Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage 
and Diversity Issues 

 TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                  JUNE 2001, Issue 6

     Editor: Mimi Lozano,

"I think there are pivotal moments in the history of our country when forces come together to create an institution that has the potential to fundamentally impact public opinion and the thinking of national and international decision makers.  I believe that the creation of the Paso al Norte Immigration History Museum will be one of those pivotal moments not only for those who are directly linked to this history but for all people from all walks of life." 

                                                  William S. Parsons, Chief of Staff
                             United States Holocaust Memorial Museum,  May 1, 2001

Hispanic Media Presence? 

Michael J. Gonzalez
News Brief - 12

United States
Pres. Bush & Cinco de Mayo
News Brief - 12
Sister Mary Sevilla at Ellis Is.

Orange County, CA
News Brief - 6

Los Angeles, CA
Hispanic American Veterans   Memorial
Dominguez Brothers
News Brief - 8
Southern Calif. Vital Records 

Peter Carr, Archeologist
News Brief - 8
Ranch & Mission Days 
Rancho Maps
Antique Maps
California Studies
El Real Ejercito in Alta 

Northwestern United States
BYU hosts worlds' largest FHC


La Casita de Loredo
Laredo Area Genealogy
Rio Grande Valley
Tejano Statue (2)
Juan N. Seguin Highway
Paso al Norte
News Brief - 7

Southwestern United States
News Brief - 3
Wills of Spanish Women

East of the Mississippi
Chicago Mexican Museum
La Llorana Film selected
Population shifts

East Coast
World War II Memorial
Researching- Lib of Congress
Film festival 

Vete Sano, Regresa Sano
History of Zacatecas
Mexicanization of Indigenous
Camargo (2)
Gutierrez Family Tree (2)
Sonora/Sinaloa  (2)
Paleography Course
Reynosa Gazaette (3)

Patriots of Puerto Rico

Tirio Indians
Tanio Indians

International News
Opera in Spain
Ancient Mexican Farmers
Caral, Peru
European Cannibalism
Portuguese Colonial Remains

Special Books
Brooklyn Slave Dwellings
1810 Black/White Marriages
Military Burial Registers
Spanish American War
U.S. Census Browser

12 Websites
Preservation Techniques
Genetically Altered Babies

Note for easy scanning: Upcoming events are highlighted in turquoise,  
dates are in red letters.

Society of 
Hispanic Historical
and Ancestral


         Are you prepared to celebrate 
    Hispanic Heritage Month in the fall? 
         September 15  to October 15

In 1997 Mimi Lozano authored a resource manual for classroom use during Hispanic Heritage Month. It was distributed widely in  Orange County, California. It has been expanded for community and youth leaders and is available for free down-loading at:
                 HISPANIC HERITAGE

SHHAR Board Members:
Bea Armenta Dever
Peter Carr
Edward B. Flores
Mimi Lozano Holtzman
Gloria Cortinas Oliver
Carlos Olvera
Laura Arechabala Shane
Questions: 714-894-8161


Johanna de Soto***
Rick Aguirre
Frank Alvarez, Sr.
Mary Ayers
Carmen Boone de Aguilar
Diana Borja
David Cano
Rosemarie Capodicci
Peter Carr
Dennis V. Carter
Jose R. Benitez
Ray & Betty Dall
Bill Estrada
Joy Fisher

Dr. Adalberto Garza
Michael J. Gonzalez
Dr. Bruce Harley
Elsa & Walter Herbeck
Zeke Hernandez
Sonya Herrera-Wilson
Win Holtzman
Dr. Granville Hough
Felix Galaviz
George Gause
Jose O. Guerra Jr.
Sam Padilla Quita
William S. Parsons
Kent Larson
Dr. Victoria Lerner Sigal
Dr. Carlos Lopez Urrutia

Cindy Lobuglio 
Eliseo Martinez
Doug McLaughlin
Gloria Oliver
Dr. Lyman Platt
Marco Ramerini
John Schmal
Dr. Isabel Schon
Liz Sevcenko
Sister Mary Sevilla
Mira Smithwick
Terri Thrush
Rodolfo José Villalba y Gutierrez
Danny Villarreal
Doug Westfall
Loretta Williams


Michael Gonzalez Multimedia Producer

Congratulations to Michael J. Gonzalez.  He is a documentary producer for Blue Cross and was selected as one of the Nations' Top 100 multi-media producers. His accomplishment made him the subject for the cover of the March issue of AV VideoMultimedia Producer 

Michael is a proud descendent of the Zamorano family, Arguello family, and Jose Maria Flores family.

Somos Primos sends congratulations and well deserved kudos. We need more Hispanics producing documentaries. Hopefully  we will begin to see  documentaries about Hispanics produced by Hispanics. 

                      The Latino population is six times greater in real life than on TV.

Children Now:
  Report found that in prime time Hispanics had the lowest representation. 
Blacks are 12.3% of the population, but made up 17.0 % of prime time characters
Asian Pacific Islanders are    9.0%                         3.0 %
Hispanics are 12%, but decreased from 3% to     2.0 %  of prime time characters                       
Native Americans are            0.9%                        0.2 %

As for nonfiction TV, the Center for Media and Public Affairs found that Latino correspondents reported only 1.3% of all network evening-news stories in 2000.

 For the complete report:

American Family -PBS

The Los Angeles Times reported that Greg Nava's "American Family" series about a Latino family in Los Angeles has finally gotten a green light for 13 new episodes. This will be the first modern dramatic prime time series on  network television in the history of television. Its not CBS, the original developer of the pilot, but its PBS. This is something for all of us to celebrate and now support. Along with "Resurrection Blvd.", "Brothers Garcia" and "Taina" this is a land mark achievement for our community. We have over the years been very disappointed in the performance of the tax supported PBS networks inclusion of Latino programming. We must now congratulate PBS and CPB and encourage  than to continue this excellent start by providing the kind of promotion and publicity that will be needed to assure the success of "American Family"
for us and the country. Please write, call and email Robert Coonrod and Andy Russell at CBP and Pat Mitchell at PBS and let them know that we applaud and  support their financing and green-lighting "American Family" and encourage them to go the extra mile to give the show the marketing support it will  need.  Please circulate this request among your own email list and in
particular  please get this message to all of our elected officials in congress who fund CPB and PBS and ask them to communicate their approval and support for  "American Family".
Moctesuma Esparza

Robert Coonrod - (202) 879-9600
Andy Russell - (202) 879-9600
Pat Mitchell - (703) 739-5015
Source:  Angie Medina
Sent  by Zeke Hernandez
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"Mexican is not a nice-sounding word and Hollywood is at  fault for this. . ."
Ricardo Montalban at a March dinner party in Hollywood in honor of President Vicente Fox.
Excellent article by Lorenza Muñoz, The Silver Screen That Divides Us,  LA Times, 4-24-01

Latin Cinema Is Finding Its Voice - - New York Times, May 9, 2001


Extract: A limited study of Latino movie-going habits by the Tomás Rivera Policy Institute in California, conducted in 1999 for the Screen Actors Guild, found that for most Latinos, subject matter, not ethnic considerations, was the deciding factor in choosing a movie. But Latinos were six to seven times as likely to watch Latino-theme movies or movies starring Hispanic actors as to watch movies of a similar genre without a Latino theme or actors.

The study estimated that Latinos spend over $528 million a year on movie admissions.

Moctesuma Esparza, producer of "Selena," "Price of Glory" and other Latin-theme movies, argues that both Latin American cinema and American Latin-theme productions can look forward to growing audiences. For Latin American films to tap this audience, though, they must be marketed to Latinos and made accessible in Latino neighborhoods, he said.

Leon Ichaso, who is the director of films like "Crossover Dreams" and "El Super" and just completed a film about the life of the Puerto Rican poet and playwright Miguel Piñero, said it was up to Latinos and Latin Americans to coalesce so they can finance and distribute their films and develop the market themselves.
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Hispanic Broadcasting Corp. the top Spanish-language radio broadcaster in the United States, reported (April 30) its first-quarter net income declines 40%, hurt by a weak advertising market, and lowered its earnings estimates for the year by one-third.    OC Register, 5-1-01
The new fall shows premiering on NBC, CBS, ABC  and Fox will feature a slightly more multicultural look.  Of the 22 new shows, two have minority leads. Josie Thomas, head of diversity for CBS, said she is aware of complaints about the lack of groups other than blacks.  "What happened in this case, I believe, is that African Americans were in the pipeline earlier than other minorities," said Paula Madison, vice president of diversity at NBC.  

In reference to an agreement with the four major students 16 months ago, Alex Nogales, head of the National Hispanic Media Coalition said, "It wasn't just about actors, it was about writers.  Writers are very important.  Without writers, you retain these stereotypical characters. We thank the studio for their candor in terms of giving us information, but that's not what we signed."
L.A. Times, 5-23-01    

A Multiethnic Coalition press conference was held in Los Angeles to discuss diversity on television. No network executives attended.  The  Multiethnic Coalition released a report card on the quality/quantity of  TV network diversity.  "It's even worse than any of us thought," said Alex Nogales, President of the National Hispanic Media Coalition."  LA Times 5-15-01 
ABC >D-     CBS > D+      Fox  > C-     NBC> C 

Alex Nogales: (213) 746-6988 (West Coast) Jerry Velasco: (323) 466-8566 (West Coast)
Marta Garcia: (212) 965-9758 (East Coast) Lisa Navarrete: (202) 776-1744 (East Coast)
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Yo Soy Betty, La Fea Columbian Spanish Soap Opera

This month, a phenomenon in Spanish-language television comes to a close.  A prime-time soap opera with a homely female lead, "Yo Soy Betty, La Fea, " has won more than 80 million viewers throughout the Western Hemisphere, from South America's Tierra del Fuego to Torrance.  The Columbia-made show airs on Telemundo.  

The show's creator, Fernando Gaitan said that "Latin American soaps are all about the class struggle. They're made for for poor people in countries where it's hard to get ahead in life.  Usually the characters succeed through love.  In mine, they get ahead through work."  

A debate has raged across the world as to the ending of the series.  Should Betty remain the successful "Fea" or improve her appearance and marry the boss - ending as umpteen other Spanish-language telenovelas.     
L.A. Times, 5-6-01
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"The Sopranos" may be the most popular show on cable television, but  Rep. Marge Roukema (R-N.J.), plans to introduce a resolution officially condemning the HBO series as an affront to Italian Americans.  The resolution, if passed has no power of law. Spokesman Steve Wilson said a review of films made between 1928 and last year found nearly three-quarters of them portrayed Italian Americans in a negative manner.  L.A. Times 
Beginning May 28, "The Bold and the Beautiful," the second-highest-rated daytime drama in this country with a daily audience of more than 450 million, will be available in Spanish by activating the Second Audio Program (SAP) feature on TV sets.  "What we're doing is certainly driven by ratings, said Bradley Bell, the show's executive producer and head writer, "but is also is driven by a desire to reach out to another culture."   

"It's certainly not diversity for diversity's sake," said Lucy Johnson, CBS head of daytime programming.  "This is a growing audience to which attention must be paid."  In addition, two  Latinos characters  will be introduced into the cast.  Paulo Benedeti, a Colombian native raised in Florida and Sandra Vida, a former Argentine model.   O.C. Register, 5-14-01 

Last September Home Box Office (HBO) launched a new Spanish-language channel.  Latino viewers are an important and growing part of our audience," said Bernadette Aulestia, director, HBO Latino.  "With this service we hope to not only provide an even greater level of entertainment to our Spanish-speaking viewer, but we are committed to doing so with an identity that is reflective of today's U.S. Latino population."   The network's multiplex line-up, and will be available via cable systems and satellite distributors in major cities that are home to large Latino communities such as New York, Los Angeles, Miami, Chicago, San Antonio, Phoenix, Houston, Sa Diego and el Paso.

 La Voz Newspaper, 9-28-00                                                                       Return to Table of Contents


 . . . Sonya Herrera-Wilson sent PBS website

The following paragraphs are the first and last paragraphs from an extensive review, Killing for God and Gold by Diana de Armas Wilson of the new 4-part PBS television series, Chronicle subscribers can read the complete review by Diana de Armas Wilson, professor of English and Renaissance studies at the University of Denver at:

"It's given to few people in history single-handedly to destroy a civilization." With that caustic remark, Michael Wood sums up the achievement of Hernan Cortes and hints at the carnage documented in Conquistadors, a new 4-part PBS television series. Written and presented by Wood, creator of more than 60 documentaries, the series chronicles the exploits of four key figures in the American conquista: Cortes, Francisco Pizarro, Francisco de Orellana, and Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca.

Driven by market interests, the English, French, and Dutch tirelessly used anti-Spanish propaganda -- ritually fortified by Bartolome de Las Casas' vitriolic condemnation of his own
countrymen -- to combat the Spanish monopoly in America. All of the European empires in the New World started, to some degree, as empires of conquest. With no more Mexicos or Perus
to be plundered, however, the northern-European nations turned to commerce and agriculture for their profits. Although the indigenous victims of European expansionism would eventually
extend from Argentina to Alaska, many English-language writers -- including esteemed novelists like Daniel Defoe -- have smugly attributed to Spaniards the greed and fraud practiced as well by later European imperialists. . . .  The "Black Legend" of Spain's atrocities is belied, for many thinkers, by the near-extermination of the native populations in British North America."

Forwarded by Felix Galaviz, Puente Project                                          Return to Table of Contents

Jerald T. Milanich is a curator in archaeology at the Florida Museum of Natural History and a frequent contributor to Archaeology. Milanich's review of Conquistadors can be found in the May/June Archaeology. The title of the review is: Conquistadors Out of Context, Why a four-part series resembles Survivor as done by the History Channel.  

The following is the last paragraph of his review.  "Am I too critical of Conquistadors?  Perhaps. But I would have liked greater emphasis on the past and fewer trains and boats and planes, more about conquistadors and the impact of the conquest, and fewer shots of our narrator trudging through muddy, rocky, or leafy terrain.  Give me the past, not gimmicks from the present."



Cinco de Mayo  
celebrated for the first time in U.S. history at the White House  

President Bush presided over the typical Mexican festival and also addressed the gathering in Spanish. 

Photo by
Theresa Arzate
President George W. Bush became the first president to deliver a version of his weekly radio address from the Oval Office entirely in Spanish on Saturday May 5th.  Radio Unica carried President Bush' speech on 54 stations across the the country.   O.C. Register, 5-5-01
Once the domain of Hispanic  cultures, tortillas have gone mainstream.  Popularity has fueled the growth of the industry from an industry of  $2.8 billion five years ago to the current  $4.4 billion. 
O.C. Register, 5-24-01
More than 1 in every 14 U.S. residents now traces his or her ancestry to Mexico.
The greatest rate of Hispanic growth was in the Midwest.  Now of Hispanics/Latinos - out of every 7  10, 7 are Mexicans -- growth by 80% to 3.1 million.                                       Return to Table of Contents

10 Most Hispanic U.S. Cities 
Percentage of the population 
that is Latino in the city
*East L.A. not a legally incorporated city.

Latino Population   Ten Largest Cities     Percentage of Hispanics in the United States by Country of Origin 
*East Los Angeles
Laredo, Texas
Brownsville, Texas
Hialeah, Florida
McAllen, Texas
El Paso, Texas
Santa Ana, California
El Monte, California
Oxnard, California 
Miami, Florida

New York City
Los Angeles
San Diego
San Antonio
Puerto Rican
Central American
South American
Dominican Repub.

2000 Census data

"The 2000 census pointed out vividly what attentive politicians already knew: that Hispanic immigrants have spread out over almost all of America, filling jobs others won't take, performing service jobs in affluent suburbs, and reviving moribund factory towns.  It's increasingly clear that the U.S. economy cannot operate at full tempo without the workers our immigration laws now define as illegal.  And it's clear to more and more politicians that they will have many more Latino constituents in the future."  

Michael Barone  U.S. News & World Report, 5-7-01

The number of Hispanic middle-class households - defined as those with annual incomes over $40,000 - increased by about 80% in 20 years.   The Hispanic middle class grew at a rate almost three times faster than non-Hispanic whites.  From a study by the Tomas Rivera Policy Institute, "The Latino Middle Class: Myth, Reality and Potential." 

Sent by Gloria Oliver  O.C. Register, 5-11-01
Top congressional Republicans have joined an effort for a national museum recognizing black Americans, giving the longtime proposal a boost. Rep. John Lewis, a Georgia Democrat said, "I think this is something we can do together in a bipartisan fashion.  It's not just good for African-Americans. It's good for humanity.  We need to tell the story."
O.C. Register, 5-3-01    
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Pearl Harbor 60th anniversary coming up. National Geographic Society's latest project uses a nontraditional format - the Internet - for telling war tales. Across the country, aging veterans or their relatives are sitting down at computers to compose recollections of December 7, 1941.  Hundreds of people have responded to the request for e-mail stories "so that future generations might not forget" Pearl Harbor.  
The online memory book is at: O.C. Register, 5-6-01  
The head of the Japanese American Citizens League said that the movie "Pearl Harbor," could provoke a back-lash of anti-Asian sentiment in the United States.  O.C. Register, 5-22-01
On May 2, 2001, Mario Obledo received the "Lifetime Achievement Award" from the National LULAC Foundation.  Mario Obledo has been a leader in the Latino community for forty years. His service in law, advocacy and civil rights was recognized  in 1998, when he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom from US  President Bill Clinton. As California Secretary of Health and Welfare, Obledo was instrumental in bringing thousands of Latinos into state government.  As national President of LULAC, he extended the influence of the organization into the international arena. Presently, he is the President of the National Coalition of Hispanic Organizations.
Ellis Island Adventure 
  by  Sister Mary Sevilla, CSJ
I was invited to the Grand Opening (April 17,2001) of the American Family Immigration History Center at Ellis Island, NY. The invitation came because of the documentary film made of my researching Grandma Rita Sevilla both in California and in México City. See October 2000 “Somos Primos”. 
(Sister Mary Sevilla was a featured speaker at the SHHAR May 26th quarterly meeting and shared the excitement of the event.)

The whole experience in New York and Ellis Island was a 10++!! Staying with cousins from Mom’s side (Croatian) just a subway ride away was truly helpful . They were great company, enriched my entire experience and, of course, they knew their way around.

The night before the Ellis Island Grand Opening, my cousins said they had tickets for the third in a series of musicals and that night was Irving Berlin! What could be more perfect with his three daughters and other family members in attendance. Many scenes were shown of his movies and a man and/ or woman sang some of his pieces. “Give me Your Tired, Your Poor...” brought goose bumps and the finale of “God Bless America” brought tears.

The Ellis Island program with Tom Brokow as Master of Ceremony was varied and inspirational. Each speaker gave a few minutes of input which helped us to grasp the magnitude of the restoration project and the vast possibilities of research for our ancestors. That, too, ended with God Bless America.

While walking around in the crowd, five or six people called me by name and I was so perplexed that anyone would know me that far away from home. They usually went on to say “ I saw your film or I worked on your film”. The biggest thrill was when Kate’s (the Grandma Rita film producer) assistant Jill emerged from the stall in the restroom (of all places!) and called me by name. We only exchanged a few words but she had worked extensively on the film so it was great to talk with her.

After the buffet luncheon, we went to a reserved room to work the computer and view “Grandma Rita”!!! Parts of the six films had been taken to make an introduction and then we punched my name and on came The Méxican Revolution and the story of researching Grandma Rita Sevilla.

We next checked the passenger lists of arrivals at Ellis island from 1892-1924. We only had a short time short but we did find my great aunt on my Croatian side and we were all thrilled!! The list provided Name, Ehnicity/ Last Residence/ Date of arrival/ Age/ Gender/ Marital status/ Amount of money/ Ship and Port of Departure. Once more the two sides of my family were brought together with the film highlighting research in México City (Dad) and the passenger lists containing members of the Croatian side (Mom).

We spent a short amount of time exploring the many marvelous interactive displays which are simple to operate and yield a great deal of information. It is definitely worth a trip to Ellis Island to walk in the place where your ancestors may have been among the 22 million immigrants to come through the port of New York.

Until you have the chance to go in person you can get started on your own computer. You can search the passenger records and see an abbreviated still version of the Grandma Rita film as well as five other research films at

Mary can be contacted at
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"When something like this goes online, there is always a major flurry of people going to look at it," said Joel L. Spector, president of the Jewish Genealogical Society of Greater Philadelphia. He was speaking of the American Family Immigration Center, a project of the Statue of Liberty Ellis Island Foundation and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The Center's online home,, was announced on 16 April 2001. Since then, the site has been deluged with requests. The site was visited 26 million times, including eight million times in its first six hours.


Santa Ana has the 7th-highest percentage of Hispanics in the nation, 76.1% of the population.
Children from a neighborhood of apartments have a park of their own - in the parking lot of Green Parrot Café off of Main Street, Santa Ana. The unusual arrangement comes from a partnership between the city's recreation department and owners of the Café who are allowing the city free use of the parking lot for after playground activities. City employees supervise.  O.C. Register, 5-26-01  
John Ayala, Dean of Learning Resources at Fullerton College in Fullerton, CA, has been selected as the 2001 Arnulfo D. Trejo Librarian of the Year. This marks the first year featuring the award renamed for REFORMA founder Dr. Trejo.  Ayala's contributions to Latino librarianship span nearly forty years and include experience in both public and academic libraries. Ayala is a founding member of REFORMA and has affectionately become known as "El Padrino de REFORMA." Source: Verla Peterson                                                                    Return to Table of Contents
Old Court House Exhibit, "Fire in the Morning" is a pictorial display of the history of Mexican Americans of Orange County.  The 100 old photographs bring to light a the history of some of the fifteen segregated schools in Orange County.  In El Modena in Orange, two side by side elementary schools - Lincoln School for Mexican children and Roosevelt School for non-Hispanic white children were separated by a chain link fence. The exhibit will be on display until June 20, 2001.   Federation of Orange County Historical Organizations Newsletter, Vol. 21, # 2 
Lupe Gomez, owner of a tax-preparation business is president of the Zacatecan Federation of  Southern California, a 30,000-member organization.  Gomez estimates that about 200 families from his village live in Santa Ana.  More people from the village live in southern California than in the village itself, which now has a population of about 700.  O.C. Register, 5-10-01
Jason Ross, a teacher in a continuation high school in Fountain Valley, California frustrated with not being able to reach his students, threw out the curriculum.  Instead his students read the writings of other teenagers, Freedom Writer's Diary published in 1999.  Students attention in class, their attendance and their attitudes changed, -  reading and writing improved..  "This has been the greatest single thing I've ever done as a teacher. O.C. Register, 5-1-01


Hispanic American Veterans Memorial
Bell Gardens Veterans Park 


The Hispanic American Veterans Memorial was unveiled Saturday May 26th at the Bell Gardens Veterans Park.  Six of the 149 living medal recipients were present to help in the dedication. The new monument  honors all of the 3,436 recipients who received the Medal of Honor in recognition of their patriotism, honor and courage, but the monument gives special recognition to the 39 Latinos who were Medal of Honor recipients.

The more than 80-foot-wide, 20-foot-high statute depicts a fallen soldier in the arms of an angel. The names of the 39 Latinos are etched on the base of the statue.  Two obelisks constructed behind and to the sides of the statue will bear the names of the other honorees.

Mayor Ramiro Morales said, "The Hispanic American Veterans Memorial is long overdue." With a population that is 90% Latino Bell Gardens city council member felt it was important for the city's youths to have examples of heroic individuals. L.A. Times, 5-27-01

The monument was the brain child of Maria Chacon, current city manager.  She conceived of the need when she was mayor of Bell Gardens. Hopefully other communities with a large Hispanic community will duplicate the concept of positive visibility.
To contact Maria Chacon, call Bell Gardens City Hall at:  (562) 806-7702

Editor's note:  Congratulations to the city of Bell Gardens. Thank you for all us. . .well done.

Source:  Rick Aguirre                                                                        Return to Table of Contents

                                                        by John P. Schmal

Sunday, December 7, 1941. When the Dominguez family returned home from church that afternoon,  they heard the startling news. According to the radio reports, the Japanese Imperial Navy had launched a surprise attack on the American naval fleet at Pearl Harbor. 19-year-old Erminio Dominguez and 15-year old Louie Dominguez huddled around the radio with their father Geronimo. By this time, the older siblings of Erminio and Louie had already left home to start their own families. Their mother Luisa had died in childbirth with Louie way back in 1926. 

Although their parents had been born in Sain Alto, Zacatecas, Mexico, Erminio and Louie had both been born and raised in Kansas City, Kansas. And as American citizens, they felt a great sense of outrage and betrayal with this surprise attack. The implications for these important developments became clear to Americans in every part of the country. Able-bodied men in every town of every state made painful decisions to leave their families behind to defend their nation in its time of need. Such was the case for Erminio. Nine months later, on September 2, 1942, after turning 20, Erminio Dominguez enlisted in the Third Ranger Battalion. 

The Rangers were specialized infantry units of the United States Army that were given much tougher training than other infantrymen. Under the command of Colonel William O. Darby, the Third Ranger Battalion was activated and sent to take part in the invasion of Sicily in 1943. Once Sicily had been secured, the Third Rangers also led the way up the Italian peninsula. From the strategic heights at Chinuzi Pass, they fought off eight German counterattacks, winning two Distinguished Unit Citations for their actions as a unit. 

On January 22, 1944, the troops of the Fifth Army stormed ashore a fifteen-mile stretch of Italian beach near the prewar resort of Anzio. These landings, taking place some thirty miles south of Rome, surprised the Germans, who quickly gathered together troops in order to eliminate the beachhead and stop the Allied advance in its tracks. The key town of Cisterna, located about 15 miles northeast of Anzio, was heavily defended by the most experienced German troops in Italy. The American military decided that taking Cisterna would be its first priority and the Ranger Battalions were given this risky assignment.

On the night of January 30, 1944, the First and Third Ranger Battalions infiltrated five miles behind the German Lines. But the Germans, who were preparing for a massive counterattack, had reinforced their lines the night before. Almost immediately, the Rangers were surrounded and greatly outnumbered by the enemy forces. The beleaguered Rangers fought bravely, inflicting many casualties but their ammunition started to run low. In the meantime, the American forces along the beachhead could not break through the strong German positions. Even when they ran out of ammunition, the soldiers of the Third Ranger Battalion fought on with knives and bayonets. Soon, they were reduced to fighting hand-to-hand with the enemy.

In this controversial battle, both Ranger Battalions took heavy casualties. But their brave efforts were not entirely in vain, for later intelligence revealed that the Ranger-led attack on Cisterna had helped spike the planned German counterattack and thwarted Hitler's order to "Push the Allies into the sea." After this terrible debacle, the Third Rangers were disbanded and the survivors, including Erminio Dominguez, were assigned to other units. Erminio's next military assignment would be with the 117th Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron, which had joined General Mark Clark's Fifth Army in April 1944. The 117th soon took its place along the Italian front, some 100 miles south of Rome. Two months later, on June 5, 1944, Erminio Dominguez and the 117th Division entered Rome in triumph.

Meanwhile, back home in Kansas, Louie Dominguez celebrated his 18th birthday on July 30, 1944. Young Louie had watched the progress of the American armies as they fought their way up the Italian peninsula and after the crucial D-Day landings on June 6, 1944. For two long years, Louie had admired and emulated his older brother, the soldier. To his friends and family members, Louie constantly talked about his longing to become a soldier and serve his county like his brother Erminio. Finally, on August 15, 1944, Louie followed his dream and enlisted in the Army.

Louis joined the Seventy-Fifth Infantry Division and began his basic training in Camp Fort McClellan. But a month after his enlistment, Louie heard the stunning news that his brother Erminio had been captured by the Germans. When the American Army had invaded Southern France on August 14, 1944, Erminio and the 117th Division were part of the invasion convoy. In the first days of September, the 117th seized the city of Montrevel with the hope of holding it until reinforcements could arrive.

However, in a day long battle, the German 11th Panzer Division launched a fierce counterattack which overran Montrevel. Erminio Dominguez and his fellow soldiers of the 117th were captured and immediately transported as POWs to Germany. Within days, Erminio was interned at Stalag 7A in Moosburg, Bavaria. The news of Erminio's capture reached Kansas City several weeks later. When Louie heard the news, his patriotic fervor reached its highest point. Writing to his family in Kansas, he proudly stated that he would be among the American forces that would liberate Erminio from his captivity.

Louie Dominguez shipped out to the European Theater in January of 1945. Because the 75th Infantry Division was one of the last units to join the American forces in Europe, it was nicknamed the "Diaper Division." But the 75th made up for lost time, spending 94 consecutive days in contact with the enemy. As the American forces moved closer to the German homeland, the enemy’s resistance grew more determined. In an attempt to halt the Allied advance on their native soil, German forces counterattacked more frequently and with increasing intensity. 

Finally, on March 31, 1945, the 75th Division stood on the border between Holland and Germany. At a small border town called Marl, they approached a hill on which the Germans were entrenched. Louie's Captain surveyed the situation and came to the conclusion that, in order to take this elevated stronghold, he would have to send an advance unit forward to locate the enemy's exact position. When the Captain asked for volunteers, Louie quickly stepped forward. Soon after, Louie and several other soldiers of the 289th Infantry Regiment, 75th Infantry Division, advanced up the hill towards the German positions. Suddenly enemy fire targeted the American soldiers and several of them fell to the ground. On this day, five weeks before the surrender of Nazi Germany, 18-year-old Louie Dominguez died for his country.

On May 8, 1945, Germany unconditionally surrendered to the Allied forces. Soon after, American POWs throughout Germany were released from captivity. Erminio Dominguez, one of 90,000 American POWs, returned home to Kansas City. The brave veteran of the French and Italian campaigns received a warm welcome from his family. However, when Erminio found out that his younger brother Louie had died in combat, his sense of loss was overwhelming. His own war experiences had been terrible. He once told his brother Jesse that the Germans had treated the POWs at Moosburg like animals, sometimes throwing food to the American soldiers as if they were dogs. 

Although Erminio received four bronze stars, the purple heart, the service ribbon and a good conduct medal for his extraordinary service to his country, he never spoke of his experiences in World War II to anyone ever again. However, proud to have served his country, Erminio did become a member of the Kansas City VFW. Two years after being released from German captivity, Erminio Dominguez was married. For the rest of his life, he worked as a forklift operator for the Santa Fe Railroad. On June 8, 1996, Erminio Dominguez died. 

It is believed that some 500,000 Hispanic Americans took up arms for America in World War II. Erminio Dominguez and Louie Dominguez, the sons of Zacatecas immigrants, were two of these soldiers who served proudly. Many of the nephews and nieces of Erminio and Louie have carried on the family’s proud patriotic tradition by serving in the military in the years since World War II. This story, while paying tribute to one family’s service, reminds us that many families have made sacrifices for America. 

Interviews with Jesse Dominguez, Bessie Dominguez Morales, and Louie Gonzalez.
Donna S. Morales and John P. Schmal, My Family Through Time: The Story of a Mexican-American Family (2000, Los Angeles, California).
Milton J. Shapiro, Ranger Battalion: American Rangers in World War II (1979, New York).

Copyright © 2001, by John P. Schmal and Donna S. Morales. All rights under applicable law are hereby reserved. Reproduction of this article in whole or in part without the express permission of John P. Schmal is strictly prohibited.

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In Honor of Memorial Day and your Unrecognized Heroes
Write a story now about your loved ones and share 
with your children and grandchildren next year

Origins of Memorial Day in the United States.

                 The Old Spanish Trail and the Peopling of Alta California
Eighth National Conference presented by the Old Spanish Trail Association
                                   June 9-10, 2001, San Bernardino, California

The Old Spanish Trail was one of the routes that led settlers and traders from Santa Fe, New Mexico, to Los Angeles, California, during the 1800s. The North Branch of the trail runs through the San Luis Valley of Southern Colorado. Because of the rich history of this trail, the Old Spanish Trail Association was formed to help locate long buried or hidden information regarding the trail. The Association would appreciate hearing of any research or historical records available on The Old Spanish Trail.  You may contact them at with any information you may have.

Sent by Dr. Bruce Harley                                                                    Return to Table of Contents

Pio de Jesus Pico, 1801-1894: His Life and Times at the Pico House
Special Exhibit ends July 31, 2001 Open Daily, 11AM-3PM
Photographs, Art, Artifacts, Videos, English and Spanish text, and more. 
424 N. Main Street, Los Angeles CA, 90012    213-628-1274
The Road to Aztlan: Art From a Mythic Homeland: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, features 250 objects that date from approximately 900 BC to the present.  70% of the works displayed fill seven galleries and were made between 900 BC and AD 1521.  The show runs through August 26th L.A. Times, 5-16-01

John Valadez's 60-foot-long painting 
of  a realistic downtown Los Angeles street life was  purchased by Peter Norton.   The 10 panels, painted with the help of photographic images, measure 8 feet high and six feet wide. Valadez and local artists feared that the panels would be sold separately.  Painted in 1981 for the owners of the historic Victor Clothing Co. building, it had been a prominent interior fixture for the past two decades; however the building changed ownership. LA Times, 5-1-01

Hispanics for Los Angeles Opera

A major cultural force in Los Angeles is the Hispanics for Los Angeles Opera. Their  2001-2002 Opera Season  includes La Traviata, La Viuda Alegra, Turandot, and Duke Bluebeard's Castle. 
 24-hour Event Information, (213) 368-9600 or email to
Hispanics for Los Angeles Opera, 135 N. Grand Ave. Los Angeles, Ca 90012    (213) 972-8001

    Photographs by Jose Galvez"
June 10, 2001 through July 8, 2001

The Avenue 50 Studio will host an art exhibit by Pulitzer Prize winning photographer Jose Galvez. 1984 Pulitzer was for a series on the Mexican American experience in Los Angeles. He is the first Chicano to receive a Pulitzer. 

"These photographs arise from my sense of responsibility to my family, my community and my culture. Since I began my career as a photographer, I have seen campesinos from Mexico go from wearing huaraches to Nikes and Dallas Cowboy baseball caps. But one thing has been a constant in the Latino community - respect for family and for heritage. This is my culture, a culture that I am deeply proud of."  -- Jose Galvez

RECEPTION: June 15, 2001 7:30 - 10:00 p.m.
The Avenue 50 Studio, 131 North Avenue 50, Highland Park, CA 90041 (323) 258-1435 

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Editors note:  The nation is looking at California and particularly at Southern California.  This is the opening paragraph of One View by Emma Sepulveda in the April 29th Reno Gazette-Journal, Reno, Nevada:  "I don't want to be the first Latino mayor, I want to be a mayor for everybody," said Antonio Villaraigosa after the results of the Los Angeles primary race for mayor were tabulated a few week ago.  Despite his pronouncement, if he wins in the June 1st runoff election, he will not only be the mayor of all "Angelinos," he will be the first Latino mayor of Los Angeles since 1872.  Sent by Cindy Lobuglio 

Editor's note: The origin of the surname Villaraigosa will not be found in books. It is a compilation of Antonio's birth surname, Villa and his wife's birth surname, Raigosa - a gesture of equality.  
Southern California Vital Records
Volume 1: Los Angeles County 1850-1859

by Ted Gostin
For more information:

This volume presents something never before available -- a detailed index to birth, marriage and death records in Los Angeles County at a time when there were no public birth or death records.  Data on 9,000 events has been compiled from eight different public and private sources, including:

  • Public marriage records
  • Church records
  • Probate records
  • Censuses
  • Cemetery records
  • Newspaper announcements
  • Local histories
  • Personal memoirs

This groundbreaking work is the first volume in a series which will eventually cover Los Angeles County from 1850 to 1879, a period in which the public recording of vital records was incomplete.  Volume 2 will cover the decade from 1860-1869, and Volume 3 will cover the years 1870-1879.  Data in the first volume was compiled over a three-year period by the author, Ted Gostin, a professional genealogist in Los Angeles with over 20 years experience researching Los Angeles County records.

There are separate chapters for Births & Baptisms, Marriages, and Deaths and Burials.  Each chapter has introductory comments, followed by the indexes themselves.  Each index is presented in tables on two facing pages.  Information on the participants in the event is presented on the left-hand page, and dates, source information and comments are presented on the right-hand page.   Entries are numbered consecutively and record numbers are presented on both pages, making it easy to track one record from the left-hand to right-hand page.  The birth and death indexes are presented in single, alphabetical lists, while marriages are presented in two alphabetical lists, one for both brides and grooms.

Sent by Johanna de Soto                                                                 
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Peter Carr, 
Archeologist in the Field

I am working on an archaeological project in the Santa Barbara, California area, monitoring the construction of an underground fiber optic line along the Union Pacific Railroad right-of-way.

Archaeologists, biologists, and native-American monitors are required by state and county law to make sure that no damage is done to cultural or natural resources as construction progresses. My days are presently about 12 hours long and filled with heavy machinery and noise. If we encounter any archaeological resources, instead of trenching to lay the line, construction becomes the process of 'pushing' or boring a hole about 100 feet deep to avoid disturbing anything.

There are many native-American sites along the way but since most have been documented, they can be easily avoided. The native people in this area were various groups known as the Chumash. They subsisted on much seafood such as clams and small fish, but also had canoes which they used to go as far as the channel islands. For example, one of those islands which has a very dense midden of occupation is San Nicolas Island.

If we find something of interest along the way.  I will surely send another 'report'. 

Los Californianos celebrates the arrival of the Anza Expedition establishing the San Francisco Presidio 225 years ago on June 27th, 1771.  Opening ceremonies will begin at 11 a.m. on Wednesday, June 27, 2001, at the Pershing Square flagpole in the Presidio.  Amigos de Anza will arrive on horseback led by Don Garate as Juan Bautista de Anza.  

More information:
Latinos faculty at the University of California at Berkeley are 4% of the total faculty, but the student  body is about 33% Latino.     LA Times, 5-15-01 
Oxnard City Council voted 5-0 against a plan to bring Indian gambling to the city.  A Nevada company in partnership with landless tribes is selecting sites in California to create new urban reservations for casinos.  Experts say only a handful of landless tribes have been allowed to set up new reservations nationwide.  Two are proposed for blighted areas of Oakland and San Francisco.  L.A.Times, 5-10-01                                                           Return to Table of Contents
Concrete evidence reveals that Baja California started pulling away 12.5 million years ago from mainland Mexico, but the bulk of the peninsula's movement has taken place within the past 6.5 million years.  O.C. Register, 5-5-01
Alarmed by vandalism at an archeological treasure in Carrizo Plain National Monument, federal and state officials are studying ways to use modern technology, perhaps even orbiting satellites, to prevent destruction of ancient artifacts. The site's isolation makes it an easy target for vandalism. L.A. Times, 5-21-01 
Barahona Center for the Study of Books in Spanish, California State University San Marcos, Under  "Recommended Books" users can query access of a database of more than 6,000 recommended books in Spanish for children and adolescents published around the world.  Sent by Isabel Schon, Ph.D.
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The Rootsweb Family Reunion Website is:

 Sent by Sam-Quito Padilla G.
Oxnard Public Library Home Page  is bilingual. Click for English or Spanish. 
Sent by Doug McLaughlin, Oxnard Public Library.
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The Century Magazine for December 1890


First hand account by Guadalupe Vallejo who writes in 1890, "What I wish to do is to tell, as plainly and carefully as possible, how the Spanish settlers lived, and what they did in the old days. The story will be partly about the Missions, and partly about the great ranches."

Do read . . the idyllic memories recorded by one of the signers of the California constitution.  In addition there are connections to many, many other sites covering aspects of California history. 

Sent by Johanna de Soto

Rancho Maps: Rancho San Miguel, Sonoma County, 1849
(District Court. California, Northern District. Land case 326 ND, page 178; land case map D-664A (Bancroft Library). Guadalupe Vasquez de West, et al., clmts.)  (Call No. G4361.G465 svar .L3 no.D-664-A Case D)

Sent by Johanna de Soto

Antique Maps  -- Over 8,000 Maps Online with Pictures/Descriptions

I would like to let you know about a new web site selling original antique maps of California.

Art Source sells original antique maps of California in addition to some incredible reproductions. 
We have over 9000 antique maps on our site. Use the database search at the top of any page and type "California".

You can also….Enter our monthly contest:
Download FREE Antique map Screensavers:

Art Source International Inc.
1237 Pearl Street, Boulder, Colorado 80302
Phone 303.444.4079     Email: INFO@MAPSANDPRINTS.COM          
Return to Table of Contents

If you are researching in California, be sure and put this site into your favorites.  
It is an outstanding site being maintained by the California State University system.. 

Sent by Johanna de Soto                                                                Return to Table of Contents

          EL REAL EJERCITO DE CALIFORNIA by Carlos Lopez Urrutia

Book Description: A history in Spanish of the Spanish Royal Army in California. It narrates a chronological series of events, describes the presidios, the port fortifications, life in an isolated army post, etc.  It contains 16 pgs of colored illustrations of soldier's uniforms, presidios and flags.

About the Author: Carlos Lopez is a Professor of Humanities at Menlo College. He was born in
Chile. He is the author of ten books about the History of California and Maritime History of Chile, including three in English. His books have been published in Argentina, Chile, Peru, Spain and the United States. His eleventh book, a Life of Joaquin Murrieta is in the process of editing in
Mexico, where a printing of 50000 copies is planned. 

López Urrutia, Carlos: EL REAL EJERCITO DE CALIFORNIA. España, Grupo Medusa Ediciones, 2000, 317 pp. Puede ordenarse en línea ($23 dólares más envío), vía

Esta obra narra cronológicamente la historia militar de la California española; describe sus presidios, las raquíticas defensas en sus puertos, la vida de los soldados en estos aislados puestos de los confines septentrionales de la Nueva España; relata anécdotas de sus sucesivos
gobernadores, etc.  Es de fácil lectura; cita sus fuentes a pie de página; concluye con una relación de archivos consultados y extensa bibliografía de fuentes primarias, secundarias y generales.  No presenta índice onomástico. Está ilustrada con reproducciones de grabados antiguos en blanco y negro, más 16 láminas a color con recreaciones artísticas de uniformes, armas y monturas, presidios y banderas.

El Doctor en Historia Carlos López Urrutia, natural de Concepción, Chile, es Profesor de Humanidades en Menlo College, California.  Es autor de diez libros sobre la historia de California y la historia de la Armada Chilena--tres de ellos en inglés.  Ha publicado en Argentina, Chile, Perú,España y Estados Unidos.

Su undécima obra está por publicarse en México y preveé 50,000 ejemplares en la edición: "La Vida de Joaquín Murrieta". Este "Robin Hood" de la Fiebre de Oro en California, "¡Sonorense, por
supuesto!" según los mexicanos; "¡Chileno, de todas maneras!" según no perdonan los chilenos, mientras los norteamericanos aguardan a que unos u otros presenten pruebas contundentes de la nacionalidad y antecedentes del propietario de la cabeza que, en frasco de vidrio con alcohol, durante años anduvo exhibiéndose en ferias anglocalifornianas, hasta encontrar descanso
eterno durante el terremoto e incendio de San Francisco en 1906. Definitivamente tendremos que estar pendientes para enterarnos de las conclusiones a que ha llegado el Dr. López Urrutia.

Del mismo autor, actualmente pueden consultarse en Internet dos extensos artículos:

"Real Ejército de California" (condensado) < >
así como "Los Insurgentes del Sur, Los intentos navales argentino-chilenos
por ayudar en la Independencia de México"

Este último es un estudio que versa sobre los controvertidos puntos de vista nacionalistas en derredor de los corsarios con patente de las Armadas Argentina y Chilena--ingleses en su gran mayoría, desempleados de la oficialidad y marinería británica al término de las guerras napoleónicas. "Patriotas libertadores", para Sudamérica" = "piratas", para la Nueva España"-- según el color del cristal con que se mira.

El profundo conocimiento y familiaridad del autor--chileno con algunos años de formación en Argentina y varias décadas de residencia e impartición de la cátedra de historia en California --tanto con el contexto histórico sudamericano como con el de Baja y Alta California, aunado a una profunda investigación en fuentes primarias y secundarias de ambas latitudes, confieren al Dr. López Urrutia la visión panóptica requerida para presentar las irrupciones de los corsarios en nuestras costas con plena objetividad de historiador imparcial--factor del que han adolecido quienes anteriormente se habían acercado a estos eventos.

Con cordiales saludos desde Huixquilucan,

Source: Carmen Boone de Aguilar       Return to Table of Contents
US Census Bureau released initial figures on Hispanics in  Utah, revealing that Hispanics as a group increased by 140% in the past ten years. 
Source: Kent Larsen  5-11-01

"We are the largest family history center in the world," said Diane R. Parkinson, microforms librarian and director of the Utah Valley Regional Family History Center. The center is located at Brigham Young University's Harold B. Lee Library. With 678,000 rolls of microfilm, over
two million microfiche, and one million books relating to family history, the center offers an abundance of resources for students and the community. Over 200 volunteers, most serving Church-service missions, staff the center
.                                                                                                   Return to Table of Contents


  Elsa Herbeck
points to evidence of 
28-inch walls of sandstone and rock.
RESTORATION,  Laredo Morning Times, 5-20-01 Photos: Michael Short
La Casita de Laredo, located at 1600 San Edwardo St, Laredo, Texas   (Reporter: Jessica Kent) Walter and Elsa Herbeck are getting a deeper knowledge of the history, culture, and art in Laredo as the began to restore a house purchased by ancestors from Edwardo Pena in 1928.  With loving care, the restoration will respect the historical integrity of their house.

Thank you to Elsa/Walter Herbeck and George Gause for forwarding the article and their efforts to improve their community and respect our shared past.   210-684-9741
                   Laredo Area Genealogy - 60,000 names Collected

Father Florencio Andres undertook exhaustive genealogical research on Laredo area families. This research was done approximately seventy-five years ago over a period of 14 years while he worked at St. Agustine Catholic Cathedral in Laredo. Father Andres went from door-to-door collecting family information. Having ill health he was not obligated to do usual priestly duties and turned his free time and energy toward his love of Laredo history as well as its people. His research resulted in a genealogical manuscript containing over 60,000 names!

Additional names from St. Peters, Guadalupe Church and other old records consulted by Father Andres are also part of this project - a bonus!

The project of compiling these invaluable records into computer readable format was undertaken by Annie Rice Ramos and others between 1999 and 2001 as a fundraising project to benefit St. Agustin Cathedral.  And through her efforts Father Andres' work has both been preserved and 
is now made widely available for researchers for the first time.. 

Two sets of names are included, although it is not known why Father Andres had a separate grouping of 20,000 names. The integrity of his work has been maintained and has been retained exactly the way he compiled it. It is the theory of Annie Ramos, who undertook this massive project, that one set is different from the rest because one set of names is arranged by land title / land grants.

Example of entry: Vicente Barrera 1804 Mier hd. Manuel and Jovita Flores [note: hd = child of]

Two (2) CD-ROMs (both PC and Mac compatible) have been produced and are now available for $60.00 until June 1, 2001 and thereafter will be $75.00 a set (they are NOT sold individually) and a $2.00 shipping and handling fee is added if you want the CDs mailed to you. Checks 
should be made to St. Agustine Cathedral and mailed to CD Order, Minnie Farias, 201 San Agustin Avenue, Laredo, Texas 78040.

Sent by George Gause
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                                            Rio Grande Valley Website
Listing of thousands of family surnames of 20th Century families who  lived in the Rio Grande Valley. Dennis V Carter, the Genealogist who owns  this web page, is available to begin immediate research on any of the  thousands of names  listed on this site. Additional surnames will be added  on a weekly basis. United States research from 1620 to present; Texas  research 1835 to present of all nationalities; Mexico research of 1750 to 1900  of Roman Catholic Church records, Mexico Civil Records 1860-1900, and 1930  Mexico Census.

Source: Dennis V Carter,       Sent by George Gause

                          Tejano Statue a Step Closer to the Capitol Grounds

Austin- State Representative Ismael "Kino" Flores (D-Palmview),  and Senator Mario Gallegos, Chairman of the Texas Senate  Hispanic caucus, announced that the Senate Committee on 
Administration gave its stamp of approval today, by a unanimous  vote, of their proposal found in House Concurrent Resolution 38  to erect a statue on the Capitol grounds commemorating the 
contributions of Tejanos to the State of Texas. The intent the  resolution is to ensure that the contributions of Tejanos to the  state of Texas are realized, documented, and never forgotten. 

The two legislators joined Senate Administration Committee  Chairman David Cain of Dallas, to sound off their support of  placing a beacon on the Capitol grounds to serve as a reminder 
of the accomplishments and contributions of Tejanos past and  present. The monument will be a source of pride for all Texans.

"We are committed to a first class monument that all Texans  will be proud of........the statue will grace the Capitol grounds  with a depiction of the values that the early Tejanos based 
their foundation on: family, hard work, and sacrifice," said  Flores. 

"Having a statue at the capitol publicly recognizes and pays  tribute to the contributions Hispanics have made in Texas,"  said Sen. Gallegos, Chair of the Senate Hispanic Caucus (SHC).  "It will be a very meaningful symbol of appreciation for our  community."

HCR 38 stipulates that the statue, monument, or exhibit be  privately funded, that donors names not be inscribed on the  statue, that the State Preservation Board approve its design  and location, and that the Board manage the installation of the  statue. The resolution is simple, to the point, and without  opposition. 

HCR 38 will next visit the Senate floor on May 15, where  Senator Gallegos expects it will be finally passed. Questions  regarding support of the statue, making donations, or  participating in events surrounding the statue, should be  directed to Rep. Flores' Capitol Office at 512-463-0704. 

SOURCE: Mira Smithwick, SAGA, Corpus Christi, Texas
Sent by  (Elsa P Herbeck)
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                                 Commemoration of Tejano contributions

Hi Cousins and Friends,

I wanted to tell you about a very special event that I attended  this evening, May 17th.. It was a reception in the Lt.  Gov.'s Reception Room in the Texas Capitol, to celebrate passage of the bill to erect a statue on the capitol grounds to commemorate the Tejano pioneers. When this project
is completed, it will be the first such monument to Tejano history. The intent the resolution is to ensure that the contributions of Tejanos to the state of Texas are realized, documented, and never forgotten.

The reception was well attended with representation from the Rio Grande Valley, Goliad, Premont, Laredo and other areas. Among those present were Sen. Truan; Sen. Lucio; Sen. Van de Putte; Rep. Flores; Rep. Hinojosa; Rep. Najera; Rep. Longoria; Rep. Reyna; Homero Vera, Editor of El Mesteno; Andres Tijerina, author of Tejano Empire; and many others. Many thanks to George
Gause for using his extensive network to get the word out and to Andres Tijerina for his leadership and service on the Committee.

Statements related to the event were: "We are committed to a first class monument that all Texans will be proud of........the statue will grace the Capitol grounds with a depiction of the values that the early Tejanos based their foundation on: family, hard work, and sacrifice."

"Having a statue at the capitol publicly recognizes and pays tribute to the contributions Hispanics have made in Texas."

The resolution (HCR 38) stipulates that the statue, monument, or exhibit be privately funded, that donors names not be inscribed on the statue, that the State Preservation Board approve its design and location, and that the Board manage the installation of the statue.

Questions regarding support of the statue, making donations, or participating in events surrounding the statue, should be directed to Rep. Flores' Capitol Office at 512-463-0704.

Sincerely, Diana Borja 

Diana said the leadership is coming from several, including Andres Tijerina and Homero Vera.
Sent by George Gause                                     Return to Table of Contents

                                            Juan N. Seguin Memorial Highway

We wanted all of Hwy 225 for the redesignation Juan N. Seguin Memorial Hwy. . . . . The only city that gave its approval was Hou.  We the Tejano Association for Historical Preservation asked Hou, Deer Park, La Porte, and Pasadena. Only Hou said that the change would be effective immediately. Members from the Tejano Association and its President Benny C. Martinez addressed each city and its mayor for their support. I hope that this gets passed as we have worked hard on this one.

Sent by: Loretta Williams, Secretary, 
Tejano Association for Historical Preservation

On May 23, received a message from Loretta that Senate Bill 1831 had passed.
The next step is a signature from the Governor which is considered routine. This bill authorizes renaming portions of Highway 225 & a San Jacinto Battleground Park Road in memory of Juan Seguin. You can go to and type in SB 1831 to read the bill or go to our web page at

About the Paso al Norte Immigration History Museum and Research Center

It was a pleasure to have participated in an effort that promises to change the way Americans and people across the world will understand the critical issues of immigration and migration and the people who take part in it. The recent issue of the Economist on global immigration underscores how urgently we need intelligent discussion on these issues, one based on human historical experiences like the ones your museum will interpret. All of the articles on contemporary migration in the US focused on the Mexican border, demonstrating that the world is looking to people from cities like El Paso to tell their stories.

Liz Sevcenko, Vice President of Programs, Lower East Side Tenement Museum
Coordinator, International Coalition of Historic Site Museums of Conscience

El Paso is the fifth-biggest city in Texas, with a population of roughly 575,000. It is wedged in a corner between Mexico and New Mexico. Physically, it is closer to Palm Springs than Houston.  It's even in a different time zone than the rest of the state.  The metropolitan area ranks near the bottom nationally in per capita income and near the top in the number of people lacking health insurance.   The El Paso School District has a staggering 87.5% dropout rate.

Los Angeles Times, 5-29-01                                                                     Return to Table of Contents

May 21, 2001 the Texas Senate on Monday unanimously passed a bill that  would save the state's undocumented students thousands of dollars a  year by making them eligible for residential college tuition rates. The measure had already been passed by the House.
Houston Chronicle, 5-21-01
Texas Records: Birth General Records
SOURCE: Dennis V. Carter
Longoria webpage updated...
Sent by Danny Villarreal
San Antonio Council Member Ed Garza won the mayor's race in a landslide on Saturday May 5th to become the city's second Hispanic chief executive in 100 years. Garza, 32, garnered nearly 60 percent of the vote and bested Council Member Tim Bannwolf by a 2-1 margin. "This is a city I'm passionate about," Garza told his supporters Saturday night. "I'm excited about the task."  Garza is one of five Hispanics running for mayor in some of the nation's largest cities.

Read more at  and Zeke Hernandez
El Mesteno publication

The site includes a fantastic listing of related links for South Texas Northern Mexico researchers - which keeps expanding.  Get on this quick!                                           Return to Table of Contents

Los Porciones is Hosting the Texas State Hispanic Genealogical Conference, Sept 26-29,2002    Dr. Adalberto Garza "constructed" this web site for all Tejano researchers .


The state of New Mexico receives the largest per capita surplus from the federal government than any other state.  California, Texas, Illinois, and New York are among the states which receive less than is paid to the federal government in taxes.  U.S. News & World Report, 1-15-01 
A collage of the Virgin of Guadalupe clad in a flowery bikini - a work both denounced as a disrespectful and defended as free expression - will stay at the Museum of International Folk Art in Santa Fe, New Mexico until October 28.  Archbishop Michael Sheehan said he will continue to oppose the display as sacrilegious and insensitive.  L.A. Times, 5-23-01   Return to Table of Contents
Colorado Marriages and Divorces Search
Search on all marriages (from 1975 through February 2001) and divorces (from 1968 through February 2001) in the state of Colorado.

                 Wills of Spanish-Colonial Women Overlooked by Historians
                            Southern Methodist University History Researcher Study

Meredith Dickenson,  News and Information, (214) 768-7654  

If they had anything at all, the Spanish-colonial women living on the frontier of New Spain had a little land and perhaps some meager furnishings. Most had outlived their husbands and many, their children. In a harsh and remote landscape, some even managed a few luxuries, such as Gertrudis Estebana who left five pounds of chocolate to her heirs.

These rare and often sentimental insights into the lives of ordinary Spanish-colonial women living between 1770 and 1820 were unearthed by Amy Meschke, a Clements Scholar and Ph.D. candidate in American history at Southern Methodist University, who studied the wills of 20 women from San Esteban de Nueva Tlaxcala, a frontier settlement in northern Mexico that no longer exists. She discovered these buried testaments in the archives of Saltillo, Mexico.

Overlooked by historians of the Spanish-colonial era, the wills offer a window into the way people lived in the Texas and Mexico borderlands more than 200 years ago. Meschke decided to compare the wills of the San Esteban women to the wills of more affluent women in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a larger and more settled Spanish-colonial community. She will present her study, "The Women of San Esteban de Nueva Tlaxcala and Their Wills in the Late Spanish Colonial Period," at the annual meeting of the Texas State Historical Association March 1 in Houston.

"Social history has taken off in the field of Spanish-colonial history," Meschke says. "For so long the emphasis was on studying the building of missions and on conquests and explorations, but now historians are beginning to study ordinary people."

These wills are valuable to historians, Meschke says, because most people who lived in the Spanish colonies could neither read nor write. Historians, therefore, have few letters, diaries and other first-hand accounts of people's lives. The wills discovered by Meschke tell her about possible mortality and fertility rates; wealth and class differences; the role of religion; the types of property owned and agricultural practices; and the importance of Spanish law and custom in protecting the inheritance and property rights of Spanish-colonial women.

"The women of San Esteban in the late colonial period lived in a different time. They had to contend with Indian raids, diseases and being remote from the center of New Spain," Meschke says. "Most women could count on being widowed and losing children during their lives. Nonetheless, widowhood and protection under Spanish law provided the women of San Esteban with some independence. They used their wills to pass on their property, no matter how little they might have had."

Meschke says the comparisons show that many women who wrote wills in Santa Fe were elites who needed to protect their estates, while the women of San Esteban were not wealthy, but used testaments for a similar purpose, which was to protect their privileges. She plans to conduct further research, looking at wills over a longer period and comparing men and women's wills in order to understand the different and similar experiences of men and women in these frontier settlements.

Note to Editor: A copy of Meschke's paper "The Women of San Esteban de Nueva Tlaxcala and Their Wills in the Late Spanish Colonial Period" is available by calling the SMU Office of News and Information at 214-768-7650.

Office of News and Information.  Southern Methodist University, PO Box 750174
Dallas TX 75275-0174  214-768-7650   Fax 214 768-7663

Sent by Johanna de Soto                                                                   Return to Table of Contents


The Mexican Fine Arts Center Museum in Chicago is one of about twenty Latino Museums in the United States, but MFACM is dedicated solely to Mexican arts.  The museum was first envisioned  in 1982 by teachers at Bowen High School as a 'center museum'.  A site that would reflect "first voice" - the idea that communities have a need and a right to tell their own experiences firsthand.  The center successfully functions as both a fine arts museum and community center.  The museum does not charge admission, has never been in the red and received 112,000 visitors, between 38-43% were not Mexican.   L.A. Times 4-28-01

                               La Llorana del Rio Chosen for Film Festivals

We are proud to announce that our film "La Llorana del Rio" has been chosen to participate at the Angelciti International Film Festival in Chicago which will be held in June. For more information please visit their website at   We have also been accepted to the NY Latino International Film Festival that will be held June 19-29th of this year. Check out the website - follow these instructions:   - click on Festival Info - click on Film Description - click on Vanguard shorts - click on La Llorona del Rio

Sent by Terri Thrush, Producer                                                          Return to Table of Contents
                                Hispanic population increases in Chicago

By Dan Mihalopoulos and Evan Osnos
(Chicago) Tribune staff reporters, May 10, 2001

A decade of surging immigration from Mexico has helped Chicago vault past Houston and San Antonio to make its Mexican community the second largest in the nation after Los Angeles.

The number of Chicago residents of Mexican origin grew 50 percent over the last decade to more than 530,000, according to newly released data from the 2000 census.

Statewide, the Hispanic population grew from 904,446 to 1.53 million over the decade, with Mexicans making up 75 percent of the total. The state is now home to 1.14 million Mexican-Americans and Mexican immigrants.

The Puerto Rican population in Illinois rose only 8 percent and stands at 157,851 while the Cuban population grew 1.3 percent to 18,438, census data shows. The rest of the Hispanic community
consists mostly of Central and South Americans.

Non-Hispanics often fail to appreciate the diversity among Hispanics, who may speak a common language but come from countries whose cultures are as varied as Americans of European
or Asian descent.

Los Angeles County remains home to the largest number of Mexicans in the nation. It recorded an ethnic Mexican population of 3 million, a concentration surpassed only by Mexico City, Guadalajara and Monterrey. 

Of the 35 million Hispanics counted in the 2000 census, more than 20.6 million were Mexican. That means that more than one in 12 U.S residents now claims Mexican roots.

The profile of the Hispanic community differs from region to region. The number of Puerto Ricans in the 50 states totals 3.4 million, with the bulk concentrated in New York and the Northeast. The Cuban population totals 1.24 million, with 67 percent of that in Florida.

The city's first Mexican neighborhood formed early in the 20th Century in South Chicago, near steel mills and rail yards. Significant clusters of Mexicans have now spread as far from the city as Lake and McHenry Counties, with service and small-scale manufacturing jobs acting as a magnet to draw people away from traditional enclaves on the West Side and Far South Side.

With the Mexican community far larger than other Hispanic groups, political tensions have begun to stir among Chicago's Latinos. Recent aldermanic and state legislative races have pitted Mexican-American candidates against Puerto Ricans, and ethnicity became an issue in the races just as it has over the decades for Irish, Polish and other white ethnic political blocs.

One reason for the tension is that Puerto Ricans, all of whom are U.S. citizens, enjoy an outsize share of the political representation among Hispanics. Roughly half of the 25 Hispanic elected officials in Cook County are Puerto Rican even though Mexicans predominate, according to the Chicago-based U.S. Hispanic Leadership Institute.  . . . But as they push for more representation in the legislature and the City Council, Hispanic activists insist that there is more to unite Hispanics than divide them. 

Sent by Zeke Hernandez                                                                     Return to Table of Contents
In the 1990s - -  Tennessee's Latino population increased by 278%
                        North Carolina's grew by 394%.                                        L.A. Times, 5-16-01 

East Coast

                             World War II Memorial, Washington, D.C. Mall

WASHINGTON, May 29 -- Today, President Bush signed H.R. 1696, a bill that will honor the 16 million Americans who served in uniform during the war, their families, and all those who contributed to the war effort by ending the delay in construction of the planned World War II Memorial. The Memorial will be built in the heart of our nation's capital between the Washington Monument and Lincoln Memorial on the National Mall. 

Honoring the Men and Women of World War II -- Congress originally authorized the creation of a National World War II Memorial in 1993, but technicalities and litigation have delayed its 
construction. Three million World War II veterans have died since the Memorial was first authorized, and an estimated one million more will die during the 30 months the Memorial will take to complete. 

Former Senator Bob Dole and actor Tom Hanks have raised over $170 million in a non-profit memorial fund for the Memorial's construction .

Sent by Zeke Hernandez                                                                       Return to Table of Contents

Genealogical Research Orientation to the Library of Congress - Seminar

Albert E. Smith, Jr. will present an all-day seminar on Friday, June 22 and Saturday, June 23 from 10:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. His seminar is designed as a basic introduction for researchers using Library of Congress collections and resources. Registration begins-10:00 a.m.

Mr. Smith is the Reference Librarian and Military Historian at the Library of Congress. Her is particularly well versed in the Mexican War, Civil War and Spanish American War. He holds a MLS from the Atlanta University and has been with the Library of Congress for fifteen years. 

Each session includes an introduction to:
· The Library's Reading Rooms
· Library of Congress collections
· Locating and requesting materials in a closed-stack library
· Conducting research efficiently in the Library of Congress
· Using Library of Congress Subject Headings and other sources for  searching by subject
· Finding published bibliographies and topical indexes in print and  electronic formats
· Using the card catalog and online databases
· Finding serial citations and call numbers
· Electronic resources - including CD-ROMs, Firstsearch and the Internet

For more information about the seminar, contact Chairman GL Moore at 440.234-7508, 
Brent Morgan (216) 382-7297 or Registrar, Nancy Leinweber at 440.257.9245.
                                                                                                          Return to Table of Contents
Tickets are now on sale nationwide for The 2001 New York International Latino Film Festival. The festival will take place from June 19-24. All- Access badges can be purchased through our website at   by calling 1-800-965-4827. Student discounts are available. Highlights include:
*Dominican Night-Featuring exclusive world premieres of the best in Dominican film.
*An AOL Latin America, Avid Technologies and Volume.Com Media Lounge
*Advance World Premieres
*Industry Panels
A full listing and schedule of films and events can be found at


                                            Vete Sano, Regresa Sano
June 15th, the Mexican government will being to distribute 200,000 survival kits to people planning to head north. The two million program, funded by the Mexican government, Vete Sano, Regresa Sano kits will contain medicine and information to prepare emigrants for what they will face on the trip which usually includes treks through remote deserts and mountains.  The Mexican government is seeking funds from California Endowment, a Woodland Hills - based health foundation.  The foundation has set aside $50 million for programs that improve the health of California farm workers, part of that to be used in conjunction with the Mexican government.  The packets and health workshops are to be presented to 369 of Mexico's poorest municipalities, mostly in Oaxaca, Michoacan, Zacatecas and Jalisco states.  O.C. Register, 5-16-01 

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                                   THE HISTORY OF ZACATECAS
                                                by John P. Schmal

The state of Zacatecas, located in the north-central portion of the Mexican Republic, is a land rich in cultural, religious, and historical significance. With a total of 75,040 square kilometers, Zacatecas is Mexico's eighth largest state and occupies 3.383% of the total surface of the country. Politically, the state is divided into fifty-six municipios and has a total of 5,064 localities, 86% of which correspond to the old haciendas. 

With a population of 1,441,734 inhabitants, Zacatecas depends upon cattle-raising, agriculture, mining, communications, food processing, tourism, and transportation for its livelihood. Although much of Zacatecas is desert, the primary economic driver of the state is agriculture. Zacatecas is Mexico's foremost producer of beans, chili peppers and cactus leaves, and holds second place in guava production, third in grapes, and fifth in peaches. 

In the middle of the Sixteenth Century, Zacatecas was merely one part of a larger area that the Spaniards referred to as La Gran Chichimeca (which also included Jalisco, Aguascalientes, Nayarit and Guanajuato). This area, which was inhabited by several indigenous tribes, had never been conquered by the Aztec Indians of the south. The Aztecs, in fact, had collectively referred to these nomadic Indians as the Chichimecas (a derogatory term meaning "the sons of dogs"). The four primary tribes who inherited the area of present-day Zacatecas were the Zacatecos, Cazcanes, Guachichiles, and the Tepehuanes.

After the conquest of southern Mexico in 1521, Hernán Cortés sent several expeditions north to explore La Gran Chichimeca. Juan Alvarez Chico and Alonso de Avalos each led expeditions northward into the land we now call Zacatecas. By this time, the Aztec and Tlaxcalan nations had aligned themselves with the Spaniards and most explorations were undertaken jointly with Spanish soldiers and Indian warriors. These expeditions went north in the hopes of developing trade relations with the northern tribes and finding mineral wealth. Each expedition was accompanied by missionaries who carried Christianity and the Word of God to native peoples.

However, in 1529, Nuño de Guzmán, leading a force of 500 Spaniards and 10,000 Indian allies from the south of Mexico, marched through Michoacán, Nayarit, Jalisco, Durango, Sinaloa, and Zacatecas. Although these lands had already been claimed by Avalos and other explorers, Guzmán ignored prior rights of discovery by provoking the natives to revolt so that he might subdue them. Guzmán's campaign led to the killing, torture, and enslavement of thousands of Indians. However, reports of Guzmán's brutal treatment of the indigenous people got the attention of the authorities in Mexico City. Eventually, he was arrested and put on trial. Although Guzmán was returned to Spain where he died in poverty and disgrace, his reign of terror had long-lasting repercussions in Zacatecas, which now became a part of the Spanish colony of Nueva Galicia. 

In February 1540, Francisco Vásquez de Coronado set out in search of the Seven Cities of Cibola. However, the departure of Coronado's expedition had left the small Spanish settlements in Nueva Galicia seriously undermanned. Still reeling from the cruelty of Guzmán, the Indian population began a fierce rebellion against the Spanish authorities and their Indian allies from the south. This revolt, referred to as the Mixtón Rebellion, started in the Spring of 1540 and lasted until December 1541. Eventually, the Spanish forces were able to regain their advantage and suppress the revolt. 

In 1546, a Basque noble, Juan de Tolosa, was the first European to find silver in Zacatecas when a small group of Indians living near the present-day city of Zacatecas brought him several pieces of ore as a gift. In the same year, the small mining settlement of Zacatecas, located 8,148 feet above sea level, was founded. In the next few years, the dream of quick wealth brought a multitude of prospectors, entrepreneurs, and laborers streaming into Zacatecas. Rich mineral-bearing deposits would also be discovered farther north in San Martín (1556), Chalchihuites (1556), Avino (1558), Sombrerete (1558), Fresnillo (1566), Mazapil (1568), and Nieves (1574). 

Unfortunately, the stampede of Spanish settlers and Indian laborers from southern Mexico had ignored the fact that several indigenous tribes regarded this land as an inheritance from their ancestors. As the mining camps in Zacatecas increased in number, a long stretch of unsettled and unexplored territory surrounded the merchant routes that led out of Zacatecas to Mexico City. In 1550, the Chichimeca War began when the Zacatecos and Guachichile Indians began to attack travelers and merchants along these "silver roads." 

The definitive source of information relating to the Chichimeca Indians and the Chichimeca War is Philip Wayne Powell's Soldiers, Indians, and Silver: North America's First Frontier War. For several decades, the Zacatecos and Guachichile Indians waged a fierce guerrilla war, staging attacks on both mining towns and the small caravans entering the war zone. However, in 1585, Alonso Manrique de Zuñiga, the Marqués de Villamanrique, recently appointed as the Viceroy of Mexico, decided to investigate Spanish policies in the war zone. 

The Viceroy learned that some Spanish soldiers had begun raiding Indian settlements for the purpose of enslavement. Infuriated by this practice, he prohibited further enslavement of all captured Indians and freed or placed under religious care those who had already been captured. Soon, he launched a full-scale peace offensive and opened up negotiations with the principal Chichimeca leaders. In trade for peace, Villamanrique offered food, clothing, lands, and agricultural implements. This policy of "peace by purchase" worked and by the end of the Sixteenth Century, the Chichimeca War had ended. 

In the meantime, Catholic missionaries had began a vigorous campaign to win the hearts and souls of the native people of Zacatecas. By 1596, fourteen monasteries dotted the present-day area of Zacatecas. The peace offensive and missionary efforts were so successful that within a few years, the Zacatecos and Guachichile Indians had settled down to peaceful living within the small settlements that now dotted the Zacatecas landscape. Working in the fields and mines alongside the Aztec, Tlaxcalan, Otomíe and Tarascan Indians who had also settled in Zacatecas, the Chichimeca Indians were very rapidly assimilated and, as Mr. Powell writes, "the Sixteenth-century land of war thus became fully Mexican in its mixture." 

For the next two centuries, the prosperity of Zacatecas corresponded with the vagaries of its silver industry. A period of great prosperity from 1690 to 1752 was followed by a period of economic depression in which the value of silver dropped. However, in 1768, the silver industry rallied and the next period of expansion lasted until 1810. This period of prosperity led to a significant increase in the population of the city of Zacatecas from 15,000 in 1777 to 33,000 in 1803. A census tally in the latter year also revealed the ethnic composition of the city: 42% Spanish and mestizo extraction; 27% Indian; and 31% Black and mulato. A mestizo is a person of mixed Spanish and Indian heritage, while a mulato is a person of mixed Spanish and African ancestry.

In September 1810, Father Miguel Hidalgo raised the standard of revolt in nearby Guanajuato. For several months, Father Hidalgo's rebel forces occupied Zacatecas and other areas of Mexico. However, eventually Royalist forces routed the insurgents and captured Father Hidalgo, who was executed on July 31, 1811 by a firing squad. The war for independence continued for ten more years before the Spanish Empire was finally forced to give up its prized colony at the Treaty of Cordoba on August 24, 1821. Two years later, on July 12, 1823, Zacatecas declared itself an independent state within the Mexican Republic. In the years to follow, many of the Mexican states, including Zacatecas, would seek provincial self-government and political autonomy from Mexico City. However, the self-determination that Zacatecas sought for itself came into direct conflict with the Federal government. 

In the early years of the independent republic, two factions dominated Mexican politics. The Conservatives, backed by the large landowners, the Catholic Church and the federal army, favored the old system that had dominated colonial Mexico for three centuries. The Liberals, however, challenged the old order. In 1832, Federal forces under President Anastacio Bustamante, representing Conservative interests, defeated rebellious Zacatecas forces under the command of General Esteban Moctezuma in the Battle of Gallinero. 

Three years later, Zacatecas once again revolted against the national government. On May 11, 1835, the Zacatecas militia, under the command of Francisco García, was defeated at the Battle of Guadalupe by the Federal forces of General Santa Anna. Soon after this victory, Santa Anna's forces ransacked the city of Zacatecas and the rich silver mines at Fresnillo. In addition to seizing large quantities of Zacatecan silver, Santa Anna punished Zacatecas by separating Aguascalientes from Zacatecas and making it into an independent territory. Aguascalientes would achieve the status of state in 1857. The loss of Aguascalientes and its rich agricultural terrain would be a severe blow to the economy and the spirit of Zacatecas.

The War of the Reform, lasting from 1858 to 1861, pitted the Conservatives against the Liberals one more time. Once again, Zacatecas became a battleground and its capital was occupied alternatively by both sides. Finally, in 1859, the Liberal leader Jesus Gonzalez Ortega seized control of the government in Zacatecas. However, the Catholic church, which strongly endorsed Conservative ideals, found itself in direct opposition with the state government. When, on June 16, 1859, Governor González Ortega decreed a penal law against the Conservative elements in Zacatecas, causing many Catholic priests to flee the state. 

The French invasion of Mexico in 1861 was just another extension of the conflict between the Conservatives and Liberals. Invited by the Conservative faction to invade Mexico, the French forces, against great resistance, were able to make their way to Mexico City and occupy the capital. In 1864, the French forces occupied Zacatecas as well. However, the occupation of Zacatecas lasted only two years and by 1867, the French were expelled from all of Mexico.

In the 1880s, a transportation revolution brought the railroad to Zacatecas. By the end of the decade, in fact, Zacatecas was linked by rail with several northern cities, including Ciudad Juarez. The Mexican Central Railway, which ran from Mexico City through Aguascalientes, Zacatecas, and Chihuahua, became a major catalyst for the massive immigration from Zacatecas to the United States during the Twentieth Century. At the same time, the silver industry, which had declined dramatically during and after the Independence War, started to rebound. By 1877-1878, silver alone accounted for 60 percent of the value of all Mexican exports. 

During the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920), Zacatecas, with its central location in the Republic, was unable to escape the devastation of war. In June 1914, the City of Zacatecas was the center of national attention when the city was taken by Pancho Villa and his Dorados in the famous battle known as La Toma de Zacatecas (The Taking of Zacatecas). The City of Zacatecas, now a town of 30,000, witnessed the largest and bloodiest battle that took place in the fighting against General Victoriano Huerta. When the battle ended, some 7,000 soldiers lay dead. In addition, 5,000 combatants were wounded and a large number of civilians were injured or killed.

Today, Zacatecas has more than fifteen mining districts which yield silver, lead, zinc, gold, phosphorite, wollastonite, fluorite, and barium. The Zacatecas region hosts the Fresnillo and Zacatecas silver mines which combined have produced over 1.5 billion ounces of silver to date. As a matter of fact, thanks to Zacatecas, even today Mexico is the largest producer of silver in the world, contributing 17% of the world's total output. 

Katz, Friedrich, The Life and Times of Pancho Villa. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1998.
Mexico Online, "State Profile (Zacatecas)." Houston, Texas: Mexico Online, 1995.
Olague, Jesus et al., Breve Historia de Zacatecas. Mexico City, 1996.
Powell, Philip Wayne. Soldiers, Indians and Silver: North America's First Frontier War. Tempe, Arizona: Center for Latin American Studies, Arizona State University, 1973.
Wasserman, Mark. Everyday Life and Politics in Nineteenth Century Mexico: Men, Women, and War. Albuquerque: The University of New Mexico Press, 2000.
                                                                              Return to Table of Contents
by John P. Schmal

Across the 756,066 square miles that comprise Mexico you can find a great variety of landscapes and climates. While mountains and plateaus cover more than two-thirds of her land mass, the rest of Mexico’s environment is made up of deserts, tropical forests, and fertile valleys. Mexico’s many mountain ranges tend to split the country into countless smaller valleys, each forming a world of its own. 

Mexico’s "fragmentation into countless mountain valleys, each with its own mini-ecology," according to the historian Nigel Davies, led the Indians within each geographical unit to develop their own language and culture. This cultural development is a key to understanding Mexican history. Mexico’s remarkable cultural and linguistic diversity, in large part, led to her conquest by the Spaniards. Speaking more than 180 mutually alien languages, the original Mexican Indians viewed each other with great suspicion from the earliest times. 

When Hernán Cortés (1485-1547) came to Mexico in 1519, he found a large but fragmented collection of tribes. It was this lack of unity that he exploited to his advantage. Even today, almost five centuries after The Conquest, sixty-two ethnic indigenous groups speak ninety-one languages and make up almost ten percent of Mexico’s population. 

The Chichimeca Indians
The Indians of Jalisco, Zacatecas, Aguascalientes and Guanajuato were collectively called the Chichimecas, a derogatory epithet given to them by the Aztec Indians, who were themselves of Chichimec descent. The definitive source for information relating to the Chichimeca Indians is Philip Wayne Powell’s Soldiers, Indians, and Silver: North America’s First Frontier War.

The Chichimeca Indians and their fifty-year resistance to Spanish rule (1550-1600) is significant because the aftermath of that conflict (known as La Guerra de los Chichimecas – The War of the Chichimecas) is archetypal of what was repeated many times in other parts of Mexico. The Chichimeca conflict and other wars of resistance forced the Spaniards to rely heavily upon their Indian allies. The result of this dependence upon indigenous allies as soldados (soldiers) and pobladores (settlers) led to enormous and wide-ranging migration and resettlement patterns that would transform the geographic nature of the indigenous peoples of Mexico. In describing this phenomenon, Mr. Powell noted that the "Indians formed the bulk of the fighting forces against the Chichimeca warriors." Continuing with this reflection, Mr. Powell wrote:

"As fighters, as burden bearers, as interpreters, as scouts, as emissaries, the pacified natives of New Spain played significant and often indispensable roles in subjugating and civilizing the Chichimeca country. Occasionally armies composed exclusively of these native warriors (particularly the Otomíes) roamed the tierra de guerra to seek out, defeat, and help Christianize the hostile nomad of the north. On some parts of the frontier defense against Chichimeca attacks was at times exclusively in the hands of the native population... "

"Spanish authority and personnel were in most cases supervising agents for manpower supplied by Indian allies. The white men were the organizers of the effort; native allies did much of the hard work and often bore the brunt of the fighting. In the early years of the war the Spaniards placed heavy reliance upon those natives who had been wholly or partly subdued by the Cortesian conquest – Mexicans, Tarascans, Otomíes, among others."

"This use of native allies... led eventually to a virtual disappearance of the nomadic tribes as they were absorbed into the northward-moving Tarascans, Aztecs, Cholultecans, Otomíes, Tlaxcalans, Cazcanes, and others... within a few decades of the general pacification at the end of the century the Guachichiles, Zacatecos, Guamares, and other tribes or nations were disappearing as distinguishable entities in the Gran Chichimeca." 

By the second decade of the Seventeenth Century, Mr. Powell concludes, "the Sixteenth-Century land of war thus became fully Mexican in its mixture." 

Nigel Davies, The Ancient Kingdoms of Mexico (London: Penguin Books, 1990), p. 15.
J. Alden Mason, "The Native Languages of Middle America" in The Maya and Their Neighbors (New York: Appleton-Century Company, 1940), p. 58.
James F. Smith, "Mexico’s Forgotten Find Cause for New Hope," Los Angeles Times, February 23, 2001, pp. A1, A12.
Philip Wayne Powells Soldiers, Indians and Silver: North America’s First Frontier War (Tempe, Arizona: Center for Latin American Studies, Arizona State University, 1975). 

Copyright © 2001, by John P. Schmal and Donna S. Morales. This article has been derived from Donna S. Morales and John P. Schmal, Mexican-American Genealogical Research: Following the Paper Trail to America. All rights under applicable law are hereby reserved. Reproduction of this article in whole or in part without the express permission of John P. Schmal is strictly prohibited.
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                  Camargo, Tamaulipas Baptismal Index, 1763-1882

Camargo Baptisms were found in a file at the University of Texas, in the Center for American History. The data was a gift from the law firm of Judge K.C. Barkley and Lunn H. Cockrun to the San Jacinto Monument Museum. These records were made available to the Law Firm in the 1930s. For a while they rested at the San Jacinto Monument and when they passed to University of Texas 
they were made available to researchers. From these records many hours were spent constructing an index. Alma Cruz has been extracting the Camargo records and Debbie Gomez is 
extracting Reynosa, Tamaulipas records soon to be available. The following website provides an example from this publication.

These files comprise more than 145 pages of typed files, 5856 individuals and are available in the following forms:

Source: Jose O. Guerra, Jr.
Sent  by  Eliseo Martinez &  George Gause 

                   Camargo, Tamaulipas Baptismal Index, 1763-1882: 

The transcription [of the Camagro, Tamaluipas Baptismal records for 1763-1882] has been done by the Name  Extraction division of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints ... and has been incorporated into the International  Genealogical Index.

Source: Dennis V Carter     Sent by George Gause    Return to Table of Contents

                                            Gutierrez Family Tree

On the Gutierrez family tree, there are many who connect to Nicolas Gutierrez de Lara and Clara Renteria 

Found a wealth of information by clicking the Ancestry World Tree (at no  charge). 
The address is:

Do a search; after you get the Search Results, you can view the Pedigree in chart form. The Pedigree Chart will give you the spouse and children of the  person you searched; as well as siblings; plus the parents and grandparents  if they are available. Any name that is underlined, if you double click on  it, will take you to that person's pedigree. It is a great site. One thing to remember is that the info has been submitted by other researchers. The  site has helped me tremendously. Hope you try it.

On the Gutierrez line mentioned above, it is believed that the line goes back to Agustin Abrego and Leonor Gutierrez. This family has roots in Nieves,  Zacatecas and Saltillo, Coahuila before appearing in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon. 

Sent by Mira Smithwick


Gutierrez in Mexico City 1521 - 1594

The following is information taken from a report published in "Historia Gráfica de la Nueva España", By Jose R. Benitez.

Urbanization Parcels Distributed in Mexico City, 1521 - 1594.
It begins with a parcel number then the name of the Grantee followed by the  date.
#498 Alonso de Gutierrez 4/10/1537
#319 Andres Gutierrez 1/19/1565
#382 Alonso Badajos 7/27/1530
#214 Antonio Gutierrez 9/13/1563
#925 Leonor Bilva Gutierrez 1/14/1525
#79 Hernando Salamanca de Guitierrez 7/11/1525
#510 Diego Gutierrez 4/20/1531
#45 Francisca Gutierrez 8/27/1554
#72 Hernan Gutierrez 5/27/1523  first to receive land parcel
#213 Juan Gutierrez 9/13/1563
#380 Francisco Naranjo Gutierrez 9/4/1542
#117 Pedro Gutierrez 11/15/1525

Shared on by 
Rodolfo José Villalba y Gutierrez Aguirre Garcia Escobar Palacios

Sent by Mira Smithwick, Loretta Williams, George Gause,                            Return to Table of Contents

Parish Archives of Sonora and Sinaloa, Mexico
University of Arizona Library (27 reels)  Guide to Film 811
Location: University of California Libraries, Berkeley     Sent by Johanna de Soto

                The Genealogy of Mexico with an emphasis on Sinaloa

This is a personal website of David Cano that is an excellent resource for Sinaloa researchers.  David has compiled lists, gathered maps, photos, the history, and much, much more. 

The Genealogy of Mexico
Site Contents 
The Conquistadors
- A list of over 760 individuals that served the King with Cortes and stayed in Mexico (with some notable exceptions). Eleven hundred names are in the process of being added. The conquest of the Mexico lasted from 1519 to 1521. 5 pages 
The Conquistadors of the Yucatan
- A list of 160 of the individuals that served the King with Francisco de Montejo from 1526 to 1546. 1 page 
The Conquistadors of Nueva Galicia
- A list of 280 of the individuals that served the King with Nuno de Guzman in 1530. Many went on to settle the area and had links to the earlier Conquistadors. 1 page 
Early Settlers of Nueva Galicia
- 137 settlers arriving after the Conquest of the area. Some had links to the earlier Conquistadors. 2 pages 
The Coronado Expedition
- A list of 322 settlers that served with the Captain Francisco Vazquez de Coronado. The expedition set out for New Mexico and Arizona but made it as far north as Kansas from 1540 to 1542. 1 page 
The Onate Expedition
- A list of the 336 settlers that served with the Captain General Juan de Onate. The expedition set out to settle New Mexico in 1598- 1600. 1 page 
New Spain
- 433 surnames of the early settlers making their way north into Northeastern Mexico. Many decendants of the early Conquistadors. Their date of first mention in public records for the area is listed in most cases. 8 pages 
- New wave of settlers to Northeastern Mexico. Some details are given on 81 surnames. 2 pages 
California 1769-1800
- A list of names of over 1,700 of the earliest recorded male settlers of Alta California. 1 page
Surname Research
- Here are Hispanic resources traceable to 320 surnames found in the American Southwest or Mexico. 3 pages 
Personal Genealogy
- Personal family surnames of Felix, Loera, Santoscoy, Moran, Vejar and Castro are discussed or mentioned. Additional links of cousins doing research on these names are provided as well as other links. 1 page

David Cano                                                         Return to Table of Contents

 Free History Course in Paleography [Handwriting] and Diplomatic Relations
To be held at Historic Municipal Archive of Reynosa
Old Chapel of the Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe Church
June 6 and 13, 2001

The Historic Municipal Archive of Reynosa                 
Information:  0-11-52-8- 960-5769 [cellular telephone] 0-11-52-8- 911-7793 [cellular telephone]

Sent by George Gause

Information Avenue of the Reynosa Municipal Archive, Text Version for e-mail
1 Year 1, Number 1, March 2001

In this issue:
- Introduction to the e-mail edition
- What is the Reynosa Municipal Historical Archive? by Pedro Antonio Campos  
- Papers from the Archive and their role toward Documenting History by César Humberto Isassi, 
  Reynosa City Historian    
- News that could have been  
- Authorization for the extermination for the of tribes who break the peace treaty
- Sale of Black Slave in Reynosa 
- The most coveted single men of Reynosa 

These brief lines are as a way of an introduction to introduce to all of you this first edition of the Reynosa Gazette. In its original form, it was printed on paper and is distributed free of charge at the offices of the Reynosa Municipal Historical Archive.* Because in its electronic form we can distribute it more widely, we decided to provide it to you in this way, free from images, for a faster downloading. Please feel free to forward this Gazette in its entirety to all your friends and relatives.

We hope to receive your comments and suggestions. In this way we will all excel at spreading the culture and history of our region.  Thanks


What is the Reynosa Municipal Historical Archive?  by Pedro Antonio Campos

The common idea that people have of an archive is vague and inaccurate. As a general rule it is considered an drab place, located in the basement of a building with desks supported by books or bricks to stop them from totally crumbling, smelling like onions, a remnant of the last morning's breakfast.

There, among the endless number of sagging shelves, surely host of many mountains of chaotic boxes opened and overflowing with old and sinister pictures, maps, seals, plans, and all kinds of dusty old papers, held together with rusty clips or even worse, a convention center for spiders, mice, roaches, moths, ... Urine only God knows from which pests, and also an atmosphere of mold and humidity in combination creating a unique stink (you realize it as soon as your throat, eyes and nose begin to itch. Also people think that archive are taken care by evil faced characters, that come out of the scariest stories ever written.

However, You are welcome to visit us at the Reynosa Municipal Historical Archive. You are invited to come and see our document collection, where you will find A gamut of manuscripts organized by Ramos (major groups) and Series (Subdivisions).

If you also are one of those who think that archives only serve as background for horror movies and to serve as a depository for dead governmental correspondence, allow us to communicate to you that this is not so at the RMHA. Here we preserve, organize, catalogue, decipher, and interpret the history of the people of Reynosa. These documents reflect dreams, joys and sorrows of earlier Reynosa residents. They tell about the hard work and the transformations that our city has undergone.

We believe it is important for the people of this region to know that they can have access to our collection, since the Archive offers services like the ones provided at libraries. You can find out, for example, the village plan used by Jose de Escandón for the founding of Reynosa in 1749. Also, you can find out why, in 1812, some residents of Reynosa were drafted by the New Spain Army and what the Curios (sic) Shop of Ignacio de Alba as well as the Hidalgo Elementary School and the Palace Royal looked like early in the 20th Century. Also you can see the pictorial record of daily life of Reynosa residents. The personnel that work at the RMHA wishes to tell you that this archive is not all loneliness or sad past, but a place that preserves the vigorous life that once was our present. In this Archive, some of us would like the winds of our past to provide a connection with our ancestors. Also, that our young people discover their heritage through these documents; a heritage they did not know was theirs; that our elders leave this world in peace knowing that they did not struggle and suffer in vain and also knowing that the legacy they leave to the people of Reynosa is the memory of their roots, the remembrance of the past years always present.

Papers from the Archive and their role toward documenting history.
César Humberto Isassi Cantú, Cronista de la ciudad (Reynosa City Historian)

The Reynosa Municipal Historical Archive is A beautiful jewel of which the people of Reynosa can feel justly proud. Disdain for our rich past, created a death sentence on the old Church of Guadalupe, the old civilian and children's cemetery and on the first Main Square gazebo The systematic tearing down of old houses which reflected the stories of the art and fortune of those old Reynosa residents that built them with love and steadfastness are now gone. Fortunately you can see their pictures at the Archive. The magnitude of paperwork that make up this valuable collection, was saved from oblivion by Divine Providence which determined that the city of Reynosa should keep - even in a depleted way - old, beautiful and illustrative documents that give us all the details of the 240 plus year history of our city, where the rule of law prevailed and also prevailed the traditions in writings zealously preserved within the Archive. We wish the Archive a long life and better days in better facilities.

NEWS THAT COULD HAVE BEEN. Authorization for the Extermination of Tribes who break the Peace Treaty Sale Of A Black Slave In Reynosa
The Most Coveted Single Men Of Reynosa

The following articles were based on documentation found in the RMHA. If you want to know more concerning the archive, you can do research at this archive. The notes found at the end of the articles are guides for you to find the information.

The northern barbarian tribes that commit predatory acts can be legally exterminated by residents of Reynosa who end up impacted by them, This authorization was given from Ciudad Victoria, by Governor don Jose Antonio Fernández. In the same way, the settlers should respect the peace agreement given to those "savages" that show a peaceful disposition, according to the decree signed by the Governor and the Secretary of Government, don Manuel Villerena, today March 31, 1837. This order sent to the "Ilustre Ayuntamiento" (Municipal Council) of Reynosa refers to the Lipan and Co[cos] tribes as well as "other barbarian nations" According to the document, war can be made against the "savages", who can be "exterminated even in their own villages." The Governor ordered that those tribes that show an unwillingness to observe the agreement with their neighbors, should be annihilated "because they don't know or want to respect the peace."
The severe communiqué affirms that just one example of Their execution may "reduce", or subject the aggressors, since "the soft measures haven't done anything but made them insolent so they can with impunity commit predatory acts."

The decree was sent in response to settlers complaints and needs to protect area villages, "that lament the attacks made by the barbarians with reason and justice."  1837, AHMR CP. c.1, e.20

A black slave was sold for 125 reales here in Reynosa to a resident of Coahuila. The man legally considered merchandise and classified by the Court as a "negrito esclavo" (little black slave) was auctioned by his owner don Cipriano Hinojosa, resident of this Town of Our Lady of Guadalupe of Reynosa. In the transaction, dated August 24, 1811, the buyer was don Juan Angel Camacho, resident of Santa Rosa, in the Province of Coahuila, who paid in cash. The slave, whose name is Gervacio González, was sold almost a year after the priest, Miguel Hidalgo a revolution to win the independence of Mexico from Spain in the town of Dolores, Guanajuato.

This commercial transaction of the "negrito" was authorized in the courtroom of don Máximo Cavazos, Chief Justice of the village, representing don Joaquín de Arredondo, Colonel and Military and Political Governor of this Colony of the New Santander.

In a special clause, it is suggested that the buyer has the right to make absolute use of Gervacio for his use and to assure a peaceful ownership. Present as witness of the sale of the slave were don Simón de los Santos, and don Enrique Villarreal, residents of this town, and as assistants of the court were Antonio Domínguez and Fabián Cavazos.

With this sale, Hinojosa, his heirs and successors, gave up permanently the rights of ownership of the slave. On his part, Camacho acquired with the ["]little black slave["] the legal power to "sell it at will."  1811, AHMR CP. c.4, e.6, 1f.

This news is of special interest for single ladies and widows of the Villa de Reynosa and surrounding communities. In this town and in this year of 1814 there is found an abundance of single men... and they are of several ages and for all liking. The available men run from young 15 year olds for the also young girls to formal gentlemen of 40 for the not so young girls. Although there could be - and that will depend on the interested - age combination couples. Any nubile girl can aspire to the love of a gallant quite gray haired man or for the same instance a mature woman can find enjoyment with a strapping 20 year old youngster. The possibilities of romance can be as varied as the ability of seduction and the desire of fantasy.

The following is a list of the single men of this town. 
So, young girls of Reynosa, let your heart roam!

Note: This list could also be of assistance to employers of this area who may need laborers for field work or for the salt mines. 1814, AHMR Es. c.1, e.2, 3f.

Manuel de la Fuente
Erasmo Cano
Francisco Farfán
Ignacio Cavazos
Benito Valenzuela
José María Cavazos
Francisco Barr (sic)
Juan Garza

Jorge Cavazos
Manuel Cano
Felipe García
Mateo Cano
Juan Rodríguez
Manuel Infante
Gabriel García
Sabás Cortez
Francisco Cárdenas
Victoriano Cano
Gregorio Conde
Félix Camarillo
Juan Treviño
Desidoro Tagle
Pedro Garza
Antonio Corté

Reynosa Gazette: Information Avenue of the Reynosa Municipal Historical Archive

Edited by:  Graciela Ramos Domínguez, Adriana Quintana González & Luciano Campos Garza, & George Gause .
Reynosa, March 2001
R. Ayuntamiento of Reynosa 1999-2001
Mayor: Humberto Valdéz Richaud
Reynosa Historical Archive, Director: Pedro Antonio Campos
Paleographer: Hugo Morales and Translation to English: Hugo Morales

Sent by George Gause                                          
Return to Table of Contents

Records of Colonial Tlalpujahua (Michoacán, Mexico)

(C0867) 1562-1903, bulk 1720-1830

A Finding Aid Prepared by Heather A. Shannon
Manuscripts Division, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections
Princeton University Library,  1999


The Records of Colonial Tlalpujahua (Michoacán, Mexico) consists of papers pertaining to the Convento de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe, including administrative documents, account ledgers, and ledgers related to the Third Order Secular of St. Francis, a confraternity associated with the convento. In addition, there are miscellaneous papers that document matrimonial and criminal legal cases, land transactions in Tlalpujahua and Toluca, and genealogical information compiled by Austacio Rulfo.

Range of Collection Dates: 1562-1903
Range of Collection Bulk Dates: 1720-1830

Size: 3 linear ft. (6 boxes) Language: Spanish

Collection Description

This collection is comprised of records that document the social and ecclesiastical history of colonial Tlalpujahua (Tlalpuxagua), a town located in the northeast part of what is today Michoacán, Mexico, and its environs. Tlalpuxagua was a jurisdiction within Spain's northernmost viceroyalty of New Spain the Indies. After silver mines were discovered in the vicinity in 1558, Tlalpujahua became a secondary mining center, and as a result the municipality gained its first alcalde mayor of the newly-established Real de Minas de Tlalpuxagua. A considerable indigenous population lived in the region surrounding the town and mines.

The ecclesiastical documents pertain to the Convento de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe, a Franciscan monastery built in Tlalpujahua in 1703. It fell within the Franciscan province of San Pedro y San Pablo de Michoacán (established 1565), whose boundaries overlapped with Diocese of Michoacán. While Franciscans arrived in New Spain as early as 1523, the friars were not active in the jurisdiction of Tlalpuxagua until just after 1538, when a monastery-parish was founded in San Pedro y San Pablo Cinapécuaro. There was a resident diocesan curate at San Pedro y San Pablo Cinapécuaro by 1565. Franciscan activities increased at the end of the seventeenth and beginning of the eighteenth centuries, when mining activity increased in the area. In June 1686 a Third Order Secular of St. Francis was established under the guidance of the friars and, in February 1703, a hospital and the Convento de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe were founded.(Note)

Scope Note

The Records of Colonial Tlalpujahua contains papers of the Convento de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe, a Franciscan monastery established in 1703. There are various administrative documents (libros de patentes and libros de inventorio) that date from 1724 to 1849; account ledgers (libros de cargo y descargo) that date from 1719 to 1839; and a significant number of ledgers (a libro de institucion, a libro de determinaciones y constituciones, and several libros de asientos de recepciones y profesiones) belonging to the Third Order Secular of St. Francis that date from1686 to 1832.

There are also miscellaneous ledgers from Tlalpujahua and Toluca that contain information regarding various land transactions and title transfers, last will and testaments, and a ledger regarding a general store (casa de comercio). Moreover, one ledger was used to record legal proceedings during the late 1740s in matrimonial and criminal cases in Tlalpujahua. In addition, there are papers (dated 1886-1903) that trace the genealogies of the Rayón and Rulfo families, who were related to independence leader Ignacio López Rayón, and belonged to Austacio Rulfo.


The collection has been arranged in the following series: I. Papers of the Convento de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe, Tlalpujahua, Michoacán, Mexico. Franciscan Province of San Pedro and San Pablo of Michoacán, 1686-1839; II. Miscellaneous Papers, Tlalpujahua and Toluca, 1562-1903.

Added Entries

The following added entries have been assigned to this collection to highlight significant sources (other than the main entry), subjects, and forms of the collection's materials. Where possible Library of Congress Subject Headings have been used, and the forms of names reflect international cataloging standards. As a result, all of these entries may be searched in the Department's database (MASC), in the Library's online catalog, and the public card catalog to find other related material.

    Subject Headings (in uppercase) / Form Headings (in upper and lower case):

    Account books--Mexico--18th century
    Account books--Mexico--19th century
    Confraternities--Latin America--Mexico--Manuscripts
    Court records--Mexico--18th century
    Franciscan manuscripts--Mexico--17th century
    Franciscan manuscripts--Mexico--18th century
    Franciscan manuscripts--Mexico--19th century
    Rayón Family--Genealogy
    Rulfo Family--Genealogy
    General stores--Mexico--18th century--Account books
    General stores--Mexico--19th century--Account books
    Land titles--Mexico--17th century
    Land titles--Mexico--18th century
    Land titles--Mexico--19th century
    Manuscripts, Mexican
    Michoacán, Mexico--History--Sources
    Third Order Secular of St. Francis--History--Sources
    Toluca, Mexico--History--Sources
    Wills--Mexico--19th century

See Peter Gerhard, A Guide to the Historical Geography of New Spain (London: Cambridge University Press, 1972), Carlos Herrejón Pereda, Tlalpujahua (Morelia, Mexico: Gobierno del Estado de Michoacán, 1980), and Esperanza Ramírez Romero, Catálogo de monumentos y sitios de Tlalpujahua (Mexico: Gobierno del Estado de Michoacán and Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, 1985).

Sent by Johanna de Soto                                                                      Return to Table of Contents


The Hispanic Genealogical Society of New York has many dedicated Puerto Rican researchers.   They have a quarterly, online website and resources, plus meetings throughout the year. 
Whether you are a beginner or advanced researcher, you will find them a valuable support. 
For more information call:  212-340-4659


                                             PATRIOTS OF PUERTO RICO  
                                                 by Granville W. and N. C. Hough

Some Patriots of Puerto Rico who served in Spain’s 1779-1783 War with England – During the American Revolution - are found in Legajo 7289, LDS Film Roll 1156352, item 1, which includes service for each person up to the years 1793, 1795, and 1799. Wartime service is shown below, but the marriage status is for 1793 and 1795 and 1799. On this Legajo, only the officers and key personnel are shown, giving records for about ten percent of those who actually served in the units. It is probable that any descendant of these soldiers would be accepted into the National
Society, Sons of the American Revolution. (The present King of Spain, Juan Carlos I, and his son, the Crown Prince of Asturias, are already members, based on their descent from King Carlos III. As they have been accepted, it seems logical that descendants of others who fought the English will be accepted.)

Manuel de Aguilar (1752 Yucatàn - ). Lt, Presidio del Carmen, Yucatàn, 1781, married.
Sebastian Aguilar (1754 Canary Islands - ). Sub-Lt, Canary Inf., 1782, single.
Pedro Alhama (1745 Cuenca - ). Lt, Militia, San Juan, PR, 1781, married.
Vicente Andino (1759 PR - ). Cadet, 1777, Sub-Lt, Victoria Inf., 1785, married.
Domingo de Aragon (1740 Madrid - ). Lt, 1769, Capt 1790, Zueta, married.
Isidoro Arismendi (1768 PR - ). Distinguished Soldier, 1781, Cadet, 1784, Victoria Inf, single.
José Arnao (1743 Rueda - ). Capt, 1772-1795, Militia, San Juan, PR, marrried.
Julian Artacho y Aledo (1750 Castille, Spain - ). Cpl in 1769, in Marine Brigade, 1778, Marine Artillery 1779, Eastern Navy, 1783, Sub-Lt, 1789, single.
Miguel Augusto (1755 Magardos - ). Cpl in 1770, 2nd Sgt, Bruselas  Inf, 1785, married.
Anacleto Ayavarrena (1742 Bañares - ). Sub-Lt, Militia, San Juan, PR, 1781, married.
Cayetano Balens (1760 Aragon - ). Cadet, 1779 Cantabria, Sub-Lt, 1782 in Napoles Regt at Gibraltar, married.
Miguel Balseiro (1753 Bibero - ). 1st Sgt, Militia, San Juan, PR, 1781, married.
Lorenzo Bona (1751 Genova - ). Cpl, 1770, at Gibraltar, 1782, 2d Sgt, Napoles Regt, 1783, widower.
Juan Borque (1744 Gerona - ). Lt, 1772, Capt, Militia, San Juan, PR, 1791, single.
Juan Bravo (1759 Cabeza del Buey - ). 2d Sgt, 1779, 1st Sgt, Murcia Regt, at Blockade of Gibraltar, Menorca, and San Felipe, single.
Francisco Bruno (1739 PR - ). Sub-Lt, 1773, Lt, 1789, Militia, San Juan, PR, single.
José Antonio Bulloia (1742 Vilar - ). Lt, 1782, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.

Sebastian Canales (1749 PR - ). Lt, Militia, San Juan, PR, 1783, married.
Ramón Carvajal (1759 Algeciras - ). Sub-Lt, 1777 and 1786, Grenadiers, Bruselas Regt, married.
Miguel Carrales (1749 PR - ). Lt, Militia, San Juan, PR, 1779, single.
Matias del Castillo (1745 Casta la Nueba, Castille - ). 1st Sgt, Immemorial del Rey Regt, 1781, left Cadiz, Apr 1780, arrived Havana, Aug 1780, married.
José Cebollero (1748 Torrelluala - ). Sub-Lt, 1774, Lt in 1785, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
José Ceresola (1737 Genova - ). Capt, Napoles Regt, 1782, at Gibraltar, single.
Pablo Charameli (1761 Piamonte - ). Cpl, 1780, 2d Sgt, Jan 1783, Napoles Regt, at Gibraltar, 1782, single.
Felipe Cleimpaux (1757 Mantua, Italy - ). Cpl, Napoles Inf, 1781, soltero
Francisco Conde (1733 Alusemas - ). Adjutant of militias, 1774, Capt of Infantry, 1786, single.
Miguel Consuegra (1756 Baeza - ). Cpl, Napoles Inf, 1783, married.
Santiago Cordoba (1762 PR - ). Sub-Lt, Militia, San Juan, PR, 1782, married.
Fernando Correa (1739 Arecibo, PR - ). Lt, Militia, San Juan PR, 1781, married.
Casimiro Dávila (1730 PR - ). Capt, Militia, San Juan, PR, 1765 to 1793, married.
Felix Dávila (1739 PR - ). Cadet, 1765, Sub-Lt, 1786, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
Manuel Dávila (1759 PR - ). Cadet, 1777 to 1795, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
Estevan Desmony (1736 Liorna - ). Capt, 1778, Lt Col graduado, 1783, Napoles Regt, single.
Manuel Diaz (1747 Fregenal - ). Soldier, 1779, Escopeteros de Andalucia, single.
Manuel Diaz (1742 Madrid - ). Capt, 1765-1795, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
Francisco Dominguez (1751 Utrera - ). 1st Sgt, 1777, Sub-Lt, 1784, Militia, San Juan, PR, single.

Juan Escudero (1750 Tapiales - ). Sub-Lt, Militia, San Juan, PR,1783, single.
Josef de la Espada (1752 Malaga - ). 2d Sgt, 1777, España Inf, 1st Sgt, Napoles Inf, 1784, in first and second Expeditions to Pensacola, single in 1793, married in 1799
Antonio Estevan (1733 Calatayu - ). Sub Lt, 1782, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
Angel Fantoni (1755 Italy - ). 2d Sgt, 1781, at Altonia. He was also at San Felipe, Gibraltar, and in naval combat 20 Oct 1782, single.
Francisco Fernandez (1752 Sevilla - ). Cpl, Cordova Inf, 1776, 1st Sgt, 1786, married.
Valentin Fernandez (1747 Artiaga - ). Sgt, 1780, Militia, San Juan, PR, single.
Manuel Fernandez Torres (1732 Zueta - ). Capt, graduate, 1772, 1st Capt, 1790, Regt Ceuta, Cuba, and others, married.
Juan María Ferreri (1763 Piàmonte - ). Cpl, 1779, 2d Sgt, 1783, Napoles Regt, at Gibraltar, 1782, married.
Franco de Fonnes (1741 Monfonte, Valencia - ). Capt, 1776, and Capt of Grenadiers, 1790.
Antonio Fornès (1742 Sevilla - ). Lt, 1772, Capt, 1784, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
Manuel de Fuertes (1755 Havana - ). 2d Adjutant, 1778, 1st Adjutant/Lt, 1783, single.

Pedro Galiani (1746 Italy - ). Sub-Lt, 1781, Napoles Regt at Gibraltar, married.
Patricio Gandia (1771 PR - ). Cadet, 1783, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
Federico Garcen de San Just (1765 Aviñon - ). Lt, graduate, 1782, Napoles Regt, served at 
San Felipe, Menorca, and Gibraltar, married.
Antonio Garcia (1752/54 Cebefin/Cahejnen, Murcia - ). 1st Sgt, 1780, 1782, Galicia Regt.
Antonio García (1736 Almagro - ). Lt, 1772, Capt, 1788, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
Francisco García (1761 City of Carmona - ). Cpl 1782, Napoles Regt, single.
José Lino Garzon (1756 Badafoz - ). Cpl 1778 Napoles Inf, 1st Sgt,1787, Militia, San Juan, PR, single.
Luís Gimbernat (1763 Cambrils, Cataluña - ). Cpl, 1780, Cataluña Light Infantry, single.
Luís Gineti (1766 Italy - ). Soldier, Sep 1783, Napoles Regt, married.
Pedro Gomez (1731 Navarra - ). Lt, 1777, Capt, 1793, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
Francisco Grasas (1742 Barcelona - ). Lt, 1781, Militia, single.
Pedro Guerra (1769 PR - ). Cadet, 1782, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
Manuel Infante (1741 Soria - ). Sub-Lt, 1774, Lt, 1784, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
Andrés Jiménes (1758 PR - ). Sub-Lt, 1776, Lt Graduate, 1783, Toledo Regt, in Real Armada Combate, 20 Oct 1782, married.
Francisco Jiménez (1752 Argot - ). Sub-Lt, 1782, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
Francisco Kerp (1753 Germany - ). Cpl, 1771, 2d Sgt 1784, Napoles Regt, at Gibraltar, 1782, single.

Luís Labussière (1729 Potou - ). Lt Col, 1781, Comandante, Militia, San Juan, PR, single.
José Lacomba (1760 Reus, Cataluña - ). 2d Sgt, 1783 Napoles Regt, at Gibraltar, 1782, married.
Luís de Lara (1767 El Peñon - ). Distinguished Soldier, 1782, de Peñon Compa de Dotacion, Lt in 1799, married.
Miguel de Lara (1762 El Peñon - ). Distinguished Soldier, 1779, in the El Peñon Compania de Dotacion, Sub-Lt in PR Infantry in 1793, single.
Yldefonso de Larrauri (1745 la Coruna - ). Sub-Lt, 1777, Lt, 1787, Lisboa, Capt, PR Inf in 1799, single.
Agustin Lassala (1732 Valencia - ). Capt, 1781 Napoles Regt, at Gibraltar, 1782, Col, PR Regt, 1799, married.
Juan Rafael Lassala (1768 Malaga - ). Cadet, 1780, Sub-Lt, 1782 at Gibraltar in Napoles Regt, single.
Bernardo Leno (1739 Frascate - ). Capt, 1772-1795, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
Eugenio Lesenne (1733 Artois - ). Lt, Grenadiers, Bruselas Regt, 1782.
Ysidoro Linares (1748 Malaga - ). Sub-Lt and Lt, Grenadiers, Napoles Regt, 1782, at Gibraltar, Col, PR Regt of Infantry, 1799, single.
Bartolomé Lison (1765 Malaga - ). Soldier, 1781, 2d Sgt 1782, 1st Sgt, 1783, Napoles Regt, at Gibraltar in 1782, married.
Marzelo Lonnata (1758 Grenoba - ). Sub-Lt, 1781, at Gibraltar, 1782, married.
Mateo Lopez (1742 PR - ). Cadet, 1777, Sub-Lt, 1791, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
Pedro Lopez (1746 Santiago, Spain - ). Soldier, 1775, 1st Sgt 1795, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
Vicente Lopez (1746 Madrid - ). Capt, 1777-1795, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
Juan de Lugo (1749 Ponce, PR - ). Soldier, 1768, 1st Sgt, 1789, Militia, San Juan, PR, single.

Manuel Malagon (1737 Almagro - ). Lt, Militia, San Juan, PR, 1783, married.
Pedro Marquet/Marqueti (1752 France - ). Sub-Lt, 1778, Lt, 1787 Bruselas Regt, single.
Martin Marrero (1727 PR - ). 1st Sgt, 1765, Sub-Lt 1786, Militia, San Juan, PR, widower.
Antonio Martinez (1756 Castille, Spain - ). Soldier and Cpl, Fixo de Zeuta, 2d Sgt, 1789, (Galicia), single.
José Martinez (1735 Padron - ). Capt, 1765-1793, Capt, graduate, Infantry, 1793, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
José Matias (1740 Castrarona - ). Lt, 1773, Capt, 1792 Militia, San Juan PR, widower.
Vicente de Matos (1740 Coruña - ). Lt, Grenadiers, 1779, Capt, graduate, 1783 Toledo Regt, in combat in 1782, married.
Juan de Medina (1737 Lucena - ). Lt, 1774, Capt, 1786, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
Josef Notario (1762 Turin - ). Soldier, 1780, 2d Sgt, 1783, Napoles Regt, at Gibraltar in 1782, married.
Thomas Nazario (1749 PR - ). Cadet, 1776-1795, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
Lorenzo Ortiz de Zarate (1751 Victoria - ). Sub-Lt, Grenadiers, 1782, Victoria Inf., married.
Ignacio Padilla (1749 Xerèz de la Frontera - ). Sub-Lt, 1782 Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
Miguel Palatino (1753 Naples, Italy- ). Sub-Lt, Napoles Regt, 1782 at Gibraltar, married.
Martin Perdomo (1736 PR - ). Sub-Lt, 1777, Lt, 1791, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
Marcelo Porrata (1758 Genova - ). Sub-Lt, 1781, at Gibraltar, 1782, married.
Juan Pulido (1746 Quesada - ). Sub-Lt, 1777, Lt, 1789, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
José de Quiñones (1761 PR - ). Cadet, 1776, Sub-Lt, 1785, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
José de Quiñones (1744 Ponce, PR - ). Capt, 1781, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
Juan de Quiñones (1751 Azecivo - ). Sub-Lt, 1777, Lt, 1787, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
Thomas de Quiñones (1755 PR - ). Cadet, 1777-1795, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.

José Ramírez (1767 PR - ). Distinguished Soldier, 1779, Cadet, 1783, Militia, San Juan, PR, widower.
Miguel Ramírez. (1735 San Germán, PR - ). Capt, 1782, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
Cayetano de Ribas (1755 Zeuta - ). Cadet, 1768, Sub-Lt, 1783, Fixo de Zeuta/Ceuta, served at Gibraltar, married.
Domingo Ribera (1751 PR - ). 1st Sgt, 1776-1795, Militia, San Juan, PR, single.
Manuel de Ribera (1744 Ovieto - ). Lt, 1781, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
Gabriel Rodrigo (1750 Broids - ). Soldier, 1778, Españolas Regt, Lt, Graduate, 1789, Infantry, in Blockade of Gibraltar, 1779 – 1783, married.
Francisco Rodriquez (1759 Cumanà - ). Sst Sgt 1783, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
José Rodriquez (1738 PR - ). Soldier, 1765, 2d Sgt, 1785, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
Manuel Rodriquez (1747 Cebora - ). 1st Sgt, 1782, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
Francisco Rola (1753 Genova - ). Soldier, 1777, 2d Sgt, 1786, Napoles Regt, at Gibraltar, 1782, married.
Agustin Román (1737 PR - ). 1st Sgt, 1769, Sub-Lt, 1791, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
Francisco Romero (1763 PR - ). Soldier, 1782, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
Marcos Rotuli (1737 Corsega - ). Lt, 1782, Militia, San Juan, PR, single.

Miguel Salarino (1752 Napoles - ). Sub-Lt, 1782, Napoles Regt, married.
José Salazar (1759 Santo Domingo - ). Distinguished Soldier Veteran from 1777, Militia, Santo Domingo, in 1784, widower with five children.
Miguel de San Antonio (1740 Madrid - ). Capt, 1783, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
Cosmé Sanchez Calvo (1743 Murcia - ). Lt, 1780, Aragon Regt, at Pensacola, Apr and May 1783, single.  
Francisco Sanchez (1738 Madrid - ). Lt, 1773, Capt, 1792, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
Joaquín del Sasso (1740 Navarra - ). Capt, 1779, Sgt Major, 1786, Lt Col, Graduate, 1787, served in Africa, married.
Bernardino Seda (1740 San Germán, PR - ). Soldier, 1768, 2st Sgt, 1794, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
Luís de Solar (1752 Baza - ). Distinguished Soldier, Meantara Cavalry, 1st Sgt, 1786, Militia, San Juan, PR, single.
Miguel Solsona (1760 Barcelona - ). Soldier, 1776, 2d Sgt, 1785, Cataluña Infantry, at Gibraltar and San Felipe, single.

Angel Tamony (1755 Italy - ). 2d Sgt, 1781, at Vronto, and in 20 Oct 1782 naval combat, single.
Juan Tasàn (1760 Piàmonte - ). 2d Sgt, 1783, Napoles Regt, at Gibraltar in 1782, single.
Faustino del Toro (1751 Sen Germán, PR - ). Sub-Lt, 1774, Lt, 1786, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
José del Toro (1753 PR - ). Sub-Lt, 1782, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
Theodomiro el Toro (1747 Zeuta - ). Adjutant, 1771, Lt Col, 1795, Militia, San Juan, PR, widower.
Pedro de la Torre (1743 PR - ). Capt, 1776-1795, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
Francisco de Torres (1741 Monforte, Valencia - ). Capt, 1766, Bruselas Regt, Capt, Grenadiers, 1790, single.
José Antonio Umpierrez (1745 Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands - ). 1st Sgt, 1783, Militia, San Juan, PR, widower. 
Diego Urrutia (1753 Bilbao - ). 1st Sgt, 1781, Sub-Lt, 1784, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.

Francisco Valdéras (1763 Granada - ). Soldier, 1780, Cordova Inf, 1st Sgt, 1783, Militia, San Juan, PR, single.
Manuel Valencia (1770 PR - ). Cadet, 1783, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
Simon Valencia (1737 Borba - ). Capt, 1765, Capt, Graduate, Infantry, 1793, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
Cayetano Valero (1756 Aragon - ). Sub-Lt, 1782, in Napoles Regt at Gibraltar, married.
Niejo de Varrauni (1745 La Coruña - ). Sub-Lt, 1777, Lt 1787, Lisboa Regt, single.
Juan Vazquez (1744 Guayama, PR - ). Lt, 1779, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
Joseph de Vega (1746 Peñon/el Leñon - ). Sub-Lt, 1773, Lt, 1784, Lisboa Regt, married.
Laureano Vega (1764 PR - ). Soldier, Jan 1783, in PR, married.
Estevan Velazquez (1739 Soria - ). Capt, 1772-1795, Militia, San Juan, PR, widower.
Alonso Velez (1751 Almontes - ). Soldier, 1774, 1st Sgt, 1787, Militia, San Juan, PR, married.
José Viña (1731 Lucar - ). Lt, 1776, Capt, 1792, Militia, San Juan, PR, single.
Francisco Viana (1745, Alcala la Real - ). Cpl, Napoles Regt, 1779, single.
Juan Viñales (1754 Cataluña - ). Sgt, 1779, Cataluña Regt, spent six months in Blockade of Gibraltar, single.
Vicente Vinegra (1759 Astudillo - ). Soldier, 1779 Zeuta Infantry, single.
Valentin Volny (1757 Italy - ). Soldier, 1777, 2d Sgt, Nov 1783 Napoles Regt, served at Gibraltar, San Felipe, and Menorca, single.

For comments or additional information on the Sons of the American Revolution, contact Granville Hough, email, or mailing address: 3438 Bahia Blanca West, Unit B, Laguna Woods, CA, 92653-2830.

Looking for a Spanish soldier during the same time period in California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, or Louisiana, please go to our society web page for information. Dr. Hough has produced a study on each of these areas with the names of Spanish soldiers found in those areas.                                                     Return to Table of Contents

                                                     Tirio Indians

Tirio Indians have been helped by the Amazon Conservation Team to map their ancestral territory.  The map of their village, hunting grounds, sacred places, mountains and fishing rivers will be used to protect them from loggers and miners who want to exploit the riches of the Amazon forests. In addition to helping the Tirio, the Amazon Conservation Team is hoping to save the Amazon rain forest and explore the unique medical properties of the forest plants. 

Source: AOL News, Reuter Limited, 05-03-01  Sent by Johanna de Soto

Daniel Wakomax Rivera, a Brooklyn native who spent the last eight years compiling a dictionary of the Taino lnaguage, had waited a lifetime to rediscover the roots of his ancestry.  

"Sometimes people laugh when I tell them I am Taino," said David Cintron, a University of Florida graduate student on the tour who is writing his thesis on the Taino revitalization movement.  `Are there any left? they ask.  Perhaps there are no more pure-bloods, but there are plenty of Tainos.  It's just that no one has taught the true history of our people.

Extracts from Defying the Myth of Extinction by Valerie Taliman, 
National Museum of the American Indian, Spring 2001                             Return to Table of Contents


                                                      Opera in Spain

Spain has one of the biggest Opera house in Europe.  A few years back they spent $250,000,000
American Dollars on refinishing the entire Opera house.  Sent by Orlando Lozano

During the 1630s, Phillip IV developed a taste for theatrical music and attempts were made to perform operas at his hunting lodge near Madrid, known as La Zarzuela because of the brambles ("zarzas") that surrounded it.  Some of the earliest productions at La Zarzuela, such as La purpura de la rosa and Celos aun del aire matan (libertto by Calderon de la Barca with music by Juan Hidalgo), mixed singing and dialogue.  Many operas in the traditional Italian style were also presented.

Extract from article by Alicia Garcia Clark in Hispanics for Los Angeles Opera newsletter No. 20

                                           Ancient Mexican Farmers: 

Traces of pollen found in soils dug from deep beneath a Mexican plain show that ancient farmers were growing corn-like plants there more than 6,000 years ago, the earliest known domestic cultivation in North America. 

The discovery suggest that an unknown people settled just off the Gulf of Mexico beach near San Andres in Mexico and spent thousands of years growing corps and cultivating crude grains that later developed into corn.  O.C. Register 5-18-01                            Return to Table of Contents

                                                        Caral, Peru

Researchers have identified a site called Caral in the Supe Valley of Peru as the oldest city in the Americas.  It has been dated to as early as 2627 B.C.  The city included six towering stone pyramids, large plazas, a complex irrigation system and apartment-like buildings.  Thousands of people lived in Caral, located 14 miles from the coast.  Vegetables and seafood were their source of food. The site was discovered in 1905, but is only now being studied in detail. 
Extract  of article by Paul Recer, Associated Press via O.C. Register, 4-27-01

"We now have a whole new, absolutely unique window" to study the seeds of civilization and government. . .  I don't know of any other opportunity that is equal to this," said Jonathan Haas, curator of anthropology at Chicago's Field Museum.
U.S. News & World Report, 5-7-01    Shared by Win Holtzman       Return to Table of Contents

                                             Cannibalism in Northern Europe 
According to Bristol University archaeologist Mark Horton, 2,000-year-old human remains found by local cavers, including a femur that had been split and its marrow scraped out, provide the first "irrefutable evidence" for cannibalism in northern Europe. The area was an important center for underworld cults during the alter Iron Age, and a Bristol excavation team believes that the site may also have been the scene of mass human sacrifice.  Archaeology, May/June 2001  

PORTUGUESE Colonial REMAINS: (1415-1800)
Forts, Churches, Languages, People.
 Written by Marco Ramerini.

Fascinating collection of  sites that represent the colonial Portuguese presence all over the world between 1415-1800.  

Under each of the following countries the sites are identified: Africa, Asia, India, Indonesia, Iran, Macao, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Timor, United Arab Emirates, Austrailia, America, and the U.S.A.  

Basic site:
Sent by Johanna de Soto

Aluminum cans were just introduced in Brazil in 1990, but have resulted in a recycling industry of $110-million-a-year industry, employing 150,000.  L.A.Times, 1-29-01 
Family Search  has added important new features for the Portuguese researcher.  There is a new section on writing letters  in Portuguese to churches and archives.  You may also download the Genealogical World List from the site.  Other new features is the ability to search the Family History Card Catalog by Fiche number and by Film number.  You can also search by Author name.

Source: Rosemarie Capodicci, Portuguese Ancestry, October 2000, Vol. X, #3                                                                     Return to Table of Contents


                                                         Special Books

Hello, I'm Douglas Westfall. My wife Jackie and I have been publishing together for over ten 
years. As historical publishers, we have had the opportunity to discover some of the really great stories of America and are happy to bring them to you. Many stories we author ourselves while others are reproductions of significant historical books. Only books that we publish through our company, The Paragon Agency, are offered on It is my desire to bring America's history to Americans and my hope that 'my history becomes you.' 

Introductory offer by 
Special Books the free down-loading of : 

Prisoners of the Civil 
War -- The Story of 
Two Americans

Douglas Westfall

Contact Us.

Our Book Catalogs
Our First Person Account catalog, contains our most prominant books and is a series which will grow to five titles this year. In our Historic Reproductions catalog, we continue to add interesting historic piece we find through our research. Because we live in Orange County, California, we also produce books on our local history, found in our Specialty Books catalog. Books by other authors are found here.

Special Books is a unique book dealer that specializes in history books based on first person accounts.  These books are based on information taken from actual postcards, letters, journals
and memoirs. Exciting tales from people who lived through these historic events, provide for good reading and give a better feel for how things really were. Original photography and historic 
artwork, bring realism to each book.

Historic Reproductions
bring back to life the way history was recorded with first person 
accounts and original artwork of times gone by. Unusual photography and stories not heard within most of the last century give vivid descriptions of history in the making.

Specialty Books include a variety of publications on the humanities from prose and poetry to cookbooks, guide books and special historic collections. Tour a historic town or find that exceptional gift for someone special. Specialty Books include a wide variety.


                                       Slave Dwellings in Brooklyn

Archeologists say they have discovered the first slave dwelling ever found in New York City, a hidden garret in a 300-year old former farmhouse in Brooklyn.  The house was owned by the Lotts, a family of Dutch settlers who moved in around 1720 and whose descendants lived there until 1989.  The family owned 12 slaves and freed all but one in the early 1800s -  before slavery was abolished in New York in 1827.  The Lotts rehired their freed slaves as paid workers.
L.A. Times, 5-2-01                                                                              Return to Table of Contents

For a more thorough article on the Lott house, read the MayJune 2001 issue of  Archaeology.  
Off of a bedroom were found well worn steps leading to a 4-foot high. Artifacts found under the floorboards were similar to religious items used as protection of enslaved Africans found in other areas.
Researchers  from the Brooklyn College Archaeological Research Center stated, "We had finally found the living quarters for at least one of the Lotts' slaves.  It would have been an inhospitable place to live, close and dark without natural light or air; in short, hardly the sort of place one would expect liberal-minded abolitionists to house anybody."
                                                                                                        Return to Table of Contents
Free African Americans of Maryland and Delaware from the Colonial Period to 1810
Paul Heinigg's introduction clearly states his primary thesis for this volume:  free African Americans in Maryland and Delaware during the colonial period to 1810 were typically descended from white women who had mixed-race children by African-American men.  He treats one hundred forty-five families who descend from white females and lists at least ninety-three other white women for whom records document mixed race children by African Americans.

Book Review in the National Genealogical Society Quarterly, Vol 89, No. 1, March 2001
Coquina, a shellstone mix ultimately supplied the material  needed by the Spanish for protection in Florida against the British. Coquina absorbs artillery fire.  Before the settlers began quarrying coquina, they built nine fortresses which were destroyed .  U.S. News and World Report, 4-24-00
Burial Registers for Military Posts, Camps and Stations, 1768 - 1921, compiled by Claire Prechtel-Kluskens. The bulk of these burials, however, occurred between 1860 and 1890.

Deaths that occurred in the field due to disease, accidents and hostilities are not recorded here, unless the body was brought back to the Post for burial. Volume I was started in 1873, periodically updated until 1883 and then sporadically updated until 1932. Volume II was started in 1883 and updated sporadically until 1932. There is some duplication of earlier burials in Vol.2.

These registers are part of the National Archives and Records Administration, Records of the Office of the Quartermaster General, Record Group (RG) 92  This is a great site.  You can view by linking to a specific state and see an actual digitized document. These pages are maintained and copyrighted by Joy Fisher and Marceline Beem   Email:

Sent by Johanna de Soto                                                             Return to Table of Contents

                              SPANISH AMERICAN WAR RESOURCES

103 years ago today, the U.S. declared war on Spain. 
For those who had ancestors that fought in that war, here is a selection of online resources:

The World of 1898  (Library of Congress)

Chronology of Spain in the Spanish American War

Spanish-American War Medal of Honor Recipients

Spanish American Family History Guide   ( subscriber database)

The U.S. Army in the War with Spain (U.S. Army Center for Military History)

Spanish American War Centennial Web Site

Spanish American War History Resources

National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) Nail Database

Images of military service records for some Spanish American War veterans as well as other scanned documents relating to the war. Try searching "rough riders" or "Spanish American War."


Connecticut Servicemen, Spanish American War  ( subscriber database)

Illinois Spanish American War Veterans

Indiana Spanish American War Records  ( subscriber database)

Record of Indiana Volunteers in the Spanish American War, 1898-99

Massachusetts Spanish American War Records  ( subscriber database)

Minnesota Volunteers in the the Spanish American War and the Philippine Insurrection
( subscriber database)

North Carolina Volunteers, Spanish American War ( subscriber database)

Ohio Soldiers in the War with Spain, 1898-99 ( subscriber database)

Oregon Volunteers, Spanish American War and the Philippine Insurrection
( subscriber database)

Source: Ray and Bettie Dall, Sent by Mary Ayers                                 Return to Table of Contents

United States Historical Census Data Browser

The data presented here describe the people and the economy of the US for each state and county from 1790 to 1960.

Image of a Census TakerThis site is made available with the cooperation and consent of the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR), in Ann Arbor, Michigan.

This WWW site is intended to aid in browsing these data files. It is not intended as a tool for downloading data for further research or more involved manipulation. Those who require the original data should contact their ICPSR OR or ICPSR itself.

Data for this site originate in ICPSR study number 0003, "Historical Demographic, Economic and Social Data: The United States, 1790-1970. The data were collected, keypunched and error checked by ICPSR staff under a grants from the National Science Foundation. The selection of data to be included in the data set was carried out under guidelines developed by the American Historical Association. Data sources for the complete data set include US Decennial Censuses and sources such as the US Department of Agriculture, and the National Council of Churches of Christ of the United States. More information on this study can be obtained through ICPSR.

Sent by Johanna de Soto                                                                   Return to Table of Contents


Hispanic Genealogy Item on E-bay: Hispanic Surnames and Family History, Item #1426132165   Sent by GenAnnual 

Hispanic Surnames & Family History. 2nd printing 1997. 347p. paperback. 
Lyman D. Platt, PhD.
Here is a free mapping site.  Type in a location, choose a state from the dropdown list and see the relevant topographic map, complete with streams, towers, bridges, some houses, schools, etc.
CSGA Newletter, Vol. 19, No. 5 (May 2001)  

Find out what reunions are planned and enter your family reunion plans. Family Reunion Website: EUNIONS

Announcing a NEW issue  Free Online Resource Center for Spanish Language, Culture and People  Sent by Andres Rivero Family records are going to be increasingly important as people change their own surnames -  as a political or social statement.
Clues in National Archives Census Records, 1850-1920
Helpful tips that Genealogical researchers will want to bookmark for quick reference.
Source: RUSA Update. Volume 19, Number 2. April/June 1998 page 10] Sent by George Gause is now broadcasting an internet talk radio show.  Our regularly scheduled broadcasts will be on Wednesday evenings at 9pm EST and Sunday evenings 7pm EST.  They  will bring genealogy workshops to your home. We will provide an introduction to the topic, post links of interest and answer questions. Sent by Sharon Sergeant
ROOTSWEB REVIEW and MISSING LINKS are free, weekly e-zines
with wonderful helpful articles. Editors: Julia M. Case and Myra Vanderpool Gormley, CG
RootsWeb's WORLDCONNECT contains about 65.5 million entries  and new GEDCOMs are added daily. Upload your own GEDCOM(s) to
HISTORY MAGAZINE carries articles on historic social issues affecting the trials and tribulations that our ancestors experienced.
FAMILY CHRONICLE carries genealogical research suggestions.  Free trial copy is available.
PRESERVATION, Excellent Web Site
Library of Congress. Preservation Directorate. Frequently Asked Questions on Preservation.
Here you can quickly find the answer to such questions as: How should I store my books? How should I display  documents or works of art on paper? Can I save wet books? What if my books are moldy? How can I get rid of the smell  of mildew in my books? How can I preserve my family 
photographs for my grandchildren? How can I get rid of bugs in my books? How can I preserve my newspaper  clippings? The leather on my books is worn and scuffed. Should I oil my leather bindings? 
Source: RUSA Update. Volume 19, Number 2. April/June 1998, page 10  Sent by George Gause
                                                                                                            Return to Table of Contents

                                Extract:  Genetically Altered Babies Born 
                            by BBC News Online science editor Dr David Whitehouse 

Scientists have confirmed that the first genetically altered humans have been born and are healthy.  Up to 30 such children have been born, 15 of them as a result of one experimental program at a US laboratory.  Genetic fingerprint tests on two one-year-old children confirm that they contain a small quantity of additional genes not inherited from either parent.  The additional genes were taken from a healthy donor and used to overcome their mother's infertility problems. 

The additional genes that the children carry have altered their 'germline', or their collection of genes that they will pass on to their offspring.  Altering the germline is something that the vast majority of scientists deem unethical given the limitations of our knowledge.  It is illegal to do so in many countries and the US Government will not provide funds for any experiment that intentionally or unintentionally alters inherited genes. 

Sent by Frank Alvarez, Sr.                                                          Return to Table of Contents