Somos Primos

March, 2008
Vol. 9,  No. 3
 99th online issue

Editor: Mimi Lozano ©2000-8

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research



For more on Rick Leal and the history of his traveling 
Legacy of Valor display click.




Content Areas
United States 
National Issues
Action Item
Bilingual Education

Anti-Spanish Legends
Military/Law Enforcement
Patriots American Revolution


Orange County,CA  
Los Angeles,CA

Northwestern US
Southwestern US 

East of Mississippi

East Coast


Family History

Jan 26:  
Apr  2
May 2
Aug 2


  Letters to the Editor : 

Ms. Lozano,
Gracias for your prompt response.  My letter to you was a letter of introduction of myself.  I am Raul Garza a 77 year old Mexican-American who has devoted his life to history.  I am considered a local historian about the history  of our people in Kingsville, Texas.  Kingsville is Kineno (King Ranch) Country.  The headquarters are in this town. 
I am a retired middle school principal, a retired Case Worker with our local Sr. Citizens' Center, and a retired Naval Reservist with about 30 years service and 3 recalls.  In my spare time I research history (WWII) and  write.  I have self-published three books. The most controversial one is I CAN FORGIVE, BUT I CANNOT FORGET, a book about a "Meskin" growing up in a very descriminatory environment.  Out of print, but I continue to make copy for people who want one.
I had heard about SOMOS PRIMOS from friends in San Quilmas (San Antonio, Tx).  A few days ago I came upon it.  A gentlemen former Marine Sntiago had just completed the stories of the 43 MoH awardees.  I was interested in getting the list. I knew SGT. Roy Benavidez (NAM VET) personally.
I just wanted to thank you for such an awesome publication. You know I just live 40 miles south of Corpus Christi, but they do not share much with rural communities.
Anyhow, rather than become redundant, I just want to tell you that an incident just happened here relative to the "sign of the cross" on Ash Wednesday, which may or may not becme national news. If you would like to have the story I will send whatever information I have on it.
One last thing, I call myself a Mexican-American because my roots are from Mexico.  I feel that Hispanic only identifies with a a large group of like people whose ethnicity, mores, customs, and traditions may be similar to mine, but not like mine.
Gracias Mil,
Raul Garza

Ms. Lozano,

Thank you for all the information in the website.

I want to clear one point, though. San Juan, Puerto Rico is the oldest American (US) city.
It was founded in 1506  by Juan Ponce de León of fountain of youth legend, and not
St. Augustine, Florida. It is also the second oldest European-established city in the Americas.

Ponce de León was also the first Governor of Puerto Rico, and therefore, the first Governor of
any American (US) Territory or State.

Gracias, César E. Martínez
CEO, AccuComp Enterprises, Inc.
Phone: 617 984-5732
Fax: 617 531-2078

Hi Mimi, 
By now you have probably received this correction from half of your readers.  But, just in case--the tiger and piglet story is highly inaccurate and, like many urban legends, has been circulating on the internet in several variants for some time now.  I myself received it from two different friends over a year ago.  See the attached url for complete information on this hoax.  You will have to cut and paste to get it to open.

Sorry, it's a cute story, but not scholarship.
Keep up the good work, tu prima, Ferol

QUESTION sent by Luis F. Ramirez:  

What Mexican posed naked to create what today is known as Hollywood's  "Oscar"  statue? Click
 Somos Primos Staff:   
Mimi Lozano, Editor

Mercy Bautista Olvera
Bill Carmena
Lila Guzman
Granville Hough
John Inclan
Galal Kernahan
J.V. Martinez
Armando Montes
Dorinda Moreno
Rafael Ojeda
Michael Perez
Ángel Custodio Rebollo
Tony Santiago
John P. Schmal
Howard Shorr 
Ted Vincent

Contributors March issue:  
Rene Aguilera, 
Dan Arellano 
Elaine Ayala 
Mercy Bautista-Olvera 
Eliud Bonilla y González 
Jaime Cader
Eric Cardona
Bill Carmena 
Alberto Casas
Joe Castillo 
NellieCaudillo Kaniski
Bonnie Chapa
Robin Collins
Willie Davila
Sharis Delgado
Johanna De Soto 
Ana Figueroa 
John W. Flores
Amparo Garcia-Crow
Tony Garcia
Wanda Daisy Garcia 
Raul Garza 
Mary Gehman 
Jill Goldstein
Jaime Gómez-González, M.D., 
Rafael Jesús González
Shannon Grimes 
Dahlia Guajardo Palacios 
George F. Haskins 
Elsa Herbeck
Lorraine Hernandez
Granville W. Hough 
Martha Ibañez Zervoudakis
John Inclan
Larry Kirkpatrick 
Rick Leal
Euralis Lopez,
Sandra Loya
Micheal Lozano
Pat Lozano
Victor Mancilla 
Juan Marinez 
César E. Martínez
Debbie Martinez
Bobby McDonald, 
Dorinda Moreno
Dr. Carlos Munoz, Jr. 

Miguel Ángel Muñoz Borrego 
Victor Nelson 
Rafael Ojeda
Victor Payan
Jose M. Pena 
Sandra Pena Sarmiento 
Maclovio Perez
Luis F. Ramirez
Rudy A.Ramirez
Ángel Custodio Rebollo. 
Armando Rendon, Ph.D
Crispin Rendon
José León Robles De La Torre
Christina Rodiguez
Ricardo Rodriguez
Lorri Ruiz Frain 
Samuel Sanchez
Tony Santiago
John P. Schmal
Frank Sifuentes
Wilson Soto Jr. 
Barry Starr 
Elizabeth Szekeresh
Dorina Thomas
Robert Thonhoff 
Margarita B. Velez 
Ted Vincent
Jennifer C. Vo 
Dean Whinery B. 
Dweylan Wilson
Greg Zito 




SHHAR Board:  Bea Armenta Dever, Gloria Cortinas Oliver, Mimi Lozano Holtzman, Pat Lozano, Yolanda Magdaleno, Henry Marquez, Michael Perez, Crispin Rendon, Viola Rodriguez Sadler, John P. Schmal. 



From the Barrio to Washington, An Educator's Journey
Close Encounters with Dr. Hector P. Garcia, Part III 
21-year-old Marine Sgt. Alfredo Gonzalez of Edinburg, Texas
Article 1: 
February 1999 Marine's Sacrifice in the Battle of Hue  
Article 2: October 25, 2002 John W. Flores
Article 3: June 1, 2006 When the River Dreams
Article 4: December 7, 2007 Mother of Hero Awaits Ceremony
A Legacy of Service; Mexican-American Defenders of California


From the Barrio to Washington, An Educator’s Journey  


    Dr. Armando Rodriguez will speak about his life story as told in

From the Barrio to Washington, An Educator’s Journey


Salute to Dr. Armando Rodriguez

Thursday, March 27, 5:30 to 7:30pm  
Museo Alameda, San Antonio , TX

 Sponsored by the  
Museo Alameda/Smithsonian  
Hispanic Association of Colleges & Universities (HACU)  
La Prensa, San Antonio  
University of New Mexico Press  

““I’m now an old man and can look back on a lifetime of work and service,” writes Armando Rodriguez in From the Barrio to Washington – An Educator’s Journey.  “No stint was more difficult than trying to hold down all the wildly varying aspects of being president of a community college.  And I don’t think anything was more satisfying.”

The octogenarian’s memoir dedicates a chapter to his six-year tenure (from 1973 to 1978) as president of East Los Angeles College , which is now a HACU-member Hispanic-Serving Institution.  Among the 10,000 people who attended his presidential inauguration ceremony was César Chávez.  “It was a splendid day for the kid from Barrio Logan, and I was off and running,” according to Rodriguez, who was born in Mexico but grew up in Logan Heights area of San Diego .  “There would be good days and bad days, and the bad ones would sting.”

As the first Hispanic president of the college – one of many such “firsts” in a long and distinguished career -- Rodriguez recalls that some people expected him to fail.  Despite the challenges, he helped increase enrollment more than 40 percent, from 14,000 to 20,000.  “Education, more than anything else, is the key to opening doors beyond the barrio.  I learned that from my own experience, and I was glad to help broaden the opportunities for more kids,” he writes.

When his family migrated to southern California in the 1920s, Rodriguez spoke no English. He was dark-skinned and nicknamed “Shadow” by other kids. When Rodriguez was just old enough, he started school in a district that had few Spanish-speaking teachers. Luckily, Rodriguez’s parents emphasized the importance of education and despite language barriers and his struggle to acculturate, young Armando persisted.

Decades later, still conscious of the challenges faced by English-language learners, he would dedicate his book to Randolph Hearst and the William R. Hearst Foundation for their groundbreaking collaboration with Rodriguez on the issue of bilingual education in the United States .

Rodriguez rose through the U.S. educational system to become the first Hispanic principal of a junior and senior high school in San Diego . He became only the second Latino to be a college president in California and served in the administrations of four U.S. presidents. His list of honors and accomplishments is long and impressive: Rodriguez received two honorary doctorates of letters, served as the nation’s first director of the Office for Spanish Speaking American Affairs and as U.S. Assistant Commissioner of Education.”  — The Voice of Hispanic Higher Education, HACU, February 2008.

Armando Rodriguez lives in El Cajon, California, with his wife of fifty-nine years, Beatriz.  The book was edited by Bettie Baca, a former government executive, and is a community activist and editor in the public and private sectors and Keith Taylor, a retired U.S. Navy officer and a long time columnist for The Navy Times.  Lionel Van Deerlin, who wrote the foreword, is a former U.S. Congressman from San Diego , California , and is professor emeritus of journalism at San Diego State University and a columnist for The San Diego Union-Tribune.

Dr. Armando Rodriguez will be speaking at the following events in March.  All events listed are free and open to the public.

§  Tuesday, March 11, 12-1:30pm:  Talk and signing at the La Mesa Lion’s Club, La Mesa Community Center , 4975 Me

§  Saturday, March 22:  Address at Commemoration of the 1968 LA Walkouts Conference, California State University at Long Beach .  For more information, please contact Armando Vasquez-Ramos, 


Thursday, March 27


Salute to Dr. Rodriguez 

Sponsored by the 
Museo Alameda/Smithsonian in partnership 
with HACU, La Prensa and UNM Press,
101 S. Santa Rosa, San Antonio , TX. 
For more information, 210-299-

From the Barrio to Washington: An Educator’s Journey
  is available at bookstores or directly from the University of New Mexico Press . To order, please call 800-249-7737 or visit  ISBN: 978-0-8263-4381-9


Part III
by Wanda Daisy Garcia


No series of stories about Dr. Hector Garcia would be complete without mention of Willie Davila. Willie Davila was always at my father’s side from the beginning during the early years of the American G.I. Forum until the end when my Papa passed in July 1996. Willie and a select few were my Papa’s compadres. They were constantly at his side whether playing dominos, going on a special mission for Dr, Hector or holding vigil over my father when he was in the hospital. I will always be indebted to Willie because he and Sonny Saavedra saved Papa from the Texas Rangers by hiding him in the trunk of his car. Thank goodness that La Virgen de Guadalupe was there to protect all of them, or none of us would be writing this story today. I will always marvel at their loyalty, courage and faith in my father.

In 1951, Dr. Hector said, ‘We will get our people in the schools’; they will learn the meanings and the privileges of democracy. They will vote and have their say, and then maybe someday they will emerge from their oppression and become not second - class, but first class citizens of this country. Willie says in this article that Dr. Hector was willing to pay the price. However, his compadres were also willing to sacrifice so that future generations of Mexican Americans could walk as equals with their Anglo brethren.

In 2008, Mexican Americans are finally living Dr. Hector’s dream. If my father were here, he would say to his compadres, " Que dios los bendiga."


Written by El Coyote

What can I say about Dr. Hector P. Garcia that has not been said before?  Or where do I start my lifetime encounter with this GIANT LEADER who influenced my life, my family, and my involvement in veteran and civil rights for our families and us.  I will be 82 years old next year so I will attempt to rewind my memory back to 1948 when the GI Forum was formed and organized under his leadership.

The doctor's battle cry was always "JUSTICE FOR MY PEOPLE" and he was willing to pay the price of self-sacrifice to make sure that this goal was achieved.  He never asked for anything for himself or his family.  His heart was always with helping the poor, the underdog, and the oppressed and the voiceless Mexicano who was treated worse than a second-class citizen.  There was never a case of civil rights or injustice that he did not address or make better.  HE ALWAYS FOUND TIME TO ADDRESS EVEN THE MOST MINUTE AND INSIGNIFCANT COMPLAINT.  At the same time he never neglected his practice as a medical doctor.  At times he ended taking care of patients without getting paid, and his main concern and priority was the welfare of all his patients.  Needless to say, he had the support and help of the rest of his brothers and sisters, in particularly Dr. Cleo. Again, he could have become a millionaire doctor, but he chose to be a civil rights and veterans advocate.

There were times when the doctor would round up a few of us for a special mission or project.  You could refer to us or call us his inner circle friends, his compadres, or his secret GI Forum squad.  Whatever the case, we would be ready at a moment's notice to act on whatever issue or project he would have at hand in Corpus Christi or any other little town in Texas, such as Sinton, Taft, Rockport, Odem, Robstown, etc.

In these places, Hispanics/Chicanos/Mexican-Americans were being openly discriminated against without having access to any system of justice.  Dr. Hector constantly encouraged the formation of new GI Forum chapters, registering to vote, and constantly encouraged many local Hispanics to run for political offices at the local, state, and national level.  Among those who were impacted by Dr. Hector's influence were former State Senator Carlos Truan, Congressman Solomon Ortiz, etc.  Needless to say, we were a well-organized and trained group, and we never questioned any of the doctor's decisions or orders.  After all, he was the "good doctor...."

A sad footnote that stands out in my mind is the countless Hispanic or Chicano politicians whom he helped and then forgot him when he was bedridden toward the end of his life.  Although we continue to hear a lot of talk and rhetoric on how grateful some of them were, I personally saw and witnessed many politicians who not only forgot the "good doctor" but also deliberately refused to acknowledge that he was sick.  I personally confronted some of these politicians and reminded them of the role the doctor had played in their careers.  Anyway, since I was and am one of his loyal friends, I have held and will continue to hold these politicians accountable for their poor memories or political ingratitude.

Finally, I will share an incident that I will call the "TAMALE INCIDENT," WHICH PROVED TO ALL of us that the doctor was a good politician and strategist and had a sense of humor.  That is, after a local businessman denied the use of his hall for a GI Forum function, the doctor had one of us bring a bucket full of tamales.  Our member crawled into the forbidden hall and started selling tamales to the affluent middle class and rich guests who were there.  Needless to say, our member was finally ushered out of there. And told he could not sell tamales in the hall.  Of course, the doctor was laughing his heart out and merely said, "I DON'T GET MAD, I JUST GET EVEN..."

Thanks to John W. Flores for sending a 4 articles that chronicle the history of an on-going effort to bring proper recognition to 21-year-old Marine Sgt. Alfredo Gonzalez of Edinburg, Texas.  These articles reveal that after 10 years, and a published book, the task is not complete. 
Article 1:
February 1999 Marine's Sacrifice in the Battle of Hue  
Article 2: October 25, 2002  Commentary section
Article 3:
June 1, 2006  When the River Dreams
Article 4: December 7, 2007  Mother of Hero Awaits Ceremony

Article 1: February 1999

Sergeant Alfredo "Freddy" Gonzalez
By John W. Flores

Sergeant Alfredo "Freddy" Gonzalez: Marine's Sacrifice in the Battle of Hue

With the 1996 commissioning of the guided-missile destroyer USS Alfredo Gonzalez, a Marine Medal of Honor recipient's legacy lives on. 

Twelve enemy soldiers, armed with B-40 rocket-propelled grenades, moved stealthily through the underbrush that lined the edge of the schoolyard of the Jeanne d'Arc High School and Church complex, located on the edge of Hue City. They took cover as a 38-man U.S. Marine force approached their position across an open field on the opposite side of the church. A violent and bloody showdown was imminent.

It was the morning of February 4, 1968, five days after the NVA and VC had overrun Hue, the old Imperial capital of Vietnam, at the beginning of their Tet Offensive. The Marines were from the 3rd Platoon, Alpha Company, 1st Battalion, 1st Marine Regiment (1/1), commanded by Sergeant Alfredo "Freddy" Gonzalez, a 21-year-old Marine from Edinburg, Texas. He had taken charge several days earlier after the lieutenant who normally commanded the platoon had been wounded and evacuated.

Gonzalez had enlisted in the Marines three years earlier, in May 1965, just after graduating from high school. He had always wanted to be a Marine from the time he was a small boy, according to his mother, Dolia Gonzalez, who still lives in Edinburg. Often, while watching John Wayne war movies at the town theater on Saturday afternoons, he would nudge his mother, cup his hand to her ear and whisper, "Someday I'm going to be a Marine just like that."

After boot camp, Gonzalez served a one-year tour in Vietnam in 1966-67. "Freddy had just completed one tour of duty, and he'd made it back home," recalled J.J. Avila, a close friend of Gonzalez's who also served as a Marine in Vietnam. "He was on leave, and I remember he called me over to his house and said he had a serious dilemma. He had just gotten word that a platoon of men he had served with in Vietnam had been blown away in an ambush." Gonzalez told Avila he believed that he could have kept the men alive had he been at the scene. "And he had reason to be so confident," said Avila. "He saved many men through his coolness under fire, a calculating, rapid-fire courage, and a big-brother's concern for his men."

Avila continued: "I told Freddy, `Do not go back. You've done your duty.' He said he did not want to go back. He'd seen enough of the war, and he wanted to be close to home to take care of his mother. But the ambush really hit him hard. Finally, I knew it was no use. He'd made his mind up, and there was no changing it. I told him he'd already done his duty, but if he had to go back, just be careful. Just come back home."

When Gonzalez returned to Vietnam he was assigned to Alpha Company, 1/1. In January 1968 the men had just come off duty along the DMZ at Con Thien and had moved south to the provincial capital at Quang Tri. "I had no other officers with me," recalled retired Marine Colonel Gordon Batcheller, who--then a captain--had taken command of Alpha Company on Christmas Day 1967. "They were all gone. Sergeant Gonzalez was commander of the 3rd Platoon. We were ordered as part of a large-scale movement down to Phu Bai, outside of Hue, the night before the Tet Offensive started on January 30. We were alerted we would be a reaction force, then I got blown away with an automatic weapon of some kind going into Hue and was medevaced out."

Lieutenant (now Maj. Gen.) Ray Smith, who took command of Alpha Company after Batcheller was wounded, was impressed with platoon leader Gonzalez. "The thing that probably is most surprising and maybe says a lot about him is that I thought of Sergeant Gonzalez as an old veteran," said Smith. "At the time, I mean, I remember thinking of Sergeant Gonzalez as an old-timer, a guy who had been around a while. I was just 21, and as it turned out he was four or five months younger than me. I remember him as a real mature, grown-up sergeant type of a guy, as opposed to the 21-year-old that he was. He was a real quiet person, but he always had a smile on his face. He was a little restrained in his emotions, but that was probably because he was truly one of the `grown-ups' in our organization."

"I primarily knew him on a personal basis, because in November and December 1967 in Quang Tri we had an officer and staff NCO card game," continued Smith. "We would gather in the company commander's bunker and play penny ante poker. You had to be an officer or a staff NCO to be involved in that card game, but we made an exception for Gonzalez because he was to us a grown-up among those kids. Like a lot of people that you remember for their actions, my memory of him is as a big muscular guy, when in fact I know he wasn't a big muscular guy. He was actually fairly small. I'm 6-feet-2-inches tall and 218 pounds. Recently a friend sent me a photo of Sergeant Gonzalez and I standing beside each other. I couldn't believe I was that much bigger than him. It was just the opposite in my memory. He was the big one."

During the advance into Hue City, Gonzalez was wounded twice by machine-gun and mortar fire. At one point, when Gonzalez and other Marines became targets of sniper fire, they took cover behind an armored vehicle that was rolling along ahead of the platoon. One of the privates under Gonzalez's command was hit and went down on the road ahead. Gonzalez jumped from behind the tank and sprayed fire at a VC machine-gun bunker that was hidden amid the heavy foliage along the dirt road. While some members of his platoon were momentarily stunned by Gonzalez's bold move, others raked the machine-gun nest with automatic-weapons fire. Before the sergeant reached the badly wounded Marine 20 or 30 yards ahead, he made his way along a narrow ditch until he was near the bunker. He then lobbed two grenades inside, and the explosions killed the enemy soldiers in the bunker. Gonzalez then made his way back to the wounded private, heaved his 170-pound body over his shoulder and ran back toward the cover of the tank. Although hit by bullet fragments and mortar shrapnel from other enemy troops and bleeding badly, Gonzalez managed to reach the tank.

A Navy corpsman rushed to administer to Gonzalez and the dying Marine he had tried to save and ordered the sergeant to leave by medevac chopper. But Gonzalez would have none of it, according to Smith. These were his men, and he refused to leave them.

As Gonzalez's boss, Smith tried to get another sergeant to take command of the 3rd Platoon while the company continued its advance on Hue City. But nobody challenged Gonzalez's decision to fight on. According to Smith, "The gunnery sergeant said, `Lieutenant, I'll go and follow Sergeant Gonzalez around if you want me to, but he is in command of 3rd Platoon.' He said he was going to put him in for the Medal of Honor if we survived. Always seen as a good, solid, lead-by-example Marine, when we entered the fight in Hue City, Gonzalez became way more than that. For the next few days he became almost a one-man army. All of us who survived remain in awe of him."

On February 4, 1968, as Smith later recalled, "the first objective of the company was the St. Joan of Arc School and Church only about 100 yards away." It was a key position that both sides wanted because it could serve as a protective bulwark during the fighting. "The building was square, with an open compound in the middle," recalled Smith, "and we found that by 0700 hours it was heavily occupied." Sergeant Gonzalez ordered his platoon to keep down, out of the line of fire, while he surveyed the situation. Meanwhile Lieutenant Smith and the remainder of Alpha Company entered the school.

Suddenly a fire storm erupted. Many of the Marines fell dead or wounded from machine-gun and rocket fire, and platoons scattering like pool balls after a break, with bullets whizzing inches above the men's helmets. Only a handful were already inside the church and school corridors, and those who had fanned out to take cover were under intense fire. "We were trying to secure the church," said Smith, "and the enemy was inside the school. We had to blow holes in the walls so we could get through and take the school rooms. It was very tough fighting." Smith's Marines found themselves engaged in room-to-room combat.

Lieutenant Colonel Marcus Gravel, the battalion commander of the 1/1, said that in the convent building the Marines proceeded from wall to wall. "One Marine would place a plastic C-4 charge against the wall, stand back, and then a fire team would rush through the gaping hole. In the school building Sergeant Gonzalez's 3rd Platoon secured one wing but came under enemy rocket fire from across the courtyard." Although still suffering from his earlier wounds, Sergeant Gonzalez "managed to grab a handful of LAWs [M-72 light anti-tank weapons] and positioned himself on the second floor of the school, firing at enemy positions from one window to another," said Smith. "He had managed to take out several of the enemy positions when a rocket was fired at him and hit him in the midsection."

Lawrence "Little Larry" Lewis of Chattanooga, Tenn., a rifleman in Gonzalez's platoon, was only a few feet away from the sergeant when he was hit. Lewis had arrived in Vietnam in September 1967 and was terribly frightened he would be killed. Sergeant Gonzalez had noticed that he was upset and had talked to the young man and put him at ease. When Gonzalez went down, Lewis pulled him out of the line of fire and laid him on a door. "His heart was still beating," Lewis recalled, "but he died a short time later. I couldn't believe he was hit. He was a hero to us all, and took care of us young guys when we got in-country."

Gonzalez was a hero to his country as well. In 1969, his mother, Dolia Gonzalez, was escorted to the White House to receive the Medal of Honor awarded to her son posthumously. Signed by President Richard Nixon and presented by Vice President Spiro Agnew, the official citation read:

"For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as Platoon Commander, Third Platoon, Company A, First Battalion, First Marines, First Marine Division, in the Republic of Vietnam. On 31 January 1968, during the initial phase of Operation Hue City, Sergeant Gonzalez's unit was formed as a reaction force and deployed to Hue to relieve the pressures on the beleaguered city. While moving by truck convoy along Route #1, near the village of Lang Van Long, the Marines received a heavy volume of enemy fire. Sergeant Gonzalez aggressively maneuvered the Marines in his platoon, and directed their fire until the area was cleared of snipers. Immediately after crossing a river south of Hue, the column was again hit by intense enemy fire. One of the Marines on top of a tank was wounded and fell to the ground in an exposed position. With complete disregard for his own safety, Sergeant Gonzalez ran through the fire-swept area to the assistance of his injured comrade. He lifted him up and though receiving fragmentation wounds during the rescue, he carried the wounded Marine to a covered position for treatment. Due to the increased volume and accuracy of enemy fire from a fortified machine gun bunker on the side of the road, the company was temporarily halted. Realizing the gravity of the situation, Sergeant Gonzalez exposed himself to the enemy fire and moved his platoon along the East side of a bordering rice paddy to a dike directly across from the bunker. Though fully aware of the danger involved, he moved to the fire-swept road and destroyed the hostile position with hand grenades. Although seriously wounded again on 3 February, he steadfastly refused medical treatment and continued to supervise his men and lead the attack. On 4 February, the enemy had again pinned the company down, inflicting heavy casualties with automatic weapons and rocket fire. Sergeant Gonzalez, utilizing a number of light antitank assault weapons, fearlessly moved from position to position firing numerous rounds at the heavily fortified enemy emplacements. He successfully knocked out a rocket position and suppressed much of the enemy fire before falling mortally wounded. The heroism, courage, and dynamic leadership displayed by Sergeant Gonzalez reflected great credit upon himself and the Marine Corps and were in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country."

That was not the only honor that Sergeant Gonzalez received. In 1975 an elementary school in his hometown of Edinburg, was named in his honor, and in 1993 Navy Secretary John Dalton announced that the Navy's most advanced and one of its deadliest warships would be named after him. USS Alfredo Gonzalez (DDG-66), a guided-missile destroyer, was christened at Bath, Maine, in February 1995 and commissioned at Corpus Christi, Texas, in October 1996. The first modern warship named for a Mexican-American, she is now serving with the Navy's Atlantic Fleet.

Marine General Smith, Gonzalez's former company commander, pointed out that it was a rare occurrence for a Marine sergeant to have a ship named after him. He recalled: "I said to the crew at the commissioning ceremonies as I passed the staff to the first officer of the watch and charged the crew to active duty status, `Sergeant Gonzalez was a quiet, unassuming, modest man. But when the time came, he fought like hell. And this is a fighting ship, and the crew is obligated to Freddy that when it comes time to fight you will fight like hell too.'"

Dolia Gonzalez serves as the ship's sponsor. And the crew has named the galley "Dolia's Diner." She often reflects on what all this attention means years after her son's death in a war that is still criticized by many. "I don't care what they say," Dolia Gonzalez says. "And I don't think Freddy would care what they say. He believed in his country, and he knew he was doing his duty. There were a lot of good boys like Freddy over there, just trying to do a hard job the best way they knew how. They didn't want to turn tail and run. I've always been proud of him. I still miss him."

Secretary of the Navy Dalton stood by Gonzalez at the ship's commissioning, as she looked up at the massive ship bearing her son's name that was about to head out into the open sea. "I feel like Freddy was finally back on duty again, after 28 years," she said. "He defended his men with rockets in Vietnam, and he's defending this country with missiles now."

This article was written by John W. Flores and originally published in Vietnam Magazine in February 1999.


Article 2: Commentary

by John W. Flores,
October 25, 2002, California Metro; Part B

It was 34 years ago that 21-year-old Marine Sgt. Alfredo Gonzalez of Edinburg, Texas, died while defending his platoon from enemy rocket fire during an ambush in Hue City, Vietnam. It was the opening volleys of the horrific Tet offensive. Gonzalez was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor a few months later in a ceremony at the White House. He was Dolia Gonzalez's only child; she had reared him as a single mother, and since his death she has lived alone.  

She works even now as a waitress in the restaurant at a motel, the Echo, in her little border town. Photographs and newspaper stories about Sgt. Gonzalez are all over the walls of the restaurant dining room, and she is something of a celebrity among the townspeople. Recently, she has even been a spokesperson for Tony Sanchez, the first serious Latino candidate for governor in Texas history.  

With the Bush administration coiled and ready to strike against Iraq, Gonzalez remembers what happened to her boy. And she offers a solemn, frequent refrain: "My boy was killed in Vietnam, and so were many young men from south Texas and the Rio Grande Valley. Freddy was proud to be a Marine and he gladly put his life on the line. Later, many years later, the truth about Vietnam came out -- that many of those young Americans should not have had to die as they did. It was not an essential sacrifice, we've been told by former Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara."  

Gonzalez is not bitter. She learned decades ago to roll with the sometimes cruel blows of life. She is somehow resilient and hopeful, even in the midst of the chaos and confusion that have permeated much of American society since the 9/11 terrorist attacks.  

She worries about the 300-plus sailors on board the U.S. destroyer Gonzalez, a highly advanced warship carrying Tomahawk missiles that was named for her son several years ago. Over the years she has come to view these sailors as a part of her family. "I call them 'my boys' and they call me Mom. I don't want anything to happen to them. That's why I hope [authorities] will find a diplomatic solution to this problem with Saddam. Let the United Nations do its work. But for God's sake, let's not do what they did in Vietnam."  

President Bush has never experienced war as a soldier, airman, sailor or Marine. He was one of many privileged sons of power able to secure havens in the stateside National Guard.  

Young men like Freddy -- Latinos and blacks, mostly poor, with little or no political influence -- were sent in waves to fight. Some called them "cannon fodder" because of the disproportionately high casualty rate among minorities on tours of duty in war zones. These men also racked up a much higher percentage of Medals of Honor, Silver Stars, Bronze Stars and other top awards for valor in combat.  

Dolia Gonzalez says she has no quarrel with those like Bush who come from wealthy families. But she is upset about a couple of things these days: Not only is the administration gearing up for a potentially catastrophic conflict in the Middle East, but it also is pushing to cut vital veterans' benefits.  

Several years ago, when Bush's father was president, the Veterans Administration cut off the survivor benefits that she had been receiving since her son's death, saying she could not both work and receive benefits.

"I have appealed over and over to have them restored, but nobody will work with me. They just basically always shut the door in my face," she says.  

Without these benefits, Gonzalez must work full time. "I am 73 now, and I work as a waitress. It's the only job I know. But my health won't hold out forever. Then what?" she asks.  

Gonzalez is also concerned that she won't be able to afford the expensive medications that come with the maladies of time, especially if Bush has his way in cutting Medicare, as has been proposed.  

"It seems like these rich people want us poor people to just dry up and blow off into the sunset like tumbleweeds or something. I guess then we'd be out of their way," she says.  

Gonzalez still firmly believes in the clarion call to volunteerism and patriotism from President John F. Kennedy in his 1961 inaugural address: " ... ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country."

It was a statement of purpose that helped propel millions of young men and women into national volunteerism and the service of their country, including her son.  

"I do not want anything handed to me. That is why I work and do not ask for anything other than what I work for, and what my son earned by giving his life," she says. "Before he died he sent me a letter and said he was going to come back and take care of me and build a big house for us to live in. He never got that chance."

Today, Dolia Gonzalez hopes to spread the word that people can empower themselves to bring about change.

"We -- the common, average Americans -- are the ones who suffer when war is declared, not those who declare it. We are the ones who give our children, never to see them again. We are the ones who pay the bills of war. And we are the ones who will keep on paying," she says.  

"We are the soldiers and Marines in that daily battle. We can either stand up and fight with honor and courage and defend our loved ones and ourselves, or run away in disgrace and lose everything."

Credit: John W. Flores is writing a biography of Marine Sgt. Alfredo Gonzalez.


Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner.

(Copyright (c) 2002 Los Angeles Times) 


Article 3: " When the River Dreams’
By Eric Lidji, The Post
Thursday, June 1, 2006 

Sometimes two people are drawn together, even if they never get to meet. For the last 10 years, John Flores, a reporter who grew up in Alvarado, has been covering the story of Marine Sergeant Alfredo Gonzalez, a Medal of Honor winner who died in the Vietnam War.

The story has grown to encompass everything from war stories and family drama to watchdog journalism and now a book set for release this fall.

On May 9, the Texas Senate passed a resolution honoring Flores’ work in reporting the story of Freddy Gonzalez.

Sen. Juan Hinojosa, who brought the resolution, cited Flores’ "outstanding work as a reporter and an author" and for his "perseverance and skill in reporting the story of Dolia Gonzalez."

"I had no idea anybody was going to do that," Flores said. He considers it the greatest honor he has received as a writer.

Flores first learned about the Gonzalez family while serving as the Edinburg bureau reporter for the McAllen Monitor. Flores lived near Freddy Gonzalez Drive and ate breakfast at the Echo Hotel where Dolia Gonzalez, Freddy’s mother, worked as a waitress.

Through the head cook at the restaurant, Flores found out that Freddy Gonzalez had saved several fellow Marines during the Tet Offensive, before being mortally wounded.

Flores tried to get an interview with Dolia, who kept avoiding him. When she finally sat down to talk with him, it became the start of a friendship that has lasted more than a decade and resulted in numerous articles, trips around the country and a book called "When the River Dreams," which will be published this fall.

The story has branched out in numerous directions. It started with the story of Freddy Gonzalez.

Dolia gave birth to Freddy when she was just 16 years old. A poor single Mexican-American mother, she had two strikes going against her as she tried to raise her son. One of the things that attracted Flores to the story originally was that she succeeded.

"He was a great kid," Flores said. "He could have been a gang member or a bad kid. Instead, he turned out to be a real hero."

Freddy wanted to be a Marine since he first saw John Wayne movies with his mother as a child. Growing up, he occasionally got into fights, usually protecting his mother’s honor, but Flores found that most remembered him as good-natured and a great friend.

He enlisted right out of high school. After a yearlong tour of duty, he returned to Vietnam when his old platoon was hit hard by an ambush.

Over five days in early 1968, Freddy fought in Operation Hue City, exposing himself to heavy enemy fire several times in order to save an injured soldier and move his platoon. Although injured, he refused medical attention and continued fighting, knocking out an enemy rocket launcher before being mortally wounded at 21 years old.

President Nixon signed the Medal of Honor declaration, and Dolia traveled to Washington D.C. to receive the medal from Vice President Spiro Agnew.

In 1995, after he wrote the story of Freddy Gonzalez, Flores found out that the Navy was constructing a warship to be named the USS Alfredo Gonzalez and that Dolia would be christening the ship at the Bath Iron Works in Maine.

He convinced Continental Airlines to give him a free ticket to Maine and convinced the Navy to let him stay in the officer’s barracks.

He published the story of his trip in a very popular three-part series for the McAllen Monitor. Actually, it was the most read story since Pearl Harbor.

Flores also rode the ship as it came down to be commissioned from Corpus Christi. The ship hit a hurricane on the way, and the sailors on board joked that as an ex-Coast Guardsman, Flores would be the first to get sick, but he never did.

A year after Flores rode down to Corpus, Dolia Gonzalez told him that the Veterans’ Affairs office had cancelled her benefits and forced her to pay $8,000 in reimbursement. Dolia had recently been diagnosed with cancer and had her car stolen, and was having to walk to her waitress job, where she hadn’t received a raise in the 25 years she’d held the job.

"It sounds like a bad country song, everything that could have happened to her happened to her," Flores said.

After Flores wrote several stories about her that were printed in papers around the country, the Albertson’s Corporation held a press conference and announced they would pay her debt.

Although to a lesser extreme, Flores has been able to identify with Gonzlez’s life.  Flores was born in Dallas and grew up in Grand Prairie. His family moved to a farm south of Alvarado in 1972, when Flores began high school. His mother, who died recently, spent ten years as a popular teacher in Alvarado schools.

During high school and after graduation, Flores worked on the Mears farm, driving a tractor, pulling weeds and hand-spraying crops at $2 an hour.

At the farm, Flores met Mexican immigrants for the first time, and he said that their work ethic inspired him and led to an interest in their lives that continues today. One of the things that drew him to the Gonzalez story was Dolia and Freddy’s sense of duty, even in controversial situations.

"You can argue about it later, just do the job," Flores said. Although Flores’ family had good jobs, he said they were all expected to work and contribute to the family income. Another thing that drew Flores in was that he would soon become a serviceman himself.

"At that time I really didn’t know what I wanted to do. I wanted something adventurous and I wanted some travel," Flores said. "That was right after Vietnam, and I didn’t want to go into the Army or Marines or anything like that. I thought, ‘Coast Guard, that’s a good outfit. You don’t have to kill people, you can save them.’"

After he completed his training in San Francisco, the Coast Guard gave him the opportunity to decide where he would be stationed. He chose New Orleans, working on Lake Pontchartrain and the swampland along the Mississippi River in the busiest search and rescue station in the United States.

"We had a huge area to cover and we only had three boats, so we were always busy," Flores said.

In New Orleans, Flores got to spend time with his uncle, Adolph Flores, a well-educated doctor who was also a confirmed bachelor. Adolph introduced his nephew to the literary figures who grew out of New Orleans, like Tennessee Williams and Truman Capote, and also gave him his first dictionary.

The Coast Guard had a base newspaper, and Flores started writing humor and daily life columns.

When he was discharged in 1981, he enrolled at Hill Junior College in Hillsboro to pursue writing and went on to work for newspapers in Burleson, Kileen, Corpus Christie and Austin before going to McAllen and learning about Gonzalez.

Since then, he’s worked in Odessa, Arlington and Corsicana, where he got to interview then Gov. George Bush about a meat packing plant that was trying to move into town. Now, Flores lives with his wife, Rowena, in Albuquerque, where he works as a freelance writer.

He said that he is still interested in stories that tell national issues, and would like to write about immigration, the United Farm Worker and labor unions.

And just like Freddy, Flores is still loyal to Dolia Gonzalez, often making calls to government agencies on her behalf, and still writing stories when he feels that the mother of a Medal of Honor winner hasn’t been treated justly.

On Oct. 31, 37 years to the day since Dolia Gonzalez accepted her son’s posthumous award, Flores will return to Edinburg once again, this time as a stop on his book tour.


Article 4: December 7, 2007
MOTHER OF A HERO (Medal of Honor recipient)  AWAITS CEREMONY
By John Moritz
Star-Telegram staff writer

AUSTIN -- Dolia Gonzalez was hoping that this Veterans Day would be the one when Texas would present her only son with the hero's medal that he had paid for with his life nearly 40 years ago.

But at 78, Gonzalez says she doesn't mind waiting a little longer. She takes comfort in the fact that the son she lost on a Vietnam battlefield in February 1968 has not been forgotten. Not by his buddies in the service, not by his hometown in the Rio Grande Valley, not by Congress and not by his beloved Marine Corps.

So waiting for Texas to join the parade is no big deal, said Gonzalez, who works as a restaurant waitress and a grocery store greeter in her hometown of Edinburg. "If I had my way, it would have been done by now," Gonzalez said Thursday in a phone interview. "But I understand that these things take time."

Her son, Marine Sgt. Alfredo "Freddie" Gonzalez, was awarded the Medal of Honor, the military's highest decoration for valor, for his role in repelling an enemy rocket attack during the pivotal Tet offensive. Under fire, he rescued a wounded Marine and led his platoon in taking out heavily fortified enemy positions. Gonzalez was killed while returning rocket fire from his position in a Catholic church.
He was 21 and serving his second tour in Vietnam at the time.

In Edinburg and surrounding communities, Gonzalez's bravery was celebrated. An elementary school and other public facilities were named for him. An American Legion post in a neighboring town bears his name. There's an Alfredo Gonzalez Boulevard at the Marines' Camp Lejeune in North Carolina and an Alfredo Gonzalez mess hall at Naval Air Station Corpus Christi.

In 1996, the Navy commissioned the USS Gonzalez, a guided missile destroyer, and Dolia Gonzalez had the honor of cracking the champagne bottle against the bow.
During the 2007 legislative session, lawmakers made Gonzalez the sixth recipient of the Legislative Medal of Honor, saying the honor was long overdue and promising a ceremony befitting a Texas hero.

Nearly six months later, former Alvarado resident John Flores, author of a biography of Gonzalez titled, When the River Dreams, began raising questions about why the medal had not been presented to his mother. Flores, who learned about Gonzalez while working as a reporter for the McAllen Monitor, said many of his Marine comrades are hoping to attend the ceremony.

"I'm calling lawmakers, the governor -- and all I get is the run-around," said Flores, 49, who lives in Albuquerque, N.M. "Freddie's mother deserves to have that medal."

State Rep. Aaron Pena, D-Edinburg, and Sen. Juan Hinojosa, D-McAllen, who sponsored the resolution awarding the medal, said coordinating the schedules of all the dignitaries is proving to be challenging. Neither has been able to obtain a firm commitment from Gov. Rick Perry, who signed the measure into law June 15.

Krista Moody, Perry's spokeswoman, said the governor would like to attend any ceremony for Gonzalez, but nothing has been placed on his schedule. "The medal was awarded [when the resolution was signed into law], but there's no deadline for having a ceremony," Moody said.

Dolia Gonzalez, who was a 16-year-old farm worker when her son was born, said she appreciates the effort made by others to keep her son's memory alive.
"He's with me every day," she said. "
He's all I ever had."

John Moritz reports from the Star-Telegram's Austin bureau, 512-476-4294

A legacy of Service: Mexican-American Defenders of California 

A legacy of Service: Mexican-American Defenders of California 
By Jennifer C. Vo and John P. Schmal 
Hispanic Columnists

The state of California is a very special place for many people.  Millions have come here from other parts of the United States and from around the world to live, work, and prosper.  And many of these people embrace their new lives in this western state.  As the world's fifth largest economy, California has a great deal to offer the many people who make their way to the Golden State in search of a better life.

My name is Jennifer Vo and to me and my family, California is a very special place.  This may be due to the fact that – my Chumash Indian ancestry notwithstanding – I am an eleventh-generation Californian of Mexican descent.  In 1781 - when an expedition was organized to bring a small group of civilian settlers from Sonora, Mexico to take part in the founding of El Pueblo de Nuestra la Reina de Los Angeles del Rio Porcioncula - an escort of several dozen Mexican soldiers serving under the flag of Spain were recruited.  One of those soldier recruits who took part in this important expedition was my great-great-great-great-great-great-great-grandfather, Juan Matias Olivas, an Indian from Rosario, Sinaloa.

From my earliest memories, my family has always expressed its pride in its California roots.  When my mother, Sarah Melendez Basulto Evans, was just a teenager, she went to her grandfather's funeral in Oxnard, California.  After the church service, the family had driven to the Santa Clara Cemetery in Oxnard for the burial service.

Recounting that day thirty-nine years ago, Mom told me, "Once the graveside service had ended, my Uncle Simon [Melendez] took me for a long walk, pointing out the various tombstones for many of our ancestors.  I was amazed that he could recount so many stories and names from our family history.  As we walked along, Uncle Simon explained to me that our family had been in California for a very, very long time.  For him, this was a great source of pride.  I remember his words very clearly when he said, 'Our family has known no home but California.  This is where we belong.'  From that day forward, I have always felt a great emotional attachment to California, the land of my ancestors."

Sarah also told me that Uncle Simon had explained to her that our California family has had a long and proud tradition of military service extending back to our earliest California ancestor.  One generation after another had joined the military to defend the only land that we could call home.    And, although Mexican Americans in California have been treated unfairly at times, our resolve to defend this state and this country has never wavered. 

As I was growing up, my mother expressed these sentiments to me, and for this reason, I have always told people that I am proud to be a descendant of the California pioneers.  And, over time, I have gradually learned the details about my family's military service.  From the first moment Juan Matias Olivas entered California - and for the better part of nine generations - my family has played a role in the defense of California. And, in some cases, members of my family had to make the ultimate sacrifice to safeguard the security of California.  Over a period of two centuries, the flags, the causes, and the surnames have changed, but my family's legacy of military service to California has endured.

First Generation:

Juan Matias Olivas was born two and a half centuries ago near Rosario in what is today known as the state of Sinaloa (in the Republic of Mexico).  On May 25, 1777, Juan was married at Nuestra Señora del Rosario Church in Rosario to María Dorotea Espinosa.  Three years later, their second child, José Pablo Olivas, came into the world and was baptized in the same church.   

On August 6, 1780, Juan Matias Olivas, enlisted for ten years as a soldado de cuera (leather-jacket soldier), attached to the Military District of Monterrey of northern Mexico.   Interestingly, Juan Matias' discharge papers of 1798 provide us with his physical description.  He was 5 feet and 2 inches in height and had black hair and black eyes.  In addition, Juan Matias had olive skin and - unlike many of his fellow soldiers - was clean-shaven, an obvious manifestation of his predominant Native American ancestry.

Joining Spain's frontier army offered Juan and his family with great opportunities that were not available to Indians who lived in the Rosario area.  If he had stayed in Rosario, Juan Matias Olivas would have been destined to a life as a poor and lowly Indian laborer, subject to the whims of his hacienda jefe and to a society that classified him within the lower rungs of a racist caste system.

But, as a soldier serving in the Spanish military, Juan Matias would be permitted to ride a horse, carry his own weapon, have access to skilled medical attention, and enjoy free housing.  Such a profession also provided him with retirement benefits and guaranteed that his wife would receive a pension if he died while performing his duties.

At about this time, Captain Fernando Rivera was scouring the coastal cities of Sinaloa and Sonora to find and recruit 59 soldiers and 24 families of pobladores (settlers) who would make up the nucleus of an important expedition to the north.  The ultimate goal of the expedition would be the founding of the Pueblo of Los Angeles and the Military Presidio of Santa Barbara.  In the end, Rivera was only able to recruit twelve families, which would be accompanied by 59 soldiers on the northward journey.

Late in the winter of 1781, the expedition embarked.  The soldier Juan Matias, his wife -María Dorothea Espinosa, then 23 years old - and their two young children, María Nicolasa and José Pablo - took part in the 960-mile journey, arriving at the San Gabriel Mission on August 18, 1781.    In the months following their arrival at the Mission, Juan Matias Olivas and his family were housed with the rest of the soldier families near the mission.   Soon after, on the morning of September 4, 1781, the Pueblo of Los Angeles was founded, with forty-four settlers and several soldiers in attendance.  It is likely that the services of several soldiers - including Juan Matias Olivas - were needed to help the small pueblo get started.  Juan Matias, as a matter of fact, would - after his enlistment ended - make his retirement home in the small pueblo.

Early in the next year, Juan Matias Olivas and forty-one other soldiers made their way to the Santa Barbara Channel, where, on April 21, 1782, the Santa Barbara Presidio was founded.   Not long after, the families followed and the rest of my ancestor's military career would be spent at the Santa Barbara Presidio. 

As a Presidio soldier, Juan Matias Olivas and the other soldiers had a multitude of responsibilities:  Sometimes they delivered the mail to other parts of California or escorted priests to and from their destinations.  A regular escort of fifteen soldiers from Santa Barbara were posted to guard the San Buenaventura Mission. And, of course, there was always the possibility that they would be called upon to take part in an Indian campaign. (The soldados posted in New Mexico, Arizona, Texas and Chihuahua were almost constantly at war with the indigenous groups.   By comparison, California was relatively calm and the Spaniards cultivated their relationships with most of the Indian groups surrounding their presidios.)

After a few years at the Presidio, Dorotea died, leaving poor Juan Matias a widower with six children, including Pablo.  Not long after he was widowed, Juan Matias Olivas was tallied in the 1790 census of the Real Presidio de Santa Barbara. Listed as a 31-year-old widower, Juan Matias was classified was an Indian and a native of Rosario.  Four of his six children were listed as living with Juan Matias.  By now, the entire population of the Santa Barbara Presidio had reached 230 individuals, comprising 24 percent of the entire Hispanic population of Alta California.

In March 1794, Spain declared war against France. Eventually the news of this war arrived in California. The soldiers became acutely aware of the fact that both France and England yearned for the opportunity to take California into their own empires.  But it was not likely that the two hundred and seventy-five soldiers at the four presidios in California could have held off a serious invasion by a foreign power.  Nevertheless, the presidio was their home and steps were taken to safeguard the safety of their families and possessions in case of attack.

On June 1, 1794, Juan Matias married his second wife, Juana de Dios Ontiveros, at the San Gabriel Mission.  After their marriage, Matias and Juana had several children.  Then, on November 23, 1798, Juan Matias Olivas, now 40 years of age, was discharged from the military after eighteen years of service.  Two years later, Juan Matias Olivas and his family took up residence in the small pueblo of Los Angeles.  By this time, the small pueblo had seventy families, 315 people, and consisted of thirty small adobe houses.    He died a few years later.

Second Generation:

My great-great-great-great-great-great grandfather, José Pablo Olivas, the son of Juan Matias and Dorotea, had been born in Rosario, Sinaloa, on January 25, 1780 as the legitimate son of Juan Matias Olivas and Dorothea Espinosa.  But, from the age of two, Pablo grew up within the walls of the Santa Barbara Presidio.  Living at close quarters with fifty other families was no easy chore, but the inhabitants of the garrison were united in their camaraderie as the families of soldiers.  As a child, José Pablo attended the same church services as his future wife, María Luciana Fernández, the first-born child of another presidial soldier, José Rosalino Fernández.

Around the turn of the century, José Pablo Olivas stepped into his father's footsteps and became a soldier of the presidio.  In a roster of individuals dated February 17, 1804, Pablo Olivas was listed as one of the fifty-four soldiers on active duty at the Santa Barbara Presidio.  Four years earlier, he had married María Luciana Fernández.  Between 1801 and 1812, José Pablo and María Luciana would have eight children, including my great-great-great-great-great-grandfather, José Dolores de Jesus Olivas, who was baptized on Nov. 3, 1802 at Santa Barbara, and would represent the third generation of soldiers in my family.

Mexico's struggle for independence against Spain began on the night of September 15/16, 1810 when a mild-mannered Creole priest, Father Miguel de Hidalgo y Castillo, published his famous outcry against tyranny from his parish in the village of Dolores. His impassioned speech - referred to as Grito de Hidalgo ("Cry of Hidalgo") - set into motion a process that would not end until August 24, 1821 with the signing of the Treaty of Córdova.

From 1810 through 1821, Mexico's war of liberation interfered with the arrival of Spanish supply ships in California. Eventually, supplies dwindled to a mere trickle, making the California presidios more dependent upon the local missions for food supplies and manufactured items.  By 1813, the Commandant of Santa Barbara informed the Governor that his soldiers were without shirts and had little food; in addition, the presidio soldiers received no pay for three years, and pensions were suspended.  Four years later, on December 16, 1817, José Pablo Olivas, the second-generation soldier, died.

Third Generation:

José Pablo died when his son José Dolores Olivas was only fifteen years of age.  It was during this period of intense upheaval that José Dolores Olivas stepped into his father's shoes and served as a third-generation soldado de cuera.  José Dolores Olivas was actually the first of my Olivas ancestors to be born in California, and he would become the third generation of Olivas men to become a soldado de cuera at the Santa Barbara Presidio.  It was his destiny to see the transition of California as it passed from the hands of the Spanish empire to the newly independent Mexican state.  And he would serve as a soldier to both nations.

In 1821, Mexico had finally achieved independence from Spain, and on April 1822, the California soldiers were notified the revolt had been successful.  Almost immediately, the California presidios lowered the Spanish flag and California became a province of the new nation.  On April 13, 1822, José Dolores Olivas and the other soldiers at the Santa Barbara Presidio took their oath of allegiance to the new government in Mexico City. 

On June 14, 1829, José Dolores de Jesus Olivas was married to María Gertrudis Valenzuela at Mission Santa Ynez.  Dolores Olivas was listed as a single soldado de cuera and a native of the Santa Barbara.  His bride, Gertrudis, was a daughter of another presidio soldier, Antonio Maria Valenzuela and his wife, María Antonia Feliz.  María Gertrudis Valenzuela had been baptized sixteen years earlier on June 7, 1813 at the San Gabriel Mission.  Like her husband, she was the daughter of a presidial soldier and had spent most of her early years growing up at the presidio.

As José Dolores and Gertrudis prepared to start their family in 1830, they took their position as members of the growing Santa Barbara presidial community, which now numbered 604. Between 1830 and 1850, José Dolores and Gertrudis became the parents of twelve children.  My great-great-great-great-grandmother, María Antonia Olivas, born in February 1834, was the fourth-born child of this group, although she shared that position with her twin sister.

After serving out his term of enlistment, Dolores Olivas retired from the military and became an agricultural laborer.  He and his family continued to live in the vicinity of the presidio.  It was during this time that President James K. Polk of the United States devised a strategy for snatching California from the hands of the Mexican Republic.

In the fall of 1845, President Polk sent his representative John Slidell to Mexico. Slidell was supposed to offer Mexico $25,000,000 to accept the Rio Grande boundary with Texas and to sell New Mexico, Arizona, and California to the U.S.  However, the President of Mexico turned this down, and in May 1846 Polk led his country into war. 

The Mexican-American War in California ended on January 13, 1847 with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga.  A year later, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed on February 2, 1848, ending all hostilities between the two nations.  By the provisions of this treaty, Mexico handed over to the United States 525,000 square miles of land, almost half of her national territory.  In compensation, the U.S. paid $15,000,000 for the land and met other financial obligations to Mexico.  By the provisions of this peace treaty, the Mexican citizens living in California were offered American citizenship and full protection of the law.

The area which Mexico transferred to American control in 1848 contained a population of 82,500 Mexican citizens, 7,500 of which lived in California.  Two years later, on September 9, 1850, California was admitted to the Union as the thirty-first state.  During the Federal Census of the same year, my ancestor, José Dolores Olivas - now an American citizen - was tallied in his Santa Barbara residence as the head of a household of eleven.  My ancestor would die a few years later.

Fourth Generation:

At the time of the 1850 census, my great-great-great-great-grandmother, María Antonia Olivas, was only 15 years of age.  María Antonia Olivas was truly a daughter of the Californian military establishment.  She was descended from five pioneer California families (Olivas, Fernández, Valenzuela, Feliz and Quintero) and lived at the Santa Barbara Presidio which four of her soldado ancestors had helped to found.  Her father (José Dolores Olivas) was a retired soldier. Both of her grandfathers were California soldiers (José Pablo Olivas and Antonio María Valenzuela), as were all four of her great-grandfathers (Juan Matias Olivas, José Rosalino Fernandez, Pedro Gabriel Valenzuela, and Anastacio María Feliz).

On November 30, 1849, María Antonia Olivas was married to José Apolinario Esquivel, a native of Irapuato, Guanajuato, Mexico, at the Santa Barbara Mission.  The two of them relocated to the San Buenaventura Township to raise their family and tend their crops. Her brother, José Victoriano Olivas, four years younger than she was, would become the fourth generation Olivas to serve as a soldier in the defense of California.

The American Civil War (1861-1865) divided the American people into two camps and resulted in more casualties than any other war in American history.  Many of the hostilities in this war took place in the eastern half of North America, especially in the Southern states.  For the most part, California - which was a Union state - seemed removed from most of the battlefields and action that was taking place.

In 1863, as the Civil War raged in the eastern and southern states, the United States Government became concerned about possible Confederate incursions into New Mexico and other Union-held areas.  In order to avoid such confrontations, the U.S. Government authorized the military governor of California to organize four military companies of Mexican-American Californians into a cavalry battalion in order to utilize their "extraordinary horsemanship." 

Major Salvador Vallejo was selected to command this new California militia, with its five hundred soldiers of Spanish and Mexican descent.  Company C of the First California Native Cavalry was organized under Captain Antonio María de la Guerra.  María Antonia’s brother José Victoriano Olivas joined this company, which was made up of native troopers from Santa Barbara County.  This battalion primarily served in California and Arizona, guarding supply trains, and helped defeat a Confederate invasion of New Mexico.  José Victoriano Olivas would thus become the fourth generation of the Olivas family to serve in the military.  And this service had now been extended to three flags (Spain, Mexico, and the United States).

Fifth Generation:

My ancestor Regina Esquivel was born in 1851 as the daughter of José Apolinario Esquivel and María Antonia Olivas and as an American citizen. Nineteen years later, on January 3, 1870, Regina Esquivel was united in marriage with Gregorio Ortega at the San Buenaventura Mission. Gregorio was a laborer who had emigrated from southern Mexico in the 1860s.  Over the next two decades, Gregorio and Regina would become the parents of eighteen children.

Sixth Generation:

On September 16, 1875, Gregorio Ortega and Regina Esquivel became the parents of Valentine Ortega. Eighteen years later, Valentine was united in marriage with one 18-year-old Theodora Tapia, a native of the Los Angeles area.  Valentine and Theodora had five children in all, including Isabel (born in 1902), Paz (born in 1906) and Luciano P. Ortega (born in 1908). 

During the early Twentieth Century, this family lived in the Saticoy District of Ventura County, California.   Saticoy was nine miles east of the county seat, the City of Ventura.  In 1918, at the age of forty-three years, my great-great-grandfather Valentine Ortega fell victim to the worldwide influenza epidemic that ravaged the American continent at the end of World War I.

Seventh Generation:

As Isabel Ortega and her siblings grew up, they witnessed what would eventually be called the First World War.  Initially the war broke out in Europe and, it was not until three years later that America would join this conflict, with its declaration of war on Germany on April 6, 1917.  During this war, the American military was rife with discrimination against Hispanic and African-American soldiers. Soldiers with Spanish surnames or Spanish accents were sometimes the object of ridicule and relegated to menial jobs, while African Americans were segregated into separate units.  Some Hispanic Americans who lacked English skills were sent to special training centers to improve their language proficiency so that they could be integrated into the mainstream army.

My great-grandmother, Isabel Ortega, married Refugio Melendez, an immigrant laborer from Penjamo, Guanajuato.  Refugio and Isabel met during the 1920s and their first-born child was my grandmother, Theodora (Dora) Melendez, who was born in November 1927.  Dora was followed two years later by my Uncle Raymundo Melendez.  Isabel and Refugio raised their family in Saticoy, living right across the street from the Ortega family during the 1930s and 1940s. 

The Great Depression was a difficult time for my family as it was for most American families.  But the beginning of World War II was an ominous event for all Americans.  For three years, the United States avoided this war, which pitted the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy and Japan) against a multitude of other nations, including Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and China.

On December 7, 1941, everything changed.  The surprise attack on the American naval fleet at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii would bring America into this struggle against tyranny. And when Uncle Sam called for recruits, his call was answered.  By the end of the war in September 1945, sixteen million men and women had worn the uniform of America's armed forces. 

At the time of America's entry into World War II (1941), approximately 2,690,000 Americans of Mexican ancestry lived in the United States.  Eighty-five percent of this population lived in the five southwestern states (California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, and Colorado).  Like other ethnic groups, Mexican Americans responded in great number to our nation's dilemma.  At least 350,000 Chicanos served in the armed services and seventeen Hispanic individuals won the Congressional Medal of Honor.  

California played an important role in World War II.  Eighteen California National Guard Divisions were sent overseas, and thousands of men enlisted or were drafted.  According to the United States War Department, California - containing 5.15% of the population of the United States - contributed 5.53% of the total number who entered the Army.  Of these men and women from California who went to war, 3.09% failed to return home, representing 5.54% of the American casualties

In 1942, my great-uncle Luciano P. Ortega - the brother of my great-grandmother Isabel - was drafted into the armed forces.  For some reason, his name was Americanized to Joseph P. Ortega while he was in the service, but our family has always called him Luciano.  Luciano was attached to the 34th Infantry Regiment of the 24th Infantry Division, which was on the front lines in the war against Japan. 

During October and November 1944, the 24th Infantry Division was involved in the campaign to eject the Japanese from Leyte in the Philippine Islands.  Then, on November 19, 1944, Uncle Luciano was killed in action.  He was buried in the Manila American Cemetery in the capital city.  My uncle by marriage, Joseph Torres (the husband of Lucy Ortega) - who also served in the Philippines - saw Uncle Luciano's grave and informed the family of where the body had been laid to rest.  However, my great-great-grandmother, Theodora Tapia Ortega, never reconciled herself to her son's death and refused to accept it.  Instead, she continued to believe that he was missing in action and would someday return home to Saticoy.

Eighth Generation:

The eighth generation of my family was involved in two wars:  World War II and the Korean War.  Late in World War II, Chello O. Ortega, the son of Paz Ortega (a sister of Luciano and Isabel Ortega) and Laurencio Ortega, went to war.  He was the second Ortega to go to the Army from Saticoy and  - like his uncle Luciano - was sent to the Pacific Theater.  On May 8, 1945, Nazi Germany had surrendered unconditionally to Allied forces.  However, the war in the Pacific Theater continued unabated.

On June 27, 1945, a month-and-a-half after Nazi Germany had surrendered, the Oxnard Press Courier announced that Chello Ortega from Saticoy was missing in action in the Pacific Theater.  Nine days later, on July 6, 1945, the same newspaper announced the sad news that Chello Ortega had been killed in action (although his exact date of death is not known to us).  Less than two months later, Japan would surrender and peace would finally come to America after three years and nine months of war.

As World War II drew to an end, the three Melendez brothers - sons of Refugio Melendez and Isabel Ortega and brothers to my grandmother Dora - were teenagers.  Raymond (Raymundo) Ortega Melendez had been born in 1929 and yearned to join the military.  In 1945, at the age of 17 - with his parents' permission - Ray entered the American armed forces.  This would mark the beginning of a long military career, which would take him through the Korean and Vietnam Wars before his retirement in 1969.

The Korean War began in 1950, only five years after the end of World War II.  The participation of Mexican Americans and other Hispanics in the Korean War was such that the Department of Defense publication, Hispanics in America's Defense (Collingdale, Pennsylvania: Diane Publishing Co., 1997), has paid tribute to their contribution:  "The Korean Conflict saw many Hispanic Americans responding to the call of duty.  They served with distinction in all of the services…. Many Mexican Americans from barrios in Los Angeles, San Antonio, Laredo, Phoenix, and Chicago saw fierce action in Korea. Fighting in almost every combat unit in Korea, they distinguished themselves through courage and bravery as they had in previous wars."

By the end of the Korean War, all three of my grandmother's brothers, Raymond, Donald (Danny) and Simon would join the United States Army.   During this war, Uncle Ray served as an airborne paratrooper for many years.  But my Uncle Simon Melendez's experiences in the Korean War are the stuff that legends are made of.

Born on October 28, 1930, Simon Ortega Melendez was raised in Saticoy and attended Ventura Junior High School and Ventura City College.  When the Korean War started, Simon joined the 2nd Division of the U.S. Army and became a machine gunner.  It would be Uncle Simon's destiny to take part in two of the bloodiest battles of the Korean War.  The "Battle of Bloody Ridge" began in August 1951 and continued up until September 12, 1951.   On August 27, Simon was hit in the neck and legs by mortar shrapnel and in the back by grenade fragments.  At the same time, he was separated from his platoon.  For seven days, he was behind enemy lines and disoriented by torrential rains that made his weapon inoperable.

The rain did not stop until the sixth day, and on the seventh day he was able to make his way into the area of the 9th U.S. Regiment.  When asked how he managed to make his way through enemy lines for seven days, 21-year-old Simon explained that "my extreme faith in God brought me through."  Soon after this, Uncle Simon was able to have a three-day reunion with his brother Ray near the front lines.  Raymond, who had already been in the service for six years, was a paratrooper and had been stationed about a 100 miles from Simon's position.  Soon after, Simon was once again in the thick of the fighting when his unit took part in the "Battle of Heartbreak Ridge," which lasted from September 13 to October 22, 1951. 

The Battles of Bloody Ridge and Heartbreak Ridge were the two bloodiest battles of the Korean War.  By the time he left the service, Simon had been awarded the Silver Star, the Bronze Star, and three Purple Hearts.  He also founded the Mexican-American Korean War Veterans of Ventura County and became a life member of the Veterans of Foreign Wars and the American Legion.  Simon Melendez, the proud Korean War veteran, died at the age of 71 on June 15, 2002, surrounded by a family that adored him.  Even to this day, Uncle Simon's memory remains strong with me and my family, in large part because he had a larger than life personality that endeared him to everyone.

Donald Ortega Melendez, who was born in 1936, entered the service in 1954 at the tail end of the Korean War.  Like his brother Raymond, he initially joined the paratroopers.  During his first stint overseas, Donald was assigned to the 9th Infantry Regiment of the 2nd Infantry division.  He did three separate hitches overseas and was on service during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962.  Uncle Donald spent 25 years in the military and achieved the rank of First Sergeant before he retired in 1979.

Uncle Ray, also an airborne paratrooper, served all around the world at one time or another and achieved the rank of Command Sergeant Major by the time he retired in 1969.  Like Donald, Uncle Ray was a career military person and does not feel that he is at liberty to discuss his military service in great detail.  Uncle Simon - after his Korean War service - had been offered a promotion too, but he decided that he was ready for civilian life.

Ninth Generation:

Four members of our family's eighth generation served in the military, possibly even more that I do not know about.  But the military tradition has carried through to the present generations and the number of Ninth Generation family members who have served in the military is hard to tally.  Luciano Ortega's daughter, Geraldine, joined the military for a long period of time.  Donald's son Daniel Melendez followed in his father's step and served as a paratrooper from 1970 to 1982.  Uncle Simon had two sons who spent a number of years in the military:  Ricardo Melendez served in the air force and Roy enlisted in the U.S. Marines.

When he was twenty years old, my mother's brother, Eusebio Javier Melendez Basulto followed in our family's military tradition by enlisting in the U.S. Army.  He served in Military Intelligence with MOS (Military Occupational Specialty) Unit 406 ASA, where he achieved the rank of Specialist, Fourth Class.  Uncle Eusebio's military career lasted from 1973 to 1985, a total of 12 years, after which he became a chemist in the civilian world.

During the extended Vietnam Conflict (1963-1973), approximately 80,000 Hispanic Americans served in the American military. Although Hispanics made up only about 4.5% of the total U.S. population at that time, they incurred more than 19% of the casualties. In all, thirteen Hispanic soldiers received the Medal of Honor during this conflict.

Continuing this trend of service into the last decade of the Twentieth Century, twenty thousand Hispanic servicemen and women participated in Operation Desert Shield and Desert Storm (1990-1991). Writing in Hispanic Heritage Month 1996: Hispanics - Challenging the Future, Army Chaplain (Captain) Carlos C. Huerta of the First Battalion, 79th Field Artillery stated that "Hispanics have always met the challenge of serving the nation with great fervor. In every war, in every battle, on every battlefield, Hispanics have put their lives on the line to protect freedom."

As Mexican-American citizens of California, my family has carried on a proud tradition of military service.  When our nation has been in need, my ancestors - from the earliest days in California - answered the call with a sense of pride and obligation.  This sense of duty is a deeply held tradition to all Mexican-Americans. 

Although I have inherited my dark eyes and thick dark hair from my Mexican ancestors, I am also German and Anglo-American through my father's side of the family.  For this reason, it is not readily evident to some people that I am Mexican-American.   As a result, I have - on occasion - heard friends and acquaintances express less than flattering opinions about Mexican immigrants or Mexican Americans.

Such comments and criticisms - although they were undoubtedly based on ignorance or fear - hurt me and were an affront to my family's pride and dignity.  I can only say - in response to such hurtful comments - that I hope those people are reading this article.  If I could speak to them today, I would tell them that my family - for two centuries - has been fighting for their freedom.  And when my Uncle Luciano Ortega and my Cousin Chello Ortega were killed in action during World War II, they were sacrificing their lives for the freedom of all Californians.

DEDICATION:  This work is dedicated to my ancestors who have defended California for two centuries:

1. José Matias Olivas - Soldier in the Service of Spain, 1781-1798

2. José Pablo Olivas - Soldier in the Service of Spain, 1804-1817

3. José Dolores Olivas - Soldier in the Service of Spain and Mexico

4. José Victoriano Olivas - Civil War Veteran  (1863-1865)

5. Joseph Luciano Ortega - World War II -

            Killed in action, Philippine Islands, November 19, 1944

6. Chello Ortega - World War II -

            Killed in action, Pacific Theater, June 1945

7. Raymond Ortega Melendez, Korean War Veteran and Career Soldier (1945-1969)

8. Donald Ortega Melendez, Korean War Veteran and Career Soldier (1954-1979)

9.  Simon Ortega Melendez, Korean War Veteran

10. Eusebio Basulto, Jr., Specialist, Fourth Class in Military Intelligence (1973-1985).

Special Acknowledgments:  We thank Eva Melendez Aubert, Dora Melendez Basulto, Eusebio Basulto, Donald Ortega Melendez, Sarah Basulto Evans, and the Simon Ortega Melendez family for their valuable contributions to this tribute.

Copyright  © 2004, by Jennifer Vo and John P. Schmal.  
All rights under applicable law are hereby reserved. 

Interviews conducted by Jennifer Vo, Sarah Basulto Evans, and John Schmal.
Spanish and Mexican military research conducted by Robert Lopez and John Schmal.

California Archives, Provincial State Papers, 1767-1822 (Archives of California, Bancroft Library, U.C. Berkeley).

Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Military Manpower and Personnel Policy, U.S. Department of Defense. Hispanics in America's Defense (Collingdale, Pennsylvania: Diane Publishing Co., 1997).

Robert S. Whitehead, Citadel on the Channel: The Royal Presidio of Santa Barbara:  Its Founding and Construction, 1782-1798 (Santa Barbara: Santa Barbara Trust for Historical Preservation, 1996).

War Department. The Adjutant Generals Office. Administrative Services Division. Strength Accounting Branch. World War II Honor List of Dead and Missing Army and Army Air Forces Personnel from California, 1946 - from Record Group 407: Records of the Adjutant General's Office, 1917- [AGO], 1905 - 1981

American Battle Monuments Commission. “National World War II Memorial”  Online: 2003.

Jennifer Vo and John P. Schmal, A Mexican-American Family of California: In the Service of Three Flags (Heritage Books, 2004).  

(John P. Schmal is a SHHAR Board member.) 



Legacy of Valor Traveling Display
First Sioux to Receive Medal of Honor
Maricopa County, Arizona's Sheriff Joe Arpaio 
Calaca Press Field Commander, Raúl R. Salinas Dies 
LEGACY OF VALOR, Display mounted by Rick Leal
            Although Hispanics have fought and contributed in every military confrontation in which the United States has been engaged, little recognition has been given or acknowledged.  Omitted regularly in history books and documentaries, Hispanic/Latinos have not been able to learn how deeply committed Hispanics have been, and are, to the principles of freedom and democracy. 

Rick Leal, brought up in Corpus Christi, Texas, a child patient and admirer of Dr. Hector P. Garcia, grew up with a deep sense of respect for the men that he saw leave to serve and profound gratitude for those that did not return.  

Mr. Leal reaching a level of freedom as a realtor began to fulfill his desire to honor Hispanics in the military for their bravery, dedication and in untold numbers, supreme sacrifice.  Mr. Leal quickly concluded that Hispanics have a share of heroes, men and women that have been awarded every decoration for valor that our country can be bestow.  He determined that the gallantry of Hispanics is a part of history that must not be allowed to be forgotten.  He discovered, though little known, that 43 Medal of Honor have been received by Hispanics, America’s highest military decoration for valor.

 Mr. Leal conceived and began The HISPANIC MEDAL OF HONOR SOCIETY in 1993 as a means to get the message across.  With a support group, he conceived and developed The LEGACY OF VALOR DISPLAY, a historically comprehensive, artistic and educational project designed to bring awareness and appreciation within Hispanic communities, as well as the rest of the nation, for the patriotism and sacrifice demonstrated by Hispanic Medal of Honor recipients.

The LEGACY OF VALOR made its maiden exhibition on July 28-30,2000 at the Los Angeles Theatre Center and ever since, has traveled every year to LULAC and NCLR's  National Conferences from San Antonio, Austin,(3-times to Washington D.C).Chicago, Miami, Arkansas, San Jose, Phoenix, Dallas and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. This July 08  our exhibit will be on display at LULAC's National conference in Washington, D.C .and NCLR National Conference in San Diego, CA. On July 18, 2006 we did 5-Cities tour for the United States Army. 

The following year, September 17th, 2007, LEGACY OF VALOR was exhibited at the United States Army’s. FT. HOOD ARMY BASE in Killeen, Texas the largest military base in the United States. 

Recognition and honor included two awards AND THE AMAZING INVITATION to bring the LEGACY OF VALOR exhibit to Iraq during Hispanic Heritage Month, 2008.  Our Latino soldiers will know that their presence and contributions are honored. The exhibition reflects the theme of Hispanic participation in America's Wars:  "FIRST IN,  LAST TO LEAVE".

Rick Leal, President
Hispanic Medal Of Honor Society
2128 Market Street
San Francisco,CA. 94114
Tel. (415) 307-7779 cell.



First Sioux to Receive Medal of Honor
Army News Service, by Carrie McLeroy    
February 23, 2008

WASHINGTON - During the final allied offensive of the Korean War, Master Sgt. Woodrow Wilson Keeble risked his life to  save his fellow Soldiers. Almost six decades after his gallant actions and 26 years after his death, Keeble will be the first full-blooded Sioux Indian to receive the Medal of Honor.

The White House announced this morning that Keeble will receive the  Medal of Honor posthumously in a ceremony scheduled for 2:30 p.m. March 3.

Keeble is one of the most decorated Soldiers in North Dakota history.  A veteran of World War II and the Korean War, he was born in 1917 in Waubay, S.D., on the Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Reservation, which
extended into North Dakota. He spent most of his life in the Wahpeton, N.D. area, where he attended an Indian school. In 1942 Keeble joined the North Dakota National Guard, and in October that year, found himself embroiled in some of the fiercest hand-to-hand combat of World War II on  Guadalcanal.

Guadalcanal:  Guadalcanal seemed to be on his mind a lot," Russell Hawkins, Keeble's stepson, said. "His fellow Soldiers said he had to fight a lot of hand-to-hand fights with the Japanese, so he saw their
faces. Every now and then he would get a far-away look in his eyes, and I knew he was thinking about those men and the things he had to do." At Henderson Field on the South Pacific Island, Keeble served with Company I, 164th Infantry - the first Army unit on Guadalcanal.

"I heard stories from James Fenelon, who served with him there, and he would talk about how the men of the 164th rallied around this full-blooded Sioux Indian whose accuracy with the Brown Automatic Rifle       was unparalleled," Hawkins said. "It was said he would go in front of patrols and kill enemies before his unit would get there."

The Sioux have a word for that kind of bravery, according to Hawkins - wowaditaka. "It means don't be afraid of anything, be braver than that which scares you the most." Keeble personified the word
according to fellow Soldiers, and earned the first of four Purple Hearts and his first Bronze Star for his actions on Guadalcanal.

Korea: Keeble answered the call to arms again when war broke out in Korea. He was a seasoned, 34-year-old master sergeant serving with 1st Platoon, Company G, 19th Infantry Regiment, 24th Division.
According to eyewitness accounts, while serving as the acting platoon leader of 1st Plt. in the vicinity of the Kumsong River, North Korea, on or about Oct. 15. 1951, Keeble voluntarily took on the responsibility of leading not only his platoon, but the 2nd and 3rd Platoons as well.

In an official statement 1st Sgt. Kosumo "Joe" Sagami of Co. G said, "All the officers of the company had received disabling wounds or were killed in action, except one platoon leader who assumed command
of the company." The company's mission was to take control of a steep, rocky, heavily fortified hill.

Hawkins recalled how the man everyone knew as "Woody," described the terrain. "We were driving through Colorado on a trip, and Woody was pointing at something out the window," Hawkins said. By that
time, Keeble had suffered seven debilitating strokes and lost the ability to speak.

"I pulled over and realized he was pointing at a large, rocky cliff  with an almost sheer drop. I asked Woody if that was what it was like during that battle in Korea and he nodded, 'yes,'" Hawkins
said. "It wasn't quite a straight drop down, but you could get up the hill faster on your hands and knees than on your feet."

Sagami wrote that Keeble led all three platoons in successive  assaults upon the Chinese who held the hill throughout the day. All three charges were repulsed, and the company suffered heavy casualties.
Trenches filled with enemy soldiers, and fortified by three pillboxes containing machine guns and additional men surrounded the hill.

Following the third assault and subsequent mortar and artillery support, the enemy sustained casualties among its ranks in the open trenches. The machine gunners in the pillboxes however, continued to  direct fire on the company. Sagami said after Keeble withdrew the 3rd platoon, he decided to attempt a solo assault.

"He once told a relative that the fourth attempt he was either going to take them out or die trying," Hawkins said.  "Woody used to tell people he was more concerned about losing his men than about losing his own life," he added. "He pushed his own life to the limit. He wasn't willing to put his fellow Soldiers' lives on the line."

Armed with grenades and his Browning Automatic Rifle, Keeble crawled to an area 50 yards from the ridgeline, flanked the left pillbox and used grenades and rifle fire to eliminate it, according to Sagami. After returning to the point where 1st Platoon held the company's first line of defense, Keeble worked his way to the opposite side of the ridgeline and took out the right pillbox with grenades. "Then without
hesitation, he lobbed a grenade into the back entrance of the middle pillbox and with additional rifle fire eliminated it," Sagami added.

Hawkins said one eyewitness told him the enemy directed its entire arsenal at Keeble during his assault. "He said there were so many grenades coming down on Woody, that it looked like a flock of blackbirds." Even under heavy enemy fire, Keeble was able to complete his objective. Only after he killed the machine gunners did  Keeble order his men to advance and secure the hill.

"When I first started hearing these stories I was amazed that a man of Woody's size (more than six feet tall and 235-plus pounds),  could sneak up on the enemy without being noticed," Hawkins said. "So
one day,  I was out helping him mow the lawn, and I asked him how he did it. He just shrugged his houlders.

"I joked with him and told him those soldiers must have been blind or old or something, because he would never be able to sneak up on a young guy like me." Hawkins said he continued to mow then was startled when Woody popped up from behind some bushes near him. "He could have reached out and grabbed me by the ankles, and I didn't even know he was there!"  Keeble had slid on his back behind the brush. Although Hawkins was not positive, he believed Keeble might have used a similar maneuver when         attacking the pillboxes.

Keeble's selfless acts on that rugged terrain in 1951 did not come without a price. According to Sagami and other eyewitnesses, he was wounded on at least five different occasions by fragmentation
and concussion grenades. "His wounds were apparent in the chest, both arms, right calf, knee and right thigh and left thigh." Sagami cited blood at the wound locations as evidence.  Hawkins said 83 grenade fragments were removed from Keeble's body, but several others remained. "You could tell that the wounds bothered him sometimes, but he never complained."

Sagami wrote in his statement that Keeble did not complain on the battlefield either. "At no time did he allow himself to be evacuated during the course of the day. Only after the unit was in defensive positions for the night did he allow himself to be evacuated."

According to Hawkins, every surviving member of Co. G signed a letter recommending Keeble for the Medal of Honor on two separate occasions, once in November 1951 and then again in December that same year. On both instances, the paperwork was lost. Keeble was awarded the Distinguished          Service Cross Dec. 20, 1952 for his actions in Korea, not the Medal of Honor his men believed he deserved. He also earned the Purple Heart, (First Oak Leaf Cluster); Bronze Star (First Oak Leaf Cluster);
and the Silver Star as a result of his heroics throughout his tour in Korea. He was honorably discharged March 1, 1953.

Life after the Army:  Even after his discharge, Keeble never severed his ties with the  Army, Hawkins said, and was a champion for veterans and their causes.  "He was always going to different veterans events and he supported the  Disabled American Veterans organization. He would wear his uniform in
parades, and was the first in line for any type of fundraiser."

Though Keeble knew of his unit's failed attempts to award him the Medal of Honor, Hawkins said he never sensed any bitterness  from him. "Whenever someone would bring it up, he just shrugged. He
wasn't there to get medals; he was there for his men and his country. He enjoyed the small things in life, and concentrated on what he had, not what he didn't have."

Those who didn't know Keeble the Soldier saw him as a kind-hearted, gentle man full of humility, according to Hawkins. "Woody was a very upbeat person. If you didn't know his war record, you'd think
he was just a happy-go-lucky guy. His glass was always half full, never half empty."

In later years, Keeble fell on hard times and was forced to pawn all his medals. He had one lung removed, and in the months and years following the surgery suffered more than a half dozen strokes
that Hawkins said eventually left him speechless. "But his mind remained sharp, and he was the same man inside."

Keeble's family was presented with a duplicate set of medals in May 2006, and they, along with his uniform and other memorabilia, are housed at the University of North Dakota in Grand Forks.

Long Road to Medal of Honor:  The family's battle to upgrade Keeble's Distinguished Service Cross        to the Medal of Honor began in 1972, when both Woody and his wife, Dr. Blossom Hawkins-Keeble, were still alive. According to Hawkins, the family unknowingly started off in the wrong direction. "We thought the paperwork had been lost, but were unaware that it no longer existed. It didn't just get lost on the battlefield, it never made it off the battlefield." When the family finally realized this fact, they sought          the support of the Sisseton-Wahpeton tribe and gathered recorded statements from the men who served with Keeble.

The team soon learned that since the statute of limitations for awarding the Medal of Honor was three years from the date of the heroic action, it would literally take, "An Act of Congress," to realize the goal. Beginning in 2002, the tribe involved senators and representatives from North and South Dakota. Armed with written evidence, eyewitness accounts and letters from four senators supporting the effort,
tribe officials contacted the Army, which reviewed the evidence and concluded Keeble's actions were worthy of the medal. Finally, on March  23, 2007, North Dakota Senator Byron Dorgan introduced a bill, cosponsored by Senators Kent Conrad (ND), Tim Johnson (SD) and John Thune (SD), authorizing the president, "To award the Medal of Honor to Woodrow W. Keeble for his acts of valor during the Korean conflict."  Congress passed the bill in early December 2007.

Hawkins will represent Keeble in a White House ceremony March 3, where he will accept the Medal of Honor on his behalf.

"We are just proud to be a part of this for Woody," Hawkins said. "He is deserving of this, for what he did in the Armed Services in defense of this country." Hawkins added that this victory is as important for the Sisseton-Wahpeton tribe and North and South Dakota as it is for Keeble and his family. "We are all extremely proud that Woody is finally receiving this honor. He epitomized our cultural values of humility, compassion, bravery, strength and honor."

He added that Woody was the embodiment of "woyuonihan," or, "honor," always carrying himself in a way so that those who knew him would be proud of him. "He lived a life full of honor and respect."  Hawkins said his feelings about Keeble echo those of all who knew him. "If he was alive today, I would tell him there's no one I respect more, and how he is everything a man should be: brave, kind and generous. I would tell him how proud I am of him, and how I never realized that all this time, I was living with such greatness."

Sent by Bill Carmena


Sheriff Joe is at it Again!!

Oh, there's MUCH more to know about Sheriff Joe! Maricopa County was spending approx. $18 million dollars a year on stray animals, like cats and dogs.  Sheriff Joe offered to take the department over, and the County Supervisors said okay.

The animal shelters are now all staffed and operated by prisoners.  They feed and care for the strays.  Every animal in his care is taken out and walked twice daily.  He now has prisoners who are experts in animal nutrition and behavior.  They give great classes for anyone who'd like to adopt an animal.  He has literally taken stray dogs off the street, given them to the care of prisoners, and had them place in dog shows.
The best part?  His budget for the entire department is now under $3 million.

Folks interviewed recently adopted a Weimeriner from a Maricopa County shelter two years ago.  He was neutered, and current on all shots, in great health, and even had a microchip inserted the day they got him. Cost: $78.  

The prisoners get the benefit of about $0.28 an hour for working, but most would work for free, just to be out of their cells for the day.  Most of his budget is for utilities, building maintenance, etc.  He pays the prisoners out of the fees collected for adopted animals.

Many have long wondered when the rest of the country will take a look at the way he runs the jail system, and copy some of his ideas. He has a huge farm, donated to the county years ago, where inmates can work, and they grow most of their own fresh vegetables and food, doing all the work and harvesting by hand.  He has a pretty good sized hog farm, which provides meat, and fertilizer.  It fertilizes the Christmas tree nursery, where prisoners work, and you can buy a living Christmas tree for $6 - $8 for the Holidays, and plant it later. 

Yup, he was re-elected last year with 83% of the vote. Now he's in trouble with the ACLU again.  He painted all his buses and vehicles with a mural, that has a special hotline phone number painted on it, where you can call and report suspected illegal aliens.  Immigrations and Customs Enforcement wasn't doing enough in his eyes, so he had 40 deputies trained specifically for enforcing immigration laws, started up his hotline, and bought 4 new buses just for hauling folks back to the b order.  He's kind of a "Git-R Dun" kind of Sheriff.

Update on Joe Arpaio

Sheriff Joe Arpaio (In Arizona ) who created the "Tent City Jail":  He has jail meals down to 40 cents a serving and charges the inmates for them.  

He stopped smoking and porno magazines in the jails. Took away their weights. Cut off all but "G" movies.

He started chain gangs so the inmates could do free work on county and city projects! Then he started chain gangs for women so he wouldn't get sued for discrimination. 

He took away cable TV Until he found out there was a federal court order that required cable TV for jails so he hooked up the cable TV again only let in the Disney Channel and the weather channel.

When asked why the weather channel he replied, so they will know how hot it's gonna be while they are working on my chain gangs.

He cut off coffee since it has zero nutritional value.  Whens the inmates complained, he told them  "This isn't the Ritz/Carlton....If you don't like it, don't come back. You don't like it, don't come back."

He bought Newt Gingrich's lecture series on videotape that he pipes into the jails.

More On The Arizona Sheriff:

With Temperatures Being Even Hotter Than Usual In Phoenix (116 Degrees Just Set A New Record), the Associated Press Reports: About 2,000 I nmates Living In A Barbed-Wire-Surrounded Tent Encampment At The Maricopa County Jail Have Been Given Permission To Strip Down To Their Government-Issued Pink Boxer Shorts.

On Wednesday, hundreds of men wearing boxers were either curled up on their bunk beds or chatted in the tents, which reached 138 Degrees Inside The Week Before.

Many were swathed in wet, pink towels as sweat collected on their chests and dripped down to their pink socks.

"It feel like we are in a furnace," said James Zanzot, an inmate who has lived in the TENTS for 1 year. "It's Inhumane."

Joe Arpaio, the tough-guy sheriff who created the tent city and long ago started making his prisoners wear pink, and eat bologna sandwiches, is not one bit sympathetic.
He said Wednesday that he told all of the inmates: "It's 120 Degrees In Iraq and our soldiers are living in tents too, and they have to wear full battle gear, but they didn't commit any crimes, so shut your damned mouths!!"

Maybe if all prisons were like this one there would be a lot less crime and/or repeat offenders.  Criminals should be punished for their crimes - not live in luxury until it's time for their parole, only to go out and commit another crime so they can get back in to live on taxpayers money and enjoy things taxpayers can't afford to have for themselves.

¡Raúl R. Salinas, Presente!
March 17, 1934- February 13, 2008

Jazz Hipster | Pinto | Cockroach Poet | Human Rights Activist | Xicanindio | Elder | Comrade


It is with profound sadness and heartache that we inform you of the passing of Calaca Press Field Commander, Raúl R. Salinas.

Raul, the author of the seminal Chicano experience poem, Un Trip Through the Mind Jail, was not only an accomplished poet but a dedicated community activist who gained a political consciousness while serving approximately 13 years inside some of America’s most notorious prisons (Huntsville, Soledad, and Leavenworth among others). While in prison at Marion he was befriended by Puerto Rican Nationalist Rafael Cancel Miranda (famed for an armed assault on congress on March 1, 1954 with fellow Nationalists including Lolita Lebron). Sr. Miranda was a major influence on Raul’s lifework. Imprisoned during the early Chicano Movement years he was active in the prison rights struggles of that time. His book, raúlrsalinas and the Jail Machine: My Weapon is My Pen: Selected Writings by Raúl Salinas (edited by protégé Louis G. Mendoza) highlights his struggles and victories inside America’s prison system. Including winning a landmark prison rights case.

After his release from prison in 1973 he dedicated his life to Chicano and Native American causes. He was a member of the Centro de la Raza in Seattle, the American Indian Movement, a cofounder of the Leonard Peltier Defense Committee and various other progressive organizations dedicated to defending the rights and interests of all working class and colonized people. A true internationalist he was committed to supporting Puerto Rican independence (as well as ending the bombing on Vieques), the Cuban Revolution, The Nicaraguan Sandinistas, the Zapatistas in Chiapas and the Bolivarian Process of Presidente Hugo Chavez Frias of Venezuela among many other internationalist struggles.

After serving many years of forced exile in Washington state (where he helped defend Native American fishing rights), he eventually returned to his home in Austin, TX. Shortly thereafter he opened Resistencia Bookstore and Red Salmon Arts which became a cultural and political hub for East Austin’s Chicano community.

In 1999, after hearing about this "cool vato de aquellas," Calaca Press took a chance by calling Resistencia Bookstore out of the blue to introduce ourselves and seek a meeting. After a somewhat cold conversation we later flew to San Antonio for the Inter-American Book Fair where we were to gather. Instantly we hit it off and plans were made to bring Raul to San Diego to record a couple poems for volume 2 of our Raza Spoken Here audio series. After an amazing recording session featuring Raúl and Taco Shop Poets rhythm section Mikey Figgins on bass and Kevin P. Green on drums it was decided to go forward with a full CD of Raul’s work. A few months later Raul came back to San Diego (sleeping many a night on the infamous striped couch in our tiny apartment in Barrio Lomas) to finish recording what would become Los Many Mundos of raúlrsalinas: Un Poetic Jazz Viaje con Friends. During this session we recorded, but never released, Un Trip Through the Mind Jail. Perhaps the only quality recording of this major work of Chicano literature.

It was during 2000 that Raúl affectionately and facetiously dubbed Calaca owners Brent E. Beltrán and Consuelo Manríquez de Beltrán the Chairman and Comandante CHElo, while calling himself the Field Commander of Calaca Press. Raul helped create and foment the current mystique that surrounds our Calacaverse and the work that we do. Between 2000 and 2004 Raul made numerous trips to San Diego to visit Calacalandia and became a regular amongst the Calacas and SD’s Chicano art/activist scene. Without the example of our Field Commander, Calaca Press and our organization the Red CalacArts Collective (whom we borrowed the Red and Arts from Red Salmon Arts as an homage), would not be what it is today.

Our Field Commander and comrade will be missed and remembered. He will always hold a special place in our collective memory.

Adelante, compañero, siempre adelante. Desde Calacalandia,
El Chairman y La Comandante CHElo


P.O. Box 13521
Minneapolis MN 55414
612/ 721-3914 . fax 612/ 721-7826
Web Address:


Why wasn't WW II Hero Guy Gabaladon Given the Medal of Honor?
Powerpoint presentations being prepared, Help sought
The Forgotten Servicemen/women In Iraq!
Xerox will send a soldier a Thank You for you
Contact your Legislatures, educate them concerning 
Ken Burns $50 book is being sold for $2 


New York, NY February 20 --  Who was the 5’ 4” dynamo who, in military history, sits somewhere between Sergeant York and Audie Murphy? Hailed the “Pied Piper of Saipan,” Guy Gabaldon accomplished the impossible by single-handedly capturing 1500 Japanese prisoners.  Never in the history of the United States military had one man captured that many of the enemy.  

Guy, of Hispanic descent, grew up in East Los Angeles and as a youngster became close friends with a number of Japanese-American families that helped raise him.  Through his close relationships with the Japanese, he learned their language, culture and customs. Little did he know then how his upbringing and street knowledge would help him to become an American hero – while simultaneously saving so many “enemy” lives.

When Pearl Harbor was attacked, Gabaldon’s close Japanese-American friends were all shipped to internment camps.   Doing what he felt was what his family expected of him, he joined the Marines. Even though he was under regulation height and had a perforated ear drum, his knowledge of some Japanese language and culture, secured him a place in the intelligence section of the 2nd Marine Regiment, 2nd Marine Division.

During the battle of Saipan, the U.S. lost 4,000 Marines and Army personnel. Against orders, Gabaldon would travel by himself into enemy territory, use a few salty slang Japanese words and capture prisoners.  Two here, three there, until one day in July 1944, he grabbed 800 prisoners.  But these were not only military – they were also civilians -- women and children, who, if not for Guy, would have been killed as casualties of war.   His weapon was not his military tools, but his compassion and straight-forward Japanese words convincing them to come with him for safety.  Some of them were even Japanese Imperial Marines who were told by Tokyo to never surrender.

By simply going to, those who believe Guy should have received the Medal of Honor can sign the petition to award Guy the honor he should have received sixty years ago.

 And for those interested in learning more about Guy’s story, they can also visit to pre-order a copy of the documentary The Untold True Story of Guy Gabaldon.

Jill Goldstein
131 Varick St  
Suite 1028  
New York, NY 10013  


Power Point Presentations Prepared for Public Use, Help Sought
            Dear Mimi and Maggie, 

I have assemble much of the information for our US Air Force powerpoint presentation. But after reading about the beginning of the Aviation history, I wanted to see if any of you have any names of Latinos that served in the Civil War or the Army Signal Corps in your data bases. Most of mine start in WWII.

Maybe we can ask our members to see if they recall submitting names or relatives that may have served in the Civil War to WW I era. I am including some web sites that mention some Army Bases in TX and New Mexico that were use during the Mexican War (General Pershing and Pancho Villa) and then Camp John Wise in San Antonio. Maybe by our viewers or readers seeing these photos they may recall stories of their grandparents working or enlisting at these bases.

Thank you. Rafael Ojeda

Rafael's PP presentation on the History of Hispanics in the Air Force will be made available online for public use.  Tony Santiago is preparing a PP presentation on the History of Hispanics in the US Marine Corps, and Dan Arellano is preparing one on the History of Hispanics in the US Army.  

Is anyone with a connection to the Navy up to the challenge of preparing a PP presentation on the History of Hispanics in the US Navy?  We expect that once again Ken Burns and PBS will choose Hispanic Heritage Month to air THE WAR series for local PBS stations to use for fall fund raising. We are hoping to have these PP presentations available to counteract the negative effects of Ken Burns work.   


The Forgotten Servicemen/women In Iraq!
            This film was made by a 15 year old girl.  The following is the hottest thing on the internet and on Fox News today. Lizzie Palmer who put this YouTube program together is 15 years old. There have been over 3,000,000 hits as of this morning. In case you missed it, here it is  
Sent by Rick Leal


Xerox will send a soldier a Thank You for you
            If you go to this web site, , you can pick out a thank you card and Xerox will print it and it will be sent to a soldier that is currently serving in Iraq. You can’t pick out who gets it, but it will go to some member of the armed services.
How AMAZING it would be if we could get everyone we know to send one!!!
This is a great site.  Please send a card. It is FREE and it only takes a second. Wouldn’t it be wonderful if the soldiers received a bunch of these? Whether you are for or against the war, our guys and gals over there need to hear often from home. Sent by Kathie Kennedy

Editor:  Frank Sifuentes sent this photo of his nephew's Samuel Martinez's family.  Frank writes that "Sammy" was in the U.S. Marines and took part in the military operation during papa Bush, the Grenada war during Reagan's
administration and in Desert Storm. In 2004 he did a tour in Iraq.

Write to our soldiers and say thanks.

Contact your Legislatures, educate them of our historical contributions
            If you agree, would you support me on this effort and write a similar letter to our legislature? I have gotten the support of Dr Andres Tijerina and author and historian Rober Thonhoff. I would like to deliver them in bulk to our MALC when the legislature convenes here in Austin.Please submit on stationary and addressed to the MALC or to me at the address below. 

Thanks, Dan Arellano

The Mexican American Legislative Caucus
202 W. 13th
Austin , Texas 78701

Dan Arellano
P.O. Box 43012
Austin , Texas 78704

Dear Sirs or Madam,

Why is it that the unsuccessful attempts by the French to establish permanent colonies in Texas , when none survived, are credited with more than the Tejano community, which has survived and exists to this day? Murdered by his own people La Salle’s doomed incursion into Texas is seen as a great accomplishment. Whereas the Tejano community, where over a thousand Tejanos sacrificed their lives for freedom during the First Texas Republic , is seen as inconsequential, and in fact not even mentioned in our public schools?  

On April 6th 1813, ten years before the arrival of Stephen F. Austin and after a year of bloody fighting, the Tejano community, declared themselves to be free and independent of Spanish rule. Flying the Emerald Green Flag of the First Texas Republic Jose Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara would read the declaration of independence in front of the Spanish Governors Mansion in what is now downtown San Antonio.  

Texas history does not begin with the arrival of Stephen F. Austin and there were not six flags over Texas there were seven and I ask you to introduce legislation acknowledging that April 6th be recognized as the Tejano Declaration of Independence and that the Emerald Green Flag be recognized as the seventh flag that has flown over Texas .  

Robert H. Thonhoff, past President of the Texas State Historical Association, recipient of the Presidio La Bahia Award for his research on Spanish and Mexican History, recipient of the Leadership Award from the Texas State Historical Association, author, historian and community leader has said about this period of Texas history that it has been “swept underneath the proverbial rug of history.”  

With the leadership of the Mexican American Legislative Caucus we ask that this letter be entered into the Texas State Legislature Record and call upon the Legislature to pass a joint resolution acknowledging the contributions of our Tejano ancestors to this great State of Texas .

Dan Arellano Author/Historian

Editor:  Do believe that your action and involvement can make a difference.
I received a catalog from History Books and was surprised to see that the book accompanying the documentary series, THE WAR, by Ken Burns, which is selling for $50 was being sold for $2.  I guess that means, the book didn't sell too well??



Texas State signs admission agreement with Laredo Community College
Verizon Foundation to give $1M to literacy program
Dr. Elsa A. Murano: New President of Texas A&M University
NASA Aeronautics Offers University Scholarships


(Left to right) Perry Moore, Texas State provost; Reed Richardson, chair, Texas State agriculture department; Fred Solis, Laredo Community College vice president of instruction sign guaranteed admissions agreement.

Texas State signs admission agreement with Laredo Community College

Posted by Jayme Blaschke
University News Service
February 4, 2008

Texas State University-San Marcos and Laredo Community College have signed a guaranteed admissions agreement in support of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Hispanic Serving Institution Grant, enabling Laredo Community College (LCC) students to enroll at Texas State.

The agreement was signed Jan. 30 by Perry Moore, Texas State provost, and Fred Solis, Laredo Community College vice president of instruction. The initiative is intended to help increase the multicultural diversity in agriculture through education and partnerships. It will create a solid path for Hispanic and other underrepresented students to complete degrees in agriculture science and business to qualify for jobs with USDA.  

Laredo Community College students who wish to enroll at Texas State under the provisions of the grant must apply for admission and verify that they have a 2.25 grade point average.  Texas State agrees to waive the application fee and official transcripts.  LCC agrees to provide verification of the student’s Texas residency status, LCC grade point average and academic and Texas Success Initiative (TSI) standing.  Students will be admitted to Texas State in a non-degree seeking status and may enroll for no more than 24 hours in this status.  A new application is required for each semester of enrollment.

Students who wish to apply for degree-seeking status into Texas State may do so once they meet all regular admission requirements.  Students must submit official transcripts and have a 2.25 overall grade point average on 30 or more transferable hours to be eligible for regular admission.  Grades and credits earned via Texas State while in non-degree status may be used for eligibility.

Laredo Community College will be considered the home institution for financial aid purposes as long as LCC is the institution where the highest number of enrolled hours is being taken.  Students will need to comply with the Satisfactory Academic Progress Policy (SAPP) at both institutions.  Students will register for Texas State course work at Texas State and pay the Texas State tuition and fees for the course work.

For more information, contact Nora R. Garza at or (956) 721-5337, or Doug Morrish at or (512)245-3321.

Sent by Joe Castillo


Verizon Foundation to give $1M to literacy program
Washington Business Journal - by Erin Killian Staff Reporter
Monday, February 25, 2008 
            The Verizon Foundation said Monday it will give a $1 million grant to the League of Latin American Citizens at the nonprofit's annual gala Feb. 27.

The grant, for the young readers program, will allow the D.C.-based League of Latin American Citizens to expand its programs into five more states and D.C., according to the statement.
The program that helps Hispanic children in first through third grades with their literary skills is currently in 15 states.

Prior to this grant, the Verizon Foundation has given $2.6 million to the League of Latin American Citizens over the last decade as part of its focus on literary education. A year ago, the Verizon Foundation launched, an online portal giving teachers and students access to more than 55,000 educational resources, including K-12 lesson plans.

At the same time it launched, the foundation committed $31 million over three years to partnered with 11 of the nation's educational organizations for content, including John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, National Endowment for the Humanities, National Geographic Society the Smithsonian National Museum of American
History. The League of Latin American Citizens will use's resources and training for its young readers program, according to the statement.

The Verizon Foundation, based in Basking Ridge, N.J., is Verizon Communications Inc.'s (NYSE: VZ) philanthropic arm. It gives out about $70 million in funds a year to organizations focused on literacy education and domestic violence prevention. Last year, the Verizon Foundation gave 686 grants to nonprofits based in the Washington region worth $6.3 million. There are seven employees who work for the Verizon Foundation and in the Washington region.

LULAC National Office, 2000 L Street, NW, Suite 610 Washington DC
20036, (202) 833-6130, (202) 833-6135 FAX

Dr. Elsa A. Murano 23rd President of Texas A&M University
            Office of the President

Dr. Elsa A. Murano 
President Texas A&M University

Elsa A. Murano is the 23rd President of Texas A&M University. Taking office on Jan. 3, 2008, at age 48, she is the first woman and first Hispanic-American to lead the oldest public institution of higher learning
in Texas-now one of the largest teaching and research universities in the nation.

Dr. Murano worked her way up the academic ranks-teaching and research-and  into administration from an unconventional  beginning. At the age of 2, her  family departed from Havana, Cuba, when Fidel Castro
 came into power.  After living in several Latin American countries,  she and her family  settled in Miami when she was 14 years old. At that  time, she only knew  Spanish, a language in which she is still fluent,  but quickly mastered  English and launched an educational career that carried her through the  doctoral ranks.

 'Someday in the future, if I write a book, it will be called Only in  America, because this great country has provided me so many opportunities, including the great honor of serving as President of  Texas A&M
 University," she is often quoted as saying.

Her association with the university dates back to 1995, when she joined the Texas A&M faculty as an Associate Professor in the Department of Animal Science and Associate Director of the Center  for Food Safety within the Institute for Food Science and Engineering. Dr. Murano was named Director of the Center in 1997 and served in that position until 2001. Also, she rose to the rank of Professor and was named holder of the Sadie Hatfield Professorship in Agriculture.

Dr. Murano interrupted her Texas A&M service in 2001 when President George W. Bush asked her to serve as Under Secretary for Food Safety for the U.S. Department of Agriculture, making her the highest-ranking food safety official in the U.S. government. In leading the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service, she was responsible for an agency with a budget of approximately $1 billion and about 10,000 employees, with the mission of working to improve public health through the application of science in
 policy decisions.

 She returned to Aggieland in January 2005 as Vice Chancellor and Dean of Agriculture and Life Sciences, joint positions in which she served until being appointed President of Texas A&M. As Vice  Chancellor and former Director of Texas AgriLife Research (formerly the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station), she led a transformation of agricultural programs and four state agencies within The Texas A&M University System to the benefit of students, peers and the agricultural community represented in 254 counties across Texas.

 While serving as Dean, the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences experienced significant growth in enrollment and enhancement of its teaching, research and service endeavors. In conjunction with her
 deanship, Dr. Murano chaired a blue-ribbon task force to study ways for enhancing the undergraduate experience at the University, which has ultimately become known as "The Murano Report."

 A noted expert on food safety, Dr. Murano was principal investigator or co-principal investigator in research projects totaling more than $8.7 million during her professorial career, initially at Iowa State University and continuing at Texas A&M. She has been widely published, as author or co-author of seven books, book chapters or monographs, and scores of scholarly papers, abstracts and related materials.

Dr. Murano began her professorial career in 1990 as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Preventative Medicine at Iowa State, the position she held prior to joining the Texas A&M faculty. She received a bachelor's degree in biological sciences from Florida International University, and earned both a master's degree in anaerobic microbiology and a doctorate in food science and technology from Virginia Tech.  She is married to Dr. Peter S. Murano, Associate
Professor of Nutrition and Food Science and Director of Texas A&M's Institute for Obesity Research and Program Development.

NASA Aeronautics Offers University Scholarships
            NASA Aeronautics Offers University Scholarships
WASHINGTON - NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate will accept applications from undergraduate and graduate students between Feb. 22 and Mar. 17, 2008, for its fall 2008 scholarship program. The purpose of this new scholarship program is to attract highly-motivated students to aeronautics and related fields.

Undergraduates in their second year of study can earn up to $15,000 per year for two years, and graduate students can earn up to $35,000 per year for three years. Money can be used for tuition, room and board, and other school-related expenses. Students also can apply for optional summer internships at NASA research centers to earn an additional $10,000 in stipends.

Students who have not committed to a specific academic institution or program can apply, but if accepted into the scholarship program, they must be admitted into a suitable aeronautical engineering program or related field of study at an accredited U.S. university by the fall of 2008. All applicants must be U.S. citizens.

NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate works to enhance the state of aeronautics for the nation, transform the U.S. air transportation system and develop the knowledge, tools and technologies to support future air and space vehicles. The directorate's focus is on cutting-edge, fundamental research in traditional aeronautical disciplines, as well as emerging fields with promising applications to aeronautics.

For specific details about this scholarship program and to apply, visit:

Sent by Debbie Martinez



Growing Up Latino/a in the USA
Mexican Americans in School: A History of Educational Neglect



Friends, Thanks to your years of support my Cesar Chavez Activity Book for kids is now in its 3rd printing!!! If you are a teacher, a parent, or just want to give your nieces/nephews the gift of HISTORY, EMPOWERMENT, and CULTURE, please visit

As an elementary school teacher, college history instructor, and community
activist, I am proud to bring the story of Cesar Chavez and the UFW to
KIDS.  Using WORD FINDS, COLORING PAGES, WRITING ACTIVITIES, and PAINT By NUMBERS, this book teaches kids Latino/a history in a fun and interesting way.  If you would like to view pages from this book or ORDER ONLINE you can visit
You can also contact me directly at or call me
at (818) 388-9303 to order or ask any questions.  
Angel R. Cervantes
"Cervantes Books"

The future of our children depends on our ability to teach them to be culturally sensitive, open minded, and to become people of conscience.
They can only love and respect OTHERS if they love and respect THEMSELVES...  It is my goal, through my books, to teach children to look at themselves and their history and to be PROUD. 
                                                               Angel R. Cervantes  

Sent by Dr. Carlos Munoz, Jr.

Mexican Americans in School: A History of Educational Neglect


Dr. Thomas P. Carter
Author of classic (1970) book, Mexican Americans in School: A History of Educational Neglect

Carter was an activist scholar and pioneer in Mexican American education. His considerable interactions with South Americans, Mexicans, and Mexican Americans served as a foundation that forged a lifelong commitment working toward equal educational opportunities for Mexican American students.

It is clear from his biographical information that Dr. George I. Sanchez, whom Carter studied under while pursuing his doctorate in education at The University of Texas at Austin, helped to shape Carter's anti-deficit thinking perspective and structural analysis approach in doing research on Mexican American students. In this tribute to Carter, author Richard Valencia focuses on four of Carter's major accomplishments: (a) his 1970 classic book, Mexican Americans in School; (b) his influence on the education chapter in the Grebler, Moore, and Guzman (1970) book, The Mexican-American People: The Nation's Second Largest Minority; (c) his influence on the landmark U.S. Commission on Civil Rights Mexican American Education Study of 1971–1974; and (d) his role as an expert witness in Mexican American-initiated litigation, particularly the highly significant Cisneros v. Corpus Christi Independent School District (1970) school desegregation case. Based on these accomplishments, in particular, Dr. Thomas P. Carter emerged as one of the foremost contributors of his time in advancing the field of Mexican American education. As well, he needs to be acknowledged for assisting the Mexican American people in their quest for educational equality.
Sent by Rafael Ojeda


Gustavo Arriola, a cartoonist who created "Gordo" has died 
Gordo cartoonist Gus Arriola dies in Carmel
Legends of Latin Rock
The model for the Hollywood " Oscar" Statue was Mexican
Latinos and Museums
Gustavo Arriola, 90; created 'Gordo' comic strip  

By Mary Rourke, Los Angeles Times Staff Writer
February 6, 2008  

Gustavo Arriola, a cartoonist who created "Gordo," a pioneering comic strip that celebrated Latino culture and traditions, has died. He was 90. Arriola died Saturday of complications from cancer and Parkinson's disease at his home in Carmel, said his wife Mary Frances.

Known as "Gus," Arriola launched his cartoon in 1941 featuring Gordo Lopez, a Mexican bean farmer, as the main character. By the late 1940s "Gordo" was published seven days a week, a schedule that continued until the last cartoon appeared in March 1985.

At the height of its popularity in the 1960s, "Gordo" appeared in 270 newspapers, historian Robert C. Harvey said. It was "the most visible ethnic comic strip in America and its creator the most visible American of Mexican descent working as a syndicated cartoonist," said Harvey, coauthor with Arriola of "Accidental Ambassador Gordo," published in 2000.

Originally, the character was a fat, lazy bumpkin who spoke with a thick accent. After Arriola's readers complained about the stereotype, the cartoonist transformed Gordo into a slimmed-down tour guide who drove a rickety bus named for Halley's Comet, a hint at how rarely the vehicle actually came around.

Gordo lived in rural Mexico, dressed in sombreros and a charro outfit. His companions included a menagerie of farm animals including Señor Dog. Eventually Gordo married his housekeeper, Tehuana Mama. 
Donkeys, cactus, clay pots and other bits from rural life dotted the scenery.

When "Gordo" premiered, "it was the only nationally distributed comic strip with a Mexican milieu," Harvey said. Later, when the bean farmer became a tour guide, Harvey said, "There was nothing like 'Gordo' on the planet."

The strip was known for its gentle humor and a story that followed Gordo's romantic adventures, his bickering with his nephew Pepito, and other events from his daily life that made him a Latino Everyman.

Arriola's Sunday cartoon included frames that stood alone as abstract artworks.

"The Sunday strip was a stunning
composition with lively line work and dazzling colors," said Malcolm Whyte, founder of the Cartoon Art Museum in San Francisco. Arriola evoked Mexican cut-paper designs in some of his drawings. He used Latino festivals and folklore in some strips and often returned to ecological themes that related to rural Mexico.

Arriola was born July 23, 1917, in Florence, Ariz., the youngest of nine children. His father was a native of Sonora, Mexico, who moved to the United States in the 1980s. His mother was born in California.

When Arriola was 8, the family relocated to Los Angeles. He graduated from Manual Arts High School, where he received his formal art training.

After graduation Arriola got a job in animation at the Charles Mintz Studio in Los Angeles.

He next went to the cartoon studio at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in 1937. He became an assistant animator and worked on the popular "Tom & Jerry" cartoons.

Arriola met artist Mary Frances Sevier at MGM. They married in 1943 and had one son, Carlin, who inspired the character of Pepito, Gordo's nephew, in the comic strip.

Carlin Arriola died in 1980, at age 35, of injuries suffered in an automobile accident. In addition to his wife, Arriola is survived by a grandchild and two great-grandchildren.

One year after the United Feature agency began syndicating "Gordo," Arriola joined the U.S. Army Air Forces, serving in a motion picture unit during World War II.

He launched his Sunday cartoon while he was in the service and resumed his weekday comic strip after being discharged in 1946.

For the first 20 years of "Gordo," Arriola relied on books, articles and photographs about Mexico. Finally, he visited the country for the first time in 1960.

From then on, he told Harvey, "I tried to work it all into the strip. The history, the culture, the folk art, as seen through Gordo's eyes."

Sent by Armando Rendon, Ph.D and

Gordo cartoonist Gus Arriola dies in Carmel
Wyatt Buchanan, Chronicle Staff Writer
Saturday, February 2, 2008
Gus Arriola. Photo by Darcy Padilla


Cartoonist Gus Arriola, whose comic strip about a Mexican bean farmer-turned-tourist guide appeared in 
The Chronicle for 43 years and was syndicated in 220 newspapers, died Saturday at his home in Carmel, according to his publicist.  He was 90 years old and had suffered from Parkinson's disease, according to the publicist, Alan Richman.

Arriola's Gordo strip was one of the first cartoons in the United States to celebrate Mexican culture, albeit through the slightly overweight anti-hero Gordo Lopez, who had a penchant for charro suits and female tourists.

The strip also had a cast of animal characters, including Señor Dog and Pussy Gato, that Gordo tended to and who offered him bits of philosophical wisdom. Arriola published the last strip on March 2, 1985.

In an interview with The Chronicle several years after he retired, Arriola said he drew the comic strip for an audience that knew little about Mexico or its culture.  "My main goal was to maintain a positive awareness of Mexico through all the years, every day, without being political," he said in 1989. "When I started, words like 'burrito' were unknown in the United States."


Arriola began the strip in 1941, turning an earlier cartoon's Mexican bandit - who was fat and rather dull - into a bean farmer. He sold the idea to United Features.

Some early strips were criticized by Mexican American readers as a crude stereotype, so Arriola changed Gordo's appearance, making him svelter, and his occupation. He also lost his thick Mexican accent and became more worldly-wise. Gordo drove a tour bus, which he christened Halley's Comet "because it came around about as often as the real comet," he told The Chronicle in an interview before he retired.

Despite the quality of the work, Arriola's strip did not get the wide syndication of other cartoonists, some of whose creations were printed in thousands of publications.

Although his didn't visit Mexico himself until 1961, Arriola learned about Mexican culture from his father, who was born on a hacienda in the Mexican state of Sonora, and from growing up as the youngest of nine children in Florence, Ariz., about 120 miles northwest of the border. He would later recall that he learned to speak English by reading the Sunday funny pages.

His family moved to Los Angeles, and Arriola grew up in the shadow of the world's major animation studios. He graduated from Manual Arts High School and immediately took a job animating Krazy Kat at Columbia and later did story-sketch work for the Tom and Jerry cartoon at MGM before starting Gordo. It was there that he met his wife, Mary
Frances, to whom he was married for more than 65 years. She was at hisside when he died.

The strip incorporated part of Arriola's own life. Gordo - whom Arriola called his "alter ego" - had a nephew named Pepito who over the years Arriola identified with his only son, Carlin. As Carlin grew up, so did Pepito, passing milestones such as starting a rock band and eventually leaving home.

Carlin Arriola died in 1980 after a long illness, and Pepito no longer appeared in the strip. In the final cartoon, Pepito appears as a voice on a tape recording.

Arriola ended the strip with Gordo marrying Tehuana Mama, his housekeeper, in a plot involving subliminal mind control and interplanetary travel. He will particularly be remembered for his charm with female tourists.

"Long ago, a friend asked me why Gordo only drove women tourists," Arriola said in 1989. "In the strip, Gordo says, 'Life is short. And I don't want my last sight on Earth to be some hairy-legged man with a cigar.' "
Plans for a memorial service are pending. Chronicle news services contributed to this report. E-mail Wyatt Buchanan at

Sent by Dorinda Moreno



by Joel Selvin_ (mailto:
Sunday, January 20, 2008, San Francisco Chronicle

Of all the surprising developments to come out of San Francisco rock during the Fillmore/Avalon era in the late '60s, none was richer in cultural wealth than the emergence of Latin rock after the success of Santana. It was a short, golden moment for young Latino musicians, when things were  possible that had not been previously dreamed of, and it coincided with the rise  of Chicano culture - Cesar Chavez and the United Farm Workers Union and a growing sense of ethnic pride that took root in the Mission District.  Latin rock, like most pop music trends, came and went, but it left a lasting imprint on those who remembered. For the past four years, Mission District 
dentist Bernardo Gonzalez, also manager of veteran Latin rockers Malo since 1985, has been throwing a remarkable event called Voices of Latin Rock, which will take place Thursday at Bimbo's 365 Club.

Without advertising or promotion, this annual benefit for autism sells out. Families buy entire tables, and old friends stand in the aisles talking, while a  procession of the greatest Latin rock musicians take the stage. Last year, the surviving members of the original Santana band played together at Bimbo's for the first time in more than 20 years. The event began in 2004 as  a publication party for a book, "Voices of Latin Rock," by authors Jim McCarthy,  a British music journalist, and Ron Sansoe, Gonzalez's partner in managing  Malo.

"We didn't make any money the first year," said Gonzalez. "In fact, it cost us a little bit, but the people wanted to have another one. Each year we expected to be the last." The original Latin rock bubble didn't last long - Santana's first three albums sold millions between 1969 and 1971 - but the effect on young Latin musicians throughout the country was incalculable. Conga player Michael Carabello and timbales samurai Jose "Chepito" Areas of Santana brought the fire  of the Aztec gods to their band's blues-rock foundations. It was flavored with a  taste of their parents' music, the mambo and rumba records by Tito Puente and Willie Bobo they heard growing up. 

Gonzalez remembers seeing Santana's groundbreaking performance in the Woodstock movie when he was 15 years old. "Talk about a life-changing experience," he said. "When I saw that, I no longer wanted to be a baseball  player or a football player. It still gives me goose bumps."

Jose Simon played in country and western bands before he joined Sapo, the Latin rock band formed by Richard Bean after he left Malo. Bean wrote the Malo hit "Suavecito" when he was an 11th-grader at Mission High. "Before that, I was just a musician making a living," Simon said in an interview last year for "American Sabor," the current exhibition at the Experience Music Project museum in Seattle. "No pride, it was just making a  living, a good musician supporting my family, but when I played with Sapo, it  was more than that. It was like 'I'm proud to be Jose Simon playing to my people with my people and other people,' and the sound, and it made me proud."

Not since Ritchie Valens, an anomalous '50s Latino rock 'n' roller, had music with a Latino accent been heard at the top of the pop charts. Latino rock musicians found themselves swept up in a cultural movement. The bands all played  benefits for Chavez's United Farm Workers. Chicano artwork decorated the album  covers that could have come straight off the murals painted on Mission District  walls. 

But these young musicians were not just following the Afro-Cuban traditions of their musical forebears. They were fed by distinctly American tributaries. Jorge Santana, lead guitarist of Malo and younger brother of Carlos Santana, grew up with nine people living together in a two-bedroom Mission District apartment after his mariachi musician father moved the family from Tijuana.

"I can go right now to any Mexican restaurant," said Santana, and "as soon as I hear mariachi, my heart just melts from the experience of having grown up listening to it, as well as my father having played it all his life. It's built  in me. I think it was the circumstances of my sisters, modern radio, Dick Clark  and everything else that was taking place at that time - Motown, rhythm and  blues, the English Invasion, everything. We had a different ear, or we were  listening to this new music that we didn't get a chance to listen to as much in  Tijuana when we were there."

The Santana band immediately became famous in its neighborhood. Musician and
educator John Santos, who will also be honored at Bimbo's and grew up in the Mission, remembered how inspirational the band was when he was growing up. "They started talking about Carlos, because he was in high school at Mission High School with my older brothers and my older cousins," he said, "and they started telling us about, 'Hey, there's this electric guitar player that is using timbales and congas.' And we knew very well what the timbales and congas were because my grandfather's band used that and we had grown up with those instruments."  Musicians like Santos carry the Santana sound in their hearts. 

While Latin rock may not be hitting the best-seller charts today, it has never gone away. 
a Ventana or Mestizo keep the sound alive. Los  Lobos has carried the flag for many years, coming from East Los Angeles, where  Latin rock musicians have a lineage going back to '60s garage bands such as Thee  Midnighters or the Premiers. 

The people involved in the San Francisco Latin rock scene carried their pride with them. Abel Sanchez, who played in a number of Mission District bands and  will head the house band at Bimbo's, went on to work as an administrator for the  Postal Service and eventually played a key role in the campaign to create a  Cesar Chavez stamp. Simon of Sapo went to work as a stand-up comic and founded  the annual Comedy Day in Golden Gate Park. Malo continues to perform -and will  appear this week at Bimbo's and at the satellite concert Saturday at Redwood  City's Little Fox Theatre - although founder Arcelio Garcia is semi-retired.   Santana is still a world-famous brand name, but guitarist Carlos Santana now  leads a band that bears little relation to the incendiary outfit that burned out  of the Mission and can still be heard blasting "Oye Como Va" in jukeboxes  everywhere. 

To Anglos, this Latin rock wrinkle may seem li ke a momentary aberration on the pop scene long ago, but to Latinos it is a moment never to be forgotten. "Whatever movement Carlos started," his brother Jorge Santana said, "and whatever support I had given in regards to Malo and then my 10-piece band, and with the radio play that I had, it was like the Mayans. They were here and all the sudden they disappeared. Where the hell did they go? And look what they left  behind."

Sent by Dorinda Moreno 


The Oscar Statue 

Tasked with creating an award for the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences MGM’s art director Cedric Gibbons came up with the idea of a knight holding a crusader's sword standing on a reel of film pose naked to create what today it is known as the "Oscar".

In need of a model for his statue Gibbons was introduced by his then wife actress Dolores del Río to El Indio. Reluctant at first, Emilio Fernández was finally convinced. Fernández was forced into exile following his participation in the unsuccessful rebellion of Adolfo de la Huerta against Mexican President Álvaro Obregón Salido . . . .   He moved to Los Angeles.

For more on this story go to Wikipedia:ández

Sent by Luis F. Ramirez  




Latinos and museums
February 01, 2008
            Abelardo de la Peña Jr. of recently wrote about the detachment of Latinos toward the Getty Center, a mega museum in Los Angeles. In spite of an exhibit of works by Mexican photographer Manuel Alvarez Bravo, Latinos viewed the museum at arm's length, de la Peña says. That was in 2001.

When the Getty pumped up its outreach efforts, Latinos reportedly responded, he says. Programming was key, so was the museum's free admission. The Getty produced "a concert series featuring cross-cultural, genre-bending bands like Aterciopelados and Los Mocosos," he says. "It suddenly became cool for Latinos to hang at the Getty." Early this month, iconoculture overhead the sounds of Spanish and English on a tram headed to the museum. What was on view? "Danza de la Cabrita (The Little Goat's Dance)," a 140-piece exhibition of the work of Mexican photographer Graciela Iturbide.

If this is a true reflection of Latino attitudes toward the Getty, it's a cue to other institutions on programming choices. Free admission and reduced or reasonable fees are important, too.

Getting a whole family out to a museum can be expensive, and while some open their doors for free one evening a week, the time frame may be limiting, especially on school nights when families are juggling sports and other extracurricular school events.

One night a week may not be enough to draw low-income residents of all colors and creeds through the gate. Some museums (I won't mention any San Antonio institutions here, but they know who they are. You know who they are, too) get too little traffic. Their fees may be the reason, or at least a part of it. 

The Museo Alameda has been sensitive to the impact of fees on low-income families. Since it opened last April, it has lowered admission and waives it altogether on Sundays. Like other museums in town, it's also open one night a week for free --- after 4 p.m. on Wednesday. Its fees also are on the low end: $4 for adults, $3 for seniors and $2 for students. Children 3 and under get in free.

It's a great time to visit the museum at Market Square. Alex Rubio and Vincent Valdez's exhibition, "Pride of the Southside: En El Mero Hueso," is up until March 23. See it before it closes. "¡Azucar! The Life and Music of Celia Cruz" is also on display until April 27.

Elaine Ayala, Features Writer
San Antonio Express-News
P.O. Box 2171
San Antonio, TX 78297
(210) 250-3402


Latinos in Information Sciences and Technology Association (LISTA) 
mourns the passing of Sara Gonzalez, 
Georgia Hispanic Chamber of Commerce President/CEO



 Atlanta, Georgia - February 19, 2008 -
Jose Marquez, President and CEO of Latinos in Information Sciences and Technology Association, issued the following statement regarding the recent death of Sara Gonzalez: “It is with deep sadness that we inform you of the surprising and disturbing news of the passing of Sara Gonzalez. One of the main reasons for LISTA to have developed a presence in Georgia was because of her vision to help empower Latinos in our community. Sara was relentless in her dedication to the Latinos community. As President and CEO of the Chamber she championed the growth of Georgia’s Hispanic business community. She was a special friend who always cared about the growth of our organization." "I will miss her." 

On behalf of LISTA, our National Board of Directors and Staff we share our deepest condolences with her family at this time, and want them to know that she has touched many and inspired us all.”

“Gracias Sara por darnos parte de tu vida, has tocado a muchos. que Dios te tenga en la gloria y te deje descansar.

She will be missed by all of us, may she Rest in Peace 

Sent by  

Latino in Information Sciences and Technology Association, LISTA 
( promotes the utilization of the technology sectors for the empowerment of the Latino community. We are an organization that is committed to bringing various elements of Technology under one central hub to facilitate our partners, members and the community with the leverage and education they need to succeed in a highly advanced technologically driven society. LISTA Mission is to educate, motivate and encourage the use of technology in the Latino community and empowering them to bridge the digital divide.

For information, please contact: 
Euralis Lopez, (347) 632-4542



La Leyenda Negra. Un invento contra España

Por Philip W. Powell

La propaganda que tan efectivamente se empleó para estimular ataques contra España, y a la vez para levantar las naciones que le sucederían en la cumbre del poderío europeo, contribuyó en gran manera a la debilitación y declive de aquel país y de su imperio.

Estas mismas propagandas y los acentuados prejuicios que provocaron o incrementaron han costado también a generaciones de españoles muchas angustias en forma de difamación y menosprecio, que continúan hasta nuestros días. Por eso, el alto precio de la hegemonía en el Viejo y Nuevo Mundo todavía se está pagando, mucho tiempo después de que la Edad de Oro española llegara a su fin.

Para nosotros, los de los Estados Unidos, al enfrentarnos con la posibilidad de estar menos tiempo en la cumbre de lo que lo hicieran los españoles, las lecciones deducidas de su experiencia deberían ser aprovechadas –para estudiar, considerar e inculcar sus enseñanzas dentro de nuestra sociedad y liderato intelectual–. Si no para otra cosa, tales lecciones deberían servir para elevar nuestra capacidad de discernimiento y evaluación de las propagandas enemigas –junto con sus promotores, sus aspiraciones y sus consecuencias–. Los pueblos que están en la cima del poder necesitan de tal sabiduría.

Durante mucho tiempo ha sido práctica común traer a cuento la decadencia y caída de Roma para nuestros sermones sobre los peligros latentes del gran poder. Nuestros intelectuales y dirigentes políticos harían quizá mejor en estudiar la ascensión, los logros, las deficiencias y el declive de España y de su imperio.

La experiencia ibérica está mucho más cercana a nuestros tiempos y España fue el primer imperio global. Los problemas de una hinchada y ofuscada burocracia, los de inflación y bancarrota, los de intentar mantener la unidad cristiana mientras se la protegía de los duros ataques de infieles euroasiáticos, las tribulaciones, los yerros y los éxitos al llevar la civilización a pueblos inferiores y a culturas más primitivas, los intentos de compaginar el alto idealismo con las practicabilidades de la vida, los de integración racial y cultural, los de luchas internas, los períodos de magnífico valor, fortaleza y unidad de objetivos, todas estas cosas y muchas más podrían ser estudiadas y aprovechadas por los dirigentes de un poder hoy en la cumbre y con problemas parecidos. Y los triunfos y fallos del imperio portugués, al sobreextender su posición mundial, podrían también servir para ilustrarnos y tal vez para producir un poco de comprensión y simpatía hacia nuestro aliado en la NATO.

Como contribución a la creciente sofisticación de nuestro pueblo, pueden ponderarse provechosamente unas cuantas comparaciones históricas con lo hispánico. Por ejemplo, nuestra propia era de poderío cumbre apenas alcanza el número de años del apogeo portugués. Y nuestro declive, que puede haber empezado ya, es muy probable que esté bien avanzado antes de que igualemos el largo record de España en la cumbre. Y nos convendría un poco de humildad (...) en nuestras escuelas, aunque seamos un gran poder.

Bien podríamos vivir sin esos textos en que se encuentran odiosas y, en general, equivocadas comparaciones entre nuestro período colonial y el de la América española. Justo es reconocer que no más allá de principios del siglo pasado éramos apenas una pequeña parte del hemisferio en comparación con el coloso ibérico, que compartía por el sur y el oeste nuestro mundo americano. No es necesario para el ego nacional engrandecer nuestro pasado colonial mientras empequeñecemos a Iberoamérica, démonos por satisfechos con cualquier alabanza que pudiéramos desear en el elogio de nuestra fenomenal ascensión hacia el poder durante el siglo pasado.

Es provechoso también el meditar sobre la profundidad en el tiempo y la experiencia de una civilización hispánica que floreció ya en los días de Roma, en tanto que la mayoría de nuestros antepasados nórdicos estaba todavía en relativo estado de salvajismo o barbarie, o sobre la riqueza cultural de una Iberia de la Edad Media cristiana, musulmana y judía. Esto se oculta con demasiada frecuencia en nuestros textos de historia general, que solamente con desgana hacen alusiones a cualquier hecho acaecido al sur de los Pirineos.

Tampoco nos haría daño meditar sobre una Edad de Oro española, imperial e intelectual, que se mantuvo durante casi dos siglos y alcanzó un gran nivel a lo largo de casi todas las líneas del saber humano. Una edad de oro, además, cuya categoría la alcanzan pocos pueblos y a la que nuestro propio país quizá no llegará jamás. Y, entre paréntesis, una literatura dorada y una época artística que floreció durante el apogeo de la Inquisición, hecho histórico que exige mucho más cuidadoso examen y comprensión de los que hasta ahora ha recibido, especialmente en nuestro país.

(...)Depurando los ecos de la Leyenda Negra en nuestra educación (...), que van con frecuencia acompañados de aquellas ofensivas comparaciones entre nuestras virtudes y los vicios y retraso hispánicos, podemos dar los pasos, demorados ya en exceso, para mejorar las condiciones de nuestra numerosa población que habla español o que originalmente lo habló.

Si nuestros textos, profesores y medios de comunicación pueden ser liberados de los perjuicios de la Leyenda Negra y sus derivaciones, concediendo al mundo hispánico su debido lugar y respeto, las personas de origen hispánico podrían sentirse en verdad animadas a mantener su cabeza bien alta, a sentirse orgullosas de la grandeza del pasado del que proceden (...) Estoy de sobra convencido de que gran parte del concepto despectivo de los angloamericanos acerca de los mexicanos procede directamente de la Leyenda Negra, que inculcó en nosotros la idea de superioridad nórdica sobre los singularmente crueles e ignorantes españoles y su descendencia americana. (...)

(...)estra clase culta está todavía tan sumergida en el hábito de lo que yo he calificado de "provincialismo nordatlántico", que encuentra poco interés o tiempo para un examen serio de nuestras relaciones hispánicas, y esto inhibe cualquier reajuste de nuestras opiniones sobre esos países. Así, el ya por tanto tiempo conocido forjador de opiniones Walter Lippman escribió a finales de 1960: "En nuestra corta visita al Brasil, con frecuencia me encontré teniendo que explicar por qué no había venido antes a Sudamérica y por qué había ido entonces". Su viaje nació del pánico que nos produjo la situación cubana y la hostilidad e inquietud latinoamericana tan a gritos expresada durante el desafortunado viaje del entonces vicepresidente Nixon. Parecía algo tarde para que tal brahmán hiciera una primera visita a Sudamérica; indicación segura del lugar que ese continente ocupaba en su escala de valores.

(...) en nuestros textos, España y los valores ibéricos no reciben el respetuoso tratamiento dado a Inglaterra, Holanda, Francia y a otras culturas del norte de Europa, y esto perpetúa tal provincialismo. He aquí otro ejemplo de sus consecuencias, un artículo de John Crosby, columnista, acerca del estreno en Nueva York de la obra de Federico García Lorca La casa de Bernarda Alba:

La eterna prisión que es el estado normal de las mujeres españolas desde el nacimiento hasta la muerte […] La pasión en España se alimenta de la depravación que aviva las llamas hasta un grado casi inconcebible para el resto de nosotros […] Y allí se encuentran todos los elementos de España –de hoy, de ayer y de siempre–: muerte, pobreza, calor, orgullo, crueldad y pasión [...] Puesto que España es casi tan extraña a nuestra naturaleza y a nuestra cultura como el Lejano Oriente –el resto de Europa parece tan comprensible como Nueva Inglaterra, comparada con España–, la obra tiene una fascinación exótica y seductora […]

España, como se ve, es a duras penas una parte de "nuestra cultura" –tan remota como el Lejano Oriente–. No sé cómo explicar esta mezcla de "esnobismo" cultural y de ignorancia si no es culpando a nuestro tradicional desprecio por los valores hispánicos y a la repugnancia en hacer el esfuerzo necesario para entenderlos. Ejemplos similares de este "parroquialismo" norpirenaico pueden ser aducidos ad infinitum; sin embargo, una vez más, no es necesario beberse el barril entero para catar el vino.

(...)La destrucción de la Leyenda Negra y de su larga cadena de ecos y consecuencias –aquel histórico Árbol de Odio, cuyos frutos envenenan el mundo de habla inglesa y lo privan de la capacidad de un acercamiento al mundo hispánico con justicia, con simpatía y sin prejuicios– debe ser el primer gran paso para eliminar el abismo que ahora separa las dos mayores áreas culturales del occidente. (...)

La voz milenaria del pueblo español podría indicarnos el destino de aquellos que alcanzan dominio mundial y que no hacen caso a las propagandas que pueden solidificarse en forma de historia.

NOTA: Este texto es un fragmento editado del capítulo noveno de LA LEYENDA NEGRA, de PHILIP W. POWELL (1913-1987), que acaba de publicar la editorial Áltera en su colección Los Grandes Engaños Históricos.
© Copyright Libertad Digital SA. Juan Esplandiu 13, 28007 Madrid.
Tel: 91 409 4766 - Fax: 91 409 4899

Sent by Maria Angeles O'Donnell Olson
Honorary Spanish Consul in San Diego  

Military and Law Enforcement Heroes

Latinos/Latinas - Ultimate Sacrifice  Part II
So, you want to join the Marines? By Tony (The Marine) Santiago 
Medal of Honor Request for Marine Sgt. Rafael Peralta
How the U.S. Army Selected, Trained, and Paid the first Army Pilots 
To request photos 



Latinos/Latinas - Ultimate Sacrifice

Part II

 By Mercy Bautista-Olvera

In the coming months this series "Latinos/Latinas Ultimate Sacrifice" will present the stories and contributions of heroes who have sacrificed their lives for the Unites States.  The reason for me to be interest in writing about Hispanics, who lost their lives in Wars.  I want to be one of their Voices.  We do appreciate their sacrifice.  It is my sincere belief and commitment, that these heroes are never forgotten. Take time to look at their faces.  Read their stories and keep their spirit alive.

Army Cpl. Gilberto A. Meza, 21 of Oxnard , Calif. , died Oct. 6, 2007 in Baghdad , Iraq , of wounds sustained when an improvised explosive hit near his unit. Meza, assigned to 3rd squadron, 2nd Stryker Cavalry Regiment, in Vilseck , Germany . Enlisting in October 2005, relatives recall that he was enthusiastic about the military and looked forward to serving in Iraq, and even planned to re-enlist for another four years when his four-year term ended. Gilberto attended Oxnard High School , Channel Islands High School , Frontier High School and the Oxnard Union High school .  “We honor a son of this great nation, who offered his life for our liberty, our hopes and our dreams,” said Fidel Ramirez, a Santa Clara parish deacon.  

Marine Lance Cpl. Raul Mercado, 21 of Monrovia Calif. , died Jan. 7, 2006. Cpl. Mercado was killed when his vehicle was attacked with an improvised explosive device while conducting combat operations near Al Karmah, Iraq . Mercado was assigned to 2nd Maintenance Battalion, 2nd Marine Logistics Group I, and Marine Expeditionary Force Camp in Lejeune , North Carolina . Raul Mercado was born in U.S. but raised in Mexico . When the family returned to the U.S. , he attended Monrovia High School where he was involved in basketball and track and field. A member of the Spanish Honor society he graduated in 2004. While his first choice was West Point , he decided to join the Marines, He believed it was the toughest branch of the armed forces.   

Marine Cpl. Carlos Arellano, 22, of Rosemead , Calif. , died on Jan. 20, 2006, when a suicide bomber in a vehicle set off an explosion in Haglaniyah , Iraq . Cpl. Arellano had survived two previous tours of duty in Iraq , despite a wound from the second. Arellano was assigned to 3rd Battalion, 1st Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division, I Marine Expeditionary Force, out of Camp Pendleton . Arellano, was born in Mexico and raised in Rosemead , California , he attended Emerson Elementary and Garvey Intermediate Schools . After graduating from Mark Keppel High School in Alhambra , he joined the Marines in 2003. He saw combat during all three tours, earning a merit promotion during his second tour for killing an insurgent aiming a rocket-propelled grenade out of a hotel window. He hoped that his Marine experience would lead to a future job as a SWAT officer in the Los Angeles Police Department. He was to be discharged in June 2006 and had planned to attend college and study criminal justice. 

Marine Lance Cpl. Hugo R. Lopez-Lopez
, 20, of La Habra , Calif. , died on Jan. 27, 2006 at a Texas military hospital, where his mother, Maria had maintained a vigil at his bedside ever since the young Marine was critically wounded by a homemade bomb in November 2005. Lopez attended Washington Middle School in La Habra , then La Habra High, where he played football on the school’s 2003 CIF championship team. He enlisted in the Marines after graduating in 2004. Hugo went straight from being a winning football player at La Habra High School to a decorated Marine. He earned the Iraq Campaign Medal, the Global War on Terrorism Service Medal, the National Defense Service Medal, and the Good Conduct Medal. On military leave, he celebrated his 20th and last birthday at home with his family in La Habra , before receiving critical and serious injuries on Nov. 20, 2005.


Army Sgt. David L. Herrera, 26, of Oceanside , Calif. , was killed on Jan. 28, 2006 when an improvised explosive device detonated near his Humvee during combat operations in Baghdad . Sgt. Herrera was assigned to the 2nd Battalion, 506th Infantry Regiment, 4th Brigade Combat Team, 101st Airborne Division, from Fort Campbell , Kentucky . Herrera attended North Terrace Elementary School on Camp Pendleton and Lincoln Middle School before Oceanside High School .



Army Master Sgt. Emigdio E. Elizarraras, 37 of Pico Rivera , Calif. , died on Feb 28, 2006. Sgt. Elizarrras served in the Army for 19 years, starting as an infantryman and eventually training for Special Forces and becoming a Special Forces Intelligence Sergeant. He was killed when a roadside bomb hit his Humvee while he was on patrol. At El Rancho High School, Elizarraras played varsity baseball. His former coach, Ben Meza recalls, he was "a great guy, who played four different positions on the team." Married with two daughters and one son; family members said he was "a loving husband, a devoted father, a caring son, and a selfless soldier."

USMC L/CPL Juana Navarro Arellano, 24, of Ceres, Calif., died on Apr. 8, 2006 from a gunshot wound to the head, while supporting combat operations in Al Anbar province, Iraq. She was assigned to the 9th Engineer Support Battalion, from Okinawa , Japan . She traveled with convoys or by herself to refuel military vehicles or provide camps with fuel supplies. However, since she was a "bulk fuel specialist" she was transferred to Iraq in May 2005. Born in Michoacán , Mexico , she became a U.S. citizen at age 13, along with her twin sister. In 2000 she graduated from Johansen High School in Modesto , Calif. where she was active as a volunteer with special education students in academics and social skills. After high school, Juana joined Job Corps in San Francisco . Nevertheless, seeing her twin brothers L/CPL Raul Navarro and L/CPL Lorenzo Navarro join the Marines inspired her to act on her desire and join the military.


Marine Lance Cpl. Salvador Guerrero, 21, of Whittier , Calif. , died on June 9, 2006, when the Humvee he and 3 others were riding in, hit a land mine in Al Anbar province, Iraq . He was an ammunition man assigned to the 1st Battalion, 7th Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division, Marine Expeditionary Force in June 2005. After graduating from Frontier High School , he joined the Marine Corps. Not wanting to upset his mother, he led her to believe he was training in Japan , until Marines arrived at her Whittier home to notify her of her son’s death. While in the military, Guerrrero, was awarded the National Defense Service Medal, the Iraq Campaign Medal, the Global War on Terrorism Medal, and the Sea Service Deployment Ribbon.


Cpl. USMC Michael A. Estrella, 20, of Hemet , Calif. , died Jun. 14, 2006 during small arms fire attack while on foot patrol in Al Anbar province, Iraq . Michael Estrella was a 2003 graduate of Hemet High School , and a member of the Junior ROTC. Estrella’s ambition was to be a Marine and serve his country. After high school, he joined the Marines. Following his initial training, he served in Afghanistan from November 2004 to June 2005. In Iraq , he was a radio operator. He arrived in Iraq in March 2006 and was due to leave in the fall.



Army Sgt. Andres Contreras, 23, of Huntington Park , Calif. , died on Jul. 15, 2006 of injuries sustained when his vehicle encountered an improvised explosive device during combat operations in Baghdad , Iraq . Contreras joined the 519th Military Police Battalion from Fort Polk , Louisiana . He was a Military Policeman. He had hoped to work for the Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department when his deployment was over. 

 Special thanks to Alan Lessig, Director of Photography, for the website, “Military   Times, Honor the Fallen” ( for granting permission to reproduce photos for this article.


    So, you want to join the Marine Corps?

                            By Tony (The Marine) Santiago



                                  Tony (The Marine) Santiago  

So, you are about to graduate from high school and you feel real tough and you want to prove it to yourself and to the world by serving your country as a member of the United States Marine Corps. Well then, maybe you should read this.  

Hispanics  are amongst the best soldiers that our military have had the fortune of having. The blood of warriors run through our veins. In our veins we have the blood of the early noble native Americans such as the Aztecs, Incas, Tainos and Caribes that resided in this hemisphere long before the arrival of the “white” man. Then to that you add the blood of the early Spanish Conquistadors who arrived with Columbus and explored the “New World” and I tell you, we have a hell of a combination. The military has always been an important part of our Hispanic culture. Therefore, it should surprise no one that whenever our country is in need of manpower for its military institutions, Hispanics have always been more then willing to serve. Hispanics have served this country from the very beginning when the Spanish Crown allowed it’s subjects from Puerto Rico, Cuba and Mexico to fight the British in the American Revolution under the command of  General Bernardo de Gálvez (1746 – 1786), to the present-day conflict in Iraq.  

Hispanics in general are very patriotic and that is why there is a widespread support for military service within the Hispanic community. According to government statistics, Hispanics in the armed forces over-represent their percentage of the population. Hispanics comprise 18 percent of enlisted Marines today, up from 15 percent when the Iraq War began. It is in our blood to serve and one of the first choices among Hispanics is the Marine Corps. I don’t know if this is so because the Marines are an elite outfit or because  the Marine Corps has currently implemented aggressive recruitment programs directed towards Hispanics, since we are the nation's largest ethnic or minority race. Therefore, if you are among the many Hispanics, both male and female who are considering the Marine Corps as your military institution of choice, I feel that it is my duty to tell you things the way they really are before you make that decision. You must read this.  

There many things about the Corps that attract our youth. One of them is that the Marines have one of the best looking military uniforms (Dress Blues) in the world and another is the fact that you look really good in that uniform with all the shiny medals on your chest. Also, there is the  fact that you will belong to one of the greatest military organizations in the world whose battles and heroic actions are legendary . Yes, it is true that the Marines have served with distinction in every war in which the United States has been involved, however becoming a Marine is no piece of cake.  

I am not a recruiter, I served in the Marines and I served my country with pride. Therefore, I am going to tell you what to expect if you decide to join the Corps. When you go to the recruiter, it will be his or her job to present to you only the positives and not the negatives that go with serving. Not me, when I joined the Marines, I knew exactly what I was getting into. Some of my family members had been in the Marines before me and therefore, I was mentally and physically prepared before I even signed my enlistment papers. I knew that I was going to be sent to war (Vietnam War) and I also believed that I would die in combat. I felt very patriotic and I was willing to sacrifice my life for my country. That is one of the most important things that you should think about before you join. You should only join if you are willing to fight for your country and are willing to make the ultimate sacrifice if needed. Once you have set your mind towards this mentality then be prepared for the tough basic training.                                                     

Basic training or Boot Camp, is tough, very tough. You will arrive as an undisciplined child and come out as a tough disciplined adult. You are guaranteed only one meal and one hour of sleep per day. You will be exercised until your body is transformed into pure muscles. You will be drilled from the early hours of the morning until the late hours of the evening.  You and your comrades will become one in cadence. You will be taught how to arm and disarm various weapons in the daylight and in the darkness of night. You will learn how to use these weapons and you will become a killing machine. Not everybody can make it, not everybody can be a Marine. I kid you not, I saw many men cry for their mama’s and I also saw many that did not pass Boot Camp. However, those that are strong both mentally and physically will pass and once they do they will feel a pride unlike any other of belonging to a select group.  

True, as a Marine you will be able to travel to different countries and see new places and experience different cultures. But, it isn’t all pleasure and no work. You will be sent to other bases and you will continue to train. If you think the Marine Corps is free of racism, then think again. There are racist people in the Marines as there are everywhere else. Then again there people who are true to the Corps and who do not distinguish anyone by their race. Now, you must understand that the Marines are true to their lore, they are the first to fight and if you serve during the time of war such as now, you must be mentally prepared and expect to be deployed to a combat zone at anytime. Let me tell you, combat is nothing like what you see in the movies nor your video games. War is “Hell” as described by  General William Tecumseh Sherman of the Union Army during the Civil War. Expect to see the worst, people do die. You will see people die, some of whom you may have known, in the worst ways. You will see others who are wounded. You will have to kill or be killed. That is what happens in war and those are the sacrifices which we who join the armed forces must make in order that our country and its citizens will continue to enjoy the freedoms that they enjoy. As a Marine you will not question your country and its leaders motives for entering a war, you are there to “do” or “die“. You will never come out the same person and if you are not mentally strong, you may be scarred for life. That is the way it is.  

As I stated before, I served with no regrets and I am proud of it. Plus, I used my G.I. Bill to further my education. My advice to those who want to join the Marines, with the possibility of making it a career, is this: If you are in high school, do not join after your graduation. Go to “college” and get a degree. Join your campus ROTC program and after you get your degree then join. You will be commissioned a second lieutenant. Hispanics are underrepresented in the officer ranks of the Marine Corps and the Marine Corps, realizing its shortage of Hispanics in the officer ranks, has a program which sends young enlisted Marines to college while on active duty to obtain a degree and a commission. We need more Hispanic officers in our armed forces and this goes double for the Marines.  So, if you want to join the Marines, think about becoming an officer before you join.


Medal of Honor Request for Marine Sgt. Rafael Peralta

Mimi,  I have an update in regard to the Medal of Honor request that has been made for Marine Sgt. Rafael Peralta. You can pass it on, especially to our friend R. Ortega and if you like, you can add it at the end of my essay as a "note."

Note: On January 22, 2008, the Department of Defense has officially recommended that Marine Sergeant Rafael Peralta be posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his heroic actions Operation Phantom Fury in the city of Fallujah, Iraq. Now it is up to President Bush to sign the presidential approval. Now get this, according to the Pentagon the disparity of awarding medals of valor (including the Navy Cross, Air Force Cross, Distinguished Service Medal, the Silver and Bronze Stars) has to do with the nature of combat in Iraq: less face to face fighting and fewer occasions for valor. Excuses, excuses.  Tony Santiago 

How the U.S. Army Selected, Trained, and Paid the first Army Pilots

My Dear Friends,

On this site, you can read how the U.S Army selected, trained and paid the first Army pilots. Mr Rider took his case all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court to collect about $381 dollars of Flight pays and he won. 

This reminds me of my own fight against our U.S. Air Force when I was station in Holland and my order were cancelled to Viet Nam for 30 days, after I had shipped my household goods and my car, the Air Force did not want to pay for an additional 30 days in a hotel for me and my family. The whole year that I was station at Tan Son Nut Saigon Viet Nam if fought and won. It was just the principle with me and to see that I could win. I have never lost and don't intent to lose now or ever when it come to fight for a principle.

I share this with you, because, there were many little air bases across our nation, where farm boys would just walk to them and enlist. Many times they were accepted for pilot training.  It is my hope that we can find Latinos and Latinas that served in this era for their recognition and to be put into our History books.

Thanks, Rafael Ojeda



To request Photos 

The web site below has the contact info to request free 8x10 photos.  
Rafael Ojeda  

Patriots of the American Revolution

Spanish Louisiana Regiment
The Battle of the Hook
The Real Story of the American Revolution
Spanish Patriots of Peru During the America Revolution
Spanish Louisiana Regiment

The Spanish Louisiana Regiment participated in the National Portrait Gallery's Family Day Event this past Saturday, February 2, 2008. We were stationed at the special exhibit "Legacy - Spain and the United States in the Age of Independence 1763-1848". For several hours we shared with the public the history and contributions of the unit and of the different populations from the "Spanish Main" to the AWI. We had a lot of fun with the children, answering their honest questions ("Are you for real?"). They had to enlist in our unit as soldiers in order to get their museum-issued "passports" stamped with a special seal. This was done by having them fill out the very same template form used in the 18th century to recruit soldiers into the Spanish army (we had the forms in both English and Spanish). We also had some replica items of daily life including Spanish coins to explain their "sign on bonus". Many adults also "signed on" and they asked the most common question over and
over again; "How come we didn't learn this in school?" To be fair, our school system isn't the only one that hasn't done justice to this forgotten chapter in history. We had a Spaniard tell us that he did not know of the existence nor participation of the Spanish Louisiana Regiment. He told us that this chapter in history is taught in Spanish schools as "our country provided funds and supplies to the Americans" and then they jump to the 1808 War of Spanish Independence against Napoleon.

The exhibit's paintings are truly an impressive collection. Some key figures include:
1. King Carlos III
2. Count de Aranda - Spain's ambassador to France and a mayor proponent
of joint French-Spanish military support
3. Prime Minister Floridablanca - Architect of the Spanish strategy for the AWI
4. Bernardo de Galvez - Governor of La Luisiana and General who led the Mississippi and Gulf of Mexico campaign.
5. George Washington at the Battle of Princeton
6. A Captain of the Spanish Louisiana Regiment - great painting with sufficient details of the uniform for us to compare with our own. Comment: even though photos are not allowed in special exhibits, a very kind security guard "looked the other way" so that we could take a picture of our "Captain". :) We'll be uploading the photo to our Spanish Louisiana Yahoo Forum.

The exhibit's last day was February 10th.


Don Eliud Bonilla y González
Sargento 2da Clase
Regimiento Español de La Luisiana

There is a picture of us at the end of the very long day. From left to right: Soldado Alex Bonilla, Teniente Hector Diaz, Emily (SOcial Studies teacher and Smithsonian Volunteered who manned the table with us), and Sargento Eliud Bonilla. Taking the photo was Soldado Eric Cardona. Thanks.




The Battle of the Hook
            When General Cornwallis occupied Yorktown in September 1781 he dispatched a portion of his troops to occupy and fortify Gloucester Point, across the river from Yorktown. This force would be able to secure the British Army’s flank, protect a possible escape route, and forage for food and supplies in the fertile farmland of Gloucester County. Among the British forces in Gloucester were Col. Banastre Tarleton and his Legion, along with detachments from several regular British regiments.

General Washington and his French allies recognized the importance of this area to the ensuing siege and sent a force to block the British in Gloucester. This Allied force included Virginia militia, made up in part of former Continental soldiers. The French forces, under the command of General Choisy included Marines, as well as Lauzun’s Legion, under the command of the flamboyant Duc de Lauzun.

Early on the morning of 3 October, Captain Phil Taliaferro of the Gloucester militia sent the following dispatch, probably from the militia’s observation post at Perrin’s (Little England), to the Allied commanders in Gloucester who were moving south from the vicinity of the Court House toward the enemy positions at Gloucester Point.

A party of the Enemy are now At Mrs Whitings & have sent out to collect the Cattle & Sheep adjacent, there being no one to oppose them. I thought proper to send this information to you & am with respect Your Most Obd’t. Serv’t.

Phil Taliaferro

Octr. 3. 1781

Lauzun linked up with Mercer at Seawell’s Tavern, about five miles from the British positions, and they continued toward the enemy. When they met the British a couple of miles down the road at “the Hook” (where the Guinea Road now meets Route 17), Lauzun rode up and spotted Tarleton galloping toward him. Before they clashed, one of Tarleton’s cavalrymen’s horses was wounded, and it struckTarleton’s, felling him and his horse in the process. His dragoons rescued him, retreated, then mounted a counter attack. They were thrown back, and broke for the protection of a company of the 23rd Regiment, who stopped Lauzun’s infantry, but not Mercer’s Virginians.  The British withdrew to their lines with the loss of their infantry commander and 12 men, and a wounded Colonel Tarleton. The Americans lost 2 killed and 11 wounded, and the French suffered 3 killed and 16 wounded, including Lauzun’s second-in-command.

General Choisy penned the following to General Washington
(his own spelling is used):

"Obre 3th after noon at 2 o Clock


I have the hounor to inform you that by our arrival at Saoul’s Tavern we have met with the ennemi who was in number about 500 men Cavalry and Infantry, that the Cavalry of the Duc of Lauzun has attaqued them, pierced throug and that we have had a great advantage on them We can esteem they have 30 men killed or wounded The 200 men grenadier Americans who were the only Infantry advanced enough to have part in the affair and who have behaved excedingly well have killed one officer who was at the head of the Infantry of the ennemi. T’is a general report that Tarleton has been wounded. The ennemi have retired to Gloucester and we are quickly in our Camp where I expect you will join to morrow as we have al. agreed

I have the hounor to be your Most humble servant,  Choisy"

General Washington’s general orders of the next day included the following:

... the General Congratulates the Army upon the brilliant success of the Allied Troops near Gloucester. He requests the Duke de Lauzern to accept his particular thanks for the Judicious disposition and the decisive Vigour with which he charged the Enemy, and to communicate his Warmest Acknowledgements to the Gallant Officers and men by whom he was so admirably seconded. He feels peculiar satisfaction at the inconsiderable loss on our part, that no ill effects are to be apprehended from the Honorable Wounds which have been received in this affair, and that at so small an Expence, the Enemy amounting to six hundred Horse and foot were compleatly repulsed and Reconducted to their very lines.

The Hook battlefield is now an empty field behind the Hardee's at Hayes, hallowed ground with nothing to note its significance except a small roadside marker and a small, deteriorating concrete monument.

Seawell's Ordinary, which became General George Weedon's headquarters (with the French camped nearby) until the British surrender, still stands as one of the fine restaurants and taverns in this county.

Event Planning and Organization

The Battle of the Hook reenactment is being organized by the recreated First Virginia Regiment, Inc., in conjunction with the three umbrella groups that incorporate most of the reenactment units in the hobby. These three umbrella groups are The Continental Line (of which the First Virginia is a founding member), the British Brigade and the Brigade of the American Revolution. These three umbrella organizations are made up of the many reenactment groups that portray the original units that fought in the American Revolution. These three large groups have worked together over the last 20 years to organize most of the major reenactments of the Revolutionary War.

The First Virginia Regiment

The First Virginia Regiment ( was organized in February, 1975 and is incorporated in Virginia as a nonprofit, educational organization. The group has organized a number of large events since 1975, including the largest Revolutionary War reenactment at Yorktown, VA in 1981. The First Virginia has also organized large reenactments at Mount Vernon in 1999 and 2007, as well as at Gunston Hall, Leesburg,Virginia and Colonial Williamsburg.

The Site

This is a site of major historic importance and reenactors will enjoy their visit. Warner Hall ( was founded in 1642 and is listed by both the National Register of Historic

Places and the Virginia Historic Landmarks Commission. Augustine Warner received the acreage in exchange for bringing twelve settlers across the Atlantic Ocean to the Jamestown Settlement, a colony desperately in need of manpower to survive in the New World. Warner Hall served for a time as Nathaniel Bacon's headquarters during “Bacon's Rebellion” in 1676.

The estate was the home of George Washington's great-grandfather Augustine Warner II, whose daughter Mildred married Lawrence Washington. George Washington was a visitor to the estate where his grandmother was raised, as was Lafayette, the Duc de Lauzon, and Merriweather Lewis (who also was a descendant of Augustine). Queen Elizabeth II, also related to Augustine Warner, visited the estate in 1957.

The main house was damaged by fire in 1740 and the present structure was rebuilt in 1849 in the Colonial Revival style. The main house, along with the original 17th century west wing dependency (the plantation schoolroom and tutor’s quarters) has been completely restored and offers a rare glimpse into the past. Historic outbuildings include 18th century brick stables, a dairy barn and smokehouse.

The Warner-Lewis family graveyard, maintained by the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities, offers a remarkable collection of 17th and 18th century tombstones. The property includes over 500 acres, most of it farm fields.

The Event

The event is planned as a “Big Three” reenactment, to include units from the Continental Line, the British Brigade, and the Brigade of the American Revolution. Commanders of all three umbrella organizations have sanctioned the event as the major event for fall 2008.

Planning for this event began in 2003 in preparation of the 225th reenactment at Yorktown (in 2006). When Yorktown became a joint BAR-NPS event, plans for Gloucester were placed on hold so as not to conflict with the Yorktown 225th celebration. In January 2007 planning was restarted in Gloucester for the event to be held in 2008.

Three Battle Reenactments: In addition to reenacting the Battle of the Hook, we will also reenact the Battle of Greensprings, another major battle of the 1781 Virginia Campaign. We expect to schedule a third, less formally scripted battle. In short, we expect there to be plenty of battle “action” over the weekend.

Mounted Troops: According to historian Dr. Robert Selig, the Battle of the Hook was probably the largest cavalry engagement of the American Revolution, with several hundred mounted troops involved. We hope to attract as many recreated mounted dragoons as possible and a special fund has been created to provide a travel stipend for reenactors bringing horses.

Other Activities: In addition to the battles, we plan to organize a variety of other activities throughout the weekend. Some of these activities will include school programs, Dragoon, Artillery & Musket Demonstrations, music and dance programs, Soldiers and Ladies Party at Warner Hall, and more.

Charter Bus Fund:  We are happy to announce that we will provide financial assistance for charter buses. Any group interested in organizing a charter bus to the event should contact the organizers for more information (email:

Horse Fund: We will provide financial assistance for people bringing horses to help offset the excessive cost of

Event Website

The event will be managed, in part, with a unique website: . This site has already been created and was promoted to the reenactment community via the “RevList” and

Continental Line message boards. The site will be used to provide information to the reenactors, as well as the public and the press. In the coming months information will be added, along with a registration form for reenactment units.

The Battle of the Hook was probably the largest cavalry engagement of the War so we want to have as many mounted troops as possible. It’s our hope that assisting with the fuel cost will encourage all riders to attend. contact us via e-mail ( for more information.

Artillery Powder Fund: We will be providing a powder allowance to artillery units to help offset the cost of gunpowder.


The Real Story of the American Revolution


Spain's Involvement in the American Revolution
Spain's Involvement in North America: 1500 to 1763 

Spain had extensive land claims and settlements in North America since the 1500s, some of which were ceded to Great Britain at the end of the French and Indian War in 1763.

While organizing a 2007 symposium on The Spanish Contribution to the Independence of the United States: Between Reform and Revolution Ambassador Eduardo Garrigues, Advisor for Hispanic Affairs in the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, stated: In many history books, the Spanish contribution to the American Revolution has been ignored or underestimated, with the belief that Spain was playing only second fiddle to France in this international conflict, but in fact France had lost most of her American territories in the previous [French and indian] war with England, while Spain still controlled vast territories in both North and South America. As the leaders of the American Revolution expressed, without the financial and military support of Spain, the outcome of the war might have been different.

Spain: How the Global Conflict Influenced the Outcome of the American War for Independence and Postwar World Development, by Granville W. Hough

Recommended website by Maria Angeles O'Donnell Olson

            (Continues with surnames beginning with Ca. Note that the six legajos which cover the soldiers of Peru and Bolivia, and Northern Chile are from 7283 through 7388. In order to see the record of each soldier, one
way is to order a microfilm copy of the legajo from the LDS Family History Center in Salt Lake City, then study the microfilm at a local LDS Family Library.)

Antonio Caballero. Lt, Mil Discip Cab de Camaná, 1798. Leg 7288:XIV:15.
José Caballero. Lt, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:36.
Manuel Caballero. Lt, Mil Discip Cab de Camaná, 1798. Leg 7286:XIV:10.
Vicente Caballero. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Huánuco, 1796. Leg 7286:V:35.
José Antonio Cabello. Lt, Escuadrón Mil Urbanas Dragones, Moquegua, 1797. Leg 7287:XXVII:5.
Manuel Cabello. SubLt, Escuadrones Mil Urbanas Dragones Miquegua, 1797. Leg 7287:XXVII:9.
Francisco Antonio Cabellos y Messa. Cadet, Bn Prov Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1794. Leg 7285:VIII:59.
José Cabero y Salazar. Alf, Mil Prov Urbanas de Dragones de Carabayllo, 1800. Leg 7288:IV:20.
José Cabeza de Vaca. Lt, Mil Discip Cab Camaná, 1795. Leg 7285:XII:14.
Victorino Cabezas. Sgt Mayor, Mil Discip Cab Arnero Chancay, 1800. Leg 7288:III:4.
Estanislao Cabrejas. Capt, grad Lt Col, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:12.
Ramón Cabrejas. SubLt, Inf Real de Lima 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:85.
Pedro Cabrejas. Lt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Lambayeque, 1797. Leg 7287:XXII:14.
Santos Cabrejos. Lt, Mil Discip Cab Ferreñafe, 1797. Leg 7287:XIV:21.
Antonio Cabrera. SubLt, Comp sueltas de Mil Discip de Inf de Ica, 1800. Leg 7288:XIX:11.
Faustino Cabrera. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Abancay, 1793. Leg 7284:II:13.
Francisco Cabrera. Sgt, Mil Discip de Inf de Cuzco, 1800. Leg 7286:XXIV:37.
José Matías Cabrera. Lt Col, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Huanta, 1800. Leg 7288:XVIII:2.
Juan Cabrera. Lt, Bn Prov de Mil Pardos Libres de Lima, 1796. Leg 7286:XII:28.
Manuel Cabrera. Cadet, Comp sueltas de Mil Discip de Inf de Ica, 1800. Leg 7288:XIX:22.
Marcelo Cabrera. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Huambos, Partido de Cajamarca, 1792. Leg 7284:XIV:37.
Melchor de Cabrera. Lt Col, Mil Discip de Cab de Ica, 1800. Leg 7288:XX:3. 
Pedro Cabrera. SubLt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de Urubamba, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXVIII:24.
Pedro Cabrera. Alf, Mil Discip de Cab prov de Cañete, 1797. Leg 7287:VI:22.
Melchor de Cabrera y Noriega. Lt, Mil Discip Cab de ica, 1800. Leg 7288:XX:18.
Andrés Caburrado. Cadet, Inf Real de Lima, 1793. Leg 7284:IX:125.
Agustin Caceres. SubLt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:47.
Cipriana Caceres. Porta-bandera, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1792. Leg 7284:III:63.
Francisco Caceres. SubLt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IV:20.
Jacinto Caceres. Alf, Comp sueltas de Mil Discip de Inf de Trujillo, Peru, 1800. Leg 7288:XXX:7.
Lorenzo Caceres. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:63.
Mateo Caceres. Lt, Mil Discip Dragones de Arica, 1800. Leg 7288:II:19.
José Caceres y Gallegos. Lt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:36.
José Caceres y Sepulveda. Sgt de la 5th Comp, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1792. Leg 7284:III:73.
José Antonio Cacho. Col, Mil Discip Cab de Trujullo, Peru, 1800. Leg 7288:XXXI:1.
Pedro José Cacho. Sgt Mayor, Mil lDiscip Cab de Trujullo, 1800. Leg 7288:XXXI:3.
Bernardo Justo de la Cadena. Capt, Mil Discip Cab de Camaná, 1798. Leg 7286:XIV:7.
Sebastián Cajas. Alf, Mil Prov Urbanas Cab de Huanuco, 1797. Leg 7286:IV:19.
Alberto Calderon. Sgt, Mil Discip de Dragones de Lima, 1796. Leg 7286:XI:61.
Alberto Calderon. Sgt, Mil Dragones Prov de las fronteras de Tarma, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIX:39. (This may be the same person as the one above.)
Calixto Calderon. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip de Dragones de Caraveli. 1796. Leg 7287:VIII:40.
Guillermo Antonio Calderon. Capt, Mil Dragones prov de las fronteras de Tarma, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIX:10.
José Calderon. Lt, Bn Prov de Mil de Pardos libres de Lima, 1796. Leg 7286:XII:31.
José Marcos Calderon. Sgt, Inf del Real Asiento de Paucartambo, 1798. Leg 7286:XIX:37.
Juan Calderon. Sgt, Mil Urbanas de Inf de Huancavelica, 1800. Leg 7288:XVI:22.
Manuel Calderon. Cadet, Mil Discip Dragones de Arica, 1800:. Leg 7288:II:69.
Nicolás Calderon. Sgt, Inf de Real Asiento de Paucartambo, 1798. Leg 7286:XIX:34.
Francisco Calderon Bustamante. Col, Mil Dragones Prov de las fronteras de Tarma, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIX:1.
Justo Calderon Portocarrero. Alf, Mil Discip Dragones de Arica, 1800. Leg 7288:II:43.
Pedro Dalderon Portocarrero. Alf, Mil Discip Dragones de Arica, 1800. Leg 7288:II:35.
Nicolás Calderon de Velasco. SubLt, Inf del Real Asiento de Paucartambo, 1798. Leg 7286:XIX:26.
Benito Calvo. Lt, Mil Cab Discip Prov de Cañete, 1797. Leg 7287:VI:9.
Juan Calvo. Sgt, Mil Prov Brbanas Inf de Abancay, 1793. Leg 7284:II:34.
Matías Calvo. Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Dragones de Quispicanchi, Cuzco, 1790. Leg 7236:XX:19. (Note: the Legajo is more likely 7283 or 7284.)
Tiburcio del Calvo y Cossio. Cadet, Mil Prov Discip de Cab de Arequipa, 1797. Leg 7287:II:71.
Antonio de la Calle. Alf, Mil Prov Discip de Cab de Arequipa, 1797. Leg 7287:II:35.
José Calle. Sgt, Mil Discip Dragones de Acari y Chala, 1796. Leg 7286:I:29.
Pedro Calle. Sgt, Mil Discip, Cab de los valles de Palpa y Nasca, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXI:39.
Santiago Calle. Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Abancay, 1793. Leg 7284:II:56.
José Callejon. Lt, Veterano grad Capt, Mil Discip Dragones de Lima, 1796. Leg 7286:XI:7.
Martin Camacho. SubLt, Mil Dragones Prov de las fronteras de Tarma, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXV:32.
Fernando Camara. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Dragones de Quispicanchi, Cuzco, 1793. Leg 7286:XX:9.
Julián Campana. Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de Abancay, 1793. Leg 7284:II:50.
Francisco del Campo. Sgt, Mil Urbanas Inf de Huamanga, 1800. Leg 7288:XV:34.
José Francisco Campo. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Dragones de Chota, 1797. Leg 7287:XIII:50.
Manuel del Campo. Cadet. Mil Urbanas Cab de San Pablo de Chalázquez, 1792. Leg 7284:XVIII:47.
Tiburcio Joaquín Campo. Cadet, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IV:40.
Valentin del Campo. Sgt Mayor, Mil Urbanas Cab San Pablo de Chalaquez, 1798. Leg 7287:XI:4.
José Camporrendo. Capt, Inf Real de Lima, 1790. Leg 7283:VIII:29.
Juan Antonio Campos. Lt, Mil Inf Española de San Juan de la Frontera de Chachapoya, 1792. Leg 7284:VI:17.
Juan Manuel Campos. Lt de Granaderos, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IV:10.
Luis Campos. Lt, grad de Capt, Bn Prov de Mil de Pardos Libres de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXV:2.
Pedro Campos. SubLt, Mil Inf Española de San Juan de la Frontera de Chachapoyas, 1792. Leg 7284:VI:29.
Ramón Campos. SubLt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IV:23.
Francisco Campos y Mendoza. Sgt Abanderado/color bearer, Mil Discip de Inf de Cuzco, 1792. Leg 7284:V:6.
Bernabé Canabal. Cadet, Mil Discip de Inf de Cuzco, 1800. Leg 7286:XXIV:46.
Feliciano Candia. SubLt de Granaderos, Mil Provinciales Urbanas de Inf de Abancay, 1793. Leg 7284:II:62.
Isidro Candiotti. Cadet, Mil Prov Urbanas de Cab de Huanta, 1798. Leg 7286:XVII:35.
Baltasar de Canduela. Alf, Mil Prov Discip de Cab de Arequipa, 1797. Leg 7287:II:44.
Juan Ignacio Canepa. Cadet, Mil Prov Urbanas de Dragones de Celendin, Partido de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IX:42.
Fernando Cano. Sgt, Mil Discip de Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:74.
Hilario Cano. Sgt 1st of the 7th Comp, Mil Discip de Inf de Cuzco, 1792. Leg 7284:V:35.
Ramón Cano. Sgt, Mil Discip Cab de Camaná, 1798. Leg 7286:XIV:34.
Juan Casino. Abanderado/Color Bearer, Mil Urbanas Cab San Pablo de Chalaquez, 1798. Leg 7287:XI:32.
José Canton. SubLt, Bn Prov de Mil de Pardos Libres de Lima, 1796. Leg 7286:XII:42.
Antonio Cantos. Col grad, Plana Mayor de la plaza del Callao, 1798. Leg 7286:XXI:1.
Francisco Cañas. Cadet, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:117.
Feliciano Candia. SubLt de Granaderos, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de Abancay, 1793. Leg 7284:II:62.
Isidro Candioti. Cadet, Mil Prov Urbanas de Cab de Huanta, 1798. Leg 7286:XVII:35.
Baltasar de Canduela. Alf, Mil Prov Discip de Cab de Arequipa, 1797. Leg 7287:II:44.
Juan Ignacio Canepa. Cadet, Mil Prov Urbanas de Dragones de Celedin, Partido de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IX:42.
Fernando Cano. Sgt, Mil Discip de Dragones de Lima 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:74.
Hilario Cano. Sgt, 1st of the 7th Comp Mil Discip de Inf de Cuzco, 1792. Leg 7284:V:35.
Ramón Cano. Sgt, Mil Discip Cab de Camaná, 1798. Leg 7286:XIV:34.
Juan Cansino. Abanderado/Color Bearer, Mil Urbanas Cab, San Pablo de Chalaquez, 1798. Leg 7287:XI:32.
José Canton. SubLt, Bn, Prov de Mil de Pardos Libres de Lima, 1796. Leg 7286:XII:42.
Antonio Cantos. Col, grad Plana Mayor de la plaza del Callao, 1798. Leg 7286:XXI:1.
Francisco Cañas. Cadet, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:117.
José Cañas. Cadet, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:113.
Miguel Carazas. Capt, Mil Discip de Inf de Cuzco, 1800. Leg 7286:XXIV:11.
Domingo Carballo. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip de Dragones del Valle de Majes, 1797. Leg 7287:XXV:32.
Francisco José Carballo. Alf, Portaguión, Mil Prov Discip de Dragones del Valle de Majes, 1797. Leg 7287:XXV:26.
Pedro José Carballo, Sgt, Mil Prov Discip de Dragones del Valle de Majes, 1797. Leg 7287:XXV:35.
Agustin Carcamo. Sgt, Comp Sueltas de Inf del Partido de Caremapu, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 288:XIII:12.
José de Carcamo. Capt, Mil Prov Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:8&17.
Juan de Dios Carcamo. Lt, Escuadroón Mil Discip de Cab de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:X:4.
Pascual Carcamo. SubLt, Milicias Prov Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:60.
Pedro Carcamo. Sgt, Mil Prov de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:92.
Francisco Carcaño y Santisteban. Lt, Mil Discip de Inf de Cuzco, 1800. Leg 7286:XXIV:19.
Alberto Cardenas. Capt, Mil Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:10.
Antonio Cardenas. Capt, Mil Prov Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:27.
Antonio Cardenas. Lt, Mil Prov Dragones de las Fronteras de Tarma, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIX:22.
Clemente Cardenas. Lt, Mil Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:35.
Felipe Cardenas. SubLt, Mil Urbanas Inf de Huamanga, 1797. Leg 7286:IV:23.
Fermin Cardenas. Capt, Mil Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:24.
Francisco Cardenas. Lt, Mil Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:39.
Francisco Javier Cardenas. SubLt, Mil Prov Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:75.
José de Cardenas. Lt, Bn Prov de Milicias de Pardos Libres de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXV:3.
José Cardenas. Lt, Mil Prov Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:31.
José María Cardenas. Cadet, Mil Prov Urbanas de Dragones de Chota, 1797. Leg 7287:XIII:55.
Justo Cardenas. SubLt, Mil Prov Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:53.
Manuel Cardenas. Capt, Comp Sueltas de Mil Discip de Cab del Partido de Carelmapu, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:XIV:1.
Melchor Cardenas. Alf de Carabineros, Mil Prov Discip de Cab de Arequipa, 1797. Leg 7287:II:38.
Miguel Cardenas. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Huanta, 1800. Leg 7288:XVIII:54.
Pablo Cardenas. Alf, Mil Dragones Prov de las Fronteras de Tarma, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIX:31.
Pascual Cardenas. Lt, grad Capt, Bn Mil Urbanas Inf de Andahuailas, 1799: Leg 7286:XXII:13.
Manuel Cardona. Ayudante Mayor, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Huanta, 1800. Leg 7288:XVIII:22.
Juan José Caro. Lt, Comp Cab Mil del Partido de Santa, 1792. Leg 7284:XXIII:8.
Mariano Cartagena. SubLt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Abancay, 1793. Leg 7284:II:26.
Agustín Carvajal. Lt Col de Cab Mil Discip de Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:9.
José de Carvajal. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Huanta, 1800. Leg 7288:XVIII:11.
José Antonio Carvajal. Sgt, Mil Discip Cab Ica, 1797. Leg 7287:XX:36.
Juan Carvajal. Sgt, Mil Siscip de Dragones de Lima, 1796. Leg 7286:XI:56.
Luis Carvajal. Alf, Mil Discip Dragones de Acari y Chala, 1796. Leg 7286:I:19.
Luis Antonio Carvajal. Capt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1792. Leg 7284:III:10.
Manuel Carvajal. SubLt, Mil Prov Discip If Lambayeque, 1797. Leg 7287:XXII:21.
Matías Carvajal. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de Calca, 1797. Leg 7287:V:5.
Melchor Carvajal. Sgt 1st, Veterano Mil Discip de Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:65.
Domingo Carrasco. ???, Mil Discip Dragones de Arica, 1800. Leg 7288:II:31.
Manuel Gregorio Carrasco. Lt Col, Bn de Mil Prov Discip de Inf de San Miguel de Piura, 1800. Leg 7286:XXV:2.
Blas Carreto. Sgt, Bn Prov de Mil de Pardos Libres de Lima, 1796. Leg 7286:XII:8.
Custodio Carrillo. Sgt, Mil Discip Cab Ferreñafe, 1797. Leg 7287:XIV:47.
Fermin Carrillo. Lt, Bn Prov Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1794. Leg 7285:VIII:34.
Ignacio Carrillo. Sgt, Comp de Cab Mil de Partido de Santa, 1799. Leg 7286:XXIII:17.
Juan Carrillo. Col, Inf Real de Lima, 1790. Leg 7283:VIII:1.
Juan Carrillo. Porta-estandarte, Mil Discip de Cab Prov de Cañete, 1797. Leg 7287:VI:16.
Julián Carrillo. Alf, Mil Discip Cab Arnero de Chancay, 1800. Leg 7288:III:18.
Mariano Carrillo. SubLt, Bn Provincial de Mil de Pardos Libres de Lima, 1796. Leg 7286:XII:41.
Pedro Rafael Carrillo. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Dragones de Crabayllo, 1800. Leg 7288:IV:12.
Gaspar Carrillo de Albornoz. Col, Mil Urbanas Inf de Huamanga, 1800. Leg 7288:XV:4. (See next entry for possible duplication.)
Juan Bautista Carrillo de Albornoz. Col, Mil Urbanas Inf de Huamanga, 1797. Leg 7286:IV:3.
Pedro Carrillo de Albornoz. Col, Mil Discip de Cab de Huaura, 1797. Leg 7287:XIX:1.
Francisco Carrillo y Mudarra. Sgt Mayor, Mil Discip de Cab Prov de Cañete, 1797. Leg 7287:VI:3.
Agustin Carrillo y Salazar. Comandante Mil Prov Discip de Cab del Valle de Chincha, 1795. Leg 7285:XIV:1.
Fernando Carrillo y Salazar. Alf, Mil Prov Discip Cab del Valle de Chincha, 1797. Leg 7287:XII:20.
Manuel Francisco Carrion y Merodio. Col, Bn de Mil Prov Discip de Inf de San Miguel de Piura, 1800. Leg 7286:XXV:1.
Marqués de Casa Boza. Comandante Milicias Discip Cab Arnero, Chancay, 1800. Leg 7288:III:3.
Domingo Casa de Novoa. Lt, Mil Discip de Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:37.
Tomás Casabona. Sgt, Mil Dragones Prov de las Fronteras de Tarma, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIX:42.
Blas Casanova. Cadet, Mil Prov Urbanas de Dragones de Celendin, Partido de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IX:40.
Casimiro Casanova. Cadet, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones Celendin, Partido de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IX:43.
José Rudesindo Casanova y Encalada. Col, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Celendin, partido de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IX:1.
Juan Fernando Casas. Alf de la 5th Comp, Mil Discip Cab, Prov de Cañete, 197. Leg 7287:VI:15.
Diego de Caseda. Lt, Mil Discip Cab de Trujullo, Peru, 1800. Leg 7288:XXXI:8.
Diego de Caseda y Bracamonte. Alf, Mil Discip Cab Trujillo, Peru, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXVI:20.
Francisco de Caseda y Bracamonte. Alf, Mil Discip de Cab de Trujillo, 1800. Leg 7288:XXXI:19.
José Caseda y Olazavar. Lt, Mil Discip Cab de Trujullo, Peru, 1800. Leg 7288:XXXI:15.
Manuel Casino. Lt, Comp Cab Mil del Partido de Santa, 1799. Leg 7286:XXIII:7.
Luis Caso. Porta-estandarte, Mil Discip Cab de los valles de Palpa y Nasca, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXI:25.
Mariano Caso. Alf Mil Discip Cab de los valles de Palpa y Nasca, 1797. Leg 7187:XXXI:21.
Juan José de Castañaga. Sgt Mayor, Mil Prov Discip Cab de Cuzco, 1797. Leg 7287:X:6.
Baltasar Castañeda. Sgt de Fusileros, Mil Prov Urbanas, Inf de Cajamarca, 1791. Leg 7284:I:30.
Ceferino Castañeda. SubLt, Mil Prov Urbanas inf de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IV:19.
Domingo Castañeda. SubLt, Mil Prov Inf de Lambayeque, 1797. Leg 7287:XXII:23.
Domingo Castañeda. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones Celendin, partido de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IX:5.
Marcelo Castañeda. Alf, Mil Urbanas Cab San pablo de Chalaquez, 1798. Leg 7287:XI:34.
Manuel Castañada y Matos. Capt, Mil Urbanas Cab, San Pablo de Chalaquez, 1798. Leg 7287:XI:9.
José Mariano Castaños. Sgt Mayor, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de San Antonio de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:III:3.
Manuel Castelblanco. Capt, grad Lt Col, Inf Real de Lima, 1790. Leg 7283:VIII:73.
Domingo Castillo. Sgt, Mil Discip Dragones de Acari y Chala, 1796. Leg 7286:I:32.
Francisco del Castillo. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Calca, 1797. Leg 7287:V:20.
Juan de Dios Castillo. Sgt, Mil Discip Cab de los valles de Palpa y Nasca, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXI:33.
Juan José Castillo. Segundo Ayudante Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Huánuco, 1796. Leg 7286:V:13.
Leon Castillo. Capt Mil Urbanas Inf de Huamanga, 1800. Leg 7288:XV:9
Nicolás del Castillo. Sgt, Inf Real de Lima, 1788. Leg 7283:II:104.
Polonio Castillo. Sgt, Escuadrón Cab Mil Urbanas de los territorios de Huancabamba y Chalaco, Piura, 1800. Leg 7286:XXVI:11.
Rudesindo del Castillo. Capt, Mil Inf Española de San Juan de la Frontera de Chachapoya, 1792. Leg 7284:VI:7.
Apolinar Castillo Rengifo. Sgt, 2nd Comp Mil Urbanas Inf Moyobamba, 1797. Leg 7287:XXIX:30.
Bartolomé Castillo Rengifo. Sgt, 4th Comp Mil Urbanas Inf Moyobamba, 1797. Leg 7287:XXIX:31.
Juan Luis Castillo Rengifo. Ayudante, Mil Urbanas Inf Moyobamba, 1797. Leg 7287:XXIX:16.
Nicolás del Castillo Rengifo, Capt, 7th Comp Mil Urbanas Inf Moyobamba, 1797. Leg 7287:XXIX:6.
Anselmo Castro. Sgt, Mil Prov Ldiscip de Dragones de Caraveli, 1796. Leg 7287:VIII:37.
Ignacio Castro. Cadet, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:114.
Isidro Castro. Capt, Mil Discip Cab de Trujillo, Peru, 1800. Leg 7288:XXXI:5.
Joaquin de Castro. Lt, Mil Prov Discip de Dragones de Caraveli, 1797. Leg 7287:VIII:12.
Joaquín Castro. Alf, Comp Cab Mil del Partido de Santa, 1792. Leg 7284:XXIII:15.
José de Castro. Lt, Mil Prov Discip de Cab del Valle de Chincha, 1797. Leg 7287:XII:12.
Juan Rudesindo de Castro. Sgt, Bn de Mil Prov Discip Inf de San Miguel de Piura, 1800. Leg 7286:XXV:29.
Manuel de Castro. Lt Comp Cab Mil del Partido de Santa, 1792. Leg 7284:XXIII:11.
Manuel Castro. SubLt de Bandera, Comp sueltas de Mil Discip de Inf de Trujillo, 1800. Leg 7288:XXX:10.
Marcello Castro. Alf, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Huambos, Partido de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:XVII:17.
Ramón Castro. Ayudante Mayor Mil Prov Discip de Cab del Valle de Chincha, 1797. Leg 7287:XII:13.
Manuel de Castro Saavedra. Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Dragones de Carabayllo, 1797. Leg 7287:XIII:47.
Pedro Catalan. Sgt 1st, veterano Mil Discip de Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:70.
Juan José Cataño. Sgt, Mil Urbanas de Inf de Huancavelica, 1800. Leg 7288:XVI:19.
Miguel Cavalonga. SubLt, Mil Discip de Pardos y Morenos de Inf Lambayeque, 1797. Leg 7287:XXIII:13.
José Cavanillas. Sgt, Mil Urbanas Cab de San Pablo Chalaquez, 1797. Leg 7287:XI:51.
Fernando Cavero. SubLt, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:64.
Francisco Cavero. SubLt, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:60.
José Alvaro Cavero. Col, Bn Prov Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIII:4.
Ignacio Cavero y Cespedes. Lt Col, Mil Discip de Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:7.
Pablo Cavero Marin. Col, Bn Mil Urbanas de Inf de Andahuailas, 1799. Leg 7286:XXII:1.
Ignacio Cavero y Tagle. Alf de Granaderos, Mil Discip de Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:48.
José Cavero y Tagle. Alf, Mil Discip de Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:54.
Manuel Cavero y Tagle. Capt, Mil Discip de Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:20.
Marcelino Cavero y Tagle. Alf, Porta-guión, Mil Ldiscip de Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:57.
Mateo Cavero y Tagle. Cadet, Mil discip de Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:77.
Manuel Inocente Cavero Tagle y Salazar. Capt, Bn Prov Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1
796. Leg 7286:X:15.
Ignacio Cavero Vazquez de Acuña. Lt Col, Mil Discip Dragones de Lima, 1792. Leg 7284:XIX:70.
Juan del Carmen Cazos. Sgt Mayor, Mil Prov Inf de Lambayeque, 1797. Leg 7287:XXII:2.

(to be continued.)


Prayers, Potatoes, and a Twister by Margarita B Velez
Mr. P, from Poetry of Yesterday and Today by Raul Garza

Prayers, Potatoes, and a Twister  
Armed with folk wisdom--and the power of prayer--my grandmother calmed a storm.

By Margarita B. Velez 



"Tornadoes touched down near Dallas," the report said. Hearing this made me grateful to live in the western tip of the state, where the Franklin Mountains act as a buffer against such storms. Then a memory crept in from the back of my mind. I remembered the commotion that brought me outside one day, where I found Abuelita [grandmother] praying and watching a twister twirling in the distance. Abuelita's black hair was touched with silver, plaited in a long braid and wrapped into a bun. Her skin, the color of cinnamon, was wrinkled with time, and her brown eyes were intensely focused on the twister in the sky.

I was more interested in Abuelita's behavior than the funnel-shaped cloud in the distance. At eight, I was already accustomed to her ways. "Jesús, María y José!" she'd say at the clap of thunder and "Jesús mil veces!" when lightning followed. The beads in her pocket came out whenever she had spare time to pray the rosary. Never did she allow my chatter to interrupt the litany. I never asked about the motives for her invocations of God and his Holy Mother. I grew up in her faith, unquestioning.

I watched as she stood firmly facing the twisting clouds, holding a potato and a kitchen knife. She prayed fervently while keeping an eye on the approaching clouds. She held the potato up, sliced off a piece, and said, "En el nombre del Padre, vete!" ordering the tornado to depart in the name of the Father. "Y del Hijo, no nos hagas daño," she said, and another slice fell to the ground as she invoked the Son's name, pleading that the storm do us no harm. "Y el Espíritu Santo, vete!" Her strong voice commanded the phenomenon to depart in the name of the Holy Spirit.

The richness of my heritage was learned at Abuelita's knee. Her devotion to the Catholic Church was colored by the culture of her native Mexico. "Nothing is possible without the will of God" was her constant refrain. I had seen her fix medicinal potions and teas from herbs, barks and even the weeds that grew in the field behind our school. She'd brew istafiate for stomachaches, flor de saúco for hacking coughs and colds, and had a plant in the kitchen that relieved the pain of all types of burns and helped clear my acne. Yes, my grandmother's remedies cured almost anything.

I watched while Abuelita sliced the potato, almost as if it were the twister in her hand. She seemed to be in a trance, oblivious to my presence. As the potato slices fell into the dust, I noticed the unusual form in the sky break up, just like the spud Abuelita was slicing. Abuelita continued pleading with the Holy Mother and all the saints to help her make the cloud disappear. I was enthralled by my grandmother's determination, her prayers and the tools she used. Soon the twister dissipated until it was nothing but a few dark clouds drifting in the sky.

Abuelita lowered her tired arms and said, "Gracias a Dios, ya se fue." It was gone, thank God.

People gathered around us and stared, tracing a line of vision that went from the potato slices on the ground to the knife in Abuelita's hand. A woman threw her arms around my grandmother. "Muchas gracias," she said with tears gathering in her eyes. Abuelita smiled as we turned and went inside.

I never questioned her actions with the potato, but I didn't have to. I know that my abuelita performed a miracle that day long ago.

Sent by Mercy Bautista Olvera
Source: Chicken Soup for the Soul  

Mr. P
Selection from 
Poetry of Yesterday and Today, 
Poems about People and History by Raul Garza


He was called Mr. P,
Touch as nails can be,
As Hard as wood on a maple tree
Loving children was his key.

He was a very simple man,
Loved his family as many can,
Respected children and his fellowman,
Quite handsome with a smile and tan.

He loved the chance to teach,
To challenge minds beyond their reach,
To explore the realms beyond
Made school a lot of fun.

He made the world of math,
A very exciting path,
To solve that confusing maze
And solve the number's case.

One day he was called away,
Leaving his children in dismay
He was not allowed to stay one more day
He was called to report at the end of 
      school in May.

He was hired by the Master Teacher!



Mr. P

The school children in this small community had their hearts broken just three days after school closed for the summer vacation days.  Mr. Perez (Mr.P) died of a massive heart attack at his home.

Those who had just had him as their teacher were confused.  Who were they going to for advice next year?  "Hey, Mr. P. was invincible!"  Those families who had signed their children for his classes next year saw the family tradition torn down. " Who is going to teach my kid math next year?"

Mr. P had been excellent at all his endeavors.  He had been a Naval Reservist, saw service, and was a Navy Veteran.  He had been a top car salesman for many ears.  A super salesman, had decided he needed to do something better.  He found his calling in the teaching field.  The children got a winner.

M. Perez had been teaching over two decades at the time of his death.  He had become an excellent math teacher in the intermediate grades.  He was a designated Teaching Team Leader.  he was one of the best teachers on the campus.  Families made it a tradition to have Mr P. teach all their children.

Mr. P was 54 years old.  The school board recognized him at the board meeting the day before the funeral.  He was given a hero's funeral, something that is reserved for very special people in this community.



Raul Garza is a retired teacher/principal. He graciously sent two books he has self-published. This selection is one of 
18 character in which Raul accompanies the poem with historical comments. 

He writes: "I have come to understand that there is poetry in life.  Look around at all things happening.  There is rhythm, music, creativity, sound thoughts and words in .  . just living!

That is what my poems are all about. The poetry of life, of creativity which is beyond our control; it is in the hands of someone greater than I.



Bil: The Divorce: The Vicene Riva Palacio Series
Bil: Carnival Beads - Cuentas de Carnaval Rafael Jesús González

Installment sixteen.   
Translation by Ted Vincent


Dear Reader.   Perhaps what I am going to recount you have already heard or read at some point. But this does not bother me in the least, for I recall one of the famous maxims of Baron de Andilla, who says,  

"If someone tells you something, it is rude to reply: of course, I knew that."  

And as I am sure you are well educated, and besides knowing you will find benefit in this story, I proceed with my narration, certain that if you consider it, you will find one more little pleasure on your road of life.

* * *  
The lion, as is known, is the king of the quadruped animals. After a while, he tired of the lioness, his married wife, and searching for means to repudiate her, or at least to ask for a divorce, he had discovered that bad breath of the royal Madam could be cause, according to the opinion of distinguished jurist consultants of the reign, if not for a divorce, then more than sufficient to request a separation and become free of the weight of the matrimonial yoke.

One day, when the august matron least expected it, without beating around the bush or circumlocutions, the lion told her that she shouldn’t be a monarch she was no more than an animal.

"Look, my little one, I say that you and me are separated from today on and I am going to ask for a divorce because you have such bad breath it is as if you are eating a truffle of putrid garlic."  

The lioness, being an animal, and a woman no less, felt that the sky had fallen, not because of the divorce, rather because such a defect could place her in ridicule at the banquets and dances of the court.

"I have bad breath?" She exclaimed stammering in ire. "I have bad breath? You can’t give me any proofs, nor can any of your family, all know that the women of my race have always had the agreeable and sweet smelling breath of the meat of a yearling."  

"Don’t get all worked up," answered the lion. "I am sure of what I said. And I can prove it to you, not from what I say, but from all our vassals."  

"What do they know," the lioness said excitedly. "You put me to the test and we will see if I am the beast your accuse me of being."  

The lion, certain of his triumph in a trial with expert witnesses, sited it to be held the next day, and with agreement of his royal wife and the principal persons of the court. And the two spouses passed the night in caves quit. e apart, in order to avoid a matrimonial scene, dangerous on such an occasion in that the monarchy was not in the most stable condition.

* * *  
The royal couple were still sleeping, so early in the morning did the donkey arrive and present himself at the palace. But with the rise of the sun came the rise of the king who announced to those already gathered the beginning of the trial.

Of course, the lioness had taken care to wash herself very well with soap of the ‘Princes of the Congo,’the brand that existed then as now, and which she rinsed with the elixir of fresh potatoes.  

The ass presented himself, and was instructed by the lion to judge and give sentence. He placed his nose in the royal jaws that the lioness opened with democratic humility. She exhaled two or three times. Then, perceiving the thought of the king, and after making a characteristic gesture of his kind, ass wrinkled his nose, raised his upper lip to one side, exposing his teeth, and looking at the sky, with one eye, said in dogmatic voice,  

"Bad breath."  

The lion inclined his head majestically, and the donkey withdrew from the palace in a manner to not show his majesties his tail or other things. But he had not walked twenty steps when the lioness, on pretext of this or that business, left for a side door and in the time it took to say Jesus she left the animal in four pieces, and returned tranquilly afterward to the throne room.  

Taking his turn was the horse, who entered with an air of energy and with spartan disdain, as deputy of the opposition, and presented himself to smell the queen wife, who breathed in and out repeating the operation. In short order, the horse exclaimed, in critics voice.  

"Pure breath, without a hint of anything."  

He had hardly finished uttering these words when the lion leapt upon him and with claws and teeth left him as dead as if he’d never been born.  

Natural as were these scenes, given the character of those involved , whose characteristics have been studied assiduously by the famous P. Valdecerbro, who provides in his work, which is as curious as it is scientific, ‘Government and Politics of the Animals,’ many things to learn which carry the double advantage of being as curious as false.  

Next it was the turn of the monkey, and he presented himself gracious and timid, wishing to be at the same time the courtesan and the day of the dead skull. He approached the blunt nostrils of the wife of the monarch, and with a little smile of pride, and with benevolence said directly to the lion.  

"At times smells bad, and at times good."  

But his fatal hour had come and he had scarcely finished the phrase when one half the monkey was in the jaws of the king and the other half the queen.  

And as it had with all those before him, the trial continued in the name of the independence of judicial power.  

Enter the fox. He made three genuflexions, listened at tentatively to that which was requested of him.  He perked his snout and placed himself, not by her nose but with his whole head down the esophagus of the queen, remaining there two or three seconds, and after, shaking the ears and looking at the king a few times and other times at the queen, said, making a gesture of contrariness, and displeasure.  

"I have a cold."

From Riva Palacio anthology  "Cuentos del General"  1896.  

...................................................................   El Divorcio

Querido lector.   Quizás lo que voy a referirte lo habrás escuchado o leído alguna vez; pero eso me tiene muy sin cuidado, porque recuerdo una de las máximas famosas del Barón de Andilla, que dice:  

“Si alguien te cuenta algo, es grosería decirle, por supuesto, lo sabía.”  

Y como yo estoy seguro de tu buena educación, y además este cuento puede serte de mucha utilidad, prosigo con mi narración, seguro de que, si la meditas, me la tendrás que agradecer más de una vez en el camino de tu vida.
*     *     *  

El león, como es sabido, es el rey de los animales cuadrúpedos: llegó a cansarse de la leona, su casta esposa, y buscando medios de repudiarla, o cuando menos de pedir el divorcio, vino a descubrir que el mal aliento de la regia dama cause era, según la opinión de distinguidos jurisconsultos de su reino, más que suficiente para pedir la separación y quedar libre de aquel yugo matrimonial que tanto le pesaba.
Un día, cuando menos lo esperaba la augusta matrona, sin embargo ni circunloquios la dijo el león, que no por ser monarca dejaba de ser animal:

“Mira, hijita, que yo me separo de ti desde hoy, y voy a pedir el divorcio porque tienes el aliento cansado, con un si es no es tufillo de ajos podridos.”

La leona, que con ser animal no dejaba de ser hembra, sintió que el cielo se le vienía encima, no tanto por lo del divorcio, cuanto por lo de aquel defectillo que en los banquetes y bailes de la corte podría, sin duda, ponerla en ridículo.

“¿Que tengo el aliento cansado?” exclamó tartarrugiendo de ira. ¿Qué tengo el aliento cansado?  Eso no me lo pruebas tú, ni ninguno de los de tu familia; que las hembras de mi raza hemos tenido siempre el aliento más agradable y oloroso que carne de cabrito primal. 

“No me exaltes,” contestó el león, “que yo estoy seguro de lo que digo, y te lo puedo probar, no por mi dicho, sino por el de todas nuestros vasallos.”  

“Que vengan,”dijo con exaltación la leona.  “Me sujeto a la prueba; y a ver si hay bestia que tal calumnia pueda sostener.”  

Seguro el león de su triunfo en aquel juicio pericial, citó para el segundó día, y con acuerdo de su real esposa, a los principales personajes de la corte; y los dos consortes pasaron la noche en cuevas muy apartadas para evitar una escena matrimonial, peligrosa en aquella ocasión en que la monarquía no estaba de lo más bien asegurada.

  *     *     *   
Tan madrugador anduvo el pollino, y tan temprano se presento en palacio, que todavía estaban durmiendo los reyes; pero salio el sol, que también era otro rey, y sus majestades anunciaron que estaban ya visibles y que iba a comenzar el juicio. 

Por supuesto que la leona había cuidado de lavarse muy bien con verdadero jabón de los Principes del Congo, que tanto existía entonces como ahora, y había hecho enjuagatorios con elixir de jugo de patatas frescas.  

Presentóse el asno e instruido por el león de lo que debía juzgar y sentenciar, introdujo sus narices en las regias fauces que, con democrática humildad, abría la leona: aspiró dos o tres veces y en seguida, adivinando el pensamiento del monarca, y después de haber hecho ese gesto que le es característico, arrugando la nariz, levantando el belfo superior de un lado, ensañando los dientes y mirando al cielo con un ojo,  dijo con acento dogmático:  

“Huele mal.”

El león inclino majestuosamente la cabeza, y el borrico salio reculando de palacio por no mostrar a sus majestades la cola u otras cosas.  Pero no había caminado veinte pasos, cuando la leona, pretextado cualquier negocio, salio por una puerta excusada, y en un decir Jesús lo hizo cuartos y volvió después tranquilamente a la sala del trono.  

Tócale su turno al caballo, que entro con un aire de energía y con un desdén espartano, como diputado de oposición, y llegase a oler a la reina consorte; aspiro, respiro, repitió la operación, y en seguida, con una energía catoniana, exclamo.  

“Aliento puro, y sin dejo de ninguna especie.”

No bien acabó de decir esto, cuando ya el león había saltado sobre él, y con garras y dientes le dejo tan muerto como si nunca hubiera existido.  

Naturales habían sido aquellas escenas dado el carácter de los personajes que en ellas habían intervenido, cuyos caracteres ha estudiado tan acertadamente el famoso P. Valdecebro en su tan curiosa como científica obra que tituló;  Gobierno civil y político de los animales, y en donde pueden aprenderse muchas cosas que tienen la doble ventaja de ser tan curiosas como falsas. 

Llególe su turno al mono, y presentose entre gracioso y tímido, queriendo hacer al mismo tiempo el cortesano y el calavera; acerco las chatas narices a la boca de la esposa del monarca, y con una sonrisilla de orgullo, al par que de benevolencia, dijo dirigiéndose al león.   
“A veces huele mal, y a veces bien.”  

Pero en mala hora lo dijo, que  aun no había acabado la frase cuando medio mono se llevaba en sus garras del rey, y el otro medio la reina.  

Y siguió el juicio con todas aquellos antecedentes de la independencia y libertad del poder judicial. 

Entró la zorra, hizo tres genuflexiones, escucho atentamente lo que de ella se exigía, aguzo el hocico y metió, no la nariz, sino toda la cabeza, hasta el esófago de la reina;  estuvo así dos o tres segundos, y después, sacudiendo las orejitas y mirando al monarca unas veces, y otras a la reina, dijo haciendo un gesto de contrariedad y de disgusto:  

“Tengo catarro.”


Carnival Beads           Cuentas de carnaval

P. O. Box 5638
Berkeley, CA 94705
U. S. A.


From the streets
         of New Orleans
             in full Mardi Gras,
                     you called;
                     your words, a string
                            of lustrous beads,
                  adorned me with joy
                  & made my heart dance.

 Over the Bay of San Francisco
          the sky dawns
              the color of ashes                     

but tomorrow instead of the rosary
I will say those carnival beads.

         © Rafael Jesús González 2008 

Hoy, de las calles
         de Nueva Orleáns
               en pleno carnaval,
                        me llamaste;
                        tu voz un hilo de
                                cuentas lustrosas
                        me engalanó de encanto
                  y me hizo bailar el corazón.

 Sobre la Bahía de San Francisco
           el cielo amanece
                 color de cenizas

 pero mañana en vez del rosario 
diré esas cuentas de carnaval.

     © Rafael Jesús González 2008



Lozano Reunion, July 3-6 
The Descendents of Thomas Meade - Irish- Mexican Connection

Come celebrate the 4th of July and the first reunion of the Lozano families 
of the United States and Mexico


You’re invited to attend!!!! July 3,4,5,6

At the YMCA Ponkapoag 
Conference and Outdoor Education Center in the Blue Hills Reservation
Canton, MA
Exit off Highway 128 – Houghton Pond / Ponkapoag Trail

Mailing Address: Mike Lozano
Box 69
Randolph MA 02368
RSVP: 781- 508-904-9811
E- mail

I look forward to seeing all of you at the Family Reunion in Boston!

Ustedes están invitados a participar en la primera reunión de las familias Lozano de Estados Unidos y México. La reunión va a ser en Boston EUA, los días de Julio 3,4,5,6.

The event is open to the public and there are no registration fees. Keep in mind that there will be a fee for meals, entertainment and transportation. If any of you would like to attend or to participate as a speaker, or have something that you would like to present please contact me at or call 508/904-9811. For those who speak Spanish, call 219/931-8559. You are encouraged to forward this information on to others as they too are welcome to participate. I look forward to seeing every one of you at the Reunion in Boston.

Registración a la reunión es GRATIS. Pero va a ser una tarifa para su comida, entretenimiento y transportación. Los costos serán lo que usted use.

Si gustaría asistir en la Reunión Familiar, quiere participar como orador, o si tiene algo para presentar, por favor comunica conmigo (Michael Lozano) o llámame a 508/904-9811 en inglés. En español, llame Librado Lozano a 219/931-8559. Te invitamos a enviar esta información a otros, ya que ellos también están invitados a participar. Espero verlos todos en las Reunión Lozano Familiar.


Thursday/Jueves- Julio/July 3
5:00 p.m. Registration and reception. / Registro de visitantes y recepción / Cocktail party-comida y cócteles

Friday/ Viernes- Julio/ July 4
9:00a.m Welcome - Yolanda Lozano
Coffee and Donuts - Café y Pan
9:30 a.m. Opening General Session - Speaker Mike Lozano
Topic: Presentation of Book about the Lozanos
Presentación del Libro Sobre la Familia Lozano
11:00 a.m. Picnic and Pool Party / Juegos en la Piscina
1:00 p.m. Hike Trails / Golf or Tours
6:00 p.m. Salsa Dance Demonstration / Mariachi Veritas de Harvard
8:00 p.m. 4th of July Fireworks Celebration

Saturday/Sábado-Julio/ July 5
9:00 a.m. Presentation of the Lozano Family Tree and Exchange of Family Genealogy information - bring any pictures, scrapbooks, poster board picture collections. Coffee and Donuts
Reunión para intercambiar información,
documentos de Genealogía. Traiga fotos o cualquier datos que quiere compartir.
11:00 a.m. Pool Deck Swimming and Party
12:00 Texas BBQ
1:00 p.m. Field trip to Plymouth Plantation / Tour con Programa Especial, visita a lugares históricos de interés
7:00 p.m. Dance

Domingo/Sunday – Julio/July 6
9:00 a.m. Presentation of Book Heraldica y Genealogía de la Familia Lozano by José De La Luz Lozano with collaboration by Agapito Renvato and Alfredo Cárdenas
11:00 a.m. Final Picnic and meeting to plan next year’s Reunion
1:00 Despedida

Vamos a continuar dándoles a ustedes más sorpresas, información, y por supuesto, nuestra hospitalidad, para todos aquellos que participan, sobre todo por primera vez.

We welcome your suggestions for any additional reunion activities or ideas. 
Please make your reservation no later than JUNE 4 with Mike Lozano

Es necesario registrarse con 4 semanas de anticipación con Micheal Lozano.

The schedule is subject to change. 
Transportation will be provided from hotel to conference center.

Airport: Boston - Logan International Airport OR Providence Airport 
(it’s a one hour drive from Providence) 

Please plan your own transportation from airport to hotel

Hotels: You are responsible for making your own reservations
1. Holiday Inn / Dedham – 781/329-1000 - price $85 and up
Address - 55 Ariadne Road, Dedham

2. Budget Inn of Westwood – 781/326-4477– price $55 and up 
Address – 71 Providence Highway, Westwood 02090

3. Hilton / Dedham (East Street exit) – 781/329-7900 price -$189
Address – 25 Allied Drive, Dedham

4. Candlewood Suites – 781/849-7450 or 1- 888/226-3539 - price $99
* recommended  Address – 235 Wood Road, Braintree 02184
5. Sheraton – Braintree -781/848-0600 - price $169 and up
Address – 37 Forbes Road, Braintree 02184

Editor: Most northern Mexico Lozano family originate from a Pedro Lozano in Spain. I descend from Andres Lozano . . 

Francisco LOZANO
bp. Lugar de Campisarcalos, Miedes, Obispado de Siguenza, Espana
bp. Lugar de Campisarcalos, Miedes, Obispado de Siguenza, Espana

bp. Lugar de Campisarcalos, Miedes, Obispado de Siguenza, Espana
& Antonia DE URQUIZU

Capitan/General Pedro LOZANO
b. 1649
d. 20 Apr 1708, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico
bur. 20 Apr 1708, Capilla de San Francisco Javier, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico
& Mariana de la GARZA de la ROCHA
b. 1650
d. 8 Jun 1717, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico
bur. 8 Jun 1717, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico
m. 2 Oct 1669, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico

Alferez Andres LOZANO
b. 5 May 1682, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico
d. 16 Jun 1741
& Dona Maria Teresa CAVAZOS
bp. vecina of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico
m. 15 Apr 1725, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico
b. 1740
ch. 25 Dec 1740, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico
m. 11 Jan 1756, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico

The Descendents of Thomas Meade
Irish-Mexican Connection  

Compiled by John D. Inclan


  Generation No. 1  
THOMAS2 MEADE II (THOMAS1) died 1821. He married HELEN-MARY ROCHE 14 Jul 1792 in Dublin, Ireland, daughter of JOHN ROCHE.



3. ii. DENNIS MEADE-ROCHE, b. 01 Mar 1804, Dublin, Ireland; d. 24 Dec 1865, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.


Generation No. 2  
RICHARD3 MEADE-ROCHE (THOMAS2 MEADE II, THOMAS1) He married FRANCIS-EMILY LEWIS-MEYER 16 Jan 1841 in Nuestra Sra de Guanajuato, Guanajuato, Mexico, daughter of ALFRED LEWIS and KATE MEYER. She was born 14 Jun 1825 in London, England, and died 1888.


i. MARIA-MATILDE-FRANCISCA4 MEADE, b. 20 Jan 1842, Nuestra Sra de Guanajuato, Guanajuato, Mexico.

ii. JESUS-JORGE MEADE, b. 27 Jul 1844, Nuestra Sra de Guanajuato, Guanajuato, Mexico.

iii. JESUS-RICARDO-FEDERICO MEADE, b. 02 Jun 1847, Nuestra Sra de Guanajuato, Guanajuato, Mexico.

4. iv. HAROLD-GERARD MEADE, b. 31 Jan 1856, San Fernando, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas; d. 11 Feb 1927, Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico.


3. DENNIS3 MEADE-ROCHE (THOMAS2 MEADE II, THOMAS1) was born 01 Mar 1804 in Dublin, Ireland, and died 24 Dec 1865 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married LUISA-CATHERINE LEWIS-MEYER 24 Dec 1838, daughter of ALFRED LEWIS and KATE MEYER. She was born 24 Sep 1813 in Jamaica, and died 22 Dec 1912 in Mexico City, D. F., Mexico.


A.K.A. Dionisio Meade.



ii. DIONISIO MEADE-LEWIS, b. 02 Feb 1841, Santa Fe, Guanajuato, Mexico; m. CONSTANSA AMADOR, 22 Mar 1879, Sagrario Metropolitano, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.

iii. RICARDO-DE-JESUS MEADE, b. 24 Dec 1842, Nuestra Sra de Guanajuato, Guanajuato, Mexico.

6. iv. MARIA MEADE-LEWIS, b. 1852, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas.

v. ALFREDO-ERNESTO MEADE, b. 18 Jul 1854, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas; d. 26 Jun 1942, Cordova, Argentina.

7. vi. ANNIE-DOLORES MEADE, b. San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas.

8. vii. CHARLES-THADDEUS-O'GORMAN MEADE, b. 11 Jun 1859, St Mary's, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas; d. 04 Aug 1893, Tucuman, Argentina.

9. viii. ALBERTO MEADE-LEWIS, b. 03 Oct 1861, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

10. ix. LUIS-MAXIMILIANO MEADE-LEWIS, b. 09 Nov 1864, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; d. 27 Oct 1938.


Generation No. 3

4. HAROLD-GERARD4 MEADE (RICHARD3 MEADE-ROCHE, THOMAS2 MEADE II, THOMAS1) was born 31 Jan 1856 in San Fernando, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas, and died 11 Feb 1927 in Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico. He married JOAQUINA-MONICA SAINZ-DE-TRAPAGA-Y-ZALVIDEA 15 Aug 1892, daughter of ANGEL SAINZ-DE-TRAPAGA and MODESTA ZALVIDEA. She was born 04 May 1874 in Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico, and died 1951 in Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

Notes for HAROLD-GERARD MEADE:   A.K.A. Geraldo Meade Lewis.


11. i. JOAQUIN5 MEADE-SAINZ-TRAPAGA, b. 1896; d. 1971.



A descendent of the Canary Islanders that settled in San Antonio, Texas

His sister, Maria Ursula Fructuosa Veramendi married Col. James Bowie, hero of the Texas Revolution. (Killed during the battle of the Alamo).


i. MARIA-EVELINA5 VERAMENDI-MEADE, b. 23 Dec 1863, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

ii. MARIA-LOUISA VERAMENDI-MEADE, b. 08 Mar 1868, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

iii. JOSE-ANTONIO VERAMENDI-MEADE, b. 15 Feb 1869, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.


6. MARIA4 MEADE-LEWIS (DENNIS3 MEADE-ROCHE, THOMAS2 MEADE II, THOMAS1) was born 1852 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas. She married (1) PABLO PADILLA 29 Mar 1867 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. She married (2) RAFAEL SALCIDA Abt. 1880.




iii. MARIA PADILLA-MEADE, b. 13 Sep 1868, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

iv. JOSE PADILLA-MEADE, b. 04 Nov 1870, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

v. RICARDO PADILLA-MEADE, b. 26 Feb 1872, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.



vii. ANA-LIDIA SALCIDA-MEADE, b. 21 Aug 1883, Mexico City, D. F., Mexico.


7. ANNIE-DOLORES4 MEADE (DENNIS3 MEADE-ROCHE, THOMAS2 MEADE II, THOMAS1) was born in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas. She married (1) CARLOS GOMEZ. She married (2) JOHN GEE MASSON.








8. CHARLES-THADDEUS-O'GORMAN4 MEADE (DENNIS3 MEADE-ROCHE, THOMAS2 MEADE II, THOMAS1) was born 11 Jun 1859 in St Mary's, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas, and died 04 Aug 1893 in Tucuman, Argentina. He married MARGARITA BUENO 19 Jul 1888 in Santa Veracruz, Santa Veracruz, D. F., Mexico.



12. i. MARIA-LUISA5 MEADE-BUENO, b. 22 May 1889, Mexico City, D. F., Mexico.  

9. ALBERTO4 MEADE-LEWIS (DENNIS3 MEADE-ROCHE, THOMAS2 MEADE II, THOMAS1) was born 03 Oct 1861 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married DOLORES AGUILAR-Y-ALVAREZ.











10. LUIS-MAXIMILIANO4 MEADE-LEWIS (DENNIS3 MEADE-ROCHE, THOMAS2 MEADE II, THOMAS1) was born 09 Nov 1864 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and died 27 Oct 1938. He married MARIA-CARMEN-CATALINA GOMEZ-LARRANAGA, daughter of JOSE-IGNACIO-ABUNDIO GOMEZ-ESPANA and CARMEN LARRANAGA-MORENO. She was born 03 Jun 1876 in San Felipe de Jesus, Colima, Colima, Mexico.









Generation No. 4







A.K.A. Mercedes Meade de Angulo.

Author of the book's

La Familia Meade y el Diario de Richard Meade Roche. 1986.

Dona Luisa Teohquilhuastzin, mujer de Captain Pedro de Alvarado. 1992

Cartografia del Estado de Puebla, Siglo XVI.





ii. JUAN-GERARDO PEREZ-DUARTE, b. 03 Oct 1912.

iii. MARIA-LUISA PEREZ-DUARTE, b. 12 Dec 1913.

iv. MARIA-ELENA PEREZ-DUARTE, b. 21 Jul 1915.

13. v. MAGDALENA PEREZ-DUARTE, b. 04 Feb 1916.


Generation No. 5







1. Bexar County, Texas Marriage Record 1837 - 1866, by J. McMinus, Vol. D2, Page 155..
2. From the files of Sandra Lara Kelly.


March 22: Society of Hispanic Historical/Ancestral Research Quarterly Meeting
March 19: Philharmonic Society presents State Symphony of Mexico 
Latina Artists Wanted by Breath of Fire Latina Theater
Senior artists being sought for grant
Emilio Martinez, Orange County Musical Historian
March 25th: A Guatemalan Experience
April 26th Orange Multi-Regional Family History Center Conference
Artists Sought for Senior Artist Project 

society of Hispanic historical & ancestral research 
quarterly meeting

sATURDAY, march 22
no cost

Location: Orange Family History Center: 674 S. Yorba, Orange, CA 92869

9:00-10:00 am SHHAR Board Meeting
10:00-11:00 am: Beginners Workshop
11:00-12:00 : Sharing and Networking. 
   (Bring your books, Charts, family trees and Success stories to share)


Please save these dates for future Quarterly meetings: May 24th, and Aug 23rd.
SHHAR is a non-profit, non-dues organization with family history research and networking as its prime focus. Everyone is welcomed.

Sent by Pat Lozano

Philharmonic Society presents State Symphony of Mexico
Enrique Batiz, conductor          Alfonso Moreno, guitar

Wednesday, March 19, 2008
Orange County Performing Arts Center
For tickets and information

A Pre-concert lecture will be given.  
The concert will include:
Buxtehude-Chavez: Chaconne in E minor
Rodrigo: Concierto de Aranjuez
Revueltas:  Sensemaya
Turina: Danzas Fantasticas, Op. 22
Granados: Goyescas
Falla: The Three-Cornered Hat, Suite No. 2


Latina Artists Wanted by Breath of Fire Latina Theater


Latina Producers, Stage/Production Managers, Directors, Playwrights, Artist (performers), & Designers to work on future and upcoming Breath of Fire productions/projects.

Please send Resumes and Pix via snail mail to:
Breath Of Fire Latina Artist 1922 W Saint Anne Pl Santa Ana, CA 92704
or electronically to
For more information contact Elizabeth Szekeresh
and 714.540.115

Breath of Fire was founded, in 2003, due to a lack of representation and opportunities for Latinas/os in the Orange County performing arts community.   It was co-founded by Latina Artists after attending an inspirational Latina Women's Business luncheon at the Delhi Community Center , a low-income community center in Santa Ana .  Breath of Fire's mission is to support the work and enrich the lives of Latinas in the visual and performing arts.  Breath of Fire is the only Latina theater company in Orange County based in Santa Ana and we produce original, historical, and published work that reflects impacts and empowers Latina/o experience



Emilio Martinez, Orange County Musical Historian
            This is a section from page 1 of a 4 page article written by Gustavo Arellano, in the OC Weekly, The Naranjero Blues.  Emilio Martinez is surely one of the county's "unsung" Hispano pioneers.

History is a fragile, incomplete thing, especially when documenting minorities in the United States, and few local cases are more telling than the story of Emilio Martinez. Many of his compositions offer a vital glimpse into the county's Latino past, one ignored by Orange County's major historians for more than a century. The man wrote about some of the most crucial events in the county's formation: the 1936 Citrus War, the Great Flood of 1938, discrimination battles, the reign of King Citrus. He even made a couple of records.

Yet only Martinez's family and friends are aware of his place in the Orange County saga. Historical ignorance is one factor, but part of the problem is Martinez's incomplete legacy. Notebooks containing his tunes are missing; recordings are rare. His only full-length interviews with non-family members were with professors researching other topics. More important, Martinez's Orange County no longer exists: the tight-knit communities that flocked to his performances, tuned in to his many appearances on radio and sang Martinez's corridos over bonfires and picket lines are gone, and the new immigrants he so loved to document and fight for don't concern themselves with the past of their predecessors.

In another place, another time, Martinez would've been a folk treasure, the subject of dissertations, Smithsonian restoration projects and tribute CDs. Another scrap in the proverbial dustbin.

*   *   *

Emilio Martinez was born on July 24, 1905, in Jalpa, Zacatecas, a small town near the state's border with Jalisco. His family's hardscrabble existence worsened with the onset of the Mexican Revolution: Emilio's dad was a supporter of Victoriano Huerta, the unpopular Mexican president whose ascent to power after the assassination of Francisco Madera set off a decade of bloodshed in the country. As opposition forces led by Pancho Villa hacked their way through the state, Emilio's father forced his 10-year-old son to run guns for Huerta's troops in the losing effort. Both Martinez males survived, but the devastation wrought by the warring factions forced the family north to the United States in search of jobs in 1923. After trying Houston and Los Angeles, Emilio moved to Santa Ana's historic Logan barrio around 1924.

Shortly after settling in, Martinez's brother Luis returned from prison with a surprise—he now knew how to play the guitar. "I asked Luis to teach me—it was hard, but I finally was able to do it," Martinez told an interviewer in 1989, just two years before his death. "We used to play for the drunks in the [Logan] neighborhood." The two also occasionally drove down to Tijuana and played in the bars that sprang up in the city after Prohibition.

Emilio stayed in Logan for a couple of years before bouncing around California's Citrus Belt—Santa Monica, Riverside, Redlands, Whittier and other parts of Orange County. He finally settled in Anaheim around 1930. It was the first year of the Great Depression, and California was about to undergo a decade of agricultural strikes that brought virtual race wars to the state's bountiful fields. Locally, activists were already planning to organize thousands of poorly paid, almost-exclusively Mexican naranjeros who toiled anonymously in the county's orange groves and packing houses.

Around this time, the Martinez brothers and another friend formed a musical group named Los Hermanos Martinez. The trio toured Orange County's citrus camps, singing Emilio's tunes and earning something of a following, but not enough to quit their jobs. Los Hermanos Martinez thought they nabbed their big break after attracting the attention of Los Madrugadores (The Early Risers), a legendary morning show on KMPC-AM 710 (now KSPN-AM) hosted by Pedro J. Gonzalez. Los Madrugadores was one of the first regular Spanish-language radio broadcasts in Southern California, and Gonzalez earned huge ratings by inviting local and famous artists to play live on the air. But Los Hermanos Martinez performed only a couple of shows before Gonzalez was arrested in 1934 on rape charges (the woman later admitted that American government authorities—who despised Gonzalez because his show openly criticized the racism and discrimination faced by Mexican immigrants—coaxed her into lying). Gonzalez wouldn't return to radio until 1940 in Tijuana.

His shot at a music career seemingly over, Martinez joined a just-forming citrus workers' union and quickly become the representative for Anaheim pickers in a countywide comité central (central organizing committee). The comité included members of Orange County's incipient barrios: Santa Ana's Delhi, Logan and Santa Nita; Anaheim's La Fabrica, Colonia Independencia and La Conga; Placentia's Atwood, Yorba and La Jolla; and many more. More than just preparing for what they knew would be a hard fight against the county's powerful citrus industry, the comité also helped workers struggling with hunger, joblessness and the mass deportations of Mexicans that the Hoover administration instituted in the 1930s.  

This is the end of page 1 of a 4 page essay.. .  fascinating reading.
Included are several examples of Martinez' corridos focused on important historical events in Orange County.

Sent by Dean Whinery B.

The Orange County National Organization of Women, NOW

Cordially invites you to join us for 
A Guatemalan Experience…

Dinner and Entertainment

                                                 March 25th

            To Benefit: MIA, Mujeres Iniciando en Las Americas, an organization that campaigns against gender bias and domestic violence in Guatemala. MIA provides financial support to organizations in Guatemala with similar missions, such as Sobrevivientes, a Guatemalan organization led by Nobel Prize nominee Norma Cruz, who works for women's rights in Guatemala.  We can help stop Femicide! 

 Speaker:  Lucía Muñoz—Topic:  
"Guatemalan Women, Hidden in Plain Sight"

As Founder and executive director of MIA, Ms. Muñoz works with students and others in the U.S. raising awareness about this issue, and also works with Sobrevivientes in Guatemala to end femicide.

When:          Tuesday, March 25, 2008
6:00 to 8:30 pm
Orange Public Library, Community Room
  101 N. Center Ave. Orange, CA 92866
Cost: $25.00 (Proceeds to benefit MIA)
To reserve a seat, RSVP and mail check to address below.

RSVP:         By 3/20/08 to:

                   “We’ll need a head count for dinner!”

Tax ID: # 95-2242244; donations for MIA are gratefully accepted and may be mailed to: Orange County NOW, P.O. Box 307, Laguna Beach, CA 92652
Check made out to: OC NOW—on the Memo line: “For MIA”

Catering by: Tikal Guatemalan Restaurant, 1002 E. 17th St. Santa Ana 714-654-7129     Muchas Gracias a MANA de Orange County por su ayuda


On May 1, 2007 the House and the Senate passed two resolutions: House Resolution 100 submitted by Congresswoman Hilda L. Solis & Senate Resolution 178 submitted by Senator Jeff Bingaman. The Resolution condemns the murders and expresses condolences and support to families of victims. Specifically, the resolution encourages the Government of Guatemala to recognize domestic violence as a crime and to promptly investigate the killings and prosecute those responsible. It also encourages adequate resources for police and prosecutors to investigate the murders thoroughly and urges the U.S. Ambassador to Guatemala to meet with the families of the victims. Finally, it recommends that the Secretary of State develop a comprehensive plan to address and combat the growing problem of violence against women in Latin America.

Sent by 

Nellie Caudillo Kaniski
Creating a Community of Caring




April 26th, 
Orange Multi-Regional Family History Center Conference
674 S. Yorba, Orange


Information below is in Spanish, but classes not focusing on Spanish research will be presented in English.

Inscripticiones:  8:00 a.m. – 9:00 a.m.
Reunión Principal:   9:00 – 10:00 a.m. 

  Keynote Speaker:  Robert Bloomer


* Especially good for the beginner     + Good for youth

   SESSION I.  10:10 a.m. - 11:10 a.m.
*+BEGINNING  PART 1. THE BASICS  by Caroline Rober
PART 1 by Dawn Thurston
by Nancy Carlberg

    SESSION II.  11:20 a.m. - 12:20 p.m.

 LUNCH BREAK: 12:20 p.m. - 1:20 p.m. 
Brown bag, box lunch or fast food (maps of nearby eating places at the registration tables)

   SESSION III.  1:20 p.m. - 2:20 p.m.
  by Barbara Renick 
by Robert Bloomer 
by Frank Chocco 

SESSION IV. 2:30 p.m. - 3:30 p.m.
ADD TIME LINES TO YOUR TOOL KIT           by Nancy Huebotter
ADOPTEES: WE HAVE A HISTORY TOO                     by Lisa Vittori
BEGINNING SWEDISH RESEARCH            by Nancy Carlberg 
A LITTLE LATIN FOR GENEALOGISTS                      by Doug Ayer

  SESSION V.  3:40 p.m. - 4:40 p.m.
*+THE TWO SIDES OF INTERVIEWING                     by Jean Hibben, MA, CGsm
(bilingüe) by Mimi Lozano Holtzman

La forma de inscribirse debe ser recibida antes del 16 de abril de 2008
Haga el cheque o giro postal al:
Orange Family History Center Envie el
cheque con esta forma a:  Family History Fair 11921 Manley St. Garden Grove, CA 92845

Nombre: __________________________ Estaca (si SUD)_______________ Domicilio: _________________________Teléfono ____________________ Ciudad: ___________________________Estado _____Codigo Postal_______

El programa de estudios de las clases $10.00 p    Comida    $7.75p        
Yo necesito:   Traducion al espanol  
p         Traducion para ingles    p
Marque la clase en cada sesión

    Clase   1     A   B   C   D   E   F   G 
Clase   2     A   B   C   D   E   F   G 
Clase  3      A   B   C   D   E   F   G 
Clase  4      A   B   C   D   E   F   G 
Clase   5     A   B   C   D   E   F   G

Artists Sought for Senior Artist Project



 The Kenneth A. Picerne Foundation is currently accepting grant applications for The Senior Artist Project. The application deadline is March 31st, 2008.  

The Senior Artist Project gives accomplished visual, performing and literary artists the opportunity to provide educational, mentoring and therapeutic experiences to underserved populations. The grant supports experienced artists, age 55 and older, who are motivated to contribute to their community. Selected artists will receive a grant of $12,000 for this 12-month project. The grant is intended to cover six to eight hours a week of actual contact time with an underserved group of the artist’s choice, and will be paid out at 1,000 dollars per month. Artists may submit an additional request for reimbursement for materials directly related to service provision.  

To be eligible for the grant artists must be:

  • Age 55 or older
  • Live in North San Diego County or Southern Orange County
  • A practicing artist in the literary, visual, or performing arts

Visit the Foundation website at or contact Victor Nelson , Executive Director at 760-435-2205 for further information about submitting an application and eligibility requirements for the Senior Artist Project.  

The Kenneth A. Picerne Foundation is a private operating foundation in Oceanside , California whose mission is to support healthy and adaptive human development throughout the life cycle.  We accomplish this by creating, developing and evaluating innovative and creative programs that are sustainable and provide significant value to the lives of individuals and a healthy society.



Baldwin Park Post Office named after St. Atanacio Haro-Marin, Jr.
March 7, 2008 Eva Ayllon at Walt Disney Concert Hall
March 8: Marks 40th Anniversary of the East Los Angeles Walkouts 
Los Angeles River Bridges, Conservancy Project 
March is International Women’s Day & Women’s Herstory Month 


Baldwin Park Post Office named after St. Atanacio Haro-Marin, Jr.
A special dedication ceremony was held at the Baldwin Park Post Office to rename the office in honor of Sgt. Atanacio Haro-Marin, Jr. on Saturday February 2, 2008. Haro-Marin was the first Baldwin Park resident killed during the Iraq War.

Caption: Sgt. Kyle Turner looks at photos of his friend at the dedication ceremony of the Baldwin Park Post Office in honor of Sgt. Atanacio Haro-Marin on Saturday February 2, 2008. Turner was with Haro-Marin when they were ambushed in Iraq on June 3, 2003. "It's good to be here but it hurts ..." "No one deserves it more. He's the real hero," Turner said. Haro-Marin was the first Baldwin Park resident kiled during the Iraq War. Family and civic leaders unveiled the plaque in front of the Post Office. (SGVN/Staff Photo by Keith Durflinger) Album ID: 423337 Photo ID: 17648960  

March 7 : Eva Ayllon at Walt Disney Concert Hall

My name is Shannon and I represent the Los Angeles Philharmonic at the Walt Disney Concert Hall.  We are currently promoting a performance of Eva Ayllon at the Walt Disney Concert Hall on March 7, 2008.  In particular, we are offering a chance to win a free pair of tickets to the concert.  The concert is part of the World Music Series presented by the LA Phil.  We wanted to reach out to you to explore the possibility of having you include something in your newsletter about this Enter-to-Win opportunity.  I have included information about the concert below and would be happy to provide further information and a picture of Eva if you are interested.  Let me know if you think this is a possibility.  
Thank you for your time, Shannon Grimes


March 8: Marks 40th Anniversary of East Los Angeles Walkouts  


March 8th Marks 40th Anniversary of East Los Angeles Walkouts  

Abraham Lincoln High School Hosts Event  

Contact: Ruth Hernandez 323/255-3751  
Lydia Olivares 626/917-2728


Los Angeles, CA, February 6, 2008 ---On Saturday, March 8, the Abraham Lincoln High School Alumni Association and Principal, James Molina, class of ’64, will gather students, parents, school officials, community leaders and numerous illustrious alumni to commemorate the 40th Anniversary of the events that signified the first major protest by high school students in the history of the United States and sparked the emergence of the Chicano Civil Rights Movement, which came to be known simply as the Chicano Movement.  

The day’s activities at Lincoln High, (3501 N. Broadway, L.A.) from 1:00pm to 5:00pm, will include many of the student organizers who have since become prominent in their fields and are still deeply committed to being catalysts of change, a fundraising event to help meet the needs of students preparing for their transition to college and a screening of the HBO film “Walkout” directed by Edward James Olmos, which depicts the event.

In March 1968 more than 1000 students walked out of Abraham Lincoln High School to peacefully protest educational inequality and racism in the public school system. They were joined by students from four other Los Angeles high schools (Belmont, Garfield, Roosevelt, and Wilson) inspiring similar protests at 15 additional high schools, including  Huntington Park, Venice, Hollywood and San Fernando Valley schools. In all, over 22,000 students walked out.

The student actions and the Chicano Movement opened doors for equal opportunity in higher education to youth previously systematically excluded from those institutions. In 1969, UCLA’s enrollment of Mexican students jumped from less than 100 to 1,900. In the years following the walkouts, college enrollment increased from 2 to 25% throughout the country. However recent statistics find that the quality of education minority students receive is still a critical issue.

Many of the students who participated went on to successful careers in politics, academia and the arts.

Carlos Muñoz, Jr., one of the organizers of the walkouts and one of the thirteen arrested and then exonerated, is now Professor Emeritus at the University of California , Berkeley and will provide the keynote speech. A published author, Youth, Identity, Power: The Chicano Movement, political scientist, historian and journalist, Muñoz is an acknowledged expert on issues of ethnic and racial politics, multiculturalism and diversity, immigration, civil and human rights and affirmative action. In February, he will be honored with the Americans Who Tell the Truth Award that highlights important Americans whose dignity, courage, honesty, generosity, compassion, wisdom, tolerance, belief, and relentless quest for truth have shaped this country.  

Moctesuma Esparza, award-winning filmmaker and community activist, who was indicted for his role, is dedicated to opening doors for Mexican Americans in Hollywood and transforming the stereotypical images of Latinos. Producer of such films as “Selena,” “Gods and Generals” and “The Milagro Beanfield War,” he is the executive producer of “Walkout” and has established a chain of movie complexes called Maya Cinemas.

Sal Castro, one of the few Mexican American teachers at Lincoln , now retired, mentored and inspired his students to believe in their own potential. He is still an active member of the community conducting annual Chicano Youth Leadership Conferences which began in 1963. His passion, love and guidance have literally changed the course of the future of this country by his commitment to helping Mexican-American youth become all that they can be.

Paula Crisostomo, one of the many the instrumental leaders of the infamous walkouts, is a longtime activist in the struggle for Latino equality and against racism. She went on to prominence in the school system and currently serves as the Director of Government and Community Relations for Occidental College in Los Angeles . Crisostomo provides leadership for the college’s community outreach strategies, including neighborhood relations, local and federally sponsored services programs in education and local and state government relations.

Among other participants, Armando Vasquez-Ramos is a professor at Cal Sate University , Long Beach , and Chairman of the Board of Directors, Mexican Cultural Institute of Los Angeles. Dr. Juan Gomez-Quinones, UCLA professor, is an American historian and poet who specializes in the fields of political, labor, intellectual and cultural history. Susan Racho, an award-winning Los Angeles- based veteran of film and television was the co-creator of the landmark Chicano television series "Reflecciones" and produced, wrote and directed THE BRONZE SCREEN: 100 YEARS OF THE LATINO IMAGE IN HOLLYWOOD CINEMA, an HBO/Cinemax presentation. Additionally, she is the producer/writer of “Chicano!  History of the Mexican Civil Rights Movement-Taking Back the Schools” for PBS broadcast.

Forty years later we applaud their courage and their tenacity to unite and forge a new vision that will continue to promote educational reform, social justice and personal empowerment.

Sent by Dr. Carlos Munoz
and Dorinda Moreno  

Conservancy Project
The Riverside Drive Bridge, Glendale-Hyperion Viaduct, North Spring Street Bridge, and Sixth Street Viaduct are among several Los Angeles River bridges slated for improvements ranging from seismic strengthening, to widening, to replacement. The Conservancy is monitoring the cumulative effects of these various projects and tracking specific efforts, such as one targeting the Sixth Street Viaduct, an important artery connecting downtown and Boyle Heights. Built in 1932 in the Moderne style popular during the Works Progress Administration era, the viaduct stands as an iconic gateway to both sides of the Los Angeles River and was determined eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places in 1986. The longest, tallest, and last built of the downtown Los Angeles River bridges, the Sixth Street Viaduct is currently the subject of a Los Angeles Bureau of Engineering (BOE) project that seeks either to stabilize and seismically upgrade the historic span or to replace the structure with a new bridge.

Prompting particular concern for the viaduct’s replacement is the presence of a chemical reaction known as Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR), a process by which alkali and silica components in the concrete combine with moisture to form a gel that expands, causing cracking and weakening of the structure. Because the viaduct is a historic resource, rehabilitation alternatives that seismically retrofit and preserve the structure must be considered alongside the replacement options. The Conservancy acknowledges first and foremost the importance of ensuring public safety, but would also like to see a thorough evaluation of preservation alternatives and consultation with bridge engineers who have experience working with ASR before any replacement scenarios might be considered.

Several community advisory committee meetings over the summer informed community members of the project’s goals and allowed for public input. The Conservancy is concerned with the BOE’s seeming promotion of replacement alternatives at this early stage, as these meetings were intended to inform the public and allow for the unbiased exploration of all alternatives. The Conservancy will be submitting comments in response to the Initial Study released earlier this summer, which formally begins the begins the Environmental Review process for the viaduct.


March is International Women’s Day & Women’s Herstory Month
            International Women’s Day & Women’s Herstory Month
Celebration & 11th Year Anniversary
March 8th, 13th, 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 26th, 29th, 30th

The collective Mujeres de Maiz presents “Somos Medicina,” a month-long series of intercultural, intergenerational, and interdisciplinary art events celebrating our 11th Anniversary and 6th poetry and arts publication, in honor of International Women's Day, and Women's Herstory month.

This monumental all woman production will be showcasing multi-media art, musical performances, independent films, along with holistic health workshops, and a roundtable discussion. Chicana veteran artists, community leaders, and emerging artists will be highlighting themes on women artistry, spirituality, native traditions, their relation to the earth, and urban reality.

The over 25 artists in the group show represent generations of the Chicana art movement, ranging from the indigenous focused work of Self Help Graphics co-founder and artist, Linda Vallejo, to the the politically and spiritually charged work of Yreina Cervantez and Celia Herrera-Rodriguez, both exhibiting artists in  “CARA,”  the ground breaking exhibition of Chicano art that is argueably the most important Chicano art exhibit of the last 20 years, 

Different from both CARA and many current exhibits of Chicano art, “Somos Medicina” highlights the generations that have not been discussed since the prime of the Chicano art movement and its wonder years.  This exhibit  also highlights the Generation X and Mex of women artists and their expressions being born from the Chicano art movement and moving forward to build a movement of their own.

This important exhibit is accompanied by a month-long series of events with all-women performers, poets, film makers, rappers, dancers, and theater artists coming together to honoring women’s herstory month and commemorate International Women’s Day  in solidarity  with millions of women across the world on March 8th.  

A selection of the performing artists participating include; Las Manas, this generations all female spoken word collective representing the Bay area, as well as international spoken word artist and award winning poet, Gabriela Garcia Medina, and veteran Chicana poet Gloria Alvarez.  Music and song performed by  young women punksters, Mystery Hangup,  Chicana indigenous M.C/rappers, Cihuatl-Ce and Guerrilla Queenz; and women’s drum collective, recently debuting their CD, In Lak Ech.  Also included in the series of events, a fresh theater performance by Teatro M3, and women of color film makers, Aurora Guerrero, and Claudia Mercado, and the Chicana gitana flamenca dancer and maestra, Briseyda Zarate.   These not to be missed performances and events are listed below and at

VISUAL & MULTI-MEDIA ART EXHIBIT   March 8th-29th                            
Gallery Opening:  Sat. 3/8, 5-7pm

"Somos Medicina" visual and multi-media art exhibit highlighting women artists.  "In the spirit of our ancestors we are facilitating the creation this space/exhibit where there is dialogue about the contribution of women’s work to the decolonization and healing of our communities and selves." Invited artists include those whose work speaks of the political as well as spiritual alternatives to Eurocentric and patriarchal worldviews; embracing the "Medicina," the medicine that exists within all of us. Exhibit also open during our month of events and 3/15  and 3/22 (12-4pm).

Exhibiting Artists:  Barbara Carrasco, Binx, Brenda Quintero, Carmen Kalo, Celia Herrera-Rodriguez, Dalila Mendez, Elena Esparza, Faviana Rodriguez, Gina Aparicio, Joanna “Mixpe”  Ley, Lilia Ramirez, Linda Vallejo, Lucy Castro, Lynn Elishaw, Margaret Alarcon, Maria Castillo, Marisol L. Torres, Maritza Alvarez, Melaniel Cervantes, Nayeli Guzman, Poli Marichal, Rachel Thorson-Veliz, Sandra de La Loza, Sara Margarita Martin, Sugey Salazar, Susana De Leon “Timoi”, Women Image Makers,  and Yreina Cervantez.

LIVE PERFORMANCE EVENT      Sat. March 8th 7pm                                              
Live Art Show with teatro, dance, and performance art and song.   PREMIERE of Limited Edition Full Color Mujeres de Maiz 'Zine.
Performances by:  Las Manas (Bay area), Briseyda Zarate, Xaris, Yei Tecpatl (San Jose), Deema Debis, Gabriela Garcia Medina, and In Lak Ech 


POETRY NIGHT                     Thurs.  March 13th     7pm   
Hosted by Cyn Da’ Poet.  With poetry by Alejandra Sanchez, Lenux , Gloria Alvarez, Xitlali, Marisol Crisostomo-Romo, and more!

FILM NIGHT                  Fri. March 21st     7pm
Womyn Image Makers presents a night of films by women of color, curated by WIM.    Platica to follow with the filmmakers.
Films include:  Nanobah Becker- "Conversion".  Sonali Gulati – “Sum Total.”  Claudia Mercado - "Lagrimas de Café.” Cherien Dabis - "Make a Wish." Aurora Guerrero – “Ixchel.”   Aurora Guerrero and Maritza Alvarez  - “Pura Lengua.”

SELF-DEFENSE WORKSHOP                  Sat. March 22nd               11:00am-12:30pm       
Instructor: Cati de los Rios (Karateka, High School teacher)          

MUJER MERCADO/HOLISTIC HEALTH WORKSHOPS         Sun. March 23rd   12pm-6pm
All mujer Mercado at First Street Studios, to include Mujeres de Maiz artists and veterana members.  The Mercado will also house the HOLISTIC HEALTH workshops are Free with any purchase from Artist Vendor or Workshop Facilitator**  @ First Street Studios  2026 E. First Street, Los Angeles (Boyle Heights), CA 90033

ARTIST PLATICA                        Wed. March 26th                  7pm
Artist Platica on the theme of “Somos Medicina.” Focus is on highlighting inter-generational women artists on the red road that carry on traditional, native, and indigena ways and values.  Participants are veteran Chicana multi-media artists as well as those from the emerging generation including; Yreina Cervantez, Linda Vallejo, Marisol Lydia Torres, Claudia Mercado, Gloria Alvarez, and more TBA.  Moderated by Sybil Venegas.

MUJER MUSICA NIGHT       Sat. March 29th                                    7pm
Mujer Musica Concert showcasing women musicians/performer/rappers on one night at SHG.  $5.00
Performers Include:  Mystery Hangup , Cihuatl-Ce, Guerrilla Queenz, Eddika Organista of El Haru Kuroi, Teatro M3, Adriana Cabrera Garcia, and more!      

CLOSING CEREMONY  & Caracol Marketplace    Sun. March 30th                  11am-4pm
Caracol Marketplace returns to its monthly home at Proyecto Jardin/Community Garden.  A small closing ceremony honoring the Spring Equinox and all mujeres will take place at 3pm.  @ At Proyecto Jardin: 1718 Bridge Street, LA (Boyle Heights),CA 90033

Interview with the artists as well as a photos are available. 
For more information on the event, please call Felicia Montes at (323) 359-6288
or email and visit

Sent by


Heritage Discovery Center
Briones House, Palo Alto, California
California Military Museum 
California Ranchos by County 
California VoterRegistrations, 1900-1968
Cesar Chavez Youth Leadership Conference 
Artists Sought for Senior Artist Project 
San Diego Flamenco Classes 

Heritage Discovery Center

March Update

                                                                       Mustano’s View

Thank you to everyone for all of your support and kind words. Many progressions have been made this last month towards our goal of opening a Californios Ranching Center at Pacheco Park. We’ve met with the California Department of Parks and the result was very positive and further plans are in development. For those of you that are unfamiliar with us here at Heritage Discovery Center, please don’t hesitate to visit our February article here at Somos Primos.

Some of our directors and staff have just finished attending the California Association of Museums Annual Conference in Fresno. In attendance were representatives from almost every Museum and Library in California. The latest information on collections management and tour presentations as well as the latest in technological presentation methods were discussed. Recently the ‘Hybrid’ philosophy of visitor experience is gaining in popularity and advancement. This combines the Virtual tour electronic experience and/or the personal visitation opportunity for many Museums and Libraries. Here are some of the highlights of the Conference.

The California Associations of Museums Conference

‘Seeds of Change’

Museums acknowledge the work and lives of peoples and culture. They are extremely important in the presentation of the ‘human dimension’.

Today our vision of museums has new technology and is now offering the Virtual experience vs the Visitation experience. There are many wonderful opportunities to gain knowledge by electronically perusing the many wonderful museum locations now going high tech. The convenience of the electronic tour is remarkable and instantly brings a wealth of our world’s art and history to our fingertips.

The Heritage Discovery Center will also strive to develop and maintain the most current and comprehensive technological virtual experience for all to utilize. The sharing of these data bases, which gives us knowledge and information, will encourage research and make our histories and ancestry readily available to a broad and diverse audience.

However I believe whenever possible the individual’s presence and participatory experience to a museum is the most lasting and powerful.

Our keynote speaker shared that his mother has passed early in his youth and that some of the most cherished memories of his mother were the times that she had taken him to many museums and shared the history and beauty that museums are created to preserve. Without the personal experience we miss the emotional, sensorial, personal and spiritual connection to each other, history and to the collections of our past.

Respect for the earth and our own humanity is realized by connecting our thoughts and emotions with our heritage…this connection will preserve and protect the earth. GO GREEN!

To learn about our earth and our cultures, touches our spirituality and engages our respect for all life forms The truths of our histories helps us find meaning…our cultures have taught us through ceremonies, symbols, community, art and family. These things are how we develop and confirm our beliefs and create the diversity of humanity.

To appreciate the complex matrix of our earth and environment we must first experience it to become aware, to embrace and finally, understand our own heart/humanity. The Heritage Discovery Center was developed with personal and experiential visitation as a model to engage the public in the nature/environment, native peoples and the colonization of Alta California.

We will be a destination point to share with the world (all peoples) experiences about California’s Nature/Wildlife, Native American, Maritime, Mission, Military, Ranching, Agriculture, and Equine/Domestic livestock. We will also have an indoor museum setting hosting collections, art, family histories/genealogy and library/resource facilities. Education will be our primary focus.

HDC’s interpretative centers will present and honor the magnificence of our State and the cultures that have created our unique Legacy.

The HDC’s ‘living history museum’ personal experience offers a far greater opportunity to recognize the ‘seeds of change’ and harvest the gifts of our past.

Our immediate responsibility is to educate the public about the treasure that the Spanish left behind…the Horse, and to preserve these lives together with their history. They were our partners that helped to develop our golden state. Now we must help conserve them as an intrinsic part of our Legacy.

Spring is right around the corner and our pastures are finally seeing the first blades of grass. The horses are thrilled, however our hay stack that is all too quickly coming to an end. We still have 30 horses that are unable to be on pasture due to their age or because individual stabling is required for our stallions and performance/re-enactment horses. With the lack of hay in California we are purchasing our hay from Nevada. The cost of hay has reached almost $300 for one ton and it is

anticipated to reach $400 by the end of this month. This raises our cost for hay/feed and supplements to at least $3000.00 a month.

We are reaching out to you specifically for donations for hay for feeding these endangered horses. You can visit our website at for donations, or you can call us directly at 559-868-8680 or mail donations to: 40222 Millstream Lane Madera, Ca. 93636. All support would be greatly appreciated. Thank you!

                                                         O’ happy day…hay is on the way!!


Briones House, Palo Alto, California

Dear Mimi,

Enclosed are pics of the Juana Briones plaque No. 524 mounted on a stone post at the Esther Clark Park on Old Adobe Road in Palo Alto.  I am shown standing next to the plaque, and a pic shows off the very gorgeous cactus plant in Juana's driveway.  We took the pictures in May, 2007. The marker was formally dedicated in November 2007.  Below is the link for the full story regarding the dedication ceremony. 
Take care, Lorri Ruiz Frain 
Mountain View, CA


California Military Museum

Sent by Barry Starr

California Ranchos by County

This is a marvelous website. Thanks to Rafael Ojeda that found it.

The site lists the 339 California Ranchos, with the county, name of the rancho, year it was assigned by Spain or Mexico to an individual, the acres of the rancho, and the cities on or near the area of the rancho, plus other remarks. Many other ranches were developed during the American period and are not "ranchos" granted by Spain or Mexico.
Copyright © 2002 - California Weekly Explorer, Inc.

California Voter Registrations, 1900-1968

It's an election year and our country will revisit the voting process. But true genealogists know the value of election records year in and year out. Voter registration records are the most vital election records there are, revealing name, address, occupation, political affiliation and more. Many call them "census substitutes" because they also name heads of households and are often taken in between census years. Explore a large collection from one of the most populous states in the Union.

California Voter Registrations, 1900-1968

Cesar Chavez Youth Leadership Conference
Cesar Chavez Youth Leadership Conference
This FREE conference includes student and parent workshops, a Kaiser play called "Secrets", a lunchtime celebration with cultural performers and music, college recruiters, community vendors and a job, education, arts and health fair.  A free t-shirt, breakfast, lunch & parking will be provided.  All School Districts are invited to bus in students. Keynote Speech at lunch by Dr. Alexander Gonzalez, President of Sacramento State University and live cultural performances.

WHERE:   Sierra College
5000 Rocklin Rd., Rocklin, CA 95677
DATE:    Saturday, March 29, 2008
TIME:    9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.

The conference targets to 6th to 12th graders and parents, but College Students and Adult Volunteers are encouraged to attend!  Pre-registration is not required but suggested.   Sign up at  Walk-ups are also encouraged.

INFORMATION CONTACT: Rene Aguilera, Coordinator
Write to: H.E.A.R. 136 Donner Ave., Roseville, CA 95678
Call (916) 532-5998 or  (916) 782-2040 (fax/ph.) or
Sent by


Artists Sought for Senior Artist Project
            The Kenneth A. Picerne Foundation is currently accepting grant applications for The Senior Artist Project. The application deadline is March 31st, 2008.The Senior Artist Project gives accomplished visual, performing and literary artists the opportunity to provide educational, mentoring and therapeutic experiences to underserved populations. The grant supports experienced artists, age 55 and older, who are motivated to contribute to their community. Selected artists will receive a grant of $12,000 for this 12-month project. The grant is intended to cover six to eight hours a week of actual contact time with an underserved group of the artist’s choice, and will be paid out at 1,000 dollars per month. Artists may submit an additional request for reimbursement for materials directly related to service provision.

To be eligible for the grant artists must be:

  • Age 55 or older
  • Live in North San Diego County or Southern Orange County
  • A practicing artist in the literary, visual, or performing arts

Visit the Foundation website at or contact Victor Nelson, Executive Director at 760-435-2205 for further information about submitting an application and eligibility requirements for the Senior Artist ProjectThe Kenneth A. Picerne Foundation is a private operating foundation in Oceanside, California whose mission is to support healthy and adaptive human development throughout the life cycle.  We accomplish this by creating, developing and evaluating innovative and creative programs that are sustainable and provide significant value to the lives of individuals and a healthy society.

San Diego Flamenco Classes 



MEMBERS, $1.00









Mayans in Colorado
By Colleen O'Connor, The Denver Post

The smell of frying tilapia seeps into the living room of the Lucas family home as 16-year-old Maria, face-scrunched and sighing, struggles to wrap a traditional Guatemalan corte skirt around her waist.
"I don't know how to tie this on!" she shouts to her father, Francisco Lucas.
But on the night of this annual Mayan fiesta, he has his own tasks to complete.
Francisco kneels by the crackling wood stove dragging a saw through a brass curtain rod, crafting a scepter fit for the Mayan Queen who will be crowned later that evening. The metal is hard to hack, and the Catholic mass that precedes the fiesta starts in just 20 minutes.
It takes work to keep tradition alive. But in Alamosa, where a transplanted community of 400
Q'anjob'al Indians from Guatemala find themselves straddled between worlds old and new, this tradition is what separates them from the families that live down the street and links them to the families they left behind.
Their culture, thousands of years old, descends from one of the world's great civilizations. Now, exiled in the United States, this close-knit community struggles to retain indigenous beliefs and customs - music, dance, language, rituals - amidst the modernity of American lifestyles.
Maria waves the corte again.
"Daddy!" she pleads.
No use. Francisco is focused: gathering the incense, the earthenware censer, and a box that brims with new costumes, each from a different ethnic region to show at the fiesta for Santa Eulalia.
As the leader of the local Mayan community, he is keeper of a renowned culture that created temples, pyramids and a complex calendar lauded for its accuracy - a culture of mysticism and prophecies, herbalists and healers. A grand past sustains and inspires these transplants, now rooted in the San Luis Valley, one of the poorest regions in the state, where many live below poverty level.
Living in the new world the Q'anjob'al Indians stand on the lowest rungs of Colorado's economic ladder. When the first members of the community arrived as refugees from their country's civil war in the '80s, they found work in the lettuce fields and potato warehouses, or the local mushroom farm. The men came with less than an elementary-level education; the women had no formal schooling at all. They lived in run-down migrant houses on Adams Lane. Over time - often living with vigilant frugality - many bought small plots of land and moved their extended families into double-wide trailers.
Juana Francisco, the first Mayan wife to move to Alamosa, now lives in a mobile home out on a snow-covered country road. A second, smaller trailer, for housing additional family, sits in her backyard amid a flock of clucking chickens, turkeys with wobbling red wattles and a large goat.
Many Guatemalans work on the mushroom farm, but others labor in places like Oscar's Mexican Restaurant as dishwashers or waiters, and in hotels as cleaning staff. Those who have learned English, like Francisco's wife, Lucia, have jobs in places such as Wal-Mart, where she works in the shoe department. Her language skills have helped her cross a barrier that challenges other women who work long hours at low pay, then head home to care for family, leaving no time to learn English.
Francisco, on the other hand, devoted many years to English lessons and now works as a janitor at Trinidad State Junior College. He spends every spare moment preserving traditional Mayan customs and beliefs, including a weekly show he broadcasts on KRZA in Spanish and Q'anjob'al, a language thick with lisps and glottal stops that make it difficult for American-born kids to master.
He also teaches traditional dances to the younger generation and is working with the San Luis Valley Immigrant Resource Center for a grant to buy some marimbas. Kids in elementary school and junior high are expressing more interest in their culture and want to learn to play their country's national instrument. His daughter Maria is also intent upon learning the marimba.

On the night of the festival, however, her determination to practice the ancient ways aims elsewhere. As the sun sinks below Blanca Mountain in a burst of salmon-streaked purple, her obsession is getting the corte right. She shoots a quick glance at her mother in the kitchen, who learned the skill from her own mother.
But Lucia, checking the clock on the wall, continues to flip fish in the sizzling pan. She's ankle-deep in a jumble of plastic jugs filled with water because the pipes froze overnight, so all day there has been no water to cook with, nor to do the laundry - and there will be no showers after this back-breaking day of decorating the gym with Guatemalan fabrics and flags, and then lugging in those heavy wooden marimbas.
Maria wanders back to her bedroom to consult with her sister, Lucy, a 14-year-old high school student enamored with horses and basketball. With minutes to spare, Lucia slaps foil over the fish and races to help her daughters dress.
Juan, the family's oldest child, paces amidst the chaos, nervous yet excited about soon escorting the Mayan Queen to her coronation.
At 22, Juan - whippet thin, with graceful smile - is living testimony to his father's courage and strength. During the 1980s, when civil war ravaged Guatemala, Francisco faced a heart-rending decision: whether to abandon his infant son.
Leaving the old world
It was 1985, just a few years after genocide in Guatemala hit its peak, when the army tortured, shot and burned about 20,000 of the country's poorest people, wiping out more than 400 Mayan villages. Lucia still remembers the day she walked past a massacred village, all those dead bodies and slaughtered children.
Back then, Juan's grandmother argued that it wasn't safe for the baby Juan to escape the country with his parents.
Francisco refused to leave his firstborn son, so he and Lucia joined the exodus of refugees, carrying the baby on the long journey from Guatemala, walking over mountains into Mexico and then over the border to the United States, too, through the blazing deserts of Arizona, with Lucia still breast-feeding.
Once in the United States, Francisco called his brother-in-law, Jesus Gaspar, to ask for help. Jesus had crossed the U.S. border a few years earlier with his brother and a friend. He had only $3 in his pocket, which he used to buy loaf of bread that fueled the three men on their 10-day journey across the desert into Arizona. Through the network of migrant workers in this new country, Jesus heard of field work on the farms of Blanca, so they all caught a ride to the San Luis Valley. They picked lettuce then moved to picking mushrooms in Alamosa.
In 1985, Jesus and Jose Gaspar drove to Arizona to pick up their sister Lucia, the baby and Francisco, shuttling them back to the tiny community of Mayan mushroom pickers, which then numbered about seven.
For many years, these refugees - who'd received political asylum - picked at the Rakhra Mushroom Farm, here in the indigo shadows of the Sangre de Christo Mountains, where others from their country eventually joined them.
Gaspar, now a foreman, often worked 16 hours a day picking mushrooms from 7 a.m. to midnight.
Back in Guatemala, when he spotted mushrooms in the forest, he'd cover them with grass so the birds wouldn't spot them, and return the next day to pluck them, doubled in size, from the pine-scented earth.
Lucia worked alongside her brother, husband, brother-in-law and other family members at Rakhra Mushroom Farm. When she traveled to Santa Fe last year to meet Rigoberta Menchu, the Mayan winner of the Nobel Peace Prize, mushrooms were a common bond. Like the Gaspar family, Menchu had also savored mushrooms in Guatemala.
"Moo was our equivalent of meat," Menchu writes in her memoir "Crossing Borders." "Along the track we used to find slip, xik'in mam and ra'q masat, all the kinds of mushrooms you can make into a delicious meal."
Rakhra Mushroom Farm, in contrast, is a sophisticated scientific company owned by four Sikhs from India, who purchased it in 1985 and named it after a Punjabi village. Mushrooms are grown indoors, in windowless rooms. Water drips from the ceiling, puddles collect on the floor. Pickers rapidly harvest the mature mushrooms, moving up and down rows of large wooden trays, stacked floor to ceiling. Plucking the fragrant fungi from topmost trays, pickers straddle the aisle, high in the air, each foot planted on opposite rows. In the 13 years she worked as a picker, Lucia never once fell, although others have.
This year, four crews of 30 pickers each, mostly Mayan, will harvest 13 million pounds of mushrooms, receiving about 15 cents per pound.
"They're good people," says Karmjit Sahl, one of the owners, who wears a blue turban, beige sweater vest, and thick rubber boots. "Everyone works as a family."
Where worlds collide
On the day of the fiesta Lucia's sister-in-law, Eulalia Cristobal, picks mushrooms from 7 a.m. to 1 p.m., then heads to Lucia's house to spend hours cooking, after which she jumps into corte and huipil blouse, and heads to mass, where she and Lucia serve as eucharistic ministers, standing next to the priest, offering the bread and body of Christ.
Afterward at the fiesta, they watch as Francisco stands ramrod straight on the stage, teaching the values of the ancestors to this new generation of American-born Mayans. Like other Colorado kids, they are into sports and iPods, they watch TV, but their parents hope those distractions don't keep them from appreciating their past.
"A lot of our people may not go to school or college, but we know astronomy and the stars," he says. "We ask Mother Earth before we take from her. We don't pollute her. Mayan religion and spirituality is very sacred for that reason. The Mayan spirit, the way we live, is the most important thing."
This gathering of Guatemalans at Sacred Heart Catholic Church is connected to Pastoral Maya USA, a national organization started in the mid-1990s to educate American society - and Mayan children - about history and religion, primarily Catholic with an overlay of indigenous ways.
This summer, Lucia traveled to Atlanta to attend the national conference, which included a workshop for young trilingual Mayan Americans who will join a national program of Maya interpreters working in their native language, plus Spanish and English.
At this year's fiesta, for the first time, people like Flora Archuleta notice real confidence among the Mayan community, a sense of unity that derives, perhaps, from an increased understanding of their culture, a diminishment of isolation. Archuleta, who is Latino, works closely with the Guatemalans in her job as executive director of the San Luis Valley Resource Center, which just bought the five new costumes - fuchsia and lime and turquoise, handwoven, imported from Guatemala - for Francisco's folkloric dance troupe.
"The Alamosa community had it hard when the people started coming in," she says.
There wasn't discrimination from the existing community as much as separation. They just didn't mix.
"They couldn't communicate with them because of their language ... They didn't really know how to deal with it, so for the longest time it just stayed like that."
"People are adapting to us"
Over time, however, leaders from the disparate groups began to build cultural bridges. For the past two years, a group of public-school teachers from Alamosa traveled to Guatemala to work with teachers in the indigenous schools.
As part of this cross-cultural fertilization, Dr. Sheryl Ludwig, an assistant professor at Adams State College who organized the trip, hopes to bring traditional Mayan weavers for a visit to Alamosa. The goal is to help refugee women who speak only Q'anjob'al escape social isolation and depression.
The future of the Mayan community here is propelled by people like Matias Francisco, who remembers arriving in America at age 7, speaking neither English nor Spanish. Now he's a trilingual translator for the Mayan people at Valley-Wide Health Systems .
"There was a barrier to getting accepted," he says. "We'd never been seen before, so we're always stereotyped. That is hard. Like, 'Wow, what kind of people are you?'
"They automatically assume we're Mexican. We had to face a lot of that growing up, but now I think people are adapting to us, and understanding that we do contribute a lot to their society."
The fiesta for Santa Eulalia serves as a public declaration of this unique culture, so different from Mexican traditions. At Sacred Heart Catholic Church, at the start of mass, white candles flicker as the white-robed procession moves slowly up the aisle. Pungent clouds of incense wrap around the framed photograph of Santa Eulalia, held high overhead, a tiny lace-shrouded miracle-worker with red lips and black hair.
It's just like the fiesta mass back in Guatemala, only filled with American-born Maya kids like Maria, who kneels in silent prayer, the fabric of her corte perfectly tucked and twisted.

Watch a video of the Mayans in Colorado
Dr. Carlos Muñoz, Jr. Professor Emeritus
Department of Ethnic Studies 510-642-9134




Book: Mexican American And the Environment by Devon Gerardo Pena

Book Description: Univ of Arizona Pr, 2005. PAPERBACK. Book Condition: New. Mexican Americans have traditionally had a strong land ethic, believing that humans must respect la tierra because it is the source of la vida. As modern market forces exploit the earth, communities struggle to control their own ecological futures, and several studies have recorded that Mexican Americans are more impacted by environmental injustices than are other national-origin groups. In our countryside, agricultural workers are poisoned by pesticides, while farmers have lost ancestral lands to expropriation. And in our polluted inner cities, toxic wastes sicken children in their very playgrounds and homes. This book explores the relationship between ecology and culture in the Mexican American experience, showing students its relevance in the context of environmental risks that affect all of us. It addresses the struggle for environmental justice, grassroots democracy, and a sustainable society from a variety of Mexican American perspectives, drawing on the ideas and experiences of people from all walks of life-activists, farmworkers, union organizers, land managers, educators, and many others-who provide a clear overview of the most critical ecological issues facing Mexican-origin people today. The text is organized to first provide a general introduction to ecology, from both scientific and political perspectives. It then presents an environmental history of Mexican-origin people on both sides of the border, showing that the ecologically sustainable Norteno land use practices were eroded by the conquest of El Norte by the United States. Finally, it offers a critique of the Bookseller Inventory # BT0006139970Mexican principal schools of American environmentalism and introduces the organizations and struggles of Americans in contemporary ecological politics. 
Univ of Arizona Pr, 2005. PAPERBACK. (ISBN: 0816522111)  Bookseller: Abraxus Books  Seattle, WA, U.S.A.  Price: US$ 17.29
Sent by Juan Marinez


Dr.Carter G. Woodson
Through the Eyes of Eagles
Dr. Carter G. Woodson

February is our month of celebration. We owe the celebration of Black History Month, and more importantly, the study of black history, to Dr. Carter G. Woodson. Born to parents who were former slaves, he spent his childhood working in the Kentucky coal mines and enrolled in high school at age twenty. He graduated within two years and later went on to earn a Ph.D. from Harvard. The scholar was disturbed to find in his studies that history books largely ignored the black American population-and when blacks did figure into the picture, it was generally in ways that reflected the inferior social position they were assigned at the time.
Bobby McDonald, president and executive director,
Black Chamber of Orange County


Through the Eyes of Eagles™
Four Stars: Conversations on Life, Success, Leadership, Mentorship, Culture, and Diversity 
by T. Lt. Col. Dweylan Wilson, United States Air Force. 

IN THE SPIRIT of traditional oral history comes an honest and open dialogue from the largest gathering of diverse military leaders in American history. The first book in the Through the Eyes of Eagles™ literary series, Four Stars, is a poignant anthology that gives voice to exceptional leaders who have graced the history of the United States. Its story centers on 13 dynamic and culturally-diverse leaders of the United States military who have reached the General Officer level and have contributed directly to the vision and goals that affect the morale, welfare, security and safety of each man, woman, and child in America. Translated interviews reveal candid and thought-provoking accounts of their views, expressions, and experiences that provide answers and solutions to universal challenges.

Historical firsts include:

  • First Hispanic-American in modern times to reach the rank of four-star General Officer in the Navy
  • First Puerto Rican to reach the rank of four-star General 
  • First African-American four-star General Officers in the Army, Air Force, and Navy
  • First African-American to serve as Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff
  • First African-American and only ethnically diverse leader to serve as Secretary of State following military service
  • First Polish and only foreign immigrant to achieve the rank of four-star General Officer and serve as Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff

Candid and revealing conversations with Generals Benjamin O. Davis, Larry R. Ellis, Daniel "Chappie" James, T. Joseph Lopez, Lester L. Lyles, Lloyd "Fig" Newton, Colin C. Powell, Bernard P. Randolph, J. Paul Reason, Horacio Rivero Jr., Roscoe Robinson Jr., John Malchase David Shalikashvili, and Johnnie E. Wilson, are captured in this rich and captivating anthology. These leaders are the great grandsons of the America Revolution, Civil War, and post World War era. They are sons of segregation elements such as the Buffalo Soldiers, Harlem Hellfighters, Tuskegee Airmen, and Borinqueneers.

Four Stars grants exclusive access into the living rooms and boardrooms of some of the world’s profound leaders and is truly a MUST read!  

About the author
 T. Dweylan Wilson is a Lieutenant Colonel in the United States Air Force. He was born in Frankfürt Germany while his father was serving in the United States Army and calls Augusta Georgia home. 

He is completing student requirements for a Doctorate in International Business at NOVA Southeastern University in Fort Lauderdale, Florida.  He is the author of the Through The Eyes of Eagles™ literary series of books, audio, and video mentoring aids. Speaking engagements, book signings and readings can be requested directly with the author.

T. Dweylan Wilson is single and resides in Poquoson Virginia. 
All email inquiries:

Dweylan Global Investments LLC, PO Box 2187, Poquoson, VA 23662. 
Discount paperback: $18.95   ISBN #978-0-9785850-1-3, Price: $20.95





Challenging Indian Land Trusts 
Wiyot tribe memorializes 1860 massacre

Challenging Indian Land Trusts
By Michelle Chen
            February 18, 2008 IN THESE TIMES

This 19th century ledger is preserved in the American Indian Records Repository
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Across Indian country, two things are never in short supply: rich natural resources and endemic poverty. That paradox is driving a longstanding battle between indigenous people and the government trust that holds money generated from their lands.

The class-action lawsuit, Cobell v. Kempthorne, targets a federal trust fund that handles revenues from activities like oil drilling and logging on land owned by individual Indians and tribes. The trust's financial
operations—covering more than 56 million acres and dating back for more than a century—have left a spectacularly messy paper trail. Many beneficiaries say they are in the dark about how much has been paid out and what is still owed, and charge that the system has drained wealth from Indian communities.

"We know that the government collected our money, but it hasn't been paid to us as individual Indian beneficiaries," says Elouise Cobell, a Blackfeet Nation member who initiated the suit in 1996 on behalf of
several hundred thousand account holders.

The battle is finally drawing to a close. On Jan. 30, U.S. District Judge James Robertson ruled that the trust's finances are beyond salvaging. Calling for a settlement, he denounced the Interior Department's "unrepaired, and irreparable, breach of its fiduciary duty over the last century."

The decision builds on a 1999 ruling that ordered a management overhaul and a complete accounting—to comply with the trust's original mandate and federal reforms enacted in 1994. As In These Times went to press, the Interior had not issued a formal legal response to the decision.

The department has spent years retooling its accounting systems, but various court reviews found the trust in chronic disarray. Not only are financial records inaccurate or missing, critics say, but many landowners have little information on their lands and lease activities, or even the value of their assets, aside from sporadic checks issued by the government.

The system disbursed about $300 million to individuals and $500 million to tribes last fiscal year, and holds hundreds of millions in individual-account funds.

Whatever the exact amount that has been unpaid, Cobell says, evidence of a swindle is strewn across Blackfeet territory. Though the earth is replete with oil, timber and other resources, she says, "there is
poverty all over the place."

Around the turn of the 20th century, the government established the trust system to manage lands on behalf of Indians, based on the presumption that natives lacked the competency to control their resources. Today, the government says the trust functions primarily as an institutional conduit for land-based revenues, produced under agreements between landowners and business interests.

But the trust looks different from Jay Dusty Bull's spread, which spans about 8,500 acres near Browning, Mont. To the 23-year-old Blackfeet member, his family's grazing leases provide a financial boost but hardly
compensate for the theft his ancestors suffered.

"A hundred years ago, were our Indians—who didn't speak English, who couldn't read or write—given that same opportunity?" he says. "No. 'Sign an X here. Here's $40.' Billions of dollars could have been taken off of
our land a hundred years ago, and we don't know."

Defending its ongoing accounting work, the Interior argued that a "statistical sampling" of records for several thousand transactions had uncovered only a small percentage of errors, and that "additional work would neither produce a better result nor be cost effective."

But official probes haven't be so reassuring. In 2002, U.S. District Judge Royce Lamberth held then-Secretary Gale Norton in contempt for failing to initiate the historical accounting process years after Congress had mandated it. The Interior Department, he wrote, had "indisputably proven… it is either unwilling or unable to administer [the trust] competently."

Court-appointed Special Master Alan Balaran reported similarly dismal findings. Inspecting a Dallas branch of the Minerals Management Office in 2003, he noted the "chaotic" disorganization of financial documents,
along with the "unexplained presence of an industrial shredder"—before office staff forced him to leave.

Outside the courtroom, advocates have pressed Congress for legislation to completely overhaul the trust's management and accounting systems. For many landowners, balancing the government's books would be one small, overdue counterweight against a legacy of injustice.

"We need to have a much fairer process," Dusty Bull says. "[We need to] make sure that our children, our grandchildren, our generations to come, do not have to go through the same process."

 Sent by Dorinda Moreno


Wiyot tribe memorializes 1860 massacre 
Feb 19, 2008 


Woodley Island will turn into a brightly light memorial Saturday to remember a massacre that happened on the nearby Indian Island almost 150 years ago. Traditionally recognized as the center of the Wiyot world, Indian Island was once a site for the tribe's World Renewal Ceremony, a dance ceremony lasting seven to ten days. After a ceremony in 1860, a group of local Eureka men went to the island and killed many of the sleeping men, women and children. The Indian Island candlelight vigil is a memorial to those slain. It is highly attended, often drawing 300 to 400 people, said Linda Woodin, the tribe's office manager and organizer of the event. "It means a great deal to the tribe in respects to healing and going forward in preparation for the day when they can dance again on the island," she said. Partially contaminated by toxins, wood preservatives used for a boat repair facility that once occupied the area, the original ceremonial grounds need to be
restored before the tribe can use the land again. In 2000, the tribe began efforts to restore the area in hopes of continuing their tradition and providing a means to educate others about the history of Humboldt's native people. Maura Eastman, the tribe's executive director hopes to make the island accessible as a part of an ongoing education process. "It's a really magical experience," she said about being on the island. Eastman said her own understanding of native culture as a non-native was incredible lacking before working with the tribe.

"That's something we think we can begin to change," she said. Eastman hopes providing access to the island, especially to schools, can help provide that understanding. When the project, called the Tuluwat Restoration Project after the village that once stood there, is finished, there will be housing structures, a new dock and bulkhead to allow for better access, and restoration measures to improve the area's natural habitat, according to the project's environmental impact report released in May. "There's a whole community to be set up," Woodin said. Currently, the tribe is waiting for permits and the approval of different agencies to start the decontamination process. Once it is the approved, the cleanup shouldn't take too long, said the tribe's environmental director Jon Mooney. The contaminated area is about a couple hundred square feet, not a large volume compared to the 40 or so acres of land the tribe wants to develop. But because the land is
in the jurisdiction of several agencies, the tribe must seek permits and approval from all of them, including the city of Eureka, the coastal development agency and the regional water quality control board. "Permits and funding are both road blocks," Mooney said. The tribe has received an Environmental Protection Agency Brownfield grant for the cleanup process, as well as a grant from the California Culture and History Endowment. The tribe will also be using money from the Wiyot Sacred Site Fund, which is sustained by many private donors. "Once we get it cleaned up we can begin the building phase," Mooney said. He is hoping to begin the cleanup in late spring. The report estimates a cleanup and remediation period of one to two years. For now, shells, tarp and random debris litter the area. Mooney continues to upkeep the land, monitoring the already restored plants, while weeding out non-native species and making sure there are signs to warn trespassers
from coming onto the land, preparing it for the day when the Wiyot tribe can continue its tradition. If You Go: WHAT: 17th Annual Indian Island Candlelight Vigil, bring a candle WHERE: Woodley Island WHEN: Saturday, 6 p.m.-8 p.m.

Material appearing here is distributed without profit or monitory gain to those who have expressed an interest in receiving the material for research and educational purposes. This is in accordance with Title 17 U. S. C. section 107.

Sent by Dorinda Moreno




The books listed below were listed in the catalog. Only one copy of each is available. The term Sephardic Judaica is used because Sephardic includes Jews from all the Middle-eastern countries, Iraq, Turkey, Greece, etc.
Farewell Espana, World of The Sephardim Remembered by Howard M. Sachar

Ladino-English/English-Ladino Concise Encyclopedic Dictionary by Dr. Elli Kohen
Book: Farewell Espana, The World of The Sephardim Remembered.
SEPHARDIC JUDAICA  Author: Howard M. Sachar
            Item #15083
Price: $20.00
Shipping: $2.75
One of the best general accounts available about the story of the Sephardic Jews and their Diaspora from Spain and Portugal told by a most distinguished Jewish historian. In 1492, on the eve of Columbus' voyage, the last professing Jews in Spain were driven from the land that had been their home for centuries, including seven centuries under Islamic rule. Those who left under very tragic circumstances would become the seed of Jewish civilizations that would spring up far-away lands such as Morocco, The Netherlands, Ottoman Turkey, colonial Brazil and the United States. A formidable history that includes Moses Maimonides, Baruch Spinoza, Benjamin Disraeli and even a false messiah. New York, First Vintage Books Ed., 439 Pgs., PB.
            Item #28118
Author: Dr. Elli Kohen
Price: $40.00
Shipping: $3.75
With Dahlia Kohen-Gordon. OUT OF PRINT-LIMITED COPIES AVAILABLE. This unique book is the first Ladino dictionary for English speakers. Ladino, also known as Judeo-Spanish or Judezmo, was the language spoken by SEPHARDIC Jews who settled in the Ottoman Empire after their expulsion from Spain in the 15th century. It is a very lyrical language and in danger of becoming obsolete. Definitions for the words include the origin, the cultural context of expressions and their usage. This is an invaluable reference for anyone interested in SEPHARDIC Jewish culture. New York, 2000 Hippocrene Books, Inc. 1st Ed., 602 Pgs., 5&1/2 x 8&1/4, PB.
            Item #24393
Author: Alfonso Toro
Price: $40.00
Shipping: $3.75
A compendium of Mexican history pertinent to the Mexican War for Independence from Spain. Toro was an employee of the Mexican National Archives and had access to a wealth of material. He is the renowned author of La Familia Carvajal and Los Judios de la Nueva Espana dealing with the Sephardic Jews and the Mexican Inquisition in the Spanish Colonial Period. VG-The book spine has been rebound and the word " Mexico" in ink has benn written on the spine. Slight hinge separation of rear board. Mexico City, 1947 Editorial Patria Fifth Ed., SPTXT, 693 Pgs., 5&3/4 x 7&3/4, HB.


Remembering Adina De Zavala 
Book: Cortina Defending the Mexican Name in Texasby Dr. Jerry Thompson 
March 18: HOGAR de Dallas Meeting
March 29-30: Angel of Goliad Descendants Historical Preservation Gathering
Hecho a Mano Monthly Festival and Artist Market 
LULAC 12 Council No. 2 names four recipients
30th Annual CineFestival en San Antonio Latino Film Festival April 10-13, 2008 
Book: Remembering Adina De Zavala

Remembering Adina De Zavala

The Second Battle of the Alamo – 100 years ago ,  Feb. 10, 19 08

Adina De Zavala was a guiding force in the preservation of many of Texas most revered historic structures and sites. Her firm belief that the remnants of Mission San Antonio de Valero, known in 1836 as the Alamo’s Long Barrack, lay underneath the wooden exterior of buildings adjacent to the Alamo church. In 1893, as president of the De Zavala chapter of the Daughters of the Republic of Texas , Miss Adina had secured the adjacent property owner’s commitment to give the chapter first purchase option. On February 10, 19 08 , upon hearing that the 2-story long barracks were about to be razed, Miss Adina barricaded herself inside the buildings for three days and nights in an effort that ultimately prevented its destruction. De Zavala’s struggle to prevent the Long Barrack from destruction has become known as the "Second Battle of the Alamo ".

Alamo Long Barrack in 1908                   Preserved Alamo Long Barracks 2008

From Texas History Online:

One of Miss Zavala's greatest contributions to Texas was the preservation of a portion of the old San Antonio de Valero Mission , better known as the Alamo , which her group prevented from being razed in the early twentieth century. The state had purchased the chapel of the Alamo from the Catholic Church in 1883, but in 1886 Hugo and Schmeltzer Company, a wholesale grocery firm, bought the Alamo mission convent, also known as the monastery, long barracks, or fortress, which was the scene of the major resistance by Alamo defenders against the Mexican forces headed by Antonio López de Santa Annaqv in 1836. As early as 1892, before her historical group affiliated with the DRT, Adina De Zavala extracted a verbal promise from the grocery firm to give her chapter first chance at buying the property.

Clara Driscoll joined the society and the DRT in 1903, and the next year she purchased the Hugo and Schmeltzer Company property to prevent an "eastern syndicate" from acquiring it. The Texas legislature authorized state purchase of the property from Miss Driscoll in January 1905 and gave custody of the Alamo to the DRT, but soon the women began to disagree upon procedures for preservation of the Alamo and upon exactly what constituted the Alamo at the time of its siege and fall in 1836. The women split into two factions, one led by Adina De Zavala and the other by Clara Driscoll, and fought for control of the state organization of the DRT and the Alamo . Certain legal aspects of the battle were settled by state courts, which in a series of decisions ruled in favor of the Driscoll group as the de jure DRT in 1909. While Clara Driscoll and others in the DRT expressed desires to destroy the dilapidated Hugo and Schmeltzer building in the mistaken belief that it was erected after the 1836 battle, Adina De Zavala led the opposition in a resolute and voluble stand against any such move and was instrumental in the preservation of portions of the original wall of the convent. In fact, she barricaded herself inside the north barrack of the Alamo for three days in February 1908 to protest its destruction. She believed that this section of the mission had more historical value than the Alamo chapel. She and the DRT renewed the feud over historical questions revolving around the Alamo at intervals, and time has proved that Adina De Zavala was correct in most of her historical contentions concerning the mission.


“The Grandmother of Civil Disobedience for Preservation”

 By Scott Zech  

The struggle to preserve the Alamo did not occur in a vacuum. Adina De Zavala and her colleagues in Texas were part of a larger national movement to save America ’s material heritage long before federal law protected historic structures. It started in 1853, when the Mount Vernon Ladies’ Association rallied to save George Washington’s home. That led to the creation of several other regional organizations. In our state, the Daughters of the Republic of Texas became the vanguard of historic preservation in 1891.  

Adina De Zavala was only one of many preservationists of her era, but what she did at the Alamo made U.S. history. Her standoff at the old monastery in 1908 was the first nationally publicized act of civil disobedience in the cause of historic preservation. What happened right here 100 years ago today was the forerunner of every incident in America in which someone has sat in front of a bulldozer and refused to budge. De Zavala’s trailblazing act is still inspiring modern preservationists even if they have never heard her name.

I believe that Adina De Zavala’s most significant contribution to the national movement was her brilliant partnership with the press. She taught her fellow preservationists across the country a critical lesson about the importance of publicity in saving historic structures. By taking dramatic action at the Alamo , she grabbed the national headlines and made the country aware of what was at stake. Overnight, she became the darling of the American newspapers. The woman who single-handedly held the Alamo made the front pages of the New York Times, the Washington Post, the Los Angeles Times, and the Atlanta Constitution.  

De Zavala and her colleagues seemed to know exactly how to keep journalists interested in the incident by staging a series of theatrics. Her friends poured coffee through a porthole in the door. They smuggled chocolates in newspapers. She used a long cord to retrieve contraband from sympathizers in the crowd, such as sandwiches, an oil stove and warm clothes. This strategy worked wonderfully. A New York Times editorial celebrated her for “heroically reviving memories” of the Alamo siege of 1836. John B. Adams, a descendant of President John Quincy Adams, sent her a telegram from New York that read: “Miss De Zavala, in the Alamo : Win or lose, we congratulate you upon your splendid patriotism and courage. We are proud of you. Texas should be.”  

Meanwhile, De Zavala issued plenty of fighting words to the press from inside the walls. She said: “My immortal forefathers suffered every privation to defend the freedom of Texas . I, like them, am willing to die for what I believe to be right. The fight is for more than the possession of the Alamo . The immortal principle of liberty and right is involved. In these days many people fear to fight for their rights, owing to the notoriety. I am not of that kind.”  

The seizure of the Alamo monastery in 1908 may have been a publicity stunt, but it was motivated by Adina De Zavala’s deep-seated and lifelong commitment to historic preservation. She once wrote, “I am for progress, but true progress and culture remembers the past and profits by the memory.” She later said, “I consider historic shrines of inestimable worth. If people—especially children—can actually see the door through which some noble man or woman passed, or some object he or she touched, they’ll be impressed, they’ll remember, they’ll be inspired to read everything they can find in print about that man or woman. Inevitably they’ll be filled with high ideals, the desire to emulate.”  

Adina De Zavala did not live to see the creation of the Long Barrack Museum in the building she seized to protect. However, she had already envisioned that museum a century ago. I’ll close with one of her statements about it from 1907:

“What an education for our children and citizens to walk through the Alamo Museum , where, every article labeled, tells its story of entrancing interest and serves as an everlasting memorial to the donor as well as to the early Texan to whom it belonged. Let us come again and again, for here is a place to muse and study and gather strength and inspiration.”    

Sent by: Maclovio Perez

Cortina Defending the Mexican Name in Texas.

Los Bexarenos Genealogical Society speaker on March 1st, was Professor Jerry Thompson.  Dr. Thompson will speak on his new book, Cortina Defending the Mexican Name in Texas.  Professor Thompson is currently a regent’s professor at Texas A&M, International University at Laredo. As an author he is well known for his books of Tejanos in the American Civil War. 

            Mention the term, “Manifest Destiny,” and very likely the first thoughts are of Native Americans being pushed westward across America. However, the same forces were at work in South Texas however, one man, a Mexican officer named Juan Nepomucino Cortina took it upon himself to avenge Mexican honor.

Historian Jerry Thompson has documented the events in the Rio Grande Valley. He has detailed a cast of confusing characters who included Texan R.I.P. Ford, to Benito Juarez and their roles during the Franco-Mexican rebellion and the American Civil War all influenced by the violence of Juan Cortina.  So disruptive was the “Cortina War,” American newspapers accused him as a follower of the abolitionist, John Brown.   

The Public is always welcome to attend the meeting Los Bexarenos meetings.  
Sent by Larry Kirkpatrick  

March 18 HOGAR de Dallas Meeting
If you live in Dallas and are interested in family research on Hispanic lines, contact HOGAR de Dallas. You will find enthusiastic assistance.
Dorina Thomas - 
Newsletter Coordinator of Newsletter and President of HOGAR de Dallas
P.O. Box 570244
Dallas, Texas 75357
(214) 324-3677
Angel of Goliad Descendants Historical Preservation Gathering, March 29-30

On March 29-30 2008 the Angel of Goliad Descendants will be gathering at the Angel of Goliad Plaza in Goliad ,Texas for the 3nd annual laying of the wreath at the statue of the Angel.The wreath is to honor the following: Dona Francisca Alvarez (The Angel of Goliad),Texas and Mexican soldiers that were killed during that conflict and civilians who lost their lives that were causalities of war.

This will also be our 5th year to participate in the annual laying of the wreath on behalf of all descendants of the Angel for Col.James W.Fannin Jr.and several hundreds of his men that were executed on Palm Sunday March 27,1836.

A short ceremony will be held on Sunday March 30 2008 at the Angel’s Plaza  proceeding the Memorial Service at Fannin’s Monument.

We have invited descendants from some of the survivors as well as some that were executed to be our guests. Our special guests will be the Hon.County Judge of Goliad Harold F.Gleinser and the Hon.Mayor of the City of Goliad William J.Schaefer. The public is invited and welcome to attend our short ceremony at the Angel of Goliad Plaza.

Our mission is to continue research and preserve the memory of this incredible lady.  We invite all who wish to participate and come join with the Angel’s descendants and get the true facts on what this woman did and intervened to save the lives of many Texas prisoners of war during the Texas Revolution of 1836, helped some to escape and gave assistance to numerous others.

Please go to the following websites for more information on Dona Francisca Alvarez(The Angel of Goliad)  

Sent by: Rudy A.Ramirez
President Angel of Goliad Descendants Historical Preservation

Hecho a Mano Monthly Festival and Artist Market  

Hecho a Mano Monthly Festival and Artist Market  
Held Sundays, 12:00-8:00 pm
Celebration of the arts is enjoyed through an abundance of free activities, such as: In February MACC and the Tejano Genealogy Society of Austin (TGSA) sponsored a book reading of Inherit The Dust From the Four Winds of Revilla by Jose M. Pena. 

Mexican American Cultural Center
600 River Street
Austin, TX 78701
Amparo Garcia-Crow, Program Manager

Abstract: LULAC 12 Council No. 2 names four recipients
By Celina Alvarado, Laredo Morning Times 02/05/2008

Members of the LULAC Council No. 12 met Monday to formally announce the four, yes four, recipients of this year's Señor and Señora Internacional, which includes not one, but two recipients from each side of the border.

"This is the first time we have honored two people (a male and a female) from the United States and two people (a male and a female) from Mexico," said LULAC Council No. 12 President Edgardo Bueno before the 2008 list of honorees was revealed.        

Representing Mexico in the area of government, is Nuevo Laredo Mayor Ramon Garza Barrios; representing the U.S. in the same category is District 21 State Sen. Judith Zaffirini.

Representing the U.S. in the area of fine arts is dancer, Neo Gutierrez, Ph.D. (a native of Laredo); representing Mexico is actress and singer, Veronica Castro.

"The river does not divide, but rather unites two countries," Bueno said, as he explained the honorees have all in their own way "promoted the betterment of their communities and improved the quality of life."

(Celina Alvarado may be reached at 728-2566 or

©Laredo Morning Times

Sent by Elsa Herbeck

 30th Annual CineFestival en San Antonio Latino Film Festival April 10-13, 2008 
– CineFestival en San Antonio, the nation’s oldest Latino film festival, is seeking films for its 30th anniversary celebration, which will take place from April 10 to 13 at the historic Guadalupe Cultural Arts Center in San Antonio, Texas.  

The theme for this year's festival is “Digital Revolutionaries: Celebrating 30 Years of Chicano Film and Video”. CineFestival is seeking the best Latino features, shorts, documentaries, animation, experimental films and youth works for its 30th annual festival. The call for entries deadline is Feb. 15, 2008.

The four-day event, which begins Thursday, April 10, will feature screenings, workshops, panel discussions, networking opportunities, gala celebrations and a special CineFestival art exhibit.  Sunday will be a seniors and family friendly film day. Innovative uses of new technology will also be highlighted through competitions, demonstrations of new cameras and software, and the involvement of youth filmmakers from video programs throughout San Antonio.

CineFestival will also feature the prestigious Premio Mesquite audience award as well as juried awards for Best Feature, Best Short, Best Experimental Film, Best South Texas First Film and Best San Antonio Young Filmmaker.

CineFestival is ACCEPTING SUBMISSIONS postmarked thru February 15th.  For information on how to submit a film or to download the Call for Entries, please visit the CineFestival Website  
For more information, contact CineFestival Co-Directors Sandra Pena Sarmiento and Victor Payan or 714-417-0073 or 619-701-0073.
2008 CineFestival en San Antonio
c/o Guadalupe Cultural Arts Center
1300 Guadalupe St.
San Antonio, TX 78207
Ph: 210-271-3151 / Fx: 210-271-3480



Illinois State Representative Linda Chapa La Via 
Ongoing Research Project of Mexican-Louisiania Creoles 
History of Cajuns-Ancient France to Nova Scotia to Louisiana to Colonial Texas
When What Seems Ordinary, Isn't 
Canary Islander (Isleños) Information at Louisiana State Archives Collections: 

50th  Wedding  Anniversary of Mother Mary Lou and Benito Chapa
Parents of Illinois State Representative Linda Chapa La Via

            Sent by Bonnie Chapa who writes:
Benito Chapa is  My  husband  Rubens  first  cousin. 

Christmas  card  

Ongoing Research Project of Mexican- Louisiania Creoles  

 Ongoing Research Project of Mexican- Louisiania Creoles

Article next page...

The diaspora of people of African descent doesn't usually include large migrations of free people of color from Louisiana in the years preceding the Civil War. In fact, little is known about such groups except that they left the state seeking equality and freedon from racism in countries such as Haiti, France, Cuba and Mexico. It also is not known what became of their descendants, whether they maintained family and cultural ties with Louisiana or not, and how they identify ethnically today in their country of birth. What does their Louisana Creole heritage mean to them after a century and a half removed from it?

Mary Gehman began her research in 1998 into the hundreds of these families who, according to historic references, went to Mexico in the late 1850s. She located them along the Gulf of Mexico between the port cities of Tampico and Veracruz. Through archival records and interviews with their descendants, who still live in those cities and in small villages along the coast, she was able to construct a data base of names and a picture of what their lives were like in the 19th century.

Although they no longer speak French and have in fact lost all contact with Louisiana and their Creole roots, the Mexicans continue to cook some of the dishes handed down through generations and intermarry and socialize in many cases with others of the same heritage. They were surprised to hear that their French surnames are still common in Louisiana and were excited to meet Gehman and learn a more factual account of their history.

Gehman published this article about her research in 2001 in New Orleans. She continues to visit Mexico every two years or so, and to collect names and contacts. She is working to reunite long lost relatives from both sides of the border. Her database is available to genealogists and anyone who is searching for family members who may have been part of the 19th century emigration to Mexico. She also lectures with a slide presentation of the material.

You can reach Mary Gehman through this website (see more in About us). She welcomes your inquiries and information.

History  of the Cajuns-From Ancient France to Nova Scotia to Louisiana to Colonial Texas

This in from Judge Thonhoff:

I do want to convey ordering information for Chaplain Alex Loya's latest book, History  of the Cajuns-From Ancient France to Nova Scotia to Louisiana to Colonial Texas, for those who might wish to order copies.  (It complements Dr. Vela's book wonderfully well!)

I recently received an email from Chaplain Alex Loya, who is in Iraq right now and experiencing the ugliness of war with his Specal Forces group.

Chaplain Loya said that he had a batch of his new books printed before he deployed to Iraq. His wife Sandra for the time being will handle all orders.

              Sandra Loya
              5951 B Harrell Street
              Fort Polk, LA 71459


When What Seems Ordinary, Isn't  
             When What Seems Ordinary, Isn't

Revealing history with everyday objects unearthed by everyday people.  
By Herpreet Singh • Photo by Kim Ashford,
February 2008

There are moments when history/ passes you so close/ you can smell its breath/ you can reach your hand out/and touch it on its flank,” reads a stanza in Tony oagland’s poem “The Change.”

The poem reflects on our proximity to historical events and matter, and particularly, it draws attention to our inability to recognize seemingly ordinary moments as significant until the moments have passed. In other words, hindsight is 20/20.

Certainly, historians stitch together timelines, geographical paths and even cultural norms of a period by evaluating written records, but it is the distinct work of archaeologists, once history is made, to physically locate even the most pedestrian objects and to further draw out the historical relevance that underlies those objects.

If historians narrate what happened in the past, archaeologists seek tangible evidence that confirms, or potentially negates, historical narrative. More importantly, in uncovering physical links to the past, Louisiana Division of Archaeology’s southeast regional archaeologist Dr. Rob Mann explains that archaeologists “tell us a different kind of history—what general life was like,
how people lived, food they ate, how they got along with different cultures.”

In an LSU Union leisure class Mann will begin teaching this month, it is literally the everyday artifacts of living—utensils, ceramics, food remains—which he will show students how to unearth and evaluate in order to pinpoint the exact location of the eighteenth century Canary Islander settlement Galveztown. Not only will laymen gain a hands-on opportunity to learn the ins and outs of an archaeological dig, they will be contributing to real research.

Located in Ascension Parish at the confluence of Bayou Manchac and the Amite River, Mann explains that the hardships Canary Islanders faced in the 1779 Spanish-founded community are well documented. However, no excavation has ever taken place to confirm the sites of the Galveztown village, cemetery and fort. Initially created by the Spanish to protect their territory from the British who occupied land on the other side of Bayou Manchac, Galveztown was not only doomed from the start, but it virtually disappeared after a mere twenty-year existence.

Unable to convince their own countrymen to colonize the site, the Spanish enlisted destitute Canary Islanders with few options to migrate to the territory. In January of 1779, fourteen Canary Islander families settled the village. The fifty-five members of these families arrived by traveling through New Orleans, then across Lake Pontchartrain and finally, up the Amite River to Bayou Manchac. By April of the same year, over four hundred Canary Islanders were living in Galveztown.

Mann says that initially the Spanish were good at setting up the Canary Islanders. It is also known that, over time, the colonists were continually writing letters to the Spanish to complain that they were short on supplies. When the British were no longer a threat to the territory, it became expensive for Spain to continue supporting the colony.

Challenging living conditions and increasing reluctance on the part of the Spaniards to supply Galveztown caused it to dissipate. By 1798, only a hundred colonists remained. According to Mann, “By 1804 the village was on decline… By 1820, there was nothing recognizable as a settlement out there.” A historical marker placed by estimation sometime during the early twentieth century is the only visible contemporary indication of the ghost-settlement.

Yet, there is living evidence elsewhere of the Canary Islanders—the Lombardos, Pinos, Rousmans, Landrys, Martins, Hernandezes, Diazes, Bruns and others who inhabited Galveztown. In the face of destructive hurricanes, annually flooding crops and a smallpox epidemic that killed children in droves, the remaining inhabitants migrated to land granted by the Spanish. There, they settled into still-thriving Spanish Town, Baton Rouge’s first neighborhood.

The class will focus specifically on the location of the village and everyday life in it. Mann hopes he and his students will uncover remains of Canary Islander homes. It is known that these structures were wooden and thirty-two by sixteen feet in dimension. Mann will also instruct students in the search for items including glass bottles, religious paraphernalia that demonstrate the Canary Islanders’ conversion to Catholicism and beads that may have been traded with Native Americans—commonplace matter that illuminates day-to-day life with surprising intricacy.

Mann says that because it is known the residents were short on supplies, “we would hope to find out if they were having to eat local game, turtles, hunting evidence.” One goal will be to find evidence of the hardships that have been documented. “Might we find British goods that would demonstrate a black market trade with the Brits on other side of Bayou Manchac?” Mann asks, suggesting that these discoveries will not only answer questions about how the colonists survived, but that they will also demonstrate how the Canary Islanders interacted with other cultures.

The leisure class, which Mann hopes to continue over subsequent semesters, is the first of its kind to be offered through the LSU Union. Mann is giving the course as part of his work with The Louisiana Division of Archaeology. The state office, which exists within the Louisiana Department of Culture, Recreation and Tourism, in a joint program with state universities, employs a regional archaeologist at each of five partner universities. These regional archaeologists conduct research particular to their personal interests and to the region in which they work. Partner universities are the University of Louisiana Monroe, Northwestern State University in Nachitoches, University of Louisiana Lafayette, Louisiana State University and most recently, the University of New Orleans.

Mann’s area of expertise is the French colonial period of Louisiana archaeology. As a regional archaeologist, he conducts research, performs public outreach, responds to calls from the public who know of archaeological sites. He also assists public agencies in getting sites excavated and documented.

Most often, when excavations are scheduled and volunteers are needed, Mann says he will seek volunteers through the Louisiana Archaeological Society, a group comprised of people who have a strong interest and some background in archaeology, but who are not professional archaeologists. The leisure class is being offered as one way to pique the interests of people who may have no prior background in archaeology.

In addition to conducting the first excavation at Galveztown, beginning this fall, Mann will do work in a Point Coupee Parish French settlement. He will also research some plantation sites on the west bank of the Mississippi River where a private property owner has asked for a survey of a nineteenth century home.

All of the research conducted by Mann and the other regional archaeologists for the state is housed with the Louisiana Division of Archaeology, which acts as the gatekeeper for archaeological findings. The division has produced projects that impact how we understand Louisiana history. For instance, the division has played a key role in protecting Poverty Point, a large prehistoric Native American settlement located outside of Monroe in Epps, Louisiana.
Poverty Point has since been nominated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, of which, there are only 871 in the world.

The division has also been prominently involved with the creation of a Louisiana Indian mounds trail which will include a driving map of over seven hundred Native American mounds in northeast and central Louisiana. This project, conducted by a collaborative group of archaeologists, is still underway.

Asked why archaeology is a relevant method to understand history, Mann says, “Most human history is only accessible through archaeology … Historians domain is typically the written record that they compile into written history. Archaeologists deal with material culture primarily, what people left behind … It’s the only way we have access to what life was like before there was written language.”

Of archaeological excavations Mann says, “There are lots of clues in soil about what we’re finding or not finding. Color, texture, these things give many different meanings. Students will become detectives and note-takers. It is a physical pursuit. You dig, shovel, strain soil; but it’s also a mental pursuit. Without this kind of thought process, you’re only treasure hunting.”

(back to top)

Based in Baton Rouge, Herpreet Singh worked as a rural and urban community planner prior to pursuing a full-time writing career. She is currently freelance writing and working on a short story collection.


Archaeological Excavation Class
Student Union Leisure Classes
(225) 578-5118

To learn about the
Louisiana Archaeological Society:

To learn more about Louisiana Division of Archaeology and its projects:

If you are interested in learning more about
Canary Island settlers in Louisiana:

The Canary Islanders of Louisiana by Gilbert C. Din, Louisiana State University Press

Winding Through Time: The Forgotten History and Present-day Peril of Bayou Manchac by Mary Ann Sternberg, Louisiana State University Press

Sent by Bill Carmena  

Canary Islander (Isleños) Information Housed at Louisiana State Archives Collections: (4) 

Baton Rouge : 1967 
Historic Preservation Marker Program: 1950-1991 
Canary Islands Descendents Association of St. Bernard: 1995 
Deanna Carbo Collections: 1998

 Books: (27)   
  1. Agüimes en Cuba  
  2. Agüimes (Gran Canaria) Nature, History, and Tradition  
  3. Canarias 
  4. Canary Islanders of Louisiana  
  5. Canary Islanders Recruited for Louisiana 1778-1785
  6. Canary Islands Migration to Louisiana . 1778-1783
  7. Décimas-The Tradition Lives On 
  8. Dialect Death: The Case of Brule Spanish 
  9. Domingue of Louisiana : Immigrants to Spanish Colonial Louisiana

10. EI Motín de Agüimes-las Palmas: 1718-1719
11. Flora de Gran Canaria (Tomo IV) 
12. Literatura Canaria (Antología de Textos) Siglos 16-20
13. Medio Ambiente en Canarias: Memoria 1993
14. Memorias de Agüimes 
15. Natura y Cultura de las Islas Canarias 

16. Origin of the Domingue Family in Louisiana .
17. The Pentagon Barracks 06ebr43) Cultural Resources Monitoring BR. LA
18. Pleasures of the Canary Islands : Wine. Food. Beauty, and Mystery

19. Radio Agüimes, la Primera Radio Canaria al Servicio de su Pueblo
20. Recetas Populares de Agüimes
21. Recuerdo de un Bicentenario: 1797-1997 

22. Remedies and Lost Secrets of St. Bernard's Isleños 

23. Reserva Marina de Arinaga: Gran Canaria: Guía Submarina
24. Tenerife: Así fue el Siglo XX: 1900-1945
25. Tenerife, Islas Canarias 
26. Una Vuelta por Agüimes 
27. Vegetación y Flora Forestal de las Canarias Occidentales

 Video (1) : Video tape "Los Isleños de San Bernardo"  January 2008. 

List is from Dr. Hardy, Director of LA Archives for the Sec. of State, guest speaker in January.  Sent by Bill Carmena

Also recommended by Bill:
Video of Canary Island Folk  Dancers 



Comprehensive study of a Latino community in East Lancaster, Pennsylvania
Congressional Hispanic Leadership Institute Seeking Undergraduate Students 
Comprehensive study of a Latino community in East Lancaster, Pennsylvania

Hello Mimi,


    I just wanted to alert you that we have completed another comprehensive study of a Latino community here in the East. Lancaster, Pennsylvania, which has long been associated with the Amish and Pennsylvania Dutch today has a significant Latino population. The county seat, Lancaster City, is nearly 40% Latino and growing, while the city school district is 52% Latino. At 227 pages this is probably the most comprehensive community study we've done thus far.


    All of our studies can be accessed via PDF at Other communities that we've researched and published reports are Reading, PA; the Lehigh Valley which includes Allentown, Bethlehem and Easton, PA; and Mercer County, NJ which includes Trenton and Princeton. Each of the reports includes a historical overview of how and why Latinos came to the area. We also completed a study of how the HIV/AIDS epidemic has particularly impacted the Philadelphia Latina and African-American female populations.


    All of the studies are are available for online viewing or as a free download. Anyone who considers printing a hardcopy should be aware that one-sided, the Lancaster study is 454 pages. It would be more cost effective to order a bound copy from


    I just want to say again how much we appreciate your dedication to this kind of work. As professional researchers the availability of the kind of information you provide is priceless. I don't know how you do it, but I'm glad you do. Thank you.

                                                                                                                              George F. Haskins

Alegre Research and Demographics
Lancaster, PA


Congressional Hispanic Leadership Institute Seeking Undergraduate Students 


Editor: Although the date is past (Feb 29th), think for next year.

The Congressional Hispanic Leadership Institute (CHLI) invites Hispanic undergraduate students from across the country to apply for the 2008 Ford Motor Company CHLI Leadership Program. Applications can be downloaded at 8 undergraduate students will be selected to become part of this intensive 6-week internship program in Washington, DC. The interns will be placed in congressional offices, federal agencies or public policy organizations. The application deadline is Friday, February 29, 2008. The program begins June 16 and ends July 25, 2008. To apply, applicants must: Be U.S. citizens or Legal Permanent Residents of Hispanic or Portuguese origin; Be enrolled in an accredited 4 year college/university or 2 year community college; Submit a completed application form, personal statement, legislative analysis, resume, two letters of recommendation and official transcripts. Compensation: Airfare and housing accommodations in Washington, DC, $2,000 stipend, Metro card provided. For more information please contact Yisel Cabrera, Program Manager, Congressional Hispanic Leadership Institute at or at 202-429-2033. The Congressional Hispanic Leadership Institute is a 501(C)(3) not-for-profit and non-partisan organization dedicated to creating a broader awareness of the diversity of thought, heritage, interests and views of Americans of Hispanic and Portuguese descent.  


The Forgotten Eagles
Celebrando El Centenario de Torreon, Coah.
Tercera Conferencia Binacional de Historia Familiar
Construirán museo sobre Pancho Villa
The Slaves of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico
Exploring Colonial Mexico
Location of Ranches in Mexico
Descendents of Don Ignacio Cayetano de Urrutia y Flores de Valdez
The Descendents of Don Domingo de Saldua


The Forgotten Eagles

Reception at the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum 

Reprinted from the October 16, 2006 issue of Noticias Latinas,
New Documentary Film Honors Mexico's Role in The Liberation of the Philippines
Produced and Directed by Victor Mancilla



Media conference at the Mexican Cultural Institute
January 28th 2008, from right to left. Victor H. Mancilla, President of the Association Squadron 201 Mexico, Ing. Fernando Nava Musa, Executive Director of the Mexican Cultural institute, Juan Garcia de Oteyza and Pilar O'Leary Executive Director, Smithsonian Latino Center. Photos shared by Victor H. Mancilla

(Los Angeles, CA) - The special premiere screening of a new film that honors a group of heroic Mexican pilots who helped liberate the Philippines during World War II, took place on opening night of the prestigious Latino Film Festival in Los Angeles on Friday, October 6, 2006.

The hour long documentary, The Forgotten Eagles, tells the story of the legendary "Aztec Eagles" of the Mexican Expeditionary Air Force, who flew with the American 581h Fighter Group on Luzon in 1945. The Aztec Eagles were an elite unit of young volunteer Mexican fighter pilots who flew combat missions in support of American and Filipino ground forces in the struggle to free Luzon from the Japanese occupation. They were decorated by the United States, Mexico and the Republic of the Philippines for valor and sacrifice in the cause of freedom.

The film was directed and produced by Mexican-American director/producer Victor Mancilla and is introduced and narrated by noted Latino actor Edward James Olmos. It was filmed over a three-year period in Mexico, the Philippines and the United States. Mancilla is a Mexico City native who emigrated to the United States in the 1990's to realize his dream of becoming a filmmaker.

Hollywood celebrities, film makers, members and guests of LALIFF celebrated the 101h anniversary of the event - the largest Latino film festival in the United States - at a special Opening Night Gala on Thursday evening that began with speeches by Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa and festival cofounders actor Edward James Olmos and independent producer Marlene Dermer, that honored Latino filmmakers and LALIFF's volunteer staff and recognized the organization's corporate sponsors. After viewing a new release, guests danced the night away to salsa music in the outdoor foyer of the renowned Egyptian Theater on Hollywood Boulevard. The Gala kicked off eleven days of new Latino film features, shorts and documentaries from around the world.

The following evening, guests attended a sold-out world premiere screening of The Forgotten Eagles in an adjoining theater. The premier was attended by special guests Edward James Olmos, Colonel Justino Reyes Retana a pilot who flew combat missions with the 201st Squadron in World War II - and Capitan Manuel Cervantes Ramos, an administrative officer with the unit. Both Ryes and Cervantes appear in the film as interview subjects.

After the screening, Olmos took the stage and read a special proclamation from the California legislature honoring the Aztec Eagles and invited the two distinguished veterans onstage, where he presented them with framer certificates. Captain Cervantes addressed the audience thanking Mancilla and his team for their efforts to bring the history of Squadron 201 to life and spoke of the importance of honoring his fallen comrades who helped to liberate the Philippines during World War II.  Both veterans received standing ovations.

After receiving praise from Olmos for his work, Mancilla gave a brief talk about the challenges of making the film and his desire that the film be used as an educational tool to show positive role models for Latino youth.  He took several questions from the audience about the film and gave thanks to “…everyone on our team who worked so hard to make this happen and to all the people we met in all three countries who helped us.”

Asked what motivated him to undertake such a difficult project, he recalled hearing about the Aztec Eagles from his grandfather in Mexico and was fascinated by the story.  “But I never dreamed that I would have the privilege of making a documentary about it.  For me, it’s a great honor.”

Afterward, the audience submitted ballots to vote on the film for a possible award.  Guests received gifts of a special limited-edition Forgotten Eagles poster, signed by Olmos, Mancilla and the two Mexican officers.  Afterwards, the 201 productions team and guests closed the evening by partying late into the night at Hollywood’s trendy “Velvet Margarita” nightclub.  “It was a fantastic evening”, said Mancilla, “and it was a special treat to have Edward James Olmos come to support us and personally honor the two World War II veterans who flew in from Mexico City for  Air & Space Museum IMAX Theater                  this event."
Smithsonian screening.
January 28th 2008

The film will be shown in theaters and distributed to educational institutions and museums in Mexico, the Philippines and the United States.  Negotiations are underway for distribution of the film on DVD in English and Spanish.  Premier screenings are planned for Portland, New York, Mexico City and Manila.
Text by by Sig Unander


From left to right.  
Lunch en honor de  los veteranos del Escuadrón 201
en el Mexican Cultural Institute.
Ing. Fernando Nava Musa, 
Capitán Tinoco Lima, Capitán
Cañete Lopez, Embajador de Mexico in the US. ArturoSaurkhan, 
Sgto. 1o. Francisco Sierra Ochoa, 
Capitan Reynaldo Perez Gallardo.

Victor H. Mancilla
Cell: 818-384-4040

Recepción en la Embajada de México en Washington, DC.
from left to right.  Capitán Cañete Lopez, Ing. 
Fernando Nava Musa, Capitán Rey Gallardo, 
Capitán Tinoco Lima, Capitán Cervantes Ramos.

Personajes de la historia 

Por: José León Robles De La Torre

Send by Mercy Bautista-Olvera  

Al dejar la Presidencia Municipal don Eduardo Guerra Peña el 31 de mayo de 1920, por motivo de la explosión 
violenta desatada por la sucesión presidencial con el lanzamiento del Plan de Agua Prieta, el cuarto regidor se 
hizo cargo, provisionalmente de la Presidencia Municipal de Torreón don Guillermo Berchelmann, quien duró 
muy corto tiempo en el poder, ya que la Legislatura del Estado de Coahuila, determinó que entregara la 
presidencia al señor don Jesús Sotomayor Alejandro, quien rindió la protesta de ley el 24 de junio de 1920 por la intervención del gobernador interino del Estado de Coahuila general don Luis Gutiérrez.  

Pero los altos y bajos de la política nacional, obligaban a que se realizaran muchos cambios en la administración municipal. Así pues, don Jesús Sotomayor Alejandro ni pudo terminar el periodo que había dejado inconcluso don Eduardo Guerra y sólo estuvo en el mando del 24 de junio al tres de septiembre de 1920, en que tuvo que entregar el mando al señor don Eduardo L. Arellano.La campaña fue violenta y los resultados muy complicados en el Municipio de Torreón. Contendieron el doctor Samuel Silva de León, favorito, y el doctor Ángel Gutiérrez y el señor Sotomayor. Al final, el doctor Silva se proclamó triunfador y otro
tanto hizo el señor Sotomayor, llegando a derramarse sangre con varios heridos y un muerto, por lo  que la Legislatura del Estado declaró nula la elección, disponiendo -dice Guerra- que los ciudadanos que integraron el Ayuntamiento de mil novecientos dieciocho, se hiciera cargo de la administración y a cuyo frente quedó el general don Celso Castro. No conformes los partidarios del señor Sotomayor Alejandro, la madrugada del 1º. de enero de 1921, tomaron por asalto la Presidencia Municipal e Inspección de Policía, apoderándose de esos edificios. El general Castro instaló en gobierno en su propia casa de la avenida Allende y armó un número de ciudadanos para hacer respetar su autoridad, siendo inminente un choque armado...”.

El Gobernador del Estado se trasladó a Torreón y convenció al señor don Jesús Sotomayor Alejandro para que se retirase de esa ilegal contienda, siguiendo al frente de la presidencia el general Castro mientras se efectuaban nuevas elecciones en las que resultó definitivo triunfador el doctor Samuel Silva de León que se hizo cargo de la presidencia, rindiendo la protesta de ley, el 1º. de noviembre de 1921 al 31 de diciembre de 1922. En el próximo capítulo hablaré sobre la administración del señor don Eduardo L. Arellano, y en el siguiente será el del doctor Silva.    


Como hemos visto en los últimos artículos, no había estabilidad por los cambios en la política y las acciones armadas que no permitían la estabilidad de las autoridades locales. Así fue como para terminar el periodo de 1919-1920, la Legislatura del Estado designó sustituto a don Eduardo L. Arellano, quien tomó posesión de la Presidencia

Municipal el día tres de septiembre al 31 de diciembre de 1920. Don Eduardo formaba parte de las fuerzas vivas de la ciudad desde 1916 en que se fundó la Cámara

Nacional de Comercio de la Comarca Lagunera, justamente con don Alfredo Padilla, don José Juárez, don Pablo Vázquez, don Adolfo Salinas, don Indalecio Silva, don Ernesto Bredeé, don Othón Wigand, don Luis Espejo, don Marcelino Horgado, don José de la Mora y don Ramiro Galván.  


Con referencia a los hechos de esos turbulentos días, don Eduardo Guerra en su documentada “Historia de Torreón” nos dice, en parte, lo que sigue:

“Los cuatro meses de administración del señor Arellano, fueron benéficos a los intereses de la ciudad, mostrando este funcionario método organizador y carácter progresista. En las finanzas municipales hubo un inteligente y hábil manejo, consiguiéndose una economía de cerca de treinta mil pesos (de aquéllos que valían) en los egresos, no obstante que se hicieron superiores erogaciones forzosas en algunas partidas del presupuesto; por ejemplo, en instrucción pública de ochocientos pesos para reparación y drenaje de las escuelas Centenario y Luis A. Beauregard, se aumentó el gasto de mil ciento un pesos, dándoseles más completa y sana; en la partida de limpieza, se hizo también un aumento en mil pesos, aumentándose el número de regaderas y de limpieza. En mejoras materiales se invirtieron 14 mil 112 pesos, empleados en la obra de construcción del Palacio Municipal. La administración del señor Arellano, recibió la tesorería con una deuda de 41 mil 782 pesos con 94 centavos.

“El informe de su gestión lo terminaba el señor Arellano con las siguientes expresiones: he tenido especial cuidado de cultivar las más cordiales relaciones con las autoridades militares, prestó siempre en cada caso, el C. General de División don Juan Andrew Almazán, jefe en las operaciones en la Región Lagunera, consignando con positiva satisfacción, que debido a las disposiciones de cuartel general, los jefes, oficiales y tropa, han sido siempre respetuosas con las autoridades civiles, acatando sus disposiciones la parte que les concierne, estableciendo así una perfecta armonía entre las autoridades civiles y militares. Así terminó este interinato de don Eduardo L. Arellano, dejando una buena imagen de acuerdo con los momentos difíciles que vivía el Municipio”. (Mi libro Cien Años de Presidentes Municipales en Torreón, Coah., 1893-1993, Edic. 1993, Pág. 110).








             Viernes 7 de marzo de 2008

   8:00 A.M.       a 18:30 P.M.  

El Archivo General del Estado estará atendiendo a los investigadores de historia familiar

 18:30 hrs. Inscripciones. Sede: American Hotel-Express. Ramos Arizpe  
 19:30 hrs. Ceremonia de Inauguración a cargo del Prof. Humberto Moreira Valdés Gobernador Constitucional del Estado de Coahuila Conferencia Magistral                       

Familias de Zacatecas, pobladoras del noreste Dr. José Enciso Contreras                Catedrático de la Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas , Cronista de la ciudad de Zacatecas Miembro de número del Colegio Coahuilense de Investigaciones Histórica

Concierto:  Guitarras de Cámara Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila
Sábado 8 de Marzo de 2008 

9:00  Familias endogámicas en Saltillo y los Altos de Jalisco   Mtra. Martha Durón de Narro Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas  Aguascalientes, México    

10:00  La familia CUELLAR en el noreste mexicano   Arturo Cuellar.                Hispanic Organization Genealogical and Research de Dallas

11:00  Los BAEZ de BENAVIDES en Nuevo León y Coahuila                         Lic. Luis Benavides Caicedo. Chihuahua, Chih. México  

12:00 Los descendientes de la familia MOCTEZUMA en Nueva España Europa Luis López Elizondo. Múzquiz, Coahuila, México.

13:00  Receso   

15:00 La familia FLORES en Saltillo, siglos XIX y XX.                                        Lic. Víctor Antero Flores Zertuche Radio Gente. Gobierno del Estado de Coahuila. Saltillo, Coah.

Primeros pobladores de la Villa de San Agustín de Laredo Laura Gutiérrez´Witt Villa San Agustín de Laredo Genealogical Society Laredo, Tx.

17:00  La familia ZAMBRANO en el Nuevo Reyno de León.   Mtro. Daniel Zambrano Villarreal. Sociedad Genealógica de Nuevo León. Monterrey, N.L.

18:00  La Familia MEDINA VIDAURRI en tres puntos del noreste mexicano: Villaldama, NL, Múzquiz, Coah.y San Antonio, Tx. USA Ed Mata Medina   Bexareños Genealogical Society. San Antonio, Tx. USA.

20:00  Concierto del Grupo Armónico Cena-convivencia Entrega de Diplomas  Fotografía general

Domingo 9 de Marzo de 2008

9:00 hrs. TOUR con programa especial, visitando sitios históricos de interés de la región. Este paseo se terminará a las 14:00 hrs. Es necesario registrarse con 2 semanas de anticipación, con Miguel Ángel Muñoz Borrego.  


Registro e inscripciones:
No hay cuota de inscripción para la Conferencia , es libre.  The  register is free.  El costo de la cena-convivencia, el sábado por la noche, se pagará en el momento oportuno según su consumo.  Saturday night you have to pay your own meals.

 La sede de la conferencia será American Hotel Express en Ramos Arizpe, Coah. México.  The conference is hosted by American Hotel Express.

Carretera Monterrey Saltillo No.9000. Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila, México.Tel.: From USA  52-844- 4 38 88 00 Ext 317
Desde la Rep. Mex. 01-844-438 88 00 Ext 317

Solicite el descuento para sus habitaciones como participante de la Conferencia con la Srita. Greys.  Make yor reservations with Miss Greys.
Ask for special rate.

Informes en general: Miguel Ángel Muñoz Borrego.
Tel.: (844) 4903016

Construirán museo sobre Pancho Villa

Construirán museo sobre Pancho Villa
Notimex, La jornada, Ciudad de México
Lunes 28 de enero de 2008

En el contexto de los festejos por los 100 años de la Revolución y 200 de la Independencia, el palacio de gobierno del estado de Durango será convertido el Museo Nacional del Centenario General Francisco Villa.

Construido con recursos federales y estatales, en él se expondrán la vida del caudillo revolucionario y la historia de la entidad, así como la visión del papel que Durango desempeñará en el futuro de la nación.

La iniciativa fue dada a conocer por el gobernador Ismael Hernández Deras ante el coordinador nacional de los Festejos del Bicentenario, Rafael Tovar y de Teresa, quien realiza una gira por Durango y como parte de ella atestiguó la instalación del comité estatal para dichas celebraciones y recibió su programa de trabajo.

El programa estatal contempla actividades de formación cívica dirigidas a los ciudadanos y con especial énfasis en los estudiantes, reuniones con expertos, exposiciones, coloquios, conferencias y publicaciones para fomentar la memoria colectiva.


The Slaves of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico


The Slaves of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico

Featuring the slave Maria Petra Cruz

By Crispin Rendon, 
Dahlia Guajardo Palacios and Tony Garcia

We start our investigation with a document written on May 24, 1773.  The widow Doña Josefa Francisca Cantu del Rio y la Cerda as executor for General Francisco Ignacio de Larralde, her husband, sells her slave to her daughter Doña Maria Josefa de Larralde.  As expected, much is know about these slave owners.  Briefly, because we want to focus on the slaves not slave owners, Francisco Ignacio was born in Spain.  He and his wife Josefa Francisca, whose ancestry has been traced many generations back, had nine children all baptized in Monterrey. The sales transaction gives a visual picture of the slave Maria Petra. She is golden brown in color, age eighteen years, of medium stature and well built. We learn that she was born and bred in the house of the grantor and the legitimate daughter of her slaves Romano and Francisca.  All these details are given and yet there is no mention of the slave’s surname. We leave this document with the hope of learning more about Maria Petra in others.  

The General’s will, also found in the protocolos, is over two pages long. There is a lot of information in the will that descendants are sure to want to read. We normally put document translations at the end of the article but because this one is so long and gives us so little we have left it out.  Amongst the goods listed in the will are “nine slaves; 5 women and four men, and even a baby”. We are frustrated because no names, given or surname, identify these slaves.  We take what we know and move on to other sources.  

The book, “Matrimonios en la Catedral de Monterrey”, by Jose Francisco Garza Carrillo has two marriages that fit.  On page 351, we find the marriage record of  “Maria Petra Roman” mulata slave of Josefa Francisca Larralde.  Her parents are given as Jose Roman and Francisca Cruz.  These details seem to fit fairly well with our Maria Petra.  We have the right slave owner name and parents with names very similar to those we saw earlier. On page 240, we find the marriage record for two slaves of General Francisco Ignacio de Larralde named Justo Romano de la Cruz and Francisca de la Cruz both from Aguasteca. Now we have enough pieces of the puzzle to use our final source.  

With the help of batch numbers we are able to find the baptism of Maria Petra and other family members in the IGI at Maria Petra is found as Petra Josepha Cruz daughter of Joseph Romano de la Cruz and Maria Francisca de la Cruz. Baptisms of her siblings and children are found in the reports below.  Her husband Jose Joaquin Pena is the son of a slave so we go back to our book and the IGI and add more pieces to the puzzle. The children of Jose Joaquin Pena were probably born into slavery.  We cannot determine that from the IGI but an examination of the baptism microfilm record would tell us. Why did Maria Petra sell from 200 pesos yet her older brother Ignacio sold the same day for only 150 pesos? Sadly, as a mother, she provided another slave for her owner every time she gave birth.  

There is always more to discover doing genealogy but we are very happy with what we have accomplished in this short investigation. Here are our findings followed by a translation of the notary document that launch it.

Descendants of Luis CRUZ and Maria Teresa CRUZ

1. Luis CRUZ. He married Maria Teresa CRUZ.

      Child of Luis CRUZ and Maria Teresa CRUZ:

+    2          i           mulato esclavo Justo Romano CRUZ. He married (1) mulata esclava Francisca CRUZ; (2) mulata esclava Juana Dios (---).    

Generation 2 

2. mulato esclavo Justo Romano CRUZ (Luis). He married (1) on 15 May 1751 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico mulata esclava Francisca CRUZ, daughter of Ana Maria CRUZ; (2) on 30 Aug 1775 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico mulata esclava Juana Dios (---).

      Children of Justo Romano CRUZ and Francisca CRUZ were as follows:

      3          i           Ignacio Candelario CRUZ, christened 7 Feb 1752 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

                              Also purchased by Maria Josefa Larralde on same day as sister for 50 pesos less. IGI batch C601492

+    4          ii          mulata esclava Maria Petra CRUZ, christened 26 Feb 1754 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. She married mulato Jose Joaquin PENA.

      5          iii         Manuel CRUZ, christened 3 Jun 1756 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

                              IGI batch C601492

      6          iv         Maria Jesus CRUZ, christened 20 Jan 1758 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

                              IGI batch C601492

      7          v          Petra Paula CRUZ, christened 23 Feb 1763 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

                              IGI batch C601492 as daughter of Joseph Romano Cruz and Maria Francisca Larralde

      8          vi         Josefa Nasaria CRUZ, christened 10 Dec 1766 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

                              IGI batch C601492 as daughter of Joseph Romano Cruz and Maria Francisca Larralde


Generation 3 

4. mulata esclava Maria Petra CRUZ (Justo Romano, Luis), christened 26 Feb 1754 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. She married on 14 Feb 1774 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico mulato Jose Joaquin PENA, son of mulato esclavo Juan Cristobal PENA and loba Maria Josefa CABRERA.

Notes for mulata esclava Maria Petra CRUZ

      IGI batch C601492

      Children of mulata esclava Maria Petra CRUZ and mulato Jose Joaquin PENA were as follows:

      9          i           Maria Josefa PENA, christened 22 Dec 1777 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

                              IGI batch K601493

      10        ii          Jose Maria PENA, christened 15 Dec 1779 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

                              IGI batch J601493

      11        iii         Maria Jesus PENA, christened 19 Jan 1797 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

                              IGI batch K601494


Descendants of

Martin CABRERA and Josefa BOTELLO  

1. Martin CABRERA. He married Josefa BOTELLO.

      Children of Martin CABRERA and Josefa BOTELLO were as follows:

+    2          i           loba Maria Josefa CABRERA. She married (1) indio Juan ROBLES; (2) mulato esclavo Juan Cristobal PENA.

+    3          ii          mulato Juan Martin CABRERA. He married Maria Magdalena GONZALEZ.

+    4          iii         mestiza Isabel Maria CABRERA. She married indio Santiago Joseph GONZALEZ.

      5          iv         mestizo Ignacio CABRERA. He married on 13 Aug 1752 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico mestiza Hermenejilda FERNANDEZ, born in Cadereyta, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of Joaquin FERNANDEZ and Maria Jesus PEREZ.

+    6          v          mulato Nicolas CABRERA. He married mulata Ana Felipa REYNA.


Generation 2  

2. loba Maria Josefa CABRERA (Martin). She married (1) on 9 Jun 1744 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico indio Juan ROBLES; (2) on 5 Mar 1753 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico mulato esclavo Juan Cristobal PENA, son of Efigenia Micaela AREVALO.

      Child of loba Maria Josefa CABRERA and indio Juan ROBLES:

      7          i           Juan Francisco ROBLES, christened 11 Oct 1744 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

                              IGI batch C601492  

      Children of loba Maria Josefa CABRERA and mulato esclavo Juan Cristobal PENA were as follows:

      8          i           Joseph Apolonio PENA, christened 3 May 1754 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

                              IGI batch C601492

+    9          ii          mulato Jose Joaquin PENA. He married mulata esclava Maria Petra CRUZ.

      10        iii         Joseph Raymundo PENA, christened 7 Mar 1756 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

                              IGI batch C601492

      11        iv         Joseph Javier PENA, christened 4 Dec 1758 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

                              IGI batch C601492

      12        v          Urigido Joseph PENA, christened 11 Apr 1764 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

                              IGI batch C601492


3. mulato Juan Martin CABRERA (Martin). He married on 12 Feb 1747 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico Maria Magdalena GONZALEZ.

      Children of mulato Juan Martin CABRERA and Maria Magdalena GONZALEZ were as follows:

+    13        i           mestizo Jose Cayetano CABRERA. He married Maria Encarnacion AYALA.


4. mestiza Isabel Maria CABRERA (Martin). She married on 30 Jun 1746 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico indio Santiago Joseph GONZALEZ.  

      Children of mestiza Isabel Maria CABRERA and indio Santiago Joseph GONZALEZ were as follows:

      14        i           Maria Francisca Rita GONZALEZ, christened 28 Mar 1757 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

                              IGI batch C601492  

6. mulato Nicolas CABRERA (Martin). He married on 8 Feb 1754 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico mulata Ana Felipa REYNA, christened 27 Jun 1734 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of mulato Diego REYNA and mulata Luisa LERMA.

      Children of mulato Nicolas CABRERA and mulata Ana Felipa REYNA were as follows:

      15        i           Joseph Martin CABRERA, christened 24 Jul 1757 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

                              IGI batch C601492


Generation 3

9. mulato Jose Joaquin PENA (Maria Josefa CABRERA, Martin). He married on 14 Feb 1774 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico mulata esclava Maria Petra CRUZ, christened 26 Feb 1754 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of mulato esclavo Justo Romano CRUZ and mulata esclava Francisca CRUZ.

      Children of mulato Jose Joaquin PENA and mulata esclava Maria Petra CRUZ were as follows:

      16        i           Maria Josefa PENA, christened 22 Dec 1777 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

                              IGI batch K601493

      17        ii          Jose Maria PENA, christened 15 Dec 1779 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

                              IGI batch J601493

      18        iii         Maria Jesus PENA, christened 19 Jan 1797 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

                              IGI batch K601494


13. mestizo Jose Cayetano CABRERA (Juan Martin, Martin). He married on 3 Sep 1774 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico Maria Encarnacion AYALA, christened 1 Apr 1753 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of Joaquin AYALA and Maria Gertrudis TIJERINA.

Notes for Maria Encarnacion AYALA

      IGI batch C601492

      Children of mestizo Jose Cayetano CABRERA and Maria Encarnacion AYALA were as follows:

      19        i           Maria Barbara CABRERA, christened 24 Jan 1776 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

                              IGI batch K601493

      20        ii          Joseph Antonio Merced CABRERA, christened 29 Sep 1781 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

                                    IGI batch J601493

Doña Josefa Francisca Cantu del Rio y la Cerda as executor for General Francisco Ignacio de Larralde, her husband, sells to Doña Maria Josefa de Larralde, her daughter, present wife in second marriage to Cosme Damian de Arrese, General Administrator of the Royal Rent of Tabacos of this Kingdom, "her slave, a female mulatto, named Maria Petra, of golden brown color, age eighteen years, of medium stature, well built, born and bred in the house of the grantor and legitimate daughter of Romano and Francisca, her slaves... her freedom taken and subject to servitude"; without insuring her of fault, vice, defect or disease public nor secret. She sells her the slave, in order to set a value on part of the inheritance of which all of her children are entitled to, for 200 pesos "as if they were of gold reales, as this number will be subtracted from her share of inheritance". Before Don Francisco de Echeagaray, Governor and Commander-in-chief. Witnesses, Jose Miguel Cantu del Rio y la Cerda, Jose Joaquin Canales and Jose Miguel Lozano. In attendance Juan Jose de Melo and Jose Maria Rodriguez. May 24, 1773



Exploring Colonial Mexico
            Every month Espadana Press focuses on a village in Mexico. For their February  page they explored the charming colonial hill town of Atlixco near Puebla.  This time they share the outstanding altarpiece in the mountain top monastery of San Francisco.

Exploring Colonial Mexico

Location of Ranches in Mexico
            This database contains names of ranchos from all places in Mexico. If anyone needs to find out where a certain rancho is located, you can look it up on the following site:

Hope this is helpful. 
Ricardo Rodriguez, Valle de Guadalupe, Jalisco
Sent by Lorraine Hernandez


The Descendents of

Don Ignacio Cayetano de Urrutia y Flores de Valdez

Compiled by John D. Inclan



Generation No. 1

1. IGNACIO-CAYETANO2 DE URRUTIA (Captain JOSEPH1de Urrutia) was bapt. 15 Sep 1716 in Santiago Aspotol, Monclova, Coahuila, Mexico. He married ROSA SANCHEZ-NAVARRO-Y-GOMEZ. She was born in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.

Notes for IGNACIO-CAYETANO DE URRUTIA: Baptismal date from the parish church, Santiago Apostal, in Monclova, Coahulia, Mexico.  LDS film #

Married record from the book, Mil Familias III, by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza. Page 215. On February 18, 1738, he gave $10 pesos towards the construction of San Fernando Church.  Source:History and Legends of the Alamo and other Missions by Adina De Zavala.


2. i. MARIA-IGNACIA3 DE URRUTIA-SANCHEZ-NAVARRO, b. 1746, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.


Generation No. 2

2. MARIA-IGNACIA3 DE URRUTIA-SANCHEZ-NAVARRO (IGNACIO-CAYETANO2 DE URRUTIA, JOSEPH1) was born 1746 in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. She married JOSEPH-ANTONIO DE VILLARREAL 02 Sep 1765 in San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Villaldama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, son of ALONSO DE VILLARREAL-CORTINAS and PHILIPIANA DE VILLARREAL-TREVINO. He was born abt 1745 in Boca de Leones, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.


3. i. MARIA-IGNACIA-MONICA4 VILLARREAL-URRUTIA, b. Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.

ii. JOSEPH-MANUEL VILLARREAL-URRUTIA, b. Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico; m. MARIA-IGNACIA FLORES-CASO, 30 Oct 1772, San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Villaladama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; b. 1752, Boca de Leones, Villaldama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

4. iii. MARIA-GERTRUDIS DE VILLARREAL-URRUTIA, b. Boca de Leones, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

iv. LEONARDO VILLARREAL-URRUTIA, m. ANASTACIA GONZALEZ-MARTINEZ, 05 Feb 1800, San Pedro, Villaldama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; b. 1782.

v. ANA-PETRA-CAYETANA DE VILLARREAL-URRUTIA, b. 27 Sep 1770, San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Villaldama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. PEDRO PLAZA-GONZALEZ, 18 Sep 1786, San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Villaladama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; b. 1766, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon,Mexico.

vi. MARIA-DE-LA-CONCEPCION VILLARREAL-URRUTIA, b. 09 Dec 1787, San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Villaldama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.


Generation No. 3

3. MARIA-IGNACIA-MONICA4 VILLARREAL-URRUTIA (MARIA-IGNACIA3 DE URRUTIA-SANCHEZ-NAVARRO, IGNACIO-CAYETANO2 DE URRUTIA, JOSEPH1) was born in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. She married (1) MANUEL SANCHEZ 16 Oct 1796 in San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Villaladama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He was born in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. She married (2) JUAN-JOSE ZAMBRANO-OCON Abt. 1806, son of JOSEPH-MACARINO ZAMBRANO-GOMEZ and JUANA DE OCON-Y-TRILLO. He was bapt. 08 Apr 1780 in San Fernando, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas, and died 07 Feb 1832 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas.


i. JOSE-LEONARDO5 SANCHEZ-VILLARREAL, b. 08 Jun 1802, Santa Rosa de Lima, Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico.


ii. MARIA-CONCEPCION-SIMONA5 ZAMBRANO-VILLARREAL, b. 29 Oct 1807, Santa Rosa de Lima, Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila.

iii. JUAN-MARIA ZAMBRANO-GONZALEZ, b. 04 May 1809, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas; d. 12 May 1809, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas.

4. MARIA-GERTRUDIS4 DE VILLARREAL-URRUTIA (MARIA-IGNACIA3 DE URRUTIA-SANCHEZ-NAVARRO, IGNACIO-CAYETANO2 DE URRUTIA, JOSEPH1) was born in Boca de Leones, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. She married JOSE-MARIA DE PLAZA-GONZALEZ 15 May 1786 in San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Villaladama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, son of PEDRO-JOSEPH DE PLAZA and MARIA-JOSEFA-AGUSTINA GONZALEZ-DE-PAREDES. He was born 16 Aug 1756 in Nuestra Sra del Refugio, Cuidad Victora, Tamaulipus, Mexico.


i. JOSE-MANUEL-DE-JESUS-ABDON5 DE PLAZA-VILLARREAL, b. 05 Aug 1781, San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Villaldama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. IGNACIA-TERESA DE TREVINO-Y-ISLAS.

ii. MARIA-GERTRUDIS-DEL-REFUGIO PLAZA-VILLARREAL, b. 17 Jun 1788, San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Villaldama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.




The Descendents of

Don Domingo de Saldua

Compiled by John D. Inclan


Generation No. 1

1. DOMINGO1 DE SALDUA was born abt 1647. He married MARIA DE-LA-CONTE. She was born abt 1650.


2. i. CAPTAIN JUAN-BAUTISTA2 DE SALDUA-MAGUREGUI, b. 1665, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.



Generation No. 2

2. CAPTAIN JUAN-BAUTISTA2 DE SALDUA-MAGUREGUI (DOMINGO1 DE SALDUA) was born 1665 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married (1) FRANCISCA BOTELLO-DE-MORALES 09 Apr 1684 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of FRANCISCO BOTELLO-DE-MORALES and JUANA DE-LA-GARZA-MARTINEZ-GUAJARDO. She was born 1666 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and died 10 Feb 1711 in Boca de Leones, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married (2) GERTRUDIS RODRIGUEZ-DE-MONTEMAYOR 30 Mar 1712 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico1, daughter of FRANCISCO RODRIGUEZ-DE-MONTEMAYOR and MARIA-JUANA CABALLERO-BARRAZA. She was born 1694. He married (3) ISABEL DE ARELLANO 24 Apr 1714 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico2, daughter of NICOLAS DE ARELLANO and LUCIA DE-LA-GARZA-DE-LA-ROCHA. She was born Abt. 1677 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.


In 1697, he held the title of Procurador General del Ayantamiento de Monterrey.

Source:First Families of Nuevo Leon, by Tomas Mendirichaga y Cueva.

Around 1700, he was the Mayor of Boca de Leones, (Villaldama) in Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

Source:Index to the Marriage Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara, by Raul J. Guerra., Nadine M. Vasquez, Baldomero Vela, Jr. Pages 58 & 220.


Index to the Marriage Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara by Raul J. Guerra, Jr., Nadine M. Vasquez, Baldomero Vela, Jr. Page 220. [49-32].


Index to the Marriage Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara by Raul J. Guerra, Jr., Nadine M. Vasquez, Baldomero Vela, Jr. Page 58. [10-28].

LDS Film #0167984


i. MARIA-MAGDALENA3 DE SALDUA, b. 13 Nov 1685, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.




iii. IGNACIO-DOMINGO3 DE SALDUA-MAGUREGUI, b. 13 Aug 1716, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.


3. IGNACIO2 DE SALDUA-MAGUREGUI (DOMINGO1 DE SALDUA) was born 1670. He married JACINTA DE-LA-GARZA-FALCON 16 May 1692 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico3, daughter of BLAS DE-LA-GARZA-FALCON and TERESA GUERRERO.


4. i. MARIA-IGNACIA3 DE SALDUA-DE-LA-GARZA, b. San Francisco, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

ii. ANTONIO DE SALDUA-MAGUREGUI, m. MARIA-FRANCISCA DE URIBE-TREVINO, 05 Feb 1711/12, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.


Index to the Marriage Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara by Raul J. Guerra, Jr., Nadine M. Vasquez, Baldomero Vela, Jr. Page 219 [49-26].

Marriage source:Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza. Page 188.

5. iii. ANA-JOSEFA DE SALDUA-MAGUREGUI, b. Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.




Generation No. 3

4. MARIA-IGNACIA3 DE SALDUA-DE-LA-GARZA (IGNACIO2 DE SALDUA-MAGUREGUI, DOMINGO1 DE SALDUA) was born in San Francisco, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. She married YLDEFONSO GARCIA-MENCHACA 14 Sep 1715 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico4, son of ELIFONSO GARCIA and MARIA MENCHACA. He was born in Santa Catarina, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.


A.K.A. Alfonso Garcia


Index to the Marriage Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara by Raul J. Guerra, Jr., Nadine M. Vasquez, Baldomero Vela Jr. Page 56. [10-20].


i. JOSEPH-SANTIAGO4 GARCIA-SALDUA, b. 16 Aug 1736, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.


5. ANA-JOSEFA3 DE SALDUA-MAGUREGUI (IGNACIO2, DOMINGO1 DE SALDUA) was born in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. She married DIEGO GARCIA-VILLARREAL 04 May 1723 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, son of JUAN GARCIA-BRACAMONTE and MARIA DE VILLARREAL. He was born 12 Aug 1705 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.




9. iii. CLARA-MARIA GARCIA-SALDUA, b. 28 Aug 1734, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

iv. ANA-JOSEFA-CAYETANA GARCIA-SALDUA, b. 13 Jan 1736/37, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

v. ANA-DOMINGA GARCIA-SALDUA, b. 20 May 1739, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

vi. MARIA-NICOLASA GARCIA-SALDUA, b. 17 Jun 1741, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

vii. FRANCISCO-ANTONIO GARCIA-SALDUA, b. 18 Mar 1747/48, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.