Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage 
and Diversity Issues 

"Para un hombre, su palabra es todo." 
Counsel given to me by my grandfather, el Profesor Alberto Chapa Sanchez
former Superintendent of Schools, Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, 
July 1952 in Stockton, California

Editor: Mimi Lozano Chapa,

      TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                       JANUARY  2001, Issue 1

Dear Primos, If you sent materials recently for the February issue, please send it again. With an Oops,I  wiped out most of the February issue and I don't even know what I lost!

United States
     Benjamin J. Fernandez
     Cartoon: Stopping gangs
     In a Father's Footsteps
     Money Transfer Case    
     Library of Congress Interns
     President's Council on  
          Physical Fitness
Orange County, CA
    Orange County Register
     67 Hispanic Trailblazers 
     Heritage Lesson Example
     Freedom Newspaper Chain 
     Kwanzaa Black Festival
     Hands-on English
     Santa Ana School Board
     1451 International
     Juan Pablo Grijalva  

Los Angeles, CA
     Mexican Indians
     Black Roots

     Ritchie Valens
     Michael Gonzalez
     Santa Monica Cemetery
     LA Family History Center


     Tribal Police
     Emperor's New Groove
     Indian population
     California Flood 1955
     San Jose Technology
     California Birth Index
     Informate Project
     Remains of Ishi
     Spanish Calif. Landscapes
     Spanish Beginnings

Northwestern United States
     Las Vegas
     Family Search Website
     Personal Ancestral File
     BYU Polish Ancestry

    Crispin Rendon's Database
     Carol Martinez
     Ventura Alonzo
     Texas Marriages
     A Scots-Irish Mexican
     The French in Texas

Southwestern United States
     Bridging Digital Divide
     NM Death Index
     Genealogical Publishing Co.
     US-Mexico Borderland Sites
     Camino Real
     NM Resources
     Navajo Speakers

East of the Mississippi
     Spain's Louisiana Patriots
     Sperm Donors Children
     Mississippi Flag
     Oral History Conference
     Veterans Set Sail

     Genealogy of Mexico
     Jerez, Zacatecas
     Catholic Mexico

     Puerto Rico Census 
     Cuban Cigarette Industry

International News
     Spanish Names from 15th
      Madrid, 1681
      Mariana Islands, 1690-1790
      Irish in Argentina
      Nova Scotia
      Genealogical Websites

     Washington's Prayer
     African American Civil War

     Social Security Index
     Rootsweb's Guide
     Legacy Family Tree 
      Wisdom of Los Frijoles

Society of 
Hispanic Historical
and Ancestral


Click on the following for:
Information about SHHAR
Community Calendars 
Beginning Family History/Resources
Networking through Online email listing

SHHAR Networking Meetings are held the last Saturday in the months of March, May, July, and September at the Orange Family History Center, 674 S. Yorba, Orange, CA 

Saluting our thoughtful submitters: you to 
SHHAR Board Members:

Bea Armenta Dever
Edward B. Flores
Mimi Lozano Holtzman
Gloria Cortinas Oliver
Peter E. Carr
Teresa Maldonado Parker
Laura Arechabala Shane
Questions: 714-894-8161
Ruben Alvarez
Ruben Barrales
Leslie Brown
Peter E. Carr
Johanna de Soto 
Ken Gaillot
Anthony Garcia
George Gause
Michael Gonzalez
Eddie Grijalva
Gabriel Gutierrez
Laura Hanson
Lorraine Hernandez
Sergio Hernandez
Win Holtzman
Carol Martinez
Ruben Martinez
Ken McGinnis
Al Milo
Gloria Oliver
Samuel Quito Padilla
Sandra Perlmutter
Lillian Ramos Wold
Crispin D. Rendon
Andrea Savada
Lewis Stokes
Tejano Association 
Pancho Vega
Marge Vallazza
Beth Zeleny


Somos Primos has maintained a non-partisan approach to national events, focusing instead on Hispanic-related and diversity issues, historical incidents, and Latino leaders.  Pancho Vega, a long time Somos Primos  reader asked if he could send a tribute to his dear Hispanic Republican friend who surprisingly ran for  President of the United States in 1978.  At this time in history, I surely thought it would be of interest to everyone.  It is a beautiful, inspiring summary of an amazing Hispanic leader who against all odds rose to high national positions.  

                     A personal farewell from Francisco "Pancho" M. Vega (Michigan) 

    Benjamin Joseph Fernandez
February 24, 1925 - April 25, 2000

   Mr. Hispanic Republican

                                                     A Great American !!!

Ben Fernandez leaves a distinguished legacy to his family, to our country, to our system of government, to the Republican Party in general, to the Hispanic population in particular, and to his many, many friends.

                                    HE MADE US FEEL PROUD OF WHO WE ARE.

On November 29, 1978, Ben Fernandez announced his candidacy for the Republican Party's nomination for President of the United States. As the first American of Hispanic origin to campaign for the Presidency, HE MADE HISTORY!! And, he took many of us along on an unforgettable trip! - - - In the course of the Primaries, he physically campaigned in 40 states; and received up to four percent of the popular vote. When the nomination went to Candidate Reagan, Ben served as one of his national surrogate speakers. In 1981, he was appointed to the Presidential Transition Team. His political credentials were impeccable.

"I met Ben in 1967, in Washington, D. C. At this meeting were Manuel Lujan (NM, and later a Member of Congress, and appointed by President George Bush to be Secretary of the Interior; Fernando Oaxaca (CA, "Benji", and later National Chairman of the Republican National Hispanic Assembly (RNHA), and a very active supporter of candidate George W. Bush, 1999-2000; Martin Castillo, Esq. (CA, the attorney for the RNHA, and later was the National Chairman of the Committee on Spanish Speaking Affairs; and I, Francisco M. Vega (MI, Historian, organized RNHA Chapters in the Great Lakes states and Missouri; RNHA State Chairman for MI; Michigan State Chairman The Hispanic Finance Committee to Re-Elect the President, 1972; RNHA Midwest Vice Chairman, 1983-1984; RNHA National Committeeman from MI, 1987-1989; and MI Hispanic State Chairman for Senator John McCain, January 2000.

When we left Washington, D.C., these five individuals had formed the "Republican National Hispanic Council", and Ben Fernandez was our first National Chairman. The following year we changed the name to "The Republican National Hispanic Assembly". "

Benjamin Fernandez was living proof that American is the greatest country in the world!! He was born in a railroad boxcar, and then in one generation, was a self-made millionaire and became a viable candidate for President of the United States. IT COULD ONLY HAPPEN IN AMERICA !!!

He was born in Kansas City, Kansas, and he and seven brothers and sisters worked with their immigrant parents in the sugar beet and tomato fields of Michigan and Indiana.

Working from sunup to sundown, the Fernandez family saved every penny so they would not have to go on welfare. It was a hard-working, respectable family, trying to stay together, trying to survive; trying to maintain its dignity and self-respect. THEY MADE IT.

Ben's education was superb. - - - At the end of three years as an enlisted man in the Air Force in WW I I, he arrived at the University of Redlands, Redlands, California, with only $20 and the GI Bill benefits... not enough, so he immediately found a job at the local YMCA, as a dishwasher and a waiter. He graduated with a Bachelor of Arts Degree in Economics.

Upon graduating, he moved to New York City, where he worked during the day at International General Electric Co., and attended night school at the Graduate School of Business, New York University. As a result of his intense drive, he received a Master of Business Administration (MBA) degree in Foreign Trade and Marketing, and completed all of the course work for the Doctor of Philosophy degree in Economics, Marketing, Corporate Finance, Foreign Trade and Financial History.

His employer, General Electric, was so impressed by the fact that he completed the four-year course work in only two years, that they recruited him for their Financial Management Training Program in New York City. He was trained at the international and national levels in the fields of marketing, management and finance.

Following his employment and training with General Electric, he was appointed Director of Marketing Research, the O. A. Sutton Corporation, Wichita, Kansas. After three years he moved to Los Angeles, California, where he became a Consulting Economist, specializing in the organization of savings and loans associations and commercial banks. He was very successful and this is reflected by the fact that between 1960 and 1976, he testified over 500 times under oath before federal and state agencies.

Ben's innovations in business received national acclaim. This included recognition given by the U. S. Department of Commerce for his efforts on behalf of NEDA (National Economic Development Association), a non-profit corporation he founded to foster the free enterprise system among Spanish-speaking Americans. The organization was responsible for approximately $2 billion in loans from the private sector, and the default factor was less than two percent. There were few Americans with his expertise in small business development.

Ben Fernandez's civic activities included a membership on the Council of Opportunity in Graduate Management Education, Cambridge, Massachusetts. He served on the Board of Directors and the Executive Committee of the National Center for Voluntary Action, Washington, D. C., and the President's National Advisory Council for Minority Business Enterprise, Department of Commerce, Washington, D. C.

In addition to numerous professional achievements, Ben had been active politically. Some of his accomplishments in this area include: National Co-Chairman, the Finance Committee to Re-Elect the President, in 1972; National Chairman, the Hispanic Finance Committee to Re-Elect the President, 1972; the first National Chairman of the Republican National Hispanic Assembly; and Member of the Executive Committee, the Republican National Committee, 1976.

Ben's service to our country included an appointment as Special Ambassador to the Republic of Paraguay, in 1973. While there he represented the United States at the inauguration of the President of Paraguay, and addressed the banking and savings and loan industries.

The father of three grown daughters, Ben Fernandez had been residing in Las Vegas, Nevada, and traveled throughout the country as a Consulting Economist.

In 1972, at a special event held at McCormick Place, in Chicago, Illinois, I presented Ben with a gift that was a copy of an historical letter that was dated October 11, 1861. This is a letter written by President Benito Juarez, of Mexico, to my ancestor, General Santiago Tapia, the Governor and Military Commander of Puebla during the Battle of Cinco de Mayo 1862. The inscription that accompanied this gift, read as follows:


These were my personal feeling towards Ben 28 years ago, and continue to be more so today.
                           Gracias, Ben, por tanto que nos ayudaste y animaste. 
                       Adios, amigo, E.C. (i.e., Esteemed Candidate), y adelante.

                                                       "Pancho" Vega

                                                                                                                  Return to Table of Contents

Stopping Gang Violence
Cartoonist Sergio Hernandez is with the Public Defenders office in San Fernando, CA.


Following in a Father's Footsteps
Editorial: Mimi Lozano, December 23, 2000

About 30 years ago, when my husband and I had just moved to Orange County, I read a newspaper  account that still moves me to tears.  In celebration of a son's 18th birthday, the Latino father took his son to a bar to introduce him to what men do, and to do it together.  Tragically, but not unexpectedly, an argument broke out with some of the men at the bar, which lead to a fight.  The fight escalated and both the father and son were killed. I visualized the mother, receiving the news - both her son and husband dead.  Feeling helpless in the tragedy,  I remember putting  my head on the kitchen table and sobbing for her, for them, for us. When, I thought, is it going to stop? 

Yesterday, an Orange County article brought that memory back, it  read, Son's fatal path tragically familiar.  A 21-year old, Guido Nicholas Viera, Jr. died, 21 years after his own father, Guido Nicholas Viera  died, both killed in gang-related drive-by shootings.  The father and son had never met, but both were members of the West Side Anaheim, California street gang. 

"It's overwhelming," said Gina Williams, aunt of the younger Viera and sister-in-law of the elder. We can't believe he died the same death as his father. I don't think we'll ever get over this pain."  The elder Viera "was very well-known and respected in the gang," Williams said. "I think (Viera Jr.) admired the fact that his father was so respected.  He admired the status."  Sadly, this young man had guided his life on the concept that his father, who died in gang related warfare, was a role model to emulate.

About 10 years ago I read another tragic newspaper account which was actually very responsible for my own involvement and dedication to promote family history research among Spanish- language heritage people. The article was about two young Latinos who had killed each other in a gang-fight.  At that point,  I had been doing family history for about five years and looked closely at their surnames. I wept when I saw that  I had both of their surnames on my pedigree charts. They could have been my primos.  They could have been primos themselves. It suddenly struck me, these young men were killing their own family and didn't even know it. I reasoned that if they knew who they were, their history, their heritage, perhaps the bloodshed and tragic waste of a lives could be stopped. Perhaps instead of dying at 18 or 21 in the streets of their neighborhoods, or in prison,  they could live and add strength and support to their families.

In all honesty, I don't understand why drinking is considered manly, or why drive-by shootings are considered acts of bravery. We can exam the history of liquor distribution, the media, traditions, social conditions, economics, etc. for clues and make all kinds of suppositions.  But these tragedies will only stop when Hispanics/Latinos pass on changed values, when we take control of the future by sharing new images of what constitutes being a man.  To my grandfather, Alberto Chapa Sanchez, it was being a man of your word, taking care of your family.  To my father, who drank himself to death at 45, it was being the rough drinking man that is the common Latino image. 

In a previous Somos Primos we carried an article about círculos de hombres,  meetings of Latino support groups, who talk about what it really means to be a man.  I was grateful to read that the effort of this group is expanding.  A recent Los Angeles Times carried an article by Jennifer Mena called, Creating the New Macho Man, (12-12-00). 

In 1987, Alejandro Moreno and  Jerry Tello and a dozen other social workers from around the southwest developed the círculos concept.  They also formed a nonprofit organization, The National Compadres Network, to act on their ideas. Organizers say there are now between 2,000 to 3,000 men in formal círculos in the United States. The website is under construction, but Jerry Tello can be reached at .

I had always understood that macho came from machar se, to stand firm. Both men and women could have the strength of character to stand firm as the situation required, to endure without complaint. Matthew Gutmann, author of the book "The Meanings of Macho" said the task of changing attitudes about what (the current meaning of ) macho means is formidable.

Alejandro Moreno, a hulking 6-foot-7 inches man, a native of Mexico is the leader of the newest círculos chapter in Orange county.  Moreno says "A macho man can be someone who is strong, but he should be a person who wants to be the backbone of his family, support his wife, help his children and be sensitive to their needs and his own."  But becoming this quintessential macho is not easy, in part because men of  all ethnicities are often conditioned to be rough and even uncaring, Moreno says. He hopes the meetings will help men unravel this conditioned behavior and "reconstruct manhood." 

Meetings are based on the tribal traditions of the indigenous people.  All decision-making in such tribes came after meetings during which men brought their thoughts before the group. Each círculos  session starts with each member of the circle offering a prayer  for better relationships with their wives, children, and parents.  

Tello, runs one of the three círculos in Los Angeles, said the word macho has been twisted so that it has become unnecessarily negative. "The true machismo is being a man of palabra, of honoring women, men, children.  The false machismo is the man who rules, dominates and drinks." Tello said.

Maybe these men looking to the future, will return to the strength and nobility of their heritage. Maybe the task of changing attitudes is challenging enough to bring out their true manhood, a  male strength needed by their wives, sons, daughters and community.  Surely then, young men will not die in the company of their fathers, nor in the footsteps of their fathers. 

                                                                                                              Return to Table of Contents

Money-Transfer Case Final Settlement Approved

Years of litigation against the nation's biggest money-transfer companies has finally been ruled upon. The suits alleged the firms charged hidden and exorbitant fees to some of the country's most vulnerable consumers - Mexican immigrants wiring money home. At issue was the companies practice of earning substantial profits on the foreign exchange spread - the difference at which they buy and sell pesos - without disclosing that to consumers. 

An estimated $7 billion flows from Mexican immigrants here to family back home, much of that from California.  (Editor's comment: These are men!)

The class-action settlement could soon put hundreds of millions of dollars in discount coupons into the hands of consumers who wired money through the companies over the last 13 years.  It also compels Western Union, MoneyGram and Orlandi Valuta to disclose to consumers key information previously withheld regarding foreign exchange rates.  The companies will also pay $4.6 million into a fund managed by Latino community organizations for Latino causes. 

However the complexity of the problem and difficulty in reaching Mexican immigrant consumers suggests that as state Sen. Richard Polanco has said, "This is not over."

Orange County Register, 12- 22-00                                                   Return to Table of Contents

                                         CALL FOR APPLICATIONS FOR 2001 
                        Applications must be postmarked by February 26, 2001.
               American Memory Fellows Institute at the Library of Congress

The American Memory Fellows Program is an excellent opportunity for outstanding teachers, librarians and media specialists to work with the Library of Congress to understand better how primary sources can enrich the learning experience of students in grades 4 through 12. This is a
yearlong professional development opportunity, the cornerstone of which is the American Memory Fellows Institute, held in Washington at the Library of Congress in two six-day sessions: July 15-20 or July 22-27, 2001.

The American Memory Fellows Institute sponsors 25 two-person teams of exemplary grade 4-12 educators for their stay in Washington. Each session will accommodate approximately 12 teams of 24 Fellows. Teams will attend only one session; however, to be eligible for consideration, teams must be available for both sessions. To apply, use the application found online at 

American Memory Fellows Institute

During the six-day institute, Fellows will work with Library of Congress staff and consultants, examine both actual and virtual primary source artifacts photographs, maps, graphic arts, video, audio, documents and texts plus learn strategies for working with these electronic primary
source materials. Participants will also develop sample teaching materials that draw upon the American Memory online materials.

The Fellowship Year
Following the Institute, Fellows will continue to develop, refine and test their teaching materials with other colleagues and students. These teacher-created materials are then edited for presentation on the Library of Congress Learning Page at learn Throughout the school year, Fellows participate in online discussion groups. American Memory Fellows, as mentors to their professions, are also asked to share their knowledge with other colleagues throughout the nation at workshops and seminars or in writing.

Selection Criteria
The Library is seeking applications from two-member teams of humanities teachers, librarians and media specialists who:
Have frequent access to and a high level of comfort using the World Wide Web, e-mail and other technologies;
Have experience using primary sources to motivate students, promote their critical thinking and help them connect history to their lives;
Are active leaders in their fields, or have the ability to disseminate their expertise to teachers or librarians in their community and region;
Work with student populations that are diverse (e.g. by region, income, race and ethnicity, language, ability, etc.).

If you meet these criteria, print out and complete the online application at

Remember, applications must be postmarked by Feb. 26, 2001. (No email, fax or disk-based applications, please.) Notification letters to all applicants will be mailed the week of April 23, 2001. Send inquiries to Andrea Savada at  or (202) 707-8148.

         The President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports  PCPSA

Somos Primos received a request from Sandra Perlmutter, Executive Director to promote the Physical Fitness and Sports program among Hispanics.  PSA was developed in 1972 to motivate Americans of all ages to be physically active on a consistent basis.  Nearly 200,000 individuals have earned awards over the last ten years. With a nominal charge of $8. per award and with more than 60 categories to choose from, all fitness levels and sports interests can be met. If you are a youth leader, you may want to get your young people involved in this very positive program -  a national program. Poster, progress charts and program guides are available.

Sandra Perlmutter, Executive Director
Hubert H. Humphrey Building, Rm 738H
200 Independence Ave, SW
Washington, D.C. 20201

If you have any questions or would like to learn more about the creative ways in which other organizations have encouraged participation in this popular program, please call Jean Ann Ruppel at 407-828-3711.  The Council's school-based, fitness assessment program for children 6-17 - is also available in Spanish.  For more information on this program, call 1-800-258-8146, or visit the President's Challenge website at             Return to Table of Contents


From 1997-1999, mortgages issued to minorities leapt 31% in Orange County. 
Orange County Register, 12-28-00 
Among Hispanics, denials for loans increased 70%, while among Asians and blacks they rose 41% and 40%.

  Freedom Publisher's Orange County Register leads the Way
in offering a 
Hispanic Heritage Classroom Resource 

An instructional unit on Hispanic heritage suitable for grades 4-12 was prepared by teacher/author Caroll Jordan Hatcher. In coordinated with Lisa Davis, Educational Coordinator for the Orange County Register, the free materials are being distributed  and available only to Orange County schools. The organization of the units allows for year-around use. In addition to the units, 30 free copies of the Orange County Register are delivered on Wednesdays to participating classrooms. 

(Editor's note: Directly following this article is a listing of the Freedom publisher daily newspapers. If you would like this free Hispanic heritage materials to be provided for students in your community, contact your community newspaper and ask them to provide a similar  service.

Freedom publisher has many daily newspapers. In the spring, a Freedom Publisher conference will be held, at which time the Orange County Register's project will be presented to all their affiliated newspapers. 

Don't be hesitant
to contact your community newspaper.  A few years ago, I contacted the Register asking why they had no materials for Hispanic Heritage Month, although they did distribute materials for Black Heritage Month. I was told that teaching about Black heritage was required in the schools and Hispanic heritage was not. When I said that the contributions of Hispanics was formally recognized by congress in 1967, and that  the President  in a proclamation stated that schools should celebrate Hispanic heritage, the individual seemed genuinely surprised. He further explained that they do not produce the Black materials. The Register got the Black materials from the Associated Press.  To his knowledge the Associated Press did not have anything for Hispanic Heritage Month. Congratulation to the Orange County Register for leading the way - nationally!)

                                              Description of Program:

There are sixty-seven activities in Hispanic Heritage: A Salute to Latino Americans. Each activity begins with the biography of a Hispanic American history maker.  The Latinos featured in each of the twelve sections represent hundreds of outstanding and accomplished leaders in that particular field.  Our featured person may not be the "greatest" or most well known in his'her field, but instead, someone who contributed in a unique or special way.  Every biography is followed by a lesson using today's newspaper.  Although the newspaper lesson is often unrelated to the section heading.  It connects in a meaningful way to the person or people featured.  Each activity incorporate reading, writing, social studies, and critical thinking skills.

It is my hope that the newspaper lessons in this book will provide a foundation for the student not only in Hispanic American history and sociology, but also by opening the door to a lifetime of education through a lifetime of newspaper reading. . . .  Caroll Jordan Hatcher

For more information call: (714) 796-4969 or visit the web
Laura Hanson, Register in Education Manager
RIE/Classroom Programs
The Orange County Register
625 North Grand Ave
Santa Ana, CA 92701

                                   Twelve categories for Trailblazers:   

FIELD                                       TRAILBLAZER                         AREA OF INFLUENCE
The Arts




Civil Rights








Science and Technology


Internet Extension Section
Science and Technology

Cesar Pelli
Carlos Callejo
Evelyn Cisneros
Super-Stars (3)

Joseph A. Unanue
Roberto Goizueta
Eduardo Aguirre, Jr.
Mary Rodas
Super-Stars (4)

Cesar Chavez
Rudolfo "Corky" Gonzales
Delores Huerta
Jose Gutierrez
Linda Chavez

Louis Fuertes
America Paredes
Roman Cortines
Elizabeth Martinez
Super-Stars (7)

Walt Disney
Anthony Quinn
Rita Moreno
Gloria Estefan
Super-Stars (5)

Octaviano A. Larrazolo
Joseph M. Montoya
Antonia C. Novello
Henry B. Gonzalez
Federico F. Pena

Nicholasa Mohr
Richard Rodriguez
Oscar Hijuelos
Gary Soto
Cristina Garcia

Santos Benavides
Elwood Quesada
Horacio Rivero
Everett Alvarez, Jr.
Hispanic Heroes (6)

Ritchie Valens
Jose Feliciano
Joan Baez
Super-Stars (7)

Jose M. Hernandez
Miguel A. Otero
Edward R. Roybal
Henry G. Cisneros
Political Leaders (13)

Luis Alvarez
Richard Tapia
Elroy Rodriguez
Ellen Ochoa
Super-Stars (4)

Roberto Clemente
Angel Cordero
Jim Plunkett
Nancy Lopez
Baseball Greats (14)
Super-Stars (11)
More Super-Stars (4)

Oscar De La Renta
Jaime Escalante
Desi Arnaz
Lleana Ros-Lehtinen
Severo Ochoa

Artist, Muralist
Prima Ballerina
In Design & Visual Arts

President of Goya Foods
Chairman/CEO Coca-Cola Co. 
Banking Executive
Business Consultant
In the Business World

Union/Labor Rights Pioneer
Poet, Playright, Activist
Chicana Activist
Judge, Professor
Political Activist

Professor, Master Illustrator
Teacher, Writer, Folklorist
Superintendent, Public Official
In Education Today

Animator, Movie Producer
Actress, Dancer, Singer
Singer, Composer, Dancer
In Entertainment

Gov., Congressman, Senator
Congressman, Senator
U.S. Surgeon General, Prof.
Mayor, U.S. Secretary

Author, Illustrator
Journalist, Author
Novelist, Pulitzer Prize Winner
Poet, Author, Professor
Journalist, Novelist

Confederate Military Officer
WWII Veteran, Aviation Pioneer
Admiral, NATO Commander
Vietnam POW, Civic Leader
Spanning the Decades

Rock & Roll Singer
Singer, Guitarist
American Folksinger
Tejano Singer
Influential Latino Musicians

Mayor, Congressional Delegate
Congressional Delegate, Businessman
Mayor, U.S. Secretary
Of the Past 25 Years

Physicist, Nobel Prize Winner
Mathematician, Professor
Engineer, Astronaut
Today's Influential Scientists

Professional Baseball
Jockey, Trainer
Professional Football
Professional Golf
"The Boys of Summer"
Football, Golf, Tennis
Basketball, Boxing, Skating, Track

Fashion Designer
Mathematician, Teacher
Actor, Musician, TV Producer
Biochemist, Nobel Prize Winner

                Example of Units, Activity #1, Cesar Pelli, Architect

César Pelli was born in Argentina in 1922, and is today one of the contemporary architecture's leading lights.  He apprenticed with the celebrated Eero Saarinen and in 1977 cofounded a firm of his own and later became Dean of the Yale School of Architecture.  In the early 1980s, Pelli rose to prominence with such works as Manhattan's World financial Center - with its arching, 124-foot high, glass enclosed public hall, and the renovated Museum of Modern Art. Among his other projects are the Pacific Design Center in Los Angeles, Herriing Hall at Rich University (Houston, Texas), the Norwest Center in Minneapolis, San Bernardino city Hall, Indian Tower in Indianapolis, and the U.S. Embassy in Tokyo.  In 1991, César Pelli became the first U.S. Hispanic to be named by the American Institute of Architects as one of the ten most influential living architects.

(Editor's note: two tasks are suggested which tie in to math concepts and career development. These are distributed on worksheets with lined spaces to complete the assignment.)

1. Pelli's World Financial Center and Winter Garden at Battery Park in News York is considered one of the ten best works of recent American architecture.  This nearly perfect structure is truly a "symphony" of geometric shapes.  Look through today's newspaper for examples of geometric shapes. Clip as many different shapes as you can find.  Create a poster display with your newspaper clippings to show how architecture relates to mathematics.

2. Select a person with an interesting career mentioned or pictured in today's newspaper.  Brainstorm all of the ways this person would use mathematical concepts or skills in his\/her daily job. List those below. 


            Freedom Newspaper Chain

Freedom Newspapers is a libertarian-owned media company with many daily newspapers, thirty weekly newspapers, two magazines, five television stations and a cable television news service. 

Note: if you arrived here from nowhere, I am not in any way affiliated with Freedom Newspapers. I simply have a list of their papers because they're libertarian in their editorial viewpoint and so am I. . . . .  Ken Gaillot

Freedom's daily newspapers include:

  • The Marysville-Yuba City Appeal-Democrat (CA)
  • The Pottersville Recorder (CA)
  • The Santa Ana Orange County Register (CA)
  • The Turlock Journal (CA)
  • The Victorville Daily Press (CA)
  • The Colorado Springs Gazette Telegraph (CO)
  • The Fort Pierce Tribune (FL)
  • The Fort Walton Beach Northwest Florida Daily News (FL)
  • The Panama City News-Herald (FL)
  • The Crawfordsville Journal-Review (IN)
  • The Seymour Daily Tribune (IN)
  • The Greenville Delta Democrat-Times (MS)
  • The Clovis News Journal (NM)
  • The Burlington Times-News (NC)
  • The Gastonia Gaston Gazette (NC)
  • The Jacksonville Daily News (NC)
  • The Kinston Daily Free Press (NC)
  • The New Bern Sun-Journal (NC)
  • The Bucyrus Telegraph Forum (OH)
  • The Lima News (OH)
  • The Brownsville Herald (TX)
  • The Harlingen Valley Morning Star (TX)
  • The McAllen Monitor (TX)
  • The Odessa American (TX)
  • The Pampa News (TX)

                                                                                                                  Return to Table of Contents

                             Kwanzaa Festival in Santa Ana
                                          Celebrated December 26 to January 1st 

Kwanzaa was created in 1966 by a California State University, Long Beach, professor to address the absence of non-heroic holidays in the nation's black community.  Recognition of Kwanzaa has grown as more blacks around the country have embraced the holiday as a way to come together and empower themselves.

The seven-day celebration is a homage to family, community and African-American culture. "It lets me know where I come from.  It lays a foundation for the present and the future, " said Avery Nash, organizer of an event at the Bowers Museum in Santa Ana. "If you don't know where you come from, you sure don't know where you are going."

A candle is lit each of the seven days in recognition of the core principles, values to live by:
unity, self-determination, collective work and responsibility, cooperative economics, purpose, creativity and faith.

Willia Edmonds, president of the African Cultural Arts Council, said people of any race can incorporate these principles into daily life.  At the same time, the holiday is meant to show African-American children they "come from kings and queens," she said.

Abstract from article by Jenifer Mckim, Orange County Register, 12-31-00 

                                                                                                              Return to Table of Contents

           Dual-language Programs

The U.S. Department of Education has awarded about $1.4 million to Santa Ana Unified School District to expand dual-language programs.  Santa Ana charter School for the Arts and Sciences, which opens next school year, will receive $1.2 million over five years to start a program to educate English-speaking and limited-English speaking students in two languages.  An additional $175,000 will be used to start other classes in the district.

This is the first year of the nationwide grants, totaling $15 million, which aim to have 1,000 dual-language programs by 2005.

Orange County Register, 12-22-00

           "Hands On English"

A $250,000 state grant will help the Children's Museum of La Habra to help young students through the Southland learn English.  The money, to be spread out over three years, will help pay for a "Hands On English," which will used museum exhibits and programs to get kindergartners and first-graders excited about speaking in English.  

The program will use props, puppets and activities. Museum Director Jennifer Boxer explains, "If English isn't your first language, you might be a little more comfortable when it's the puppet speaking instead of you."  The program will serve Los Angeles and Orange County.

Los Angeles Times, 12-28-00

                           Santa Ana School District Board of Trustee

Agustin Gurza writing about the political shifts in the city of Santa Ana, wrote that eight years ago when he first came to Orange County "there was only one Latino on the five-member  board of trustees for the Santa Ana Unified School District, the county's largest, with a student enrollment that's more than 90% Latino. In a startling reversal, the board is now 100% Latino."

Los Angeles Times, 12-23-00

                                                         1451 International

An Irvine company is publishing reproductions of centuries-old cultural treasure from the Vatican Library. Three years ago, 1451 International received a license to reproduce the library's holdings, which amount to the oldest and largest of its kind in the world.  The company was formed for that purpose. 

So far, 1451 International has reproduced about 100 works.  Some of which can be seen at the  Patricia Faure Gallery in Santa Monica. The collection is not exclusively religious.   The collection is secular, multicultural, and all about the world.  Reproductions can be purchased.  The Vatican wants the art to reach everyone.

For more information, call:  (310) 449-1479                           

         Site dedicated to the history of :  Don Juan Pablo Grijalva

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by Eddie Grijalva

For the record...

Don Juan Pablo Grijalva, soldier, settler, rancher and pioneer -- came to California with the Anza expedition in 1775. At that time there were only five missions, two presidios and a single Rancho of some 120 square yards (140 varas). Grijalva's heritages dates to the time of Cortez and his legacy includes the only Spanish rancho in Orange County.

"Juan Pablo Grijalva, Alfrez (second-lieutenant) at the San Diego Presidio, retired from active duty at age 54 in 1796. [He] petitioned for...Rancho Santiago de Santa 1801, [and] died in 1806."1

"Grijalva created the first Rancho in what became Orange County,"2 [and was] "a founding father of Orange County."3 "He was kind of the Pioneer's pioneer [and] was the first to stake a private claim in Orange County."4 [In fact] "the first adobe building in Orange County, outside the limits of Mission San Juan Capistrano, was erected by the grantee* of Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana, Juan Pablo Grijalva about the year 1800."5 "The historical traditions of Orange County
begin with the San Juan Capistrano Mission and Juan Pablo Grijalva."3 Unlike most soldiers, he was held in high regard: "Lieutenant Grijalva...fills his post with honor and stands in high repute..."6

The final quote is by Padre Presidente Fermin Francisco de Lasuln. Lasuln founded nine missions, the last of which took away Grijalva's first rancho at LasFlores.

* In actuality, grants were given only in the Mexican period; this was a concession.                                             
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                                      Mexican Indians 

An East LA storefront office is the epicenter of a movement galvanizing pockets of Mexican and Central American communities in the United States: indigenous people fighting to resurrect their Indian history and heritage in a society that labels them Hispanic or Latino. The cause has evolved in different forms and faces around the country. 

Olin Texcatilpoca who heads the movement, legally changed his Spanish name to Indian. "This whole Latino-Hispanic agenda destroys our identity as indigenous people.  It's like the Spanish empire lives again."  . .  The movement means teaching their own people and others that to be Mexican or Central American - and to be Indian is often the same.

Dr. Refugio Rochin, director of the Smithsonian Center for Latino Initiatives in Washington, D.C. said, "Many Latinos who are Spanish-speaking don't even know that Latinos include Indians and that sometimes Spanish is their second language,  We're talking about populations with different cultures, different interests, different networks than the traditional immigrants that come to the United States. It's a community that hasn't been studied or understood or known."

Associated Press article by Pauline Arrillaga via Orange County Register, 12-31-00

Editor's note:  In support of Dr. Rochin's comment that the Mexican Indian community "has not been studied or understood or known,"  when I wanted my grandsons to have the benefit of participating in their high school's Indian programs, I was told that indigenous heritage in Texas did not count. "We only include American Indians, not Mexican Indians."  I reminded her that Texas was in the United States.  She responded, "Well, we just don't have any information about Indians in Texas."  

Routes to Roots
Irrespective of tools and tactics, our goal must be Africa, 
to trace our identities to the Motherland.

Article in Turning Point, Connecting the Black Diaspora

by Dr. John Reilly, Ph.D. 
Professor in the Department of English
Loyola Marymount University in Westchester, CA

In the introduction to this excellent article, Dr. Reilly answers the question, "Why preserve a long history when ambition demands a short memory? The answer can be stated more simply than apprehended: IDENTITY. By knowing our ancestors, we more than less come to know ourselves.  Who we were is who we are, who we are is who we will become. The past informs the present, the present informs the future. 

. . .  By rape or marriage the blood of much of the human world flows through our veins.  Each drop signifies a milestone of struggle, whether forced upon us or chosen by us.  Each struggle shapes our character, both individual and collective.  To know the blood in toto is to know the total struggle. To know the total struggle is to know ourselves completely: the African, the slave, the master, the Indian, the Indian killer, the black and the white.  We are the one and the many, the specific and the universal, Africa and the world.

Editor's note: Hispanics, Latinos, Mexican Indians, by whatever name, we too are that mix. I strongly urge you all to obtain a copy of this Nov/Dec/Jan issue of Turning Point, the issue is devoted to Black and Brown alliances with many articles touching on that subject and black family genealogy.

Turning Point Communications
P.O. Box 91889
Los Angeles, CA 90009

Sent by Ruben Alvarez                                                                      Return to Table of Contents

                                       Ritchie Valens

Ritchie Valens, the teenage rocker from Pacoima, California, who was killed in 1959 plane crash, will be inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in March along with six other 2001 honorees.  More than 40 years after his death, Valens - born Richard Steven Valenzuela, will finally be recognized.

Valens became the first Latino rock star with the hits of "La Bamba," "Donna" and "Come On Let's Go."  The 1987 biographical film "La Bamba," continues to win Valens new fans.  A message posted on Ritchie Valens Fan Club's Web site: "When people have told me that Latinos has no place in rock `n' roll, I have him to turn to."

Los Angeles Times, 12-13-00 

                                            Michael Gonzalez

Congratulations to Michael Gonzalez, chosen as one of the outstanding professionals in his field. 
Wellpoint/Blue Cross Multimedia Producer Michael Gonzalez was inducted as one of 
the TOP 100 Producers in the Nation.

AV Video Multimedia Producer magazine has nominated and recognized by a jury of his peers Michael Gonzalez as one of outstanding professionals in his field. His effective conceptualization and presentation of ideas through technological innovation, artistic excellence and market leadership make him one of the TOP 100 PRODUCERS IN THE NATION.

Each year for the past six years, AV Multimedia Producer magazine has chosen 100 individuals who they believe represent the best producers in our business. Each spring they call for nominations from their peers and clients. Several criteria are considered, including success in growing a business and in fulfilling a client's demands, especially, a demonstrable passion for producing dynamic media for business. The editorial staff reviews the nominees before turning them over to a panel of judges who each year includes veteran producers with extensive in-house corporate experience as well as knowledgeable independent producers and executives from key industry associations.

Multimedia Producer Michael Gonzalez receives award from AV Multimedia 
Producer magazine publisher Sam Kintzer.

The award ceremony took place on Dec. 11, 2000 at the Museum of Modern Arts 
in San Francisco.

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Woodlawn Cemetery
Santa Monica, Los Angeles County, California

This is not a complete listing of burials!  
If you have more burials to add to this cemetery, please visit the Records Submission Form
Total records = 109

Submitters' Index

??, Female, d. c.1 Jul 1906 Temescal Canyon, Pacific Palisades, CA, Gunshot wound, bur. Aug 11, 1906, Lot:34 Sec:1 #A, [MW]
Blanco, Anna, b. 1 Dec 1901, d. 7 Sep 1990 Torrance CA, Lot-639 Bl-19 G-B, [MW]
Blanco, Pilar, b. 1844, d. 27 Jul 1903, bur. 28 Jul 1903, 60yr, Sec-B Bl-2 Gr-48, [MW]
Blanco, Yasabel, b. 25 Jul 1906, d. 18 Jul 1979, bur. 23 Jul 1979, Male, Lot-374 Bl-19 Gr-C Vault #5 Sissell, [MW]
Breitung, Erich Ernest "Paul", b. Sep 26, 1876, d. Dec 14, 1957, ashes, Mausoleum Sec. Hope-390A, [JH]
Breitung, Hans, b. Sep 30, 1907, d. Oct 10, 1972, s/o Erich and Martha Breitung, ashes, Mausoleum Sec. Hope-390A, [JH]
Breitung, Martha Henrietta, b. Jan 18, 1880, d. Jul 15, 1952, w/o Erich Ernest Breitung, ashes, Mausoleum Sec. Hope-390A, [JH]
Conatser, Charles Andrew (Wilson), b. 21 Dec 1867 Sevierville, TN, d. 24 Jun 1953 Rancho Los Amigos, Rural Hondo, CA, 85yr male, bur.27 Jun 1953, Lot: 468-18-C, c/d Terminal bronchopneumonia, [MW]
Gileno, Frank,M, b. Italy, d. 23 Oct 1924, Sawtelle, CA, 35yr, bur. 25 Oct 1924, c/d Pulmonary tuberculosis, Gr-B Blk. 5, h/o Matilda (Marquez) Gileno, [MW]
Ivanoff, M. J., (date of death would be around 1930) Supposedly he is buried in a small above ground mausoleum, [LI]
Marquez, Ado, b. Jul 4, 1890 Mexico, d. Sep 17, 1961, Santa Monica, CA, bur. Sep 20, 1961, 71 yr, Gr-A, Lot-143, Blk-17, [MW]
Marquez, Amelia, d. Sep 21, 1894 in Cal, 1y 7m, c/d consumption, bur Sep 22, 1894, Gr-K, [MW]
Marquez, Anita, b. Jan 6, 1887 Torina, Italy, d. Mar 19, 1941 Santa Monica, CA, 54y 2m 13d, bur. Mar 22, 1941, Gr-C Lot 52 Blk-13-S1/2, [MW]
Marquez, Baby, b. Cal, d. Dec 18, 1930, d/o Ado Marquez, Gr-364, Lot: Infant sec, Blk-9, bur. Dec 19, 1930, [MW]
Marquez, Bartola Mariana, Apr 17, 1870 Cal, d. Aug 2, 1963, El Cajon CA, 93yr, bur. Aug 6, 1963, Gr-B Lot-34 Blk-5, d/o Frank Rivas and Cleorabel “Chacho” Marquez, [MW]
Marquez, Candida, d. Oct 24, 1896, 7yr, bur. Oct 25, 1896, Gr-K, [MW]
Marquez, Cliorobel, b. Jan 17, 1876, Santa Monica, CA, d. Sep 22, 1939, 63 yr 8 mo 5 da, Male, bur. Sep 25, 1939, Gr-C Lot-34 Blk-5, c/d Metastasis to 5th Lumbar vertabre, [MW]
Marquez, Daniel E., b. Feb 12, 1888, d. Jul 12, 1963, 73 yr male, bur. Jul 16, 1963, Gr-B Lot-229 Blk-18, [MW]
Marquez, Dennie Carol, d. Mar 8, 1918, 2 mo 24 da, Male, bur. Mar 11, 1918, Gr-H Lot-13 Blk-7, c/d Bronchial pneumonia, [MW]
Marquez, Dorothy, d. Oct 23, 1930, 11 yr 7 mo 0 da, Female, bur. Oct 24, 1930, Gr-F Lot-49 Blk-12, 'Marcus', [MW]
Marquez, Ella C., d. Nov 18, 1939, female, Ashes, bur. Dec 11, 1939, Gr-H Lot-49 Blk-1, c/d Cerebral Hemmorage, arteriosclerosis, [MW]
Marquez, Francisco, d. Feb 6, 1906, bur. Gr-N.8 1/2 Lot-4, Sec-B Blk-2, c/d Valvular disease of the heart, [MW]
Marquez, Infant, d. Jan 24, 1899, 2 yr, bur. Jan 25, 1899, [MW]
Marquez, Isabella (Kilgore), b. Nov 18, 1871, d. Oct 30, 1965, 93 yr old female, bur. Nov 2, 1965, Gr-B Lot-201 Blk-18, [MW]
Marquez, Isabella, d. Sep 2, 1906, 2 mo 17 da, female, bur Sep 3, 1906, Gr-C ­ 59 ­ 5 (removed from Gr-D Lot-119 Blk-1), c/d Pertusis, [MW]
Marquez, Ishmael B., b. Apr 19, 1870, d. Oct 11, 1955, 85 yr old male, bur. Oct 15, 1955, Gr-B Lot-52 Blk-13­S ½, [MW]
Marquez, Jessie, b. Mexico, d. May 17, 1922, 85 yr old male, Santa Monica Ca, bur. May 18, 1922, [MW]
Marquez, Joe Jr, d. Apr 06, 1926, 7 mo Male, bur. Apr 7, 1926, Gr-360, Infant Sec Blk-5, c/d Pulmonary Tuberculosis, [MW]
Marquez, Juliana, d. Sep 16, 1897, 1 yr 3 mo, female, Gr-K, [MW]
Marquez, Julio, d. Sep 1944, bur. Jun 18, 1949, c/d Overseas Ship in War Dead NY030R, Gr-B Lot-134 Blk-7, Inv #16599, [MW]

Submitted by Johanna de Soto                                                                   Return to Table of Contents

     Los Angeles Family History Center General Holdings and Collections


NOTE: This description only covers the main highlights of the general record areas in the library on film, microfiche or in books of possible interest to Hispanic researchers. Consult Sources for Research and make a methodical study of your ancestor using the library collection. Be aware of the common errors often made.
Family Search® is on computer at the Los Angeles FHC and includes the categories below. FamilySearch® on the internet also includes the IGI and the Ancestral file but does not include the other categories listed below.
  • Ancestral File

    Ancestral File™ contains a compilation of genealogies of families from around the world and records that have been contributed by thousands of people, including users of the Church's Family History Library and Family History Centers. The information--mostly data about people who have died--is linked into pedigrees to show both ancestors and descendants of individuals. The file contains over 35 million names.

  • Family History Library Catalog (FHLC).

    The FHLC lists and describes the records available at the Family History Library in Salt Lake City, many of which are available at the Los Angeles Family History Center. You can search the microfiche version by surname, locality, author, title, or subject. The computer version may be searched by locality, surname, or film numbers. Most films and microfiche my be ordered to use here at the library.

  • The International Genealogical Index® (IGI)

    The International Genealogical Index® (IGI) contains over 320 million records that list dates and places of birth, christenings, and marriages for over 600 million deceased persons. It includes people who lived any time after the early 1500s up through the early 1900s. These names have been researched and extracted from thousands of original records. Most of these records are compiled from public domain sources.

  • Social Security Death Index

    The SSD index consists of 49.3 million records of deaths reported to the Social Security Administration and have been made available through the Freedom of Information Act. Most of the deaths in this file date from 1962 through 1994, however some records are as early as 1937.

  • Military Index

    This index lists individuals in the United States military service who died or were declared dead in Korea or Vietnam (Southeast Asia) from 1950 to 1975.

  • This index lists nearly 10 million names primarily from the Church of Scotland (Presbyterian) parish registers and similar records. Records from a few other denominations are also included. The index contains entries dating from the late 1500s through 1854, with some entries as late as1900. Information on the index includes given name(s), surname, parents or spouse, gender, birth, christening or marriage date and place, and source information. This is also available on microfiche as the Old Parochial Registers (OPR) Index for Scotland.

  • Personal Ancestral File®

    Personal Ancestral File® 2.31, 3.0, and 4.0 are currently loaded on the Los Angeles FHC computers for patron use in the library. Versions 2.31 and 3.0 are available for sale at the FHC. Personal Ancestral File® 4.0.2 (the latest upgrade and bug fix) is being offered free for home use when downloaded from the site .


Library has printed book indexes for most early states from 1790 thru 1870, a few missing

Colonial America Census Index: 1607-1789

1850: Kentucky Index 1850 (and other records)

1860: Census Index: Connecticut, Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, Washington D.C.

African Americans in 1870 Census
Delaware & New Jersey Index 1870
New York City Index 1870
hio Index 1870
Pennsylvania Index 1870
Virginia & West Virginia Index 1870
1870 Census Index: Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Georgia, Pennsylvania, North and South Carolina, New York City, Baltimore, Chicago, St. Louis

1880 to 1910:
io Index 1880
U.S. Veteran's Schedules in Selected States 1890
Idaho Index 1910

HISTORIC MAP LIBRARY North American Railroads 1870-1917


Civil War Compilation of Official Records of Union & Confederate Armies
Civil War Confederate Pension Application Index
Military Records: U.S. Soldiers, 1784-1811

Revolutionary Patriots: Maryland, Delaware

Roll of Honor: Civil War Union Soldiers

SAR Revolutionary War Graves Register

U.S. Soldiers - 1784-1811



  • New York City Marriage Index: 1600-1800's
  • State Index: Upstate New York, 1685-1910


  • Land Records: (1)Alabama, Arkansas, Florida (2) Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Ohio, Wisconsin
  • Mid-Atlantic Genealogies: 1340-1940
  • Southern Genealogies #1
  • Marriage Records: Early to 1850, Illinois and Indiana, Arkansas


Early Marriage Records to 1850: Illinois and Indiana, ArkansasLand Records: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida (2), Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Ohio, Wisconsin


Immigrants to the New World - 1600-1800's


American Concise Encyclopedia
Cary's 1794 Atlas
Early American Gazetteer
Family History Source Guide
Frith's Photographic Directory
Phone Disc USA: 1993 residential edition


Family Finder Index
Marriage bundle: (includes 38 states)
Native American Collections
PERSI (Periodical Source Index)
Vital Information from the Guion Miller Roll (Eastern Cherokee)


Family Histories, Vol 1
Genealogical Sources, Vol 1
Local Histories, Vol 1
  • U.S. Census records on microfilm for 1790-1840, and 1850-1920 . The 1890 was mostly destroyed.
  • Printed book indexes for most early states from 1790 thru 1870, some missing
  • 1900 and 1920 Soundex Index complete, 1910 available for some states
  • Mortality schedules, 1850-1880
  • See Soundex Coding System for how to utilize the index to the census after 1870
  • Use A.I.S. (Accelerated Indexing System) microfiche searches for census records 1790-1850
  • 1880-1920 extant censuses on film
  • Film room has automated Soundex computer for easy use

Some films do not have a SL film # because they were filmed in Los Angeles or were acquired from archives or historical Societies. These films are under old "F" numbers in special cabinets. Salt Lake does not have many of these films.

Contains about 45,000 file cards containing hard-to-find places where the name may have changed or the place may no longer exist.

The LDS Church census of members taken during the years 1914, 1920, 1925, 1930, 1935, 1940 are arranged in alphabetical order; LDS Church census for 1950, 1955, and 1960 combined in alphabetical order; 3-generation and 4-generation family group sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by year in which they were filmed - Family Group Record Archives Collection 1942-1969. (Key: P365 = 3-generation filmed in 1965, P466 = 4-generation filmed in 1966, etc.)

The Map Area contains the Library of Congress Family History card file. While this Library does not have most of these books, you can obtain the exact title, author, publication date, publisher, etc. Older books, pre-1974, are listed in the Library of Congress genealogy books.

In the Map Area there are many useful reference books, maps for various countries, some excellent card files, and microfiche. Of particular note are the laminated Ordinance Survey Landranger Maps of England & Wales which were purchased overseas.

Thousands of microfiche are located in Microfiche Cabinets. Some of the important holdings are:
Sutro Library Catalog Family Registry & Index
California Death Index
National Inventory of Documentary Sources
California Divorce Index
Civil War Unit Histories
DAR Lineage Books Index
Dictionary of National Biography
Family Registry
Indian Pioneer Papers

General Index to Revolutionary War Service Records
800 rolls of Revolutionary War Pension files
Index to War of 1812 Service records
Index to War of 1812 pension files
Index to Indian Wars Service Records
Index to Indian Wars Pension files
Index to Mexican War Service Records
Index to Mexican War Pension files
Index to Compiled Service Records of Confederate Soldiers
Index to Union Service Records, arranged by state
Index to Old Wars Pension files


A comprehensive and enviable collection including 75 "red binders" with various topics.


  • New York Passenger Arrival Lists and Indexes:
    The passenger lists are complete for 1820-1909. Indexes exist for the period 1820-1846, 1897-1902, and 1902-1943. Unfortunately, during the period 1847 through early 1897, there are no indexes for New York.
  • Baltimore
    There are four other indexes of Baltimore. Many miscellaneous ports along the Atlantic seaboard, the Gulf Coast and the Great Lakes ports are indexed for various short periods in the Atlantic and Gulf Coast Ports Index. The four major ports are Boston, Baltimore, New Orleans and Philadelphia. All indice to these ports are complete. The actual passenger lists are complete for Boston 1820-1891, Baltimore 1820-1891, New Orleans 1820-1903, and Philadelphia 1800-1891.
  • Hamburg Passenger Lists and Hamburg Indexes:
    These passenger lists & indexes cover the period 1850 through 1934, with a gap in 1914 thru 1919. These indexes/lists usually provide the name of the village from which the passenger had come before leaving Hamburg. You need to start your search in the indexes by checking the time period when the person left the port of Hamburg, Germany.

    For a complete explanation of the Los Angeles FHC passenger list records available, see U.S. Passenger Lists
    These are the largest collection of passenger lists in the Western United States (outside of Salt Lake City).



Collection of marriages 1960-1981
Deaths 1905-1994 (film and fiche) 1930-1930 in FHC office
Los Angeles marriages 1921-

On microfiche with annual supplements, covering the genealogical holdings of the Sutro Library in San Francisco. Important because their genealogical materials and directories are available through public libraries on interlibrary loan.

Early Name Index 1810-1855, State and Federal Censuses. SL #1,001,592 thru 1,001,801.

Records cover 1871-1915 for births to 1916 for Marriages, and 1871-1933 for deaths. Some indexes on microfiche under 6,016,532 & 33.

Index to Guion Miller (Eastern Cherokee) rolls in book form and on CD-ROM.

Sent by Johanna de Soto    John Schmal teaches Hispanic research at the Los Angeles Family History Center on Saturdays. Contact him for more information,                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                     Return to Table of Contents


Tribal Police

Of about 100 California tribes, at least nine have full-fledged police departments, and many others have rangers or security forces. A coalition of 67 California tribes is negotiating with state authorities to give tribal officers full law enforcement authority.  Authority to allow them not only to pursue, arrest and book suspects, but also to conduct investigations and share crime information with other agencies.

The current laws limit  tribal police officers to crimes committed on the reservation. Those tribes who have formed police units have been funded by casino generated wealth. Cabazon Police Chief Hare said, "We have 1.7 million [people] coming onto the reservation properties over a year for the entertainment venues, and we only have this citizen's arrest power, which means that once we are detaining these people, then we have to wait for the sheriff to arrive." 

Sheriffs say that any plan should hold tribal police to the same standards as other officers.  It should provide means for citizens injured due to police misconduct to get redress, they say, noting that tribes are immune to civil litigation under U.S. law.  And it should map out how tribal officers, whose pay comes largely from casino revenues, would fairly probe crimes associated with such businesses.  

Extracts from article by Deborah Sullivan Brennan
Los Angeles Times, 12-27-00                                      See Navajo Speakers, under Southwest

                                    "The Emperor's New Groove"

In an experimental attempt to reach more Latino movie-goers, Disney Motion Pictures released both English and Spanish versions of ""Groove" last week at more than a dozen theaters across in Southern California. The Spanish-dubbed version is not doing as well as some anticipated. The simultaneous release of two version sof "Groove" in major theaters - a first for Disney - is part of a larger effort by the entertainment industry to reach the growing, yet sometimes elusive, Latino market - the fastest-growing population in the country.

One manager said the Spanish version was attracting about 10% of the audience that the English version was pulling in.

With its Latin American characters and themes, "Groove" has sparked some interest among Latino movie-goers.  But many of the G-rated movie's younger viewers have opted for the English version.

Certain approaches, such as bilingual presentations for live shows, do seem to work, while others, like Spanish dubbing over mainstream movies, do not seem to be catching fire.  

In August, Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey Circus produced 10 well-attended, bilingual circus performances at the Los Angeles Sports Arena.  And Disney on Ice has hosted bilingual shows in Chicago, Dallas, Miami and New York.   "It has been a very successful initiative for the company," said Eric Stevens, head of marketing for Feld Entertainment, which promotes the circus and Disney on Ice.

Abstract from article by Richard Chang, Orange County Register, 12-22-00 

Indian Population in California

Source of data: Gold Fever Exhibit, Old Court House, Santa Ana,  runs until June 2001 

1847     150,000 

1870       30,000

1900       16,000    

California Flood 1955

The Christmas flood of 1955, was the greatest disaster of its kind to occur in California history. The loss of life was put at 64 persons. The financial loss was staggering. The California Division of Water Resources gave  a tentative estimate at the time of $200,000,000 in flood losses.

Governor Goodwin J. Knight directed the California Disaster Office to prepare a complete account of the flood. It was issued in July, 1956. Samuel B. Jackson was the editor. He organized the photographs, and wrote the text.

His words are used throughout this presentation.


Source: Bill Roddy, webmaster for America Hurrah at
Sent by Johanna de Soto                                                                        
Return to Table of Contents

Effective use of technology in education 
Teachers strive to show what adding technology to classrooms can mean

Mercury News
Nov. 28, 2000

Math teacher Pam Ensign thought a computer program was the last thing she needed for middle- school students who still were struggling to add and subtract. But, desperate for new ideas, she signed on to help develop and  test classroom software.

Six years later, the San Jose teacher is beyond convert and bordering on zealot. Every year her Herman Intermediate students, even those lacking basic skills, use computer- aided design to plan dream homes and Antarctic research stations, and eagerly tackle algebra, decimals and fractions in the process.

The change in Ensign's thinking reflects a national shift in the debate surrounding technology in classrooms. While some still question whether computers belong in schools, most educators say computers have become so widespread that the issue no longer is whether they're used, but how.

The computer-drill programs that many schools continue to use to teach reading and math actually hurt test scores, according to some studies. And the ubiquitous laboratory setups that allow students to get onto computers just a few times a week are inadequate, according to a growing consensus.

But programs such as Ensign's show more promise. When used as an educational tool rather than a classroom toy, proponents say, computers can spur projects that teach students teamwork, problem-solving and critical thinking, as well as increase their enthusiasm for learning.

``I've had kids who would come in at lunch and say, `I've got to get this done,' '' Ensign said. ``I've had kids I couldn't get out of the building at night.''

Such programs are rare, however. Bay Area initiatives such as the research-station project are among just a handful nationwide recognized by the U.S. Department of Education as the right way to use technology in the classroom of the future.

Because there is very little time for teacher training, and more than 80 percent of technology money is spent on software and machines, most educators continue to teach the computer to children, rather than using the computer to teach.

``Too many schools are still doing it the old way,'' said Judy Powers, manager of technology/ curriculum for the Santa Clara County Office of Education, which each summer trains nearly 400 teachers how to develop multimedia projects like the Antarctic research station. Locally, ``I would guess 10 to 20 percent of teachers know how to use technology effectively, and that percentage wouldn't be far off nationwide.''

You've got the computer -- now what?

Schools have come a long way since the days when Apple IIe machines on audio-visual carts rolled from classroom to classroom. The past five years have seen a tremendous push to increase technology in the classroom, including lowering the ratio of students per computer at each school and wiring campuses for the Internet.

Public schools spent an estimated $5.67 billion on educational technology in the 1999-2000 school year, an average of $121.37 per student, according to a report this month by Market Data Retrieval, a Connecticut-based educational research firm.

But there is a growing concern about how that computing power is used. In a 1998 report on technology, Educational Testing Service researcher Harold Wenglinsky lamented that with the ever-popular students-per-computer statistic, ``We don't know how many (of those computers) are behind locked doors, we don't know how many are broken, and we don't know how many
teachers really know how to use them.''

This fall, the technology-in-schools debate raged anew after Alliance for Childhood -- a national group of educators, doctors and child-development experts -- issued a report calling for a moratorium on more computers in schools. The group contends that billions are being spent
on something that is unproven in its ability to boost learning. Meanwhile, the report said, computers rob young children of creativity, human relationships, hands-on learning and the fun and frolic of childhood.

Rather than a moratorium, however, the report prompted advocates to
rally in defense of technology.

Jim McCarthy, who teaches a combined third and fourth grade at Oak Ridge Elementary in San Jose, contends that technology can help students understand things they would be unlikely to see on their own. His students use the Internet, PowerPoint presentation software and ClarisWorks spreadsheets for group reports on California regions and weather patterns. ``You don't learn from the computer,'' he said. ``You have to take the information and do something with it.''
Oak Ridge Elementary is among the 45 Bay Area schools participating in the Challenge 2000 Multimedia Project sponsored by Joint Venture Silicon Valley and the San Mateo County Office of Education. The project is one of only two nationwide that the U.S. Department of Education recently recognized as ``exemplary'' for using technology in schools.

The research-station-design program in Ensign's class was one of only five ``promising'' programs the education department said appeared to use technology effectively for learning, but required more study. It is part of the Middle-School Mathematics Through Applications Program developed by the Institute for Research on Learning, now part of the WestEd research group in
San Francisco.

The Challenge 2000 project provided grants and training for teachers to develop their own classroom technology projects that are curriculum-based, have a real-world connection and allow students to work in groups, make decisions about what they're learning and use the technology during a weeks long period.

In kindergarten through high school classrooms across the Bay Area, the five-year, $6.6 million program has transformed everything from the old two-page report and classroom skit to the beginning biology lecture on cells.

Many steps to learning

At Miner Elementary in San Jose, Elaine Imada's sixth-graders wrote and produced a report on earthquakes using HyperStudio presentation software. The project not only involved researching the science and history of earthquakes but scanning photographs, creating sound, making page links and patching video of a simulated earthquake, which the students staged in a Barbie Dream House.

``If we had done this project on paper, I would have put all this information out and not remembered any of it,'' 12-year-old Shera Iosefa said. ``Because we did it on the computer, it was much more interesting.''

Santa Teresa High School Spanish teacher Eric Balochie used to assign his students two-page reports on topics of Hispanic history, culture or civilization. But in his Challenge 2000 project, he taught them Adobe Page Mill, and students built their own Web sites, complete with photos, sound, Quicktime videos and links to other students' Web sites.

Balochie also gave them an online take-home test, requiring them to visit sites other than their own to answer the questions. In just a few weeks, ``they learned more than I could teach them in a
whole school year,'' he said.

The project allowed junior Hannah Sim, who loves art but is shy about speaking Spanish, to stand out. Her El Salvador Web site included an erupting volcano, Salvadoran music and an interview with a woman who survived a brutal death squad massacre of her family and village.

``The thing I liked about the project is you can put a variety of ideas on the page. I can use my creative side,'' Hannah said. Teachers and an SRI International study agree that with Challenge 2000 projects, students were more motivated and more involved in their own learning.

When Santa Teresa teacher Linda Sparling assigned her desktop publishing students to design a brochure on the Alaskan Iditarod, one asked if he could design a Web site as well.

``Anytime a classroom teacher presents a project and the student comes back the next day above and beyond anything in the unit, you've won,'' Sparling said.

Challenge 2000 students also were far more likely to collaborate in small groups. Teachers were less likely to lecture and more likely to encourage students to solve problems independently, according to the SRI study, which compared a group of Challenge 2000 middle-school students with a group that was not in the program.

But studies on technology's effect on student achievement are mixed. A 1999 study of West Virginia fifth-graders showed that the longer they participated in a computer-education program linked to state standards, the more their standardized test scores increased.

At the same time, Wenglinksy's ETS study on the effect of classroom technology on National Assessment of Educational Progress math scores showed that students actually scored lower if they used the computer for drill and practice. The study also shows that the positive effect of technology is great on middle-school children, but negligible on fourth-graders, supporting the Alliance for Childhood contention that computers are unnecessary in lower grades.

The SRI study compared groups of middle-school students who created a brochure on issues of homeless students. While the groups using technology outscored their counterparts in content, design and thinking about their audience, SRI researchers found the vast majority of students in both groups failed to fulfill the assignment.

And when researchers considered the grade level of the students involved, the statistical advantage of those using technology disappeared in all areas but design.

Bill Penuel, SRI senior education researcher, sees those results as promising, not mixed. The problem is that standardized tests, the current arbiter of student achievement, don't measure skills gained from using technology, such as teamwork and active learning, he said.

Teaching with technology also is limited by money, teacher training and time. Federal money for Challenge 2000 dried up this year, just as the government named it an exemplary program. Forty-five percent of 30,200 schools in the Market Data Retrieval study reported that at least half their teachers can't use a computer well enough to integrate technology into the curriculum.

Teachers who venture into technology tend to be self-taught or spend summers and weekends in training classes. . . . . ``I'm motivated because of the excitement it creates with students.
That gives me the initiative to continue, because it's difficult. The planning of it is time-consuming,'' sixth-grade teacher Imada said one recent afternoon as teachers from the Blossom Valley Learning Consortium streamed into her classroom for yet another after-hours technology planning

According to her students, that excitement doesn't end with her class. Shera, who worked on the earthquake project, now has Ensign for seventh-grade math. Hearing she might be designing an Antarctic research station, she raised both hands in the air. ``I know I can nail that,'' Shera said.

Address of original story:

I thought you might be interested in this article from the front page of today's San Jose Mercury News. It highlights Joint Venture's "Challenge 2000 Multimedia Project" as an exemplary model for using technology in our schools. We're proud of the special  recognition from the U.S. Department of Education, and the validation of the SRI International study. 

Ruben Barrales, Joint Venture: Silicon Valley Network
99 Almaden Blvd., Suite 700, San Jose, CA, 95113
(408) 271-7219 tel
(408) 271-0452 fax

                                                                                                         Return to Table of Contents

 California Birth Index, 1905-1910

Vital records in California have been kept by the state registrar of  vital statistics since July 1905. This database is an index to the  birth records in California from 1905 through 1910. The database  provides such valuable information as first, last, and middle names  of those born; birth dates; gender; mother's name; father's name; and  birthplace.

To search this database, go to:

Sent by Lorraine Hernandez
                 Informate Project

The Informate project, funded by a California State Library federal Library Services and Technology Act grant award, is enabling the Oceanside's Latino community to become comfortable with using the OPL online library catalog, Microsoft Word, and finding information on the Internet. For more information, see

Source: Al Milo

The Human Remains of Ishi, a Yahi-Yana Indian,
in the National Museum of Natural History,
Smithsonian Institution

Report and Recommendations for Repatriation

Stuart Speaker
Repatriation Office

Department of Anthropology
National Museum of Natural History

April 21, 1999
Executive Summary

The National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), following consultations with Northern California Native Americans, will repatriate the human remains of Ishi, a Yahi-Yana Indian, under the repatriation provisions of the National Museum of the American Indian Act of 1989, as amended, 20 U.S.C. §80q et seq. Contrary to the commonly held belief that Ishi was the last member of his tribe, the Yana people of California, his closest relatives, have survived more than a century of warfare, disease, displacement, and cultural destruction. The museum has sought out the Yana people and consulted with them on issues of Yana language, culture, and history necessary to properly complete the repatriation process under the law. We offer to repatriate the remains of Ishi to the sovereign tribal governments that represent these Yana descendants.

Over the last two months the Repatriation Office of the National Museum of Natural History has consulted with Native American representatives of the Butte County Native American Cultural Committee, the federally-recognized Redding Rancheria and Pit River Tribe, as well as members of a number of California tribes not presently recognized by the federal government. Consultation is an essential element of the repatriation process and is mandated in the federal legislation governing repatriation. Consultation ensures that all concerned Native American groups have the opportunity to voice their concerns, contribute to the repatriation process, and secure their legal rights. This process has allowed the NMNH to provide information on its collections, policies, and repatriation efforts while at the same time ensuring that Native concerns and interests guide the repatriation of Ishi's remains. The return of Ishi's remains to California represents a first step in the much broader process of consultation and repatriation to return ancestral remains, funerary objects, sacred objects and objects of cultural patrimony of these and the other culturally affiliated tribes of Northern California. The Museum looks forward to continuing this important work and the positive steps that now have begun to take place with the tribes.

The National Museum of the American Indian Act provides that cultural affiliation is the basis for the repatriation of human remains and objects. The law prescribes a process of information gathering, through research and consultation, so that all perspectives, including Native and scholarly, will be included in the repatriation process. The law also mandates that determinations of cultural affiliation must be based on a "preponderance of the evidence" standard. This report summarizes available information on Ishi's cultural affiliation. The information includes anthropological and linguistic evidence on the culture of the Yana tribe, oral traditional information on the surviving Yana people of today, and historical records that document the Yana survivors who found refuge among other California tribes. Clearly, the Yahi band to which Ishi belonged was part of the larger tribal grouping known as the Yana or Noso. These lines of evidence support the findings of cultural affiliation and the decision to return Ishi's remains to the living Yana descendants and the representatives of their tribal governments.

The Smithsonian Institution acknowledges and respects that many California Native Americans feel a powerful connection with Ishi and consider it their responsibility to see that his remains are united and given a proper burial. The Smithsonian, too, shares the goal of returning Ishi's remains to California in a timely manner, provided that such return is consistent with the rights of living Native Americans who share a cultural affiliation with Ishi. Although the process of identifying the possibility of living relatives has taken some time, the Smithsonian now is in a position to return Ishi to living relatives.

Like so many Native American tribes, the Yana were almost entirely destroyed, and as their numbers became smaller, they found refuge among their neighbors. Ishi was the last of a small band of Yana Indians who strived to survive in their homeland despite prolonged attacks. But Ishi and his band shared very close cultural ties with the larger Yana tribe who's descendants today continue living in their territory along the upper reaches of the Sacramento River in Northern California. These are Ishi's closest relatives and the communities that must lead the way in his return.

Ishi's immediate family can never be known because we are missing so many of the most important details of his family history. It is to his people, the Yana of northern California, that we now turn for guidance. The great majority of people of Yana ancestry live today in Shasta County, where most are members of the Redding Rancheria and the Pit River Tribe. These two federally-recognized groups therefore stand as the closest culturally affiliated Native American tribe, the tribes which share the strongest links of identity, culture, and history with Ishi.

The Repatriation Office recommends that the Smithsonian Institution repatriate Ishi's remains to the Redding Rancheria and the Pit River Tribe. The National Museum of Natural History is prepared to return Ishi's remains to the Yana people at the time and place, and in the manner, of their choosing.

Sent by Johanna de Soto                                                                    Return to Table of Contents

Spanish California Landscapes

Sent by Johanna de Soto                                                                Return to Table of Contents

                                         Spanish Beginnings in California

This is a revised version of a paper presented at, a 1991 Santa Barbara symposium on "Spanish Beginnings in California." It concerns three women of the colonial period: Eulalia Callis, wife of Pedro Fages; Josefa Sandoval, wife of José Antonio Roméu; and Maria Magdalena Urquidi, wife of Diego de Borica. Since Roméu served as governor of the Californias for such a short period, the work really deals with Eulalia Callis and Josefa Sandoval. As Nuttall observes, this examination is "long overdue." Though the situation is currently changing, the historiography of Alta California has traditionally paid little attention to women, even elite ones like these "first ladies." Apart from the tensions between Eulalia Callis and Pedro Fages in 1784 and 1785, these women have received little notice from historians.

Nuttall devotes a good part of his analysis to that famous martial conflict. When Callis asked her husband to resign the governorship and return to Mexico City with her, he refused. She then ceased all communication with him, and eventually accused him publicly of adultery with an Indian girl and demanded a divorce. After considerable commotion among the province's governing circles, Callis softened her position, and seems to have abated her anger by fall 1785. She remained in California for another five years, and had a reputation for charity towards the poor and sick.

No such conflict punctuated the time Maria Magdalena Urquidi spent in Monterey. She was reputed to have been very popular in the capital, and she gave birth to three children, two of whom survived, while she lived there. She remained with her husband throughout his tenure, and when he died in Durango, she returned to her home in Nueva Vizcaya.

The differences between the backgrounds of the two women were striking. Callis had been born in Spain, and did not arrive in New Spain until the early 1770s. She married Pedro Fages under the apparent assumption that he would be stationed in Guadalajara. His transfer to Sonora and then to Alta California came as a sudden shock to her, and she was ill prepared for the rough life of the frontier. Her first sighting of the California Indians shocked her, and she spontaneously began to distribute her own clothing to them. When she was pregnant, she found herself in chilly, damp, and uncomfortable San Francisco. The missionaries refused to let her spend the time until the birth of the child at more commodious Santa Clara.

Her experiences, in short, were severe, and more than enough to account for great anger at her station and resentment at the one who had brought her there. Whether she had a "nervous breakdown, " as Nuttall speculates, will never be known, but her behavior is quite understandable on its own terms.

Maria Magdalena Urquidi, on the other hand, was a woman of the frontier. Bom to a wealthy landowner in Nueva Vizcaya, she was used to living the life of the frontier gentry before she married at the age of fifteen. She and Diego spent another fifteen years close to her home before he was posted to the Californias. She arrived in Monterey, therefore, as a seasoned frontier woman and spouse. Monterey was merely another station, and adjustment to it not all that difficult.

In bringing together all that the sources tell us of these women, Nuttall has performed a signal service. The literature on women in colonial and Mexican Alta California is steadily growing, and Nuttall's contribution is a fine addition to that trend. it will also be a major building block for future investigators as they try to piece together the entire fabric of California's social history.

Submitted by Johanna de Soto                                                         Return to Table of Contents

                                                     Las Vegas

Spanish traders en route to Los Angeles along the Spanish Trail in the early 1700s sought a route that would pass through the then unexplored Las Vegas Valley. At the time, the Spaniards referred to the route through the Valley as "Jornada de Muerte," journey of death. A young scout named Rafael Rivera was the first person of European ancestry to look upon the Valley. His discovery of a valley with abundant wild grasses growing and a plentiful water supply reduced the journey by several days. The valley was named Las Vegas, Spanish for "The Meadows." 
In 1931, three events occurred that would forever change the face of Nevada and the City of Las Vegas. 
* On March 19, 1931 gambling was legalized in the State of Nevada. One month later, the City issued six gambling licenses. 
* Divorce laws were liberalized in the State of Nevada, making residency easier to attain. A "quickie" divorce could be attained after six weeks of residency. These short-term residents stayed at "dude ranches" which were the forerunners of the sprawling Strip hotels. 
* Beginning in 1931, the construction of Hoover Dam brought an influx of construction workers which started a population boom and gave the Valley's economy, which was in the grips of the Great Depression, a needed boost. 

Submitted by Win Holtzman                                                                     Return to Table of Contents

Personal Ancestral File 5 
available FREE. Download from the LDS Church's genealogy site:    
Sent by Lorraine Hernandez
FamilySearch Website 
More User-Friendly 

The 18-month-old "FamilySearch" website  sponsored by the LDS Church has been redesigned so that it will be easier to use by
novice family history enthusiasts. A virtual genealogist and a customized tour are available. "FamilySearch has always provided a wealth of
information, but with the virtual research assistant, novice genealogists can now learn how to use it and find it," said Becky Kemp, product manager
for FamilySearch Internet.

Source: Gloria Oliver

Personal Ancestral File, 
Advanced Video released

 In “Personal Ancestral File Advanced - Notes and Sources”, Stephen Lemmon demonstrates how to record detailed source and data information. He also demonstrates how to:
•Create source lists
•Add sources to individual records
•Add sources to marriage records
•Use multimedia in sources
•Use citations
•Effectively use notes
•Manage notes

In addition to the PAF video training series, available  also is entire library of  training videos designed specifically for the genealogist, regularly. Order by calling toll free at 877-263-2267 or visit  website at:

Source: (Webmaster)


During a ceremony on Tuesday, Dec. 19, LDS Church and BYU representatives will donate to the Poland national archives historic documents of the distinguished Potocki family, a prominent Polish family, that were scattered during the WWII upheaval. The papers, some of which date back to the 16th century, are in excellent condition. "These documents will help (the Polish people) have a sense of who they are, of their roots, of where they come from, of the challenges that their forefathers faced and the successes that they had as well," said Brent Griffiths, Europe area manager for the Genealogical Society of Utah.

Sent by Gloria Oliver


                                                       Tex-Mex Database

If you have Tex-Mex roots and have entered your data on a computer, you may want to contact  Crispin Rendon to have your family data added to his Tex-Mex database.  Crispin is a computer whiz and has accumulated 46,000 Tex-Mex records. The beauty of his database is the  inter-relationship between these records and families. Crispin was able to tell many contributing SHHAR Tex-Mex researchers to whom and to what degree we were literally related, such as 5th  6th or 7th cousins. He has been a wonderful help to many of us. Thank you Crispin.

Crispin D. Rendon

(Editor's note: Carol Martinez has offered to help Tex-Mex researchers.  Her website lists her extensive collection. I've only listed a few. What a generous spirit!  Thank you Carol.)

Carol Martinez's Books, CDs, Journals, and Magazines I Own

During the last year of my research, I have continued to build my genealogy library.  Listed here are the books, journals, magazines, and CDs that I own.   Please contact me if you would like more information or need a lookup. 


Ancestry Family Historian's Address Book - Juliana Szucs Smith
Census Records for Latin America and the Hispanic United States - Lyman D. Platt
Course of Mexican History - Michael C. Meyer, William L. Sherman, Susan M. Deeds
Complete Idiot's Guide to Genealogy - Christine Rose and Kay Germain Ingalls
Evidence! Citation & Analysis for the Family Historian - Elizabeth Shown Mills
Family Reunion Handbook - Barbara E. Brown and Thomas Ninkovich
Finding your Hispanic Roots - George R. Ryskamp
First Census of Texas, 1829-1836 - Marion Day Mullins
Genealogical Records in Texas - Imogene Kinard Kennedy & J. Leon Kennedy
German Texans - Glen E. Lich
The Great Ancestor Hunt- Lila Perl
Index to Naturalization Records of Bexar County, Texas Through 1906 - San Antonio
      Genealogical and Historical Society
International Vital Records Handbook - Thomas Jay Kemp
Marriages of Bexar County, Texas Books G&H May 31, 1879-June 3, 1885 - San Antonio
Return to Table of Contents

Ventura Alonzo

Ventura Alonzo, a noted accordion player who popularized South Texas Ranchero-style music in Houston. Alonzo died December 14. She was 96.

Born in Matamoros, Mexico, Alonzo, also known as "la reina de la acordeón," or Queen of the Accordian, burst onto the traditionally male-dominated Mexican music scene in the 1930s. With a remarkable ear for music and her accordion strapped to her 5-foot tall frame, Alonzo was considered a sensation. She and her husband, the late Francisco Alonzo, started the eight-member orchestra, Alonzo Y Sus Rancheros, which went on to release a few albums in the `40s and `50s.

Her passion for music grew from casual jam sessions with her siblings to professional performances throughout Texas at radio stations, cantinas, dance halls, churches and the Rice Hotel.

In the mid-1950s, the Alonzos opened La Terraza, a ballroom on McCarty drive where they performed regularly. In 1996, she was immortalized in a mural painted on the Firestone store at
1601 Harrisburg. The mural depicts Alonzo, accordion in hand, standing in front of a panoramic view of Houston.

Alonzo is survived by her sons Alonzo H. Alonzo and Oscar Gallegos, daughter Maria Alonzo Sanchez and numerous grand-children, including state Sen. Mario Gallegos Jr.

Alonzo Y Sus Rancheros, 1930's-1969

Frank and Ventura Alonzo were a popular band/orchestra formed in the late 1930's. The community would hire them for dances and they played boleros, cumbias, waltzes, mambos, and rancheras. Their popularity spread to many areas in Texas and they played in Forth Worth, Austin, Kingsville, and about forty locations in between. In Houston, Alonzo Y Sus Rancheros played at The American Legion Hall, The Union Hall, The Acapulco, El Tropical, The Log Cabin, Salon Juarez, The Palladium, The Blossom Heath and the Azteca Theatre. In 1956, they opened La Terraza, a ballroom located at 1515 McCarty Drive. Frank and Ventura Alonzo retired in 1969. After retirement she worked at the Ripley House teaching crafts and playing the piano and Mr. Alonzo played for the senior citizens of the Denver Harbor community every Friday at the Centro Alegre. Mrs. Alonzo represented one of the first lady big band musicians in the state of Texas. A mural was dedicated in her honor on August 14, 1996 at Firestone Tire located 1601 Harrisburg at Macario Garcia Dr. Their music enriched our lives and left us with many memories. 

The Tejano Association for Historical Preservation salutes these Early Pioneers of Tejano Music.


                                                                                                           Return to Table of Contents
                                TEXAS MARRIAGES, 1856-1900

(Update adding Atascosa, Glasscock, Lipscomb, Llano, Newton, Pecos, 
Runnels, Rusk, and Wheeler counties)

Establishing an important family relationship, marriage records can be among the most informative type of records available to family historians. This database is a collection of marriage records from several counties in Texas in the latter half of the nineteenth century. This update adds marriage records from Atascosa, Glasscock, Lipscomb, Llano, Newton, Pecos, Runnels, Rusk, and Wheeler counties to the counties of Comanche, Denton, Erath, Frio, Hunt, Kendall, 
Rains, and Somervell. Taken from microfilm copies of original county documents, each record provides spouses' names, marriage date, and county of residence.

Source Information: Dodd, Jordan, Liahona Research, comp. "Texas 
Marriages, 1856-1900." [database online] Provo, UT:, 
1999-. Original data: See Extended Description (at the Web address 
below) for original data sources listed by county.

To search this database, go to:

Sent by George Gause
     A Personal Research Adventure of a Scots-Irish Mexican American 

by Marge Vallazza

For most of my life, I knew little of my personal Mexican heritage. I knew a lot about Mexico and its history but because my Scots mother was our primary caretaker, I knew and cared more about my Scots and Anglo-Irish heritage than my Hispanic one. After my trip to Mexico last
week, it's a neck to neck race. 

I had been looking forward to this trip for a long time. Its preparations including hours of research at the local Family History Center here in Overland Park; several hundred dollars worth of books, microfilm copies, xerox copies; extensive communication with travel agents, international airlines, Mexican national bus lines, Mexican archivists, and the like. Why? All because my maiden name had been the equivalent of Mary Smith, my father's mother's maiden name was the
equivalent of Jones, her mother-in-law's was the equivalent of Brown...well, you get the picture.

I wanted to find something different about me (other than I have a unique background of being a Scots-Irish Mexican American! Not too many people have THAT kind of background!) and find something I did. My father's mother's mother had an uncommon surname and my grandmother and her parents came from a place in the central highlands in Mexico called Zacatecas. The capital of Zacatecas state is also called Zacatecas and is listed under UNESCO's Cultural Heritage treasures for its lovely 16th and 17th century colonial architecture.

My grandmother's hometown was Jerez, located about 45 Km from Zacatecas. In my research, I have gotten as far as the early 1700s but have stopped to gather data on my multi-great grandparents and their siblings and their children. However, on my trip, I had an interview
with the author of a book I had purchased here in Kansas City over the internet from a bookstore in San Antonio (Borderland Books, owner, George Farias)  that specializes in Hispanic genealogy and history books. I wanted Bernardo del Hoyo Calzado to autograph my copy of his book (Panteon de Dolores, which translates to Cemetery of Sorrows), which documents many of the mausoleums and tombs of the wealthy in 17th and 18th century Jerez, Zacatecas.  

In his book, had run across some of the same surnames, I have discovered in my own family tree! Included in that family tree was the name de Llamas, which means the Flames and Saldivar, which is a Spanish name from the Basque region of Northern Spain. De Llamas was the maiden surname of the maternal grandmother of one of the most famous poets in Mexico, Ramon
Lopez Velarde, who was also from Jerez and is buried in the Cathedral in Mexico City.

When I finally got a hold of Bernardo, I stammered out who I was and why I was calling. He graciously invited my husband and me to his home and said to me that, based on my surnames, especially the Saldivar, he and I were related. Upon our arrival in his home at the appointed time the next day, I discovered that he was a professional genealogist. He rolled out this tablecloth sized tube of paper covered with an immense minute, detailed chart. He asked me how far back I had gotten and then asked me if my Saldivars were Spanish or mestizo at that point. I showed him a copy of a microfilmed baptism certificate that showed my ancestor is listed as Spanish, which would only occur if the parents were European. He looked over his chart, zeroed in on a name, and said, "This is likely your ancestor--he is a descendant of the union between Hernan Cortes and Montezuma's daughter." I guffawed and replied that I found that hard to goal had not been to link to them but to learn something of the family in that part of the country. He was adamant that this was so. He also said to me that I needed to provide the links back at least 100 more years. It shouldn't be difficult once I cross back from the year 1700. 

Lastly, because my grandmother's provincial town was so small, families have intermarried over the centuries. However, I have read a quote that "war is the great equalizer" or words to that effect...several revolutions in Mexico have provided new blood (despite the shedding of it as well) and scattered the people as they fled north for their lives. That's what happened to my grandmother and her family. 

They appeared in Cuidad  Juarez across the border from El Paso, Texas around 1913...that's the time a huge, bloody battle occurred in Jerez during the Mexican Revolution--this was lasted from 1910 to 1920. Another battle took place in Zacatecas in was a hellish time for
everyone. But by then my grandmother and her family were away from there. Who knows when my grandmother met my grandfather, who came from Chihuahua City? My father was born in Juarez in 1923 and who would have guessed that 22 years later, thanks to another war, he'd be thousands of miles away in Scotland, where he met and married the love of his life? Once again, thanks to another "great equalizer" yours truly is here to tell this tale.

                                                                  Marge Vallazza

This article was first published in:
MISSING LINKS: RootsWeb's Genealogy Journal
Vol. 5, No. 52, 27 December 2000, Circulation: 739,842+
(c) 1996-2000 Julia M. Case and Myra Vanderpool Gormley
MISSING LINKS and ROOTSWEB REVIEW are free, weekly e-zines.

Editor-at-Fault: Julia M. Case
Co-Editor-to-Blame: Myra Vanderpool Gormley, CG

                                                                                                               Return to Table of Contents

The French in Texas Web Site is a work in progress administered by the Department of French and Italian at The University of Texas at Austin. It was launched on October 1, 1999 and will be expanded continuously. Contributors are invited to submit material related to the Research Project to the Directors .
  Symposium. Program and practical information
  Chronologie de la présence française au Texas. De Cavelier de La Salle aux astronautes français de la NASA, une liste chronologique des Français et des événements auxquels ils sont associés dans l'histoire du Texas.
  Essai de bibliographie. Ouvrages et articles portant sur l'histoire des Français au Texas et groupés par personnes ou par événements.
  Documents. Opinions, essays, and documents concerning the French presence in Texas, past and present. Send us your text, in English or in French, and we will post it.
  Directory and Links. Répertoire (avec links et/ou adresse) des institutions, des écoles (tous niveaux), des associations, des sites historiques et culturels et des sociétés industrielles et commerciales français du Texas.
  Enquête. Participez à l'enquête culturelle sur les Français du Texas. Répondez aux questions concernant votre expérience, ou soumettez votre témoignage. Anonymat et confidentialité garantis.

[ accueil (home) | directory and links | enquête | conference announcement | bibliographie | chronologie | documents | project director: | technical support: ]
The 1755 French and Indian War Webpage:


                                             Humane Borders

A coalition of about a dozen churches in Arizona has emerged with two goals: to provide humanitarian help for those migrants crossing the deserts, and to try to change U.S. immigration policy. Members of the Humane Borders will provide blankets, coats, food and shelter during winter months and desert water stations in the summer. There were 106 deaths through fiscal 2000. The humanitarian aims have the Border Patrol's blessings.

The group plans several hundred stations, each with a few sealed gallon jugs of water, placed about a quarter-mile apart. At least once a week, organization members - many of them church parishioners - will replenish the water.

The stations will be marked by 30-foot-tall metal poles flying blue flags that depict the Dib Dipper and the North Star - the insignia of the historic underground railroad.  In this instance, the dipper will be shown with water in it.

David Aguilar, chief of the Border Patrol's Tucson sector said that agents performed 1,300 desert rescues this year.  Their mission is to enforce immigration laws humanely and compassionately, and "to protect the lives of those who enter our country." "Well-meaning, law-abiding citizens providing lifesaving assistance to illegal immigrants are doing what the Border Patrol is doing to prevent tragedies.

Abstract from Associated Press article via Los Angeles Times, 12-27-00        Return to Table of Contents

Phoenix based to liquidate.  The bilingual website geared towards U.S. Hispanics was introduced in 1998. Other .com companies targeting the Hispanic markets were targeting Latin America.  Orange County Register, 12-28-00
                       Bridging the Digital Divide ~ at: is e-commerce, Latin style. Founded in February 1999, is located in San Francisco’s thriving Media Gulch in the Women's Technology Cluster, the nation's first incubator for women entrepreneurs also has additional offices in San Jose, California and Guadalajara, Mexico. Inspired by the uniqueness of Latin culture, tuzona is focused on the goal of providing businesses and individuals in the United States and Latin America access to technology products, information and services through tuzona’s bilingual, English-Spanish site. Brazilian-Portuguese will be implemented in early, 2001.'s charter is to expose Hispanics to technology, in an attempt to increase the awareness and aptitude of computer and Internet usage among the U.S.Hispanic community.  For more information, contact Gabriela Valdes at  or 415.641.5570 

Sent by Johanna de Soto

                                           New Mexico Death Index                  

Let  me introduce you to a project which I am heading called the NMDI (New Mexico Death Index) Project, hosted by the Rootsweb organization. At the moment, this project is in dire need of assistance to complete the project. for further information, click on the address below: 

Submitted by Sam-Quito Padilla G

        Genealogical Publishing Company and Clearfield Company

Good Morning to those associated with SHHAR

You are invited to look at the Genealogical Publishing Company and Clearfield Company are the world's largest publishers of genealogy reference books. You can subscribe and will receive monthly notification of new publications.  The site will be launched on 15 January 2001.

New site features: 
* complete catalogue of our publications with easy search functions
* free access to online book, Greenwood's Researcher's Guide to American Genealogy
* daily specials
* free shipping for a limited time
* efficient ordering procedures
* affiliate program

Until 15 January, please continue to visit our present site at  Submitted by Beth Zeleny

                                                                                                          Return to Table of Contents     


Research at The University of Arizona Relating to the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands

The following institutions have active programs relating to the U.S.-Mexico border region. By selecting any of the listings you will see a summary of that organization's activities. All of the entries are presented in a standardized format. 
Note: the listings are not simply links to the websites of these organizations.

Institutions on The University of Arizona Campus

Related Programs Elsewhere in Southern Arizona

Comments regarding this project should go to Cynthia Pope.

[Originally appeared in the December 1998 CMSA Newsletter]
Submitted by Johanna de Soto                                                                Return to Table of Contents

Our tie with Mexico, yesterday, today, and tomorrow

by Miley Gonzalez


This article appeared in the Spring 1996 issue of New Mexico Resources.
Photography: J. Victor Espinoza.
Map Artwork by Jerry Downs.

(Editor's note: In addition to is very positive message, the site includes many photos and artwork.) 

Our view south no doubt possesses the certainty and hubris of the friars of old. Like them, we increasingly see our destiny taking us across the Chihuahua Desert region to create a greater union. This time we cross political borders and barriers never thought of 400 years earlier.

The Camino Real, or Royal Road, once the lifeline from Mexican civilization to New Mexico, could be born again as the symbol of a new unification for the region. Since coming to NMSU five years ago, my duties included building bridges with our colleagues to the south in a region that was very much part of my personal life as a Mexican-American with Spanish, Dutch, and Native American roots.

On this warm June day, I led a trio of modern-day Camino Real explorers from NMSU's College of Agriculture and Home Economics. Well supplied with pens, paper, and camera equipment, our group also included Terry Canup, agricultural communications department head; and Victor Espinoza, the department's photographer.

We met Francisco Valerio, a political science professor and student of local history from the University of Zacatecas, who guided us through the historical riches of the monastery adorned with 300-year-old paintings depicting the life of St. Francis of Assisi. While this was the religious heart of the Camino Real's southern terminus, the nearby silver mines of Zacatecas comprised the economic engine that pumped riches throughout the Spanish empire on four continents.

Francisco told of a Chinese professor he encountered, who knew of Zacatecas from the minting mark on an ancient Spanish coin he owned. Don Juan de Oñate, the father of New Mexico's colonization, was a child of Zacatecas.

Oñate's father Cristobal, a Basque by birth, was named the first regional governor of this northern frontier in the 1540s, having already founded the city of Guadalajara. Asked where we might find a monument to the Oñates, a blank and then quizzical look crossed Francisco's face. Conquistadors are not heroes in Mexico, he explained. Any monuments to them probably have long ago been toppled by the people.

Monuments to Don Juan de Onate and Pancho Villa

That was a curious image considering the imposing monument to Don Juan de Oñate astride his horse at the Camino Real's northern terminus in Española, New Mexico. There, it is a symbol of Hispanic culture and pride. Another mounted figure in bronze did ride above Zacatecas atop the 8,000-foot peak called El Cerro de la Bufa, Basque for pig's bladder. The raised hooves of the horse indicated--by the standard code of war monuments--that the rider, Pancho Villa, had died in battle.

Villa was a hero to the people for his Chihuahua Desert campaign in the Mexican Revolution. As a youngster, I was given a storied view of that campaign from inside the Villa camp, where my grandfather and his brother-in-law fought, though they hailed from California.

At my great-uncle's house in California, I remember sitting in silence outside the circle of men recounting stories of the Revolution until 5 a.m. They told their stories santo y sena, or in infinite detail, as they not only told the beginning and end, but painted an intricate picture of the events of that time.

Even my name, it turned out, was a product of the Revolution, as my grandfather changed his name from Trujillo to Gonzalez to avoid reach of the Federales, when he crossed the border back to the United States. I will probably never understand the pull of the Revolution to grandfather, except that he believed it was a just cause. I find myself equally comfortable with Mexicans and Mexican-Americans who still identify with that history and those who tend to identify themselves as products of another time and place.

My grandfather seemed a soldier until the day he died in 1958, always carrying his sidearm to handle any problems of the day.

Without understanding the Revolution, the forces that led to it, and how vested the power structure is in its legacy, it is hard to understand the outlook of most Mexicans. As we look down from La Bufa, however, we see the legacy of Baroque Europe. The city could well have been lifted from Old Spain with intricately carved cathedral spires punctuating the skyline every few blocks, a testimony to the tremendous presence of the church and its many orders bent on converting the New World inhabitants.

Zacatecas Silver

From this vantage point, we could see numerous mines still producing silver. An old hacienda south of the city houses a silver smithy. The road south to Mexico City was known as Camino de la Plata, the Silver Road. That route gave early traders a means to provide food, supplies, and other commodities to the mining areas. Ranching became the second most important industry in the region, and the first cattle growers' association was established in Mexico City in 1537. Large quantities of grain, mostly wheat and corn, came out of rich, fertile valleys near Queretaro and Guadalajara. Roads from the western area of Michoacan, another important agricultural center, helped provide much needed food supplies to the region.

Zacatecas was not always so naked of trees. As a local professor told me, "I'm not sure which disappeared most rapidly, the Indians or the timber. Both were critical to the development of mining throughout Mexico, and we nearly did away with both completely."

From the mountain, we could see the hacienda of the conquerors Cristobal and Don Juan de Oñate. Unlike how we surround our homes with yards, colonial Spanish architects surrounded their yards with their houses. An inconspicuous nameplate on the outside wall is the only reminder that conquistadors once lived here.

Certainly grand in size, the hacienda once stood on the outskirts of the city, but now is just one of a host of 16th and 17th century structures lining the narrow cobblestone streets of the central city--a place of Old World charm that is still best enjoyed on foot. Strolling Zacatecans fill the streets on summer nights until 10 p.m. or later. Today, government offices fill the conquistadors' hacienda. Day-to-day business is matter-of-factly carried on within the walls of structures that would be hallowed historical treasures north of the border.

Such was the case for Antonio Valenzuela, dean of academic affairs at the University of Zacatecas, whose office is off the patio of one of the many old buildings the university occupies in the central city. One of my American companions comments on the style of meetings in Mexico. They are initially formal with each major player completing his thoughts at length without interruption. My message was a desire for our College of Agriculture and Home Economics to develop a strong working relationship with the university. Since 1992, the College has revisited its relationships with institutions in Mexico. The opening of the Mexican economy in the 1980s and the NAFTA treaty fed a fever of excitement about Mexico among private businesses and public institutions north of the border. A new emphasis on relationships to the south would spawn opportunity in the College, we reasoned. New agreements for joint research and student and faculty exchanges were signed with the Autonomous Universities of Chihuahua, Zacatecas, and Sinaloa; and the post-graduate college with branches in Chapingo, Puebla, and Salinas.

Some of the institutions across the Chihuahua Desert joined us in support of the Consortium of Arid and Semiarid Research Universities, and they offered support for the construction of NMSU's Center for Sustainable Development of Arid Lands. The project's Spanish acronym is CEDESZA.

While the fever cooled north of the border when the peso devaluated in 1994, I was determined to stay the path on these relationships. Today, I invited Antonio to send faculty to NMSU to complete graduate work.

We were hardly alone in seeking such relationships, it turned out, as major institutions in Spain, England, and other countries had trained Zacatecas faculty. Antonio's response was overshadowed by the recent peso devaluation, which made sending faculty to the U.S. almost impossible, he explained. Government support for faculty training would likely concentrate on what could be done at home.

The peso devaluation and the accompanying recession was ever-present in conversation. Four hundred years ago, those seeking riches, social standing, and a new way of life traveled the Camino Real out of Zacatecas to the fabled cities of gold to the north. Today, Jorge Bernal, graduate dean at the University of Zacatecas, tells us that people stream out of Zacatecas to the U.S. labor market, like no other place in Mexico. Jesus Delgado, an out-of-work electrician and cousin to our photographer Victor, confirmed that the road to Los Angeles is well-worn by Zacatecans who have no options but to leave their lovely city to find work.

It was my turn to ride the Camino, which I would do by air-conditioned coach, complete with videotaped Hollywood features for my entertainment. I mused about what it must have been like for Don Juan de Oñate to leave this place on Jan. 26, 1598. His entourage included more than 500 soldiers and settlers, a few friars, 83 carros or carts drawn by oxen, and more than 7,000 head of livestock. All were readying for a 1,000-mile journey. Six months later, the two-mile long column would reach Española, New Mexico.

The Chihuahua  Desert

The coach would take me through Nueva Viscaya, as it was known to the colonists, the vast Chihuahuan Desert region between Zacatecas and the Rio Grande. It was down this road that settlers would establish the agricultural traditions of the entire region. We started on a four-lane highway, but soon changed to an old-fashioned, two-lane road that took us through small farming and ranching communities. Famous mining towns would be found on a parallel route that went through the mountain towns of Sombrerete, Durango, Santa Barbara, and Hidalgo de Parral.

We instead went through endless miles of desert like that of the Jornada del Muerto, or March of the Dead, between Las Cruces and Socorro, New Mexico. The region was sharing New Mexico's woes of drought. A startling amount of the land in the basin north of Zacatecas was plowed. Irrigated lands were thriving, but dry-land crop fields were barren.

As I watched cattle grazing on cactus by the road, I was reminded of the common bond between Nueva Viscaya and Nuevo Mexico. I remember, as a boy growing up along the border in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico, my dad and uncles talking about the Chihuahuan lands north and south of the Rio Grande as one. My dad and uncles were born in New Mexico and grew up working on ranches and farms in Chihuahua, New Mexico, Arizona, and California in the 1920s and 1930s. My mother was born in the Coachella Valley of California and spent her teenage years in Delicias, Chihuahua, where my coach ride would end this day.

It wasn't surprising that my first adult job was trading cattle on and across the U.S.-Mexican border. Later, I managed several spice farms in Mexico and marketed the yields in the U.S. It turned out to be tremendous good fortune to be raised in a region where it was normal to be bilingual and bicultural, as I pursued a career in academia. Soon, I managed American educational programs in Latin America and became a bridge between academics from both cultures.

The terrain on this trip was tremendously familiar to a New Mexican. Dusty old towns gave way to the green of irrigation at the Rio Navas, where Don Juan de Oñate had his moment of truth by rallying, with a rousing speech, restless soldiers awaiting final permission from the viceroy to venture into New Mexico.

Further north, as we entered the State of Chihuahua, a Western flavor was on the streets with posters advertising bullriding competitions. Cowboy traditions were born on the northern frontier of New Spain where the most skilled and sophisticated horsemen in Europe, the Spaniards, made their mark on the West as vaqueros.

Some of my fondest childhood memories greet me as I pass through the territory of my grandfather's ranch where I visited in the early 1950s. I remember tagging along as my father, uncle, grandfather, and others worked cattle--they on horses, me on burro. The family had always moved back and forth across the border to pursue a living in agriculture. My father recounted to me how, as a youngster in 1926, he rode across the Yuma sand dunes on a wooden tie road to cross the border to the family's Mexican homestead. After my grandfather died, however, the ranch he worked left the family.

Near Delicias, our traveling trio found a virtual oasis. Except for minor differences and the fact that the area was four times the size, we might have thought we were at home in the Mesilla Valley. We saw miles and miles of fields with pecan trees, alfalfa, cotton, vegetables, corn, grain sorghum, and other crops. A huge dairy complex, complete with an on-farm processing plant located just outside Delicias, dwarfs even the largest dairy farms in New Mexico. Agriculture is big business here. Through my previous travels, I knew that the business elite of Delicias were barons of agriculture.

The region was an important agricultural center as early as the mid-1700s. Later, it became the primary marketplace for merchants to the north. The section of the Camino Real from here north became known as the Chihuahua Trail. The great ranches and irrigated farms of Mexico were forerunners of large-scale agriculture in New Mexico. The acequias of north-central New Mexico were designed by the Spaniards of the Camino, who borrowed the work of the region's Native Americans.

Today, agricultural education continues more formally. Delicias is home to some of the agricultural programs of the Autonomous University of Chihuahua. Several professors from NMSU have conducted courses over several weeks here, and many of the agricultural faculty are graduates of our master's and doctoral programs at NMSU.

A recent graduate of our doctoral program in horticulture, Victor Guerrero, maintains ties with NMSU, organizing his fellow Aggie alums in Chihuahua. Victor joined us and NMSU faculty the next day in Chihuahua City for a journey to the Sierra Madre to visit the Tarahumara Indians at the Jesuit mission of Norogachi. We planned to gauge NMSU's potential for helping the drought-stricken subsistence farmers. (See Our Journey Begins in this issue.) There, too, it seemed, trees and Indians were being depleted.

Upon our return to the city, true to form, we chose to fly over the 275 miles of dry country where Oñate nearly perished of thirst before reaching the Rio Grande. As I flew over Nueva Viscaya and across the border, I considered the tremendous purpose that motivated Oñate and his party. They had New Mexico fever in a bad way, facing perils that were all too real--parched deserts of climatic extremes.                              

Camino Real Economic Allliance

Today, we all too easily turn away from the Camino that could bring riches to both sides of the border. The greatest peril we face is a thin tolerance for change. There are signs of hope, however, such as the Camino Real Economic Alliance that is creating a forum for trade, industry, and agribusiness to benefit citizens from Mexico City to Santa Fe. If we develop sons and daughters who are multilingual, multicultural, and at the very least bi-literate, the Camino Real will be their road to opportunity.

Submitted by Johanna de Soto                                                                 Return to Table of Contents

        New Mexico Resources

Martinez Family Papers






Last will and testament of Antonio Severino Martines, father of Antonio Jose Martinez. 1827 June 8
Eight supporting documents sewn to original; papers of administration of the will signed by Antonio Jose and Manuel Martinez.



Autobiography of Antonio Jose Martinez. 1838
Relacion de meritos del presbiterio Antonio Jose Martinez, domiciliario del obispado de Durango. Cura encargado de Taos en el departamento de Nuevo Mexico. Impresa en su Oficina a cargo de Jesus Maria Baca, 1838. Martinez autobiography was printed on New Mexico’s first press.



Proclamation, "Obispo y su Oficio, " 1859 July 18
Issued by Antonio Jose Martinez, Taos, imprenta de J.M. Medina a cargo de 
V.F.R. Proclamation relates to the schism between Archbishop Lamy and Martinez.


Gonzales Family Papers






Inventory of the estate of Jose Ygnacio Gonzales, resident of Taos. List of possessions, especially tools. ca. 1853



Agreement of exchange of lands between Francisco Gonzales and Pedro Mares, heirs of the deceased Ignacio Gonzales. 1853 Mar 17



Morning Report. 1855 Mar 31
Showing numbers of officers and men, ranks and occupations, Company B, Mounted Regiment of New Mexico Volunteers, headed by Captain Francisco Gonzales, camp near Fort Massachusetts.



Order to Captain Gonzales from Headquarters, New Mexico Mounted Volunteers. Sangre de Cristo. 1855 Apr 1



Account of Captain Gonzales. Fort Massachusetts, New Mexico. 1855 Apr 18



Morning report. 1855 Apr 30
Camp near Fort Union. Report of Captain Francisco Gonzales, Company B, 1st New Mexico Mounted Volunteers, lists names and ranks of men who participated in month’s activity.



Order to Captain Gonzales from Headquarters, New Mexico Mounted Volunteers, Red River. 1855 May 29
Directs Gonzales to proceed immediately to Fort Massachusetts for 20 days and to prepare to march on the 2nd of June.



Order No. 2.1855 June 24
Major George A.H. Blake, 1st Dragoons, Commanding Detachment of Troops in the Field, camp near Culebra, Captain F. Gonzales to precede without delay and report by letter to Colonel T.T. Fauntleroy, 1st Dragoons, commanding Northern District of New Mexico.



Letter from Quartermaster-General, Washington, to Captain F. Gonzales, New Mexico Volunteers, Taos, New Mexico. Announcement of property audit. 1855 Nov 8



Letter from David V. Whiting, Office of the Surveyor General, to Francisco Gonzales, Ranchos de Taos, to clarify right to land in Conejos, whether he has a grant or other papers. 1857 Jan 26



Sale of bounty land by Marcos Tafoya to Francisco Gonzales. 1858 May 14



Appointment of Francisco Gonzales as Justice of the Peace, County of Taos, signed by A. Rencher. 1858 Nov 13



List of articles purchased by Francisco Gonzales from Juan Bautista Garcia. Includes groceries, clothing and "juisque" with prices. 1859 June



Letter from O.P. Hovey, Santa Fe, to Governor A. Rencher. 1860 Aug 9
Informs him of organization of Captain Gonzales Volunteers, asking that company be accepted and commission sent.


Letter from O.P. Hovey, Santa Fe, to Captain Francisco Gonzales. 1860 Aug 10
Concerning New Mexico Volunteers raised by Gonzales and the arrival of the Utah troops.



Statement by Salvador Garcia concerning payment of debts to Francisco Gonzales to be paid in land. 1860 Dec 14



Statement by Francisco Gonzales, Mora County, owners must claim three steers found on ranch. 1861 Jan 27



Monthly rations for officers, in accordance with Part 2, General Orders, No. 44, Headquarters, Department of New Mexico. List of food with prices. 1861 Nov 9



Fuel requisition for Captain Gonzales, Co. A, 1st New Mexico Volunteers, received at Albuquerque, NM, includes some names of volunteers. 1862 Jan 10



Accounts due Ignacio Medina, Rafael Medinca, Juan Medina, and Serafino Montoya, engaged in battle of Valverde, dated May 31, 1862. 1862 Feb 21



Captain A.W. Evans, 6th Cavalry, Office of Acting Assistant Inspector General, Santa Fe to Francisco Gonzales, late Captain, 1st New Mexico Volunteers, Mora, NM. 1862 Dec. 1
Requesting information concerning the company.



List of soldiers who owe Bautista Gonzales for horses and equipment. (See Evans to Gonzales, 12/01/1862.) 1862



Capt. A.W. Evans, letter to Asst. Adj. General, Hg. of New Mexico, citing irregularities in the muster-rolls and discharges of New Mexico militia. 1863 Jan 31



Francisco Salas Martinez, transfer of all his personal property to his wife, Maria Dolores Gonzales "en recompensa de los muchos trabajos y privaciones que ella ha sufrido..." 1874 Jan 28



Marriage proposal. 1876 Jan 4
Pascual Martinez on behalf of his son Agapito, for the hand of Maria Virginia Gonzales, daughter of Juan de Dios Gonzales and Maria Andrea Montoya.



Letter from Ben M. Thomas, U.S. Indian Agent, Pueblo Agency, to Juan de Dios Gonzales, alguacil mayor, Taos, complaint that Gonzales has illegally impounded Taos Pueblo livestock. 1880 Sept 28



2 postcards, pension claim, Mrs. Maria A. Montoya de Gonzalez, Ranchos de Taos. 1895-1896 Sept. 30-May 12



Otero y Gonzalez, undated invoice of goods. n.d.


Forms for quarterly returns of clothing, camp and garrison equipage, Eben Everett, Adjutant. n.d.


Real Audencia de Guadalajara Photocopies






Ramo Civil. Legajo #C-59-14. Copies of documents relating to Juan de Onate. 1712-1714



Ramo Civil. Treaty of peace with the Mescalero Apaches. 1787



Ramo Civil. Legajo #C-223-28. Bishop of Durango, order re: the secularization of the missions in New Mexico. 1803



Ramo Criminal. Proceedings against Juan Domingo Romero for the murder of Josefa Martin, Taos. 1805-1807



Ramo Criminal. Proceedings against the Laguna Indian Nicolas Perea for the murder of a Navajo woman. 1810-1811



Ramo Civil. Legajo #C-267-18. Commission of Felipe Sandoval as Protector de los Indios. 1813



Ramo Civil. Legajo #C-267-19. Proceedings in the measurements and boundaries of the lands of the Indians of Cochiti and Santo Domingo Pueblos. 1816-1820



Ramo Civil. #261-15. Proceedings by the Indians of Cochiti against Luis Maria Cabeza de Baca for illegal sale of a rancho. 1818



Ramo Criminal. Proceedings against Jose Eleuterio Martinez for bestiality, San Miguel del Vado. 1818-1819



Ramo Civil. Libro de correo del ano de 1819, incomplete. 1819



Ramo Civil. Legajo #1-1818-1821. Ygnacio Maria Sanchez Vergara to the Real Audiencia re: the treatment of the Indians of the Pueblo of Jemez. 1821



Map showing lands and boundaries along the falda of a sierra, case involving settlement of lands in the Rancho de San Antonio de lal Pena (Siera de la Pena). Records of the Real Audiencia, Ramo civil, hojas que no estan en indice, 1815. 1815



Autos formados en virtud de Real Cedula de su Magestad sobre y en razon de que se le informe del buen tratamiento de los Indios, 1740. Records of the Real Audiencia, Ramo civil 1740



Arancel formado por el Ilustrissimo Senor Obispo de este Obispado de la Nueva Galicia para los Pueblos de Indios, 1727. Records of the Real Audiencia, Ramo civil. 1727



Cedula of 1697 directing that Indians be given equal honorable treatment "como los de mas vasallos de mi corona." Records of the Real Audiencia, Ramo civil. 1697



Order of the Real Audiencia appointing Protector de Indios in Sonora with lists of Indians to be protected, 1805. Records of the Real Audiencia, Ramo Civil. 1805



Governor Fernando Chacon petition to Real Audiencia, involving Fray Isidro Cadelo and Jemez Pueblo, October, 1803. Records of the Real Audiencia, Ramo civil. 1803



Correspondence with Real Audiencia re: Governor Juan Bautista de Anza and Governor Teodoro de Croix, 1779. Records of the Real Audiencia, Ramo Civil. 1779



Case of Juan Domingo Romero, Taos Pueblo, 1805-1807. Records of the Real Audiencia, Ramo civil. 1805-1807



Case involving appointment of Jose Manrrique as Governor of New Mexico with Lt. Col. Albert Maynes to serve if Manrrique is detained, 1809. Records of the Real Audiencia, Ramo civil. 1809



Request by Indians of New Mexico for a Protector de Indios and appointment of Felip Sandoval, 1810. Records of the Real Audiencia, Ramo civil. 1810



Fray Cadelo case at Jemez Pueblo, 1800. Real Audiencia, Ramo civil. 1800



Investigation of the murder of a Navajo woman in Pueblo of Laguna, 1810. Records of the Real Audiencia, Ramo criminal. 1810



Treatise of measurements of lands and ordinances for New Spain, 1699. Fondo Franciscano, Tomo III, 30, Manuscritos Diversos. 1699
Issued by the Oidores of the Real Audiencia and authorized by his Excellency Antonio de Mendoza and by Gaston de Peralta, Marques de Valdez, Viceroy of New Spain.



"Ventas, camposiciones y confirmaciones de Tierras y Aguas, " in Historia General de Real Audiencia, Mexico: Inpuesta de Vicente Garcia Torres, 1851, Tomo IV 398-428. 1851



Manual of Definitions, no date, from Fondo Franciscano, manuscritos, 18 century. n.d.



Opinion and discursion by Real Hacienda members on property belonging to Indians, from Fondo de Derecho con que los trabajo el Real Audiencia, compiled in 1800, Volume I. 1800



Instructions involving the authority of the Real Audiencia over the Comandantes Generales of the Provincias Internas, including the Governor of New Mexico, 1794. From Fondo de Derecho con que los trabajo el Real Audiencia, compiled in 1800, volume II.1800



Protectores de Indios, who and how they are named, 1791. From Fondo de Derecho con que los trabajo el Real Audencia, compiled in 1800, Vol. III. 1791



More on the Fray Cadelo case, 1799. From Fondo de Derecho con que los trabajo el Real Audiencia, compiled in 1800, Vol. III. 1799



Papel sellado, 1799. From Fondo de Derecho con que los trabajo el Real Audiencia, compiled in 1800, vol. III. 1799


Submitted by Johanna de Soto 

                                                                                                              Return to Table of Contents



Spain's Louisiana Patriots in it 1779-1783 War with England 
During the American Revolution
Granville and N.C. Hough

Those who contributed to Spain's 1779-1783 War with England, as it related to Louisiana, directly or indirectly, included individuals, groups of citizens, militia, merchant mariners, Spanish naval ships and privateers, French naval ships and privateers, American naval ships and privateers, Spanish Army units, French Army units, and other American groups.  There were those who risked their lives in pre-war clandestine activities supporting the Americans.  There were background planners in Havana, Mexico City, Madrid, Paris, and other places who saw no combat, Burt whose roles were absolutely essential as government officials, financiers, and expediters for those who fought.  There were militia groups which saw no action, but were ready for it.  Many ordinary men and women who were asked to make donations to defray expenses of the war did so.  There were even the priests, who in the declaration of war were enjoined to pray for success against the English.  

The following is a listing of the summaries included in the book about each major campaign:.
Clandestine Aid
Recruiting Canary Islanders
Baton Rouge Campaign
Mobile Campaign
Battle of St. Louis
Pensacola Campaign
Natchez Uprising
Texas Drovers
Gálvez Later Campaigns
Miscellaneous Maritime Activities

This much awaited study  is now available from SHHAR Press.  The book, 198 pages, lists  alphabetically  individuals who were involved in any of the above events or activities. The authors  have designated with an asterisk those whom they believe would be suitable applicants for membership in the Sons of the American Revolution or Daughters of the American Revolution. SHHAR Board encourages its members to pursue this goal as living examples that our ancestors were involved in the development and freedom of the United States. 

Single copy $14.   (+$1.50 p/h) 
Two copies, $25. (+$2.25 p/h)
SHHAR, P.O. Box 490, Midway City, CA 92655                    
Return to Table of Contents

                                               Sperm Donors Children

Children of early sperm donors seek out their biological fathers with hope and trepidation. At Xytex Corp. In Augusta, Ga, customers can get not only a 10-page medical history about their donor, now standard in the industry, but an essay written by him, a photograph ($35), baby picture ($35), and in some cases a videotape ($100). This fall, the company joined the handful of banks that offer a "known donor" option allowing the offspring to learn the father's identity at age 18.  In the meantime, the child can send photos or paste mementoes in a donor's album through the bank. Nationally, there are approximately 200 sperm banks. 

Advocates of openness argue that telling children the truth early helps them incorporate the information into their sense of identity. Some of the donors want to meet their offspring, but some do not.  "Right now we act in the best interest of the sperm donor," said George Annas, a medical ethicist at Boston University. "It's time to start acting in the best interests of the child."

Extracts of article by Sally Jacobs, The Boston Globe, via Orange County Register, 12-5-2000 

                                                   Mississippi Flag

A state commission recommended that Mississippi hold an election next year and vote to get rid of the Confederate symbol in the state's flag. The commission said the state could heal old wounds by eliminating an emblem many blacks feel is synonymous with segregation.  The legislature approved the flag now in use in 1894. The state of Georgia also has the Confederate battle flag in its design.  

"It's political correctness, and it's at the expense of history," said John Thomas Cripps, who plans to run for governor of Mississippi in three years with a Southern heritage platform.

Rep. Ed. Blackmon, a black commission member said that if the Mississippi defeats the new flag, "the economic and public relations consequences will be disastrous."

Orange County Register, 12-13-00. 

                                 Oral History Association Conference 

Bearing Public Witness
Documenting Memories of Struggle and Resistance

The Regal Riverfront Hotel
St. Louis, MO
October 16-21, 2001

The Oral History Association recognizes that documenting historical and cultural memory brings with it questions, debates and responsibilities regarding process, standards and ethics. In focusing on these themes, the Association welcomes presentations that consider the challenges of collecting and documenting memories and histories that reflect trauma, genocide, violence, or social/political disorder. Specifically, what are the philosophical and practical strategies for documenting individual and collective memories especially those that are in danger of being ignored, erased, or forgotten because of silence or denial? How might we document stories of action and reaction, survival and loss, perseverance and endurance, dislocation and migration, advocacy and justice, perpetrators and victims? Can public discourse and personal experience be transformed by the collective memory of struggle, once made visible? What role should
oral historians play in these processes?

The rapidly changing worlds of media and technology bring another set of questions for historians. Do historians face new or different sets of ethical issues in new environments when confronting stories and memories of trauma, violence, or disorder? How might oral history and oral historians
participate in setting standards for the collection and dissemination of narratives of trauma, oppression and genocide in digital environments? What kinds of distinctions should be drawn between public and private narratives? What is the role of visual oral history, including still and
moving photography, in performing documentary work in the 21st century? Finally, how should oral historians respond to the new challenges of accessibility, collection, and cataloguing brought by a digital age? How will dissemination be affected by understanding the users and their needs?
How will the uses of oral history change with new forms of dissemination?

To facilitate a broad discussion of these important issues, the Oral History Association encourages students and faculty from the arts, the humanities and the social sciences-along with independent scholars, activists, museum professionals, filmmakers, radio documentarians, photographers and journalist-to submit proposals for panels, plenaries, workshop, roundtables an media- and performance-oriented sessions. We encourage participants to focus on ethical and methodological issues in collecting, producing, disseminating and using this genre of work. We
particularly encourage presentations and panels that cross disciplines, cultures, nationalities and institutions. We welcome proposals from other professional organizations, particularly those dealing with the themes of the meeting.

Please submit five copies of proposals. For full sessions, submit an abstract of no more than two pages and a one-page vitae for each participant. For individual proposals, submit a one page abstract and a one-page vitae or resume of the presenter. In all cases, please include the
full name, mailing address, institutional affiliation, phone number and e-mail address for each session participant.

Although proposals were suppose to be submitted  by December 15, 2000 , if you are interested
for queries about the conference,  contact co-chairs:
Leslie Brown
Washington University, St. Louis
(314) 935-7279

Anne Valk
Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville
(618) 650-3660

Jessica Wiederhorn
The Survivors of the Shoah
Visual History Foundation, Los Angeles

Oral History Association Program Committee
c/o Professor Leslie Brown
Program in African and Afro-American Studies
Washington University
One Brookings Drive
St. Louis, MO 63130-4899 
FAX: 314-935-5631

Dr. Annie Valk
Department of Historical Studies
Box 1454
Southern Illinois University
Edwardsville, IL 62026-1454

Source: : (Susana Hinojosa)                     Return to Table of Contents

                                              Veterans Set Sail

All fueled up and bound for Alabama, 29 American war veterans - average age defied warnings and set off December 12 to cross the Atlantic, from Gibraltar,  in an aging tank transport vessel with shaky steering and no safely equipment. 

The vessel - an LST, or landing ship, tank - was designed to land troops, tanks and other equipment directly onto a beach.  It participated in the invasions of Sicily and Salerno and reached Normandy six days after D-Day in June 1944.  It was decommissioned in 1946, put back into service in the Arctic in the 1950s, then lent to Greece in the 1960s.  The United states LST Assn. has fought since the 1980s to repatriate it.

Each veteran contributed $2,000 to cover meals and expenses, while British Petroleum Co. donated more than 50,000 gallons of fuel.

Los Angeles times, 12-13-00


                                          The Genealogy of Mexico

Site Contents The Conquistadors - A list of over 760 individuals that served the King with Cortes and stayed in Mexico (with some notable exceptions). The conquest of the Mexica lasted from 1519 to 1521. 5 pages The Conquistadors of the Yucatan - A list of 160 of the individuals that served the King with Francisco de Montejo from 1526 to 1546. 1 page The Conquistadors of Nueva Galicia - A list of 280 of the individuals that served the King with Nuno de Guzman in 1530. Many went on to settle the area and had links to the earlier Conquistadors. 1 page Early Settlers of Nueva Galicia - 137 settlers arriving after the Conquest of the area. Some had links to the earlier Conquistadors. 2 pages The Coronado Expedition - A list of 322 settlers that served with the Captain Francisco Vazquez de Coronado. The expedition set out for New Mexico and Arizona but made it as far north as Kansas from 1540 to 1542. 1 page The Onate Expedition - A list of the 336 settlers that served with the Captain General Juan de Onate. The expedition set out to settle New Mexico in 1598-1600. 1 page New Spain - 433 surnames of the early settlers making their way north into Northeastern Mexico. Many decendants of the early Conquistadors. Their date of first mention in public records for the area is listed in most cases. 8 pages 1700-1726 - New wave of settlers to Northeastern Mexico. Some details are given on 81 surnames. 2 pages Surname Research - Here are Hispanic resources traceable to 320 surnames found in the American Southwest or Mexico. 3 pages Personal Genealogy - Personal family surnames of Felix, Loera, Santoscoy, Moran, Vejar and Castro are discussed or mentioned. Additional links of cousins doing research on these names are provided as well as other links. 1 page Photo Gallery - Old family photos. 1 page

Sent by Crispin Rendon                                                                            Return to Table of Contents

                                             Jerez, Zacatecas

 I would like to share the information below with my fellow Somo Primosanos.  Jerez was an interesting Pueblo during the colonial period with its haciendas and ranchos. Its inhabitants were predominately of European stock. There were two interesting ranchos, Susticacan and Barrio de San Miguel where the majority of the Indian population resided.

"This list of last names which are unique and not common are found in the church books (1648-1821)of the Parroquia de Jerez, Zacatecas Mexico. Many of these last names have died out but can be found occasionally among the Mexican-American population in the US. 


Abasta, Acebes, Achurgia de, Aguayo, Alamillo, 
Alberas, Alberti de, Alosandara, Ambriz, Anceo, 
Andarza, Angon, Antillon, Árala (?), Aramburu, 
Arceo de, Arciniega, Argüelles Arguello, Arieo, 
Armendáriz, Arnay (Arnedo, Arnes) Arreo de, Arrisola, 
Asencio, Aviles de, Aviña, Báez de, Balaguer, 
Barajas, Barbosa, Barcena y Respuela, Bastardo, 
Bazan, Beitia de, Berumen, Bobadilla, Bocardo, 
Borondad, Boryon (Borjen), Botello, Bracho de, 
Brilanti, Calbillo (Calbijo), Calvillo, Camarillo, 
Cañas de, Cantero, Carasa, Careaga de, Carquisa (Urquiso), 
Casal, Casiano, Celaya de, Celis, Chirriaga (?), 
Contero (?), Cosió, Cota de, Coyaso, a Cuenca de, 
Cuesta de, Cueto, Damián, de la Águila, de la Bastida, 
de la Concha Alias Gallegos, de la Encina, de la Llana, de la Mora, 
de la O, de la Parra, de los Cobos, de los Monteros, 
del Piño, del Real, Dena, Dimas, Doñate, a
Donis (?), Dosal, Dueñas, Eamos, Enciso de, 
Escalera, Escamilla, Escareño, Espitia de, Fajardo, 
Gaeta de, Galán, Guitrago(Guitarra), Guitron (Guitio), 
Guizar de, Gurrola, Horca (Horta) de, Inguanzo, 
Isais, Jara, Larrañaga de, Larrasa (?), Larrea de, 
Lascano, Leizaola, Lemos de, Lespron, Licerio, 
Lizardo (Luzardo), Lobato, Lujano, Luzardo (?), 
Madera, Manzanares, Marroquin de, Marufo, Mayoral (Monjonet), 
Mayorga de, Medel, Mendiola de, Mendizábal, Mier de, 
Mijares, Millán, Mojica, Monquecho (Monquedo), 
Monsivais, Moraza, Morga, Morquecho, Murgia de, 
Murguía, Nafarrete, Navarrete, Navejas (Narvaja), 
Novoa, Negoa (Noboa), Noboa, Olivo, 
Ordóñez, Oredain, Oropesa, Orta de, Osorio, 
Oviedo, Oyarzabal, Palafox de, Palos de, Paniagua, 
Parada, Pedrosa, Peñalver, Pereida, Piñón, 
Posada, Puga de, Pulido, Quesada de, Quijas, 
Rabago de, Radas de, Raigosa, Rivadeneyra, Ron, 
Rubalcava de, Ruedas de, Saijan, Samaniego, Santillán, 
Santillana de, Segovia, Sertuchi, Sesati, Talavera, 
Tamayo, Tenorio, Tinajero, Tostado, Ubillos de, 
Ulloa de, Urbana, Ureña de, Uribe, Urista de,
Urquiso (Urquio), Usquiano de, Utrera de, Valadez de, 
Valdivieso, Verdugo y Santa Cruz, Vidales, Vidaurre, 
Villagomez de, Villagran, Villavicencio de, Vizagra (Vizcarra), 
Vizcarra, Zuazo,

Source: LDS Library" 
Source: Gabriel Gutierrez,  
                                                                                               Return to Table of Contents

Mexico History, Genealogy, Directories and Local Catholic Church History and Ancestors


Mexico History, Genealogy, Directories and Links ]
[ Do you have a site link suggestion? ]
[ Catholic Documents, Texts, & Archives ]
[ General History & GENEALOGY Links to Maps & Aids *]
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[ Local Catholic History & Genealogy Guide and Worldwide Directory ]


December 27th, Sila Maria Calderon became  Puerto Rico's first female governor.

                                          Puerto Rico Census Records

Hi, My name is Jon McInnis.  I own a website named Allcensus. I would like for you to place my site in your links list. I will be including your site in my links page shortly.

We make CD-ROMs containing images of the Federal Census pages of Puerto Rico for the years 1910 & 1920. Most records are or $9.95.

You can just type in our name and link to:

The First Cigarette Factory in Cuba

by Peter E. Carr

Although the island of Cuba has always been world famous for its cigars, not much is heard about its cigarettes.

The first cigarette factory in Cuba was started by Bernardino Rencurrel in Havana in 1810.1 Although not much is presently known about this family's early economic history, it appears that they were quite wealthy. This is suggested by the fact that, as a 20-year old, Bernardino was financially able to start his enterprise while his brother Marcos studied medicine.

Not much more than a `chinchal' or rudimentary factory, its first location was at 10 Cuna Street corner of Mercaderes Street in Havana.2 This location probably was also Bernardino's home. This location was strategically placed across a marketplace known as the `Plaza Vieja' and, later, as the `Plaza de Cristina'.

Early Cuban cigarette manufacturing was completely done by hand. After `rolling' or `wrapping' the paper around the tobacco filler, the ends were crimped shut to prevent the spillage of the tobacco. This crimping was necessary since the wrapper did not have glue to seal it into shape.3

Two type of cigarettes were manufactured, one was think and the other thick, like a small cigar. They were sold loose or in bundles. The bundles sold for five cents each or three bundles for twelve and a half cents. Each bundle contained 32 thin or 20 thick cigarettes. Either kind was much larger than those made today.4

Evidence shows that Bernardino's business was not limited to cigarettes only. The Havana city directory of 1841 shows him as the owner of the cigarette factory as well as a tobacco and cigar warehouse.5
Rencurrel products were exported worldwide. An advertisement placed by Macondray & Co. in the newspaper `Alta California' of February 4, 1852 shows that 20,000 cigars have been received from Rencurrel (through spelled Rancurel). Macondray & Co. was one of the largest and earliest commission merchants of San Francisco, California.

By 1859, the two main brands of cigarettes being produced were `Rencurrell' and `Astrea'. The 1866 Almanaque Mercantil (mercantile almanac) shows Bernardino as the owner of a first-class cigarette factory at 39 Merced Street in Havana. At the same time, there were four other first-class cigarette factories and fifteen second-class ones in the city of Havana.

During this time, the tobacco leaf was grown in a plantation located in the `Vuelta Abajo' region of Pinar del Rio Province, Cuba. This region has always been considered as the prime tobacco growing land in Cuba and, probably, the world. Rencurrel's planatation was known as `El Hato de San Luis'. It was located immediately south of the town of San Luis.7
After Brnardino's death in 1868, his grandson, Jose Manuel Rencurrel y Valdes-Tapia took over the concern and expanded it. First he moved production to a larger building at 82 Aguila Street, then he expanded production and exportation.

During the period of 1874 to the 1890s, the products of the factory were exported to ports in Venezuela, Honduras, Costa Rica and other countries of Central and South America. The shipments took place in barrels.8
With Jose Manuel's death in 1918, the end came to the first cigarette brand in Cuba. During its existence, several other brands were produced. These were `Galatea', `Andrea' and `Maceo' named after Antonio Maceo, a hero of the Cuban Revolutionary War of 1895-1898.

The tobacco industry was one of the mainstays of the Cuban economy during the 19th and early 20th centuries. At that time, tobacco and its products helped to bring Cuba to a place of prominence in world markets.

1Directorio de Artes, Comercio e Industrias de la Habana, 1859.
Rivero Muniz, Jose. Tabaco: Su Historia en Cuba. Institutio de Historia, Academia de
  Ciencias de la Republica de Cuba, La Habana, 1965, Vol. II, p. 196.
Op.Cit., pp.196-197.
Op.Cit., p. 197.
Directorio de la ciudad de La Habana y estramuros para el ano 1841.
Newspaper `Alta California', dated February 4, 1852.
Military Map of Cuba, 1907
From newspaper, `Diario de la Marina', dated May 23, 1944 titled, "Viejas Postales
   Descoloridas-La Calle del Aguila" by Fedrico Villoch.
Information supplied by the author's father, Pedro E. Carr Rodriguez, and grandmother,
  Debora Rodriguez
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"It doesn't matter what (ancestry) you are.  It matters what you are on the inside." - 
Miss America 2001, Angela Perez Baraquio, the first Asian-American to win the title.  
Guideposts, January 2001

Spanish Names from the Late 15th Century by Juliana de Luna (Julia Smith, © 1999-2000 by Julia Smith; all rights reserved.

Household accounts give a wealth of information about the lives of people in the past. These records of expenditures allow us to deduce a great deal about life: what goods were produced in the household and which were purchased, how many workers a family employed, and even the colors and kinds of fabric used in clothing. The account books of Isabel of Castilla (Isabella in English), the queen whose marriage to Fernando of Aragon united Spain and who sent Columbus on t his voyages of discovery, are also a wonderful source of data about naming practice. The names of 1957 men and 456 women who received money from the queen are mentioned.

From this data, a picture of Spanish naming practice in the last quarter of the 15th century can be drawn. Fifteenth century Spanish names reflect both traditional names that had been used for centuries and new names that were beginning to come into use. Names are fairly simple, with the vast majority of people having a single given name and a single element surname. Moslem and Jewish names appear in small numbers, and are identified separately.

Table of Contents


  • De Atienza, Julio, Nobiliario Español (Madrid: Aguilar SA de Ediciones, 1954).
  • De la Torre, Antonio and E. A. de la Torre, eds., Cuentas de Gonzalo de Baeza Tesorero de Isabel la Cato/lica (Madrid: Biblioteca "Reyes Cato/licos", 1956).
  • Diez Melcon, R. P. Gonzalo, Apellidos Castellano-Leoneses: Siglos IX-XIII, ambos inclusive (Universidad de Granada, 1957).
  • Dutton, Brian, et al. Cassell's Spanish and English Dictionary (New York: Collier Books, New York, 1969).
  • Talan Gwynek, "A Glossary of the Personal Names in Diez Melcon's Apellidos Castellano-Leoneses", Known World Heraldic Symposium Proceedings (SCA: Chicago, 1993).

Published by Arval Benicoeur.

HTML editing by Mari Elspeth nic Bryan & Arval Benicoeur

Sent by Johanna de Soto                                                              
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Recopilación de leyes de los reinos de las Indias
Mandadas imprimir y publicar por Carlos II En Madrid, año de 1681

Libro Primero. Título 22
De las Universidades, y Estudios generales y particulares

Ley primera 
Fundación de las Universidades de Lima, y México

El Emperador D. Carlos y la Reina de Bohemia G. en Valladolid 
a 21 de setiembre de 1551. D. Felipe Segundo en Madrid a 17 de octubre de 1562.

Para servir a Dios nuestro Señor, y bien público de nuestros Reinos conviene, que nuestros vasallos, súbditos y naturales tengan en ellos Universidades y Estudios generales donde sean instruidos y graduados en todas las ciencias y facultades, y por el mucho amor y voluntad, que tenemos de honrar y favorecer a los de nuestras Indias, y desterrar de ellas las tinieblas de la ignorancia, criamos, fundamos y constituimos en la Ciudad de Lima de los Reinos de el Perú, y en la Ciudad de México de la Nueva España, Universidades y Estudios generales, y tenemos por bien y concedemos a todas las personas, que en las dichas dos Universidades fueren graduados, que gocen en nuestras Indias, Islas y Tierra firme del Mar Océano, de las libertades y franquezas de que gozan en estos Reinos los que se gradúan en la Universidad y Estudios de Salamanca, así en el no pechar, como en todo lo demás: y en cuanto a la jurisdicción se guarde la ley 12 de este título.

Sent by Johanna de Soto


From Conquest to Colonization: Spain in the Mariana Islands 1690-1740
Francis X. Hezel and Marjorie C. Driver

 (Editor's note:  This is only the first part of a very well documented study, touching many very fascinating aspects of  Spanish colonization.)

The Marianas, a chain of volcanic islands running north-south with Guam at the southern tip, were the first Pacific group colonized by a European nation. Magellan had touched there in 1521 on his celebrated voyage across the Pacific, and other expeditions flying the Spanish flag visited the group later in the 16th century. Although Legazpi formally took possession of the archipelago in the name of the Spanish Sovereign in 1565, Spain had neither the resources nor the inclination to establish a colonial government there and for a century the island group served as nothing more than a re-provisioning stop for Spanish galleons on their yearly run from Mexico to Manila. It was in 1668 that the first steps were taken to colonize the archipelago, and then only at the insistence of Jesuit priests and their influential advocates in Madrid. In June of that year Fr Luis Diego Sanvitores, with five other Jesuits, a group of lay catechists and a company of troops, came to establish a permanent mission in the Marianas.

Almost from the first the mission met with opposition from segments of the local population, and violence erupted within a few months of the arrival of the Spanish. The next several years were marked by sporadic outbreaks of fighting occasioned by local political intrigues and rivalries, grievances suffered  at the hands of the Spanish troops, and the program  of cultural reform initiated by the missionaries. This initial troubled period of Spanish colonization ended with a final major uprising in 1684 and a concerted effort on the part of hostile Chamorro factions to drive out the Spanish once and for all. After some months the Spanish garrison suppressed the uprising with the help of their Chamorro allies, and by 1685 all hostilities were concluded. Twelve priests, perhaps 20 of their lay helpers, and an uncounted number of soldiers and Chamorro warriors died in the periodic skirmishes that occurred over a 17-year period, but the Spanish had completed the first stage of the conquest of the islands.(1)

On Guam, the largest of the islands and the headquarters of both the Jesuits and the troops who came to protect them, Spanish presence had been most strongly felt during these early years. By the late 1680s Spanish administrators began the formal 'reduction' of the island--that is, the relocation of people from the scattered hamlets that they had formerly inhabited into villages, where they were to live under the spiritual care of a priest. Over the next several years, at the insistent urging of the missionaries, Governor Damian Esplana, battle weary and increasingly timorous, made a few desultory attempts to subdue the islands to the north, but with no real success. Within months of Esplana's death in 1694, however, Jose Quiroga, commander of the garrison for 15 years and now interim governor, struck out for the north in a series of expeditions that brought the remaining islands to submission. Quiroga first took Rota in a bloodless campaign; a year later he subdued Tinian and Saipan, the next in the chain of islands, resettling the people of Tinian on Guam as a punishment for their armed resistance. In 1698 the Spanish mounted a final expedition to demand the submission of the northernmost islands, collectively known as Gani, whose inhabitants were subsequently relocated on Saipan and Guam. By the turn of the century, 30 years after the onset of Spanish colonization, the reduction of the Marianas was complete and the entire Chamorro population was concentrated on three islands: Guam, Rota and Saipan.

Although the story of Spanish colonization in the Marianas as presented in the scholarly and popular press usually concludes here, it had in truth only begun. The second stage of colonization, between 1690 and perhaps 1740, has been generally neglected by historians, partly because it is less richly documented than the preceding years and partly because it lacks the high drama of the conquest. Nonetheless, this period is vital for an understanding of the Spanish colonization of the Marianas, for during this time were established the essential patterns of foreign administration and colonial village life that would survive in the archipelago for another two centuries. This article is an attempt to rescue this period from the obscurity in which it has hitherto been buried.(2)

Spanish interest and presence in the archipelago was confined to Guam after the pacification; the indigenous population on Saipan dwindled away by mid-18th century and Rota's small colony was left without priest or administrator to fend for itself in virtual isolation. Ever eager to group the local population into manageable units, the Spanish divided Guam into six partidos, or districts, each containing a modest settlement that could loosely be called a village. These villages consisted of little more than a church and rectory surrounded by a sprinkling of houses, almost all built of nipa thatch, with 200 or 300 inhabitants.(3)

The local people, who continued to support themselves by subsistence farming and fishing, divided their time between their ancestral estates and the village settlement, where their lives were increasingly regulated by the church bells that tolled for morning mass, afternoon rosary, the Angelus thrice a day, and the De Profundis at a death. Agana, the seat of government and site of the presidio, rapidly grew to  a town of over 700 and took on some of the features of a Spanish provincial capital. Ringing the town plaza were a coral-block church, the governor's palace, a wooden frame building that housed 14 Jesuit missionaries, a boys' school run by the priests, the military barracks, and a building that served as the government storehouse.(4) The administration of each village was carried out by an alcalde mayor appointed by the governor whose main responsibility--since Chamorros were exempt by royal decree from all tribute and tax--was to oversee the use of the extensive Crown lands within each partido and supervise work projects. The alcalde, normally chosen from among the Spanish and Filipino retired soldiers, shared authority in the village with the parish priest, who not only provided for the spiritual needs of his flock, but often for their economic and social welfare besides.

The peaceful village life in the colony may have been a welcome respite after years of intermittent warfare, but it did nothing to reverse the serious population decline from which the islands had suffered since the coming of the Spanish in 1668. It is impossible to measure the early population loss with precision since the figures given by the early Jesuits for the size of the pre-contact population are so wildly improbable.(5)

One of the early governors, on the other hand, put the aboriginal population of the archipelago at 24,000.(6) Although this figure might be a bit low, it is very unlikely that the true number exceeded 30,000 and unthinkable that it should have been greater than 40,000. Moreover, the governor's figure is consistent with other estimates of the population at various stages of the decline: Salgado's estimate of 13,000 in 1683 and Astrain's figure of 9,000 for 1690.(7)

Data for the years around the turn of the century when the people had been gathered into villages are far more reliable, since the Jesuits were required to keep a strict count of infant baptisms (in effect, the number of births) and those who died each year.(8)

Between 1698 and 1702 there were an average of 240 births and 600 deaths a year, yielding a net loss of 1,800 people during these five years alone.(9)

Although figures for the following years are much sparser, it appears that there were about 200 births and 350 deaths yearly with an annual population loss of 150. Thus, the decline for the years 1703-20 would have amounted to another 2,700 inhabitants.(10)

If these computations are accurate, the Marianas saw a population loss of 4,500 between the final reduction of the islands in 1698 and 1720. Or put another way, the local population decreased by 70% in a matter of 23 years--and this during a time of peace in the islands."(11)

The major cause of the precipitous decline in population is no great mystery, if we are to believe the Jesuit sources from this period. The Chamorro people, already weakened by the years of sporadic warfare and flight and now required to adjust to an unfamiliar mode of life, were repeatedly subjected to the sorts of illnesses that decimated many indigenous peoples at early contact. To make matters worse, they were beset by other demands made by priests and civil administrators alike at the very time that their powers of physical resistance were at their ebb. For years epidemics broke out in the islands shortly after the visit of the annual galleon--with such regularity that the illnesses were known as 'sickness of the ship'. One such epidemic, which appeared after the arrival of the ship in 1688, was characterised by a 'bloody rheum and fever' and infected virtually the entire population of Guam.(12)

Another, more deadly outbreak followed the galleon's arrival the next year, this one bringing with it diarrhoea, chills and high fever. Twenty people died of the sickness in a single week, and by the end of three months more than 80 had succumbed to the disease, we are told in a Jesuit letter.(13)

By this time the missionaries, well aware of the frequency of these epidemics and their own powerlessness to provide medical assistance, added to their staff a Jesuit brother trained in pharmacology who treated victims of these periodic illnesses for nearly 50 years. The outbreak of influenza-- if it was indeed influenza--that raged on Guam from June to December 1700 was probably one of the most severe epidemics of the entire period, 'worse than anything Br. Chavarri had read about in his medical books or seen in the hospitals of Europe', the Jesuit annual report states.(14) There were over 650 deaths reported that year, and though not all resulted from the flu, tradition has it that the corpses were left unburied for lack of people to inter them.(15)

Again in 1709 the islands were struck with a serious illness that took many lives, while lesser contagions continued occurring with some frequency throughout the remainder of the period.(16)

One of the early governors, whose judgments on many other matters were highly questionable, stated the truth with stunning simplicity when he wrote that 'epidemics are destroying the people of the islands'.(17)

Although open hostility between Spanish and Chamorros had ended, the colony was not without its troubles during the early years of colonization. In 1702 three men who had been resettled in Guam from other islands conspired to catch the Spanish off guard and seize the government boats, with which they planned to return to their homes. Their hope was that this would trigger a widespread revolt and that the Spanish would be wiped out in the uprising. In their attempts to recruit sympathizers for their cause, word of the plan was carried to one of the priests, who relayed the news to the governor. The watches on the ships were doubled, the plot checked, and the conspirators apprehended and hanged.(18)

Some years earlier, at the shipwreck of a galleon off the coast of Guam in 1690, there was similar trouble but from a different source. Twenty convicts from Mexico who were being transported to a penal colony in the Philippines when they were stranded on Guam plotted to seize weapons from the presidio, slay the soldiers and missionaries, and flee the island in one of the government boats. Just a few days before the plan was to have gone into operation the conspiracy was discovered, again by one of the priests, and the convicts were executed by firing squad in Agana.(19)

Incidents like these, although rare, only confirmed the worst fears of some of the missionaries as to what might happen if the garrison were ever reduced in size, much less disbanded completely. Hence, the troops remained on Guam in as strong a force as during the years of actual fighting: two companies of Spanish soldiers, drawn in large part from Mexico, and another company of Pampangos from the Philippines.

Even if they were needed, the troops were a constant irritant for the Chamorro people and their pastors through the years. In a strong indictment in 1681, a Jesuit charged that the soldiers were 'Spaniards in name only--cowardly, spoiled, and good for very little . . . The crimes of these soldiers are too long to recount . . . They robbed the mission and violated the Indian women.(20)

To judge from reports in later years, the soldiers then were no more virtuous than their earlier counterparts. In 1720 Jose Quiroga, retiring commander of the garrison, judged the 'licentiousness of the troops' to be one of the main scourges imposed by God on the local people as a retribution for their earlier resistance to the faith.(21)

The missionaries, no doubt, fully agreed with his assessment, for they related numerous attempts of soldiers to compromise the local women. Often soldiers went so far as to threaten the husbands with physical harm if they did not leave the house and surrender their wives for their pleasure.(22) Even those who retired, married locally and were appointed alcaldes often used their influence and relative wealth to seduce women they fancied and, when this failed, simply raped them with impunity.(23)

Back in 1681 Fr Manuel Solorzano had complained that most of those inducted into the garrison were actually criminals from Mexico. This complaint was echoed 40 years later by Quiroga. The latest recruits, he wrote, 'are scum--some chased out by their parents, others simply exiles or vagabonds'.(24) The truth is, however, that a good many of the soldiers seem to have been recruited on shipboard from among the passengers on the galleon who were seeking their fortunes overseas. According to the Archbishop of Manila, who himself crossed the Pacific in 1698, the captains paid to recruit and train troops for the Marianas and Philippines all too often pocketed the money and stayed at home, appointing substitutes to muster whomever they could from the ship's complement to fill the requisite positions.(25) Under such conditions it is no surprise that the troops made as bad a showing as they did. As garrison commander, Jose Quiroga appears to have taken repeated and rather heavy-handed measures to reform barracks life: he had the troops say morning and evening prayers in common each day and marched them to mass and confession regularly.(26) After one such attempt in 1688, however, the soldiers, who had no desire to live like monks, rebelled and locked up their commander until the return of the governor from the Philippines.(27)

At its roots the problem of the unruly soldiery went far beyond poor recruitment and lack of discipline. For years the soldiers had been underpaid and left to fend largely for themselves in the matter of clothing and other necessities. The salary of the ordinary soldier in 1711 was 315 pesos a year, and the amount of subsidy received from Mexico each year was dependent upon the number of positions, or plazas, funded by authorities there, regardless of the actual number serving in the garrison.(28) In 1681 there were only 40 salaried positions for a garrison that then numbered 115 men.(29) Each soldier, then, received an equivalent of one-third of his stipulated wages; to make up the difference he was left to his own devices. Thirty years later, in 1711, the situation had not improved despite the addition of 20 more salaried positions, for the strength of the garrison had been increased to 168.(30)

Governors and missionaries pleaded with the King and his ministers to redress this unhappy situation, and the latter issued decrees from time to time ordering an increase in the subsidy, but all to no effect. As the financial pressure on the colony increased, the clothing allotment that the soldiers had once received was withdrawn and they were compelled either to buy material from the government store at very high prices or to beg clothing from the priests.(31)

They were a ragtag outfit, not only without uniforms but many of them shirtless and barefoot as well. The lot of the common soldier in the Marianas was not a happy one; and one could readily understand how they might be tempted to prey off the local populace just as they were preyed upon by others.

Not the least of the burdens the colony had to bear during much of this period was the corrupt administration of the governors themselves, who shamelessly exploited troops and local people to make their own fortunes. The governors were probably little different from many higher officials in the Philippines, who seem to have been conspicuously unable to resist the temptation to use their privileged position to enrich themselves through the lucrative galleon trade.(32)

Three of the governors--Damian Esplana (1683-94), Juan Antonio Pimentel (1709-20), Luis Antonio Sanchez de Tagle (1720-25)--were especially notorious for their corruption, as the documents of the period well attest. The judicial investigations that were held at the conclusion of a governor's term of office turned up damning evidence on Pimentel and Tagle, while Esplana was spared this disgrace only because he died while still in office. The three of them governed the Marianas for a total of 27 years. Little is known of the practices of the other governors during this time, but many of them were interim appointees who, whatever their proclivities, did not have time to work out the contrivances that the three successfully employed for their own gain.

Underlying the corruption of these years was the attraction that speculation on the galleon trade held for provincial governors such as these. Each year one or two galleons left Manila with valuable cargoes of Chinese silks and other luxury items bound for Acapulco, where the goods were sold at a handsome profit in the annual bazaar. On their return voyage to Manila the ships carried payment for the goods in the form of silver bullion, officially limited to twice the declared value of the goods but nearly always in fact many times more than this. Speculators in the Manila trade, then, stood to make profits far beyond the 100% ceiling that was imposed by law. One authority relates that governors of the Philippines, although forbidden by law to engage in trade for personal profit, sometimes accumulated between 300,000 and 500,000 pesos through their investments by the end of a five-year term.(33) Would-be speculators had to obtain tickets (or boletas) for shipping freight packages to Mexico, but these could be procured for a price from those Manilenos who were entitled to them but lacked the capital to invest in the trade themselves. A reliable agent in Manila and good political connections there--advantages that Esplana, Pimentel and Tagle enjoyed--were all that were needed to take advantage of this lucrative opportunity.(34)

Finding the wherewithal to invest in the galleon trade was a problem easily solved by a governor with even the slightest imagination. The same galleon that brought speculators from Manila the return on their investment stopped at the Marianas to drop off the yearly subsidy from Mexico to finance the administration of the colony. This yearly subsidy usually amounted to about 20,000 pesos, besides the special mission subsidy of nearly 10,000 pesos, all of it earmarked for salaries: the governor's own salary of about 1,600 pesos, and the military commander's salary of half that amount, as well as the salaries of the troops of the garrison.(35)

Since there was no trade to speak of in the colony other than the small amount that was conducted with the galleon for food and other provisions, the annual subsidy constituted the total yearly income for the Marianas. The main objective of the trade-minded governor, therefore, was to work out ways, short of stealing it outright, by which the greatest possible portion of that subsidy might remain in his pocket so that it could be sent on to Manila and invested in the galleon trade. According to later authors, some of the governors were extremely successful in this regard--successful enough to re-acquire nearly the entire subsidy within a matter of weeks.(36)

If the governors could make a few extra pesos through the re-provisioning trade during the short layover of the galleon in Guam, so much the better.

The ease with which governors could gain possession of virtually the entire yearly subsidy for personal investment was due to their direct control of the government storehouse, the only channel of imported goods into the colony. It was left to the discretion of the governor whether the troops were to be paid in currency or materials; but whatever the case, the net result was about the same. Soldiers who needed foreign-made items were forced to buy from the government store at prices determined solely by the governor. In a letter to the Crown complaining of the abuses by the governors, Quiroga reports that the mark-up for the normal food items--chocolate, sugar, biscuits, tobacco, honey and wine--was ordinarily as high as 400 or 500%, and more than double that in years of scarcity when the galleon did not arrive.(37) Cloth, too, fell under the government monopoly, and the sad condition of the troops' dress was attributed to the exorbitant prices that were charged for even the simplest items of apparel in the government store. The governors found excuses to withhold even the small allotment of cloth to which the soldiers were entitled, thus forcing the latter to buy this from the store. The profits from the store went to the governor, who at such prices soon found nearly the entire payroll back in his coffers ready to be reinvested in personal ventures. Governors even as early as Esplana were quick to discover that their own profit margins could be increased by buying supplies at relatively low prices in Manila rather than the more expensive Mexican imports. This undoubtedly accounts for much of the interest that Esplana showed in building boats capable of making the Guam-Manila run, as well as the fact that Pimentel's first request upon becoming governor was for a ship to handle traffic between the two ports.(38) At Esplana's death, nearly 10,000 pesos were discovered to have been sent by the governor to his agent in Manila for the purchase of items that were needed for the garrison.(39) Aware of the potential for abuse in the transfer of large sums of the royal subsidy to business agents, Spanish authorities soon explicitly forbade the practice.(40)

Like so many other regulations designed to check government corruption, however, this became a dead letter.

Damian Esplana, the man whom one of the Jesuits referred to as 'God's scourge to the people of the Marianas',(41) accumulated enough wealth during his 11 years as governor to keep his relatives busy contesting his estate for another 10 after his death. Born in Peru and a veteran of over 20 years of military service there, Esplana first arrived in the Marianas in 1674 as military commander for two years and returned in 1683 to assume the governorship of the colony.(42) After he was attacked and nearly killed in an uprising the year after he became governor, Esplana begged to be relieved of his duties and allowed to return to the Philippines. When permission was not forthcoming, he left anyway in a small boat that he had built (and later sold for a good profit in Manila), pleading the need for urgent medical attention. The fact that the galleon had not touched at Guam for the two previous years must have added to the governor's distress. Not only was the colony without subsidy and supplies during this period, but Esplana had no way of getting the large share of the subsidy of earlier years that had found its way into his pocket into the hands of his investment broker so that it could be parlayed into even larger gains. Esplana was tried for desertion of his post, but was acquitted and allowed to resume his position as governor. After a year in the Philippines, Esplana's strong desire to find a replacement suddenly cooled and he seems to have been happy enough to return to Guam where he again took up residence in Umatac, the main port and a splendid vantage point from which to oversee his trade interests in the galleon.(43)

From then until his death in 1694 his investments appear to have been his sole absorption, even as his relationship with Quiroga and the missionaries, never very warm, deteriorated still further. The man's avarice had overcome the almost pathological fear of a violent death at the hands of the islanders that he showed in later years, and he established an unhappy pattern of commercial manipulation for future governors of the colony.

GovernorJuan Antonio Pimentel, who took office in 1709 and held it for 11 years, had a good deal in common with Esplana. Like him he was Peru-born, a long-time resident of the Philippines, and appointed to his position by the Court of Madrid. The two had been old friends, shared a deep dislike for Quiroga, and were unequalled in the degree to which they exploited the poor Spanish colony.(44) Pimentel, if anything, only refined and perfected the methods employed by his predecessor for bilking the troops out of their share of the subsidy. During the fair that followed the arrival of the galleon, according to one of his contemporaries, he had his servants hawking chocolate, biscuits, and other goods at the usual inflated prices.(45) To loosen up those married troops who might have been inclined to put away their savings for their families there was also aguardiente, a local fermented drink made from the coconut palm by Chamorros and bought by the governor for a pittance. The governor was also said to have organized gambling among the troops, despite the fighting that invariably resulted, with a good percentage of the earnings going into his pocket. For those who had spent their salary Pimentel gladly arranged loans at 100% interest. The governor deliberately encouraged indebtedness among the troops, Quiroga charged, so that he could conveniently withhold part or all of their salaries at the arrival of the next subsidy. As a matter of fact, those who refused to go into debt to the government store ran the risk of having their names withdrawn from the muster list and losing their salary altogether. Consequently, nearly all the Filipinos and Spaniards in the colony were in debt to the store--in effect, of course, the governor--and Pimentel had little trouble claiming for himself virtually the entire government subsidy to use for his own financial ends.

The Chamorro people themselves suffered no less than the troops from the corruption of their governors. Although the natives of the Marianas were expressly exempted from the royal tribute that colonial populations normally paid, the governors routinely imposed labor demands of their own on the people. The villagers were required to plant and tend fields of rice, corn, melons and root crops on royal land, as well as raise pigs and poultry--all of which was supposedly for the support of the troops, but in fact was used for the governor's own table or sold to the galleon or the garrison for his personal profit.(46)

Even the women had their compulsory work: they collected copra to feed the pigs, made salt and oil, and plaited sleeping mats and canoe sails of pandanus to be sold in the Philippines.(47)

For both men and women this meant perhaps two days a week, and in some cases more, of intense labour at the behest of the governor and the alcaldes. As compensation for a full day's work, the villagers were given merely two or three leaves of tobacco grown in the Philippines and priced at double its value.(48) The daily wage amounted to about a 20th of a silver real, or an 80th of a peso. At this rate a Chamorro would have had to work four to six months to buy enough cheap cloth for a pair of pants.(49)

It was no wonder that the missionaries themselves had to give out clothes to keep their people dressed in what they regarded as a proper manner.

In his letter of 1706, Fr Gerard Bouwens was already complaining about the excessive labour imposed on the islanders. Between the work that was required to rebuild their own houses after the frequent typhoons, the cultivation of their own crops, and the additional demands made by the government, 'their toil is almost continuous', he wrote.(50) A few years later, soon after his arrival in Guam, Governor Pimentel, himself one of the worst offenders, commented on the excessive burdens borne by the local people, but he attributed much of the misery on the island to the resettlement of the population in villages at the urging of the missionaries and the corvee labor that he claimed was imposed by Quiroga.(51) Pimentel's own excesses, which were documented in vivid detail by Quiroga, led to an outcry on the part of the Jesuits in sermons and through their letters to their superiors in Manila and Mexico City. For their denunciation of these abuses from the pulpit two of the missionaries--Fr Ignacio Ibarguen and Fr Antonio Cantova--were banished to the outlying villages by the governor on the charge of sedition.(52) It was only the lack of means to convey them to Manila that prevented their expulsion from the Marianas altogether. Widespread reports of Pimentel's oppressive measures elicited a flurry of correspondence from Spanish authorities in Spain and Mexico and an extensive investigation of his misconduct, although the strongest censure against him at the end of it all was his failure to defend the colony against the British privateers who put in at Guam unchallenged in 1710.

Governor Luis Tagle, Pimentel's replacement in 1720, was admonished by superiors to correct the injustices committed by his predecessors, but the report at the conclusion of his five-year term reads like that of Pimentel. He continued the practice of forced labour under terms very similar to those during Pimentel's time. If anything, the work load seems to have been increased under Tagle, for the missionaries were forced to rescind the church ban on manual labour on feast days so that the people could rebuild their houses after storms and provide sustenance for their families.(53) The charges against him at the end of his term were familiar enough: he had commandeered the government wares and sold them for personal gain; he had forced the islanders to work in the fields for the government in return for a few leaves of tobacco; and he had requisitioned poultry and eggs for private purposes for next to no payment. His major crime, by Spanish standards of justice, however, was to fire upon a Spanish ship in an effort to force it to return to port, and when threatened with arrest he surreptitiously left the Marianas for the Philippines and slipped into a monastery where he found refuge from the authorities. Tagle died before he could be prosecuted.(54)

Throughout all this the Chamorro people were steadily depleted in numbers and strength. So worn down were they by the burdensome work schedule, something to which they were unaccustomed, that some of those who fell ill were reputed to have said that they would prefer to die at once rather than to live a life of slow attrition.(55) Spanish reforms, as was often the case in the distant royal colonies, were slow in coming and often ineffective when they were finally imposed. For years Spanish authorities in Manila, Mexico City and Madrid argued over the merits of paying all local people in currency in an effort to standardize wages. In the end this proposal was rejected, although some of the missionaries suggested that a standard salary scale and rates for island products be established, whether the payment be made in money or goods.(56)

The governor who succeeded Tagle in 1725 began paying the soldiers each month in cash, which they were to use to buy food from local farmers as well as imported goods from the government store; but this reform did not survive very long.(57) Neither did the elimination of the alcaldes and the relegation of their functions to the local Chamorro leaders, another reform initiated at this time. The local leaders evidently proved unequal to the task of organizing relief work in the wake of a typhoon that did serious damage to the island in December 1725.(58) An expansion of the role of the church in the administration of the colony was also contemplated as a check against future abuses: the Archbishop of Manila was to be consulted on the choice of future governors of the Marianas, and the Jesuit mission superior was to monitor the distribution of the annual subsidy.(59)

Ecclesiastical law, however, forbade the latter and the badly strained church-state relations in the Philippines during this period ruled out the former. Most of the proposed reforms, then, were never implemented, and those that were had a very short life-span. Even so, the mere show of concern to correct the injustices of the past two decades represented a significant step forward. Many of the abuses reappeared throughout the century and later, but the worst was over for the colony.

Spanish attitudes towards the tiny colony in the Marianas had been ambivalent from the very beginning. The Queen Regent Mariana, who lent her name to the island group, had overridden the objections of lesser officials to the initial missionary venture there on the grounds that Spain had a sacred obligation to provide for the spiritual welfare of the inhabitants of these islands. There was a certain quaint nobility in the axiom of Spanish imperial policy of the day that maintained that 'a king holds some states because he needs them, and others because they need him'.(60) This principle, which was invoked often enough to justify retaining Spanish interests in the Philippines, was all the more applicable to the Marianas. More than once throughout the early years of armed struggle in the Marianas, the Crown had found it necessary to remind its representatives in Mexico City and Manila that any expenses, no matter how great, must be weighed against the main purpose of their endeavor: the conversion of the islanders.(61)

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The forgotten people The Irish in Argentina and other South American countries


In memory of Edward A. Coghlan, 1997

As an introduction, we must emphasize that Argentina was the destination of the largest Irish emigration to a non-English speaking land, where nowadays more than half a million people could claim some Hibernian origin.

It is also important to point out that the Irish migration to Argentina, as well as to South America, is different to those that took or are taking place world-wide, as we will see in this work.

The very earliest Irish presence in South America

For many years we have tried to find out if there was any Irish presence in Admiral Cristobal Colon’s armada (1) or in any other Spanish or Portuguese naval expedition that contributed to the discovery of the new World. We do not accept the theory of the first Irishman to place a foot on South American soil was Father Thomas Field, a Jesuit missionary, native of Limerick, who arrived at Brazil on December 31st., 1577. Anybody we could also mention Saint Brendan’s voyages, but it seems that he has visited mostly North and Central America, rather than the South.

As we announced in Dublin during the first Irish Genealogical Congress in 1991 (2), there were three natives of Galway members of the crew of the Spanish Admiral Hernando de Magallanes who arrived in South America in 1520. We consider them the first Irishmen to arrive to South America.

Immediately after this event, some documents revealed more Irish presence. For example, in the foundation of Buenos Aires city in 1536, the names of John and Thomas Farel (Farrell) are well documented. Other Irishmen seemed to have been present in the foundation of other cities, like Asuncion, in Paraguay, or Corrientes, in North-Eastern Argentina. Also we must point out, as Thomas Murray indicates in his work regarding the Irish in Argentina (3), that it is hard to establish the exact origin of various conquerors, such as Moran, Martin, Colman or Galvan, whose surnames could be as much Spanish as Irish.

During the early Spanish and Portuguese colonial administration many Irishmen came to South America as soldiers, officers or members of the administration, as well as priests of the Dominican, Franciscan or Jesuit Orders. The largest group of priests were Jesuits, spread through the entire continent until their expulsion in the second part of the XVIIIth. century.

Among many others, we can mention Frs. Thomas Browne and Thaddeus Ennis and Br. William Leny in Paraguay; Frs. Richard Carey and John Almeida (Martin) and Br. William Lynch in Brazil; Frs. Francis Lea and Robert Kyne and Br. Thomas Lewis in New Granada -at present Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador-; Brs. Ignatius Walter and Maurice O’Phelan and Frs. John Brand and James Woulfe in Peru; as well as Fr. Michael Lynch in Bolivia.

The first attempt to establish an Irish settlement took place in the Amazon region as of 1612. Phillip and James Purcell, Irish traders, established a colony in Tocujos, on the mouth of the Amazon river. They were interested in tobacco, dyes and hardwoods that they could obtain and that they could later sell with good profits.

Another settlement, leaded by Bernard O' Brien, was established nearby in 1620, in an area with English and Dutch establishments as well. But the prosperity did not last much time due to the Portuguese government that wanted the total control of the trade in that area. The importance of these Irish settlements are well documented in Joyce Lorimer’s "English and Irish Settlements on the River Amazon, 1550-1646" (4).

In Colonial times.

Many Irish held important positions in the military and civil administration during the colonial period, in areas that were ruled by the Spanish monarchy, due to the warm treatment Irishmen received from their "cousin", the Spanish king (5).

Undoubtedly, the most outstanding Irish of this group was Ambrose O’ Higgins, a native of Co. Sligo, who fulfilled important positions in two different countries. He was the Governor General of Chile in 1787 and subsequently, he was appointed Viceroy of Peru -the most powerful government position in South America- in 1795 until his death in 1801 at the age of 80. He was also named Baron of Ballenary and Marquis of Osorno in recognition for his services. He was also the originator of the first Irish-American political family dynasty, as his son Bernard later became the Liberator of Chile and its first Supreme Director (President).

Many others Irish immigrants, like the Murphys, O’Haras, Carrs and O’Donnells were in military capacities in Argentina and other neighboring countries. Merchants and members of local governments were Irish born who came after spending some time in Spain, or were descendants of distinguished 'Wild Geese'.

Among them, we can mention the Lynchs, Butelers (Butlers), Sarsfields, Cuelis (Kellys), O’Ryans and other families and specially Michael O’Gorman (1749-1819), a physician from Ennis, Co. Clare, who was appointed as first chairman of the Medical School of Buenos Aires in 1799.

We can also trace other Irish families who came through Spanish possessions, as the Cullen family, who came from the Canary Islands.

In Brazil, there were also similar cases, as Lawrence Belfort, a Dubliner, who had a very respectable family which is still remembered in that country with one of Brazil’s most highly-prized soccer award that is named after one of his descendants.

There was also a different form of Irish migration to South America. As a result of political affairs in Europe, for many years, Spain and England were at war, so it is not surprising that there were some British colonizing attempts in Colombia or in the River Plate, which were rejected by the local people.

One of them, commanded in 1763 by captain John MacNamara, an Irishman under the British service, was defeated in the Colonia del Sacramento, presently located in Uruguay, where 262 men were killed and 78 taken prisoners and confined into the country. These English, Scotch and Irish people, after sometime, raised local families and their descendants signed a presentation to general Jose de San Martin, the Liberator of Argentina, Chile and Peru, when he was forming his army in Mendoza in 1817.

In this document they declared they were "grateful for the good hospitality and full of enthusiasm for the rights of men, and that they could not see with indifference the risks that threatened the country, and they were ready to take up arms and give their last drop of blood, if it was necessary, in its defense" (6). Some of the signings were John Heffernan, W. Manahan, Timothy Lynch, John Brown, John Young, Thomas Hughes, William Carr, Daniel MacGeoghegan and others.

Another British attempt, and successful for a short period of time, took place in Buenos Aires in 1806. It was commanded by the Irish-born general William Carr Beresford, who was proclaimed Governor of Buenos Aires. Bereford, who afterward was named Viscount, acted as British Minister in the court of Rio de Janeiro. The following year there was another English expedition under the command of general Whitelocke. In both British armies, many officers and soldiers were of Irish origin, such as Browne, Nugent, Kenny, Donnelly, Murray, Mahon, Cadogan and Duff. The last one, was in charge of the 88th. Connaught Rangers Regiment, entirely formed by Irishmen (7).

Among the "criollos" (Spanish people born in South America) who fought against the invaders we can recall Domingo French and Ignacio Warnes, who belonged to Irish families established in Spain, whose descendants came to America, as well as general Juan de Pueyrredon, whose mother was a Dogan (Duggan). Here we have clearly a case of Irish fighting against Irish as-we will see many times in South America.

Some prisoners of these frustrated military adventures, as well as many others who deserted from the British, decided to establish themselves in the River Plate. The most famous was Peter Campbell, who became later a prominent figure in Uruguay.

We must also mention other British expeditions to South American shores, as those commanded by Admirals Anson and Vernon, with military presence in the northern part of the continent, with Irish soldiers among their crews. In the Spanish side there were also Irish presence, as Brigadier John Baptist MacEvan, who was in charge of designing the defense of the fort of Cartagena de Indias, in Colombia (8).

Also, it is worthy to mention that among the pirates who devastated Spanish fortifications in Colombia and Venezuela there where many Irish, men and women, some of whose descendants later came to South America through the Antilles.

In this period, and in subsequent years, there was an active trade between Irish and South American ports. It was not surprising to see in Cork or in Belfast merchandise consigned to several places, as Mejico, the West Indies or South America.

At the time of independence.

The different movements for independence in the world, as the French and North American revolutions, as well as the Napoleonic war, affected the Spanish and Portuguese crowns. They also influenced the citizens of South America, where the new ideas towards the independence of the colonies began to flourish, specially in the Spanish possessions.

The Irish, totally integrated into the local communities, where not an exception to these ideas. At the beginning of the 1810’s different Irishmen held important positions in the newly independent countries. As a brief example, we can mention that James Roth (Ross) was President of the first government formed in Venezuela; general John Mackenna -born in Clogher, Co. Tyrone (1771-1814) and John Michael Gill where signators, respectively, of the Chilean and Paraguayan declarations of independence; and Joaquin Campana (Campbell) demanded the dismissal of the Spanish Viceroy in the town council held in Buenos Aires in 1810. The following year he served the local government.

Not only in politics the Irish were involved. They had a very active participation in the struggle for independence, with remarkable presence in the military and naval forces.

Generals Jose de San Martin and Sim6n Bolivar were the two most important leaders in the wars of independence of the former Spanish South American colonies. They both had large armies in which there was important Irish presence.

One of San Martin’s officers was general Bernard O’ Higgins, the son of Ambrose O’ Higgins, who also was a politician and became the first President of Chile. In this nation he is regarded as the father of the country’s independence.

Among many other officers of Irish origin, we must also recall general John Thomond O’Brien, who was aide-de-camp of general San Martin. We must pay attention to this man, native of Co. Wicklow, who after the war ended dedicated his personal efforts to business, specially in the mining sector, in Peru and Bolivia, as well as promote Irish immigration to America. In 1824 he signed an agreement with the Argentine authorities to establish 200 compatriots in this country, but the proposal failed due to the opposition of the British government. Also, in 1828, general O’Brien gathered in Buenos Aires a group of distinguished Irish people to decide how they could best help the struggle for Catholic Emancipation in Ireland.

But the most important Irish contribution for independence was in Bolivar’s army. In 1818 general John D’Evereaux organised in Dublin a famous "Irish Legion". Many ships left Irish and British ports, carrying some 6.500 men, mainly Irish, for service in the Liberator’s force, where they played an active role in securing the independence of Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia.

General Bolivar had a notable inclination for Irish officers. For many years several countrymen acted as his aide-de-camp. We must mention the names of Charles Chamberlain, James Rooke, William Ferguson -who died in Bogota saving the life of the Liberator in an assassination attempt in 1828-, and finally, the greatest, general Daniel Florence O’Leary, another Corkman, who is the author of "Memorias" (9) a monumental work that -describes in 32 volumes the events of those days in the northern countries of South America. He was also involved in politics and in the diplomatic career in both the Venezuelan and British services. In 1852 he visited, once again, Ireland, donating a collection of South American minerals, plants and birds to Queen’s College, which is now University College Cork, where this Migration Conference is taking place (10).

Although many Irishmen died due to war or bad climatic conditions or returned to their homes, many others settled in South America, raising important families. The most prominent was general Francis Burdett O’Connor, from Connorville, Co. Cork, to whom we pay homage here in this county where he was born. After serving with generals Bolivar and Sucre he settled in Bolivia, marrying a distinguished local lady. He became Minister of War and wrote his famous "Recuerdos" (memoirs) (11). His descendants are still important members of Bolivia’s ruling class. One of his great-grandsons is Ambassador Edward Trigo O’Connor, at present Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs.

Other similar cases are those of Charles Minchin, from Co. Tipperary, who settled in Venezuela and integrated the cabinet of this republic, and Arthur Sandes, from Co. Kerry, a politician and educational innovator in Ecuador.

The numerous participation of Irish people in the campaigns for independence are well documented by the Irish historian Eric Lambert (12). Among others, we must also add the surnames of Phelan, French, Reynolds, MacLoughlin, Byrne, Thomson, Hogan and Keogh as well as Maurice O’Connell, a relative of Daniel O’Connell, with whom Bolivar exchanged correspondence.

In the navy there was also a very important Irish participation. Undoubtedly, the most prominent was Admiral William Brown (1777-1857), a native of Foxford, Co. Mayo, and founder of the Argentine Navy, whose biography is now available in English, thanks to the contribution of Dr. John de Courcy Ireland (13). He won the naval battle of Montevideo, on March 17, 1815, which assured the independence of Buenos Aires from Spanish rule. Brown began the action with the band playing the song "St. Patrick’s Day in the Morning" in homage to the Saint’s day. This song is now one of the officials in the Argentine Navy.

Brown also fought against the Spanish forces in Peru and Ecuador and was Commander-in-Chief in the war against Brazil which ended with the independence of the Republic of Uruguay. He was also Governor of Buenos Aires, in 1828, which was at the time equivalent to be President of the Argentine Republic. In his numerous campaigns, Admiral Brown was accompanied by many Irish officers, such as Craig, King. Kearney, Turner and others.

We must not avoid mentioning Admiral Thomas Charles Wright, who after fighting against Napoleon and in the Anglo-American War, offered his services to Bolivar. Later on, he founded the Ecuadorian Navy, as well as Peter Campbell, from Co. Tipperary, who fought with general Artigas and founded the Uruguayan navy.

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                       Notes of Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia

                                                    by Lillian Ramos Wold

Bernie my husband  and I decided to study the areas that his Beaton and Lyons ancestors settled. The history of these places usually explains the reason for settlements and migration patterns. I have highlighted the years and places where these ancestors settled and why they moved to these areas.

The Mimac Indians inhabited Prince Edward Island for thousands of years. The Indians called it Abegweit, "land cradled on the waves".

The first Beaton in Bernie's family to emigrate to Prince Edward Island, shortly after its conquest by the British in 1771, was Donald Beaton Cameron. Donald died at his residence, at East Point. He also lived, at one time, in St. Peters, Prince Edward Island, which is located close to East Point. His son, John, was buried on the west side of the Island in Egmont Bay. 

French explorer, Jacques Cartier, discovered the Island in 1534 and called it.. "the fairest land 'tis possible to see!". Named Ile St. Jean by explorer Samuel de Champlain in 1603, the first permanent settlers arrived in 1720. By 1758, Great Britain had gained control of the island and deported most of the French inhabitants called Acadians. These Acadians became the Cajuns of Louisiana. In Nova Scotia (New Scotland), Scottish colonists arrived in 1621 and disputed the Acadians' claim to the land. After the 1713 treaty of Utrecht, the Acadians of Nova Scotia, refused to take a loyalty oath to Great Britain and were expelled and formed the Cajun population of Louisiana. (I have included information about the Acadians because our Hamilton grandchildren's grandfather, Charles Hamilton, may possibly be a descendant of the Acadians of Nova Scotia as his ancestors were born in Nova Scotia).

St. Peters (on the East end of Prince Edward Island), was named San Pedro by its Portuguese founders (1521-1527). Nicolas Denys developed the area and established a fur-trading post protected by a fort. Successively renamed St. Pierre and Port Toulouse, the port remained a French stronghold until 1745, when the British plundered the community and burned four schooners at anchor. The French returned and undertook the enormous task of building a road from the post to Louisbourg. This connection proved fatal, however, and Port Toulouse tumbled with the final fall of Louisbourg in 1758. Renamed St. Peter's, the town boasted Fort Granville, built in 1793 by Lieutenant Colonel Moore.

Near the lighthouse on the eastern side of the harbor are the ruins of one of the oldest lighthouses in North America. Built in 1730-33 by order of Louis XV, the Louisbourg Lighthouse was damaged by fire and the British siege of Louisbourg in 1758.

In 1764, St. John's Island, as the British called it, was divided into 67 lots of 20,000 acres each. These lots, granted to wealthy Englishmen, were the cause of a century-long struggle by local farmers against their absentee landlords. The Island became a separate British Colony in 1769 (Donald Beaton immigrated to this Island about 1772, possible on the ship named "Hector". The remainder of the 18th century saw the population increase, as Loyalists moved north after the Revolutionary War and the Scots seeking a better standard of living, crossed the ocean. In 1799 the island acquired its present name, when it was renamed for Queen Victoria's father, Edward, Duke of Kent. The 1800's brought additional immigrants, mostly from Ireland. Agriculture, shipbuilding and fishing were the most common occupations during the mid-1800s. In 1799, Donald Beaton bought Lot 47 from John Steward on the 14th day of November on the "40th year of the reign of our sovereign Lord George by the grace of God of Great Britain, France and Ireland, King defender of the faith". Absentee landlords finally ended in 1875, when the Land Purchase Act enabled the province to buy out the British landlords. 

Economically-difficult times in the 1890s forced many Islanders to leave their homes and seek employment in larger, more stable provinces and to the New England areas of the United States. Bernie's great-grandfather Lemuel Beaton left Prince Edward Island in the fall of 1867 and moved to Calais Main at the age of 23. In 1869, he moved to Chicago to continue his trade as a shipbuilder. Lemuel finally settled in North Dakota where his son was the first white boy to be born around West Fargo in the Dakota Territory.                                         
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Websites of Genealogical Interest
in Relation to the Americas and Europe

Created by Rebecca R. Horne and maintained by Salena B. Ashton. 

General World-wide Sites

Sent by Johanna de Soto


                                       Washington's prayer at Valley Forge

Many people dismiss Washington's prayer at Valley Forge as sentimental legend. Yet the story is well-grounded in the historical record. 

The chief source is the eyewitness testimony of Isaac Potts, a Valley Forge resident who shared the following story with the Rev. Nathaniel Randolph Snowden (1770-1851), who then recorded it in his "Diary and Remembrances." 

"I was riding with Mr. Potts near to the Valley Forge where the army lay during the war of ye Revolution, when Mr. Potts said, 'Do you see that woods & that plain? There laid the army of Washington. It was a most distressing time of ye war, and all were for giving up the Ship but that
great and good man. In that woods (pointing to a close in view) I heard a plaintive sound as of a man at prayer. I tied my horse to a sapling and went quietly into the woods. To my astonishment I saw the great George Washington on his knees alone, with his sword on one side and his cocked
hat on the other. He was at Prayer to the God of the Armies, beseeching to interpose with his Divine aid, as it was ye Crisis & the cause of the country, of humanity and of the world. 

"Such a prayer I never heard from the lips of man. I left him alone praying. I went home and told my wife. We never thought a man could be a soldier and a Christian, but if there is one in the world, it is Washington. We thought it was the cause of God and America could prevail.'"

Submitted by Lewis Stokes                                                           Return to Table of Contents


Thanks to Joe Felt, Captain, US Navy (Retired) , who provided the Navy News Service story by Journalist 1st Class Joseph Gunder about the new database unveiled on 17 November 2000 at the U.S. Navy 
Memorial in Washington, D.C., for African American Sailors who served in the Civil War. The Civil War Soldiers and Sailors System Database holds information on about 18,000 African 
American Civil War Sailors. It contains personal information, ships served aboard, and dates of service and is online at
Naval Historical Center at
U.S. Navy Memorial at

Source: Rootsweb


SSDI update is in place. 185,592 new records were added and
the new total is 64,731,293. See 

Naturalization Records:
The new HISTORY MAGAZINE is now on the newsstands but you can obtain a FREE trial copy by visiting
.  Articles cover the social conditions that affected the lives of our ancestors. 
Check out the Web feature "This Day in History" by visiting

Visit  for a FREE 14-Day Trial and enjoy access to 
the No. 1 Source for Family History Online. Search more than 
600 MILLION NAMES and trace your family tree today. Go to:
FAMILY REUNIONS. Check for reunions of interest and post information about your own upcoming family reunion on RootsWeb's Family Reunions Calendar at >note two-line URL

click the link at RootsWeb's home page

post details of upcoming genealogical events on the Web at
 and/or, after subscribing to,
 post the notice to the mailing list

Millennia Announces that Legacy Family Tree is Now Free

Millennia Corporation announced that anyone can download Legacy Family Tree 3.0 for free from their website at  http:// . This is the entire program. It is not a demonstration version and nothing has been held back. (The previous retail price of Legacy had been $49.95.)

Millennia, developers of powerful genealogy software, first released Legacy over two and a half years ago. Since that time it has grown to be one of the most popular programs on the market today. "Today's announcement marks a big change in the distribution of the product," said David Berdan, president of  Millennia. "We expect a huge increase in our user base in the near
future. We also have plans for many new products and features."

A recent survey conducted by, Inc., found that family history research is important to nearly 65 percent of everyday consumers. That is nearly two-thirds of all Americans. "This is going to be really big," said Ken McGinnis, vice president of Millennia. "Now everyone throughout the
world will be able to use Legacy to track their family history. Legacy's IntelliShare feature makes it really easy to coordinate research and share information."

Legacy Family Tree is one of the leading family history programs available. Some of the many features available in Legacy are: Easy data entry, unlimited file size, To Do List and Correspondence Log, Web Page Creation,  IntelliMerge, powerful Report and Book generator, Source Citations, Multiple  Family Files in Split Screens, GEDCOM import and export, Spell Checking, Search and Replace, and many, many more.

 Legacy version 3.0 requires: A Pentium class computer with a minimum of 16 MB of memory (32 MB or more recommended), 35 MB of hard disk space, Windows 95, 98, 2000, Me or NT.

Obviously, Internet access is required to obtain the program from the website. A CD-ROM is also available for a nominal charge of $5.00 to cover  the cost of making the CD, shipping and handling.
Millennia Corporation is located in Duvall, Washington. The company strives to provide top-quality genealogy software so people can record and track their family history. For additional information on Millennia or the products they offer visit their website at

*** Press Note - Details of the announcement will appear on the Legacy
 website at

Ken McGinnis, VP
Millennia Corp.
PO Box 1800
Duvall, WA 98019
(425) 788-3774 office
(425) 788-4493 fax

Sent by Lorraine Hernandez                                                       Return to Table of Contents

                                     The Wisdom of Los Frijoles

Reinforcing the best of Latino culture through dichos, folktales and words of wisdom, 
by Yolanda Nava at

Recommended by Ruben Martinez, Liberia Martinez in Santa Ana, CA

12/30/2009 04:48 PM