Somos Primos

 November  2006 
Editor: Mimi Lozano

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues

Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research
Celebrating 20th Anniversary 


Maybe he is the only one standing because he understands 
the price of freedom, and respects those that fight for it. 
Let us honor and pray for our Veterans.  


  Letters to the Editor :   

Mimi, you are really a patriot contributing to enlarge the acknowledging of our culture, what we can do is take all this to the libraries of this country. It is important that our descendants know who are they.  They need to know. 
Alfredo Ortiz Jasso

Quiero felicitarlos por la pagina esta muy llena de historia. gracias por la informacion y laopoortunidad que nos ofrece para nuestros eventos.
Mirian V. Karaoglanian, President
Asociación Internacional de Mujeres Salvadoreñas, (AIMSA) Click for more information.

Hola Primos:
Nos dá gusto saber de ustedes y la tremenda ayuda que proveen para llevar a cabo la REDENCIÓN DE NUESTROS MUERTOS.

Somos: Élder y Hna. Morales
Misioneros de Historia Familiar, de el Área Norte de México

Les agradeceríamos que nos enviaran noticias, novedades y todo aquellos que ustedes consideren podrían ser recursos para el impulso de esta gran Obra..


"A nation may lose its liberties in a day, 
and not miss them for a century."


Content Areas
United States 
. . .4
     Action Items
. . .6
     National issues
. . .16
. . .22
. . .29
. . .40
Anti-Spanish Legends
. . .46
Military & Law Enforcement Heroes
. . .48
. . .59
. . .69
Surname . . .77
Spanish Sons of American Revolution . . .81
Orange County, CA . . .87
Los Angeles, CA
. . .99
. . .107
Southwestern United States
. . .144

Black  . . .144
. . .147
. . .152
Texas . . .159
East of the Mississippi 
. . .107
East Coast
. . .179
. . .181
. . .201
. . .203
. . .212
. . .216
Family History 
. . .221
. . .227
  END . . .229
   Somos Primos Staff:   
Mimi Lozano, Editor
Tammy Boyce, Data Entry

Johanna De Soto
Lila Guzman
Granville Hough
John Inclan
Galal Kernahan
Alex Loya
J.V. Martinez
Armando Montes
Michael Perez
Ángel Custodio Rebollo
John P. Schmal
Howard Shorr

 Contributors to the issue:  
Fredrick Aguirre
Ruben Alvarez Jr.
Dan Arellano, 
James Barcenas
Carlos A. Bautista 
Mercy Bautista-Olvera
Bill Carmena 
Kathleen Carrizal-Frye
Claudia de la Cruz
Johanna De Soto
Salvador Del Valle
Jeff Felts
Lorraine Frain 
Guy Gabaldon Jr.
Carlos Garcia
Jose Garcia
Gloria Golden 
Horacio González 
Ray Gonzalez
Robert Gonzalez 
Joe Guerra 
Michael R, Hardwick
Walter Herbeck 
Lorraine Hernandez 
Manuel Hernandez-Carmona 
Zeke Hernandez
Carlos Martín Herrera de la Garza 
Granville Hough, Ph.D. 
John D. Inclan 
Mirian V. Karaoglanian 
Larry Kirkpatrick
Rick Leal
Rudolph Lewis 
Cindy LoBuglio 
Alex Loya 
Mike Lozano
Yolanda Ochoa
Jan Mallet
Christina Martinez 
JV Martinez, Ph.D. 
Ramon Moncivais 
Analía (Ana) Montalvo 
Elder &Hna Morales
Dorinda Moreno 
Christin Nava
Rebecca Nevarez
Paul Newfield III 
Yolanda Ochoa
Rafael Ojeda
Alfredo Ortiz Jasso 
Ike Pacheco 
Guillermo Padilla Origel 
Willie Perez 
Claire Prechtel-Kluskens 
Joseph Puentes
Arturo Ramos 
Kristen Rawson 
Angel Custodio Rebollo 
Rudi Rodriguez
Ben Romero
Steve Rubin
John Schmal 
Diane Sears 
Sister Mary Sevilla
Howard Shorr 
Frank Sifuentes 
Jack Simpson 
Collin Skousen 
Louis P. Tellez
Margie Velez
Dr. Josh Valdez
Ricardo Valverde 
Janete Vargas 
JD Villarreal 
Sylvia Villarreal Bisnar 
Theresa Ynzunza
Elvira Zavala-Patton
SHHAR Board:  Bea Armenta Dever, Steven Hernandez,  Mimi Lozano Holtzman, Pat Lozano, Henry Marquez, Yolanda Magdaleno, Yolanda Ochoa Hussey, Michael Perez, Crispin Rendon, Viola Rodriguez Sadler, John P. Schmal


United States

Action Items
Yahoo Time Capsule, Deadline November 12th
Casting Director looking for a Hispanic Families for TV Network Show
National Latino Museum
Hispanic Caucus applauds step in creating a National Latino Museum
Juan Cabanela's U.S. Congress Contact Information. . so easy. 
National History Day 
Hispanic Heritage Month Display at OC Register Newspaper
Partners in Preservation

Guy Gabaldon Projects Underway 

National issues
An Ode to America. . Why are Americans so United?
Hispanic Heritage Month: It's a celebration of American History
Latino Civil Rights Timeline, 1903 to Present 
NAHJ Frustrated by Continued Exclusion of Latinos on Network News
Justice for my People, the Dr. Hector P. Garcia Story

U.S. astronaut Michael Lopez-Alegria
Award winning Scientists: Alvarez, Molina, Ochoa
Wal-Mart Foundation multi-year grant 
Honoring Seven Latina University Presidents
Harvard committee recommends returning religion to curriculum
Comcast Foundation Supports LULAC's Education of Latino Youth 
Latino Education: Adolescent Literacy 
El Rincon de Ramon 
Website for Latino Studies 

Day of the Dead Programs
Tex-Mex Country Singer Freddy Fender 
Documentary: "Romantica"
Documentary: "Chicano Rock!"
Who Was Roberto Félix Salazar? Is There a Foto of Him Anywhere? 
Did You Know...The meaning of "La Raza"
Mariano Leyva Dominguez, realmente fue un Faro:

National Latina Business Women Association 1st Annual Conference
Home-building boom relies on illegal workers
Thousands of Spanish-speaking people are migrating to New Orleans
Aetna Alliance with Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities (HACU)


Air Force training squadron flying in a never-done-before "USA" formation over the control tower (HQ building) of Randolph Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas. 

Source: Tim Herrington  Sent by Jan Mallet
who writes: Only two defining forces have ever offered to die for you, Jesus Christ and the American G. I. One died for your soul; the other for your freedom. 

Action Items

Yahoo Time Capsule, Deadline November 8th

The Yahoo Time Capsule is taking shape online and, until November 8th, Yahoo users worldwide can contribute photos, writings, videos, audio - even drawings - to this electronic anthropology project.  Yahoo says this is the first time that digital data will be gathered and preserved for historical purposes.  in addition to submitting your own content, you can view, read or hear the images, words, and sounds contributed by other users around the world. 

[[Editor: I surely hope that readers who are served by Yahoo will send data immediately, so that a Hispanic/Latino presence will be part of the Time Capsule.  If you have sent articles to Somos Primos, let me suggest you just send them the same article. If not, send family photos or reunions, send pedigrees showing the migration of your ancestors into the U.S.  Don't forget to include what you and your ancestors did by way of employment.  Please let them know that Hispanic/Latinos are here. Remember the cut-off date is November 8th.  The website is: . ]]

Casting Director looking for a Hispanic Families for Television Network Show
In a message dated 10/25/2006

My name is James Barcenas and I'm a Casting Director for a television network and I need some help. I'm casting the fourth season of Trading Spouses, and I was assigned to find a few Amazing Hispanic Families with Children ages 6 and above, that break the stereotypes of Hispanic Families. We're looking for energetic, amazing, interesting families that can help change the perception of Hispanic Community! 

I am Hispanic and I know that there is a stereotype and I hope that you could help me in my search for Hispanic Families that are strong willed, Passionate and proud of the culture!

It is required that each family consist of children above the age of 6 and have two Married parents within the same home. Families chosen for the 7 day shoot receive a compensation of $50,000. If this is an experience that you might be interested in, or know a family that would be great for our show, please contact me immediately. If you have any questions regarding the nature of our show, please call me. We have a deadline approaching, and I would love to extend this opportunity to as many families as possible.

Thank you so much and I hope to hear from you soon!

I appreciate any help you can offer me with, Please feel free to call me with any questions you may have, or forwarding this email to anyone that comes to mind.

Thank you, James Barcenas
Casting Director
Rocket Science Laboratories
(323) 802-0620

I called Mr. Barcenas, he said they are looking for a professional family with quality and charisma. He said, they've had the crazy, wild, etc. and now that they are bringing in a Hispanic family, they want refinement and class. 

Casting will be going on for another month and a half. They have not decided on the number of Hispanic families yet.

The name of the company, Rocket Science Laboratories seemed a little odd for a Hollywood production company, so I did a google search on Rocket Science Laboratories and confirmed it as a production company. Rocket Science Laboratories is behind reality shows such as Joe Millionaire, Temptation Island, and My Big Fat Obnoxious Fiance. In 2003 the company entered a multi-year overall production deal with the FOX Broadcasting Company. Rocket Science Laboratories was founded by partners Jean-Michel Michenaud and Chris Cowan.

For more on their work. . . Click here: Rocket Science Laboratories - Google Search

If you are interested, please contact Jim Barcenas. Thanks and good luck. If you get selected, please let me know. That would be a super article for Somos Primos, Mimi



THE CAPITOL STANDARD, October 2, 2006, VOLUME 1, ISSUE 14, page 5
Sent by JV Martinez, Ph.D.

The House of Representatives Sept. 27 unanimously approved H.R. 2134, The Commission to Study the Potential Creation of a National Museum of American Latino Heritage Act.

"The idea of a Latino Smithsonian Museum has been around for a long time, and this is the first step to making that idea become reality. It is very important to begin the process to finally recognize the value of the Latino culture," said Congressional Hispanic Caucus Chair Grace Napolitano (D-Calif.). "Rep.Becerra, who sits on the Smithsonian Board of Regents, has done an excellent job leading this effort-- and we fully support him and his efforts to make the National Latino Museum a reality."

H.R. 2134 calls for a 23-member commission to produce a national conference that would bring stakeholders, experts, policymakers, and other interested parties together to discuss the museum’s viability; a fundraising plan to create an extensive public-private partnership; and a report to Congress detailing a recommended plan of action on how to move forward making the museum a reality.

"Walk through our national museums here in Washington, D.C., and you will get as good a snapshot of America as you can find anywhere in this country," Becerra said. "Yet the lessons of our history, art and culture are still incomplete. (The vote) by the House of Representatives was a critical step in ensuring that the mosaic portrayed in Washington’s museums truly reflects America."

H.R. 2134 now moves to the Senate, where it has the bipartisan support of 24 senators. However, it would have to be reintroduced under a new Congress if not taken up during an expected lame-duck session in mid-November. Once approved and signed by the president, the Commission can begin to work on its report to Congress.

Said Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen (R-Fla.),"I am very pleased that my colleagues saw the importance of passing this legislation. A museum for the Hispanic-American community would honor all Americans."




Juan Cabanela's U.S. Congress Contact Information

Editor:  I have found the best possible site for contacting every single United States Congress members.  The webmaster is JUAN CABANELA.  He has compiled a URL for each state. You'll find addresses, phone, fax number and URL for the U.S. Senators and U.S. Representatives together by state.  This URL below is the basic URL, by substituting the California  < ca > designation, you can get quickly to your state's listing . . .  Making it so easy.  There is NO excuse for not making our voices heard.



National History Day, 
June 10-14, 2007 Theme: "Triumph & Tragedy in History"

Annual History Day is a nationwide history study program which starts in local schools, giving local historical societies an opening to promote the subject to youngsters. The competition progresses through county, state and national levels.

It is a year-long program that fosters academic achievements and teaches students to develop skills in critical thinking and problem solving that will help them use information now — and in the future.

History Day starts in local schools at the beginning of each school year. Competitions are held in February at the school level, in March at the county level, in May at the state level and in June at the national level.

CCHS promotes History Day in California by evaluating student work that won at the county level and giving cash awards for outstanding work on a theme in California history. This is where local societies can play a big role.

YOU can help your young people. As finders and keepers of local history, go to your area schools and tell administrators and teachers about this program. Offer your resources, offer research knowledge and training, pull in professionals to volunteer their expertise, give awards and/or prizes and make students an important part of your society's or organization's activities.

Your personal action is needed NOW to draw students into working on 2007's history competition. Your personal interest in students can draw them into history. They are the future of your societies, museums, preservation, archaeology and genealogy.

Excerpts from the National History Day website:
 copyright © National History Day 2006.

During the 2006-2007 school year, National History Day invites students to research topics related to the theme, "Triumph & Tragedy in History."

As is the case each year, the theme is broad enough to encourage investigation of topics ranging from local history to world history, and from ancient time to the recent past.

Topics should be carefully selected and developed in ways that best use students' talents and abilities. Whether a topic is a well-known event of world history or focuses on a little-known individual from a small community, students should be careful to place their topics into historical perspective, examine the significance of their topics in history and show development over time.

Studies should include an investigation into available primary and secondary research, an analysis of the materials and a clear explanation of the relationship of the topic to the theme, "Triumph & Tragedy in History." Students should pay special attention to the possibilities of triumph and tragedy within the same subject. Then, students may develop papers, performances, documentaries and exhibits for entry into National History Day competitions.

As with any National History Day theme, this topic presents students with fascinating opportunities to explore history and to leam to use a wide range of primary and secondary sources. This year's theme also offers teachers an excellent entry into philosophical discussions about personal actions and responsibilities.

The challenge for students engaged in a National History Day project with the theme of "Triumph & Tragedy in History" is to capture that specific moment in time in which change occurred that changed the course of events and forever altered history.

For more information, write: National History Day 0119 Cecil Hall 
University of Maryland College Park,
MD 20742 
Phone: 301-314-9739
Fax: 301-314-9767 E-mail:

Adapted from the California HISTORIAN, Fall 1999, Fall 2004.

Editor: National History Day celebrated its 25th Anniversary this year, since the program was first initiated as a means to raise the level of interest in history for for both elementary and secondary students. A very easy way to get involved is to offer a cash award for research of a Hispanic/Latino nature. It can be done on the local, county, state, or federal level.  I hope some of you will consider that possibility. 

Outcome of Hispanic Heritage Month Newspaper Lobby Display in Orange Co. CA

Editor: I am really pleased to share with everyone the wonderful results from the heritage display that I was responsible for putting together. It ran the full month of Hispanic Heritage Month in the lobby of the Orange County Register, a Freedom Publishers newspaper in Orange County, California.

The lobby is huge. I asked numerous other community Hispanic organization to participate. Among the groups was the Latino OC 100, in its first year of a 5-year project and sponsored by Wells Fargo. As one of the 100, I felt Latino OC 100's involvement would help promote the concept of recognizing local Hispanic leadership, for the benefit of our youth. 

The great news is that as a result of this activity, the OC Register has agreed to publish, in the form of a booklet, 10,000 copies of the mini-bios of the Latino OC 100 The booklets will be distributed for free to Orange County schools. 

With warm thanks to all the Participating groups: Amigas de la Cultura, Latino Advocates for Education, Libreria Martinez, Los Amigos of Orange Co., LULAC of Orange County, MANA of Orange Co., OC Mexican American Historical Society, Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research and Somos Primos.  For more on the follow-up project by Latino OC 100, click.

Kudos to American Express for their leadership and funding of preservation projects.

Editor: I received a request to circulate information about voting for Angel Island to be selected to win the most votes and thus receive a sizeable contribution ($100,000) from American Express.  The groups' goal is to build an immigration museum at Angel Island in San Francisco.  

I was asked to share the information and vote prior to the October 31st deadline. Although I voted in time, unfortunately, I received it after uploading the October issues of Somos Primos. I was not aware of American Express Partners in Preservation.  I certainly recommend that any group in need of support for historical projects acquaint themselves with this possibility for financial support.
The potential winners are quite diverse. It appears that community involvement counts a lot for getting preservation projects funded.  However, looking at the list below, in a state of almost 50% Hispanics, one would assume more of the project would be historical sites of significance to Hispanics, and yet only two of the list might be construed as such.

Partners in Preservation - San Francisco Bay Area Initiative, Projects being considered 
San Francisco
Japanese YWCA Building
Fallon Building
Murphy Windmill
Roxie Film Center
Haas Lilienthat House
Bay view Opera House
Spreckels Temple of Music
San Francisco Streetcar #798
Tenderloin Facade & Neon
Sign Improvement

North Bay
Outdoor Art Club
Tomales Town Hall
Angel Island Immigration Station
Lyford House
Saint Peter's Chapel

East Bay
Fox Oakland Theater
Tiden Park Carousel
Cleveland Cascade Park
First Church of Christ, Scientist
Berkeley City Club
Richmond Municipal Natatorium
Maritime Child Care Center

South Bay
Hakone Gardens
Casa Grande

San Mateo Courthouse
Pigeon Point Lighthouse Station

Support Guy Gabaldon Projects . . . .  

1. Nov 4, "The Asociacion Panamena in Orlando will celebrate its annual independence day Gala Dinner on Saturday, Nov. 4. The event will be in honor of my dad. Ohana will be present and we will display the lithograph and show excerpts from East LA Marine documentary." 
Nov 4, Orlando, Florida, click  Guy Gabaldon, Jr.

2.  Dr. Josh Valdez has been "working with the White House and they said that Guys’ records and nomination are being reviewed, along with others. "That’s all they would tell me but that I would be the one they contact."

3. EAST L.A. MARINE: THE UNTOLD TRUE STORY OF GUY GABALDON has been purchased by Hart Sharp Entertainment, a home entertainment company which will release a DVD in Spring 2007.  Hart Sharp is an aggressive company that scored big last year with the McDonalds expose, "Super Size Me."  They plan to not only give the film a national release, but to get the film exposure in schools.,
4. Dec 9th, Special Memorial Service in Los Angeles, 10:30 a.m. 
    Montebello Park in Montebello, the corner of Whittier and Taylor. 
    Sent by Salvador Del Valle

4.  House of Representatives, Fifteenth Northern Marianas Commonwealth Legislature
    Sent by Guy Gabaldon Jr.  Document below

5.  Letter from Senator Dianne Feinstein to Mercy Bautista-Olvera    Document below

6. The Pied Piper of Saipan, Guy Gabaldon  
    is still available free for public events/display. 
    Send a U.S. postal priority stamp, $4.05.  
    Please do not send cash.
    Somos Primos/Gabaldon P  
    P.O. Box 490
    Midway City, Ca  

Note below in a letter from Senator Feinstein you will 
find Presient Bush's address.  A letter of support for Guy to receive the Medal of Honor would be greatly appreciated. 


From California:

I received the poster you sent me in today's mail. I will frame it and take it with me to two gathering next month (the P-38 pilots gathering in Rancho Cordova and the Gray Eagles in South Sacramento).  The Lockeed P-38 historian will probably show the poster at High Schools,  WWII presentations and libraries exhibits around Sacramento. Receive my most deeply and sincere thanks for your effort.
                     Yours, Sal Del Valle
 From Texas:

Hello dear friend who does so much to promote Hispanic diversity...
I am having the lithograph framed and the El Paso County Commissioners Court will introduce a resolution recognizing Guy and then it will be displayed at the Court.  I am trying to get it on Fort Bliss and the City.  Met someone at the city who is going to the Marine ceremony and she got excited, hope that makes things move quicker.  Will be in touch.  Much love to you, Margie




Senator Dianne Feinstein sent me this letter regarding our request for Guy Gabaldon family to receive The Congressional Medal of Honor. I hope your readers keep writing to our Senators, Congressmen. Senator Feinstein was kind to send President George W. Bush White House address for us to write to him as well.

Love, Mercy


National issues

Ode to Americans: Why are Americans so United?

The article below was written by Mr. Cornel Nistorescu and published under the title "C"ntarea Americii, meaning "Ode To America ") in the Romanian newspaper Evenimentulzilei?
"The Daily Event" or "News of the Day". Sent by Jan Mallet

Why are Americans so united? They would not resemble one another even if you painted them all one color! They speak all the languages of the world and form an astonishing mixture of civilizations and religious beliefs. Still, the American tragedy turned three hundred million people into a hand put on the heart.

Nobody rushed to accuse the White House, the army, and the secret services that they are only a bunch of losers. Nobody rushed to empty their bank accounts. Nobody rushed out onto the streets nearby to gape about The Americans volunteered to donate blood and to give a helping hand.?

After the first moments of panic, they raised their flag over the smoking ruins, putting on T-shirts, caps and ties in the colors of the national flag. They placed flags on buildings and cars as if in every place and on every car a government official or the president was passing.

On every occasion, they started singing their traditional song: "God Bless America!" I watched the live broadcast and rerun after rerun for hours listening to the story of the guy who went down one hundred floors with a woman in a wheelchair without knowing who she was, or of the Californian hockey player, who gave his life fighting with the terrorists and prevented the plane from hitting a target that could have killed other hundreds or thousands of people.

How on earth were they able to respond united as one human being? Imperceptibly, with every word and musical note, the memory of some turned into a modern myth of tragic heroes. And with every phone call, millions and millions of dollars were put in a collection aimed at rewarding not a man or a family, but a spirit, which no money can buy.

What on earth can unite the Americans in such a way? Their land? Their galloping history? Their economic Power? Money? 

I tried for hours to find an answer, humming songs and murmuring phrases with the risk of sounding commonplace I thought things over, but I reached only one conclusion... 

Only freedom can work such miracles.  Cornel Nistorescu

Reflection on Hispanic Heritage Month: It's a celebration of American History

"Hispanic Americans:  Our rich Culture contributing to America's future" 

Yokohama, Japan 

Last Year . . . 

If you were here last year,  we paid honor to fallen heroes.  I paid tribute to a fallen hero I met only once, my uncle Specialist Prado.  I wanted to do more to honor him.  I wrote the high school that he attended to ask for a small place in their trophy case. I wanted to show the kids one of their own,  who sacrificed his life for his country.  I wrote the Principal,  the Vice Principal and the officer running the ROTC program, even the school district Manager.  I offered to pay for a picture and a plaque. I was met with RED TAPE.  

I looked for more options.  I contacted the American legion,  and the VFW for help. I contacted the local newspapers.  I received one reply from the American legion.    The Director of the American Legion of South Texas went on to tell me that my uncle  is on a list of veterans that get their tombstones cleaned, serviced and decorated  yearly and on special events.  Why?  I asked. Because of the person he was. The Director said he was very surprised at what I was trying to do.  He told me that he knew my uncle from high school, and also served with my uncle in Vietnam. He asked for me to share this with all of you.
I feel a bit cheated to observe Hispanic Heritage only during one month out of the year.  We change the menu for one day, put tacos on the menu and say here is the representation of all the Hispanic countries.. . when we live this culture everyday.  
A culture that greatly affects this country like no other.  A culture that affects our everyday lives.  From the rich foods,  the music, the lifestyles and most importantly.......the people, we are one way or another influenced by Hispanic culture.  Either you were born of, descendent of,  married to, or related to.  Or better yet, working with.  . . .Hispanic People are the key to our rich culture.
Present day..........
What a year for Hispanics.  Guy Gabaldon one of our recipients of the Medal of Honor, passed away this year. He was credited for capturing almost 1000 Japanese soldiers during WWII in Saipan.    I don't think of it as POW's. He saved those 1000 lives and the lives of his fellow marines.  
Mexico sent their Army troops to help with Katrina victims.  Its been over 100 years since we let the Mexican army cross the American border.
Mimi Lozano who runs the web site SOMOS PRIMOS, a website that acknowledges and promote the different ethnic groups that exist in our Hispanic culture and still thrive in Mexico and still influence others in America.
I read about communities of Filipinos to blacks and  from German to Japanese.  Check out this web site. I guarantee you'll learn something new. Mrs. Lozano  was n amed California's 68th Assembly District’s 2006 Woman of the Year..  I honor her for her tremendous work on this website. She shows the importance of keeping our Heritage alive.  She toured Washington DC and visited most of the national monuments.  She noticed that not one monument recognized Hispanics.  She brought this issue up . . . and with a little influence.
Now,  there is U.S. Senator Pete Domenici, he announced of a commission to study the possibility of establishing a "National Museum of the American Latino Community" in Washington.  
And also the great walkout  A day without immigrants. that was held in various cities through out the US on May 1st..  The walkout brought to light the fight for immigrant equal rights..''The purpose of the day was not a confrontational day of demands. It was a peaceful way to highlight the contributions of immigrants and the important role they play in the economy and society."  .  Even though the focus was mainly on Hispanics, this was a day every  American shop owner,  every company employer realized immigrants are a huge financial resource in this country and are not from only one certain ethnic group..  From  Miami, Florida prominent Cuban-American community to New York's large Puerto Rican population.  Peruvian Americans  who look White but are also mixed with Asian heritage, particularly Japanese and Chinese.  Dominicans  who are 70% of mixed European, African and Amer-indian ancestry.  People that were standing in the streets  during the walkout  were immigrants from  Poland, Europe, Italy and so on. We as Americans are so richly diverse.  The U.S. is one country made up of immigrants.   Thats what this country was founded on   This is what makes the US so special. . . the People.
As we look towards the future,
We look into the past.  We Honor our fallen heroes.  From the past wars, and from present day not as numbers.  We are  not in a race to see who's leading in deaths in minority groups. However, we are reminded daily on the news of how many are still dying, with a daily ticker, a running tally of our still falling heroes.  
Hispanics are the fastest growing of all minority groups.  Just this year Hispanics are the majority of all the minority groups.  Business's are spending millions of dollars advertising and are tailoring their products and packaging them towards Hispanics.  Latin music has grown bigger than ever before.  Hispanic web based products have recently been booming. Dora the Explora is a 3 billion dollar business.  

The government has taken note of the Hispanic growth. Did you know that we have on the internet  Recruitment  from the Hispanic Community is at an all time high..  
 "The armed forces contain almost 200,000 people of Latino decent.    We now have more Hispanics in leadership roles than ever before.  What does this mean for the future? Education is key to advance qualified people, to fill these positions. 
To help preserve our Heritage, Asian, African American and so on,   We have to educate our kids now.  We have to ask our public educators, what are we teaching in our school?.  What will you teach my kids about their history?
I talked to my kids,  I let them know,  that they are somebody.  I would like to read a small portion of a song my 13 year old son fell in love with.  
No hay nadien que me baje de las nubes, 
en vez de criticarme porque mejor no subes. 
El mundo es diferente desde este punto de vista, 
el mundo esta a tu alcance.. por que no lo conquistas? 

Quiero que algun dia digas: yo lo conosco, yo sabia que 
ese nene iba pegar un dia, 

lleno de fantasias, lleno de ganas, lleno de vida.. 
el triunfo era inevitable.. Que Dios te bendiga! 

Y ahora que esta arriba, no te olvides de los tuyos.. 
Ensenales! como hay que tumbar puertas con los punos.. 
sigue soniando, cosechando tu destino.. y no te desvias de tu camino.. ok 

Cuando digas que no vales, tu siguendo mas, 
no cambies tu rumbo y dale, no mires atras, que cuidandete 
yo estare.. suena?.. 

There is no way you'll bring me down from the clouds
Instead of criticizing,  why not raise yourself higher
The world is so different from this point of view
The world is at your reach,  ready for your conquest
I want one day for you to say: I knew him, I knew that kid was going to make it one day
So full of fantasy,  so full of life, triumph was inevitable,  may god bless you
Now that your on top, don't forget about your people
Show them,  that doors can be knocked down
Keep dreaming ,  keep reaching your destiny......don't stray off your path ok
When you think you're not worth it, you keep going
Don't stop your routine, just do it
And Don't look back,  with faith.....He'll be watching over dream!!! 

Today, Department of Defense schools are showing diversity.  I was happy to hear about my kids having to do a project: about Martin Luther king, about Nelson Mandela, learning about Latin countries, reading about the Alamo, learning that Hispanics were on both sides of the border, fighting each other, for the Alamo.  Let's not stop there.  We have to challenge our kids schools.  Demand more from your schools.

As we continue to grow as a country we have to teach our young,  we have to show them our heritage.  Stress the importance of who they are.  where they come from.  That color is not a hindrance but an opportunity.  It's OK to be who they are. Being Bilingual is a bonus. 

We need to stop telling them NO they can't and encourage them.  Tell them they can make it,  they will make it,  and to work hard.   This needs to happen NOW. 
This is the future.  Our kids are the FUTURE of America..  Our people. 
Learn about your heritage.  Learn about your relatives that served before.  Call your grandma that you take for granted.  Call that Aunt you dislike and just say Hi.  Ask your grandparents about their past.  You'll see a world you never knew.   This is not just a celebration of Hispanic Heritage.  It's a celebration of American history.

SK2(SW) Robert Gonzalez
FISC Deployed Ship's Team LSR 

Latino Civil Rights Timeline, 1903 to Present 
Sent by Howard Shorr

NAHJ Frustrated by Continued Exclusion of Latinos on Network News

National Association of Hispanic Journalists, October 19, 2006
Daniella Montalvo  (202) 662-7152
Sent by Howard Shorr

The National Association of Hispanic Journalists is once again frustrated by the lack of coverage of Latinos on the network evening newscasts of ABC, CBS, and NBC.

In its 11th annual Network Brownout Report released today, NAHJ found that out of an estimated 12,600 stories aired on the network evening newscasts in 2005, only 105 stories, or 0.83 percent, were exclusively about Latinos. This was a slight increase from 2004 when stories about Latinos comprised 0.72 percent of coverage.

News networks still play a major role in defining the national news agenda. NAHJ remains disappointed that the evening news fails to reflect the issues affecting more than 42 million Latinos living in the United States. Latinos currently make up 14.5 percent of the U.S. population.

"Latinos are increasingly a part of U.S. culture, yet our stories are by and large not a part of the national news programming," said Rafael Olmeda, president of NAHJ. "The time for the networks to diversify their staffs and their source lists and include us in the American story is long overdue."

The results of the Brownout Report also show that out of 329 hours of networks news in 2005, Latino stories accounted for just 3 hours and 2 minutes of air time, or 0.92 percent.

Stories involving domestic government issues accounted for the most coverage about Latinos in 2005. These stories mostly centered on the nomination of Alberto Gonzales to be the U.S. Attorney General as well as the speculation that he would be named to the U.S. Supreme Court. These stories failed to include a single identifiable Latino news source or provide a Hispanic perspective.

While the number of stories about immigration declined in 2005, coverage of crime stories involving Latinos sharply increased. This year's report found that 19 Latino stories, or 18.1 percent, were dedicated to crime. In 2004, crime accounted for only 7.8 percent of Latino stories.

NAHJ also found some positive trends in Latino coverage this year. Latinos were involved in several stories with universal themes that did not focus on their ethnicity. The networks also devoted more time to Latino stories and more stories included identifiable Latinos.

The Network Brownout Report can be downloaded on the NAHJ Web site at

Founded in 1984, NAHJ's mission is to increase the number of Latino journalists working in our nation's newsrooms and to improve news coverage of the country's Latino community.

October 11, 2006 

Dear Mimi,  I commend you for the work you have done for the Primos and the Spanish speaking people. 

I am sending you a copy of Justice For My People, the documentary about the origins of the American GI Forum and the remarkable life of our founder, Hector P. Garcia, the first civil right's leader in this country.

My wife Isabelle and I have spent a lifetime working for this organization.

I am forwarding additional information regarding my involvement with Guy Gabaldon.

Louis P. Tellez, 
Albuquerque Chapter Chairman
Past National Chairman
American GI Forum

3301 Mountain Road, N.W.
Albuquerque, NM 87104
505-247-4910 office
505-247-2993 fax

Below is text of an 
Accompanying flyer reads:




This 90-Minute documentary was produced by Jeff Felts of KEDT-TV in Corpus Christi, Texas. Six long years in the making, the documentary traces the rise of the Mexican American civil rights movement from the 1920s to 1980s through the ideals and actions of Dr. Hector P. Garcia...a true American hero. Editor: You will never forget it!!

Prices for personal use: VHS broadcast version of the program, cost: $19.95
DVD version contains exclusive additional materials not available on the VHS version. Includes: extra interview clips, a look at Dr. Garcia archive, and features the making of the documentary. Cost: $24.95  Shipping costs: $5 first item, $7. two or more items.

Mail to: Justice for my People                                            Jeff Felts
4455 S. Padre Island Drive, Suite 38                             1-800-307-5338
Corpus Christi, Texas 78411-4481

The price for the right to show the documentary in public and/or educational venues is $50. more per VHS or DVD.  The website:  http://  
has considerable materials supplemental to the documentary.  Three levels of lesson materials have been developed for teacher use.  Please review.

If you live in the San Francisco area, you may want to contact Rick Leal, President of the Hispanic Medal of Honor Recipients.  He was given the rights to show the film on a non-profit basis. Please contact him directly at or 415-487-7888. 


U.S. astronaut Michael Lopez-Alegria
Associated Press, October 23, 2006
Sent by Ray Gonzalez

MOSCOW - An unmanned Russian cargo ship carrying 2.76 U.S. tons of supplies, equipment and gifts blasted off Monday en route to the international space station, a space official said. 

The Progress M-58 mounted atop a Soyuz-U booster rocket lifted off at 5:41 p.m. from the Baikonur cosmodrome in Kazakhstan and entered orbit about 10 minutes later, Federal Space Agency spokesman Valery Lyndin said.

The ship was scheduled to reach the orbiting station Thursday evening, delivering fresh fruit and vegetables, compact discs and DVDs and other gifts to the station's current crew -  U.S. astronaut Michael Lopez-Alegria,
cosmonaut Mikhail Tyurin, and German astronaut Thomas Reiter.
Award winning Scientists:

Luis Walter Alvarez
Born: 1911
Birthplace: San Francisco, Calif.
Radio distance and direction indicator—Alvarez was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1968. He helped design a ground-controlled radar system for aircraft landings and with his son developed the meteorite theory of dinosaur extinction. (1978)

Died: 1988 

Mario Molina chemist, Nobel laureate
Born: March 19, 1943
Birthplace: Mexico City
At the University of California at Berkeley in 1973, Molina and Sherwood Rowland began researching chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), then widely used in refrigerators, spray cans, and cleaning solvents. They discovered that the release of CFCs could destroy the ozone layer in the stratosphere, allowing more ultraviolet light to get through to Earth and potentially increasing the rate of skin cancer. Their efforts led to CFC production being banned in most countries, and they received the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. 

Severo Ochoa

Ochoa, Severo (sava'ro ocho'ä) [key], 1905–93, American biochemist and educator, b. Spain, M.D. Univ. of Madrid, 1929. After teaching at the universities of Madrid, Heidelberg, and Oxford, he came to the United States in 1940. In 1954 he was appointed chairman of the department of biochemistry at New York Univ. He became an American citizen in 1956. With Arthur Kornberg he received the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the synthesis of ribonucleic acid (RNA), an organic compound that carries hereditary qualities in all reproduction.


“The Wal-Mart Foundation announced today a $3 million, multi-year grant to the Hispanic Scholarship Fund (HSF), to aid in providing scholarships to deserving Hispanic students. The first check for $640,000 was presented today in Bentonville, Arkansas during a meeting between the President and CEO of Wal-Mart Stores, USA Eduardo Castro-Wright and the HSF leadership.” Posted Oct 1 in Hispanic Tips online.

Hispanas in Leadership 
Promoting Education

November 3-5, 2006
Corpus Christi, Texas

Seven Latina University Presidents to be honored:

Dr. Julieta Garcia
Dr. Orfelina (Fena) Garza
Dr. Herlinda Martienz Glasscock
Dr. Ana "Cha" Guzman
Dr. Elva Concha Leblanc
Dr. Tessa Martinez Pollack

Intro to:
Harvard committee recommends returning religion to curriculum
Sent by JD Villarreal

BOSTON, Massachusetts (AP) -- Harvard University, founded 370 years ago to train Puritan ministers, should again require all undergraduates to study religion, along with U.S. history and ethics, a faculty committee is recommending.

The surprisingly bold recommendations come after years of rancorous internal debate over what courses should be required of all Harvard students. The current core curriculum has been criticized for focusing on narrow academic questions rather than real-world issues students would likely confront beyond the wrought-iron gates of Harvard Square.

The report calls for Harvard to require students to take a course in "reason and faith," which could include classes on topics such as religion and democracy, Charles Darwin or a current course called "Why Americans Love God and Europeans Don't."

"Harvard is no longer an institution with a religious mission, but religion is a fact that Harvard's graduates will confront in their lives," the report says, noting 94 percent of incoming students report discussing religion and 71 percent attend services.

"As academics in a university we don't have to confront religion if we're not religious, but in the world, they will have to," Alison Simmons, a philosophy professor who co-chaired the committee, said in a telephone interview Wednesday.

The report, which has been circulated to faculty and whose contents were first reported Wednesday by The Harvard Crimson student paper, also says Harvard students also "need to have an understanding of American history, American institutions, and American values," calling for a requirement to study the United States in a comparative context with other countries.

Extract: Comcast Foundation Supports LULAC's Education of Latino Youth 
Literacy Program to Launch in Targeted Communities
PRNewswire, October 5, 2006
Sent by Zeke Hernandez  

(Washington) - The Comcast Foundation announced a $50,000 grant for a literacy program to LULAC National Educational Service Centers, Inc. (LNESC). The LNESC is a national, non-profit, community-based organization established by the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), whose mission is to educate and prepare America's future workforce through intensive educational programming and leadership development training. Support of LNESC's "Accelerated Program" reinforces Comcast's continued commitment to improving educational opportunities for the Hispanic community.


The project will be implemented in three Comcast markets; the La Villita neighborhood in Chicago, IL; Balboa Park in San Francisco, CA; and Pueblo, CO.

The "Accelerated Reader" program will serve approximately 180 participants, 90 elementary school children and 90 parents. LNESC's supplementary services are considered an integral part of the education system in these neighborhoods because they
face high rates for poverty, school drop out, and unemployment.

The "Accelerated Reader" program will be open to all elementary age students and their parents and will seek to accomplish the following three things: increase and sharpen basic computer skills and technological literacy of both parents and students through the use of specialized software and the Internet; improve reading skills, especially comprehension and retention; and develop and strengthen the educational partnership between students, parents, and schools.

Latino Education: Adolescent Literacy 
By Manuel Hernandez-Carmona

Educators agree that the best way to improve children’s ability to read is to provide texts that not only build up self-esteem but provide a personal mirror whereby students see themselves and interact with the text itself. Educators must have the right approach and the right text to encourage and not discourage children to become pro-active participants in an already competitive, global and cyber-tech society. Statistics, studies and research have reiterated time and time again that America’s children cannot read up to their grade given potential. 

The American Latino population continues to grow in unprecedented numbers, and the educational development of the largest minority in the United States cannot be taken for granted. We have tried everything with the newly arrived child and teen, and we have gained some ground. Yet The United States Department of Education has recognized its limitation to deal with the problem of adolescent literacy with all America's teens, "Despite significant public and private investments in research to identify effective strategies for teaching young readers, millions of high school youth-having made their way through the educational system without benefiting from these strategies-are currently reading at very low levels. Without the reading skills they need to access, comprehend, and apply the information obtained from text, these students are unable to fully participate and succeed in their classes and, far too often, fail or drop out of school" (United States Department of Education website, High School Initiative). 

While there is no doubt that young adults today are open to options, media moguls and entertainment industries have captivated their interest because they have offered them options. Education must meet the challenges that our children face today. It is our responsibility as teachers, administrators, parents and educational advocates to provide them with innovations in their educational experience. According to statistics by the Department of Education, only 17 percent of Hispanic fourth-graders read at their grade level. But the so-called literacy problem does not discriminate and all American children have been affected by the situation.

Why not consider "minority or alternate texts" as a bridge to the American and British classics? If the school district has a strong minority population whether it is Latino, African-American or Asian then provide educators with a mirror to create a jump-off point to Shakespeare, Hemingway, Poe and Joyce. If 16% of the the school district's population is Latino, spend at least 10% of the alloted time for reading in the English classroom to reading American Latino/a writers and do the same with other minority literatures. It is simple English. Academic assimilation is a marathon not a one hundred-meter run. Adolescent literacy is in dire need of a vision; one which recognizes the true value of traditional literature and is receptive to the literary links that will make the reading and writing experience meaningful, valuable and enabling for our children.

These are some facts stated by the United States Department of Education itself on its website: 

1) An estimated one-third of students enter ninth grade with reading skills that are two or more years below grade level. 

2) Twenty-eight percent of 12th-grade public school students – an estimated 800,000 students – scored below the "basic" level on the National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) 2002 reading assessment, meaning they could not demonstrate an overall understanding and make some interpretation of texts they were asked to read. Excluded from this count, of course, are the many students who drop out of high school prior to 12th grade and who also may have limited reading skills. 

3) While the reading skills of elementary and middle school students have improved modestly over the past three decades, the reading skills of 17-year olds have not. The average scores of 9- and 13-year-olds on the 1999 NAEP long-term reading assessment were significantly higher than they were in 1971. The average score of 17-year olds, however, was no higher in 1999 than it was in 1971. 

The problem is evident. In some instances, there has been very little improvement in the last thirty years. Why not be part of the solution instead of dwelling on the problem? When our children look into a literary mirror, a whole new world of opportunities will open right before their very eyes. Content changes will encourage and motivate children to read and write and run faster towards further literary analysis. Education in America is at a crossroads; the shorter academic path will alleviate the problem but the correct path will help our children to have a literary encounter which will not only help them walk across bridge but will enable them to improve their reading and writing skills.

(The author is a Latino literature consultant and author of the academically acclaimed textbook Latino/a Literature in The English Classroom and a high school teacher in Puerto Rico) 

El Rincon de Ramon 
Ramon Moncivais
Author, Beneath the Shadow of the Capitol

I speak to area high school students on topics such as, drugs, drunk driving, teen pregnancy, physical assault etc. Not long ago, with the permission of a teacher I decided to hold a round table. I asked the teacher to give each student a sheet of paper and to have the student write down a question that was on their mind. they were instructed not to sigh their names. Both the teacher and I were amazed at how open they were. 

Question: How do you personally deal with stress, nervousness and problems?

My reply: My grandfather taught me to go to a wooded area or a park and to sit and think my stress away, to leave any problem there and to walk away and not look back or else the problem would follow me! I also carry small bottles of bubbles in my backpack and my car and will blow bubbles and the bubbles take the stress or problem away.

Question: Why is it that more Latinas get pregnant then anyone else?

My reply: Most Hispanics are catholic and they do not believe in birth control except for the rhythm method, which is not too accurate. Too began with, 90% of high school sweethearts do not marry each other, and 75% of the remaining 10% end up in divorce within 2 years. So common sense should tell you not to go that route! 

Question: More and more I don't feel like living, why? 

My reply: You should go to a school consular and ask for professional help. My personal answer is that we were not put here to decide when we go. This girl called me at home and said she did not want to go to a consular and after talking to her for 30 minutes she said that it was because her boyfriend had left her for another girl. I told her that if he had destroyed her mentally not to let him destroy her physically. She called again two days later and said her doctor had gotten her back to reality. 

Texas Announces Student Essay, Poster & Coloring Contest Winners!
(San Antonio, Texas) October 27, 2006 – Texas, a San Antonio-based research and publishing company is pleased to announce today the winners of the 3rd Annual Tejano Heritage Month Student Awards Contests! Held from September 5 through October 14, 2006, the Contest was open to students from throughout Texas. Entries poured in from across the Great State!

"We have said all along that one of our main missions with Tejano Heritage Month is education," says Texas President and Founder Rudi R. Rodriguez. "With that in mind, we created the Student Awards Contest to engage the youths of our state and to get them thinking about and creating with this history for the first time. We want them to connect with Tejano history and try to get them interested in this history."

The winners and their prize-winning submissions will be unveiled at a special ceremony at 10:00am, on Wednesday, November 1, 2006 at the main branch of the San Antonio Public Library (600 Soledad), a valued partner for this year’s Tejano Heritage Month celebrations. This year’s winners are:

1st Place - Alejandro Avila: 4th Grade, Nathaniel Hawthorne Academy                
2nd Place - Ciana Conklin: 4th Grade, Dr. Joe Ward Elementary
3rd Place - Olivia Iglesias: Kindergarten, Dr. Joe Ward Elementary
Hon. Mention – Carlos Carrillo, 5th Grade, Leon Daiches Elementary, Laredo
Hon. Mention – Mariana Perez, 4th Grade, Stonewall-Flanders Elementary
Essay: 1st Place - Vanessa Davis:  8th Grade, Frank M. Tejeda Academy
Poster: 1st Place - Julian Herrejon: 11th Grade, Highlands High School
Hon. Mention – Mycal Hernandez: 11th Grade, Highlands High School

"We are very, very pleased with this year’s contest and this year’s winners," says Rodriguez. "Everyone in the contest displayed the true legacy and history of Tejanos. This year’s contest was bigger and better than it has ever been before. We know that it will only grow bigger in the future."

The winning entries will be available to view online beginning November 1, 2006. For more information on Texas, Tejano Heritage Month or any of our other projects, visit us online at   Contact:RUDI R. RODRIGUEZ at 210.673.3584


Kathleen Carrizal-Frye and her grand daughter Kristen Rawson were very busy in October doing presentations in recognition of El
Dia de los Muertos . . with displays, lectures, book reading, selling and the signing a book that the two authored together. 

Weslaco Historical Museum, Weslaco, TX 
Brownsville Historical Museum, Brownsville, TX 
Museum of South Texas History,
Edenberg, TX  
Donna Hooks Fletcher Historical Museum, Donna, Texas 

Kathleen & Kirsten 

Dia de los Muertos is traditionally observed on November 1st and 2nd. These demonstrations and the information from the book, Dia de los Muertos - Day of the Dead was to help and encourage others to honor their dead with altars.    

This is the 5th year that Kristen has helped to mount a display.


Freddy Fender aka Baldemar Huerta
Passed away October 14, 2006
Article by By Lynn Brezosky, >The Associated Press

Tex-Mex country singer Freddy Fender is shown in this Feb. 4, 1999 file photo after receiving a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in Los Angeles. Photo Chris Pizzell From Associated Press, October 14, 2006
Sent by Ray Gonzalez   and
Dorinda Moreno

CORPUS CHRISTI, Texas - Freddy Fender, the "Bebop Kid" of the Texas-Mexico border who later turned his twangy tenor into the smash country ballad "Before the Next Teardrop Falls," died Saturday. He was 69.

Fender, who was diagnosed with lung cancer in early 2006, died at noon at his Corpus Christi home with his family at his bedside, said Ron Rogers, a family spokesman.  Over the years, he grappled with drug and alcohol abuse, was treated for diabetes and underwent a kidney transplant.

Fender hit it big in 1975 after some regional success, years of struggling - and a stint in prison - when "Before the Next Teardrop Falls" climbed to No. 1 on the pop and country charts. "Wasted Days and Wasted Nights" rose to No. 1 on the country chart and top 10 on the pop chart that same year, while "Secret Love" and "You'll Lose a Good Thing" also hit No. 1 in the country charts.

Born Baldemar Huerta, Fender was proud of his Mexican-American heritage and frequently sung verses or whole songs in Spanish. "Teardrop" had a verse in Spanish. "Whenever I run into prejudice," he told The Washington Post in 1977, "I smile and feel sorry for them, and I say to myself, `There's one more argument for birth control.'"

"The Old Man upstairs rolled a seven on me," he told The Associated Press in 1975. "I hope he keeps it up."

More recently, he played with Doug Sahm, Flaco Jimenez and others in two Tex-Mex all-star combos, the Texas Tornados and Los Super Seven.

He won a Grammy of Best Latin Pop Album in 2002 for "La Musica de Baldemar Huerta." He also shared in two Grammys: with the Texas Tornados, which won in 1990 for best Mexican-American performance for "Soy de San Luis," and with Los Super Seven in the same category in 1998 for "Los Super Seven."

Among his other achievements, Fender appeared in the 1987 motion picture "The Milagro Beanfield War," directed by Robert Redford.

In February 1999, Fender was awarded a star in the Hollywood Walk of Fame after then-Texas Gov. George W. Bush wrote to the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce endorsing him.

He said in a 2004 interview with The Associated Press that one thing would make his musical career complete - induction into the Country Music Hall of Fame in Nashville. "Hopefully I'll be the first Mexican-American going into Hillbilly Heaven," he said.

Fender was born in 1937 in San Benito, the South Texas border town credited for spawning the Mexican-polka sound of conjunto. The son of migrant workers who did his own share of picking crops, he also was exposed to the blues sung by blacks alongside the Mexicans in the fields.

Always a performer, he sang on the radio as a boy and won contests for his singing - one prize included a tub full of about $10 worth of food.  But his career really began in the late '50s, when he returned from serving in the Marines and recorded Spanish-language versions of Elvis Presley's "Don't Be Cruel" and Harry Belafonte's "Jamaica Farewell." The recordings were hits in Mexico and South America.

He signed with Imperial Records in 1959, renaming himself "Fender" after the brand of his electric guitar, "Freddy" because it sounded good with Fender.

Fender initially recorded "Wasted Days" in 1960. But his career was put on hold shortly after that when he and his bass player ended up spending almost three years in prison in Angola, La., for marijuana possession.

After prison came a few years in New Orleans and a then an everyday life taking college classes, working as a mechanic and playing an occasional local gig. He once said he sang in bars so dingy he performed with his eyes shut "dreaming I was on `The Ed Sullivan Show.'"

"I felt there's no great American dream for this ex-Chicano migrant farm worker," he told the AP. "I'd picked too many crops and too many strings."

But his second break came when he was persuaded to record "Before the Next Teardrop Falls" on an independent label in 1974 and it was picked up by a major label. With its success, he won the Academy of Country Music's best new artist award in 1975. He re-released "Wasted Days and Wasted Nights" and it climbed to the top of the charts as well.

Cristina Balli, spokeswoman for the Narciso Martinez Cultural Arts Center in San Benito, said Fender illustrated the diversity of Mexican-American and Latino musicians. "We have our feet in different worlds and different cultures," she said. "We have our roots music ... but then we branch out to other things, pick up different styles. I think he was the precursor to Los Lonely Boys."

Fender's later years were marred by health problems resulting in a kidney transplant from his daughter, Marla Huerta Garcia, in January 2002 and a liver transplant in 2004. Fender was to have lung surgery in early 2006 until surgeons found tumors.

"I feel very comfortable in my life," Fender told the Corpus Christi Caller-Times in August. "I'm one year away from 70 and I've had a good run. I really believe I'm OK. In my mind and in my heart, I feel OK. I cannot complain that I haven't lived long enough, but I'd like to live longer."

Freddy Fender's Web site: 
Copyright 2006 The Associated Press. 


Mimi, As you know I drove truck for many years, one day back in the late 60's, I was at the Houston Airport, flying back to the Bay Area, S.F. and there was this man with his guitar, he was a dark looking man, little did I know who he was, we talked, but never in our conversation did I ask his name.

Shortly thereafter, I recognized his voice on the radio. Later I saw an 8 track cassette with his face on it.  Then I knew that it was Freddy Fender I had talked to in Houston. A face I never forget, names I may, faces I don't. In my mind now I still see him as if it was just now. 

Ray Gonzalez

El MESICAN SOONER  Sent by Willie Perez

Several years ago I met Baldemar Huerta (aka Freddie Fender), and I asked him how he wanted to be remembered as or what his legacy to the world should be. 

He said, "Hell,
man, I don't want to be remembered as a pioneer of anything because pioneers suffer a lot and others take the credit.  I want to be remembered as the MEXICAN SOONER . .  That is, I appeared in the musical scene 30 years before my time. I started singing in English 30 years sooner than most Mexicans were allowed to.  

I started breaking in to the music industry 30 years sooner than most Mexicans dream about it. I have had money, no money, had children, been without children, a welder, a mechanic, with friends, with no friends.. In short, I have done things my way and have led a full life.

Now I am blessed with grandchildren and have no regrets about my life. I have been a part of everything I have seen. In short, I want to be remembered as el MESICAN SOONER . . . . HA, HA) . . HELL, I EVEN MADE MOVIES WITH ROBERT REDFORD AND OTHER BIG MOVIE STARS... I HAVE A PART OF EVERYTHING I HAVE SEEN...................PLEASE DO NOT CRY FOR ME . . . BUT CELEBRATE MY LIFE.....VAYA CON DIOS.....


California Documentary Project
Film Arts Foundation San Francisco
Project director: Mark Becker 212/675-3924

A documentary portrait of two undocumented Mexican musicians--Carmelo and Arturo--who support their families in Mexico by going from restaurant to restaurant in San Francisco's Mission District playing "romantica" music for tips. We follow both men as they struggle to make a living in San Francisco and intermittently visit their families in Mexico. The film aims to personalize the debate over U. S. immigration policies and to dramatize the plight of Mexican immigrants

"Romantico" opens in New York City on Nov. 1, 2006 and in Los Angeles and the San Francisco Bay Area in January 2007


California Documentary Project: 
"Chicano Rock!"
Chicano rock ‘n’ roll and its role in defining the Latino Community

This 90-minute documentary tells the story of Chicano Rock ‘n’ roll and how it defined – and continues to define – the Latino community in East Los Angeles.

"From Ritchie Valens to Los Lobos and beyond, we'll tell the story of kids from East Los Angeles who struggled to find a musical identity of their own, and succeeded," said filmmaker Jon Wilkman. Wilkman’s work has been honored with numerous awards, including three television Emmys. He and his wife, Nancy, are partners in Wilkman Productions, a documentary production company.

"The roots of Chicano rock ‘n’ roll can be traced to traditional barrios throughout the American Southwest, but most importantly, to the streets and neighborhoods of East Los Angeles, Wilkman said. "Kids from local schools, such as Garfield and Roosevelt High met, played music and began a musical dialogue with an emerging rock ‘n’ roll tradition.

"Chicano rock ‘n’ roll is the sound of generation after generation, listening and absorbing, reacting and responding, searching for an finding an identity with music.

"Chicano Rock! is a major untold California – and American – story," Wilkman added. "What we want to accomplish with this film is to convey the on-going interaction between art and social change through the words and experiences of members of the Chicano East Los Angeles community."

Chicano Rock will be broadcast nationally on PBS. It will also be available in DVD format for use in schools. Wilkman said that a curriculum exploring the Mexican American experience through music has already been developed.

Who Was Roberto Félix Salazar? Is There a Foto of Him Anywhere? 

I am a picture researcher for McDougal Littell, national textbook publisher. In one of our forthcoming textbooks we are reprinting a poem by Roberto Felix Salazar. His poem, "The Other Pioneers," is quite famous, in that it is constantly being reprinted in textbooks. But no one knows who he is. My job is to find a photo of him to go with the poem--but I have never seen a photo of him.

Mr. Salazar's poem was published in 1939 in a union magazine. It praises the achievement of early Latinos in settling the Southwest, and who have rarely been given credit for this. For all the popularity of this poem, its author appears in no reference book nor even in anthologies of Latino poetry. I am hoping that you might know someone who could provide me with some information on him. Salazar is originally from Laredo. That is all we know. I would appreciate any help you might give in this matter. Many thanks..

Phil Brantingham
McDougal Littell, Box 1667
Evanston, IL 60204-1667
Phone: 847-424-3126
Sent by Dorinda Moreno

More information sent by Roberto R. Calderón: T
he poem was first published in 1939 in what's called here a "union magazine."  In 1973, Philip D. Ortego aka Felipe de Ortego y Gasca, who's on this lista, edited the Chicano literature anthology "We Are Chicanos" (Washington Square Press), and included the poem, which has since been republished numerous times in countless textbooks apparently. 

Nuestra Familia Unida Podcast Project 

The podcast project has several new audio file links this month. In the Comida section please listen to the Here On Earth podcasts of "Food of the Americas" and "Corn." In the Coyote section please listen to the "Rise and Fall of Salsa" and an "African Empire in the Americas." I've also been given permission to host an old entry which was previously available only via RealPlayer but now in MP3 format in the History section: "Medieval Spain's Golden Age of Enlightenment" which is about the time period Between 711 and 1492, when Christians, Jews, and Muslims lived side by side in medieval Spain and forged a golden age for each faith, making Spain the continent's commercial and cultural center while Europeans elsewhere were mired in the Dark Age. In the Oral History section Frank Moreno Sifuentes has submitted several new "Cuentos." In the Genealogia - Paises/Countries section there is an interesting account by Guillermo Castaneda Lee about his genealogical research in Guatemala.

     If you would like to get involved in helping with this project please join the Planning Committee for the Nuestra Familia Unida podcast project: or contact:

Joseph also shared some exciting new projects concepts: There are three areas of the NFU podcast that I would like to develop into the main focus of the project:

1) the "Mujer" section that I want to continue to give examples of the contributions Women have made in our history.

2) the "Coyote" section that brings info about the presence of African Slaves and then African Citizens in Latin America

3) the "American Revolution" section because as I've experienced and I hear you say. . ."The American educational system is refusing to teach history as it actually happened."



Did You Know...The meaning of "La Raza"
NCLR e-bulletin 
October 24, 2006 

The term "La Raza" has its origins in early 20th century Latin American literature and translates into English most closely as "the people," or, according to some scholars, "the Hispanic people of the New World." The term was coined by Mexican scholar José Vasconcelos to reflect the fact that the people of Latin America are a mixture of many of the world's races, cultures, and religions. Some people have mistranslated "La Raza" to mean "The Race," implying that it is a term meant to exclude others. In fact, the full term coined by Vasconcelos, "La Raza Cósmica," meaning the "cosmic people," was developed to reflect not purity but the mixture inherent in the Hispanic people. This is an inclusive concept, meaning that Hispanics share with all other peoples of the world a common heritage and destiny.  

Mariano Leyva Dominguez 
realmente fue un Faro:
Murio, octubre 27, 2006

El mejor interprete en el escenario de Emiliano Zapata, Moctezuma.... En Paz Descanse, gran maestro y amigo de los Chicano's y de los grandes de la historia Mexicana. 

Information and photos sent by Dorinda Moreno

Luis Valdez, San Juan Bautista


Alejandro Stuart, Santiago, Chile
(Mariano) help(ed) us understand the common struggles that we have in the U.S., Mexico and all of Latin America . 
Joaquin Aranda, Berkeley

Mi querida Dorinda,
Ay que Mariano - tan pronto te has ido! Como no, te pondremos tu puro, tu tequilita, tus dulces y te cantamos tus alabanzas de agradecimiento. 
Marina Elisa Alvarado, San Jose 
I can see him telling us to stay the course, work with the youth, find our voice, and to eat our 7 guerreros each day.
Alan Gomez, Texas/Nueva York
Dorinda, am editing a short interview I did with mariano about 2 years ago and if you know of a webpage that would host it, that would be terrific. avisame. alan

We'll find him in our memories and see him in our dreams. Marcia Campos, Walnut Creek & Chile/Mexico DF

Our prayers this Dia de las Animas... 
Roberto Rodriguez y Patricia Gonzales

Cuando un hombre así se va, queda un enorme hueco difícil de llenar. Muchos como Mariano son necesarios o, como decía Bertold Brecht: "son los indispensables".
Jesusa Rodriguez

Photographer: Alejandro Stuart, Chile.  From left to right:
Mariano Leyva Dominguez, Los Mascarones, Mexico DF
Adrian Vargas, Teatro de la Gente, San Jose
Dorinda Moreno, Las Cucarachas, San Francisco
Dia de Los Muertos
Reseña de la muerte de Mariano
de parte del companero: Abrahm Manuel Vidales Abrego 

Era las 13:15 hrs. Del viernes 27 de octubre de 2006, cuando recibí la llamada de José Manuel Galván (el Topo), dándome la triste noticia, Mariano Leyva acababa de fallecer.

De inmediato me puse en contacto con todos los compañeros que lo habían conocido (¿todos?, ¡Imposible!), salí del trabajo a la hora de la comida y avisé que no volvería en la tarde, llegué a casa y de inmediato transmití la noticia por la Internet, me puse de acuerdo con el Topo para asistir juntos a Ocotepec.

Al llegar a Ocotepec, ya era de noche y una leve llovizna cubría el lugar, dentro de la pirámide principal que había construido Mariano en lo que se denominara la Universidad Náhuatl o mejor conocido como las Pirámides de Ocotepec, entramos; El lugar se encontraba brumoso por el incienso y el copal, en un costado de la estancia y estaba el féretro sobre una tarima que hiciera también las funciones de escenario, 
en el lugar había más de un centenar de personas, mudos espectadores de la última representación que hiciera Mariano; en un sillón medio escondido se encontraba Isabel, la última compañera de Mariano, quien lo acompañara en los últimos momentos de vida, la saludamos y nos contó sobre el deceso de Mariano.

El día anterior hasta antes de las 4 de la tarde, Mariano estaba jovial, dicharachero y acaparador de las conversaciones, como de costumbre, después de la comida Mariano se sintió mal y así siguió, hasta las madrugada momento en que decidieron llamar a una ambulancia, en el hospital le diagnosticaron una disfunción renal y sobrevino el paro cardiaco a las 11 de la mañana de ese día 27 de octubre; Mariano había sobrevivido a dos ataques cardiacos, motivo por el cual había estado en tratamiento médico, mismo que había abandonado un meses antes, ya que se sentía muy bien y los exámenes clínicos que le habían  echo no mostraban anomalías, también nos contó que Mariano se había deprimido mucho el 2 de octubre.

Le dimos el pésame (se notaba cansada pero tranquila), nos dirigimos a otro lugar de la estancia donde se encontraba Lourdes Pérez Gay, la excompañera de Mariano en la época de los cambios mas violentos que se dieron en México, ella estuvo a su lado en 68, en el 1971, también estaba Fernando Hernández (El Fantasma), Eduardo López Martínez (El Guajolote), habíamos llegado en el carro de Lili Aparicio Hoyo, José Manuel Galván y Mercedes Nieto, en total, de la segunda generación de Mascarones nos encontrábamos 6 de los integrantes. 

Una veintena de danzantes Prehispánicos, ataviados con ropas de diferentes estados de la República Mexicana y con motivos luctuosos, empezaron la ceremonia con danzas pidiendo permiso a los 4 puntos cardinales y los dos vectores, El norte, El sur, El Oriente, El Poniente, Al Padre Sol y a la Madre Tierra. 

El tañir de los tambores y la danza me alejaron del lugar para traer a mis recuerdos el estudio donde ensayamos la huida de Quetzalcoatl, era un estudio de baile donde daba clases Andrés Segura, un compañero por mas enigmático, recio y conocedor de la filosofía indígena, General de los danzantes, el grado mas alto que existe entre ellos, Andrés Segura estuvo innumerables veces en Austria reclamando al gobierno, la devolución del penacho de Moctezuma, ahí vi por primera vez a Mariano humilde ante la presencia de Andrés Segura, sin embargo la presencia de Mariano se engrandecía en el escenario.

Mi conciencia regresa al tañir de los tambores cuando observo a una mujer blanca de cabellos amarillos que baila muy cerca de donde me encuentro, si bien no sigue todos los pasos, es bien cierto que algunos de los danzantes tampoco lo hace, sin embargo el recinto se llena de energía que inexplicablemente me empieza a hacer sudar, y trae a mi recuerdo que Mariano nos hablaba en las últimas entrevistas que tuvimos acerca de la energía cósmica y de las costumbres de nuestros antepasados, recuerdo haberle comentado que no entendía lo que me explicaba pero que era innegable el hecho de que nos encontrábamos en una época en donde era importante recordar las costumbres de nuestros antepasados, pero que no podíamos vivir basados en el pasado, no obstante llamaba fuerte mi atención el hecho de que sociedades llamadas del primer mundo como los Franceses, los Ingleses, los Americanos se acercaran a entender y revivir nuestras tradiciones indígenas.

Mariano había dando clases en la Preparatoria Popular en 1969, como maestro, formado el grupo Emiliano Zapata, grupo al cual yo me había integrado por mis inquietudes artísticas, además de encontrar una nueva forma de continuar la lucha que la Preparatoria había iniciado con la educación popular, el grupo me daba una manera de transmitir mensajes revolucionarios, culturales y hacer conciencia a nuestro pueblo, Mariano nos metía en una extraordinaria dinámica con su conocimiento, con su pasión por un cambio social;
en 1969, Mariano coordinó y dirigió el montaje de "Volveremos", una puesta en escena basada en consignas del movimiento estudiantil de 1968, que se conjuntaba con canciones y cuadros teatralizados que habíamos llevado a la escena en la practica de la creación colectiva, fue la contestación al gobierno a pocos meses de la masacre del 2 de octubre de 1968, fuimos el primer grupo cultural que habló de dicha masacre llevando el mensaje de lo que había sucedido en ese fatídico día, se llevó el mensaje a las escuelas, a los sindicatos de trabajadores, a los campesinos y al extranjero, eso cambio definitivamente mi vida, mi forma de entender a la sociedad y al mundo, a tomar conciencia de la necesidad de un cambio social, situación que no fue solo mía ya que la mayoría de ellos aún sigue este camino.

En este sentido Mariano fue un gran formador de conciencias. Eran las 2 de la mañana, casi todos los dolientes se habían retirado, nos encontrábamos menos de 10 o 12 personas, cuando Eduardo López, pulsó la guitarra y empezó a cantar "Hasta Siempre Comandante", nos acercamos haciendo telón teatral a Eduardo, Lili, Fantasma, Topo Mercedes y Yo, ante su féretro y frente a un cuadro que le pintara Martha Ramírez, 
parecía mirarnos y reprobar las equivocaciones te teníamos cuando tratamos de representar la muerte de Emiliano Zapata, (canción anónima que teatralizáramos), algunas canciones que compusiera Edupos, (El Guajolote) y que nosotros no conocíamos, después... el dolor lo embargo y con un nudo en la garganta, todos nos retiramos.

Me acerque al féretro, una sabana blanca lo cubría, solo el rostro se encontraba descubierto, con una expresión de paz, de tranquilidad, ligeramente delgado a como lo recordara, algunas canas asomaban en el lado izquierdo de su bigote zapatista, bigote que lo acompañara desde que lo conocí y que nunca se quitara, entre mi empecé a platicar con él, "Pinché Mariano, tenias pacto con Dorian Grey, carajo, no envejeces, las arrugas de tu cara son muy leves y yo me tengo que teñir ya el pelo porque lo tengo completamente blanco y eso que soy menor que tu, por lo menos 15 años, y ahora ¿qué sigue?, ya pasaste la estafeta, dejaste un reguero de conciencias abiertas, por lo que a mi respecta, 

¡Gracias!, gracias por haberme dado una conciencia de vida, gracias por haberme marcado un camino, se que cometiste muchos errores, pero también cometiste grandes aciertos, y eso es lo que te hace un ser humano y te engrandece mas aún el haber levantado conciencia en nuestro pueblo y haber dejado en la conciencia de todo el que conociste la semilla de la rebeldía, gracias por los conocimientos que compartiste con todo aquel que se acerco a ti; gracias Mariano, tu paso en esta vida no fue inútil y tus enseñanzas muchos las estamos llevando a cabo, no vemos Mariano, nos vemos allá, en el Mictlan, DESCANZA EN PAZ.

Abraham Manuel Vidales Abrego
29 de octubre de 2006. 

Nina Sahagun will be setting up an altar honoring Mariano Leyva at the Crossroads en Santa Monica. For location information on ofrendas honoring Mariano Leyva , please contact Dorinda Moreno 


National Latina Business Women Association FIRST ANNUAL conference.
Save the Date: Helping Build the Latina Business Woman
Thursday November 16, The Queen Mary
1126 Queens Highway
Long Beach, CA 90802-6390
For information, click.

Abstracts from: Home-building boom relies on illegal workers

By Sanjay Bhatt, Seattle Times staff reporter
Sent by Howard Shorr

When thousands of Seattle-area Latinos stayed away from their jobs May 1 to take part in a nationwide show of support for immigrants in the work force, the largest housing- construction project in all of King County became a ghost town.

The next day, the sprawling job site in the foothills of the Cascades was abuzz again with activity: Mexican workers were hanging heavy sheets of drywall while crews listening to Spanish radio installed cabinets and painted the walls of million-dollar homes with views of the Seattle skyline.

Latino immigrants have become essential to builders at Issaquah Highlands and at other nonunion job sites across Puget Sound during the biggest wave in home construction in decades.

Locally, many inspectors, construction foremen and union organizers estimate that in the last few years they have come to represent anywhere from half to 90 percent of the work force at residential job sites in the Puget Sound region. They dominate unskilled-labor crews and are prevalent among drywallers, framers, roofers and other semiskilled trades.

And it's an open secret that many of these workers are here illegally. Exactly how many illegal immigrants are working in the regional construction industry is nearly impossible to determine because most conceal their true immigration status, for fear of being deported.

Using census data, the Pew Hispanic Center, a nonpartisan research group in Washington, D.C., estimates that nationwide about one in five illegal residents works in construction - five times the number working in farm jobs.

Prospective workers need only show a Social Security card - fake ones can be bought on the street for $200 - and a driver's license. Washington state is one of 10 states where immigrants can get a driver's license without proving they're here legally.

The construction industry, led by the Associated General Contractors of America and the National Association of Home Builders, opposes any national policy that would deport vast numbers of illegal immigrants, saying they help alleviate a chronic shortage of workers.

"I don't know where they think these workers would come from if we didn't have Latinos to do the work," said Bill Cowin, president of Ketchikan Drywall, one of the largest drywall contractors in Washington. "They don't mind doing the manual work, whereas my son wants to run a computer."

But some economists also say that if wages were higher, there might not be a shortage of workers.  The laws of supply and demand dictate that average wages should rise during a labor shortage. But for three consecutive years - even as housing starts nationwide have risen - the average wage for construction workers, after adjusting for inflation, has fallen.

"If we don't turn this thing around, what's going to happen is construction jobs won't be jobs that pay good, livable wages," Joe Mailloux, West Seattle, owners of Drywall Wizards, said. "Only people in their 20s and 30s will be doing them or those willing to live as an underclass."

For illegal immigrants, building a house may pay more than picking fruit, but there are risks: The work can be dangerous, and a here-today, gone-tomorrow contractor can exploit their illegal status, cheating them out of wages or forcing them to work when injured. When that happens, few seek recourse, largely to avoid being ousted to immigration authorities and deported.

How it came to be: Since the early 20th century, the United States has welcomed Mexican workers to fill labor shortages during economic booms and sent them packing 
during economic busts.

During and after World War II, the U.S. government admitted more than 4 million Mexicans to work for several months at a time on farms and in other industries. Though that guest-worker program ended in 1964, Mexicans continued to come here, many illegally, in search of better-paying work.

In 1980, only 6 percent of construction workers were Hispanic, but their presence grew steadily over the next two decades, according to the federal Bureau of Labor Statistics.

The passage of the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act granted amnesty to millions of illegal immigrants, the majority from Mexico. They settled in border states like California and Texas, sending billions of dollars back home and serving as a job-referral network for relatives in Mexico.

Those informal networks played a key role as the pace of home building accelerated across the country and region in the 1990s. The housing boom - and the entry-level jobs it spawned - helped draw illegal immigrants away from a half-dozen traditional hubs to cities farther away, altering the face of communities that once had few immigrants, says Jeffrey Passel, a senior research associate at Pew Hispanic Center.

From 2000 to 2005, as the number of housing starts skyrocketed nationally, Hispanic workers met the demand for labor, filling more than two of every 10 construction jobs. The numbers are higher in border states and cities with large immigrant communities.

"There's just so much need for good help," said Verne Woolley, general manager of Aero Construction, a Snohomish ground-clearing contractor with more than 200 employees. "More and more I'm coming back to my Mexican gentlemen and asking, 'Do you have any family anywhere?' "  "I've got almost entire families working for us," Woolley said. "They keep bringing people, and they're good help."

Escape from Mexico: Among the Latino drywall workers who've worked at Issaquah Highlands is Adrian Quiñones, 31, who grew up on a farm in the Mexican town of Durango, a few hundred miles south of El Paso, Texas.

Durango's setting between the Sierra Madres and the Chihuahuan Desert made it a popular backdrop for Hollywood Westerns in the 1950s. But the reality behind the scenes was that Quiñones and his family could barely survive on the corn and beans their small farm produced.

Like thousands of young, poor Mexicans, Quiñones walked through the desert in an attempt to cross illegally into the United States, finally succeeding in 1989 on his fourth try. He entered near Nogales, Ariz., and obtained a false Social Security number and driver's license.

He eventually came to Washington state because he had a sister and brother living here. For the past eight years he's worked for an Issaquah drywall company that employs about 150 Mexicans. His crew has done homes at Issaquah Highlands.

Just as poverty pushes many Mexicans to seek work here, employers pull them in as well, sometimes recruiting workers through family members or illegal labor brokers.

Bob Esparza, a construction inspector for the Department of Labor and Industries, says these labor brokers, or "coyotes," are usually bilingual Latinos who bring workers here from south of the border, house them, shuttle them to job sites and pay them.

"I have been screaming that for years," said Tacoma attorney Betsy Rodriguez, who represents illegal immigrants in wage and injury claims against employers. "They don't come! They are brought!"

Brokers often can evade scrutiny on big construction sites, where a builder typically has numerous subcontractors, each of whom may - unbeknownst to the contractor - farm out parts of a job to still other subcontractors. That structure naturally pushes down - and can intentionally be used to obscure - responsibility for wages, taxes and liability, Esparza said.

Who's the employer? 
One of attorney Betsy Rodriguez clients was an illegal immigrant from Mexico named Anastacio Rueda Galicia, whose case offers a window into how the labor-broker system creates confusion, obscuring who actually hired a worker and thus is liable, as his employer, if the worker is injured on the job.

The case began in 2001, when Galicia fell from scaffolding at a Ketchikan Drywall job site in Carnation, fractured his skull and was treated at Harborview Medical Center in Seattle. He filed a worker's compensation claim with the Department of Labor and Industries against Ketchikan Drywall, which challenged it, saying Galicia wasn't its employee.

Galicia and other illegal immigrants testified before the state's Board of Industrial Insurance Appeals that their supervisor, David Jones, had recruited them from other states and moved them into a house in Bothell run by Jones' brother-in-law.

Galicia said he worked 12-hour days, six days a week, for which Jones paid him between $4 and $7 an hour in cash, once a month.

Galicia and the others testified that Jones told them they worked for Ketchikan Drywall. They picked up sheets of drywall from Ketchikan's warehouse, hung them at Ketchikan job sites with Ketchikan's tools and were supervised by Jones and his brother-in-law, both Ketchikan employees, according to court testimony.

But Ketchikan Drywall's president, Cowin, said he did not hire Galicia and did not give Jones, a Ketchikan foreman, permission to hire anyone on Ketchikan's behalf.

Judge James Hickman of the state board ruled that while Ketchikan ultimately received the benefit of Galicia's labor, there was no hard evidence that Ketchikan was Galicia's employer or knew of him.

Hickman concluded that Jones had hired the illegal workers and therefore was their employer. He ordered Jones to pay premiums and penalties to the state for not reporting Galicia as his employee.

Jones did not respond to numerous requests for comment.  Hickman called Jones' conduct reprehensible, saying that "by all accounts, Mr. Jones engaged in a scheme whereby he brought undocumented workers to this area, provided them with forged or otherwise falsified documentation for a fee, housed them with his brother-in-law (also for a fee), and skimmed at least a portion of their wages for his own benefit."

Galicia appealed the judge's finding and lost. His illegal status having been divulged, he was also deported. Jones is still an employee of Cowin. He keeps Jones on the payroll, Cowin said, because "he can speak Spanish and helps me with my Latino work force."

Effect on wages, profits: Is the influx of illegal immigrants in the construction industry driving wages down for native-born workers?

Economists are divided over that question, but most studies - including one this year by Giovanni Peri at the University of California, Davis - suggest that immigration has depressed wages slightly, anywhere from 1 to 5 percent, among native-born workers with little education and few skills. More educated native-born workers' wages are not affected or slightly increase.

Economist Jared Bernstein of the Economic Policy Institute, a Washington, D.C., liberal research group says the story of declining wages for construction workers is less about immigrants and more about contractors and builders having gained the upper hand over unions.

In 1973, 40 percent of construction workers were unionized, he said. Today, organized labor's share of the industry work force has fallen to 13 percent.

Wooing immigrants: With their national memberships at new lows, construction unions are taking a new attitude toward illegal immigrants: If you can't beat them, get them to join.

Many Latino workers, suspicious of labor unions in their homelands, have shied away from unions here. One of the region's largest, the 8,000-member Pacific Northwest Regional Council of Carpenters, had only a handful of Latino members 10 years ago.

For the past eight years, it has been educating immigrants about their rights and being an advocate for them when they don't get paid, says organizer Clark Gilman. The union also has hired organizers who speak the language of Latino workers.

"I know what it is when somebody owe you $1,000, when you don't have the money to pay your rent," said one such organizer, Jose Angel Juarez. "I know how it is to live with fear."

Slowly, in small numbers that now total about 500, they began to join the fold, Gilman said. There was a time during the region's population boom in the 1950s and '60s when unions were building entire housing subdivisions. They began to lose ground in the late 1970s.

The union made a mistake, Gilman says, when it began ignoring residential projects in favor of commercial jobs and big public works such as freeway ramps, new community colleges and the Kingdome. Many homebuilders switched to nonunion labor.

And when interest rates soared in the early 1980s, construction slowed, more workers lost jobs and builders gained the power to dictate wages in home construction, Gilman said.

The pay disparity between union and nonunion labor has since grown enormous. Wage complaints filed by immigrants show them working as drywall tapers in nonunion jobs for as little as minimum wage to $20 an hour, depending on skill level, often without health or pension benefits.

Union-scale pay, often a requirement of public works, runs considerably higher, in part because it includes a benefits package.

Gilman mocks the argument some builders put forth that immigrants are doing jobs Americans don't want.  "There aren't enough American citizens willing to live eight people to an apartment for $60 a day working six 10-hour days a week," Gilman said.

Sanjay Bhatt: 206-464-3103 or

Introduction to article: In the wake of Katrina, thousands of Spanish-speaking people are migrating to New Orleans, drawn by the dream of a better life. 
Oct 8, 2006 By Mark Waller

Sent by Bill Carmena

Daniel Flores, a native Honduran and newcomer to the New Orleans area, leaves the grousing about the pace of hurricane recovery to Louisianans. From his perspective, the post-Katrina saga is one of remarkable progress and considerable hope.

He was a teenager in Honduras when Hurricane Mitch devastated that country in 1998. He witnessed the destruction and joined his Boy Scout troop in helping rescue people from inundated neighborhoods. Eight years later, survivors of Mitch still live in the streets in Honduras, he said. "Here in New Orleans, it's been only one year, and look at this: The streets are fixed; people are rebuilding houses," said Flores, who was interviewed through a translator. "We're in America, and things work here. The government may be slow sometimes, but it works." Flores, 25, arrived in the United States five years ago. In June, he moved from North Carolina to Metairie after hearing about jobs in the Hurricane Katrina recovery, and he found work painting houses. As proof of his optimism, he sent for his wife and daughter, who remained in North Carolina, and they joined him in July. They represent a development that grows clearer as more time passes since Katrina: Some of the Hispanic people who streamed into the New Orleans area for work, at first joining what looked like a temporary surge of arrivals who would leave to chase the next storm, are finding more opportunity than despair in the recovery and they are choosing to stay. And new additions to the area's Hispanic community -- from blue-collar laborers to contractors and small business owners -- continue to arrive.

A study by Tulane University and the University of California at Berkeley found almost half the recovery construction work force in the New Orleans area to be Hispanic. And among workers who have been here at least six months, 65 percent reported they plan to settle here permanently. Most workers came from other states, not directly from their home countries. For workers like Flores, who has a reliable job with a contractor and speaks some English, or those who are long established in the United States and can buy houses and bring their families, the prospect of sinking roots in the New Orleans area is within easy reach. The day laborers who gather at corners, gas stations or home supply store parking lots waiting for contractors to arrive in trucks and take them to job sites face greater uncertainty. They wire money back home and might like to bring their families here, but doing so means overcoming considerable obstacles. For the migrant laborers, more than half of whom are undocumented according to the Tulane-Berkeley study, the promise of plentiful and high-paying jobs doesn't translate into an easy life. They pack into small apartments, sleep on cots in a church shelter or become squatters in abandoned buildings. Contractors sometimes skip out on paying them. They have little access to health care if they get sick or injured. The specter of immigration enforcement is a constant threat. 100,000 newcomers A U.S. Census Bureau survey of hurricane-affected Gulf Coast communities suggested an influx of almost 100,000 Hispanics in the four months after Katrina. The survey also found a slight rise in Hispanics in New Orleans and surrounding parishes, to just above 6 percent. "In some ways, New Orleans is just catching up with a trend that's happening in every other city in the country," said Elizabeth Fussell, a Tulane sociologist. "Katrina has put us on the national map."

Construction jobs are the primary mode of entry for immigrants throughout the country, Fussell said. New Orleans is suddenly producing a profusion of such jobs. Like all aspects of the fluid and hard-to-measure post-storm population, definitive numbers are elusive, but the evidence that Hispanic laborers have become a fact of life at construction sites across the city is irrefutable.


Abstract: Aetna Announces New Alliance with Hispanic Association of Colleges and
Universities (HACU) Business Editors/Education Editors

Sent by John Schmal

HARTFORD, Conn.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Oct. 16, 2006--Aetna (NYSE: AET) today
announced a formal alliance with the Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities (HACU). HACU leaders will present the benefits of this alliance to its membership at HACU's 20th annual conference on Oct. 28 in San Antonio, Texas.

HACU is a non-profit organization representing more than 450 colleges and universities in the United States and abroad. Its member institutions collectively enroll more than two-thirds of all U.S. Hispanics in higher education.

As a result of this alliance, Aetna will become HACU's health partner and will provide online health information to member schools through a link to Aetna's InteliHealth website, executive mentors and guest speakers for HACU events, and financial support for HACU's annual conference.

This alliance is Aetna's latest initiative focused on gaining knowledge and building relationships within the nation's Latino community. The health insurer's strategic vision includes strengthening relationships with Hispanic organizations throughout the country by offering a wide variety of affordable health benefits products designed to meet the unique needs of racial and ethnic minority populations.

The Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities (HACU) was established in 1986 with a founding membership of eighteen institutions. Today, HACU represents more than 450 colleges and universities committed to Hispanic higher education success in the U.S., Puerto Rico, Latin America, Spain and Portugal. Although their member institutions in the U. S. represent less than 10% of all higher education institutions nationwide. HACU is the only national educational association that represents Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs). HACU is a non-profit organization committed to assuring higher education access and success for Hispanic students. For more information, visit

Anti-Spanish Legends

Researcher says a
NATIVE Plague wiped out Aztecs

Disease tracker wants to rewrite Mexican history
By Marion Lloyd, Houston Chronicle, October 14, 2006
Sent by Howard Shorr

MEXICO CITY — Here's what history tells us about the Spanish conquest of Mexico: Armed with modern weapons and Old World diseases, several hundred Spanish soldiers toppled the Aztec empire in 1521. And by the end of the century, the invaders' guns, steel and germs had wiped out 90 percent of the natives.

It's a key piece of the "Black Legend," the tales of atrocities committed by the Spanish Inquisition and colonizers of the New World.  But it may be just that — legend, according to Rodolfo Acuña-Soto, a Harvard-trained epidemiologist.

He argues that an unknown indigenous hemorrhagic fever may have killed the bulk of Mexico's native population, which plummeted from an estimated 22 million in 1519, when the Spaniards arrived, to 2 million in 1600.  And he warns that the fever — which the Aztecs called cocoliztli in their Nahuatl language — may still be lurking in remote rural areas of Mexico.

Not everyone buys the theory. But Acuña-Soto, who spent 12 years poring over colonial archives, census data, graveyard records and autopsy reports, is convinced that many historians are wrong about what killed the Aztecs.

"The problem with history is that it's very ideological," he said. "In this case, it was a beautiful way of accusing the Spaniards of unimaginable cruelties and of decimating the population of Mexico." Spanish colonizers were far from blameless, he quickly points out. By subjecting the Indians to slave-like conditions and malnutrition, they made them more vulnerable to the disease, he said.

"Of course, there's a terrible story of cruelty and disease that killed a huge amount of indigenous people," he said. "But we don't know what this disease was." Acuña-Soto, who has published his findings in several international scholarly journals, is a research professor at Mexico's National Autonomous University.

Three major epidemics together make up what he calls the "megadeath."

Most scholars agree that the first bout, from 1519 to 1521, was caused by smallpox brought over by the Spaniards and to which the natives had no resistance. The disease, characterized by high fevers and pustules on the skin, may have killed as many as 8 million Indians in Mexico.

But Acuña-Soto claims another two epidemics in 1545 and 1576 were caused by an even more gruesome and lethal disease. The first killed between 7 million and 17 million people, and the second wiped out another 2 million, or half the remaining population, he said.

His arguments are largely based on a first-person account by Francisco Hernandez, the personal physician to King Phillip II of Spain, who witnessed the 1576 epidemic. The symptoms he described did not sound to Acuña-Soto like any of the usual suspects — smallpox, measles or typhus.

"Blood flowed from the ears and in many cases blood truly gushed from the nose," the royal doctor wrote in Latin to a friend. "The fevers were contagious, burning and continuous, all of them pestilential, in most part lethal."

"The tongue was dry and black," he went on. "Urine of the colors of sea-green, vegetal green and black."

The text, which disappeared for centuries before turning up in 1954, has only recently been cited by scholars. And differences among translations have fueled the historic debate.

If cocoliztli had been a hemorrhagic fever, Acuña-Soto reasons, Spaniards could not have brought it with them. Hemorrhagic diseases — which include such terrifying killers as Ebola and the Marburg and Lassa fevers — do not readily pass from one person to another.  Not everyone is convinced.

"The disease came from animals that didn't exist in the Americas," said Elsa Malvido, a Mexican colonial historian who has spent 40 years tracing the origins of the diseases that decimated the Aztecs. She argues that the later epidemics were caused by bubonic plague carried to Mexico by black rats aboard the Spanish galleons. She cites indigenous codices that describe a plague of rats preceding the epidemics.

However, Malvido acknowledged, "As long as I don't have a skeleton to extract DNA, of course, these are all hypotheses."

Acuña-Soto counters that the disease doesn't fit the pattern of bubonic plague, which he said tends to spread inland from coastal areas and kills a minority of those infected. In contrast, he said, cocoliztli originated in central Mexico City and had the most devastating impact in the highlands.

The later epidemics coincided with two major droughts, which may have magnified the impact of the disease, he said.

Acuña-Soto is also working on another controversial theory: That a native hemorrhagic disease may have triggered the collapse of the Maya civilization in the 9th century.

"While his argument for Mexico seems to make some sense, it certainly doesn't explain the rest of the continent," said Thomas M. Whitmore, an American geologist and the author of a book on epidemics in colonial Mexico. However, Whitmore added, "It certainly is possible."

Acuña-Soto acknowledges that proving his theories won't be easy. "Nobody who's alive has seen something similar, so we have to work with descriptions," he said.

He thinks he has identified at least 27 smaller outbreaks of cocoliztli, including one in 1738 that devastated a mission in San Antonio, now a part of Texas. It killed all but 182 of the 837 residents, according to two Franciscan missionaries.

The latest record of such a disease was in 1928 in Mexico City, Acuña-Soto said. "Is it going to come back?" he said. "That's the big question."

Military and Law Enforcement Heroes

Military Contributions of the Gutierrez family to the U.S. by Yolanda Ochoa 
Soldier loses leg in search for missing soldiers
Dia de los Muertos display honoring Daniel r. Carrizal
Immigrants Find Military a Faster Path to Citizenship
Photo Feature Lt. Gen. Ricardo S. Sanchez
D-Day, Normandy and Beyond 
Puerto Ricans in the Military 


Pfc. U.S. Army Private Joshua Gutierrez

Served in Iraq, 
Purple Heart Recipient

Pfc. U.S. Army Private Infantry Specialist serving out of Fort Benning, Georgia Bravo 1-329, Infantry 3rd Platoon.


Bravo 1-329, Infantry
3rd Platoon stationed in Fort Benning Georgia
Date: Oct. 5, 2004.

     The Story - Military Contributions of the Gutierrez family to the U.S.
   by Yolanda Ochoa Hussey

In Generational order:
1 Blas – Great great grandfather
    2 Lorenzo - Great grandfather
3 Chico - Grandfather
4 Alfred - Father
  5 Joshua - Son


I have been researching my family history for over 8 years and have discovered that my family has served their country proudly through their service in the United States military across several generations. I have to thank my mother Lilly and her 10 brothers and sisters for inspiring me collect and write about their stories.

Recently my uncle Chico Gutierrez shared with me the story of how his grandson Joshua Gutierrez was wounded and had lost his leg in Iraq while searching for two missing soldiers. (Stars and Stripes article below). Joshua who is my second cousin, joined the Army in 2004 with Bravo 1-329 Infantry 3rd Platoon out of Fort Benning Georgia and served in Iraq for 8 months. Joshua’s story first appeared in the Army’s Stars and Stripes newsletter in June 2006. In the article Joshua described what took place on the day he lost not only his leg but some of his brothers in arms as well. They were on a mission to find two missing soldiers who had been kidnapped by insurgents. As I read the Stars & Stripes article, I realized that Joshua as a 5th generation Chicano from Los Angeles, was following in the same footsteps that his father, his great uncles, his great grandfather, and other family members have followed in serving their country proudly.

Joshua Gutierrez’s family history is at least 100 years old in the United States. Joshua’s parents Alfred and Yolanda Gutierrez, and grandparents Chico and Molly Gutierrez, were all born in Los Angeles, California. His paternal grandparents Lorenzo and Petra Gutierrez.

Paternal great great grandparents Blas and Maria Gutierrez, came to the United States with their six children from Jalisco, Chihuahua and Zacatecas, Mexico around 1903. They were early pioneers of both Los Angeles and the Imperial Valley.
                                                                              Great Great Grandfather Blas on horseback
                                                                                         1911 in San Gabriel, California.

Chico Gutierrez and Lilly Gutierrez Ochoa 

Joshua's grandfather Chico Gutierrez with his sister Lilly Gutierrez Ochoa on family history trip to Imperial Valley. 

Lilly Gutierrez Ochoa is the mother of Yolanda Ochoa. Yolanda is a board member of the Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research. She has done extensive research on her lines, traveling back to Guadalajara, Jalisco Mexico.Yolanda stated, "Where I did my mother's family research was Ayotlan.  The town was originally called "Ayo El Chico," but was changed sometime during the 1950's to Ayotlan.  My Mom had never been to Mexico before that Genealogy adventure."

Chico and Lilly are standing in front of the Luna Road street sign. Luna Rd was named after Chico and Lilly's maternal grandfather, Francisco D. Luna who was an original pioneer of Imperial Valley, California.


Joshua’s father Alfred, who recently passed away in September, served in the United States Marine Corps. 

Joshua’s stepbrother Alfred Gutierrez Jr. served in the United States Navy.


Joshua’s great grandfather Lorenzo Gutierrez proudly served in the United States Army during World War I. Joshua has several great uncles and cousins who also served proudly during World War II, the Korean War, and the Viet Nam War as well.

According Joshua’s grandfather, Joshua has been undergoing physical therapy and is making great progress with the support of his wife Valerie, daughter Abreanna, and his extended family. He is also walking again with his new prosthetic leg. Once Joshua leaves the service, he plans to continue his education.  (See article below.)

What I find interesting about some of the facets of family history research is that you find similar experiences along the way between members of your family across several generations. These stories are what make family history research rewarding for me.
Great Grandfather, Lorenzo C. Gutierrez
                U.S. Army, World War I

In sharing this story of Joshua, I hope to encourage future generations of young Latinos to be proud of their heritage and to recognize their long and historical presence in the United States.

Soldier loses leg in search for missing soldiers
By Steve Mraz, Stars and Stripes, Mideast edition, Wednesday, June 21, 2006
Sent by SHHAR Board member, Yolanda Ocha Hussey, who writes:  Joshua is the grandson of my mother's brother Chico Job Gutierrez.  Joshua's father (my 1st cousin), Fred Gutierrez was also in the Marines.

Tom Crawford / Courtesy of U.S. Army
Spc. Joshua Gutierrez discusses the mission he was on late Friday and early Saturday to locate two missing soldiers in Iraq. During the mission, Gutierrez suffered wounds to both his legs when the Bradley he was driving hit a mine or roadside bomb. A portion of Gutierrez’s right leg had to be amputated. The 24-year-old soldier from the 4th Infantry Division was recovering Tuesday at Landstuhl Regional Medical Center, Germany.

LANDSTUHL, Germany — Find the missing soldiers and get to them before the worst could happen. That’s what was going through the mind of Spc. Joshua Gutierrez late Friday and early Saturday as he was driving a Bradley fighting vehicle during a mission to locate Army Pfc. Kristian Menchaca, 23, of Houston, and Army Pfc. Thomas L. Tucker, 25, of Madras, Ore.

"They’re soldiers," said an emotional Gutierrez from a bed in the intensive care unit at Landstuhl Regional Medical Center. "Just like me. They’re soldiers. Just like me."

Gutierrez was one of 12 troops wounded in the search for Menchaca and Tucker, who went missing Friday near Youssifiyah, Iraq, in an apparent kidnapping by heavily armed insurgents. The bodies of Menchaca and Tucker were recovered Tuesday near where they were captured, U.S. and Iraqi military officials said.

Gutierrez, with 1st Platoon "Punishers," Company A, 1st Battalion, 67th Armored Regiment, 2nd Brigade, 4th Infantry Division, was part of a massive search for the two missing soldiers that involved more than 8,000 U.S. and Iraqi troops.

The 24-year-old Gutierrez, of Mira Loma, Calif., was driving a Bradley early Saturday morning during the search north of Iskandariyah when it hit what he thinks was either a mine or improvised bomb.

Initially, Gutierrez thought he was going to burn to death. He was trying to open the ramp to let soldiers in the back out of the Bradley.

"I was basically yelling because the cockpit was on fire," he said. "My driver’s area was on fire. I was like, ‘Get me out of here. I can’t move.’ I couldn’t push up. I could grip the handle [on the hatch], but I couldn’t push up because it weighs about 150 pounds. Usually, I use my legs to help push it up, but my legs were broken. I didn’t know they were broken at the time."

The gunner on the Bradley — a fellow specialist — jumped out of his seat, opened the hatch and pulled out Gutierrez.  Gutierrez heard the specialist might get a Bronze Star Medal for saving him.  "I hope he does," Gutierrez said. "He deserves it. He pulled me out. I just want to tell him I love him; you’re my brother. He pulled me out of the fire."

Gutierrez suffered severe injuries to both his legs. He arrived at Landstuhl Regional Medical Center on Sunday. His left leg is fractured, and a portion of his right leg had to be amputated as a result of the blast.  "It’s fine," he said. "I’ll deal with it."

Gutierrez, who had just learned that the bodies of Menchaca and Tucker had been found, had a message for their families.  "I’d just like to tell them that their efforts and their courage and bravery is not in vain," Gutierrez said. "There’s a reason 
all this happened, even if the reason still escapes them. There’s a good reason behind all this."

"They did not die in vain," he said.

© 2006 Stars and Stripes. All Rights Reserved.

                                                                                                                                     Joshua, his wife Valerie and 
                                                                                                                                         and daughter, Abreanna



Dia de los Muertos display 
by Kathleen Carrizal-Frye honoring her father, 2005
Daniel R. Carrizal
Donna Hooks Fletcher Historical Museum, Donna, Texas 


Farewell Marine
Very moving photo documentary written by Sandra Lee (James) Gilcher who resides in Yakima, Washington, Proud Mother of a United States Marine.

Dedicated to the 26 Marines and 1 Sailor, of the 1st Battalion 3rd Marine Regiment
stationed out of Kaneohe Bay, Marine Corps Base Hawaii, and 4 Marine aircrew members of HMH-361 stationed out of Miramar, California. 31 heroes we lost in a helicopter crash near Ar Rutbah, Iraq on January 26, 2005, and in honor of those Marines who will carry on.

Produced by Julie Sharp, who now resides in Tucson, Arizona, Proud Mother of a United States Marine. Sent by Willie Perez

Immigrants find military a faster path to citizenship
By James Pinkerton, Houston Chronicle, Sept 14, 2006
Sent by Zeke Hernandez

SAN JUAN, TEXAS - A record number of immigrants are becoming U.S. citizens by serving in the armed forces. Some are granted citizenship posthumously after they are killed in battle. But most survive the perils of war and soon pledge allegiance to the red, white and blue.

More than 25,000 immigrants have become citizens and another 40,000 have become eligible for citizenship through the military since President Bush signed an executive order in July 2002 speeding the process.

"We've had a record surge of applications," said Dan Kane, a spokesman for U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services in Washington. Immigrants "can apply for
citizenship immediately, the day they are sworn in as members of the military."

The 40,000 immigrants in the U.S. military can become citizens after only a year of active duty instead of the previous three years, Kane said.

Only legal residents — or immigrants who entered the country illegally and then applied for residency — can enter the armed forces. And while the fast track to citizenship is a strong lure for some, it's not the main reason many Latino immigrants sign up, say military recruiters in the Rio Grande Valley.

"I'd put No. 1, the educational benefits," said U.S. Marine Gunnery Sgt. Levi Garcia, a Brownsville recruiter and himself an immigrant from Nicaragua. "No. 2, work experience, and three would be serving their country, or patriotism."

Citizenship benefits are a distant fourth, he said. Kane agreed, rejecting the idea that immigrants join to become citizens.

"Immigrants who come into the military are doing it because of a strong sense of patriotism. They are embracing their adoptive country," he said. "When I hear people saying they are signing up to be citizens, it denigrates their service."

"They're there because they want to make a contribution. ... They want to give back to America."

Fast-track perk: Typical is the case of Delia Gutierrez, 18, an immigrant from San Luis Potosi state in Mexico. She said she didn't join the Marines for citizenship. She signed up out of gratitude to the United States. But she'll also apply for citizenship, taking advantage of the fast-track perk.

Citizenship comes posthumously for some immigrants. Since the 9/11 attacks, at least 80 immigrant troops have been declared U.S. citizens after being killed in Iraq or Afghanistan, U.S. officials say.

Julio Cisneros Alvarez, 22, a native of Reynosa, Mexico, had joined the Marine Corps and hoped that the U.S. government would help him pay for medical school.  But his plans were cut short in January 2005, a little more than a year after he enlisted. A machine gunner, he was killed when a rocket-propelled grenade hit his Humvee during a nighttime patrol in Iraq.

A month later, in a somber ceremony at the U. S. immigration offices in Harlingen, his mother accepted a certificate granting him U.S. citizenship. "Julio went because he wanted to be a doctor," said his mother, Senobia "Marta" Alvarez, 40, a South Texas cantina owner.

He also wanted to fight terrorism, she said, so that his mother and his two brothers, Marcos and Santos, would have a secure future. A 3-foot-tall poster of the slain Marine in his uniform is taped to a long mirror behind the bar at the family's cantina.

"Hopefully, this county will recognize the sacrifice he and all the others made over there — and that people never forget them," said Alvarez, as she wiped tears from her eyes.

Laws passed in 2003 and 2004 grant citizenship to immigrants killed in combat, give priority status to surviving spouses and children, and waive processing fees. 

The provisions have allowed about 1,000 service members to become citizens while serving at overseas military bases in Iraq, Kuwait and Afghanistan, at U.S. Embassies, and even aboard warships. The citizenship ceremonies are sometimes held close to the battlefield. In July, for instance, 69 active duty service members took the oath of allegiance at a military camp in Balad, Iraq.

Leaders of some Hispanic groups say immigrants' sacrifices in war aren't always acknowledged, especially by those pushing to seal the U.S.-Mexico border. "How can we tell our young men and women to fight overseas to defend our nation ... when Congress is falling over itself to punish their families, neighbors and friends by deporting them?" said Brent Wilkes, director of the League of United Latin American Citizens in Washington.

At least 18 troops from the Rio Grande Valley have been killed in Iraq , according to the Defense Department. That's "way more" than the area's "fair share," Cameron County Judge Gilberto Hinojosa said.

The poverty plaguing South Texas, he contends, drives many Latinos to sign up. Not long after Sept. 11, 2001, Alvarez, then 17, tried to join the military. But he couldn't because he was not yet a legal resident, his mother said.

After finally making it into the Marines and reaching Iraq, he called home and told his mother that he was there for her and the family. "I'm here for your security, and for Marcos and Santos," she recalled him saying.

Website information sent by JD Villarreal
V Corps' Lt. Gen. Ricardo Sanchez, commander of Combined Joint Task Force-7, speaks with Albanian coalition troops at the Mosul, Iraq airfield August 23, 2003. (Photo by Spc. Joshua Hutcheson)

Lt. Gen. Ricardo S. Sanchez assumed command of V Corps in Baghdad, Iraq on June 14, 2003. He relinquished command of the corps September 6, 2006.  The photos highlight some of the key moments in the general's three-year-plus command of the corps. 

July 2003  V Corps' Lt. General Ricardo Sanchez, commander of Combined Joint Task Force-7, greets Gen. John Abizaid, commander of U.S. Central Command, upon Abizaid's arrival at Baghdad Air Base for a visit with coalition troops July 20, 2003. (Photo By Master Sgt. Robert R. Hargreaves Jr.)

August 2003 V Corps' Lt. Gen. Ricardo Sanchez, commander of Combined Joint Task Force-7, speaks with Albanian coalition troops at the Mosul, Iraq airfield August 23, 2003. (Photo by Spc. Joshua Hutcheson)

November 2003 V Corps' Lt. Gen. Ricardo Sanchez, commander of Combined Joint Task Force-7, greets President George W. Bush during the president's surprise Thanksgiving visit to troops in Baghdad, November 27, 2003. (Department of Defense photo)

December 2003 V Corps' Lt. Gen. Ricardo Sanchez, then commander of Combined Joint Task Force-7, and Ambassador L. Paul Bremmer, then administrator of the Coalition Provisional Authority, announce the capture of Saddam Hussein to media representatives in Baghdad December 14, 2003. (Photo by Staff Sgt. Reynaldo Ramon)

January 2004  V Corps' Lt. Gen. Ricardo Sanchez, commander of Combined Joint Task Force- 7, watches 705 recruits from the 2nd Battalion of the Iraqi army march onto a parade field in Taji, Iraq January 6, 2004. The recruits received nine weeks of basic training plus additional advanced training before assisting the 1st Armored Division to conduct military operations in and around Baghdad. (Photo by Staff Sgt. Reynaldo Ramon)

March 2004  Lt. Gen. Ricardo Sanchez, commander of V Corps and Combined Joint Task Force-7 (right) and U.S. Army Europe commander Gen. B.B. Bell attach the Meritorious Unit Commendation streamer the corps earned during its first deployment to Iraq to the V Corps flag during the official ceremony to welcome the corps home from that deployment, March 19, 2004 at Campbell Barracks in Heidelberg, Germany. (Photo by Bill Roche) 

May 2004  V Corps and Combined Joint Task Force-7 Commander Lt. Gen. Ricardo Sanchez cases the CJTF-7 during a ceremony in Baghad to inactivate CJTF-7 and activate Multi-National Force - Iraq and Multi-National Corps - Iraq in its place May 15, 2004. (Photo by Pfc. Bryce S. Dubee)

September 2004  V Corps Commander Lt. Gen. Ricardo S. Sanchez greets a World War II veteran at a Pentagon ceremony honoring Hispanic veterans of the war September 15, 2004. (Department of Defense photo)

October 2004  In the V Corps tactical operations center for exercise Victory Start at the Grafenwoehr (Germany) Training Area, corps Commander Lt. Gen. Ricardo Sanchez participates in a conference call with commanders of the corps' major subordinate units October 14, 2004. (Photo by Spc. Kristopher Joseph)

January 2006  Lt. Gen. Ricardo S. Sanchez, V Corps commanding general, addresses corps troops during their farewell ceremony for the Soldiers' second deployment to Operation Iraqi Freedom, at Campbell Barracks in Heidelberg, Germany January 3, 2006. (Photo by Spc. Matthis Chiroux)

September 2006 Lt. Gen. Ricardo S. Sanchez watches as Soldiers representing the corps units he commanded pass in review during the general’s relinquishment of command ceremony at Campbell Barracks in Heidelberg, Germany September 6. (Photo by Gary Kieffer)

September 2006  V Corps Commanding General Lt. Gen. Ricardo Sanchez (left) prepares to relinquish command of the corps by accepting the corps flag from corps Command Sgt. Maj. Ralph Beam during a ceremony at Campbell Barracks in Heidelberg, Germany September 6. The symbolic passing of the flag was completed when Sanchez in turn passed the colors to U.S. Army Europe Commander Gen. David McKiernan (center) and McKiernan returned the flag to Beam. (Photo by Gary Kieffer)

Maj. General Ricardo S. Sanchez, of Rio Grande City, Texas, is one of nine Hispanic generals in U.S. Army history. Six of them hail from South Texas. Asked why this is so, Sanchez said: ``It is love of country, a hardworking ethic and a value system that is totally compatible with military life. The Hispanic family is all about loyalty, taking care of each other.

Recommendation from Rafael Ojeda

Some great photos:
General Robert Cardenas:
General Pete Quesada:

Colonel Donald S. Lopez's book "Fighter Pilot's Heaven" can be purchase from the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum click "Publications" then the letter "F".

Hope this will encourage our studies on our Hispanic Military Heroes" to keep the Legacy on our Orgullos Hispanos.

D-Day, Normandy and Beyond

For information on soldiers that served in Normandy:
Search for information by name, unit or location. 
You can both read and add stories, search cemeteries, see books recommended and much more.  Sent by Janete Vargas

Puerto Rican in the Military
Here are two of the best ones that I would like to recommend.
Rafael Ojeda

The second one give a good history and account of the 65th Infantry in Korea and
the injustice to them. There is a movie being made about these court marital at


The North Side of San Antonio Silvia Villarreal Bisner
Kite Flying Contest by Ramon Moncivais
Chicken Chistes by Ben Romero 
Los Cuentos de Kiko, Frank Sifuentes by podcast
Traveling through Arkansas - Mike Lozano  Looking for Greener Grass



By Sylvia Villarreal Bisnar

In 1941, I was six years old. My parents decided that it was time to move to a larger home. They found a nice house on West Ashby Street, so we all moved to the “north side” of San Antonio.” This was the side of town where the more prosperous people lived. I don’t recall the move itself, but I do remember that my sister, Lydia, and I got our own room with brand new Jenny Lind twin beds. No more bunk beds. Hooray.

We got our first refrigerator when we moved into our new home. No more wooden ice boxes that could fall over. One evening when my parents went out, and we had a babysitter, we were all excited because having a babysitter was a rare treat for us in those days, and she was our favorite babysitter, Marie Calderon. When she got there, we rushed to show her our new home and our new refrigerator. During the evening, we kept opening and closing the door to see if the light would go off. Well, on the front of the door was a round gauge with a needle in the middle. At the bottom of the gauge was a “red zone” with the words “danger” written on it. So, after many opening and closings of the door many times, the needle soon went to the” danger zone.” We got scared and we all ran out of the kitchen into the front room because we thought that the refrigerator might blow up. We stayed awake really late until our parents came home so they could “fix it.” When we told my dad what happened, he said “its okay. It won’t blow up, but don’t open and close the door so much because the inside gets warm and the food will spoil.” So, after that we were really careful not to open the door so often.

One day, not long after the move, my dad came home with a brand new car. It was a 1941 Plymouth sedan, big, shiny and black. He had been promoted from janitor to salesman. At the meat provision company he worked for. Can we go for a ride” I asked. My mother came out of the house, still in her apron, and said, “What have you done now, Rudy?” He responded, “I needed a new car. You need a nice car when you are a salesman.” “Can we go for a ride?” I asked again. My dad then said, “Okay, everybody in. We are going for a ride.” It had four doors and was so pretty, and of course I was the first one in. I remember that day as though it were yesterday.

Our whole life was different in our new home. We went to a new school and it had two stories. It was a big deal in those days. And there were lots of children in the neighborhood we could play with. We walked three or four blocks to school every day along the unpaved street. At the corner of our street was a wooden bridge over a creek and we would sit under it just to listen to the sound the cars would make as they drove over the wooden boards. It was really fun and we thought we were doing something dangerous.

Around the corner from the bridge was a small neighborhood store. “Mama, give me a penny so I can buy a jawbreaker,” I asked. “Here’s one for each of you, go together and stay together,” she responded. So off we went for our jawbreakers. I always bought a red one because it was, and still is, my favorite color. Jawbreakers are large, hard; round candies like big marbles that were so big they could hardly fit in our mouths. They were too big to bite down on, so we would suck on them all day, and sometimes the next day.

Since the three of us children were so close in age and our birthdays were only two weeks apart – my sister, Lydia, was born on March 2, 1934, I was born on February 14, 1935, and my brother, Rene, was born on March 1, 1936 -- my mother gave us a birthday party on the same day that year. There were a lot of people at our party. I was unhappy because Rene could wear pants and couldn’t. I had to wear a silly “frilly” dress like my sister. I was a “tomboy” and didn’t like to wear dresses. My mother also liked to comb my light brown curly hair into ringlets. Shirley Temple was popular at that time and my mother wanted me to look like her. I hated it. I wanted straight hair like my sister. I also I wanted to wear pants like my brother. Well, the party went well, until I “messed up” my pretty new dress by playing with the boys in the garage. I really got into trouble for that.

This was the year that we started going to the Movies alone. The theater was only a few blocks away and my mother would drop us off around noon and we would spend the whole afternoon there. What a time we had at the Saturday Matinees. Sometimes we even got to go again on Sundays. Boy, we were the luckiest kids in the world, and would brag about this to all our friends. No one else’s parents let them spend that much time at the movies. And, of course, we were always given a nickel to buy a bag of popcorn. To this day, I still have to have popcorn at the movies. We would see cartoons, serials and two feature films, and, of course, the Newsreels about the war far away across the ocean. My favorite movies were always the Westerns, and “Little Beaver” was my favorite character. He was an Indian boy, about my age who got to run around wearing only a loincloth carrying a bow and arrow. He always helped Red Ryder, the good Cowboy, get the Bad Cowboys. Roy Rogers was another favorite. He was so handsome and sang beautiful songs about the West. And, of course, his horse was big and beautiful. “When I grow up I’m going to be a Cowboy” I would say. And my sister always corrected me. “Cowgirl, she would say; you’re a girl. “No,” I would respond, “a Cowboy. “ After the movies, we would come home and I would play Cowboy and Indians with my brother while my sister would play in the house with her paper dolls. “Why can’t you be more like your sister” I often heard from my Mom & Dad. It was a mystery to me too.

My Uncle Tony, my mother’s younger brother, came to live with us for a short while. He was 20 years old, very tall and handsome, and, of course, we thought he was wonderful. He loved to play Hide and Seek with us and tease us. One day he found a small dog in the middle of a busy street and brought him home to us. “Can we keep him, Mama, please? Can we keep him? “My dad didn’t like animals, but he relented because we made such a fuss. We named him Buster. Well, Buster turned out to be a German shepherd and before long he got so big that he began to jump on us and knock us down. So, one day, while we were at school, my dad took him away to live with friends who owned a ranch. We cried because he was gone. But, Buster didn’t forget us. About six months later, he came home all by himself. He just walked into the yard like he belonged there. I ran inside and yelled, “Mama, Buster came back. Hurry, he’s outside. Look. He came back. Can we keep him?” Well, my mother said we couldn’t keep him and as soon as my dad came home he took Buster back to his friend’s house. We didn’t have a dog again for several years, and then it was a small dog.

This was also the year that I learned about discrimination. Some of the kids in the neighborhood were not allowed to play with us because we were “Mexican.” I didn’t understand. We didn’t look any different from the other kids, so why? My parents spoke perfect English without an accent. My dad had a ruddy complexion, red hair and light brown eyes. My mother’s family had been in Texas since 1731 and her great-grandfather had been mayor of San Antonio; my dad’s family had been in Texas at least generations. It was our name, “Villarreal,” that made the difference. My mother’s maiden name was “Buquor,” which is French, so discrimination was new to her, too. Even though she had a dark complexion, she had never been discriminated against until she married my dad. I remember coming home one day and saying that I didn’t want to be a Mexican because “Susie” couldn’t play with me. My mother said, “Don’t worry about it. You’ll make other friends to play with. Just stay away from the kids who don’t like Mexicans.” Well, we didn’t stay on the “North side” very long because of this. One day, my dad said, “Let’s move back to the Southside where we belong. Maybe things will be different.”

So in the summer of 1942, when I was seven years old, we moved into our new home on the south side of San Antonio not far from my grandmother’s house. But, things never really changed. It would take a lot of years, and I felt inferior all the years I lived in San Antonio.



Kite Flying Contest by Ramon Moncivais
from Beneath the Shadow of the Capitol

Ramon was greatly influenced by his grandfather.  His autobiography is filled with stories reflecting his grandfather's wise counsel. This incident occurred when Ramon was about 10 years old.]]

I was looking forward to a kite-flying contest in our neighborhood.   All kites had to be homemade, and the highest-flying kite would be the winner.  Even though there would be no prizes, everyone was excited.  Most families went across the street to the Red and White Grocery Store and bought a piece of butcher paper for two cents, but not us.   My grandfather said he would make our kite out of newspapers.

I said, "Our kite will be ugly, and we can't paint, it."

He reminded, me, "It is not how it looks, but how it performs.  Remember, this contest is to see which kite flies the highest.  Not which one is the prettiest."

On a Saturday morning, 11 kites took to the sky.  ten were all butcher paper and painted with different colors  Ours looked like the want ads on sticks.  the other kites were made with thin pieces of lumber.  My grandfather and I were the only ones that had used very thin strips of bamboo, and we used materials from an old shirt for the tail.

Eight kites never got off the ground.  We won! My grandfather told me that our kite flew the highest because of the light bamboo and newspaper.  and he told me to remember, "It's not what you look like.  It's what you're made of."

Price of book: $14.95 plus $1.25 sales tax and $1.59 for postage = $17.79. 
If you wish to order, please send check or money order to: 
Ramon Moncivais
5110 Meadow Creek Dr.
Austin, Tx. 78745
Cell: 512.441.4900


Chicken Chistes,  An Anthology  of Southwestern Humor
Latest book by Ben Romero, Release date November, 2006
Below is an example of the charming little life cameos that Ben shares.

By Ben Romero, Dedicated to my son, Pedro Andrés Romero

“Dad, how much farther till we get there?” 

My son’s impatience was something I’d learned to live with. His eyes beamed with excitement as we headed for the Cherry Auction in my pick-up. 

“It’s just a few more miles,” I assured him. At eight years of age, everything we did together was an adventure.

“I want to buy a big strong rooster that will make our chickens lay eggs every day. But we’re only going to eat half of them. Okay, Dad? The other half are for hatching.”

“Ah-huh,” I nodded. “Maybe we’ll find some young laying hens too. I’ve seen real pretty birds at the auction. It all depends on the price.”

“How much do they cost?”

“Well, the good ones get auctioned. That means people bid on them. They usually start at one or two dollars. The person who is willing to pay the most, gets to buy them.”

We arrived long before the bidding started, giving us a chance to view the birds and livestock. Soon a heavyset man in a stained undershirt stood facing the crowd and announced the bird auction was about to begin. He was a jolly man with a feminine flair and noticeable lisp.

The birds were brought out in crates. The first ones were colorful game birds. I was amazed at the price people were willing to pay. Some sold for twenty dollars or more. I was sure some would be used for illegal cockfighting. My son and I were waiting for a small flock of fluffy, white chickens, called Silkies. They were going to be auctioned off in a group. 

After what seemed like ages, the man in the undershirt reached inside a crate and held the beautiful white Silkie rooster. “Who’ll give me a dollar for each Thilkie?”

My son yanked my arm. “Tell him, Dad. Tell him we want the rooster!”

Another man raised his hand. “One dollar.”

“I have a dollar. Do I hear two?”

“Two dollars,” said another man.”

My son moved to the front of the crowd to get a better look. I waited a few minutes for the bidding to quiet down before getting involved. I planned not to exceed three and a half dollars per bird.

“I have two-fifty. Do I hear three?”

I raised my hand. “Three dollars.” That should do it, I thought.

“I have three dollarths. Do I hear three and a half?”


“Do I hear three and a quarter?”

The auctioneer pointed to someone in the crowd. “Three and a quarter. I have three and a quarter. Do I hear three and a half?”

I raised my hand. “Three and a half.”

“I have three and a half for thith Thilkie. Do I hear three theventy-five?”

Silence.  I moved forward through the crowd. 

“Three and a half going oneth, going twith…I have three theventy-five!”

That’s it, I thought. Let the other guy have them.

“Going oneth, going twith, thold for three theventy-five!”

As I reached the front and stood next to my son, he blurted, “Four. We’ll pay four.”

“Don’t be thilly,” said the auctioneer. “You already got them for three theventy-five each.”

I looked down at my son. “Was that you bidding against me?”

“Well, we won.” he smirked.

The crowd had a good laugh. The auctioneer’s belly wiggled as he tried to restrain his laughter. 

The six birds cost me twenty-two fifty. It seemed high at the time, but the memory is worth many times the price. 

$17.95, available at my website if they wish to have it signed (and quicker delivery), or through the publisher at
Questions or comments

Los Cuentos de Kiko

     I'm so happy to introduce Frank Moreno Sifuentes to the Nuestra Familia Unida podcast community. In this series of Oral History Cuentos expect to hear about one family, but the experiences are those of an immigrant nation. 
Here is the latest batch of great stories by Kiko Moreno Sifuentes,  posted by Joseph Puentes 

     Frank Moreno Sifuentes, 74. I was born in Austin, Texas when its population was only 38,000 (now around l,000,000!) In l950 joined the U.S. Navy during the Korean War. After getting out fell in love with Sarah Diaz; and married in Compton, CA. We had three daughters and three sons; and now have 11 grandchildren and two great grandchildren.

     Both of us had careers in human services. After retiring on Social Security we became resident managers for low-income Seniors in l997 and now live at the Patrician Apts. and administer a 87 unit complex. Graduated from UCLA 1962 in History & Spanish. Got a Certificate in Youth Counseling at Arizona State University. Was deeply involved in the Chicano Social Movement 1965 to the present.  Have been writing essays, stories, letters, resolutions, press releases since l964. The last 10 years worked as Public Relations & Resource Development for Health Education and Children's Services.

===> "Carlos Ibanez - English" by Frank Moreno Sifuentes

===> "Carlos Ibanez - Spanish" by Frank Moreno Sifuentes

===> "Getting Further Away From Our Roots" by Frank Moreno Sifuentes

===> "George Chapo's Father" by Frank Moreno Sifuentes 

===> "Illegal Immigrants" by Frank Moreno Sifuentes

===> "Los Prietos de la Calle Ancha" by Frank Moreno Sifuentes

===> "You Never Read Them Books!" by Frank Moreno Sifuentes

===> "Requerdos De Mi Padre, Benito Sifuentes" by Frank Moreno Sifuentes

===> "My Step Father Tomas Martinez" by Frank Moreno Sifuentes

===> "Yvette 'La Vette' " by Frank Moreno Sifuentes

===> "Summer On Route 66" by Frank Moreno Sifuentes

Traveling through Arkansas - 

From Mike Lozano's book Looking for Greener Grass

We entered Arkansas on Interstate 40 and headed east across the state. We followed parallel to the great Arkansas River. We decided for some crazy reason to cut across the Ozark National Forest and the Quachita Mountains. Abandoning the speed and safety of the interstate highways can sometimes be a reward with slowing down to see the people and small towns of America. In this case it was a huge mistake. We were lost for eight hours in some of the roughest country you could imagine with no way to get back on a major highway. We drove all night up one mountain and down another. It was dark and isolated. There were practically no services for travelers and nothing was open at that time of the night. My truck struggled every mile trying to get up one hill after the next.

By morning we were still inching along. In the morning light we saw for sale signs for just about every item you could imagine. We decided to stop and look at one yard sale and to ask why this informal selling was so pervasive here. The man at the sale said that people from around these parts are very resourceful when it comes to selling, repairing or bartering for goods and services. The informal business deal known as bartering is alive and well in Arkansas. If one person needs something fixed they trade something in exchange for the repair. As we went on we saw numerous signs for auctions and yard sales all along the way. It seems as if everything here is recycled or bought used. Nothing is wasted. 

We finally found a restaurant and gas station that were open. It was a dusty old place called the Catfish Shack or something. Everything on the menu seemed to be fried fish or chicken. We ordered some catfish rolled in cornmeal batter fried in boiling peanut oil. The meal also included some hush puppies and cole slaw. It was very good, but the grease gave my stomach problems later on in the day. Catfish and gold fish are two very important products to the Arkansas economy. 

I thought most gold fish came from Japan. I keep Koi fish and gold fish at my home as a hobby. I have gained many hours of enjoyment tinkering with my fish pond in my yard and several aquariums in my house. I have always been interested in gold fish because they are so big and colorful. Arkansas is both an aqua-culture and an agriculture state. Arkansas is second only to Mississippi in catfish and gold fish aqua farming. More rice and broiler chickens are produced here than anywhere in the United States. 

We finally got to the Quachita River which is the western most landmark that Spanish Conquistador Hernando De Soto reached at the same time that Coronado was exploring Kansas and New Mexico in 1541. De Soto had entered from Florida and explored west to as far as Arkansas and Coronado had entered New Mexico and had explored all the way to the Pacific Ocean. Between the two Spanish expeditions they had spanned the Continent. Neither Spaniard knew of the each others movements. They were only 300 miles apart at their closest distance but both were at their limit of exploring and decided to try to get back to Mexico before they perished. Coronado made it back, but De Soto died on the Mississippi. 

We came upon this city named Stuttgart and I wondered why it had a German name. This area is called the Grand Prairie and is sort of a natural rice paddy. At the turn of the century the Rock Island Railroad owned a lot of land in this area and decided to advertise this land for sale and the Germans took up the challenge and came here to start a rice growing industry. These immigrants bought their values, culture and a hard work ethic to Arkansas creating a new productive and vibrant community. 

Today Latino's are bringing the same 21st century version of progress to Arkansas. Today's Latinos now are being used as scapegoats for all social anxieties that long time citizens are experiencing. A wave of Mexicans started coming to Arkansas in the early 1990s. This coincided with Tyson Foods expanding its poultry and meat packing business. In a bigger way our country had passed the NAFTA free trade agreement in North America. This sent thousands of manufacturing jobs that U.S. workers had done to cheap labor markets. At the same time 80 percent of the U.S. workforce was now in the service sector which traditionally hired lower cost workers. But Mexico was going through its own recession and the devaluation of its peso. The economic collapse in Mexico sent a steady stream of Mexicans across the border looking for anyway they could find to feed their families. 

These immigrants were just like thousands of other immigrants from other countries who came here looking for the land of opportunity. Arkansas has long advertised itself as the land of opportunity. These two forces came together to draw thousands of Mexicans to Arkansas to work for Tyson Foods and in many other jobs that used cheap labor. Arkansas quickly became the leading state of Hispanic population growth increasing 337 percent from the 1990 census count. 

The census figures show that 86,866 Arkansas residents identify themselves as Hispanic. Academics who have studied immigration such as Judith Gans from the Udall Center for Studies in Public Policy, at the University of Arizona have found striking similarities between the way immigration was shaped in the early 1900s and present - day immigration politics. 

She found in her research that the popular conception that all Americans have certain unalienable rights is not true for all Americans. On the other hand there is the liberal - individualist view that Historian Philip Gleason stated on what is needed to become an American citizen, "a person did not have to be of any particular national, linguistic, religious, or ethnic background. All he had to do was to commit himself to the political ideology centered on the abstract ideals of liberty, equality, and republicanism." It has been shown that there is a definite hidden agenda when it comes to determining what groups are deemed fit to be citizens. 

What really happens is that there are systematic "restrictions on voting rights, naturalization, and immigration." Research has found that "American laws declared most people in the world legally ineligible to become full U.S. citizens solely because of their race, original nationality or gender…those racial, ethnic, and gender restrictions were blatant, not "latent,"…."For these people, citizenship rules gave no weight to how liberal, republican, or faithful to other American values their political beliefs might be." So who were these people who were the so called ones who came here legally and by following the rules. 

Well, in their research it was found that they were mainly people from northern European countries that our leaders felt were suitable for citizenship. These very same leaders of our country built alliances with Asian exclusionists and appealed to Northern and Southern racists by arguing for exclusion of "inferior" southern and eastern Europeans. Today descendents of these Eastern Europeans like Lou Dobbs a CNN News Anchor and Republican congressman Jim Sensenbrenner of Wisconsin lead the debate in trying to deny the rights of people they feel are unfit for citizenship. They have coupled their veiled racist agenda with concerns over terrorism. In her immigration report Professor Gans states, "Today's concerns over terrorism strongly echo Progressive Era concerns about communism and have caused similar xenophobic fears based on ethnicity and religion. These changes have combined to bring questions of culture and national identity to the forefront and created fertile ground for the voices of ascriptive citizenship and nativism to emerge in organized fashion in political, social, and academic circles." 

In America in the early 1900s Protestant law makers from Northern European heritage were the dominant force in government. They passed legislation on immigration based on the ascriptive characteristics like race, where they were born, what religion they practiced, and what language they spoke. In order to keep their hold on the power of the electorate the white Protestant elite made laws that strengthened their politics of nativism where they excluded citizenship to people from countries that did not match their Northern European roots. They hid their real agenda by waging media campaigns supported by writings by Anglo-Saxon academics who advocated that, "progress of civilization" decreased the need for unskilled labor from undesirable countries and that their presence in our society increased our national security by exposing us to class antagonisms and terrorism. What is happening today is really a replay of the same thing that happened 100 years ago. It all sounds so familiar. Back then they had people like Harvard economist Richard Mayo-Smith challenging the idea of the need for robust unskilled laborers from non Northern European countries. Today, we have Harvard graduate Lou Dobbs of CNN spewing his anti- immigrant harangues everyday. He has decided that Mexican immigrants should be his target and has veiled is racist arguments under the legitimate cloak that undocumented immigrants harm working middle class citizens and expose America to the threat of terrorism. Back in the early twentieth century they had Progressive sociologist Edward A. Ross who advocated a political doctrine that spoke of "simple minded immigrants" being used by, " big city bosses to neutralize the anti-machine ballots of an equal number of indignant intelligent American voters. " Today, we have Wisconsin Republican Congressman Jim Sensenbrenner who wants to deport millions of hard working undocumented immigrants and to build an iron curtain along our southern border with Mexico in order to keep out these undesirable twenty first century immigrants. He also wants to criminalize illegal immigrants and classify all those who aid undocumented immigrants as criminal smugglers, including family members, churches, employers and hospitals. In answer to Lou Dobbs argument that these immigrants are hurting the middle class working men and women of our country. AFL-CIO Union President John Sweeney said, "America's broken immigration system has allowed employers to create a low-wage labor pool of immigrant workers that is easily exploitable… when employers drive down wages and working conditions for one group of workers, they harm us all. The U. S. department of Labor, for example has found the poultry industry--- with a workforce split about evenly between African Americans and immigrants - was 100 percent out of compliance with federal wage and hour laws. The answer isn't to make immigrant workers here now disappear, or to turn them into felons, as the bill passed by the Republican majority in the House of Representatives would do. The answer is to deprive employers of the means to exploit them and lower work quality for all of us." 

Congressman Sensenbrenner believes that immigrants are at best criminals and at worst possible terrorists and that we must build an "Iron Curtain" to keep them out. He further states that we must not penalize those that follow the law to become citizens because," U.S. citizenship is a privilege bestowed upon those who appreciate its value, and who contribute to our nation by living in a manner that reflects the principals and ideology of being an American." In answer to Sensenbrenner I quote Catholic Cardinal Roger Mahony who said," What the church supports is an overhaul of the immigration system so that legal status and legal channels for migration replace illegal status and illegal immigration. Enforcement only proposals like the Sensenbrenner legislation take the country in the opposite direction. Increasing penalties, building more detention centers, and erecting walls along our border with Mexico, as the act provides will not solve the problem. 

The legislation will not deter migrants who are desperate to survive and support their families from seeking jobs in the United States. It will only drive them further into the shadows, encourage the creation of more elaborate smuggling networks and cause hardship and suffering." Former Arkansas and White House first Lady Hillary Clinton (D - New York) said about this issue, "This bill would literally criminalize the Good Samaritan and probably even Jesus himself." As we drove out of Arkansas I thought about how I never expected to find so many national issues coming to a head right here in a state more known for its great outdoor recreation and its agriculture than immigration reform and presidential politics. I can only conclude and agree with Irish immigrant, Brian O' Donovan, who feels that an injury to one worker is a injury to all, when he said, "Are we the America of exclusion, impenetrable barriers and mean spirits, or are we still the country that was built on openness, freedom, opportunity to work hard, and the potential for a better life?"



Living by Los Dichos By Christina Perez

Dichos: Spanish sayings or proverbs

Advice is one of the most valuable gifts a mother can give to her daughter. Cristina Pérez turns to her mother's wisdom every day by reflecting on the dichos she taught her. Here Cristina shares those that have most powerfully influenced her life and translates them into solid advice. Any woman looking for guidance -- whether she is about to leave for college or is getting married -- will find what she needs with Cristina's help. Dichos transcend age, race and religion to provide just the right answer at just the right time. Most important, Cristina shows that proudly embracing your roots and staying true to your identity will guide you down the right path. Dichos have directed Cristina through the toughest challenges and led her to success. Now let them lead you. 

Sent by

Chapter One

De mi vida para tu vida

"No hay boca donde no esté,
ni lengua ni país que desconozca,
ni sabiduría que lo sustituya."

(There is no mouth where it is not present,
Neither language nor country it does not know,
No wisdom can replace it.)


Learning Los Dichos

I have to admit that I'm not an expert, I'm not a doctor, and I'm not a therapist. I'm just a woman, a mother, a wife, and a professional who lives and learns from her experiences, her mistakes, her family, and her culture. This is my version of a guidebook based on my life -- from relationships and family to work and cultural identity issues and everything in between! I'm going to cover all the lessons that I learned from my mother and am now passing along to my daughter. I hope that mothers and daughters everywhere can find something in this book to enrich their lives and then pass along to their children.

As you will discover, this book, like my life, is premised on the solid fundamental teachings and lessons I have learned through dichos and wisdom from my family. I choose to use dichos because they are a symbolic vehicle for relatively simple concepts that guide me through certain situations in life. Each chapter includes symbolic dichos relevant to the chapter's content, with my interpretation of them, how I have applied them, and how you the reader can use the dichos to enhance your own life. While I provide an English translation of each dicho, it may not be literal. What I am providing is the moral of each dicho.

"Lo que bien se aprende, nunca se pierde"
(What is well learned is never lost)

In order for a culture to have any kind of longevity, its participants must actively study each stitch of thread that has created the culture and holds it together. Both young and old should learn and live by their culture's wisdom so that it can continue to flourish for future generations. Every culture possesses its own way of passing this wisdom on from generation to generation.

In the Latino culture, dichos act as that intergenerational gateway. Dichos are invaluable proverbs and sayings that succinctly deliver a serious message, value, or belief. They are used to help make a point, teach a life lesson, and validate life's trials and tribulations. Dichos serve as profound lessons to be learned from the life experiences of our forefathers, each incorporating the astuteness of past generations and serving as teaching tools for us to live by today and tomorrow. In learning and living by los dichos we continually breathe life into the inspiring, humorous, and philosophical proverbs that have woven themselves throughout Latino culture for centuries while being blind to educational, economic, and class systems. Dichos are history translated into words.

Thousands of dichos exist -- some humorous, some serious, and some specific to certain countries. Each has a particular meaning that is generally universal and crosses over all cultures.

Dichos provide messages of hope, direction, and guidance just when we need them. When for some reason or another a basic truth escapes us, dichos put us back on track. When we face challenges, dichos offer clarity and direction.

Because of these reasons and many more, dichos are the rules that I live by everyday.

"De tal palo, tal astilla"
(The apple does not fall far from the tree)

This dicho is similar to the English sayings "The apple does not fall far from the tree" and "Like father like son." My parents migrated to the United States from Colombia in the 1960s. They came to this country with essentially nothing except each other and the dream of a better life for themselves and their children. My father is from a large family of modest means, with thirteen brothers and sisters. In fact, my grandmother, my father's mother, was pregnant twenty-two times. My mother is also from a large family of eleven brothers and sisters. My family is a walking and talking billboard for the big Latino family.

Shortly after they were married, my parents decided to move to the United States "temporarily," as is frequently the intention of many immigrants. Their plan was to work and save enough money to one day send my father to medical school and return to Colombia. Forty-plus years later our family is still here.


My father's dream was to become a doctor like his uncle in Colombia, whom he worked for as a young man. The United States, as my father puts it, was the land of "possibility and potential." So he and my mother arrived in Bronx, New York, in 1963, in a country where he and my mother did not know a soul. The idea was to stay for six months and find work. If my father could not find work, then they planned to return home.

An educated man, my father looked for a job wherever he could. His English was not the best, but good enough. However, it seemed that no one had any available openings that he could fill. He recalls being turned away the moment the potential employer looked at him or heard him speak. He resorted to employment agencies that were also of no help. Finally, he found a job at a hospital, in housekeeping, and worked as a janitor. The hospital was one and a half hours away from the Bronx. He earned fifty dollars a week and would spend at least one third of his pay traveling to and from the job, so he was forced to live at housing provided by the hospital. He visited my mother only on the weekends. At the time, she was pregnant with my sister.

After a short while, my father decided he needed a better job and for thirty days, he walked the streets searching. He finally found a new job with a watch company in Manhattan and was able to reunite with my mother. He also moved her to a safer neighborhood in Queens. My father worked there for over five years doing piecework on an assembly line. At this time, the watch company contracted with the United States government to make, among other things, timers for bazookas used in the Vietnam War.

My father felt like he experienced plenty of discrimination at this job from other employees who had been working there for a long time. The most senior pieceworkers were comfortable in their environment and the guy who produced the most pieces was admired as the "stud" of the workplace. When my father came along, he believed that the senior workers were threatened by this new one-man workforce. You see, my father the future surgeon, was very good with his hands and worked fast. Instead of respecting him for his good work they made fun of him. They would chastise him, saying things like, "Of course he has to work fast! He can't speak English very well so that's all he has to do." My father didn't take it personally because he knew that job was a stepping stone, but for the other workers it may have been their final destination. Nevertheless, the workers made it so uncomfortable for my father that the supervisor finally told him, "Don't worry about these jokers. If you can make more pieces than anyone else, do it because we pay by the piece. Knock yourself out." He received $1.79 per one thousand pieces. The average worker made 1,000 to 1,200 pieces per hour. My father knew he had to push himself to provide for his growing family (my brother had arrived by then), and to realize his dream of becoming a surgeon. He pushed himself to produce over 2,300 pieces per hour.

While working full time, he decided to enroll full time at Manhattan Medical School to become a laboratory technician. After graduating, my father, finally armed with improved credentials, was able to obtain better paying jobs with different hospitals in New York City and eventually became a laboratory supervisor at a blood bank.

My father's principal goal during this time was to move his family to a better neighborhood. After continually being told he could not afford it with only fifty dollars in his checking account, he bought our first home in Bethpage, New York. He borrowed all he could and for the next five years he worked two full-time jobs and one part-time job until he paid off his loans. He even managed to save enough money for medical school.

At that moment my father felt that he had worked enough -- it was time to obtain his medical degree and become a doctor. He reminded himself of his goal: "I came to the United States to find work, make money, and pursue my goal of becoming a doctor." Obviously, he could have just continued working for the rest of his life at jobs that paid the bills and supported his family but did little else. He asked himself, "Why did I come to America?" He feared that he had almost given up his dream for the complacency of the daily grind. Enough of that! It was time to go for it.

With a family of five to support, attending medical school in the United States was financially out of the question. In the early 1970s, he applied to foreign medical schools in Guadalajara, Mexico, and in Salamanca, Spain. It was more cost effective to maintain a family abroad while attending medical school on a full-time basis. Spain was not an option, as the travel cost would break him financially. So he decided to attend the Universidad Autónoma de Medicina in Guadalajara, Mexico, a university associated with the American Medical Association. We drove cross-country from New York to Mexico so my father could attend medical school.

In a short period my father had gone from a decent paycheck in an unsatisfying job to no paycheck at all in medical school, his dream. Now imagine this -- he was a full-time student, had some money from student loans, but had no job to provide for his family of three children, all under the age of twelve, and a wife. How did he and my mother make it? Simple: during his vacations and holiday breaks from school, whether it was one or two weeks or summertime, my father would drive or fly, sometimes with the entire family, to the United States to work and save money to bring back to Mexico.

My father finally graduated from medical school on time in the late 1970s. But let me tell you, he did not just "graduate." Out of over nine hundred students, he was valedictorian of his class. I remember that ceremony. I remember my brother getting so mad about dressing up and wearing a bowtie. I recall sitting in a room filled with over two thousand people, in the front row with my family. I felt special. I watched my stoic mother following my father with her eyes as he so proudly and humbly took center stage. I have to be honest, I don't remember what he said. I can only imagine. But as I look back on it today, I am convinced that this experience was a defining moment in my life.

So you might think now that my father had really made it -- he was a doctor, and an educated man. He could find work anywhere, right? Wrong! Upon returning to the United States as a foreign medical graduate, my father faced other forms of discrimination. You see, there appears to be an unwritten, backroom, behind closed doors policy to discriminate against foreign medical doctors, regardless of nationality. As my father explains, and I witnessed firsthand, the feeling from the American medical community is that the training and education received by foreign doctors is inferior to that received by doctors educated and trained in the United States.

To compensate for this perceived inferiority, after graduating from medical school my father was required to complete two years of servicio social (social service). He was accepted at a respected hospital in Tijuana, Mexico. So we moved again, this time into low-income housing ("the projects") in San Ysidro, California, a developing community at the time. San Ysidro is located in the most southern part of San Diego on the Mexican border, the busiest international border crossing in the world. San Ysidro was then and remains now very ethnically diverse. During our two years there, we met people from all walks of life. It was particularly exciting because we were exposed to a culture that was half American and half Mexican.

While working in the hospital, my father again struggled as a medical resident, working endless hours (usually on call for up to fifty-eight hours at a time), studying for exams, and providing for his family. In addition, my father had to work across the border in Tijuana. Because of this hectic schedule and the commute, he only saw us every four days. It was lonely for him, but he was comforted knowing that we were all together as a family. The experience was difficult but fruitful because it exposed him to every facet of medicine, and made him truly realize he was destined to become a surgeon.

After his two years of service in Mexico, my father was accepted to complete his surgical residency at a prestigious hospital on the east coast. We moved once again. From the outset, the chief of surgery gave my father a hard time. He had to constantly prove himself. Like many others at the time, this man probably thought that foreign medical graduates were not good enough to succeed in America. I remember my father coming home after feeling that his self-esteem was constantly being chipped away. I could see the frustration in his eyes and the disappointment in his face, and I heard it in his voice, that after all the obstacles he overcame he still wasn't being seen for his potential. He was still viewed as a foreigner, an immigrant first and a doctor second. I can't help but think that if I'm still having such a strong reaction to this, what must the impact have been on my father? What must he have felt in his gut and in his heart?

Time has since proven that foreign medical graduates have excelled in all areas of medicine, often overshadowing the accomplishments of their American-schooled counterparts. My father excelled here and eventually became the chief resident. In fact, my father was elected the best teaching resident by the medical students.

It took my father almost twenty years to accomplish his dream of becoming a surgeon, attaining the highest honor as a Diplomate of the American Board of Surgery. With great satisfaction, in the mid-1980s we moved to a Los Angeles suburb. My father established his medical practice in Glendale, California, where he still practices today. Consistently improving his medical skills and knowledge while achieving significant accomplishments along the way, he has won esteem and respect from the medical community, his peers, patients, friends, and family.

With my father's help, nine of his brothers and sisters eventually immigrated to the United States. As one of my uncles said to me, "Your father's titanic effort in coming to the United States in pursuit of a dream has been and will be the legacy and the definition of this family."


My mother's experience, while similar to my father's, differed in many aspects. The move to the United States was emotionally challenging for her. With my father working, she was alone most of the time. She was also frustrated that she was not able to speak English well enough to communicate, frustrated because she was unfamiliar with the United States, its ways, culture, and customs, and made miserable by the severe cold and the severely warm humid New York weather. And she was scared of the future.

In New York, the neighborhood my parents initially lived in was not safe. My mother was pregnant and lived on the fifth floor of an apartment building with no elevator. Initially, she only saw my father on weekends. All she ever heard were sirens and at times she felt she was going crazy. It even crossed her mind to return to Colombia and wait for my father there. But she had promised to be with him during the good and the bad. How could she leave her husband alone? Her love and commitment to him carried her through many of these difficult times. Her mother's example and her religious and conservative upbringing allowed her to sacrifice for my father and her children. For her, family always comes first. She sounds too good to be true, right? You should meet the woman.

Eventually, my mother enrolled in English classes so the time would pass more quickly while she cared for her children. And yes, of course, she could work but who would take care of the children? Who would have the house clean and ready when her husband came home? Who would make him dinner after a long day of work? These were vitally important issues to her then and still are today. But it was hard for her to make friends because everyone always seemed busy. She was surrounded by Americans for whom English was a first language and who wouldn't give her the time of day. With no family members to talk to (her relatives were in Colombia and phone calls were an unattainable luxury), she felt like she was suffocating at times. But Guadalajara felt like home.

She could relate to the people, the culture, the traditions, and the language. In Guadalajara, my mother was able to work part time translating documents for medical students. But she believed her primary responsibilities were to take care of her husband, her three children, and her home. Our place in Guadalajara was always bustling with my father's friends; everyone was welcomed with open arms. After all, my father was the top student in his class and a great study partner. Despite the fact that my parents struggled, there was usually a home-cooked meal waiting for anyone who came to study or just to visit. My mother would say, "Donde hay comida para uno, hay para dos, tres, cuatro . . ." This meant where there is food for one there is food for two, three, or four.

Pretty quickly the Pérez Casa became the place for medical students to hang out. I've since asked my mother if this was a burden on her. She said, "No, on the contrary." She loved the company and loved to be able to support my father in any way she could, for these were precious times for him. She said it was our personality as a family that attracted so many to our home.

My mother further explains that although for over eleven years my father was essentially absent from our family, and she could have gotten upset, complained, and rebelled, but she did not. In her own words, she could not just think of herself. Her goal was to make it as easy as possible for my father to accomplish his lifelong dream. At the time, this was her sole purpose. My father worked so hard to become a physician in order to give us a better life. Unfortunately, this meant that he was often missing from our lives while we were growing up. Yet my mother managed to raise three children while carrying on the strong presence of my father in our home. She never let us forget our identity as a family. As she explains to me, she relied on the strength and wisdom she gained from her mother.

She acknowledges today that all of this was a risk because as a couple, they were becoming disconnected from each other. So she made sure she talked to my father and stayed connected by taking care of him and his family. It was her faith and trust in my father and the notion of family that empowered her, and most important, the love they have for each other that made her stick through it all. My mother did the best she could with what she had to work with. She always knew in her heart, guided by an unseen but deeply religious faith, while at the same time watching how hard my father worked, that everything would work out. She constantly had the intense faith that their dreams would come true.

I once asked my mother what living the American Dream meant to her. She said it meant my father becoming a surgeon and her children having good lives and pursuing their dreams. My mother raised us the only way she knew how -- the way her mother and father raised her -- with strong values and traditions. For example, she always wanted her children to speak Spanish as their first language. She clearly let me know that she is not and never was embarrassed or ashamed to be Latina. Even with her heavy accent, she made herself understood and still does today. Maintaining culture within her family was critical to my mother.


Through hard work and dedication, my parents made a better life for my family. They allowed us to develop a new identity in a new country. More important, they have given me access to better educational opportunities and a better way of life. My life was (and still is) so rich in many ways. In search of this better life my parents exposed my sister, brother, and me to living in different places and respecting each as if it was our very own. Little did I know then, but that, coupled with the dichos I learned from my mother when I was a child, would be my greatest gifts and lessons in life.

Because of my parents, I lived in some of the most ethnically diverse neighborhoods in this country. I was exposed to many different walks of life, cultures, and problems in each of these communities. But what I experienced most profoundly is the openness and honesty that my family provided to us, our friends, and everyone they met, regardless of ethnicity or economic stature.

I watched my father's never-ending commitment to his dream and his family, while he provided service to others as a physician. To this day he always educates his patients on ways of improving themselves to live longer and healthier lives, never denying service to anyone whether or not they have money or insurance, and taking on the challenges of medical and governmental administrations to give medicine back to the community. I watched my father for over twenty-five years doing this every day, never expecting anything, not even a thank you.

My father's story is what inspired me to pursue my dreams. I watched my mother support my father and our family through those trying times. My mother's story, her legacy, is what motivates and drives me to never give up and continue forward. Her tireless and selfless example has armed me with the most important lessons that I try to live by.

Ironically, as a young woman, it was my beautiful mother who wanted to be a lawyer. But as the eldest daughter, she had to care for her brothers and sisters. She was the backbone of her family and is the backbone of our family. My father's story is truly exceptional and awe inspiring and if it were a movie it would likely win a few prestigious awards. However, my mother would win the Best Director award. Without my mother, my life would not be what it is today.

When I asked my father what he felt was the definition of the American Dream, he replied: "Simple -- the opportunity to work, raise and provide for my family, and my children, as well as obtaining the best education possible." He added, "What you can do in this country, you cannot do anywhere else in the world."

Because of them, I am truly living out the American Dream. Through varying circumstances and despite limited options, my parents integrated our culture as a necessary part of this dream. Our culture did not take away from the experience of making it in the United States. On the contrary, it was an equally important and necessary tool to make our assimilation easier.

I believe that within the American Dream culture must continue to thrive. It is vitally important to teach your children to learn, and live by the traditions of your own culture, including, if possible, language. We must be proud of every aspect of our dynamic culture and upbringing. I am constantly told that we (Latinos in general) are the best looking, the best dancers; we have the best cuisine, and can throw one heck of a party. We are likely the loudest on the block, too! Also, we are unique, in that many of us are able to use two languages in one conversation. I am blessed because my first language is Spanish. I learned English around the age of ten. However, I made it my goal to perfect both languages.

My husband is a second-generation Puerto Rican. His parents decided not to teach him Spanish; they felt their children would have better opportunities if English were their dominant language. But does the fact that he does not speak Spanish perfectly make him less Latino or cultureless? In my opinion, no, it does not. In fact, when I first met Christopher I could not believe how passionate he was about the rights of his community. He had the same fire that drove my parents and drives me. He felt indignant over the same injustices toward his people. He made me reflect on my own commitments.

Culture is part of who we are. It makes up our basic essence. My husband and I share so many of the same values, morals, passions, expectations, and experiences. We both love talking, we are people's people. He is loud -- sometimes too loud. You name it -- family, business, work ethic, friendships, food, we also share many of the same traditions. He can walk into any room and just work it! He is dynamic in a way I can only describe a Latino man to be. I know it is our culture that connects us. It was definitely what attracted us to each other. Well, of course, Christopher is not bad looking either!

As with both of the homes we grew up in, we also expect that our house will be the most crowded with our daughter Sofia's friends. It is funny how that worked out -- all of my non-ethnic friends always felt most comfortable in this Latina's house. It must have been the Spanish and I guess a little of the fun, flavor, and food.

I am honored to be asked to speak around the country to my community peers not just on immigration issues, but as in this book, about life experiences. I owe all of this to my upbringing. In comparison to what my parents have conquered, I do not think I have done enough. There is always more to learn and more to do for others.

Today, I am more sure of myself, of my identity, and of my purpose than ever. Yes, I could attribute this to age and experience. But I think it is also in the blood. I always say that I can do anything because "Tengo la sangre de una mujer latina -- tengo la sangre de mi madre" (I have the blood of a Latina woman -- I have the blood of my mother). So when people ask me: Cristina, how do you do it all? I answer with the most appropriate dicho: "De tal palo, tal astilla" (The apple does not fall far from the tree). These few words have been my secret and inspiration for knowing I can succeed at anything I set my mind to. It is the legacy my parents began and one that I will continue.

My Wish for You

This book celebrates culture and my beliefs about a woman's role within it. It is also a celebration of your own culture and your role within it. I will address many questions I am constantly asked, including: How, as a Latina, can you make it in a so-called man's world? How do I win respect in a bilingual world? How am I able to successfully balance a family and career? As a Latina, how have I been able to blend in successfully in the United States? But do not be misled, as this book is for everyone regardless of race, gender, or age.

Today, more than ever, there seems to be a denial of culture among young Latino women and men. Not only does society question who we are, we try to define what it really means to be a Latino in the United States. We try so hard to make it in mainstream America that we forget and sacrifice the very things that make us unique -- our culture and identity. We look to others for inspiration and instruction, when we should be looking to ourselves, our parents, our ancestors, and our cultural traditions.

My wish is to teach, guide, and inspire pride in all people, especially the younger generation. The key to success is to stay connected to your culture. The answers to all our questions lie within us. As my mother tells me and as I will tell my daughter, "Lo que bien se aprende, nunca se pierde" (What is well learned is never lost).

Copyright © 2006 by Cristina Pérez Gonzalez


Apuntes para la historia del apellido de la Garza
Gomez Suarez-de-Figueroa, First Duke of Feria
Dicionario Heraldico y Genealogico de Apellidos Espanoles y Americanos


Escudos vary by the ancestral historical activities of the family. All of these are family shields of those carrying the Hermosilla surname. Diccionario Heráldica, Apellidos y Nombres Propios by Lander Muñoz places the origination "de la villa de nombre, partido judicial de Brivesca (Burgos) 

Suggested connection between Hermosillo and Hermosilla.  

Hermosilla/Hermosillo  . .  interchange on

Me imagino que de Hermosilla se derivo el Hermosillo. El primer obispo de Durango se llamo Fray Diego de Hermosillo. (1621)

A si es, Hermosillo deriva de Hermosilla y fray Gonzalo de Hermosillo primer obispo de durango nacido en aprox en 1580 en mexico y muerto en sinaloa 1631. era hermano de mi ancestro juan gonzalez de hermosillo casado con maria muñoz.  Datos Tomados de Retoños de España en la Nueva Galicia de Mariano Gonzalez Leal.

Apuntes para la historia del apellido de la Garza

enviado por Carlos Martín Herrera de la Garza


Extracto de: "Colección de documentos relativos a la Conquista del Río de la Plata" selección, prólogo y notas de Francisco Javier Bravo. Madrid, 1872. 

Según los registros que han llegado a nuestros tiempos, el primer delito cometido en el Río de la Plata fue llevado a cabo por el marinero español Antonio Lope de la Garza, compañero de viaje del infortunado Juan Díaz de Solís, quien recaló y murió en estas costas allá por 1516.

Después de remontar las aguas del río, a las que Solís llamó Mar Dulce, desembarcó en la orilla izquierda acompañado por unos pocos navegantes, entre los que estaba el mencionado De la Garza.

La primera noche que pasaron en suelo americano, uno de los españoles, del cual sólo se conoce el apellido, Calderón, presentó una furiosa queja ante el Piloto Mayor del Reino –tal el título de Solís-, pues, según dijo: "le fueron birlados de su faltriquera, que ocultara durante la noche bajo una adarga que traía, quince reales de oro que había ahorrado con grandes privaciones y esfuerzos.

Sospechábale del hurto a un gaditano llamado Antonio Lope de la Garza, que durmiera a su derecha, muy cerca de la adarga; agregando que era fama que el tal gaditano se apoderara de bienes impropios, pues su codicia y pocos escrúpulos era muy grande y conocida.

Reconocidos por el Capitán todos los hechos, resultó que el acusado confesó haberse apropiado de los quince reales, justificando tal proceder por una deuda de juego que Calderón negábase a saldarle.

Vistos los hechos, el señor Don Juan Díaz de Solís, a título de Piloto Mayor del Reino y Jefe de la Expedición, ordenó que por la mañana se le castigara al susodicho De la Garza mediante la aplicación de diez garrotazos, aplicados con fuerza y sin conmiseración, para que sirva de ejemplo y como prueba de disciplina". 

La pena no llegó a concretarse ya que pocas horas después de la salida del sol, una partida de indios charrúas cayó sobre los desdichados españoles dando muerte a Solís y a varios de sus compañeros.

Entre los primeros europeos muertos por los nativos a orillas del Río de la Plata estaban los dos protagonistas del primer delito del que se tenga registro en estas tierras. 




The Descendants of Gomez Suarez-de-Figueroa
First Duke of Feria
Glosas a la Casa de Cordova, Tomo Primero, by Don Vicente Porras Benito
Compiled by John D. Inclan

Generation No. 1
He held the title of 5th Count of Feria and the 1st Duke of Feria.
He served as the Spanish Ambassador to England
On September 28, 1567, King Phillip II bestowed to him the title of Duke of Feria.
Devout Catholic, she was lady-in-waiting and confidante to Queen Mary I of England.
Mary was the daughter of Catherine of Aragon and Henry VIII of England.

2. i. 2ND DUKE OF FERIA LORENZO7 SUAREZ-DE-FIGUEROA, d. 27 Jan 1606/07, Naples, Italy.

Generation No. 2
He held the title of the 2nd Duke of Faria, and the 1st Marquez of Villalba.
He served as the Viceroy to Cataluna and Sicily.and as Ambassador to Rome.
On January 1, 1607, he signed his last will and testament.
No issue from this marriage.

3. i. 3RD DUKE OF FERIA GOMEZ8 SUAREZ-DE-FIGUEROA-Y-CORDOVA, b. 1587; d. 12 Jan 1633/34.

Generation No. 3
3. 3RD DUKE OF FERIA GOMEZ8 SUAREZ-DE-FIGUEROA-Y-CORDOVA (LORENZO7 SUAREZ-DE-FIGUEROA, GOMEZ6, LORENZO5 SUAREZ-DE-FIGUEROA-Y-TOLEDO, GOMEZ4 SUAREZ-DE-FIGUEROA, LORENZO3, GOMEZ2, LORENZO1) was born 1587, and died 12 Jan 1633/34. He married (1) DUCHESS FRANCISCA DE CORDOVA-Y-CARDONA 1607 in Valladolid, Spain3, daughter of ANTONIO FERNANDEZ-DE-CORDOVA-FOLCH-DE-CARDONA and JUANA FERNANDEZ-DE-CORDOVA-CARDONA-Y-ARAGON. She was born 1590, and died 25 Jan 1623 in Milan, Italy. He married (2) ANA FERNANDEZ-DE-CORDOVA-Y-FIGUEROA 18 May 1625 in Montilla, Cordova, Spain4, daughter of ALONSO FERNANDEZ-DE-CORDOVA-Y-FIGUEROA and JUANA ENRIQUEZ-DE-RIBERA-Y-GIRON. She was born Oct 1608 in San Juan de la Palma, Seville, Spain.
From 1618 to 1625, he served as the Spanish Governor of Milan, Italy. 

iii. JUANA DE FIGUEROA-Y-CORDOVA, d. Died young.


1. Glosas a la Casa de Cordova, Tomo Primero, by Don Vicente Porras Benito, Page 47..
2. Glosas a la Casa de Cordova, Tomo Primero, by Don Vicente Porras Benito, Page 48.
3. Glosas a la Casa de Cordova, Tomo Primero, by Don Vicente Porras Benito, Page 52..
4. Glosas a la Casa de Cordova, Tomo Primero, by Don Vicente Porras Benito, Page 53..

More pedigrees compiled by John Inclan, go to:


The encyclopedia by Alberto and Arturo Garcia Carraffa "Dicionario Heraldico y Genealogico de Apellidos Espanoles y Americanos" is renown as the bible of Spanish surnames. The listing given information as to the locations where surnames originated, coats of arms and brief genealogical lineages. The Library of Congress's Hispanic Reading Room has compiled a searchable index so that you can search for your surname and find which volume contains it. It also lists the few US libraries which have a copy of this encyclopedia. However, if you do not have access to these, the LDS church has microfilmed the entire work. The Cubagenweb site has a listing of the microfilm numbers and the correlation to the volumes for ease of ordering films at LDS family  history centers. The encyclopedia is in Spanish but is easily translated.

Spanish Sons of the American Revolution
How the Spanish Ladies of Havana Saved the Day for George Washington
Floyd R. "Pete" Kendrick, Mexico SARS 

Patriots During the American Revolution from the Viceroyalty of Buenos Aires (A-B) by Granville Hough, Ph.D.

How the Spanish Ladies of Havana Saved the Day for George Washington

By Michael R, Hardwick

In 1779 the resources of the Continental Army under General George Washington had deteriorated to a dangerous point. There were very few economic resources to support the American Revolution against Great Britain.

Revolution financier, Robert Morris, could not devise a formula for obtaining new credit.  French General, the comte de Rochambeau, wrote to Lieutenant General de Grasse on June 11, 1781, that the Americans were at the end of their resources. He requested that de Grasse, who had just arrived in what is now Haiti, raise 1,200,000 pounds to finance the Yorktown military campaign against English General Cornwallis.

General de Grasse in Cape Haiten set about trying to raise funds and troops.  All of this was happening at the same time that Spanish Admiral Solano was recruiting soldiers and readying ships for an attack on Pensacola to coordinate with war being waged by Spanish Governor Bernardo de Galvez against British-controlled Florida.

De Grasse decided to appeal to the Spanish Colony of Cuba and sent three of his fastest frigates to Havana.  The governor of Cuba at that time was Juan Manuel de Cagigal and his aid de camp was Francisco de Miranda (the future forerunner of Spanish-American independence).  Miranda with a large committee of Cuban Creoles, organized the collection of funds that was to turn the tide of the American War of Independence.

Great sums were offered by Havana merchants and private colonists.  The larger part of the contribution, however, was produced by the ladies of the Cuban capital.  They freely gave their diamonds, jewelry and gold singly, and through ladies’ lodges and associations which proliferated in Cuba and throughout America at that time.  The French frigate Aigrette had on board the 1,200,000 pounds in less than a day (within five hours) after arriving in Havana.

The immense funds collected in Havana financed the Yorktown campaign.  The French fleet with its fortune reached Chesapeake Bay on August 30, 1781, and news reached General Washington at Chester, Pennsylvania on September 5.  The tide was turned.

The inscription on the memorial column at the battlefield of Yorktown reads:



Commissioned by the Continental Congress in 1781 to commemorate the great victory at Yorktown, this majestic monument was constructed between 1881 and 1884 and may be seen at the Colonial National Park 
in Yorktown, Virginia.

1 Material for this article was compiled from an article by Edwardo J. Tejera, a Cuban born economist and advisors to the Banco Central of the Dominican Republic. He is also author on a book entitled "The Cuban Contribution to American Independence." Additional information came from a pamphlet entitled "The French Navy and the Independence of the United States". The pamphlet was a translation of an article which appeared in Cols Bleus , a magazine of the French Navy, of November 8 and 15, 1975. The pamphlet is available in the public library in Newport, Rhode Island.


Floyd R. "Pete" Kendrick, Mexico Sons of the American Revolution Society

Compatriots, It is with a heavy heart that I advise you of the death of Floyd R. "Pete" Kendrick.  Pete was the charter president of the Bernardo Galvez chapter of the  Mexico SAR Society, and also served as the charter Vice President of the Mexico SAR Society.  For two years he served as president of the Mexico SAR Society and more recently he served as society treasurer.

Pete was one of the most faithful members of the society, participating in all the meetings held in Mexico as well as the Nov. 2004 Cruise from Galveston to Mexico.  He was the recipient of the SAR Bronze and Silver Good Citizenship Medals and the Meritorious Service Medal.  He was a MXSSAR delegate to the recent Congress in Dallas.

He was known for his wit and humor.  He will be missed by those of us who were fortunate enough to know him.  SAR has lost a valuable compatriot. Pete Kendrick's memorial service will be held at Rosewood Funeral Home on Friday, Oct. 13, 2006 at 2:00 p m at Rosewood Funeral Home, 2602 Old Humble Road, Humble, TX  77396 Phone: 281-454-2171.

Fraternally, Ed Butler
Charter President of the Mexico Society.
Sent by Granville Hough,



by Granville Hough, Ph.D.

This month of November we will begin the listing of key soldiers who served under the Viceroy of Buenos Aires during the American Revolution, 1779-1783. Descendants of these soldiers can join the Sons of the American Revolution, because Spain joined with the United States, newly independent, and France, in the War with Britain. The example of freedom from European domination was clearly established in the minds of the soldiers and citizens, and within the lifetime of those who fought, nearly all the Spanish lands of the Western Hemisphere had established independence.

The Virreinato de Buenos Aires was only established in 1776 after the war began far to the north in the English Colonies. The lands of Paraguay, Argentina, and Uruguay were within the new Viceroy’s jurisdiction; but they had been the most neglected portions of the Spanish Empire. They had none of the gold and silver found in Peru and Bolivia. What Paraguay and northern Argentina did have were the pampas, high plains of natural grasslands ideal for cattle, sheep, and horses. Soldier adventurers moving south from Peru and Bolivia soon discovered these lands and intermarried with the healthy and vigorous Indian tribes of the region, and established the gauchos, the ranching mestizos of the
Southeast. They established huge ranches and became suppliers of beef, wool, and food for the mining operations of Peru and Bolivia. However, when they wanted to open harbors in the rivers and estuaries of the Rio de la Plata, they were resolutely refused for over 100 years. The authorities in Spain, and the merchants of Peru, feared that any opening to the Southeast would allow the gold and silver of Peru and Bolivia to move in that direction and break the monopoly they held. They even required that any European goods the gauchos wanted had to come from the North, which meant being off-loaded in Columbia or Panama, then moved 1000 miles in pack trains through the jungles and mountains to the pampas. It is no wonder the gauchos became a self-sufficient people.

Not even Spanish ships were allowed in the Rio de la Plata, but the profits were so great that smuggling became rampant with other European countries and even with Spanish merchants. They could sell goods to the gauchos at one-fifth the price of those brought down from the North, and still make handsome profits. Finally, the Viceroyalty of Buenos Aires was established, and there was a brief war with Britain and Portugal on one side and Spain on the other side over access to the Rio de la Plata, the huge estuary leading to the interior. (Because this conflict included Portugal, King Carlos III did not want to join the general war against Britain until he had settled the conflict with Portugal.) Many of the veterans of this war on the Rio Plata later served at Pensacola under General Gálvez. By the end of the war, settlement of what are now Argentina and Uruguay began to flow directly from Europe. Forts were built at Buenos Aires, in Uruguay, and at key river junctions. Units included:

Caballeria de Buenos Aires, Asamblea de la Provincia, records for years 1787, 1791, 1795, 1798.
Caballeria de Buenos Aires, Cuerpo de Blandengues, years 1787, 1791, 1792, 1795, 1798.
Caballeria de Buenos Aires, Regiment de Milicias, 1798.
Dragones Regimiento de Buenos Aires, 1787, 1791, 1795, 1797, 1799, 1800.
Infanteria de Buenos Aires, Asamblea de la Provincia, 1791, 1795, 1798.
Infanteria Regimiento de Buenos Aires, 1787, 1791, 1795, 1797, 1798, 1800.
Infanteria Regimiento de Milicia Provinciales Disciplinadas de Buenos Aires, 1799.

Caballeria de Montevideo, Regimiento de Milicias, 1799.
Caballeria de Montevideo, Cuerpo Veterano de Blandengues, 1798.
Infanteria Batalion de Milicias of the Plaza of Montevideo, 1799.

Infanteria Company of Veterans of Blandengues de Santa Fe, 1787, 1791, 1795, 1798.

(One may note that all the dates are after the Revolutionary War was over; however, each record in the Legajos listed is a service record telling when that soldier enlisted and all the places he had served. A few will turn out to be too young, but their name frequently leads to a father or other older relative who did serve during the 1779-1783
period. Each record is really a fascinating story of a soldier’s life.)

Antonio Abad. Sgt, Mil. Cab. Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IX:57.
Teodoro Abad. Lt, Cab. Blandengues de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:VI:24.
Enrique Aberasturi. Sgt, Mil. Cab. Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IX:61.
José María Acevedo. Lt, Inf Mil, Buenos Aires, 1799, Leg 7258:I:16.
Francisco Acosca. Sgt, 1st, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:139.
Francisco Javier Acosta. Lt, Comp Blandenges de Santa Fe, 1795, Le g 7257:II:2.
José Acosta. Sgt, Cab Blandengues, Buenos Aires, 1791, Leg 7257:XI:33.
Domingo Adalid Rodriquez. Alférez, Mil Cab de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IX:22.
Benito Aguiar. Alférez, Mil de Cab de Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:II:35.
Baltasar de Aguirre. Sgt, Mil de Cab de Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:II:41.
Manuel Agustin. Sgt, Cab Blandengues Montevideo, 1798, Leg 7258:VIII:38,
Monico Agustin. Sgt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1791, Leg 7257:IX:67.
Francisco Alagon. Alférez con grado de Lt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 1758:V:53.
Juan de Alagon. Alférez, Mil Cab de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IX:25.
Vicente Alagon. Lt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:V:50.
Francisco Alba. Sgt, Bn Mil de Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:III:30.
Mariano Albizuri. Lt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:V:49.
Francisco Alcaraz. Sgt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1791, Leg 7257:IX:56.
Francisco Alcoce. Sgt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:V:82.
Jean de Alcocer. Sgt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1795, Leg 7257:IV:72.
Mariano Alda. SubLt, Inf Mil de Buenos Aires, 1799, Leg &258:I:29.
Pedro Antonio Aldecoa. SubLt de Bandera, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:117.
Manuel José de Almeida. Sgt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1787, Leg 7257:XVIII:74.
Antonio Alos. Alférez, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1787, Leg 7257:XVII:49.
Pedro de Alvarado. Sgt, Cab Blandengues, Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:VI:49.
Agustin Alvarez. Sgt, Mil de Cab de Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:II:66.
Fernando Alvarez. Sgt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:V:76.
Manuel Alvarez. Lt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:V:45.
Manuel Alvarez de navia. Cadet, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:189.
Ignacio Alvarez y Tomas. SubLt de Bandera, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1799, Leg 7258:IV:13 and 14.
Eusebio Amaro. Sgt, Mil de Cab de Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:IX:17.
José de Amat. Alférez, Mil de Cab de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:I:36.
Manuel Amat. Sgt, Inf Mil de Buenos Aires, 1799, Leg 7258:I:36.
Ramon Anadon. Sgt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1799, Leg 7258:V:17 and 18.
Felipe Ansotegui. Sgt, Cab Blandengues, Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:VI:33.
Joaquin Aparicio. Sgt, Mil Cab Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IX:38.
Antonio Aragon. Lt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:74.
Pedro de Arce. Sgt Major with grade of Lt Col, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:40.
Agustin Arenas. Capt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1795, Leg 7257:IV:16.
José Arenas. Cadet, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:XI:6.
Nicolás Arneaud. Sgt, Mil Cab Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IX:34.
José Artigas. Adjutant Major, Cab Blandengues, Montevideo, 1798, Leg 7258:XIII:16.
Manuel de Arrazola. Cadet, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1800, Leg 7258:IV:7 and 8.
Bernardino Arriola. Sgt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1791, Leg 7257:IX:57.
Antonio Arroyo. Sgt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:V:88.
Francisco Asco. Cadet, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1787, Leg 7257:XVII:82.
Vicente Asco. Cadet Dragones de Beunos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:V:105.
Antonio Astorga. Sgt, Mil de Cab de Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:11:61.
Vicente Augien. Lt, Inf Mil de Buenos Aires, 1799, Leg 7258:I:15.
Miguel Azcuenaga. Comandante, Lt Col, Inf de Mil de Buenos Aires, 1799, 7258:I:39.
Fulgencio Azpiazu. Cadet, Cab Blandengues, Buenos Aires, 1799, Leg 7258:VI:13 and 14.

Pedro Bacelar. Sgt, Asamblea Inf de Buenos Aires, 1791, Leg 7257:X:8.
Tomás Belaguer. Sgt, Cab Blandengues de Buenos Aires, 1791, Leg 7257:XI:32.
José María Balbanzo. Lt, Mil Cab Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IX:16.
Juan Balbin de Vallejo. Capt, Bn de Mil de Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:III:2.
Manuel Balboa. Lt, Mil de Cab de Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:II;23.
Mateo Ballesteros. Capt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:54.
Pedro Ballesteros. Lt with grade of Capt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1799. Leg 7258:IV:11 and 12.
Francisco Ballucar. Sgt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:V:101.
Joaquin Estefania de Banfi. Capt, grad Lt Col, Dragones de Buenos Aires 1798, Leg 7258:V:32.
Juan Barragan. Sgt, Cab Blandengues Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:VI:43.
Gregoria de la Barreda. Capt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:61.
Juan Barrera. Sgt, Cab Blandengues de Buenos Aires, 1791, Leg 7257:XI:35.
Juan Bascones. Sgt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:V:95.
Juan Jorge Batlog. Sgt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1787, Leg 7257:XVIII:81.
Pedro Bauza. Portaguion, Mil de Cab de Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:II:38.
Elias Bayala. Sgt, grado of Alférez, Dragones Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:V:75.
Pedro Bayo y Rospigllosi. Cadet, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:151.
Cosme Becar. Ayudante Mayor, grade of Capt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:???:5.
Alejo Beiro. Sgt, Mil de Cab de Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:II:46.
Agustin Bergrano Gonzalez. Lt, Cab Blandengues Monteviedo, 1798, Leg 7258:VIII:15.
Carlos Belgrano Perez. Ayudante Mayor, Asamblea Cab Buenos Aires, 1799, Leg 7258:X:4&5.
José Gregoria Belgrano Perez. Ayudante Mayor, Mil Cab Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IX:29.
Juan Tomás Benitez. Sgt, Cab Blandengues de Buenos Aires, 1787, Leg 7257:XV:25.
Juan Berguizas. Sgt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:140.
José Bolaños. Ayudante Mayor, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:68.
Pablo Boruti. SubLt, Inf Mil de Buenos Aires, 1799, Leg 7258:I:26.
Miguel Borras. Lt, Cab de Blandengues de Montevideo, 1798, Leg 7258:VIII:10.
Faustino José Bozo. Capt, Mil Cab, Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IX:5.
Juan Breque. Sgt with grade of Alférez, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:V:69.
Manuel de Bustamente. Alférez, Mil de Cab, Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IX:27.
Juan Antonio Bustillos. Lt, Mil de Cab de Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:II:14.

Francisco Caballero. Capt, grade of Lt Col, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:46.
Ramón de Caceres. Capt, Mil de Cab de Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:II:2.
Francisco Calabuig. Sgt, Cab Blandengues Montevideo, 1798, Leg 7258:VIII:29.
José María de Calacette. Capt Granaderos, grade of Lt Col, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:V:30.
Bernardo Calandre. Lt, Inf Mil de Buenos Aires, 1799, Leg 7258:I:20.
Francisco Calbete. Sgt, Asamblea Inf de Buenos Aires, 1787, Leg 7257:XX:5.
Francisco Asis Calvo. Lt, Mil de Cab de Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:II:15.
Ignacio Calvo. Sgt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1799, Leg 7258:II:26.
Manuel Calleros. Alférez, Mil de Cab de Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:II:26.
Pedro Callorda. Alférez, Mil de Cab de Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:II:34.
Francisco Camargo. Sgt with grade of Alférez, Asamblea Cab de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:X:15.
Manuel del Campo. Capt, Inf de Mil de Buenos Aires, 1799, Leg 7258:I:6.
Antonio Cantero. Sgt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1795, Leg 7257:IV:78.
José Cañete. Cadet, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:V:112bis.
Juan Antonio Carabia. Alférez, Mil de Cab de Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:II:29.
Juan Antonio Carbajo. SubLt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:112.
Melchor Carbajo. Cadet, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1800, Leg 7258:IV:9 & 10.
Vicente Carballo Goyeneche. Capt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1800, Leg 7258:V:2.
Francisco Carcer. Portaguion, Dragoes de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:V:63.
Andrés de Cardenas. Cadet, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:33&34.
Felipe Santiago Cardosa. Capt, Cab Blandengues de Montevideo, 1798, Leg 7258:VIII:4.
Gonzalo Caro. SubLt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1791, Leg 7257:XIV:148.
Gabriel Casada. Alférez, Cab Blandengues Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:VI:32.
José Casal. Sgt, Cab Blandengues Montevideo, 1798, Leg 7258:VIII:27.

Antonio Casas. Sgt, Cab Blandengues Montevideo, 1798, Leg 7258:VIII:37.
Diego Castañeda. Sgt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:V:84.
Francisco Castañon. Capt, Mil Cab Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IX:6.
Alfonso Castellanos. Sgt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:V:78.
Francisco de Paula Castellanos. Cadet, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:V:108.
Daniel Castilla. Sgt, Mil Cab de Montevideo, 1799k Leg 7258:II:95.
Martin Castilla. Sgt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1791, Leg 7257:XIV:86.
José de Castro. Sgt, Inf Mil de Buenos Aires, 1799, Leg 7258:I:30.
Laureano Castro. Sgt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1791, Leg 7257:IX:60.
Manuel Antonio Castro. Sgt, Mil Cab de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IX:41.
Francisco José Celada. Cadet, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:162.
Juan Francisco Celada. Cadet, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:175.
Manuel Leonardo Celada. Cadet, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:157.
Antonio Cermeño. Sgt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:126.
Bernabé Cermeño. Ayudante Mayor, Asamblea Cab de Buenos Aires, 1799, Leg 7258:X:6&7.
Manuel Cerrato. Lt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1787, Leg 7257:XVII:24.
Manuel del Cerro. Capt, Inf Mil de Buenos Aires, 1799, Leg 7258:XIX:14.
Domingo Chauri. Lt Col, grade of Col, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:38.
Bernardo Chavarria. SubLt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1791, Leg 7257:XIV:153.
Juan Antonio Chinchon. Sgt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1787, Leg 7257:XVIII:85.
Pedro Ciruela. Sgt, Cab de Blandengues, Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:VI:47.
José Civicos. Sgt, grade of Alférez, Asamblea Cab Buenos Aires, 1799, Leg 7258:X:8&9.
Antonio Clara. Sgt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1787, Leg 7257:XVII:50.
Francisco Climens. Capt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:53.
Leon Colllman. Sgt, Mil Cab de Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:II:43.
Manuel Colmenar. Sgt, Mil Cab Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IX:37.
Vincent Juan Colomer. Lt, Cab Blandengues Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:VI:25.
Ignacio César Conti. Lt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1787, Leg 7257:XVIII:43.
Manuel Ignacio Conti. Ayudante Mayor, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:69.
Juan Cipriano Corbera. Cadet, Cab Blandengues, Montevideo, 1798, Leg 7258:VIII:55.
Miguel Corbera. Sgt, grade of SubLt, Asamblea Inf Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:XI:7.
Vicente Cortez. Capt, Cab Blandengues de Buenos Aires, Leg 7257:XV:7.
Juan del Corral. Lt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1791, Leg 7257:XIV:31.
Feliciano Correa. Sgt, Mil de Cab de Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:II:57.
Antonio Costa. Capt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1799, Leg 7258:V:5&6.
Lorenzo Cotarelo. Cadet, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1791, Leg 7257:XIV:151.
Santiago Covarrubias. Sgt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:V:100.
Manuel Cuervo. Sgt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:V:83.
Juan Cuesta. Lt, Cab Blandenguez Montevideo, 1798, Leg 7258:VIII:9.


Nov 2nd, Dia de Los Muertos Noche de Musica 
Nov 4th, Dia de Los Muertos, 
Cine, Musica, Arte, Altares, Comida
Nov 11th, 10th Annual Veterans Day Celebration
Nov 11th, Breath of Fire Theater Company:
Rocks in My Salsa 
Nov 11th, A Evening with Posada, Day of the Dead Exhibit
Nov 16th, Helping build the Latina Business Woman  
Third annual Olive Street Reunion,
September 23
Champion of Latinos: Ruben Alvarez
In Santa Ana, Diversity has Another Angle, Jay Trevino
A soldier for Education, Maria Solis-Martinez


November 2nd
Dia de Los Muertos
Noche de Musica 

Join Santa Ana's vibrant arts community in this DAY OF THE DEAD night of music and cinema at the historic FESTIVAL HALL. Show features LYSA FLORES, LAS 15 LETRAS, GO BETTY GO, TEREMOTO and a special afterparty with THE ROLLING BLACKOUTS. 

Tickets $10 for this THURSDAY nite event and include a selection of films celebrating the dead and the living. 

**A portion of all sales will benefit EL FESTIVAL's annual Holiday Book y Toy Giveaway and Community Breakfast.**



Saturday November 4th


05:00 pm doors open
06:00 pm movie screening
08:00 pm danza azteca
08:30 pm tierrita flamenca
09:00 pm Colin O'Leary
10:00 pm Cantamerica
10:30 pm Enrique Gaspar
11:00 pm Javier Amaro
5pm-8pm calaveritas y papel picado
Saint Joseph Ballet
Flamenco Institute
Sapo Cancionero
Grand Central Art Center

WHERE:  Cultural Stage of Art
410-B W. 4th St. Suite 4
Santa Ana, CA  92701

Saturday, November 4 from 5:00pm to 11:30pm. Film screening at 6:30 pm. Live performances following the screening at 9:00 pm.

COST: $5 suggested donation
Nobody will be turned away for lack of funds

HOW: For more information or to find out about exhibiting artwork, creating an altar or performing, call (714) 543-1370



WHAT: Cultural Stage of Art opens its doors to Santa Ana and surrounding communities, inviting guests of all ages to enjoy a Day of the Dead Celebration in its intimate Spanish gypsy-inspired space. The event features a showcase of dance, altar exhibits, music, art, workshops and film screening. 410-B W. 4th St, Santa Ana CA 92701  714.543.1370

Dance: Claudia de la Cruz and Tierrita Flamenca are slated to perform.

La Peña del Sapo Cancionero featuring Enrique Gaspar, MamaCoatl, Colin O’Leary and Javier Amaro along with other musical guests will perform Latin American trova, acoustic and traditional songs with death as a central theme.

Altar Exhibit: Groups and artists will create distinct altars honoring the dead. Bush & 3rd St, Santa Ana CA 92701 714.662.2002

Workshops: Guests can learn how to make and decorate calaveras de azucar (sugar skulls) and papel picado as well as participate in traditional Day of the Dead face painting

Mexican Food: Tamales, hot chocolate, atole and pan de muerto will be available for purchase.

Film Screening: Macario (1960), a classic Mexican film about the Day of the Dead directed by Roberto Gavaldón and starring Ignacio López Tarso will be shown. In Spanish with English subtitles.

Art Exhibit:  Our Day of the Dead underground gallery includes an array of local talented artists with oils, acrylics, mixed media work and installations. Artist includes XOSU3, Claudia McCain, Rudy Torres, Emilio Viera and MTA .

ABOUT CULTURAL STAGE OF ART: CSA | FCA is a non-profit organization founded in 2000 by Claudia de la Cruz to provide quality flamenco dance training in the Santa Ana Artists Village Community. Today the CSA welcomes over 140 students from 12 communities each week and produces several public events annually for community members and local public schools. CSA | FCA also hosts film screenings, performances and art workshops.  For more information visit: 

ABOUT ESPACIOALTERNATIVO: ALT+165 Espacioalternativo is an underground bilingual ezine founded since 1997 supporting the subterranenan arts, music, film and events. Espacioalternativo main objective is to bring you the best of all underground cultures regardless of language boundaries or ethnic backgrounds, with a special emphasis in the underrepresented Latin Alternative, way beyond classifications and labels. Welcome to the most promiscuous generation of ideas, sounds and images. For more information visit: 

ABOUT EL SAPO CANCIONERO: El Sapo Cancionero is an organization dedicated to celebrating and promoting Latin American music in Southern California. For over 5 years, El Sapo Cancionero has brought diverse singers and groups such as Alfonso Maya, Viola Trigo, Fernando Delgadillo, Mexicanto, MamaCoatl, Luis Jahn, Leon Teixeiro, Gabino Palomares, Tere Estrada and Alejandro Santiago to Orange County and Los Angeles. For more information visit: 




Breath of Fire Theater, the Company that brought you - The Mexican OC - 
is Proud to Present 

Rocks In My Salsa

conceived and directed by Monica Palacios
written and performed by Cristina Nava

Contemporary life in Los Angeles, somewhere between Chicana and Mexican. Where chicken and an orgasm become taboo. You hold a rock while grandma held a bible and self discovery happens at the bottom of a dirty martini glass. 

And special performances:
The Tale of Calzones Cagados aka Pretty-Pretty Princess, by Sara Guerrero &
When Songleaders go Bad!, by Elizabeth Szekeresh

When: Friday, November 10 @ 8pm  & Saturday, November 11 @ 4pm &@ 8pm
General Admission $12.00  Seniors &Students w/ ID $10.00 
Where: Breath of Fire Theater Company 
@ El Centro Cultural De Mexico 
310 W. 5th Street, cross street Broadway Blvd., Santa Ana , CA 92701 
For Reservations, call: 714-785-0764 or Email:

Background: Monica Palacios talent for recognizing emerging artists and helping them craft their stories has become one of her specialties. In 1996 Palacios was teaching autobiographical creative writing classes at UCLA through the Chicana/o Studies Department when she met Cristina Nava who was her student. Cristinas talents stood out and Monica invited her to be part of an evening she produced featuring young Latino writers. This mentorship turned into a friendship and blossomed over 10 years while both artists pursued their individual careers. 

In 2004 Monica debuted her one person show: Get Your Feet Wet and wrote a small part for Cristina who nailed this funny delivery. Very impressed with Cristinas performance, Monica approached her and said: I want to write a solo show for you, and Rocks In My Salsa was born. 

Rocks In My Salsa has been the offspring of both women. For almost 2 years, Palacios and Nava met on a regular basis to have discussions about life, sex, politics and from these sit-ins, chunks of Cristinas performance started to emerge. Much of the focus has been on gender and cultural expectations of Latina women; the lack of Latinas/os in theater, film and TV and enough complaining--be part of the solution, already! 

And with that Breath of Fire Theater Company is very excited to have both women who understand and support BOFTCs mission and purpose to have the opportunity to nurture, celebrate and advance Latina performing arts. Both BOFTC Members Sara Guerrero and Elizabeth Szekeresh are honored to share this performance space with friends and fellow artist Nava and Palacios.

In a message dated 10/25/2006 11:39:39 AM Pacific Standard Time,

Dia De Los Muertos Art Exhibit

 Featured artists:

Christina Martinez (CSUF alumni) and Diego Aguirre (CSUF student)

 Saturday, November 11
CSUF-Visual Arts Center room 175 

The display
will be up between 
Nov. 13-16 in the East gallery of the visual arts department.

 Contact info: r

 The National Latina Business Women Association's national directors have chosen Long Beach, California, aboard the historic Queen Mary for its first national Annual Conference of . . 

Helping Build the Latina Business Woman

Thursday November 16, 
The Queen Mary
1126 Queens Highway
Long Beach, CA 90802-6390

Latina Luncheon  11:30- 1:30
Break Out Sessions 2-4:30 p.m.
Mixer 5-7 p.m.

Dave Lee's Queen Mary Photo Page


Third annual Olive Street Reunion
Information and photos sent by Ricardo Valverde

Fun was had by all at the third annual Olive Street Reunion. The event was held at "Sigler Park" in the city of Westminster, California on September 23, 2006. Over one hundred and thirty friends and family celebrated life and what it means to be bound together by a common place called home. The reunion was started as a rebirth of the old and almost forgotten barrio of West whose main street was called Olive.The families that settled on and around Olive street came to the area in a search for a better life, a better place to settle and raise their children. The people of the neighborhood struggled, grew and overcame many obstacles. The "Gonzalo Mendez Case" that set precedent in eliminating segregation of Mexicans in the schools was born, funded and fought by many calling Westminster their home.

Four years ago a few of us looked to the past and expressed our sadness that such a rich and wonderful history was fading and being lost as many of our senior family members were passing away. We decided to stop that with our first reunion. We got together to share stories, memories, photos and food. Our group has grown and so has the reunion. Many lost friendships and memories are now alive and well in Westminster. Many now look at Olive Street and remember the faces of the past and how life in the barrio has changed over the years.

The reunion's main objective was to keep the friendships and memories developed in the past vivid in the present and it continues towards this goal.

The Hispanic Heritage Month display in the lobby of the Orange County Register was a great success.  The end result is even more exciting. Through the efforts of Ruben Alvarez, the Register has agreed to publish 10,000 copies of a publication targeted for Orange County schools, a compilation of the mini-biographies of the OC Latino 100.   

Ruben Alvarez Jr. featured in the  OC METRO Magazine 
RUBEN ALVAREZ, Founder of the LATINO OC 100
October 26, 2006

Champion of Latinos —K.B. Keilbach 

President and founder, Stay Connected OC ­ Emerging Markets Network 
Age: 46 
Residence: Santa Ana 
Family: Divorced; 2 children 
Hobbies: Writing and photography 

Ruben Alvarez Jr. has always been good at connecting with people. His company, Stay Connected OC, is a marketing and consulting service for the emerging business community, with a particular focus in integrating business contacts and raising the image of Latinos in Orange County. Working with a diverse list of clients ­ from the Center for Diabetes Research to Libreria Martinez Books & Art Gallery ­ he has helped people reach out to new and expanding business markets for the past four years. 

Stay Connected Updates ­ his weekly e-mail newsletters ­ have included events involving the Orange County Hispanic Chamber of Commerce, National Latina Business Women Association OC, National Hispanic Business Women Association, and National Society of Hispanic MBAs, to name a few. 

This year, Alvarez took his business venture one step further with the publication of the Latino OC 100, a compilation of individuals who he says have “made an impact on the OC Latino community.” Recipients include business and political leaders, community volunteers, teachers, students, attorneys, judges, doctors, middle managers and program directors. “We’re going for unsung heroes. People who are involved in the community but, for one reason or another, never get the recognition they deserve,” says Alvarez. 

RUBEN ALVAREZ, Founder of the LATINO OC 100
STAY CONNECTED OC~Emerging Markets Network
Your solution to Marketing, Public Relations, Special Events
E-mail 714-331-3095


Jay Trevino

In Santa Ana, 
Diversity Has Another Angle
By Jennifer Delson, Times Staff Writer, 
Oct 5, 2006
Sent by Ricardo Valverde

With the city three-fourths Latino, many who aren't from Michoacán 
-- or even Mexican 
-- struggle as outsiders. 

In a city where Latinos make up 76% of the population, what does diversity mean?
The answer: Depends on whom you ask.

Officials at Santa Ana City Hall are promoting economic diversity in the city's downtown, where most businesses cater to Mexican immigrants.

At the Mexican consulate, the emphasis is on increasing cultural diversity among the city's Mexican immigrants. With about 27% of those immigrants from the state of Michoacán, consular officials have been encouraging those from other Mexican states to highlight their culture at public celebrations in Santa Ana.

And finally, Latino immigrants who aren't from Mexico talk about the city's lack of diversity among its Spanish-speaking population. So many residents are from Mexico that those from other Latin American countries often need to explain, with some frustration, that they are not from Mexico.

In Santa Ana, diversity does not carry the same meaning it does in most of America. The city is already well-represented by "minorities" who make up the majority of the population. Latinos hold four of the seven seats on the City Council.

More than half of city employees are Latinos, and any city employee who has contact with the public is required to speak at least two languages. Spanish is spoken in many Santa Ana businesses as well.

City officials and developers have turned diversity into the new buzzword while working on plans to improve 100 blocks, mostly around downtown. Currently, downtown businesses, including about 15 bridal shops and 20 travel agencies, are oriented to Mexican immigrant families.

The city's redevelopment agency has bought dozens of homes along Santa Ana Boulevard and hired an architectural firm to design a plan that would attract more upscale private enterprise to the area.

At numerous meetings, city residents and the architects brainstormed about how to bring in retailers such as Old Navy, which might attract customers who don't typically shop downtown. This largely untapped market includes workers in nearby county offices and courts.

Jay Trevino, executive director of the city's Planning and Building Agency, said the city's push for diversity downtown wasn't about ethnicity but economics.

"We want diversity in terms of goods and services," Trevino said. "We want to make sure it's a downtown for all people. It's about consumers asking themselves, 'Is there a reason for me to go there? Is there a place for me to eat? To buy things I want to buy?' "

City officials have been careful to emphasize that the plan doesn't seek to eliminate existing business, just broaden the mix.

Yet some say diversification means gentrification.

"The city uses that word, 'diversity,' all the time," said Elsa Gomez, a downtown tax preparer. "When they say it, it means they want to change what's here, and that means relocating people."

In recent years, hundreds of lofts have been built and drawn more affluent residents downtown.  Some merchants wonder whether there will be enough new non-Latino customers to support new stores and restaurants.

Frank Palmer, another tax preparer, said creating districts like San Diego's Gaslamp Quarter had worked in many places, "but there's a lot of doubts whether it can work here."

The Mexican consulate sees increasing diversity but of a different flavor.  Consul Luis Miguel Ortiz Haro has encouraged the formation of groups from parts of Mexico other than Michoacán to promote cultural awareness, friendship and remittances, or sending money back home. After hurricane damage in the state of Sinaloa last month, a Southland event last weekend raised money for victims.

Also last week, at a fair in Centennial Park, it wasn't Michoacános running the show but residents from the tiny southwestern coastal state of Nayarit.  There are about 20,000 natives of the state in Santa Ana, and the event attracted the Nayarit's governor to Santa Ana on Saturday.

"This festival was so different. It was like Nayarit was here," said Dely Delegado, founder of the Nayarit Assn. in the USA. "We saw our people and our governor. They even had dancers doing the estampa, and you can't find that in another [Mexican] state."

Consul Ortiz said the Nayarit festival "shows that groups from states other than Michoacán are feeling increasingly comfortable here. We have welcomed them with open arms."

Still, many from other Latin American countries feel like outsiders.  Alex Suarez, who recently emigrated from Cuba, is struggling to explain Cuban cuisine to customers of his new catering service.

"People tend to think if it's Latino, it must be Mexican, particularly around here, where everyone is Mexican," Suarez said. "It's their surprise to find there are no jalapeños."

Three years ago, Norah Briceño opened a Venezuelan restaurant, Mil Jugos, in downtown Santa Ana. At the eatery, whose name translates to "a thousand juices," she serves a variety of drinks, plus arepas, thick corn flour patties. It's a dish not known to most Mexicans.

"The idea with the restaurant was to share a little of my culture. To add to the mix here," Briceño said. "Luckily, people tell their friends about my food, but it's a constant task of telling people that it's not Mexican."

Churro vendor Jose Ortiz believes the broader phenomenon of diversity in downtown Santa Ana will come naturally, as children and grandchildren of Mexican immigrants become Americanized.

And to make sure his business doesn't get left behind, Ortiz has started to offer something else besides churros, the sugared bread treat popular in Mexico. "That's why I'm diversifying with pretzels," he said.
A soldier for education
By Celeste Navejas, The Orange County Register, Sept 29, 2006

A community volunteer works to keep young people on a path to success. To our readers: Maria Solis-Martinez has been honored as one of Orange County's inaugural Latino OC 100, which celebrates the contributions of "upcoming, accomplished and influential" Hispanics, as well as non-Hispanics serving the community. This is the third of five Friday profiles in honor of Hispanic Heritage Month, Sept. 15-Oct. 15.
Photo: Trisha Lynch, OC Register

For more than 35 years Maria Solis-Martinez has been pushing Orange County kids to pursue education, to strive for something more.

As a speaker at schools and "Door Mother" for Tech Trek, a girls' science camp established by the American Association of University Women, she mentors young people to pursue their dream careers.

The Air Force veteran is one of 10 children and the first woman from her family to graduate from college. 

She grew up in a time when Latinas weren't always encouraged to pursue a degree. Through volunteering she shares her love of education with others.

Q: What do you value or cherish?
A:To be a success you really have to take advantage of the opportunities around you. I took advantage of opportunities, I was a soldier, working, and going to school. You also have to have a positive attitude and surround yourself with positive people. I value the positive friends and family that I have.

Q: What do you seek to bring or to give to the community?
A: I try to motivate kids to stay in school, graduate from high school and pursue a vocational or college degree. For example, with the Youth Motivation Task Force, our main goal is to improve the drop-out rate. Sometimes I get 20 minutes to speak, and I see it as having 20 minutes to make an impact. The more I see the kids that I mentor succeed, the more I want to inspire more kids.

Q: As a longtime Orange County resident, do you think much has changed?
A lot of things have changed, but I still think there's a lot of room for improvement. In education, sometimes parents try to hold their kids back and think they're better off just getting a job after high school. We need more support for kids to get educated.

Q: What was the last book you read?
A:"Journey to the Future" by Consuelo Castillo Kickbush. It's about how you can get through school, and it has different chapters on integrity, work ethic, etc. I enjoyed it.

Q: Whom do you admire and why?
A: Dolores Huerta, a labor leader and activist, for all that she does for Latinos. She is her own person and does a lot for women.

Consuelo Kickbush, a retired Air Force lieutenant colonel and author, for her work motivating kids to stay in school.

Alex Maldonado, a founder of the Orange County League of United Latin American Citizens, because he has always supported the people's causes. He's a role model, a Latino statesman.

Maria Solis-Martinez
Age: 67 Occupation: Retired U.S. Air Force, retired cost analyst for Rockwell InternationalResidence: AnaheimFamily: Married 21 years, husband Rufino; five brothers, four sisters Education: Cypress College; bachelor's degree in business administration from the University of La Verne. Biographical tidbit: Born and grew up in Santa Ana's Delhi barrioActivities/organizations: League of United Latin American Citizens, American Association of University Women, Vietnam Veterans of America.Quote: "If it's going to be, it's up to me."


SAVE THE DATE: Dec 9: Guy Gabaldon Memorial, Montebello  

Nov 4: First Annual Los Angeles Archives Bazaar
Nov 16: National Latina Business Women Association, Queen Mary
AIMSA, International Association of Salvadorean Women
Los Angeles Public Library Photo Collection
In 1924 Los Angeles, A Scourge From The Middle Ages


Saturday, December 9,  10:30 A.M.

Montebello Park in Montebello 
(corner of Whittier and Taylor) 
Sent by Salvador Del Valle


Sent by Janete Vargas 
and Lorraine Hernandez  and

If you are researching any imaginable subject concerning Los Angeles and wish to know what archives hold materials of greatest interest to you, then you cannot afford to miss the "First Annual Los Angeles Archives Bazaar" at the Huntington Library, Saturday, 4 November, 2006. 10 am to 4 pm. 

Co-sponsored by the LA as Subject Archives Forum, the Huntington-USC Institute on California and the West, and the Los Angeles History Research Group, this major event will feature "booths" representing more than 40 archives in the Los Angeles region, specializing in materials relating to Los Angeles and covering the full range of subjects, from the arts and culture, to communities, economics, and politics. Researchers will be able to browse a wide array of subject matter, talk to archivists about their holdings, and make appointments right there, to visit and research in The many archives represented. Advisers will also be available to introduce researchers to more than 200 archives that are members of the LA as Subject Archives Forum, which maintains an active online directory of archives.  Throughout the event, a series of speakers will also discuss the holdings of
their archives, which range from the very large to less-visible, but infinitely valuable, community-based archives scattered throughout the Los Angeles metropolis.

Parking & admission to the Bazaar is absolutely free and no registration is required (Admission to the Huntington Gardens is not included). Light lunch and refreshments will be provided free of charge. Please visit the LA as Subject Archives Forum to learn more about the 200+ member archives and for more information about this event:


Thursday November 16, 
The Queen Mary
1126 Queens Highway
Long Beach, CA 90802-6390

Latina Luncheon  11:30- 1:30
Break Out Sessions 2-4:30 p.m.
Mixer 5-7 p.m.

13403 Stanbridge Ave.
Bellflower, Ca 90706

Among the speakers, presentors, participants, confirmed:

 Lupe Ontiveros, Actress.
Kiki Melendez, Comedian, Hot Tamales Live
Lily Winsaft-Aldebaran Associates Internationl  (panelist)
Diana Jimenez  
(Salma Hayek's mother) 
attending and nominated for award

National Latina Business Women Association

Save the Date: November 16. .
Helping Build the 
Latina Business Woman

AIMSA, Asociacion Internacional de Mujeres Salvadoreñas 

AIMSA: Asociacion Internacional de Mujeres Salvadoreñas 
Una vision para el futuro Se fundo en el año 1996., Surge con el animo de ayudar a connacionales en el exterior y en nuestras comunidades de origen. Nuestra Mision Servir como modelos positivos a nuestra juventud mantener nuestra identidad por medio de la educacion, cultura, y programas sociales, guiar, apoyar y orientar a la comunidad Latina Unidas con un solo proposito el de ayudarnos unas con otras en momentos de nesecidad.-

AIMSA: ha hecho la diferencia en las vidas de muchos Salvadoreños, la organizacion ha hechos muchos canvios a traves de los años siempre nos hemos mantenido nuestra verdadera mision. 
AIMSA: Constituye un anvance significativo de los esfuerzos y la integracion de la mujer Salvadoreña.
AIMSA: The Foundation is incorporated as a 501(c)(3) corporation in California 
AIMSA: premio a la mujer Salvadoreña 

LOGROs: Entre nuestros eventos tenemos el premio a "La Mujer Salvadoreña Ahora" Este premio fue instituido a partir de 1996 a mujeres lideres de nuestra comunidad a mujeres que sueñan, mujeres que luchan por sus derechos, somos el pasado somos el presente y somos el futuro. AIMSA organiza, Capacita y fortalece liderazgo entre las mujeres haciendo asi un puente de respetuo mutuo entre las distintas organizaciones de las comunidades participando en sus actividades.- 

AIMSA: Ofrece becas escolares en USA y El Salvador .- En el 2005 se ayudo a graduarse a 35 Alumnos en El Salvadro Instituto Nacional Francisco Menendez y se donaron 4 becas de $100.00 
AIMSA: Trabaja y ayuda en comunidades en El Salvador al igual en California adopto la escuela de educacion especial de la ciudada de Armenia Sonsonate. ofreciendoles diferentes programas de ayuda.- 

1. Impulsar el desarrollo de la mujer y niñez en la educacion para una sociedad basada en la equidad de género y los derechos de las actuales y futuras generaciones. 
2. Impulsar a la mujer en propuestas de políticas públicas, que mejoren la condición de las mujeres en cualquier parte a donde nuestro conocimiento sea alcanzado. 
3. Promover el fortalecimiento de las mujeres y sus organizaciones, en comunidades de diversas 
áreas atención y prevención de la violencia doméstica y sexual, salud, educación y capacitación,. 
4. Ayudar a promover cambios positivos, en la calidad de vida de las mujeres, especialmente de aquellas 
de sectores marginados o en condiciones de especial exclusión mujeres con discapacidad, mujeres adolescentes. 
5- Informar sobre nuevas leyes que hacen cambio a la sociedad sobre la condición de las mujeres, la familia y sus derechos. 6-.Promover la auto organización de las mujeres a nivel local, regional y nacional, para la defensa y conquista de sus derechos. 

Directiva Presidenta/Fundadora, 
Mirian V. Karaoglanian 

Vice-Presidenta, Julia Cortez-Vila 
Secretaria, Norma Ayala 
Tesorera, Angelica Martinez

Domingo, 3 de septiembre del 2006 Sitio: 
Estacionamiento de Los Angeles City College


Los Angeles Public Library Photo Collection   Sent by Johanna De Soto

The Los Angeles Public Library has digitized over 60,000 images from the History and Genealogy Department's Photo Collection. This Internet-accessible collection is one of the treasures of the Central Library and images are continually being added from the archive. These images are from various collections described in the Photo Collection Overview. The emphasis of the photo database is Los Angeles, Southern California life and California history.

[[Editor: For fun, I decided to look up some locations from my background.  I was brought up in Los Angeles and went to Hollenbeck Jr. High in East LA. You just enter a keyword which I did and I found a photo that was historically insightful.  


From the Herald-Examiner collection: 

From left to right: James Reinhard, principal; Frances Maure, student; Russell H. Sloan, instructor; and Lawrence Horen, student, all of Hollenbeck Junior High School, are shown inspecting the new reduced size war bonds. Students of this school are leading the nation in average monthly sales of war stamps. Photo dated: January 21, 1944. I was not at Hollenbeck at that time, I started in 1945, but reading that the students at Hollenbeck Junior High were leading the nation in average monthly sales of war stamps . . really made me proud. Our older siblings were attending at that time. The student body took great pride in being the most ethnically diverse junior High in Los Angeles. So we were not only patriotic, we were living in a multi-cultural, multi-racial school environment being taught that we were all Americans.

Angels Flight

Another fond memory was taking Angels Flight home from down town Los Angeles. Prior to moving to the east side, we lived west of Angels Flight, a short cable railway located on Hill and 3rd Streets. We would walk through the tunnel to the left in this photo, shop at the Grand Central Market, and if we had the nickel fair to take Angels Flight, we would a fun adventure. 

In this 1969 photo from the  William Reagh collection, you are looking down the tracks from the top of Angels Flight. It is quite steep, the seats arranged as steps. 

If you have history or heritage in Los Angeles the Los Angeles Public Library Photo Collection is a great way to round out family stories.]] 


Rat Pack: A plague abatement wrecking crew.  The outbreak prompted a rat extermination program by the city and county in which many of downtown's run-down buildings were demolished. Photo: Bancroft Library, UC Berkley

In 1924 Los Angeles, A Scourge From The Middle Ages
By Cecilia Rasmussen, LA Times March 5, 2006
Sent By: Sister Mary Sevilla

It started with a dead rat in a poor neighborhood near downtown. Not two months later, 37 people had died from the plague.

It was a warm, summery day in late September 1924 when a group of Mexican immigrants began to congregate outside a boardinghouse on Clara Street, north of what is now Cesar E. Chavez Avenue and west of Vignes Street. It was a small, bustling, mostly Latino community near downtown, where the Twin Towers jail complex now stands.

Folks were listening to Jesus Lajun's comical story about his detective work in tracking down an overpowering and nauseating odor beneath his house. He had found a decaying rat, he told them; he picked it up with one hand and threw it in the trash.

A week later, Clara Street was in mourning. Lajun's daughter, Francesca, 15, was dead, a victim of what the coroner called double pneumonia.

Then, a neighbor, Lucena Samarano, who was six months pregnant and had cared for Francesca while she was ill, miscarried and also died. A few days after her funeral, attended by a host of friends, Samarano's husband, Guadalupe, died. Within six weeks, the only survivor of the eight-member Samarano family was 14-month-old Raul.

The man who had found the rat, Lajun - also spelled Loujon - was nursing a bloody cough and a painful, egg-sized swollen gland in his groin. By the end of October, he too was dead.

An ambulance driver who transported the sick became ill and died. So did Father M. Brualla, who had administered last rites to several victims and said Mass at Lucena Samarano's funeral.  Within days, a dozen more deaths occurred in the neighborhood and in the Belvedere district on the east side of the river, according to Dr. Robert S. Cleland, a former Los Angeles County Hospital pathologist who colorfully described the events in a 1971 article for Westways magazine.

Doctors suspected meningitis, influenza, pneumonia, even typhus. But the culprit was something more insidious that had inspired fear since before the Middle Ages.

Plague had crept into San Francisco in 1900, probably carried by fleas on rats aboard a ship that had stopped in China. Fearing financial devastation if word got out, city and state officials kept the port open and covered up the outbreak as best they could.

Newspapers, including this one, largely cooperated. "No Genuine Plague: Sensational Stories Are Without Foundation," blared a 1900 Times head-line. San Francisco officials explained sending an army of exterminators throughout the city as just a "precautionary measure."

The disease smoldered to San Francisco until the epidemic ended in 1908, after 280 cases and 172 deaths, according to author and Wall Street Journal re-porter Marilyn Chase in "The Barbary Plague: The Black Death to Victorian San Francisco," published in 2003.

But that didn't mean the end of plague in the United States. The disease moved from San Francisco rats to ground squirrels and other wild rodents and spread into the Sierra, the Rocky Mountains and the Southwest. It reached Oakland in 1919, and Los Angeles in 1924.

But no one considered the possibility of plague at first, according to Dr. Helen Eastman Martin to her 1979 book "The History of the Los Angeles County Hospital"

Then, on Oct. 30, nearly a month after the disease had claimed its first victim, Los Angeles County Hospital pathologist George Maner looked through his microscope and identified the killer bacterium: plague. Maner, who had never worn gloves during autopsies, started wearing them right then, Martin wrote.

Health officials acted fast, placing a strict quarantine on an eight-block area around Clara Street, bounded by Alameda .Street and the Los Angeles River, and Macy Street (now Cesar E. Chavez Avenue) and what is now Rondout Street. Macy Street Elementary School was included. A six-block area to the county's Belvedere district was quarantined too; people there had at-tended Clara Street funerals.

Armed police officers and World War I veterans patrolled the roped-off boundaries, where they distributed food to more than 2,500 penned-up residents.

The disease was equated with ethnicity; the low-income quarantined neighborhoods and other slums were deemed a men-ace to public health.

"Some newspapers referred to the plague as being a Mexican disease," said Bill Estrada, a curator at El Pueblo de Los Angeles. The plague "only fanned the flames of racial attitudes that had been around a long time. Poor Mexican immigrants were accused of bringing unsanitary conditions with them."

Although antibiotics didn't exist yet, an anti-plague serum had been developed to 1894 by Swiss bacteriologist Alexandre Yersin. But Los Angeles had none. Five hundred doses were sent from the East Coast but arrived too late to be of much use to the dying, according to Martin and a Times article. Only one patient received the serum, Martin wrote; it's unclear whether he or she survived.

Once to a human host, the disease becomes either bubonic plague or the more contagious pneumonic plague, which is transmitted through coughs and sneezes.

Inside the quarantine lines, strangely garbed medical professionals set up a temporary lab and gathered blood samples from barrio residents. A few resisted. Many distrusted the police, who were holding them against their will.

In early November, Macy Street school Principal Nora Sterry tried to enter the area. When guards stopped her, she appealed to health officials and the mayor, who also refused.

"They can't keep me out," she told a Times reporter. "All my children are in there. And if you see the flag waving from the mast to the Macy Street school-yard tomorrow morning, you will know I am in there."
Sure enough, the flag was waving by morning.

Sterry gave residents hope and inspired them with her courage. She opened the school kitchen, where she cooked for the community - which had been limited to rations brought in by the police. She organized musicians who. lived inside the quarantine area to serenade nightly.

And Sterry, who was also a Red Cross volunteer, persuaded residents to submit to the blood tests. Most were healthy and eager to get to their jobs outside the quarantine area.  She rented a bedroom from a resident because, once inside the quarantine area, she wasn't allowed to leave.

The scourge abated with the quarantine, which was lifted on Nov. 13, after nearly two weeks.  Ecstatic residents showered Sterry with flowers from their gardens. Children gathered their pennies to buy her a gold medal, which she pinned on her dress, The Times reported.

Thirty-seven people had died. The city and the county of Los Angeles embarked on a $50,000 rat extermination program in 1924-25, burning and demolishing many of downtown's run-down buildings. Martin wrote that "157 rats and five squirrels [were] found to be plague infected" to rich and poor areas, including downtown, Beverly Hills and the harbor.

Semi-retired attorney Leonard Smith, 87, who lives to New-port Beach now, remembers the fear of the plague and the fires.

"I was 6 years old, living in Boyle Heights, when my mother grabbed me and my brother and took us to the west bank of river, where we watched the fires on the east side of the river" the Belvedere area, he said in a recent interview.

"My mother wasn't afraid [of the plague] because she had utmost faith in garlic," he said." She hung a bag of it around my neck like a necklace to ward whatever it was - spirits or rats."

Sterry continued to crusade for better housing, piped-in water and sewers in her school district. In 1931, when state legislator George Bliss of Santa Barbara proposed legalizing the segregation of Mexican children in public schools, she objected.  The Senate quashed the bill.

In 1934 she was appointed to the Los Angeles County Board of Education, serving until her death in 1941, at 61. Within weeks, Sawtelle Boulevard elementary School in West Angeles rededicated itself as the Nora Sterry Elementary School. But no photograph of her hangs there today.

Southern California's rat and squirrel populations continue to be a major pool for the plague and the most common source of it in humans. Fleas can move from rodents to pets and then to people. Earlier this year, Santa Monica killed squirrels in Palisades Park to reduce the number of plague-carrying fleas.


Calendar of Dia de los Muertos events in California
Nov 2: Mexican Consul of San Francisco Die de los Muertos Event
Nov 2: Procesion Ritual del Dia de los Muertos, San Francisco 
Rancho Camulos Museum, Ventura County
Records of California men in the War of the Rebellion, 1861 to 1867
St. Monica's Catholic Church, Baptism Records (1886-1889)

Calendar of Dia de los Muertos activities in California 
Posted by California Latino Arts Network.
Sent by webmistress Rebecca Nevarez  


Mural presented for the first time in the United States 
by Mexican artist Fernando Romero

The Mexican Consul of San Francisco invites the community to view the mural at el  Dia de los Muertos event. "A usanza tradicional y con el verdadero sabor de nuestro pais."

2 de noviembre de 06, 6 p.m.
52 Folsom St. San Francisco, 94105

Altar de Muerto tradicion creado por la destacada artista de paper picado 
Herminia Albarran Romero 2005 NEA National Heritage Fellowships
Family and Friends. We will have Pan de Muerto and Hot Chocolate

Mónica E. Félix
Community & Cultural Affairs
Consulado General de Mexico
San Francisco, CA
Ph: (415) 354-1721
Sent by Dorinda Moreno


San Francisco Day of the Dead Ritual Procession

Sent by Dorinda Moreno
Source: Juan Pablo Gutierrez
Thursday Nov. 2, at 7:00 pm
Corner of 24th and Bryant St.
San Francisco, CA

The Ritual Procession takes place on November 2nd traditionally known as the Day of the Dead and has been an annual community celebration in the Mission District for almost three decades. This procession is a project of El Colectivo Del Rescate Cultural, a grass-roots collective dedicated to the rescue, preservation and promotion of the ancestral indigenous cultural and spiritual heritage of Mexicanos, Chicanos, and Latinos, in collaboration with the Mission Cultural Center for Latino Arts, La Galeria De La Raza, local artists and cultural workers.

The Day of the Dead Ritual Procession for 2006 is dedicated to OMETEOTL, who is considered to be the supreme God-Goddess of duality, who beyond the heavens, gives birth and sustenance to all that exists. He-She is beyond the earth, “in the waters of the blue colored bird”, which circle the world, he-she is above the clouds and yet is present in, “the region of the dead”. He-she is in one word, Tloque Nahuaque, owner of that which is far and near, Lord of space and time. This years Ritual Procession honors the life of Carlos Aceituno who’se contribution to Latino Arts and Culture serve as an example to all of us.

The San Francisco Day of the Dead Ritual Procession has become the largest in the continental United States, each year attracting over 20,000 participants and observers. The Procession is led by the 13 Sacred Standards which represent the ancient Aztec and pre-Cortezan ritual to honor the dead.

Foremost the Ritual Procession is an affirmation of our common life cycle. We start, make 4 stops, and end the procession by calling forth to all five directions: to the East, where the sun rises everyday, and direction of Fire; to the South, the tropical wetlands of Mexico and Central America, and direction of the life giving element of Water; to the West, where the sun goes down, and direction of the Wind; to the North, direction of the Earth and location of the cold land of the beyond; and finally, to the Center, the direction of the Spirit that brings us back onto the universal spiral.

El Colectivo Del Rescate Cultural recognizes the invaluable contributions of; Yleana Martinez, Kevin Woodson, Adriana &Tom Williams, Dr. Horacio R Ramirez, Dr. Maria Lopez of Los Portales Pharmacy, Juan Pablo Gutierrez, Maria Rosa Galdamez, Camila Osorio, Francisco X Alarcon, Juan Fuentes Cynthia Aviles, Antonio Aragon, Luis Alberto De La Garza y Campos, Lichen, Loco Bloco, Mission Police Station, Luis Ruiz, Starhawk, Rose Arrieta, Linda Wilson, Dolores Terrazas, David Miller, Benito Moreno, Pamela Quatrochi, Michael Raunner, Jannie Sifuentes, Mirian Febo, &Peter Duarte.

Contact information: Tel. (650) 992-3817, E-Mail
The 50 Ritual Procession Volunteer GUARDIANES : Will be identified by wearing the official black T-shirt of the Procession with the words GUARDIAN De La Cultura. They will be responsible for keeping the Ritual Procession participants as close together as possible, and following instructions of the Mission Police escorts, particularly at intersections,


Rancho Camulos Museum, Ventura County
Visitors center funded by transportation grant 
to feature partial renovation of damaged adobe. 
By Carol Rock, Staff Writer, 
Santa Clarita Daily News, September 25, 2006
Sent by Lorraine Frain
Source: Mrs. Evangeline Alcaraz of Santa Clarita 


The Rancho Camulos Museum is Ventura County California's first National Historic Landmark. A 40 acre National Historic Landmark, situated within an 1800 acre working ranch, Piru, California. The Rancho Camulos Museum is located on the site of the rancho founded in 1859, which was originally part of the Rancho San Francisco.  It also known as the home of Ramona,  Helen Hunt Jackson's 1884 best-selling novel Ramona inspired four motion pictures and a pageant performed annually in Hemet, California.  

PIRU-Come spring, a visitors center highlighting local attractions and offering a bit of history will open along Highway 126 thanks to a federal transportation grant.

The center will feature partial renovation of a 16-room adobe at Rancho Camulos, the historic 19th -century ranch south of Piru that sits just off the highway linking Ventura and Santa Clarita. The adobe was severely damaged in the 1994 Northridge Earthquake and subsequent aftershocks.

Ventura County officials will spend the $680,000 grant to make the building presentable and safe for travelers needing a rest stop. "The entire site is in need of financial help," said Mary Schwabauer, chairman of the board of directors of Rancho Camulos Museum. "This retrofit will give us a chance to provide visitors a chance to look at life in a 19th-century ranch. It is not a complete restoration, bit it's a good start."

The rancho, once a 48,000-acre land grant given to Antonio del Valle in 1839, currently operates at 1,800 acres. Forty acres of the original grant, which includes all the ranch building and some agricultural land, was declared a National Historic Landmark in 2000. After the 1994 earthquake, a building constructed between 1853 and 1880, what docents call 
"The Big Adobe," was retrofitted with a $275,000 federal earthquake grant. But the small adobe closest to the highway sat patiently waiting for some attention.

Now, the circa-1920 structure, built as a residence for Nachito del Valle (a grandson of Antonio), is getting its due. Walls that crumbled and fell away from the building will be rebuilt, windows removed and reset, tile floors restored to their former glory.

The first thing we do is access the damage and try to figure out how to do the repairs while salvaging as much of the historic fabric as we can," said project manager Jeff Seidner, the owner of Eagle Restoration. "There's nothing typical about adobe buildings, every one is a little bit different. This is a bit of a challenge. The walls are only one (block) thick and 10 inches wide. Most adobes are much thicker; the fact that it's so thin and there were a lot of windows is probably why the damage is so severe."

Seidner is no newcomer to the adobe restoration process, with 22 years of experience that includes several state and national landmarks, such as Los Angeles' Pio Pico Adobe and Leonis Adobe in Calabasas under his belt. His firm did the retrofit of The Big Adobe, originally built in 1860 and now open for limited tours.
Along with the fragile nature of adobe, his firm has to deal with dwindling resources-raw materials and craftsmen trained in the lost art of creating the bricks and plastering the outside of the buildings. In fact, one of the primary sources of adobe blocks, the Hans Sumpf company, has closed its doors for good. Seidner had the foresight to purchase several lots of adobe blocks before they went out of business-just in case. With 500 adobe houses in California alone, he knew they would come to good use.

Docents who give tours of the ranch will have an office in the new building, along with a research library.  "We've waited so long for this little gem that no one knows about," said Hillary Weireter, site manager of the museum.

In the meantime, visitors are welcome at Rancho Camulos on Wednesdays, Saturdays and Sundays from 1 to 4 p.m. For more information, visit their Web site at  (661) 257-5252

Records of California men in the War of the Rebellion, 1861 to 1867
Sent by Johanna De Soto

Table of Contents 
Title page 
Front matter 
Record of California Men in the War of the Rebellion, 1861 to 1867 
Proposed invasion of California from Texas; evidence of sympathy with rebellion in the state and adjacent territories 
Proposed invasion of Texas via Mexico 
The California Column 
The First Regiment of Cavalry 
The Second Regiment of Cavalry 
First Battalion of Native Cavalry 
First Regiment of Infantry 
First Battalion of Veteran Infantry 
Second Regiment of Infantry 
Third Regiment of Infantry 
Fourth Regiment of Infantry 
Fifth Regiment of Infantry 
Sixth Regiment of Infantry 
Seventh Regiment of Infantry 
Eighth Regiment of Infantry 
First Battalion of Mountaineers 
The "California Hundred" and "Battalion." 
An incomplete list of the stations occupied by California troops.
Sacramento: State Office, 1890.  

BAPTISM RECORDS (1886-1889) 

Compiled by John P. Schmal © 2006
Never available in this form


Acknowledgments: Many thanks for the permission, cooperation and assistance of Monsignor Lloyd Torgerson, Jim Tuverson and Parish Administrator Mike Mottola in the extraction of Saint Monica's Parish records.

St. Monica was established on June 28, 1886 by Bishop Francis Mora of the Diocese of Monterey and Los Angeles. Father Patrick Hawe became the first resident pastor of the new parish which was then located at Arizona and 3rd Streets in Santa Monica. At this time, Santa Monica was still an unincorporated part of Los Angeles County and part of Ballona Township. Saint Monica's Church moved to its present location at the corner of California and 7th Streets in 1924.

The baptism registers were recorded in Spanish until 1902, when the parish priest started to use English. While the recording of baptisms commenced in 1886, Saint Monica did not begin recording marriage records until 1924. Before that date, most people were married at mission churches in the area. Luther Ingersoll's "Century History of the Santa Monica Bay Cities" offered a detailed history of the church, starting with page 292.

The following baptisms are extracts from the baptism book of Saint Monica's from 1886 to April 14, 1895. Only baptisms in which one or more parent carried a Spanish surname were recorded. In these early days of Saint Monica's Parish, Spanish surname baptisms outnumbered non-Hispanic baptisms by about 10 to 1.  The legitimacy of each child in relation to his or her parents' marital status at the time of baptism is not being made public at the request of the parish authorities.

Child: Hermengildo Sanchez
Date of baptism: May 30, 1886. . Date of birth: April 13, 1886
Parents: Francisco Sanchez and Cristiana Gusman
Godparents: Ignacio Baldes and Prudencio Oliverez

Child: Roque Marquez
Date of baptism: June 24, 1886. . Date of birth: March 25, 1886
Parents: Manuel Marquez and Dolores Urquidez
Godparents: Teofilo Leva and Sacramento Dolores

Child: Cecilia Aurelia Olivera
Date of baptism: June 27, 1886. . Date of birth: Feb. 1, 1886
Parents: Andres Olivera and Ynes Bojurkes
Godparents: Agustin Cota and Ulalio Bojurkes

Child: Juana Maria Baldez
Date of baptism: July 3, 1886. . Date of birth: July 3, 1886
Parents: Santos Baldez and Concepcion Barillas
Godparents: Miguel Higuero and Carmen Rodriguez

Child: Juana Josefa Baldez
Date of baptism: July 3, 1886. . Date of birth: July 3, 1886
Parents: Santos Baldez and Concepcion Barillas
Godparents: Miguel Higuero and Celedonia Farias

Child: Maria Valenzuela
Date of baptism: July 20, 1886. . Date of birth: July 20, 1888
Parents: Francisco Valenzuela and Gerarda Rios
Godparents: William Flores and Maria Garcia

Child: Clara Feliciana Silva
Date of baptism: July 22, 1886. . Date of birth: June 11, 1888
Parents: Berges Silva and Nana Rivera
Godparents: Luis Echardis and Clara Rivera

Child: Maria Gracia Bejar
Date of baptism: July 24, 1886. . Date of birth: Feb. 11, 1886
Parents: Dolores Bejar and Maria Jose
Godparents: Francisco Reyes and Maria Antonia de Marquez

Child: Isabel Gladys Rhodes
Date of baptism: July 15, 1886. . Date of birth: June 10, 1886
Parents: Thomas Rhodes and Josefa Bandini
Godparents: Juan Bandini and Jennie Winston

Child: Guillermo Farias
Date of baptism: July 24, 1886. . Date of birth: November 8, 1885
Parents: Andronico Farias and Flores de Maria Apelete
Godparents: Francisco Farias and Carmen Bilmar

Child: Maria Antonia Tapia

Date of baptism: Aug. 21, 1886. Date of birth: April 9, 1886
Parents: Francisco Tapia and Petra Herman
Godparents: Tomas Olivares and Maria Machado Olivarez

Child: Jose Antonio Olivera
Date of baptism: Aug. 29, 1886. Date of birth: May 10, 1886
Parents: Manuel Olivera and Cypriana Herman de Olivera
Godparents: Luis Olivares and Prudencia Olivares

Child: Manuel de Jesus Murre
Date of baptism: Sept. 1, 1886. Date of birth: July 26, 1886
Parents: Jose Murre and Eduviges Peña
Godparents: Hilaria Piña and Manuel Valenzuela

Child: Monica Alta Gracia Valenzuela
Date of baptism: Sept. 10, 1886. Date of birth: Oct. 4, 1885
Parents: Manuel Valenzuela and Modesta Bojorkes
Godparents: Valerio Bojorkes and Alta Gracia Piña

Child: Jose Alberto Cariado
Date of baptism: Sept. 6, 1886. Date of birth: June 6, 1886
Parents: Manuel Cariado and Merced Bejorina
Godparents: Bonifacio Marquez and Maria Antonia Marquez

Child: Francisco Olivera
Date of baptism: Sept. 10, 1886. Date of birth: Aug. 1886
Parents: Pedro Olivera and Trinidad Olivera
Godparents: Jose Juan Machado and Francisca Reyes

Child: Florencio Valenzuela
Date of baptism: Sept. 20, 1886. Date of birth: Aug. 22, 1886
Parents: Juan Valenzuela and Francisca Gomez
Godparents: Pascual Marquez and Michaela Reyes
Notes: Married to Luz Maria Hernandez on Sept. 7, 1951 at St.
Anne's Church, Santa Monica

Child: Martina Crisanta
Date of baptism: Oct. 11, 1886. Date of birth: June 8, 1886
Parents: Esperanza Cota and Jose Lopez
Godparents: Luis Lopez and Ascencion Machado

Child: Felipe Vicente Manriquez
Date of baptism: Nov. 13, 1886. Date of birth: Oct. 27, 1886
Parents: Felipe Manriquez and Atoche de Manriquez
Godparents: Jose J. Carillo and Francesca de Carillo

Child: Martina Crisanta Cota
Date of baptism: Oct. 11, 1886. Date of birth: June 8, 1886
Parents: Esperanza Cota and Jose Lopez
Godparents: Luis Lopez and Ascencion Machado

Child: Felipe Vicente Manriquez
Date of baptism: Nov. 13, 1886. Date of birth: Oct. 27, 1886
Parents: Felipe Manriquez and Atoche de Manriquez
Godparents: Jose J. Carillo and Francesca de Carillo

Child: Mateo Roberto Tapio
Date of baptism: Nov. 28, 1886. Date of birth: Sept. 11, 1886
Parents: Francisco Tapio and Petra Hernandez Tapio
Godparents: Ignacio Valdez and Fredelinda Chavez

Child: Florentina Dominguez
Date of baptism: Nov. 30, 1886. Date of birth: Sept. 14, 1886
Parents: Federico Dominguez and Paula Higuera
Godparents: Francisco Ranjel and Margarita Ranjel

Child: Nicolas Maria Pilar Marquez
Date of baptism: Dec. 20, 1886. Date of birth: Dec. 6, 1886
Parents: Bonifacio Marquez and Maria Antonia Olivares
Godparents: Tomas Olivares and Maria Machado

Child: Vicente Francisco Valenzuela
Date of baptism: Mar. 3, 1887. Date of birth: Jan. 20, 1886
Parents: Manuel Valenzuela and Modesta Bojorques
Godparents: Francisco Ranjel and Nicolasa Bojorques

Child: Angelita Valenzuela
Date of baptism: May 1, 1887. Date of birth: Oct. 12, 1886
Parents: Francisco Bonifacio Valenzuela and Francesca Reyes
Godparents: Jose Donougue and Geralda Rios

Child: Maria Dolores Amada Salido y Saenz

Date of baptism: May 2, 1887. Date of birth: April 10, 1887
Parents: Jesus Salido y Saenz and Amada Garcia
Godparents: Diego Alcala Machado and Angela Bojorquez

Child: Matilda Talamantes
Date of baptism: May 20, 1887. Date of birth: May 14, 1887
Parents: Felipe Talamantes and Carmen Lugo
Godparents: Manuel Machado and Felicitas Machado

Child: Virginia Rios
Date of baptism: May 21, 1887. Date of birth: Jan. 30, 1887
Parents: Roman Rios and Auriola Carillo
Godparents: Federico Peña and Matea Peña

Child: Maria Celestiana Chapman
Date of baptism: May 28, 1887. Date of birth: May 19, 1887
Parents: Juan Chapman and Maria Higuera
Godparents: Elpidio Higuera and Claudina Olivera de Higuera

Child: Jennie Louisa Eschardias
Date of baptism: May 31, 1887. Date of birth: Nov. 13, 1886
Parents: Louis Eschardias and Clara Ribeal
Godparents: Peter Eschardias and Mary Eschardias

Child: Juan Molino
Date of baptism: June 31, 1887. Date of birth: May 13, 1887
Parents: Evaristo Molino and Crialda Reyes
Godparents: Longa Machado and Rita Reyes

Child: Alfred Herren Aguirre

Date of baptism: July 5, 1887. Date of birth: April 27, 1887
Parents: Jose Antonio Aguirre and Leonarda Cardwell
Godparents: Jose de la Cruz Machado and Francesca Ferrer.

Child: Ramona Perez
Date of baptism: July 3, 1887. Date of birth: Dec. 25, 1885
Parents: Manuel Perez and Crispina Garcia.
Godparents: Barnabe Lelong and Juliana Ruiz
Notes: Married on Nov. 25, 1909 to Ysidro Ortiz, a native of Spain, resident of Los Angeles, at St. Monica's Church, Santa Monica

Child: Audelia Lisado

Date of baptism: Aug. 7, 1887. Date of birth: May 23, 1887
Parents: Vicente Lisado y Pilar Blanco
Godparents: Pascual Marquez and Michaela Reyes de Marquez

Child: Perfecto Amando Marquez
Date of baptism: Aug. 7, 1887. Date of birth: April 17, 1887
Parents: Pascual Marquez and Miguela Reyes
Godparents: Francisco Aniceto Reyes and Margarita Silai

Child: Eusebio Chiros
Date of baptism: Aug. 21, 1887. Date of birth: Aug. 14, 1887
Parents: Angel Chiros and Francisca Garcia
Godparents: Vicente Lisado and Pilar Blanco

Child: Joaquin Angel Valdez
Date of baptism: Sept. 17, 1887. Date of birth: Aug. 2, 1887
Parents: Joaquin Valdez and Arcadia Sepulveda
Godparents: Santos Valdez and Concepcion Sepulveda

Child: Francisca Soledad Cruz
Date of baptism: Sept. 25, 1887. Date of birth: June 4, 1887
Parents: Juan Cruz and Maria Antonia Farias.
Godparents: Jose Farias and Leonidas Machado

Child: Maria de la Luz Castro
Date of baptism: Oct. 3, 1887. Date of birth: May 1, 1887
Parents: Miguel Castro and Refugio Yorba
Godparents: Jose Antonio Manriquez and Guadalupe Manriquez

Child: John Joseph Carrillo
Date of baptism: Oct. 5, 1887. Date of birth: Feb. 16, 1887
Parents: John Joseph Carillo and Francisca Roldan
Godparents: Peter R. Brady7 and Mary Ellen Brady

Child: Juan Machado
Date of baptism: Oct. 19, 1887. Date of birth: July 11, 1886
Parents: Federico Machado and Maria Hind
Godparents: Ricardo Machado and Manuela de Machado

Child: Jose Andronico Farias
Date of baptism: Nov. 27, 1887. Date of birth: Nov. 22, 1886
Parents: Adronico Farias and Maria Palateo
Godparents: Farias and Elvira Farias

Child: Alberto Garcia
Date of baptism: Nov. 27, 1887. Date of birth: Nov. 24, 1886
Parents: Nicolas Garcia and Juana Martinez
Godparents: George Claybrook and Susanna Claybrook

Child: Matoa Vicente Baldes

Date of baptism: Dec. 5, 1887. Date of birth: Sept. 20, 1887
Parents: Vicente Baldez and Dionisia de Valdez
Godparents: Manuel F. Corriel and Clemente de Coronel

Child: Maria de Jesus Donahue
Date of baptism: Dec. 18, 1887. Date of birth: Nov. 4, 1887
Parents: Joseph Donahue and Roberta Gomes
Godparents: Manuel Gomez and Maria Garcia

Child: Alberto Candido Delamantis
Date of baptism: Dec. 24, 1887. Date of birth: Oct. 3, 1887
Parents: Oligario Delamantes and Maria Ochoa
Godparents: Tranquilina Delamantes and Antonio Lisaldo

Child: Modesta Maud Flores
Date of baptism: Dec. 25, 1887. Date of birth: Feb. 6, 1887
Parents: William Flores and Mary Catherine Flores
Godparents: Juan Bautista Bandini and Arcadia Gaffey

Child: Margarita Maybell Flores

Date of baptism: Dec. 25, 1887. Date of birth: May 13, 1889
Parents: William Flores and Mary Catherine Flores
Godparents: Joseph Donahue and Roberta Gomez

Child: Pio de Jesus Olivera
Date of baptism: Jan. 12, 1888. Date of birth: July 11, 1887
Parents: Jesus Olivera and Ramona Cota
Godparents: Juan Lugo and Vicenta Machado de Lugo

Child: Manuel Cañonis
Date of baptism: Jan. 25, 1888. Date of birth: Dec. 23, 1887
Parents: Juan Cañonis and Maria Antonia Silva
Godparents: Ignacio Manriquez and Manuela Rangel

Child: George Washington Marcadio Contrerez
Date of baptism: Feb. 5, 1888. Date of birth: Jan. 2, 1888
Parents: Francisco Contrerez and Jennie Kennedy
Godparents: Vicente Lugo and Magdalena Machado

Child: Clara Arcadia Dowling
Date of baptism: Feb. 5, 1888. Date of birth: Jan. 10, 1888
Parents: James Dowling and Estela Carrillo
Godparents: John Joseph Carrillo and Arcadia Carillo de Smeur

Child: Ygnacio Floguencio Machado
Date of baptism: Feb. 7, 1888. Date of birth: Jan. 16, 1888
Parents: Antonio Machado and Manuela Valenzuela
Godparents: Andres Machado and Gracia Machado

Child: Maria Lugarda Delfina Baldez
Date of baptism: Feb. 17, 1888. Date of birth: Dec. 24, 1887
Parents: Santos Baldez and Concepcion Farias
Godparents: Ricardo Machado and Tomasa Talamantes

Child: Ezechial Manriquez
Date of baptism: Feb. 28, 1888. Date of birth: Feb. 20, 1888
Parents: Ygnacio Manriquez and Manuela Ranjel
Godparents: Juan Bejar and Encarnacion Urquera

Child: Manuel Pedro Valencia
Date of baptism: March 11, 1888. Date of birth: Jan. 31, 1888
Parents: Dolores Valencia and Juana Marquez
Godparents: Manuel Marquez and Dolores Horquirez

Child: William Francis Marquez
Date of baptism: April 4, 1888. Date of birth: Feb. 29, 1888
Parents: Bonifacio Marquez and Maria Antonia Olivarez
Godparents: William Francis Nordholl and Juana Marquez

Child: Uluccio Tranquelino Olivera

Date of baptism: April 7, 1888. Date of birth: Dec. 21, 1887
Parents: Andres Olivera and Ynes Bokorkes
Godparents: Agustin Cota and Ulalia Bokorkes

Child: Jose de Jesus Garcia
Date of baptism: April 8, 1888. Date of birth: April 5, 1888
Parents: Francisco Garcia and Isabel Garcia
Godparents: Guadalupe Reyes and Ramona Marquez

Child: Dataniel Ulalio Marquez
Date of baptism: April 8, 1888. Date of birth: Feb. 12, 1888
Parents: Rafael Marquez and Gloria Piña
Godparents: Angel Quiroz and Porfiria Garcia

Child: Jose del Carmen Valenzuela
Date of baptism: April 17, 1888. Date of birth: May 15, 1888
Parents: Jose Valenzuela and Rita Lugo
Godparents: Felipe Neri Valenzuela and Pilar Lugo

Child: Dolores Hilario Deotivis
Date of baptism: April 17, 1888. Date of birth: June 14, 1887
Parents: Leonivis Deotivis and Maria Salas
Godparents: Roman Horquirez and Maria Horquirez

Child: Manuel Duron
Date of baptism: April 29, 1888. Date of birth: Jan. 14, 1888
Parents: Manuel Duron and Maria Salazar
Godparents: Manuel Marquez and Raquela Marquez

Child: Maria Lugardo Delfina Valdez
Date of baptism: May 1, 1888. Date of birth: Dec. 24, 1887
Parents: Santos Valdez and Concepcion Farias
Godparents: Ricardo Machado and Tomasa Talamantes

Child: Alturo Tomaso Baldez
Date of baptism: May 2, 1888. Date of birth: Sept. 18, 1886
Parents: Teofilo Baldez and Maria Antonia Cota
Godparents: Francis Cota and Magdalena Cota

Child: Juliana Lelong
Date of baptism: May 12, 1888. Date of birth: Feb. 12, 1888
Parents: Barnabe Lelong and Juliana Ruiz
Godparents: Fermin Castillo and Florentina Botillier

Child: Martina Mason
Date of baptism: May 20, 1888. Date of birth: Jan. 31, 1887
Parents: Abel Mason and Flore Rubio
Godparents: Juan Bautista Decazau and Hermingilda Rubio

Child: Miguel Romero
Date of baptism: June 5, 1888. Date of birth: April 23, 1888
Parents: Diego Romero and Rosa Acuna de Romero
Godparents: Hilario Reyes and Rosa Piña

Child: Jose Martin Ruiz
Date of baptism: June 10, 1888. Date of birth: May 26, 1888
Parents: Martin Ruiz and Manuela Espinoza
Godparents: Guillermo Bokorkes and Jesus Velarde

Child: Francisco Chalmer
Date of baptism: June 10, 1888. Date of birth: Sept. 17, 1887
Parents: Vicente Chalmer and Laureana Machado
Godparents: Maria de Chalmer

Child: Alejandro Francisco Marques
Date of baptism: June 10, 1888. Date of birth: Apr. 24, 1888
Parents: Manuel Marques and Dolores Heijuires de Marques
Godparents: Guadalupe Reyes and Soila Reis
Notes: Married to Carmen Rios on December 1, 1909.

Child: Maria Julia Tapio
Date of baptism: June 23, 1888. Date of birth: Apr. 8, 1888
Parents: Antonio Tapio and Juana Belmal
Godparents: Jose Belmal and Carmen Belmal

Child: Pastor Garcia
Date of baptism: June 23, 1888. Date of birth: Apr. 15, 1888
Parents: Francisco Garcia and Refugio Flores
Godparents: Ramon Sepulveda and Delfina Henriquez

Child: Jose Dolores Valdez

Date of baptism: June 23, 1888. Date of birth: March 27, 1888
Parents: Joaquin Valdez and Arcadia Sepulveda
Godparents: Dolores Machado and Gregoria Leon

Child: Angel Venancio Ranjel
Date of baptism: July 22, 1888. Date of birth: May 18, 1888
Parents: Angel Ranjel and Edolinda Manriquez
Godparents: Emidio Manriquez and Guadalupe Manriquez

Child: Patricio Luis Tapio
Date of baptism: August 7, 1888. Date of birth: March 7, 1888
Parents: Francisco Tapio and Petra Fermen
Godparents: Francisco Figueroa and Manuela Cota

Child: Eliberto Pearson Armas
Date of baptism: August 11, 1888. Date of birth: August 1, 1888
Parents: Jose de Arnas and Maria Camarillo de Armas
Godparents: Juan Camarillo and Maria Dominguez de Pearson

Child: Tomasa Feliciana Olivera
Date of baptism: August 20, 1888. Date of birth: August 1, 1888
Parents: Adolfo Olivera and Dolores Herman
Godparents: Ignacio Baldez and Prudencia Olivera

Child: Ramon Valenzuela
Date of baptism: September 21, 1888. Date of birth: September 20, 1888
Parents: Juan Valenzuela and Trauista Gomes
Godparents: Guadalupe Reyes and Ramona Marquez de Reyes

Child: Joaquin Ciriaco Dominguez
Date of baptism: September 28, 1888. Date of birth: August 8, 1888
Parents: Jose Dominguez and Maria Lobo
Godparents: Pascuala Marquez and Dolores Hurquidez

Child: Pablo Marquez
Date of baptism: September 30, 1888. Date of birth: August 30, 1888
Parents: Felipe Marquez and Atoche Bokorkes
Godparents: Juan Farias and Elvira Farias

Child: Marcario Martin Olivera
Date of baptism: October 13, 1888. Date of birth: February 9, 1888
Parents: Manual Olivera and Cipriana Herman de Olivera
Godparents: Ignacio Valdez and Leonides Machado

Child: Juan Serafine Aralta
Date of baptism: October 16, 1888. Date of birth: Nov. 14, 1886
Parents: Luis Aralta and Teresa Donderez
Godparents: Juan Bejar and Encarnacion Higuera

Child: Joachin Antonio Lugo
Date of baptism: October 28, 1888. Date of birth: August 19, 1888
Parents: Mercurial Lugo and Rita Reyes
Godparents: Bernardino Machado and Erlinda Lugo

Child: Graciela Josefina Sepulvleda
Date of baptism: October 28, 1888. Date of birth: Aug. 27, 1888
Parents: Alejandro Sepulveda and Amada Arnas
Godparents: Jose Arnas and Maria Carmen de Arnas

Child: Emedio Francisco Higuera

Date of baptism: Nov. 24, 1888. Date of birth: August 5, 1888
Parents: Elpidio F. Higuera and Claudina Olivera
Godparents: Francisco Higuera and Josefa Materin

Child: Candida Francisca Marquez
Date of baptism: December 30, 1888. Date of birth: Oct. 3, 1888
Parents: Pascual Marquez and Michaela Reyes
Godparents: Juan Francisco Figueroa and Manuela Cota de Figueroa

Child: Maria Panfila Rios

Date of baptism: Feb. 20, 1889. Date of birth: June 10, 1888
Parents: Hilario Rios and Pesitana Piña
Godparents: Escalastico Barrerus and Josefa Lugo

Child: Alberto Lisaldo
Date of baptism: March 1, 1889. Date of birth: December 27, 1888
Parents: Vicente Lisaldo and Pilar Blanco
Godparents: Henry Katz and Ulalia Bohorkes

Child: Juan Salgado
Date of baptism: March 2, 1889. Date of birth: October 14, 1888
Parents: Juan Salgado and Francisca Ramirez
Godparents: Juan Batista Bandini and Atala Carrillo

Child: Manuela Marina Manriquez
Date of baptism: March 20, 1889. Date of birth: January 14, 1889
Parents: Ignacio Manrieuz and Manuela Ranjel
Godparents: Tranquilina Talamantes and Delfina Talamantes

Child: Jose de Jesus Lopez
Date of baptism: March 23, 1889. Date of birth: January 29, 1889
Parents: Jose de Jesus Lopez and Guadalupe Dominguez
Godparents: William Flores and Margarito Flores

Child: Magin Alfred Farias

Date of baptism: March 30, 1889. Date of birth: August 19, 1888
Parents: Andronico Farias and Flora Apalate
Godparents: Francisco Bokorkes and Rosanna Farias

Child: Elizar Molina
Date of baptism: April 7, 1889. Date of birth: February 5, 1889
Parents: Evaristo Molino and Eliza Reyes
Godparents: Vicente Lugo and Francisco Reyes

Child: Eulogio Leonardo Stuart
Date of baptism: April 14, 1889. Date of birth: March 9, 1889
Parents: Juan Stuart and Venderanda Lugo
Godmother: Josefa Lugo

Child: Domingo Olivares
Date of baptism: April 25, 1889. Date of birth: December 20, 1888
Parents: Adolfo Olivarez and Dolores Herman
Godparents: Tomas Olivarez and Mariana Chavez

Child: Francisco Emidio Dominguez
Date of baptism: May 12, 1889. Date of birth: April 23, 1889
Parents: Federico Dominguez and Paula Higuera
Godparents: Mirabel Machado and Salome Machado

Child: Dominga de Alcanzar Donahue
Date of baptism: May 15, 1889. Date of birth: May 12, 1889
Parents: Jose Donahue and Roberta Gomes
Godparents: Bonifacio Marquez and Maria Gracio Gomes

Child: Federico Casimiro Racamante
Date of baptism: June 9, 1889. Date of birth: March 4, 1889
Parents: Felipe Racamonte and Guadalupe Guerrero
Godparents: Alejandro Racamante and Margarita Sarez

Child: Octavius Carillo
Date of baptism: Sept. 18, 1889. Date of birth: July 3, 1889
Parents: John J. Carillo and Francisca Boldan
Godparents: Estanislao de Urquiza and Consuelo Celis Urquiza

Child: Alfonso Machado
Date of baptism: October 5, 1889
Parents: Ricardo Machado and Erlinda Romero
Godparents: John Carillo and Manuela Alta Mirano de Machado

Child: Maura Martha Talamantes
Date of baptism: October 21, 1889. Date of birth: July 29, 1889
Parents: Ologario Talamantes and Maria Ochoa
Godparents: Pedro Manriquez and Ascencion Machado

Child: Juan Francisco Antonio Chapman
Date of baptism: October 26, 1889. Date of birth: June 12, 1889
Parents: John P. Chapman and Maria Higuera
Godparents: Bernardo J. Higuera and Rosario Higuera

Child: Juan de Mato Abril
Date of baptism: October 31, 1889. Date of birth: Feb. 8, 1889
Parents: Manuel Abril and Refugio Yorban
Godparents: Miguel Higuero and Seladonia Farias

Child: Candida Modesta
Date of baptism: November 10, 1889. Date of birth: Sept. 3, 1889
Parents: Rafael Marquez and Hilaria Pina
Godparents: David Valenzuela and Modesta Bojorquez

Child: Felipe Bernardino Cota
Date of baptism: December 16, 1889. Date of birth: May 26, 1888
Parents: Jose Lopez and Esperanza Cota
Godparents: Francisca Figueroa and Manuela Cota de Figueroa

Child: Maria Roque Valenzuela
Date of baptism: January 5, 1890. Date of birth: Nov. 26, 1889
Parents: Francisco Bonifacio Valenzuela and Andrea Rios
Godparents: Henry Boehme and Mary Bochme

Child: Carmen Rios
Date of baptism: January 5, 1890. Date of birth: Nov. 9, 1889
Parents: Roman Rios and Auriola Carrillo (difunta)
Godparents: Eusebio Carrillo and Frances Marquez
Marriage notation: Married Francisco Marquez on Dec. 1, 1909 in St. Monica’s Church by Rev. J.A. O’Callaghan

Child: Teodoro Francisco Billa
Date of baptism: January 10, 1890. Date of birth: Nov. 9, 1989
Parents: Mamerto Billa and Cirin Cruz
Godparents: Escolastico Barrero and Clemente Cruz de Coronel

Child: Rafael Bernardo Lalong
Date of baptism: January 15, 1890. Date of birth: July 24, 1889
Parents: Bernalel Lalong and Juliana Ruiz
Godparents: Juan Hordoquia and Antonia Hordoquia

Child: Ernest Teofolo Vashe
Date of baptism: January 26, 1890. Date of birth: Nov. 17, 1889
Parents: Adolph Vashe and Frances Pelissier
Godparents: Anita Pelissier and Adolph Vashe
En lieu of Ernest Pelissier

Child: Maria Sarajosa Garino
Date of baptism: January 26, 1890. Date of birth: Dec. 3, 1889
Parents: Francisco Garcia and Refugio Gonzalez
Godparents: Henry Slert and Juana Marquez

Child: Andres Pedro Ramon Machado
Date of baptism: January 27, 1890. Date of birth: Oct. 19, 1889
Parents: Diego Alcala Machado and Sinaida Chavez
Godparents: Andres Machado and Gracia Talamantes de Machado

Child: Victoria Sepulveda
Date of baptism: Feb. 2, 1890. Date of birth: Dec. 23, 1889
Parents: Ramon Sepulveda and Isabel Garcia
Godparents: Jose Manriguez and Porfidia Garcia

Child: Magdalena Errata
Date of baptism: Feb. 24, 1890 . Date of birth: Feb. 23, 1890
Parents: Louis Errata and Teresa Dontera
Godparents: Vicente Valenzuela, in place of Manuel Ignacio Higuero, and Maria de Jesus Roche

Child: Francisco Lugo
Date of baptism: March 11, 1890 . Date of birth: Dec. 27, 1889
Parents: Mercurial Lugo and Rito Reyes
Godparents: Jose Maria Lugo and Francisco Reyes

Child: Ernesto Pedro Machado
Date of baptism: March 29, 1890 . Date of birth: Oct. 19, 1889
Parents: Juan Machado and Manuela Cota
Godparents: Bernardino Machado and Ynes Yorro

Child: Manuel Perez
Date of baptism: March 30, 1890. Date of birth: March 24, 1889
Parents: Manuel Perez and Crispina Garcia
Godparents: Carlos Bojorques and Juliano Garcia

Child: Geraldo Olivares
Date of baptism: April 15, 1890. Date of birth: March 4, 1890
Parents: Andres Olivares and Ynes Bojorques
Godparents: Geraldo Bojorquez and Ullalia Bojorquez

Child: Jose Ramon Ruiz
Date of baptism: May 11, 1890. Date of birth: March 24, 1890
Parents: Martin Ruiz and Manuela de Ruiz
Godparents: Francisco Bojorquez and Sacramento de Armento

Child: Juan Eusebio Farias
Date of baptism: May 17, 1890. Date of birth: April 21, 1890
Parents: Jose Maria Farias and Guadalupe Chavez
Godparents: Presentacion Chavez and Eliza Machado

Child: Maria Evalinda Rocha
Date of baptism: May 17, 1890. Date of birth: April 17, 1890
Parents: Basilio Rocha and Maria Gomez
Godparents: Jose Piña and Antonia Levis

Child: Juan Rodriguez
Date of baptism: May 27, 1890. Date of birth: Jan. 26, 1890
Parents: Juan Rodriguez and Pilar Roche
Godparents: Juan Arnas and Ascencion Roche

Child: Porfirio Elpidio Eugenio Higuera
Date of baptism: June 1, 1890. Date of birth: February 26, 1890
Parents: Echides Higuera and Claudina Olvera
Godparents: Bernardo Higuera and Evangeline Vasquez

Child: Atalea Duron
Date of baptism: June 15, 1890. Date of birth: Nov. 27, 1889
Parents: Manuel Duron and Maria Salazar
Godparents: Manuel Marquez and Dolores Urquirez

Child: Alberto Reynold
Date of baptism: June 29, 1890. Date of birth: June 29, 1885
Parents: William Reynold and Eliza Muños
Godparents: Guadalupe Reyes and Ramona Reyes

Child: Julia Patricia Belnal y Talamantes
Date of baptism: Aug. 3, 1890. Date of birth: March 17, 1890
Parents: Francisco Belnal and Tranquilina Talamantes
Godparents: Antonia Maria Tapia and Juana Belmal de Tapia

Child: Amalia Medarda Tapia
Date of baptism; Aug. 3, 1890. Date of birth: June 8, 1890
Parents: Antonio Maria Tapia and Juan Belmal.
Godparents: Vicente Talamantes and Carmen Belmal de Talamantes

Child: Andrea Isabel Muñe
Date of baptism: August 9, 1890. Date of birth: April 9, 1890
Parents: Jose Muñe and Eduvigis Piña
Godparents: Pablo Rios and Carmen Piña

Child: Marcial Arturo Valenzuela
Date of baptism: August 11, 1890. Date of birth: June 30, 1890
Parents: Juvencio Valenzuela and Margarita Reyes
Godparents: Manuel Machado and Guadalupe Perez

Child: Pedro Alfonso Baldez
Date of baptism: August 18, 1890. Date of birth: Aug. 1, 1890
Parents: Santos Baldez and Concepcion Farias
Godparents: Tranquilino Talamantes and Delfina Talamantes

Child: Vibiana Baldez
Date of baptism: August 18, 1890. Date of birth: August 1, 1890
Parents: Santos Baldez and Concepcion Farias
Godparents: Pedro Manriquez and Guadalupe Manriquez

Child: Jose Alberto Valenzuela
Date of baptism: August 19, 1890. Date of birth: June 20, 1890
Parents: Francisco Valenzuela and Refugio Coronel
Godparents: Jose Garcia and Francisca Alvarez

Child: Laura Salgado
Date of baptism: Aug. 24, 1890. Date of birth: June 6, 1890
Parents: Juan Salgado and Francisca Ramirez
Godparents: Bernardino Machado and Candelaria Machado

Child: Claudia Ultirez
Date of baptism: Sept. 18, 1890. Date of birth: June 17, 1890
Parents: Consonis Ultirez and Caesaria Dalaudil
Godparent: Teresa Baldez

Child: Cornelia Victoria Cota
Date of baptism: Sept. 27, 1890. Date of birth: Sept. 16, 1890
Parents: Francisco Cota and Lucia Figueroa
Godparents: Macedonio Figueroa and Gertrudis Figueroa

Child: Ramona Tomasa Salazar
Date of baptism: Sept. 28, 1890. Date of birth: May 8, 1890
Parents: Luis Salazar and Francisca Rios
Godparents: Pablo Rios and Rosa Peña

Child: Jose Maria Cayetano Lugo
Date of baptism: October 2, 1890. Date of birth: Aug. 19, 1890
Parents: Jose Maria Lugo and Elvira Padillos
Godparents: Jose Padillos and Vicente Machado

Child: Jose Guadalupe Tautino
Date of baptism: October 6, 1890. Date of birth: Dec. 12, 1889
Parents: Lenidez Tautino and Maria Salvez
Godparents: Ismael Marquez and Anastacia Estrudis

Child: Louis Rey Marquez
Date of baptism: October 11, 1890. Date of birth: August 24, 1890
Parents: Manuel Marquez and Dolores Urtirez
Godparents: Joaquin Uranquiz and Ramona Marquez

Child: Jose Julian Cruz
Date of baptism: October 15, 1890. Date of birth: Sept. 24, 1890
Parents: Juan Cruz and Maria Antonia Farias
Godparents: Juan Farias and Margarita Machado

Child: Ramon Norito Romero
Date of baptism: October 29, 1890. Date of birth: Sept. 3, 1890
Parents: Clemente Romero and Carmen Olivas
Godparents: Cristobal Chavez and Sostenes Chavez

Child: Maria Estefana Machado
Date of baptism: November 2, 1890. Date of birth: Aug. 24, 1890
Parents: Antonio Machado and Manuela Valenzuela
Godparents: Ramon Valenzuela and Ascencion Serau

Child: Dolores Contrerez
Date of baptism: Nov. 16, 1890. Date of birth: June 18, 1890 
Parents: Frances Contrerez and Jane Kennedy
Godparents: Bernardino Roche and Carmelita Contrerez

Child: Maria Felipe Quiros
Date of baptism: Nov. 23, 1890. Date of birth: May 4, 1890
Parents: Angel Quiros and Francisca Garcia
Godparents: Felipe Manriquez and Maria Toche

Child: Gregoria Adelina Manriquez
Date of baptism: Nov. 23, 1890. Date of birth: Sept. 21, 1890.
Parents: Felipe Manriquez and Maria Atoche Boroquez
Godparents: Jaochin Branconi and Adelfina Henriquez

Child: Jacinto Talamante
Date of baptism: Dec. 27, 1890. Date of birth: Feb. 10, 1890
Parents: Vicente Talamantes and Carmen Bermal
Godparents: Vicente Lugo and Ninfa Talamantes

Child: Juana Saragosa Spencer
Date of baptism: Dec. 25, 1890. Date of birth: June 14, 1890
Parents: Joseph Spencer and Cleotilda Chavez
Godparents: Jose Antonio Machado and Manuela Valenzuela de Machado

Child: Petra Reyes
Date of baptism: January 17, 1891. Date of birth: May 30, 1890
Parents: Hilario Reyes and Presciliana Piña
Godparents: Catarino Piña and Alta Gracia Piña

Child: Pedro Tomas Sepulveda
Date of baptism: March 1, 1891. Date of birth: January 18, 1891
Parents: Ramon Sepulveda and Isabel Garcia
Godparents: Pedro Manriquez and Dolores Valdez

Child: Julian Gerardo Soto
Date of baptism: March 22, 1891. Date of birth: Jan. 9, 1891
Parents: Pablo Soto and Maria Jesus Harro
Godparents: Federico Sumreel and Margarit Harro

Child: Juan Jose Flores
Date of baptism: March 28, 1891. Date of birth: March 4, 1891
Parents: William Flores and Margarita Gomez
Godparents: John J. Carrillo and Francisca Carrillo

Child: Alonzo Bojorquez
Date of baptism: April 12, 1891. Date of birth: Nov. 21, 1890
Parents: Valerio Bojorquez and Francisca Reyes
Godparents: Pascual Marquez and Francisca Lugo

Child: Guadalupe Farias
Date of baptism: April 23, 1891. Date of birth: Dec. 12, 1890
Parents: Juan Cruz and Antonia Farias
Godparents: Ignacio Valdez and Maria Machado de Olivares

Child: Manuel de Jesus Valenzuela
Date of baptism: May 1, 1891. Date of birth: Dec. 25, 1890
Parents: Juan Valenzuela and Transita Gomez
Godparents: Manuel Marquez and Dolores Urquires

Child: Andres Francisco Tapia
Date of baptism: May 8, 1891. Date of birth: Feb. 4, 1891
Parents: Francisco Tapia and Petra Jerman
Godparents: Ramon Machado and Margarita Chavez

Child: Teodoro Benito Billa
Date of baptism: May 15, 1891. Date of birth: April 6, 1891
Parents: Mamerto Billa and Cecilia Cruz
Godparents: Refugio Bojorquez and Martina Bojorquez

Child: Fernando Federico Bull
Date of baptism: May 23, 1891. Date of birth: May 12, 1891
Parents: Roberto Wilcox Bull and Eliza Gonzalez
Godparents: Federico Peña and Matea Peña

Child: Jose Juan Badillo
Date of baptism: May 31, 1891. Date of birth: July 16, 1890
Parents: Pedro Badillo and Vicenta "Chapman
Godparents: Lauriano Machado and Maura Chapman de Machado

Child: Palmira Molina
Date of baptism: May 31, 1891. Date of birth: Feb. 27, 1891
Parents: Evaristo Molina and Geralda Reyes
Godparents: Manuel Machado and Mary Reyes

Child: Aurelia Cecilia Ranjel
Date of baptism: June 4, 1891. Date of birth: April 5, 1891
Parents: Angel Ranjel and Evalinda Manriquez
Godparents: Jesus Ranjel and Maria Lara

Child: Federico Rosauro Marquez
Date of baptism: June 7, 1891. Date of birth: April 25, 1891
Parents: Bonifacio Marquez and Maria Ana Olivarez
Godparents: Isidro Reyes and Carmen de Reyes

Child: Juan Marquez
Date of baptism: June 14, 1891. Date of birth: June 12, 1891
Parents: Rafael Marquez and Hilaria Piño
Godparents: Manuel Valenzuela and Pilar Blanco

Child: Maricel de Jesus Marquez
Date of baptism: June 14, 1891.
Parents: Juan Marquez and Hilarioa Pina
Godparents: Antonio Ochoa and Andrea Rios de Valenzuela

Child: Eugenio Baldez
Date of baptism: July 4, 1891. Date of birth: March 21, 1891
Parents: Teofilo Baldez and Maria Antonia Cota
Godparents: Francisco Cota and Ermandine Gates

Child: Francisca Josefa Lopez
Date of baptism: July 5, 1891. Date of birth: January 14, 1891
Parents: Jose de Jesus Lopez and Guadalupe Dominguez
Godparents: Andres Dominguez and Josefa Valenzuela

Child: Juana Ynez Higuera
Date of baptism: July 12, 1891. Date of birth: May 23, 1891
Parents: Elpidio Higuero and Claudina Olivera
Godparents: Esteban Higuera and Maria Higuera de Chapman

Child: Maria Rosa Oril
Date of baptism: July 22, 1891. Date of birth: August 30, 1890
Parents: Manuel Oril and Refugio Yorba
Godparents: Guadalupe Ruiz and Dolores Valdez

Child: Nieves Dolorato Marquez
Date of baptism: August 5, 1891. Date of birth: August 2, 1891
Parents: Pascual Marquez and Michaela Reyes
Godparents: Bianchomi Govanelino and Julio James

Child: Juana Rita Talamantes
Date of baptism: Sept. 5, 1891. Date of birth: March 30, 1891
Parent: Oligario Talamantes

Child: Felipa Buelna
Date of baptism: September 6, 1891. Date of birth: March 25, 1891
Parents: Cayetano Buelna and Casilda Aguilar

Child: Juan Refugio Lugo
Date of baptism: September 13, 1891. Date of birth: July 4, 1891
Parents: Marcurial Lugo and Rita Reyes
Godparents: Juan Lugo and Francisca Lugo

Child: Jose Eugenio Farias
Date of baptism: September 20, 1891. Date of birth: July 2, 1891
Parents: Jose Maria Farias and Guadalupe Chavez

Child: Venancia Rosaura Figueroa
Date of baptism: September 20, 1891. Date of birth: May 18, 1891
Parents: Juan Francisco de Figueroa and Manuela Cota
Godparents: Jose de la Luz Machado and Gertrudis Figueroa

Child: Robert Anthony Hernandez
Date of baptism: September 27, 1891. Age: 13 years old.
Parents: Antonio Hernandez and Maria de la Paz
Godparents: Federico Peña and Matea Peña

Child: Crisostomo Garcia 
Date of baptism: September 28, 1891. Date of birth: January 27, 1890.
Parents: Nicolas Garcia and Juana de Garcia
Godparents: Federico Peña and Soila Peña

Child: Wencesla Bibiana Cota
Date of baptism: September 29, 1891. Date of birth: Sept. 28, 1891.
Parents: Augustin Cota and Ynez de Cota
Godparents: Macedonio Figueroa and Gertrudis Figueroa

Child: Juan Olviarez
Date of baptism: October 10, 1891. Date of birth: April 15, 1891.
Parents: Adolfo Olivarez and Dolores German de Olivarez
Godparent: Martina Machado

Child: Prudencio Luis Olivera
Date of baptism: October 24, 1891. Date of birth: May 9, 1891.
Parents: Manuel Olivera and Cipriana Jerman
Godparent: Carlos Valdez

Child: Constancia Alazar
Date of baptism: November 15, 1891. Date of birth: October 9, 1891.
Parents: Luiz Alazar and Francesca Rios 
Godparents: Julian Gastel and Martina Machado

Child: ------ Salgado
Date of baptism: November 22, 1891. Date of birth: July 25, 1891.
Parents: Juan Salgado and Frances Ramirez
Godparents: Amado Ramirez and Lizzie Thompson

Child: Gracia Saragosa Placida Machado
Date of baptism: November 22, 1891. Date of birth: Oct. 5, 1891.
Parents: Diego Keale Machado and Senada Chavez
Godparents: Antonio Machado and Manuela Valenzuela

Child: Clotilda Tapia
Date of baptism: December 6, 1891. Date of birth: June 3, 1891
Parents: Antonio Maria Tapia and Juana Belmal
Godparents: Dolores Machado and Gregoria Leonda Machado

Child: Herminia Rios 
Date of baptism: December 15, 1891. Date of birth: October 15, 1891
Parents: Ramon Rios and Leola Carrillo
Godparents: Ortero Verdugo and Amelia Manriquez

Child: Luciana Romero
Date of baptism: January 8, 1892. Date of birth: January 7, 1891
Parents: Clemente Romero and Carmen Romero
Godparents: Caterino Piña and Carmen Piña

Child: Vibiana Valdez
Date of baptism: January 15, 1892. Date of birth: December 27, 1891.
Parents: Santos Valdez and Concepcion F. de Valdez
Godparents: Jesus Saenz and Rosana M. de Farias

Child: Juana Valdez
Date of baptism: January 15, 1892. Date of birth: December 27, 1891
Parents: Santos Valdez and Concepcion F. de Valdez
Godparents: Jesus Saenz and Arnada G. de Saenz

Child: Victoria Adela Gomez
Date of baptism: January 15, 1892. Date of birth: January 2, 1892
Parents: Victoriano Gomez and Gerarda Rios de Gomez
Godparents: Hilario Rios and Maria Garcia

Child: Eliador Valenzueal
Date of baptism: February 15, 1892. Date of birth: February 11, 1892
Parents: Juvencio Valenzuela and Margarita Reyes
Godparent: Felipe Manriquez

Child: Jose Maria Joaquin Innocento Bojorquez
Date of baptism: February 16, 1892. Date of birth: December 24, 1891.
Parents: Refugio Bojorquez and Martina Guardo
Godparents: Juan Bojorquez and Maria Bojorquez

Child: Lucia Olivero
Date of baptism: March 5, 1892. Date of birth: November 13, 1891
Parents: Andres Olivero and Ynes Bojorquez
Godparents: Pascual Marquez and Maria Valenzuela

Child: Candelaria Esperanza Ortega
Date of baptism: March 13, 1892. Date of birth: February 2, 1892
Parents: Carlos Ortega and Juana Botellier
Godparents: Francisco Botellier and Florentina de Botiller

Child: Juan de Dios Barrero
Date of baptism: April 10, 1892. Date of birth: February 8, 1892.
Parents: Escolastico Barrero and Josefa Barrero
Godparents: Eugene Plummer and Maria Amparo Plummer

Child: Jose Slert
Date of baptism: April 12, 1892. Date of birth: March 29, 1892
Parents: Leonardo Slert and Vina Lugo
Godparents: John Scotto and Susana Scotto

Child: Juan Timoteo Abril
Date of baptism: April 17, 1892. Date of birth: Jan. 25, 1892.
Parents: Manuel Abril and Refugio Yorba
Godparents: Manual Marquez and Dionisia Garcia

Child: Herminia Sepulveda
Date of baptism: May 1, 1892. Date of birth: February 27, 1892
Parents: Ramon Sepulveda and Isabel Garcia
Godparents: Francisco Emidio Reyes and Guadalupe Morales
Note: Married on 4-27-1913 Bernardino Castillo of Torreon at Los Angeles BMV Church.

Child: Rafael Marquez
Date of baptism: May 6, 1892. Date of birth: November 18, 1891
Parents: Rafael Marquez and Isabel Kilgore
Godparents: Vicente Machado and Rafael Marquez

Child: Antonino Valenzuela
Date of baptism: May 11, 1892. Date of birth: May 11, 1892
Parents: Juan Valenzuela and Transita Gomez
Godparents: Rodolfo Gomez and Alta Gracia Piña

Child: Carlota Badillo
Date of baptism; May 17, 1892. Date of birth: March 11, 1892.
Parents: Pedro Badillo and Delfina Enriquez
Godparents: Pascual Marquez and Micaela Marquez

Child: Ricardo Francisco Machado
Date of baptism: June 19, 1892. Date of birth: March 8, 1892
Parents: Ricardo Machado and Erlinda Romero
Godparents: Juan Francisca Figueroa and Manuela Cota

Child: Juan Francisco Lopez
Date of baptism: June 19, 1892. Date of birth: Feb. 8, 1892
Parents: Jose Lopez and Esperanza de Lopez
Godparents: Francisco Cota and Ramona de la Guerra

Child: Maria de Pilar Sierras
Date of baptism: July 1, 1891. Date of birth: Aug. 5, 1891
Parents: Juan Sierras and Dolores Alvarez
Godparents: Francisco Rios and Pilar Blanco.

Child: Juan Luariano Machado
Date of baptism: July 28, 1892. Date of birth: May 7, 1892.
Parents: Lauriano Machado and Maria Lugo de Machado
Godparents: Juan Chapman and Maria Higuera de Chapman

Child: Vicente Margarita Lesillos
Date of baptism: August 21, 1892. Date of birth: June 10, 1892
Parents: Vicente Lesillos and Esperanza Isabel
Godparents: Norberto Gusman and Asuncion Roche

Child: Henrique Lugo
Date of baptism: August 28, 1892. Date of birth: July 30, 1892.
Parents: Jose Maria Lugo and Elvira Farias
Godparents: Francisco Farias and Delfina Talamantes

Child: Aurelia Simona Moñe
Date of baptism: December 11, 1892. Date of birth: June 11, 1892.
Parents: Jose Moñe and Eduviges Piña
Godparents: Catharino Piña and Carmen Piña

Child: Maria Petra Teresa Saens
Date of baptism: October 20, 1892. Date of birth: June 29, 1892.
Parents: Jesus Saens and Amada Garcia
Godparents: Manuel Carisosa and Evangeline Vasquez

Child: Jose Ramon Caranzo
Date of baptism: November 20, 1892. Date of birth: October 22, 1892.
Parents: Jose Caranzo and Francisca Rodriguez
Godparents: Ramon Urquidez and Dolores Urquides

Child: Guadalupe de Mercedes Moralis[sic]
Date of baptism: December 11, 1892. Date of birth: Dec. 11, 1892.
Parents: Jose Allis and Guadalupe Morales
Godparent: Mercedes Higuera

Child: Rafael Utimeo Morales
Date of baptism: January 12, 1893. Date of birth: Jan. 9, 1893.
Parents: Feliciano Morales and Martina Machado
Godparents: Maximiliano Arze and Hilaria Piña

Child: Aurelia Vasquez
Date of baptism: February 17, 1893. Date of birth: Dec. 10, 1892.
Parents: Ismael Marquez (or Vasquez ?) and Francisca Reyes
Godparents: Luis Henriquez and Amelia Henriquez

Child: Ramon Presentacion Ruiz
Date of baptism: January 15, 1893. Date of birth: Nov. 21, 1892.
Parents: Martin Ruiz and Manuela Espinoza
Godparents: Refugio Bojorquez and Maria de Los Angeles Bojorquez

Child: Zoila Dolores Ruiz
Date of baptism: February 25, 1893. Date of birth: September 5, 1892.
Parents: Pablo Rios and Rosa Piña
Godparents: Austin Machado and Alta Gracia Piña

Child: Maria Antonia Bernardilo Martina Cota
Date of baptism: March 3, 1893. Date of birth: Feb. 6, 1893.
Parents: Augustin Cota and Ynes Figueroa
Godparents: Francisco Cota and Ramona Olivera

Child: Rosana Albertino Rios
Date of baptism: March 11, 1893. Date of birth: July 26, 1892
Parents: Hilario Rios and Presciliana Piña
Godparents: Jose Machado and Petra Lopez

Child: Maria Sabina Villa
Date of baptism: March 2, 1893. Date of birth: December 30, 1892.
Parents: Mamerto Villa and Seria Cruz
Godparents: Francesca Martinez and Jesus Eredia

Child: Ana Maria Magdalena Olivera
Date of baptism: April 9, 1893. Date of birth: July 23, 1892.
Parents: Manuel Olivera and Cipriano Jerman
Godparents: Augustin Machado and Irena Machado

Child: Hermangilda Marquez
Date of baptism: April 14, 1893. Date of birth: April 12, 1893.
Parents: Pascual Marquez and Micaela Reyes de Marquez
Godparent: Pilar Blanco

Child: Francisco Rios
Date of baptism: April 16, 1893. Date of birth: January 6, 1893
Parents: Roman Rios and Auria Carrillo
Godparents: Luis Olivarez and Felipe Marquez

Child: Luis Valenzuela
Date of baptism: April 24, 1893. Date of birth: Jan. 6, 1893
Parents: Juvencio Valenzuela and Margarita Valenzuela
Godparents: Luis Olivarez and Felipa Marquez.

Child: Amelia Juana Marquez
Date of baptism: May 1, 1893. Date of birth: Feb. 8, 1893
Parents: Ismael Marquez and Francisca Valenzuela
Godparents: Francisco Emidio Manriquez and Alta Gracia Pino

Child: Maria de Jesus Bojorquez
Date of baptism: May 7, 1893. Date of birth: March 20, 1893.
Parents: Refugio Bojorquez and Martina Garle
Godparents: Guillermo Bojorquez and Maria de los Angeles Bojorquez

Child: Lazaro Epiminondas Higuera
Date of baptism: May 7, 1893. Date of birth: Dec. 17, 1892.
Parents: Elpidio T. Higuera and Claudina O. de Higuera
Godparents: Esteban R. Higuera and Angelista Bari

Child: Henriquez Lopez
Date of baptism: May 13, 1893. Date of birth: Jan. 11, 1893.
Parents: Jesus Lopez and Guadalupe Dominguez
Godparents: Pascual Marquez and Dolores Urquirez

Child: Audelina Slert
Date of baptism: May 13, 1893. Date of birth: Feb. 13, 1893.
Parents: Henrique Slert and Juana Marquez
Godparents: Miguel Marquez and Fuña Marquez

Child: Matias Ranjel
Date of baptism: May 14, 1893. Date of birth: March 24, 1893.
Parents: Francisco Ranjel and Ulalia Bojorquez
Godparents: Jesus Ranjel and Maria Prios

Child: Carlota Ricarda Tapia
Date of baptism: June 11, 1893. Date of birth: April 11, 1893.
Parents: Antonia Maria Tapia and Juana Belmal
Godparents: Jose Maria Farias and Guadalupe Chavez

Child: Petra Hortensia Cruz
Date of baptism: June 11, 1893. Date of birth: April 4, 1893.
Parents: Jesus Cruz and Perseverancia Machado
Godparents: Manuel Ignacio Higuera and Incarnacion Higuera

Child: Arturo Cota
Date of baptism: June 17, 1893. Date of birth: Dec. 17, 1892.
Parents: Teofilo Cota and Erlinda Lopez 
Godparents: Juan Machado and Manuela Cota

Child: Maria Bernarda Cruz
Date of baptism: June 18, 1893. Date of birth: Oct. 22, 1892.
Parents: Juan Cruz and Antonia Farias
Godparents: Marcos Chavez and Guadalupe Chavez de Farias

Child: Melitone Eliseo Farias 
Date of baptism: June 18, 1893. Date of birth: March 10, 1892.
Parents: Jose Maria Farias and Guadalupe Chavez
Godparents: Andres F. Machado and Margarito Chavez

Child: Aurora Gonsalez
Date of baptism: July 15, 1893. Date of birth: Nov. 14, 1892.
Parents: Tiburcio Gonzalez and Francisca Verman
Godparents: Andronico Farias and Florida Farias

Child: Ramon Vochet
Date of baptism: July 23, 1893.
Parents: Ramon Vochet and Hilaria Piña
Godparents: Pedro Olivero and Trinidad Estrada

Child: Alberto Valenzuela 
Date of baptism: July 23, 1893. Date of birth: June 30, 1893.
Parents: Francisco Valenzuela and Refugio Valenzuela
Godparents: Andres Ranjel and Maria Ranjel

Child: Ireneo Muñe
Date of baptism: August 6, 1893. Date of birth: July 5, 1893.
Parents: Jose Muñe and Eduviges Piña
Godparents: Catharino Piña and Alta Gracia Piña

Child: Felicidad Abril
Date of baptism: August 6, 1893. Date of birth: March 2, 1893.
Parents: Manuel Abril and Refugio Yorba
Godparents: Jose Muñe and Eduviges Piña

Child: Estefana Sepulveda
Date of baptism: August 12, 1893. Date of birth: April 3, 1893.
Parents: Ramon Sepulveda and Isabel Garcia
Godparents: Miguel Marquez and Antonia Olivares de Marquez

Child: Micaela Refugio Marquez
Date of baptism: August 20, 1893. Date of birth: July 4, 1893.
Parents: Manuel Marquez and Dolores de Marquez
Godparents: Miguel Marquez and Josefa Valenzuela

Child: Eduardo Ignacio Farias
Date of baptism: August 26, 1893. Date of birth: July 30, 1893.
Parents: Juan Farias and Felipe Yorba
Godparents: Jose Farias and Mariana Peralta

Child: Alberto Salgado
Date of baptism: September 17, 1893. Date of birth: June 30, 1893.
Parents: Juan Salgado and Francisca Ramirez
Godparents: Dolores Machado and Aurelia de Machado

Child: Luis Pedro Badillo
Date of baptism: September 24, 1893. Date of birth: June 20, 1893.
Parents: Pedro Badillo and Delfina Henriquez
Godparents: James Courtney and Erlinda Rodriguez de Courtney

Child: Pedro Rico Talamantes
Date of baptism: September 30, 1893. Date of birth: Feb. 13, 1893.
Parents: Vicente Talamantes and Carmen Jerman
Godparents: Jose de Luz Machado and Natalie Belmal
Note: Married Carmen Rodriguez, Nov. 12, 1949 at St. Augustines, Culver City.

Child: Isabel Petra Talamantes 
Date of baptism: September 30, 1893. Date of birth: Jan. 18, 1893.
Parents: Oligario Talamantes and Maria Ochoa
Godparents: Pedro Ochoa and Natalie Bernal

Child: Delfina Talamantes
Date of baptism: September 30, 1893. Date of birth: Jan. 29, 1893.
Parents: Tranquilino Talamantes and Adelaida Hunter
Godparents: Ramon Urquidez and Defina Talamantes

Child: Jose Feliz Monroy
Date of baptism: October 8, 1893. Date of birth: July 23, 1893.
Parents: Jesus Monroy and Sarah Martinez
Godparents: Manuel Machado and Felicidad Machado

Child: Jose Diego Jermin Machado
Date of baptism: October 8, 1893. Date of birth: July 7, 1893.
Parents: Diego Alcala Machaqdo and Senaida Chavez
Godparents: Manuel Machado and Felicidad Machado

Child: Jose Rios
Date of baptism: October 19, 1893. Date of birth: Oct. 18, 1893.
Parents: Victoriano Gomes and Jirarda Rios
Godparents: Jirardo Bojorquez and Josefa Olivera

Child: Marcos Gomez
Date of baptism: October 19, 1893. Date of birth: Oct. 18, 1893.
Parents: Victoriano Gomes and Gerarda Rios
Godparents: Manuel Valenzuela and Maria Valenzuela

Child: Jose Vitalis Figueroa
Date of baptism: November 17, 1893. Date of birth: April 28, 1893.
Parents: Francisco Figueroa and Manuela Cota
Godparents: Victor Lelong and Felisalda Cota

Child: Tomas Dolores Garcia
Date of baptism: November 18, 1893. Date of birth: Sept. 18, 1893
Parents: Arnulfo Garcia and Dolorez Valdez
Godparents: Jose Machado and Juliana Garcia

Child: Jose Domingo Olivarez
Date of baptism: November 26, 1893. Date of birth: August 4, 1893.
Parents: Adolfo Olivarez and Dolores de Olivarez
Godparents: Luis Olivarez and Prudencia Olivarez

Child: Praxedes Gorge
Date of baptism: December 3, 1893. Date of birth: July 21, 1893.
Parents: Mercurial Lugo and Margarita Martha Machado
Godparents: Jose Machado and Marta Machado

Child: Guadalupe Josefa Donahue
Date of baptism: December 3, 1893. Date of birth: Dec. 12, 1893.
Parents: Jose Donahue and Rigoberta Gomez
Godparents: Jose Ranjel and Maria Garcia

Child: Adela Landerez
Date of baptism: December 24, 1893. Date of birth: Oct. 1, 1893.
Parents: Isidro Landerez and Vicenta Molina
Godparents; Guadalupe Reyes and Ramona Marquez

Child: Salvadorra de los Angeles Arcia
Date of baptism: December 24, 1893. Date of birth: Nov. 1, 1893.
Parents: Maximiliano Arcia and Paula Higuera
Godparent: Mercedes Higuera

Child: Melina Felipa Bojorquez
Date of baptism: January 15, 1894. Date of birth: March 2, 1892.
Parents: Valerio Bojorquez and Francisca Reyes
Godparents: Mercurial Lugo and Felipa Marquez

Child: Jose Jesus Tresillas
Date of baptism: March 16, 1894. Date of birth: Jan. 13, 1894.
Parents: Vicente Tresillas and Josefa Olivera
Godparents: Francisco Olivera and Josefa Olivera

Child: Martina Olivera
Date of baptism: March 20, 1894. Date of birth: Jan. 30, 1894.
Parents: Andres Olivera and Ynes Bojorquez
Godparents: Pascual Marquez and Michaela Marquez

Child: Castillo Pascual Marquez
Date of baptism: March 26, 1894. Date of birth: March 26, 1894.
Parents: Pascual Marquez and Michaela Reyes
Godparents: Miguel Marquez and Maria Antonia Marquez

Child: Maria Josefa Machado
Date of baptism: May 4, 1894. Date of birth: Feb. 4, 1894.
Parents: Laureano Machado and Cipriana Machado
Godparents: Jesus Saens and Amanda de Saens

Child: Eliza Dille Brunier
Date of baptism: May 4, 1894. Date of birth: March 23, 1894
Parents: Rudolph Brunier and Maria Machado
No godparents

Child: Lorenzo Gabriel Quiros
Date of baptism: May 12, 1894. Date of birth: March 18, 1894
Parents: Angel Quiros and Francisca Garcia
Godparents: Catherino Piña and Maria Valenzuela

Child: Brigida Fernandez
Date of baptism: June 10, 1894. Date of birth: August 8, 1893.
Parents: Jesus Fernandez and Guadalupe Hierero
Godparents: Teodor Flores and Amelia Henriquez

Child: Juan Garcia
Date of baptism: July 14, 1894. Date of birth: July 14, 1894.
Parents: Abundio Garcia and Dolores Valdez
Godparent: Trinidad Estrada

Child: Gregoria Reyes
Date of baptism: July 20, 1894. Date of birth: June 9, 1894.
Parents: Angel Reyes and Erlinda Manriquez
Godparents: Juliana Manriquez

Child: Pilar Martina Francisca Gertrudis Cota
Date of baptism: July 29, 1894. Date of birth: July 11, 1894.
Parents: Agustin Cota and Ynes I. de Cota
Godparents: Francisco Cota and Ramona C. de Olivera

Child: Crispina Rios
Date of baptism: August 4, 1894. Date of birth: Dec. 5, 1893.
Parents: Pablo Rios and Rosa Piña
Godparents: Agustin Machado and Alta Gracia Piña

Child: Juanita Virginia Farias
Date of baptism: May 12, 1894. Date of birth: July 12, 1894.
Parents: Jose Maria Farias and Guadalupe Chavez
Godparents: Andres F. Machado and Margarita Chavez

Child: Quitana Anacleta Tapia
Date of baptism: August 25, 1894. Date of birth: July 13, 1894.
Parents: Quitano Tapia and Piedad Tapia
Godparents: Francisco Ruiz and Maria Rivera

Child: Manuel Marquez
Date of baptism: September 1, 1894. Date of birth: May 16, 1894.
Parents: Miguel Marquez and Vicenta F. de Marquez
Godparents: Pascual Marquez and Francina Valendrez

Child: Margarita Noleno
Date of baptism: September 10, 1894. Date of birth: Nov. 22, 1893.
Parents: Avaristo Noleno and Gerezelet Reyes
Godparents: Pascual Marquez and Francesca Lugo

Child: Laurenza Martina Bojorquez
Date of baptism: September 23, 1894. Date of birth: August 10, 1894.
Parents: Refugio Bojorquez and Martina J. Bojorquez
Godparents: Jesus Martina and Incarnacion Martina

Child: Ynes Margarita Ward
Date of baptism: October 1, 1894. Date of birth: July 20, 1894.
Parents: Russell Ward and Dolores Bandini
Godparents: Peter Martin, John Gaffy, and Arcadia Baker.

Child: Alberto Marquez
Date of baptism: October 7, 1894. Date of birth: July 1894.
Parents: Rafael Marquez and Isabel Kilgore
Godparents: Pedro Manriquez and Mirabel Marquez

Child: Petra Salvadora Carancio
Date of baptism: October 21, 1894. Date of birth: Aug. 1, 1894.
Parents: Jose Carancio and Francina Rodriguez
Godparents: Ignacio Machado and Prudencia Olivares

Child: Nepolita Senaida Soto
Date of baptism: October 28, 1894. Date of birth: August 13, 1894.
Parents: Pablo Soto and Maria Jesus de Soto
Godparents: Federico Samuel and Senaida Roche

Child: Roberto Preciado 
Date of baptism: November 4, 1894. Date of birth: Aug. 30, 1894.
Parents: Silvano Preciado and Petronilla Hibarro
Godparents: Manuel Machado and Felicidad Machado

Child: Pedro Porfirio Machado
Date of baptism: November 15, 1894. Date of birth: April 14, 1894.
Parents: Ricardo Machado and Erlinda Romero
Godparents: Jose Lopez and Esperanza Cota

Child: Donaciano Leanor Ranjel
Date of baptism: December 15, 1894. Date of birth: Sept. 6, 1894.
Parents: Francis Ranjel and Malia Bojorquez
Godparents: Alfredo Bojorquez and Felicidad Manriquez

Child: Juan Crisostomo Olivarez
Date of baptism: February 24, 1895. Date of birth: Jan. 27, 1895.
Parents: Adolfo Olivarez and Dolores Jerman
Godparents: Miguel Marquez and Maria Antonia Marquez

Child: Jose Tapio
Date of baptism: March 16, 1895. Date of birth: June 9, 1894
Parents: Antonio Tapio and Juana Belnal
Godparents: Presentacion Chavez and Bernabe Machado de Chavez

Child: Maria Concepcion Sepulveda
Date of baptism: March 21, 1895. Date of birth: Dec. 8, 1894
Parents: Ramon Sepulveda and Isabel Garcia
Godparents: Pedro Manriquez and Guadalupe Valenzuela

Child: Maria Josefa Olivera
Date of baptism: April 14, 1895. Date of birth: October 11, 1894.
Parents: Manual Olivera and Cypriana Herman
Godparents: Miguel Marquez and Maria Antonia Marquez


Repostero of the Duke of Alburquerque
Policarpo Castro, a mestizo, native of Guadalajara, Jalisco.
Crossing the Line
Latino Fatherhood & Families Conference  


Repostero of the Duke of Alburquerque

The Albuquerque Museum
Sent by: Sister Mary Sevilla

The City of Albuquerque (modern has dropped the first "r" in the name) is named after the tenth Duke of Alburquerque, Francisco Fernandez de la Cueva Enriquez. Between 1702 and 1711 he held the office of Virrey (Viceroy), the chief administrative official presiding over the vast Spanish possessions in North America, Mexico, and Central America.

In 1956 his descendant, don Beltran Alfonso Osorio y Dfez de Rivera Martos y Figueroa, 18th Duque de Alburquerque, visited the City of Albuquerque, New Mexico, to celebrate the 250th anniversary of its founding. On this occasion he presented the citizens of Albuquerque with a 300-year old armorial wall hanging, called a Repostero, containing his family coat-of-arms. Through his gift, don Beltran Osorio sought to commemorate his ties with the city founded in the name of his ancestor.

The Repostero was made in Messina, Sicily, about 1665 when the eighth Duke of Alburquerque, Francisco Fernandez de la Cucva, was stationed there as governor of the island. It is composed of silk fabrics embroidered with gold and silver threads that have been sewn to a jute backing.

The significance of the border and the central shield of the Repostero was explained by the Duke of Alburquerque in a 1957 letter to the late Professor T. M. Pearce of the University of New Mexico, who coordinated the visit of the Duke.

Border of the Repostero
The border is an independent decorative addition that pictures trophies of war such as shields, helmets, trumpets, lances, pikes, battle-axes, cross-bows, muskets and cannon.

Crown Over the Repostero
The crown of a duke, representing the noble lineage of the Duke of Alburquerque, appears above the central shield.

The Shield, or the Repostero Proper
The center shield (escutcheon) is the Repostero proper, which is composed of two vertical halves of equal size, on which the arms of six families are represented.

Left Side of the Repostero
The dragon shown on the lower left side, and the red bars or stripes above it are the oldest symbols associated with the coat-of-arms. The Cuevas were natives of Navarre, and one their knights, don Beltran, is reported to have slain a dragon or a serpent in the kingdom of Aragon at the mouth of a cave (Cueva). Thus the origin of the Cueva name, the dragon, and the red bars or stripes of Aragon.

The eight crosses of St. Andrew surrounding these stripes were added to the shield because of the participation of knights bearing the Cueva name at the capture of Baeza from the Moors on St. Andrew's Day, in the year 1227.

The other half of the left side of the Repostero contains a field of red with two castles in gold and a red lion mounted on silver. These are emblems honoring the Enriquez family, maternal line of the eighth Duke of Alburquerque.

Right Side of the Repostero
The right side of the Repostero contains the heraldic devices of four families to which the Cueva-Enriquez line is related by marriage. The escutcheon of gold with two cows passant (walking) represents the Armendariz line, as does the castle of silver. To the right of the castle are three bands of green representing the Afan de Rivera family. Below the green stripes is the Saavedra escutcheon of silver, with checker-board bands of gold and red.

In the center of the lower right half of the Repostero is the sun symbol. This emblem belongs to the Dfez de Aux family and refers to the traditional legend of the Knight of Aux, who during the reconquest of Spain saved the wounded Godfrey of Bologne and his ten companions from death, killing sixteen enemy Moors.

Prior to installation in the exhibit Four Centuries, the Repostero was carefully stabilized and a special frame was made to support its weight. The project was done by skilled textile conservators and required more than a year to complete. This conservation was underwritten in part by the Albuquerque Historical Society, Sandia Embroiderers Guild, and public donations.

Copyright 1999, The Albuquerque Museum All Rights Reserved

POLICARPO CASTRO, a mestizo, native of Guadalajara, Jalisco.

Taken from Dr. Manuel Gamio book, El Mexicano Imigrante, pub. l967 Universidad Nacional
Autonima de Mexico. Dr. Gamio got his Phd from Columbia. He and his team interviewed 72 immigrants l925-27.. Submitted by Frank Sifuentes

Policarpo Castro: My trade is mason/ bricklayer.. Started learning it when I was very young, since my father, two of my uncles and my three brothers had the same trade. And started to learn this work when I was still a child. I worked at taking the bricks, making the mixtures among other things. And learned other ways to assist to produced the structures of buildings and homes..

Now I am married and have five children. 

I know almost all of the areas in the Republic of Mexico, and every bit of my native state. And was in all parts, working - almost always - in my given trade of mason, brick layer, and in other parts in commerce. The masons in Mexico are not like the northamericans, that only know how to lay brick or one specific part of the work.

No, in Mexico one learns the entire trade,, like the use of the shovel, and even to build a house. According to custom all one has to say is how many rooms they want.

Then one makes the drawing, without all the planning like North Americans, and calculate the costs to reach an accord and proceed to build the house. The one who knows how to do this is the master masonary and these kind of men are not available in the U.S. Although they do know how to lay bricks there and this was to our favor though it did not do us any good there.

When I was in Guadalajara in l915, the revolution really became ugly and soon there was no work of anykind available. Then I decided to to come to the U.S. My father had already left. I arrived at El Paso Texas and did not have difficulties crossing the border. When I arrived in that city, the first thing I did was to sign a contract to work on the railroads; because there was not anything else and one always needs money to live and have to take any work that is available because one does not want to die of hunger; especially in this country where they do not know what bonding is and especially us Mexicans do not have any protection. When I started to work on the rails, they paid $l.50
a day, in which we had to work very hard for 9 hours And at times they would give us extra work and not pay us for it. I kept working for the railroad all the way through Arizona, until i got to Los Angeles.

There I was able to obtain work as assistant mason bricklayer for a salary of $4.00 a day. I worked at this until I had save enough to send for my wife. At that time we had two children and had another three here. I had to go look for my family in Ciudad Juarez and then move them here. Then the bad times came and i had to go from one site to another to obtain work as a journeyman. It was the only choice. due to a syndicate of masonary and bricklayers, that would not admit Mexicans. What's more one had to know English.

Nevertheless I learned what I could and have worked in cement, brick factories, installing manufactured tubes of concrete. I learned all of this to open a garage with a declivity. All this would serve me well in Mexico. I also worked in the Imperial Valley and learned how to
operate the machinery for agriculture.

All this would serve we well in Mexico now that I return to my colonia. My friends and I could work in farming and we could build a home for each other. And work for ourselves because Americans devalue our labor. I have only worked here out of need and because of the revolution, but now we have become something different.

I am Catholic and have no reason in to deny it. Its true that I hardly ever to go church, but I pray at night as does my wife and children. They showed me how to read at a Catholic School in Guadalajara and I have been able to show my children how to respect their religion. But that does not mean I have blind faith. I respect the beliefs of others and believe what is most worthy is work and honor.

Crossing the Line

By David Dorado Romo
LA Times Feb. 27,2006
Sent by: Sister Mary Sevilla

WAS BORN in California to Mexican immigrants but have lived most of my life in El Paso, where the anti-immigrant fervor that's sweeping the U.S. today is nothing new. In fact, the first public calls for a fence along the Rio Grande to keep out unwanted foreigners were heard in El Paso a century ago, in 1904. But back then unlike what the Republicans want to do these days with their proposal for a 700-mile border fence - they weren't trying to keep the Latin hordes out. It was the Chinese who were the undesirable aliens.

                                 Shameful past: Once called "genetically inferior," Mexicans are
                                 sprayed with DDT at the border in 1958. Photo:Smithsonian Inst.

Mexican border crossers were not considered illegal in the United States until 1917, when a new law imposed formidable barriers to entry: a literacy test, a head tax and a prohibition against contract labor. Mexican nationals for the first time needed a passport to enter the United States. That's also the year that the U.S. entered World War I.

The war stirred deep feelings of paranoia and anti-foreigner patriotism in this country. Americans were afraid that Germans would launch bombing raids from Mexico. As a protest against Germany, Americans changed the name of frankfurters to hot dogs and sauerkraut to "liberty cabbage." And to protect the country .from the threat of typhus, U.S. Customs agents began the mandatory delousing of Mexican border crossers at the El Paso-Juarez international bridge; 127,000 people were subjected to this procedure in 1917 alone.

All immigrants from the interior of Mexico, and those whom. U.S. Customs officials deemed "second-class" residents of Juarez, were required to strip completely, turn in their clothes to be sterilized in a steam dryer and fumigated with hydrocyanic acid, and stand naked before a Customs inspector who would check his or her "hairy parts" - scalp, armpits, chest, genital area - for lice. Those found to have lice would be required to shave their heads and body hair with clippers and bathe with kerosene and vinegar.

My great-aunt, Adela Dorado, would tell our family about the humiliation of having to go through the delousing every eight days just to clean American homes in El Paso. She recalled how on one occasion the U.S. Customs officials put her clothes and shoes through the steam dryer and her shoes melted.

If anything, this kind of treatment at the international checkpoints exacerbated illegal border crossings. Mexican border crossers who didn't want to subject themselves to the baths chose to avoid the designated entry points. As a result, in 1921, the U.S. Public Health Service created a mounted quarantine guard to bring Mexican immigrants to the disinfection sites.

Beyond the indignity of the process, there was a real danger of being burned in a fire. That happened in 1916 in the El Paso city jail, when someone struck a match near a tub during the mayor's disinfection campaign and 27 prisoners burned to death.

On Jan. 28,1917, a 17-year-otd Juarez maid. named Carmelita Torres, who crossed the border daily to clean houses, in El Paso, refused to take a bath and be disinfected. Press accounts estimated that, by noon, she was joined by "several thousand" demonstrators at the border bridge. The protest became known as "the Bath Riots."

The local Anglo press did everything it could to sensationalize the typhus threat from Mexico, although one U.S. Public Health Service official stated o that the typhus problem in El Paso was no worse than it was in most major cities in the U.S. In 1917, there were 31 typhus eases in the U.S. and only three typhus-related fatalities in El Paso.

Yet the delousings went on for decades along the U.S.-Mexican border, long after the threat had passed of either a typhus epidemic or German bombers. Even up to the late '50s, during the guest-worker bracero program, Mexican laborers were still being sprayed with DDT before being allowed into the U.S. Why? Because the para-noia not only was about physical contamination, it also was about the cultural and genetic kind.

During the early part of the 20th century, California eugenicists - many of them members of the Human Better-ment Foundation, such as Stanford Chancellor David Starr Jordan and Los Angeles Times owner Harry Chandler - played a leading role in restricting the flow of Mexicans into the United States. To prevent "mongrelization" and defilement of what Jordan called the "Saxon and Goth blood of the nation," they spoke out against miscegenation and called for forced sterilization, birth control and the exclusion of inferior genetic-stock through reform of the nation's immigration laws.

In an article titled "Perils of the Mexican Invasion," Samuel Holmes - who taught eugenics at UC Berkeley in the '20s - argued that Mexicans were "the least assimilable of the foreign stocks." These Anglo intellectuals and civic leaders were highly influential in helping to draft the restrictive Immigration Act of 1924, which established the first U.S. Border Patrol to keep what racial hygienists saw as "genetically inferior aliens" out of the country.

A few years ago, several state governments, including California's, apologized for the thousands of forced sterilization's carried out in the name of eugenics and "human betterment" between 1909 and into the 1970s.

How long will it take for a government official to apologize for the hundreds of thousands of forced delousings with noxious chemicals along the U.S.-" Mexico border? Will anyone ever apologize for the connection between eugenics and U.S. immigration laws?

How many decades will it take for someone to ask forgiveness for today's" inhumane immigration policies, which have resulted in the deaths of so many undocumented immigrants in recent years? Is it easier to apologize for history that seems safely stored away in the-past than for history that keeps repeating itself, over and over again, here and now?

DAVID DORADO ROMO is the author of "Ringside Seat to a Revolution: An Underground Cultural History of El Paso and Juarez, 1893-1923," just published by Cinco Puntos Press.

Southwestern Regional Fatherhood & Families Institute – Nov 15th 2006 in Tuscon, AZ 
Latino Fatherhood & Families Conference  
Sent by Diane Sears
The Arizona Fathers & Families Coalition, Inc. has been actively involved in a series of events locally, statewide and nationally, including a series of Institutes on Responsible Fatherhood and Child Well-Being in Arizona and throughout the country. Join us this fall on November 15 as we host five quality presenters for a one-day comprehensive Southwestern Regional Fatherhood & Families Institute. click here for conference brochure! 

We will have colleagues from National Compadres Network, Arizona State University , STEP-UP Fatherhood Program, Arizona Parenting Alliance and of Unified Progress International Education provide participants with the tools and techniques for exploring personal beliefs about fatherhood and healthy relationships. This institute will focus on culturally appropriate practices to work with diverse Latino Fathers & Communities and addresses African-American Healthy Marriage Initiatives. This is an early announcement on this one-day institute that you should not miss out on! 

Please contact us at 800-603-9309 or by email to and reference registration for “fall institute” and we will provide detailed information. Our registration fees start at $20.00. Space is limited to the first 75 paid attendees so do not miss out on early registration. Further information about this organization can be obtained by viewing its website at

James Rodriguez, M.S.W., 


African American Resources on
District of Columbia demographics

African American Resources on

An African American family history resource page will be added to on Wednesday, October 25. The page provides a convenient portal for information already found on the website. Over the coming months, we will provide additional resources to the page.

The African American family history resource page is part of our ongoing efforts to help individuals find their ancestors. You may know that a substantial number of visitors come to seeking these resources. You may receive questions relating to this content, and may therefore wish to review this content and become familiar with it. The link to the resource page will be placed in one of the green squares on the homepage.

Over the coming months we will be providing additional resources to help our patrons better use the resources available on As these resources are made available we will notify you.

District of Columbia demographics

Black Americans have long been the largest ethnic or racial group in the District of Columbia, accounting for 60% of the population in 2000 (when they numbered 343,312), among the highest percentages of any major US city.

Between 1970 and 1980, the population of groups other than white and black almost quadrupled within the Washington metropolitan area, reaching 134,209 in 1980. Southeast Asians made up a significant proportion of the immigrants, as did Mexicans and Central and South Americans. The District's racial and ethnic minorities in 2000 included 44,953 Hispanics and Latinos (up from 33,000 in 1990) and 15,189 Asians (including 3,734 Chinese and 2,845 Asian Indians). There also were 1,713 American Indians living in the District.

There were 73,561 foreign-born residents, accounting for 12.9% of the District's total population, in 2000. In addition, the many foreign-born residents attached to foreign embassies and missions contribute to Washington's ethnic diversity.



Book: La familia Ramos Gutierrez y su herencia jalisciense y zacatecana, 
Los tepehuanes de Jalisco y Zacatecas
Puerto Rican DNA Geographic Project
¿Argentinos blancos y europeos? Se derrumba el mito

New Book, Spanish text by Arturo Ramos:  
La Familia Ramos Gutierrez y su herencia Jalisciense y Zacatecana, 

I have spent nearly two years researching the historical ethnography of the region in Mexico where my parents are from, as well as their genealogy.  I have finally been able to put together my research and present it in a book that explores the ethnography of the region of northern Jalisco and southern Zacatecas as well as my two paternal grandparents' genealogy.  

I am sending a part of a chapter of the book that deals with the Tepehuan or Tepecanos of Zacatecas and Jalisco, a distinct ethnic group whose language and customs survived until very recently."  

For more information, please contact me:

Un hogar tepehuano en Azqueltán en el año 1917
Fuente: American Philosophical Society

--Los tepehuanes de Jalisco y Zacatecas

Según los relatos de los frailes Pedro del Monte y Andrés de Medina, quienes fueron de los primeros misionarios de llegar a la región en el año 1581, sabemos que Chimaltitán y Nostic eran poblaciones tepehuanas. Además, los documentos revisados por el padre Nicolás Valdés Huerta nos dan a saber que los pobladores originales de Colotlán al tiempo de contacto español, a quienes se les llamaba tochos, también eran tepehuanes, aunque parece que llegaron muchos caxcanes a ese pueblo más tarde en el siglo XVII. Entre los habitantes originales de El Teúl (a quienes se les refería como teules-chichimecos) también parece haber habido tepehuanes, ya que se hablaba el idioma tepehuano en el pueblo, aunque queda claro que este pueblo se consideraba una población principalmente caxcana. Estos datos coinciden con la historia oral de los tepehuanes locales quienes cuentan que su territorio abarcaba desde la Sierra de los Morones al oriente hasta la Sierra de los Huicholes al poniente y desde Azqueltán en el norte hasta San Cristóbal de la Barranca al sur. Muchas de estas poblaciones fueron abandonadas con la llegada de los españoles, especialmente esas en el límite sur del territorio, de donde migraron hacia otras regiones tepehuanas en el norte, incluyendo Durango, dejando la concentración local de tepehuanes en la región de Villa Guerrero. 

Los tepehuanes de la región del barranca de Bolaños fueron los emigrantes extremos de un grupo de etnias del grupo lingüístico tepiman, que compone parte de la familia lingüística uto-azteca. La familia lingüística uto-azteca incluye los idiomas de grupos étnicos como los tongva (gabrielinos) que pertenecen al grupo takic, y poblaron la mayoría del condado de Los Ángeles antes de la llegada de los españoles. Además incluye a los idiomas de los hopi de Arizona y los mexica que fundaron el imperio azteca.

Además, el grupo tepiman incluye varias etnias que se encuentran a lo largo de la Sierra Madre Occidental: los tohono o'odham (cuyo territorio actual está ubicado en el estado de Arizona), los pima, (cuyo territorio se extiende por la frontera de Chihuahua y Sonora), tepehuanes norteños, (cuyo territorio se encuentra en el sur del estado de Chihuahua) y los tepehuanes sureños (cuyo territorio actual se encuentra en el sur del estado de Durango). Históricamente, el territorio de los tepehuanes sureños se extendía hasta San Cristóbal de la Barranca y los tepehuanes que habitaban la región de Villa Guerrero y Totatiche fueron integrantes de este mismo grupo. Históricamente se han denominado a los habitantes de estos pueblos como tepecanos, pero lingüísticamente y culturalmente formaron parte de la misma etnia que los pueblos tepehuanes del sur de Durango.

Evidencia etnológica indica que los tepehuanes inmigraron al barranca de Bolaños en aproximadamente el siglo XIV y que vinieron de la región que hoy queda en el suroeste de los Estados Unidos. La similitud entre los varios idiomas del grupo lingüístico tepiman indica que los tepehuanes se separaron de los otros grupos tepiman-parlantes hace menos de 700 años. Además, las costumbres y leyendas son bastante similares a las de las culturas de la región de Arizona. El antropólogo John Alden Mason postula que los tepehuanes, abandonaron su antigua tierra y comenzaron su trayectoria hacia la región norte de Jalisco a causa de las mismas sequías sostenidas que devastaron a las culturas anasazi de Chaco, Mesa Verde y Bandalier en la región suroeste de Estados Unidos. 

Para 1770, cuando se levantó un padrón de los feligreses de la parroquia de Nuestra Señora del Rosario en Totatiche, se encontraban aproximadamente 600 personas que pertenecían al pueblo de Azqueltán y "a la otra banda del río." Ya que sabemos que este pueblo quedaba habitado casi exclusivamente por tepehuanes a principios del siglo XX, queda claro que los habitantes del pueblo en el siglo XVIII eran tepehuanes. Esto lo verifica el padrón, donde se expresa que eran "todos de una misma nación." Además, expresa que solamente se les administraba el sacramento de la eucaristía y "los demás no por falta de erudición" indicando que en esa época, aún no habían sido cristianizados.

También parece ser que los otros pueblos de indígenas (Acazpulco, Totatiche y Temastián) de la región de Totatiche aún contaban con mayorías de población tepehuana al fin del siglo XVIII. Un informe con fecha de 1783 identifica el idioma de los indígenas de la región como una "lengua mexicana corrupta" (nahuátl mal hablado) con excepción de los pueblos del curato de Totatiche donde se hablaba la lengua "tepeguana." Además, el padrón de 1770 documenta que los tres pueblos eran asentamientos de naturales, es decir indígenas, aunque ya para este tiempo habitaban algunos españoles entre los naturales de Totatiche, quienes quedaron contados por separado en el padrón.

En Acazpulco habitaban 466 personas, y en el pueblo de Totatiche habían 298 habitantes. Además, la mayoría de los 263 habitantes de Temastián se les denomina como "indios", aunque moraban habitantes mulatos entre estos. Que Temastián había llegado a ser una población de diversas etnias para este tiempo queda sustentado por otros documentos históricos.
Índice Onosmático 

Puerto Rican DNA Geographic Project

Mimi, This is simply exciting news for Puerto Ricans and many other latinos!  My Puerto Rican friends claimed to be descendants of Tainos and they always said "We are not extinct" they. I am so glad that now there is validation for those who always new who and what they were. 

Elvira Zavala-Patton

Yesterday, almost three and a half years since the launch of the Puerto Rican DNA Geographic Project, one of our biggest goals was achieved. We have received word that FTDNA has agreed to and will designate as "of Taíno ancestry" anyone who matches those with indigenous mtDNA in our project who have oral history of Taíno ancestry or traditional documentation of Taíno ancestry. 

For all of us in this project, this is not only a monumental step for the descendants of our indigenous people but of historical importance especially since it is happening in a public DNA project. Additionally, DNA testees whose roots are in Cuba or Santo Domingo who match anyone in our Puerto Rican Project with oral history or traditional documentation of Taíno ancestry may also request that their ancestry be listed as Taíno. 

This has come about largely due to the unceasing and active recruitment of participants to test not just their yDNA but their mtDNA and especially to the very special persistence of select project members with known Taíno roots. 

A little history:

The Taíno, an Arawak people from the Orinoco-Amazon Delta region of South America populated the Caribbean Islands. Puerto Rico, was one of their three main centers of culture, Hispaniola (Santo Domingo/ Haiti), the second and northern Venezuela, the third. Prior to the time of Columbus, they had already reached and populated the eastern territory of Cuba. They were very similar in culture to the Ciboney of the central and west coast of Cuba, the Lucayas of the Bahamas and the aboriginals of Jamaica, all islands on which they also lived. They were excellent sailors and traded by navigating between the neighboring islands, the northern South American continent and the Yucatan peninsula in the 100 men canoas which they invented. The words canoe (canoa), huracán (hurricane), sabana, (savannah), barbecue, (barbacoa), maíz (maize), hámaca (hammock) manatí (manatee), tabáco(tobacco), iguana and other words persist in our Spanish language as
well as English. So, when you say one of these, remember they came from the Taíno people.

While on his second voyage to the New World, on the 3 of November, 1493, while anchored in the bay of the island of Guadalupe, Cristóbal Cólon (Columbus) embarked briefly to explore the small island with his men. During this respite, he and his men discovered Taíno natives who had been captured by the Caribe Indians who inhabited that island. The Caribes ruled from Togo and the Windward Islands to our own island of Vieques. There were 12 native females and two youths whom Columbus took on board after they passionately implored him to take them west to their island named Boriquén. From the 10th of November, the ships continued westward finding so many small islands, he named them the 11,000 Virgins. On the 19th of November, an island came into view that was much larger and more beautiful than any of the rest (those words are from the actual first historical account of the encounter). Upon seeing their island and despite the distance, the Taíno Indians who had been captured by the Caribs on Guadalupe, jumped excitedlyinto the sea. They swam to the shores of their beloved Boriquén followed by
Columbus and his men. BIG mistake, that. (Only political statement I'll make). 

Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista after Don Juan, the prince son of Ferdinand and Isabela. 

Puerto Rico had about 20 or more Caciques at the time that Columbus arrived on his second voyage to the New World. Agüeybana who ruled in the  southwestern part of the island in what is now Guánica, was the Chief Cacique of all the Taínos. The name Borikén means "Great land of the noble lord". Cacique Guarionex ruled the island of Quisqueya or Santo Domingo. Taino caciques were polygamous and had arranged marriages that served tocement alliances between the cacique's lineage and those of his allies. Right to rule was matrilineal. Women could also be caciques.

From genetic studies on fossil remains, the Taíno people are known to primarily belong to Haplogroups A and C. Consistently, throughout the history of our project, on viewing their match pages, those with Haplogroup and C indigenous roots have, across the board, seen a list of people
mainly from within our group or names of other Puerto Ricans not in the
project. There have also been a few Dominicans and Cubans whose mtDNA have
also matched our members. There are an overwhelming number of exact
HVR1 and HVR2 matches among those within the Haplogroup A group as well as
within the Haplogroup C group. 

Of 140 mtDNA participants: 83 or 59.3% have indigenous results. 

Within the indigenous group: 

50 (60.2%) are in Haplogroup A (one group with 11 exact matches, two others with 7 and 10)

29 (35%) are in Haplogroup C (Largest group is one with 17 exact matches. This haplotype matches one of the fossil remains in the first article below)

3 (3.6 %) are in Haplogroup B (all 3 are exact matches)

2 (2.4%) are in Haplogroup D (both are exact matches)

Understandably, the reluctance to designate anyone at the outset in 2003 as being of Taíno ancestry has been due to the fact that the indigenous roots may have been derived from one of the several natives known to have been brought to the island of Puerto Rico in the Post Colombian era. However, it is a historical fact that the overwhelming majority of this small group was native men brought from the surrounding islands brought to work in the mines to dig for gold. A very scant few were women. With such a large number of participants from families who have been endogamous from the 1500s to this day, our members represent indigenous mtDNA inherited from ancient maternal ancestors from every corner of our island. It is inconceivable that they be
anyone other than the descendants of our "extinct" Taíno people, the first to greet the European to the New World.

We are grateful to all of our participants, from natives on the island, to those on the mainland and as far away as Iraq and other overseas locations who have been so active in upgrading their mtDNA. 

Best Regards, Ana

Maternal Grandfather and Great Grandmother - Haplogroup C (line documented
to c. 1650/1680)

Excellent Articles:
C. Lalueza-Fox, F.Luna-Calderon, F. Calafell, B Morera and J.Bertranpetit.
MtDNA from extinct Tainos and the peopling of the Caribbean.

C.Lalueza-Fox, M.T.P.Gilbert, A.J.Martiínez-Fuentes, F.Calafell,and
J.Bertranpetit. Mitochondrial DNA from Pre-Columbian Ciboneys From Cuba and
the Prehistoric Colonization of the Caribbean. American Journal of Physical
Anthropology 121:97-108 (2003)

¿Argentinos blancos y europeos? Se derrumba el mito. 
Por Silvina HEGUY / Azkintuwe Noticias

Quien lo hubiera dicho. Sin saberlo y tallado en el ADN, los argentinos portan un mensaje de sus antepasados. Y en el 56% de los casos el que lo legó dejó escrito simplemente un solo dato: su origen amerindio. De la población actual, solo el 44% desciende sobre todo de ancestros europeos, pero el resto -la mayoría- tiene un linaje parcial o totalmente indígena. Así lo determinó un estudio realizado por el Servicio de Huellas Digitales Genéticas de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, a partir del análisis de casos en 11 provincias y dado a conocer por el diario Clarín.


Jewish Web Index
Appendix, Part 2 D-M, 
From Book: Remnants of Crypto-Jews Among Hispanic Americans

Jewish Web Index
Sent by Bill Carmena 

Only descendants of Jews from the Iberian Peninsula are Sephardim, not all those of the lands in which they settled.  The Jews from Syria, Iraq. Persia, Yemen ... are properly referred to as Eydot Hamizrach, communities of the East.

Sephardi is a term also used to distinguish between the two major divisions (actually the differences are quite minor) in Jewish customs and rituals.  Two thousand years ago there were two major traditions, that of the Holy Land, known as Yerushalmi, and that of the Babylonian exile, known as the Bavli.  Again, the differences were actually little more than skin deep.  There was a slight difference in pronunciation and in customs and catillation.

To many Ashkenazim, especially outside of Israel, there are two types of Jews - Ashkenazim and Sephardim.  To the average Ashkenazi, being called an Ashkenazi, and not a Litvak or Galicianer, or what not, probably doesn't make a difference.  However, to a "Sephardi", there is a difference based on countries of origin.  Many Sephardim consider only those who come from Spain to be a Sephardi, i.e. Jews of Turkey, Bulgaria, Amsterdam etc. 

This to differentiate from a North African, Mizrachi (which includes many Asian countries - Syria, Baghdad, Iraq, Persia, etc. ), Yemenite and Adanite, to name a few.  (Try telling the difference between Yemenite Adanite pronunciation of prayers.  I know I can't.  Then try calling an Adanite a Yemenite and you could be in serious trouble.)

Obviously, for the most part, calling a Bavli (Iraqi), or a Parsi (Iranian) a Sephardi won't upset them.  Even the Shas party is called the "Sephardi" party.  But, I don't think the average non "Sephardi", i.e. Mizrachi, would call himself a Sephardi, rather he would be more particular in his ancestral roots.  

There are many Jews (or were!) in Syria, Baghdad and India whose roots are traced to Spain and the Expulsion.  Many Iraqi Jews went to Bombay and other Indian cities (as did a smaller number of Persian Jews, who throughout history also settled in Baghdad and other cities.

And an entire community of Iraqi Jews settled in Teheran in the 1950s (while others went to New York or to Israel), leading an existence alongside the Persian Mizrahi Jews.  It took several decades before the two groups began intermarrying on an extended basis.

The entire area has seen individuals and families moving back and forth.  About 100 years ago, a rather large number of Persian families moved to Baghdad and to Damascus as well, among them rabbis from Isfahan. This was taken from a posting between Nachum Tuchman of Israel and Schelly Talalay Dardashti on 3/9/2002.

Mount Sinai Alliance - rabbi Abraham Tobal stated in a recent talk that "Assimilation threatens the future of Sephardi Jewish communities in Latin America."  Of Latin America's 450,000 Jews, about 180,000 are Sephardi, with ancestors from Spain and Portugal who later settled in Syria, North Africa and the Balkans.  About 20 percent of the world's Jews are Sephardi; the rest are Ashkenazi with ancestors from Germany and Eastern Europe.  The two groups have different liturgy, religious customs and Hebrew pronunciations.

Of interest to all, is the fact that three hundred and fifty years ago, 23 Sefardic Jews landed in the harbor of New Amsterdam (New York).  Several of the men in the group were certified shohets and slaughtered their meat themselves. 

Remnants of Crypto-Jews Among Hispanic Americans
By:Gloria Golden ©2005


"The dreidel originated around 175 B.C. This would have been during the persecution of the Jews, under the Seleucid King Antiochus IV. He was commonly known as 'Epimanes' the 'Mad One,' a play on his official title 'Epiphanes,' the 'Divinely Manifest.' He banned study of Torah and worship in the Temple. Antiochus attempted to introduce pagan rites in Jerusalem. He ordered all holy books confiscated and burned. The Jews of ancient Judea continued to pray and study Torah in secret. During these study sessions, small spinning tops were kept on the table top. If Antioch's soldiers entered the house, the holy books were hidden. Everyone pretended to be playing a simple gambling game with small tops, thereby averting disaster.

"As a result of persecution under the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions, many Jews went underground and continued to practice Judaism in secret. Some of the children played with a 4-sided spinning top called a 'frompos,' similar to a dreidel. On the sides were written in Spanish 'take all,' 'put back,' 'take one' and 'nothing.' Compare to the dreidel; Nun (nothing), Gimmei (all), Shin (put in one)and He (take half). Some of these customs are said to be typical of Hispanics in the Southwestern United States, whose ancestors went north to avoid the Inquisition."57

According to a response from Maria on , "Both my parents used to play with them, and so did I. My Mother thought it was Just a children's toy in Portugal. I don't know what my Dad thought, because he is no longer here. In Portugal we play by spinning, and the fetters are written as RTDP-R = Rapa (meaning Takes all) T=77ra (take it), D=De/xa (leave it), and P=Poe (put back-no play). It took me years in the States to figure out it was a Jewish tradition and used during a particular holiday."58

Temple Emanuel of Cleveland, Ohio explains Chanukah Traditions. The Dreidel: "The word 'dreidel' comes from the German word dreihen (to spin). The dreidel was a popular toy in medieval Germany. Historians claim that the dreidel was originally a 3-sided top used as a German Christmas toy. The game itself is not German in origin, but rather, the Germans borrowed the game from the Greeks and Romans."59

Edict of Expulsion (The Alhambra Decree)
"This is the decree of expulsion promulgated by Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain in 1492, which forced the Spanish Jews, the Sephardim, to leave Spain forever.... You well know that in our dominion, there are certain bad Christians thatjudaized and committed apostasy against our 'Holy Catholic faith, much of it the cause of communications between Jews and Christians. Therefore, in the year 1480, we ordered that the Jews be separated from the cities and towns of our domains and that they be given separate quarters, hoping that by such separation the situation would be remedied. And we ordered that and an Inquisition be established in such domains; and in twelve years it has functioned, the Inquisition has found many guilty persons.

"Furthermore, we are informed by the Inquisition and others that the great harm done to the Christians persists, and it continues because of the conversations and communications that they have with the Jews, such Jews trying by whatever manner to subvert our holy Catholic faith and trying to draw faithful Christians away from their beliefs.

"These Jews instruct these Christians in the ceremonies and observances of their Law, circumcising their children, and giving them books with which to pray, and declaring unto them the days of fasting, and meeting with them to teach them the histories of their Law.. .. Therefore, with the council and advice of the eminent men and cavaliers of our reign, and of other persons of knowledge and conscience of our Supreme Council, after much deliberation, it is agreed and resolved that all Jews and Jewesses be ordered to leave our kingdoms, and that they never be allowed to return."60

"In many ways, Jewish history is the story of the education of a people. From the beginning, many great Jewish leaders were also great teachers who spoke to the world through the Jewish people. When the world's mystery and wonder were fresh in the human mind, the patriarch Abraham thought about its mystery and wondered about its Creator. He discarded his father's idols and began to teach his tribe to believe in one God. Thus, the founder of the Jewish people was also the first teacher in Jewish history. Moses, the Lawgiver who led the people to freedom, was called rabbenu, our teacher. He taught the children of Israel during their years of wandering, and he designated times when the people should come together and study. When the Children of Israel settled in the Promised Land and were ruled by judges, there were no schools, so knowledge was handed down by word of mouth from father to son, mother to daughter."61

"Education came to be of utmost importance in the life of the people. After the destruction of the Second Temple by the Romans, the rabbis taught that study, like prayer, was a form of worship and a substitute for sacrifices. During the Talmudic period in Babylonia, the rabbis set up a complete, lifelong system of education that began at the age of five or six."62

"The education system begun in Palestine and developed in Babylonia moved with the people wherever they went. By the 11th century, persecution and intolerance had driven the Jews out of Babylonia. The great centers dwindled and almost disappeared, and Jews set up new communities in Spain, Italy, France, and Germany."63

"During the Middle Ages, when even princes and nobles were illiterate, the Jewish community had many scholars and honored them above other men."64

Empanadas were quite popular during medieval times in Europe. They were eaten by most people including the Jews and converses of Iberia. The empanadas are "pies or pastries" that contained "meat, vegetables, and fish" for the filling.65

"The traditional empanada is a six inch turnover filled with either sweet yam or pumpkin. Apple, peach or pineapple can also be used as filler. . . . The smaller empanadita usually measures about three to four inches as a finished product. The empanaditas of New Mexico and turcos of South Texas are one and the same. They are the traditional Jewish knishes, meat filled turnovers."66

"Converses tended to prefer other converses as spouses for several reasons. For some it was a matter of business: They hoped to keep family money and property within the converse enclave. Much more important, those families which were struggling to keep the Jewish traditions vital and who lived with the Inquisition looking over their shoulders were extremely reluctant to run the risk of having an 'outsider' scrutinize their religious practices and perhaps disclose the Judaizing (or allegedly Judaizing) customs of converse members."67

"One of the customs the crypto-Jews kept, in order to attain redemption and expiate their guilt for conversion to Catholicism, was fasting. Although Jewish law mandates fasting only on Yom Kippur, Mexican Jews fasted several times during the year. People also had to keep their fasting from servants. One tactic was to send servants away on errands during mealtimes, when the food was thrown away."68

"After Yom Kippur, the most important fasting occasion was Purim, a holiday which celebrated Queen Esther and her confession of her faith to her husband, the King, in order to save the Jews."69

"Judaism is not just a set of beliefs about God, man and the universe, Judaism is a comprehensive way of life, filled with rules and practices that affect every aspect of life: what you do when you wake up in the morning, what you can and cannot eat, what you can and cannot wear, how to groom yourself, how to conduct business, who you can marry, how to observe the holidays and Sabbaths, and perhaps most important, how to behave towards God, other people, and animals. This set of rules and practices is known as halakhah"70

"At the heart of halakhah is the unchangeable 613 mitzvot that God gave to the Jewish people in the Torah (the first five books of the Bible). The word 'mitzvah' means commandment. . . . Some of the mitzvot are clear, explicit commands in the Bible (thou shalt not murder; to write words of Torah on the doorposts of your house), others are more implicit (the mitzvah to recite grace after meals, which is inferred from 'and you will eat and be satisfied and bless the LORD your God'), and some can only be ascertained by Talmudic logic (that a man shall not commit incest with his daughter, which is derived from the commandment not to commit incest with his daughter's daughter)."71

See also Mitzvot

"The Feast of Dedication and Lights, which falls on the 25th of Kislev and lasts for eight days. It marks the rededication of the Temple by Judah Maccabee in 165 B.C.E. after his victory over the Syrians who had defiled the sanctuary. Tradition relates that Judah could find only a single cruse of oil which had not been contaminated by the enemy. Although it contained only enough oil to light the menorah for one day, a miracle took place, and it burned for eight. Therefore, candles are lit throughout the holiday, one on the. eve of the first day, two on the eve of the second, and so forth, until eight are kindled on the last evening."72

According to Ramon Santa Maria, in his book, Ritos y costumbres de los hebreos espanoles, "Although the festival of Hanukkah has assumed major importance in twentieth-century Western culture, probably because of its close proximity to Christmas, it appears to have been of minor significance in pre- or post-Expulsion Iberia. There are a few references from around the time of the Expulsion to Spanish Jews celebrating the holiday. Only two pre-Expulsion Spanish Hanukkah lamps are known to survive. A memorandum prepared for Inquisitors in the late fifteenth century says that Judaizers 'celebrate the Feast of Candles and they light them one at a time up to ten, and then they blow them out; and they pray Jewish prayers'" (qtd. in Gitlitz 376).73

"The special courts set up by the Catholic Church to check the spread of heretical opinion among the faithful, first formed in the 13th century. It was most active, however, in Spain, where it began in 1480. In time, the dreaded activities of this agency of the Church came to be directed mainly at ferreting out the Marranos, Jews who had been forcibly converted to Christianity and were found secretly observing the practices of Judaism.

"It is estimated that in 350 years of Inquisition activities (roughly from 1480 to 1821), about 400,000 Jews were brought before these ecclesiastical tribunals; 30,000 were put to death. Punishment was carried out in public squares to serve both as a warning and a demonstration of 'the glory of the Church.' Hence, an inquisitorial execution was known as auto-da-fe, an act of faith."74

"There were six hundred thousand to one million converses in Spain at the time, representing about 7 percent of the total population."75

According to Juan Antonio Llorente, in his book, Histoire Critique cte I'lnquisition d'Espagne, "By December 1482, two thousand women and men had been burned in Seville, two thousand more had been burned in effigy, and seventeen thousand had been 'reconciled' with varying degrees of punishment.... Converses were objects of a nationwide hunt, the focus of an exploding racist consciousness masquerading under the cloak of religion" (qtd. in Paris 166).76

Jewish Saints
"[An] example of syncretism was the late adoption by crypto-Jewish communities of a set of 'Jewish saints' similar to Christian saints in their ability to work miracles and intercede with the deity. Moses figured large in this slate, as did Esther: their popularity derived from the fact that they each were seen as the savior of the Jewish people from alien religious oppression."77

"Practicing Judaism secretly. . . . That a large number of Brazil's colonizers were judaizers is a fact Inquisition trial records make abundantly clear. One must keep in mind that the simple act of bathing on Fridays could be construed as 'a lapse into Judaism', setting in motion an inquest certain to end badly for the accused."78

"One of the most ancient prayers in the Jewish prayer book, generally recited in the synagogue during religious services. It became popular as the mourner's prayer. . . . The mourner's Kaddish is recited at synagogue services for eleven months and on every anniversary of the relative's death."79

"Prior to the Expulsion crypto-Jews might even contract with openly practicing Jews to recite the Kaddish in their stead for their departed relatives or even for themselves. ... As with many converse rituals, this one evolved over the centuries as the traditional prayers were forgotten and converses composed others to take their place. One of the most complete prayers was preserved in the Mexican archives when in 1642 Rafael de Granada recalled for Inquisitors-in somewhat garbled fashion-a mourning prayer his mother Maria de Rivera had taught him, which was to be recited during the Wednesday fasts for the souls of the departed."80

"Observance of the laws of kashrut has been a unifying factor for the Jewish people throughout the ages, continually seT\Ang to verrond Jews of their roots.

"The primary dietary laws are set forth in the Book of Leviticus, where a list of kosher and nonkosher animals is given. The rationale for these laws is not elucidated. The Bible merely states that the laws be observed because 'I am the Lord that brought you up out of the land of Egypt, to be your God. Ye shall therefore be holy, for I am holy' (Leviticus 11:44).

"Holiness is the only reason given in the Bible for the observance of the dietary laws."81

"The Bible reiterates many times that blood may not be consumed because blood symbolizes the very essence and distinctiveness of man (Leviticus 3:17 and Deuteronomy 13:23-25). Based on this, the Rabbis of the Talmud concluded that when an animal is killed for food, care must be taken that as much blood as possible is drained off before eating the meat.

"When an animal is slaughtered in accordance with Jewish ritual law, the jugular vein is severed, the animal dies instantaneously, and the maximum amount of blood leaves the body."82

"The religious [belief) of the Jews of the late sixteenth and most of the seventeenth century. ... [is that] one must not eat pork or anything of the pig. Only flesh of animals that chew the cud is permitted. Fish without scales are prohibited. All fowl must be decapitated and the blood drained from them and from all animals to be eaten. No animal blood or suet may be eaten."83

"The method of [ritual] slaughter is a quick, deep stroke across the throat with a perfectly sharp blade with no nicks or unevenness. This method is painless, causes unconsciousness within seconds, and is widely recognized as the most humane method of slaughter possible. . . . [It] ensures rapid, complete draining of the blood."84

"The thigh vein and surrounding suet was always removed. The removal of the vein was called landrecilla (porging). This practice often resulted in the exposure of a Jew. Hindquarters were discarded."85

Ramon Santa Maria, in his book, Ritos y costumbres de los hebreos espanoles, informs us: "As explained in the late fifteenth century, 'removing the sciatic vein from the legs of cattle, before they are cooked, is in remembrance of when the Angel fought with Jacob and he was left lame; and because of this the children of Israel do not eat the nerve in the leg nor the fat which is connected to it, which is the sciatic vein, as is written at the end of Genesis'" (qtd. in Gitlitz 547).86

According to Rafael de Lera Garcia, in his book, La ultima gran persecucion inquisitorial contra el criptojudaismo: el Tribunal de Cuenca, 1718-1725, "Jews and most Judaizing converses shunned animals that had been killed by strangling, which was the normal practice among Christians, In fact, as late as 1720 an auto de fe in Madrid identified twenty families whose Judaizing included abstaining from eating foul that had been slaughtered by strangling.

"Kosher butchers [according to Santa Maria] routinely | covered the spilled blood with dirt or with ashes.... [According to Angela Seike de Sanchez, in her book, Los Chuetas y la Inquisicion: Vida y muerte en el ghetto de Mallorca,] In 1688 someone called 7a Moyaneta' explained the custom this way: "blood was the animals' soul, and therefore God ordered it to be covered'" (qtd. in Gitlitz 545).87

Santa Maria further states: "Jews bury the blood of the fowl they slaughter because it is a commandment of their law, and because the blood of fowl was not customarily used for sacrifice to God, as was the blood of other animals, as is written in the third of the five books of Moses."88

"[Richard Santos'] grandfather, a chef by trade, killed fowl in two different manners.... The 'chicken killing knives' were different from the 'meat slicing knives' which were different from the "vegetable knives'. When on the field as a chef for H. B. Zachry (highway construction) Company, Manuel Almeida usually killed chickens by wringing off the neck. . . . One grabs a chicken (or turkey) by the neck and whirls it about until the fowl is decapitated. The fowl is then hung upside down and its blood is allowed to drip into a tin can or hole in the ground."89

The method of killing chickens in the Southwest may be related to the Kapparot ritual, explained as follows:

"Kapparot is a custom in which the sins of a person are symbolically transferred to a fowl. It is practiced by some Jews shortly before Yom Kippur. First, selections from Isaiah 11:9, Psalms 107:10, 14, and 17-21, and Job 33:23-24 are recited; then a rooster (for a male) or a hen (for a female) is held above the person's head and swung in a circle three times, while the following is spoken: This is my exchange, my substitute, my atonement; this rooster (or hen) shall go to its death, but I shall go to a good, long life, and to peace.' The hope is that the fowl, which is then donated to the poor for food, will take on any misfortune that might otherwise occur to the one who has taken part in the ritual, in punishment for his or her sins."90

Separation of Meat and Dairy

"On three separate occasions, the Torah tells us not to 'boil a kid in its mother's milk' (Exodus 23,19; Exodus 34,26;
Deuteronomy 14,21). The Oral Torah explains that this passage prohibits eating meat and dairy together. . . . This separation includes not only the foods themselves, but the utensils, pots and pans with which they are cooked, the plates and flatware from which they are eaten, the dishwashers or dishpans in wish they are cleaned, and the towels on which they are dried."91

Key-the Key from Spain

"According to legend, when the Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492, they took with them the keys to their homes and synagogues hoping that one day they would return. They never did, but their Spanish cultural heritage remained a powerful influence in their lives."92

"My grandmother used to keep all her keys, and there were so many. I don't know where they all came from. I have most of them now. I don't know why she had that custom. I read that the people who left Portugal and Spain long ago, used to take their keys with them in their journey of the unknowns, in hope of returning one day. The Mayor of Castelo de Vide told us that descendants of those who left had returned to visit the town of their ancestors, bringing with them drawings and keys that the ancestors had handed down from generation to generation. It was interesting that even the house of the midwife was drawn on a map."93

Laco Ritual (Wedding Rituals)

"[A wedding ritual among the secret Jews of Portugal is] to bind the bride and groom's hands with a white cloth while a prayer is said."94

"Few of these customs have survived into modern times except in Portugal, where several two-ceremony weddings- a Catholic church wedding and a Jewish wedding replete with rings and the blessings of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob-have been reported. [Samuel] Schwarz, [in his book, Os Cristaos-novos em Portugal no seculo XX], describes one of these weddings. Several days before the civil ceremony the bride and groom, each with two friends, stood among their families. A family member joined their hands, bound them with a linen cloth, and pronounced a blessing: 'In the name of the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, I join you into one. May you fulfill His benediction.' To judge from other reports, the most important aspect of this ceremony was the joining of new spouses' hands" (qtd. in Gitlitz 257).95

Lactose Intolerance

"Persons with lactose intolerance lack sufficient amounts of the enzyme lactase, which breaks down lactose or milk sugar. When milk products are consumed, the lactose remains undigested in the intestine; in some people, it then causes gastrointestinal pain, bloating, cramps, flatulence and diarrhea.'196 "Population groups displaying proportions of lactose malabsorption (80-100%) are generally found in geographic areas in which dairying or adult milk usage has never, until perhaps recently, been a part of the culture. In the absence of genetic challenge, no evolution has occurred. These areas include the majority of the world's population; American Indians and Eskimos; most Mediterranean and Near Eastern groups. . . . Finally, a small group in the mid-range of lactose mal-absorption prevalence (30-60%) is found to be dominated by populations whose ancestry is mixed-absorbers (milk users) and mal-absorbers. These include: some American Blacks, African Arab mixes, Eskimo-Finnish people, and Mexican-Americans among others (Simmons, F.J. 1978)."97

"(Judeo-Spanish). When the Jews left Spain in 1492, the Spanish language was on the verge of change. The old form is preserved today only in the Jewish dialect called Ladino. It is also called Spaniolish or Castiliano. It is spoken by Sephardic Jews in Turkey, the Balkans, part of North Africa, in Israel, and theAmericas. .. . From the beginning, Ladino included Hebrew words. Later, it picked up Arabic, Turkish, Greek, French, and Italian words."98

Magen David
"Literally, shield of David. The six-cornered star made by overlapping two triangles is an ancient and widespread symbol. Many ancient architectural ruins carry the engraving of this Hebrew seal. The 3rd- or 4th-century synagogue dug up in Capernaum, Israel, has not only the six-pointed Magen David upon it, but also the rarer five-pointed Seal of Solomon.'199

"The Holy Office officials never used the word' Marrano.""100
"Marrano, meaning 'hog' or 'swine,' is included in government records as early as 965. Antonio Dominguez Ortiz reports that in the thirteenth century it was a criminal offense punished by a fine and jail to call a person a marrano. ... By the late fourteenth century, the word assumed a pejorative sense. By the fifteenth century, it was applied by Jews to other Jews who became sincere converts to Christianity."101


Tejanos In Action Need Your Help
Book: Spanish Expeditions into Texas 1689-1768
1910 Federal Census Index for Val Verde County URL
Tejano Portrait Series Unveiled
Recuerdos de Mi Familia y Tejas
Mexican bishop to be canonized has San Antonio ties
Texas State Historical Society
Book: Places Left Unfinished at the Time of Creation
Book: Viva Tejas by Ruben Lozano 
Book: Continuous Presence of Italians & Spaniards in TX, Alex Loya
Passenger & crew lists airplanes at Brownsville, TX Jan 1943-Sept 1964 

Tejanos In Action
P. O.  Box 19321
Austin, Texas 78744

September 20, 2006

The Tejanos in Action are requesting your assistance in the following matter. This is a letter I sent to Congressman Doggett. I am requesting letters of support from individual members and community service organizations. Please use the letter as a guide to draft your own.

Honorable Lloyd Doggett
U.S. Representative, 21st Congressional District
300 E. 8th St.
Austin, TX  78701

Dear Congressman Doggett:

Tejanos in Action in concert with the Catholic War Veterans Post 1805, American G. I. Forum of Austin, Kinghts of Columbus Council 10148, LULAC Council 650, and the Greater Southwest Austin Optimist Club of Austin are pleased to request your assistance with having the post office building at 3903 South Congress Avenue, Austin, Texas 78704-9998 renamed in honor of Sargeant Henry Ybarra III of Austin, Texas.  This post office is currently known as the South Congress Station.

Army Sargeant Henry Ybarra III, SSN 455-39-2187 was the first soldier from Austin, Texas to be killed in the war in Iraq.  He was killed in Balad, Iraq on September 11, 2003 while in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom.  He was assigned to the Tech Supply Section of Troop 6-6 Cavalry, 11 Aviation Regiment.  On September 11, 2003 SSG. Ybarra and three soldiers were changing a tire on a M977 Heavy Expanded Mobility Tractical Truck when the tire exploded injuring two soldiers and causing SSG. Ybarra’s death.  While the incident may have been an accident, it is important to note that SSG. Ybarra was serving in a war zone and the procedures employed in changing the tire are an expedient method used under combat conditions.  Being the good soldier that he was, he was doing his duty when he made the ultimate sacrifice.  

SSG. Henry Ybarra III enlisted in the United States Army in August, 1990.  His military education includes Basic AIT and a Professional Leadership Course.  He was an experienced soldier and earned the Army Achievement Medal, Good Conduct Medal, National Defense Medal, Armed Forces Service Medal, NCO Professional Development Ribbon, Overseas Service Ribbon and Basic Marksmanship Badge.  As he became eligible for a promotion he attained the rank of Staff Sargeant.  

SSG. Henry Ybarra III was born in Austin, Texas on February 26, 1971.  He attended elementary and junior high schools in South Austin.  After his freshman year at Travis High School, he transferred to Johnston High School and graduated in 1990.  He was a Catholic and attended San Jose Catholic Church at 2453 Oak Crest Ave. in South Austin.  He loved sports and was a loyal Dallas Cowboy fan.  He had many friends and was always willing to lend a helping hand, especially to those most in need. 

SSG Henry Ybarra III was a loving father and husband survived by his wife Lilian and three children, Alyssa age 16, Gabrielle age 14, and Henry Ybarra IV, age 4.  His family remembers him as an American hero who proudly served and defended his country. 

There are several United States Post Office Buildings that have been renamed in honor of soldiers and/or citizens who made the ultimate sacrifice in the defense of this nation.  The nearest post office to be renamed is in Pflugerville, Texas 78660 at 301 S. Heatherwilde Blvd.  This post office was renamed in honor of Sargeant Byron W. Norwood in July 2005, after he was killed in 2004 in Fallujah, Iraq.  The building currently bears the name of Sargeant Byron W. Norwood and the sponsor of the renaming measure was U. S. Representative Michael McCual of Austin, Texas. 

The post office building in Goliad, Texas was recently renamed in honor of Mr. Emillio Vargas, a citizen from that city.  U. S. Representative Ruben Hinojosa, 15th Congressional District was the sponsor for the renaming measure. 

Bergstrom Air Force Base, now Austin Bergstrom International Airport, was named in honor of Capt. John Bergstrom a resident of Austin, Texas.  Capt. Bergstrom was the first Austin soldier killed in World War II, and according to a 1999 Austin documentary Congressman Lyndon Baines Johnson led the effort to rename the then air base after Capt. Bergstrom. 

Woodmansee Plaza is located at the Travis County Courthouse at 10th and San Antonio Streets in Austin, Texas and was dedicated on May 26, 1986.  The plaza was named after 1st Lt. Ronnie L. Woodmansee, (9-28-33-12-12-63) a resident of Travis County, Texas.  He was a helicopter pilot in the United States Army and was the first resident of Travis County to lose his life during the Vietnam War.  The marker at the plaza reads: “In honor of Lt. Woodmansee and all other residents who gave their lives in defense of this country”. 

The examples above have established a memorial precedent and in the past, Austin and Travis County have named an Airport and a plaza in honor of residents from Austin who were the first soldiers killed in World War II and Vietnam.  In view of Sargeant Henry Ybarra III’s life and military service to our country we respectfully request that favorable consideration be given to this matter.  SSG. Ybarra III grew up in South Austin and naming the South Congress Station at 3903 South Congress Ave., Austin Texas 78704-9998 would be a fitting tribute to this gallant and proud soldier 

Sincerely, Dan Arellano, Commander
Tejanos In Action

Lampazos De Naranjo, Monclova, Cuatro Cienegas, Sabinas, Guerrero
Webb County Archeological Society

Sent by John Inclan

It appears that most of the articles are from a book by William C. Foster:
Table of Contents to articles on site.

1910 Federal Census Index for Val Verde County, Texas 
Full index, A to Z  Sent by Johanna De Soto to unveil Tejano Portrait Series© at the Alamo

(San Antonio, Texas) Oct. 5, 2006 – Texas, a San Antonio-based research and publishing company committed to Texas history, announced today that they will unveil the full collection of the Tejano Portrait Series© during a ceremony beginning at 10:00am on Tuesday, Oct. 10, 2006 in front of the Alamo Shrine.

The portraits feature legendary Tejano heroes: José Antonio Navarro, Col. José Francisco Ruiz, Lorenzo de Zavala, Col. Juan Seguín, Gregorio Esparza and Toribio Losoya. Texas and local, San Antonio artist Lehman Thompson, Jr. created the stunning portraits together in a collaborative effort.

Texas and Mr. Thompson take great pride and honor in gifting these one-of-a-kind, historical treasures to the Alamo, where they will be displayed for all time. It is a great honor for everyone involved.

"This was a major goal for us in helping to accomplish our mission at Texas," says Rudi R. Rodriguez, Founder of Texas "There is no more important landmark in the State of Texas and no more sacred, historical site than the Alamo. For us, it is about making the connection between what these Tejano heroes did during the Texas Revolution with the general public. There is no greater symbol of the Revolution than the Alamo and to have our works be accepted there, we believe that half the "battle" in making that connection is already won."

This event is free and open to the public and Texas encourages everyone to come and view these truly unique works of art.

"As caretakers of the Alamo Shrine, we are proud to accept this gift," says Virginia Van Cleave, Chairman of the Alamo Committee of the Daughters of the Republic of Texas. "Preserving and honoring Texas is what we are about and this is a fitting example of our mission."

The ceremony is just one of over 15 events that have been hosted, developed and promoted by Texas to celebrate Tejano Heritage Month. Texas and the Alamo Legacy & Missions Association (ALMA) are proud to have partnered for this year’s Tejano Heritage Month celebrations with Wells Fargo Bank, H-E-B, the Texas Commission on the Arts, the Greater Austin Hispanic Chamber of Commerce, Capitol Visitors Center, the San Antonio Express-News, the City of San Antonio Office of Cultural Affairs and Office of Community Initiatives, the Witte Museum, the Alamo and San Antonio Public Library.

Thanks to their assistance and support, this was the biggest and most successful Tejano Heritage Month celebration to date.

About Texas  San Antonio-based research and publishing company dedicated to bringing awareness of Tejano history to the public by designing and developing print materials, electronic media and historical exhibits that tell the stories of the state’s first pioneers. More information about Texas including a calendar of the month’s celebratory events can be found at or by calling 210.673.3584.   Contact: Rudi R. Rodriguez at 210.673.3584

Sent by Larry Kirkpatrick

Recuerdos de Mi Familia y Tejas
Texas teams with City of SA and SAPL for Senior Oral History Project 

Sent by Frank Sifuentes
and Eric Moreno

(San Antonio, Texas) October 2, 2006 – Texas, a San Antonio-based research, publishing, and communications firm, is proud to team with the City of San Antonio Office of Community Initiatives and the San Antonio Public Library to present the first ever Recuerdos de Mi Familia y Tejas Senior Oral History Project. 

This one of a kind event will take place from 9:00am-noon on Wednesday, Oct. 4, 2006 at the main branch of the San Antonio Public Library (600 Soledad). Volunteers from the Los Bexareños Genealogical Society will be on hand to collect these priceless oral histories, as well as scan in any photographs and take photos as well.

“Each year, we lose more and more of our precious history and heritage as the generation from before passes on,” explains Texas President and Founder Rudi R. Rodriguez. “We wanted to create a program that would help preserve these stories, these cuentos and memorias for future generations to come. It’s the first step in what will be a long term project and commitment from us.”

The morning of the event, seniors from several centers will be transported to the Library where they will be given a tour of the facility and its resources. Everything that is gathered and collected that day will be permanently housed and archived at the Library and will be made accessible to the visiting public.

“The seniors from the St. Jude and Sacred Heart City-sponsored Nutrition Centers have indicated much enthusiasm towards this project that will record their legacy through tape recording and photos,” says Laura Cisneros with the City of San Antonio, Department of Community Initiatives, Senior Services Division.

This event is one of Texas’s most ambitious to date and promises to be one of its most rewarding.

“We do not want this to be a ‘one and done’ type of event,” says Rodriguez. “The Texas Tejano Senior Oral History Project is one that we want to continue for years to come and eventually expand beyond the City of San Antonio.”

The Tejano Senior Oral History Project is just one of over 15 events taking place around San Antonio through October 14 in celebration of Tejano Heritage Month.

"This program continues the San Antonio Public LIbrary's commitment to preserve San Antonio's past for future generations,” says Frank Faulkner of the San Antonio Public Library. “The Texana/Genealogy Department is especially pleased to again partner with and Los Bexareños on a project where the voices of our senior citizens can provide us some understanding of where we came from and guidance for the future."

Texas is proud to have partnered this year with Wells Fargo Bank, H-E-B, Texas Commission on the Arts, the Greater Austin Hispanic Chamber of Commerce, Capitol Visitors Center, the San Antonio Express-News, the City of San Antonio Office of Cultural Affairs, the Witte Museum and the Alamo. With their assistance and support, we are guaranteed that this will be the biggest Tejano Heritage Month celebration to date. 

More information about can be found at or by calling 210.673.3584.  CONTACT: RUDI R. RODRIGUEZ at 210.673.3584

Mexican bishop to be canonized has San Antonio ties
Deborah Knapp, KENS 5 Eyewitness News,
Web Posted: 10/13/2006
Sent by Joe Guerra

On Sunday, Pope Benedict XVI will canonize five new saints, including a bishop from Mexico who has ties to San Antonio. 

For 20 years, Tito Guizar Jr. has been selling used cars on the Northwest Side. He's a top salesman — and some may argue he has an unfair advantage. He's about to become a direct descendant of a saint. 

"You feel like something has touched you from heaven. You know that through your veins, the same blood, the same line of blood, is one of a saint," Guizar said. 

Guizar is the great nephew of Bishop Rafael Guizar y Valencia who will be canonized Sunday by the pope. Guizar's father was the bishop's altar boy. 

Guizar is able to kid about being related to a saint, jokingly saying that friends want him to perform miracles for them. 

San Antonio has another close connection to Bishop Valencia, and Archbishop Emeritus Patrick Flores keeps it locked in his bedroom closet. 

It's the bishop's ring that the blessed Valencia sold to feed the poor. It was given to Archbishop Flores years ago as a gift. Although he came from a wealthy family, Bishop Valencia gave away all that he had to help others. He has always been a role model for Archbishop Flores. 

"If I can come anywhere near him (Valencia), I think the Lord will say, 'Come on in,' when I die," Flores said. 

KENS 5 traveled to Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico, last year. It was in Xalapa that Valencia served as bishop. 

When he died in 1938, he was buried among the poor to whom he'd dedicated his life. Twelve years later, his body was exhumed to be buried under the cathedral. To everyone's amazement, his body was perfectly preserved — a sign to many of his holiness. His body was placed under glass and later entombed in marble. 

People who visited his tomb started experiencing miracles that continue to this day. When he is canonized on Sunday, his ring will be a sacred relic. 

"Every so often, I pull it out and I pray to him for a special favor, very often to get me calm when I was in a lot of pain. Then I kiss it," Archbishop Flores said. 

Flores wants everyone to have the opportunity to kiss the ring of St. Rafael Guizar y Valencia. The ring will be on display at San Fernando Cathedral at a 5 p.m. mass on Sunday that will be open to the public. The mass will be concelebrated by Archbishops Flores and Jose Gomez to mark the canonization of the new saint. It will coincide with the celebration in Rome. 

Many of Bishop Valenica's family members will be in Rome for the canonization ceremony, but nearly two dozen will be at the San Fernando ceremony, as will clergy from across the United States. 

Texas State Historical Society. . .
Sent by John Inclan

Book: Places Left Unfinished at the Time of Creation by John Phillip Santos 
Last night I met John Phillip Santos at the University of Incarnate Word.. I loved his presentation.  I strong encourage to listen to him and buy his book.  
Walter Herbeck

Between August 7 and August 18, 2006, Texas Public Radio presented on-air readings of the family memoir of San Antonio author John Phillip Santos, Places Left Unfinished at the Time of Creation. The story, read by Santos himself, was broadcast on KSTX 89.1 FM. The chapters are archived on this page to listen online or download as MP3 files.
We thank those of you who joined us in this ambitious project in celebration of the “1 Book. 1 San Antonio.” program. The goal was a community-wide reading project to encourage all residents to read the same book at the same time. The goal was to bring the community together through the common bond of reading. The broadcasts on KSTX were sponsored by HEB, the San Antonio Express-News and the San Antonio Public Library Foundation.

Sponsored by: Yvette Benavides (co-host of Texas Matters) moderated a panel discussion on the book on August 24th and on the following day, David Martin Davies was featured an interview with Santos on Texas Matters.

Santos is a Program Officer at the Ford Foundation in New York and the first Mexican-American Rhodes scholar to study at Oxford. He is a well-known journalist and author of several television documentaries.

The book is a powerful memoir of Mexican-American life. Born in San Antonio in 1957, the author is a journalist and television documentary producer for CBS and the first Mexican-American Rhodes Scholar. He grew up in an extended family whose elder members remembered a Texas that had not yet become anglicized. Through their eyes, Santos revisits that time, looking deeply into the Mexican past as a way of informing the present.

An online discussion of the book was at
A podcast subscription page allowed participants to receive daily chapters automatically.

Section One: Testimonio
Chap 1:Tierra de las Viejitas / Land of the Little Old Ladies Windows Media MP3 Download
Chap 2 - Codices de los Abuelos / Grandfather Codices Windows Media MP3 Download
Chap 3 - Valle de Silencio / Valley of Silence Windows Media MP3 Download

Section Two - Mexico Viejo
Chap 4 - Cuento Mestizo / Mestizo Tale Windows Media MP3 Download
Chap 5 - El Sendero Florido / The Flowered Path Windows Media MP3 Download
Chap 6 - De Huisache a Cedro / From Huisache to Cedar Windows Media MP3 Download

Section Three - Peregrinaje
Chap 7 - Zona De Niebla / Fog Zone Windows Media MP3 Download
Chap 8 - Teatro Aztec / Aztec Theatre Windows Media MP3 Download
Chap 9 - Lluvia de Piedras / Rain of Stones Windows Media MP3 Download

Section Four - Volador
Chap 10 - Exilio / Exile Windows Media MP3 Download
Chap 11 - La Ruta / The Route Windows Media MP3 Download
Chap 12 - Una Canción / A Song Windows Media MP3 Download
Epilogue Windows Media MP3 Download

Tent of Grief: An Afterword Windows Media MP3 Download

The "1 City 1 Book" concept was initiated in 1998 by librarian Nancy Pearl of the Washington Center for the Book at the Seattle Public Library. Since then, the program has gained enormous popularity from one side of the country to the other, and even in other parts of the world. Originally meant to encourage reading and discussion, the program can focus on a single community or span whole cities or states. Many explore local literature or themes, while others choose wide-ranging selections that examine different historical periods and genres. 

Book: Viva Tejas by Ruben Lozano 
Sent by Frank Sifuntes
Mimi, aqui te mando escritura de un primo tuyo. Zavala Elementary School where I spent 6 years was named after Lorenzo de Zavala.

Introduction to chapter 13 from the book. . 
Continuous Presence of Italians and Spaniards in Texas as Early as 1520
 by Alex Loya

" At some point in the movie "The Alamo", they showed a conversation 
between Juan Seguin and another Tejano Texian. The Tejano asked Seguin why he was fighting with the Americans, and then he added that Santa Anna wanted Mexico, but these "desgraciados" (damned) wanted to take over the world.  That statement in the film reflects the pervasive and destructive myth that the Texas Revolution was founded solely on an Anglo-Saxon cause of land hungry and abusive expansionism, while at the same time making Santa Anna a man of integrity. In this month's 
contribution entitled "The Texas Revolution: A Spaniard Texian Cause", 
the reader is briefly introduced to the often neglected fact that the 
Texas Revolution was first and foremost a Spaniard Texian cause, that 
the Anglo-American settlers of Texas simply joined the children of the 
Spaniards in the struggle they had begun years earlier in 1811.


Passenger and Crew lists of airplanes arriving 
at Brownsville, Texas, January 1943-September 1964

Compiled by Claire Prechtel-Kluskens

National Archives and Records Administration Washington, DC 2005

national archives AND records administration 


On the 22 rolls of this microfilm publication, A3423, are reproduced passenger and crew lists of airplanes arriving at Brownsville, Texas, January 1, 1943-September 8, 1964. These records are part of the Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, Record Group (RG) 85.


Early records relating to immigration originated in regional customhouses. The U.S. Customs Service conducted its business by designating collection districts. Each district had a headquarters port with a customhouse and a collector of customs, the chief officer of the district. An act of March 2, 1819 (3 Stat. 489), required the captain or master of a vessel arriving at a port in the United States or any of its territories from a foreign country to submit a list of passengers to the collector of customs. The act also required that the collector submit a quarterly report or abstract, consisting of copies of these passenger lists, to the Secretary of State, who was required to submit such information at each session of Congress. After 1874, collectors forwarded only statistical reports to the Treasury Department. The lists themselves were retained by the collector of customs. Customs records were maintained primarily for statistical purposes.

On August 3, 1882, Congress passed the first Federal law regulating immigration (22 Stat. 214-215); the Secretary of the Treasury had general supervision over it between 1882 and 1891. The Office of Superintendent of Immigration in the Department of the Treasury was established under an act of March 3, 1891 (26 Stat. 1085), and was later designated a bureau in 1895 with responsibility for administering the alien contract-labor laws. In 1900 administration of the Chinese exclusion laws was added. Initially the Bureau retained the same administrative structure of ports of entry that the Customs Service had used. By the turn of the century, it began to designate its own immigration districts, the numbers and boundaries of which changed over the years. In 1903 the Bureau became part of the Department of Commerce and Labor; its name was changed to the Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization when functions relating to naturalization were added in 1906. In 1933 the functions were transferred to the Department of Labor and became the responsibility of the newly formed Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). Under President Roosevelt's Reorganization Plan V of 1940, the INS was moved to the Department of Justice. The INS was abolished, and its immigration and naturalization recordkeeping functions were transferred to the new Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services within the new Department of Homeland Security, established January 24, 2003, by the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-296, § 471, 116 Stat. 2135, 2205).


national archives AND records administration 

records description

The passenger and crew lists in this microfilm publication were submitted to the INS at Brownsville, Texas, by the captain of each airplane that had last departed from a Mexican or other foreign airport. Airplanes that had last departed from a U.S. airport are not included. The records were filmed in chronological order, although there is occasional disarrangement. Passengers and crew members primarily include U.S. citizens and Mexicans.

Manifests for 1943-54 are on Customs Form 7507, General Declaration (Outward/Inward), which includes the aircraft number, airport of clearance (departure), destination airport, and destination arrival date. It includes each crew member's name, age, gender, citizenship ("nationality"), and position in the crew. For each passenger, the name, age, gender, and citizenship ("nationality") are also recorded. For passengers or crew, additional information may be noted, such as visa, passport, or other numbers. These forms were handwritten or typewritten. Some of the typewritten manifests are carbon copies, rather than originals; these are difficult to read.

Manifests for 1957-1964 generally consist of a card record for each individual passenger.

The records were filmed by the INS in 1956 and the 1960s and transferred to the National Archives on microfilm. Rolls 5-8 begin with short "retakes" sections (images refilmed to ensure legibility). Rolls 1-18 are 35mm microfilm, and rolls 19-22 ("Old INS Rolls A-l thru A-II") are 16mm microfilm. Portions of the original A-numbered rolls exhibit poor contrast, blurriness due to the camera being out of focus, and other technical problems. Although some of this film may be difficult to read, it is impossible to correct the situation since the INS destroyed the original records.

related records

Passenger and crew lists of airplanes arriving at Brownsville, Texas, January 1955-November 1957, are not included in this microfilm publication. Instead, airplane passenger and crew lists for December 1954-March 1957 have been reproduced in National Archives Microfilm Publication Ml 774, Passenger and Crew Lists of Vessels (March 1931—March 1957) and Airplanes (December 1954-March 1957) Arriving at Brownsville, Texas, rolls 17-25.

national archives AND records administration 

roll list

new old INS roll NO. ROLL NO. DATE OF arrival

1 1 Jan. 1-Dec. 20, 1943
2 2 Dec. 20,
1943-Jan. 16, 1945
3 3 Jan.
16-Nov. 17, 1945
4 4 Nov. 17,
1945-July 11, 1946
5 5 July 11-Dec. 2, 1946
6 6 Dec. 3,
1946-Aug. 25, 1947
7 7 Aug. 25,
1947-Apr. 30, 1948
8 8 Apr. 30,
1948-Jan. 3, 1949
9 9 Jan.
3-Aug. 20, 1949
10 10 Aug. 20,
1949-Mar. 30, 1950
11 11 Mar.
30-Nov. 20, 1950
12 12 Nov. 20, 1950-July2, 1951
13 13 July2-Dec.28
14 14 Dec. 29,
1951-Aug. 17, 1952

The INS target [informational sheet] at the beginning of this roll incorrectly identifies it as Roll 15.

15 15 Aug.l8.1952-Apr.l8.1953
16 16 Apr. 19,
1953-Jan. 15, 1954
17 17 Jan. 16-Nov. 1, 1954
18 18 Nov.l-Dec.30

See also Ml 774 for Dec. 1954
national archives AND records administration MICROFILM PUBLICATIONS

new old INS roll NO. roll No. date OF arrival
No manifests for Jan.
1955-Nov. 1957; see Ml 774
19 A-l Dec. 1, 1957-Jan. 7, 1958 
A-2 Jan. 7-Feb. 18,195820 
A-3 Feb. 18-Apr. 1, 1958

The original box label indicates this roll was to end at May 17, 1958. However, the portion for Apr. 1-May 17, 1958, broke off and was lost by the INS before its transfer to the National Archives.

A-4 May 19-June 28, 1958 
A-5 June28-Sept. 8, 1958
A-6 Sept. 10, 1958-Mar. 20, 1959
Apr. 17-Dec. 31, 1959
Camera out of focus for a short segment. 
A-8 Jan. 1-July 15, 1960 
A-9 July 15, 1960-Aug. 3,1961
July 27, 1961-Sept. 12,1962
Camera out of focus for a short segment.
A-l 1 Sept. 20, 1962-Sept. 8, 1964



Nov 11-12: The 8th Annual Chicago Latino Book and Family Festival
Dec 16:  George Ryskamp, Finding Your Hispanic Roots
From Fish Sauce to Salsa, New Orleans Vietnamese Adapt to Latinos

Chicago Louisiana Regiment of Infantry 1765- 1821
The Living History Youth Project
Canary Islanders Heritage Society of Louisiana Tenth Anniversary
Book: The Spanish Regime in Missouri 


The 8th Annual Chicago Latino Book and Family Festival
November 11-12th

The 8th Annual Chicago Latino Book and Family Festival will again be well timed for the important pre-Christmas and holiday shopping period. Our home for the 7th Annual Chicago Latino Book & Family Festival will again be Unity School, in the Town of Cicero, one of the most densely Latino populated suburbs in the entire Chicago area. This venue has worked exceptionally well for our 2004 & 2005 events with an average attendance of 28,000. Continuing as co-host for the Chicago event is Tele Guia de Chicago. See you there!
Location: Unity School, 2100 S. Laramie Ave. Cicero, IL 60804


George Ryskamp, Finding Your Hispanic Roots
Director, BYU Family History and Genealogy Center
Saturday, 16 December, 11 a.m.
Newberry Library, Chicago 

An accredited genealogist, probate lawyer, and historian, George Ryskamp is the leading expert on the abundant resources for researching families with Hispanic heritage. Come learn his research methods for locating and using government and church records of individuals and families, some dating back to the sixteenth-century. Historian Linda Matthew’s exhibit tour of The Aztecs and the Making of Colonial Mexico will explain the importance of genealogy to indigenous people who sought to maintain their social standing in New Spain following the conquest. Gabriel Argulo, a former Newberry staff member, is currently a graduate student at the University of Wisconsin. He will lead a hands-on workshop introducing the Library’s resources for researching Mexican and Mexican-American family history.

Sent by Jack Simpson
Curator of Local and Family History

From Fish Sauce to Salsa -- New Orleans Vietnamese Adapt to Influx of Latinos

By Sara Catania, New America Media, Oct 16, 2006
Sent by Howard Shorr

New Orleans Media Editor's Note: After Hurricane Katrina, the Latino population in New Orleans grew as other ethnic populations shrank in size. Remaining members of a close-knit Vietnamese community are learning to navigate cultural and linguistic differences with their new Latino neighbors -- even if it means stocking tortillas next to rice paper in local markets.

NEW ORLEANS--Taqueria Mexico used to be a thriving Vietnamese restaurant called Bien Tinh, or Ocean Love. Now under new ownership, its waitresses serve salsa in the floral faux-china bowls that once held fish sauce.

"A lot is different now," says Hai Pham, who sold Bien Tinh to a Mexican-American family from Houston. Pham's was one of dozens of Vietnamese restaurants that after Hurricane Katrina were struggling to survive with far fewer customers. Now, whenever Pham stops by Taqueria Mexico, the place is bustling, the customers nearly all Latino. "They are the first restaurant around here to serve Mexican food and they do a good business," Pham says. "I am happy for them."

Vietnamese-Americans recovering from Katrina are grappling with a double challenge: the absence of friends and family who moved away after the storm and the appearance of a record number of Latinos in their previously autonomous community.

A state survey released this month counts nearly 7,000 Asians in New Orleans post-Katrina, compared with close to 12,000 in 2004. Latinos are the only ethnic group in the city whose numbers have grown, from about 14,000 to more than 16,000, according to the survey, conducted in February by the Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals and the Louisiana Recovery Authority. "We have seen Hispanics in areas of the city where we have never seen them before," says Martin O. Gutierrez, director of immigration and refugee services for Catholic Charities in the city. "This is a very new phenomenon in New Orleans."

The change is particularly noticeable in the neighborhood that Taqueria Mexico now calls home. Though most locals call the area Village de L'est, for its location in the eastern part of the city, some still refer to it as Versailles, after the government-subsidized housing complex that was home to many Vietnamese refugees when they first arrived in New Orleans in the 1970s and '80s. Back then, the refugees were the newcomers in the largely African-American community. In subsequent decades the Vietnamese-American population in the Gulf Coast area grew to between 25,000 and 40,000 residents.

Those who remained in Village de L'est created what is widely regarded as the region's Vietnamese-American hub, opening more than 50 businesses and building Mary Queen of Vietnam, the first Catholic Church in the nation to offer mass in Vietnamese.

After Katrina, the Vietnamese-American residents of Village de L'est were among the first return to New Orleans and begin gutting and rebuilding their homes. Construction workers from across the United States and Latin America descended upon the community, and the local businesses lining Chef Menteur Highway and Alcee Fortier Boulevard quickly began to adapt their products and services.

At the Mi-Viet market, rice papers now share shelf space with tortillas, tall bottles of Fresca line the cold case next to bubble tea, and plastic-wrapped pork chops are identified both as "bo-chuk tender" and "chuleta de cerdo." A separate counter handles wire remittances to Latin America. Across the street at the Tien Pharmacy, owner John Nguyen recently added a payment service for cell phone bills. "It brings in new customers," Nguyen says.

Martin Osorio saw opportunity as well. His family owns Taco Texas, a catering company in Houston that operates several loncheras, or lunch trucks. The trucks soon became a fixture in Village de L'est. Then one afternoon, as Osorio's father was having lunch at Bien Tinh, Pham approached him and offered to sell him the restaurant.

"We thought he was kidding," Martin Osorio recalled. But Pham was dead serious. Since the hurricane his wife had been running the restaurant alone while he'd been focusing on their downtown convenience store. "I felt it was not safe for her to be there by herself for so many hours," Pham says. "We couldn't find anybody to work there with her."

The Osorios imported the taqueria's nine-member Spanish-speaking work force from Houston. Even with a sizeable staff, Osorio works nonstop, rising at 4 a.m. and closing the doors at 8 p.m. Every two weeks he takes a quick trip back to Houston to see his wife, 3-year-old daughter and 2-month-old son.

Osorio says for the most part he has feels welcome in Village de L'est. In two months he's had only one difficult encounter, when he sat down at a nearby Vietnamese restaurant for lunch and waited nearly an hour without being acknowledged. Finally he got up to leave and asked the proprietor for the key to the restroom. She refused, telling him the bathroom was out of order. He bristled. "I'd seen people going in and out of there the whole time," he says. "I told her I have a right to use the bathroom and if you refuse to let me, I can sue you." The woman relented and gave him the key.

May Thi Nguyen, business development director for the community development corporation created after the hurricane, is hoping to transform the commercial stretches of Village de L'est into an ethno-centric tourist destination. She has spent hours talking with the small business owners, many of them older Vietnamese- Americans who are struggling to adjust to their new neighbors. "It's a huge shock here," Nguyen says. "Everyone's kind of taken aback. A lot of Vietnamese-Americans in this community have never left the area. It is very much a Vietnamese-American community."

Nguyen, who has lived and worked in Argentina and Vietnam and is fluent in Vietnamese, English and Spanish, says she is unsure how Latinos would fit into the commercial development goals for the area. "We're talking about a marketing scheme where we're going to set up three flags out in the median: an American flag, a flag of the old Republic of Vietnam and a Louisiana flag," Nguyen says. "I don't know where the Mexican flag fits into that."

Martin Gutierrez of Catholic Charities says increased diversity will only enrich the area. "It's going to create great opportunities. There will be some friction, but at the same time we all believe diversity is a strength."

Nguyen acknowledged that Latinos have invigorated Village de L'est, both economically and culturally. She has witnessed this dynamic in a market owned by her aunt. "My aunt is learning Spanish," Nguyen says. "She's learning how to say hello, how to tell customers how much something costs. It's wild. I love it. It's exciting."

After talking with some of the Latino workers, Nguyen is taking a wait-and-see approach. "A lot of these changes are happening in response to the construction workers," she says. "Some will leave. Will enough stay to make these changes permanent? Who knows?"

A study released in June by U.C. Berkeley and Tulane University found that about half the Latinos who moved to the region for work plan to stay, and there are indicators in Village de L'est that some are beginning to settle in. Word has spread quickly about Nguyen's tri-lingualism, and the neighborhood's new Spanish-speaking residents have begun seeking her out for advice. "They've been asking me where to send their kids to school and things like that," she says. "They've pretty much ID'd me as that Asian girl in the community who can talk to them."

At Mary Queen of Vietnam, Spanish-speaking workers have begun showing up for Sunday mass, even though services are conducted entirely in Vietnamese. "They know exactly what is going on," says Fr. Vien The Nguyen, pastor of the church. "It was the same for us when we came here from Vietnam. Mass was in English, but it was still a Catholic mass and we understood. That's the nature of a parish church. It's always open. Anyone can come in."

On a recent weekday afternoon at Taqueria Mexico, six small video monitors and one large-screen television competed with the stereo mariachis for the attention of diners in paint-splattered boots and baseball caps. Daniel Jeronimo, who arrived in New Orleans from Veracruz by way of Chicago six months ago, had just finished his first morning's work in Village de L'est and was looking forward to lunch. "I saw this place and I came right over," he said. "I can look at the menu here and everything is familiar to me."

That is exactly what Martin Osorio likes to hear. The Taqueria has been so successful he's considering expanding. "Right now we're thinking about desserts and candies," he says. Eventually he'd like to open a pool hall nearby.

If he does, he may find his customer base exceeding his target audience. "I would get so bored if all I did was hang out at the Vietnamese bars," May Thi Nguyen says. "Hanging out at the Taqueria is a lot more exciting."

Louisiana Regiment of Infantry 1765- 1821
Sent by Bill Carmena

Initially established and manned by peninsular Spanish regulars in 1765 as an infantry battalion to occupy Louisiana, acquired from France three years earlier, what would ultimately become the veteran and professional  Regimiento de Infantería de Luisiana formed the core of Spain's military establishment in Louisiana and, later, in the Spanish Floridas until it faded into oblivion during the terminal period of Spain's colonial tenure in North America.

Reorganized after its arrival in North America in 1769, the battalion's detachments performed garrison duties at outposts in Spanish Louisiana as far north as Illinois.  In 1779, when Spain joined France in an alliance against England during the American War for Colonial Independence, the unit was enlarged to regimental strength through the addition of a second battalion and participated with distinction in the 1779-1781 conquest of then-British West Florida under the leadership of Louisiana Governor Bernardo de Gálvez.  Spain's official repossession of Florida by the terms of the 1783 Treaty of Paris resulted in a third battalion being added to the regiment for service in the Floridas in 1786.  This seemingly impressive force was, however, a "paper tiger." It never achieved its newly authorized strength in manpower, nor did it enjoy adequate supplies of material provisions to properly maintain itself 

After the retrocession of Louisiana by Spain to France in 1800 and that territory's subsequent purchase by the United States in 1803, the unit served exclusively in the Spanish Floridas.  Soon, Florida itself began to yield to the pressures of American nationalism, military aggression, and demographic expansion, a process that was accelerated by Spain's rapidly deteriorating position in both Europe and its other New World colonies.  By 1813, Florida—which had once extended westward to the Mississippi River and northward to a line extending eastward from the mouth of the Yazoo River—had been reduced to the size of that present state.  Plagued by shortages of support, supplies and manpower, the Louisiana Regiment, like Spain's once-formidable presence in North America, steadily deteriorated.  By 1816, the unit had dwindled to a single battalion with a strength of less than 200 men, and it is not clear if the once-proud Louisiana Infantry Regiment was still in existence as an autonomous unit when Spain ceded Florida to the United States in 1821. 

Considerable information can be found concerning Louisiana Regiment uniforms at this site.

"The Living History Youth Project" 
Last Days at Ogden Museum in New Orleans 
Sent by Dorinda Moreno

Jose Torres Tama wrote concerning an exhibit in New Orleans: 

Dear arts community:
These are the last days to catch “The Living History Youth Project” at the Ogden Museum. With the generous support of David Houston, Visual Arts Curator at the Ogden, the exhibit has been extended until Sunday, September 9, 2006. This is the last arts residency that took place at Bishop Perry Middle School, which has been closed indefinitely since the summer camp session ended in late July. 

The project honors the legacy of a historic institution that stood on the sacred grounds 
where the first free Catholic school for the education of children of African descent was 
founded in 1848, in pre-Civil War New Orleans. It was through the last will and testament 
of Marie Couvent, a free woman of color who died in 1837, that a school was established to offer an education to children of color in the slave state of Louisiana. Her will reads:

"My name is Marie Justine Couvent. I was born in Guinea, Africa. When I was perhaps seven years of age I was carried to St. Domingue [Haiti]. I am as a result not aware of the name of my father or my mother, nor do I know my age. I was married to Bernard Couvent, free Negro, whose widow I now am. We have had no children…"

“I bequeath and order that my land at the corner of Grand Hommes and Union Streets 
[Dauphine and Touro] be dedicated and used in perpetuity for the establishment of a free 
school for the colored orphans of the Faubourg Marigny… Also, I declare that said lands 
and buildings shall never be sold under any pretext whatsoever.”

This excerpt is from Keith Weldon Medley’s article “The Will of the Widow Couvent.” Mr. 
Weldon Medley’s book “We as Free Men” has been highly instrumental to the research that I have been doing on the free people of color for the past five years.

I am still dumfounded and at times outraged about the loss of this school with a legacy of such heroic magnitude, and the way it has quietly vanished in the “New” New Orleans of post-Katrina. I cannot help but see this as another horrific example of the cultural 
cleansing that has been taking place in this city since the levees breached. It is often 
difficult for people to stomach my assessments, and I think it is because we are in a deep state of denial about the eradication of such symbolic institutions that mark the profound cultural contributions of people of African descent in this city. 

Undeniably, plenty of African Americans have not been able to return to their homes, and a year later the Lower Ninth remains a devastated ghost town. We will wake up one day and see the harsh reality, but it will be too late. It is already too late for the vanishing legacy of Marie Couvent, who envisioned a free education for children who were denied this basic right in the “old” New Orleans. 

The show featured drawings of a dozen sixth and seventh grade students with their versions of historic figures such as Thomy Lafon, the Creole philanthropist who supported the Couvent School, Rose Nicaud, a slave woman who bought her freedom through the earnings from a coffee stand she set up at the river, and Marie Laveau, the 
renowned voodoo priestess. It also features a large master drawing that I did in 
collaboration with Louis Johnson and Curtis Marks, two of the most talented art students of the Bishop Perry summer camp class.

The “Living History Youth Project” introduced the students at Bishop Perry to the free people of color and their legacy. It was a multidisciplinary arts project developed as a moth-long residency this past summer. I developed the project with the invaluable support of Eve Troeh, the educational outreach coordinator of the Ogden Museum. The project was developed as part of the Ogden’s ongoing educational program called “Artists and Sense of Place.” 

The links below connect you to the web pages on this project and feature visual images of the workshop process and poems from the performance called “Performing Our History.” Project was also funded through a C/APP Grant Award from Alternate ROOTS.

Jose Torres Tama & ArteFuturo Productions 
2453 Dauphine Street, New Orleans, LA 70117 

Canary Islanders Heritage Society of Louisiana Tenth Anniversary
Celebrates 10 years since their founding, 1996-2006
A Tribute to The Canary Islanders Heritage Society of Louisiana
on The Occasion of Its Tenth Anniversary

The Canary Islanders Heritage Society of Louisiana -- founded in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, A.D. 1996 -- ten short years of existence.

During that time and under your societal banner, you have introduced cousins to their extended families, and you have inspired acquaintances to become friends. You have complimented the fine work of your two sister societies in St. Bernard Parish, but placing a special focus on those early Canary Islanders who established themselves at Barataria, at Galveztown, and at Valenzuela -- those soldiers and their families, whose sons and daughters and grandchildren went on to settle and populate the state, particularly the city of Baton Rouge, the banks of Bayou Lafourche, and just about all of Southwest Louisiana.

You have inspired members and friends alike to examine their unique Canary Islands heritage -- Workshops, Meetings, Festivals, Food, Music, Costumes and Culture. Your members have occasionally crossed the Atlantic in order to visit the islands and towns that were sacred to their ancestors, and some were fortunate enough to be able to examine original documents and centuries-old church ledgers that recorded marriages and births.

One bright star in your crown is the inspirational monument at Donaldsonville, Louisiana, commemorating those Canary Islanders of the eighteenth century; you were singularly responsible for its design and construction. That monument remains a source of great pride, and rightly so.

Over the years, you have served as host to delegations from the Canary Islands, official and otherwise, and you have shown these visitors that Louisiana's famous hospitality is not restricted to New Orleans. Over the years, visitors have become close personal friends.

In the wake of Hurricane Katrina, you reached into deep flood waters to give aid and comfort to your brothers in St. Bernard Parish. That hand of friendship and assistance continues. 

In these ten short years you have come a long way, and your mark has been imprinted on the hearts of many. You continue to be a demonstrative presence in the cultural framework of Louisiana. Congratulations to you, "The Canary Islanders Heritage Society of Louisiana", on the completion of this first decade, with best wishes for many, many more to come.

Paul Newfield III 
October 14, 2006

For information on the history of the Canary Islands, migration to and present state of descendants living in Louisiana.

Book: The Spanish regime in Missouri 
In two volumes, includes index and links to each chapter.

About this book:  Source: Original data: The Spanish regime in Missouri : a collection of papers and documents relating to upper Louisiana, principally within the present limits of Missouri during the dominion of Spain, from the Archives of the Indies at Seville, etc..

Vol I. Title page  Vol I. Front matter  Vol I. Contents  Vol I. I: 1767--Ulloa sends an expedition to the (Spanish) Illinois country to establish a fort and settlement and his rules for the government of the same  Vol I. II: Secret instructions of Ulloa to Captain Rui, dated January 7, 1767, relating to the construction of two forts at the mouth of the Missouri, &c.  Vol I. III: Ulloa's instructions to erect forts at the mouth of the Missouri changed by a council of war held at St. Louis, October 2, 1767  Vol I. IV: Ulloa reports disorders at the fort on Missouri to Marquis de Grimaldi, August 4, 1768  Vol I. V: Ulloa removes Captain Rui as commandant of the fort on the Missouri and appoints Don Pedro Piernas as his successor, August 4, 1767  Vol I. VI: Regulations made by Captain Rui to govern the traders on the Missouri, 1769  Vol I. VII: Petition of the merchants of St. Louis to Captain Rui to be allowed to trade on the Missouri, January 15, 1769  Vol I. VIII: Certificate of the manner in which Captain Rui discharged his duties as commandant on the Missouri, by St. Ange, March 2, 1769  Vol I. IX: Plan of the Fort "El Principe de Asturias, Senor Don Carlos."  Vol I. X: Rui's report of the soldiers, workmen, and sailors at the Fort Don Carlos, March 10, 1769  Vol I. XI: Report of the various Indian tribes receiving presents in the district of Ylinoa or Illinois, 1769  Vol I. XII: Instructions for holding council with the Indians  Vol I. XIII: Delivery of the fort of el Principe de Asturias, Senor Don Carlos, and the blockhouse Don Carlos Tercero el Rey, March 10, 1769  Vol I. XIV: First Spanish detailed statistical report of St. Louis and Ste. Genevieve--Dated 1772  Vol I. XV: Census of Piernas for 1773  Vol I. XVI: Report of Captain Don Francisco Rui to his excellency Conde de O'Reilly concerning the settlements of Ylinois, and the manner and custom of giving presents to and receiving the Indians  Vol I. XVII: Report of Don Pedro Piernas to Gov. O'Reilly, describing the Spanish Illinois country, dated October 31, 1769  Vol I. XVIII: General instructions of O'Reilly to the lieutenant-governor of the villages of St. Louis, San Genevieve, etc., dated February 17, 1770  Vol I. XIX: Second Spanish detailed statistical report of products of St. Louis and Ste. Genevieve for 1773 dated January 1, 1774  Vol I. XX: Third Spanish detailed statistical report of the products of St. Louis and Ste. Genevieve, for 1774  Vol I. XXI: Fourth Spanish detailed statistical report of the products of St. Louis and Ste. Genevieve for 1775  Vol I. XXII: Office of lieutenant-governor for St. Louis, Ste. Genevieve, the district of Missouri and the Ylinnesses established by O'Reilly in 1770 and his order approved by Royal Cedula in 1772  Vol I. XXIII: Appointment of Piernas confirmed and salary of lieutenant-governor fixed and his jurisdiction defined, August, 1772  Vol I. XXIV: Religious condition of Louisiana, 1772  Vol I. XXV: The habitants of Ste. Genevieve remonstrate against the innovation of Tithes by Father Hilaire--His complaints  Vol I. XXVI: Inventory of papers and other effects delivered by Piernas to his successor, Don Francisco Cruzat, May 19, 1775  Vol I. XXVII: Application of Piernas for appointment as lieutenant-colonel--Detailing his military and other services--Dated August, 1775, and his appointment dated May 1, 1776  Vol I. XXVIII: Letter of Cruzat to Galvez explaining why he sent a messenger to the Sac and Renard Indians in the English Illinois district, dated November 26, 1777  Vol I. XXIX: Report of Indian traders given passports by Don Francisco Cruzat, dated November 28, 1777  Vol I. XXX: Report of the Indian tribes who receive presents at St. Louis, dated November 15, 1777  Vol I. XXXI: Letter in regard to trade with the Big Osages, dated December 6, 1777  Vol I. XXXII: Immigration to upper Louisiana to be encouraged--1777, 1778  Vol I. XXXIII: The cultivation of hemp and flax to be encouraged by providing settlers with negro slaves, 1778  Vol I. XXXIV: De Leyba arrives in St. Louis, July, 11, 1778  Vol I. XXXV: Trouble with the Big Osages  Vol I. XXXVI: Uselessness of fort San Carlos and suggertion to establish a fort at the mouth of the Des Moines disapproved--Letter dated January 13, 1779  Vol I. XXXVII: Attack on St. Louis--Report of the intendant Navarro to the Senor Don Joseph de Galvez, dated August 18, 1780--De Leyba and others promoted  Vol I. XXXVIII: Cruzat reappointed--His instructions--Letter to Cartabona--Commendation of Vasquez, etc.  Vol I. XXXIX: Letters of Cruzat to Galvez, dated December, 1780, relating to English intrigues, etc.  Vol I. XL: Roster of St. Louis militia companies in 1780  Vol I. XLI: Letter of intendant Navarro to Cruzat, February 15, 1781  Vol I. XLII: Letter of Don Jose de Galvez, minister of the Indies--1782  Vol I. XLIII: Letter of Governor Miro to Don Joseph Galvez--1782  Vol I. XLIV: Robberies on the Mississippi--Madame Cruzat captured--Her account--1782  Vol I. XLV: Report of Gov. Miro to Conde de Galvez of the great overflow of the Mississippi in 1885 in upper Louisiana  Vol I. XLVI: Navigation of the Mississippi not free--1784  Vol I. XLVII: Instructions to Peyroux, commandant of the port of Ste. Genevieve, and defining his powers and jurisdiction--1787  Vol I. XLVIII: Local ordinances for St. Louis and general ordinances published by lieutenant-governor Don Francisco Cruzat from October 7, 1780 to November 24, 1787  Vol I. XLIX: Report of Gov. Miro to the Marquis Sonora of outrages perpetrated by the Osage Indians  Vol I. L: Inventory of papers, instructions, etc., delivered to Don Manuel Perez by Lieutenant Governor Cruzat in 1787  Vol I. LI: Effects delivered to Don Manuel Perez by Lieutenant Governor Cruzat in 1787  Vol I. LII: Fortifications of St. Louis--Report of Lieut.-Gov. Perez, dated 1788  Vol I. LIII: Protest of Governor Miro against grant to Col. George Morgan--Dated 1789  Vol I. LIV: Letter of Colonel George Morgan to Don Diego de Gardoqui--1789  Vol I. LV: Appointment of Pedro Foucher as commandant of New Madrid in 1789  Vol I. LVI: Report of Lieut. Gov. Perez of the visit of Col. George Morgan, etc.  Vol I. LVII: Letter of Miro to Manuel Gayoso de Lemos, enclosing a letter from Lieut.-Gov. Perez in regard to attack made on Indians by Americans in 1789  Vol I. LVIII: Some persons who took the oath of allegiance at New Madrid from 1789 to 1796  Vol I. LIX: Report of Trudeau, 1791--and census for 1794-5  Vol I. LX: New settlers of New Madrid--1791  Vol I. LXI: Forts on the Des Moines and Iowa rivers--1792  Vol I. LXII: Some oaths of allegiance taken at New Madrid from 1793 to 1795  Vol I. LXIII: Fortifications of St. Louis--1793  Vol I. LXIV: Vial's journal--1793  Vol I. LXV: Letter of Barthelemi Tardiveau to Count Aranda proposing to establish a great French colony in upper Louisiana  Vol I. LXVI: The services of Perez  Vol I. LXVII: The erection of flour-mills at New Madrid and Ste. Genevieve promoted--Contract in regard to same, etc.--1793-1797  Vol I. LXVIII: Forts on the Mississippi below New Madrid--1793  Vol I. LXIX: Letter of Carondelet in regard to formation of American settlement on Mississippi below New Madrid--1793 

Vol II. Title page  Vol II. Front matter  Vol II. Contents  Vol II. LXX: The exclusive trade among the Ponkas granted to Munier--1793  Vol II. LXXI: The arrest of Mitchel--1793  Vol II. LXXII: Extracts from a report of Carondelet as to the situation and military condition of Louisiana--And how the province can be protected and defended--1793  Vol II. LXXIII: Carondelet reports on danger of an American settlement at the Ecores a Margot--1793  Vol II. LXXIV: Letter of Carondelet to Robertson--Danger of furnishing Indians cannon--1793  Vol II. LXXV: Threatened invasion of Louisiana by Americans, inspired by French agents under Gen. George Rogers Clark--1794  Vol II. LXXVI: Miro appoints Don Benito Vasquez captain of militia--1784  Vol II. LXXVII: Officers of the militia of St. Charles and Florissant--1793  Vol II. LXXVIII: Commissions issued to militia officers of Spanish New Madrid--1792--1795--1797  Vol II. LXXIX: Officers of the Ste. Genevieve militia appointed by Carondelet--1794  Vol II. LXXX: Official letters to Louis Lorimier, 1787-1793  Vol II. LXXXI: Journal of Lorimier during the threatened Genet invasion of Louisiana--1793-1795  Vol II. LXXXII: A fort among the troublesome Osages--1795  Vol II. LXXXIII: New settlement at Las Barrancas a Margot and relation with the Chicksaw Indians--1795  Vol II. LXXXIV: Rumors as to Las Barrancas de Margot--1795  Vol II. LXXXV: Don Carlos Howard appointed military commandant of upper Louisiana--1796  Vol II. LXXXVI: Expedition under Don Carlos Howard to upper Louisiana--1796  Vol II. LXXXVII: Plan to defend St. Louis--The marking of the boundary line between the Spanish Floridas and United States exasperates Indians--1796  Vol II. LXXXVIII: General census of 1796  Vol II. LXXXIX: Scheme to found a state on the Mississippi North of the Missouri  Vol II. XC: The Spanish commercial exploration company--Organized by St. Louis merchants--1794  Vol II. XCI: Instructions given by Clamorgan and Riehle approved by Lieutenant-Governor Zenon Trudeau to Jean Baptiste Truteau in command of the first expedition of the company  Vol II. XCII: Clamorgan's report of the operations of the commercial company.--1795  Vol II. LXXXIV: Additional powers granted the commercial company--1796  Vol II. XCIV: Mackay's journal of a voyage up the Missouri toward the South Sea, 1794  Vol II. XCV: Memorial of the merchants of St. Louis to revoke the monopoly of the commercial company and reply to same  Vol II. XCVI: Accounts of Don Pedro Foucher as commandant of New Madrid, for constriction of Fort Celeste  Vol II. XCVII: The Senior Colonel Don Carlos Howard, 1797  Vol II. XCVIII: Episcopal report for 1797  Vol II. XCIX: Church at St. Louis--1798  Vol II. C: Threatened attack by the English on St. Louis and upper Louisiana--Plans for defense--1797  Vol II. CI: Petition of Don Carlos Delassus asking transfer to the Louisiana regiment, 1794--And for promotion, 1797  Vol I. CII: Mackay appointed commandant of San Andres  Vol II. CIII: Trudeau's report concerning the settlements of the Spanish Illinois country--1798  Vol II. CIV: Suspected danger of an attack on St. Louis and New Madrid--1798  Vol II. CV: Inventory of the civil archives of St. Louis--1799  Vol II. CVI: List of documents delivered to De Lassus by Trudeau, report of experts of condition of forts at St. Louis, and inventory of same--1799  Vol II. CVII: Inventory of the civil and military archives of New Madrid--1799  Vol II. CVIII: Instructions to Don Robert McCoy of New Madrid--1799  Vol II. CIX: Fear of English invasion of upper Louisiana and American invasion of lower Louisiana--1800  Vol II. CX: Patriotic donations and loans made by the residents of upper Louisiana to aid Spain in the War--1799  Vol II. CXI: Great council between De Lassus and the Osages--1800  Vol II. CXII: Presents to the Osage Indians  Vol II. CXIII: Boundary between the New Madrid and Cape Girardeau districts  Vol II. CXIV: Expedition to New Madrid to punish Maskous--1803  Vol II. CXV: The services and merits of Don Louis Lorimier--1803  Vol II. CXVI: The services of Don Pedro Rousseau, commandant of galleys on the Mississippi  Vol II. CXVII: The services of Don Antonio Soulard  Vol II. CXVIII: Transfer of New Madrid--1804  Vol II. CXIX: Report of the valuation of royal buildings in New Madrid, Campo de la Esperanza and Arkansas &c.  Vol II. CXX: Artillery, supplies, furniture, and flatboats of upper Louisiana delivered to the Spanish authorities at New Orleans--1805  Vol II. CXXI: The boundary of Louisiana on the upper Missouri and Mississippi under the cession  Vol II. CXXII: Statistical census of St. Genevieve and its districts and its products  Vol II. CXXIII: Statistical census and products of St. Louis and its districts, 1791  Vol II. CXXIV: Inhabitants from the Maramec down to Platin Creek  Vol II. CXXV: Statistical census of San Carlos del Misury and products  Vol II. CXXVI: Statistical census of New Madrid of 1797  Vol II. CXXVII: Statistical census of the district of Cape Girardeau  Vol II. Index  Vol II. General census of 1800 of upper Louisiana. Chicago, Ill.: R.R. Donnelley & Sons Co., 1909.


Nov 4th: Panamanian Society to honor Guy Gabaldon
Nov 4th: Hispanic Genealogical Soc. of NY, Workshop: Internet Resources
Nov 4-9th: National Archives: D-Day Remembered & the Fighting Lady

Panamanian Society to honor Guy Gabaldon

Hi Mimi,  We have a ceremony scheduled in Orlando for November 4th to honor my dad. The Panamanian Society is holding their annual Indepedence Gala dinner on that date and they want to dedicate it to my dad. They have also started a group in the Hispanic community to seek the Congressional Medal of Honor. We met with congressman Tom Feeney last week-end and he is interested in helping. La Prensa newspaper is planning to run a major article, probably spanning two weekly editions before and after Memorial Day. This is the first time any interest has been raised in this part of the country. 

Ohana will be present and we will display the lithograph and show excerpts from East LA Marine documentary.

Regards, Guy, Jr.

November 4, 2006
The Hispanic Genealogical Society of New York will be at The Bronx Library Center, presenting this FREE all day, first of its kind event, which will feature several Hispanic genealogy workshops. Classes being offered include beginner Puerto Rican, Dominican and Hispanic genealogy, with instructions on how to explore resources available to research family history, using computer software and the Internet to help you find your ancestors; and, a hands-on class on the use of Beginner workshops will be in both English and Spanish. 

9:00 AM – 4:00 PM (Registration at 8:30 a.m.) The Bronx Library Center 310 East Kingsbridge Road Bronx 10458 Tel: 718-579-4244 (for directions) Pregister at : or call 212-340-4659

Sent by Lorraine Hernandez:

THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES honors the contributions our veterans have made to the nation with two special film programs- D-Day Remembered  and The Fighting Lady.  On Wednesday, Assistant Archivist for Records Services Michael Kurtz will discuss the topic "America and the Return of Nazi Contraband." (Rescheduled from June)

Wednesday, November 8, at noon William G. McGowan Theater 
America and the Return of Nazi Contraband
Michael J. Kurtz, Assistant Archivist for Records Services at the National Archives, will discuss the topic "America and the Return of Nazi Contraband: The Recovery of Europe's Cultural Treasures." In the ruins of Hitler's Third Reich, Allied occupiers found millions of paintings, books, manuscripts, and pieces of sculpture hidden in thousands of secret hideaways. Kurtz's lecture will explore how the American Military Government in Germany, spearheaded by a few dozen dedicated Fine Arts, Monuments, and Archives officers and enlisted men, coped with restoring Europe's cultural heritage. Caught up in often bitter diplomatic wrangling during and after the war, the Americans struggled to unearth and return what the Nazis had hidden.

Wednesday, November 8, at 7 P.M. William G. McGowan Theater
D-Day Remembered 
This Academy Award®*nominated documentary tells the story of a pivotal moment in the Allied struggle against Nazi Germany during World War II*the successful invasion of Normandy by the largest armada in history on June 6, 1944, and the battle that followed. D-Day Remembered is told through the experiences of those who planned, executed, and fought on the French beaches on that fateful day more than 50 years ago. Executive producer Grace Guggenheim introduces the screening. Presented by the Center for the National Archives Experience and The Charles Guggenheim Center for the Documentary Film at the National Archives. (1994, 52 minutes)

Thursday, November 9, at noon William G. McGowan Theater
The Fighting Lady 
Created from footage shot on and around the Essex-class aircraft carrier USS Yorktown during its first months of action in the Pacific and narrated by Robert Taylor, this film won the 1944 Oscar® for best documentary feature. It intersperses combat scenes of breathtaking intensity with shots of daily life aboard ship during the long waits between battles. The Center for the National Archives Experience will be screening a newly restored 35mm print, courtesy of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Rear Adm. Richard A. Buchanan, President and Chief Executive Officer of the U.S. Navy Memorial Foundation, will introduce the screening. (1944, 62 minutes)

Constitution Avenue between 7th and 9th Streets, NW, Washington, DC




S: Juan Arredondo & Jimenez Revolutionaries, Sept. 26, 1906 Monument 
Santa Rosa Colonial, A Genealogical Essay on the Earliest Families, 1777
Districts redrawn to raise number of Indian lawmakers 
Around Mexico, Millions benefiting from remittances for improvements 
S: Raul Ayala Arellano, Sculptor/ Artist 
S: General y Mariscal de Campo don Víctor Rosales, 
The Legacy of Vicente Guerrero, Mexico’s First Black Indian President
The Descendents of Governor Diego de Montemayor
Governors of Nuevo Leon  
Panuco/Tanchiquin, Veracruz
S: Registros de Pensiones 
S: Archivo Histórico del Tribunal Superior de Justicia,  Querétaro
San Julian, Jalisco, El Pueblo Mas Nuevo de Los Altos
S: Extractos de Algunos Bautismos en San Julian, Jalisco, Parte I 


The October Somos Primos included an article by student Arcilia Gonzalez. Her father Horacio sent this event information and writes: "just as a sidenote regarding the essay my daughter Arcilia did for school. . . she chose this particular topic because Juan Arredondo was her 3rd great-grandfather."  

Monument to Juan Arredondo and all the Jimenez Revolutionaries of Sept. 26, 1906
Aquí Laguna, Torrerón, Coahuila, Miércoles, 27 septiembre
Sent by Horacio González

Jiménez, Coahuila; 27 de septiembre de 2006.- Este miércoles 26 de septiembre se llevó a cabo en este municipio “Cuna de la Revolución Mexicana”, la ceremonia Conmemorativa del Centenario del levantamiento revolucionario en Jiménez, evento presidido por el Historiador y coordinador general del Comité de los Festejos del Bicentenario de la Independencia y Centenario de la Revolución Mexicana, Javier Villarreal Lozano, en representación del Gobernador Humberto Moreira Valdés.

El evento se desarrolló en el Auditorio Municipal, durante el cual se formó una mesa redonda ante más de 500 personas que se dieron cita para escuchar los relatos que los historiadores invitados presentaron con motivo del importante aniversario.

Los historiadores participantes Josefina Moguel Flores, Juan José Medina Zapata, Julio Santoscoy y el profesor Guillermo Delgado, destacaron la lucha que Ricardo Flores Magón realizó contra la dictadura de Porfirio Díaz un 26 de septiembre de 1906 en este municipio, naciendo en Jiménez la Revolución Mexicana.

Posteriormente, Javier Villarreal Lozano y el Alcalde de Jiménez, Francisco Trujillo Reyes develaron una placa alusiva a este movimiento en el cual se plasman los nombres de los primeros participantes que ayudaron hace 100 años a Ricardo Flores Magón a luchar por desatar al país de una dictadura que ahogaba a los mexicanos. Iniciando así un movimiento que creció hasta el 20 de noviembre de 1910 para cambiar y transformar el gobierno en uno democrático.

Así mismo, se hizo la entrega oficial de ejemplares del libro “El Magonismo en Coahuila” a las bibliotecas públicas y escolares de la región.

En su mensaje, Javier Villarreal Lozano recordó como medio centenar de hombres tuvo el valor suficiente de desafiar al monolítico edificio del porfirismo, concientes, además, de la eficacia y ferocidad del gobierno federal para responder a quienes tenían la osadía de enfrentarlo.

El historiador refirió que hace 100 años aquí empezó a escribirse un nuevo capitulo de la historia de México. “Nuestra obligación es honrar a quienes tuvieron la valentía de redactar esas primeras líneas e imaginaron un perfil distinto para esta gran casa de todos que llamamos patria”, manifestó.

Por su parte, Julio Santoscoy Cobos, Cronista e Historiador de Piedras Negras expresó que “la cuna de la Revolución Mexicana es Jiménez Coahuila, y debemos tener en cuenta que el estado de Coahuila fue precursor de este movimiento que llevó al ocaso el gobierno de Porfirio Díaz”.

¿Alguien tiene algo de informacion sobre los descendientes de Rafael Carranza Ramon y Jose Antonio Carranza Ramon? Los dos nacieron en Coahuila y eran hijose de Francisco Carranza MagaÑa y Maria Dolores Ramon Valdes. Rafael Carranza Ramon fue padre de Jesus Carranza Neyra y abueldo del presidente de Mexico, Venustiano Carranza de la Garza.

Muchas Gracias 
Carlos A. Bautista 

Santa Rosa Colonial, An Genealogical Essay on the Earliest Families, 1777
Santa Rosa Colonial, Un Ensayo Genealogico de las Familias Mas Antiguas, Ano de 1777
Alvaro Canales Santos was the speaker at the Los Bexarenos meeting of October 7, 2006 
Alvaro Canales Santos was born in Mineral de Palau, Coahuila on 4 July 1944. He is an architect graduating from the University of Coahuila. He has written 48 books on history, geography and arts of the state of Coahuila. Among the books are "The Amnesty of Pancho Villa in Sabinas" and "A Silhouette on Pancho Villa in Sabinas". He belongs to a number of Historical Organizations in his native state of Coahuila as well as in Nuevo Leon and Zacatecas.

Information on upcoming events, contact Larry Kirkpatrick
Districts redrawn to raise number of Indian lawmakers

MEXICO CITY 'Mexico has re-drawn its congressional districts to try to increase the number of Indian lawmakers, the government said Monday. Xochiti Galvez, Indian affairs adviser to President Vicente Fox, said there will be 28 new districts with an Indian majority when the presidential and congressional elections are held July 2. While about 13 million of Mexico's 103 million people are Indians, there are currently three Indian federal congressional representatives in the 500-seat Lower House and no Indian senators.

News 28 | Sunday, Oct 1, 2006
AROUND MEXICO, Millions benefiting from remittances for improvements

JALISCO, Since 2002, when a program was launched to match remittances from emigrants in the United States, 1,693 improvement project have been completed, said Miguel Ortega Hernandez the state's Social Development Department. More than 4 million residents have benefited from projects that include new water lines, health center improvements and highway and school construction. In 2006, more than $18 million was raised for the state. The program matches every dollar sent as a remittance with $3 from national, state and local funds. -El Nuevo Siglo


Personajes de la historia / ZACATECAS Y SUS HOMBRES ILUSTRES
Por: José León Robles De La Torre
Raul Ayala Arellano, Sculptor/Artist, created Jose Leon Robles de la Torre Bust 

Sent from Mercy Bautista-Olvera

El pintor y escultor zacatecano don Raúl Ayala Arellano, trabajando en un busto indígena. Foto tomada del Semanario Cultural de El Universal, La Letra y la Imagen, de Ciudad Juárez, Chih., que en 1987 me envió el propio pintor.

El escultor y pintor don Raúl Ayala Arellano, nació en la ciudad de Sombrerete, Zacs., el día 18 de enero de 1940, siendo hijo de don Herminio Ayala Esquivel, originario de Noria de San Pantaleón, Zacs., y de su esposa doña Rosario Arellano Agüero. Contrajo matrimonio con la señorita Elvira Arcenia Navarrete, con la que procreó cinco hijos y tres hijas. 

Estudió la instrucción primaria en su natal Sombrerete, y poco a poco fue forjando como pintor y escultor, en forma autodidacta, hasta perfeccionarse y tener una gran producción de esculturas y pinturas, que se encuentran a lo largo y ancho de la República Mexicana y de los Estados Unidos de Norteamérica. 
El prolífico productor de obras pictóricas y escultóricas, me envió 18 hojas fotostáticas de periódicos de la República Mexicana, en 1987, tales como El Fronterizo de Ciudad Juárez, Chih., donde radicaba; El Diario de Juárez del 21 de diciembre de 1981; El Universal de Ciudad Juárez, Chih., del mismo año; El Novedades de la Ciudad de México; El Fronterizo de Ciudad Juárez, Chih., de 1979 y 1980; El Universal de Ciudad Juárez, Chih., de 30 de enero de 1982. Y otros más, donde se presentan gráficas de las muchísimas esculturas. Una de las más importantes esculturas realizadas, fue la de don Gonzalo Guerrero, Padre del Mestizaje Nacional, para Quintana Roo. Veamos lo que dice El Fronterizo de Ciudad Juárez, Chih., de 22 de octubre de 1980: 
“Gonzalo Guerrero, natural de Palos, de oficio marinero, quien en 1511 llegó náufrago a la Península de Yucatán. Casó con una noble maya, creando así la primera familia del mestizaje nacional, escultura del juarense (era zacatecano) R. Ayala, será develada por JLP en Yucatán. Una impresionante escultura del maestro juarense Raúl Ayala, será develada por el Presidente de la República Lic. José López Portillo, el próximo 16 de noviembre en la avenida Montejo de Yucatán...
La obra que a la sazón me impresionó, no es la primera obra con este mismo tema que Raúl realiza, ya en 1074 y por encargo de Pablo Bush Romero hizo la escultura que ahora se encuentra en la avenida Montejo, allá en la lejana Mérida, amén de las reproducciones a escala (veinticinco en bronce), que se encuentran distribuidas en importantes colecciones tanto en México como en el extranjero, especialmente allende el Bravo”. 
“...Raúl Ayala fue solicitado por el gobernador de Quintana Roo, para que hiciera una nueva imagen de El Padre del Mestizaje, sin salirse del vestuario y lo que representa. 
El que esto escribe conoció al escultor Raúl Ayala Arellano, el día 30 de diciembre de 1985, en Zacatecas, cuando se develó la estatua que hizo de Genaro Codina, que está en lo que fue Plaza del Laberinto. Yo fui desde Torreón para asistir a esa ceremonia, invitado por el Gobernador del Estado. 

Dos años más tarde, en 1987, ese paisano, Raúl Ayala Arellano, contratado por la presidencia municipal de Torreón, Lic. Manlio Favio Gómez Uranga realizó el busto en bronce de José León Robles de la Torre, develado el seis de junio de ese año de 1987, en la Calzada de los Escritores Laguneros, en la Alameda Zaragoza de Torreón, Coah

Jose Leon Robles de la Torre, unveiling  his 
bronze bust on June 6, 1987 at "La Calzada de los Escritores'" Torreon, Coahuila, Mexico, 

Jose Leon Robles de la Torre stands in front of the bronze bust, February 2006.  The Bust was created by Sculptor and Artist Raul Ayala Arellano.



Personajes de la historia
Por: José León Robles De La Torre
Sent by Mercy Bautista 

General y Mariscal de Campo don Víctor Rosales, zacatecano, uno de los grandes héroes de la guerra de Independencia de México.

Lo más leído hoy: Don Víctor Rosales, uno de los grandes de la Independencia de México, cuya biografía narra don Francisco Sosa en su libro de Biografías de Mexicanos Distinguidos, editado en 1884 y de cuyas páginas 930 a 33, tomo algunos párrafos: 
“Víctor Rosales, héroe de la Independencia de México. Nació en la ciudad de Zacatecas en 1776. Inclinóse de niño a las letras y a la agricultura. Estudió gramática y filosofía bajo la dirección del padre Porres, amigo de su familia, y merced a la influencia de ese sacerdote, fue enviado a la capital de la Colonia, a seguir su carrera, dedicándose a las leyes”. 

Contrajo matrimonio con la señorita Ma. Elena Gordoa y por el año de 1801 nació su primer hijo José Timoteo Rosales Gordoa. 

“En 1808 tomó parte activa en la conspiración que costó la vida a Luis Ferrer y Flores Verdad. Entonces tuvo que salir prófugo de México, pero no dejó de trabajar por la Independencia, sino que se dirigió al interior y se puso en contacto con los operarios de los minerales de Catorce, Guanajuato, Pachuca y Zacatecas, con quienes se trataba de hacer un levantamiento, y entre quienes, para conocerse, se habían repartido once medallas llamadas del Patrocinio, de las que se troquelaron doscientas en Zacatecas por conducto de un sacerdote misionero crucífero de aquella Villa de Guadalupe”. Esta última inspiración fracasó, como la primera. Don Víctor pasó el año de 1809 meditando los medios para llegar a alzarse contra los españoles. 

“...Allende no invitó, pues, a Rosales, para una empresa que le fuera desconocida. Don Víctor y sus hermanos (Francisco, Fulgencio, Vicente y Sotero), aceptaron la colaboración a que se les llamaba, y él mismo, con don Fulgencio se fue a reunir con don Sotero y se pusieron a fabricar pólvora y a construir lanzas y monturas, llegando a armar y equipar, a su costa, sesenta jinetes (sic) para aumentar el improvisado ejército de la Independencia”. 

“Con esa pequeña fuerza, que los hermanos Rosales pagaron de su peculio, y a cuyo frente se colocó don Víctor dio su primera acción de guerra, sorprendiendo el 29 de septiembre a una multitud de españoles que custodiados por piquetes de tropas realistas de infantería y de caballería, se retiraban hacia México, espantados por el levantamiento de Dolores”. 

“Así tuvo principio una serie de hazañas, de rasgos de calor sublime, de sacrificios sin cuento, que valieron a Rosales el ser declarado “uno de los trece héroes de la patria por ley de 18 de julio de 1823 (él ya no vivía). 

“Don Víctor Rosales que acababa de recibir el despacho de Mariscal de Campo del Ejército Insurgente, murió matando a sus enemigos en un rancho de la Sierra de Ario (Mich.), que hasta hoy lleva su nombre “Ario de Rosales”, y murió, gracias a la perfidia con que el indultado Manuel Muñiz, lo entregó en manos del comandante realista don Miguel Barragán, que después fue el vencedor de los españoles en ULUA”. 

“El cuatro de marzo de 1858, se escribió el nombre de Víctor Rosales, con letras de oro en el recinto del Congreso de la Unión, junto con Hidalgo y otros héroes de la Independencia. 

“Con fecha 16 de enero de 1901, la H. Legislatura del Estado de Zacatecas, decretó: que el pueblo de Calera, se designara de este día, “Calera de Víctor Rosales”. (Bosquejo Histórico de Zacatecas, tomo IV, Pág. 250, de don Salvador Vidal García).

The Legacy of Vicente Guerrero, Mexico’s First Black Indian President
Author: Theodore G. Vincent
Publisher: University of Florida Press, 2001  Reviewed by William Loren Katz 
Sent by Rudolph Lewis

Vicente Guerrero has been a towering figure in the Americas, masterfully commanding Mexico’s liberation army during much of its independence movement in the early 19th century, and in 1829 assuming his country’s presidency where he again fought off foreign invaders. Born poor to a Black Indian family and growing up without formal schooling, he taught himself to read and write as he trained his troops in the Sierra Madre mountains. He was able to help write Mexico’s constitution, free its slaves, take steps to educate and elevate its poor and people of color, and serve as his country’s first president of African and Native American descent. 

Guerrero at 27 was a hard-working mule driver until the spirit of freedom moved him to action along with tens of thousands of other men and women of his racial and economic background. In 1810 he cast his skills and offered his sacred honor in the struggle against a Spain that dominated his country and most of Latin America. 

African American historian J.A. Rogers called Guerrero the George Washington and Abraham Lincoln of Mexico an assessment that indicates the man’s stature. Now, Theodore G. Vincent, no stranger to Mexican cultural development or the African American experience, has written a thorough study of this important figure, The Legacy of Vicente Guerrero, Mexico’s First Black Indian President. More than just the biography of a public figure, Vincent weaves an inspiring addition to the freedom-fighting heritage of the Americas and uncovers the untold story of "Mexican cultural nationalism." 

In 1810 Guerrero joined the struggle in which he would fight in "491 battles without a defeat" and began his rise from the ranks of other "pardos" or people of mixed races. His attributes included an ability to speak many indigenous languages and a command of military tactics. When first given command, Guerrero had 500 unarmed troops, but he soon remedied this with a midnight cavalry attack on a Spanish fortification that gained his men, guns and ammunition. In his first year when he was elevated to Captain, he was able to convince many Indian men of military age to support the revolution. 

The Mexican Independence war was one of the first modern guerrilla wars against an imperialist army that burned villages. It was also one of the first instances where guerrilla fighters without an urban base maintained a political base. The revolutionaries lacked enough guns and ammunition, and had to battle against local militias determined to settle old scores. Roadsides were marked by crucifixes bearing the rotting bodies of bandits and insurgents. Guerrero had to make it up as it came along. 

Guerrero’s humanitarian impulses, close identification with his soldiers and public speaking skills helped cement a relationship with his "pardo" army. When he won a victory he would claim he was a soldier in the ranks and, "It wasn’t me . . . but the people who fought and triumphed." He appointed Pedro Ascencio Alquisiras to be the first Native American General in Mexico’s army—and this when more citizens considered not Africans but Indians as the lowest rung of the social and political ladder. 

Vincent is carefully tuned to the complicated racial structure of Mexico caused by the Spanish invasion, and he paints a vivid and sharp picture of the changing social relations caused by the revolution. He points out that the great liberator, Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon who mentored Guerrero, was also a Black Indian as were many other high officers. By 1800 Africans were a majority of settlers in Durango, Sinaloa, Sonora, and California and Acapulco was 95% pardo. By 1820 the Independence movement boasted only one standing army, the dark freedom-fighters under the command of Guerrero. 

Spain’s obsession with race led to laws that denied people of color advancement, but permitted many to bribe their way up the caste ladder. Even the first revolutionary Constitution of 1812 included article #22 that excluded African Americans from benefiting from many reforms such as political rights and freedoms. But this only mobilized Guerrero and others to see that the overthrow of Spanish officials also included an agenda of freedom and equality for all. 

Guerrero also had to defeat efforts of the white elite of Mexico to highjack the revolution won by his dark-skinned soldiers. Terms such as pardo, zambo, mulatto lobo were erased from the Mexican language. In 1823 he declared, "We have defeated the colossus, and we bathe in the glow of new found happiness." True freedom, he declared is "living with a knowledge that no one is above anyone else, and that there is no title more honored than that of the citizen" and this applies equally to soldier, worker, official, cleric, landowner, laborer, writer and craftsman. 

On April first, 1829 Vicente Guerrero assumed the presidency of Mexico and his partisans riotously celebrated this "father of his people." Decades before Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address spoke of a democracy of, by and for the people, Guerrero promised to be guided always by "that important truth that those in office are for the people, and not the people for those in office." In his first address to the Mexican Congress, Guerrero said: 

The administration is obliged to procure the widest possible benefits and apply them from the palace of the rich to the wooden shack of the humble laborer. If one can succeed in spreading the guarantees of the individual, if the equality before the law destroys the efforts of power and of gold, if the highest title between us is that of citizen, of the rewards we bestow are exclusively for talent and virtue, we have a republic, and she will be conserved by the universal suffrage of a people solid, free and happy. 

On his third day in office, the president invited people of all races to his 47th birthday party, a fiesta held on the city outskirts. On the fourth day he addressed a letter to his constituents in the "land of the pintos" meaning darker people, commending their 33 martyrs in the fight for liberty. At the same moment, Guerrero was being roundly denounced by conservative and liberal politicians for being of a lower class and lower caste and was snidely called "the commoner" as though this made him unable to lead. He rejoiced in his own common touch. In Oaxaca he was supported by a 23-year old Indian campaign worker, Benito Juarez, who would become the first Indian president and drive out the last foreign invasion of Mexico in the 1860s. Guerrero sought out the wisdom of his wife Maria Guadalupe Hernendez de Guerrero who became an important advisor known as "la Generala." She later became the leader of his movement. 

Guerrero began his term by ending the death penalty by edict, and also commuted all death sentences. Next he raised taxes to pay for improvements in the lives of the poor. Then he proclaimed "Slavery is abolished in the Republic" on Independence Day, September 16, 1829. 

However, Guerrero, concerned with the plight of his people rather than distant investors, did not repay foreign loans and little investment capital reached Mexico from abroad. The rich staged a tax rebellion against his policies and as his army went unpaid units became muntinous. Some of Guerrero’s officials were assassinated, and army desertions rose. The Mexican Congress finally declared by a vote of 23 to 17 he had abused his presidential power and had provided funds for revolutionaries in Haiti. His foes wanted to have him declared morally unfit and "crazy" but this did not happen. 

However, his foes had him kidnapped at a dinner party aboard an Italian ship in Acapulco and executed by a firing squad in February, 1831. 

Vincent relates Guerrero’s story with verve and style. He also modernizes it, using phrases such as "funky neighborhoods," "closet white bigots" and "affirmative action" unknown in the nineteenth century and hardly useful to understanding old Mexico. However, his fine, detailed study restores one of the great figures of the Americas, and places him along with others of his class and color in the limelight of history they earned through daring, courage and sacrifice.

The Descendents of Governor Diego de Montemayor

Compiled by John D. Inclan

Generation No. 1

1. GOVERNOR DIEGO2 DE HERNANDEZ-MONTEMAYOR (JUAN1 DE MONTEMAYOR) was born Abt. 1528 in Malaga, Spain, and died Apr 1611 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married (1) INES RODRIGUEZ in Zacatecas, Mexico. She was born 1531 in Spain. He married (2) MARIA DE ESQUIVEL Abt. 1548 in Mazapil, Zacatecas, Mexico. She died 1572 in Mazapil, Zacatecas, Mexico. He married (3) JUANA PORCALLO-Y-DE-LA-CERDA 1569 in Mazapil, Zacatecas, Mexico, daughter of VASCO PORCALLO-DE-FIGUEROA and MARIA DE FIGUEROA-SOTOMAYOR. She was born Abt. 1530 in Portugal, and died 1581 in Killed by her husband, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.


In 1596, he founded the City Of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

From the book, With All Arms by Carl Laurence Duaine.

Source:Index to the Marriage Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara. Page 269.
Source:Historia del Nuevo Reino de Leon by Eugenio del Hoyo.

El Mozo

2. ii. INEZ RODRIGUEZ-DE-MONTEMAYOR, b. Abt. 1549, Portugal; d. Saltillo, Coahuila,Mexico.

3. iii. GOVERNOR DIEGO3 DE MONTEMAYOR, EL MOZO, b. Abt. 1555, Zacatecas, New Spain; d. Aft. 29 Apr 1611, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

iv. DIEGO3 DE MONTEMAYOR-Y-PORCALLO, d. 1611, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon,Mexico.

4. v. ESTEFANA DE MONTEMAYOR-Y-PORCALLO, b. 1573, Mexico City, D.F., Mexico; d. Abt. 1660.

Generation No. 2

2. INEZ3 RODRIGUEZ-DE-MONTEMAYOR (DIEGO2 DE HERNANDEZ-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN1 DE MONTEMAYOR) was born Abt. 1549 in Portugal, and died in Saltillo, Coahuila,Mexico. She married BALTASAR CASTANO-DE-SOSA Abt. 1560 in Mazapil, Zacatecas, Mexico. He was born Abt. 1537 in Portugal, and died Abt. 1595 in Saltillo,Coahuila, Mexico.

A.K.A. Baltazar Castano de Sosa. One of the founders of Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.
In 1582, he was the Alcalde of Saltillo.
Source:From the books, The History of Nuevo Leon, by Eugenio del Hoyo and With All Arms, A Study of a Kindred Group, by Carl Laurence Duaine.

Source: Historia del Nuevo Reino de Leon by Eugenio del Hoyo.
With All Arms, A Study of a Kindred Group, by Carl Laurence Duaine.

i. MARIA4 RODRIGUEZ-DE-SOSA, b. Abt. 1549, Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico; m. CAPTAIN JUAN NAVARRO II, Abt. 1574, Mexico City, D.F., Mexico; b. Abt. 1533, La Villa de San Martin, Nueva Vizcaya, Mexico; d. Abt. 1594, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

In 1556, he was one of the orginal settlers of San Martin, Nueva Vizcaya, Durango, Mexico.  In 1577, he helped in the founding of Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. From the book, With All Arms by Carl Laurence Duaine. Page 98.

ii. LORD CHIEF JUSTICE DIEGO RODRIGUEZ-DE-SOSA, b. Abt. 1557, Los Valles, Mexico; d. Jan 1626/27, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. (1) NAME UNKNOWN; m. (2) SEBASTIANA DE FARIAS-Y-TREVINO-QUINTANILLA, Mexico City, D.F., Mexico; b. Abt. 1576, Mexico City, F.D., Mexico.

A.K.A. Diego Rodriguez de Montemayor.
A.K.A. Sebastiana de Trevino.
Marriage source:Fundadores de Nueva Galicia - Guadalajara - Tomo I, by Guillermo Garmendia Leal. Page 147.
Historia del Nuevo Reino de Leon, by Eugenio del Hoyo. Page 247.

iii. CAPTAIN LUCAS GARCIA-RODRIGUEZ, b. Abt. 1576, Nueva Galicia, Tampico, Mexico; d. Santa Catarina, Nuevo Leon,Mexico; m. JULIANA FARIAS-DE-QUINTANILLA, Abt. 1596, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; b. Abt. 1578, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
Marriage source:From the book, Historia del Nuevo Reino de Leon, by Eugenio del Hoyo. Page 247.

iv. CAPTAIN ALONSO RODRIGUEZ-DE-CARVAJAL, b. 1600, Mexico City, D/F., Mexico; m. LUISA VILLARREAL-DE-LAS-CASAS, Abt. 1650, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; b. 1630.
Notes for LUISA VILLARREAL-DE-LAS-CASAS:  A.K.A. Luisa de las Casas.

3. GOVERNOR DIEGO3 DE MONTEMAYOR, EL MOZO (DIEGO2 DE HERNANDEZ-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN1 DE MONTEMAYOR) was born Abt. 1555 in Zacatecas, New Spain, and died Aft. 29 Apr 1611 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married ELVIRA FERNANDEZ-DE-CASTRO-RENTERIA in Villa de Llerena, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of JUAN FERNANDEZ-FIGUEROA-DE-CASTRO and MAYOR DE RENTERIA. She was born in Llerena, Nueva Galicia, Zacatecas, Mexico, and died in Montanas de Burgos, Castilla, Spain.

On April 29, 1611, he signed his last will and testament.
Source: Testamentos Coloniales de Monterrey, by Lilia Villanueva de Cavazos. Page13
With All Arms by Carl Laurence Duaine. Page 103.
Notes for ELVIRA FERNANDEZ-DE-CASTRO-RENTERIA:  A.K.A. Elvira de Renteria.

ii. DIEGO FERNANDEZ-DE-MONTEMAYOR, b. 1600; d. 1648, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. JULIANA DE-LAS-CASAS-NAVARRO; b. Abt. 1606, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
Notes for DIEGO FERNANDEZ-DE-MONTEMAYOR: A.K.A. Diego de Montemayor.

4. ESTEFANA3 DE MONTEMAYOR-Y-PORCALLO (DIEGO2 DE HERNANDEZ-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN1 DE MONTEMAYOR) was born 1573 in Mexico City, D.F., Mexico, and died Abt. 1660. She married CAPTAIN ALBERTO DEL CANTO Abt. 1585 in Mexico City, D.F., Mexico, son of SEBASTIANO DEL CANTO and MARIA VIEIRA-DIAZ. He was born 1547 in Isla Terciaria de los Azores, Portugal, and died Dec 1611 in Saltillo,Coahuila, Mexico.

A resident of Durango, in 1577, the Alcalde mayor and Captain, Don Albert del Canto founded the settlement at Ojos de Santa Lucia (Monterrey), Villa del Saltillo, and Trinidad (Monclova).  From the book, With All Arms by Carl Laurence Duaine. Page 103.
Source: From the book, The North Frontier of New Spain by Peter Gerhard.
Fundadores de Nueva Galicia - Guadalajara - Tomo I, by Guillermo Garmendia Leal. Page 37.   Nueva Vizcaya, Heartland of the Spanish Frontier, by Oakah L. Jones, Jr.

i. MIGUEL4 DEL CANTO-MONTEMAYOR, b. 1586, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico; d. Aft. 11 Oct 1643, Hacienda de los Nogales, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. (2) MONICA RODRIGUEZ-TREVINO, 1624, Mexico City, F.D. Mexico; b. Abt. 1592, Mecixo City, D.F., Mexico; d. 30 Jun 1681, Hacienda de los Nogales, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
Notes for MIGUEL DEL CANTO-MONTEMAYOR: A.K.A. Miguel de Montemayor.
Birth date from the book, Historia del Nuevo Reino de Leon, by Engenio del Hoyo. Page 102    His will is dated October 11, 1643, Source:With All Arms by Carl Laurence Duaine. Page 108.  Testamentos Coloniales de Monterrey, by Lilia E. Villanueva de Cavazos. Page18

ii. ELVIRA DEL CANTO-MONTEMAYOR, b. Abt. 1590, Mexico City, D.F., Mexico; d. Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. (1) JUSEPE TENORIO; d. Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico; m. (2) PEDRO DE-LA-VEGA; d. Aft. 1635, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
Killed by indians. Source:With All Arms by Carl Laurence Duaine. Page 108.
Marriage source:From the book, With All Arms, A Study of a Kindred Group, by Carl Laurence Duaine.

iii. DIEGO DEL CANTO-MONTEMAYOR, b. 1590, Mexico City, D.F., Mexico; d. Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
Notes for DIEGO DEL CANTO-MONTEMAYOR: A.K.A. Diego de Montemayor.


Governors of Nuevo Leon 
Sent by John Inclan

Gobernantes de Nuevo León, De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre
El estado mexicano de Nuevo León ha sido gobernado por más de un centenar de personas a lo largo de su historia, los cuales han ostentado distintos cargos dependiendo del sistema político vigente en la región.
Tabla de contenidos

· 1 Nuevo Reino de León 
· 2 Guerra de Independencia 
· 3 México independiente 
· 4 Intentos separatistas 
· 5 Intervención francesa 
· 6 La Segunda República 

· 7 El porfiriato 
· 8 Revolución mexicana 
· 9 Constitución 
· 10 Partido Revolucionario Institucional 
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I have FINALLY started making progress with connections to familia in Mexico. Here is a picture sent to me from a Tio, who just visited Panuco/Tanchiquin (Veracruz) recently. 
It sure provides a "window" into the past. How exciting!  Regards, Ike Pacheco


Registros de Pensiones
Hola, ¿Alguien sabra como y donde se pueden buscar registros de pensiones, enlistamiento, hojas de servicio, etc. de militares mexicanos?  Me llama mucho la atencion que en EEUU sea una fuente muy socorrida y aqui en Mexico no. 
Saludos, Jorge Gómez

Los archivos históricos de los militares los hallas en el archivo de la SEDENA en Marina Nacional(DF). Yo he ido y tienen mucha información. Tienes que solicitar por escrito tus personas a investigar y ellos te contestan .(Usan sólo correo, ni fax ni mail). Debes ir avalado por una organización (Que creo podría se la propia Genealogía) 
Saludos :Gabriel de Morelia

In a message dated 9/20/2006  writes:

Archivo Histórico del Tribunal Superior de Justicia del estado de Querétaro

Los archivos judiciales son una fuente primaria esencial de la historia. El Archivo Histórico del Poder Judicial de Querétaro Lic. Manuel Septién y Septién es el sitio donde se hallan depositados unos 150,000 documentos que datan del siglo XVI. La mayoría, por supuesto,
son de índole judicial. A través de ellos los historiadores pueden llegar a conocer aspectos clave de la vida cotidiana, de la historia social y económica, así como los procedimientos legales de cada caso archivado.

El Tribunal inauguró el Archivo en el mes de junio de 2003, esperando con ello preservar y compartir la gran cantidad de documentos históricos que los jueces y sus juzgados han producido a lo largo de tres siglos y medio. Aunque el Archivo todavía está en proceso de
organización, la mayor parte de la documentación puede ser consultada.

Para acceder, e debe primero entrar a la página del Tribunal: después, seleccionar La Institución/Archivo Histórico.




Antes de la conquista, esta región estuvo habitada con indios tecuexes, luego pasó por 1530 el conquistador español Don Pedro Almíndez Chirinos, de las huestes de Nuñoz de Guzmán. y así una vez conquistadas, los españoles y criollos, se establecieron en ranchos y haciendas, trayendo semillas e instrumentos de labranza para esas tierras áridas y erosionadas.

La fundación de San Julián, nace de una necesidad espiritual, a diferencia de otras poblaciones , que se fundaron para protegerse de los indios bárbaros. Esta tierra en la época colonial , formó parte de la jurisdicción de la villa de Santa María de los Lagos. (hoy Lagos de Moreno, Jal. ) y posteriormente de san Antonio de los Adobes (1808) (hoy la Unión de San Antonio, Jal.) y parte de la presa de Jalpa.

La antigua hacienda de "Sánchez", fue originalmente de la familia española de apellido "Múzquiz", y en recuerdo a la tierra natal en Vizcaya (España), se le denominó "la estancia o puesto de San Julián", quien por el año de 1843, perteneció a Don Lino de Padilla y Hurtado de Mendoza, criollo, nacido en 1775, en el ]"carrizo de los hurtados", e hijo legítimo de Don Juan Padilla Dávila y doña Petra Hurtado de Mendoza, casado cuatro veces: con Doña Claudia Gutiérrez, con Doña Ana María Gutiérrez, con Doña Joaquina Múzquiz y Laris y por último con Doña Josefa Márquez, según nos informa en su testamento efectuado en León, Gto. el 18 de marzo de 1850, siendo su albacea su pariente y amigo Don Trinidad Padilla Dávila y Pérez-Franco, (mi tatarabuelo), ambos descendientes directos del capitán Don Lorenzo de Padilla Dávila y Machicao, fundador de la villa de los Lagos el 31 de marzo de 1563, originario de Jerez de la Frontera (España).

Así pues , por el año de 1846, Don Lino de Padilla y su familia, pensaron construir una capilla en dicha hacienda, para que sus trabajadores, pudiesen efectuar sus actos religiosos. Se solicitó al Arzobispado de Guadalajara, Don Diego de Aranda y Carpinteiro la autorización, para la construcción de dicha capilla, el cual estuvo de acuerdo, y se nombró como patrono al señor San José, ya que eran muy devotos de él Don Lino y Don Pablo su hermano.

Después Don Lino y don Pablo empezaron a fraccionar, vender y rentar sus tierras y hubo la llegada de muchas familias de pueblos y ranchos aledaños, tales como: Jalostotitlán, San Juan de los Lagos, Arandas, San Miguel el Alto, San José de los Reynoso, Unión de San Antonio, Jesús María, San José de Gracia y Lagos de Moreno, Jalisco.

En el año de 1869, fue elevado al rango de "Pueblo", ya que contaba con 560 habitantes aproximadamente, posteriormente fue comisaría dependiente de la Unión de San Antonio, (31 de mayo de 1872), y por fin el 19 de marzo de 1895, fue erejida parroquia, y se agregaron nuevos colonos, los cuales constituyeron el 5 de noviembre de 1912, el municipio, por decreto del entonces gobernador de Jalisco, el ilustre escritor : Don José López Portillo y Rojas.

El primer párroco fue : Don Narciso Elizondo, padre espiritual y muy querido del pueblo, luego estuvo Don Jose Refugio y Don Feliciano Macias.

Los primeros regidores, así como gente importante de ese tiempo podemos citar a : Don Juan Jiménez Muñoz, Don Ángel Padilla Gutiérrez, Don Cristóbal Hernández Navarro, Don Luciano Hernández Gutiérrez, Don Pablo Padilla Jiménez, Don José María Moreno Zermeño, Don Narciso Padilla Muñoz, Don Agustín Riebeling Rivera, Don Epigmenio Zermeño Padilla, Don Homobono Hernández Navarro, Don Susano Ramírez Hernandez, Don Rosalío Gutiérrez Romo, Don Simón Olivares Moreno, Don Pablo Moreno Zermeño, Don José Márquez Zermeño, Don Guadalupe Loza Padilla, Don Cresencio Centeno García, etc.

Tiempo después el primero de enero de 1913, se formó el primer ayuntamiento, estando como presidente: Don Epigmenio Zermeño Padilla, con apoyo de varias personas como: Don Librado Hernández Hernández, Don Encarnación Olivares Zermeño, Don Wenceslao Márquez Moreno, Don Miguel Pérez González, Don Francisco Zermeño Padilla, Don Jesús, Don Carlos, Don Miguel, Don Elias y Don Ismael Gutiérrez Padilla, Don Anselmo, Don Luis y Don Trinidad Padilla González, Don Antemio Hernández y Don Victoriano Ramírez , etc.

Luego vino la revolución Villista y Carrancista, y posteriormente la Cristera, donde el pueblo se levantó en armas, (1927-1929), aportando un regimiento importante a las ordenes del General Don Miguel Hernández. En ese mismo tiempo el pueblo fue testigo de varias luchas sangrientas, siendo una de ellas el fusilamiento de del padre Don Julio Álvarez de felíz memoria , hoy llevado a los altares.

A raíz de estas revoluciones , el pueblo sufrió muchos altibajos, motivo por el cual han emigrado mucha gente a los estados Unidos de Norte América, y también se concentraron en las ciudades cercanas de San Francisco del Rincón, y León, Gto. Guadalajara, Jalisco y Aguascalientes, donde un buen porcentaje somos descendientes de padres o abuelos Sanjulianences.

Varias familias con raíces de este terruño, radican en varias partes de la república Mexicana y del vecino país del norte, de las cuales podemos citar: los Gutiérrez, Padilla, Romo, Hernández, Loza, Márquez, García, Moreno, Zermeño, Centeno, Estrada, Pérez, González, Ramírez, Jiménez, Alderete, Muñoz, Magaña, López, Elizondo, Enríquez, Reynoso, Gazcón, Quesada, Olivares, Mojica, etc.

Sus fiestas se celebran el dia 2 de febrero (la Candelaria), el 19 de marzo y el 12 de diciembre.

Considero que este pueblo ha venido creciendo y desarrollandose muy de prisa, ya que su gente es de trabajo, lucha y muy hospitalaria, los descendientes radicados en otras tierras lo recordamos con cariño y gratitud, ya que fue la tierra amada y añorada de nuestros mayores.

Fuentes: Libro San Julián ,de Arturo Javier García Centeno
Testamento de Don Lino Padilla Hurtado
Archivo del prof. Guillermo García Centeno




25 de abril de 1867 
Rafael, "Vizcaino", h.l. de Prisciliano Calvillo y Emerenciana Mena, a.p. Leonardo Calvillo y Ana Gutiérrez; a.m. Bernardino Mena y Nazaria Maldonado.

19 de mayo de 1867
Juana, "Cañada de Infante", h.l. de Salvador Zermeño y Antonia Padilla, a.p. Juan Zermeño y María de Jesús Moreno y a.m. Ángel Padilla y Bernarda Gutiérrez.

27 de noviembre de 1867
Santiago, "Loma de la Mina", h.l. de Inocencio Alderete e Hilaria Márquerz; a.p. Ignacio Alderete y Gertrudis Hurtado, a.m. Higinio Márquez y Refugio García.

25 de diciembre de 1867 
Demetrio, "Palos Verdes", h.l. de Leandro Moreno y Basilia Padilla; a.p. José María Moreno y María de Jesús González; a.m. Pablo Padilla y Gertrudis Enríquez.

29 de diciembre de 1867
Cresencio, "Puerta del Tolimán", h.l. de Don Merced Padilla y María del Refugio Padilla ; a.p. Ángel Padilla y Bernarda Gutiérrez; a.m. Trinidad Padilla y Regina Muñoz.

24 de abril de 1868
Fidel, "San Rafael", h.l. de Ángel Padilla y Anastasia Jiménez, a.p. Lino Padilla y Ana Gutiérrez: a.m. Ramón Jiménez y Dolores García.

25 de mayo de 1868
Juan, "San Julián", h.l. de Marcial Centeno y Refugi López; a.p. Prudencio Centeno y Magdalena Muñoz, a.m. Enrique López y Maria Nicodemus Zermeño.

14 de junio de 1868
Margarita, " Palos Verdes", h.l. de Rafael Padilla y Dorotea Muñoz, a.p. Pablo Padilla y Gertrudis Enríquez, a.m. Tinidad Muñoz y Paula Márquez.

12 de julio de 1868
José Félix, "Palos Verdes", h.l. de Jorge Centeno y Francisca Padilla, a.p. Antonio Centeno y Guadalupe Aldrete; a.m. Pablo Padilla y Gertrudis Enríquez.

4 de septiembre de 1868
Ramón, "San Agustín", h.l. de Salvador Zermeño y Antonia Padilla, a.p. Juan Zermeño y María de Jesús Moreno; a.m. Angel Padilla y Bernarda Gutiérrez.

22 de septiembre de 1868
María de la Merced, "Jacona", h.l. de Marín Moreno y Melquíades Padilla; a.p. José Maria Moreno y María de Jesús González; a.m. Ángel Padilla y Bernarda Gutiérrez.

5 de diciembre de 1868
Natalia, " Loma de la Mina", h.l. de Juan Hurtado y María de los Ángeles Márquez, a.p. Pedro Hurtado y María Rosalía Aldrete; a.m. Victoriano Márquez y Leonor García.

25 de diciembre de 1868
Demetrio, "Tolimán", h.l. de Juan Padilla y Paula González, a.p. Ángel Padilla y Bernarda Gutiérrez; a.m. Francisco González y Luz González.

17 de enero de 1869
Gumercinda, "San Julián", h.l. de Hilario Portillo y Antonia López; a.p. Juan Portillo y Antonia Cabrera; a.m. Francisco López y Leonidas Muñoz.

7 de marzo de 1869
María Paula, " R. del Muerto", h.l. de Félix Centeno y María Néstor Moreno; a.p. Manuel Centeno y Merced Manríquez; a.m. Ignacio Moreno y María Hurtado.

17 de marzo de 1869
Rodrigo, "Veredas", h.l. de Luis Padilla y María Santos Barba; a.p. Antonio Padilla y María de San José González, a.m. Francisco Barba y Dolores Maldonado.

31 de mayo de 1869
María, "San Rafael", h.l. de Francisco Padilla y Quirina López, a.p. Ángel Padilla y Bernarda Gutiérrez, a.m. Rafael López y Guadalupe Muñoz.

30 de julio de 1869
Juan , "Presitas", h.l. de Lorenzo Calvillo y Ricarda Moreno, a.p. Rafael Calvillo y María de los Ángeles Gutiérrez, a.m., Nepomuceno y Nepomucena Moreno.

3 de septiembre de 1869
Antonio, "Palos Verdes", h.l. de Rafael Padilla y Dorotea Muñoz, a.p. Pablo Padilla y Gertrudis Enríquez, a.m. Trinidad Muñoz y Paula Márquez.

17 de octubre de 1869
Teresa, "Palo Alto", h.l. de Bruno Herrera y Petra Moreno, a.p. José María Herrera y Josefa Guerra, a.m. Luis Moreno y Cármen Zermeño.

24 de octubre de 1869
Petra, "Jacona", h.l. de Marín Moreno y Melquiades Padilla, a.p. José María Moreno y María de Jesús González, a.m. Ángel Padilla y Bernarda Gutiérrez.

1 de noviembre de 1869
María Trinidad, "Palos Verdes", h.l. de Marciano Padilla y Eufrasia Padilla, a.p. Pablo Padilla y Gertrudis Enríquez, a.m. Trinidad Padilla y Regina Muñoz.

12 de diciembre de 1869
María Guadalupe, "Tolimán", h.l. de Merced Padilla y María del Refugio Padilla, a.p. Ángel Padilla y Bernarda Gutiérrez, a.m. Trinidad Padilla y Regina Muñoz.

30 de abril de 1870
Catalina, "San Julián", h.l. de Anastasio Márquez y Trinidad Moreno, a.p. Ignacio Márquez y Petra Hurtado, a.m. Demetrio Moreno y María de Jesús Guerra.

5 de mayo de 1870
Silvano, "San Rafael", h.l. de Ángel Padilla y Anastasia Jiménez, a.p. Lino Padilla y Ana Gutiérrez, a.m. Ramón Jiménez y Dolores García.

5 de julio de 1870
Heliodoro, "Escondida", h.l. de Feliciano Loza y Ana Padilla, a.p. J. Pilar Loza y M. Trinidad Herrera, a.m. Ángel Padilla y Bernarda Gutiérrez.

16 de octubre de 1870
Calixto, "Soledad", h.l. de Jesús Padilla y Refugio Padilla, a.p. José María Padilla y Joaquina Martín del Campo, a.m. José María Padilla y Ana Martín del Campo.

21 de diciembre de 1870
Albino, "Laguna", h.l. de Francisco Muñoz y Micaela Gutiérrez, a.p. Francisco Muñoz y Petra Gutiérrez, a.m. Secundino Gutiérrez.

26 de diciembre de 1870
Tomás, "San Pablo", h.l. de Cirilo González y Valeriana Padilla, a.p. Francisco González y Micaela Muñoz, a.m. Ángel Padilla y Bernarda Gutiérrez.

23 de enero de 1871
Anastasia, "San Julián", h.l. de Francisco Centeno y Calixta González, a.p. Miguel Centeno y Patricia García, a.m. Lino González y María Alatorre.

24 de marzo de 1871
Reynalda, "San Rafael", h.l. de Ángel Padilla y Anastasia Jiménez, a.p. Lino Padilla y Ana María Gutiérrez, a.m. Ramón Jiménez y Dolores García.

25 de abril de 1871
Anselmo, "San Pablo", h.l. de Salvador Zermeño y Antonia Padilla, a.p. Juan Zermeño y María de Jesús Moreno, a.m. Ángel Padilla y Bernarda Gutiérrez.

9 de mayo de 1871
Micaela, "Palos Verdes", h.l. de Jorge Centeno y de Francisca Padilla, a.p. Antonio Centeno y Guadalupe Aldrete, a.m. Pablo Padilla y Gertrudis Enríquez.

30 de julio de 1871
Aurelio, "San Rafael", h.l. de Francisco Padilla y Quirina López, a.p. Ángel Padilla y Bernarda Gutiérrez, a.m. Rafael López y Leandra Aguirre.

16 de agosto de 1871
Atanasia, "Palos Verdes", h.l. de Rafael Padilla y Dorotea Muñoz, a.p. Pablo Padilla y Gertrudis Enríquez, a.m. Trinidad Muñoz y Paula Márquez.

1 de octubre de 1871
José Merced, "San Salvador", h.l. de Margarito Elizondo y Leonarda Sánchez, a.p. Prudencio Elizondo y Rita Alcalá, a.m. Juan Sánchez y Ana López.

15 de octubre de 1871
José Pilar, "San Julián", h.l. de Pantaleón Alderete y Evarista García, a.p. Ignacio Alderete y Gertrudis Hurtado,( casados el 18 de abril de 1815 en la Unión) y a.m. Eduviges Garcia y Victoriana González.

21 de diciembre de 1871
María Guadalupe, "Jacona", h.l. de Marín Moreno y Melquíades Padilla, a.p. José Maria Moreno y María de Jesús González, a.m. Ángel Padilla y Bernarda Gutiérrez.

2 de enero de 1872
Silvestre, "San Julián", h.l. de Justo Naveja y Apolonia Ramírez, a.p. Gregorio Naveja y María del Pilar Vázquez, a.m. Juan Ramírez y Magdalena López.

17 de febrero de 1872
Enedina, "Tolimán", h.l. de Merced Padilla y María del Refugio Padilla , a.p. Ángel Padilla y Bernarda Gutiérrez, a.m. Trinidad Padilla y Regina Muñoz.

31 de mayo de 1872
Germán, "San Rafael", h.l. de Juan Padilla y Paula González, a.p. Ángel Padilla y Bernarda Gutiérrez, a.m. Francisco González y Luz González.

30 de junio de 1872
Zenón, "Jacona", h.l. de Leandro Moreno y Basilia Padilla, a.p. José María Moreno y María de Jesús González, a.m. Pablo Padilla y Gertrudis Enríquez.

5 de julio de 1872
Maria del Refugio, "Palos Verdes", h.l. de Marciano Padilla y Eufrasia Padilla , a.p. Pablo Padilla y Gertrudis Enríquez, a.m. Trinidad Padilla y Regina Muñoz.

18 de julio de 1872
María del Refugio, "Escondida", h.l. de Feliciano Loza y Ana Padilla, a.p. Pilar Loza y Trinidad Herrera, a.m. Ángel Padilla y Bernarda Gutiérrez.

20 de julio de 1872
Vicente, " San Julián", h.l. de Anastasio Márquez y Trinidad Moreno, a.p. Ignacio Márquez y Petra Hurtado , a.m. Demetrio Moreno y María de Jesús Guerra.

1 de septiembre de 1872
Juan , "San Julián", h.l. de Francisco Centeno y Calixto González, a.p. Miguel Centeno y Patricia García , a.m. Lino González y María Engracia de la Torre.

26 de marzo de 1873
José de la Encarnación, "Unión", h.l. de Simón Olivares y Antonia Zermeño, a.p. José de la Luz Olivares y Guadalupe Moreno, a.m. Modesto Zermeño y Manuela Padilla.

27 de marzo de 1873
Altagracia, "San Julián", h.l. de Cirilo González y Valeriana Padilla, a.p. Francisco González y Micaela Muñoz, a.m. Ángel Padilla y Bernarda Gutiérrez.

28 de septiembre de 1873
Catarina, "Palos Verdes", h.l. de Andrés Padilla y Aurelia Torres, a.p. Pablo Padilla y Gertrudis Enríquez, a.m. Ramón Torres y Gorgonia Hernández.

17 de noviembre de 1873
Espiridión, "Jacona", h.l. de Marín Moreno y Melquíades Padilla, a.p. José Maria Moreno y María de Jesús González, a.m. Ángel Padilla y Bernarda Gutiérrez.

7 de diciembre de 1873
Bárbara, "Palos Verdes", h.l. de Rafael Padilla y Dorotea Muñoz, a.p. Pablo Padilla y Gertrudis Enríquez, a.m., Trinidad Muñoz y Paula Márquez.

25 de diciembre de 1873
Maria de la Concepción, "San Julián", h.l. de Narciso Padilla y Carlota González, a.p. Trinidad Padilla y Regina Muñoz, a.m. Francisco González y Micaela Muñoz.

5 de mayo de 1874
Celedonio, "San Rafael", h.l. de Francisco Padilla y Quirina López, a.p. Ángel Padilla y Bernarda Gutiérrez, a.m. Rafael López y Guadalupe Muñoz.

18 de mayo de 1874
María del Refugio, "San Julián", h.l. de Pantaleón Padilla y Evaristo Mojica, a.p. Ángel Padilla y Bernarda Gutiérrez, a.m. Francisco Mojica y Feliciana Ascencio.

20 de junio de 1874
Josefa, "San Julián", h.l. de Anastasio Márquez y Trinidad Moreno, a.p. Ignacio Márquez y Petra Hurtado, a.m. José Moreno y María de Jesús Guerra.

28 de julio de 1874
José Ana, "Palos Verdes", h.l. de Francisco Centeno y Calixta González, a.p. Miguel Centeno y Patricia García, a.m. Lino González y María Engracia Alatorre.

31 de agosto de 1874
Agustín, "San Pablo", h.l. de Salvador Zermeño y Antonia Padilla, a.p. Juan Zermeño y María de Jesús Moreno, a.m. Ángel Padilla y Bernarda Gutiérrez.

2 de septiembre de 1874
Isaura, "San Julián", h.l. de Agustín Riebeling y Amada Padilla, a.p. Manuel Riebeling y Dolores Rivera, a.m. Lino Padilla y Josefa Márquez.

4 de noviembre de 1874
Modesto, "Tolimán", h.l. de Merced Padilla y María del Refugio Padilla, a.p. Ángel Padilla y Bernarda Gutiérrez, a.m. Trinidad Padilla y Regina Muñoz.

29 de noviembre de 1874
Juana, "San Julián", h.l. de Homobono Hernández y Rosalía Hernández, a.p. Luciano Hernández y Juana Navarro, a.m. Dionisio Hernández y Dominga González.

28 de junio de 1875
Febronia, "Loma de la Mina", h.l. de Celso Márquez y Altagracia Gutiérrez, a.p. Tomás Márquez y María de Jesús Padilla, a.m. Eligio Gutiérrez y Cornelia Aldrete.

9 de julio de 1875
Pedro Miguel, "San Julián", h.l. de Luciano Hernández y Josefa González, a.p. Antonio Rafael Hernández y María de Jesús Gutiérrez, a.m. Luis González y Francisca Jiménez.

21 de noviembre de 1875
Victoria, "San Julián", h.l. de Narciso Padilla y Carlota González, a.p. Trinidad Padilla y Regina Muñoz, a.m. Francisco González y Micaela Muñoz.

5 de abril de 1876
Vicenta, "Palos Verdes", h.l. de Marciano Padilla y Eufracia Padilla, a.p. Pablo Padilla y Gertrudis Enríquez, a.m. Trinidad Padilla y Regina Muñoz.

7 de abril de 1876
Francisco, "San Julián", h.l. de Néstor González y Juana Hernández, a.p. Francisco González y Micaela Muñoz, a.m. Luciano Hernández y Juana Navarro.

3 de mayo de 1876
Josefa, "San Julián", h.l. de Pantaleón Padilla y Evaristo Mojica, a.p. Ángel Padilla y Bernarda Gutiérrez, a.m. Francisco Mojica y Feliciana Ascencio.

6 de mayo de 1876
José María, "San Julián", h.l. de Marín Moreno y Melquíades Padilla, a.p. José María Moreno y María de Jesús González; a.m. Ángel Padilla y Bernarda Gutiérrez.

14 de mayo de 1876
Gregorio, "San Julián", h.l. de Salvador Zermeño y Antonia Padilla, a.p. Juan Zermeño y María de Jesús Moreno; a.m. Ángel Padilla y Bernarda Gutiérrez.

23 de agosto de 1876
Librada, "Palos Verdes", h.l. de Rafael Padilla y Dorotea Muñoz, a.p. Pablo Padilla y Gertrudis Enríquez, a.m. Trinidad Muñoz y Paula Márquez.

23 de agosto de 1876
Joaquín, "Palos Verdes", h.l. de José Centeno y Francisca Padilla, a.p. Antonio Centeno y Guadalupe Alderete; a.m. Pablo Padilla y Gertrudis Enríquez.

5 de septiembre de 1876
Rosalío, "San Julián", h.l. de Juan Padilla y Paula González, a.p. Ángel Padillay Bernarda Gutiérrez, a.m. Francisco González y María de la Luz González.

12 de octubre de 1876
Eulogio, "Palo Alto", h.l. de Bruno Herrera y Petra Moreno, a.p. José María Herrera y Josefa Guerra, a.m. Luis Moreno y Cármen Zermeño.

30 de diciembre de 1876
Tomasa, "San Julián", h.l. de Francisco Padilla y Quirina López, a.p. Ángel Padilla y Bernarda Gutiérrez, a.m. Rafael López y Guadalupe Muñoz.

23 de abril de 1877
Anselmo, "San Julián", h.l. de Narciso Padilla y Carlota González, a.p. Trinidad Padilla y Regina Muñoz, a.m. Francisco González y Micaela Muñoz.

25 de abril de 1877
José, "San Julián", h.l. de Merced Padilla y María del Refugio Padilla, a.p. Ángel Padilla y Bernarda Gutiérrez, a.m. Trinidad Padilla y Regina Muñoz.

5 de septiembre de 1877
Rosalío, "San Julián", h.l. de Ignacio García y Justina Gutiérrez, a.p. José María García y Dolores Gutiérrez, a.m. Jesús Gutiérrez y Eligia Romo.( casados estos últimos el 20 de octubre de 1839, en San Miguel el Alto)

8 de septiembre de 1877
Regina, "Loma de la Mina", h.l. de Juan Centeno y Anastasia García, a.p. Antonio Centeno y Guadalupe Alderete, a.m. Eusebio García y Victoriana Reynoso.

27 de mayo de 1878
Juana, "San Julián", h.l. de Néstor González y Juana Hernández, a.p. Francisco González y Micaela Muñoz, a.m. Luciano Hernández y Juana Navarro.

1 de julio de 1878
Juan, "San Julián", h.l. de Salvador Zermeño y Antonia Padilla, a.p. Juan Zermeño y María de Jesús Moreno, a.m. Ángel Padilla y Bernarda Gutiérrez.

31 de septiembre de 1878
José Rosendo, "San Julián", h.l. de Pantaleón Padilla y Evaristo Mojica, a.p. Ángel Padilla y Bernarda Gutiérrez, a.m. Francisco Mojica y Juliana Torres.

1 de noviembre de 1878
María Nemesia, "San Julián", h.l. de Andrés Padilla y Basilia Torres, a.p. Pablo Padilla y Gertrudis Enríquez, a.m. Ramón Torres y Gorgonia Hernández.

5 de enero de 1879
Silvestre, "Loma de la Mina", h.l. de Francisco Centeno y Calixta González , a.p. Miguel Centeno y Patricia García, a.m. Lino González y María Engracia García.

19 de enero de 1879
Antonia, "San Rafael", h.l. de Pablo Padilla y Aurelia Muñoz, a.p. Ángel Padilla y Anastasia Jiménez, a.m. José Muñoz y Agapita Jiménez.

6 de julio de 1879
José María, "Loma de la Mina", h.l. de Agustín Centeno y Donaciana Gutiérrez, a.p. Miguel Centeno y Patricia García, a.m. Jesús Gutiérrez y Eligia Romo.

2 de agosto de 1879
María de los Ángeles, "San Julián", h.l. de Agustín Riebeling y Manuela Mojica, a.p. Manuel Riebeling y Dolores Rivera, a.m. Francisco Mojica y Feliciana Ascencio de Torres.

31 de agosto de 1879
Rosa, "San Isidro", h.l. de Juan Hernández y Juana Márquez, a.p. Cristóbal Hernández y Dolores Angulo, a.m. Jesús Márquez y Prudenciana Padilla.

25 de octubre de 1879
María Dolores, "San Rafael", h.l. de José María Padilla y María Zermeño, a.p. Ángel Padilla y Anastasia Jiménez, a.m. Juan Zermeño y María de los Ángeles Calvillo.

26 de octubre de 1879
María, "San Julián", h.l. de Narciso Padilla y Carlota González, a.p. Trinidad Padilla y Regina Muñoz, a.m. Francisco González y Micaela Muñoz.

20 de diciembre de 1879
José Daniel, "San Julián", h.l. de Homobono Hernández y Rosa Hernández, a.p. Luciano Hernández y Juana Navarro, a.m. Dionisio Hernández y Dominga González.

6 de enero de 1880
Odilón, "San Julián", h.l. de Ignacio García y Justina Gutiérrez, a.p. José María García y María Dolores Arriaga, a.m. Jesús Gutiérrez y Eligia Romo.

25 de enero de 1880
Antonia, "Palos Verdes", h.l. de Leandro Moreno y Basilia Padilla, a.p. José María Moreno y María de Jesús González, a.m. Pablo Padilla y Gertrudis Enríquez.

9 de abril de 1880
José León, "San Julián", h.l. de J. Merced Padilla y Maria del Refugio Padilla, a.p. Ángel Padilla y Bernarda Gutiérrez, a.m. Trinidad Padilla y Regina Muñoz.

9 de mayo de 1880
Jesús, "San Rafael", h.l. de José María Muñoz y Feliciana Hurtado, a.p. Francisco Muñoz y Petra Gutiérrez, a.m. Antonio Hurtado y Victoriana Maldonado.

4 de julio de 1880
María del Refugio, "San Julián", h.l. de Rosalío Gutiérrez y Lucía Padilla, a.p. Jesús Gutiérrez y Eligia Romo , a.m. Trinidad Padilla y Regina Muñoz.

1 de agosto de 1880
Aurelia, "Loma de la Mina", h.l. de Pedro Alderete y Juana Lozano, a.p. Teodocio Alderete y María de Jesús Márquez, a.m. Nicolás Lozano y María Muñoz.

24 de octubre de 1880
Dolores, "San Rafael", h.l. de José María Padilla y María Zermeño, a.p. Ángel Padilla y Anastasia Jiménez, a.m. Juan Zermeño y María de los Ángeles Calvillo.

7 de noviembre de 1880
Carlota, "San Julián", h.l. de Francisco Centeno y Calixta González, a.p. Miguel Centeno y Patricia García, a.m. Lino González y María Engracia Torres.

31 de diciembre de 1880
Josefa, "San Julián", h.l. de Francisco Padilla y Quirina López, a.p. Ángel Padilla y Bernarda Gutiérrez, a.m. Rafael López y Guadalupe Muñoz.



Book: Finding Your Hispanic Roots by George Ryskamp
Famous Puerto Ricans
Las 30 Familias Fundadoras de Matanzas

Book: Finding Your Hispanic Roots by George Ryskamp
A Book Review by Marie Zaret

If any part of your family history passes through Cuba, the chance that you will need to do some investigation in Spain is almost certain. The American 'guru' of Spanish genealogical research is George Ryskamp. You'll discover that "Finding Your Hispanic Roots" is a worthy successor to his classic book, Tracing Your Hispanic Heritage. Much of the information contained in the latter book has again been made available in the new book. It is also an updated version that has recent developments such as computer applications, microfilming, and information on the Family History Centers [a gold mine for researching records in Spain and elsewhere in the world]. It provides extensive information specifically on Hispanic research, which is generally lacking in the U.S with its concentration on Northern European genealogical research. The author heads the Immigrant Ancestors Project < Brigham Young University where he is a history professor. He is also director of the Center for Family History an Genealogy at the university. He writes and lectures extensively on genealogical research. The CGC has been extremel fortunate to have Dr. Ryskamp present a genealogical conference here in Miami.

The first four chapters of "Finding your Hispanic Roots" cover the basics and are a strong introduction to anyone beginnin to study their family history. There are suggestions on how to start, how to organize yourself, how to set up a filing syi tern, and how to understand the Sosa numbering system. (It has been adopted throughout the world and is known as th Sosa/Stradonitz System or the Ahnentafel Genealogical Numbering System.) He also points out the challenges of choos ing a computer software program that can correctly input compound Spanish names. He gives a primer on using th Mormon's Family History Centers. (This is where the writer has found information on more than 13 generations for eac of her paternal lines.) The remainder of the book explains specific aspects of research using Hispanic materials, includir language and handwriting, naming systems, and the peculiarities of records in Hispanic countries (civil, church, militar and notaries). He includes a directory of Hispanic genealogical societies in the U.S. (Unfortunately, our own society, whic was created after the original publishing date, is not listed.)

This book is a must for your personal genealogical library. If you are lucky enough to find the older book, "Tracing Yoi Hispanic Heritage", which is currently out of print, also add that one to your collection. The samples of early Spanish wr ing contained in that earlier book are invaluable in assisting you to learn to read old handwritten documents.

Publisher: Genealogical Publishing Company (January 1, 1997) ISBN: 0806315172 13
C.G.C. Journal, Cuban Genealogy Club of Miami, Florida, Winter/Spring 2006

Famous Puerto Ricans
Rafael Ojeda

Dear Mimi, found some great web site for our Puerto Ricans primos. 
By using the key words: "Famous Puerto Ricans" I found this great site.
I highly recommend it:
[[ Editor: Really good!! These are the categories and each one has lots of examples. ]]
2 Authors, playwrights and poets
3 Beauty queens and supermodels
4 Business People and industrialists
5 Cartoonists
6 Composers, musicians and singers
7 Criminals and Outlaws
8 Diplomats
9 Educators and scientists
10 Governors
11 Journalists
12 Military
13 Painters and sculptors
14 Politicians
15 Puppeteers
16 Religion
17 Sports
18 Taínos19 Others
20 See also

Las 30 Familias Fundadoras de Matanzas

Por mandato del Rey Carlos II de Espana, se fundo oficialmente la ciudad de Matanzas el 13 de Octubre de 1693. Presidio la ceremonia el Maestre de Campo Severino de Manzaneda y Salinas, Gobernador Interino de Cuba. El obispo Diego Evelino de Compostela celebro misa en un improvisado altar sobre la primera piedra de la iglesia, despues de haberia bendecido. Un grupo de 30 familias proce-dentes de las Islas Canarias fueron los primeros pobladores de Matanzas. Los "cabezas" de dichas familias fueron los siguientes:

Esteban de Torres, Juan Rivero, Salvador Perez Ramellon, Domingo Alfonso Ruiz, Diego y Sebastian Rodriguez, Diego Garcia de Oramas, Diego y Juan Gonzalez Bello, Matias de Lagunas, Andres Barroso, Miguel Alfonso de Armas, Juan Dominguez, Melchor de Melo, Baltazar y Jacinto Gonzalez, Blasina de Goya, Angel Perez, Pedro Fernandez Guerrero, Luis y Miguel Perez Mallea, Pedro Hernandez, Juan y Domingo Gonzalez, Francisco Martin Jimenez, Simon Diaz, Pedro Baez, Caspar de los Reyes, Salvador Alvarez, Julian Diaz Gonzalez, Urbano y Pedro Perez, Diego Felipe de Boza, Capitan Diego Mendez de Leon y Yada, Alferez Andres Diaz Baltasar, y Sargento Simon Gonzalez.

C.G.C. Journal, Cuban Genealogy Club of Miami, Florida, Winter/Spring 2006


Military records, photos and histories of wars


Real Colegio de San Telmo
De Lepe (Huelva) partieron muchas familias a la colonización en América
Sr. Luis Orlando Piñero Rivera 
The Descendents of Don Inigo Lopez de Mendoza, 2nd Count of Tendilla


Por Angel Custodio Rebollo

Nació este colegio en Sevilla en 1681, a propuesta de la Universidad de Mareantes y la Casa de Contratación,  para acoger a los huérfanos de marineros con pocos recursos  y formarlos en el arte de navegar, con asignaturas como matemáticas, navegación, maniobra, artillería, cosmografía, dibujo, comercio y economía, geografía, francés e inglés.

La entrada como alumno era a partir de los 6 años de edad y normalmente llegaban hasta los 16/17 años. Su formación requería que efectuaran viajes al Nuevo Mundo, en algunos casos a edades que hoy nos resultan increíbles, porque hubo niños como Bernardo García, de Bollullos, que ingresó en el colegio con 10 años en junio de 1682 e inició su primer viaje en marzo de 1683, como paje en un barco de la flota del General Diego de Zaldivar, con destino a Nueva España y regresó en el mismo barco en diciembre de aquel año. Siguió estudiando y en 1684 emprendió un nuevo viaje, esta vez con destino a Tierra Firme, regresando en septiembre de 1686.

Lo que nos admira es la fortaleza de un niño con tan pocos  años que hizo frente a dos viajes, con la dureza que tenía un recorrido  con aquellos barcos

Entre los alumnos de este colegio hubo de todo; unos terminaron sus estudios y en el segundo o tercer viaje, se quedaron a vivir  en América, otros pasaron a formar parte de las tripulaciones de los barcos de la Armada. También hubo desertores, alumnos que huyeron del colegio o del barco  y de los que nunca más se supo y otros que pasaron a formar parte del profesorado del colegio.

Para quien desee ampliar sus conocimientos sobre estos alumnos, recientemente se ha publicado en España un libro escrito por el genealogista Ignacio Koblischek, en el que detalla los expedientes de limpieza de sangre de los colegiales, obligatorios para iniciar los estudios, desde 1682 hasta 1708.

De  LEPE (Huelva) partieron muchas familias a la colonización en América

por Ángel Custodio Rebollo Barroso



Aparte de Palos de la Frontera , de donde partieron las tres carabelas de Cristóbal Colon el 3 de agosto de 1492, si hay un pueblo vinculado a la colonización en América ese es Lepe. De Lepe partieron muchas familias, unos como soldados, otros como comerciantes o mercaderes y los mas como colonos.

Por eso, si sus ancestros iniciaron su andadura desde Lepe, puede que estos datos les sean de utilidad. El archivo que transcribo a continuación  comprende desde el año 1511 hasta el 1555 y es como sigue:

La primera que tengo es una mujer, ANA DIAZ, viuda de Diego Sánchez, tonelero, hija de Juan Mercader y de Isabel Bernal, vecinos de Lepe y que marchó el 8 de marzo de 1511.

Al año siguiente, el 29 de marzo, partió DIEGO MARTINEZ, calafate, hijo de Diego Martínez, también calafate y de Violante Rodríguez; que iba acompañado de su hijo DIEGO, todos vecinos de Lepe.

El 8 de abril de 1512 fue el hijo de Alonso de Molina, llamado DIEGO DE MOLINA, vecinos de Lepe.

ALONSO GOMEZ, vecino de Lepe, hijo de Hernán Gómez y de Catalina González, embarcó el 15 de diciembre de 1512.

Otro Alonso, ALONSO MARTIN DE LEPE, hijo de Alonso Sánchez y de Catalina Martín, vecinos de Lepe, se fue el 15 de marzo de 1513.

ISEO HERNANDEZ y MARGARITA GONZALEZ, hijas de Sancho González y de Teresa Rodríguez, vecinas de Lepe, lo hicieron el 30 de septiembre de 1513.

Un grupo formado por FERNANDO ALIAS y ALONSO ALIAS, su hijos, vecinos de Gran Canaria y FRANCISCO QUINTERO, de Lepe, hijo de Juan Quintero y ANTONIO GONZALEZ, también de Lepe, fueron autorizados el 28 de agosto de 1516.

El 23 de septiembre de 1516, embarcaron dos vecinos de Lepe, JUAN RODRIGUEZ, que estaba casado con Isabel González y su hijo ALONSO MATEOS.

Y el 30 de septiembre de 1516, embarcaron PEDRO DE LEPE, hijo de Hernán Gómez Raposo y de Catalina González, que iba acompañado de su sobrino HERNANDICO, hijo de Martín de los Ríos y de Sancha Guerrera, todos vecinos de Lepe.

Ya en 1517, el 19 de mayo, marchó el hijo de Catalina Alonso, el natural y vecino de Lepe, JUAN ALONSO.

El 18 de agosto de 1517, fue autorizado de nuevo HERNANDO, hijo de Martín de los Ríos y de Sancha Guerrera, naturales de Lepe.

CRISTOBAL DE JAEN vecino de Lepe, y su mujer MAYOR GARCIA, embarcaron el 24 de julio de 1528.

JUAN DE FLORES, natural de Lepe, hijo de Pedro de Flores y de Leonor Hernández, lo hizo el 20 de abril de 1529.

Formando parte de la Armada de Cartagena, partió LOPEZ MARQUEZ, hijo de Francisco de Córdoba y de Ana Márquez, natural de Lepe, el 10 de julio de 1534.

El 12 de octubre de 1534, fueron autorizados para embarcar y para formar parte de la expedición de Diego de Almagro, al Perú, HERNANDO VALLERINO, vecino de Niebla, ALONSO MICHEL, vecino de Cáceres, y GARCIA BRAVO, FRANCISCO VALLADOLID, MARTIN TOSCANO y JUAN DE BREO, vecinos de Lepe. 

El 20 de junio de 1535, JUAN DE ABREU, hijo de Francisco Carrasco y de Elvira de Abreu, vecinos de Lepe, fue autorizado para embarcar con destino a Nombre de Dios.

FRANCISCO PEREZ, natural de Lepe, hijo de Alvar Pérez y de Juana Ramírez, fue a Nueva España el 2 de octubre de 1536.

LUIS DE SOLIS, hijo de Juan de Solís y de Ana de Torres, natural de Lepe, a Nueva España, el 9 de octubre de 1536.

En 1538, el 27 de febrero, embarcó para La Florida , el vecino de Lepe, HERNÁN BRAVO, hijo de Fernando Villarreal y de Marina Brava.

De nuevo hay una autorización de embarque a nombre de LUIS DE SOLIS, hijo de Juan de Solís y Ana de Torres, vecinos de Lepe, para marchar a Nueva España el 25 de junio de 1538.

A finales de 1538, el 13 de diciembre y con destino a Nueva España, marchó JUAN DE CONTRERAS, vecino de Lepe, hijo de Hernando Esteban y de Ángela Rodríguez.

Ya nos encontramos en 1539, y el 5 de enero y para ir a Nueva España fue autorizado JUAN RODRIGUEZ, vecino de Lepe, hijo de Francisco Rodríguez y de Catalina Delgado.

El también vecino de Lepe, JUAN DE MORALES, hijo de Bartolomé de Morales y de Mayor Álvarez, lo hizo el 26 de septiembre de 1539, con destino a Nueva España.

Otro JUAN DE MORALES, pero éste hijo de Hernán Gómez y de Catalina Díaz, marchó a México el 17 de octubre de 1539.

El 20 de febrero de 1540, marchó  HERNAN BRAVO, hijo de Hernando o Fernando de Villarreal y de Marina Brava.

Al parecer iban y venían con mucha facilidad, algo que nos resulta difícil de comprender, con lo penosos y peligrosos que eran aquellos viajes.

El 7 de abril de 1540, otro vecino de Lepe, JUAN DE CÓRDOBA, hijo de Juan García y de Elvira Ramírez, partió para Nueva España.

FRANCISCO DE GIBRALEÓN, también vecino de Lepe, hijo de Francisco de Córdoba y de Ana Márquez, fue con destino a Nombre de Dios.

JUAN GOMEZ VAZQUEZ, vecino de Lepe, hijo de Gonzalo Vázquez y de Catalina González, con su mujer ELVIRA MUÑOZ BECERRA y una hija, fueron para Honduras en el año 1554. Como criado de Juan Gómez Vázquez les acompañaba ANTONIO RAMIREZ, también vecino de Lepe e hijo de Juan Gómez y de Ana Ramírez.

Una familia que fue en 1554 para la colonización de Nueva España, fue la compuesta por el vecino de Lepe  FRANCISCO DE CONTRERAS, hijo de Rodrigo Yánez Contreras y de Isabel Alonso y a quien acompañaban su mujer ANA RAMIREZ y sus cuatro hijos.

Y para Honduras, el mismo años, fue otra familia menos numerosa que la anterior, porque solo estaba formada por JUAN MARTINEZ DE VERDUSCO, de Lepe y su mujer JUANA DE ESPINOSA.

En extranjero, pero que era vecino de Lepe, hijo de Andrés de Flandes y de Lucrecia de Grimaldo, llamado MELCHOR DE GRIMALDO, fue este mismo año para Tierra Firme.

MARCIAL DE CONTRERAS, presbítero de la Diócesis de Sevilla, vecino de Lepe, hijo de Hernando Esteban y su mujer Ángela Rodríguez. Que marchó en 1554 a Nueva España, llevando como criado a BARTOLOME DEL RIO, soltero, vecino y natural de Sevilla, hijo de Francisco de Molina el Viejo y de Isabel del Río

En 1555 tenemos un grupo muy numeroso compuesto por el DOCTOR BRAVO, natural y vecino de Lepe, hijo de Hernán Ramírez y de Isabel Brava, que fue de oidor a Nueva España y que iba acompañado de su mujer, ANA PEREZ, y a quienes acompañaban como criados los vecinos de Lepe, el también hijo de Hernán Ramírez e Isabel Brava, FRANCISCO RAMIREZ, soltero; ANTON TENORIO, hijo de Alonso Montano y de Teresa Lorenzo, soltero y varios procedentes de otras poblaciones.

Por factor del mercader sevillano Pedro Ramírez, fue a Tierra Firme, ALONSO MARCOS, vecino y natural de Lepe, hijo de Rodrigo Marcos y de Isabel Valbuena.

A final de 1555 fueron autorizados para viajar a Nueva España, ISABEL RODRIGUEZ, natural y vecina de Lepe, hija de Gonzalo Gómez Toscano y de Catalina Martín, la Serrana , viuda; con sus hijos MARIA ALVAREZ Y GASPAR DE LOS REYES y CATALINA MARTIN, mujer de Fabián de Espino, residente en Nueva España


Un enlace al articulo por Sr. Luis Orlando Piñero Rivera.
Paul Newfield III

The Descendents of Don Inigo Lopez de Mendoza, 2nd Count of Tendilla
Compiled by John D. Inclan

Generation No. 1

2nd Count of Tendilla, 1st Marques de Mondejar.
She was a cousin of Ferdinand the Catholic, King of Spain.


v. RODRIGO10 DE MENDOZA, d. Died Young.

4. vi. MARIA10 DE PACHECO, d. 1531.
Captain General of the Galley's of Spain and in 1545, he was the president of the Council of the Indies.
Source:From the book, Men of Mexico by James A. Magner.
5. viii. VICEROY ANTONIO DE MENDOZA-Y-PACHECO, b. Abt. 1490, Granada, Spain; d. 21 Jul 1552, Lima, Peru.
Served as the Viceroy of Aragon.

Generation No. 2


8. i. CONQUISTADOR DIEGO11 DE HURTADO, b. Madrid, Spain.

Marriage source;From the book, Mexico under Spain, Society and the Origins of Nationality,
by Peggy K. Liss.

9. i. MARIA11 DE IRCIO-Y-MENDOZA, b. New Spain (Mexico).

She was a child, when on November 10, 1510, she was promised in marriage to Don Juan de Padilla.

ii. DIEGO HURTADO-DE-MENDOZA, b. 1503, Granada, Andalusia, Spain; d. 1575, Madrid, Spain.
Diplomat, historian, and poet.

He was the youngest of his brother's, and on April 17, 1535, at Barcelona, Spain, he received his royal commission as the first Viceroy and governor of New Spain. He held this title till 1549.
He is buried in the Cathedral of Lima, next to Conquistador Don Francisco Piazrro.
Source from the books:Coronado, Knight of Pueblos and Plains, by Herbert Eugene Bolton.
Portraitsof Basques in the New World, edited by Richard W. Etulain and Heronima Echeverria. 
With All Arms by Carl Laurence Duaine.
Men of Mexico by James A. Magner.
Mexico under Spain, Society and the Origins of Nationality, by Peggy K. Liss.
Lady in waiting to Queen Isabella of Spain.
Source from the books, Men of Mexico by James A. Magner. 
Mexico under Spain, Society and the Origins of Nationality, by Peggy K. Liss.
Marriage source from the book, Men of Mexico by James A. Magner. Page 146.

iii. INIGO DE MENDOZA, d. 1557, San Quentin, Spain.

The 3rd Cunt of Tendilla and the 2nd Marques of Mondejar.




Generation No. 3

He was first cousin to the Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza. Source:From the book, Fundadores de Nueva Galicia, Guadalajara Tomo I, by Guillermo Garmendia Leal. Page 53.
Marriage source:From the book, Fundadores de Nueva Galicia, Guadalajara Tomo I, by Guillermo Garmendia Leal. Page 52.

ii. CRISTOBAL DE HURTADO, b. Villa de Purificacion; d. 04 Feb 1589/90, Juchipila; m. ISABEL DE VEGA, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.
On Febuary 3, 1590, he signed his last will and testament. Source:From the book, Fundadores de Nueva Galicia - Guadalajara - Tomo I, by Guillermo Garmendia Leal. Page 52.
Marriage source:From the book, Fundadores de Nueva Galicia - Guadalajara - Tomo I, by Guillermo Garmendia Leal. Page 52.
iv. MARIANA DE HURTADO, b. Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico; m. BENITO FLORES.
In 1582, he was the mayor of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. Source:From the book, Fundadores de Nueva Galicia, Guadalajara Tomo I, by Guillermo Garmendia Leal. Page 53.

From 1595 to 1604, he served as the Viceroy of Peru.
From January 25, 1590 to November 5, 1595, he served as the Viceroy of New Spain.
President of the Council of the Indies.
For his service, he was gived the title of Marqueses of Salinas del Rio Pisuerga.
Source:From the books, Northern New Spain, A Research Guide by Thomas C. Barnes,
Thomas H. Naylor, And Charles W. Polzer.
Mexico under Spain, Society and the Origins of Nationality, by Peggy K. Liss.
Nueva Vizcaya, Heartland of the Spanish Frontier, by Oakah L. Jones, Jr.
Mexico under Spain, Society and the Origins of Nationality, by Peggy K. Liss.

i. ANA-MARIA12 DE VELASCO, m. GOVERNOR FRANCISCO DE IBARRA7; b. Abt. 1537, Villa Durango, Vizcaya, Spain; d. 17 Aug 1575, Chiametla, Sinaloa, Mexico.
On July 24, 1562, the 25 year old Conquistador, helped colonize Nueva Vizcaya (Durango, Mexico).
He served as it's first governor and captain general. His jurisdiction included what is now the modern states of Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico. He held this post untill his death in 1575.
Source:From the book, Nueva Vizcaya, Heartland of the Spanish Frontier, by Oakah L. Jones, Jr.
Page 20.
A.K.A. Maria de Velasco


i. TRISTAN12 DE LUNA-Y-DE-IRCIO-MENDOZA, m. (1) BEATRIZ DE SAMANO-CERVANTES; m. (2) BEATRIZ ZAPATA-DE-SANDOVAL, 03 Nov 1638, Santa Vera Cruz, Mexico Ciry, D. F., Mexico.
A.K.A. Tristan de Luna Ramirez de Arellano.

Governor of Nueva Vizcaya and San Juan de Ulua; Governor and Captain General of Panama and the Philippines.
His cousin was the first Marques of Salinas.

The 4th Count of Tendilla and the 3rd Maqques de Mondejar.
In 1571, he was named Captain General of Granada.From 
1572 to 1575 he served as Viceroy of Valencia, and from 1572 to 1575, he served as Viceroy of Naples.

i. DUKE OF MANDAS JUAN12 HURTADO-DE-MENDOZA, b. 05 Feb 1554/55; m. 6TH DUCHESS OF INFANTADO ANA DE MENDOZA, 1590; b. 1554; d. 11 Aug 1633.
The 6th Duchess of Infantado.

The 5th Count of Tendilla, and the 4th Marques of Mondejar.




1. Los Bexarenos Genealogical Register Vol XXII NO 1, Page 3..
2. Mendoza Poderosos Senores by.Jose L. G. de Paz
3. Mexico under Spain, Society and the Origins of Nationality, by Pegy K. Liss..
4. Fundadores de Nueva Galicia, Guadalajara Tomo I, by Guillermo Garmendia Leal., Page 53..
5. Estudios Genealogia por D. Ricardo Ortega y Perez Gallardo., Page 29..
6. Mexico under Spain, Society and the Origins of Nationality, by Pegy K. Liss..
7. With All Arms, A study of a Kindred Group, by Carl Laurence Duaine., Page 94..
8. Mexico under Spain, Society and the Origins of Nationality, by Pegy K. Liss..
9. The Mexican Nobility of Independence, 1780 -1826, By Doris M. Ladd, Page 224..
10. The Mexican Nobility at Independence 1780-1826, by Doris M. Ladd, Page 224..
11. Los Bexarenos Genealogical Register Vol XXII NO 1, Page 10..

Un enlace al articulo por Sr. Luis Orlando Piñero Rivera.
Paul Newfield III



S: Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala
S: Book: Lengua Mas Antigua de Europa, El Vasco  Literatura/Apellidos 
Book: Basques in the Philippines 
A strategy to Promote the Portuguese Language
S: Cardenal Antonio Quarracino, arzobispo fallecido de Buenos Aires,


Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala,
Sunday, September 24, 2006

Hola Bill,

Ahora que veo que naciste en Guatemala, te quiero preguntar algo. Por el lado de mi abuelo paterno, que era originario de Mérida, hay una rama de la familia que se dice venía de Guatemala, después de la explosión de un volcán, a principios o mediados del siglo XIX. No he podido encontrar nada sobre ellos, sólo que posiblemente eran de Antigua. Sabes si existen registros parroquiales de Antigua o cómo podría hacer para encontrar información genealógica de este pueblo? Los apellidos son Parra, Garma y Góngora.

Muchas gracias. Alejandro Gomez

Hola Alejandro,

La ciudad de Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala, hoy Antigua Guatemala, fue destruida por los terremotos de Santa Marta en 1773. Como sabrás, la ciudad de Santiago era tercera en importancia en toda América, solo después de México y Lima. Santiago era sede de la "Capitanía General del Reyno de Goathemala". Hoy en día es considerada "patrimonio de las Américas" y es  una verdadera joya colonial. Vale la pena visitarla.

La antigua está rodeada por los volcanes de Fuego, Agua y Acatenango. Los de Fuego y Acatenango se mantienen activos y hacen erupción cada cierto número de años. El volcán de Agua ha estado inactivo desde antes del descubrimiento de America, pero es muy conocido por su majestuosidad. Los terremotos de Santa Marta destruyeron muchos edificios sólidos y magníficas iglesias en 1773. Tanto es así que el rey de España ordenó que se moviera la capital al valle de la Ermita (o valle de las Vacas), donde actualmente
se encuentra la ciudad de Guatemala. Te cuento esa historia porque después de los terremotos de 1773 muchas personas se fueron a fundar la nueva ciudad capital. No me extrañaría que algunos hayan ido a parar a sitios libres de movimientos telúricos, tales como la ciudad de Mérida. Al fin y al cabo que las provincias de Chiapas y Tabasco - y si mal no recuerdo partes de Campeche y Yucatán - formaron parte de Guatemala hasta el 15 de Septiembre de 1821. Después de la independencia Chiapas y Tabasco decidieron anexarse a México, y las provincias de Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua y Costa Rica
decidieron irse por su lado y gobernarse por su propia cuenta.

Te aconsejo que busques a tus ancestros guatemaltecos en FamilySearch ya que los mormones han microfilmado la mayoría de registros civiles y parroquiales de Guatemala. Por ejemplo existen padrones de Antigua Guatemala que cubren de 1648 a 1819. Los registros parroquiales están organizados por iglesia, por ejemplo la de San Sebastián 1712-1942, la de San José 1758-1939, la de Nuestra Señora de los Remedios 1784-1934, etc. Además, existen muchísimos registros parroquiales en el Archivo Histórico de la Catedral de Guatemala. Miembros de la Iglesia Mormona están continuamente microfilmando esos archivos, así como los del Archivo General de Centro América y otras
entidades civiles.

Los apellidos Parra y Góngora existen por toda la república. El apellido Garma es mejor conocido en el depto. del Petén, que colinda con el estado de Yucatán.

Es todo por hoy, Alejandro. Espero que esta información te sirva de algo. 
Saludos, Guillermo Figuero

Grupo de Google: "Genealogía de México".
Los miembros de la Sociedad Genealógica del Norte de México se comunican gratuitamente entre si usando equipos de Voz sobre IP de

Book: LA LENGUA MAS ANTIGUA DE EUROPA, El Vasco en su Literatura y Apellidos
Author: Enrique Aramburu, Price: $27.50, Shipping: $3.00

IMPORT FROM SPAIN. A good reference work on Basque literature and the origin of surnames. Includes short chapters on the Basque language, its description, its history, the literature including drama, The Basque surname structure, methods of formulating surnames, the words formed by the surname and rules for their interpretation. Contains a name index. Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2001 1st Ed., SPTXT , 127 Pgs.,Item #1011


Book: Basques in the Philippines
by Marciano R. de Borja

The Basques, one of Spain's most distinct ethnic minorities, played a remart ably influential role in the creation and maintenance of Spain's vast colonic empire, including the Philippines. Basques were members of the Magellai expedition that discovered the Philippines in 1521, and a Basque-led expeditloi subsequently laid the foundation for Spain's conquest and pacification ofthi archipelago. Despite the small population of their native provinces, the Basques unique skills as shipbuilders, navigators, businessmen, and scribes; their evangelical zeal; and their ethnic cohesion and work-oriented culture made them well suited to serve as explorers, colonial administrators, missionaries, settlers, merchants, and shippers in the trans-Pacific galleon trade between China, Manila, and Acapuico, Mexico. After the Wars of Independence deprived Spain of most of its American empire, many Basques settled in the Philippines, fleeing political persecution and increasingly limited opportunities in their homeland. Basque emigration from Spain to the Philippines continued through the first half of the twentieth century.

Basques played prominent roles in the governance, defense, and cultivation of the Philippines until the end of Spanish sovereignty in 1898, and an active role in Filipino resistance to the Japanese occupation during World War II. They were leaders in the economic development of the hinterlands, as well as in the advancement of industry, transportation, interisland trade and shipping, and in the establishment of Catholicism as a dominant national religion. Filipinos of Basque descent continue to contribute in significant ways to the culture and economy of the contemporary Philippines.

This work breaks new ground with its study of the Basque diaspora in the Far East. It also addresses the long-unappreciated history of the Philippines as a vital part of the Spanish Empire, closely connected through trade and personal ties to the American colonies, and crucial to the European penetration of East Asia. Basques distinguished themselves in many areas of Filipino life, and their story, as told by Marciano de Borja, is rich in vivid characters and fascinating detail, while at the same time filling an important void in the scholarly literature about the Basque diaspora.

October 23, 2006
Sent by Collin Skousen
SÃO PAULO, Brazil — More people speak Portuguese as their native language than French, German, Italian or Japanese. So it can rankle the 230 million Portuguese speakers that the rest of the world often views their mother tongue as a minor language and that their novelists, poets and songwriters tend to be overlooked.
An effort is being made here in the largest city in the world’s largest Portuguese-speaking country to remedy that situation. The Museum of the Portuguese Language, with multimedia displays and interactive technology, recently opened here, dedicated to the proposition that Portuguese speakers and their language can benefit from a bit of self-affirmation and self-advertisement.
“We hope this museum is the first step to showing ourselves, our culture and its importance to the world,” said Antônio Carlos Sartini, the museum director. “A strategy to promote the Portuguese language has always been lacking, but from now on, maybe things can take another path.”
The museum, which opened in March, has already become the most widely visited in Brazil, drawing schoolchildren and scholars as well as tourists from Brazil and Portuguese-speaking countries in Africa.
In the interests of linguistic harmony and unity, it sidesteps a basic issue: whether dominion over the language ultimately rests with the country where it was born or this rambunctious, overgrown former colony where it is most widely spoken.
George Bernard Shaw once described the United States and Great Britain as “two countries divided by a common language.” Much the same could be said about Brazil, with its 185 million people, and Portugal, with barely 11 million.
The issue is not just the contrast between the mellifluous, musical accent of Brazil — “Portuguese with sugar,” in the words of the 19th-century realist Eça de Queiroz — and the clipped, almost guttural sound in Portugal. There are also marked differences in usage that have traditionally led to misunderstandings and provided fodder for jokes.
In Portugal, for example, a word for a line (the waiting kind) is to Brazilians a derogatory slang term for a homosexual. A Portuguese word for a man’s suit of clothes means a fact or piece of information in Brazil.
Some purists in Portugal object to the slangy, colorfully casual version of the language that is spoken here and increasingly spread abroad through Brazilian telenovelas, or soap operas. They regard such informality as unworthy of the language of Camões, the 16th-century poet whose seafaring epic “Os Lusíadas” is often compared to the masterpieces of Homer and Dante.
“That’s certainly not my reading,” Maria Isabel Pires de Lima, Portugal’s culture minister, said, though, when she visited the museum in August with José Sócrates Carvalho Pinto de Sousa, her country’s prime minister. “Language is a living instrument, always moving, evolving and changing, so I don’t see this phenomenon as pejorative. On the contrary, telenovelas are an important tool in creating more awareness of the Portuguese language and culture.”
In 1996, Brazil and Portugal joined with five African nations — Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique and São Tomé and Príncipe — to found the Community of Portuguese-Language Countries. Portuguese was recently designated an official language of the Organization of African Unity as a result of the community’s efforts. Leaders think that more can be done and hope that Brazil can lead the way.
“One of our objectives is to disseminate Portuguese so that it has greater visibility in international organizations,” José Tadeu Soares, deputy director general of the group, said in a telephone interview from its headquarters in Lisbon. “But aside from Brazil and Portugal, the other countries have only been independent for 25 or 30 years and don’t have the resources to project themselves on the world stage the way Brazil can.”
Though the group recently granted observer status to China, where the language still has official standing in Macao, Portuguese is fading there and in places like Goa, Damão and Diu in India, three other former colonial outposts. But when East Timor obtained its independence from Indonesia in 2002 and joined the community, that inspired an outpouring of sympathy and support from Portuguese-speaking countries.
“For the Timorese, Portuguese is a way of asserting their identity vis-à-vis Indonesia, and, for that matter, even Australia,” Luiz Fernando Valente, director of the Department of Portuguese and Brazilian Studies at Brown University, said in a telephone interview from Providence, R.I.
But, he added, the aspiration of some Portuguese-speakers to see their language gain official status at the United Nations is probably beyond reach. “Portuguese is a global language, spoken on every continent,” he said, “but it is not an international language, used in diplomacy and business the way that French is, and I don’t know if that problem is solvable.”
Mr. Sartini, the museum director, said the museum planned to send roving exhibitions abroad, to disseminate Portuguese language and culture. Ideally, he said, such displays would visit not only Portuguese-speaking countries but also those, like the United States, with Portuguese-speaking minorities.
The largest and oldest United States enclave is around Providence, R.I., and Fall River and New Bedford, in southeastern Massachusetts. There are others, in the Central Valley of California, around Fresno, for example, as well as in southern Florida and Newark.
At a literary festival near here in August, though, the Anglo-Pakistani writer Tariq Ali was quoted in the local press as saying that only three languages are assured of surviving to the end of this century: English, Chinese and Spanish. Even José Saramago, the Portuguese novelist and Nobel laureate who lives mostly in Spain, has fretted publicly over the possibility of Portuguese being overwhelmed by English and Spanish.
Spanish-speakers have sometimes jokingly dismissed Portuguese as simply “Spanish, badly spoken.” But because of Brazil’s huge size and dynamic economy, cities like Buenos Aires and Santiago, in neighboring countries, are now awash in fliers and billboards offering Portuguese language courses.

“For 850 years, our neighbors next door have been saying that there is no future for Portuguese,” said Mr. Soares, of the community, referring to Spain. “But here we are, still. The dynamic for the language may come from Brazil, but there is no doubt in my mind that Portuguese as a language will remain viable.”

Cardenal Antonio Quarracino, arzobispo fallecido de Buenos Aires,, El Lugar de encuentro de los catolicos en la red
Mando por Jose Garcia
Gratis, el documental del primer primado argentino peregrino a Tierra Santa 
Información para la solicitud de manera gratuita el documental «Primer Primado Peregrino», película producida por la Fundación Internacional Raoul Wallenberg (FIRW)

BUENOS AIRES, domingo, 22 octubre 2006 ( Ya es posible ver gratis el documental «Primer Primado Peregrino», película producida por la Fundación Internacional Raoul Wallenberg (FIRW), en la que se narra la visita del cardenal Antonio Quarracino, arzobispo fallecido de Buenos Aires, a Tierra Santa en lo que resultó ser el primer viaje de un primado argentino a los lugares más sagrados del judaísmo y el cristianismo. La FIRW, una ONG educativa que difunde los valores puestos en práctica por miles de personas que salvaron las vidas de perseguidos por el nazismo, ha lanzado esta iniciativa tras premiar a la agencia trayectoria periodística de Zenit en la Ciudad del Vaticano el pasado 28 de septiembre. Quienes deseen ver el documental, pueden enviar un mensaje de correo electrónico a la dirección:

Autor: Jorge Hidalgo Publicado: Octubre 23, 2006 11:30 AM | Enlace permanente 


Diversity Brings Breadth to U.S. History
Facts of Historical Significance
History, Lighthouses, Ports 
History of the One Dollar Bill 

Diversity Brings Breadth to U.S. History

American students often get the impression from history classes that the British got here first, settling Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607. They hear about how white Northerners freed the black slaves, how Asians came in the mid-1800s to build Western railroads. The lessons have left out a lot.

Forty-two years before Jamestown, Spaniards and American Indians lived in St. Augustine, Florida. At least several thousand Latinos and nearly 200,000 black soldiers fought in the Civil War. And Asian-Americans had been living in California and Louisiana since the 1700s. Yet such details are rarely mentioned in American history books.

Now, more of these and other lesser-known facts about American minorities are getting more attention. The main reason is the nation's growing diversity. The nation is slowly awakening to the fact that our freedom was won by whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Orientals alike. Advancements in art, literature, industry and sports were made by the people with widely varied ethnic origins.

Erin Texeira of the Associated Press has written an excellent article about America's diversity. I think it should be required reading for all Americans, especially students. You can read the article on many newspaper web sites. I found it on the Seattle Post Intelligencer at

Analía (Ana) Montalvo
Thousand Oaks, CA
August 22, 2006



Facts of Historical Significance
Written by Raymond S. Kraft 
Northern California

Sent by Bill Carmena
Source: J.Carmena who writes: "This is an EXCELLENT essay. Well thought out and presented, and very well worth reading."

Sixty-three years ago, Nazi Germany had overrun almost all of Europe and hammered England to the verge of bankruptcy and defeat, and had sunk more than four hundred British ships in their convoys between England and America for food and war materials.

At that time the U.S. was in an isolationist, pacifist mood, and most Americans wanted nothing to do with the European or the Asian war. Then along came Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, and in outrage Congress unanimously declared war on Japan, and the following day on Germany, which had not yet attacked us. It was a dicey thing. We had
few allies.

France was not an ally, as the Vichy government of France quickly aligned itself with its German occupiers. Germany was certainly not an ally, as Hitler was intent on setting up a Thousand Year Reich in Europe. Japan was not an ally, as it was well on its way to owning and controlling all of Asia. Together, Japan and Germany had long-range plans of invading Canada and Mexico, as launching pads to get into the United States over our northern and southern borders, after they finished gaining control of Asia and Europe. America 's only allies then were England, Ireland, Scotland, Canada, Australia, and
Russia. That was about it. All of Europe, from Norway to Italy, except Russia in the east, was already under the Nazi heel.

America was certainly not prepared for war. America had drastically downgraded most of its military forces after WWI and throughout the depression, so that at the outbreak of WWII, army units were training with broomsticks because they didn't have guns, and cars with "tank" painted on the doors because they didn't have real tanks. And a huge chunk of our navy had just been sunk or damaged at Pearl Harbor.

Britain had already gone bankrupt, saved only by the donation of $600 million in gold bullion in the Bank of England that was actually the property of Belgium, given by Belgium to England to carry on the war when Belgium was overrun by Hitler (a little known fact). Actually, Belgium surrendered on one day, because it was unable to oppose the German invasion, and the Germans bombed Brussels into rubble the next day just to prove they could.

Britain had already been holding out for two years in the face of staggering shipping loses and the near-decimation of its air force in the Battle of Britain, and was saved from being overrun by Germany only because Hitler made the mistake of thinking the Brits were a relatively minor threat that could be dealt with later, and first turning his attention to Russia, at a time when England was on the verge of collapse, in the late summer of 1940.

Ironically, Russia saved America 's butt by putting up a desperate fight for two years, until the U.S. got geared up to begin hammering away at Germany.

Russia lost something like 24 million people in the sieges of Stalingrad and Moscow alone... 90% of them from cold and starvation, mostly civilians, but also more than a MILLION soldiers. Had Russia surrendered, Hitler would have been able to focus his entire war effort against the Brits, then America. And the Nazis could possibly have won the war.

All of this is to illustrate that turning points in history are often dicey things. And now we find ourselves at another one of those key moments in history. 

There is a very dangerous group in Islam that either has, or wants and may soon have, the ability to deliver small nuclear, biological, or chemical weapons, almost anywhere in the world.

The Jihadis, the militant Muslims (this includes the Muslim clerics & mullahs), are basically Nazis in Kaffiyahs -- they believe that Islam, a radically conservative form of Wahhabi Islam, should own and control the Middle East first, then Europe, then the world. And that all who do not bow to their will of thinking should be killed, enslaved, or subjugated. They want to finish the Holocaust, destroy Israel, and purge the world of Jews. This is their mantra.

There is also a civil war raging in the Middle East -- for the most part not a hot war, but a war of ideas. Islam is having its Inquisition and its Reformation, but it is not known yet which will win -- the Inquisitors, or the Reformationists.

If the Inquisition wins, then the Wahhabis, the Jihadis, will control the Middle East, the OPEC oil, and the US, European, and Asian economies. The techno-industrial economies will be at the mercy of OPEC -- not an OPEC dominated by the educated, rational Saudis of today, but an OPEC dominated by the Jihadis.

You want gas in your car? You want heating oil next winter? You want the dollar to be worth anything? You better hope the Jihad, the Muslim terrorist Inquisition, loses, and the Islamic Reformation wins.

If the Reformation movement wins, that is, the moderate Muslims who believe that Islam can respect and tolerate other religions, and live in peace with the rest of the world, and move out of the 10th century into the 21st, then the troubles in the Middle East will eventually fade away, and a moderate and prosperous Middle East will emerge. We have to help the Reformation win, and to do that we have to fight the Inquisition, i.e., the Wahhabi movement, the Jihad, Al Qaeda and the Islamic terrorist movements. We have to do it somewhere. And we can't do it everywhere at once. We have created a focal point for the battle at a time and place of our Iraq . Not in New York , not in London , or Paris or Berlin , but in Iraq , where we are doing two important things.

(1) We deposed Saddam Hussein. Whether Saddam Hussein was directly involved in 9/11 or not, it is undisputed that Saddam has been actively supporting the terrorist movement for decades. Saddam is a terrorist. Saddam is, or was, a weapon of mass destruction, who is responsible for the deaths of probably more than a million Iraqis, thousands of Kurds and two million Iranians.

(2) We created a battle, a confrontation, a flash point, with Islamic terrorism in Iraq . We have focused the battle. We are killing bad people, and the ones we get there we won't have to get here. We also have a good shot at creating a democratic, peaceful Iraq , which will be a catalyst for democratic change in the rest of the Middle East, and an outpost for a stabilizing American military presence in the Middle East for as long as it is needed.

World War II, the war with the German and Japanese Nazis, really began with a "whimper" in 1928. It did not begin with Pearl Harbor . It began with the Japanese invasion of China . It was a war for fourteen years before America joined it. It officially ended in 1945 -- a 17 year war -- and was followed by another decade of U.S. occupation in Germany and Japan to get those countries reconstructed and running on their own again ... a 27 year war.

World War II cost the United States an amount equal to approximately a full year's GDP -- adjusted for inflation, equal to about $12 trillion dollars. WWII cost America more than 400,000 killed in action, and nearly 100,000 still missing in action.

The Iraq war has, so far, cost the US about $160 billion, which is roughly what 9/11 cost New York . It has also cost about 2,200 American lives, which is roughly 2/3 of the 3,000 lives that the Jihad snuffed on 9/11. But the cost of not fighting and winning WWII would
have been unimaginably greater -- a world dominated by German and Japanese Nazism.

Americans have a short attention span, conditioned by 30 second sound bites, 60 minute TV shows, and 2 hour movies in which everything comes out okay.

The real world is not like that. It is messy, uncertain, and sometimes bloody and ugly. Always has been, and probably always will be.

The bottom line is that we will have to deal with Islamic terrorism until we defeat it, whenever that is. It will not go away if we ignore it.

If the U.S. can create a reasonably democratic and stable Iraq , then we have an " England " in the Middle East, a platform, from which we can work to help modernize and moderate the Middle East . The history of the world is the clash between the forces of relative civility and civilization, and the barbarians clamoring at the gates. The Iraq war
is merely another battle in this ancient and never-ending war. And now, for the first time ever, the barbarians are about to get nuclear weapons unless somebody prevents them.

We have four options:

1. We can defeat the Jihad now, before it gets nuclear weapons.

2. We can fight the Jihad later, after it gets nuclear weapons (which may be as early as next year, if Iran 's progress on nuclear weapons is what Iran claims it is).

3. We can surrender to the Jihad and accept its dominance in the Middle East, now, in Europe in the next few years or decades, and ultimately in America.

4. Or, we can stand down now, and pick up the fight later when the Jihad is more widespread and better armed, perhaps after the Jihad has dominated France and Germany and maybe most of the rest of Europe . It will, of course, be more dangerous, more expensive, and much bloodier. If you oppose this war, I hope you like the idea that your children, or grandchildren, may live in an Islamic America under the Mullahs and the Sharia, an America that resembles Iran today.

The history of the world is the history of civilizational clashes, cultural lashes. All wars are about ideas, ideas about what society and civilization should be like, and the most determined always win.  Those who are willing to be the most ruthless always win. The
pacifists always lose, because the anti-pacifists kill them. Remember, perspective is everything, and America 's schools teach too little history for perspective to be clear, especially in the young American mind.

The Cold war lasted from about 1947 at least until the Berlin Wall came down in 1989. Forty-two years. Europe spent the first half of the 19th century fighting Napoleon, and from 1870 to 1945 fighting Germany .

World War II began in 1928, lasted 17 years, plus a ten year occupation, and the U.S. still has troops in Germany and Japan . World War II resulted in the death of more than 50 million people, maybe more than 100 million people, depending on which estimates you accept. The U.S. has taken more than 2,000 KIA in Iraq . The U.S. took more than 4,000 killed in action on the morning of June 6, 1944, the first day of the Normandy Invasion to rid Europe of Nazi Imperialism. In WWII the US averaged 2,000 KIA a week -- for four years. Most of the individual battles of WWII lost more Americans than the entire Iraq war
has done so far.

But the stakes are at least as high .. A world dominated by representative governments with civil rights, human rights, and personal freedoms ... or a world dominated by a radical Islamic Wahhabi movement, by the Jihad, under the Mullahs and the Sharia (Islamic law).
It's difficult to understand why the American left does not grasp this. They favor human rights, civil rights, liberty and freedom, but evidently not for Iraqis or Jews.

"Peace Activists" always seem to demonstrate here in America , where it's safe. Why don't we see Peace Activist demonstrating in Iran, Syria , Iraq , Sudan , North Korea , in the places that really need peace activism the most?

The liberal mentality is supposed to favor human rights, civil rights, democracy, multiculturalism, diversity, etc., but if the Jihad wins, wherever the Jihad wins, it is the end of civil rights, human rights, democracy, multiculturalism, diversity, etc. Americans who oppose the liberation of Iraq and the support of Israel are coming down on the
side of their own worst enemy.

History, Lighthouses, Ports (including Port Hueneme), Islands, Seabees, etc. will be found at:

Sent by Cindy LoBuglio    FUN SITE AND LOTS OF DATA
A map of the United States makes it easy to click on the state of your interest. When you do, a long list of  Maritime museums that are online for the state will come up..

History of the One Dollar Bill

Take out a one dollar bill, and look at it. The one dollar bill you're looking at first came 
material. We've all washed it without it falling apart. A special blend of ink is used, the 
contents we will never know. It is overprinted with symbols and then it is starched to 
make it water resistant and pressed to give it that nice crisp look. 

If you look on the front of the bill, you will see the United States Treasury Seal. On the 
top you will see the scales for a balanced budget. In the center you have a carpenter's
square, a tool used for an even cut. Underneath is the Key to the United States Treasury 
That's all pretty easy to figure out, but what is on the back of that dollar bill is something 
we should all know. 

If you look on the front of the bill, you will see the United States Treasury Seal. On the 
top you will see the scales for a balanced budget. In the center you have a carpenter's 
square, a tool used for an even cut. Underneath is the Key to the United States Treasury 
That's all pretty easy to figure out, but what is on the back of that dollar bill is something 
we should all know. 

If you turn the bill over, you will see two circles. Both circles, together, comprise the Great 
Seal of the United States.  The First Continental Congress requested that Benjamin Franklin 
and a group of men come up with a Seal. It took them four years to accomplish this task
and another two years to get it approved. 

If you look at the left-hand circle, you will see a Pyramid. Notice the face is lighted, and 
the western side is dark.  This country was just beginning.  We had not begun to explore 
the West or decided what we could do for Western Civilization. The Pyramid is un-capped, 
again signifying that we were not even close to being finished. Inside the capstone you 
have the all-seeing eye, an ancient symbol for divinity.  It was Franklin's belief that one 
man couldn't do it alone, but a group of men, with the help of God, could do anything. 
"IN GOD WE TRUST" is on this currency. 
The Latin above the pyramid, ANNUIT COEPTIS, means, 
"God has favored our undertaking." 

The Latin below the pyramid, NOVUS ORDO SECLORUM, means, "a new order has begun." 
At the base of the pyramid is the Roman Numeral for 1776.If you look at the right-hand 
circle, and check it carefully, you will learn that it is on every National Cemetery in the 
United States.  It is also on the Parade of Flags Walkway at the Bushnell, Florida National 
Cemetery, and is the centerpiece of most hero's monuments. Slightly modified, it is the 
seal of the President of the United States, and it is always visible whenever he speaks, 
yet very few people know what the symbols mean. 

The Bald Eagle was selected as a symbol for victory for two reasons: First, he is not 
afraid of a storm; he is strong, and he is smart enough to soar above it. Secondly, he 
wears no material crown.  We had just broken from the King of England.  Also, notice the 
shield is unsupported. This country can now stand on its own.  At the top of that shield 
you have a white bar signifying congress, a unifying factor. We were coming together as 
one nation.  In the Eagle's beak you will read, "E PLURIBUS UNUM", meaning, "one nation 
from many people". 

Above the Eagle, you have thirteen stars, representing the thirteen original colonies, and 
any clouds of misunderstanding rolling away. Again, we were coming together as one.

Notice what the Eagle holds in his talons. He holds an olive branch and arrows. This 
country wants peace, but we will never be afraid to fight to preserve peace. The Eagle 
always wants to face the olive branch, but in time of war, his gaze turns toward the 

They say that the number 13 is an unlucky number. This is almost a worldwide belief. You 
will usually never see a room numbered 13, or any hotels or motels with a 13th floor. But 
think about this: 13 original colonies, 13 signers of the Declaration of Independence, 13
stripes on our flag, 13 steps on the Pyramid, 13 letters in the Latin above, 13 letters in 
"E Pluribus Unum", 13 stars above the Eagle, 13 bars on that shield, 13 leaves on the olive 
branch, 13 fruits, & if you look closely,13 arrows. And, for minorities: the 13th Amendment.

I always ask people, "Why don't you know this?"  Your children don't know this, and their 
history teachers don't know this.  Too many veterans have given up too much to ever let 
the meaning fade.  Many veterans remember coming home to an America that didn't care. 
Too many veterans never came home at all.



Looking at Family History Differently
What Have You Written Down? 
Memorials Guest Book 

TIPS FROM READERS in RootsWeb Review, 4 October 2006, Vol. 9, No. 40 

Looking at Family History Differently
By Paul Fredrich Bramscher in Circle Pines, Minnesota

In the late 1980s I was a history and anthropology undergraduate at the University of Minnesota. I studied wonderful things, but it always took me far afield -- doing family history on the side seemed almost academically sacrilege.

The Minnesota Historical Society's main research building was then located at 1500 Mississippi Street in Saint Paul. I scanned the microfilm there to learn that my great-great-grandfather, Friedrich BRAMSCHER (born near Bramsche, Germany in 1856), was a truck farmer at 1466 Mississippi Street in the early 1900s.

I got into my car and drove around the block -- and later determined that I had literally been sitting on, or at the edge, of his property. Unfortunately, I didn't keep steady with my research -- genealogy isn't really a hip hobby for young 20-somethings.

It wasn't until I was settled down and had children of my own that I got back into the hobby during the long Minnesota winters and learned that one of my great- great- grandfather's late-born daughters, Vera (BRAMSCHER) SPREIGL, had lived in a house next to that building -- and had lived to be about 95 years old. She would have been an invaluable resource for a personal interview, but I learned it too late. So this discovery was both an astounding stroke of luck and a missed opportunity.

However, I was able to learn more about my great-great-grandfather from her son and from additional research. He had a few acres and farmed celery. His son (my great- grandfather) was killed in his thirties from an accidental fall while working for a meat-packing company in 1917.

So much history of that line of my family was lost, or was never generated in the first place. I learned from Sanborn Fire Insurance maps where the building was in which he took his fatal fall and located it as a small parking lot in downtown Saint Paul today, near the current Farmer's Market where I often shop. I further learned that various spellings of Friedrich have been given as a first or middle name to first-born males starting with my great-great-grandfather for five generations including me. Fortunately I learned this much in time -- and of course it became the middle-name of my first son, making it six

One of the lessons I came away with is that the best time to do genealogy is always now. It's also made me look differently at things: every building, parking lot, or piece of urban property probably has an interesting history to it, written or as-yet unwritten, but still rich.

 What Have You Written Down? 
Sent By Janete Vargas

Most of us feel that our lives are relatively simple, uninteresting, mundane. "Why would anyone want to read about me?" we say. But oh, what I wouldn't give for a few pages written by either of my grandmothers or grandfathers; I want so much to know them, and I have almost nothing to go by. 

Recently I listened to a talk given by George Durrant and produced by Covenant Communications one of the years I worked there. He inspired and uplifted and motivated me to get back to writing my personal history. I called him and asked permission to quote from that talk and share it with you. Gracious, as always, he said he'd be honored. 

His talk started with a reminder that even simple folk have interesting histories. He said:

Do you remember seeing a movie called Camelot? There was something in that movie about people such as me. It was a song which went like this: "what do the simple folk do?" Now that's where I fit into the story. If I had lived in King Arthur's day, I would have been one of those simple folk that King Arthur wondered about when he sang that song. 
I can see myself as one of the simple peasants who lived three miles north of the Camelot city limits. King Arthur, riding on a white horse and accompanied by several knights, is passing by my thatched cottage. He passes and looks over at me. I'm playing basketball with my children on a court that I had smoothed out near my small garden. My children are laughing and shouting, "Daddy, Daddy!" 

King Arthur reins in his horse, pauses quite awhile, and watches. The knights say, "Let's go, King." He replies, "Just a second or two." And then slowly he rides away to make some more history. 

But in his heart as he moves silently toward his castle, he remembers me, and I think he would say to his knights, "Who was that man?"
They'd say, "Who cares?" 

He'd reply, "Those children seemed to care." 

And do you know what? I think the king would be jealous of me. Yes, I, like many of you, am among the simple folk who could be envied by a king but whose life appears at first glance and even second glance to be rather routine... We simple folk may not have found our way into the public limelight, but we were always thinking and feeling and hoping and dreaming. And those things and our struggles and our private victories, even though small, make our life story one of captivating interest to all those who love us and especially to our families. 

What Have You Written Down? 
What records do we have that we might ask God to preserve for our loved ones to read? Have we written our testimonies on paper? When was the last time we wrote a heartfelt letter of love and concern to a loved one? Are we keeping a personal journal? Have we written our own personal history? What records would you like God to preserve for your posterity to read? 

Journals as Tools 
I received an e-mail from one reader concerned that her journal was full of trivial things that no one would want to read — and wondering what we should be writing in our journals and what should be taken from journals into our personal and family history. I attended a class on that very subject and received such wonderful guidelines. I don't know who to give credit to — I can't remember for the life of me who the teacher was, but I gleaned the following information from the handout from that class. 
Guidelines for Writing in Your Journal 
A journal should contain daily or weekly entries of current meaningful personal experiences. It could include:

• Goals, hopes, and aspirations
• Work experiences
• Problems and how they were resolved
• Joys and sorrows with family members
• Relationships with others
• Deepest thoughts
• Faith-promoting experiences
• Significant family events
• Triumph over adversity
• Personal testimony
• Counsel for future generations who might read your journal

Now, I keep another kind of journal as well — I call it my therapy writing. I don't write it to be read by anyone else — in fact, sometimes I write a line, write the next line over it and when the page is full I tear it out of the notebook, crumple the page and throw it in the trash. I have no desire to preserve my anger and hurt and doubt and fear for future generations, but writing is the best way to get it out. And writing about my dilemmas often brings me new insights and sometimes even personal revelation that I might want to record in my real journal.

So you might want to keep two kinds of journals like I do. Therapy writing I try to do almost daily, but I write in my real journal weekly. That keeps me from recording too much detail and too many trivialities; when I look back at a whole week's events, I have just enough distance to pick out what is meaningful. If I go more than a week I forget important things and get my days all mixed up in my head. So weekly works for me. 

Mining the Gold from Our Journals 
From our journals we can later mine golden stories and thoughts for our personal histories. Of course, a personal history can be written strictly from recall. But if your recall is as cloudy as mine, you will be grateful for any poignant details you wrote at the time. 
I am in the mining stage. I am reading my journals for the first time — and haven't gotten very far in the process. But what a delight to come across details I had forgotten — even if it was dead grasshoppers in little boy's pockets or baby teeth marks in the cheese. 
My gratitude for life increases as I read my journal entries. Sometimes the entries were far apart — for instance when the demands of life with several tiny children left little time for writing. But I'm so grateful that I wrote anything at all. Not only will my personal history be richer, but I'm gleaning stories and quotes about each child to add their early histories. The memories I have of them before they remember, plus the memories my journal entries bring back, will someday be precious to them. 

The best thing I'm finding in my journals is faith. Every word I read about my faith-promoting experiences of years ago fans the fires of my current faith. We all need huge bonfires of faith right now to protect us from the wolves of the world. What better thing could I do for my posterity than record and preserve these words of faith! 
Writing a Personal History Brings Self-Understanding George Durrant recorded more reasons to work on your personal history. He said, 

You can gain self-understanding by writing a personal history. My life, as yours, is like a long series of experiences stacked one on top of another. Each experience, great or seemingly small, is like a number that is part of an almost never-ending series of numbers in an addition problem in mathematics — experiences that can be added up, the sum total of which is not just a number. Instead, it is you — wonderful, unique, interesting you. 

It doesn't matter if others have found you — and in finding you then have come to love you. The great discovery comes when you find yourself and can say: "I have found myself. I'm glad I'm me. I wouldn't trade places with anyone. I'm glad my life has been mine — with all its joys and sorrow, defeats and victories. I'm glad I'm me." 

Writing a Personal History Brings Gratitude 
Brother Durrant also tells us that writing a personal history can bring a sense of gratitude. He tells of his confusion about a major in college; he liked art, but was afraid to pursue it. He finally took a painting class. When his first painting was critiqued by the class several negative comments were made, but one girl said, "I like the way George did the sky." 
That one validation gave him something to hang onto — the encouragement he needed to become an artist. He said, 

I relate this story for a reason: first because it was one of those landmark experiences in my life, and second because it offers a real key to writing a personal history. 

As you look at your life, always look for the sky. Look for the clear, blue, gorgeous, glorious things that have happened. And that doesn't mean you leave out the heartaches and the heartbreaks. But somehow there's a sky in every picture. Find it and describe it. That's what makes a personal history live — how you felt, how you struggled, how you won, how you endured. 

And when you describe these things, gratitude will fill your whole soul, and grateful people always have been and always will be happy people. Writing a personal history can attract gratitude as a magnet attracts metal. 

Writing a personal history can, if you approach it positively, give you such a feeling — not that life has always been rosy or free from pain, misery, sorrow, and heartbreak. But amidst all that, there have been the tender, heartfelt experiences, relationships, and insights that make each one who considers his total life experiences want to cry out: "Why me? Why has so much that is so tender and kind and good come into my life?" 

Your Personal History Becomes Part of Your Family History 
Brother Durrant says, With the passage of time, a personal history becomes a part of a body of recorded information which becomes the family history. When we read the histories of those who make up our family tree or our pedigree, we once again receive the blessing of self-understanding. 

A birth certificate proves that you were born. A personal history proves that you lived — you really lived. A pedigree chart proves your ancestors were born. A family history proves that they lived and because of them you can live. 

President Ezra Taft Benson said, "We call upon you to pursue vigorously the gathering and writing of personal and family histories. In so many instances, you alone have within you the history, the memory of loved ones, the dates and events. In some situation you are the family history. In few ways will your heritage be better preserved than by collecting and writing your histories (Ensign, Nov. 1989). 
Back to Brother Durrant: 

One day recently while I shaved, I softly said to the reflection in the mirror: "That face is not original with me. It was not shaped by my victories or defeats or joys or sorrows alone. That face was born before I ever drew a breath. That classic nose is far more prominent than I am. It began with my great-grandfather, or was it his father or his? My brown eyes were colored by my grandmother, or her mother or hers. My height came from my mother and her tall father and his. 

"Yes," I said to myself, "there I am in the mirror, but I am not really just me. I am made up of my own personal and peculiar blend of an ancestral reservoir — a little bit of him and a touch of her and sprinkling of him and quite a dose of her, all of whom lived on, two, and even twenty generations ago. Did my ancestors ever, in a moment of vision, see my reflection in their mirror as I, in a moment of memory, can see their in mine? So, my dear ancestors, here I sit looking into the reflections of the past. Now that I know you, for the first time I know myself." 

Brother Durrant looks ahead, thinking of his grandson reading his life stories to his great-grandchildren and saying, "We've got a great family, kids. We've got a great heritage. I want each of you to keep writing down what's happened to you. Put it in a book so that we can keep our family heritage alive because it's one of the most important things we have." 

Now Is the Time  . . . He concludes, The great histories have been written. It's now time to write the histories of the heart. The histories of the simple folk. Histories that have occurred, not on the battlefront or in Parliament, but histories that have taken place within the walls of our own homes. Histories which would make kings say, "I wish I could have lived that way." These histories form a seedbed in which all other histories grow… 

There is only one person in all the world who can write your personal history, and that person is you. If you don't write your history, it might be written by someone else. Then it will be a history, but it sure won't be personal. 
And if it isn't personal, much of its impact will be lost.

Money could never buy such a sacred possession as the recorded influence of the Lord in your life. Nothing else you could give your grandchildren could be half so important as your testimony written as only you can write it. 
President Spencer W. Kimball said, "People often use the excuse that their lives are uneventful and nobody would be interested in what they have done. But I promise you that if you will keep your journals and records they will be a source of great inspiration to your families, to your children, your grandchildren, and others, on through the generations. ( Ensign, Nov. 1978). 
I, for one, am anxious to claim that promise! Won't you claim it too?

Memorials Guest Book
New entry in the Guest Book of Helen C. Luna
Sent by Dorinda Moreno

Allows family and friends to write, or even send an audio message, to some one that has passed away. It allows final words to be recorded. I assume that copies of the letters can be collected by the family. This site is maintained by the Denver Post and Rocky Mountain News. Apparently, the individual's book is kept online for a year. However, it can be extended, by arrangement. wrote:
The Denver Newspaper Agency Guest Book for Helen C. Luna has received one or more new entries or Photo Gallery submissions. To read the entry or entries, or view the Photo Gallery, visit the Guest Book by clicking on the link below. If you are unable to click on this link, please cut and paste it into your browser's address bar.


Archeologists Discover Important Aztec Ruins 
Ancient Pet Cemeteries Had Treats for Afterlife 
Peru finds ancient burial cave of warrior tribe 

Archeologists Discover Important Aztec Ruins

Sent by Johanna De Soto

MEXICO CITY (Oct. 4) - Mexican archeologists have found what may be the most significant Aztec ruin in decades, with the unearthing of an altar and a monolith in the busy heart of Mexico City, Mayor Alejandro Encinas said on Wednesday.

15th century altar, part of the Aztec empire's main temple, was uncovered near the city's main Zocalo square along with the 11-foot stone slab, most of which is still buried under earth.
Image of an ancient agriculture deity.
Alfredo Estrella, AFP / Getty Images.

"It is a very important discovery, the biggest we have made in 28 years. It will allow us to find out a lot more," Encinas told reporters.

The altar has a frieze of the rain god Tlaloc and another figure related to an agricultural rite. Archeologists are still unearthing the monolith which they think might be part of an entrance to an underground chamber.

The Aztecs began building the Templo Mayor pyramid-shaped temple in 1375. Its ruins are now only yards from downtown's choking traffic. It was first excavated in 1978 after electricity workers found an eight-tonne carving of an Aztec goddess.

Spanish conquistadors destroyed the temple when they razed the city in 1521 and used its stones to help build their own capital.

Ancient Pet Cemeteries Had Treats for Afterlife
By The Associated Press, posted: 23 September 2006
Sent by John Inclan

IMA, Peru (AP)—Even in ancient Peru, it seems dogs were a man's best friend. Peruvian investigators have discovered a pre-Columbian culture of dog lovers who built pet cemeteries and buried their pets with warm blankets and even treats for the afterlife. "They are dogs that were thanked and recognized for their social and familial contribution,'' anthropologist Sonia Guillen said. "These dogs were not sacrificed.''
Since 1993, researchers have unearthed 82 dog tombs in pet cemetery plots, laid alongside human mummy tombs of the Chiribaya people in the fertile Osmore River valley, 540 miles southeast of Lima. The Chiribaya were farmers who lived from A.D. 900 to 1350 before the rise of Peru's Inca Empire.

"We have found that in all the cemeteries, always, in between the human tombs there are others dedicated to the dogs, full-grown and puppies,'' said Guillen, who specializes in the study of mummies. "They have their own grave and in some cases they are buried with blankets and food.''

Guillen, director of the Centro Mallqui, the Bioanthropology Foundation of Peru, said the dogs are known as Chiribaya shepherds for their herding abilities.
She and her team are trying to prove the Chiribaya dogs have Peruvian descendants that can be classified as an original South American breed.

"This shepherd is still among us,'' she said. "We have found very similar animals with the same characteristics in Peru's southern valleys and we are starting investigations to determine if we are dealing with a Peruvian dog.''

But some dog experts expressed caution. Ermanno Maniero, who in 1985 achieved international recognition of the Peruvian hairless as a distinct breed that evolved over more than 2000 years from Asian ancestors brought across the Bering Strait, said Peru is full of breeds that arrived in recent centuries. "We have found similar dogs'' to the Chiribaya shepherds, he said. "But it is better to take precautions before confirming the existence of a type of original animal.''

Ricardo Fujita, a genetics researcher at Lima's San Martin University, said the physical traits suggests a link between today's' short-snouted, long-haired dogs and their possible Chiribaya ancestors. But the jury is still out.

"We are conducting DNA analysis on the ancient dogs to compare them to the new ones, but it will be months before there are results for a final verdict,'' he said.

Peru finds ancient burial cave of warrior tribe 

By Robin EmmottThu Oct 5, 2006;_ylt=A9G

Sent by John Inclan

Archeologists have uncovered a 600-year-old, large underground cemetery belonging to a Peruvian warrior culture, thought to be the first discovery of its kind, an official said on Thursday.

After a tip-off from a farmer in Peru's northern Amazon jungle, archeologists from Peru's National Culture Institute last week found the 820-feet-(250-meter)deep cave that was used for burial and worship by the Chachapoyas tribe.

So far archeologists have found five mummies, two of which are intact with skin and hair, as well as ceramics, textiles and wall paintings, the expedition's leader and regional cultural director Herman Corbera told Reuters.

"This is a discovery of transcendental importance. We have found these five mummies but I believe there could be many more," Corbera said. "We think this is the first time any kind of underground burial site this size has been found belonging to Chachapoyas or other cultures in the region," he added.

The Chacapoyas, a white-skinned tribe known as the "Cloud People" by the Incas because of the cloud forests they inhabited in northern Peru, ruled the area from around 800 AD to around 1475, when they were conquered by the Incas.


But their strong resistance to the Incas, who built an empire ranging from northern Ecuador to southern Chile from the 1400s until the Spanish conquest of the 1530s, earned them a reputation as great warriors.  They are best-known today by tourists for their stone citadel Kuelap, near the modern town of Chachapoyas. 

In 1996, archeologists found six ancient burial houses containing several mummies, thought to belong to the Chachapoyas.  "The remote site for this cemetery tells us that the Chachapoyas had enormous respect for their ancestors because they hid them away for protection," Corbera said.

Corbera said the walls in the limestone cave near the mummies were covered with wall paintings of faces and warrior-like figures that may have been drawn to ward off intruders and evil spirits.

"The idea now is to turn this cave into a museum, but we've got a huge amount of research to do first and protecting the site is a big issue," Corbera said, adding that looters had already vandalized a small part of the cave in search of mummies or gold.
Copyright © 2006 Reuters 







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