigrant, chaparro y prieto,
divorced!, and with a Masters Degree, the youngest daughter never married and took care of nana (Like Water For Chocolate). Mom and her younger brother were the only ones to go to college, he ran around with a vato like Lalo, but ended up as a commercial artist in

My mom, I miss her. She would play the swing tune In the Mood for me as a kid, I would dance around like crazy She graduated from the U of A summa cum laude, she hated the discrimination. She worked as a typist for professors and at the new welfare offices where her top grades in English and Spanish were put to much use. She couldn't find a better job after graduation. Then as if by miracle she got a teaching job offer from the small town of St Johns. Somehow liberal Mormons had handed over a school to a board of Mexican American parents and they wanted to hire Mexicans teachers. The university placement office  didn't tell her about it, but somehow the town heard of her and also her keyboard skills and the local Catholic church needed an organist so someone was dispatched to Tucson to hire her.

My dad was already working there as a social worker, he was Tempe's first Mexicano Master of Education, but he had to get naturalized before he could teach. My dad recalls playing golf with Stewart Udall on the high flatlands near New Mexico, when they hit a zinger with no arc it was called a rabbit killer. What the New Deal brought together
nobody, not even the Pope could pull asunder. They were married for 63 years till dad passed and mom shortly thereafter. It may be that her last rites were her first communion since she married the dark divorced Mexican son of a Methodist minister. But she was a widow. She probably could have done it before, but she was old school, and too feeble to go to mass after dad died.

My older sister and brother were born before dad went to the South Pacific. I was born like 9 months after he got back. Right away he got a job teaching in Tucson at Safford I believe. But he wanted to get into social work and there was a job open in Flagstaff where a guy
named Wilson Riles needed social workers for adoption work. My mom wanted to stay in Tucson and have at least one child born there, my tia Celia was expecting about the same time.

They moved to Flagstaff where I was born. I am told dad brought home other babies at times, African American, Native American, Mexican and white. My cousin Sylvia was born the day before by a few hours in Tucson. Mom never let Dad forget she never had a child born in Tucson. When dad thought of retiring in Mexico, mom said go ahead, I'll move
in with my sisters in Tucson and be close to my kids and grandkids. Of course dad stayed, he loved her.

One of my favorite Tucson stories is Thanksgiving 1969. Nana was 90 and mom wanted us all to see her together, it was a must. I was traveling all over Aztlan having just refused induction and organizing against the Vietnam war, I had long hair, wore guaraches and beads with a peace sign, and was on a fast, you remember those times Rudy.

My uncle whose sons went to the UA and with ROTC became military and then corporate officers, was incensed and was giving mom the business about her mechudo son who wouldn't even eat the food his sisters had spent all day cooking. Nana went to sit at the table and called out to me. Rosalio ven aqui, quiero ver tus ojos, te vez muy mexicano. My
uncles eyes and skin were more huero than mine and I got to sit at the place of honor next to my nana. That night Sylvia took me to meet a firebrand Mecha member named Grijalva.

Last January I was in Tucson to meet with Lorenzo Torrez and others to talk about the election. My nina Celia, then 96, gave me the business for my political affiliation but was anxious to hear what I thought ofObama and Hilary. Her other daughter Gloria said Ross you should say CPUSA means Chicano Power USA. And so it goes, I coulda been born in
Tucson, maybe a contender for the cabinet.

One of my cousins from Tucson just died, he was eighth generation Tucsonense from presidio days. He was a retired marine officer. My mom was 3rd generation, her grandparents came from Hermosillo by covered wagon, others walked. Munoz can be reached at:

Find this story online at
Thanks & Sincerely
Roberto Dr. Cintli Rodriguez 
Column of the Americas 
PO BOX 85476
Tucson, AZ 85754

Sent: Dorinda Moreno,


Más New Mexico Brings Bilingual News to Albuquerque, Santa Fe, 
December 17, 2008


ALBUQUERQUE, NM — The weekly Más New Mexico newspaper will provide local, state, national, and international news in both Spanish and English every Wednesday throughout Albuquerque and Santa Fe.

Más New Mexico is being launched by Padilla Media LLC. Publisher and Padilla Media LLC.  President Clara Padilla Andrews also serves as president of the National Association of Hispanic Publications (NAHP), Padilla Andrews has been the publisher and owner of El Hispanic News in Portland, Oregon.

“It has long been my dream to see New Mexico’s Hispanic population served by a quality bilingual news source. I look forward to applying what I’ve learned at El Hispanic News in Portland to my home state and community,” said Padilla Andrews.
[Ms. Padilla Andrews last week was elected Secretary of the Hispanic Association on Corporate Responsibility (HACR) board of directors in Washington, DC, where she serves as NAHP’s representative.
Sent by Rick Leal



California State Military Department
The California State Military Museum

Preserving California's Military Heritage
California and the Second World War


California was witness to some of the most traumatic events that happened during the war in the then 48 states. When Pearl Harbor was bombed on Dec. 7, 1941 California was racked from north to south with near panic conditions because tens of thousands of its citizens expected similar attacks, possibly by the same naval force that attacked Hawaii, at any time on California cities. 

Within days of the attack on Hawaii, Japanese submarines were attacking merchant ships off California's coast reinforcing those fears. Wild rumors circulated of Japanese invasion fleets being seen in California water and of actual Japanese landings. There were rumors of air attacks, rumors that secret Japanese air bases existed in California's deserts or in Mexico, rumors of sabotage, of periscope sightings and of many other fearful things. Worst of all, there were wild and unfair rumors about the ethnic Japanese: Japanese fishermen were mining harbors; supplying food, fuel and secret information to submarines off the coast; Japanese farmers were poisoning fruits and vegetables they brought to market; the Japanese were secretly organized into military units to carry out attacks behind American lines if and when an invasion came. None of these things were true, but every such rumor was believed by someone. 

These fears lead to a series of immediate and unusual events in California. Martial law was declared on Terminal Island in Los Angeles Harbor where a major U.S. Naval base, important oil facilities and a large ethnic Japanese community existed side-by-side. Soldiers from west coast Army posts, some of them only partially trained, were rushed to various points along the coast to prepare defenses against an invasion. California's beaches were strung with miles upon miles of barbed wire. Coastal cites were blacked out and citizens sandbagged their homes and businesses. Radio stations went off the air, commercial airliners were grounded and ships were ordered to stay in port. These measures were seen as absolutely necessary by the west coast Army commanders because at the time of Pearl Harbor the Army Air Forces in California consisted of only 16 modern fighter planes available to defend the entire state. 

Citizens of enemy countries (enemy aliens), most of them Germans and Japanese who were known to the FBI and thought to be dangerous, were taken into custody under international laws defined by the Geneva Conventions and shipped off to internment camps as far away as North Dakota. This represented only a small percentage of the 531,882 registered enemy aliens in the state. Califomia a the second largest enemy alien population in the nation. New York had the most with 1,234,995. 

In time, the wildest rumors faded away but others persisted, especially those about the ethnic Japanese. Fears turned into harassments and attacks on the ethnic Japanese, many of whom began to fear for their safety and that of their families. Soon, a fantastic plan began to evolve to expel all people of Japanese ancestry from California, and within a few months that plan was put into effect. 

In late February 1942, as the evacuation of ethnic Japanese was just getting under way, Californian's war fears were rekindled when news came that an oil facility near Santa Barbara had been shelled by a Japanese submarine. Some saw it as a prelude to greater attacks or perhaps an invasion. The night following the shelling Los Angeles had a false
air raid that looked and sounded like the real thing and went on for several hours. Antiaircraft guns fired away at imaginary planes and search lights scanned the skies looking for them. It was weeks before everyone in the area was finally convinced that Los Angeles had not really been bombed. 

While Californians were learning to live with war fears their aircraft and shipbuilding industries exploded with defense work. Unemployment virtually disappeared and every one was called upon to do their share for the war effort. California's huge oil and mineral resources were cranked up to full production, new industries of all kinds sprang up, train loads of people flocked to California looking for work, and her southern border was opened to Mexican workers. During the war California would receive 11.9% of all U.S. Government war contracts and her plants and workers would produce 17% of all war supplies made in the U.S. Military bases were built by the dozen, sometimes in little towns that people in the big cities didn't even know existed. California's deserts became bombing ranges, her harbors became naval bases, her airports became air bases and infantry and tanks rumbled across her farm lands, orchards and deserts. During the course of the war California would acquire more military installations, by far, than any other state. 

During the long war years California's big cities became mega-cities and the automobile became the main means of transportation. Already, California lead the nation in the number of cars; one for every 2.3 persons in the state. The Los Angeles area, already large and growing rapidly before the war, experienced the greatest growth of any metropolitan area in the country. By the end of the war the Los Angeles metropolitan area stretched 80 miles solid from the San Fernando Valley to San Bernardino, and a new phenomenon had occurred ... smog. 

War fears for most Californians never really went away and with good cause, for the Japanese had plans to carry out further attacks against the state, if and when the opportunities arose. During the winter of 1944-45 the state was attacked again ... this time by Japanese bombing balloons. Many bombs were dropped on California by these curious weapons but no significant damage was done, and effective U.S. censorship kept news of individual incidents secret from most Californians. 

As a direct result of the war, millions of Americans "discovered" California for the first time. Many stayed on after the war and others returned to settle in the state. In doing so, they started a trend of strong and steady growth that lasted for more than four decades.

Sent by Rafael Ojeda



Return to Military New Mexico
WW II Deaths of New Mexico
C. W. Barnum © July 2006



KIA=killed in action 
DOW=died of wounds 
DOI=died of injuries 
DNB=died non-battle 
FOD=finding of death 

GEN=Four Star; LTG=Lieutenant General Three Star; MG=Major General Two Star;
BG=Brigadier General One Star
COL=Colonel; lTC=Lieutenant Colonel; MAJ=Major; CAPT=Captain;
1LT=First Lieutenant; 2LT=Second Lieutenant 
CWO=Chief warrant Officer; WOJG=Warrant Officer, Junior Grade;
FLO=Flight Officer; AVc=Aviation Cadet; MSG=Master Sergeant
1SG=First Sergeant; TSG=Technical Sergeant: SSG=Staff Sergeant;
TEC3= Technician Third Grade; SGT=Sergeant; TEC4=Technician Fourth Grade
CPL=Corporal; TEC5=Technician fifth Grade; PFC=Private First Class; PVT=Private.

This list does not cover civilian deaths such as Red Cross workers or nurses. Nor does it cover deaths after discharge. As you know, service men and women suffer mental and physical problems after a war that may contribute to an early death. These instances can not be calculated. Please report typing error or make additions here.


Please go to the website for the full listing:

Sent by Rafael Ojeda



Tucsonans Killed in  in World War II  

A list of 401 Tucsonans who lost their lives during World War II.  



Abad, Basil Martinez, Radioman 2nd class.
Acedo, Usbaldo C., Pfc.|
Acker, George William, Seaman 1st Class
Acquilin, Edward V., Pfc.
Acuna, Edward B., Sgt.
Aguirre, Filberto S., Pvt.
Ahrens, Conwalt Frederick, 1st Lt.
Algee, Leslie D., Sgt.
Allen, Paul Kring, Lt.
Allred, John Wiley, Ymn. 3rd Class
Alvarez, Arsenio G., Pfc.  
Alvarez, Tony J., Pvt.  
Anderson, David B., 1st Lt.  
Aros, Candido S., Pvt.  
Arrila, Frank B. - see Arriola  
Arriola, Frank B., Pvt.  
Bailey, David B., Sgt.  
Baker, Lenuel G., Pfc.  
Baker, Lester Leroy, Torpedoman 1st Class  
Baldridge, Harry Leo, Pfc.  
Banuelos, John R., Pfc.  
Barker, Bobby J., Pvt.  
Barrasso, Louis A., Pvt.  
Basurto, Recardo C., Pfc.
Beck, Richard Ambler, Lt.  
Bejarano, Eduardo, Pvt.  
Belis, Fernando, Staff Sgt.  
Bennett, Virgil R., Sgt.  
Berkalew, George W., Capt.  
Berning, John Joseph, 1st Lt.  
Berumen, Paul J., Pfc.  
Bickley, John J., 1st Lt.  
Bickley, Robert Patrick, Pvt.  
Bland, Vernon (Ted) Nelson, 1st Lt.  

Please go to the website for the complete list:

Sent by Rafael Ojeda


New ‘Voyages’ database tracks slave ships, 
offers glimpses of African-American ancestry

ATLANTA | Historians hope a new Web database will help bring millions of black people closer to their African ancestors who were forced onto slave ships.  It provides black people an unprecedented connection to their heritage.

“Voyages: The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database” launched Friday in conjunction with a conference at Emory University marking the bicentennial of the official end of the trans-Atlantic slave trade in 1808. Emory spearheaded the two-year interactive project, which is free to the public.

“It’s basically doing for people of African descent what already exists for people of European descent in the Americas,” said Emory history professor David Eltis, who helped direct the project.

“Voyages” documents the slave trade from Africa to the New World that took place over three centuries — between the 1500s and 1800s — and includes searchable information on nearly 35,000 trips and the names of 70,000 people shipped as slaves. The voluminous work includes data on more than 95 percent of all voyages that left ports from England — the country with the second-largest slave trade — and documents two-thirds of all slave trade voyages between 1514 and 1866.

Harvard University professor Henry Louis Gates said “Voyages” sheds an important light on the hidden history of 12.5 million slaves.

“Their ancestries, their identities, their stories were lost in the ships that carried them across the Atlantic,” Gates said. “The multi-decade and collaborative project that brought us this site has done more to reverse the Middle Passage than any other single act of scholarship possibly could.” Middle Passage refers to the voyages that sent enslaved Africans to the New World.

Genealogy and DNA tracing have gained popularity for black people looking to trace their slave roots, and “Voyages” could help give a fuller picture of slavery for a culture stripped of its heritage, said Eltis, the Emory professor.

“It’s not a super tool for genealogists because you cannot make that connection from ancestor to voyager, but it does give a context,” he said, explaining that because the database lists the slaves’ African names — which were later Westernized — researching an ancestor by name is difficult.

Still, for someone who knows that an ancestor was enslaved in a certain part of the South, the database might help them trace from where in Africa they most likely came, said Emory history professor Leslie Harris, author of the book In the Shadow of Slavery: African Americans in New York City, 1626-1863.

“When people study the slave trade, they often talk about the large numbers,” said Harris, one of the organizers of this weekend’s conference. “It’s just one of those human things to want to know where we came from and who our ancestors were.”

Harris explained that the database could be most helpful to those who have an understanding of their families, in that it could add layers to ancestors’ stories.

“Not that everyone will now be able to point to a name and say, ‘That’s my great-great-great-grandfather,’ but it helps give a greater sense of who these folks were or the culture they came from,” she said.

Chronicling voyages that ended in Europe, the Caribbean, North America and Brazil, visitors to the site can search the database by voyage or name, or look at estimates of how many people were transported and enslaved. And scholars who discover new information are invited to submit it for the database.

The project expands on “The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade,” a CD-ROM completed in 1999 that included more than 27,000 slave trade voyages.

Gates called “Voyages” the most important tool for blacks looking to research their past in decades, that holds as much benefit to the general public as for scholars.

He said the project is a bittersweet one.

“It’s a hell of a lot of people, an enormous forced migration of human beings — one of the largest in human history — for nefarious purposes, for their economic exploitation,” Gates said.  “But like the Negro spiritual says, they once were lost, but now they’re found.”

Go to:

Sent by Joan De Soto and
Bill Carmena



Unveiling of the U.S. Native Warrior Exhibit
Summer Sun, Winter Moon , Symphony created for Lewis/Clark Bicentennial
You Tube Symphony Orchestra
Crow Creek Sioux woman recalls Depression
Indian elders warned 'hard time' before Depression hit
100 Years Ago: 'Primitive' Indians in California
Dakota ride finishes four-year cycle

By Wendy Thompson, Staff Writer


More than 100 people turned out to honor Native American ancestors, their descendants and all veterans at the unveiling of the U.S. Native Warrior exhibit.

Native American drummers, speakers in Native American regalia, paratroopers from the Boots-N-Chutes All Airborne Association, tribal elders and dignitaries honored fallen Native American veteran comrades, Aug. 23.

A full-course dinner and presentations by those involved preceded the first public showing of the exhibition spearheaded by Greg Nevarez and Joe and Margie Talaugon.

The U.S. Native Warrior exhibit features 30 panels honoring Native Americans, including the Chumash, who served our country in war, and lost their lives. It was held at the Royal Scandinavian Inn in Solvang.

“The U.S. Native Warrior Project’s mission is to honor not only these individuals but the native nations that supported them. The project hopes to unify all native nations in the pride and integrity that was displayed by these first American heroes,” said Nevarez, project coordinator of the exhibit.

The exhibit consists of 30 panels measuring two and half by three feet, created by graphic artist Robert Corbi, a Chumash descendant, and a 10-minute documentary video.

Chumash Tribal Elder Adelina Alva Padilla blessed John Kennedy, a member of the Boots-N-Chutes All Airborne Association, as well as all members of the unit prior to the color guard salute. Seven members of the Boots-N-Chutes All Airborne Paratroopers Association headquartered in Lompoc performed the honor. Boots-N-Chutes has about 50 members from Lompoc, Santa Maria, and Guadalupe.

Three Native Americans, called “The Soldier Creek Drummers,” performed a drum song with the Samala Singers, a local female trio, daughters of Pete Crowheart Zavalla, one of the drummers.

“The Northern Cheyenne gave us this song,” said the drummers before beginning.

The Soldier Creek Drummers are twins Mike and Matthew Zepeda of San Luis Obispo and Grover Beach, respectively, and Zavalla, of Santa Ynez. Before they began, they scattered a pinch of tobacco to each of the four directions of the compass, starting in the east, “where life begins with the sun rising,” said Zepeda.

While playing, the trio left an open chair for the spirit of the late Randy Sevedge. “Randy Sevedge, one of the original drummers, taught us our songs. He passed those songs to us,” said Zepeda.

Padilla opened the ceremony for the unveiling of the U.S. Native Warrior exhibit with a spiritual dedication: “Thank you Grandfather, for those that gave their lives, so we could be free - free in voice, mind and spirit,” she said before the assembly.

Emcee John Morano said that the Native Warrior project was inspired by a similar project, the Latino Warrior, Nevarez’s first project. Morano spoke of the sacrifice that the Native Americans had made for America.

Joe Alaguon of Guadalupe, who with his wife, Margie, co-founded the project with Nevarez, spoke to the group. “I am going to speak from my heart, and I might break down,” he said.

“It’s very emotional to see my friends, my people, to come together, to honor our veterans, our ancestors, ourselves, our women and our children, in respect to them, as fellow human beings. They fought for our freedom, our land - the land that we love, Mother Earth. Before I started this, my friend Ernie told me, ‘plant a seed and it will grow.’ I ask you to open your hearts up - look at those veterans who sacrificed their lives, remember our warriors, our women warriors. We don’t need to go back to the past - move forward, learn more from our culture, songs and traditions. I ask that you go out and contribute in some way. Plant a seed. Across this nation, across this world, it has to begin in the heart,” he said.

One panel is dedicated to the estimated 95,500 Native Americans who have served since World War II, with a total of 1,119 lives lost. The exhibit primarily honors World War II veterans, and lists the numbers of those that have served and died in each war.  According to the exhibit, during World War II 25,000 Native Americans served; 42,000 served in the Vietnam War, and 12,000 have served in Iraq.

One panel honors Pfc. Lori Piestewa, reportedly the first woman killed in the Iraqi War, as the first female Native American soldier ever killed in war. Piestewa is the U.S. Army Quartermaster Corps soldier killed during the same 2003 Iraqi army attack in which 19-year-old Jessica Lynch was injured.

Lynch later was rescued and became a national celebrity when her story became the basis of a television docudrama, “Saving Jessica Lynch.”

According to the exhibit, Piestewa was honored posthumously with a Purple Heart and a Prisoner of War Medal.

During World War II, 25,000 Native Americans served, with 550 killed; in the Korean War, 12,500 served, and 104 were killed. In Vietnam, 42,000 served, with 226 killed, according to the exhibit.

To date, 12,000 Native Americans have served in Iraq, of whom 39 have given their lives, including Piestewa.  “We tried to tell the story on each one of these panels,” said Nevarez. “There are seven panels honoring Medal of Honor recipients, and another on the code-talkers.  “We also have panels of those who served in Vietnam and Iraq, which include the stories of local tribe members from the Chumash village,” he said.
Copyright © 2008 Santa Ynez Valley Journal
Posted on September 4th, 2008 by hunwut   Filed under: Exhibit, News 

Sent by Rafael Ojeda



Summer Sun, Winter Moon Choral/Orchestra Symphony, 
created for Lewis and Clark Bicentennial


Darrell Kipp is a Native American author, historian, and educator. He is a member of the Blackfoot tribe and director of the Piegan Institute.[1] 

In 2004 he joined composer Robert Kapilow to create a large-scale choral and orchestra work for the Lewis and Clark Bicentennial. The work, entitled Summer Sun, Winter Moon, was commissioned by the Kansas City Symphony, the Saint Louis Symphony and the Louisiana Symphony. The work premiered in September 2004. A documentary of the event, sponsored by the National Endowment for the Arts, was made and aired on public television.[2]

Kipp's book Mythology of the Blackfoot Indians was published by Bison Books in 2008.[3]

[edit] References:



You Tube Symphony Orchestra

Join the world's first collaborative online orchestra, Play your part in music history.

Interested in joining the first-ever collaborative online orchestra? Professionals and amateur musicians of all ages, locations and instruments are welcome to audition for the YouTube Symphony Orchestra by submitting a video performance of a new piece written for the occasion by the renowned Chinese composer Tan Dun (Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon). We have tools to help you learn the music, rehearse with the conductor and upload your part for the collaborative video.

And how do you get to Carnegie Hall? Practice and upload. Send us your talent video performance from a list of recommended pieces. Finalists will be chosen by a judging panel and YouTube users to travel to New York in April 2009, to participate in the YouTube Symphony Orchestra summit, and play at Carnegie Hall under the direction of Michael Tilson Thomas.
The deadline for all video submissions is January 28, 2009.
Sent by Dorinda Moreno


Crow Creek Sioux woman recalls Depression
Thursday, December 11, 2008


Stella Pretty Sounding Flute,. a member of the Crow Creek Sioux Tribe of South Dakota, remembers the Great Depression in the 1930s.

Pretty Sounding Flute, 84, grew up a tent on the reservation. She said elders warned her about the economic troubles that hit the entire nation.

"I grew up the hard way," Pretty Sounding Flute told The Mitchell Daily Republic. "There is no easy life for me but here I am. Everything I learned was the hard way."

Laura Wehde/Republic Stella Pretty Sounding Flute, today an 84-year-old resident of Fort Thompson, remembers The Great Depression well. "I remember (the grandmothers) used to tell me that I should listen because I am going to have a hard time," said Pretty Sounding Flute, herself now an American Indian elder.

Pretty Sounding Flute said her life was made more difficult because she was forced to attend a boarding school. She said she was beaten for speaking the Dakota language.



Indian elders warned 'hard time' before Depression hit
Lisa Kirkie The Daily Republic
Published Thursday, December 11, 2008


FORT THOMPSON — It was summer, just before the start of the Great Depression that gripped the nation throughout the 1930s. 
On the Crow Creek Reservation, kunsis (grandmothers) spoke to takojas (grandchildren), foretelling of difficult days ahead. Stella Pretty Sounding Flute, today an 84-year-old resident of Fort Thompson, remembers it well.
"I remember (the grandmothers) used to tell me that I should listen because I am going to have a hard time," said Pretty Sounding Flute, herself now an American Indian elder. 

Laura Wehde/Republic Stella Pretty Sounding Flute, today an 84-year-old resident of Fort Thompson, remembers The Great Depression well. "I remember (the grandmothers) used to tell me that I should listen because I am going to have a hard time," said Pretty Sounding Flute, herself now an American Indian elder. 

The Great Depression series 
Lisa Kirkie Archive 
Soon, Pretty Sounding Flute learned what the elders meant by "a hard time." 

When most people think about the Great Depression, they think of dirt, poverty and hard economic times. As the nation slips into economic uncertainty in 2008 and Americans lament high prices of gas and food, Pretty Sounding Flute recalls the 1930s, a time when nothing was certain, not even her next meal.

Buffalo County in central South Dakota still is among the poorest in the nation. According to online statistics from the U.S. Census Bureau, Fort Thompson is the 36th poorest location per-capita in the nation as of October.  

Pretty Sounding Flute says she has lived a lifetime feeling inferior. It dates back to those difficult days, starting with being forced to attend boarding school as a young girl.
Born July 20, 1924, Pretty Sounding Flute remembers living in tents with her family down in old Fort Thompson. 

"Old Fort" is how residents of Fort Thompson refer to the community before the 1959 construction of the Big Bend Dam, which backed up water from the Missouri River, forcing residents to move to higher ground.  The whole community living in that area was forced to migrate to higher ground. That's where Fort Thompson stands today.

Food was scarce, and the constant worries about food were devastating for Pretty Sounding Flute and her relatives. "The food part … it's a little bit better now, just a little bit," she said. "We dug down the river and all the food is gone. The grandmas said the food and the medicine … it's going to be all gone when this river is gone."

Fort Thompson today has stores where food can be purchased, and the government provides commodities as a supplement. When Pretty Sounding Flute was growing up, reservation residents had to hunt for much of their food in a relatively sterile environment. 
Pretty Sounding Flute lived in a tent, but eventually was forced to attend boarding school in Stephan — now known as the Crow Creek Sioux Tribal High School.

And as the Great Depression gripped the nation, Pretty Sounding Flute said the "Great Oppression" held tight on the reservation. While many South Dakotans can still remember the Great Depression as a time of financial struggles and environmental disasters, Pretty Sounding Flute recalls the beatings she received from school officials when she spoke her native Dakota language.

Even today, she speaks a mix of broken English and Dakota as she describes her childhood.
"I don't want to go to school, Ina (mother)," she recalls saying. "I hung on to her apron … and I said, 'momma, do I have to go to school?

"We couldn't understand (school officials) and they couldn't understand us. We didn't speak English."  The language barrier made it difficult to learn what was going on outside of the reservation. 

As she discussed her childhood with a visitor recently, Pretty Sounding Flute avoided being too specific, perhaps due to language difficulties. But she has strong opinions about life today compared to the 1930s; people have it easy nowadays, despite so much talk about economic hardships. "I grew up the hard way," said Pretty Sounding Flute. "There is no easy life for me but here I am. Everything I learned was the hard way."

To survive the hard times of the Great Depression, Pretty Sounding Flute and her relatives relied on traditional American Indian values.  They helped each other. It's a way of life she still values. She reminds her family to adopt those values as well, especially during difficult times like today.

Pretty Sounding Flute had a tough time during the Great Depression, yet still maintains a strong faith and contributes her time to the Catholic Church. "There is never a life that is easy," she said. "Right now, I am enjoying myself because I am helping others.
"I make cookies for Sister Charles and help make star quilts and sofa pillows. I don't want no pay. I just do it because (otherwise) I will be watching that TV all the time." 

Dorinda Moreno



100 Years Ago: 'Primitive' Indians in California


Monday, November 10, 2008
Filed Under: National

"Here is the article printed in the Chico Daily Enterprise, Nov. 9, 1908, on the discovery of the last Yahi village:



Aborigines Are Found by Chico Hunters While in That Section

The wild Indians of Deer Creek canyon have been found. The questions, debated through these many years by the stockmen of Tehama and Butte counties, as to whether or not a remnant of the once ruthless band of Mill Creek remains in the remote gorges of the hills, has been answered affirmatively.

The claims made by I.N. Speegle, Jacob Moak and others that their cattle camps have been frequently plundered by these wild savages has been bolstered by almost conclusive evidence.

An Indian was seen by a couple of surveyors late Thursday evening. These two were passing up Deer Creek canyon en route to a camp occupied by other surveyors near the mouth of Sulphur Creek. They saw a stranger on the creek bank above them and called to him, thinking possibly they had encountered one of the party from above.

Immediately the stranger whirled on them and showed the astonished whites the features of an unusually bad looking Indian. The two had been looking diligently for a crossing over the turbulent stream, and both frankly admit that they found one then and there. "

How the discovery was reported, 100 years ago  

Chico Enterprise-Record  
Article Launched: 11/09/2008 12:00:00 AM PST

EDITOR'S NOTE: Here is the article printed in the Chico Daily Enterprise, Nov. 9, 1908, on the discovery of the last Yahi village:


Aborigines Are Found by Chico Hunters While in That Section

The wild Indians of Deer Creek canyon have been found. The questions, debated through these many years by the stockmen of Tehama and Butte counties, as to whether or not a remnant of the once ruthless band of Mill Creek remains in the remote gorges of the hills, has been answered affirmatively.

The claims made by I.N. Speegle, Jacob Moak and others that their cattle camps have been frequently plundered by these wild savages has been bolstered by almost conclusive evidence.

An Indian was seen by a couple of surveyors late Thursday evening. These two were passing up Deer Creek canyon en route to a camp occupied by other surveyors near the mouth of Sulphur Creek. They saw a stranger on the creek bank above them and called to him, thinking possibly they had encountered one of the party from above.

  1. Immediately the stranger whirled on them and showed the astonished whites the features of an unusually bad looking Indian. The two had been looking diligently for a crossing over the turbulent stream, and both frankly admit that they found one then and there.

They found their way to the camp that night and told their story. The following morning the surveying party, having enlisted the services of Jack Apperson,
Charles Herrick and Harry Keefer, all experienced foothill men, returned to the spot where the Indian had been seen and after careful search found the camp of the wild man. It lay some eighty rods up from the creek and in a frightfully rough portion of the canyon. A rude wicki-up, sapling stayed and canvas-covered, seemed to be the principal place of abode, although a space of several acres was occupied with the strangely assorted articles of the Indians' cache.

As the party approached the hut some thought that they caught glimpses of fleeing human forms in the jungle of brush and shouted to Apperson, who was ahead, to look sharp. The latter, however, swiftly approached the hut, loosened a fold of canvas, thrust his head inside and in a moment shouted:

"Come on, boys, just in time for dinner" and reaching inside he set out a pot of acorns. And although this choice dish was still steaming hot, the most painstaking search revealed not so much as the spark of a fire by which it could have been heated.

Leaving the hut a trail like that made by wild animals was soon discovered, and up this the party advanced. So ingeniously had the wild men covered their paths that at no time was a distinct footprint discovered, while no less than 10 set steel traps were brought to light. Apperson and Herrick were soon ahead of their comrades. Suddenly the former exclaimed, "What was that? Something struck my hat and then clicked on the bushes behind me."

"Probably a falling acorn," replied Herrick. "Only acorns don't fall up," said Apperson. "Whatever it was struck the underside of my hat brim."

He paused to look in the brush for the object that had passed so close to his head and Herrick stepped up beside him. Suddenly Apperson cried: "There they are."

And there, less than three rods ahead on the edge of a thicket, crouched two unkempt, glaring Indians. The whites advanced, when one of the Indians motioned them violently back with both hands at the same time crying:   "Cambodee, go back; Cambodee, go back."

But as the whites continued to advance the Indians whirled and sprang away with incredible speed, bounding up the almost precipitous rocks by use of hand as well as foot. They were dressed in skin upper garments, with legs blackened as if by pitch, and both carried bundles.

After a fruitless chase, the whites returned to the spot where they had started and were looking about when Keefer, who had come up, suddenly shouted: "Here we are, papoose!" and snatching at a strangely muffled bundle on the steep hillside, he uncovered not a child, but a bent and withered old woman. Perceiving that she was discovered, she immediately began to cry and to moan:

"Malo; malo," which Apperson interpreted as meaning "sick."

The old woman had evidently been carried thus far by her companions, who had deserted her only when hard pressed. She was bent and deformed, and helpless with the infirmities of age. Her legs were tightly bound in strips of cloth, while her shoulders were covered by a skin robe. Her hair was short and gray and stood stark upon her head, while her scalp seemed like dried leather. She showed evident relief when the white man offered her no violence, and drank thirstily from a canteen which Apperson put to her lips.

After a discussion the men decided to leave her undisturbed. Before retiring from the spot, Apperson gave her another drink, bundled her up as comfortably as possible, and shook her hand as a token that no harm was intended her.

In the camp the most strikingly average equipment probably that lies today in any of these forty-six broad states was brought to light. Stanch and serviceable bows, beautifully feathered and tipped arrows, a quiver made of the entire skin of a beaver, this skin as well as those of the various robes, dressed with the fur on, and so skillfully as to be unusually soft. There were several of these robes, one of dappled wildcat skin still bearing the clawed toes as ornaments.

The arrows are works of art both as to form and coloring, the heads in some cases being of flint, on others of glass. Two broad knives made of glass and bone can be seen at a glance to be formidable weapons. The Indians' match safes consist of sacks made of tanned squirrel skins dressed with the hair on.

Cooking utensils and pieces of clothing, a pocket looking-glass and various other articles were identified as objects that have been taken from foothill cabins during recent years. There were several sacks of ground barley suspended in trees and nearly a full sack of flour within the hut.

No firearms were found except in pieces, and it is undoubtedly true that these wild creatures have had it bred in their very bones that any killing of white men will assuredly bring the deadly rifles of Bob Anderson and Hi Good once more into the hills.

As an evidence of the cleverness with which the Indians have protected their retreat by means of the steel traps it is but necessary to state that no sooner did the whites neglect to scan the footing beneath them on overtaking the savages than Herrick stepped into a trap, and in springing back to avoid its stroke was caught in a second one.

William J. Conway of the Bidwell ranch states that the Indians of the Deer Creek district are the remnant of the tribe that was subdued in the last great fight with government troops in 1853, and that these Indians have steadily refused to give up their own religion and adopt that of civilization.

There was with them up to a year ago, he says, a chief named Krogdo, nearly 100 years of age, who has preserved the traditions of the tribe for thousands of years, covered in deerskins and buried in a place known to himself.

About a year ago, says Conway, a party of Oroville Indian boys went up and visited these so-called wild Indians and received certain secret work of the Order of Red Men, which in turn was later given by the Oroville boys to a number of the Indians of the Bidwell place.

Discovery of Yahi village revealed 100 years ago today


Article Launched: 11/09/2008 12:00:00 AM PST


One-hundred years ago today, the Chico Daily Enterprise ran a sensational story about the discovery of a hidden camp of "primitive Indians" in Deer Creek canyon, about 20 miles due north of Chico. That article is reprinted on page 9A in today's paper. The camp was the last refuge of the Yahi Indians. It was home to perhaps a half-dozen Indians, including the man who would come to be known as Ishi after he was taken into the modern world nearly three years later in Oroville.

The discovery of the village was said to have been met with amazement that "stone age" Indians could have survived, undiscovered, into the 20th century.

The fact is, the tribe was not still living in the stone age, and their presence was known to the ranchers who were their neighbors in the canyon, although the village site hadn't been located.

But the general population regarded the tales of "wild Indians" in the neighborhood about the way Big Foot sightings are viewed today.

At least that was the case until November of 1908.

About dusk on the 3rd, a couple of surveyors exploring the possibility of building a hydroelectric dam on Deer Creek were moving up the creek bank. In the fading light, they came upon an Indian — believed to be Ishi — fishing with a harpoon from a rock in the river.

Angry gestures and shouts from the Indian put the surveyors to flight, back to their camp at Sulphur Creek.

Local ranchers Jack Apperson, Charles Herrick and Harry Keefer, who had signed
on as guides for the surveyors, heard the news and seemed to see an opportunity to prove to doubters that the Indians were in fact there. The following day they returned to where the fisherman had been seen, found a hidden trail leading up the steep bluff, and climbed up into the camp. The village consisted of a few scattered structures, built into a thicket, connected by the faintest of trails.

Two Indian men were seen running off across a lava rock slope. An old, crippled woman was found wrapped in a quilt.

The ranchers collected artifacts to prove their discovery, and apparently high-tailed it to the newspapers on the valley floor. The Chico papers were visited in time for the story to be published in the issues of the 9th; the Oroville papers had the story on the 11th.

UC Berkeley anthropologist Thomas Waterman visited the village site the following year. After Ishi came out of the wild he was convinced to take a party back to the location in 1914.

But after that, the camp the Yahi had called Wowunupo Mu Tetna — Bear's Hiding Place — was swallowed by the brush and lost for more than 70 years.


The idea the Yahi might have hidden so close to civilization from the time they were all but exterminated in the 1850s and 1860s until 1908 seems unbelievable to those who haven't experienced the ruggedness of Yahi country.

And for the few who have visited Wowunupo Mu Tetna, it makes perfect sense.

One of those is Berkeley filmmaker Jed Riffe, whose 1994 documentary "Ishi The Last Yahi" may be the best introduction to the story of Ishi and the Yahi for those unfamiliar with it.

In the summer of 1990, Riffe was part of a party that searched for Wowunupo Mu Tetna. They were unsuccessful, even though they had the detailed notes of the 1914 expedition telling how to find it.

And the party wasn't a bunch of amateurs. There was the pre-eminent expert on the Yahi — Sacramento State University Professor Jerry Johnson; Lassen National Forest archaeologist Jim Johnston, anthropologist Brian Bibby and others.

Later that year, the Campbell Fire roared through the area. And in late October of that year, the group headed back in. The fire had reduced the dense brush to scattered burnt trunks and ash-covered slopes.

"Jim went over the cliff, and said we could find the place," Riffe recalled in a telephone interview last week. And after weeks of fruitless effort earlier in the year, the crew climbed down, surveyed the site, and climbed back out in a single day.

"We could not have found it without the fire," Riffe said.

What they found wasn't a stone-age encampment. While there were grinding rocks and stone tools, many of the artifacts were "borrowed" from their neighbors.

There was a saw blade. Pictures Waterman took in 1909 clearly showed the timbers supporting the structures of the village had been sawn. There were numerous coffee cans, probably used to haul water up from Deer Creek, which was far downslope. There were cooking implements and glass bottles, probably used as raw material for arrowheads.

"There was so much material that the Yahi had re-purposed from the settlers' camps for creative new uses," Riffe said, "which is a wonderful idea."

All the same, there were stone tools — "a combination of traditional and new materials."

Just two years later, a larger expedition returned to do a more comprehensive study, although the landowner who granted access gave them just three days to work.

(Access to Wowunupo Mu Tetna requires crossing private property, whose owners are very protective of their rights. One owner, who was otherwise quite helpful, told this writer, "We don't let anyone in there who can write and carries a camera.")

In just the two years since the fire, the brush had regrown into a 10-foot-high mass of poison oak, manzanita, ceanothus and other chaparral, Riffe said. The trek from the point where they parked their vehicles into the village took more than eight hours, although it's about a mile on the map. And that was with GPS coordinates from the earlier visit telling them exactly where they had to go.

They ultimately reached the location, but the going didn't get any easier. Just finding a can dump clearly recorded from the earlier visit was difficult, and clearing the brush from one of the house sites for a limited excavation took a major, exhausting effort.

The visit provided good evidence the site was indeed the last village, but it came at a cost: 11 of the 13 participants came down with poison oak, and nine of those required hospital treatment, their cases were so severe.

And since that visit, the brush has had 16 years to grow and thicken, and the site is likely lost to all but a well-supported expedition that knows where it's going.

Well, lost to all but the village namesakes. Riffe's seen eight bears there in just his few visits to the site.

"It's a place where anything can hide from civilization."

City editor Steve Schoonover can be reached at 896-7750 or

Sent by Dorinda Moreno




Dakota ride finishes four-year cycle
By Dan Linehan
The Free Press, Mankato, Dec 21, 2008


— In the Dakota tradition, the number four represents a completed cycle. 
So the fourth year of the Reconciliation Ride is special numerically, and geographically: At 340 miles, it’s the longest. On Dec. 10, the group set out on horseback on a ceremonial ride to help heal the wounds that remain after the Dakota War of 1862 and the subsequent execution of 38 men in Mankato on Dec. 26, 1862. The ride ends in Mankato on Dec. 26.

Blizzard conditions have so far harried the riders and forced them to stop occasionally. Sheldon Wolfchild, former chairman of the Lower Sioux Indian Community in Morton, said the ride began this year near Crow Creek in South Dakota, where his relatives were forced to move in the spring of 1863.

The war inflicted what he calls “generational trauma” on his people. “Psychologically, that’s been affecting our people, our children,” he said. “In order to heal in the future, we have to go back and remember the past.”This Dec. 26 will mark the 146th anniversary of the executions. It may seem like enough time for healing, but Wolfchild says that isn’t so. Colonists’ land grabs and theft brought starvation on his people and shattered their community, he said.

The tradition dates back to 2005, when Dakota descendant Jim Miller recounted a dream of a series of horseback rides that would raise awareness and help bring reconciliation. Wolfchild said there may be a ride next year, but it will be different — perhaps more of a ride to give thanks for the opportunity to go on the rides. On Dec. 26, the riders will gather at the hanging site where the existing library is to hold a ceremony. Later, the riders will eat dinner at the Unitarian Universalist Fellowship of Mankato. Mayor John Brady is writing a proclamation to be read by him or Councilman Jack Considine. A group of Dakota Indians also makes an annual run from Fort Snelling in St. Paul to Mankato, leaving midnight Dec. 25 and arriving in Mankato at about noon. At the time of departure a vigil fire is started at Land of Memories Park. The run has been held since 1987.

For more information about the ride and a blog by a rider, visit
Sent by Juan Marinez


 Archeologists in Peru unearth ancient Wari city

Dec 16, 2008, ETLIMA (Reuters)
– Researchers digging at the Cerro Patapo archeological site in northern Peru have discovered the ruins of an entire city, which may provide the "missing link" between two ancient cultures, investigators said on Tuesday.
Scientists say the find, located 14 miles from the Pacific coast city of Chiclayo, likely dates to the Wari culture, which existed in what is now Peru between about 600 AD and 1100 AD.
If initial assumptions prove correct, the discovery would connect the ancient Wari civilization to the Moche culture, which flourished from about 100 AD to 600 AD.
Researchers say the buried city includes ceramics, bits of clothing and the well-preserved remains of a young woman.
The sprawling site, which stretches over 3 miles, also shows evidence of human sacrifice, with special spots designated for the purpose and a heap of bones at the bottom of a nearby cliff.
"It provides the missing link because it explains how the Wari people allowed for the continuation of culture after the Moche," Cesar Soriano, chief archeologist on the project, told Reuters.
He said the discovery provides the first evidence of Wari culture, which expanded from the country's south, at the northern site.
The Wari people made their capital near modern-day Ayacucho, in the Andes, but traveled widely and are known for their extensive network of roads. Earlier this year, archeologists at the Huaca Pucllana ruins in Lima, located some 500 miles south of Chiclayo, discovered a mummy that is also thought to be Wari.
Peru is a country rich in archeological treasures. It has hundreds of sites that date back thousands of years and span dozens of cultures, including the Incan empire that was in power when Spanish explorers arrived in the early 1500s.
(Editing by Terry Wade and Eric Walsh)
Sent by John Inclan



Sephardic Jews leave genetic legacy in Spain
Book: "The Jews and New Mexico, Centuries of Contact" by Louis Serna
Dialogue on "Limpieza de sangre"
Sephardic Jews leave genetic legacy in Spain
By Teresa Larraz Teresa Larraz – Dec 5, 2008 
MADRID (Reuters) – From the 15th century on, Spain's Jews were mostly expelled or forced to convert, but today some 20 percent of Spanish men tested have Sephardic Jewish ancestry, and 11 percent can be traced to North Africa, a study has found.

"These values are surprisingly high," the researchers wrote in their report, published in the American Journal of Human Genetics.

They checked the Y chromosome, a stretch of DNA carried only by men and passed down with little change from father to son. Mutations in this gene can be used to trace ancestry, and some have been clearly linked to Sephardic Jewish and northern African populations.

"The genetic composition of the current population is the legacy of our diverse cultural and religious past," one of the report's authors, Francesc Calafell, from the evolutionary biology faculty at Pompeu Fabra University in Barcelona, said on Friday.

Along with researchers from Britain's University of Leicester and Wellcome Trust, the scientists analyzed DNA samples from 1,140 men in Spain, Portugal and the Balearic Islands and compared them to Moroccans, Algerians, and Sephardic Jews in Istanbul and Israel.

"The work shows that religious conversions and subsequent marriages between people of different lines had a significant impact on modern populations both in the Balearic Islands and in Portugal," Elena Bosch of the University of Leicester said in a statement.

One of the most surprising findings is the percentage of Spanish genes whose origin can be traced to Sephardic Jews, although Spain had a relatively small Jewish population compared to its Moorish population.

Some of these genes may pre-date the Sephardic Jewish culture, the researchers said, noting that the Phoenicians also share some of the genetic characteristics.

The Moors invaded the Iberian peninsula in 711 and remained until defeated in battle by the so-called Catholic Monarchs in 1492. Moorish influence is still very noticeable in Spain's language, architecture, music and other aspects of its culture.

Jews lived in Spain before the Moors arrived and although small in number played a significant cultural and economic role.

Hundreds of thousands of Jews were expelled from Spain in various repressive moves, started by the Catholic Monarchs. The study suggests many Jews converted rather than face repression.

Some Sephardic communities to this day speak Ladino, which is similar to medieval Spanish and can be understood by present-day Spaniards.

(Reporting by Teresa Larraz, writing by Sarah Morris, editing by Maggie Fox and Michael Roddy)

Sent by John Inclan


Book: "The Jews and New Mexico, Centuries of Contact" by Louis Serna
Following is a brief overview of the Lecture I presented to the Adat Yeshua Messianic Synagogue congregation and my invited guests on Saturday, Dec 6th. I am posting it here at the request of sevearl who were unable to attend, so that those who were unable to attend, can have an idea of what the lecture was about.
The Lecture went very well and it was very well received by everyone..!  (feel free to call Dolores Rubio, 266-8208, the group "leader" for her assessment of the lecture...)  I used a total of 40 overlays that everyone found very interesting and the lecture ran just over two hours.  
The lecture is based on my book, "The Jews and New Mexico, Centuries of Contact" and proceeded as follows;
I briefly outlined the history of the Sumerians and the earliest days of "civilization" in the Fertile Crescent region of the Mediterranean (40,000 BC) and brought the history of the area and its people into the era of the Hebrews, Phoenicians, Egyptians, and the Libyans... (3000 - 1500 BC)..  all these related cultures were "big players" in the area of sea-faring trade and warfare in and around the Mediterranean. I explained how these sea-faring people visited and colonized early ports in the British Isles, Spain, (Tartessus), the Black Sea, and circumnavigated the African continent, long before Vasco de Gama. I presented maps of early navigators such as Piri Re'is, and how these early seamen finally reached North and South America in the period of 1000 BC., 2000 years before Columbus..! I covered King Solomon's "Navy of Tarshish" and how his navy sailed as far as Peru, about 500 BC, where it is believed that the biblical gold-rich Oph ir may be located. (His navy returned to their home port with tons of gold...!)
I also emphasized and presented pictures of the proof of their visits and even colonizations where they went throughout the US and the Southwest and among the Indians they encountered, including the local Zuni Indians, the Cherokee, Algonquins, (and others),  who still use many words and customs, learned from early Hebrew / Phoenicians who were here in New Mexico and in the southwest, long before the other Europeans..! 
I continued the seamen's history through the rise and fall of the Roman Empire and until Alexander the Great who put an end to the Phoenician sailing "era", by defeating all those wonderful "Masters of the Sea" and destroying their cultures. Their defeat put an end to the sailings to the New World. The Mediterranean then fell into a period of darkness when the Moors invaded Spain in 711 AD and held it until 1488 when Isabella and Ferdinand united Spain and then started the Inquisition which led to Jews leaving Spain and taking up lives "in secret" in Mexico and New Mexico... they became known as "Cryptio Jews" and lived difficult lives into the present..... 
I place much emphasis on the many artifacts and petroglyphs that the early Phoenicians / Hebrews / Libyans / Egyptians left along the major rivers in the then virgin North American continent... in Oklahoma, Arizona, the Grand Canyon, Ohio, and New Mexico... (the Los Lunas Decalogue Stone)... I present many pictures of the petroglyphs, tools, weapons, and writings they left in plain sight. I also provide many references to archaelogists, epigraphers, and researchers who have confirmed the origins of same, as well as many books on the subject.
By the end of the lecture, I cover the early history of the Spanish people in Spain and their earliest "association" with the Hebrew / Jews before Christ, and their later association during the Spanish Inquisition and their coming to New Mexico... thus the book title, "Centuries of Contact".... The implication is that the Hebrew / Jews were one of the earliest cultures in Spain, thus making them ancestors of many of today's Spanish people.
If you would like to have me do a presentation for your group, I would be glad to. Contact me to make arrangements at (505) 291-0261 or at
My book,  "The Jews and New Mexico, Centuries of Contact" is on my website, along with the explanation of what the book is about... 
In my lecture, I followed the book content closely and those who followed along at the lecture, said it was great having the book to follow what I was covering.  I sold out on the books that I took. Lou Serna

For more information on "The Jews and New Mexico, Centuries of ContactClick.

Dialogue on "Limpieza de sangre"

Asunto: limpieza de sangre - por Israel Cavazos Garza
Gracias por su amable carta,
Me da gusto qu cultive usted la genealogia , es muy agradable saber quienes fueron nustros ante pasados . En cuanto al significado del limpieza de sangre no se trata de que la sangre haya sido lavada con jabon. Quiere dicir que alguen no estaba mezclado con ninguno casta y que no tenia en su familia sanger de judios , negros , mulatos , indios y penitneciados del Santo Oficio . Otra vez gracias y un saludo cordial .
JUDÍO no implica RAZA.  Y nunca se ha mencionado la RAZA sino la
religión.  Quien se dice JUDÍO es porque practica la religión




Encontré esta información:

¿Quién es judío?  [editar]Generalmente, el uso del término judío se utiliza para referirse a tres grupos: aquellos que tienen orígenes étnicos judíos, aquellos que practican el judaísmo, y aquellos que se identifican como tales por su identificación cultural e histórica. La halajá, la ley judía, da otra definición de la identidad judía. De acuerdo con la legislación judía, judío es aquel que: a) es hijo de madre judía (ley que deriva del pasaje de Deuteronomio 7:1-5)[12] o b) aquella persona que se convierte formalmente al judaísmo bajo la supervisión halájica de un reconocido Bet Din (corte judía) presidida por tres dayanim (jueces). Este proceso de conversión está desarrollado en textos legales judíos tales como el Talmud, el Shulján Aruj y las interpretaciones de la ortodoxia rabínica. Pero además de esa definición ortodoxa, existen otras definiciones como las de las corrientes reformistas, reconstruccionistas y liberales que afirman que es judío aquel que tiene un padre judío (en el sentido genérico, es decir, un padre o una madre). El humanismo judío afirma que es
judío "quien se siente judío" sin importar si tiene ascendencia judía o si have una conversión religiosa.

Por conversión  [editar]Para poder convertirse al judaísmo es necesario tener un estudio amplio sobre la Torá, capacitado por un Moré (Maestro) de vida ordenada. Los filtros para la conversión al
judaísmo si bien varían según las distintas corrientes, suelen ser muy exigentes puesto que se busca por parte de los rabinos que la conversión sea sincera.

En el pasado hubo ejemplos de conversiones en masa al judaísmo como es el caso del pueblo de Samaria, que sin ser descendientes de Jacob en un sentido físico abrazaron el judaísmo aunque nunca perdieron del todo sus creencias y costumbres, por lo cual los judíos de Jerusalén
nunca los vieron con total agrado. Otro caso de conversión en masa es el de Beta Israel, que es una comunidad judía conformada por gente negra, cuyo origen se remonta a la Reina de Saba según las leyendas.

Pérdida de la condición de judío  [editar]En cuanto a la perdida del judaísmo, acorde con la ley judía (Halajá), no existe modo de perder el judaísmo. Quién nace judío o se convierte no pierde su condición de judío incluso después de cometer uno de los tres peores pecados: paganismo, asesinato o aberraciones sexuales. A pesar de esto la ley judía utilizó otra arma contra pecadores de mayor escala, el excomulgar de la comunidad (“El Herem” o “El Nidui”). El poder de
excomulgar de la comunidad se remonta a las primeras épocas bíblicas,pero se empieza a usar en forma sistemática durante la época Talmúdica en el Segundo Templo de Jerusalen y se continuó su uso durante la era moderna. Maimónides, Espinosa y Rabeinu Tam son algunos de los judíos
más importantes que fueron excomulgados. Cabe acotar que acorde a la ley judía existen caminos para ser re-aceptado en la comunidad y esto marca el hecho de que según ésta no existe perdida de la judeidad.

Atentamente, Alfonso González

La Sra. Lilia E. Villanueva de Cavazos publicó un libro titulado Familias de Nuevo León:  Su Limpieza de Sangre.   La Sra. Cavazos inicia su libro mencionando que "en casi todos los tratados jurídicos y de historia, la limpieza de sangre se define como «la calidad de no descender de moro, judío, hereje o penitenciado».     En una de las Investigaciones incluídas en el libro, se añaden a esta definición los mulatos y los indios, lo cual muestra, en ese caso, el claro énfasis en la raza, no en la religión.   En esta investigación se consigna:   «Expresó además el declarante que así sus padres como los demás ascendientes y descendientes han sido y son tenidos y reputados por cristianos viejos nobles, de buenas y arregladas costumbres, limpios de toda mala raza, de moros, mulatos, indios, judíos o penitenciados por el Santo Oficio, sin que jamás se haya visto nota alguna en su linaje, ni díchose cosa en contrario».    
La Sra. Cavazos incluyó algunos conceptos interesantes sobre la Limpieza de Sangre en el Nuevo Reino de León.   Estos conceptos surgen de argumentos que fueron utilizados por antiguos pobladores de Nuevo León para tratar de probar su limpieza de sangre, en Informaciones que fueron estudiadas y detalladas por la Sra. Cavazos en el libro.   Me permito transcribir parte del capítulo "La Limpieza en Nuevo León," de su libro , páginas 17-19:
"La limpieza de sangre, además de la antigüedad de linaje y de no estar mezclada con castas ínfimas consistía también en otros factores.
Ser descendiente de los primeros pobladores y conquistadores que por cédula real «lograron el distintivo honor de ser hijosdalgos de solar conocido», como lo alega en alguna información don Joaquín Mier y Noriega.
Servir a su costa «al Rey y a la Patria defendiendo al lugar donde se vive de los insultos de los indios bárbaros, y dando socorro a los demás lugares cada y cuando lo han pedido».
Haber ocupado cargos públicos.  Don José Salvador Lozano consigna como signo de su calidad de noble haber sido Alcalde Ordinario repetidas veces, así como Teniente de Gobernador y el primer administrador de tabacos.
También se tiene como sello distintivo de buen nacimiento el haber emparentado «con las primeras casas distinguidas de esta ciudad», así como «haber sacerdotes en la familia».
Otras características de nobleza eran las de «no haber sido castigado por algún tribunal que cause infamia» y la de «haberse ejercitado en oficio o ministerio vil y mecánico ni indecente de menos valer».
Francisco Antonio de Estrada que no pudo comprobar su nobleza, consideraba como señal de la calidad de su sangre «la prueba del sobrescrito de mi persona... en las leyes de la naturaleza, una vez que está en el color y el pelo con el semblante y circunstancias de nombre».  Pero, con certero argumento, se considerabla noble también «por sus costumbres y sus procedimientos en lo moral, político y civil».
En un dictamen del licenciado Juan Manuel Mejía, have éste un largo análisis justificando la limpieza de sangre de Santiago Morales, por la parte materna, por ser doña María Isabel Villarreal «descendiente de los primeros conquistadores y pacificadores del Valle de las Salinas».   Por ser hijo natural surgía la duda en cuanto a la parte paterna, que podría ser que no fuera español.  Uno de los principios que alega el jurista es que «la calidad es cosa accidental y como tal, según los principios, tampoco se presume sino se prueba».  Acaba el licenciado Mejía por suponer que doña Isabel se mezclaría «con un sujeto de sus circustancias»; opinando por lo tanto en favor de Santiago Morales en cuanto a la "injusta resistencia" que le impedía contraer matrimonio
Socorro Garza
La Sra. Lilia E. Villanueva de Cavazos publicó un libro titulado Familias de Nuevo León:  Su Limpieza de Sangre.   La Sra. Cavazos inicia su libro mencionando que "en casi todos los tratados jurídicos y de historia, la limpieza de sangre se define como «la calidad de no descender de moro, judío, hereje o penitenciado».     En una de las Investigaciones incluídas en el libro, se añaden a esta definición los mulatos y los indios, lo cual muestra, en ese caso, el claro énfasis en la raza, no en la religión.   En esta investigación se consigna:   «Expresó además el declarante que así sus padres como los demás ascendientes y descendientes han sido y son tenidos y reputados por cristianos viejos nobles, de buenas y arregladas costumbres, limpios de toda mala raza, de moros, mulatos, indios, judíos o penitenciados por el Santo Oficio, sin que jamás se haya visto nota alguna en su linaje, ni díchose cosa en contrario».    


 1 Dec 2008 09:02:02 -0800
Subject: [] 19650 Re: Como nacieron los judíos????
Buenos días a todos,

Creo que la explicación de Alfonso González sobre quién puede
considerarse judío es excelente y la más cercana a la realidad. El problema es, que en mi punto de vista, durante la persecusión judía (o mejor dicho, de los "falsos cristianos") el concepto de quién era o
no judío era muy ambiguo y evidentemente confundían raza con religión.
Obviamente si una persona practicaba la religión judía era considerado tal (religión), pero si alguno de sus antecesores había sido judío conocido, entonces también podía ser excluído de posibles méritos, reconocimientos y ordenanzas (raza). Cabe aclarar (podría estar equivocado) que el hecho de ser judío no era motivo para persecusión. Lo que la Inquisición condenaba era el fingir ser Cristiano y recibir el bautismo, y seguir practicando el judaísmo en secreto, lo que suponía herejía.
En cuanto a nosotros, los que no somos judíos practicantes, mi opinión
es que solo podemos ver nuestras raíces judías como una parte importante de la diversa gama multicultural que nuestro mestizaje nos ha dejado.

Mi abuelo materno, cuya familia practicó una endogamia impresionante por siglos (al punto de no ser poco frecuentes las enfermedades congénitas) solía lavarse las manos hasta los codos al preparar cualquier alimento. Una costumbre que, años más tarde, me enteré viene de la época de los judíos fariseos. Y genealógicamente hablando se pudo comprobar que el linaje de mi abuelo provenía del capitán converso Lucas García de Sosa. Un pequeño rito que quizá sobrevivió
por 400 años.

Entonces creo que no podríamos considerarnos judíos, porque lo mismo seríamos moros, indígenas, negros, eslavos o cualquier otra de las respetables culturas que ayudaron a formar lo que hoy somos.

Saludos, Alejandro

Hola a todos:
No soy muy dada a estar en polémica de hablar de Religiones, para mi todas son válidas y las respeto. Como soy muy curiosa aki les envío una información muy interesante, ojala y les sirva. En una de estas informaciones, viene una frase ( muy dura ) la cual resalté y subrayé.  Asi mismo viene como se origina esta descendencia Judía  desde el comienzo de nuestra era.
Si tienes oportunidad visiten este sitio: 

Saludos y Buen Inicio de Semana. Emma Montemayor


Dr. Bambina Cardenas, UTPA
Francisco Cigarroa named sole finalist for UT chancellor
Antonio “Tony”  Leal Becomes First Latino Texas Ranger Chief
Jan 24, Daughters of the American Revolution
Texas Film Companies Projects 
    Civil rights leader Gus Garcia
    Wildfire Films Officially Launches in Austin
    Big-budget films on their way to Texas
Southwestern Historical Quarterly, continuously published since 1897

Dr. Blandina Cárdenas  
President, University of Texas-Pan American




The seventh President of The University of Texas-Pan American has spent her life dedicated to the proposition that the intellectual and creative assets of all students must 
be developed for the common good.  

This educator and civil rights advocate began her career as a teacher of migrant pre-school children in her native Del Rio, Texas in 1968.  Within nine years she had designed an extensive array of programs that became national models. Her leadership engaged the National Education Association, Children’s Television Workshop, the United States Department of Justice and local, state and national efforts to advance voting rights, child and family development and educational equity and excellence.   

Dr. Cárdenas completed a doctorate in Educational Leadership at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst and in 1977 accepted a Presidential Appointment as Commissioner for Children, Youth and Families in the Department of Health, Education and Welfare where she headed the nation’s Head Start, Child Care, Child Welfare programs and the National Center for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect. In 1980 she was appointed to the United States Commission on Civil Rights where she served for 13 years. 

She also served as the United States Representative on the governing body of the Inter-American Children’s Institute of the Organization of American States, the Early Childhood Committee of the Organization for Economic and Cultural Development in Paris and at the International Organization for Families at UNESCO, as a delegate to the United Nations World Conference on Women, and on the first U.S. Delegation of Educational Researchers to the People’s Republic of China. Her extensive work with Mexican universities and organizations earned her induction into the Orden del Aguila Azteca, the highest honor bestowed by the government of Mexico on a non-citizen.  

Dr. Cárdenas became the first woman to lead UTPA in 2004.  Since then she has been responsible for a number of initiatives that have distinguished UTPA in the state for promoting student success and access.   Today she is guiding the institution to a new and vibrant era in research in fields such as economics, border life, medicine and engineering.  

For more than 30 years Dr. Cárdenas has been a strong, clear and creative voice for expanded educational opportunity.  She has won countless state and national awards for her ongoing efforts and leadership to increase the participation and success of under-represented groups in higher education.


Editor: Dear readers, Dr. Henry J. Casso, Project Uplift Director and Somos Primos friend, contacted me concerning an anonymous attack on Dr. Cardenas.  He and Dr.  Cárdenas were research collaborators during the early 1970s.  It is his work which has been identified as the source from which Dr. Cárdenas lifted portions of her dissertation.  Dr. Casso sent a letter in support of Dr. Cárdenas, absolutely refuting any questions of plagiarism.  He said in a telephone call,  "If there is any text which appears to be the same, it is solely because in our discussions about concepts and precepts, we used the same terms for understanding the principles we were espousing."

As I gather information to share with Somos Primos readers, some of which is highly provocative, I always identify the submitter. I was disturbed by the fact that credence would be given to anonymous allegations.  

My first thought, who is benefiting?  Why was  information concerning this issue made public?  Since the allegations were made anonymously, why didn't the University study it out or just ignore the allegations, Why did the individual (s) send the anonymous allegations to the San Antonio Express-News as well?  By the very act of drawing public attention to the allegations, it appears the University risks being considered as libeling Dr. Cárdenas, her professionalism, and surely interfering with the administration of her duties as  University president.   

My second thought, who is trying to push her out and for what purpose?  
What are the politics? Could it be racial?  

According to Wikipedia University of Texas information:
Out of 10 UT Board of Regents, one was Hispanic.  
Out of 12 UT Executive Officers, one was Hispanic.  
Out of 14 UT System Officers,  one was Hispanic.

Out of the 36 individuals on the above boards, 3 are Hispanics. 

With about 50 %  of the population of Texas of Hispanic heritage, shouldn't more Hispanics be governing the higher education of Texas.  Educators have finally realized the need to deal with cultural differences that affect learning in the lower levels of education, but the need also exists in higher education..  Shouldn't these figures, 36 to 3 send a signal that something is wrong?    

I do not want to suggest that non-Hispanics can not administer for the future of Hispanic youth, but surely the life-experience of an individual affects the dedication and perspective of an educator.  The climb out of the barrio is very steep, don't our young people need to view successful Hispanics at every turn of their walk?   

Hispanic educators must realize the importance of encouraging each other to reach for high levels of administrative leadership. We know that Hispanics are among the lowest group in both graduating out of high school and in receiving college degrees.  Why?

A few years ago, I visited UT Pan American.  I was really touched by the Hispanic presence on campus. It was wonderful to look on the youthful faces of tomorrow's potential leaders.  But . .  where were  . . .  where are the Hispanic administrators?

Changes are needed, but the changes should be in the structure of the policy making bodies.  Shouldn't the Regents of the University of Texas be actively involved in promoting more Hispanics as university presidents and other administrative positions?  

Below is a paragraph by Dr. Cárdenas expressing her educational philosophy. I certainly relate to it. My thesis study at UCLA was focused on the development of creativity, (fairly new research in the mid 1950s).  I shout hooray for Dr.  Cárdenas . .   an educator that understands.  It takes courage, creativity, and love to stand up for what needs to be done. . . 

(Please see article below Dr. Cárdenas article.  It is the good news that Francisco Cigarroa, M.D. is newly appointed as Chancellor of the University of Texas system.)

Everything I Need to Know About Leadership Development I Learned In San Felipe
Blandina "Bambi" Cárdenas, Ph.D.

"The process by which an individual or a group encounters the courage to stretch the limits of what they can become, I believe, is the most beautiful and exciting thing one can behold. When courage unleashes creativity and the love of self and others, you have the beginning of authentic leadership. When courage, creativity and love are absent, all the skills-based leadership development strategies in the world will fail to produce a leader. You may produce a passable manager, an effective executive and even a long-lived power holder, but the true leader will not emerge. Leadership is both art and science, but beyond these, it is spirit and passion. Leadership empowers and inspires; it puts others "in the spirit" to lead."

Intercultural Development Research Association

Extracts from: BLANDINA “BAMBI”CARDENAS: Denies knowingly plagiarizing others' work in dissertation.

By Melissa Ludwig - Express-News Officials of the University of Texas System are looking into anonymous allegations that Blandina “Bambi” Cárdenas, president of the University of Texas Pan American in Edinburg, plagiarized portions of her 1974 doctoral dissertation in education at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. 

Documents mailed to UT System officials and the San Antonio Express-News included numerous examples of passages that appear to match other writings word-for-word without using quotation marks. 

Interviewed this month, Cárdenas denied knowingly plagiarizing others' work, saying citation rules have changed since she wrote her dissertation in the early 1970s. 

“I am fairly certain I followed the rules of citation at the time,” Cárdenas said.

Cárdenas is not the first university president accused of plagiarizing a dissertation. Last year, Southern Illinois University President Glenn Poshard weathered accusations of plagiarism by the student newspaper. He promised to fix any mistakes and is still president. And in 1969, Southwest Texas State University President James McCrocklin resigned after an article in the Texas Observer revealed that he had borrowed material from his wife's graduate thesis without credit. 

Matt Flores, a spokesman for the UT System, said officials received the documents late last week and began looking into the situation immediately. “It is something the UT System takes seriously,” Flores said.

Ed Blaguszewski, a spokesman for the University of Massachusetts Amherst, said the institution would not act based on anonymous charges but would investigate if Cárdenas' accusers stepped forward. 

Cárdenas has made big changes at UT-Pan Am since taking the helm in 2004, drawing fans and critics alike. 

In an effort to pull up low graduation rates, Cárdenas asked professors to change their teaching style to accommodate students, and to show evidence that they were boosting student success.

“Obviously, not everybody likes that way of thinking,” Cárdenas said.  This is not the first time Cárdenas has been the target of an anonymous attack. 

In 2006, a tip to the UT System spurred an audit of Cárdenas' spending on lawn and home maintenance, which is often covered if the home is used for university business. The audit found some inappropriate spending, but blamed sloppy accounting rather than ill intent on Cárdenas' part. She reimbursed the university $7,069. 

According to Cárdenas, her job at UT-Pan Am is to make the school work for students, a theme echoed in her dissertation, which sketched a framework for schools to respond to the needs of Mexican-American students. 

But Cárdenas' accusers say she lifted some of that work directly from peers, mentors and other sources. Documents show whole sentences and paragraphs that appear to be copied without attribution, and the design of her study and bibliography closely match that of another student. 

Martin Gerry, a longtime Washington bureaucrat, wrote a 1971 article that Cárdenas quoted often without attribution. Gerry, who now serves as director of the Virginia-based Institute for Economic Empowerment, said he knew nothing about the plagiarism charges and didn't want to know. 

“I haven't seen Bambi for a while, but she contributed enormously to education and the children of Texas,” Gerry said. “I would have considered her an expert in the field. I am sorry to hear this sort of thing has come up.” 

In the 1970s, Cárdenas worked closely with Gerry and José A. Cárdenas, who is not related to her, to quash discrimination against Mexican-American children in schools. Those efforts took root in San Antonio's Edgewood Independent School District, where José Cárdenas served as superintendent. 

Blandina Cárdenas said that when she went to Massachusetts to begin working on her doctorate, the literature on Mexican-American education was “very skimpy,” which may explain some similarities with peers researching the same issues. Also, citation rules were different, she said, which could explain her failure to use quotations. 

After receiving her doctorate, Cárdenas went to Washington to serve as a commissioner in the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare and later took a position as dean of the College of Education and Human Development at the University of Texas at San Antonio. 




Francisco Cigarroa named sole finalist for UT chancellor
John Montford also was an outstanding candidate, regents say.
By Ralph K.M. Haurwitz, Claire Osborn
Friday, December 19, 2008


Francisco Cigarroa named sole finalist for UT chancellor
John Montford also was an outstanding candidate, regents say.
By Ralph K.M. Haurwitz, Claire Osborn
Friday, December 19, 2008
In South Texas, some Spanish speakers call Francisco Cigarroa the surgeon with "manos de oro" — hands of gold. On Thursday, the governing board of the University of Texas System decided that Cigarroa also has the right touch to lead the system's nine academic and six health campuses, naming him the sole finalist for chancellor.
The vote by the Board of Regents, meeting in Austin, was unanimous for Cigarroa, 51, a pediatric transplant surgeon from a Laredo-based family of doctors who has been president of the UT Health Science Center at San Antonio since 2000.
Although state law requires the regents to wait 21 days before firming up the appointment, Cigarroa is all but certain to become the next chief executive of the state's largest and most prestigious university system, with an annual operating budget of $11.5 billion, more than 194,000 students and more than 81,000 employees.
"He's a wonderful academician, he's a top surgeon and he's been very successful as president of the health science center," said Raymund Paredes, the state's higher education commissioner. "He's turned that center into a major research institution. He's got the kind of academic stature you would want in a chancellor of the UT System."
The regents settled on Cigarroa after a nearly five-hour, closed-door session during which they interviewed him and one other candidate, John Montford, a telecommunications lobbyist who was previously chancellor of the Texas Tech University System and a state senator.
The selection of Cigarroa is something of a setback for Gov. Rick Perry, who made a rare comment on a pending job search when he said in April that Montford would make a good chancellor.
Regent Janiece Longoria, perhaps alluding to some division of opinion among the regents, said the choice was "a very difficult decision." Regents James Huffines, Robert Rowling and Paul Foster said both candidates were outstanding.
More than 50 nominations and applications were considered for the position.
Anthony de Bruyn, a spokesman for the UT System, said Cigarroa's salary and start date would be determined after the 21-day period. Mark Yudof, who resigned in June to lead the University of California system, was paid $775,000 a year.
Cigarroa was attending a retreat of UT System presidents and regents Thursday evening at the Hyatt Regency Lost Pines Resort near Bastrop and could not be reached for comment.
He would be the first Hispanic chancellor for the UT System and was the first Hispanic to lead a major academic health center in the United States. He announced in October that he would be stepping down as president to spend more time in the operating room, but it's doubtful the chancellorship would afford him much time for surgery.
Colleagues, philanthropists and others who know Cigarroa described him as a consensus-builder who wouldn't flinch from tough decisions. Such qualities could come in handy, as the system is facing challenges on several fronts.
The system's endowments have dropped in value by several billion dollars as a result of the worldwide economic meltdown, and the system has been sued for authorizing the layoffs of 3,800 employees at the UT Medical Branch in Galveston.
With a state legislative session beginning next month, system officials will try again to scale back a state law guaranteeing admission to Texas high school students graduating in the top 10 percent of their class.
Joe Long, an Austin businessman and philanthropist who with his wife, Teresa, donated $25 million to the San Antonio health center in 2007, said he had worked with Cigarroa for seven or eight years and pronounced him more than up to the task of leading the system.
"He understands the political process and what he needs to do to persuade the Legislature to part with money," Long said.
William Henrich , dean of medicine and vice president of medical affairs at the San Antonio center, said Cigarroa is among perhaps a dozen surgeons in the nation who have undergone intensive training in pediatric transplantation of kidneys and livers.
"He has been wonderful to work with," Henrich said. "His style is deliberative and consultative. But he is very courageous about making decisions, very much a consensus-builder, sincere in his relationships."
Cigarroa comes from a family of physicians. His father, Joaquin , who is in his 80s, still sees patients in Laredo. Three brothers are also doctors.
"He comes from a very distinguished family in Laredo," said state Sen. Jeff Wentworth, R-San Antonio, who described Cigarroa as an "articulate and superb spokesman" who has been a prodigious fundraiser for the health science center.
U.S. Sen. Kay Bailey Hutchison, R-Texas, said that, as a member of the Institute of Medicine, Cigarroa is a nationally recognized academic. She said he has had a "remarkable record of success, including nearly doubling research funding" at the health science center.
State Sen. Leticia Van de Putte , D-San Antonio, said Cigarroa moves easily in many circles: "He's the type of man comfortable with million-dollar donors and country clubs and with parents without health insurance who have to take public transportation to the hospital."
 Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.


Antonio “Tony”  Leal Becomes First Latino Texas Ranger Chief
Austin America Statesman, December 18, 2008

AUSTIN, TX — Antonio “Tony” Leal has been named chief of the Texas Rangers, becoming the first Hispanic and youngest person to lead the state’s elite crime-fighting force. “Tony Leal is a 24-year veteran of DPS and brings the experience and leadership skills needed to guide the Texas Rangers in the coming years,” said interim Department of Public Safety director Stanley E. Clark.

Leal’s appointment was effective Dec. 10. The Rangers specialize in investigating felonies suchas murder, white-collar crime and public corruption. The Ranger division of the DPS includes160 people, and 134 of are Rangers.

Leal, 44, was born in Sugar Land and raised in the Fort Bend County area. He began his career with DPS in 1984. He started as a highway patrol trooper in Stafford and Rosenberg then moved to San Antonio as a highway patrol sergeant. He was promoted to the Rangers in 1994.

As a Ranger, his assignments have included Liberty, Seguin and San Antonio, where he was part of the unsolved crimes investigation team. He was promoted to lieutenant in 2002 and wasstationed in Austin. In 2005, Leal became captain of Company A in Houston, overseeing 20 Rangers responsible for 30 counties.

Leal said his dream as a young man was to become a highway patrolman. “I never imagined becoming a Texas Ranger, much less the Texas Ranger chief,” Leal said in a prepared statement.

“It is my goal to continue to uphold the Ranger tradition, while moving ahead with the goals of the department as a whole.”
Sent by Rick Leal, President of the Hispanic Medal of Honor Recipients



DATE : January 24, 2009
Time: 10:00 am to 4 PM
Place: San Antonio, Texas
River House, 509 King William Street  (behind the Steves Homestead)

Janey Joyce - Certified Genealogist - Author/Editor 
Nancy Brennen - Certified Genealogist
Sylvia Sutton - Spanish lineage
Corinne Staacke - Courthouse research
Mary Alice Councill - Registrar San Antonio de Bexar Chapter - speaking on filling out DAR Applications 

Of special focus is research techniques for gathering information on the Spanish Connection to the American Revolution and DAR Application Process and more

Men and Women all invited

Cost: $40.00 includes coffee, tea, refreshments, box Luncheon, soft drinks and a syllabus
Checks payable to San Antonio de Bexar Chapter Treasurer & mail to Valerie Guenther - 1 Ironwood RD. San Antono, TX 78212-2541
Deadline January 15, 2009
More information : Regent - Pamella Daniel - (210) 566-1782 - or



Texas Film Companies 



New Austin film company plans biopic on civil rights leader Gus Garcia
Movie will focus on Supreme Court decision that led to more rights for Hispanics

Tuesday, December 02, 2008

Wildfire Films, a new movie production company based in Austin, announced Tuesday that it is planning to start work early next year on a feature film about legendary Hispanic civil rights leader Gustavo "Gus" Garcia in Texas.

The movie, titled "16 Minutes," is expected to focus on the lawyer's flamboyant, rough-and-tumble life leading up to his 16 minutes of arguments before the Supreme Court in the landmark 1954 civil rights case Hernandez v. Texas.

The high court's decision, which helped establish equal protection under the law for Hispanics, was decided only a few days before Brown v. Board of Education, the widely known landmark ruling that led to the end of public-school segregation for black Americans. But some historians have since argued that the Hernandez case was just as important and has been unjustly overlooked by history.

The same argument can be made for Garcia, says Isidro Aguirre, a script consultant who has been researching the Texan's life since 1984. "It's important to recognize our heroes," Aguirre says, "and many people in Texas and around the country have never even heard of Gus Garcia," an alcoholic who died destitute in a San Antonio park in 1964. Garcia also was instrumental in Delgado v. Bastrop, an attack on the segretation of Mexican Americans in Texas schools.

Wildfire Films representatives said Tuesday that "16 Minutes" would be the first in what they hope will be a series of Hollywood-style movies to be shot in Texas in the coming years.

Operating from an expected base at the Austin Film Studios, the company's partners are: Anton Diether, a longtime writer with such credits as the Hallmark TV series "Moby Dick"; Mark Hacker, a story editor and script consultant who's working on the screenplay for "16 Minutes" with a team of writers, including Austin playwright Amparo Garcia Crow; Leon Rodriguez, who recently directed "Double Tap," starring Daniel Baldwin, and will be the director of "16 Minutes"; and Jesus "Chuy" Carrera, an art department/set designer specialist whose most recent project is 20th Century Fox's upcoming film "Dragonball."

Wildfire said it has partnered with Fred Roos Productions, Overture Films, Starz Media and other companies to help finance coming productions. A budget of $25 million is expected for "16 Minutes," the partners said.

Rebecca Campbell, head of the Austin Film Society, said she welcomed the news of Wildfire's upcoming work in Texas, "especially during a time when productions have been moving to Shreveport and elsewhere because of incentives being offered in other states." She expressed hope that a new incentives package, kicking the current five-percent tax break for filming in Texas to 10 or 15 percent, would make its way through the 2009 legislative session to help preserve filmmaking in Austin and the rest of the state.

Wildfire said it has not yet decided who will play Garcia in the movie, which may begin shooting in South Texas as early as February.

The legal case that will serve as the climax for "16 Minutes" deals with a Mexican-American laborer, Pete Hernandez, who was indicted for murder after a killing in a bar fight in Jackson County.

He was convicted by an all-white jury, but Garcia, who was the legal counsel for the League of United Latin American Citizens, and other lawyers argued that the 14th Amendment ensured that Hispanics were a distinct group with the same constitutional protections as other minorities. Specifically, they argued that race and class were factors in the exclusion of Hispanics from Jackson County juries. In a unanimous verdict, Earl Warren, who was then the high court's chief justice, ordered a new trial for Hernandez. Hernandez was re-tried and convicted.

With additional material from film critic Chris Garcia.


Wildfire Films Officially Launches in Austin, Texas

AUSTIN, Texas , Dec. 2 /PRNewswire/ -- Wildfire Films, LLC, an Austin -based film production company, officially launches today. Wildfire Films was created from four separate film production companies located in both Austin and Los Angeles that will now provide full-service development and production for feature films, television and new media. It is taking an active role in the development of the Texas film industry, with productions that will include a number of films that will support the diverse cultures the state offers.

Wildfire Films' executive team has over 25 years of experience in the production of films for Hollywood . Anton Diether is a writer whose miniseries Moby Dick and Cleopatra received two Golden Globe and five Emmy nominations. Mark Hacker has written and been story editor for major studios including Warner Brothers, 20th-Century Fox, MTV Films and Paramount Pictures. Leon Rodriguez has over 30 years of production experience for Sony, CBS and BBC, and he recently directed Sony/BMG's feature film Double Tap. Jesus Carrera is a production designer, known for his artistic vision in films such as 20th-Century Fox's blockbuster Dragonball.

Austin is home to a number of film companies and producers, including Robert Rodriguez and Terrence Malick , and Wildfire Films is committed to bringing together Texas and LA's most talented and renowned film executives to cultivate a rich, diverse list of film and television projects that will touch all cultures and ethnicities.

Wildfire Films has developed partnerships with Fred Roos Productions, Starz Media, ten leading production companies and eight top studios. It has the financial and creative backing to ensure that every project is a success.

"Wildfire Films possesses the vision and integrity needed to succeed in the film industry," said Academy Award-winning producer Fred Roos . "The company has a rich source of creativity and entertainment experience and comprises a proven team of writers and creators with a good sense for business."

The company will also take an active role in the Texas Motion Picture Association and Austin Producers Association. The executives of Wildfire Films are strong supporters of the Texas Film Incentive Proposal designed to create incentives for more films to be produced in Texas .

" Texas is a great location for the film industry," said Rob Markovich , Executive Director of Original Series Development and Production at Starz Entertainment. "The executives of Wildfire Films have made a commitment to improve the Texas film industry and help build the community they love. By selecting Austin as the location for Wildfire Films productions, the company can create films with a great depth of transparency, which is typically difficult to achieve in Hollywood ."

Wildfire is currently co-producing and developing feature film 16 Minutes with Academy Award-winning producer Fred Roos and Overture Films; and two projects with Humble Journey Films, an updated urban feature version of Les Miserables and Mama's Boys, starring Whoopi Goldberg, Blair Underwood and Oliver Martinez . In addition, Wildfire Films is working on projects with Starz Entertainment, HBO, Creation Studios, NBC, CBS, Troublemaker Studios and Pinewood Studios Group near London .

About Wildfire Films

Wildfire Films, LLC, is an Austin -based, full-service film production company founded in October 2007 as part of a merger between four film and entertainment executives. The partners are:

Anton Diether , the writer of the Hallmark TV miniseries Moby Dick , the highest rated long-form show in basic cable history, nominated for five Emmy and two Golden Globe Awards; the ABC-TV miniseries Cleopatra; and the 2002 Hallmark Channel miniseries Stranded, which he also co-produced. Born in Los Angeles , Anton began his Hollywood career as a script analyst for Larry Gordon's Largo Productions at Columbia . He then served as story editor for producers at Warner Bros., 20th-Century Fox, Paramount and Working Title Films. Anton recently wrote Lost At Sea for TNT, to star Patrick Swayze and directed by Nicholas Meyer . Anton is currently developing a project with Eriq LaSalle's Humble Journey Films, as well as producing his feature script Suburban Gothic at Wildfire Films, LLC.

Mark Hacker , who since completing his graduate program in screenwriting at the UCLA School of Theater, Film and Television, has worked as a story editor and script consultant for Morgan Creek , 20th-Century Fox, MTV Films, Paramount Pictures, Imagine Entertainment, and Columbia TriStar. He has done dialogue punch-up for Susan Sarandon , Scarlett Johansson , Russell Crowe , Julianne Moore , Holly Hunter , Nicole Kidman and Jeff Bridges . His screenplay The Journey of Your Life is currently in post-production and is based on his book of the same name, which will be released by Scholastic Books nationwide in July, 2009. He is currently working on the screenplay for Wildfire Films' Sixteen Minutes.

Leon Rodriguez's career has spanned over 30-plus years in the entertainment industry. Leon has produced and directed multi-camera shoots for such clients as Stevie Ray Vaughan , PBS, BBC and Polish filmmaker Mariusz Kotowski . Leon recently wrote and directed Double Tap, a film starring Daniel Baldwin and Pepe Serna , currently distributed by Sony/BMG and internationally distributed through Aspect Films out of London, UK . Leon got his start in the Austin entertainment industry in the late 1970s working for Eddie Wilson , owner and founder of The Armadillo World Headquarters and current owner of Austin's Threadgill's restaurants.

Jesus "Chuy" Carrera , who with 20-plus years of experience in the film industry as a department head in set construction, art, designing and producing, has an extensive list of credits that includes feature films, television series and national TV commercials. In 2007, Chuy worked on Kings of Appletown with Academy Award-winning writer/director Bobby Moresco . His most recent project, the highly anticipated $100 million feature Dragonball, is currently in post-production for 20th-Century Fox.

SOURCE Wildfire Films, LLC   

© 2008 SYS-CON Media Inc.



Big-budget films on their way to Texas.  
Hollywood screenwriters team up with filmmakers

AUSTIN (KXAN) - Austin has gotten a reputation as a great place to shoot movies, but because other states offer better tax incentives, films are being shot elsewhere. However, there is a new film company in Austin that plans to make big-budget movies in Texas, despite not being given a big tax break.

The new film company is called Wildfire Films, and it is made up of two screenwriters from Hollywood who moved to Austin and teamed up with two filmmakers in town.

"We create the project, develop them, make them, and the money and work stays here in Texas," said Jesus "Chuy" Carrera, a partner and production director with Wildfire Films.

What makes Wildfire Films different from other production companies is they plan to make multimillion dollar movies exclusively in Texas.

"A lot of times you'll shoot in other states," said Mark Hacker, a partner and screenwriter with Wildfire Films. "You'll have to bring in all your crew, because there isn't a talent base. Austin absolutely has the talent base."

Because the crew can be hired in Austin, the group figures the money saved will let them show Hollywood that a $40 million movie can be made for $20 million.

"I think the thing that hurts us the most is the lack of incentive," said Leon Rodriguez, a film director and partner with Wildfire Films.

The lack of incentives has sent filmmakers to places like Louisiana and New Mexico, where there is a 25 percent tax break. Texas offers only 5 percent.

"We not only want to bring back the jobs but create a solution to the big problem of the tax incentive program that is hurting from actors to crew," said Anton Diether, a screenwriter and partner in Wildfire Films.

Shooting on the first film called "16 Minutes" is set for February, and it stars Val Kilmer. Also in the works are 18 other projects.


Southwestern Historical Quarterly, continuously published since 1897


Editorial Board Author & Reviewer Guidelines Subscriptions & Advertising Awards Contact 
The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, continuously published since 1897, is the premier source of scholarly information about the history of Texas and the Southwest. The first 100 volumes of the Quarterly, more than 57,000 pages, are now available Online with searchable Tables of Contents. (more on SHQ Online)
Printed copies of the Quarterly are a benefit of membership in the Texas State Historical Association and are widely available in public and private libraries.
These 100 volumes are currently available free of charge. At a future time, the online Quarterly will become a membership benefit and also available for a one time usage fee. Current plans are to add one additional volume of the Quarterly online each year.




Old New Orleans
Mid 1950s Band members of the Rudy Voltolina Band


Welcome! This site is a work in progress, I have so much more to share. Please visit often to see what other photos, topics, places, people and stories I've added. 
I already had a collection of vintage New Orleans postcards and photos online, but, after the levee failures, I felt a need to create a series of pages that would enable me to devote more attention to specific places, customs and groups of people, with the emphasis still on old photographs and illustrations, but with some history and story-telling added. In this way, I can provide a more complete picture of each...and, ultimately, a more complete picture of my historic, unique and wonderful hometown, the grand old lady by the river...New Orleans.  She has given me so much. This is my gift to her. Nancy Brister







Mid-1950's; band members of the Rudy Voltolina Band
 bass - Dick Lemler; piano - Morris Escat; tenor sax - Bill Horaist; 
trumpet - Rudy Voltolina; drums - John Grant.


Sent by Bill Carmena 


Lozano Reunion in Boston, Massachusetts
NParks: 1541 St Petersburg Florida National Park and De Soto National Memorial
NParks: 1513 Ponce De Leon and Dry Tortugas National Park Launches New Florida Census Collection
Latinos in Lancaster County,  Pennsylvania
Ramon Velez, New York City Councilman 

A Lozano family reunion was held in Boston, Massachusetts from July 3-6 2008.  

Leigh Lozano, the daughter of Mike and Kathy Lozano, reunion organizers, 
is pictured with her Grandparents Librado and Remijia Lozano, 
and  members of the band called Pepe Gutierrez y su Mariachi Mexamerica. 

Front row seated - Left to right - Margaret Lozano (San Diego, California) Remijia Lozano (Harlingen,Texas), Librado Lozano,(Harlingen, Texas)
Second row - L to R - Linda Corona (Massachusetts), Yolanda Stoffrengen Lozano, (Indiana), Leigh Lozano (Boston), Maren Kravitz (Boston),
Back row - Orlando Corona (Massachusetts), Ruben and Elaine Lozano (Chicago, Illinios), Michael Lozano (Providence, Rhode Island), Kate Chipperfield (Pawtucket, R.I.), Mike and Kathy Lozano (Boston, Massachusetts)

We all gathered on a rainy summer day in July in Boston at the reunion site on hundreds of acres of public lands called the Blue Hills.  Mike Lozano is the YMCA property director there.  It was a great site with swimming pool, meeting hall, golf course and a lake.  Relatives and friends came from as far away as California and Chicago.  During the three days of the reunion, the family went on sight seeing tours to Boston.  We had a Salsa Dance and we concluded with a Mariachi band.  Mike Lozano gave a preview of his new book about the history of the Lozano’s called “Looking for Greener Grass”.  Contact Mike to purchase a book.  It is a gift that every Lozano should have to pass down to each generation.  We also had a photo area where displays of never before seen photos were shared with everyone.  Lozano’s from all parts of the United States had the opportunity to get reacquainted while being entertained in a very fun, relaxing atmosphere.  We came away from the reunion with a renewed connection with each other and great satisfaction that we are all connected even though we may not all be physically in the same place.  

This branch of Lozano's descend from the following generations of Lozano's.  Eugenio Lozano and Antonia Elizondo, Antonio Lozano and Augustina Gonzalez, Juan Nepomunceno Lozano and Trinidad Montemayor, Francisco Lozano and Gertrudis Ayala. They all go back to Pedro Lozano - 1669.

[For pedigree information on Pedro Lozano, please go to the research of John Inclan at: ]

Anyone interested in participating in the next reunion in 2010 should contact Mike Lozano or phone 508-904-9811.  Yolanda Lozano and Elaine Lozano have agreed to co – chair our next reunion. Place and date to be determined.   

Viva la familia de los Lozano.


St Petersburg Florida National Park 
and the 
De Soto National Memorial

Explorer Hernando De Soto was born in Barcarrota, Spain. 
In May 1539 de Soto sailed from Havana, Cuba, for Florida with a force of about 600. They landed near Tampa Bay They arrived in nine ships laden with supplies: two hundred and twenty horses, a herd of pigs, dogs, cannon, matchlock muskets, armor, tools and rations and marched north along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. 

For four years, de Soto and his soldiers explored some 906,000 sq km (350,000 sq mi) in what is now the southeastern United States of America.  They went as far west as Texas and as far north as the northern boundary of Arkansas.
In four year, they covered four thousand miles.

In May 1541 de Soto sighted the Mississippi River south of current-day Memphis, Tennessee. After crossing the Mississippi he explored Arkansas, and established his winter quarters near the present site of Fort Smith. Having made up his mind to return to the sea, he reached the mouth of the Arkansas River, where he died of fever on May 21, 1542.

1543 De Soto expedition survivors, under the command of Luis de Moscoso,
become the first group of white men to travel down the Mississippi River to
the Gulf of Mexico.



Ponce De Leon and Dry Tortugas National Park



The Dry Tortugas National Park consists of seven tiny islands composed of coral reefs, white sandy beaches and the surrounding tropical waters. When Ponce De Leon originally discovered these islands (in 1513) he named them "Las Tortugas" (meaning "the turtles" in Spanish) because of the abundance of sea turtles that provisioned his ships with fresh meat, but there was no fresh water - the Tortugas were dry.

The area is known for its famous bird and marine life, and its legends of pirates and sunken gold, and sheer unspoiled beauty. Ft. Jefferson, the largest of the 19th century American coastal forts is a central feature.

The first construction on Garden Key, in 1825, was a lighthouse to warn sailors of rocky shoals. Construction of Fort Jefferson began in 1846 but the fort was never completed. The United States knew it could control navigation to the Gulf of Mexico and protect Atlantic bound Mississippi River trade by fortifying the Tortugas. Construction continued for over 30 years but the Fort was never finished.

In 1935 Fort Jefferson was proclaimed as a National Monument but it was not until 1992 that Dry Tortugas reached it's current status as a National Park to protect both the historical and natural features.


18 December 2008 Launches New Florida Census Collection

Records Tied to Famous Floridians Can Be Found in Census Data Searchable by World’s Largest Online Resource for Family History

PROVO, Utah, Dec. 18 — According to historical documents available as part of’s new Florida State Census Collection, actress Faye Dunaway, famous for her performances in “Bonnie and Clyde” and “Mommie Dearest,” was a four-year-old living with her parents and brother in Florida in 1945 and NASCAR co-founder William France, Sr., was already in the car business by 1935, listed as a mechanic living in Daytona. Now others with Florida roots can make discoveries about their own relatives., the world’s largest online resource for family history, has digitized and indexed the 1867, 1875, 1935 and 1945 Florida state censuses, which contain more than 3.8 million names and 75,000 original images. This is the first time these censuses have been indexed, making the information easily available and searchable online.
Florida is one of only two U.S. states (South Dakota is the other) to have completed a census as recently as 1945, which means many Floridians can potentially find their parents — or even themselves — while searching the collection and building their family tree. Using powerful search tools, users can easily discover the name, address, place of birth, level of education and occupation of family members and others living in the same household, as well as locate and view digital images of the original census documents handwritten decades ago.
“With the addition of our new Florida State Census Collection, never-before-discovered family histories will be found at the click of a mouse,” said Gary Gibb, vice president of U.S. content for “Censuses are one of the best resources for tracing your family history and is adding the 1945, 1935, 1875 and 1867 Florida state censuses to the largest and most complete census collections available on the Web.”
Some famous Floridians found in the Florida State Census Collection include:
Faye Dunaway — Four-year-old Faye Dunaway is found in the 1945 Florida census along with her younger brother, Mack, and their parents. According to the census, her father, John, was serving in the Army, while her mother was involved in “defense work.”
Janet Reno — This former U.S. Attorney General is found as a 6-year-old in the 1945 census living in Dade County with her father, Henry, who was working as a reporter.
Edith Ringling — Edith Ringling, wife of Ringling Bros. circus founder Charles Ringling, is the only family member noted to be living at the Ringling Estate during the 1945 Florida census and her occupation is listed as circus proprietor.
William France, Sr. — NASCAR co-founder William France, Sr., was already in the car business at 25 years old. The 1935 Florida census lists him as a mechanic in Daytona.
Abraham Lincoln Lewis — Florida’s first African-American billionaire and his wife are found in the 1945 Florida census, retired and living in Jacksonville, Florida. also offers a wide expanse of other Florida historical records, including the 1885 Florida State Census, a Florida Marriage Collection (1822-1875 and 1927-2001), the Florida Death Index (1877-1998), Florida Passenger Lists (1898-1951) and Florida Land Records.
Click here to search the Florida State Census Collection. offers more than 7 billion names and 26,000 databases, including census, birth, marriage, death, immigration and military records; family trees; stories and publications; and photos and maps. The site currently boasts the world’s largest online collection of census records, U.S. military records and immigration records as well as the largest compilation of Jewish and of African-American family history records on the Internet. offers a free 14-day trial subscription and easy tips to help people learn more about researching their own family history.
About Ancestry and The Generations Network
The Generations Network, Inc., through its flagship property, is the world’s leading resource for online family history. has local websites in nine countries and has digitized and put online over 7 billion names and 26,000 historical records collections over the past ten years. Since July 2006, users have created more than 8.1 million family trees containing 780 million profiles and 15 million photographs and stories. The Generations Network also includes,,,,, Family Tree Maker and Ancestry Magazine. More than 7.6 million unique visitors spent over 4.5 million hours on a TGN website in October 2008 (comScore Media Metrix, Worldwide).

Latinos in Lancaster County:

Voices, Perspectives, Myths and Realities 

Hello Mimi,

I just wanted add a new active link to your site for the Latino community studies we have conducted here in the Mid-Atlantic states of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. To date we have published studies on Latino communities in Reading, PA; the Lehigh Valley, which includes Allentown, Bethlehem and Easton, PA; Mercer County, NJ including Trenton, Princeton and the surrounding areas; and most recently Lancaster County, PA. All have significant Latino populations. In addition to the demographic information they contain, each study offers a brief history of how the communities came to be. For example, in 1947 there were only 33 Latinos in Lancaster County. Today there are more than 33,000. Each community is historically unique and differs demographically.  All of the studies can be accessed free of charge online at  

Once again I want to commend you on the wonderful work you do at Somos Primos which is an invaluable historical resource. I can’t tell you how much I have learned from it over the years and we consider it a privilege to add to your resource data bank.  

Best wishes, George F. Haskins
Alegre Research and Demographics
Lancaster, PA

Ramon Velez, Community Organizer 
and Power Broker, 
Inspired His New York Community
Dec. 4, 2008


Ramon Velez, a World War II veteran, activist and former New York City Councilman, who empowered a generation of Hispanic leaders, has died. He was 75.

The Puerto Rican-born Velez was widely hailed in the New York metropolitan area as a spirited community organizer and power broker who gave voice to his community.

"Ramon Velez created a political and social movement that has had deep and lasting effects on New York City," said New York Congressman Jose Serrano. "Most of the Puerto Rican elected officials who have held office since the 1970s were elected in large part because of Ramon Velez' work organizing the community."

Velez died Nov. 30 of complications from Alzheimer's disease.

Beginning in the turbulent days of activism in the 1960s, Mr. Velez helped found and lead numerous organizations and movements that gave voice, needed resources, and new pride and institutions to the Puerto Rican community of the South Bronx and minorities and Hispanics throughout the New York area.

Along the way, Mr. Velez amassed great power, prestige and many admirers.  His name is synonymous with the Puerto Rican Day Parade, which he transformed from a small ethnic festival into a national celebration, with parades in 68 communities across the country.

In his five decades of activism, Mr. Velez also fought for bilingual education in the New York City public school system; registered half a million Hispanic voters; and founded the Hunts Point Multi-Service Center. In 1974, he was able to turn his activism into elected office, winning a seat on the New York City Council, where he served one term.

"In a variety of ways, Ramon Velez' work has had almost unparalleled impact on our city," Mr. Serrano said. "He was a visionary and a talented organizer."

Numerous politicians trace the beginnings of their careers to the political powerbase Mr. Velez established in the Bronx.

In addition to Mr. Serrano, New York State Sen. Ruben Diaz, New York State Assemblyman Ruben Diaz Jr., and former Bronx Borough President Fernando Ferrer all credit Mr. Velez for playing a key role in their careers.

Born in Puerto Rico in the small town of Hormigueros on April 19, 1933, Mr. Velez served in World War II in the 65th Army Regiment from Puerto Rico.

After his military service, Mr. Velez was intent on becoming a lawyer. But according to a story he often told, a tragic event stirred him and altered his plans.

On the streets of New York, he watched as policemen beat a pair of Puerto Ricans new to the city. They had been gambling on the sidewalk, shooting dice, a custom accepted in Puerto Rico but not in New York.

With little understanding and no English to defend themselves, the men were unable to stop the violence. Their humiliation so moved Mr. Velez, reported Ralph Morales, a longtime associate and friend, that he changed his path to one of social service and activism.

In the mid-1960s, Mr. Velez started meeting with groups in the Bronx, talking to people about their problems and needs. He began to draw the groups together and "educate them about how to fight for their rights."

But back in those days, Mr. Morales said, "it wasn't fashionable to speak up, especially for our community. Even though we were born Americans, we were still new to the mainland and sometimes with poor English skills. Mr. Velez spoke about how people needed to speak up for themselves and he began to lead that effort. He began to fight, even though he spoke with a heavy accent." 

A key turning point was the establishment of the service center that eventually flowered into the Hunts Point Multi-Service Center. Mr. Velez's vision was a center located in the Bronx community where multiple services would be housed under one roof and not spread throughout multiple agencies. In addition, its doctors, officials, and counselors would be able to speak Spanish. 

Mr. Velez's wife, Caroline, said it started with a $50,000 grant given by President Lyndon Johnson's administration.

In 1966, President Johnson accepted proposals from 14 poor neighborhoods across the country and the South Bronx was one. The agency that Mr. Velez founded would eventually provide medical and mental health services, help for the elderly, substance abuse clinics, job training and employment counseling, and education. It grew into a social services center with a budget in the millions and up to 600 employees.

"Mr. Velez pounded a stake in the ground here in the South Bronx that enabled Hispanics to participate in the funding of President Lyndon Johnson's Great Society programs," said Serafin Mariel, chair of the Bronx Overall Economic Development Corporation.

Because of Mr. Velez's work, Hispanics gained deeply needed resources that otherwise would have been much more difficult to obtain.

The service center offered Mr. Velez, as a social entrepreneur, a base to extend his efforts to assist the community, in part by gathering more resources under his control.

Perhaps a sign of Mr. Velez's political savvy and flexibility occurred in 1984. That year, Mr. Velez helped form Democrats for Reagan. He worked for the reelection campaign, speaking to Hispanic voters across the country.

This was a time, Mr. Morales said, when it was not fashionable for Hispanics, or at least not typical for a Puerto Rican to support a Republican candidate. As a result of his support for the incumbent president, "many, many opportunities," Mr. Morales said, "came into our part of the Bronx from the federal government."   "Everything he touched flourished," Mr. Morales said.

But certainly there were "stumbling blocks to growth. At times, it was necessary to protest and demonstrate" to encourage such agencies as the Board of Education or the Anti-Poverty Program to invest in the South Bronx or approve of community-level programs. 

From the service center, he turned to kindred issues and efforts. One of his first was to lobby for bilingual education. In addition, he pushed for better business opportunities for Puerto Ricans. 

In 1967, recognizing the limited representation of Puerto Ricans in New York government -- only one elected city councilman -- Mr. Velez sprung into action. "We went out and registered over half a million Puerto Rican voters," Mr. Morales said.

In the next election, "we elected five people to the state and city government. Now, we have over 39 elected officials in the state of New York. They can be traced back to that movement." 

Mr. Velez is survived by his wife, Caroline, six children -- Ray Jr., Lucy, Marisa, Carlos, Francisco, and Osana -- and six grandchildren, two sisters and a brother. 

He will be buried today in his hometown of Hormigueros, Puerto Rico, after being honored with a wake at the Puerto Rican Capitol building in San Juan.

Velez at a glance:
-- Fought for bilingual education in the New York City public school system.
-- Registered half a million Hispanic voters.
-- Founded the Hunts Point Multi-Service Center. 
-- Won a seat on the New York City Council, where he served one term.  
Sent by Rafael Ojeda RSNOJEDA@AOL.COM




El General Manuel Orellana Nogueras by Guillermo Padilla Origel
Personajes de la historia / NAVIDAD DEL 2008
Las Vías del Exilio . . Niños de Morelia  


 Guillermo Padilla Origel



Es importante recordar y hacer honor a quien honor merece, en este caso la figura del General Manuel Orellana Nogueras, quien con sus tropas, contribuyó grandemente en esta ciudad, interviniendo muy acertadamente en la forma de ayudar a los ciudadanos cuando se suscitó la tremenda inundación de 1888, hombro con hombro con la colaboración del Coronel Pomposo G. Campillo y el padre Pablo de Anda y Padilla, el sr. Obispo Don Tomás Barón y Morales, estando al frente del gobierno del estado el General Don Manuel González, salvando muchas vidas y pertenencias de varias familias.

El General Orellana, estuvo activo en el ejército nacional durante 45 años, obtuvo las mas altas distinciones que la nación otorga a sus defensores, en la guerra de Reforma y la intervención Francesa; acciones de guerra entre los años  de 1858 a 1876, destacando entre ellas, las acciones que dio el triunfo definitivo a las armas republicanas en Querétaro.

En 1882, se creó la 7ª zona militar, comprendiendo los estados de : Guanajuato, Michoacán y Querétaro con sede en León , siendo el General Orellana , su primer jefe.

Perdió a su padre que también fue militar, debido a una explosión  en el palacio de gobierno  de la ciudad de  Guadalajara , cuando la ocupación del general Miramón.

Aunque nació en la ciudad de Guadalajara , radicó en esta ciudad donde contrajo matrimonio y mandó edificar al final de la acera norte de la Calzada de los héroes una bella finca de recreo estilo Porfiriana llamada “Quinta Elvira”; radicó también en la ciudad de Silao, donde compró la ex –hacienda denominada “del Bosque” y que a la fecha la conserva una de sus nietas.

Mucho se ha escrito sobre este destacado personaje , por el cual hoy lo recordamos con gratitud , admiración y cariño.  

Genealogía de la familia Orellana  

I.-Don Julián de Orellana, nace por 1790, se casa en la ciudad de Zacatecas, con María Guadalupe Varela, y fue su hijo entre otros:  

II.-General Don Joaquín Roque Orellana Varela, originario de Zacatecas, nace por 1814 y  se casa en Guadalajara en el sagrario metropolitano el 19 de marzo de 1839, con Doña Josefa Nogueras y Basauri, h.l. de Lic. Manuel Nogueras y de Doña María Basauri, y fueron sus hijos entre otros:  

III.-Coronel Don Joaquín Orellana Nogueras y 

III.-General Don Manuel Orellana Nogueras,  nace en Guadalajara por 1845, y murió el 17 de noviembre de 1903, en la ciudad de Silao, Gto.,  se casó en la ciudad de León, Gto., el 2 de septiembre de 1888, con Doña Elvira Torres Soto, originaria de Arandas, Jalisco, y radicada en León, Gto.,  h.l. de Don Aureliano Torres Ramírez y de Doña Vidala Soto y González, y fueron sus hijos del General Don Manuel y de Doña Elvira, nacidos en Silao y León, Gto. :  

1.-Doña Eva Orellana Torres, soltera

2.-Doña María de la Luz Elvira Orellana Torres, nacida en 1899, sin descendencia.

3.-Don Joaquín Orellana Torres, sin descendencia.

4.-Doña Judith Orellana Torres, casada en la ciudad de Guanajuato, con el sr. Rafael Araiza, y fueron sus hijas Doña Fabiola y Doña Berenguela Araiza Orellana, con sucesión.

5.-Don Manuel Orellana Torres, originario de Silao, nacido por 1889, casado con María de la Luz Jiménez , y fueron sus hijos:  

1.-Doña Gloria y Doña Elvira Orellana Jiménez, solteras.

2.-Don Joaquín Orellana Jiménez, casado con María Guadalupe Salgado, con sucesión.

3.-Don Manuel Orellana Jiménez, nacido en Silao, en 1926, y muerto en 2006, casado con Doña Lydia Cázares Herrera, fue presidente municipal de Silao en los años 1980-1982 y fueron sus hijos:  

a.-Doña Luz Orellana Cázares, casada con Jaime Loya Cabeza de Vaca, con sucesión.

b.-Don Ernesto Orellana Cázares, casado con Dorotea Bandala, con sucesión.

c.-Doña Verónica Orellana Cázares, casada con Luis Vela, con sucesión.

d.-Doña Lydia Orellana Cázares, casada con Juan Bosco, con sucesión.

e.-Don Samuel Orellana Cázares, casado con Lilia Negrete, con sucesión.

f.-Don Víctor Orellana Cázares, casado con Raquel Toledo, con sucesión.

g.-Don Manuel Orellana Cázares, nacido en 1961, casado con Adriana Loya Cabeza de Vaca y fueron sus hijos: Adriana, Manuel y Karen, Orellana Loya, radicados en esta ciudad.


1.-libro: León Trayectoria y Destino, por el  lic. Mariano González Leal

2.-libro: Recordatorios Públicos y Privados, por el  Lic. Toribio Esquivel y Obregón.

3.-archivo y comunicación oral del sr. Manuel Orellana Cázares

4.-copia del micro-film del registro civil de esta ciudad 1880-1902

5.-archivo del sagrario metropolitano de Guadalajara, Jalisco.

Guillermo Padilla Origel
Padilla y Asociados S.C.
Madero #320-7 Centro
Leon, Gto.
Tel:  01-477-716-65-92
Fax: 01-477-716-64-38
ID: 11*18825




Personajes de la historia / NAVIDAD DEL 2008
Por: José León Robles De La Torre

Ya iniciamos el tercer milenio desde el nacimiento del Niño Jesús en Belén, noticia que inquietó al poderío romano, que trató de eliminar al Niño, inclusive mandar asesinar a todos los niños hasta dos años de edad, siendo víctima de persecuciones hasta que al final lograron clavar en una cruz, con escarnio y burlas al Redentor del mundo.
El Siglo de Torreón | Personajes de la historia / NAVIDAD DEL 2008
25 de diciembre, Día de la Natividad del Niño Jesús en la extrema pobreza, en un pesebre de Belén, porque las familias del lugar no les dieron posada a María y José.
 Las cosas, después de más de dos milenios, no han cambiado mucho, y en algunos casos han empeorado, ya que el mundo actual se encuentra inmerso en guerras fratricidas, en la más alta corrupción, con secuestros violentos, asesinatos y extorsiones que tienen a la sociedad preocupada esperando los cambios que traigan nuevamente a los hogares la paz, el amor, la armonía familiar alejada de zozobras e inquietudes.

Las autoridades hacen su mejor esfuerzo para combatir el crimen y la corrupción. Muchas personas han hablado fuerte y organizado manifestaciones silenciosas con el clamor general de volver a ver a nuestros hijos salir a la calle, ir a la escuela a festivales, sin el temor de que algo malo les pase y a la larga, tenemos que lograrlo, porque México es más fuerte que sus enemigos y muchos creyentes elevan sus oraciones al Creador para que vuelva la paz. Ya vimos el 13 de diciembre pasado que se reunieron en la Basílica de Guadalupe en la Ciudad de México, cerca de seis millones de peregrinos, mostrando sus necesidades y su gran fe, ante la Virgen Morena del Tepeyac.

Las reflexiones anteriores me hicieron recordar un pequeño poema de dos estrofas, que se encuentra en mi libro "La Alegría de Vivir", que me publicó el Gobierno del Estado de Coahuila por conducto del Consejo Editorial que dirige mi amigo el Profr. Arturo Berrueto González y que dice así:   EL PESEBRE DE BELÉN

Escrito 1977 por Jose Leon Robles de la Torre
¡Señor! Qué más puedo decirte
si ya he dicho tantas cosas
a lo largo de mi vida.
Sólo diré que tu luz
ilumina mi sendero
y mi alma no está perdida
tu estrella siempre me guía
hasta el portal de Belén,
donde en humilde pesebre
la Virgen arrulla al Niño,
que inquietó a Jerusalén.
Vino a enseñar con su ejemplo
de pobreza y humildad,
que vengamos a su templo
a cantarle en Navidad,
recordando aquel pesebre
donde reyes y pastores
llegaron con devoción
unos llevando tesoros
otros sólo el corazón.


‘Las Vías del Exilio’ “Niños de Morelia”  

El Siglo de Torreon on November 24, 2008

Muestran ‘Las Vías del Exilio’ 
“Niños de Morelia”  

Por: Agencias/ México, DF.  

“The Tracks of Exile” – “Morelia’s Children”

Mercy Bautista-Olvera


Exhiben primeras imágenes de niños españoles exiliados durante la dictadura de Francisco Franco.  El Museo Nacional de los Ferrocarriles Mexicanos y el Museo del Ferrocarril de Madrid, España dan a conocer el viaje que 454 niños españoles realizaron el siete de junio de 1937 hacia tierras mexicanas. 

El Museo Nacional de los Ferrocarriles Mexicanos y el Museo del Ferrocarril de Madrid, España, muestran por primera vez un archivo fotográfico titulado Las Vías del Exilio. Niños de Morelia: Un Éxodo a México, integrada por cien imágenes en blanco y negro, así como 50 piezas de colección.  rcedentes de Madrid, Valencia, Extremadura y Andalucía, estos niños partieron de la estación del ferrocarril de Barcelona rumbo al exilio. 

Esta serie de instantáneas reproduce el viaje que 454 niños españoles realizaron el siete de junio de 1937 hacia tierras mexicanas, muchos de ellos no volvieron a España. Sus testimonios nos permiten hoy reconstruir parte de la historia de una generación que sufrió los horrores de la guerra y el desarraigo. 

Entre las piezas de colección figuran mobiliario médico, maletas, herramientas que los niños ocupaban en los talleres de herrería, carpintería y costura, sillones y bancas de estación, entre otras. 

Para ubicar estas piezas en el contexto histórico, cabe mencionar que México fue uno de los países que mayor número de refugiados españoles recibió durante la dictadura de Francisco Franco. 

Procedentes de Madrid, Valencia, Extremadura y Andalucía, estos niños (163 niñas y 291 niños) con edades comprendidas entre los tres y los 16 años, casi todos hijos de familia de clase obrera, partieron de la estación del ferrocarril de Barcelona rumbo al exilio, su destino era México. 

En ese momento el gobierno mexicano era encabezado por el presidente Lázaro Cárdenas y su esposa Amalia Solórzano, quienes mostraron desde el primer momento interés por los niños que viajaron a bordo del barco “Mexique”, desde Burdeos hasta el Puerto de Veracruz. 

La mayoría de estos niños provenían de zonas que habían sido ocupadas por los franquistas, de núcleos rurales en los que pasaban hambre y miedo a la represión, o de grandes ciudades que estaban siendo bombardeadas indiscriminadamente, donde la escasez de alimentos era importante y morían niños cada día. 

Tensión, pánico y desarraigo 

No es difícil imaginar el clima de tensión y pánico que se vivía en esas ciudades, lo que, sumado al hambre que se padecía como consecuencia del desabastecimiento y las enfermedades, hacían peligrar a la población infantil. Esto llevó a muchos padres a tomar la decisión de desprenderse de aquello que más querían: sus hijos. 

El ferrocarril forma parte importante de esta historia, ya que este medio de transporte hace el papel de hilo conductor entre la vida pasada y la futura de los niños, además de ser el motor de sus recuerdos infantiles, que les acompañaron en su largo viaje hacia el desarraigo. 

Más de 30 años tuvieron que pasar para que los llamados “Niños de Morelia” pudieran regresar a su país, tristemente ya no lo reconocieron, ya no quedaba nadie a quién recordar, los paisajes se habían difuminado en las simas profundas de su memoria y de su familia no les quedaba nadie. Junto a su valor histórico, la exposición Las Vías del Exilio. Niños de Morelia: Un Éxodo a México aporta un gran componente emocional y es un homenaje a los llamados “Niños de Morelia”. 

Las fotografías forman parte del acervo del Archivo General de la Nación, el Archivo General de la Guerra Civil Española Salamanca, España, el archivo fotográfico del Museo del Ferrocarril de Madrid y La Fototeca del Centro de Documentación e Investigación Ferroviarias del Centro Nacional para la Preservación del Patrimonio Cultural Ferrocarrilero. 

Source: El siglo de Torreón newspaper:

Sent by Mercy Bautista-Olvera  

Images of exile spanish children during the dictatiorship of Francisco Franco were on exhibit in Mexico and Spain. El Museo Nacional de los Ferrocarriles   Mexicanos (The National Museum of Mexican Railroads) and El Museo del Ferrocarriles de Madrid, Spain (The Railroad Museum of Madrid, Spain)  shows the trip that 434 Spanish children realized on June 1937 in route to  Mexican lands.  

The two museums demonstrate for the first time a photographic archive with the title: “The tracks of Exile - Children of Morelia.” On route to Mexico show 100 black and white images, as well as 50 collectable pieces. Originally from Madrid, Valencia, Extremadura and Andalucia, these children departed from Barcelona railroad station to exile.  

This instant series reproduce the trip that 454 Spanish children realizad on June 7, 1937 to mexican lands, many of them never went back to Spain. Their testimonials allow us today to reconstuct part of a generation’s history, who suffered horrors in the war and abandon their country.


In the collection, medical first aids, suitcases, tools that children used in their tool shops, carpentry and sewing, arm chairs and station benches, among others were found.



To determine these historic context pieces, is fair to mention that Mexico was one of the countries who accepted the largest number of Spanish refugees during the dictatorship of Francisco Franco.  

Having sailed from Madrid, Valencia, Extemadura and Andalucia, these children (163 girls and 291 boys) ages between three years old and sixteen years old, most of them lived in farms, departed from Barcelona railroad station in route to exile, destination was Mexico.


At that time the mexican goverment president was Lázaro Cárdenas and his wife Amalia Solórzano, whom demostrated from the first moment interest for the children who were traveling from “Mexique” ship from Burdos to Puerto de Veracruz. (Veracruz Port.)


Most of these children came from zones that then were occupied by “Los Franquistas” (Franco’s men) in these rural places where the people were hungry and afraid of repression or cities that were being attacked by bombs with no regard for human lives, shortage of food and children were dying every day.


Tension, panic and separation:  

Is not difficult to imagine the climate of tension and panic, people lived in those cities, the starvation due to neglect from the government, desease, having children in danger most of all. Parents came to the conclusión; they had to separate themselves for whom them loved the most: their children…      

The railroad makes a very important part of history, this type of transportation, makes the part of conductor thread between the past life and the future of the children, besides to be the motor of their childhood memories, that takes them to a long trip in separation. 

More than 30 years had to pass for the so called “Morelia’s Children” could return to their country. Sadly to say they no longer recognized their country. There was no one to remember, the landscape dissapeared  from their profound memory and their families gone.

Together with their historic valor, the exposition “Las Vias del Exilio” (The Exile tracks) Morelia’s children, an exile to Mexico, a port, a great emotional componant, and is an homage to whom were called “Morelia’s Children.”  

The photographs form part of Archivo General de la Nacion (General Archive of the Nation), el archivo General de la Guerra Civil Española Salamanca, España (The general Archive of the Spanish Civil War, Salamanca, Spain. El archivo fotográfico del Museo del Ferrocarril de Madrid y La fototeca del Centro de Documentación e Investigación ferroviarias del Centro Nacional. (The photographic Railroad Museum of Madrid and the Center of documentation and investigation), (the photo copy center of documentation and investigation) Ferroviarias del Centro Nacional for the cultural railroad perservation of possessions.



Sebastián Ramírez de Fuenleal
Link del Censo Guía de archivos de la Iglesia España
Espana, tierra de castillos - Spain, land of castles

Sebastián Ramírez de Fuenleal



Nació en Villaescusa de Haro en 1490 y a los dieciséis años ingresó en la Universidad de Valladolid, donde recibió la licenciatura en derecho canónico. Su primer empleo fue como Inquisidor en Sevilla, pasando después a oidor de la Real Chancillería de Granada.

Al fallecer el que había sido nombrado para la diócesis de Santo Domingo, Fray Luís de Figueroa, el Emperador nombró para sucederle a Don Sebastián, designándole como Obispo de Santo Domingo y Presidente de su Audiencia, con instrucciones para que remediara los errores cometidos por Nuño de Guzmán...

Desde el principio se dedicó a reorganizar la tesorería y a crear escuelas y aldeas, especialmente mineras, protegiendo siempre los derechos de los nativos, aunque toleró la trata de esclavos a Cuba para proporcionar mano de obra en la minería y en la producción de azúcar.

El 12 de enero de 1530 fue designado para la segunda Audiencia de Nueva España, en la que nombraron como oidores a Juan de Salmerón, Francisco Ceinos, Vasco de Quiroga y Alonso de Maldonado, aunque no empezaron a ejercer hasta un año después, concretamente el 10 de enero de 1531.

Dedicaron todos sus esfuerzos a mejorar las carreteras, como la que va de Veracruz a la Ciudad de México, fundando en el camino la ciudad de Puebla de los Ángeles, como lugar de descanso para los viajeros.

Importó caballos y ganado vacuno desde Castilla, así como una imprenta y alentó a los franciscanos de México para investigar y documentar las culturas precolombinas de los aztecas, regulando y pacificando el País para la llegada del primer virrey, Antonio de Mendoza en 1535.

Una vez cumplida esta labor, Carlos V, lo llamó a España, presentándolo para el obispado de Tuy, luego para el de León y finalmente para el de Cuenca en 1542, confiándole además la Presidencia de la Real Chancillería de Valladolid, a lo que renunció por residir en su Diócesis.

El 12 de enero de 1547 murió en Valladolid y recibió sepultura en el Convento Dominico de Santa Cruz, de su pueblo natal, Villaescusa de Haro, que había sido fundado por él.

                                     Custodio Rebollo


Link del Censo Guía de archivos de la Iglesia España.


Hola todos!
              Link del Censo Guía de archivos de la Iglesia España. Es un docuemnto en pdf en el que se indica por provicias  el listado de documentos que tienen en cada archivo . Este trabajo fue realizado por la Asociación de Archiveros de la Iglesia de España. Quizás les valga para cualquier trabajo o investigación en la universidad.    Se puede dar aguardar y la verdad es que es bastante bueno para saber algo de lo que hay, aunque sea ya antiguo. 

Jaime Cader



Espana, tierra de castillos - Spain, land of castles



Desde las entrañas de Suchitoto 
HISPAGEN, Asociación de Genealogía Hispana
General en Jefe Carlos Soublette, "El conciliador"
Notificación de la muerte del Libertador

Desde las entrañas de Suchitoto 


A continuacion tienen el enlace para ver el articulo sobre el libro que escribio Lucia Cañas. Ademas les pongo el articulo abajo del enlace. Me conto Lucia que me menciona en su libro ya que yo le di cierta informacion sobre la familia Gallardo de Suchitoto. El otro libro donde tambien me mencionan se titula "Diccionario Boigrafico Medico Hispanoamericano" -tambien por darles informacion relacionada a los Gallardo. Este ultimo libro se publico en Venezuela.

Sinceramente, Jaime Cader 
Desde las entrañas de Suchitoto 
Por: Lorena Baires / Periodista

La pintora salvadoreña Lucía Cañas presentó su libro de relatos sobre la historia de Suchitoto, la que fuera primera capital de El Salvador.

La cálida mano de Alfredo Enrique Cañas se posa sobre la pequeña Lucía Cañas. En un instante, con una suave voz, ambos emprenden un viaje por las calles empedradas de Suchitoto. A través de relatos, el padre sumerge con amor a su hija en aquel mundo lleno de historia y cultura viva.

De aquéllos placenteros viajes, Lucía fue escribiendo una pequeña bitácora que guardó durante años. En plena madurez de su carrera artística, la pintora abre el baúl de sus vivencias y las presenta en un hermoso libro titulado: Suchitoto, sus raíces: Un diálogo con mi padre. 

"Mi padre era bisnieto de españoles y acostumbraban guardar escritos de la época. Cuando yo oía hablar a las personas, sus historias y sus vivencias, me motivaba a escribirlas y guardarlas", explica la salvadoreña.

El delicado trabajo de Cañas inició en 2004, cuando decidió cerrar la galería de arte que por años había mantenido en pleno centro de Suchitoto. Se trataba de un espacio donde los visitantes podían apreciar cientos de fotografías de época, sobre personajes y acontecimientos importantes del pueblo.

"Yo empecé esta tarea después de que varios turistas extranjeros me preguntaron sino tenía un libro que hablara de la historia que contaban las fotografías. Entonces comencé a reescribir los relatos, fue un trabajo delicado, pero con mucho amor", añade.

Con mucha paciencia fue clasificando las viejas imágenes y reconstruyendo la historia de la ciudad, alrededor de su familia. Como lo dice Aída Flores de Escalante, editora del libro, "en ese entorno cobran vida las bellas damas y los elegantes caballeros del siglo XVIII, descendientes de las originarias familias españolas que se asentaron y contribuyeron al desarrollo social y económico de la zona y, de las cuales, desciende la pintora".

La escritora también incluyó los valiosos relatos y recuerdos de su tío, Gilberto Cañas Prieto, quien da color a las páginas contando aquéllos placenteros viajes de jóvenes de San Salvador a Suchitoto.

"Cuándo viajábamos sólo los varones, lo hacíamos en unos carros de alquiler cuyos dueños eran nicaragüenses y tenían su punto en La Garita (esto ocurría allá por 1940)). Eran conocidos como "Los Chochos" (dicho sea de paso, uno de ellos era tuerto) y los benditos automóviles eran de segunda mano, con no menos de unos diez años de uso, capota de lona y estribos entre los guardafangos delanteros y traseros..."

El libro se está promoviendo en el Museo de Arte Moderno de El Salvador (MARTE) y la ciudad de Suchitoto. Pero Lucía quiere llevar estas páginas llenas de recuerdos a la Unión Americana, para que cientos de "suchitotenses puedan tener a la distancia, un pedacito de su tierra". 

El libro adquiere mayor valor por las reproducciones que se han hecho de manuscritos originales, de la fundación de la Iglesia Central y otros documentos de relevancia histórica. Los escritos llevan consigo traducción, por lo estilizado de las grafías.

Los interesados en adquirir estos libros pueden contactarse con la escritora al correo electrónico o al teléfono (503)2298-6318. 


HISPAGEN, Asociación de Genealogía Hispana



Desde HISPAGEN, Asociación de Genealogía Hispana, es un placer comunicar que los ganadores del concurso a las mejores webs genealógicas 2008 han sido: 

1.- Premio al mejor Portal Genealógico, para DIRECTORIO DE GENEALOGÍA HISPANA. 
2.- Premio "Milagro Llorens" a la mejor web individual, para XENEALOXÍAS DO ORTEGAL.
3.- Premio Web de Honor a la mejor web de un socio de Hispagen, para APELLIDOS ITALIANOS-Genealogía Italiana en Español.
4.- Mención Especial al al mejor sitio web de Patrimonio Documental, a PARES-Portal de Archivos Españoles

En nombre de HISPAGEN les reiteramos la enhorabuena por el galardón obtenido, que reconoce la espléndida labor en el desarrollo y mantenimiento de sus sitios web, y que tan interesantes contenidos nos aportan a los genealogistas. 

Also sent by Jaime Cader



Diario El Carabobeño

Artículo publicado el: 10/12/08

Historia y Tradición
General en Jefe Carlos Soublette, "El conciliador"
Eumenes Fuguet Borregales (*)



Carlos Valentín José de la Soledad Antonio Sacramento Soublette Jerez, nació en La Guaira el 15 de diciembre de 1789. Digno oficial de destacada figuración, prestó inestimables servicios durante sesenta años en el proceso emancipador y en la formación republicana del país, con una brillante hoja de servicios, ciudadano ejemplar de comprobada honestidad. Con apenas veinte años, acude al llamado del 19 de Abril y estará en la filas del incipiente ejército republicano como Portaestandarte; al llegar Miranda a Venezuela el 10 de diciembre de 1810, Soublette pasó a ser su Primer Ayudante de Campo en la Campaña de Valencia en 1811, logrando por méritos, los rápidos ascensos de subteniente, teniente, capitán y teniente coronel. Por efectos de la capitulación, conoce las tenebrosas bóvedas del castillo San Felipe de Puerto Cabello hasta agosto de 1813, para incorporarse al Ejército Libertador durante el recorrido de la Campaña Admirable; su vida será un apostolado dedicado a la Independencia. Estará en muchas ocasiones al lado del Libertador, su pariente, otras con José Félix Ribas. En cada oportunidad demostró valor y abnegación que le permitieron la confianza y reconocimiento de sus jefes y subalternos.

Perdida la Segunda República en 1814, se dirige con Bolívar al oriente y luego a Cartagena de Indias; continúa a Haití, donde Bolívar lo asciende a coronel de caballería. Será uno de los doscientos participantes en la Expedición de los Cayos, conocida como de "los ilusos", por haberse conformado por oficiales en su mayoría. A la orden del general escocés Gregorio Mac Gregor participó en la Retirada de los Seiscientos, desplazamiento jalonado de brillantes triunfos, iniciada en Ocumare de la Costa hasta Barcelona, durante los meses de julio, agosto y septiembre de 1816. Durante la Campaña de Guayana en 1817, acompaña al Libertador, quien lo designa el 24 de septiembre de 1817 jefe del Estado Mayor del Ejército; en ese cargo decreta conmemorar el 28 de octubre de cada año el "Día de San Simón", en memoria a la gloria del Padre de la Patria.

Soublette estará en las operaciones en el Apure, durante la Campaña del Centro de 1818. Por su capacidad y experiencia, se distingue en la Campaña de la Nueva Granada, recibiendo la Orden de Boyacá. Durante la Campaña de Carabobo, el general de división Carlos Soublette se encargó de coordinar con Bermúdez las actividades de distracción sobre Caracas; después de Carabobo fue designado Vicepresidente de Venezuela. Durante los años 1822 y 1823 combatió contra las remanentes fuerzas realistas en Coro y Dabajuro. Ocupa cargos públicos entre ellos el de Secretario de Guerra y Marina en marzo de 1825; en 1829 es designado diputado por Carabobo ante el Congreso Constituyente conocido como "Admirable". De nuevo es designado en enero de 1830 Secretario de Guerra y Marina, en dicho cargo intercede ante Páez, para que autorice en septiembre de 1832 el regreso desde Curazao del Gral. Urdaneta, por estar padeciendo crítica situación económica. En 1834 se postuló candidato a la presidencia de la República, proceso ganado por el ilustre doctor Vargas; culminando ese año fue designado Embajador Extraordinario y Ministro Plenipotenciario ante Inglaterra y España para lograr el reconocimiento de la República; tiempo que aprovechó con su cuñado el general O'Leary para visitar en La Coruña al viejo general realista Pablo Morillo, quien le hará entrega de importante material capturado en la campaña independentista y que sirvió de gran utilidad para preparar las famosas "Memorias de O'Leary". Por efecto de la Revolución de la Reforma en julio de 1835, que intentara derrocar a Vargas, Soublette debió regresar a Venezuela.

En sus delicadas funciones gubernamentales siempre actuó apegado a los principios y valores éticos, a la ley y al respeto de los derechos ciudadanos; su mayor virtud fue su "política conciliadora" en momentos difíciles de la nación; nunca sus manos se mancharon con el peculado. Entregó el poder con menos recursos económicos que cuando entró. Incorporado en 1848 como jefe del estado mayor del ejército de Páez, fueron derrotados en Los Araguatos el 12 de marzo de 1848; Soublette se dirige hacia Santa Marta hasta 1858, regresando al país con la designación de jefe de operaciones de Caracas. El viejo y sobrio soldado es designado Senador por Caracas en 1860. El presidente Pedro Gual lo designa en 1861 Secretario de Gobierno. El mariscal Falcón lo asciende en agosto de 1863 a general en jefe; en 1868 es Secretario de Relaciones Exteriores. A Soublette le criticaban su apoyo a Páez; en las postrimerías de su vida exclamaba: "Después de que yo muera, se me hará justicia". El veterano soldado fallece en Caracas el 11 de febrero de 1870; sus restos ingresaron al Panteón Nacional el 7 de febrero de 1970. Al destacar las cualidades de Sucre, Bolívar dijo: "Posee los conocimientos de Soublette".

(*) Gral. de Bgda (Ej.)

Artículo enviado desde la página web del Diario El Carabobeño
Sent by Roberto Pérez Guadarrama



Artículo publicado el: 17/12/08
Diario El Carabobeño

Historia y Tradición

Notificación de la muerte del Libertador

Eumenes Fuguet Borregales (*)



l 8 de mayo de 1830 el Libertador se dirige desde Bogotá hacia Cartagena, para concluir su último desplazamiento terrenal en Santa Marta, adonde llega el 1ro de diciembre, para recibir las gentiles atenciones del español Joaquín de Mier y Benítez, dueño del buque "Manuel" que lo trasladó desde Barranquilla hasta Santa Marta, alojándolo el 1ro de diciembre en la Casa de la Aduana y luego el 6 de diciembre en San Pedro Alejandrino, hacienda-ingenio. El día 10, en horas de la noche, con cierta lucidez, nuestro agobiado Libertador dicta su testamento y la Última Proclama. El 17 de diciembre, a la una y siete minutos de la tarde exhala su último aliento, elevándose a la posteridad cual "Caballero Andante de la historia"; la dimensión de su obra y de su pensamiento se hace doctrina y desde entonces no tendrá fronteras, se hará universal y cada vez más vigente. A través de su gloriosa vida, en sus acciones y escritos, Bolívar manifestaba una constante que el hombre superior se distingue por el valor para arrostrar el peligro, la inteligencia para vencer, el amor a la Patria y el repudio a la tiranía. Cuántos caminos cuántos senderos cuántos horizontes nos ofrece la vida de nuestro gran paisano, a quien Cecilio Acosta llegara a resumir en diez palabras: "La cabeza de los milagros, la lengua de las maravillas". La obediencia y la disciplina eran otros de los principales pilares de su pensamiento y acción; de su enseñanza y de sus actos de comando. Predicaba "tener una conducta recta y dejar al tiempo hacer prodigios". En otra oportunidad sostenía: "Mi país se ha libertado porque ha habido unidad y obediencia, no siempre voluntarias, pero siempre constantes". Tenía el don de la persuasión y sabía inspirar confianza a los demás; a esas cualidades se deben en gran parte los asombrosos triunfos que obtuvo en circunstancias tan difíciles, que otro hombre sin esas dotes y sin su temple de alma se habría desalentado; unos capitanes salían a conquistar, en cambio Bolívar atravesaba fronteras para llevar el pan de la libertad y nunca los negros pendones de la tiranía ni de la esclavitud; abandonando todo por ser útil a la América, nos dejó como una orden permanente: "El que lo abandona todo por ser útil a su país no pierde nada y gana todo cuanto le consagra". Su preocupación por la problemática educativa fue una constante, como uno de sus grandes frutos, que en su espíritu cultivara don Simón Rodríguez y al indicarnos en el Congreso de Angostura que "Moral y Luces son nuestras primeras necesidades". El más grande de los venezolanos contaba cuarenta y siete años, pesaba a la hora de su muerte veintisiete kilogramos, al momento de enterrarlo hubo que ponerle una camisa prestada del ilustre general José Laurencio Silva; la tumba la facilitó la familia Díaz Granados en la Catedral de Santa Marta, frente al altar de San José; el sencillo féretro obra del carpintero Diego Soto, elaborado con seis tablas y quinientos clavos; la lápida colocada meses después, donada por el capitán Joaquín Márquez. Juan Francisco Martín, prefecto de Cartagena de Indias, "La Heroica", emitió sentido documento para dar a conocer la infausta noticia.


Penetrado del más acerbo dolor, lleno hoy el más triste deber, el "Padre de la Patria" ya no existe... ¡Las calamidades públicas y la horrible ingratitud de sus enemigos, le han conducido al sepulcro el 17 del corriente. Él ha muerto víctima de su consagración a la Patria; un fin prematuro ha sido el premio de sus heroicos sacrificios, y las lágrimas de sus fieles amigos y el tardío arrepentimiento de sus gratuitos enemigos no podrían ya volver a la vida, al que tantas veces la dio a Colombia. La lápida que cubre sus restos venerables lo separa para siempre de nosotros, en los momentos que el grito nacional le vindicaba, llamándolo como la única esperanza de la Patria. La muerte nos lo arrebata y el cielo ha recibido ya al benefactor de un mundo ¡CIUDADANOS! El Libertador os ha consagrado hasta los últimos instantes de su preciosa existencia, oíd su voz y respetemos con santo recogimiento sus postreros deseos que deben ser una ley sagrada para nosotros y desgraciados si llegamos a violarla: la ruina nacional sería el más infalible resultado y Colombia terminaría su existencia con la de su ilustre fundador.

CIUDADANOS: El Libertador, al dejarnos para siempre, nos encarga que nos unamos, que trabajemos todos por el bien inestimable de la unión y obedezcamos al actual gobierno para libertarnos de la anarquía. Correspondamos pues a su encargo, marchemos unidos y juremos sobre su tumba, ser fieles a los deseos que le inspiraron sus últimos votos por la felicidad de la Patria; así honraremos su memoria y satisfaremos una inmensa deuda de gratitud.

El escritor y pensador uruguayo José Enrique Rodó nos sintetiza la vida y obra del Libertador de seis naciones: "Grande en el pensamiento, grande en la acción, grande en la gloria, grande en el infortunio, grande para magnificar la parte impura que cabe en el alma de los grandes, y grande para sobrellevar en el abandono y en la muerte la trágica expiación de la grandeza.

(*) Gral. de bgda (Ej.)

Artículo enviado desde la página web del Diario El Carabobeño
Sent by Roberto Pérez Guadarrama



Bureau of Land Management
General land Office Records
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Welcome to the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), General Land Office (GLO) Records Automation web site. We provide live access to Federal land conveyance records for the Public Land States. We also provide image access to more than three million Federal land title records for Eastern Public Land States, issued between 1820 and 1908. Currently, we are adding images of Military Land Warrants. These land patents were issued to individuals as a reward for their military service. Images related to survey plats and field notes, dating back to 1810, are added to the site state-by-state as each state's documents are completed. Due to organization of documents in the GLO collection, this site does not currently contain every Federal title record issued for the Public Land States. 
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This site offers researchers a source of information on the initial transfer of land titles from the Federal government to individuals. In addition to verifying title transfer, this information will allow the researcher to associate an individual (Patentee, Assignee, Warrantee, Widow, or Heir) with a specific location (Legal Land Description) and time (Issue Date). For the beginner genealogist, we offer these additional resources.
Obtain certified copies of land patents 
With our on-line shopping cart, users may request certified copies of land patents electronically or through the mail. To search for land patents, click on Search Land Patents on the menu near the top of the page. A series of pages will guide you through viewing and ordering land patents.    
Federal Survey Plats and Field Notes 
Survey plats, a recent addition to this web site, were the official survey documentation used when land title was transferred (via a land patent) from the Federal government to individuals. The survey plats are the graphic drawing of the boundaries created by each survey and contain the official acreage used in the legal description of the public lands. Plats are critical historic documents that can help researchers locate the land referenced in a land patent's legal land description (i.e. Meridian, Township, Range, and Section/Block).
New! Field notes are now being added to the web site. Field notes describe the survey performed by the surveyors and in some instances include the names of settlers living in the area surveyed, and a variety of descriptions of land information found at the time of survey.
For more information about surveys, plats, and field notes, start with our overview.



Gooble Expands News Archive by 20 Million Historical Pages
Gulf Coast State Histories Slated for Online Access
25,000 Historical Titles Now Free Online
Family Search makes more records available online




Gooble Expands News Archive by 20 Million Historical Pages
Wednesday, December 03, 2008
Google Expands News Archive By 20 Million Historical Pages Posted by Diane
Google has enhanced its historical newspaper initiative by buying 20 million digitized historical newspaper pages from Canadian company PaperofRecord. The purchase price wasn't available.

The pages—some dating back to the 1700s—will be part of the Google News Archive Search, launched in early September “to make more old newspapers accessible and searchable online.”

My search came up with a few interesting early-1900s stories on Haddads (none related, that I know of) in newspapers and books. I found the timeline search more useful—it was easier to pick out results from the era of interest.

PaperofRecord has digitized newspapers from Canada, the United States, Mexico and Europe.

According to the Ottawa Business Journal, the purchase—the end of a two-year agreement between the companies—will "essentially shut down" PaperofRecord. Its troubles started when companies such as ProQuest began paying newspapers to digitize pages—the opposite of what PaperofRecord was doing.

In another month or so, PaperofRecord's online database will redirect to Google.


Gulf Coast State Histories Slated for Online Access

Houston Public Library Joins FamilySearch in Digitization Effort
SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH—Thousands of publications that capture the diverse histories of Gulf Coast states will be accessible for free online. FamilySearch and the Houston Public Library announced a joint project today to digitally preserve and publish the library’s vast collection of county and local histories, registers of individuals, directories of Texas Rangers, church histories, and biographical dictionaries. The digital records will be available for free online at and 
“Houston Public Library has one of the top 10 genealogy libraries in the nation and a very strong Gulf Coast and international collection,” said Susan D. Kaufman, manager, Houston Public Library’s Clayton Library Center for Genealogical Research. “Visitors come from all over the country to visit the library. Researchers will benefit from the convenience of online access to the collection targeted under the joint venture with FamilySearch,” added Kaufman.  
In 2007, FamilySearch announced its plans to create the largest and most comprehensive collection of free city and county histories online. Over 23,000 digital publications have been made available online since then. The addition of Houston Public Library and its collection furthers that goal.
Under the agreement, FamilySearch will digitally preserve thousands of Houston Public Library’s historic publications collection and provide free access to the images online. The targeted publications range in date from 1795 to 1923.  
The new digital collections published online will have “every word” search capability, which allows users to search by name, location, date, or other fields across the collection. The search results are then linked to high quality digital images of the original publication. Users will also be able to just browse or read the publications as digital books online if they prefer.  
The digitization efforts have already begun, and publications are now viewable online. Texas records are the first publications targeted by the initiative, followed by other Gulf Coast states. The project will take up to five years to complete. 
Digital publications will be noted and hyperlinked in the Family History Library Catalog at as they are digitized. The growing collection can be accessed currently at (go to Search Records, and then Historical Books).
“We are honored to be part of such an important and beneficial initiative with a world leader like FamilySearch,” said Kaufman. “The digitization and online publication of Houston Public Library’s historic collections will help increase the inquisitiveness of library patrons and create a heightened sense of awareness of the library’s resources—which then brings customers back more often with more research questions. It’s a win-win for everyone,” Kaufman added. 
FamilySearch is providing the computers, scanners, and camera operators required to complete the project. FamilySearch previously announced projects with Allen County Public Library in Fort Wayne, Indiana, Brigham Young University Harold B. Lee Library, and FamilySearch’s own Family History Library in Salt Lake City. 
The Houston Public Library’s Clayton Library Center for Genealogical Research is also a FamilySearch Affiliate Library. That means local patrons have access to millions of microfilms from FamilySearch’s vast genealogical collection in Salt Lake City, Utah. Patrons can order research material from FamilySearch through the library and use the library’s film readers and copiers to further their genealogical efforts.
FamilySearch International is the largest genealogy organization in the world. Millions of people use FamilySearch records, resources, and services to learn more about their family history. To help in this great pursuit, FamilySearch has been actively gathering, preserving, and sharing genealogical records worldwide for over 100 years. FamilySearch is a nonprofit organization sponsored by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Patrons may access FamilySearch services and resources free online at or through over 4,500 family history centers in 70 countries, including the main Family History Library in Salt Lake City, Utah.
Sandra Fernandez
Public Relations Manager
Houston Public Library
Sent by Paul Nauta
FamilySearch Public Affairs Manager
24 November 2008




25,000 Historical Titles Now Free Online
FamilySearch Digital Preservation Initiative Hits a Milestone

Salt Lake City, Utah—FamilySearch International reached a milestone today with the digitization of its 25,000th publication online. It began the initiative in 2007 and is ramping up to do even more—and faster. The effort targets published family, society, county, and town histories, as well as numerous other historical publications that are digitally preserved and made accessible for free online. The digital publications can be searched at (Go to, then click Search Records, then click Historical Books).
The 25,000th digitized publication was A History of Lewis County, in the State of New York, from the Beginning of Its Settlement to the Present Time by Franklin B. Hough. The book was published in 1860. The lengths of titles digitized to date vary in length, but the average is about 350 pages. There are even publications in Spanish, German, French, and Russian.
FamilySearch has nearly a million publications in its famous Family History Library in Salt Lake City, Utah, and there are millions of similar publications elsewhere in the United States. “The problem with the collection [of out-of-print titles] is limited access,” said Ransom Love, FamilySearch senior vice president of Strategic Relations. “To view the publications, patrons have to travel to Salt Lake City or one of FamilySearch’s affiliate libraries. If you are lucky, you might be able to order a microfilm copy, but then you have to wait for it to arrive at your local family history center. And there’s the inconvenience of having to read it on a film reader,” added Love.
FamilySearch aims to change all of that. Working with volunteers and select affiliate libraries, it plans to create the largest digital collection of published histories on the Web. It is targeting a wide range of historical publications—for example, users might be pleasantly surprised to find digital copies of Hawaii Sugar Planters Association Filipino Laborer files (1909-1949), medieval family history resource titles, and oral history abstracts (mostly from Hawaii), and numerous gazetteers.
“These are publications that were usually limited in the number originally printed and therefore only accessible in a few libraries or special collections worldwide. Yet there can be some great information of genealogical significance in the publications that only a few people would have access to prior to now,” said Love.
Through its Records Access Program, FamilySearch is digitally preserving a copy of the publications and making them available online for the masses. Once digitized, the collections have "every word" search capability, which allows users to search by name, location, date, or other fields across the collection. The search results are then linked to high quality digital images of the original publication.
FamilySearch is not stopping with its own collection either. Over the past year, it announced that it is also helping to digitize and publish collections from the Brigham Young University Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University—Hawaii Joseph F. Smith Library, Allen County Public Library (ACPL) in Fort Wayne, Indiana, Houston Public Library, in Houston, Texas, and Mid-Continent Public Library Midwest Genealogy Center in Independence, Missouri. When all is said and done, there will be over a million publications in the digital collection online. It will be the largest free resource of its kind.
FamilySearch International is the largest genealogy organization in the world. Millions of people use FamilySearch records, resources, and services to learn more about their family history. To help in this great pursuit, FamilySearch has been actively gathering, preserving, and sharing genealogical records worldwide for over 100 years. FamilySearch is a nonprofit organization sponsored by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Patrons may access FamilySearch services and resources free online at or through over 4,500 family history centers in 70 countries, including the main Family History Library in Salt Lake City, Utah.
Sent by Paul Nauta



Family Search makes more records available online


The following records were added to the FamilySearch Record Search pilot. 
They can be searched for free at

Collection Name

Indexed Records

Digital Images


1870 US Census



Four new indexed states added (GA, KS, NC, and TX)

Illinois Cook County Marriages



Currently includes years from 1900 to 1920.

Ohio, Diocese of Toledo, Catholic Parish Records 1796 to 2004



Searchable digital images only.

Ohio Tax Records 1816 to 1838



Includes records from Columbiana, Guernsey, Harrison, and Jefferson Counties

Paul Nauta, Manager, FamilySearch Public Affairs
4 December 2008  


  FamilySearch added over 15 million new indexed records to its Record Search pilot—all from the 1850 and 1870 U.S. Censuses. The records are linked to the digital images of the originals. The new records can be searched for free at (Click Search Records, then Record Search pilot).  

Collection Name

Indexed Records


1870 United States Census


Added 7 new indexed states (KY, MN, MO, NY, TN, VA, and WV)

1850 United States Census (Population)


Added 3 new indexed states (AL, IN, and MO)

1850 Unite