Somos Primos 



Editor: Mimi Lozano ©2000-2015


Gustavo Arrellano's 
Ask a Mexican! column has a circulation of more than two million in thirty-eight markets. He has received the President's Award from the Los Angeles Press Club, an Impact Award from the National Hispanic Media Coalition, and a 2008 Latino Spirit Award from the California State Legislature.  

For more on Arellano and Taco USA, How Mexican Food Conquered America  click

If you would like to receive free monthly notifications, with the Table of Contents for the latest Somos Primos issue contact: 

Table of Contents

United States
Ferdinand Magellan 

Heritage Projects

Historic Tidbits

Hispanic Leaders

Latino American Patriots

Early Latino Patriots
Family History 

Books and Print Media
Orange County, CA

Los Angeles County, CA


Northwestern US
Southwestern US
Middle America
East Coast

Caribbean Region

Central and South America

Somos Primos Advisors   
Mimi Lozano, Editor
Mercy Bautista Olvera
Roberto Calderon, Ph,D.
Bill Carmena
Lila Guzman, Ph.D
John Inclan
Galal Kernahan
Juan Marinez
J.V. Martinez, Ph.D
Dorinda Moreno
Rafael Ojeda
Ángel Custodio Rebollo
Tony Santiago
John P. Schmal

Submitters or Attributed to: 
Ruben Alvarez
John Ray Aragon
Elizabeth Arévalo
Gustavo Arellano 
Marcel Gomes Balla 
Mercy Bautista Olvera

Eddie Calderon, Ph.D. 
Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.
Carlos A. Campos y Escalante 
Bill Carmena 
José Antonio Crespo-Francés
Felipe de Ortego y Gasca 
Stephanie de Sarachaga 
Josh Fischman 
Dr. Lino Garcia, Jr.
Michael S. Garcia
Daisy Wanda Garcia
Moises Garza
Fernando R. Gomez
Delia Gonzalez Huffman
Melissa Halper
Odell Harwell 
Walter and Elsa Herbeck
Silvia Ichar
John Inclan
Larry Jacobs
Michael A. Latorre-Quevedo 
Nathan Jennings
Gregorio Luke

Eve A. Ma, Ph.D.
Juan Marinez
Eva Martinez
Alejandro Martinez Yolquiahuitl
A. Menendez 
Dorinda Moreno 
Eddie Morin
Enrique Morones
Enrique G. Murillo, Jr., Ph.D. 
Helen Nader
John Newton
Rafael Ojeda
Manuel Olmedo Checa
Ricardo Raúl Palmerín Cordero
Mary Annette Pember 
Carlito Rangel
Frances Rios
Robert Robinson 
Letty Rodella
Gilberto Rosas
Norman Rozeff
Eduardo R. Arechabala Alcantar 

Lorraine Ruiz Frain 

Placido Salazar
Dell F. Sanchez, Ph.D.
Tom Saenz
Vincent Schilling
John Schwaller
A. Sequin
Louis F. Serna 
Carlito Ranget
Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez, Ph.D. 
Dr. Frank Talamantes, Ph.D,
Gilberto Quezada 
Fernando Quintero
Ernesto Uribe
Teresa Valcarce Graciani
Val Valdez Gibbons
Danny Villarreal 
Yomar Villarreal Cleary
Jonathan Watts
Kirk Whisler
Apab yan Tew Temoatzin
Diana Ybarra
Gabriel B. Zaval
Sarah Zenaida Gould 


Letters to the Editor

Mimi,   I would like to thank you for the wonderful coverage you gave my book* in your latest issue of SOMOS PRIMOS. All your efforts to help so many of our people, both young and old are unbelievable.  I am always amazed at the amount of material that you manage to accumulate in less than four weeks for your monthly issues.  Mil gracias to you and your staff at SOMOS PRIMOS.  

Un fuerte abrazo. 
Cheers,  Ernesto

*My Way by Ernesto Uribe


P.O. 490
Midway City, CA 
Quotes to consider 
----------- Between stimulus and response there is a space.  In that space is our power to choose our response.  
In our response lies our growth and our freedom.   
Victor Frankl
----------- ¿Qué es preciso tener en la existencia ?  
Fuerza en el alma y paz en la conciencia.
----------- La lectura cura la peor de las enfermedades humanas, "la ignorancia".





La Leyenda Negra/The Black Legend and the New Millennium, "Au Jour d'hui" 
          by Felipe de Ortego y Gasca 
Latinos in Heritage Conservation, LHC 
"Can we all get along?"  Faculty Profile: Jorge Klor de Alva by Fernando Quintero
Texas Day of Recognition for my father Dr. Hector P. Garcia by Daisy Wanda Garcia
Nov 12 & 13: Latinos, the Voting Rights Act and Political Engagement Conference
Remembering Ruben Salazar's Life, Not Just His Death by Rosalio Muñoz 
Whitewashed Adobe: Repatriation of Mexicans in the 1930s, Francisco Balderra
Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy by Boris Yaro
History of LULAC: José Tomás Canales
Television, Stand-UP Star Paul Rodriguez Tell-All about Pitching a Latino TV Series
Oscar Munoz, the new CEO of United Airlines
Latino Role Models Success blog/talk/radio
Vicki Ruiz to receive National Humanities Medal  
Latino Census Bureau Data, September 14, 2015
Unauthorized population  stable, half a decade  by Jeffrey S. Passel and D'Vera Cohn

La Leyenda Negra/The Black Legend and the New Millennium

"Au Jour d’hui"

By Felipe de Ortego y Gasca


Au jour d’hui (September 22) I received a clarion call from Mimi Lozano Publisher and Editor of Somos Primos that gave me a vista I had not experienced before. This sentence begins with a French expression which translates as “today.” Mimi’s message was encouraging me to take up the challenge of a new series on The Black Legend which with her blessing began initially in 2009, continuing with a second series and a third, culminating in a book-length manuscript on La Leyenda Negra/The Black Legend now at Oxford University Press. That manuscript takes up the initial work of Julián Juderias, Spanish historian who in 1914 published the first work on La Leyenda Negra (The Black Legend):

According to the Diccionario de la Real Academia Española, the leyenda negra, the black legend, is an anti-Spanish disposition that has spread since the 16th century. Even this short and not very illuminating statement shows clearly that the leyenda negra is primarily a negative concept. In addition, it also creates the impression that outside "Spain" people have been systematically talking badly of the "Spanish" ever since the beginning of the early modern period. Therefore,it almost seems strange that the concept itself only emerged in the 20th century. In 1913, a functionary of the Spanish foreign ministry, Julián Juderías y Loyot (1877–1918) (? Media Link #ab), received a prize from the weekly La IlustraciónEspañola y Americana for the best work describing the image of Spain abroad. His winning text first appearedin five parts between 1913 and 1914 in this journal and then as a monograph in 1914 under the title La leyenda negra.Estudios acerca del concepto de España en el extranjero1 ("The Black Legend. Studies of the Image of SpainAbroad"). In 1917, Juderías published a completely revised edition, which was repeatedly reprinted – the last time in2003, and created with his work a term that from that point onwards was a fixed part of the repertoire not only of historiography,but also of journalism and other humanities.

Heinrich Edelmayer, “The Leyenda Negra and the Ciarculation of Anti-Catholic and Anti-Spanish Prejudice,” European History on Line, Institut für Europăische Geschichte ISSN 2192-7405

The second work on The Black Legend was The Tree of Hate: Propaganda and Prejudices Affecting United States Relations with the Hispanic World by Philip Wayne Powell, Ross House Books, 1985. The third work on The Black Legend is my work La Leyenda Negra/The Black Legend: Historical  Distortion. Defamation, Slander, Libel, and Stereotyping of Hispanics 1588 to the Present, published serially by Somos Primos (2009-2013), forthcoming.

I thought it appropriate to begin this new series of the Black Legend with the French ex pression for “today” to illustrate the wide-angle of American Hispanic erudition today, counter-balancing the narrow aperture through which American Hispanics are viewed per, I am convinced, the apertures of The Black Legend.

Before taking up a 51-year career in higher education I was for a number of years a teacher of French at Jefferson High School—a predominantly Mexican American school—in El Paso, Texas. I was often asked by (I want to believe) well-meaning non-Hispanics why I was teaching “those” students French when they couldn’t speak Spanish and spoke English abominably. I have no doubt that the question was prompted by The Black Legend. My response was “because they’re smart kids. How many languages do you speak?”

Today, I speak, read, and write French about as well as I speak, read, and write Spanish and English. My Italian is fairly good. My Russian is barely holding on. My Russian studies were engendered by my work as a Threat Analyst in Soviet Studies during my 10 years in the Air Force as an Intelligence Officer—4 of those years in Europe.

At the University of Pittsburgh where I was an undergraduate student from 1948 to 1952 on the GI Bill I was a Comparative Studies major (languages, literature, and philosophy) with an Education track. After Pitt I lived and worked in London, Luxembourg, and Paris where I honed my skill in French. In my first year in French at Jefferson High School in El Paso, I authored a French text for high school students with Anise Bateman, the French teacher at Burgess High School in El Paso, Texas.

The Black Legend Today--2015

As for The Black Legend today (au jour d’hui), it is alive and well and as pernicious as ever. In fact, an aspect of The Black Legend has morphed into a surprisingly troubling form that can be   characterized as dysphoria—self-loathing—which mimics the Stockholm Syndrome: where the captive is snared psychologically by the captor(s) ideology or philosophy that the captive becomes a member of the captor’s group (gang) a la Patty Hearst.

Some of this bubbles to the surface in Hispanic groups that seek what is, ostensibly, a huevo (insistently), a unitary identity, no matter the loss of individuated identities like Argentinian, Honduran, Costa Rican, et al. A unitary identity can be valuable, but not a huevo at the expense of the larger groups. A unitary identity must be a process that includes bona fide equitable input from representatives of all the groups.

In her email to me, Mimi explained:

There is so much currently happening which reflects anti-Spanish sentiment, I think we could

go for a Black Legend in the Present. Also, after all this discussion about what to call ourselves,

I wonder if we could explore how WE add to the confusion of who we are by arguing among ourselves, questioning the right of others to express who they are,  as if only they can define who is a REAL Latino/Hispanic/Chicano/Mexican-American.

The process becomes suspect at the point of decision if that decision is at odds with the realities of confirmed data and facts about the groups. This situation is reminiscent of the expression: “Don’t confuse me with the facts, my mind’s made up.” This confusion may be what’s troubling Donald Trump about Hispanics, especially Mexicans. For me, it’s not just Trump’s articulations that are nettlesome, it’s the attitude he dons in deigning to deprecate Mexicans (with abject impunity)—Hispanics essentially with his references to 11 million illegal Hispanic immigrants who he thinks are all Mexicans.

It’s this transmogrification that has altered into Mexicans in the public mind the nationalities of the pilots who steered passenger planes into the Twin Towers of New York and why that transmogrification has led to the American panic of “securing” the U.S.-Mexico border with a “walled fence.” This is the most recent manifestation of La Leyenda Negra/The Black Legend at work in the United States. [Ahoy, yawl, they were not Mexicans, they were Arabs (Arabic speakers). Though this is not the most accurate identification, it is used, however, as an applicable generic term.]

It’s this transmogrification that fuels the fear of vulnerability in the underbelly of the United States (the U.S.-Mexico border). This fear is not present vis-à-vis the U.S.-Canada border across which malefactors of any denomination can cross easily—without obstructions to deter them. An 1800 mile wall between the United States and Mexico will not make the United States any safer than the Wall of China was in the security of China from the Mongols.

While the foregoing example of a defensive wall in China is not attributable to La Leyenda Negra/The Black Legend, it exemplifies a defense driven by fear of intrusion by unwanted and unsavory forces. This is the gist of Harvard’s Samuel Huntington’s assertion that Hispanics pose “a major threat to the country’s cultural and political integrity” (“The Hispanic Challenge,” Foreign Policy, March-April, 2004).

Huntington’s principal alarum is that Hispanics “have not assimilated into mainstream U.S. culture, forming instead their own political and linguistic enclaves–from Los Angeles to Miami.” Moreover, he adds, Latinos have not only rejected “the Anglo-Protestant values that built the American dream,” they won’t assimilate. “The United States ignores this challenge at its peril.” That sets the stage for Huntington’s convoluted argument about the Hispanic Threat.

Huntington sees assimilation as the answer to his perceived immigration threat, meaning by “assimila­tion” that immigrants ought to be copies of white American Protestants. What he apparently fails to consider is the rate of ethnic blending taking place in the United States. There may well be ethnic enclaves in the country but those enclaves are, for all intents and purposes, English-speaking though there does persist relatively high levels of bilingualism, especially among the newly arrived and first generation of ethnic Americans.

During a lecture of mine recently on the Hispanic Southwest, a woman challenged me querulously about my comment that the United States has many mother countries, insisting there was only one mother country: England. The miracle of America is that it is the world. Every country is represented here. In the case of Hispanics and their growing number in the U.S. population, their growth is not solely an increase in immigra­tion but in their fertility and motility rates. American Hispanics are not a divisive population as Huntington characterizes them; they are, rather, the infusion that spurs American progress toward achieving the ideals embedded in the Constitution. They are part of the evolving experiment that is the United States, each of them pursuing the American Dream. But, according to Huntington, “There is only the American dream created by an Anglo-Protestant society. Mexican Americans will share in that dream and in that society only if they dream in English.”


Juderías y Loyot, Julián.  La leyenda negra y la verdad histórica, contribución al estudio del concepto de España en Europa, de las causas de este concepto y de la tolerancia religiosa y política en los países  civilizados, Madrid, 1914.

___________________________.La Leyenda Negra: Estudios Acerca del Concepto de España en el Extranjero. Barcelona: Casa Editorial Araluce, 1929.  

In 1968, Nick Reyes and Armando Rendon created the Mexican American Anti-Defamation League but were forced to  forego the title when they were sued for trademark infringement. Unabated  Nick continued his efforts successfully focusing on “the Frito Bandito” and the  “Mexican Siesta Sleeper used as advertisement in front of motels. 

We could use a trademark group or organization like an anti-defamation league to combat “abject impunity.” This is a call for the creation of a national network to combat “abject impunity” much like Latinos in Heritage Conservation (article below).
                                                             Introducing Latinos in Heritage Conservation 
The need for a national organization that advocates for the conservation of Latino heritage - that is, our historic sites, neighborhoods, public works of art, languages, foodways, and stories - has never been more apparent. 

While the Latino population continues to grow nationally, we have also witnessed destruction of important sites and objects, displacement from our historic neighborhoods, and the lack of a thorough documentation of our rich, layered, and diverse history. 

Latino historic sites are also severely underrepresented in historic designation programs at the local, state, and national levels, and there are strikingly few Latinos employed in the professional field of heritage conservation. As you can see, we have much work to do.

Establishing a Vision: While there are challenges ahead, we are also incredibly inspired by the energy and momentum of the individuals who have joined us in our efforts to create a more inclusive preservation movement. In May, nearly 60 people from across the country convened in Tucson, Arizona for an historic event, "Latinos in Heritage Conservation Summit: A National Conversation." The national summit explored the future of Latino heritage conservation in the United States, and we worked together to devise a set of goals and chart a course of action. 

Over the course of the summit, the vision for our organization came into sharper focus. In the coming years, we intend to advocate for greater equity in historic preservation practices, policies, and funding throughout the country. We aim to elevate Latino historic places and stories as part of a more inclusive American narrative. We hope to re-conceptualize definitions of what should be recognized, conserved, and valued as part and parcel of the nation's historic fabric and to shed light on the different manifestations of heritage conservation in Latino communities. And, ultimately, we seek to positively change existing paradigms in historic preservation in order to enrich the quality of life in our diverse communities. 

LHC was fortunate to have Dr. Maribel Alvarez of the University of Arizona as the summit facilitator. An incredibly wise woman with extensive experience in nonprofit strategic planning, Dr. Alvarez urged us to focus on the impact that we want to have on the field. That is the question we look forward to articulating over the coming months, as we continue to digest the information generated during the summit and carry out the immediate objectives we devised together as a group (see next article for more details). 

As a direct result of the summit, Latinos in Heritage Conservation is now working towards becoming a 501(c)3 nonprofit organization. 

As you will see in the article below, we invite you to get involved and join one of our working committees. For those who will be attending the 2015 National Preservation Conference in Washington D.C., we hope to see you at our affiliate session on Wednesday, November 4! More information about the affiliate session can be found on our Facebook page in the coming weeks. 

As the newly named LHC Co-Chairs, we are truly honored to be part of a national movement to recognize, preserve, and sustain our country's diverse Latino heritage. On behalf of the Executive Committee, we thank you for your dedication and look forward to collaborating with you over the next year to more fully develop our organization and to begin realizing our vision.

Laura Dominguez and Desiree Smith
Latinos in Heritage Conservation Co-Chairs, 2015-2016 

Letter from the Co-Chairs: 
Introducing Latinos in Heritage Conservation 
Nearly three months after our inaugural "Latinos in Heritage Conservation Summit: A National Conversation," we are excited to introduce the organization's first-ever quarterly newsletter! With National Latino Heritage Month (September 15 - October 15) around the corner, this is a particularly timely milestone. In this issue of the LHC Newsletter, we will report on the primary outcomes of our inaugural summit held on May 22 and 23, 2015 in Tucson, AZ and introduce our Executive Committee for 2015-2016. We also encourage you to get involved with LHC by joining a working committee!

Sehila Mota Casper, Antonia Castañeda, Sara Delgadillo (Secretary), Laura Dominguez (Co-Chair), Sarah Zenaida Gould (Communications Chair), Manuel Huerta, Desiree Smith (Co-Chair), Josephine Talamantez, Edward Torrez, Betty Villegas.  Summit attendees participate in a planning exercise to help shape the future of Latinos in Heritage Conservation.

Get Involved with Latinos in Heritage Conservation!
During the Tucson summit, participants worked with Dr. Maribel Alvarez on the formation of four committees and developed a series of goals for the upcoming year. 

LHC Structure Committee
Chair: Betty Villegas (Tucson, AZ) 
Propose long-term organizational structure, including roles and responsibilities; representation and diversity; and standing committees. Identify fiscal agent, with the eventual goal of becoming a 501(c)3 organization.  Propose national membership structure.

LHC Policy and Advocacy Committee
Chair: Manuel Huerta (Los Angeles, CA). 
Identify and inventory related agencies at the local, state, and federal levels, as well as nonprofit stakeholders.  Propose new language to modify federal preservation standards.
Develop programs to educate policymakers about diversity in preservation, including "how-to" guides for reviewing and evaluating Latina/o historic resources.

LHC Education, Engagement, and Research Committee:
Chair: Sehila Mota Casper (Houston, TX). 
Develop and distribute a survey to national stakeholders related to Latina/o preservation. 
Promote survey results on a variety of platforms, including at conferences.
Identify best practices and case studies in anticipation of proposed summit in 2016.

LHC Visibility and Networking Committee:
Chair: Edward Torrez (Chicago, IL). 
Grow social media presence and establish a website.
Participate in existing events and conferences.
Develop new partnerships with national organizations (including immigrant/migrant groups and arts and cultural organizations), universities, and local communities.
Explore opportunities for convening a second summit. 

LHC Logo
We're looking for a great logo for our great organization. If you'd like to submit an idea, please contact Sarah Zenaida Gould. 

Partner Events
Do you have an event coming up that you would like to share with LHC members? Send the details to Sarah Zenaida Gould. 

If you are interested in joining one of the newly formed committees, please email the committee chair by Tuesday, September 9. Each of the committees will hold their first conference call during the month of September.

Hasta pronto, Latinos in Heritage Conservation Executive Committee

Established in 2014, Latinos in Heritage Conservation is a national organization dedicated to promoting Latina/o leadership and engagement in historic preservation. For questions about LHC, including media inquiries, please contact Communications Chair Sarah Zenaida Gould at 

Sent by  
Latinos in Heritage Conservation | 502 Furr Dr. | # 3 | San Antonio | TX | 78201 


"Can we all get along?"
New Faculty Profile: Jorge Klor de Alva (Arriving at UC, Berkeley)
by Fernando Quintero

Long before Rodney King asked the question, "Can we all get along?" during the worst racial unrest in US history, Jorge Klor de Alva was studying the answer.  The new professor of anthropology and comparative ethnic studies has spent more than two decades researching and teaching inter-ethnic and interracial relations, especially in the United States and Mexico.

Born in Mexico City and raised in the barrios of east San Jose, Klor de Alva brings personal experience and insight to his subject. The former professor of anthropology at Princeton University and Berkeley alumnus--he received his BA in '71 and his law degree in '74--refers to himself as a "hyper-hybrid."

His mother is indigenous Mexican and Spanish. His father, a Russian Jew, left his native country for Mexico via China, Japan, and San Francisco to escape the pogrom.  His paternal grandmother was from Turkey.

In 1957, Klor de Alva's family moved to the largely Mexican-American community of east San Jose, where he lived an "impoverished middle-class" existence picking apricots and peaches in the San Joaquin and Santa Clara valleys and working local construction jobs.

In his youth, Klor de Alva joined a gang called the Saints Ten. A junior high school principal spotted the restless boy's potential, and suggested he join the Jesuits at Bellarmine College Preparatory in San Jose, where he "fell in love with the world of the mind."

At Berkeley, where Klor de Alva became heavily involved in the Chicano movement of the late '60s and early '70s, he majored in philosophy.  The works of a Mexican scholar named Miguel León-Portilla, with whom Klor de Alva later collaborated, pointed out the relationship between philosophy and nation-building, and Klor de Alva went on to study law.

In 1971, while finishing up his graduate work at Boalt Hall, Klor de Alva began his teaching career at San Jose State University, where he later chaired the department of Mexican American Graduate Studies. He later taught at UC Santa Cruz, and then at State University of New York in Albany while serving as director of its Institute for Mesoamerican Studies. In 1989, he left for Princeton.

It was while living on the East Coast that Klor de Alva gained an important new perspective on his field of study.  "My vision of ethnicity changed," he said. "Before, I was perceiving issues around race and nationalism from my experience with Asians, blacks, and Mexicans on the West Coast. On the East Coast, however, you have Puerto Ricans, Cubans, Afro-Caribbeans, and native people as well as Europeans.

"I have since done everything I can to develop a broader vision that links experiences of both coasts."

The result of his expanded point of reference is evident in a recent essay by Klor de Alva titled "Beyond Black, Brown, or White: Cultural Diversity, Strategic Hybridity, and the Future of Democracy."

In it, he writes: "For the media, politicians, scholars, and most people out of touch with everyday life in US cities, "race" means African-American, and 'racial' conflict connotes primarily, if not exclusively, a contest between so-called 'blacks' and 'whites.'

"This widespread belief, steadfastly sustained in the face of a contradictory history of multiracial frictions and in light of a dramatically diversifying nation, stands in the way of our addressing what may well be the central dilemma of our 21st century: how to learn to grow dark peacefully in political makeup, cultural practice, and skin color."

Klor de Alva's scholarly accomplishments number several pages--he has been named a Fulbright Scholar, Getty Scholar, and Guggenheim Fellow, among other honors, fellowships, and grants. He has brought ethnic and racial issues to the attention of a variety of audiences.

On campus, Klor de Alva's arrival was met with much anticipation. "Professor Klor de Alva brings the recognition of ethnic studies to an important level," said Margarita Melville, acting chair of Ethnic Studies.

One of his pet projects is the development of multicultural education. He has helped create a Latino heritage curriculum for the New York State Education Department.  He is co-author of a series of K-8 textbooks and is currently working on a high school world history text.

In all, Klor de Alva has published more than 70 scholarly articles, co-authored eight social studies textbooks, and helped write or edit 14 books on Mexican, Mesoamerican, and Latino American anthropology, socio-cultural history, and historical ethnography.

With a handful of publications forthcoming, it is clear that Klor de Alva's love affair is still going strong. But in a time of continued conflicts, from the Los Angeles riots to the war in Bosnia, his intellectual pursuit is much more than a labor of love.  It is important to the survival of the human race. 

"Understanding the differences and similarities between different groups is absolutely critical," said Klor de Alva.  "For everything from racial conflicts to politicians taking a nationalistic stand to address local concerns, pitting groups against each other, comparative study moves toward analysis that permits one to locate various groups in contention.  "Having a better understanding of the differences and similarities between people results in a more realistic public-policy response."

One of Klor de Alva's long-term goals is the establishment of a center to promote the study of ethnicity and race in a global context. For the moment, he looks forward to teaching the "high caliber" students at Berkeley.  This fall, he leads a graduate research seminar called "The Comparative Study of Collective Identities." Next semester, he will teach a graduate course on the changing nature of culture in the past and present.

For Klor de Alva, being a good teacher means being a mentor.  "I've always had the good fortune of having mentors," he said, thinking back to his high school math teacher, who encouraged and supported him. "It's a small investment compared to the rewards of watching a young mind grow."

Source: gmbloom@SFSU.EDU 

Editor Mimi:  Klor de Alva, writes: "I have since done everything I can to develop a broader vision that links experiences of both coasts."   As I read through some of the information sent by Marcel Gomes Balla concerning the Cape Verde Islands, I too am seeking to broaden my historic perspective of the Spanish presence.   I invite you to do the same: Click to Ferdinand Magellan


Texas Day of Recognition for my father 
Dr. Hector P. Garcia
by Daisy Wanda Garcia

January 17, 1914 - July 26, 1996

Under Senate Bill 495, Signed on May 30, 2009 by the Governor of Texas, 
The State of Texas established the third Wednesday of each September 
as "Dr. Hector P. Garcia Texas State Recognition Day."

Photo, June 5, 2008, American GI Forum Banquet

Last month in September, we celebrated the Texas Day of Recognition for my father Dr. Hector P. Garcia. This year the day of recognition coincided with Diez y Seis de Septiembre celebration. To commemorate the event, I am reprinting the speech I delivered at Texas A&M University at Corpus Christi, TX on the first Dr. Hector P. Garcia Day, 2009.

Honored guests, thank you! Thank you for all your hard work to make this day of recognition a reality. A special thanks goes to Senator Chuy Hinojosa, Representatives Abel Herrero, Todd Hunter and Solomon Ortiz Jr. and all those who made this possible. I am so grateful for the tribute the citizens of Texas are paying to my father, Dr. Hector p. Garcia. 

Governor Rick Perry said about the new legislation, which establishes a state day of recognition honoring Dr. Garcia on the third Wednesday in September. 

“Texas schoolchildren will be reminded of his works, his integrity, his fight for equality. And it reminds all of us to continue his fight every day.” 

Some of the highlights of my father’s many accomplishments were: 
1948 --- organized the American GI forum for veterans. 
1949 --- "Felix Longoria affair" propelled the American GI Forum to national prominence. 
1950 --- worked to eliminate the exploitive "bracero program" 
1952 --- worked to eliminate "no dogs or Mexicans allowed" signs in Texas restaurants and
              to stop the practice of whipping Mexican school children for speaking Spanish. 
1955 --- worked diligently for education reform for Mexican Americans by suing school
1962 --- appointed by President Kennedy to negotiate the Chamizal with the Mexican
             government and a defense treaty with the federations of the West Indies. 
1967 --- President Johnson appointed Dr. Garcia as an alternate ambassador to the United
1968 --- President Johnson appointed Dr. Garcia to the U.S. commission on civil rights. 
1984 --- President Reagan awarded Dr. Garcia this nation's highest honor, the presidential
             Medal of Freedom. 
1984 --- Pope John Paul II awarded Dr. Garcia the Equestrian Order of Pope Gregory the
July 26, 1996 --- Dr. Hector P. Garcia died in Corpus Christi, Texas at age 82 and was
             eulogized at his funeral by President Bill Clinton. 

If Papa were here today, he would be so proud to see the students from area schools in the audience.  So today, I am here to deliver a message from Dr. Garcia to you. My father believed that “education is our freedom and freedom should be everybody’s business." That means yours, the state of Texas, and mine. 

He would tell students how important they are for they are the future of this country, and encourage them to stay in school and to get the most education possible. But most of all he would challenge young people. He would say, “I challenge you to be better than you are”, and tell them to be proud of their language, culture and heritage. 

It is clear my father’s legacy does not just belong to Texas. Dr. Hector P. Garcia is a real American hero. Today, our youth lack real role models. My father is that role model. He had to deal with the same social, language, and heritage battles that many of our youth face daily. 

The day of recognition will provide individuals especially the youth the opportunity to study his life and legacy, and will teach the true meaning of love and community service for their fellow man, and self respect. 

I would challenge the audience to spread Dr’s legacy throughout the nation. Some measures we can take are to become more involved in ensuring that his legacy is included in the school textbooks, libraries and in curriculum throughout the nation. His battles were for all students whose heritage is not respected and included in the history of our nation. 
Now it is up to us to ensure that his legacy moves forward. 
In closing, as my father would say. Que dios los bendiga.


Latinos, the Voting Rights Act & Political Engagement Conference
Thursday – Friday, Nov. 12 & 13, 2015
Thompson Conference Center, University of Texas, Austin Campus

In 1975, the expansion and extension of the Voting Rights Act advanced the rights of Mexican Americans and other Latinos. It was only one of several developments of the 1960s and 1970s that led to greater Latino political engagement: the War on Poverty programs provided new resources, perspectives and leadership opportunities for Latinos. Simultaneously, more Latinos become active in collective bargaining, which also led to greater political leverage. This conference seeks to explore the Latino experience with the Voting Rights Act and the broader experience of political engagement among U.S. Latinos for the time period of the 1960s through today.

After a national call for abstracts for papers and roundtable proposals, the the Latino Voting Rights Act and Political Engagement Conference organizers are proud to announce a tentative list of participants. Our participants include established and highly-respected scholars, as well as graduate students just embarking on their own careers. We look forward to a robust conference with excellent audience participation.

The Conference Planning Committee consists of the heads of three University of Texas at Austin entities:
Regina Lawrence, Director, 
Annette Strauss Institute for Civic Life
David Leal, Director, 
Irma Rangel Public Policy Institute
Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez, Ph.D. Director, 
Director, Voces Oral History Project, 
Associate Professor of Journalism
UT School of Journalism
300 W. Dean Keeton (Stop A1000)
Austin, Tx. 78712-1073
with WWII, Korean and Vietnam War Collections
and (@VocesProject)


Moises Acuna-Gurrola
Joaquin G. Avila
Matt A. Barreto
Katherine Bynum
Lourdes Cueva Chacon
Maritza De La Trinidad
Sandra Enriquez
Luis Ricardo Fraga
Michael L. Gillette
José Angel Gutiérrez
Erin Hustings
José E. Limón
Santiago Piñón, Jr.
David Robles
Vinicio Sinta
Vickie Ybarra
Ariel Arnau
James Barrera
Ari Berman
Gilberto Cardenas
Charles Cotrell
W. Marvin Dulaney
Henry Flores
Joseph J. García
Tiffany J. González
Zoltan Hajnal
Max Krochmal
Benjamin Marquez
Julie Leininger Pycior
Gabriel R. Sanchez
Walter Clark Wilson
Emilio Zamora


Remembering Ruben Salazar's Life, Not Just His Death
By Rosalio Muñoz | March 2, 2012

Pioneering Latino journalist Ruben Salazar died at the hands of Los Angeles Sheriff's as they broke up the August 29, 1970 Chicano Moratorium against the Vietnam War. Today, his story is an inspiration to the Latino community, and to all those seeking social justice.

That's why we should celebrate his birthday, and not just remember his death.
In 2008 the United State Postal Service honored Salazar with his own stamp, a tribute to his unflinching commentary on a wide range of topics, not the least of which was the plight of Mexican Americans and the expansion of the Civil Rights Movement into those communities during the 1960s.
Yet Salazar is perhaps best known for his tragic death at the peak of his career, while serving as a syndicated columnist for the Los Angeles Times and the pioneering news editor of the nation's largest Spanish speaking news station at the time, KMEX-TV.

Because the tragic circumstances surrounding his death too often overshadow his lifelong contributions, on March 3, a local group of veteran activists will gather at Plaza se La Raza in Lincoln Heights to celebrate Salazar's birthday and accomplishments with a wide range of activities, exhibits and entertainment.

The goal of the event is to explore the world events -- political, social and cultural -- that influenced Salazar's views on the Vietnam War and the Chicano Movement, which he would go on to write movingly and critically about in his columns, and discuss on the Spanish language airwaves.

While that might not seem unusual today, with the explosion of blogs and social media websites, during the 1960s and 70s it was unheard of, especially coming from a Mexican American journalist, few and far between in those days.

Salazar was born in Juarez, Mexico but emigrated to the U.S. with his family when he was an infant. As an immigrant living in Texas during the Great Depression, he had much to overcome. He would later recall that it was common to see signs that read "No Dogs, Negroes, and Mexicans" on public establishments. Still, he enlisted in the Armed Forces and went to college on the GI Bill. He become the managing editor of his college newspaper and used his regular column to speak out against racism and McCarthyism.
An accomplished journalist, Salazar earned his credentials reporting from the trenches. He used his bilingual skill and knowledge of the barrio to do in depth reporting in El Paso, Texas, and later in California where he was hired by the Los Angeles Times, where he covered political, social and other news, with a special focus on major developments in the Mexican American community.

As The Times' first Mexican American foreign correspondent, Salazar would report on the Vietnam War, Central America and the Olympics in Mexico City.

In 1969 The Times brought him back to Los Angeles, where he would cover the growing Chicano movement, fast becoming national news.

Salazar would go on to write about the changing attitudes, lives and activities of people living in Los Angeles' barrios during those turbulent times. In 1970, as a Times columnist and Spanish language news editor, he advocated on behalf of the community and welcomed the Chicano movement.

To Salazar, journalism was more than just a career; it was a vehicle for democracy. He saw journalism as a way to influence public opinion and create change.
On the flipside, however, it meant he would constantly be under the critical eye of those interested in maintaining the status quo, and would have to learn how to subtly and gradually break down stereotypes in order to push the social justice movement forward.
He covered a wide variety of events and topics, which enabled him to find ways to get barrio realities recognized as news. That in turn helped the Mexican American community see itself as newsmakers, and history makers.

Ruben Salazar was becoming an activist journalist when his life was cut short, killed by a sheriff's tear gas canister while covering the Chicano Moratorium on August 29, 1970. According to the coroner's report he was wearing the demonstrations' green, white and red button: "CHICANO MORATORIUM 8,000 Dead ¡YA BASTA! L.A. Aug. 29." He was just 42 years old.

This article was originally published on

Click here to watch our interviews with Rosalio Muñoz regarding the Chicano Moratorium, Highland Park, and his life as an activist.. 

Remembering Ruben Salazar's Life, Not Just His Death 
About the Author: Rosalio Muñoz, a Highland Park native, is a Chicano rights activist who acted as co-chair during the Los Angeles Chicano Moratorium in 1970. At age 17, following a year abroad in Mexico, Rosalio established his identity as Chicano... MORE

Sent by Dorinda Moreno 

Whitewashed Adobe: The Rise of Los Angeles - 
Repatriation of Mexicans in the 1930s
Francisco Balderra 

Excellent  3:17 minute video on this government action. Absolutely amazing government action to remove Mexicans from the United States, many of whom were actually American born adults, citizens of the United States.     Even if you are aware of this federal action, do view the video, the photos are shocking  in revealing the extent of the action. Other videos related to the same subject are posted.

Sent by Mercy Bautista Olvera

Juan Romero
Boris Yaro / Los Angeles Times
Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy

Juan Romero, the Ambassador Hotel busboy who cradled a dying Robert F. Kennedy after he was shot on June 5, 1968, carried the weight of that moment through the decades. Now, he says, "I don't carry the cross anymore." (Peter DaSilva / For The Times)

In June, Juan Romero did something he hadn't done in decades. He celebrated his birthday, going out to dinner with his family in San Jose.

"I always dreaded when June was coming up," said Romero, 65, who has struggled for most of his adult life to let go of his crippling memory of an American tragedy.

It happened just after midnight on June 5, 1968. Robert F. Kennedy had won the California presidential primary and made his victory speech at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, where Romero was a 17-year-old busboy.

A stunned Juan Romero holds Robert Kennedy's head after the presidential candidate was mortally wounded at the Ambassador Hotel. 

A Roosevelt High School student who had moved north from Mexico at the age of 10, Romero recalled the photos of President John F. Kennedy that hung alongside those of Pope John XXIII in the homes of Mexican families.

He worked at the hotel after school and had delivered room service to Kennedy earlier in the week. He knew he'd never forget the way Kennedy treated him and the pride he felt, and now he wanted to congratulate him as the candidate made his way through a kitchen service area. Romero reached out, took Kennedy's hand, and watched him slump to the floor as gun blasts echoed.

The black-and-white photos of that moment, by Boris Yaro of the Los Angeles Times and Bill Eppridge of Life magazine, are as haunting now as they were 47 years ago.

RFK, who for many people represented hope for social justice, racial tolerance and an end to the war in Vietnam, lies on his back, limbs splayed. Romero squats at his side in white service jacket, a young witness to horror, his hand cradling Kennedy's head.

"I wanted to protect his head from the cold concrete," says Romero, who went to school the next day with Kennedy's blood crusted under his fingernails, refusing to wash it away.

In the photos, disbelief and despair gathered in Juan Romero's dark eyes, and he would carry the weight of that moment through the decades. I knew this when I first met him on the 30th anniversary of the assassination, and his pain was just as raw 12 years later in 2010, when I went with him to RFK's gravesite in Arlington, Va., where Romero knelt, paid his respects and wept once more.

He spoke to me each time about his regrets, his sense of duty to the Kennedy legacy, and a lingering feeling of guilt. I told him there was no rational reason to feel guilty.

I don't know if you can understand this, but [what happened in 1968] ... made me realize that no matter how much hope you have, it can be taken away in a second.
- Juan Romero
But the shooting had wounded his psyche. On far too many nights he lay awake wondering if Kennedy would still be alive if he hadn't paused to shake a busboy's hand.

It was a different Juan Romero, however, who reached out to me earlier this month to say he was much improved "spiritually and emotionally," and it was all because of an unlikely friendship with a woman from Germany who saw my column about the Arlington visit, tracked Romero down and helped him finally step out of the past.

Claudia Zwiener, 45, was a teenager when she first read about the Bobby Kennedy assassination. She became insatiably interested in his life.  As an adult, she read books about Kennedy, traveled to the U.S. with her husband, visited the gravesite, and met people who had known him, including former L.A. Times national editor and Bobby Kennedy press secretary Ed Guthman.

Mr. Romero stayed to comfort Kennedy, remained with him as he lay dying to help in any way he could. I can't speak for Kennedy, but if Mr. Romero had done that for me, I would have been grateful that my final act was to reach out and hold his hand. 

Two years ago, Zwiener came upon my column about Romero's visit to Arlington. She wrote to me saying she was touched by his humanity, and didn't believe he needed to ask Kennedy's forgiveness, as he had that day in Arlington. Not long after that, Zwiener sent Romero a message.

Many have reached out to Romero over the years, and he appreciated their concern but wondered as to their motives. He didn't want pats on the back he didn't feel he deserved, or comments that stoked his own second-guessing of his actions that night. He hoped Zwiener wasn't yet another "somebody who wants to feel sorry for me."

But Zwiener came across differently. "She really wanted to see how I was doing, and to find out if she could do anything to make it easier on my conscience," Romero said.
He answered back. She responded. They became pen pals, then began talking by phone.

Zwiener is not a trained therapist, but she works with special-needs children in Germany, and Romero felt that he could talk to her in ways he had never been able to with other friends or his own family. In time, they began talking about his struggle.

"I don't think she intended to fix me initially," says Romero, "but as we came to know each other, she knew something was broken in me."

One day, while visiting his mother in Tulare, his guilt surfaced again while he spoke to Zwiener by phone. He said she comforted him by saying that in some of the photos, taken just moments after the shooting, the shoes of bystanders can be seen at a safe distance from Kennedy. But there's Juan, who didn't take cover, trying to help a man in need.

Romero traveled to Germany to meet Zwiener, her husband and their children, and the Zwieners came to California. Last August, Romero returned to the site of the assassination with Zwiener.

The hotel is long gone, and in its place is a school and RFK memorial bearing Kennedy's words, which read in part: "Each time a person stands up for an ideal, or acts to improve the lot of others, or strikes out against injustice, it sends out a tiny ripple of hope ..."

Zwiener worried about Romero's ability to handle the visit. As they approached, she trembled, but was relieved to see that even though Romero wept quietly, he was OK.

On another day Zwiener carried a book that had those iconic photos of Romero at the Ambassador — the photos he had glanced at once or twice in nearly half a century, but never studied. She turned to the photos and described what she saw.

"Juan slowly, slowly dared to take a look," she said.

When I asked Romero what he saw, he said:

"I saw a person in need and another person trying to help him."

Romero moved to Wyoming shortly after the assassination. He needed for his own sanity to leave the Ambassador, where guests insisted on being photographed with him.

He returned to Los Angeles before long but later settled in San Jose, where he continues to work as a concrete and asphalt paver. It's good exercise, he told me when I visited last week, and it keeps him young.

On each anniversary of RFK's death, Romero takes flowers to a memorial in downtown San Jose, where Kennedy delivered a speech during his winning primary run. Romero misses Kennedy, or at least what Kennedy seems to have represented as a statesman and presidential candidate. He misses him all the more in the midst of a current campaign in which the hottest topic is a proposal to build a higher wall between Mexico and the United States.

"He made me feel like a regular citizen," Romero says of the night he delivered room service to Kennedy. "He made me feel like a human being. He didn't look at my color, he didn't look at my position ... and like I tell everybody, he shook my hand. I didn't ask him."

Romero has always believed the best way to honor Kennedy is to live a life of tolerance, to work hard, to take care of family, and to not be a burden.

"I don't know if you can understand this, but [what happened in 1968] has made me more humble," Romero said. "It made me realize that no matter how much hope you have, it can be taken away in a second."

Romero was carrying rosary beads in his pocket the night of the assassination. He stuffed them into Kennedy's hands as the former U.S. senator and attorney general lay mortally wounded, two months after the assassination of the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., and less than five years after President Kennedy was gunned down.

Romero says no one else may have heard it in the commotion, but he insists that Kennedy spoke after being shot, as one eye blinked and his leg twitched.

"First he asked, 'Is everybody OK?' and I told him, 'Yes, everybody's OK.' And then he turned away from me and said, 'Everything's going to be OK.'"

It has taken Romero 47 years to believe that. He and Zwiener haven't discussed June 5, 1968, for three or four months, he said. They talk about other things — the things friends talk about.

Romero will travel to Germany later this year to vacation with her family, and he has bought himself a new wardrobe because he feels as if he's begun a new phase.  He still thinks about Kennedy, he said, but he no longer drowns in sorrow or regret.

"I don't carry the cross anymore," he said.

History of LULAC: José Tomás Canales

Canales served as the 14th president of LULAC, 
from 1932 to 1933.

José Tomás (J.T.) Canales active participation with the civil rights issues of his day predated the creation of LULAC. For example, he was involved with the Order of Sons of America in 1923 in San Antonio, and four years later, with the Corpus Christi chapter. In the summer of 1927, he was instrumental in the establishment of the Latin American Citizens League in Harlingen, Texas and was elected as its president. Moreover, Canales played an important part in the merger of the three organizations that resulted in the LULAC, and he wrote most of its constitution and was elected to the group's first board of trustees. 

J.T. Canales was born on a ranch in Nueces County, Texas on March 7, 1877. On his maternal side, the family owned the Espíritu Santo Spanish land grant, considered enormous enough to cover most of Cameron County. In 1899, he received his law degree from the University of Michigan and practiced in Corpus Christi and Laredo before settling down in Brownsville, Texas where he worked for the Cameron County Assessor's Office. On September 1, 1910, he married Anne Anderson Wheeler and they had one child. He began his political career by getting elected to the Texas House of Representatives, 95th District, which comprised of Cameron, Hidalgo, Starr, and Zapata Counties. Canales later served as the Cameron County School Superintendent and as county judge. In the area of civil rights during the early 1900s, he fought against the abusive treatment by the Texas Rangers on the Mexican American population from the Lower Río Grande Valley. 

In 1951, Governor R. Allan Shivers appointed him temporary chairman of the Texas Council on Human Relations. He was also a prolific writer, penning articles for the LULAC newsletter, pamphlets, and books. The latter included, Ethics in the Profession of Law, Bits of Texas History in the Melting Pot of America, "Personal Reflections of J.T. Canales," and "The Texas Law of Flowing Waters With Special Reference to Irrigation from the Lower Río Grande." Furthermore, he wrote two books on his great-uncle Juan Nepomuceno Cortina entitled, Juan N. Cortina: Bandit or Patriot?, and Juan N. Cortina Presents His Motion for a New Trial. 

While doing my research on Zapata County Judge Manuel B. Bravo in the early 1990s in his personal papers and in other archival sources for my award-winning book entitled, Border Boss: Manuel B. Bravo and Zapata County, published by Texas A&M University Press, I found out that he had befriended J.T. Canales at the Harlingen meeting in 1927. At the historic Corpus Christi convention on February 17, 1929, for the purpose of merging the three organizations, Manuel B. Bravo, representing the Edinburg chapter, joined J.T. Canales, Ben Garza, M.C. González, and J. Luz Sáenz on the Executive Board of LULAC. Three months later, President Ben Garza appointed a committee of twenty-one delegates to draft the constitution and by-laws, among them were Manuel B. Bravo and J.T. Canales. 

Their friendship via letters continued over the years. In the early 1940s, both Zapata County Judge Manuel B. Bravo and J.T. Canales drafted a letter to Governor Coke Stevenson that read in part, "Suppose my people in Zapata County would put up signs that they would not serve 'Gringos'; I know what you would do in such a case; and I believe that you would not hesitate to act likewise. I merely request that you, as our governor should do likewise and protect our Latin American soldier citizens from humiliation and prevent these demoralizing conditions to exist in any section of the state." Racial discrimination was rampant in many South and Central Texas communities. In another letter from Canales to Judge Bravo, dated September 3, 1943, he urged the latter to adopt a resolution that he had drafted for Cameron County condemning any type of racial discrimination stating, "that whatever we fail to do now in order to wipe out and destroy this
prejudice against Mexicans and Latin Americans it will never be done after the War. The time to strike is now."

And, in the early 1950s, during the construction of Falcon Dam and the condemnation of the land, Judge Bravo asked his friend, J.T. Canales to represent several Zapata County property owners against the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC). Canales sent copies of his letters to Senator Lyndon B. Johnson, who in turn requested an explanation from IBWC Commissioner Lawson. José Tomás Canales passed away at the age of 99 on March 30, 1976 in Brownsville, Texas.

According to the LULAC Past Presidents short biographies on J. T. Canales:

"14th president - elected at the 1932 convention. Served one term. DECEASED

J.T. Canales, a great humanitarian, was a great pillar of LULAC. Elected during the height of the depression he saw clearly that education was the best hope for Hispanic Americans. The Scholarship Fund, enabling young persons an opportunity to a higher education was put on a workable basis during his administration. Throughout his life, he donated sizable amounts to the Scholarship Fund in memory of his brother.

J.T. Canales brought LULAC to the attention of John Garner, United States Congressman of the 15th District of Texas. Congressman Garner who was so impressed with its work and its Aims and Purposes that he presented LULAC with an American flag that had long waved over the capitol in Washington, D.C.

Judge Canales drafted the LULAC Constitution in Corpus Christi in 1929. After his term of office, he remained active and ready to give a helping hand. LULAC News eulogized: "No man has worked so untiringly and so long to see that those principles upon which LULAC was founded are not trampled."

As an attachment, I have included a photograph of J. T. Canales. Farewell for now, take care, and God bless.

Gilberto Quezada


In this regard, I found out today that Carlos Larralde, an author from California and a relative of J.T Canales, has just published a book with Michael Lynch, entitled, Judge J.T. Canales, Latino Civil Rights Leader: An Intimate Portrait,
published by  Lambert Academic Press, 2015. 

Television, Stand-Up Star Paul Rodriguez 
to Debut Comedic Tell-All about 
Pitching a Latino TV Series
Being a Hollywood luminary does not mean your idea for a Latino-themed television comedy gets a quick green light.  Comedy legend Paul Rodriguez learned the hard way.
Never one to miss the opportunity to turn a twisted situation into a twisted comedy, Rodriguez has written a stage play that lampoons the Los Angeles television development process while also getting in a few licks about the "tortilla ceiling" that still looms over Latino program development.
Teatro Mascara Magica's workshop production of "The Pitch or How to Pitch a Latino Sitcom that Will Never Air" will run Sept. 2-6 at the Lyceum Space Theater in Horton Plaza.  Curtain time is 7:30 p.m.  Matinees Sept. 5 and 6 will begin at 2 p.m. Tickets are available from the San Diego Repertory Theater Box Office, (619) 544-1000, It is a one-week engagement with limited seating.
TMM Producing Artistic Director William Virchis is directing Rodriguez's funny and ferocious spoof of the television development process.
"It's still tough to get Hollywood to take a look at Latino-based shows despite the demographic reality of the United States and the popularity of previous creations," Virchis said. "Paul's show is really funny, as you would expect of one of the world's greatest comedians, but it also has some important points to make about problems faced by Latino performing artists."
Rodriguez has starred in numerous hit films, including "Blood Work," "D.C. Cab," "Born in East L.A." and "The Original Latin Kings of Comedy."  He was the star of a trio of television shows, "a.k.a Pablo," "The Newlywed Game" and "El Show de Paul Rodriguez."  He is a legendary comedian, ranked by Comedy Central as one of the 100 Greatest Standups of All Time.
Co-starring with Rodriguez is renowned Mexican actor Armando Silvestre. He has starred in films on both sides of the border and has worked with Clint Eastwood, Glen Ford, Burt Lancaster, Chuck Conners and Yul Brenner.
Virchis said he is thrilled to have the opportunity to work with two gifted actors.
"This show is going to be unbelievably funny thanks to Paul and Armando," Virchis said. "Paul is one of the planet's great comics and has a gift for blending humor and relevance. Armando is one of those actors who can do any film, any play, any TV show brilliantly.  These guys together are going be asombroso (amazing)."
Rodriguez and Silvestre accepted an invitation from Virchis to participate in TMM's Artistas de Honor program, a master's project whereby gifted and successful performing artists, playwrights and directors teach and mentor young under-represented theatre artists.
"Teatro Mascara Magica was founded as a professional multicultural theatre company to develop and promote performing artists of all races and backgrounds so that San Diego County theatre looks more like the population of San Diego County," he said. "Paul and Armando are going to be part of that beautiful heritage of passing their wisdom and encouragement on to the next generation.  Besides being world-class talents, these are two world-class gentlemen and mentors."


Oscar Munoz

Oscar Munoz, the new CEO of United Airlines

Mr. Oscar Munoz has been the President of CSX Corp. since February 11, 2015. Mr. Munoz has been the Chief Operating Officer of CSX Corp. since January 2012 and served as its Executive Vice President from January 2012 to February 11, 2015. He served as the Chief Financial Officer of CSX Corp. since May 5, 2003. Mr. Munoz served as the Chief Financial Officer and Executive Vice-President and Chief ...Operating Officer of CSX Transportation Inc. since May 2003. 
He was responsible for all financial, strategic planning, information technology and real estate activities for one of the largest rail and logistics networks in the United States. His financial duties include management of all accounting, tax and treasury activities for CSX.
Before May 2003, Mr. Munoz served as Chief Financial Officer and Vice President of Consumer Services at AT&T Corporation from January 2001 to May 2003 and has previously held key financial positions with Coca Cola Enterprises, Coca Cola Company and USWest Communications, Inc.
He served as Senior Vice President of Finance & Administration of Qwest Communications International Inc. from June 2000 to December 2000, Chief Financial Officer and Vice President of U.S. West Retail Markets from April 1999 to May 2000 and before April 1999, he served as Controller and Vice President at USWEST Communications Inc.
He serves as a Director at United Airlines, Inc. and CSX Corp. He serves as a Board Member of Transportation Technology Center, Inc. He has been a Director of United Continental Holdings, Inc. since 2010. He served as a Director of Continental Airlines Inc., since March 2004. He served as a Director of CSX Transportation Inc.
In 2001, he was named one of the “100 Most Influential Hispanics“ by Hispanic Business magazine. Mr. Munoz received his BS in Business Administration from the University of Southern California in 1982 and an MBA from Pepperdine University in 1986.
Sent Odell Harwell


On-going project . . . 


Sent by:  Enrique G. Murillo, Jr., Ph.D. 



College of Education 


California State University, San Bernardino 
5500 University Parkway 
San Bernardino, CA 92407-2397 
(909) 537-5632  fax (909) 537-7040 
email:  emurillo@csusb.eduhome 
web page: 


Vicki Ruiz to receive National Humanities Medal Honor recognizes nation’s top change-makers in history, literature, languages

Cathy Lawhon / UCI on September 3, 2015  


Irvine, Calif., Sept. 3, 2015 –
Vicki Ruiz, Distinguished Professor of history and Chicano/Latino studies at the University of California, Irvine and president of the American Historical Association, has been named a recipient of the 2014 National Humanities Medal. She is among 10 honorees from elite universities nationwide who will accept the award from President Barack Obama at the White House on Thursday, Sept. 10. The ceremony will be live-streamed at 3 p.m. at

The National Humanities Medal recognizes those who have deepened the country’s understanding of humanities and broadened citizens’ engagement with history, literature, languages, philosophy and other such disciplines. Recipients are selected by the president of the United States in association with the National Endowment for the Humanities.

“We couldn’t be prouder of our very deserving Professor Vicki Ruiz,” said UCI Chancellor Howard Gillman. “She is a first-rate academic, campus leader and tireless researcher of immigrant women’s stories, and these are the kinds of histories we don’t hear often enough. She has so much to teach us.”

“I consider this award as one that recognizes the field of Latina history more than me as an individual,” Ruiz said. “When I was a graduate student, I could not begin to imagine all of the stories awaiting interested scholars in public archives and personal memories. That said, I am deeply honored by this once-in-a-lifetime acknowledgement of my work.”

While earning master’s and doctoral degrees in history at Stanford University in the late ’70s and early ’80s, she spent a transformative summer with Latino civil rights and labor leader Luisa Moreno.

“I was transfixed by her stories. On the last day of my stay, I blurted out, ‘I know what I’m going to do for my dissertation. I’m going to write about you,’” Ruiz recalled. “But Moreno shook her head and said, ‘No, no. You are going to write your dissertation on the cannery workers in Southern California. You find these women.’”

That’s how Ruiz’s life’s work began. An expert in 20th century U.S. history, the soft-spoken historian has dedicated much of her nearly 40-year academic career to reclaiming the stories of Latinas who have fought for civil and labor rights.

“We all know stories about neighborhood women, but if you look at the panorama of their experiences, their names are often hidden in organizational minutes, in government documents, in diaries, in newspapers,” Ruiz said. “Once their stories emerge, you get a sense of their quiet courage.”

Ruiz shared their experiences through her research on Mexican American women in the U.S. Southwest and, in the process, pioneered the field of Chicana/Latina history. She began with the direction Moreno set, publishing Cannery Women, Cannery Lives: Mexican Women, Unionization and the California Food Processing Industry, 1930-1950 in 1987. Since then, Ruiz has written or edited several more books, including Latinas in the United States: A Historical Encyclopedia, which she co-edited in 2006.

The three-volume set – with more than 600 entries and 300 photographs – documents contributions by Latina women to the economic and cultural development of the United States. The first comprehensive gathering of scholarship on Latinas, it was named a 2007 Best of Reference book by the New York Public Library and an Outstanding Title by the Association of American University Presses.

“Vicki Ruiz’s scholarship is a powerful testament to the ways the humanities can deepen and enrich our understanding of the world as well as of the lives of those who have made a difference to how we live in the world. Vicki Ruiz has literally written Latina women and Hispanic civil rights leaders into history. She could not be more deserving of this honor, and we at the School of Humanities remain indelibly proud of her,” said Georges Van Den Abbeele, humanities dean.

In 2000, Ruiz was named “Woman of the Year in Education” by Latina magazine, and in 2009, she was inducted into Stanford’s Multicultural Alumni Hall of Fame, established in 1995 to recognize distinguished alumni of color. In 2012, Ruiz was elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, and in 2013, she was named Distinguished Professor of history and Chicano/Latino studies at UCI, an honor considered the campus’s highest for faculty. In 2015, UCI’s Alumni Association bestowed upon her the Lauds & Laurel Faculty Achievement award.

Ruiz serves on an advisory board for the Smithsonian National Museum of American History and on the board of Imagining America: Artists & Scholars in Public Life, a national action research consortium. She has been president of four major scholarly groups, including the Organization of American Historians and the American Studies Association.

The first in her family to earn an advanced degree, Ruiz joined the UCI faculty in 2001 and was named dean of humanities in 2008. She completed her term in 2012 and now chairs the Department of Chicano/Latino Studies in the School of Social Sciences.

“This medal is recognition where it’s due – and at the highest level – I couldn’t be more excited,” said Bill Maurer, social sciences dean. “Professor Ruiz has pioneered the study of Latinas in the United States and has championed Chicano/Latino studies nationally and internationally. She has also been a vibrant and vital academic administrator. Her energy is infectious, and her own story is incredibly inspiring.”

Throughout her successful career, Ruiz hasn’t lost sight of her initial plan: to tell the story of civil rights and labor leader Luisa Moreno. “She’s one of the most famous Latinas no one knows about,” Ruiz said. With her Stanford mentor Albert Camarillo, she’s now writing Moreno’s biography, coming full circle to what she sought to write at age 23.

Ruiz is UCI’s first National Humanities Medal recipient. Including this year’s awardees, 163 individuals and 12 groups have been honored since 1996, when the first medal was conferred.

“The National Endowment for the Humanities is proud to join President Obama in celebrating the achievements of these distinguished medalists,” said NEH Chairman William Adams. “The individuals receiving this medal have sparked our imaginations, ignited our passions and transformed our cultural understanding. They embody how the humanities can serve a common good.”

A complete list of previous honorees is available at

About the National Humanities Medal: The National Endowment for the Humanities manages the nominations process for the National Humanities Medal on behalf of the White House. Each year, the NEH invites nominations from individuals and organizations across the country. The National Council on the Humanities, the NEH’s presidentially appointed and Senate-confirmed advisory body, reviews the nominations and provides recommendations to the president, who selects the medal recipients. Created as an independent federal agency in 1965, the NEH awards grants that support research, education, preservation and public programs in the humanities. The NEH is celebrating its 50th anniversary beginning Sept. 29.

 Sent by Roberto Calderon


Latino Census Network
Hispanic Heritage Month 2015
Census Bureau (September 14, 2015)

In September 1968, Congress authorized President Lyndon B. Johnson to
proclaim National Hispanic Heritage Week, observed during the week that included Sept. 15 and Sept. 16. Congress expanded the observance in 1989 to a month long celebration (Sept. 15 - Oct. 15) of the culture and traditions of those who trace their roots to Spain, Mexico and the Spanish-speaking nations of Central America, South America and the Caribbean.

Sept. 15 is the starting point for the celebration because it is the anniversary of independence of five Latin American countries: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. In addition, Mexico and Chile celebrate their independence days on Sept. 16 and Sept. 18, respectively.

Population: 55 million
The Hispanic population of the United States as of July 1, 2014, making people of Hispanic
origin the nation's largest ethnic or racial minority. Hispanics constituted 17 percent of the
nation's total population. Source: 2014 Population Estimates!year~est72014 

1.15 million: Number of Hispanics added to the nation's population between July 1, 2013- July 1, 2014.
This number is close to half of the approximately 2.36 million people added to the nation's population during this period.  Source: 2014 Population Estimates
National Characteristics: Population by Sex, Race, and Hispanic origin
2.1%: Percentage increase in the Hispanic population between 2013 and 2014.
Source: 2014 Population Estimates
National Characteristics: Population by Sex, Race, and Hispanic origin 
  See first bullet under "Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin"

119 million: The projected Hispanic population of the United States in 2060. According to this projection, the Hispanic population will constitute 28.6 percent of the nation's population by that date. 
Source: Population Projections , Table 10

64%: The percentage of those of Hispanic origin in the United States who were of Mexican background in 2013. Another 9.5 percent were of Puerto Rican background, 3.7 percent Cuban, 3.7 percent Salvadoran, 3.3 percent Dominican and 2.4 percent Guatemalan. The remainder was of some other Central American, South American or other Hispanic or Latino origin.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2013 American Community Survey, Table B03001 

States and Counties: 10.4 million
The estimated population for those of Hispanic origin in Texas as of July 1, 2014.
Source: 2014 Population Estimates State Characteristics: Population by Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin
15 million: The Hispanic population of California. This is the largest Hispanic population of any state.
Source: 2014 Population Estimates!hisp~hisp!year~est72014

8: The number of states with a population of 1 million or more Hispanic residents in 2014 -

Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, New Jersey, New York and Texas.
Source: 2014 Population Estimates  | State Characteristics: Population by Race and Hispanic Origin
55%: The percentage of all the Hispanic population that lived in California, Florida and Texas as of
July 1, 2014. 
Source: 2014 Population Estimates
State Characteristics: Population by Race and Hispanic Origin!hisp~hisp!year~est72014  

4.9 million: Los Angeles County had the largest Hispanic population of any county in 2014.
Source: 2014 Population Estimates 

45,000: Harris County in Texas had the largest numeric increase of Hispanics from 2013 to 2014.
Source: 2014 Population Estimates 

Families and Children
12.2 million: The number of Hispanic family households in the United States in 2014.
Source: Families and Living Arrangements: Table F1, by Race and Hispanic Origin
61.6%: The percentage of Hispanic family households that were married-couple households in 2014. 
For the total population in the U.S., it was 73.3 percent.
Source: Families and Living Arrangements, Table F1
56.7% : Percentage of Hispanic married-couple households that had children younger than 18 present in 2014, whereas for the nation it was 40.1 percent. Source: Families and Living Arrangements, Table F1 

64.9%: Percentage of Hispanic children living with two parents in 2014, whereas nationwide it was 68.7 percent.  Source: Families and Living Arrangements, Table C9 

46.0%: Percentage of Hispanic married couples with children under 18 where both spouses were employed in 2014, whereas nationwide it was 59.7 percent.  Source: Families and Living Arrangements: Table FG-1 

Spanish Language
38.4 million: The number of U.S. residents 5 and older who spoke Spanish at home in 2013.
This is a 120 percent increase since 1990 when it was 17.3 million. Those who hablan español en casa constituted 13.0 percent of U.S. residents 5 and older. More than half (58 percent) of these Spanish speakers spoke English "very well." Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2013 American Community Survey, Table DP02 
and Language Use in the United States: 2012 

73.3%: Percentage of Hispanics 5 and older who spoke Spanish at home in 2013.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2013 American Community Survey, Table B16006 R_B16006&prodType=table> 

Income, Poverty and Health Insurance
$40,963: The median income of Hispanic households in 2013.
Source: Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2013, Table A
23.5%: The poverty rate among Hispanics in 2013.
Source: Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2013, Table B
24.3%: The percentage of Hispanics who lacked health insurance in 2013.
Source: Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2013 

64.7%: The percentage of Hispanics 25 and older that had at least a high school education in 2013.
Source: American Community Survey: 2013 Selected Population Profile in the United States,
Hispanic or Latino, Table S0201
14.0%: The percentage of the Hispanic population 25 and older with a bachelor's degree or higher in
Source: American Community Survey: 2013 Selected Population Profile in the United States,
Hispanic or Latino, Table S0201 

4.2 million: The number of Hispanics 25 and older who had at least a bachelor's degree in 2013.
Source: American Community Survey: 2013, Table B15002I
1.3 million: Number of Hispanics 25 and older with advanced degrees in 2013 (e.g., master's, professional, doctorate).  Source: American Community Survey: 2013, Table B15002I>   

16.5%: Percentage of students (both undergraduate and graduate) enrolled in college in 2013 who were Hispanic.  Source: School Enrollment Data Current Population Survey: October 2013, Table1 

23.5%: Percentage of elementary and high school students that were Hispanic in 2013.
Source: School Enrollment Data Current Population Survey: October 2013, Table 1 

35.2%: Percentage of the Hispanic population that was foreign-born in 2013.
Source: American Community Survey: 2013 Selected Population Profile in the United States,
Hispanic or Latino, Table S0201 

64.3%: Percentage of the 10.3 million noncitizens under the age of 35 who were born in Latin America and the Caribbean and are living in the United States in 2010-2012.
Source: American Community Survey Brief - Noncitizens Under Age 35: 2010-2012 

67.0%: Percentage of Hispanics or Latinos 16 and older who were in the civilian labor force in 2013.
Source: American Community Survey: 2013 Selected Population Profile in the United States,
Hispanic or Latino, Table S0201 

19.6%: The percentage of civilian employed Hispanics or Latinos 16 and older who worked in
management, business, science and arts occupations in 2013.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2013 American Community Survey, Table C24010I 

8.4%: The percentage of voters in the 2012 presidential election who were Hispanic. Hispanics comprised 4.7 percent of voters in 1996.
Source: The Diversifying Electorate - Voting Rates by Race and Hispanic Origin in 2012 (and
Other Recent Elections), Table 3 

7.3%: The percentage of voters in the 2014 congressional election who were Hispanic.
Source: Who Votes? Congressional Elections and the American Electorate: 1978-2014: Figure 5 

Serving our Country
1.2 million
The number of Hispanics or Latinos 18 and older who are veterans of the U.S. armed forces.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2013 American Community Survey, Table B21001I 

Further information: Public Information Office   |   301-763-3030   |

Distributed by: The NiLP Report on Latino Politics & Policy
Sent by Rafael Ojeda 

Unauthorized immigrant population stable for half a decade 
by Jeffrey S. Passel and D'Vera Cohn

An estimated 11.3 million unauthorized immigrants lived in the U.S. in 2014, according to a new preliminary Pew Research Center estimate based on government data. This population has remained essentially stable for five years after nearly two decades of changes.
The recent overall stability contrasts with past trends. The unauthorized immigrant population had risen rapidly during the 1990s and early 2000s, from an estimated 3.5 million in 1990 to a peak of 12.2 million in 2007. It then dropped sharply during the Great Recession of 2007-09, mainly because of a decrease in immigration from Mexico.

The overall estimate has fluctuated little in recent years because the number of new unauthorized immigrants is roughly equal to the number who are deported, leave the U.S. on their own, convert to legal status, or (in a small number of cases) die, according to the Pew Research analysis. The new unauthorized immigrant total includes people who cross the border illegally as well as those who arrive with legal visas and remain in the U.S. after their visas expire.

Pew Research estimates that, since 2009, there has been an average of about 350,000 new unauthorized immigrants each year. Of these, about 100,000 are Mexican, a much smaller share than in the past. In the years leading up to the Great Recession, Mexicans represented about half of new unauthorized immigrants.

Due to the slowdown in new illegal immigration since the Great Recession, unauthorized immigrants are less likely than those in the past to be recent arrivals. The share of unauthorized-immigrant adults who have lived in the U.S. for a decade or more has nearly doubled, from 35% in 2000 to 62% in 2012, according to a Pew Research estimate released last year. Only 15% in 2012 had lived in the U.S. for less than five years, compared with 38% in 2000.

Because they are more likely to be long-term residents, unauthorized immigrants also are increasingly likely to live with children born in the U.S. Pew Research Center estimates that in 2012, 4 million unauthorized-immigrant adults, or 38%, lived with their U.S.-born children, either minors or adults. In 2000, 2.1 million unauthorized-immigrant adults, or 30%, lived with their U.S.-born children. (The total number of unauthorized immigrants with adult or minor children born in the U.S. may well be higher, as these figures do not count those whose children live elsewhere.)

The Pew Research estimates are based on data from the U.S. Census Bureau's Current Population Survey and American Community Survey, using the widely accepted "residual method."

The unauthorized immigrant population estimate includes people who have been granted temporary relief from deportation under various federal programs. Last year, President Barack Obama took executive action to expand an existing program and establish a new one that would offer work permits and deportation relief to an estimated 5 million unauthorized immigrants. The actions - which are on hold because of a lawsuit by 26 states - would be open to unauthorized immigrants who were brought to the U.S. illegally as children, or who are parents with a child who is a U.S. citizen or legal permanent resident, as long as they meet certain requirements.

Sent by Kirk Whisler Latino Print Network's Hispanic Marketing 101, 
Vol 13, #29, August 14, 2015

For more:

Image result for ferdinand magellan



Ferdinand  Magellan, 500th Anniversary 

Since the Days of Columbus, 
Cape Verde and Spanish Colonization Research
by Marcel G. Balla 

Plans are underway for celebrating the 
500th anniversary of Magellan's voyage around the world.  
Events will begin in 2018 and end in 2022 in the Philippines.
To get involved, go to: 

Editor Mimi:  This October issue is enriched by the research of Marcel Gomes Balla  sharing 40 years of research concerning the important part, but unknown role that the Cape Verde Islands played in the colonization of the Americas.  The islands are a 10-island chain off the West African coast. The insight that I gained from Marcel's research  is that most U.S. historians continue to view the expansion of the Americas from the East to the West, with the emphasis on the Atlantic Ocean voyages, neglecting, the importance of the Spanish voyages and explorations in the Pacific Ocean and countries along the Pacific Rim.  

About Marcel:  I live in Portugal where I have been doing research for many years and travel periodically to Spain and Italy where I have many contacts that have helped me find new information about the Discovery Period of history. I presume that you are in Califórnia. I am originally from Boston but have lived in Texas and California in the past. I've always wondered about the early period of the Discovery Period before 1492 because that was never really discussed in my history books. So, now I am trying to fill that gap that was missing. In my opinion, this period was by far the most important part of our history, but unfortunately, traditional historians didn't see it that way. Thus, it became extremely difficult to find information on this period.

Fortunately, I have been able to visit museums, archives, libraries, convents and castles in different countries that have provided me with a wealth of information about Spain, Portugal, Africa, Italy and the Vatican as well as the Atlantic Islands. I've even had to get documents translated from medieval Spanish to modern Spanish, so that I could read them. Now I am getting old and must find a way to share this information while there is still time. I will be very interested in making contact with Hispanic historians, Native American and African American historians who may be interested in learning the truth about this history that has been missing in our history books for all of these groups.

Sincerely, Marcel

Marcel's research reveals that along with our European, Sephardic, Ashkenazi, Indigenous and Africans genes, these shores mixed our Spanish genes with Islanders and Asians too.  Embracing our mixed ancestry and presence in the United States, should strengthen our resolve to strengthen our nation by finding opportunities and the means to bring unity to our country. 

Cape Verde Islands 

The Cape Verde islands consist of two small (volcanic in origin) archipelagos, about 400 miles off the western coast of Africa.

These once uninhabited islands were first discovered by the ancient Phoenicians, then later colonized by the Portuguese, beginning in the 15th century.  [From 1580-1640 Cabo Verde was a part of Spain (since Cabo Verde belonged to Portugal, and, Portugal was a county of Spain. ]

In the 16th century the Cape Verde islands became an infamous trading center for African slaves, and eventually, an important stopping point for transatlantic sea traffic in the 19th century. 

In an attempt to cripple the growing nationalism, Portugal transformed Cape Verde from a colony to an overseas province in 1951. 

The African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) was organized in 1956, sparking a movement for independence, and demanded improved economic, social and political conditions. 

By 1961, rebellions against Portugal had mounted into a war of 10,000 PAIGC soldiers against 35,000 Portuguese and African troops. Although numbers weren't in their favor, the PAIGC was successful in gaining control of a majority of Portuguese Guinea. 

The islands gained their independence on July 5, 1975, and politically has remained a stable democracy; however, as of 2007 Cape Verde is considered as a developing nation. 

Most of the indigenous people are descendants of African slaves, and some still speak Crioulo, a Creole dialect. The local economy depends on agriculture and limited tourism. 


Little Known Cape Verdean American Heritage Facts
©M. G. Balla 8 May 2014 (Revised 16 Aug 2014)

1.     Did you know that Cabo Verde produced the first African-American president?  
In 1829, Vicente Guerreiro was elected as the second president of Mexico and his family has roots in Africa.[1]  

2.     Did you know that the first American president to emancipate the slaves has roots in Cabo Verde? President Vicente Guerreiro  emancipated the slaves on 16 September 1829.[2]  

3.     Did you know that Cape Verdeans are believed to have made major contributions to the establishment of the first Roman Catholic Church in America?  Mateus de Sousa, a mariner, who, is believed to have been recruited in Cabo Verde in 1633, sailed on the English ship, the “Ark” and participated in the construction of the first Roman Catholic Church in America.[3]  

4.     Did you know that Cape Verdeans are believed to have produced religious miracles long before the televangelists appeared on television?  According to the pastor of the “House of Prayer for all Americans” (the church founded by Daddy Grace from Cabo Verde) in New Bedford, he has done a detailed study of Daddy Grace and claims that he produced miracles that have been documented.[4]  

5.     Did you know that Cape Verdeans are believed to have made major contributions to the acquisition of the Oregon Territory by the United States of America?  Marcus Lopes, was recruited in Cabo Verde in 1787 as a cabin boy to serve on one of the two American ships that were commanded by Captain John Kendrick of Wareham, MA. The two ships set sail from Boston in 1787; the “Columbia Redivida”. Captain Robert Gray of Rhode Island was the other captain on the “Lady Washington” and served under the command of John Kendrick on this voyage. Marcus Lopes is believed to have set into motion the activities that led to the discovery of the Columbia River (between Washington and Oregon), that has led many historians to believe, formed the crucial basis that allowed the United States of America to be awarded the Oregon Territory in the Oregon Treaty of 1846.[5]

6.     Did you know that Cape Verdeans produced the impact that would deliver the Louisiana Territory to the United States of America that doubled the size of the United States of America at that time in history?  The former colony known as Santo Domingo (now Haiti), was populated by mostly slaves and their French masters. The slaves revolted and won their freedom from the French. Later, Napoleon wanted to build an empire in the Louisiana Territory, but first needed to retake Santo Domingo, so he could have a logistical base to support the new empire in America. Unfortunately, he lost 50,000 troops in the battle against the slaves and he was so depressed that he virtually gave away the territory to Thomas Jefferson. Many of these slaves had roots in Cabo Verde and Guinea.[6]  

7.     Did you know that the history of America is based on the history of Cabo Verde and especially the problem of Indigenous Land Claims which can be traced directly to Cabo Verde?  Many people do not realize that the Christian Doctrine of Discovery is the basis for taking land from the Indigenous peoples and this doctrine is based on the role played by Cabo Verde in the Treaty of Tordesilhas in 1494. This treaty divided the world between Spain and Portugal and the pope authorized that lands of non-Christians could be confiscated by Christian nations.[7]  

8.     Did you know that Cape Verdeans are not considered to be a minority group in America because of their small population?  The US Census Bureau (OMB), has clearly stated in para 6. 1 .5 of Directive 15 (2000) “that a Cape Verdean ethnic category should not be added to the minimum data collection standards”. They recommend that it be dealt with at the local level and not the federal level (apparently because of the small population). In this way federal funds are not allocated to CV projects.  

9.     Did you know that King Ferdinand of Spain appointed a Cape Verdean as his first  Governor in his first new colony during the Discovery Period?  Antonio de Noli was appointed by King Ferdinand to become his first governor when he claimed all of the people in Cabo Verde to be his subjects on 6 Jun 1477.  Spain had captured Cabo Verde from Portugal in 1476 during the War of Castilian Succession and Antonio de Noli was taken prisoner by Spanish troops and a year later the king decided to keep him as his governor on the islands. Later in 1479 when the islands were returned to Portugal by Spain, Antonio de Noli retained his position as governor of Cabo Verde for Portugal.  

10.  Did you know that Cape Verdeans played a leading role in the discovery of America?  The world was divided into two phases, BEFORE AND AFTER the Discovery of Cabo Verde. The modern world begins with the discovery of Cabo Verde in 1460 and this phase of history is now being called the “Dawn of the Discovery Period”, because it provides the information that precludes the discovery of America in 1492. This phase of history has long been ignored by reputed historians until the commemorations of the 550 years of the Discovery of Cabo Verde in Genoa, Italy in 2010. This was an international convention with dignitaries from Latin America, Eastern Europe, Sweden, the USA and Cabo Verde and hosted by the descendants of the first Cape Verdean family from Genoa.[8]  

*Perhaps, many people would like to know, exactly what does this have to with Cabo Verde?  In order to answer this question, I would like to provide undeniable proof that Cabo Verde is linked to this history. When we search various pages on the Internet for more information, we find the following:

Afro-Venezuelan – Slaves came from Cape Verde and Guinea.[9]

Afro – Mexican – We know the origins of the slaves through various documents such as letters of sale. Originally, the slaves came from Cape Verde and Guinea.[10]

Papiamento – – Refers to Cape Verdean Creole in the Caribbean.[11]

We can also find information in the book, “The Shaping of America – 1492 -1800. Vol. 1” 1986 by D. W. Meinig. In this book he writes, “When Cortez left Cuba for Mexico in 1519, the basic machinery for importing slaves to the Indies had been established.” That “machinery” was entirely in Portuguese control and the principal center for the development of the trade was in the Cape Verde Islands”.[12]

In the Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Cape Verde, 2d Edition, the authors, Richard Lobban and Marilyn Halter offer us some details about the role played by Cabo Verde in the slave trade. “In 1660, a company was formed for slave trading, Cachen Rios e Comercio da Guiné, that had a monopoly on the slave trade in Senegal and Serra Leone, including the rivers of Guinea. This company prospered until the end of the 17th century. The number of slaves in Cabo Verde reached their maximum between the years 1475 and 1575. During the 1570’s, some 5,000 slaves were shipped annually to  the New World, especially to the Caribbean and Brazil. [13] They also say in the same book, on page, xxvii, “1650 -1879 – Guinea – Bissau was administered by Cabo Verde, especially for the production of slaves […].”  

Antonio Carreira, one of the most prominent historians in the history of Cabo Verde, tells us that, “the Crioulo language developed in Cabo Verde would have influenced that of the Antilles, especially on the island of Santo Domingo”.[14]

In the Encyclopedia Luso Brasileira de Cultura, Editorial Verbo, Lisboa 1991 on page 1486 of volume 9, it is written, […] by the Treaty of Ryswick (1697), Spain ceded to France that part of the island that has been called Santo Domingo, where they were cultivating tropical plants using slaves coming from Guinea”.

Now, some people may still have some doubts because they never learned the history of Cabo Verde in school. This subject was omitted from the teaching of history but now some nations are beginning to recognize the truth. One classical example has to be Brazil. Personally, I have always been amazed to know that many Brazilians do not have any awareness of Cabo Verde. Let me give you an example of  a former Brazilian Ambassador to Cabo Verde; Vitor Paim Gobato. The ambassador listened to the well known historian Daniel Pereira; who was serving in Brazil as the Cape Verdean Ambassador to Brazil; discuss some of the historical relations between Brazil and Cabo Verde. After listening to the Cape Verdean Ambassador, Mr. Gobato had this to say, “Daniel, in regards to what you have said: I must here and now say, that I must contradict the Cape Verdean poet and troubadour, B. Leza, when he sings his, “Cabo Verde is a a small piece of Brazil”. I believe, the truth is, that Brazil is and always has been a part of Cabo Verde.[15]

This is a good example of what happens when we have been educated about the subject. When people are well informed they are going to see things from a new perspective. So, if we can find historians like Daniel Pereira to teach the history of Cabo Verde to other nations of the New World, perhaps they are going to start recognizing the need to reexamine their own national history and teach the truth about the history of Cabo Verde.

Another example was cited after an international conference was convened in the city of Noli, in Italy to commemorate 550 years of the Discovery of Cabo Verde. Following the conference, a book was published in 2013, “Da Noli a Capo Verde” and the Mayor of the city of Noli, Ambrogio Repetto, wrote a preface to the book and said: “I believe that this new information should be taught in the school systems of the world if we are going to verify a true and more precise understanding of the Discovery Period. This book provides us also with important details about the first multi-racial society documented in the New World. Thus, it is extremely important to help us get a better understanding of the world of today.[16]  

If you answered yes to one or more of these questions, then your knowledge of American History 101 is well above average.

If you failed to answer yes to any of these questions then you should thank the Wareham Historical Society for bringing you this opportunity to learn more about the Cape Verdean community and their contributions to the history of Wareham and to the history of America and the New World since the days of Columbus.  

L-R at table-*Marcel G. Balla, President of the Cabo Verde Research Society, LLC Dr. Alicia Lopes Araújo, Prof. Marco Massoni, Prof. Alberto Peluffo and Prof. Marcello Ferrada de Noli (descendant of Antonio de Noli).

Fotos from conference in Rome with Cape Verdean Ambassador and other  international scholars of Cabo Verde in 2014.  Missing from the photo is "Dr. Manuel Amante da Rosa" Cape Verdean Ambassador to Italy (he is at the podium).

Marcel Gomes Balla has been investigating Cape Verdean History for more than 40 years and is the only Cape Verdean American to be invited by the descendants of the first Cape Verdean family to speak at an International Conference in Genoa, Italy in 2013 to commemorate the 550 year history of the Discovery of Cabo Verde - 1460-2010.
Please note that I have a Master's Degree from Boston University and in Southern Europe and Cabo Verde (especially in Italy) they will use the term doctor. However, when trying to explain the situation to the Italian professor and the Ambassador, the Ambassador insisted in a public statement that I should be called professor because of the knowledge that I bring to the table.  On the program schedule they listed me as "professor." I thought that  I should explain this to you because if by chance someone sees the vídeo of the conference they will hear the Italian professor and the ambassador address me as "professor." 
For the vídeo of the conference: (RIVEDI IL VIDEO DEL CONVEGNO DEL 17.10.2014)


[1] Vicente Guerreiro, from Wikepedia the free encyclopedia. Web. 1 Nov. 2013

[2] Ibid.

[3] 04-10-2009

[4] Daddy Grace article fwd to Phil Gomes by email May 2014

[5] Marcus Lopes: “first African in the State of Oregon”, article by Jose dos Anjos, April-09-2008.

[6] 2010/02/19/the-sacrifice-of-haiti/Weekend Edition February 19-21, 2010 “The Sacrifice of Haiti” Web. 8 Nov. 2013. “The Negro”, W.E.B. Dubois. 1915

[7] “The Phantom of Racism and Indigenous Peoples”. Web. 1 Nov.2013.

[8] This conference was conducted on 19 June 2010 in Serra Ricco, Genoa, Italy. A few months later in September, another important international conference was called in Noli, Italy and the role of Cabo Verde and Antonio de Noli was reinforced as having played a leading role in the discovery of the New World. Since that time, there have been several international conferences conducted in Portugal and Cabo Verde to reinforce this argument.

[9] Afro-Venezuelan. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web.30 Oct. 2013.

[10] Afro – Mexican. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 7 May 2014.

[11] Papiamento. Origem: Wikipedia, a enclclopedia livre. Web. 17 Nov. 2013.

[12] “The Shaping of America”, D. W. Meinig. Op.Cit. p.21.

[13] Lobban, Richard and Marlyn Halter. The Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Cabo Verde, 2d Edition. The Scarecrow Press. Metuchen. 1988. P. 23 print.

[14] Carreira, Antonio, “Cabo Verde: Formação e Extinção da Sociedade de Escravatura”, Centro de Estudo do Guiné Portuguesa, p. 310.

[15] Pereira, Daniel, “Das Relaçoes Hisstoricas, Cabo Verde/Brazil. Fundação Alexandre de Gusmão, Brasilia. 2011. P. 30. ISBN: 978.85 76 31994- 9

[16] Astengo, Balla et al, “Da Noli a Capo Verde”, Marco Sabatelli-Editore. Savona. ISBN-97888888 449821.2013


Drake and Cabo Verde

A search of the Internet for “Capture of Santiago (1585)” by Francis Drake will provide some very revealing information about the connection of Cabo Verde, Spain, the Caribbean and Florida. Some observations that can be learned from this research:

1.     Drake attacked Cabo Verde because it was a part of Spain and Spain was the enemy of England during the Anglo – Spanish War of 1585.

2.     Many names in Cabo Verde are similar to those in the Caribbean where Columbus named many locations e.g. Santo Domingo – Santiago).

3.     The oldest peace treaty in the world is between England and Portugal since the 13th century but it didn’t apply to Portugal or Cabo Verde in 1585 because at this time  they were part of Spain.

4.     Supplies taken from Cabo Verde by Drake were used in his attacks in the Caribbean and some were given to English colonies in Virginia, etc. for their survival.

5.     A map by Boazio shows a detailed description of Drake’s attack on Cabo Verde and is considered to be of rare historical value and includes the coat of arms for Spain in Cabo Verde.. It also shows the route taken by Drake to the Caribbean and English colonies in America.

The details of Drake’s voyage should make an interesting discussion for American students to analyze and determine how this voyage affected American history. For example, what would have happened to the English colonists if they did not receive provisions from the booty taken from Cabo Verde by Drake.

Final note: I’d like to emphasize that I could not find any information on Cabo Verde in America when I was a student in school until I decided to learn about Latin American history at the University of Nebraska, then suddenly I started to find Cabo Verde hidden in the pages of this history and started to realize that one could not logically learn about Latin American history without making the connection to the history of Cabo Verde. Unfortunately, at this time there wasn’t any history of Cabo Verde in any school or university system. This omission of history inspired me to focus on Cape Verdean history and its impact on world and American history. So, for me this has been an adventure for more than 40 years.  29 Aug 2015-mgb-Portugal


Cabo Verde and American influence in the Pacific

One of the major issues that has been virtually ignored is the Dawn of the Discovery Period and  the involvement of Columbus and Antonio de Noli in Cabo Verde and the Coast of Guinea. This phase of history will clearly show how these navigators have impacted the outcome of a geopolitical strategy that has had tremendous value for the USA, especially in the Pacific Ocean. In this area, the Philippines and Guam came under US dominance after the victory in the Spanish American War in 1898.[1] However, what is never said is that Spain had possession of this area for nearly four centuries as a result of the Treaty of Tordesilhas in 1494 and subsequent agreements in the 16th century between Portugal and Spain. Originally, it was believed that this area came under Portuguese control based on the demarcation line that was 370 leagues west of Cabo Verde in the treaty of 1494. Everything west of that line came under the influence of Spain and everything east of the line came under the influence of Portugal. Unfortunately, for Portugal, it would be the Voyage of Magellan and Sebastian del Cano between 1519 and 1522 that determined that this area in the Pacific should have been given to Spain in the original treaty of 1494. Thus, it was that after a few years of new negotiations, the Philippines and other islands in the area were awarded to Spain. It should also be noted that after Magellan’s death in the Philippines, Sebastian del Cano completed the voyage after stopping in Cabo Verde where he was given life saving food supplies that enabled the crew of the ship “Victoria” to return to Sanlucar de Barremeda in Cadiz and report that the world was round and then a new review of the voyage provided Spain with the information to claim possession of the Philippines and  other islands in the Pacific.[2]

There are still other issues that have been hidden in this history and fortunately there are historical buildings and archives in Andalucía (Spain) that maintain information on Columbus and Antonio de Noli, that is a history linked to Cabo Verde. For example, in 1498 Columbus departed from Sanlucar de Barremeda and sailed to Cabo Verde where he stopped for a few days before he discovered the continent of South America. In 1476 the Catholic Monarchs awarded Antonio’s Island (this was the name used in the 15th and 16th centuries to refer to Cabo Verde and was named after Antonio de Noli who governed the islands for more than 35 years) to the Duke of Medina Sidonia, a close cousin of Queen Isabella. Spain had taken possession of these islands from Portugal in the War of Castilian Succession in 1476.[3]

Also in 1580, King Felipe II of Spain became King Felipe I of Portugal and united Portugal with Spain as one country, a union that lasted until 1640. The information in these last two paragraphs are based on historical facts and is the basis for some writers to conclude that theoretically Cabo Verde can be considered a Hispanic nation.[4] According to this reference in Chapter 1 page 2, it is written “(…)Technically, however, people who trace their family to (…) Cape Verde or the Philippines may be considered Hispanic, given the historical influence by Spain in their countries.”

In a recent article by the Philippine Star dated 22 Jun 2015, there is an initiative now underway to commemorate the 500th anniversary of Magellan’s voyage around the world that will begin in 2018 and end in 2022 in the Philippines. The commemoration of the expedition is expected to have a global impact and has the active support of the Pope. Each country that was visited by Magellan is expected to commemorate the voyage that was made between 1519 and 1522. Some countries would naturally be Portugal, Spain, Cabo Verde, Guam and the Philippines. According to the Philippine Ambassador in Portugal this project will not only be a historical event but is expected to also have a cultural, religious and economic impact on the countries involved.

[1] The outcome of this war was negotiated by the 1898 Treaty of Paris in which the US was awarded  Caribbean islands and Pacific islands that were formerly governed by Spain. Web. 15 Aug. 2015.

[2] In order to maintain peace and deal with pressing issues, the demarcation line of Cabo Verde in the Treaty of Tordesilhas was maintained for exploitation by Portugal and Spain. Thus, after the voyage around the world (1522) the Treaty of Saragossa was negotiated in 1529 that ceded the Moluccas to Portugal and allowed Spain to possess the Philippines.       Spain and Portugal 16th century. History of Portugal. Web. 15 Aug. 2015.                                                           .

[3] The Catholic Kings awarded the Duke of Medina Sidonia, Antonio’s Island (Cabo Verde) on 27 May 1476 after having taken possession of the archipelago from Portugal during the war of 1475-1479.Documentation of this award is available at the Fundacion Casa de Medina Sidiona in Sanlucar de Barremeda (Cadiz).

[4] M.O. Ponton (UCLA Med.Ctr) and J.L.Carrion (Univ. of Seville) “Neuropsychology and the Hispanic Patient: A Clinical Handbook” 2001. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Mahwah. Chapter 1. p1.  Web.15 Aug 2015.  

For more information concerning Cape Verde, go to Spain. Click
For information on the Treaty of  Tordesillas go to International.  Click 

MORE about Marcel Gomes Balla

Major, US Army Reserve (Retired)
Vietnam War Veteran
Born: Boston, MA 1939

The “Other” Americans 1991
 Antonio’s Island 2002
  Cabo Verde- Collection of Essays 2007 (3 volumes)
 Cabo Verde (1460-2010) 550 Anos de História Através da Pintura 2011-(Portuguese)
 The History of Cabo Verde 550 years (1460-2010) in Paintings 2011 (English)
 The UNTOLD SECRETS of Cabo Verde, The Treaty of Tordesilhas and UN-Holy Roman Empire 2012
The Importance of Cabo Verde in a Global Context  2014 (English version)
A Importância da História de Cabo Verde no Contexto Global 2014 (Portuguese version)
The Portuguese Cape Verdean Identity of the Genoese Born Columbus  2014 (English version)
A Estória “Incível” de Colombo em Cabo Verde (Portuguese Version of #9 above)
Cabo Verde: The Dawn of Western Civilization  2014 (English version)
Cabo Verde: O Amanhecer da Civilização Ocidental 2014 (Portuguese version)  

Artist:       Exhibited artworks at various institutions in Portugal, Italy and Cabo Verde to             commemorate 550 years of CV history. The Minister of Foreign Affairs personally asked me to display my paintings in the vestibule of the Foreign Affairs Building in Praia in 2010. This noble request allowed many foreign visitors to Cabo Verde to view the history of Cabo Verde in paintings.  

Educator:     Lectured on CV history in Portugal, Italy, Cabo Verde, Turkey and USA. Attendees included; Presidents, Ambassadors Government Ministers and University Professors and priests. During the 500 years ceremonies at EXPO 98 in Portugal; which commemorated Vasco da Gama’s Voyage to India; gave a lecture in Sintra and reminded everyone in attendance (which included the Minister of Education and the Mayor among other dignitaries) that more recognition must be given to Antonio de Noli and Cabo Verde in the development of Portuguese history because the contributions of Cabo Verde to Portuguese history were far too important to be ignored. This situation has improved dramatically since 1998 and in 2012 José Manuel Garcia launched an impressive collection of 8 volumes about the Portuguese discoveries with many important details about Cabo Verde.  

Consultant: Provided counseling services to Prime Ministers, Presidents, Mayors and other government officials in Cabo Verde, regarding the importance of CV history.  

Journalist:    Served as journalist for three different Cape Verdean newspapers in the United States with a focus on CV history and culture  

Historian/Researcher:  President, Cabo Verde Research Society, LLC. Traveled thousands of miles to research CV history in the USA, S. America, Cabo Verde, Portugal, Italy and Spain.  

Historical Invitation:  Initiated contact with the descendants of the original Cape Verdean settlers and helped to reestablish our historical ties after more than 5 centuries. These descendants who reside in Genoa, Italy invited me to give a lecture in Italian on the history of Cabo Verde in recognition of the 550 years (1460-2010) since the discovery of Cabo Verde by Antonio de Noli in 1460. This event is believed to represent the first known encounter in history between descendants of the first CV settlers and present day Cape Verdeans. The CV Ambassador in Italy also attended this event which helped to improve diplomatic relations between Italy and Cabo Verde. At this lecture, it was emphasized  that it was Antonio de Noli, who became the first Cape Verdean settler in history and that he opened up the way for the discovery of the New World. After listening to the lecture, the district education representative stated that he would begin work to include CV history in the curriculum of the schools in his district and later he sent a letter to confirm his intentions.  

International Organizer: Established first contact with the government of Cabo Verde to organize the first international conference in Italy that discussed the importance of Antonio de Noli in world history. Participating members of the Society were invited from  Cabo Verde, the USA, Portugal, the Caribbean, Italy and Sweden . As a result of this conference it was decided that a book would be published to include all the lectures that were given at the conference. This book which is in the process of being translated into various languages will be a historical document that emphasizes the true meaning of Cape Verdean History and will be supported by several original documents which are rarely found in public institutions. All historians at the conference were presented with a historical ceramic plate commemorating 550 years from Noli (a city in Italy) to Cabo Verde.  

Kudos:  Received kudos from the American Ambassador to Cabo Verde, The CV Minister of Foreign Affairs, Two Cape Verdean Presidents, Several CV Ambassadors, The Ministers of Culture and Education and various CV government officials for presentations on CV history and counseling services. Other kudos:  

13.    In October 1994, Professor Manning Marable, the Director of the Institute for Research in African -American Studies and African-American Studies Program and Professor of History and Political Science at Columbia University in New York City, stated clearly in a letter, “I appreciated receiving a copy of your book, The Other Americans. I am familiar with some of the history and culture of the Cape Verdean people, and I found your text quite interesting and inspiring. I believe that this text should be adopted in many courses which explore cross-cultural and multicultural issues.”

14.  In 1992, President Elect Bill Clinton, in a letter stated, “I want to thank you for the copy of your book “The ‘Other’ Americans”. Your concern about equal opportunity for all Americans is appreciated.”

15.  The Director of Libraries in Dallas, TX said, “I have read some excerpts from the book (The “Other” Americans) and the book appears to be enlightening.”

16.  In a letter from the History and Political Science Instructor Norman Love at El Paso Community College (El Paso, TX), he stated, “Thank you for the excellent presentation you gave last week for members of my History 3102 class. Your remarks were most interesting and indeed educational. I know that the students thoroughly enjoyed your talk. It got them to think about some issues that perhaps they have not thought about before and certainly made them aware of the Cape Verdean situation.” It should be noted that these students were predominantly Hispanics and probably never heard of Cape Verdeans before that lecture.

Commendation:  Commended by Congressman Hon. Gerry Studds (D) of Massachusetts in the Congressional Record of 15 August 1991, Vol. 137-No. 122, Proceedings and Debates of the 102 Congress, First Session in the House of Representatives 2 August 1991, for efforts to inform the American people about the contributions of Cape Verdeans in the history and development of the United States. This is believed to be the first such record of this type in the history of the United States.  

Initiated 550 Years Commemoration Ceremonies:  In 2006  met with the Prime Minister of Cabo Verde and recommended that CV commemorate 550 years of CV history (1460-2010). He suggested that contact be made with one of his government offices and start the process. Finally after several weeks and many hours of discussions it was agreed that the process would go forward and that was confirmed  in a written letter addressed to me, dated 10 July 2006 (N/Refª133/IIPC/06) by the Minister of Culture to acknowledge that process which was eventually approved by Parliament after many heated debates on the issue. In the end a commemorative silver plated 250 Escudo coin was minted as well as a few standard coins for general circulation. The CV Post Office also issued commemorative stamps for the occasion. The 550 year commemorations were able to carry over into other areas of CV culture by the outstanding work of the International award winning film producer Guenny Pires who has made several international trips that have included African countries and South America to educate the people about the 550 year discovery of Cabo Verde, while Ramiro Mendes of the Mendes Brothers was interviewed on CNN for 25 minutes in front of an audience of several million viewers to help reinforce the meaning of the 550 year discovery of Cabo Verde.  

Honors:  Art- Honorable Mention awarded in an International Art Show in El Paso, TX 1990 for an oil painting titled “First Day of School” (A portrait of a mother embracing her daughter as she cries on her way to school for the first time in her life). This was one of 6 awards among the 500 plus paintings that were exhibited at the show. 

Track- Awarded the All American Certificate as an 800 meter masters runner in 1996 at age 57. Established several track and field records throughout the state of Texas in the 400m and 800m runs and the standing broad jump. Won 6 gold medals and two silver medals at the Texas Senior Olympic Games between 1989 and 1993. Usually won a gold medal for first place in track and field competition. Some records lasted more than 10 years. Received a Recognition Award for Outstanding Contributions as Middle Distance and Distance Coach at DGF High School in Rota, Spain. Also competed in international track and field events in Europe and Latin America and won several medals and trophies. Trained with some of the world’s best athletes despite being over the age of 50. 

Activist: Initiated Miss Multicultural contest in Onset, MA in 1993 (in conjunction with the Onset Cape Verdean Cultural Center) to demonstrate that Cape Verdeans were the world’s first truly multicultural people which was a direct rebuttal to statements made by a Vice President of Time Magazine who insisted that Americans represented this class as he considered the CV community to be insignificant due to its small population. Journalists were amazed at the success of this contest which supported the Cape Verdean arguments and was judged by an interracial panel of distinguished guests and included a prominent university professor from the University of RI.  

Guest Speaker: Invited as guest speaker by Salah Mateos on his TV program “Eye of the Storm” to discuss CV history. Invited as guest speaker to discuss CV history on TV in El Paso TX. Excerpts from these lectures have been included in several films by Guenny Pires which have been viewed by audiences around the world.  

Middle Distance and Distance Coach: In 1996, trained middle distance and distance runners for the DGF High School Track and Field Team at Rota Spain.  

Languages: Portuguese, Spanish, Russian, French, German and Italian. Conducted lectures in CV history in Portuguese and Italian.  

World Traveler: Traveled to many European countries and South American countries as well as a few Asian countries, the Middle East and throughout N. America.  

Associations: Boston University Alumni Association, University of Nebraska Alumni Association. Retired Military Police Association, Fayetteville, NC; 793rd Military Police Battalion Association; Asociacion Espanola de Oficiales de Complemento, NATO-Interallied Confederation of Reserve Officers; and the Portuguese Athletic Federation.  

Research Discoveries:  Discovered that Cabo Verde represents the first Spanish colony during the Dawn of the Discovery Period in 1476 and recognized in a letter by King Don Fernando and Queen Isabella dated 27 May 1476 in Valladolid.The original is filed at the Foundation of the Duke of Medina Sidonia in Sanlucar de Barremeda, Cadiz.  It is also clear that King Don Fernando is also better known in history as King Ferdinand the husband of Queen Isabella. Unfortunately, a lot has been written about King Ferdinand without realizing that he was the first Spanish King of Cabo Verde and that all Cape Verdeans were his subjects 15 years before he sponsored Columbus’ voyage to the New World. It must also be remembered that Cabo Verde was part of the New World because it certainly was not part of the Old World. So, it is in this context that the teachings of the history of the New World should be understood, while explaining why students were taught that King Ferdinand colonized America but not Cabo Verde. That is a legitimate concern that students should bring to the attention of their school teachers. It is also very possible that there are descendants in Cabo Verde or the US who are related to the original Cape Verdeans in Italy.

 Innovative theories: Believed to be the first writer to suggest that Columbus may have been Cape Verdean. Believed to be the first writer to initiate a comparative study between Columbus and Antonio de Noli.  I am currently in the process of completing my latest book about Columbus that should be available by early 2016. This book will be based on documents and historical writings by contemporary scribes in an attempt to show that when properly analyzed there is a lot of hidden information that strongly suggests that Columbus spent a lot of time in Cabo Verde and may have been Cape Verdean. In any case, the book will definitely provide strong evidence that Columbus spent a lot of time in Cabo Verde before 1492.

Madeira connection: Discovered detailed documents in Madeira that confirmed emigration from there to Cabo Verde in the early 19th century.

Education: Boston University (M/A Intl Relations) University of Nebraska (BGS-History/Economics)



A West Austin Journal
Precita Eyes Mural Center Fears Eviction, Enlists Help by Laura Wenus
Echoes of Incarceration
Pueblos En Movimiento - People's in Movement


By Daisy Wanda Garcia  
September 22, 2015

Like everyone, I enjoy being pleasantly surprised. On Saturday I received such a gift from the Universe. I have been wondering if I should continue to write my articles and if anyone cared about what I thought or about history. Well I received a resounding confirmation from the Universe.  In fact, I am so excited that I have to share my joy by telling this story. 

This past Saturday,  I was at an estate sale paying with my purchases by check. Two ladies were in line behind me. When the cashier called my name, Wanda Garcia, the two ladies asked if I was the Wanda Garcia. I said yes. They said that the West Austin Neighborhood Group (WANG) was distributing copies of a booklet which I had written about 10 years ago. They went on enthusiastically explaining how they were driving around the neighborhood identifying the houses in the journal, obviously enjoying the experience very much. 

Initially I had taken a list of all the homes with a historical marker in west Austin from the Texas Historical Foundation and wrote about the history of each house, especially about my house at 1901 Exposition Blvd. I named the publication “A West Austin Journal.” 

Earlier this year, I gave a copy of the document to WANG at their request…WANG said it would be distributing copies to all their members and any new resident. I was delighted to find out that people had enjoyed reading it and that I was a celebrity in their eyes. What did I learn from this? You should always pursue your passion. Writing and history are my passion. So, I encourage you to pursue your passion and go for it. Wishing you a most joyous season.

Precita Eyes Mural Center Fears Eviction, Enlists Help
By Posted August 24, 2015

The Precita Eyes Mural Arts Center’s location at 348 Precita Avenue is up for sale and the arts organization is teaming up with the Mission Economic Development Agency (MEDA) to make a bid on the property.

If they are able to buy it, the center on the ground floor and the upstairs tenants would be able to remain in place. 

Precita Eyes owns its primarily location at  2981 24th St, where its popular mural tours of the Mission begin. Its Precita Avenue location serves as a studio and community center.

MEDA’s Karoleen Feng, Director of Community Real Estate, said the organization is hoping to put in a market-competitive offer for the property on Precita Avenue.  The owners are asking for $995,000. MEDA would pay for the building over the course of three years using a seller’s note and a first mortgage from a private lender. It also plans to crowd fund some of the purchase price.  

The San Francisco Community Land Trust would take an advisory role in the acquisition, helping MEDA explore different models of organizing tenants. Tenants would form a limited equity cooperative if the building is purchased by a non-profit.

Precita Eyes Mural Arts first opened its arts center on Precita in 1977 and is the oldest tenant in the building. Two of the three residential tenants in the units above have lived in the building for decades, and the third for six years.

Sent by Dorinda Moreno
a documentary project produced by youth with incarcerated parents

It was an intense, busy summer and we have lots of great stuff to share...

Filmmaking / Activism Summer Camp

===================================== =====================================

The summer we were excited to join forces with the American Friends Service Committee for the "Liberation Summer Camp."  Fifteen youth came together for five weeks, learned from amazing immigration and criminal justice activists, and went through a filmmaking crash-course. 
In the end, the youth recorded a series of awesome poems, and created two new short films for our Resiliency Stories series.  You can watch the powerful films about Gerardo Perez who turned to martial arts to focus his life after his mother went to prison, and youth activist Joi Ingram whose own brush with the criminal justice system set her life on a new path.

Crewmembers on the road

===================================== =====================================
The summer also included crew member Kharon Benson traveling to the Dominican Republic where he met with youth activists, screened Echoes films, toured prisons, and even visited the national palace.  The trip was organized by the Church World Service, which is doing powerful work to recognize and bring services to children of incarcerated across Latin America, and replicate some of the best practices in America. Read more on Kharon's trip HERE.
And crew member Jasmine Barclay travelled to Harvard Law School where she spoke and presented Echoes films at th Free Her Conference.  You can hear the audio of her presentation HERE.

Echoes films are increasingly being used to train professionals who work with children with incarcerated parents.   Crew members have presented to teachers, principals, lawyers, and social workers, and earlier this summer we did a special presentation for New York State family court judges.  
We're excited that more and more organizations agencies are becoming aware of this issue and listening directly to the voices of impacted children. 
We've also recently created Spanish-language versions of our first film and caregiver film (our visiting film is coming soon...)
And we're excited to be partnering with the NY Initiative for Children of Incarcerated Parents this October for "See Us / Support Us" - a month-long project to raise awareness and promote best practices for working with children of the incarcerated. Please contact us with questions, ideas or feedback, and thank you for your support!
Sincerely, -Jeremy and the Echoes Crew


Pueblos En Movimiento - People's in Movement

The Mission of Fuerza Mundial Global is to connect Grass Roots Communities, Protecting and Preserving World Cultures, Fauna & Flora, All Our Relations. 
Peaceful Resolutions to Global Conflicts via Arts and Communication

The FMG and ITC/PM initiative is an Educational and Cultural Collaborative focused on Human Rights in Mexico, Central America and the world

Tribunal Internacional de Conciencia, Español
Por favor apresure en link 
Sent by Dorinda Moreno



Sign in Dallas, Texas restaurant 
Vaquero Heritage by Dr. Lino Garcia, Jr.
July 31st, 1817: Pirate resigns as ruler of Galveston Island
August 26th, 1786: Provincias Internas Divided into Three Sectors
September 10th, 1770: Spanish colonizer of South Texas dies in Mexico City

Sign in Dallas, Texas restaurant 
Posted by the Lonestar Restaurant Association.

Sent by John Ray Aragon 

Sent by Walter and Elsa Herbeck 

July 31st, 1817 -- Pirate resigns as ruler of Galveston Island

On this day in 1817, pirate Louis Michel Aury resigned his Mexican commission to rule Galveston Island. Aury, born in Paris about 1788, served in the French navy and on French privateers from 1802 or 1803 until 1810, when he became master of his own vessels, which cruised the Caribbean in search of prizes. He joined a group of New Orleans associates who were planning a Mexican revolt against Spain in 1816. Rebel envoy José Manuel de Herrera proclaimed Galveston a port of the Mexican republic, made Aury resident commissioner, and raised the rebel flag on September 13 of that year. Aury's tenure was stormy. Henry Perry, who commanded troops sent by the New Orleans associates for the invasion of Texas, refused obedience to Aury, who also initially refused to cooperate with Francisco Xavier Mina, leader of a filibustering expedition that reached Galveston in November. In the spring of 1817, while Aury was convoying Mina's forces to the Santander River, Jean Laffite seized the opportunity to undermine the skeleton "government" left behind. After resigning his commission, Aury sailed to Florida. He is believed to have died in 1821, though some sources claim he was living in Havana in 1845.

Source: Day by Day Series by the
Texas State Historical Association 

August 26th, 1786 --
 Provincias Internas divided into three sectors


September 10th, 1770 -- 
Spanish colonizer of South Texas dies in Mexico City

================================== ==================================

On this day in 1786, the Provincias Internas were divided into three military regions. The original authorization of the Provincias Internas by Spain occurred in 1776 and comprised a massive, semiautonomous administrative unit that included Texas, Coahuila, Nueva Vizcaya, New Mexico, Sinaloa, Sonora, and the two Californias (Baja and Alta). Officials wished to promote administrative efficiency on the frontier, far removed from the government center of Mexico City, as well as spark economic development and protect Spanish lands from England and Russia. Texas, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Nuevo Santander were included in the easternmost of the three regions, under the command of Juan de Ugalde. The three regions were again reorganized into two provinces, eastern and western, in 1787. The Provincias Internas would undergo periodic reorganization until Mexican independence in 1821. Joaquín de Arredondo was the last commander of the Eastern Province, from 1813 to 1821.

September 10th, 1770 -- Spanish colonizer of South Texas dies in Mexico City.  On this day in 1770, José de Escandón, the "father" of the lower Rio Grande valley, died in Mexico City. Escondón was the colonizer and first governor of Nuevo Santander, a colony that extended from Mexico across the Rio Grande to the Nueces River. He founded over twenty towns or villas and a number of missions in the colony, including Camargo, Reynosa, Mier, and Revilla south of the Rio Grande, and Laredo and Nuestra Señora de los Dolores Hacienda north of the Rio Grande.

Source: Day by Day Series by the
Texas State Historical Association 


Rosario Anaya: Pillar of Mission Latino community dies unexpectedly 
        by Eva Martinez

Susan Gonzalez-Baker, former director of the Center for Mexican American Studies 

Rosario Anaya. 
Photo courtesy of The Green Lining Institute 

Rosario Anaya: Pillar of Mission Latino community dies unexpectedly 
by Eva Martinez
August 10, 2015 

Long-time executive director of Mission Language and Vocational School Rosario Anaya passed away on Aug. 5, 2015. Read Eva Martinez's heartfelt tribute to this beloved community figure. 


She was 70. During her 42-year administration at the school, thousands of primarily Spanish language immigrants gained the vocational skills necessary to compete in the workforce.

Rosario Anaya stands to the right of Jesse Jackson in San Francisco during the “Latinos for Jackson” for president campaign in 1988. Courtesy San Francisco Latino Historical Society
Born on Oct.7, 1944 in Cochabamba, Bolivia, Anaya arrived in the United States in the early 1960s. She earned her bachelor’s degree in Public Administration and a Master’s degree in Counseling and Psychology from the University of San Francisco.

Within a few years, Anaya established herself within the Latino community, dedicating her life to championing social justice for the disenfranchised.

By the late 1960s, she was involved with the Mission Coalition Organization, a multiracial network of neighborhood agencies and individuals that demanded jobs, housing and educational reform.  In 1973 she became the executive director of MLVS, a nonprofit community-based agency that provides English as a Second Language classes along side vocational and computer training.

“I remember her saying, ‘There’s always a way to get it done.’ She never gave up. She was always fighting for us Latinos,” said Elsy Tadeo, who enrolled in one of MLVS’s training programs in 1972. “She was a kind person who cared about helping people.”

Daniel Brajkovich, current interim director of MLVS, met Anaya in the late 1990s when he came onboard as the school’s program manager.

“What drove Rosario was a sense of community. Even in this difficult political landscape she continued to fight for the underserved communities,” Brajkovich said. “My enduring image of her is of being noble, even-handed and fair. Justice emanated from her.”

Among her many accomplishments at MLVS is the purchase of the school’s 50,000 square foot facility at 19th and Florida streets, and the extensive network of ties with private industry, which continues to support career pipelines for the 300 students who graduate annually. Brajkovich said that Anaya’s visionary perspective was evident in the conceptualization and establishment of the school’s successful Latino Cuisine Culinary Academy, which provides immigrant workers with expanded career options in the food industry.

Although MLVS was the focal point of her day-to-day work, her commitment to the Latino community spread far beyond the walls of the school and by the 1980s, Anaya had become an invaluable source of support for a variety of campaigns.

Eva Royale, director of the city’s Cesar E. Chavez Parade and Festival, recalls a long history of collaboration with Anaya, which began in the 1980s with the San Francisco Latino Voter Registration and Education Project, where Anaya registered voters, walked precincts and recruited volunteers. Anaya was also an active participant in Jesse Jackson’s Rainbow Coalition and Latinos for Jackson during his 1984 and 1988 presidential campaigns.

Royale said that Anaya was a life-long supporter of the United Farm Workers union. Her advocacy included: organizing food caravans from San Francisco to the UFW’s headquarters in Delano; demanding justice for UFW co-founder Dolores Huerta when she was seriously injured in 1988 by a San Francisco police officer during an anti-George H.W. Bush demonstration; participation in the campaign to rename Army Street in honor of Cesar Chavez; and helping found the annual Cesar E. Chavez Holiday Parade and Festival, now in its 15th year. In addition, Anaya made MLVS the ongoing host for the annual Cesar E. Chavez Labor Breakfast.

“Rosario Anaya was an inspiration and true community leader. She was honest, kind, and hardworking,” said Royale. “I feel truly blessed to have known and worked with Rosario Anaya, she was my friend and inspiration.”

Children were another focus for Anaya, who was appointed by the late mayor George Moscone to the San Francisco Board of Education in the late 1970s. In 1978 she ran for a full four-year term and not only garnered the highest number of votes but also became the first Latina ever elected to city office. She successfully ran again in 1982 and 1986, serving as school board president twice.

For the last four decades, Anaya has sat on numerous boards, committees and commissions including New America Media and the San Francisco Redevelopment Commission. Yet despite her accomplishments, this fierce warrior for the disenfranchised was a humble person.

“Those of us who were fortunate enough to know Rosario will remember her enduring class, the dignity in which she fought, and her nonstop, unapologetic advocacy for some of the most at-risk populations in the Bay Area,” the MLVS said in a statement.

From the Accíon Latina archives

In addition to a private family service, the MLVS board of directors is working on a public memorial to honor the work and life of Anaya.

Anaya’s family has established the Rosario Anaya Scholarship Fund for Latinos and Latinas in the Mission in her honor. Checks may be mailed to MLVS at 2929 19th Street, San Francisco, CA 94110. 

Sent by Dorinda Moreno

With great sadness I share the news that Susan Gonzalez-Baker, former director of the Center for Mexican American Studies (CMAS) and Associate Professor of Sociology at UT-Arlington, passed away early on the week of June 28.  Dr. Baker joined UT Arlington in 2005 as Director of CMAS, remaining in the position until 2013. During her tenure, she created the Distinguished Lecture Series, which became the Center’s annual signature event.

Susan was an outstanding scholar, excellent presenter, and passionate about the study of issues affecting Latinas in the U.S. During her tenure as director of CMAS, she was committed to her students, including several graduate students with whom she worked closely for years. She was also a very warm, loving, and kind-hearted person.

Dr. Baker earned her Ph.D. in sociology at the University of Texas at Austin, her master’s degree at the University of California at Berkeley and a bachelor’s degree in sociology and psychology at Trinity University. Prior to working at UT Arlington, she had research and faculty positions at the Urban Institute, the University of Arizona and the University of Texas at Austin.  Susan will be missed by her colleagues, students and friends.  A public memorial is planned in Austin later this Fall and her family is organizing a scholarship in her honor.  Descanse en paz. 

Christian Zlolniski, Director
Center for Mexican American Studies
Associate Professor, Department of Sociology and Anthropology
University of Texas at Arlington    Box 19444
Arlington, TX 76019   Phone: (817) 272-2933   Fax: (817) 272-2948

Source: Christian Zlolniski,
Sent by:  Roberto Calderon 

Latino soldiers
 Cebu, Phillipines, WW II


A Vietnam veteran reflects on an era gone by Eddie Morin
Mexican-American Heroes Denied Recognition



A Vietnam veteran reflects on an era gone by.

By Eddie Morin



            Memories of taking part in an unpopular cause have not dimmed for Vietnam vets-especially if you saw combat in that horrific war. Over eight million troops served in what started out as "a little police action" but soon developed into a lengthy and costly war-both monetarily and in lives lost. Forty years after the fall of Saigon to the North Vietnamese Army, serious considerations and concessions must be allowed if we are to learn anything from that experience.

            As a Vietnam veteran with a combat-related disability I have had ample time to contemplate my experience in Southeast Asia and to ruminate on the after effects of the war and that motivated me to write about my experiences and about the Chicano soldiers and heroes who, like me, were greatly impacted by the war.

            It's easy to say that we seriously underestimated our abilities and only meant to help a struggling nation in its effort to be free but as events transpired and serious facts began to surface, the war appeared increasingly unpopular and motives for involvement seemed suspect and overly demanding.

            At first the actions of the anti-war movement were met with disdain and irritation for those who had to meet an elusive enemy on foreign soil. Some of these protestors were taking desperate means to avoid the draft like getting married or heading for Canada-both convenient ways of becoming exempt-but the problem could no longer be considered minor and our military involvement in Vietnam continued to fester as a national controversy.

            It wasn't just self-serving draft dodgers who were opposed to the war as, week after week, the names of dignitaries and celebrities were added to the list. This may have been encouraging to those who wished to stop the hostilities but it was viewed as a hindrance and a sign of disunity to GIs who disliked combat and longed for more support. This anti-war wave seemed to prolong the war instead of helping.

            In "the land of the brave and home of the free" it was not uncommon for young hippies to be set upon by veterans or those who supported veterans and, in turn, returning veterans were often spat upon and called names like "baby-killers or Nazis". Sometimes the bereaved family of a Vietnam casualty would receive a phone call telling them: "That's good your son/husband died. He was fighting in a fascist war you know." Yes, it really was that divisive as families and friends would find themselves dealing with opposing viewpoints. Louis Rocco, a Congressional Medal of Honor recipient, related to me how he was stoned and pelted with eggs as he left Oakland, California on his way to begin his second tour of duty in Vietnam. Incredible as it seems, quite a few of our boys were still willing to serve.

            While American prisoners of war were tortured in Vietnam and pressured to make anti-American statements, they bravely held their ground as best they could. And in the United States, anti-war demonstrators burned their American flags and hoisted Viet Cong banners as they showed their opposition and they couldn't have expressed themselves with more enthusiasm.

            Even as the Paris Peace Talks was on its way to reaching an accord the Watergate scandal erupted and the anti-protestors jumped on that item to hasten the decline of the war. Never mind that we were still attempting to negotiate for our POWs, The case for the Vietnam veteran was never viewed favorably. Of course the doves like to boast that they brought down two Presidencies but is that something to be proud of?  The momentum of the anti-war movement was too great to overcome and Watergate went down in history as a prelude to Nixon's downfall. Stop to consider that no lives were lost at Watergate, nor was there any government money misappropriated, in fact, the crime pales when you consider some of today's shameful incidents like the Fast and Furious fiasco or the failed response to the attack on Benghazi.

            These are all thoughts in retrospect and everyone should seek to have a better understanding of opposing viewpoints before forming an opinion. I understand that the doves struggled hard for what they believed in their heart was right, still, you'll excuse me if I don't rise and salute those who voiced their condemning opinions against GIs while praising and supporting the Vietcong and the North Vietnamese Army.  Both sides of the anti-war story should be aired completely by anyone who really wants to understand what went on.

            It was a bitter pill to swallow for the veterans who bore the brunt of the war to come home and hear the anti-war protestors praised for their character and courage and yet that's the way it was. The politically correct view was that the anti-war movement was a triumph of conscience over evil and in their effort to placate-or justify their actions, this statement was frequently quoted: "separate the war from the warrior". What a joke! There was no real sympathy for those who served in Vietnam, no welcome home and no escaping the cruel barbs of criticism and rejection that alienated so many. That is ample reason why most veterans are very reluctant to talk about their service except, maybe, to a very few chosen friends and relatives.

            Today, if you entered a class covering the Vietnam War, you would find that someone who never set foot in Vietnam is usually the teacher.  This seems to add to the tragedy of our casualties and the divisiveness that troubled our country so much. So much basic truths have been ignored and this has been an incentive for me to write about the Vietnam veterans of Mexican American Extraction. A lot of noble warriors have been slighted and overlooked because of the war's unpopularity.

            The Congressional Medal of Honor is our nation's highest award for valor and 18 Americans of Mexican extraction were awarded this prestigious medal for action in Vietnam. As someone who has studied the events of that era, I can say without fear of contradiction that the Congressional Medal of Honor is not tossed around lightly. Daniel Fernandez from Albuquerque, New Mexico was awarded the Medal for throwing himself on a live grenade to save the lives of his comrades. Jose Francisco Jimenez, (who was actually a Mexican national), led his squad mates on an attack on an enemy anti-aircraft emplacement and successfully knocked it out. Like Fernandez, his award was posthumous. Roy Benavidez responded to a call from help by a beleaguered Special Forces team and gave medical aid and supporting fire to save the remnants of that detachment. He received over 50 wounds in this effort.

These guys really are truly worthy of being called heroes and I am reminded of this as Hispanic Heritage Month is from September 15 to October 15.

            In summary, I have to state that I am proud of my service despite the opposition and, I guess that only another Vietnam veteran would understand.  I have written about Chicano heroes and also the events that were transpiring at the time. My book is titled, appropriately enough, "Valor and Discord" and is available from:

            Eddie Morin Los Angeles, California


Mexican-American Heroes Denied Recognition

Even now, our congressmen should start an investigation to reopen cases in which the Silver Star was awarded, when the Medal of Honor was actually/clearly warranted; Captain Gabriel Navarrete of El Paso, Manuel Gonzales from Ft. Davis, and Guy Gabaldon from LA for starters. This is where every Veterans/Civil Rights organization should get energetically involved. DO YOUR JOB!!!  

Mexican-Americans – “The ethnic group most decorated for heroism” despite blatant discrimination, which denied many acts of heroism from receiving proper decorations (beginning with the Medal of Honor); usually awarded lower decorations, instead. Imagine, if every Mexican-American who deserved it, had been awarded the Medal of Honor, what our record would be? 

Guy Gabaldon (see attachment) who captured (more than 1500 Japanese) several times more enemy soldiers than Audie Murphy and Sgt York combined, was in that category. Captain Gabriel Navarrete and several other members of “141st U.S. Army Infantry, 2nd Battalion, 36th Division, 250 men serving in Company E” I believe, were deserving of the MOH.

The Men of Company E -- Toughest Chicano Soldiers of World War II ... Men of Company E Toughest Chicano Soldiers of World War II: [Samuel S. Ortega] on *FREE* .

Richard Fender --
You know, it’s truly incredible how many counties, towns and cities in TX are named for Hispanics yet they were treated so badly in the last century. Although I’ve not lived in TX since 1986 it does appear that the place of honor that members of the Hispanic community deserve are becoming more frequent and noticed, although not as much as deserved. 

My favorite Hispanic of all time and most admired soldier of my generation was Roy Benavidez. While I agree with historians that Audie Murphy was “the” soldier of WW II, Benavidez, perhaps because he was of my war, stands head and shoulders above all. The shame of it, though, is that Murphy was glorified after WW II and Benavidez was not until Reagan presented him with the Medal of Honor. Even after that, his glory was little noticed by the public. May he forever rest in peace. He was a real soldier’s soldier.

Forwarded by Placido Salazar 
Sent by Juan Marinez 


Un gran reconocimiento al Teniente General Gálvez, en Malaga 
Presidios in the Line by Robert H. Thonhoff 
Granaderos de Gálvez at History Symposium

Un gran reconocimiento al Teniente General Gálvez, en Malaga 

El Rey Don Felipe VI y la Asociación Cultural Bernardo de Gálvez y Gallardo
Conde de Gálvez MÁLAGA www. 
7 de septiembre

El lunes día 7 de septiembre S.M. El Rey Don Felipe VI ha recibido en audiencia militar, que ha tenido lugar en el Palacio Real de Madrid, a una representación de la Asociación Bernardo de Gálvez y Gallardo, Conde de Gálvez, compuesta por el Presidente Miguel Ángel Gálvez Toro, el Vicepresidente Manuel Olmedo Checa, el Tesorero Antonio Quiles Faz, los miembros de la Junta de Gobierno Mirentxu de Haya Gálvez y Francisco Cabrera Pablos. 

Han estado acompañados por la Embajadora para Europa de la Asociación Bernardo de Gálvez, Eva García, que recientemente fue galardonada con el Premio Bernardo de Gálvez, y por el artista malagueño José Garciaga. 

En representación del General Jefe del Estado Mayor del Ejército asistió a la audiencia el General Fernando López del Pozo, así como el Almirante Santiago Bolívar en representación de la Armada española y el Capitán de la Navy norteamericana Doug Ten Hoopen. 

La Asociación obsequió a S.M. El Rey con una réplica del retrato de Bernardo de Gálvez pintado por Mariano Salvador Maella, cuya copia fue regalada por la Asociación al pueblo norteamericano, y que cuelga en el Congreso de Estados Unidos desde el pasado 9 de diciembre. 

Igualmente se obsequió a S.M. El Rey con una estatua en bronce del Conde de Gálvez, obra del escultor Jaime Pimentel y un ejemplar de la revista Péndulo, que edita el Colegio de Ingenieros Técnicos industriales de Málaga, en la que fueron publicados los documentos que permitieron averiguar que el Congreso norteamericano aprobó en 1783 que se colgara en su sede un retrato de Bernardo de Gálvez. 

S.M. El Rey Don Felipe elogió con sentidas palabras la gran labor realizada por la Asociación y felicitó efusivamente a la Junta de Gobierno, valorando como muy positivos los importante logros alcanzados para recuperar la memoria del General Bernardo de Gálvez, insigne héroe de España, de Estados Unidos y de México, que por sus cualidades personales y por su excepcional trayectoria constituye un extraordinario referente para nuestras tres naciones. 

Manuel Olmedo Checa 

Forwarded by Juan Marinez
Received from José Antonio Crespo-Francés 

Presidios in the Line

By Robert H. Thonhoff


            During the 15th, 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries, it should be remembered, Spain discovered, explored, subdued, and colonized the most extensive territorial empire in the history of the world. Its empire extended around the globe and included most of the Western Hemisphere . At the time of the American Revolution, Spain owned or claimed all the land of present United States west of the Mississippi River plus the “ Island of New Orleans . This vast area was a part of Nueva España (New Spain), which extended from Panama to the ‘arctic snows.”

            The institutions used by Spain in its colonization efforts along the frontier of northern New Spain were the presidio (fort) for protection, the mission for Christianization of native tribes, the villa for civil settlements,   and the rancho to sustain them.

                        In the latter half of the eighteenth century, frontier conditions in northern New Spain had deteriorated to such an extent that the Spanish crown found it necessary to order an examination of the entire frontier with the view of relocating presidios and making whatever other adjustments might be necessary to prevent further abandonment of the frontier settlements.

            Accordingly, in 1764-1765 King Carlos III of Spain appointed the Marqués de Rubí and José de Gálvez to perform inspection tours of northern New Spain . [Interestingly, José de Gálvez brought along his nephew, Bernardo de Gálvez, with him to New Spain, where Bernardo was commissioned in 1769 to go to the northern frontier of New Spain and soon became commandant of military forces in Nueva Vizcaya and Sonora .]  As Visitador-General, José de Gálvez inspected colonial administration practices, mainly in California . The Marqués de Rubí, on the other hand, made a 7,000-mile inspection tour of northern New Spain from California to Los Adaes, then the capital of the Province of Texas . José de Gálvez’s recommendations resulted in the implementation of the Provincias Internas, which moved the capital of the Province of Texas from Los Adaes to San Antonio in 1773. The Marqués de Rubí began his investigation in 1766. Royal engineers Nicolás de la Fora and Joseph de Urrutia assisted Rubí by drawing plans of presidios and drafting maps of the area traversed. Rubí’s recommendations resulted in the Reglamento e instrucción para los presidios que se han de formar en la linea de frontera de la Nueva España, commonly referred to as the New Regulations of 1772.

            As a result of the Rubí recommendations, issued on September 10, 1772, a new line of defense was established, uniform fortification plans were prescribed, and numerous changes were made in regulations governing military personnel. The new line of fortifications was to be composed of some fifteen presidios situated about 40 leagues (or 120 miles) apart in a zigzag line that extended from the Gulf of California on the west to the Gulf of México on the east along what is now approximately the northern boundary of México.

            As is illustrated in the following map, the Presidios in the Line were: Altar; Tucson; Terrenate; Fronteras; Janos; Paso del Norte; San Eleazario; El Principe; La Junta; San Carlos; San Vicente; Aguaverde;  Monclova; San Juan Bautista; and La Bahía del Espíritu Santo,  which was the last and easternmost Presidio in the Line.  

Granaderos de Gálvez at History Symposium

 The Order of Granaderos y Damas de Gálvez, San Antonio Chapter participated in the History Symposium sponsored by the Atascosa County Historical Commission on Saturday, August 15th.  The event started as a commemoration of the Battle of Medina, the bloodiest battle on Texas soil, but has expanded to represent a broader range of history.  The Granaderos staffed a living history booth where they interracted with the attendees, sold books and explained the heroic efforts of General Bernardo de Gálvez and Spain’s assistance to the American Colonies during our American Revolution.

Some members of the Order dress in historically accurate uniforms of the Spanish Granaderos (grenadiers) who fought under the command of General Gálvez.  Granaderos served as the elite troops.  Their tall miter hats covered in bear fur distinguishesd them from the regular troops, who wore tricorn (three cornered) hats.  In addition to a musket, bayonet and sword, these soldiers carried grenades, giving rise to their title of Granadero.

The uniform worn by Granaderos of the San Antonio Chapter are that of the Navarra Regiment, which played a significant role in the Gulf Coast Campaign of General Gálvez.  In Gálvez’s triumphant victory at Pensacola, the Navarra Regiment had the largest contingent of any regiment.

Pictured are Joe Perez and Roland Salazar of the Granaderos de Gálvez San Antonio Chapter.

Sent by Joe Perez 


Re-examining the Power of the Nasi Family at the Court of the Ottoman Empire  
           by Baroness Stephanie de Sarachaga      
Diego Fernández de Córdoba, Marquis of Gradalcázar, Viceroy of New Spain 
           by John Inclan

Familia Zertuche de España a México


Spotlight on the Nasi Family 
Part I:  Re-examining the Power of the Nasi Family 
at the Court of the Ottoman Empire

by Baroness Stephanie de Sarachaga

Dona Gracia (also known as Beatrice de Luna) and her family are pillars of Sephardic genealogy. Dona Gracia and her family were more than leaders, in our 21st century parlance they were “change makers” and major players on the international diplomatic and commercial stage.  “To illustrate the power of this family, consider that it was able to cause the commercial boycott against the Italian port of Ancona in reprisal for its persecution of converts […]” (Diaz-Mas, 1992).  Dona Gracia and her family, despite being chased by the Inquisition, saved the lives of countless Jews under persecution. She saw it as her mission in life to help her people to freedom. It is for this reason that I want to take the time and bring to light a piece of Dona Gracia as stateswoman, and her family’s alliances, that assisted her greatly in the materialization of her great achievements.  As with any genealogy, it is important to consider the broader context and implication of the life and times of the individuals of focus, and this is a piece of the story that I believe shows the breadth and depth of this woman and her family, as well as a microcosm of the Sephardic Jewish experience of this era. 

Background on Dona Gracia and the Nasi Family

“The Nasi family was one of the wealthiest and most powerful families in Jewish History.  The story of the Nasi family has been reconstructed from sources such as diplomatic correspondence, personal diaries [etc]” (Terry, 2013).  Dona Gracia’s father was named Alvaro de Luna of Aragon, and was considered to be a Nasi or Prince in Hebrew.  Her mother, Phillipa Benveniste, was of the Benveniste family, also a Nasi family.  Later in life Dona Gracia chose to use the Nasi title, which would confuse scholars into thinking this was her last name. Her family fled Aragon in 1492, and due to their immense wealth and businesses, were able to successfully settle in Portugal.  This relative peace only lasted until Portugal followed Castile in the path of expulsion and Inquisition, forcing her family to convert. The family continued to grow in power and influence, while secretly practicing Judaism with other converso families.  Upon reaching maturity, Dona Gracia was married to her maternal cousin, Francisco Mendes Benveniste.  Unfortunately, he would pass away young, leaving his fortune in the hands of his wife, and co-ownership of the companies shared with his brother, who was more than happy to provide Dona Gracia with all administrative responsibilities.  Dona Gracia, facing both the Portuguese Inquisition, and attempts by the King of Portugal to seize both her personal and family assets, took the proactive step of fleeing west, and laying the path for many Jews to follow (Feinberg, 2006, Jewish Historical Society, 1962).  Many books, movies, plays, etc. have been written commemorating Dona Gracia and her incredible ability to bring her people to safety.  Cecil Roth said about Dona Gracia, that: “No other woman in jewish history has been surrounded with such devotion and affection.  No other woman in jewish history, it seems has deserved it more”. 

The Nasi Family and the Ottoman Empire

The question, is not just what was the relationship between the Nasi family and the government of the Ottoman Empire, but how close were they, and what was one of the main reasons for this?  

It is common knowledge that the Nasi family, and Dona Gracia specifically, were extremely influential in the creation of an underground railroad which assisted Sephardic Jews in their escape from persecution, many of whom ended up in the Ottoman Empire.  Even some nonacademic sources such as Wikipedia or the website Holocaust a Call to Conscience support the unexplained special relationship the Nasi’s held with the Ottoman Empire.  

It is also well documented, that Dona Gracia emigrated first to Antwerp and then to Venice and Ferrara once the inquisition gained momentum. This was followed by modern day Istanbul and the Ottoman empire.  Professor and Historian Miriam Bodian states in August, 1552, Gracia Nasi left Italy for the Ottoman Empire:  “[…] They arrived the following spring in Constantinople. Gracia Nasi, who had long since succeeded in transferring a substantial part of the family fortune to the Ottoman capital, took up residence not amid the large Jewish population of that city, but in the fashionable European quarter of Galata, where she lived in grand style.”  Diaz-Mas (1992) describes her arrival in Istanbul in the following way: “She came to Constantinople with forty horses and four triumphal carriages filled with Spanish ladies and maids.  Her household was no smaller than that of a Spanish duke […]” 

It is at this point that Dona Gracia’s nephew, Yosef Nasi, Duke of Naxos, received diplomatic honors and titles.  The title Duke of Naxos was appointed by Sultan Selim II, and is in reference to an island that recently became in control of the Ottomans from the Venetians (Brenner, 2010, 142).  This is oft touted as a prime example of the relationship built by the Nasi family.  Unfortunately, this leaves out a key element of the Nasi story.  
To understand the full story we need to begin with the genealogy provided most interestingly by Dr. Peter Matthews in his work Shakespeare Exhumed: The Bassano Chronicles (2013).  Now, before the questions arise as to the legitimacy of such genealogy when provided by a Shakespearian scholar, it must be said the author is also a forensic historian, and the detailed genealogy we are speaking of was provided to the author by the Canadian archaeologist Dr. David Kelley.  According to Matthews: “Dr. Kelley confirmed that Yosef (Joseph) Nasi, Duke of Naxos was the son of Samuel de Nasi and grandson of Yosef de Nasi […] Samuel de Nasi had a brother also named Yosef de Nasi who moved to Paros in the Greek Islands.  At the time the Greek Islands were under Venetian rule until the Muslim Invasion of 1537.  The connection is revealed by the relationship of Rachel Olivia Nasi who was born in Venice in 1525 to Yosef de Nasi, son of Samuel de Nasi, which places Rachel and Joseph de Nasi as second cousins.  Rachel was therefore related to Dona Gracia Medes Nasi […]” Dr. Matthews is not alone in documenting this genealogical relationship, the late Ottoman historian Stanford Shaw also believed Rachel was jewish (Gamm, 2012).   
The Nasi family entered the Ottoman empire at quite a level of greatness, Brenner (2010) goes on to say that they were “esteemed and prosperous” and “certainly an exception”, but Brenner and others do not truly realize just how much of an exception, and just how much influence Dona Gracia and the Nasi family truly held in the Ottoman Empire.  They are not simply an example of the good will extended to the Jews by the Turks, they were key in its realization due to key roots laid in years previous to their arrival. 

The Sultanate of Women

“During [the] 1537 war on Paros, the Venetian born Rachel Olivia de Nasi was captured and taken to the royal harem of Prince Salim II of Istanbul and became his favorite wife.  She was seen as ‘The Princess of Light’ and renamed Nurbanu Sultan” (Matthews, 2013).  This is supported by the official court records for the Ottoman Empire (Shaw, 1976).  

The Sultanate of Women was when the women ruled the Ottoman Empire from behind the scenes.  It is a nearly 130 year period, between the 16th and 17th centuries, when the rulers of the Ottoman Empire were either considered weak, and not the decision makers, or minors, and unable to lead; in either case the women of the court truly held the reigns of power.  Nurbanu Sultan is listed as the first woman in this time period to be accorded such influence.  In the case of Nurbanu Sultan, her husband, Salim II, was not interested in ruling, and delegated to the people around him, including his mother and the grand vizier for advice, as well as his wife the Nurbanu Sultan  (Freely, 2011).   
At the Death of Salim II in 1574 Nurbanu was the most influential woman at court. The test of power at court was their grandeur of ceremonies, their works of charity, and public monuments and building, all these areas were dominated by the Nurbanu Sultan (Gamm, 2012 & Peirce, 1988).  The Nurbanu Sultan was known for her work with the jews, and her efforts in support of causes heavily funded by Jewish bankers.  An example of her power can be seen in her belonging to the: “[…] the “war” group led by Sokullu Mehmed Pasa who was being amply funded by Jewish bankers. The goal was to wrest Cyprus from Venetian control and stamp out pirates that were using the island as a base to attack shipping in the eastern Mediterranean.  Sultan Selim II’s wife, Safiye Sultan, who is thought to have been Venetian, seems to have been unable to counter Sokullu and Nurbanu’s influence in this matter” (Gamm, 2012).  One could imagine the bankers in question to be none other than the Nasi family.     

Nurbanu Sultan was known for having a modest number of individuals in her harem (Goodwin, 2013).  “Jewish women, such as Dona Gracia Mendes Nasi, known as La Seniora […] exercised considerable influence in the court […] These Jewish women crossed several boundaries in their service as they moved between the world outside the court and inside its hidden reaches, the harem.  In addition, their work allowed them to move between men and women.” (Zohar, 2005, 154).  Dona Gracia clearly had access to her cousin, the Nurbanu Sultan, and knowing the other efforts and achievements of Dona Gracia, one can only imagine just how influential she and the Nasi family were.  

Dona Gracia was not the only Jewess at court.  Another example was Lady Esther, a wife of a Rabbi, who was made a maid of honor to Nurbanu Sultan: “Esther kyra was one of a phenomenon of highly placed ladies in the Ottoman court […] They were known by the Greek title ‘kyra,’: ‘mistress’ or ‘lady’”.  This showed a strong network in place at court to support the work of the Nurbanu Sultan, Dona Gracia and the rest of the Nasi family (Zohar, 2005, 220).

Many scholars claim that the Nasi family lost influence at the Ottoman court with the death of Sultan Salim II, but this must be reexamined, as Nurbanu Sultan, Dona Gracia, and the rest of the Nasi family were able to secure their influence multi-generationally through the son of Nurbanu Sultan, Sultan Murad III.  As the story goes, to ensure an incident free transition of power, upon the death Salim II in 1574, his wife, Nurbanu Sultan, kept his death a secret for twelve days while her son returned to the capital from his governorship of Manisa.  She then became a key advisor to her son, and co-regent in partnership with the Grand Vizier Sokollu Mehmed Pasha from 1574 to 1583, and urned the title Valide Sultan, or Queen Mother (Lewis, 2001 & Freely, 2011). 

During her time as official regent, and before while pulling the reigns of power during the life of her husband, the Nurbanu Sultan not only helped to build up the Ottoman Empire, but also engaged in numerous positive actions on behalf of the jewish people.  It is no wonder then, when one begins to look at the successes of the Nasi family in the Ottoman Empire through lens of the ultimate power they were holding, it is no surprise that Dona Gracia would have both asked and been granted Tiberias and other lands, in the area of modern day Israel, by the Sultan.  This act, was the first concrete steps in modern history leading to the independent State of Israel many centuries later.
The Nasi family, and the influence they held at court went above and beyond the initial assumptions of most scholarly work.  The Nasi family clearly had access to the top echelons of the Ottoman Empire, and not simply because of their banking prowess.  The efforts of Dona Gracia, her nephew, and the Nurbanu Sultan, are inspirational, and a deeper scholarly look into the efforts of the Nasi family in the Ottoman Empire is needed.  


Brenner, M. (2010). A Short History of the Jews. Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ
Diaz-Mas, P. (1992). Sephardim: The Jews from Spain. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, IL

Feinberg, M.P. (2006). Hear Her Voice: Twelve Jewish Women Who Changed the World. Devora Publishing

Freely, J. (2011). A History of Ottoman Architecture, 1st Edition. WIT Press: Ashurst, Southampton

Gamm, N. (2012). “Death in the Topkapi Harem”. Hurriyet Daily News. Retrieved August 15, 2015 from:
Goodwin, G. (2013). The Private World of Ottoman Women. Saqi Books
Jewish Historical Society. (2003). Jewish Historical Studies: Transactions of the Jewish 

Historical Society of England. Journal of the Jewish Historical Society of England. 38-39
Lewis, B. (2001). The Muslim discovery of Europe, W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.

Peirce, L. (1988). “Shifting Boundaries: Images of Ottoman Royal Women in the 16th and 17th Centuries". Critical Matrix: Princeton Working Papers in Women's Studies.

Shaw, S.J. (1976). History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, Volume 1. Cambridge University Press: New York, NY
Terry, M. (2013) Reader’s Guide to Judaism. Routledge

Zohar, Z. (2005). Sephardic and Mizrahi Jewry: From the Golden Age of Spain to Modern Times. NYU Press: New York, NY


Baroness Stephanie de Sarachaga
Stephanie's passions for history, culture, and genealogy were fueled by her unique upbringing and perspective, as well has her rich heritage: a Mexican American with strong Basque, Sephardic, and Italian roots.  She never misses an opportunity to help educate people about their heritage. In addition, Stephanie dedicates her time to assisting researchers at institutions such as Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), as well as working on other initiatives to chronicle both mainstream and indigenous genealogies and histories. 
This passion for culture is not only for the past, but also for the present; with her business savvy and international public relations experience she has been key in the growth of a number of fashion and culture brands. Stephanie also champions the causes of women and children, with a focus on at-risk youth, both locally 
and internationally through her assistance of non-governmental organizations.  
Together with her husband, Yacov, they strives to achieve societal change through their activism and boutique strategic advisory firm. She is also the head 
of the non-regnant Basque dynasty of Sarachaga, Sarachaga-Bilbao, Sarachaga-MacMahon, Lobanov Rostovsky, and other cadet branches.  
When she is not traveling for business or pleasure, Stephanie enjoys pursuing her own love for fashion, 
and often designs what she wears.  

She can be seen with Yacov, their infant daughter, Ella, and dog, enjoying Philadelphia's green spaces on the weekends.  

Enquiries are welcome. 
To reach the author please email her private secretary at Gillian@casasarachaga  



Diego Fernández de Córdoba, 

Marquis of Guadalcázar, 

Viceroy of New Spain

By John Inclan

Diego Fernández de Córdoba y López de las Roelas, Marquis of Guadalcázar and Count of Posadas
(1578 – 6 October 1630), was Viceroy of Mexico from October 18, 1612 to March 14, 1621 and Viceroy of Peru from July 25, 1622 to January 14, 1629.

He was born in Seville, Andalucia, Spain to Don Francisco Fernandez de Cordova, 9th Lord of  Guadalcaza, and Lady Francisca Melgarejo de las Roelas

In 1598, aged 20, he was in Central Europe as an ambassador with a mandate to travel and bring back to Spain the 13- to 14-year-old orphaned bride Margaret of Austria (daughter of Archduke Charles II of Austria and Maria Ana of Bavaria), the first wife of Philip III, King of Spain.

For his service, he was awarded the title of Marquis.

He married Lady Maria Ana (Mariana) Riederer von Paar y Aham, the daughter of Johann Georg Riederer von Paar.and Maria Elizabeth von Aham.

From this union they had the following children:
1) Francisco Antonio Fernandez de Cordova, born June 22, 1611, in Madrid, Spain

Mariana Manuela Francisca Fernandez de Cordova, baptized in Mexico City, on January 27, 1613

Brianda Francisca Fernandez-Riedrer, baptized in Mexico City on February 02, 1614. 

Luisa Maria Fernandez-Riedrer, baptized in Mexico City, on  December 04, 1616.

This article is meant to be genealogical in nature.


domingo, 06 de septiembre de 2015

La historia de esta familia, cuyos descendientes hoy habitan en Saltillo, así como en diferentes ciudades de Coahuila y de México, tiene muchas connotaciones, ya que su origen se remonta a épocas de los años 900 y su origen fue vikingo.

Hay evidencias de su asentamiento en el barrio de Sertutxa, a 3 kilómetros de Gatika (54º), de los municipios del País Vasco en España.

Posteriormente, por los años de 1420 a 1540, algunas familias emigraron a ciudades cercanas, en particular a Bilbao, y en 1576 lo hicieron a la fundada ciudad de San Agustín, en la Florida, hoy de Estados Unidos, pero en ese tiempo perteneciente a España, y en ella vivieron varias generaciones hasta el año 1680.


Para conocer con más precisión sobre el origen de esta familia, es necesario remontarse al llamado "período vikingo", que es la denominación de la época histórica en la que existieron los vikingos y duró 278 años; desde el 789 hasta el 1066, es decir, entre finales del siglo VIII y mediados del siglo XI. Su lugar de origen fue las tierras de Escandinavia.

Desde allí llegaron a la mayor parte de Europa, sudoeste de Asia, norte de África y noreste de América. Sus objetivos eran distintos en los lugares a los que arribaban, como saquear, comerciar o colonizar.

Las fuentes para el estudio de los ataques vikingos a la Península Ibérica son casi exclusivamente escritas. No hay restos arqueológicos de procedencia vikinga en tierras peninsulares, excepto un objeto único que es la llamada "Cajita de San Isidoro", un curioso recipiente de forma cilíndrica con gran riqueza ornamental tallado en asta de ciervo, de 44 mm de altura y 33 mm de diámetro. Datado de finales del siglo X y se conserva en el Museo de la Colegiata de San Isidoro de León.

Se desconoce cómo llegó esta extraordinaria obra maestra del arte vikingo a dicho museo. Pudo haber sido tomada a algún miembro de una expedición vikinga que atacase las costas del norte de la Península Ibérica, o quizá se realizó aquí por algún vikingo hecho prisionero. La imagen tradicional que conservamos de los vikingos es la de una horda de guerreros sanguinarios, bandas de piratas feroces que aparecían a bordo de sus rápidos navíos para atacar monasterios indefensos y ricas ciudades, donde robaban cuanto encontraban de valor y dejaban a su paso una secuela de asesinatos y destrucción.

Sin embargo, aun siendo cierta, esa imagen no constituye toda la verdad y responde en gran medida a que durante mucho tiempo las investigaciones sobre vikingos se han centrado en estos aspectos negativos de sus actividades, dejando de lado sus cualidades positivas.

Eran a la vez tan refinados o tan brutales como cualquier pueblo de su tiempo. Los vikingos fueron también grandes marineros que abrieron a la navegación nuevas rutas, reactivaron el comercio de la época, colonizaron nuevas tierras y descubrieron nuevos mundos. Hay que tener en cuenta que las expediciones estaban formadas por una minoría de la población.

La gran mayoría permaneció en Escandinavia dedicada a las actividades comunes como la agricultura, ganadería, caza, pesca, el comercio y oficios artesanales.

Sabían apreciar los objetos de lujo, pues crearon un arte muy peculiar con motivos de gran complejidad; tenían escritura mediante runas, realizaron construcciones que ponían de relieve sus avanzados conocimientos en geometría y matemáticas y, como se ha indicado anteriormente, eran grandes marinos y navegantes.

Los motivos que impulsaron a los vikingos a llevar a cabo sus expediciones fueron muy distintos. Se pudieron conjugar, dependiendo del momento, circunstancias como la pobreza, el aumento de la población, la falta de tierras, la necesidad de dar salida a sus productos, el suministrar a los mercados escandinavos las manufacturas que no podían ser producidas en los países nórdicos por la falta de materia prima, la inestabilidad política, la presión de los reyezuelos locales, el afán de conquistar y poseer tierras, la creación de establecimientos de apoyo a lo largo de las rutas comerciales, el deseo de adquirir riqueza y posición social de un modo rápido, y por último, la curiosidad de descubrir nuevas tierras y navegar por otros mares.

El carácter de las expediciones vikingas no tuvo en su conjunto ninguna razón interna que tuviera suficiente fuerza para, por sí sola, haber puesto en marcha el fenómeno de la expansión vikinga. Los vikingos eran maestros en técnicas militares basadas en ataques por sorpresa, que les permitió enfrentarse con éxito a fuerzas teóricamente más potentes.

Para ello, aparte de poseer grandes cualidades guerreras y un espíritu audaz, precisaban de dotes organizativas y una rígida disciplina, cualidades que los vikingos poseían en un grado sumo. En contra de lo que en principio podría parecer, los contingentes vikingos no estaban compuestos por indisciplinadas bandas salvajes que atacaban y destruían todo lo que encontraban a su paso.

Por el contrario, poseían una compleja organización, que además contaba probablemente con una amplia red de informadores, debido a que solían conocer bastante las defensas de las ciudades que atacaban y los días en los que se celebraban mercados u otros eventos en donde el botín a conquistar sería más cuantioso.

Algunas expediciones se dirigieron al interior (350 kms).


Al permanecer durante varios años en la zona, los vikingos se dividieron en varios grupos. Algunos de ellos abandonaron la costa y llegaron hasta la zona de León. Unos de estos grupos, fueron los que posteriormente se asentaron en el barrio conocido actualmente como Sertutxa.

La localidad de Lordemanos hace suponer que alguno de estos grupos se instaló permanentemente en la zona.

Las primeras informaciones fidedignas que se tienen sobre los primitivos habitantes de estas tierras, citan a los vascones y proceden de fuentes romanas. Según parece, no sólo estuvieron establecidos en lo que hoy es el País Vasco, sino que también se extendieron a La Rioja, el bajo Jalón y el norte de Zaragoza. Sus vecinos más próximos eran los várdulos y los ilergetes.


Debido al aislamiento en el que vivieron durante siglos, es muy poco lo que se conoce de los Vascones. En lo que se refiere al idioma que hablaban, el vasco o vascuence, de orígenes también bastante confusos, se le considera una de las lenguas más antiguas del mundo. Por la documentación medieval, se sabe que en el siglo XIII se hablaba todavía en amplias zonas al sur del río Ebro (Burgos y La Rioja Alta), pero a partir de dicha época, el uso de esta lengua se fue reduciendo por la influencia ejercida por las lenguas vecinas, especialmente el castellano y así, en el año 1500, ya no se hablaba vasco en las zonas situadas en la ribera derecha del Ebro.

En los siglos VIII y IX, merced a la obra de algunos monasterios evangelizadores, penetró en Vasconia el cristianismo. A partir del siglo IX y sobre todo el XI, se registró un aumento demográfico que se tradujo en la fundación de nuevas poblaciones.

La aparición de estas villas llevó a la sociedad vasca ciertos aires de libertad, no muy bien aceptados por los señores feudales que trataron de someter a las villas, dominando a los hombres libres y despojaron a la Iglesia de sus diezmos, lo que produjo una sublevación de los despojados que, apoyados por el poder real, consiguieron derrotar a los señores recuperando parte de lo usurpado.

Con el descubrimiento de América y el final de las luchas sociales, la población comenzó a recuperarse y su crecimiento se prolongó hasta finales del siglo XVI. La conquista de América y las guerras que sostuvieron Carlos V y Felipe II, hicieron que la demanda de hierro, de navíos y de hombres aumentara, lo que se tradujo en una época de prosperidad económica para el País Vasco, al dar origen a muchos puestos de trabajo.

Las guerras carlistas motivadas por cuestiones políticas, religiosas y económicas repercutieron grandemente. Con el célebre "Abrazo de Vergara", entre el general liberal Espartero y el carlista Maroto, pusieron fin a aquel conflicto.

A partir del año 1840, se aceleró el progreso industrial vasco. Se modernizaron las viejas herrerías y se fueron creando nuevas industrias siderúrgicas. Esta industria se convirtió en la más importante de la nación, al tiempo que aumentaba la pujanza de su industria naval.

En el año 1902 se crearon los Altos Hornos de Vizcaya. Esta revolución industrial precisaba un gran número de mano de obra, lo que se cubrió gracias al campesinado vasco que emigraba hacia las zonas industriales.

Durante el primer tercio del siglo XX, Vizcaya se había convertido en la zona industrial que producía las tres cuartas partes del acero y la mitad del hierro de toda la península.


Antecedentes Históricos de la Batalla de Las Navas de Tolosa: Los musulmanes, las tropas de Alá, mantuvieron 780 años de presencia activa en la Península Ibérica.

Primero llegaron los Omeya de Damasco y se creó el Emirato dependiente de Damasco. Era el año 711, pero en el 756, la tremenda masacre producida por los Omeyas sobre los Abasidas de Bagdad, provocó que el príncipe de los errantes, el gran Abderramán I llegara a al-Ándalus y se creara el Emirato Independiente. Del Emirato se pasaría con Abderramán III al Califato de Córdoba.

Pasó el sultanato y empezaron a llegar sucesivas hordas fanáticas del Magreb. En 1085 llegaron los almorávides y un siglo más tarde llegaron los almohades, un imperio beréber norteafricano. Los almohades fueron unos defensores férreos de la fe. Contra ellos combatieron los reinos cristianos del norte peninsular.

En 1195 las tropas castellanas de Alfonso VIII sufrían una gravísima derrota a manos de los almohades; era el Alarcos, la última gran victoria musulmana en España. Alfonso VIII estuvo a punto de morir en la batalla, pero afortunadamente consiguió escapar con el apoyo de leales y preparó la venganza, preparó la contraofensiva.

La pérdida de Alarcos, extendió el dominio musulmán hasta los Montes de Toledo y el Valle del Tajo, amenazando a la propia ciudad de Toledo.

En 1212, el almohade Muhammand Al-Nasir, llamado por los cristianos "El Miramamolin", preparó un gran ejército amenazando a los reinos cristianos. Ambicionaba ocupar completamente la Península Ibérica.

El califa logró reunir un ejército de 125,000 soldados bien pertrechados y muy fanatizados. La caída de Salvatierra en manos de los almohades, alarmó a toda Europa.

De españa a Florida y de Florida a Saltillo

Es por el año 1576 cuando Esteban de las Alas (hijo de Rodrigo de las Alas y María de Valdés), en uno de sus múltiples viajes al nuevo mundo viaja a la Florida con su hija Catarina de Miranda de las Alas y su esposo Juan Sertucha Curbano, nacido en 1551 en Bilbao.

Ellos fueron los padres de Mateo Sartucha Miranda (en realidad de las Alas), que nace en abril de 1581 y se casa en 1602 con Isabel de Arango (hija de Pedro Menéndez Márquez y Mayora Arango), bisabuelos del Sangrento Mayor Juan Salvador Sartucha Zigarroa, el cual emigró a Saltillo, Coahuila, México, haciendo compañía a su tío Juan Zigarroa Ponce de León, quien se casa con la viuda de Juan Echevarría, ex gobernador del Nuevo Reino de León, Ana Juliana de Zepeda. Tomaría posesión de alcalde 2º, de Saltillo en 1684 y 1º en 1685.

Juan Salvador Sartucha Zigarroa, queda al mando del capitán Juan Galindo se casa con Jerónima Galindo Sánchez Navarro, los cuales tuvieron cinco hijos, uno de ellos Juan José, quien fue de los colonizadores de San Antonio de Bexar y lo mataron los indios, por lo cual no tuvo descendencia, nació en 1699; Jose Nicolás nació en 1694; José (se fue de sacerdote), nació en 1691; Ignacio Javier nació en 1698; Jerónimo nació en 1699.

De estas tres familias se tiene la descendencia para los interesados, en la página web 


Trauma May Be Woven Into DNA of Native Americans 
by Mary Annette Pember

Trauma is big news these days. Mainstream media is full of stories about the dramatic improvements allowing science to see more clearly how trauma affects our bodies, minds and even our genes. Much of the coverage hails the scientific connection between trauma and illness as a breakthrough for modern medicine. The next breakthrough will be how trauma affects our offspring.

The science of epigenetics, literally “above the gene,” proposes that we pass along more than DNA in our genes; it suggests that our genes can carry memories of trauma experienced by our ancestors and can influence how we react to trauma and stress. The Academy of Pediatrics reports that the way genes work in our bodies determines neuroendocrine structure and is strongly influenced by experience. [Neuroendocrine cells help the nervous and endocrine (hormonal) system work together to produce substances such as adrenaline (the hormone associated with the fight or flight response.] Trauma experienced by earlier generations can influence the structure of our genes, making them more likely to “switch on” negative responses to stress and trauma.

In light of this emerging science and how it works with the way we react to trauma, the AAP stated in its publication, Adverse Childhood Experiences and the Lifelong Consequences of Trauma, “Never before in the history of medicine have we had better insight into the factors that determine the health of an individual from infancy to adulthood, which is part of the life course perspective—a way of looking at life not as disconnected stages but as integrated across time,” according to the AAP in their recent publication examining the role of Adverse Childhood Experience (ACES) on our development and health. The now famous 1998 ACES study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Kaiser Permanente showed that such adverse experiences could contribute to mental and physical illness.

“Native healers, medicine people and elders have always known this and it is common knowledge in Native oral traditions,” according to LeManuel “Lee” Bitsoi, Navajo, PhD Research Associate in Genetics at Harvard University. (Courtesy SACNAS)“Native healers, medicine people and elders have always known this and it is common knowledge in Native oral traditions,” according to LeManuel “Lee” Bitsoi, Navajo, PhD Research Associate in Genetics at Harvard University. (Courtesy SACNAS)

Folks in Indian country wonder what took science so long to catch up with traditional Native knowledge. “Native healers, medicine people and elders have always known this and it is common knowledge in Native oral traditions,” according to LeManuel “Lee” Bitsoi, Navajo, PhD Research Associate in Genetics at Harvard University during his presentation at the Gateway to Discovery conference in 2013.

According to Bitsoi, epigenetics is beginning to uncover scientific proof that intergenerational trauma is real. Historical trauma, therefore, can be seen as a contributing cause in the development of illnesses such as PTSD, depression and type 2 diabetes.

What exactly is historical or intergenerational trauma? Michelle M. Sotero, an instructor in Health Care Administration and Policy at the University of Nevada, offers a three-fold definition. In the initial phase, the dominant culture perpetrates mass trauma on a population in the form of colonialism, slavery, war or genocide. In the second phase the affected population shows physical and psychological symptoms in response to the trauma. In the final phase, the initial population passes these responses to trauma to subsequent generations, who in turn display similar symptoms.

According to researchers, high rates of addiction, suicide, mental illness, sexual violence and other ills among Native peoples might be, at least in part, influenced by historical trauma. Bonnie Duran, associate professor in the Department of Health Services at the University of Washington School of Public Health and Director for Indigenous Health Research at the Indigenous Wellness Research Institute says, “Many present-day health disparities can be traced back through epigenetics to a “colonial health deficit,” the result of colonization and its aftermath.”

According to the American Indian and Alaska Native Genetics Research Guide created by the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI), studies have shown that various behavior and health conditions are due to inherited epigenetic changes.

Authors of the guide refer to a 2008 study by Moshe Szyf at McGill University in Montreal that examined the brains of suicide victims. Szyf and his team found that genes governing stress response in the victim’s hippocampus had been methylated or switched off. Excessive trauma causes us to produce hormones called glucocorticoids which can alter gene expression. Chronic exposure to this hormone can inhibit genes in the hippocampus ability to regulate glucocorticoids. Szyf suggested that the genes were switched off in response to a series of events, such as abuse during childhood. All victims in the study were abused as children.

Nature or Nurture? It’s Both!

Szyf, in collaboration with another scientist at McGill, Neurobiologist Michael Meaney, did research showing a significant difference in the hippocampus between adults rats raised by attentive and inattentive mothers. Adult offspring of inattentive rat mothers showed genes regulating sensitivity to stress to be highly methylated. The rats with attentive moms did not.

To test their research they switched the parents for rat babies born to bad and good mothers. The babies born to attentive moms but given to inattentive moms also developed highly methylated genes and grew to be skittish adults. The opposite proved true for babies born to bad moms but given to good moms. As adults the rat babies born to bad moms but raised by good mothers appeared calm.

This research seems to combine the historically polarizing theory of nature versus nurture in determining behavior. Nature is that which is inherited while nurture is the environmental influences.

Native researcher Teresa Brockie PhD, Research Nurse Specialist at the National Institute of Health suggests that such gene methylation is linked to health disparities among Native Americans. In her article in Nursing and Research and Practice, she and her research colleagues note that high ACE’s (Adverse Childhood Experience) scores have been linked to methylation of genes that regulate the stress response. They further noted that endocrine and immune disorders are also linked to methylation of such genes.

The researchers found that Native peoples have high rates of ACE’s and health problems such as posttraumatic stress, depression and substance abuse, diabetes all linked with methylation of genes regulating the body’s response to stress. “The persistence of stress associated with discrimination and historical trauma converges to add immeasurably to these challenges,” the researchers wrote.

Since there is a dearth of studies examining these findings, the researchers stated they were unable to conclude a direct cause between epigenetics and high rates of certain diseases among Native Americans.

One of researchers, Dr. Jessica Gill, Principal Investigator, Brain Injury Unit, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Nursing Research wrote in response to questions to the NIH’s public affairs office, “Epigenetic studies provide a unique opportunity to characterize the long-term impact of stressors including historical trauma on the function of genes. The modification of gene function through epigenetic modifications can greatly impact the health of the individual and may underlie some of the health disparities that we observe in populations including Native Americans. This line of research is of great promise for nurse scientists, as it will be instrumental in the promotion of the health and well-being of patients impacted by trauma and stress.”

Although epigenetics offers the hope of creating better and more specific medicines and interventions for mental health problems, it also suggests the notion that Native peoples and other ethnic groups may be genetically inferior.

Researchers such as Shannon Sullivan, professor of philosophy at UNC Charlotte, suggests in her article “Inheriting Racist Disparities in Health: Epigenetics and the Transgenerational Effects of White Racism,” that the science has faint echoes of eugenics, the social movement claiming to improve genetic features of humans through selective breeding and sterilization.

Inherited Resilience

Epigenetics is indeed a hot topic, and pharmaceutical companies are actively searching for epigenetic compounds that will help with learning and memory and help treat depression, anxiety and PTSD.

Many researchers caution, however, that the new science may be getting ahead of itself. “There is a lot of research that needs to be done before we will understand whether and how these processes work,” says Joseph Gone, professor at the University of Michigan and member of the Gros Ventre tribe of Montana.

Scientific developments such as epigenetics can offer exciting new insights not only into how our bodies react not only to trauma but also how we manage to survive it.

Native peoples ability to maintain culture and sense of who they are in the face of such a traumatic history suggests an inherited resilience that bears scientific examination as well, according to Gone.

Isolating and nurturing a resilience gene may well be on the horizon.

This project is made possible by support from The Rosalynn Carter Fellowships for Mental Health Journalism and Annenberg School for Communications and Journalism, University of Southern California; the Dennis A. Hunt Fund for Health Journalism.



Descendants of Diego de Villarreal 
New FamilySearch Collections Update: September 8, 2015


Welcome to the genealogy of the Descendants of Diego de Villarreal, Bernabe de las Casas, Juan Navarro, Francisco de Urdinola, Gutierrez, Galvan, Loya, Trevino, Cavazos, Balli and Longoria families of South Texas and Northern Mexico. 

All the information is a combination of Personal genealogical research, oral histories, and information compiled by many other individuals. It may not be perfect but it is my attempt to help spread the cultural heritage of this area.  

Website of Danny Villarreal 
Sent by John Inclan 


New FamilySearch Collections Update: September 8, 2015

 New and old worlds collide in this extended collections update. View your Italian roots with the Italy Cremona Civil Registration (State Archive) 1744-1942 and Italy Bergamo Civil Registration (State Archive) 1866-1901 added collections. Or discover your Texas roots through 1.3 million new marriage records added to the Texas County Marriage Index 1837-1977 collection. See the table below for additional records added this week.






Arizona Douglas Arrival Manifests 1906-1955



Added indexed records to an existing collection

Brazil Pernambuco Civil Registration 1804-2014



Added indexed records to an existing collection

California San Francisco County Records 1824-1997



Added indexed records to an existing collection

Illinois Cook County Birth Certificates 1871-1940



Added indexed records to an existing collection

Italy Bergamo Civil Registration (State Archive) 1866-1901



Added indexed records to an existing collection

Italy Cremona Civil Registration (State Archive) 1744-1942



Added indexed records to an existing collection

Peru Lima Civil Registration 1874-1996



Added images to an existing collection

Texas County Marriage Index 1837-1977



Added indexed records and images to an existing collection

Texas Naturalization Records 1906-1989



Added indexed records and images to an existing collection

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Latina scholar excels at Savannah State University By John Newton
Trinidad Garza Early College High School
The Million Father March Parade by Claudia Vargas
2016 Edition of The National Latino & American Indian Scholarship Directory

Latina scholar excels at Savannah State University 
By John Newton

Historically, Latino students in the U.S. have lagged behind other ethnic groups in post-secondary academic achievement. Reasons for this disparity range from a lack of financial support to inadequate college preparation during high school years. But today, there are many scholarships and academic programs available to help these students achieve their full potential.

Tiffany Villanueva got her first career aspirations as a child watching detective shows on TV. “I was always fascinated by the forensic scientists who found hidden clues to solve crimes,” she said. “I was intrigued that you could use science to solve puzzles.”

Villanueva was born in Savannah but Spanish is her first language and her Puerto Rican family returned to Aguada, on the island's west coast, when she was a small child. In Puerto Rico, she excelled in academics, especially math and science and they moved back to Savannah when she entered the 9th grade.
“Learning English was a real challenge when I returned to Savannah,” she said. “I give lots of credit to my teachers at Windsor Forest for helping me that first year back in the states.”

When Villanueva graduated from Savannah's Jenkins High School in 2012, she enrolled in Savannah State University (SSU), one of the few four-year institutions in Georgia offering a degree in Forensic Science.
“I was blessed to receive some really great scholarships when I started college, including grants from the Hispanic Scholarship Fund (HSF) and the National Institute of Health (NIH) which has given me funds to attend summer internships each summer,” she said.

Last year, Villanueva completed a 10-week laboratory immersion program at the University of Massachusetts Medical School and this summer she completed a 9-week internship at Princeton
University where she conducted molecular biology research focused on fruit flies and the genes that play a role in cell migration.

“Last year's internship was especially interesting because it's “real-world” application is designed to help people suffering from ALS, a motor neuron disorder also known as Lou Gehrig's Disease,” she said. 
Graduate school will be the next stop for this budding scientist.
“You can't get a Ph.D in forensic science, “ she said. “But I can get my Master's degree then decide if I want to continue in that field or switch to biochemistry for my doctorate.”

This past spring, Villanueva became the founding president of the SSU chapter of the Hispanic Scholarship Fund. Savannah State University is the first Historically Black College or University to have a campus chapter for this program which donates close to $40 million in scholarships to Hispanic students each year.
“I'm grateful to Savannah State for the opportunities they've given me,” she said. “They are working very hard to make this campus welcoming to Latinos and students of all backgrounds.”

Savannah State University's Forensic Science program is a four-year, interdisciplinary degree program that prepares graduates for positions in toxicology, law enforcement, criminal justice, and forensic science labs.
For more information, please contact the department office at 912-358-4435. 

Sent by Dorinda Moreno

Trinidad Garza Early College High School


Más no la guardaré. 
A todos la daré. 
Para ti, Juventud, mi mejor canto elevaré. 
Toda América llena mis ojos de visiones.
Toda América llena mis labios de canciones. 

(Fragmento- Toda América-Gastón Figueira)

We wanted to share the following story, which is not about us, but about the students we teach. During the questioning part of day’s lesson, we asked multiple students about their future plans. To our surprise, most of them were uncertain between either pursuing a career as engineers or pursuing a career as medical doctors. It was extraordinarily unusual for us to hear what they wanted to become and do with their lives because many of them are labeled “at risk” students. 

As we looked around, we noticed that almost 95% of our students are Hispanics. Hearing that they wanted to become medical doctors and/or engineers, my first thought and immediate response to them was, “This isn’t enough!” We explained to them that our most important contribution and responsibility is to help develop our communities regardless of race or ethnic backgrounds. We must uplift, help, develop an awareness of, embrace and understand our beautiful cultures.” 

These students reacted with a look of amazement and surprise. Facing poverty, immigration issues, lack of support, and everything in between that being a teenager could bring to the table, these kids will soon reach adulthood stage. Not only is their behavior extraordinary, to me, in terms of taking responsibility for their actions, but it is simply amazing to know that they are so hungry for knowledge. 

Our Early College program’s mission aims at guiding our students to graduate with a high school diploma and become college ready with at least 60 college credits towards an Associate’s degree. We work diligently to make sure our students have a safe and inviting learning environment that embraces both academic rigor and flexibility towards all the challenges these kids face in order to guide them to a better future. 

In most cases, these students’ families are relying on them as their sole hope to overcoming the many harsh and negative challenges they, as a family, have faced or are currently facing. Whether they were born in the US or not, many of their problems and or challenges are the same. It baffles us how everyone is mainly focused on looking to the North, while forgetting how diverse, multicultural and historic the South really is. So we asked ourselves, “How can we, as educators and as a society, ensure that our children reach into their soul and connect with their heritage?” 

Many of these students do not know where they come from. Some of their parents deny them the knowledge and the beauty of their culture. Much of the negative connotations that have been created towards immigration have resulted in many misunderstandings, barriers, unnecessary fears and cultural gaps between Hispanic generations. In our opinion, one month for Hispanic Heritage awareness is simply not enough. 

It is our responsibility to immerse these kids into their own cultural roots. It is our endeavor to make sure Hispanics become professionals and create organizations and world efforts that promote the Hispanic and Latino heritage. We are here to guarantee that; we owe this to our future generations. 

However, many challenges arise on a daily basis. So we ask, “How committed are you? How can you become part of it? What are we doing about this?” Many students will reach a position of authority very soon. “Does that imply that we, as a race, are becoming more empowered?” The answer is, “Yes.”. But how can we make sure our America (as a continent) continues to shine in our future dreams? Our school and staff, “Are we working hard to get these kids ready for the future?” Do they really know how far can they go in this global market and economy by being bi-literate?” 

When my principal asked us to write these words, we had no idea how to spread the power of the “Garza Way.” Latin America is evolving, and these “new” Latinos, will keep the continent alive with a bright future for all. We are on our way to greatness and the kids will bring the change. 

We went home that day, and asked ourselves, “Are we hallucinating? Is this really happening? Are they really Hispanic students?” The answer is, “Yes!”   It was on that particular day that our cultural metamorphosis began. 

Authors:  Michael A. Latorre-Quevedo and Elizabeth Arévalo
World Languages Department
Trinidad “Trini” Early College High School
Mountain View College, Dallas-Texas,

Sent by Michael A. Latorre-Quevedo
Trinidad Garza Early College High School

Trinidad "Trini" Garza

It is a certainty that all schools have a distinct culture that identifies them other schools; however, the culture of Trini Garza is the foundation for its successes. Our students understand learning is the reward of tenacity and perseverance We are a school where collaboration and teamwork of ALL staff propel students to their highest academic levels. We take average students and make them extraordinary through continuous planning, data driven instruction, and regular professional development. The most unique characteristic of the school is that we are housed on Mountain View College campus, so students experience actual college courses rather than dual-enrollment courses contained in a high school setting. This experience better prepares students college success upon graduation. Nearly half of our students graduate with a diploma and a two year college degree. This alone makes our school exceptional because many of these students might not attend college if attending a comprehensive high school. The students, teachers, administrators, staff and parents work together for student achievement - we realize that 'A high tide raises ALL boats'.   Submitted by a teacher.  From website: 

Contact: Delia Gonzalez Huffman

The Million Father March Parade

By Claudia Vargas, September 1, 2015

A group of activists wants inner-city fathers to walk their children to school Tuesday, the first day of class, as part of a national campaign organized by the Black Star Project to get fathers involved in their children's education.

The campaign is part of the now-annual Million Father March, which started in Chicago in 2004 and has spread to hundreds of cities. In Philadelphia, this is its eighth year.  The goal of the campaign is to get fathers from all over the city to go with their children to school and meet the teachers and principal.

"Young people do better with parental involvement," said David Fattah, head of the House of Umoja, the West Philadelphia organization coordinating the march. "It can eliminate violence; it can eliminate poverty."

Fattah said the hope is that the fathers who take their child to school on the first day will remain committed to that child's education.

"The point of this is to ring the bell and wake up urban males," Councilman Curtis Jones Jr. said at Tuesday's announcement at City Hall. The Million Father March has mostly targeted black males in urban areas.

Karen James, the Philadelphia School District's director for family and community engagement, said that she would love for the fathers of all 180,000 students in the district to participate in their child's first day. However, she said, she expects, based on previous years, that only a couple hundred fathers will. 

Kaleaf Wiggins, 26, is a father who plans to walk his 8-year-old daughter to Overbrook School on Tuesday. "This father thing actually excites me," Wiggins said during the announcement in City Hall. Wiggins said that his daughter's grades had been slipping last year, but once he started helping her and showing interest in her schoolwork, her grades started improving. "I know the difference it makes when a father steps in," Wiggins said.

For more information on the Black Star Project, go to: 

The 2016 Edition of The National Latino & American Indian Scholarship Directory
 Selected by the White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanics 
as a Bright Spot in Hispanic education
September 15, 2015

During the past three years, The National Latino & American Indian Scholarship Directory has been published in book and searchable DVD editions by Latino Literacy Now, a 501c3 nonprofit corporation. This coming November, the Scholarship Directory, the most comprehensive source for Latino and American Indian students to find financing for college, will also be available electronically on its own website!

The Directory includes profiles from more than 2,100 sources providing more than $900 million to help students finance college education. 
It also provides hundreds of useful tips to help students prepare for college, successfully apply for scholarships, make career choices and gain cultural and other insights.

Latino Literacy Now is seeking sponsorships for the Directory to make it available for free to nonprofit national Latino and American Indian organizations, as well as to Hispanic Serving Institutions of higher learning that reach Latino and American Indian youth pursuing a college education.

Latino Literacy Now was co-founded by actor Edward James Olmos and Kirk Whisler. Andres Tobar, former executive director of the National Association of Hispanic Publications, and veteran journalist Kevin Kennedy are working with corporations and organizations interested in sponsoring the Scholarship Directory. If interested in sponsorship opportunities, please contact

Carlsbad, CA--The National Latino & American Indian Scholarship Directory has been selected by the White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanics as a Bright Spot in Hispanic education. The selection of The Scholarship Directory was announced on September 15, 2015 in Washington, DC, where it is being included in a national online.catalog with 230 other programs investing in education for Hispanics. The National Latino & American Indian Scholarship Directory was honored in three key areas for it's work:
  1. College Access for Latino Youth
  2. Efforts to Help Latino Youth Complete College
  3. Programs to Encourage Latinos Into The STEM Fields
The Scholarship Directory includes over 2,000 sources of financial aid available to Latinos, with a combined total of almost $1 billion. Over the years, corporations including McDonalds, Chrysler, General Motors and Wal-Mart have supported the Scholarship Directory. In November 2015, the Scholarship Directory will become available electronically on a major new website. 
"Today, when student loan debt in the U.S. is over $1 trillion and when more than three million Latinos are attending college, it is critical to promote a Scholarship Directory that gives Latino students access to all the resources available to get an education without mortgaging their future" stated Andres Tobar, Co-publisher of the Scholarship Directory.
From the time the Scholarship Directory was first published in 1997, more than 200,000 students have had access to it. It has been distributed in hard copies, CDs and DVDs to national Latino organizations, including NCLR, LULAC, HACU and NAHP. Initially, it was published by the National Association of Hispanic Publications when Andres Tobar was its Executive Director and Kirk Whisler was its publisher. Today, they continue to work together under the auspices of Latino Literacy Now, a 501©3 organization chaired by Edward James Olmos. To become involved in this effort, please contact Andres Tobar at 202-841-7988 or email

Sent by Kirk Whisler


Emilia Otero and the Rise of the Food Truck
How the Afro-Peruvian cajón entered flamenco  by Eve A. Ma, Ph.D.

The Magic of Words in Bless Me, Ultima by Felipe de Ortego y Gasca, Ph.D.
Apab‟yan Tew Temoatzin Project Biography


   Emilia Otero, Oakland, CA
  Source: Sam Wolson for OZY

Emilia Otero and the Rise of the Food Truck

Hours before Emilia Otero wakes up, her workday has already begun. Starting at 3 a.m., a dozen people sweat over pots and pans, cooking up a storm in Otero's industrial kitchen, La Placita, in Oakland, California. These are the cooks staffing the city's most popular street carts. When the petite 67-year-old finally saunters through the door at 9:30 a.m. to sweep and clean, the leftover smells of tamales and falafel linger. Doesn't sound much like the start of an activist's morning, does it?
Though Otero runs a kitchen, her days involve more rabble-rousing than stirring. Otero is concerned about the future of her vendor friends' profession, and she wants to secure it before it's too late. Selling food on the streets has long been a crucial stepping stone for poor immigrants, and the product is a newly fashionable treat for many young urbanites. The whole thing adds up to an industry set to reach $2.7 billion in the U.S. by 2017. But surprisingly, those carts are illegal in many places. Otero's demand: Legalize street vending in her hometown of 400,000. The sprightly, partially blind grandmother of 21 squabbles with police, restaurant owners and skeptical city politicians alike to change that barrier.

Otero faces a legal history dating back almost a century. It begins in the lead-up to WWI, as war production swung into high gear and retail went from sidewalk to storefront. ("Peddler" as a profession was no longer listed in the U.S. census as of 1940.) But as job-seekers arrived in the U.S. in the decades following - many from Latin America - plenty found themselves without the means to wrangle a formal job. So they took to the streets to make a living. Oakland, especially, became home to immigrants of all persuasions: Latinos, Asians, Africans, Middle Easterners. And many began vending food illegally. Fast-forward to 2001, when Otero pushed through a city ordinance legalizing the practice in a few select neighborhoods. Now, the city has about 200 vendors total.

Nationwide, a host of cities have already opened up their streets; street vending is legal and less regulated in neighboring San Francisco, and up north, food trucks have put Portland, Oregon, on the culinary map. Otero's counterparts in New York are battling a litany of rules, including off-limit zones and a cap on street-food permits that restricts the number of legal vendors to 3,000 citywide. 

In Oakland, at least, Otero says vendors can start up their businesses relatively cheaply: $4,000 will buy a decent used pushcart. With that, you can expect to bring home upward of $200 a day, says Otero. A savvy entrepreneur can upgrade his or her cart about every two years until landing a food trailer, a more permanent setup, for $80,000. With the more official digs, you can bring home up to $1,000 a day, says Otero. For Sara Santay, a client of Otero's who has a trailer of her own, that's enough to put her two kids through university.

But vendors can't always compete with their brick-and-mortar counterparts. Last May, a half-dozen restaurateurs met with city council members and health officials to air grievances against street vendors supposedly stealing customers. Otero caught wind of the gathering just hours before ("I was so mad"). She burst through the doors and made it very clear that she thinks street vending is not hurting the restaurants' bottom lines. The Oakland Food Policy Council concurred, saying street food helps restaurateurs by boosting overall foot traffic in the area. But Mark Everton, co-founder of the Oakland Restaurant Association, says street vendors are able to "skirt" a lot of regulations - like random inspections, restrictions on hours, pay and taxes - because they are more difficult to track.

As Otero speaks, you hear a practiced storyteller at work. It makes sense, then, that the Tijuana native's hobby is writing short stories and plays, many for kids. "There's a good reason I call her mom," says Ehsan Nali, an Afghan-American street food vendor based in East Oakland. But then there's also her penchant for referring to herself in the third person. Raised in the era of Cesar Chavez activism by politicians in Baja California, Mexico, Otero has had a boss only once in her life - while picking strawberries for a few months under a battering San Diego sun after the birth of her first daughter. But when the field owner made unwarranted sexual advances on the then 22-year-old, she quit on the spot. She recounts, in that famous third person: "Emilia Otero has a long history of being in charge … and now, she does everything on her own."

Which may be problematic. Because successful organizing requires making partnerships, and that usually means sacrifices and compromises - something Otero isn't hugely fond of. She may score the last laugh against her restaurant-owner "enemies," but laughs aren't legislation. "I'm not sure her enthusiasm alone can win the day," says Alfonso Morales, a professor of urban and regional planning at the University of Wisconsin.

At any rate, she's indefatigable. Up next? A huge public march on Oakland City Hall. All her world's a stage.

Video by Tom Gorman. 
This OZY encore was originally published Jan. 30, 2015.
Top Image Source: Sam Wolson for OZY 
Sent by Dorinda Moreno 


Lalo Izquierdo

How the Afro-Peruvian cajón entered flamenco  by Eve A. Ma  

If you are either a flamenco aficionado or a cajón enthusiast, here’s a story that you will enjoy.


I consider myself fortunate to have a friend, Lalo Izquierdo, who is a master of the Afro-Peruvian cajón (or, if you will, the Peruvian cajón)., a percussion instruments that you see in almost every Afro-Peruvian performance, in much of Latin jazz, in other styles of jazz and in modern flamenco.


Lalo is a percussionist, a dancer, a choreographer and a folklorist of his Afro-Peruvian community.  He lives in Lima, but has spent many months in the United States.  I have seen – and filmed – him in both places.


Once, he told me a story about how the Afro-Peruvian cajón became incorporated into flamenco.  He said that he along with others, including Caitro Soto, were enjoying themselves in an after-performance party for Paco de Lucía, a seminal flamenco guitarist then on tour in Peru.  Lao, Caitro Soto and others started playing the cajón and Paco de Lucía came over. 

Paco was very, very interested.  He wanted to know more about the instrument and its capacities.  At some point, Caitro Soto offered him one, and he accepted.  Later, he purchased another one.


When I told this story to some flamenco friends, they said “we heard a different story” and recounted how Paco de Lucías’s percussionist (a palmero who did the hand-clapping that is the usual accompaniment for traditional flamenco) went to Perú where he “discovered” the cajón, bought one, and brought it back to Spain. 


Well, I was surfing YouTube one day, and happened across this video in which Paco de Lucía confirms Lalo’s story:



For those of you who can read Spanish, this interview with Caitro Soto adds more detail.


Lalo muestrade cajón



Apparently, el Comercio, a newspaper in Lima, arranged for Paco de Lucía to explain how he learned about the cajón by watching Caitro Soto (and others) at an after-party, and then purchased one, which he gave to his percussionist. 

According to Paco, it was easier for flamenco percussionists to use the cajón than to do the traditional palmas (hand clapping), which is why the cajón caught on so rapidly.




So there you have it.  



Author Eve A. Ma is the producer/director of two documentaries about Afro-Peruvian music & dance LINK #4.  Lalo Izquierdo appears in both.  Author Ma also dances flamenco.


LINK #4 

The Magic of Words in Bless Me, Ultima

Presented at a Symposium on Folk Medicine, Western New Mexico University, November 11, 2010; Posted on Somos en Escrito: the Latino Literary online magazine, November 30, 2010; excerpted in the El Paso Times, Living Section and the Las Cruces Sun News, September 9, 2012; Presented as the National Endowment for the Arts Big Read Lecture at the Albuquerque Public Library, November 10, 2012.

By Felipe de Ortego y Gasca

Scholar in Residence/Past Chair, Department of Chicana/Chicano and Hemispheric Studies, Western New Mexico University


Author’s Note about Curanderismo: While some aspects of curanderismo, such as using folk remedies for minor illness, are practiced at home, many people seek out specially trained folk healers called curanderos (male healers) or curanderas (female healers). Curanderos’ knowledge of healing may be passed down from close relatives or learned through apprenticeships with experienced healers. In some cases, their healing powers may be described as a divine gift received later in life. Most curanderos say that their ability to heal involves divine energy being channeled through their bodies.

In addition to the curanderos, there are yerberos (herbalists), parteras (midwives), and sobadores or sobadoras (who use massage, bone manipulation, acupressure, etc.), each of whom treat more specific or limited problems. All of these healers may use herbs in addition to their other treatment methods.

Proponents claim curanderismo can be used to treat a wide range of social, spiritual, psychological, or physical problems, including headache, gastrointestinal distress, back pain, and fever, as well as anxiety, irritability, fatigue, and depression. Bad luck, marital discord, and illnesses caused by “loss of spirit” may be treated by curanderos or curanderas. Treatment may involve physical, spiritual, and mental approaches.  


o name in Chicano literature is as well known as Rudolfo Anaya’s, earning him the sobriquet of “Godfather of Chicano Literature.” It’s not an undeserved recognition, for indeed Anaya has advanced awareness of Chicano literature as no other writer has. This is not to diminish the literary contributions of other Chicana/o writers.

When I received the Patricia and Rudolfo Anaya Crítica Nueva Award from the University of New Mexico in 2005, Rudy commented at dinner that night that I did not mention him in my study of Backgrounds of Mexican American Literature. To which I reminded him that he was not yet published when I was completing Backgrounds of Mexican American Literature (Uni­versity of New Mexico, 1971), though he had been writing throughout the 60's. He came into his literary maturity towards the end of the Chicano Renaissance (1966-1975) and quick­ly dominated the field with a string of literary works.

His most remarkable work in that string of literary production is undoubtedly Bless Me, Ultima, his first novel, about a seven-year-old boy coming to terms with life in the New Mexican world of the llano in the years right after World War II. Since its publication in 1972, the novel has been beset with criticism about its content and its characters, namely that its content is vulgar and its characters—especially Ultima—as gross depictions of witchcraft and Satanism, resulting in the book being banned and burned.

Why would anyone want to burn a book about a seven year-old boy growing up in the llanos of New Mexico whose father wants him to be a rancher and whose mother wants him to be a priest? More distressingly, however, is that those who want to burn the book are Americans. Despite the barrage of adverse criticism, Bless Me, Ultima has become an American classic and a “family favorite of Laura Bush, one of her 25 Books to Read.”

In Norwood, Colorado, in 2005, Bob Condor, Superintendent of Schools, granted the request of parents to burn in a bonfire Bless Me, Ultima which had become the center of a brouhaha at Norwood High School over “profanity” in the text and its “pagan content.” Justifying his actions for burning the most influential novel in Chicano literature, Condor said, “That’s not the kind of garbage I want to sponsor at this high school.” Never mind that he had not read it. In 1981, Bless Me, Ultima was burned in Bloomfield, New Mexico.

Bless Me, Ultima is a novel about a young boy, Antonio, and his quest for knowl­edge and self-identity as reflected by the nar­rator years later. In many ways, Antonio’s story in Bless Me, Ultima is similar to Holden Caufield’s story in Catcher in the Rye, a story of self-discovery. In Bless Me, Ultima, Anaya sketches the perils of youth and Antonio’s struggle to make sense of a world peopled by adults whose behavior runs counter to social and religious injunctions.

Bless Me, Ultima is one of those rare works that surface into consciousness as one reflects on the story of Antonio Marez and his remarkable relationship with Ultima, the curandera who comes to live with the Marez family the sum­mer when Antonio is almost seven. With the help of her owl, Ultima re­moves the blinders, as it were, from Antonio’s eyes so he can see and come to terms with the world as it is and not the way it is not. This clarity of mind is one of the essential tenets of curanderismo, particularly of its aim as holistic healing.

As a curandera, a healer, Ultima is a mentor to Antonio, teaching him about “the pulse of the earth and its beauty.” Like Minerva of the Romans, Ultima’s owl is not a creature of witchery but a symbol of knowledge, of learning, which is why when the owl is killed in the novel by Tenorio, Ultima instructs Antonio to bury the owl in the western hills beneath a forked juniper tree. Ultima also explains to Antonio:

“When I was a child, I was taught my life’s work by a wise old man. He gave me the owl and he said that the owl was my spirit, my bond to the time and harmony of the universe. My work was to do good. I was to heal the sick and show them the path of goodness. But I was not to interfere with the destiny of any man. Those who wallow in evil and brujería [witchcraft] cannot understand this. They create a disharmony that in the end reaches out and destroys life.”

Curanderismo is thus about the maintenance of harmony, ferreting out the disharmony which destroys life. As a curandera, Ultima could exorcize evil. She could perform limpias, that is, cleanse homes of spiritual impurities. And as a partera (midwife), she helped deliver all of Antonio’s siblings which is why Ultima has come to live with Antonio’s family when they learn of Ultima’s straits in her old age. At Antonio’s first contact with Ultima, la Grande (the elder) as she was called, he felt the power of the whirlwind sweep around him when he grasped her hand to help her into the house on that day when she first came to live with Maria Luna and Gabriel Marez when Antonio was almost 7.

In that moment when Antonio met Ultima, he saw for the first time through the eyes of Ultima, as she swept her gaze at the surrounding hills, the wild beauty of the hills and the magic of the green river. His nostrils quivered as he felt the song of the mockingbird and the drone of the grasshoppers mingle with the pulse of the earth. The four directions of the llano met in him, and the white sun shone on his soul. The granules of sand at his feet and the sun and the sky above seemed to dissolve into one strange, complete being. A cry came to his throat and he wanted to shout it and run in the beauty he had found.

Under Ultima’s careful guidance, Antonio learned “the names of plants and flowers, of trees, and bushes, of birds and animals;” but most important, he “learned from her that there was a beauty in the time of day and in the time of night, and that there was peace in the river and in the hills.” Antonio tells us:

“She taught me to listen to the mystery of the groaning earth and to feel complete in the fulfillment of its time . . . . I learned that my spirit shared in the spirit of all things.”

And in the incident over Lupito’s “execution” by the hunters, it’s Ultima’s owl that restores Antonio’s courage to deal with the situation.

“. . . I heard the owl. Between my gasps for air and my sobs I stopped and listened for its song. My heart was pounding and my lungs hurt, but a calmness had come over the moonlit night when I heard the hooting of Ultima’s owl. I stood still for a long time. I realized that the owl had been with me throughout the night. It had watched over all that had happened on the bridge. Suddenly the terrible, dark fear that had possessed me was gone.”

The owl appears frequently in the narrative. In Chapter 7 when Antonio tells us that the war (World War II) was over, he has a dream about his brothers who had been overseas and were telling him they were coming home. Frightened by the giant figures of his brothers looming over him in his dream, he bolts up in bed, trembling and hears the owl crying in alarm, alerting him to the arrival of his brothers, Andrew, León, and Eugene. This kind of prescience (be it in a dream or otherwise), signals an important growth and development in Antonio as a result of Ultima’s presence and influence. With the family now intact, Antonio takes up his school work eagerly, anxious to appropriate “the magic of letters”—the art of writing, which gladdens his mother “that a man of learning was once again to be delivered to the Lunas.”

Via her cures, Ultima helps Antonio’s brothers overcome “the sickness of the war,” especially León who has “shown the sickness most” and who “sometimes at night howled and cried like a wild animal.” Not until after León’s long talks with Ultima and she gives him a remedy does he get better. Here in the narrative, Anaya provides us with more information about curanderismo.

As the plot of Bless Me, Ultima thickens, Antonio’s brothers stumble onto a “black mass” conducted by the Trementina sisters, daughters of Tenorio, the suspected hunchbacked warlock. Spooked by the curse the Trementina sisters have placed on Lucas, their youngest sibling, and fearing further reprisals for their discovery of the Trementina sister’s “black mass,” Antonio’s brothers elicit Ultima’s help in combating the “black magic” of Tenorio and his daughters. As their last hope, dressed in black, Ultima, la Grande, sets out with her “small black satchel” to battle the forces of evil. “I am ready,” Ultima declared. Oftentimes, curanderas/os performed rites to eradicate the dark forces of life. And “when a curandera is working a cure, she is in charge.”

Unable to persuade Tenorio to get his daughters to lift their curse from Lucas who is wasting away, Ultima prepares to “work the magic beyond evil, the magic that endures forever.” At the point of working to lift the Trementina curse from Lucas, Ultima explains why she has arrived so late to the cure: “the priest at El Puerto did not want the people to place much faith in the powers of la curandera. He wanted the mercy and faith of the church to be the villagers only guiding light.” With the exceptions of the curative and restorative powers of curanderismo, there is considerable tension between curanderismo and the church.

Antonio wonders if the magic of Ultima would be stronger than all the powers of the saints and the Holy Mother Church?

Ultima prepared her first remedy. She mixed kerosene and water and carefully warmed the bowl on the stove. She took many herbs and roots from her black bag and mixed them into the warm oily water. She muttered as she stirred her mixture and I did not catch all of what she said, but I did hear her say “the curse of the Tementinas shall bend and fly in their faces. We shall test the young blood of the Lunas against the old blood of the past.”

When she was done she cooled the remedy, then with my help we lifted my uncle and forced the mixture down his throat. He groaned in pain and convulsed as if he wanted to throw up the medicine. It was encouraging to see signs of life in him, but it was difficult to get him to keep the medicine down.

“Drink, Lucas,” she coaxed him, and when he clamped his teeth shut she pried them open and made him drink. Howls of pain filled the small room. It was very frightening, but at length we got the medicine down. Then we covered him because he began sweating and shivering at the same time. His dark eyes looked at us like a captured animal. Then finally they closed and the fatigue made him sleep.”

“Ay,” Ultima said, “we have begun our cure.”

Ultima prepared atole for them while Lucas slept. The fever did not last long.

“There is much good in blue corn meal,” she smiled. “The Indians hold it sacred, and why not, on the day that we can get Lucas to eat a bowl of atole then he shall be cured. Is that not sacred?”

After a moment, Antonio hears the call of Ultima’s owl, shrieking into the wind, diving, pouncing on the coyotes, its sharp claws finding flesh, the evil laughter of the coyotes changed to cries of pain.

“The power of the doctors and the power of the church had failed to cure my uncle. Now everyone depended on Ultima’s magic. Was it possible that there was more power in Ultima’s magic than in the priest?”

After Lucas has been restored to health and the seasons began to change, Ultima gives Antonio a scapular with the picture of the Virgin on it and a small pouch of helpful herbs. Ultima explains that she has had that scapular since she was a child. “It will keep you safe,” she tells Antonio. Historically, the scapular was not unlike the scapular Odysseus wore around his neck given to him by Hermes to ward off the effects of Circe’s potions. In Odysseus’ pouch Hermes had put a patch of the moly plant, an herb perhaps not unlike the herbs in the pouch of Antonio’s scapular.

But, despite Ultima’s victory over Tenorio and his daughters, all is not serene in Las Pasturas. One evening toward the end of summer, Narciso barges into the Luna home, warning Ultima about Tenorio who is out to revenge himself on Ultima. Outside, Ultima’s owl hoots a warning of the impending danger—Tenorio blames Ultima for his daughter’s death. Narciso explains: “The small evil one died at El Puerto today”. Tenorio has gathered a whiskey-filled posse of vigilante witch hunters to eliminate Ultima. But Ultima will not flee from the truth; and Gabriel Marez will not let them take Ultima.

Accused of being a witch, Ultima endures her trial by fire, so to speak, and in a fit of aggression, Ultima’s owl gouges out one of Tenoria’s eyes as he cowers within the crowd of vigilantes. Tenorio slinks off thwarted but determined to do Ultima in.

The winter and its snows come to the llano and Las Pasturas. Antonio and the other boys return to school and create memories of that year with an improvisation of a Christmas play. One particularly cold and wintry night, Antonio witnesses the murder of Narciso by Tenorio who vows more mordantly to kill Ultima Throughout the days of winter, Antonio grows into an early maturity pondering why evil goes unpunished and why God allows the existence of the atomic bomb which has disturbed the cycles of the llano?

A chance encounter with Tenorio alerts Antonio to the peril Ultima faces from Tenorio’s maniacal thirst for revenge, more so since another of his daughters has taken ill, which he blames on Ultima. From his father, Antonio learns that a wise man listens to the voice of the llano telling him there are years of good weather and there are years of bad weather; and a Christian ponders the mysteries of existence—“maybe there are times when God is with us and times when he is not.”

Failing to destroy Antonio, Tenorio kills Ultima’s owl and is about to have his revenge on Ultima who is ill and lying abed, when he is shot by Uncle Pedro.

In the end, Bless Me, Ultima is about the perseverance of faith in a world beset by evil. But it is through the power of Ultima and curanderismo that Antonio comes to terms with life as it is and not as it is not. Through the magic of words, Anaya leaves us pondering the infelicities of the world.


Felipe de Ortego y Gasca, Scholar in Residence and Chair of the Department of Chicana/Chicano and Hemispheric Studies, Western New Mexico University, is 2005 recipient of the Patricia and Rudolfo Anaya Crítica Nueva Award, University of New Mexico. This paper was presented at the Symposium on Curanderismo, Western New Mexico University, November 11, 2010.


Dr. de Ortego y Gasca:

I am Ofelia Olsson and am editor and publisher of the quarterly newsletter that the Rio Grande Valley Hispanic Genealogical Society  releases to our members.  I like to include topics of historical, genealogical and cultural in nature.  I read the article that was presented at a symposium in 2010 and saved it because I liked it so much.  The article is titled "The Magic of Words in Bless Me, Ultima".  Will you give me permission to print this in my newsletter?  The newsletter will go out in October 2014 but I am already working on it.  Because the article is  a little long, I would probably include it in at least 2 newsletters and possibly three.  Our website is  We are a small society and currently have about 100 members. We are based in Harlingen, Texas.   Please let me know if I may use your article.

Thank you, Ofelia Olsson  
Past President , Rio Grande Valley Hispanic Genealogical Society  
Email 7/19/2014

Mis mas Grandes Saludos Familia,

My name is Alejandro Martinez. I am a native Tejano currently living in Austin, Texas. My roots go further back to central Mexico. I am a Aztec/Mexica Dancer who is following our Danza Azteca tradition. This ritual and ceremonial rite is a part of our legacy as Mexicanos, Chicanos, and ultimately as native people of the Western Hemisphere. The story of how the Danza Azteca has survived is one of service, devotion, survival, protection, and love. Our danza tradition took went through a major transformation with the arrival of the Spaniards. Our ancestors throughout Central Mexico, Queretaro, and Guanajuato transformed the Danza in a way that was not prohibited by the European colonizers. In the colonizers' eyes our ancestors appeared to be fully devoted to the new religion. 

I want to share the story of my friend Apab'yan Tew Temoatzin. He too is a Dancer in our Azteca Tradition of ceremonial Danza. He is writing a book on his ancestors throughout Central Mexico, Queretaro, and Guanajuato, and their resistence to the European influences on the traditions of our people. He is of Maya Kiche' descent and lives in Mexico City. He is writing a book on the legacy of our Danza Tradition as we speak. He has an immense collection of old photographs dating back to the 1800s, pictures of ancient woodcuts bearing images of our tradition, old manuscripts, and books that mention our Danza tradition.
It is our hope that our communities can help him finish this book. 

More importantly he has recordings and transcripts of his Maestro and Spiritual Father speaking on the history of how our tradition has survived several centuries. His Maestro is Fernando Flores Moncada who is also known as “El Principe Azteca” on several record albums of traditional Danza music he recorded for the RCA recording label. It is these sources along with many interviews of current Jefes and Jefas of the tradicion that will make this book the only one of its kind, in a league of its own! 

Fernandro Flores Moncada el “Principe Azteca”

Does anyone know or remember who Andres Segura and/or Florencio Yescas are? It has to be said that the Danza Azteca or Danza de Conquista took the Southwestern U.S. by storm. The arrival of Jefes like Andres Segura and Florencio Yescas signaled a transformation for our people here. Many groups of Danza were formed by these Jefes, and many others were formed as a result of their influence. This was the spritual road they made available as the other aspect of the Chicano Movement. "Danza Azteca, as it is commonly called, arrived at the Perfect time for Chicano identity and space. It brought together the indo-Cristiano legacy of Mexican spirituality, Chicano self-awareness, and Its deep historical roots to a community that felt displaced, and lost from its homeland. It also gave the Chicanos who were seeking their indigenous roots a direct connection to Mexico, its scores of indigenous nations, and languages. “La Danza” helped young Chicanos with the traditions of their parents, grandparents, and ancestors unknown." 
From: Danza Chichimeca-Conchera-Azteca and it's Influence on Chicano/Mexicano Identity 1974-2015 
by: Dr. Mario E. Aguilar, CAPITÁN DE LA DANZA MEXI’CAYOTL San Diego, California

We set up a page on Indie GoGo asking people to make a donation. The total amount we are asking for is only $1,200.00. It is a lot for many us here in the U.S. but we know this will go so much much farther for my friend Apab'yan in Mexico. You will receive a free copy of the book for making a donation! Each one of us can make this happen no matter how little we can contribute! We can make our friend's dream come true and own a documented part of our cultural legacy! 

Apab'yan Tew Temoatzin partaking in a Danza Azteca ceremonial ritual. 

We made a short video so you can see and hear my friend Apab'yan Tew introduce himself and his project.


Apab’yan Tew openly shares his work in progress. He has an extremely large collection of photographs with background information and dates. Please access the following link to scroll through them.

Los capitanes. Estampa de Antonio Rodríguez Luna en Fernández, Justino; Mendoza, Vicente T. 
Danza de los Concheros en San Miguel de Allende. Colegio de México. 1941

Attached in this email you will also find the following documents. We have them listed in order: 

1] A short project biography and introduction
2] Apab'yan Tew Temoatzin’s resume in English.
3] Apab’yan Tew Temoatizn’s resume in Spanish.
4] The first draft of his work titled “Noche de Velacion” 

It is our great hope that you will consider helping our friend. As a Danzante in the Tradicion, a book like this is a treasure. The Danza has grown immensely in numbers, and with that constant growth more and more people join the ranks have the least clue as to the history of this legacy. Thank you for your time and consideration in this great endeavor. If you have any questions please feel free to contact me by email or by phone. I am more than happy to share any information on our Danza Tradition. This is your tradition as well!

My name is Alejandro Martinez Yolquiahuitl.
Telephone: 512-552-4986

If you wish to contact Apab’yan Tew directly please refer to his resume for the contact information. If you cannot make a donation all we ask is that you forward this email intact with all attachments and photos to anyone you feel may be interested in helping us with this project. We thank you very much for your time and consideration. 

"This is one of the most beautiful stories of resistance in the history of humanity and no one can take away our danza, no one will tell us what to do in the midst of barbarism and extermination, our grandparents learned how to flow. We’re here waiting for midnight, to sing and offer up the scent of flowers, we are here waiting for dawn to dance in spiritual warfare. Nobody could, nobody can. We are Tolteca, Chichimeca, Nahñu, Pame, Mexica, Nahuatl, mestizos. Dancing is a gift, an honor and a responsibility. We should not dishonor our brilliant ways."

-Fernando Flores Moncada.
Unpublished typescript, fragment. 1982-1994
Recorded by Apab’yan Tew Temoatzin

All images in this email are from the collected works of Apab’yan Tew Temoatzin
All rights reserved.

Joaquín Mora, Danza de Conquista.
Fotografía de Romualdo García. 1905
Guanajuato, México.

Apab‟yan Tew Temoatzin

Project Biography

Hello, my name is Apab‟yan Tew Temoatzin. I am Maya Ki‟che on my fathers side of my family. I am a spiritual guide and a leader in one of several historical lineages within our sacred dance or „Danza‟ tradition of Central Mexico. I am honored to walk the path that life and our ancestors have chosen for me. Walking on that path requires a lot of discipline, commitment, and the fulfillment of many ceremonial obligations. My students and I gather weekly around the sacred danza circle to fulfill our commitment to our ancestors. This ceremonial path takes us to many parts of Mexico, allowing us to attend ceremonies with other sacred Danza groups. As I have said previously, it is a way of life that requires much commitment. While some people may consider me an expert, I live a very simple life. 

This project has its beginnings when my teacher and spiritual father, Fernando Flores Moncada, had a bad accident that prevented the use his right arm and hand for a long time back in September 1979. He talked to me a few days later, when he left the hospital. I was 7 years old and I was his apprentice, “Will you do me a favor this afternoon?” he said with genuine concern. “Yes, with pleasure,” I replied.

“I need to write an important story, I will dictate it and you can type it,” he said. I went home for my Olivetti typewriter. I bought blank sheets of paper, correction fluid, double ink ribbons, and reserved an afternoon for my teacher. It proved to be quite an immense evening for a child my age. My teacher continued, "History of the rituals and movements" he paused, "Within the circles of danza," he paused again, "…in the Mexica tradition up to this day," he paused again and stopped.

I was a child who admired his teacher. Just hearing the title I knew that I couldn't resist not wanting to ask and learn as much as I could. I did all I could to have every afternoon free of a world in which I did not care for video games, novelties of that era, or any TV show, or anything of that sort.

“Nothing but typing,” I thought, “That will be my interest!” He spoke slowly to me. As I learned to write faster and faster, he spoke faster. I grew up in a hurry and intellectually, after my teacher gave what he thought was necessary. My teacher felt that my new questions seemed to increase the page count tremendously. In 1982 we made a first revision of what I had typed. We ended up with about sixty pages and repetitions of all kinds throughout the work. We decided to start over, so I organized the work by topic and continued.

The problem is that, I reached a point where free afternoons were no longer available as when I was a child. What did remain intact was the emotion and a total passion. The work ended in 1994 with a total of 1232 pages!

My teacher Fernando Flores Moncada recorded several records of our ancestral music for the RCA recording label. He was know as “El Principe Azteca.”

I want to publish some of these materials and I need a little bit of help. I ask you to please consider the following statements carefully.

There are no academic studies that actually talk about the voice of the members, the witnesses and, the architects, of the tradition of danza. The Danza Azteca Chichimeca of today, was formerly was known as the Brotherhood of the Holy Count. There are no proper publications, only oral history from „here‟ or from „there‟ among differing versions and fragmented visions in a smokescreen of confusion.

There is nowhere to advance in such confusion! I want to share 35 years of research with you. I will select only information unmistakably beautiful and accurate, from the vast bank of information I have gathered. The time is right time and I fell I have acquired the level of maturity to do this in the best way possible.

I danced and wrote with and for my spiritual father for 27 years. I continued his research and now I have the honor to dictate and share the history of our Danza Azteca tradition. I want to combine capabilities and possibilities. I want to help grow new seeds. I want to help plant and harvest the best selection possible! Thank you for your time!

Yours in gratitude, Apab‟yan Tew Temoatzin©

"This is one of the most beautiful stories of resistance in the history of humanity and no one can take away our danza, our grandparents learned how to flow. We‟re here waiting for midnight, to sing and offer up the scent of flowers, we are here waiting for dawn to dance in spiritual warfare. 

We are Tolteca, Chichimeca, Nahñu, Pame, Mexica, Nahuatl, mestizos. Dancing is a gift, an honor and a responsibility. We should not dishonor our brilliant ways."

Fernando Flores Moncada.
Unpublished typescript, fragment. 1982-1994

"Sigo asombrado y vivo en un estremecimiento que continuamente se transforma en agradecimiento y admiración: la estrategia de nuestros Caudillos Fundadores fue la mas sensata e inteligente posible, aquí seguimos después de diversos, dirigidos exterminios. Seguiremos en resistencia e insubordinación. Somos la tribu grande que acoge e incuba nuevas tribus. La Nación Indiana. Danza de Conquista y conquista y conquista..."


Ask a Mexican by Gustavo Arellano
Taco USA: How Mexican Food Conquered America
Out From Hiding: Evidences of Sephardic Roots among Latinos 
       By Dell F. Sanchez, Ph.D.
Barrio Libre by Gilberto Rosas
First Letter from New Spain: Lost Petition of Cortes and His Company,
       June 20, 1519 by John Schwaller and Helen Nader
Get Your Copy of LATINA Style

Author of 

¡Ask a Mexican!

Nationally syndicated columnist and best selling author of ¡Ask a Mexican! Gustavo Arellano presents an entertaining, tasty trip through the history and culture of Mexican food in this country, uncovering great stories and charting the cuisine’s tremendous popularity in el Norte. In the tradition of Bill Buford’s Heat and Calvin Trillin’s The Tummy Trilogy, Arellano’s fascinating narrative combines history, cultural criticism, personal anecdotes, and Jesus on a tortilla. 

When salsa overtook ketchup as this country’s favorite condiment in the 1990s, America’s century-long love affair with Mexican food reached yet another milestone. In seemingly every decade since the 1880s, America has tried new food trends from south of the border—chili, tamales, tacos, enchiladas, tequila, bacon-wrapped hot dogs, and so many more—loved them, and demanded the next great thing. As a result, Mexican food dominates American palates to the tune of billions of dollars in sales per year, from canned refried beans to frozen margaritas and ballpark nachos. It’s a little-known history, one that’s crept up on this country like your Mexican neighbors—and left us better for it. 

Now, Taco USA addresses the all-important questions: What exactly constitutes “Mexican” food in the United States? How did it get here? What’s “authentic” and what’s “Taco Bell,” and does it matter? What’s so cosmic about a burrito? And why do Americans love Mexican food so darn much? 

Editor Mimi: The morning after I had started reading Taco USA, How Mexican Food Conquered America, I walked downstairs for breakfast to the strong whiff of chorizo.  My Russian-heritage husband was preparing his favorite breakfast, chorizo.  With Taco USA on my mind, I remembered having breakfast a few months ago during a visit to my daughter's house.  Her husband, Belgium-English heritage was heating up some flour tortillas for breakfast, the old fashion way. "Mom, get the uncooked tortillas from Cosco, cost more, but they are really good."    During one visit , my grandson offered to make me lunch, one of his favorite's . . .  quesadilla. 

Hum m m . . . .  Gustavo was right. Our eating habits had infiltrated and been assimilated by the non-Hispanic world.  Taco USA: How Mexican Food Conquered America  tracks the smooth absorption and quick marketing domination that occurred, sadly, mostly by non-Latinos.  

Do not let the title fool you into thinking this is superficial light reading.  This is real history, well researched, documented, and analyzed by a master historian.  

The first chapter brings the past to the present and future, tortillas in the space life of an  astronaut.  About tortillas, NASA found "astronauts could wrap one around anything and make a quick meal.  They also weren't dangerous, like bread, whose crumbs crippled air vents and sensitive equipment.

"NASA took tortillas so seriously that they tinkered with the recipe—which hadn't substantially changed in millennia save for the introduction of flour—to keep stacks fresh for up to six months. Scientists created a nitrogen-filled packet that removed almost all the oxygen present in the pouch, to prevent mold from growing. One major problem arose: astronauts discovered that six-month-old space tortillas became bitter—and no one deserves a bitter tortilla. Finally, NASA found a manufacturer who made an extended-shelf-life tortilla that lasted up to a year and retained its allure, a maker that also sold their product to fast-food titan Taco Bell. Hundreds of thousands of dollars well spent.  


"I cannot think of anything that cannot be put on a tortilla, or has not been put on a tortilla," wrote Sandra Magnus, a veteran astronaut, in a blog post while up in the International Space Station in 2008. "When a Shuttle shows up you are in tortilla heaven because they show up with tons of them and graciously donate all of the extras to the ISS crews.

And for short missions of five to seven days? Astronauts often bring their flour tortillas fresh from a Houston tortilleria—a tortilla factory. No customizing, no chemicals—just unadulterated rapture. The per- feet food."  pg. 3 Taco USA

Arellano has appeared on the Today show, Nightline, NPR's Talk of the Nation, and The Colbert Report. Since 2004, Arellano has been a columnist in Orange County, California.    For more information:  

Arellano is wacky, caustic, funny, irreverent, blunt, but I have found always historically correct.  Below is an example from his Ask a Mexican column. . . of how he pushes history, unadulterated, unfiltered, hard, direct  . . .  like bullets.  Good for Gustavo!!   Mimi

DEAR MEXICAN: I'm Mexican. I don't mind when my friends ask me questions about Mexicans. But my Jew-wop friend asked me something about Mexicans I don't understand: "Why do some Mexican chicks look Asian?" Having grown up in SanTana, I immediately thought of thecholas
 and every Payasa, Tweetie and Shorty I knew and their amazing skills with liquid eyeliner. Several Google searches did not yield any good results. So neither of us got the much-needed visual to help us communicate. Is it the makeup, his Jew-wop ignorance or something I am clearly missing?

La Sad Girl

DEAR POCHA: What you're missing is that a chingo of chinitos are Mexicans. Asians have been coming to Mexico since the 1500s, when Filipinos worked the Manila galleons that would unload in Acapulco and intermixed with the population in Guerrero, Oaxaca and beyond. And, give or take a Chinese pogrom or a "chino, chino, japonés" school-yard chant, the Asian presence in Mexico has never ended, joined in recent years by Korean migrants in Mexico City and the continued takeover of Ensenada by Chinese nationals (their presence in Mexicali, on the other hand, dates back nearly a century). And don't forget that our indigenous side came from Asia thousands of years ago—so don't be surprised when your cousin grows up to resemble a radiant Burmese tribeswoman from a Cold War-era National Geographic spread instead of however the hell a "normal" Mexican is supposed to aparecer. 

Hum m m . .   I always used to think my Grandfather Alberto Chapa looked Japanese, like those in northern Japan, referred to as Hairy Ainu, we learn about in the 7th grade. 

For a photo of my Grandpa, and family, go to  My mother is the little girl standing to the right of Grandma's knee. [There were three children born after this photo.] Recently on a train ride from my daughter's house, a young man from Sudan asked if I had a little Asian heritage, pointing to the upper shape of my eyelids. Interesting.  Interesting.  The first country I wanted to visit was Japan and we did, my husband and I traveled throughout Japan, I felt quite comfortable, even when we slept on woven mats, on the floor. . . .  maybe genetic memory.



Out From Hiding
Evidences of Sephardic Roots among Latinos
By Dell F. Sanchez, Ph.D.

Dr. Dell Sanchez began his journey into the lineage of his Latino family when it surfaced from his research of Jewish survivors of the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions of the 15th – 17th Centuries. The more Sanchez dug into historical record, the more he began to suspect his own Sephardic Jewish roots. The DNA of his mother and father served to prove his suspicions.
Presented as a personal yet factual narrative, Out from Hiding includes six crucial topics that prove the existence of Sephardic Jewish roots among Latinos:

• Historical and genealogical records
• DNA evidence corroborating Sephardic Jewish roots among Latinos
• Onomastics dealing with the Sephardic origin of surnames
• Material evidence found within the Sephardic Latino community
• Oral histories disclosing family secrets of thirteen Sephardic Latinos
• Sanchez’s professional observations and prognostications of the Sephardic Latinos’ future

Based on continued research, it has been estimated that there are tens of thousands of Hispanic/Latinos with Sephardic Jewish ancestry in America. The majority of these are not aware of their hidden Jewish roots, aren’t aware of their hidden backgrounds. Out from Hiding is his journey through history, family genealogy, and personal faith. Perhaps it may be your journey, as well.

Published: 9/30/2010 | Format: Perfect Bound Softcover | Pages: 184/ Size: 6x9| ISBN: 978-1-45025-371-0 

                            Barrio Libre by Gilberto Rosas

The city of Nogales straddles the border running between Arizona and Sonora, Mexico. On the Mexican side, marginalized youths calling themselves Barrio Libre (Free 'Hood) employ violence, theft, and bribery to survive, often preying on undocumented migrants who navigate the city's sewer system to cross the US-Mexico border.

In this book, Gilberto Rosas draws on his in-depth ethnographic research among the members of Barrio Libre to understand why they have embraced criminality and how neoliberalism and security policies on both sides of the border have affected the youths' descent into Barrio Libre.

Rosas argues that although these youths participate in the victimization of others, they should not be demonized. They are complexly and adversely situated. The effects of NAFTA have forced many of them, as well as other Mexicans, to migrate to Nogales. Moving fluidly with the youths through the spaces that they inhabit and control, he shows how the militarization of the border actually destabilized the region and led Barrio Libre to turn to increasingly violent activities, including drug trafficking. By focusing on these youths and their delinquency, Rosas demonstrates how capitalism and criminality shape perceptions and experiences of race, sovereignty, and resistance along the US-Mexico border.
Author(s): Gilberto Rosas   Published: 2012
Pages: 200   Illustrations: 5 illustrations
Cloth: $84.95 - In Stock   978-0-8223-5225-9
Paperback: $23.95 - In Stock  978-0-8223-5237-2
About The Author(s)
Gilberto Rosas is Assistant Professor in the Departments of Anthropology and Latina/Latino Studies at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.

Gilberto Rosas
Senior Research Fellow
Unit for Criticism and Interpretive Theory
Associate Professor
Anthropology & Latin@ Studies
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

Author of Barrio Libre: Criminalizing States and Delinquent Refusals of the New Frontier
Winner of 2012-2014 Association of Latin@ Anthropologists Book Award

Sent by Dorinda Moreno


================================== ===================================
The First Letter from New Spain

The First Letter from New Spain
The Lost Petition of Cortes 
and His Company, 
June 20, 1519

By John Schwaller and Helen Nader

Presenting an authoritative translation and analysis of the only surviving original document from the first months of the Spanish conquest, this book brings to life a decisive moment in the history of Mexico and offers an enlarged understanding of the conquerors’ motivations.  
Joe R. and Teresa Lozano Long Series in Latin American and Latino Art.


===================================== =====================================

Get Your Copy of LATINA

Style Magazine, Vol. 21, No. 4 Today!

The 2015 LATINA Style 50 Annual Report evaluating the true commitment to diversity in corporate America is here! The companies listed as the 50 Best Companies for Latinas to Work for in the United States are committed to creating a work environment that assists Latinas achieve their full potential. This year, we congratulate Comcast NBCUniversal on securing the top spot as the company of the year. Find out if the company you work for made it on the list.  
In this edition, Bloomberg's chairman Peter Grauer shares his views on the power of relationships, workplace diversity, and why sharing best practices across different companies matters when we talk about diversity and inclusiveness in the workplace. Learn more about his views.
If you have a story to share with us, email us at



Oct 10th: SHHAR monthly meeting, special guest speaker: Michael Perez
              Jewish Roots of the Colonial Spanish Southwest
Looking ahead: SHHAR spear-heading Nov 5th: CA 1849 Constitution event
Oct 10th: Para Todos 20th Anniversary Celebration 
Oct 3rd: Feria y Festival del Mariachi de Anaheim
Oct 7:1:30-3 pm  Documenting 20th Century Immigrant Lives 
Nov 7: Orange County Hispanic Women of the Year
Nov 21-22, 2015: American Indian Cultural Festval & 47th Annual Pow Wow

October 10th 
“Jewish Roots of the Colonial Spanish Southwest”   
by Michael Perez, 

Orange Family History Center 
674 S. Yorba Street, Orange, CA  
No cost

Genealogical research assistance will be available from 9 -10 a.m., and Mr. Perez will speak from 10 -11:30 a.m.  For additional information, contact Letty Rodela .

Editor Mimi:
In preparation for his presentation,  Michael completed Chapter 6 of his book before the October 10th meeting.   Chapter 6, The de Riberas, "What is a Jew?"  is posted online at I strongly urge you to review the chapter before the meeting.  

Chapter 6 includes historical information about the specific families listed in the first group below. Review the surnames below. You may be surprised and find some connections with those families.  You may have questions which Mr. Perez will be able to answer during the meeting.  

I have known Michael for many years and have enjoyed observing his increasing and revealing insight. The de Riberas book is a deeply penetrating, outstanding, scholarly study, the results of Michael dedicated and personal adventure to search out his own roots.   Having discovered his Jewish roots, he will answer the following questions:

What is a Jew? 
The difference between Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jews; 
Ancient history of the Jewish nation
Israel before the Roman occupation 
Persecution of Jews throughout the centuries.  
Historic reasons for the current situation of  Israel and their relationship to Spain.  

This first group of Spanish surnames directly below have a documented Jewish connections with some historical background and footnotes.  If you have one of these surnames, do check them out.  
Cabeza de Vaca
Fernandez de Cordoba
Gomes de Silva
Nunez de Herrera
Perez de Guzman
Suarez de Figueroa

Argonese Conversos

    Almazon   |   Cabelleria   | Cabrero   |  Sanchez  |   Santangel   |   Torrero   |   Villanova  |   Zaporta

Most Frequent Converso Names in Toledo 

De Avila
Del Castillo
De Cordoba
De Cuenca
Faro (Haro)
de la Fuente
Goncales (Gonzalez)
de Illescas
de Leon
de Ocana
de la Pena
de la Rua
San Pedro
de Segovia
de Sevilla 
Sorge (Sorje)
de Toledo
de la Torre
de Ubeda
Vasques (Vazquez)
de Villareal
de la Xara (Jara)

Conversos named by Lupe de Barrientos and Fernan Diaz de Toledo 

Araujo (Arroyo? cf. 
also Aruque in Toledo, same?) 
Barrio Nuevo
Bernaldez (Bernaldes)
Luna (the Castille branch)
Mendoza (the Mendozas and Ayalas all descended from a certain "Rabbi Solomon" and his son Don Isaque de Valladolid, according to Lope de Barrientos)
Osorio (Ossorio)

Pena Loza
Saucedos (Salcedos)
Fernandez (family of Diego Fernandez de Cordoba, mariscal of Juan II of Catille)
Fernandez Marmolejo
Hurtado de Mendoza (not the sons of Inigo Lopez 
de Mendoza, Diego Hurtado and Mendoza,  but probably the family of Juan Hurtado de Mendoza, connected with the de Luna family, who was the mayordome mayor of Juan II)

About . . . . .

Michael Steven Perez is a native Californian and proud father of two grown sons, Justin and Jonathan.  He received a BA in Management from the University of Redlands and an MBA from Pepperdine University.  Michael also taught as an adjunct professor at the University of La Verne at the graduate level in the areas of business and healthcare and other colleges for 13 years.


Professionally, for the past 40 years, he’s been a manager and executive in both the Private and Public Sector.  His areas of corporate and governmental expertise include business management, finance, operations, consulting, policy, and marketing.  Additionally, he is educated, trained, and has extensive experience in healthcare delivery systems, managed care management, hospital and clinical service delivery, and associated federal, state, and county related operational authorities.


Michael’s personal interests have led him to become a writer of fiction.  He’s published his first novel “The House of Aragon,” based upon the Mexican-American Mafia (La Eme). Go to: 

In an effort to better understand his Hispano and Jewish (Sephardi) roots, Michael has researched, written, and is currently releasing a Family History, “
The de Riberas” through Somos Primos in monthly installments on a chapter-by-chapter basis.


Over the years Michael has assisted Somos Primos in various outreach efforts to educate the community at large about the contributions made by the Hispanics on behalf of the United States of America.  One such effort was assisting them to establish the Hispanic American Heroes Series.  Its first endeavor was the “Gálvez Gala” which was held on October 12, 2003 at the City of Long Beach, California.


SHHAR's has a history of community outreach, working along side other groups and organization to encourage family history research; committed to the belief that family history knowledge strengthens the individual, the family, and the nation.  

In addition to SHHAR's annual meetings, volunteers at community events, frequently distribute family history forms, helping people take the first steps in compiling a family history.  

Lt to Rt: Don Garcia, SHHAR Board member and 
webmaster, thanks Richard McFarlane,
Director, of the Family Search Library Center in Orange County for his presentation on DNA.  SHHAR has been meeting regularly at the center for over twenty year.  

Remembering California's Bilingual Constitution and the Spanish Mexican legacy
"Celebrating California's Birthday" . . 1849-2015

3:30 to 5:30 pm
Heritage Museum of Orange County

Members of the Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research and staff of the Heritage Museum of Orange County are working closely with the Orange County Department of Education, and Santa Ana Unified School District, collaborating on a common goal. 

The goal is to increase awareness and understanding  - - on a public level concerning the very important historic contributions of the Spanish explorers and colonizers in the founding and development of the United States. 

Big Idea/Enduring understanding:  Native Californians, Californios, and newly arriving immigrants joined together in giving structure and shape to California.
Questions to explore and answer:
1. Prior to the 1850s, why did CA attract a diverse population?
2. How did internal and external factors affect the culture and economics of CA?
3. How were the contributions of the Spanish and Mexican people validated in the creation of the CA Constitution of 1849? 

California Constitution Committee 
Lt-Rt: Jennifer Woods and Marta Moyer, Santa Ana Unified School District, 
Mimi Lozano, Virginia Gill, and Letty Rodella, SHHAR

In California, after the February 2,1848 signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the United States took control of the lands west of the Mississippi.  The residents and newly arrived immigrants worked together, debated and wrote a constitution, recognizing the Spanish speaking and natives living in California, with respect for the traditions and higher order of law practiced by the Spanish.   
California's first constitution, November 13, 1849 was a Spanish/English document, .  California was an area of established Spanish speaking communities and towns.   Our project intends to educate, inform, and increase understanding of the current presence of the Spanish speaking in California. Mexicans feel an affinity to the Southwestern United States, because their ancestors were the first European settlers in California, married with indigenous and became Californianos.

On Thursday, November 5th, an afternoon event will be held at the Heritage Museum of Orange County.  Featured will be the outstanding "history art maps" of Eddie Martinez, an artist with a "passion for history", previously with Disneyland, coming from Colorado.
The keynote speaker is coming from Texas, Judge Edward Butler, past National President General of the Sons of the American Revolution.  Judge Butler  is the author of Galvez- Spain Our Forgotten Ally In the American Revolutionary War: A Concise Summary of Spain's Assistance. 
There will be refreshments and Early California music played by well known musician and historian, Frances Rios, a book display of the historical youth novels, Lorenzo, by Lila and Rick Guzman, a reader's theater performance of the John Ross Browne's Debates by a 
youth group from the Santa Ana Library directed by Kevin Cabrera, and information on a 4th Grade Elementary level Classroom 2-week unit developed under the direction of Dr. Michele Rodriguez, by Marta Moyer and Jennifer Woods, Curriculum specialists, with the Santa Ana Unified School District.
For ticket information, please go to:

Kevin Cabrera, Interim Executive Director,
Heritage Museum of Orange County
3101 W. Harvard, Santa Ana, 92704


October 10th: Para Todos 
20th Anniversary Celebration 





I remember when Silvia had a vision to help her adult students, English language learners, adjust to their immigrant experience smoothly.  She wanted to produce a newsy publication to help her students maneuver though the complexity of their new life.  Her goal was surely reached and surpassed. I am so proud 
of Silvia. . .  Beautiful work.

Rhythmo, Inc. 
Mariachi Academy

Hola Apreciables Amigos y Amigas!!
Aqui les envio el Volante del Festival del Mariachi de Anaheim 2015. El tema de este año es: LEYENDAS DE MEXICO,  
"La Llorona."
Esta es una leyenda que nacio en 
los  tiempos de la colonia y que ha perdurado entre nosotros a traves 
de los años.
Con el marco musical de los mariachis, haremos la representacion de una historia de amor que se torna en tragedia y se convierte en espanto. No se la pierdan. Todos los fondos que se recauden son para apoyar a Rhythmo, Inc. Mariachi Academy.

Maestro Gabriel B. Zaval

Para Información y Boletos Llame 
a los Teléfonos:

Rhythmo Mariachi Kids
Danny Munoz
Bella Sanchez
Bejamin Flores
Mi Machete
China Woman
Los Chinelos y 
      Amigos de Jose Ruiz

Beyond Passenger Lists:
Documenting 20th Century Immigrant Lives

Presented by Zack Wilske, Historian 
United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS).

The Orange County Jewish Genealogical Society Invites you to attend a very special program
Wednesday, October 7, 2015 1:30 PM - 3:00 PM
Huntington Beach Central Library, Rooms C&D
7111 Talbert Ave. Huntington Beach, CA 92648

Mr. Wilske will present a variety of historical federal immigration and naturalization records available from the USCIS Genealogy Program and the National Archives. Topics will include naturalization records, alien registration records, immigrant visa files, and other records documenting the lives of immigrants during the first half of the twentieth century. Researchers will see examples of files, hear tips on connecting the records to each other, and learn how to advance their immigration research beyond the basics.

Zack Wilske’s
research interests include the history of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), the development of federal immigration and nationality policies, and the uses of INS records for historians and genealogists. He speaks regularly at academic and genealogy conferences and has published several articles on research with federal immigration and naturalization records.

*Access to rooms C&D is from the outside of the building through the library theater entrance on the lower level. Pre-sale tickets, which will be held day of at Will Call, are $5 until Oct. 1st and $7 after the 1st. Pre-event registration ends Oct. 5th, then tickets will be sold at the door on a space-available basis. Purchase tickets early since seating is limited.

Register online at OCJGS.ORG or mail a check to OCJGS, P.O. Box 7141, Newport Beach, CA 92658

P.O. BOX 7141
PHONE: 949-423-3746

A Non-Profit Organization

Sent by Letty Rodella

Orange County Hispanic Women of the Year
November 7, 2015; 6:00pm – 9:00pm

League of United Latin American Citizens
Santa Ana LULAC Council #147
Established: National - 1929 | Santa Ana - 1946
PO Box 1810, Santa Ana, CA 92702-1810

The League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), Santa Ana Council #147 has announced the selection of eight (8) women as the recipients of the 2015 Orange County Hispanic Women of the Year. The recipients are chosen based on their meaningful voluntary community efforts, personal accomplishments, and their involvement in civic affairs. Please join us in recognizing these outstanding community leaders! 

Patty Arvielo, President of New American Funding - Business
Teresa A. Hernandez , Business Owner - The Arts (Music)
Christina Kalogris Rush, Office Manager/Outreach - Volunteer Community Service
Linda J. Lopez , OC Health Care Agency BSN, RN, Sr. PHN - Public Health Advocate
Dr. Gabriela Mafi, Superintendent at Garden Grove Unified School District - Education
Patricia Maldonado McMaster, Director Community Programs, OC School of the Arts
Lupe Valencia, Santa Ana Unified School District Senior Buyer - Education
Jeanette Vargas Zook, Severely Handicap Para educator - Public Service

The honorees will be recognized at an awards banquet on: 
Date/Time: Saturday, November 7, 2015; 6:00pm – 9:00pm
Place: The Ebell Club, 625 French Street, Santa Ana 92701
Tickets: $50.00 per person for RSVP received by October 20, 2015. 
$60.00 per person after October 20, 2015 and at the door.
RSVP/INFO: Viola Myre 714-606-2852 Email:  

The Southern California Indian Center, Inc. is pleased to announce the 2015 Cultural Festival & 47th Annual Pow Wow is set to take place on Saturday, November 21, 2015 and Sunday, November 22, 2015 at The OC Fair & Event Center in Costa Mesa.

This event, which occurs annually, offers unique sponsorship opportunities. Our annual event attracts approximately 5,000-8,000 people, both American Indian and non-Indian, from all over California, out of state, and also internationally. Additionally, we receive media coverage throughout the event. This event serves as the largest fundraiser and outreach tool for the Southern California Indian Center, Inc., (SCIC) a 501(c)3 community-based organization serving the off reservation American Indian population in Los Angeles, Orange and Riverside Counties.

We would like to ask for your support of our 47th Annual event. We invite you to request a sponsorship packet that outlines sponsorship levels, as well as your potential marketing opportunities. As a sponsor of the event, you could enjoy having your Company's name and/or logo used in promotional and on-site marketing, as well as garnering exposure for you Company's name. Thank you for taking the time to read this sponsorship request and to see how the our event offers you a viable marketing opportunity. We look forward to fostering a positive relationship for our community.

For a Sponsorship Package or any other questions, please contact us at
 (714) 962-6673 or email at


Sent by Ruben Alvarez 


The House of Aragon by Michael S. Perez
Boyle Heights History Blog
Something Different Outta Compton: A Black Teen Singing Mexican Music
         by Brittny Mejia

October 11, 2015 Noche de Milonga Tangos & Boleros
October 17, 2015: Oct Feria Educativa, College and Career Fair 

by Michael S. Perez 
Chapters 10 & 11     

Chapters 10 and 11 of the House of Aragón offer a glimpse into the life of Antoinette Castillo-Von Fuerstenburge-Aragón, before she married Michael.  Her first husband, Hans Von Fuerstenburge, was an Ex-Nazi, WWII, officer who fled a defeated Germany in 1945 to escape post-war justice.  He had arrived in Argentina with the help of the German Bund.  His travel was less an escape than vacation travel.  Von Fuerstenburge was followed later by his Sergeant, Rolf Gruber, another German fleeing post-war justice.  Unlike his commander, Gruber had suffered greatly.  He had entered Argentina by way of Italy, Portugal, and Brasil after killing a man in a bistro brawl.


The two comrades reacquainted themselves in Argentina, becoming fast friends.  Hans had found an Argentine bride.  She was the Estanciera, Antoinette Castillo and her father was to be his wealthy benefactor.  Rolf had found a place of safety and security.  Argentina of the 1940s was a haven for German Nazis and ex-military.  A German warrior could once again lift their heads with pride and honor in their newly adopted homeland.  Argentina had given shelter for generations to Germans and now she was willing and able to accept her Nazi children as well.

Michael Brakefort-Grant is a Pen name for Michael S. Perez.  If you would like to contact Michael, please contact me.  714-894-8161

If you have an I-Pad you can read the book in its fullness at . . . 
If you do not have an I-Pad, you can read the chapters at the Somos Primos homepage, 
we will be adding them. Go to  


Boyle Heights History Blog
=================================== ==================================
Dear All,   I just wanted to let you know about several new blog posts that are available to read. BHHS Advisory Board member, historian and author, Paul Spitzzeri, writes and maintains the Blog Spot and has been doing this for free for several year! Please read, discover and enjoy the articles, send your comments.  I am sure they will be appreciated. As you will see, it is a lot of work and it is a treasure trove of historic information about Boyle Heights all in one place. 

Rudy Martinez another BHHS Advisory Board member who grew up in Boyle Heights does quite a bit of research.  His research on Haym Salomon was just posted on the Blog Spot by Paul.  Rudy will be submitting more articles for the Blog Spot so make sure to stay updated.
Enjoy the posts and tell others about it!
Best Regards, Diana Ybarra


Something Different Outta Compton: 
A Black Teen Singing 
Mexican Music 

by Brittny Mejia, LA Times

Women in heels and short dresses hold firm to men wearing cowboy hats and belt buckles larger than iPhones, moving to the norteño song as if it were written especially for them.

"Ay mi yaquesita, tú tienes un cuerpo hermoso que parece sirenita." You have a body, El Compa sings, beautiful like a mermaid's.

If anyone's appearance in the San Bernardino nightclub might be more unusual than a mermaid's, it is the man holding court: Rhyan Lowery, a.k.a. El Compa Negro; a.k.a. the black buddy (a.k.a. the only black man in sight).

And in case anyone hasn't noticed that fact, the 19-year-old's manager is there to point it out, several times, like a carnival barker: "El primer afro americano de la música mexicana."
The first African American in Mexican music.

“We're selling a concept,” says Antonio Lopez, manager and backup singer for the Compton teenager. “We're selling the beauty of someone from another race that is doing things and doing them very well in a market that's not his.”

Lowery's transformation into El Compa Negro says something about the power of cultural proximity — and Los Angeles' changing demographics.

"We're selling a concept," says Antonio Lopez, manager and backup singer for the Compton teenager. "We're selling the beauty of someone from another race that is doing things and doing them very well in a market that's not his."

Outside the club, Danny Ramirez, 23, poses for a quick photo with El Compa, recognizing him from YouTube videos.

"Un moreno cantando corridos … I like that," he says, using the Spanish word for a dark-skinned or black person. "He's representing the Mexican community. Nobody would expect a black person singing corridos."

Young black artists probably aren't going to start sampling regional Mexican music, let alone make a career out of it. And white kids in the suburbs probably won't be bobbing their heads to Los Tigres del Norte.

But Lowery's transformation into El Compa Negro says something about the power of cultural proximity — and Los Angeles' changing demographics.

Lowery was born in Compton in 1996, just a few years removed from the city's heyday as a birthplace of gangsta rap, the group N.W.A and its seminal album, "Straight Outta Compton."

But the teen was baptized into a city that was fast becoming less black and more Latino. In 1980, the black population stood at 73.9%, compared with 21.1% Latino, according to data from the Minnesota Population Center, National Historical Geographic Information System and the American Community Survey. In 1990, the gap began to close, with a black population of 52.7% and 43.7% Latino.

"When N.W.A puts Compton on the map, in terms of gangsta rap, they're in the throes of demographic change," said Albert Camarillo, a Stanford professor working on a book about Compton. "Even the communities those young black kids were a part of, they were beginning to change by that time."

By 2000, Latinos had overtaken the black population, 56.8% to 39.9%. As of 2013, it was 67.3% to 29.4%.

Compton's changing demographics mirror a larger shift throughout the state, with Latinos now the largest ethnic group in California, according to U.S. Census Bureau figures released in June.

In the neighborhood where Lowery grew up, near Rosecrans and Santa Fe, most of his friends were Mexican American. Lowery said he quickly picked up the slang of Mexican Spanish. Although he says he isn't fluent, he can hold his own in conversations with friends — expertly rolling his r's and switching between Spanish and English.

When he doesn't recognize a Spanish word, he's quick to ask Lopez or a bandmate what it means, never wanting to sing a song he doesn't fully understand.

It's enough to confuse some fans, who insist that he must be from Mexico.

"No tengo nada de sangre de Mexico. Soy afro americano," Lowery will say, explaining he isn't Latino. Still, they'll argue.

"I take off my hat and I'm like, 'Look at my hair — I'm African American!'"

Every weekend, Lowery and his band, Los Mas Poderosos, visit restaurants, nightclubs and places that cater to Mexican immigrants and second-generation Mexican Americans, performing cumbias and corridos that many of the club-goers grew up hearing.

He's grown accustomed to the rituals of each place, watching with other men as women are trotted out to participate in sexy leg contests — dancing for money and enough applause to win the grand prize — and getting to dance with young Latinas when he isn't onstage.

Lowery has gotten his share of attention: He's been the subject of several stories, took third place in the Spanish-language program "Tengo Talento, Mucho Talento" — I Have Talent, Lots of Talent — and has been featured on Univision and Telemundo.

Every weekend, Lowery and his band, Los Mas Poderosos, visit restaurants, nightclubs and places that cater to Mexican immigrants and second-generation Mexican Americans, performing cumbias and corridos that many of the club-goers grew up hearing. (Kent Nishimura / Los Angeles Times)

"He sings beautifully. Better than people back home," says Margarita Vaal, a Rialto resident who watched the teenager perform at a Mariscos restaurant where she and a friend split a bucket of Coronas.

Vaal, originally from Sinaloa, laments that he didn't take first place on the Spanish talent show.  "He has Mexican blood," she says.

When Lowery performs, he sounds almost fluent but is careful to stick to the songs on his set list, the ones he's memorized after years of practice. When the crowd requests songs, he switches to the drums, allowing Lopez to step in and take over, easily reading Spanish lyrics on YouTube.

"He needs to learn more Spanish," says Laura Arredondo, a Riverside resident who watched Lowery at the restaurant. "But he's OK."  Her mother, Maria Lopez, originally from Zacatecas, has kinder words for El Compa:  "It makes me happy to see someone from another race wrapped up in our Mexican culture."

Latinos' growing numbers have shaped arts, food, music and culture throughout the state. Swept up in the cultural river in his Compton neighborhood, by 13 Lowery had already developed an interest in reggaeton.

When he moved to Perris in Riverside County in 2009, he first heard the corridos that he now specializes in — earning him his nickname from a high school friend.

"I think increasingly Latinos are going to shape what you call the mainstream of American culture," says Eric Avila, a professor of history, Chicano studies and urban planning at UCLA. "You could look at Compa Negro as an example of that."

Although Lowery has blended two cultures, to the surprise of many who watch him perform, some have dismissed him as nothing more than a novelty act. Lopez has heard criticism from other performers who believe Lowery has no place in Mexican music and has had club owners who don't take the band seriously.

It's a criticism Lowery also heard from schoolmates growing up. "They were like, 'Why would you go after something like that? You're not Mexican,'" Lowery says. "That's the whole reason why I'm doing it. I'm not Mexican, and I want to show the world that music is universal."

Although Lowery acknowledges the "wow" factor that comes with his ethnicity, he says he stays true to the musical genre he's selected. He rides horses, knows how to raise roosters, goes to jaripeos — Mexican rodeos — and can play the accordion.  When he becomes more famous, he says, his goal is to own a ranch with 20 horses. 

For now, Lowery lives with his father in Moreno Valley — dreaming of one day getting a song on the radio and performing a sold-out show. And when times get tough, the music helps him through.

"Te metiste completamente en mi vida. No hay un momento que no este pensando en ti," he says, quoting Ariel Camacho's song "Te Metiste." "You're a part of my life completely. There isn't a moment I'm not thinking of you."

He's having problems with his girl now, he says, and Camacho's song is the best way to tell her how he feels. After years singing in another language, it's Spanish that best conveys his heartbreak.
Dorinda Moreno 



Gregorio Luke
3000 E. 2nd Street
Long Beach, California 90803



Descendants of Jose and Geneoveva Herrera, 75th Family Reunion
Beany's Drive Thru - Long Beach , California - 1952-54 
Appreciation Luncheon, August 9th for Neighborhood House Story Tellers
House of Mexico Needed in Balboa Park, San Diego 

Descendants of Jose and Geneoveva Herrera celebrated their 75th Family Reunion

Dear Family,

The descendants of Jose and Geneoveva Herrera celebrated their 75th Family Reunion this past June, 2015, at their Herrera Hacienda in Lockwood, CA. The Herrera Family Prays Together and Stays Together! Congratulations to all the 348 Herrera family members on achieving this remarkable, truly awesome milestone. My cousin, Jerry Herrera, attended the reunion and shared his story concerning the events that took place there. Cousin Jerry's favorite time was attending the Sunday Morning Prayer Service, where all his Tios and Tias were seated next to one another, praying--a truly uplifting and spiritual experience for everyone.   The Herrera family heritage roots are from Zacatecas, Mexico.

Jerry's message is: "May you continue to use the gifts that God has freely given you--
not for yourself but to share them with others."
  I Peter 4:10."

Blessings and Love,  Lorraine Ruiz Frain

Beany's Drive Thru - Long Beach , California - 1952-54 

Hard to find a better video that shows the cars and the way people dressed in 1952-54 
Click here:  
Thanks for the memories, Luis,  
We had several drive-ins with car-hop waitresses in Laredo. There was one, The Hill Top that was across the street from the city cemetery that was very lenient on selling beer to minors and draft beers were .25 cents.

Man! This video brought back some wonderful memories, not to mention .20 cent shakes and burgers. I'm from class of '56 at Martin High in Laredo -- that was my era...

Cheers, Ernesto

Sent by Ernesto Uribe, 
Received from Luis Ramirez

San Diego Free Press writer Writer Maria Garcia 
Thanks Neighborhood House Story Tellers with Appreciation Luncheon, August 9th
August 23, 2015 by Anna Daniels

Maria Garcia
San Diego Free Press writer Maria Garcia hosted a very special thank you luncheon for the men and women whom she has interviewed for her award winning series “The History of Neighborhood House in Logan Heights.” The event, attended by over sixty people, was held on August 9 in the community room of the Logan Heights Library.

These men and women, many of whom are in their 80s and 90s, shared personal details of their lives and old photographs during their interviews that enabled Maria to weave together a unique social history of Logan Heights with Neighborhood House as the focus. That history spans from World War I to the early 1970s, with the take over of Chicano Park and the occupation of Neighborhood House.

Attendees were greeted at the door by Maria’s niece Adriana Segovia. Maria had reproduced all fifty-four articles in the series and displayed them on one wall of the room. Guests pointed out their articles and provided additional details. A slide presentation of some of the most memorable images from the series was projected throughout the event.

Maria and Connie Zuniga, who volunteered to proof read all of the articles and is President of the Logan Heights Friends of the Library, personally welcomed the guests, proudly pointing out the beautifully refurbished mural and original bar in the room that had been saved when the Aztec Brewery was demolished.

Mural and bar from Aztec Brewery

During the luncheon of carnitas with all the fixings and cake, Maria took the opportunity to address the group, beginning with her thank you to the extensive network of friends, family and participants who made the series and event possible. In doing so, she framed her remarks in terms of the importance of comunidad.

Maria, the committed chronicler and patient interviewer chose to shift the emphasis from her work on the series to a deeply moving acknowledgment of the story tellers themselves. Looking across the crowd she began with the words “From you I learned.”

Connie Zuniga

From you I learned… About a Settlement House [Neighborhood House] and how a settlement house can unite a community.

I learned that two women– Helen and Mary Marston– could make such a difference in the lives of so many people and help a disenfranchised community year after year. There is no doubt that the name Marston opened doors and gave our community opportunities we would not have had.

I learned that girls played baseball in in the 1930s. Women such as Concha Estrada and Tina Hernandez were breaking the glass ceiling long before we learned that term.

I learned that some of you went to preschool or kindergarten at Neighborhood House and learned to drink castor oil on a daily basis.

I learned that there was a community outdoor oven where your mothers and grandmothers learned to bake bread. The late Joe Serrano said he learned to eat bread at Neighborhood House.

Rose Zatarian, Maria Garcia

I learned that the double standard for girls and boys was much worse than I could ever imagine. Boys spent sun up to sun down at Neighborhood House and it was accepted as normal. The girls went to Neighborhood House for a specific activity and returned home the minute that activity was over. You went to craft/sewing and baking class and then immediately returned home.

I learned that boys played sports at Neighborhood House and won letters and in general had one heck of a good time. You played the belt game; tormented Lupita; you even asked for a boys baking class just so that you could take cookies or a cake home.

I learned that
boys and girls went to (different) camps, riding in the back of a flatbed truck. You loved camp and had the opportunity to sleep under the stars.

I learned that
you would “borrow” small boats from caquita beach and go to Coronado and steal fruit.

I learned that the news media had convinced you that San Diego would be invaded by the Japanese. You formed Tortillas Army and dug a trench around Lowell(Perkins ) School to save your beloved neighborhood. Boys between five and sixteen marching around the barrio preparing for this invasion. Boys like Manuel “Tortilla” Ojeda who lead this army, or Nando Ojeda who served as information officer, then there was Bill Lopez who had a chemistry set and leaned to make stink bombs to protect us. Tortillas Army had many of the boys in this room marching and protecting us from an invasion.

l-r Hilda Martinez Rico, Armida Martinez (Tulie’s sister) Emma Lopez
I learned that dance classes were held there year after year with different instructors. Luis Lopez, Nachita Hernandez, Señora Villagrana and Albert Flores taught you to dance. You danced at the Marston Garden Parties, Balboa Park, the Del Mar Fair and at neighborhood events. Rosita Torres, Emma Lopez and Ricardo and Suzi dancing all over our city. After the war Armando Rodriguez would take dance lessons at Neighborhood House to impress one Bea Serrano.

I learned that at Neighborhood House a young girl named Tulie Piña won a blue ribbon at the age of ten for a cake she baked and as Tulie Trejo won the Pillsbury bake-off six different times.

I learned that
you fought in WWII and left the safety of Logan Heights and went off to fight in the Pacific and in Europe. You returned with purple hearts and commendations. You fought as Americans but returned to be treated as second class citizens. You came home and went to school on the GI bill.

As part of the war effort women from Neighborhood House wrapped bandages to be used by service men. They went to work at the cannery, and as Rosie the riveter. They stepped up to the plate and received little recognition for all their work.

Tulie Trejo

I learned that you were subject to police harassment not only when you left Logan Heights but in your own community. You were told to get your brown behind south of Market. When Frank Peñuelas was working at the Boys club, he was taken downtown by the cops because no one believed a Mexican was director of the club and were certain that he had stolen the set of keys he was holding.  My favorite story about the changes that have occurred is based on the memories of Armando Rodriguez. 

Dr. Armando Rodriguez and Bea Serrano Rodriguez 

As a kid on the Neighborhood House wrestling team Armando and the team went to a tournament in LA. At the Los Angeles Athletic Club they were told they could not enter through the front door but would have to use the service entrance.

Years passed and Armando returned to the club, but now as the commissioner of the Equal Opportunity Commission. He walked through the front door.

I leaned that Mrs. Brackett was not only a nurse but “la doctora. She was called upon at any hour when someone was ill.

I learned that each and every one of you admired a man that came to Neighborhood House in 1943– Coach Pinkerton. Coach Pinkerton not only organized your athletic activities, but was your supporter, your friend, your mentor and your supporter. If you got in trouble he went to court to testify about your character; he found jobs for you all over this city especially in the aircraft industry. He took you to his home for barbecues. When you received your ribbons, he held celebration banquets. He saw the good inside your heart. He also introduced tennis and golf to the community. Neighborhood House is where the Carriedo brothers started their very successful tennis careers.

I learned that there was an Italian grocery store known as Navarras. The family’s roots were in Logan Heights. In the 1930’s the Navarra family would use the medical services at Neighborhood House.

I learned that when the Korean police action began, you once again went to fight in a country you had probably never heard of. Johnny Leyva is an example of one of those boys. This war also brought employment opportunities to the community. There was a population spurt in San Diego and a construction boom that opened doors to you that had not always been available.

Cecilia Estrada 

I learned that the 1950s brought social clubs and let me emphasize the term “social clubs” not “gangs”. Los Lobos, Los Chicanos, Los Gallos, the Shebas, the Blue Velvets, the Madonnas, the Faberges, to name a few.

Los Gallos went to Sacrament to testify about the ways to prevent juvenile delinquency. Here are these guys that some would probably view suspiciously trying to help solve the problems of delinquency. Los Lobos were very proud of their club jacket which in those day cost a whopping seventy-five dollars.

These clubs gave back to the community by hosting cartoon shows for kids and Christmas parties. All of these clubs sponsored dances that were known throughout the San Diego community. The dances supported the club activities they hosted in the community.

I learned that interstate five and the Coronado Bridge divided the community and forever destroyed the cohesiveness of the past.

I leaned that Al “Pelon” Johnson not only served as a mentor to Los Gallos but sponsored club activities that kept you out of trouble. He was part of the community activism before many of us were in school.

I learned that Chicano Park united the young and the old in the community with a common cause. The citizens in the community had fought for crosswalks, stop signs and a small park. When it was determined that a Highway Patrol station was to be built on that small parcel of promised park land the community united. Mario Solis, a city college student went from door to door alerting the people of the situation. The community united under the bridge to assure that there would not be a highway patrol station built on that site. Today there is a Chicano Park because hundreds of people were willing to work and not take “no” for an answer. Jose Gomez was crucial at the Park and would be vital at Neighborhood House.
l-r Adela Garcia, Connie Zuniga, Katie, Oscar Torres, Alice Ledesma 

The stories of Laura Rodriquez lying in front of the bull dozers at Chicano Park or chaining herself to the doors of the Neighborhood House are well known. What some of you may not know is that after her father’s death Laura spent part of her youth growing up in the Marston House. Laura’s memory of what Neighborhood House once was contributed to her desire to bring health care back to the community. By the 70s, the Neighborhood House of your youth was no more. The settlement house concept was gone and had been replaced with some services and a lot of administrative offices in that beautiful building.

A group of community members both young and old were concerned with the changes that had taken a place at Neighborhood House. On October 4, 1970 the decision to take over the building was put into action. There is no doubt that the victory of Chicano Park provided the energy and the confidence to attempt the takeover. A list of demands were put forth, many of which sounded like those of the Neighborhood House of days gone by. The takeover took months and after a great deal of negotiating the Chicano Free clinic was born.

Neighborhood House at 1809 National Avenue is gone but your memories will live forever and are now a part of history. 
The San Diego Free Press is very proud to have played a role in Maria’s forty year long labor of love and commitment to the community of Logan Heights. All of us, across San Diego, have had the opportunity to learn, as Maria has, from the people’s story in that very special place.

SDFP editors Rich Kacmar and Anna Daniels, Maria Garcia
Since we began publishing the series in May of 2014, three of the people that Maria interviewed have passed away– Dr. John Bareño, Joe Serrano and Mary Fisher Garcia. Tulie Trejo‘s husband Joe recently passed away. Their voices will be missed. And they remain presente in their own words and in the words others have said about them in The History of Neighborhood House in Logan Heights.

Sent by Dorinda Moreno 

View the full series of articles on the Neighborhood House in San Diego.

House of Mexico Needed in Balboa Park, San Diego 

Petition to Kevin Faulconer, City of San Diego
and House of Pacific Relations that Mexico needs a stand-alone house in Balboa Park

Mexico started with the House of Pacific Relations in 1935 and was a member until 1941. It returned in 1978 for one year, when it was inexplicably shut down while the Mexican Community in California faced "Operation Wetback", the "Lemon Grove Incident," and Proposition 187, before being accepted as a member again in November 2004 and has remained a member since. The work to join in 2004 actually began back in 1995. Enrique Morones approached the HPR about possible events to promote Mexico in Balboa Park and learned that a House of Mexico did not exist. Morones decided that an effort to establish a HOM was not only necessary but vital to building bridges to the south. After many years of organizing, encouraging and soliciting the assistance of others, Morones was able to forge the formation of an exploratory committee in 2002 to research, prepare and submit a formal membership application. In 2003, HOM became a 501(c)(3) and the HPR application was submitted in late 2003. When HOM finally became a full member in 2004, SDPD was actually had to be called to the Hall of Nations, such was the local opposition against the HOM receiving approval for a house. 

Throughout it's entire involvement with HPR, HOM has faced many set-backs to achieving its goal of a stand-alone house in the International Cottages section of Balboa Park, including seeking intervention from the Office of the City Attorney due to inappropriate communications and hurdles set by the then-President of the HPR. And now, in 2015, despite years of asking for a stand-alone cottage, HOM has never been given the opportunity to fund or build one.

At first, HOM was told that there was no more room for it to have a house in the HPR. Then, when room was made, HOM was put on a list and told it would be allowed to have a house if it could prove that it had priority. HOM was able to prove long-time involvement. Then, somehow, HOM was bumped down the list by a country whose house not even on the "wait list." 

Now, HOM has been told that it will be given a house, though far in the back and that it will have to share with another country.

HOM represents a country 22 miles from the San Diego City center, and the San Ysidro and Otay Mesa communities, belonging to greater San Diego, are right across the US-Mexico border. As the largest community in the region, it is shocking that HOM does not have its own independent house and a solid presence in the International Cottages, and that it is still not slated to have a stand-alone house at this time.

The continued attacks on Mexico and Mexicans must end. We say, "Basta! Enough!" Mexico deserves its own house in a prominent location. 

Please add your name to this petition to send a message to the City of San Diego and the House of Pacific Relations that HOM is valued, respected and important to our San Diego community and that HOM should be given a visible, prominent and stand-along cottage in the International Cottages of Balboa Park.

Sent by Enrique Morones 


Provo Mayor, John R. Curtis Visits the Museum of Mormon Mexican History
World Congress of Families IX in Salt Lake City
Washington's First Wildlife Overpass
FamilySearch opens a new Seattle Family Discovery Center

Lt-Rt: Mayor Curtis, Enriqueta and Fernando R. Gomez, Proprietor and Executive Director

 John R. Curtis, Mayor of Provo Visits 
the Museum of Mormon Mexican History 
1501 N. Canyon Rd, Provo, Utah 84604
Open to Public, Free of Charge

World Congress of Families IX in Salt Lake City, 
October 27-30, 2015

Four-day international event to gather thousands to affirm the natural family as the only fundamental and sustainable unit of society (UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

[Salt Lake City, Utah] The World Congress of Families (WCF) released the names of four additional participants who will unite with pro-family advocates from all around the world to celebrate the natural family and participate in the ninth World Congress of Families on October 27-30, 2015, in Salt Lake City, Utah.

"The addition of these participants not only confirms the prestigious reputation of the World Congress of Families as a premiere global gathering, but also showcases the wide array of natural family advocates throughout the world." said Janice Shaw Crouse, executive director of WCF IX. "I am very humbled by the amount of support we have received, and our list of confirmed special guests speaks for itself."

The previous slate of speakers and participants can be viewed on WCF IX's official website, WCF will be announcing four participants each week throughout the summer.  The names released are the following:

Rev. Samuel "Sammy" Rodriguez, Jr., is the current president of the National Hispanic Christian Leadership Conference, one of the largest Hispanic Christian organizations in the United States, with over 40,000 Latino Evangelical churches as members. As a spokesperson for Hispanic Evangelicals, Rodriguez has been a featured speaker in White House and Congressional meetings on Hispanic–American issues and justice concerns. 

Miriam Grossman, MD., is a medical doctor with training in pediatrics and in the specialty of child, adolescent, and adult psychiatry. Dr. Grossman examines the social norms and trends that permeate the medical profession, and how they affect society, especially women. Her focus is on sex education and reproductive health, including sexually transmitted infections, high-risk behaviors, contraception, fertility, and abortion. She is the author of Unprotected and You're Teaching My Child What?

Ignacio Arsuaga, a social entrepreneur, is President of CitizenGO—a community of active citizens who work together, using online petitions and action alerts as a resource to defend and promote life, family, and liberty—and the President and CEO of, the largest civic participation website in Spain.

Alissa Golob is an activist, blogger, and speaker and former Youth Coordinator for Campaign Life Coalition, Canada's oldest and largest national pro-life organization. Alissa regularly speaks at conferences and in both public and Catholic elementary and high schools about abortion issues in order to educate young people and raise awareness about the pro-life movement in Canada.

The World Congress of Families (WCF) is the largest gathering of pro-family advocates in the world. WCF IX will seek to provide sound scholarship and effective strategies, and it will mobilize intellectual and advocacy resources to affirm and defend the natural family as the only fundamental and sustainable unit of society. 

All people of goodwill are invited to join in this important opportunity to support the natural family. To register for WCF IX, reserve your hotel, or more information, please visit  or follow WCF on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram.

The Howard Center for Family, Religion and Society ( is located in Rockford, Illinois and is an independent, non-profit research and education center that provides sound scholarship and effective strategies to affirm and encourage the natural family, thus renewing a sustainable and free society. The Howard Center is the publisher of the journal, “The Family In America: A Journal of Public Policy,”and has special NGO consultative status at the United Nations (UN). The Howard Center the organizer of the World Congress of Families (WCF) project which is an international network of pro-family organizations, scholars, leaders and inter-faith people of goodwill from more than 80 countries that seek to affirm and restore the natural family as the fundamental and only sustainable unit of civil society (as found in the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948). The WCF was co-founded in 1995 by Dr. Allan Carlson. To date, there have been seven official World Congresses of Families – Prague (1997), Geneva (1999), Mexico City (2004), Warsaw (2007), Amsterdam (2009), Madrid (2012) and Sydney (2013). World Congress of Families IX will be held in Salt Lake City, Utah, October 27-30, 2015 (

For more information about WCF IX, please visit and follow WCF on Facebook or Twitter.


Sent by Larry Jacobs at +1-815-997-7106, 
or The Howard Center at +1-815-964-5819 


Washington’s first wildlife overpass 

An artistic rendering shows elk moving over Interstate 90. Similar bridges have been successful 
elsewhere, cutting animal/vehicle collisions. (Washington state Department of Transportation)

The state will break ground on Washington’s first wildlife overpass to provide safe passage for bear, elk, foxes and other animals over Interstate 90 east of Snoqualmie Pass.

By Sandi Doughton 
Seattle Times science reporter, June 7, 2015

Interstate 90 is a lifeline for the Northwest, connecting people and economies across the Cascades and linking the region to the rest of the country.

For wildlife, though, it’s a killer — and not just because many of them wind up squashed. Multiple lanes of pavement and high-speed traffic bisect habitat more ruthlessly than any fence, isolating populations and undermining the genetic vigor that’s key to long-term survival.  But part of that barrier is now being lifted.

On Tuesday, the state Department of Transportation broke ground east of Snoqualmie Pass on the state’s first freeway overpass for animals. The 150-foot-long structure is designed to provide safe passage for species ranging from black bear and cougar to deer, elk — and even squirrels, mice and lizards.

It’s part of an ambitious project to convert a 15-mile stretch of interstate into one of the world’s most wildlife-friendly highways. “This is really a remarkable effort,” said Patricia Garvey-Darda, a biologist for the Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest. “The goal is to connect all the species and all the habitat.”

When finished, the section of I-90 from Hyak to Easton will incorporate more than 20 major underpasses and overpasses engineered partly or wholly with wildlife in mind. Dozens of small culverts will also be rebuilt to allow easier passage.  Four new underpasses are already open, and cameras are capturing images of deer, ducks, coyotes and river otters moving through. 

Sent  by Val Valdez Gibbons


FamilySearch opens a new Seattle Family Discovery Center
that provides fun, interactive experiences to celebrate family history.

High-tech “Museum of You” concept for center guides visitors to discover,
 share, and preserve their histories and memories.


BELLEVUE, WA—FamilySearch International announces the grand opening of its Seattle Family Discovery Center, the first to open outside its headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah. Based in Bellevue, the center offers interactive experiences for visitors of all ages to discover, share, and preserve family histories and memories. It is free to the public. Find out more online at

Visitors to the center are provided with a tablet computer as a personal guide to interface with large touch screens, where they learn more about themselves, view family origins, and discover how ancestors may have lived and even dressed. Data used for the interactive experiences is drawn from online data at and select partners.

The center creates a “Museum of You” feeling through a variety of experiences and activities for children, five interactive station experiences, and software applications that explore family ancestral lines in fun, creative ways to help patrons discover famous relatives.

When asked how visitors respond to the new attraction, 16-year-old Brynn Stapley of Bellevue, Washington, said, “I see amazement at the technology, the information, and how it’s presented on big screens. Visitors get excited when they discover a little piece of new information that leads to more information about their families. I think people are surprised how much they learn about themselves and their cultural heritage and then leave eager to continue the journey.” Stapley is one of 23 volunteers at the center.

The center features a high-definition video recording studio, where visitors can answer questions about their life stories and archive the recording for long-term preservation so future children, grandchildren, or great-grandchildren can access the recording later. Visitors can also bring a USB drive to take home a copy of the recorded session.

Becca Escoto, 26, resident of Bellevue and center volunteer, said she met a couple engaged to be married and encouraged them to record their engagement story for their posterity. “It was exciting to see them in the studio, sharing a story that will be important for their future family members,” Escoto said. “What a perfect start to begin their family.” Escoto said she was also surprised to discover that she personally is an eighth cousin to President Barack Obama through their maternal family lines.

The Seattle Family Discovery Center is a free community attraction funded entirely by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, of which FamilySearch International is a nonprofit subsidiary.  “We believe our precious family relationships and experiences in this life do not end with death,” said Dennis Brimhall, CEO of FamilySearch International and managing director of the Family History Department of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints.

“Today family history research and telling, sharing, and preserving family memories through stories, photos, and technology are engaging a growing number of individuals of all ages from every faith and ethnicity like never before,” said Brimhall. “Youth want to discover themselves and their family’s history in fun, exciting ways, and adults want to strengthen family connections and leave enduring legacies. The discovery experiences provided by this facility will help do just that,” Brimhall added.

Planning for the Seattle Family Discovery Center has been years in development, and construction was completed in April 2015. In addition to the family discovery centers in Salt Lake and Seattle, FamilySearch has announced future centers in London, England, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

The Seattle Family Discovery Center is located inside The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints facility at 15205 SE 28th Street in Bellevue, Washington.

PHOTO A: At the Seattle Discovery Center in Bellevue, Washington, Trace Farmer of Seattle, Washington, discovers 4,586 people share his first name while using the “Discover My Story” experience.

PHOTO B: Two visitors to the Family Discovery Center in Bellevue, Washington, use a tablet computer provided to each patron as a personal guide to interface with large touch screens that help patrons discover fun, new things about their family through FamilySearch data, photos and stories. 


About FamilySearch

FamilySearch International is the largest genealogy organization in the world. Millions of people use FamilySearch records, resources, and services to learn more about their family history. To help in this great pursuit, FamilySearch and its predecessors have been actively gathering, preserving, and sharing genealogical records worldwide for over 100 years.  FamilySearch is a nonprofit organization sponsored by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Patrons may access FamilySearch services and resources free online at or through over 4,800 family history centers in 132 countries, including the renowned Family History Library in Salt Lake City.

Media Contact
Taunya Covington
Media Specialist, North America Northwest
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

© 2015 by Intellectual Reserve, Inc. All rights reserved. A service provided by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 


The Southwest Experience by Eduardo Rosenstock Arechabala Alcantar  
Brief History of Mora, Part 2 of 3 by Louis F. Serna

FNS Photo Essay: Our Border 2015: Juarez Summer

The Southwest Experience by Eduardo Rosenstock Arechabala Alcantar  

Mimi, your article about being bi-lingual in the U.S. Fascinated me. I am a 87 year old Hispanic born in Nogales, Arizona. I too tasted the hand of friendship extended by the Anglo world, then withdraw on another hand. I grew up in Phoenix Arizona all through the 30's and 4o's. I had some wonderful relations with many Anglos, and sad to say, some unpleasant ones. What was hard for me to understand, was that I was made to feel like a foreigner in my own country, and this while two of my older brothers were engaged in combat in Europe and the Pacific. We always lived in a Chicano barrio. 

We moved to California at the end of the war. What a revelation for me. California
had many people of many races. A lot of dark skinned people from varied countries, many different languages. So in reality, I did not stick out like a scarecrow. I was one of many. For once I was comfortable in my own skin. The one thing I did miss very much, was to hear Spanish as I did in Arizona. Also, sadly, I was one of 4 brothers. We were raised bi-lingual. Which we spoke fluently, although my father was illiterate in Spanish and English, our mother at a very young age was adopted in Mexico by a German Jewish man married to a South American who spoke no English. My mother therefore grew up 
bi- lingual. Her adoptee father was American/Mexican. His mother was Mexican. Mr. Rosenstock was born and raised in Tucson, Arizona about 1883.

Well our move to California, changed the whole dynamics of our family. Intellectually, financially, and even culturally. For the good? Only history will prove that. We did what in our family we refer to as " A bedroom to bedroom conquest", thus changing the over all cultural dynamics of our family. Four of our younger siblings, and their spouses, don't speak any Spanish at all. 20 of all of our grand children, don't speak any Spanish or even identify to their inherent culture. How
ever, I must say emphatically, over all, their lives are much better, than what I and my siblings experienced growing up. Six of these children are educators, 2 own their own business's. The rest are fully gainfully employed and most own their own homes.

This has been a very long and hard struggle for some of us. For, others, because they look like "them", their lives have been much better. In retrospect, I look back to my father, who could not read, nor write, in Spanish or English, and I say to my self, Oh, dad, poor dad. If only you could have ! !

Que Dios te favoresca y te de una Vida plena.

Eduardo Rosenstock Arechabala Alcantar


Brief History of Mora, Part 2 of 3 
by Louis F. Serna



Chapter 6            Don Diego de Vargas

In 1692, Don Diego de Vargas, yet another proven leader and capable statesman was selected to return to el nuevo Mejico with a group of settlers to re-colonize the earlier Spanish land grants, either by diplomacy or by force. A few of the earlier colonists, although advanced in age and/or their descendants returned with de Vargas to re-claim their grants. Other new colonists also came from Mexico City. As they approached la villa de Santa Fe, a weak force of Indians tried to repel their arrival there but they were quickly overcome and De Vargas triumphantly marched into the Spanish capital. Soon after, a peaceful co-existence was brokered with the Pueblo Indians and the earlier Spanish grants were re-occupied and new grants were awarded to the new settlers.

Don Diego de Vargas

Photo courtesy of Wikipedia

New Mexico was once again under the control of the Spanish government, but in the years to come, the indigent Indians of Mexico would rise up against their Spanish overseers, much as the Pueblo Indians had done in 1680, causing a serious problem for the Spanish in New Mexico. But before that problem arose, other problems became more serious to the residents of New Mexico. The Spanish were not the only Europeans on the continent in the 1600’s. English settlers had succeeded in landing and establishing a colony in the far northeastern corner of the country in 1620. In the years since then, they were becoming a very successful venture, creating several colonies rich in farming produce and industrial manufacturing. None of which the Spanish were able to do, due to the strict constraints of the Spanish King. To the north of the English colonies, in the place called Canada, the French had also established successful cities and very successful use of the major river waterways along the Mississippi River, all the way from Canada, down the entire continent from north to south, to the large delta at the end of the great river where it dumped into the Gulf of Mexico. Along the many river tributaries, flowing out of the Mississippi River, they sent large numbers of trappers to find beavers to trap and take their pelts to sell to the markets in Europe and even in their cities where leather of these animals was used for several purposes. In their travels along the waterways, the Frenchmen encountered various Indian tribes, some friendly and some not so friendly. They managed to establish a trade market with the Indians who wanted the products the Frenchmen brought to their camps to trade and soon even that trade became a very useful practice for the French. Some of the rivers the French trapper / traders followed flowed very close to the northern boundaries of the Spanish realm and soon enough the French incursions into the Spanish lands became a real threat, especially since the English, French and Spanish were constantly quarreling or in a state of war in Europe during those times..! The French and English were well aware of the Spanish boundaries into the continent, and they cast an ambitious eye across the land and were already considering expansion of their own interests as far as the Pacific Ocean! The arid deserts of the northern Spanish lands were no attraction to the French and English, but the access to the Pacific coast and possible shipping from Pacific Ocean ports was very attractive to the entrepreneurial French and English! The “atmosphere” among the three European powers was quickly becoming volatile and of the three, the Spanish settlements were the weakest..!  

Chapter 7            The Spanish Disaster

The Villasur Expedition


Photo courtesy of Wikipedia

In 1720, the Spanish Viceroy in Mexico City decided that they could not allow the French to encroach any closer into the Spanish realm and a Spanish force was assembled, under the pretense of searching among the Indian tribes to the east, for several escaped Pueblo Indians, to return them to the Taos Pueblo. The military expedition under the leadership of the New Mexico Lieutenant Governor, Pedro de Villasur was assembled, made up of many of the Spanish most prominent military men. They marched across the hostile Indian region into what is now the state of Nebraska and at the confluence of the Platte and Loup rivers, the Spanish were ambushed by a major force of Pawnee, Otoe and French soldiers and massacred almost entirely. 13 Spaniards survived the attack and made their way back to Santa Fe to report their loss. The defeat of so many prominent Spanish soldiers was a major problem for the Spanish and the French and English began to send a steady stream of spies into the Spanish territory, most of them disguised as trapper / traders.  


They settled in among the Spanish, primarily in the area of Taos and villages nearby. They set up trade businesses, both mobile by pack animals and in stores and warehouses in Taos. They also built breweries where they produced primarily whiskey for their own consumption and to trade with the Indians. One entrepreneur by the name of Ceran St. Vrain built several mills where farmers near and far could bring their grains to be ground into flower. A few were centered around the Mora area.

The trapper / traders were quickly informed by the authorities that they could not purchase or own Spanish lands unless they did so in conjunction with a Spanish / Mexican citizen or if they were a member of the family. The trapper / traders wasted no time forming unions with rich Spanish land owners through business and having won their confidence, courted their eligible daughters, married them, and instantly became bona-fide members of the family..!

Lucien Bonaparte Maxwell

Owner of the Maxwell Land Grant

As the old Spaniards died off, the trapper / traders became owners of vast tracts of land through their marriage to the daughters. Such a case was that of Lucien B. Maxwell of northern New Mexico, who inherited a vast land grant through his marriage to a 13 year old daughter of a rich Frenchman who had married into a Spanish family! That grant became the Maxwell Land Grant, of which the rich Mora range was a part.




1821 was a decisive point in the lives of the Spanish people of northern New Mexico. The mistreated, disgruntled native Indians of Mexico decided they wanted no more of the Spanish rule that had created a terrible caste system where the Indians were the lowest on the scale of government. They rebelled and overthrew the Spanish and created a new government they called “The Republic of Mexico”. New Mexico at that time, was the northernmost region of the new Mexican government and as it was populated by mostly Spaniards, they suffered the wrath of the new Mexican government in that they were ignored and even abandoned with regard to being provided with even the most basic necessities in order for them to survive, because they were Spanish..! Fortunately for these New Mexicans, the incoming trapper / traders from the east were bringing much needed tools and supplies into their lands, eager to sell in exchange for Spanish silver.!  Before long, the flow of trade goods was so great that the Mexican government allowed them to come into the Mexican territory by way of the “Santa Fe Trail”. The doors were now open and the trade wagons flooded in..!  


Chapter 9       The Mexican War - The Taking of the Spanish Country And The Resulting Revolts

Along with the early trapper / traders, as stated earlier, came United States spies sent by their government to test the Mexican’s military strength and their resolve to defend and hold their northern territories against a possible attack by the eastern Europeans. In 1846, the U.S. government felt the time was right and they sent Brigadier General Stephen Watts Kearney and a military force into northern New Mexico and declared that area a territory of the United States..! The land was taken without firing a shot..! New Mexico was now “free” of the inhospitable Mexican government and by the “Kearney’s Code”, a new territory of the United States..! While at first there was a fear of the unknown among the Spanish, most soon accepted the Americanos as a welcome relief, as compared to the treatment they had been experiencing from the new Republic of Mexico.

Stephen Watts Kearney

Photo courtesy of Wikipedia

Kearny was quick to establish a representative government in New Mexico, appointing Charles Bent as Territorial Governor, and several other key people into governing offices. But not all the people were content with this new government nor its leaders. Disgruntled men in Taos and Mora and other communities, decided that they would oppose this new government by force and in January 1847, set upon the new Governor, Charles Bent and others in Taos and brutally killed them..! Other insurrections occurred in Mora and the Americanos in those areas were seriously threatened with death! Word quickly got back to the Military Force led by Major General Sterling Price and he was quick to rush to Taos and put down the rebellion. A terrible battle ensued at the Taos Pueblo where the Catholic Church there was bombarded by canon fire and the people responsible for Bent’s death were killed or captured. Those captured alive faced a quick trial headed by Charles Beaubien as Judge. Beaubien’s only son, Narciso, was one of those killed in the rebellion so justice was swift and the penalty for all was death by hanging, which occurred the next day.

Charles Bent

First N.M. Territorial Governor

Killed in the Taos Uprising of 1847




Charles “Carlos” Beaubien

A Frenchman who together with a Mexican politician applied for, and received a huge Land Grant from then Mexican governor, Manuel Armijo that included a part of northern New Mexico and a part of southern Colorado. The grant was later inherited by Lucien Maxwell, thanks to his marriage to 13 year old Luz Beaubien, Charles’ daughter.

Beaubien would serve as the presiding judge in the trial of the Taos Uprising insurgents.

FNS Photo Essay: Our Border 2015: Juarez Summer

Frontera NorteSur is proud to be based in the Paso del Norte, a historic region which encompasses two countries and three states. In the first of a series of photo essays, we take a visual tour of the Ciudad Juarez side of the border. Snapped for posterity one summer day of 2015, this photographic tour  was taken at a moment when  the Mexican border city is undergoing yet another historic transformation. 

Readers can see these images and the accompanying text by going to our website at: 

Frontera NorteSur: on-line, U.S.-Mexico border news
Center for Latin American and Border Studies
New Mexico State University
Las Cruces, New Mexico

For a free electronic subscription  email: 


Oct 8-10: 36th Texas State Hispanic Genealogical & Historical Conference
Oct. 24: Celebrating the Life of a True Texas Hero:  Col. Juan N. Seguin
Texas Mounted Arms in the Civil War (Part I) by Nathan Jennings
Montemayor Family Tree - Facebook Group
1719 Church Death Record of Blas de la Garza in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, MX


OCTOBER 8-10, 2015 


Oct 24: Celebrating the Life of a True Texas Hero: 
Col. Juan N. Seguin
Speaker: Mr. Henry Cisneros

Morning presentation,10:30 a.m.
This is an annual event, free and open to the public. 
Other activities are planned throughout downtown
Seguin Coliseum - 950 S. Austin 
Seguin, Texas 78155

Sent by A. Sequin   

Texas Mounted Arms in the Civil War (Part I)
By Nathan Jennings
April 14, 2015

This is the first page of the introduction to the first of a five-part series to be featured weekly at RealClearHistory.

Texas’s mobilization for the Civil War represented a cavalry-centric and monumental societal effort as almost 60,000 Lone Star horsemen fought across battlefields ranging from the deserts of New Mexico to the forests of the Carolinas. Simultaneously confronted with invasion by the Union Army and raiding by Amerindians, the frontier polity embraced the two-tiered strategic posture that reflected its traditional approach to mounted arms warfare, which had previously characterized its struggles in the Texas Revolution and the Mexican-American War.

While the Lone Star State deployed approximately 92 numbered regiments for Napoleonic operations of mass, scale, and centralization in Confederate-Union engagements, the embattled society concurrently fielded a series mounted ranger corps to protect home territory from raiding by both Natives and partisan Unionists. This manner of compound warfare compelled Texas to negotiate a scope and diversity of strategic challenges which no other American state, Confederate or Union, faced during the rebellion.

Francis Lubbock, the Governor of Texas from 1861 to 1863, proudly boasted of his polity’s feat in deploying soldiers across the continent while yet defending its troubled borders: “As to Texas, she needed no foreign bayonets to protect her soil; that, her sons demonstrated their ability to do; an besides, she had been gallantly represent by regiments, composed of her bravest and best, on every battlefield from New Mexico to Virginia.” Of the 90,000 Texas soldiers that mobilized, 58,000 joined as light cavalry, mounted riflemen, or irregular rangers, reflecting the states historical predilection for mounted warfare. In a telling contrast, only 30,000 Texans enlisted in infantry, artillery, or logistical units.

Unlike Texas’s previous military efforts, where the early, militant Texas Rangers rode as the most ubiquitous and popular form of Lone Star militarism in the face of Comanche and Mexican opposition, a more conventional Texas Cavalry manifestation, harkening back to Sam Houston’s Napoleonic cavalry battalion during the San Jacinto Campaign of 1836, gained ascendancy during the Civil War. This shift in focus found expression in both the state’s commitment to fighting beyond its borders, which favored expeditionary mounted forces in far flung campaigns, and in historical imagination in which colorful units like the 8th Texas Cavalry attained outsized importance in Lone Star memory. In terms of activated regiments, this functional reversal reflected a twelve to one disparity between the quantity of units mobilized as Confederate light cavalry and those recruited as irregular ranging corps for localized defense on the Indian Frontier.

In the conventional arena, Texas Cavalry in the Eastern Theater, Trans-Mississippi Region, and New Mexico conducted predominantly linear operations in support of combined arms brigades, divisions, and corps. Since actionable intelligence and maneuver superiority offered a critical advantage to opposing armies, the mobility of light horse assets proved critical to enabling strategic success. Just as in the Texas Revolution and the Mexican War, Texan mounted forces once again embraced functions of reconnaissance, raiding, screening, harassment, retrograde coverage, and occasionally the mounted shock charge. They also served with notable success as independent strike elements, mobile components of larger infantry brigades, and corps-level reconnaissance assets.

The 8th Texas Cavalry Regiment offered an ideal example of conventional light cavalry, this time at echelons below the brigade level. Popularly known as Terry’s Texas Rangers, they served as arguably the most lethal mounted regiment in the Civil War on either side. Of all the multiplicity of Lone Star units that fought in that conflict, this command, more than any other, personified the tactical culmination of the state’s military culture while combining distinctive ranger and cavalry qualities into a single fighting formation. As such, the 8th Texas Cavalry’s wartime actions encapsulated the ability to excel in confrontations of both guerrilla rapidity and massed armies. Among the most famous of all Texas mounted formations in the history of the state, this regiment combined frontier audacity, mobility, and firepower to accomplish screening, raiding, reconnaissance, and shock-charge actions.

Terry’s Texas Rangers first organized in Houston in September of 1861 in response to the Confederate call to arms during the first stage of Rebel mobilization. On August 12 the founders of the unit, Benjamin Terry and Thomas Lubbock, advertised that they were “authorized by the Secretary of War of the Confederate States of America to raise a regiment of mounted rangers for service in Virginia.” Another recruitment announcement stated that each company would consist of “not less than 64 nor more than 100 privates,” and that “each man must furnish the equipment for his horse, and arm himself either with a short rifle or double barrel shot gun, and a six-shooter.”

The wording of these advertisements was highly suggestive of the distinctive frontier character of the regiment. The designation of mounted rangers for service in Virginia indicated that Richmond fully understood the famed tactical capabilities of Texan frontiersmen armed with Colt revolvers and buffalo hunting rifles. The concurrent requirement for the cavalrymen to equip themselves with both long-range and short-range weaponry also revealed the intended versatility of the regiment. In short, both the Confederate War Department and Texan organizers hoped to capitalize on Texas’s long experience with frontier conflict by placing a body of aggressive Lone Star cavalry at the center of the war’s decisive theater.

The New Orleans Picayune agreed with this intent as the regiment mobilized. The paper wrote of the Texan reputation for combat effectiveness: “If this regiment does not make its mark on the Lincolnites, there is no virtue in strength, courage, patriotism and throughout knowledge of the use of horses and arms.” In September of 1861 the Bellville Countryman, as it reported the formation of the famed 8th Texas Cavalry Regiment in Houston, echoed the prevailing sentiment that occurred all across the state as each county dispatched their young men to serve in the Rebel mounted corps: “The regiment will be the pride of Texas, and will feel that they have an ancient and glorious fame to sustain.” The editor then boasted that “there is an amount of manliness, chivalry and bravery in the Regiment which cannot be surpassed any regiment of troops in the word. We feel a pride in them, as the representatives of the State itself.”

Nathan Jennings is a Cavalry officer serving as a history instructor at the United States Military Academy, West Point, N.Y. He holds a Master of Arts in American History from the University of Texas at Austin with a focus on warfare in 19th century Texas.   

Sent by Odell Harwell

Montemayor Family Tree - Facebook Group Managed by Beverly Mason Carlson

Beverly Mason Carlson has started an open Facebook Group titled Montemayor Family Tree. If your last name is Montemayor or you have Montemayor ancestors this is a great group to join. You never know, you may find your ancestors on this Facebook Group and if you don't it is ok, you can always share information about your Montemayor ancestors and meet your distant cousins...

To read the full article click here:

Moises Garza

1719 Church Death Record of Blas de la Garza in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico

This is the church death record of my 11th great grandfather Blas de la Garza in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. This document indicates that he was the husband of Angela Mendes. I am a descendant of his through his other marriage to Margarita Lopez Prieto. If you are a descendant of his please send me an email to exchange descendant… 

Moises Garza 

Read more:

Sent by Walter Herbeck


'We're forgotten':  Outside New Orleans, Gulf eats away at entire coastal towns, residents’ livelihoods

‘We’re forgotten’: Outside New Orleans, 
Gulf eats away at entire coastal towns, residents’ livelihoods

DELACROIX (AP) — Rocky Morales is watching his small Louisiana town of Delacroix slowly melt into the water.  The woods where he played hide-and-seek as a boy are gone. It’s all water and mud back there now. So, too, is the nearby marsh where townsfolk once trapped for muskrat, otter and mink.

Many of the fishermen who once lived here — his friends and relatives — have disappeared as well, fleeing behind the intricate levee system protecting New Orleans out of fear that one more hurricane will be all it takes to send the rest of Delacroix into the sea.

Ten years after Hurricane Katrina ravaged the Gulf Coast — killing more than 1,830 people and causing more than $150 billion in damage in the nation’s costliest disaster — New Orleans has been fortified by a new $14.5 billion flood protection system. But outside the iconic city, efforts have lagged to protect small towns and villages losing land every year to erosion. And as that land buffer disappears, New Orleans itself becomes more vulnerable.

In the past century, more than 1,880 square miles of Louisiana land has turned into open water — an area nearly the size of Delaware. And the loss continues unabated, with an estimated 17 square miles disappearing on average each year, according to the U.S. Geological Survey.

Cemeteries are disappearing into the Gulf. Entire barrier island chains, Andrew Jackson-era brick forts, Jean Lafitte’s pirate colony, lighthouses, bridges, roads, schools and entire towns have been washed away.

Photo by Irwin Thompson/ -- A New Orleans resident peeps out of the window as a rescue boat passes near Claiborne Ave on Sunday, September 04, 2005. Special report: Photos, stories, first-hand audio, more marking 10 years after Hurricane Katrina
Mayor Mitch Landrieu on the good, bad, ugly in New Orleans 10 years post-Katrina
“We’re losing the cultural fabric of south Louisiana,” said Jessica Schexnayder, a researcher with the Louisiana State University Sea Grant program. “It’s not just whether the land will disappear, it’s about when it’s going to be gone.”

Hurricanes speed up that disappearance and Morales, one of the few remaining fisherman to still call Delacroix home, knows that another Katrina could be the end of his town.

“It will run us all inside the protection levees,” the 51-year-old crabber and shrimper said from his perch on his 16-foot-high front porch crawling with marsh bugs and ants. Pairs of white rubber shrimp boots were hung to dry at the front door.

Neighboring homes stand either on massive stilts that lift them two stories above ground or sit on wheels that would let them flee in the face of a new storm.

Mud flats and open water extend into the horizon.

“All that was solid land. There weren’t all these lakes,” Morales said. “Katrina tore it all up.”

Loss has been a dominant theme for the past 50 years, since Hurricane Betsy clobbered New Orleans on Sept. 9, 1965, flooding many of the same places Katrina did 40 years later. Over this period, scientists say a series of factors — most of them man-made — have caused the rapid loss of wetlands.

There’s sea-level rise (estimates of 3 feet or more in the next 100 years), the natural sinking of the delta (about 1 inch a year in places), ongoing damage from oil drilling (more than 10,000 miles of oil canals crisscross the coast in highway-straight lines), and repeated hurricane damage (six hurricanes, including Katrina, have ravaged Louisiana’s coast in the past decade).

Add to that: clear-cut logging that wiped out the state’s abundant swamp forests at the end of the 1800s, oyster dredging that ruined a delta-wide reef world, the spaghetti-like network of gas pipelines and wetlands loss due to urban development.

“The best hope for these communities, and this includes New Orleans, is getting behind a very aggressive delta restoration program,” said Jim Tripp, a senior counsel for the Environmental Defense Fund. He sits on panels exploring multibillion-dollar plans to restore Louisiana’s coast.

Since the early 1990s, the government has spent billions on coastal works to slow land loss, but the Gulf inexorably advances.

Katrina itself caused about 190 square miles of land erosion in the space of a couple of days, the loss of an area bigger than New Orleans itself.

Since then, Louisiana has sought to ramp up efforts to save the coast by establishing new agencies focused on coastal restoration. The state also launched pilot projects to reclaim open water by pumping in mud. Under Gov. Bobby Jindal, the state developed a 50-year, $50 billion master plan to reverse land loss.

None of it has worked so far, and now Louisiana’s fragile coast feels like it’s at a dangerous tipping point.

In community after community along the 150-mile-wide delta, the same story is told: People are leaving behind generations-old homesteads and moving behind the levees, many of them fortified since Katrina.

“You could see it changing slowly before Katrina, but nothing like this,” said Henry Martin, a 71-year-old dock and boat owner in Hopedale, a fishing town near Delacroix in St. Bernard Parish. “This is dead for sure,” he said of his bayou town, which has been largely abandoned by its residents.

He pointed to skeletal-looking tree trunks, some of them now standing in water. “All these dead oaks used to hang over the road not that long ago,” he said.

Since Katrina, he’s been running his seafood business out of 18-wheeler trailers where he stores tools, piles of oyster sacks and paperwork. When a hurricane threatens, he drives his business out of danger.

The water also is eating away at Grand Bayou, a Louisiana Indian town reachable only by boat.  Before Katrina, some 40 families called Grand Bayou home.

“Now? Let me make sure,” said Raymond Reyes, a 71-year-old villager sitting on his shrimp boat, The Pelican. He counted the roofs along the bayou. “About 12.”

“We’re forgotten,” he said. “They don’t want to do nothing for us back here. They tell us we have to be behind the levees.”  Some say Louisiana can’t win its fight with the sea.

“You have got to retreat,” said Edward P. Richards, a law scholar at Louisiana State University who specializes in disasters.

“Unless we face the reality of relative sea level rise and coastal land loss, we will face periodic catastrophic flooding from hurricanes until there will not be sufficient resources to rebuild,” he said.

Looking for a model, Louisiana has turned to the Netherlands, a low-lying nation that has protected itself from the sea with a network of dunes, dikes and floodgates. But Richards was skeptical Louisiana could duplicate the success of the Dutch, who face a much milder sea.

“If the Dutch had to face hurricanes, they wouldn’t exist,” he said. “Their 1953 storm that flooded the entire country only generated 10-12 feet of surge.”

Katrina pushed storm surge of 28 feet and waves that reached 55 feet, according to the Army Corps of Engineers. In New Orleans, the surge reached about 16 feet.

Scientists say Katrina was especially destructive because of the disappearance of all that buffer land between New Orleans and the Gulf.

A hurricane that landed a century ago, on Sept. 29, 1915, was blunted by barrier islands, cypress forests, natural ridges and marshes that once extended in front of New Orleans. The storm — one of the worst to strike Louisiana — killed about 275 people as it flattened coastal towns. But New Orleans didn’t flood.

The same storm today would push dangerously high storm surge right up to New Orleans’ doorstep, testing the city’s new fortifications, experts say.

Beyond the new flood protection system, the fight for survival is a daily reality.

People here have a lot of ways of measuring their slow-moving tragedy. Lester Ansardi, a 66-year-old crabber and shrimper mending crab traps, points to the rising height of the stilts that Delacroix houses sit on to avoid flooding.

“When we grew up, there were no houses higher than 10 feet off the ground,” Ansardi said. “After Betsy houses went up 12 foot. Now, they’re 20 feet high.”

Ansardi, like the fisherman he chatted with on a recent afternoon, moved from Delacroix to behind the floodwalls 8 miles to the north.  Rocky Morales and his family, though, aren’t giving up.

With the sun dipping, the silhouette of New Orleans’ skyscrapers far in the distance, Morales and Suzie Guidroz, his longtime companion, went for a spin in his white shrimp boat — the Rocky and Rennie, named for his two boys.

“Only one way he’s going to leave, is when they force him to leave,” Guidroz said, sitting on a large ice chest.  Morales smiled as he steered past docks, nets, boats and fish splashing in the bayou, darkening to an emerald green in the sunset. “I guess the water’s in the blood,” he said.

He waved to an uncle, who lives in one of the 12 houses left in Delacroix, a town settled by Canary Islanders at the end of the 1700s.  When he was a kid, about 500 people lived in Delacroix, he said.

“The thing I miss the most is talking with the people. Before Katrina, late in the evening, you’d find 10-15 people talking,” he said. “You don’t have that anymore. Now they’re all up the road more.”

Behind the levees. He looked over his shoulder at what used to be a marsh where he once trapped muskrat. Now, it’s a little lake where fish nibble at the water’s surface. 

Sent by Bill Carmena 


Ceremonia del Congreso Continental de las Hijas de la Revolucion
September 18, 2015, El Rey Felipe VI y la Reina Letiza visited St. Augustine
Catholic Spies in the New World? Relics Pose New Puzzle about Early American
        Colony by Josh Fischman
La Ciudad donde nacio Mateo Sartucha, origen de familas Zertuche

Ceremonia del Congreso Continental de las Hijas de la Revolucion

Queridos amigos,

Comparto con vosotros el video de la ceremonia del nombramiento de Hija Adoptiva de Macharaviaya. Gracias al pueblo por organizar un evento tan bonito y emotivo y a Peneque por crear una marioneta de Teresa e incorporarla a la historia de BDG para los más pequeños. Me hace mucha ilusión verme con trencitas!! :o)

Incluyo también las fotos de la ceremonia del Congreso Continental de las Hijas de la Revolución Americana en el que reconocieron mi trabajo por colgar el cuadro de BDG en el Capitolio. A la Presidenta, Lynn Young, le regalé una botella de vino "Yo Solo", de la bodega malagueña La Melonera.

NOTICIAS FABULOSAS!!! PP, Ciudadanos y Podemos propondrán en el Parlamento andaluz nombrar Hijo Predilecto a Bernardo de Gálvez.   

Gracias también al alcalde de Málaga, Francisco de la Torre, por recibirme en el ayuntamiento y por su reconocimiento.  Hay más cosas lindas que compartir ¡¡pero lo dejo para mi siguiente mensaje!!
Un abrazo grande desde Washington DC, 

Teresa Valcarce Graciani
Embajadora de la Asociación Bernardo de Galvez por EEUU

Above is a link to an interesting news report (text and video) of the upcoming 450th Anniversary of St. Augustine and the possibility of King Felipe VI visiting for the festivities.  

Sent by Joe Perez  who thanks Arthur Pagan for sharing the link.

September 18, 2015, 
El Rey Felipe VI y la Reina Letiza visited 
St. Augustine

Go to the St. Augustine Garrison's facebook for photos and excited comments about the activities and the Spanish Royal couple's visit to St. Augustine for their 450 year celebration of the founding of St. Augustine, September 8, 1565.

Sent by Carlos A. Campos y Escalante 


Catholic Spies in the New World? 
Relics Pose New Puzzle about Early American Colony
by Josh Fischman
July 29, 2015

A recently unearthed burial in Jamestown, Va., from the early 1600s shows signs of Catholic rituals that are hard to explain in a colony set against the papacy.

In the ground beneath the first Protestant church built in English America, in a settlement partly founded to secure the New World for a new religion in the early 1600s, archaeologists have unearthed a relic that seems to belong to the wrong house of worship. Jamestown, Virginia, begun in bitter rivalry with Catholicism, has yielded a body entombed with ritual symbols that, in the Old World at that time, were common to Catholic burials.

“There could have been a group of secret Catholics at Jamestown,” says James Horn, president of the Jamestown Rediscovery Foundation, the group supervising the dig. “They may have been spies for the King of Spain, who wanted the New World for the Pope. Or was this a holdover Catholic item that was being repurposed for the new Church of England religion? These are tantalizing possibilities.”

On Tuesday, researchers announced the find, part of four graves uncovered at the site. The four colonists died between 1608 and 1610, a period of war, struggle and starvation at Jamestown. The four were Reverend Robert Hunt, the first Anglican (Church of England) minister in the colony; Sir Ferdinando Wainman, who was in charge of artillery and horse troops, Captain William West, another high-ranking officer; and Captain Gabriel Archer, an early leader who fought for control of the settlement with John Smith, the man famous as the colonist saved by Pocahontas from execution by her native American people. (The event may have been over-dramatized in Smith’s writings, some historians believe.)

A combination of forensic examinations of the skeletons, items found on the bodies such as a captain’s ceremonial staff and stash, and archival records helped scientists identify each individual, according to Douglas Owsley, a physical anthropologist at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of Natural History who assisted in the analysis.

Excavators uncover four graves at Jamestown. Photo courtesy Jamestown Rediscovery Foundation

In Archer’s grave, on top of his coffin, excavators discovered a mysterious silver box, about 2.5 inches long and 1.5 inches wide and hexagonal in shape. “We couldn’t open it,” says William Kelso, director of archaeology at the Jamestown foundation. The lid was corroded shut and scientists feared damage if they forced it. So they turned to CT scans to probe the contents.

This reconstruction of bone fragments in a silver box from a grave in Jamestown, Virginia, looks like a Catholic relic, often used to hold bones of saints. The model is based on CT scans of the box.

Courtesy of Micro Photonics Inc. and the Jamestown Rediscovery Foundation.

“What we saw were several good-sized fragments of bone, and a vial,” Kelso says. “This looks very much like a common item in Catholic burials at the time, called a reliquary. If this was found in a church in Europe, we’d think the bone chips came from a Catholic saint, and the vial would have been filled with holy water, or perhaps blood.”

What is surprising, Kelso says, is that Jamestown was emphatically not Catholic. Henry VIII had split with the Pope in the 1500s, and England had been vying with Catholic powers France and Spain ever since. The Spanish Armada tried and failed to invade England in 1588. King Phillip III of Spain, who saw himself as a great champion of the Pope, was intent on contesting England for colonial and religious supremacy in the New World. Fortifications at Jamestown were built to ward off Spanish attacks, Kelso says. And in 1607, a member of the colony’s governing council was executed for being a Catholic spy. “The great geopolitical struggle of the 16th century was the struggle between Protestant and Catholic countries,” Horn says.

Therefore, Horn continues, he would not be surprised to learn of a secret network of Catholics in Jamestown, perhaps plotting to take over the settlement. “King Phillip, at the time, had a vast network of spies in London and it would not have been impossible to insinuate one into the Jamestown expedition,” he says. It is not clear that Archer was actually one of them, however. The reliquary was placed on the coffin, not on the body, so it could have been put there after death by a Catholic sympathizer. “We have, over 22 years of excavations, found a large number of rosaries and wondered what they were doing there,” Kelso notes. “Secret Catholics could account for that.”

The other possibility, Horn says, is that the object “is an example of a messy transition between religions.” The Church of England was relatively new, and practitioners may have been fond of some old Catholic rituals and found new uses for them in their burgeoning church.

Either way, Kelso says, the discovery made him sit up sharply. “I always think the Protestant Reformation said ‘no graven images,’ so this really did surprise me,” he says. He would like to get into the box to do DNA analysis on the bones, hoping to shed some more light on early religion in the American colonies, a situation more than 400 years old but newly complex.

Sent by John Inclan 

Editor Mimi:  Maybe the obvious answer is just  too easy . .  the Spanish were there first.


Origen de familias Zertuche

En el norte de México se encuentran los apellidos Certuche, Setuche, Sertuchi, Sartuche y Sartucha

Este año se cumple el 450 aniversario de la fundación de la ciudad más antigua en los Estados Unidos de América. San Agustín podría colocar una pancarta en las afueras de Jamestown, Virginia, para felicitarla por su 400 aniversario, y recordar de paso a todos que ella va a alcanzar los 450 años.
En la pancarta debería decir "Feliz cumpleaños a nuestra hermana menor"’. Jamestown recibió una gran atención en la primavera de 2007 cuando celebró el aniversario de su fundación el 14 de mayo de 1607, lo que la convirtió en el asentamiento inglés más antiguo de Estados Unidos. La reina Isabel de Inglaterra la visitó, como también el presidente George W. Bush.

Pero San Agustín es la ciudad más antigua de la nación norteamericana y se apresta a conmemorar sus 450 años entre el 28 de agosto y el 1 de septiembre de 2015, esperemos que se lleve a cabo con el boato que tal ocasión requiere, incluyendo reconstrucciones históricas y una fiesta del Día de Acción de Gracias, así como que nuestro monarca asista a tan importante evento.

Recordemos que la Acción de Gracias celebrada por Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, fue la primera celebrada en los actuales Estados Unidos; luego vendría la del 30 de abril de 1598, celebrada por otro español, Juan de Oñate, esta vez en el suroeste tras cruzar el río Grande.

En el caso de Florida se conmemorará una fiesta celebrada en septiembre de 1565 por los españoles y los indígenas nativos de pueblo timucua o timucuano, con un menú que probablemente incluía pavo, venado y guiso de cerdo salado.

Realmente hubo una gran alharaca en el aniversario de Jamestown, esperemos que no sea menos con San Agustín, fundada mucho antes, el 8 de septiembre de 1565 por el español Pedro Menéndez de Avilés y su expedición de 500 soldados, 200 marineros más 100 agricultores y artesanos.

Algunos de los expedicionarios trajeron a sus esposas e hijos. Ellos, y no los peregrinos, celebraron el primer Día de Acción de Gracias en el Nuevo Mundo. Las primeras escuelas, hospitales y bancos en lo que hoy es Estados Unidos fueron construidos precisamente en San Agustín.

Hay una frase que siempre recuerdo: "¡Es que tenemos tantos….!", así justificó hace unos años en París un alto cargo político la pasividad, ignorancia y desinterés tan generalizados en España, cuando no desprecio, alimentado por los nacionalistas, excepto cuando se trate de nacidos en su terruño que reclaman entonces en exclusividad, en relación con el firmamento estrellado de descubridores en América, y en los océanos, que serían héroes venerados por cualquier otro país.

Asistimos a un conformismo cultural, histórico y político aceptado de forma ovejuna, tal como ha ocurrido con la conmemoración de los 500 años del descubrimiento de Florida por Juan Ponce de León, un castellano de Tierra de Campos, primer europeo confirmado en llegar a tierras de lo que hoy son los Estados Unidos. La propaganda anglosajona se preocupó de la celebración de los colonos que arribaron más al norte, a Jamestown, actual Virginia, aunque anteriormente parte de Florida, en 1607, y casi un siglo después.

Dejemos claro que los exploradores ingleses ni siquiera lograron tener un asentamiento permanente, como ocurrió incluso mucho antes con la desafortunada expedición española de Tristán de Luna, que se instaló en Pensacola, al noroeste de Florida, en 1559 y a la que un huracán destruyó su fuerte. Sí lo lograría seis años después, en 1565, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, con la fundación de San Agustín en la costa este.

Hoy sus actuales residentes, hispanos y sajones, orgullosos de su historia, han luchado desde dentro de Estados Unidos de América para reivindicar la evidencia de ser la ciudad más antigua del país. Uno de sus directores de Turismo, Bill Adams declaró abiertamente en The Washington Post: "Se ha hecho caso omiso a San Agustín por ser de origen español, no inglés". Por ello Ponce de León, al no haber fundado nada, ha quedado en el olvido, aunque su nombre es reconocido en bastantes lugares de Florida.

Aunque las autoridades españolas no han dejado de mencionar a Ponce de León como un gran hito en cualquier acto oficial que tenga que ver con Estados Unidos, apenas se ha notado celebración alguna en su memoria, de cuando alcanzó Florida el día de pascua de resurrección de 1513.

A finales del año pasado, la presentación en San Agustín del programa "Viva Florida 500", que acoge una serie de actos con este motivo, resultó"desértico", sólo el alcalde de Santervás de Campos, pueblo natal de Ponce, y que prometió llevar una réplica de la pila bautismal del descubridor para que se instale en la catedral. En esa pequeña localidad de 140 habitantes al norte de Valladolid, sí han entendido la efeméride como un grito a favor de los españoles olvidados y a su conciudadano en concreto.

Pero lamentablemente no todos los estadounidenses están enterados, ni los actuales españoles tampoco, pues como observó Bill Adams, director municipal de turismo para la preservación de la historia y la tradición:
"Hablamos inglés y nos criamos en las tradiciones históricas inglesas, que han tendido a desestimar lo que los españoles contribuyeron a la historia’’, los historiadores se han inclinado a "excluir a los españoles de sus libros de historia o a disminuir sus contribuciones. Eso es lo que han heredado los estadounidenses".

Adams afirma que San Agustín también tiene parte de la culpa de no ser equiparada a Jamestown y Plymouth, Massachusetts, donde los peregrinos se establecieron en 1620, tal como afirmó, "No se ha publicitado muy bien".

Pero agregó que la contribución de San Agustín a la historia estadounidense debe ser celebrada y cree que concitará más atención con la creciente población hispana en la nación y en su 450 aniversario ya próximo en el 2015. El rey y la reina de España, que estuvieron ya de visita en 2001, volverán a ser invitados.
"No sé cuánto tardará hasta que los hispanos se den cuenta de que San Agustín es su Williamsburg o su Plymouth o su Jamestown"’, dijo Adams. "San Agustín no es solamente el lugar natal de la cultura y asentamiento europeos en Estados Unidos, sino de la cultura hispana" en América del Norte.
William Kelso, director de arqueología en Historic Jamestown, quien contribuyó a descubrir un fuerte en Virginia, reconoció la importancia de San Agustín y por ello asistió en 1965 a la conmemoración de sus 400 años.

Aunque hay semejanzas entre San Agustín, Plymouth y Jamestown, también hay varias diferencias.
"Somos una ciudad viva", afirmó George Gardner, ex alcalde de San Agustín, mientras que las otras dos son reconstrucciones. "Esta es la ciudad más antigua en Estados Unidos. Todavía existe. Todavía está intacta". Hay 36 edificios que datan de la época colonial y 40 que fueron reconstruidos para el 400 aniversario de la ciudad.

Aunque Jamestown fue la capital de Virginia desde su fundación hasta 1699, dejó de existir a mediados del siglo XVIII. Fue colonizada por motivos económicos, mientras que la religión motivó la fundación de Plymouth. España estableció San Agustín por razones estratégicas.

"No vinieron aquí para colonizar la Florida. No vinieron aquí para explotar sus riquezas. Vinieron a establecer una base militar que impidiera a sus enemigos fijar una posición desde la cual amenazar los barcos de España frente a las costas", aseveró Adams.

En esos primeros años los residentes de San Agustín tenían que defenderse de ataques franceses y británicos, a veces indios hostiles, además de mosquitos, enfermedades, piratas y sobre todo de las inclemencias meteorológicas materializadas en los brutales huracanes.

"La perseverancia contra tremendos obstáculos significó la supervivencia de la ciudad", afirmó Garner.
Para proteger San Agustín, los españoles construyeron el Castillo de San Marcos, un fuerte imponente de piedra entre 1672 y 1696.

En 1738, los españoles establecieron el Fuerte Mose, a unos 3 kilómetros y medio, unas dos millas, al norte del Castillo, con un profundo significado pues fue la primera comunidad de negros libres en lo que hoy son los Estados Unidos de América.

Unos cien hombres, mujeres y niños vivían allí. La mayoría había sido esclavizada por los británicos, y tras huir y alcanzar tierra española se les concedía la libertad, así como la oportunidad de combatir a sus esclavistas, origen del fuerte Mosé.

La basílica de San Agustín es la congregación religiosa más antigua de la nación establecida en 1565, a la vez que la fundación de la ciudad. San Agustín también puede felicitarse de haber tenido el primer nacimiento de padres europeos en el Nuevo Mundo: Martín de Argüelles, nacido en 1566 ó 1567. Supera a Virginia Dare, nacida en Carolina del Norte en 1587, y al primer peregrino a bordo del Mayflower en Cape Cod en 1620, tal como afirmó David Nolan, escritor e historiador en San Agustín.

Además, en 1577, diez años antes del nacimiento de Virginia Dare, Pedro Menéndez Márquez escribió que había "44 mujeres, 62 niños y 11 mujeres embarazadas en San Agustín".|

Dentro de dos años, como se viene haciendo anualmente, se celebrará en San Agustín el desembarco del explorador español don Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, pero en esta ocasión será la gran fiesta de la Conmemoración de los 450 años de la fundación de esta pintoresca ciudad.

Menéndez de Avilés, noble asturiano nacido en la ciudad de Avilés, España, fue un fiel soldado de Felipe II, con un gran talento militar tanto en tierra como en el mar, además de tener dotes creativas en ingeniería naval.

Cuando el rey de España se enteró de la ocupación en territorio español por la secta religiosa de los hugonotes franceses, el monarca cambia sus prioridades en América y decide enviar a Menéndez a Florida para confrontar dicha invasión y devolver los territorios a la soberanía de España.

Después de pasar varias semanas en el puerto de San Juan, Puerto Rico, Menéndez de Avilés salió hacia la Florida utilizando la misma ruta utilizada por Juan Ponce de León.

A bordo de la gran embarcación El Pelayo, de nueve toneladas y acompañado de 11 barcos con 500 soldados, 200 marinos y 100 colonos, fundó la ciudad de San Agustín el 8 de septiembre de 1565.

Normalmente las compañías de Santiago y St. James, miembros de Florida Living History, son los encargados de la representación del hecho. La misa de acción de gracias de la fundación de San Agustín es celebrada solemnemente por el obispo de la diócesis católica de San Agustín, seguido de una procesión y lecturas sobre la fundación que en ocasiones han sido protagonizadas por el Dr. Timothy J. Johnson, presidente del Departamento de Humanidades del Colegio Universitario Flagler.

Otras actividades relacionadas con esta celebración se llevan a cabo en el parque de La Fuente de la Juventud y son abiertas al público en general igualmente las celebraciones en los terrenos de Misión Nombre de Dios.

Ponce de León, herido por una flecha india durante su segundo viaje a Florida, murió en La Habana en 1521 a los 61 años, lejos de Castilla, y 500 después ha quedado lejos de ser reconocido.

Esperemos que la insigne figura de Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Adelantado, gobernador y capitán general de la Florida, quede reconocida a ambos lados del océano con la solemnidad que merece y por lo que lucha con denuedo don Álvaro de Armada y Barcáiztegui, conde de Güemes y heredero del título de Adelantado de la Florida.

Cualquier duda o aclaración comunicarse con 

Sent by John Inclan 


Rosenwald Film Opens Nationally
Reading, Writing, 'Rithmetic and Preservation at Rosenwald Schools
Tony Gleaton, African American photographer, scholar, and artist


Rosenwald Film Opens Nationally 
5,000 structures have been identified 
as a Rosenwald school, 
2,000 have been renovated, 
facilitated through the efforts of the 
National Trust for Historical Preservation. 

Rosenwald, a documentary film by Aviva Kempner about the schools built for African-American children throughout the South during the Jim Crow era, and about the partnership that made them happen, opened nationwide on August 28. In this All Things Considered interview, Ms. Kempner discusses Julius Rosenwald's philanthropic philosophy and the contributions he made.

The Nuts and Bolts of Saving Places: Have you ever thought about nominating a place to the National Register, but weren’t sure where to start? Well, fear not, because the PreservationNation blog has teamed up with Jim Gabbert, a historian with the National Park Service, to create our National Register Guide video tool kit series. Watch the series to date (and keep an eye out for more episodes to come).

Reading, Writing, 'Rithmetic and Preservation at Maryland Rosenwald Schools

The 2015 PastForward Conference hosted by the National Trust for Historic Preservation, Nov. 3-6, 2015 includes a field tour of five Rosenwald Schools in Maryland. Learn how to partner with organizations and jurisdictions to preserve and sustain your school from people who have completed projects in Prince George's and Anne Arundel counties. See Ridgeley School, a model restoration project and enjoy lunch at Galesville School. Local school experts will lead the tours and two well-known authors who have written about Rosenwald schools will discuss their research. Click here to see the full PastForward schedule. Register for PastForward and purchase your Maryland Rosenwald Schools Field Tour tickets here!

Aviva Kempner's Rosenwald.jpg 
Aviva Kempner's new documentary film, Rosenwald, is currently opening across the country. Last week NPR's Robert Seigel interviewed her on All Things Considered. Listen here as Ms. Kempner discusses Julius Rosenwald's philanthropic philosophy and the contributions he made in support of African American education. For a complete listing of scheduled screenings click here.

Getting Local Support: Advocacy 101
After attending the 2015 National Rosenwald Schools Conference in Durham, Laurie Mitchell, North Carolina Historic Preservation Commission Services and Certified Local Government Coordinator compiled a guide of advocacy essentials based on a conference education session she attended titled Advocacy 101 for Rosenwald Schools. Session presenter Derwin Dubose, from the Sheila C. Johnson Leadership Fellowship at Harvard Kennedy School of Government, shared the tools needed to get local support for Rosenwald Schools. The methodology can easily translate to other grassroot diverse groups seeking local support. Go here for a simple step-by-step approach to successful advocacy. 

National Trust for Historic Preservation

© 2015 National Trust for Historic Preservation, 2600 Virginia Ave. NW Suite 1100, Washington, DC 20037
202.588.6000 | 800.315.6847 | 202.588.6085 (fax) | 


Tony Gleaton

Tony Gleaton is an African American photographer, scholar, and artist who is best known for his photographic images capturing and documenting the African influence in the American West and Central and South America

Gleaton, the youngest son of an elementary school teacher and police officer, was born into a black middle-class family on August 4, 1948 in Detroit, Michigan. In 1959 his mother left his father and moved the family to California. Gleaton played football in high school and briefly at East Los Angeles Junior College before joining the U.S. Marine Corps in 1967. While on his first tour of duty in Vietnam, he became fascinated with the camera. 

After serving in the Marine Corps until 1970, Gleaton returned to California and enrolled at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). While there, he took a photography class that revealed his talent of shooting photos. He left UCLA and studied for a semester at the Arts Center School of Design in Los Angeles before venturing to New York to pursue his aspirations of becoming a fashion photographer. Gleaton worked as a photographic assistant and performed other various jobs through the 1970s.  

Dissatisfied with the fashion world, Gleaton left New York in 1980 and hitchhiked throughout the American West, photographing cowboys first in northeastern Nevada and then in Texas. He captured the lives of Native American ranch hands and black rodeo riders. His photographic ventures in Texas, Colorado, Nevada, Idaho, and Kansas formed the essence of his project titled Cowboys: Reconstructing an American Myth. This collection featured a series of portraits of African, Native, Mexican, and Euro-American cowboys.

Gleaton’s interest in the multicultural Southwest influenced his travels to Mexico. By 1981 he had begun traveling to and from Mexico, shooting photographs. In 1982 he moved to Mexico City, and from 1986 to 1992, he resided with the Tarahumara Indians in northern Mexico and then moved to Guerrero and Oaxaca. Here, Gleaton began what is now his most famous project, Tengo Casi 500 Años: Africa’s Legacy in Mexico, Central & South America. Gleaton photographed the present-day descendants of African slaves brought to the region by Spanish conquistadors in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries.  

Africa’s Legacy gained international recognition. In 1993 the collection was placed on exhibit by the Smithsonian Museum and toured throughout Mexico and Cuba with the sponsorship of the Mexican National Council of Art. By 1996 Gleaton had expanded his project to include Central and South America, eventually traveling over fifty thousand miles with stops in sixteen countries between 1993 and 2002.

In 2002 Gleaton became a visiting professor of photography at Texas Tech University.  That same year, he finished a Master’s in Art at Bard College. In 2004 Gleaton became a scholar in residence for the Texas Tech Southwest Collection/Special Collections Library in Lubbock, Texas. The collection houses the Tony Gleaton Archive.  

Currently, Gleaton resides in San Mateo, California, with his wife, Lisa Gleaton. He continues to build a legacy that acknowledges beauty, empowers communities, and creates cultural bridges through the images of often forgotten people.

Richard Baron, “Profile: Tony Gleaton.” Newspaper Tree: El Paso’s Online Newspaper, Apr. 19, 2004; Tony Gleaton, “Biography,”, accessed on July 23, 2015. Vistas Magazine, Unpublished Article, 2007,, accessed on July 23, 2015; Sean Mitchell, “The Unexpected Face of Mexico,” LA Times, Oct. 8, 2007; Pablo Jaime Sáinz, “Exhibit Captures A Culture Within,” UT San Diego, Feb. 23, 2008.

Contributor:  ·     Cobbins, Quin'Nita F.   University of Washington, Seattle
See more at:

Sent by Norman



Native American Research: The Indian Tribes of North America
Fight the Power: 100 Heroes of Native Resistance, Women Warriors 
        by Vincent Schilling 
Indian Conquistadors: Indigenous Allies in the Conquest of Mesoamerica
        edited by Laura E. Matthew and Michael Oudijk
Rostros Tarahumaras por Carlito Rangel 

==================================== ==================================

Native American Research: 
The Indian Tribes of North America

The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton in Bulletin 145 of the Bureau of American Ethnology includes the tribal history, geographic locations and population details for every major American Indian tribe. This comprehensive list is arranged by state and tribal name.

The Bureau of American Ethnology reports are a rich resource for Native American Indian genealogy research. Access these publications online in GenealogyBank's historical documents archives here:

Sent by Frances Rios 

Fight the Power: 100 Heroes of Native Resistance, Women Warriors
by Vincent Schilling

Too often the battles fought by our American Indian warriors in history involve the acts of valor committed by men. However, these same types of acts performed by the women warriors of the past hold no less merit. For this reason, we have put together a list of Native women warriors who stood their ground. 

Apache warrior Lozen

A skilled warrior of the Chiricahua Apache, Lozen was the sister of Victorio a prominent Chief. Of his sister and her exploits in battle Victorio has said: “Lozen is my right hand... strong as a man, braver than most, and cunning in strategy. Lozen is a shield to her people.”

In the photo above, she can be seen with Geronimo and other warriors in front of the train that ends up taking them in cattle cars to Florida. 

Fighting against the horrible conditions of the San Carlos Reservation in Arizona, Lozen fought alongside her brother while evading capture by the military. Lozen, regarded by the warrior Kaywaykla as extraordinary, he said: “She could ride, shoot, and fight like a man; and I think she had more ability in planning military strategy than Victorio did.” She fought in countless battles for decades including alongside Geronimo in the last campaign of the Apache Wars.”

Buffalo Calf Road Woman

During the 1876 Battle of the Rosebud in Montana, Buffalo Calf Road valiantly rode into battle alongside her husband Black Coyote. As American troops under the leadership of General Crook (with Crow and Shoshone allies) fought the Cheyenne and Lakota Sioux, Buffalo Calf Road charged into the center of the battle to save her brother Chief Comes in Sight, whose horse had been shot out from under him. 

Her act was considered to be one of the greatest acts of valor during that battle. Her people named the battle, “The Battle Where the Girl Saved Her Brother.”

Moving Robe (Tashenamani)
During the Battle of the Greasy Grass in Montana where Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer was defeated, one of the foremost warriors leading a counterattack against U.S. Calvary troops was Native woman warrior Moving Robe (Tashenamani), Sioux. Her actions were so formidable, they were recorded in history through the documented words of Lakota warrior Rain in the Face:

“Holding her brother’s war staff over her head, and leaning forward upon her charger, she looked as pretty as a bird. Always when there is a woman in the charge, it causes the warriors to vie with one another in displaying their valor.”

Running Eagle (Brown Weasel Woman)
Though some accounts vary on Brown Weasel Woman, who was named Running Eagle due to her prowess in battle, this woman warrior has several stories of bravery, including avenging her husband’s death after he was killed by Crow warriors. To avenge him she became a Blackfeet warrior. According to legend, the Sun Spirit said it would grant her great power in war, yet she was not to have sexual relations with another man. She then became a respected leader, and led many successful raids, but because she was intimate with a member of her war party in Flathead territory, she lost her war power and her life.

Read more about her in Plains Indian History and Culture: Essays on Continuity and Change by John Canfield Ewers.

During the 1858 Battle of Spokane Plains in present-day Washington State, Yakama leader Kamiakin was nearly killed when an artillery shell blew a branch off a tree knocking him off his horse. Kamiakin’s wife Colestah, who was well-known as a medicine woman and warrior, fought valiantly at her husband’s side armed only with a stone war club. Though she was armed with just the club, she was able to rescue her husband, and later nursed him back to health.



Indian Conquistadors: 
Indigenous Allies in the Conquest of Mesoamerica 

edited by Laura E. Matthew and Michael Oudijk

Dear Friends,  I think it is high time to we cross the "T" and dot the "Ï" and finish believing the Black Legend created in the 1500s by our cousins the "Brits" and continued by our other closer cousins the "Anglo-Americans". Most of us have been taught in school on both sides of the border the Black Legend as fact, because it has been convenient for political purposes for both governments. Remember the "history" is written by the "winner" as it sees fit, expecting the loser to go into oblivion.
Thankfully, there are more than a few with clear intellect and righteousness that are determined not to forget the real history. It is a thankless task to correct the historical wrongs but nevertheless we´ll continue to discover and share how manipulative the official "history" been taught can be, on both sides of the border !

In these pages you can see another perspective of the Conquest of America (the whole Continent one hundred years before the Pilgrims even arrived in Plymouth)

As always, read anything Anglo-American or British for signs of a hidden agenda. To legitimize their own conquests they find it appropriate to demonize the other, frequently anything Spanish (and Mexican and Native American by extension and association). Fortunately, there are some ethical historians, on both sides of the border that strive to correct the legends employed to discredit the real history.

Do not be content reading this is English, read the original Spanish accounts and do keep an open mind and place yourselves in the mentality of warriors born in the XV century.  Our purpose is not to create polemic debate, it is to publish the un-embellished truth ! Y de preferencia, lean los originales en Castellano !

Regards, C.A.C.  Carlos A. Campos

Rostros Tarahumaras, sent by Carlito Rangel
Beautiful power point of Tarahumaras people.  You'll enjoy the faces, clothes, variety of people of all ages. What I enjoyed were the smiles, and peaceful feelings . .


New Surgery from Israel: The Operating Room of the Future 
Out From Hiding by Dell F. Sanchez, Ph.D.
A Silent Story Of History
'Israel is a miracle'


New Surgery from Israel
The Operating Room of the Future 

Phenomenal! Now here is something that is truly remarkable. Imagine what wonders this can do for cancer - all kinds, and so many other ailments we haven't been able to address!
This machine that the Israelis have created is a miracle and may be miles ahead of anything we have. It reportedly can cure so many things without  opening up the body.

Dr. Frank Talamantes, Ph.D,
Professor of Endocrinology (Emeritus)
University of California
Santa Cruz, California, 95064



This book is not your traditional history book or one based on a narrow, monolithic topic. However, the nuclear core of the book has to do with various imperative elements affecting one central theme. This theme is about today’s Sephardic Anusim who are the descendants of Spanish Jews that endured a three hundred year holocaust that so few know about. There is a degree of diversity in topic yet with one singular core theme. My quest began in the spring of 1996 because that is when my father discovered the secret of his family’s Jewish ancestry. 

As the baby of the family, he was the last one to find out at age 77 about his father having been given up for adoption by a military officer in the Mexican Army who happened to be a Jew. According to DNA test results he was of a Scandinavian and Uralic speaking ancestry whose forefather either married a Jewish woman or converted to Judaism many generations ago. 

In the process of exploring my own lineage, I discovered truths with a much longer historical record and much deeper implications. (The section following this introduction relates to the depth and diverse methods and locations of this exploratory quest.) In the process, I also discovered truths on my father’s mother’s side who are Sephardic descendants of a popular family in Monterrey, Mexico. And I also discovered facts about my mother’s father’s DNA that point directly to a Sephardic ancestry as well. Chapter four is devoted to this whole issue on DNA. 

The next thing that began to quickly unfold was the long standing story of my wife’s maternal Sephardic ancestry which was common knowledge among all their relatives. But it wasn’t until her brother took a DNA test when we discovered that her father had the purest and possibly more “classical” Jewish DNA than the rest of our family. In other words, his DNA results are among the most popular haplogroups among Jews around the world. The irony is that we just could never find his surname on genealogical records and his oral history was the least known to us all. His surname, Ancira, is among the least common in genealogical records. My theory was somewhat less selfish than it seemed. When I first began this journey, I was persuaded that if two of us, my wife and I, had such a peculiar ancestry like the one unfolding before our eyes, how many more were out there with similar stories? But it wasn’t until these last few months when I sensed I had gone full circle.

 After impassionedly investigating and traveling all across the Southwest of the United States, including Mexico and Spain; and making two trips per year to Israel for the last 14 years, I finally began to see the broader picture. The picture has become a gigantic mosaic demonstrating all forms of evidence that point to the fact that I did not lose my direction during this journey’s complexities. What seemed like ancient history dating back hundreds of years began to take shape in the form of new and undiscovered frontiers within my quest. I refer to it in this manner because this is how it seemed to me at that point in time. When I started this journey, there didn’t seem to be as much attention on this subject as we have today. Today, we have evidence that a significant number of Hispanic/Latinos happen to have deep Sephardic roots in the culture of Sephardim which I refer to as Sephardic Anusim. 

Some of these frontiers are ageless, specifically those documented implications in Holy Scriptures such as the Torah, the Prophets and the Jewish Talmud. Other frontiers have to do with the diversity and the extant of historical records and genealogies which corroborate the intent of this book. When I least expected it, other senderos or narrower pathways began to open up in the realms of onomastics which is the science, the art and discipline of surnames. Then the field of material evidences opened up such as those being unearthed including mezuzahs, gravestones and epigraphy on buildings and artwork. All along, the new frontier of DNA testing within the context of human ancestries began to slowly open up newer pathways. These paths are exciting because not only do they confirm a person’s true lineage but it helps find existing relatives we often do not know of. So it is that I have gone full circle in my quest to ascertain true knowledge. But this circle does not end here. In fact, this circle is yet in its infancy.

 I expect this knowledge will continue to increase and possibly introduce new and uncharted pathways which I shall pursue probably for the rest of my life. In the process, I would not doubt that as these circles of knowledge and truth continue to expand and intertwine into new relationships, it might all end up in the land of our forefathers which is Erez Israel. There are six major topics that accentuate the existence and nature of Sephardic Anusim, they are: history which has been documented; oral history pertaining to thirteen contributors; science as pertaining to DNA outcomes; onomastics as pertaining to the origin of names; material evidences found within the community of Sephardic Anusim; and finally, my personal observations, assessment and conclusions regarding the overall portrait which this book represents.

Dell F. Sanchez, Ph.D., is the founding president of Aliyah Sephardic Center, where he oversees research and education related to Latino Sephardic Jews. Sanchez has published nine books—four in English, four in Spanish, and one in German—and produced over 100 instructional videos focusing on the history and destiny of the Sephardic Anusim.


Dr. Dell Sanchez is a former social worker, educator, and CEO of a broadcasting company; who began research into the Sephardic roots of Northern Mexico and the Southwestern United States and the history of Spanish Jews and crypto-Jews. He is also a programmer for God's Learning Channel and runs an organization called the Aliyah Sephardic Center which encourages people to research their Sephardic lineage. He has written several books on the subject of the Sephardic roots of the Southwest including:

Sent by John Inclan 


A Silent Story Of History...
That One Man Never Never Bragged, Boasted Or Even Talked To His Own Wife About...This Is The Greatness This World Needs To Crave 

This video is about a man the history books lie cold to the facts and lives he saved.  Children, over 650...mostly Jewish Czechoslovakians, destined for the Nazi (Socialist Party) death camps.  He never told a soul what he did, for half a century...not even his own wife Grete.

Then, in 1988, his wife found a scrapbook dating to 1939 in their attic. It held all the children’s photos, a list of their names, letters from some of their parents, and other documents. It was the first time she’d learned of her husband’s story.

After the secret came out, the BBC program That's Life aired a reunion between Winton and the children...obviously now grown adults, that he had rescued.

Winton was surprised when one of the children he rescued was revealed to be seated beside imagine how he felt when the show's host asked if there were any other people he'd helped to save in the audience...and this is a short video of the response to the question answered...a history we should be preserving.     
Sent by Odell Harwell 


'Israel is a miracle'

Actor Leonard Nimoy speaks about the miracle of Israel in a movie he narrated not long before his death. Shown on television from coast to coast, the movie is called "The Miracle of Israel," and connects the strange and seemingly supernatural events surrounding the Jewish state's founding and survival over the last 67 years. 

"The Miracle of Israel" tells the story of the only nation in the history of the world that has maintained a national identity for centuries without a homeland. The documentary explores four ancient prophecies in light of modern events, including:
• The establishment of the state of Israel in 1948
• The re-gathering of the Lost Jewish Tribes to the homeland
• The rebuilding of the Temple in Jerusalem, and
• Claims of the coming of the Jewish Messiah

The four miracles highlighted in the film are not only distinct threads woven into the fabric and seams of the Jewish people's survival and restoration, but some say they are proof of prophetic fulfillment that has and will continue to impact the world as it moves toward the Last Days, explain the filmmakers.
The birth of Israel as a nation in 1948 was more than just the fulfillment of a dream held across 1,900 years – it was the modern fulfillment of ancient Bible prophecy, claims the movie seen by millions of Americans through airtime purchased by the filmmakers who use it to promote the DVD version and other supportive material. 
Produced by the Miracle of Israel Foundation, the movie reminds viewers that the Bible promised that, although God would banish the Jewish people from their land because of disobedience, He would in the "latter days" bring them back and re-establish them in their land.
For the Jewish People, a quest for a Homeland that took almost 2,000 years was ended by a vote that took just three minutes. Although miraculous, it did not come without struggle, a struggle that continues to this day. 
The history of Israel cannot be told apart from the modern miracle of God's re-gathering of His people, scattered to the four corners of the earth. This re-gathering began back in the 19th century as Jewish settlers, fueled by their faith and conviction, came back to the Land of their Fathers. They cleared the swamps and revived the language of Hebrew.
Before, during and immediately following the Holocaust, many European Jews tried to immigrate to Israel to escape death, but sadly the British, who ruled Palestine until 1948, turned them away. Many went back to Europe where they were killed while others ended up in internment camps, never making it to the Promised Land.
After 1948, however, the floodgates opened and millions of Jews have returned to their Land. Ancient Jewish communities, perhaps even those whose members may have been descendants of the "Lost Tribes" of Israel, have made aliyah (the Hebrew word meaning "returning to Israel") from such faraway places as China, India and Ethiopia. A new phenomenon is the sudden interest among many Latinos to recover their lost Jewish identity. Many believe they are descendants of Jews forced to leave Spain and later Portugal during the Spanish Inquisition in the late 15th century. Recent advances in state-of-the-art DNA research can now confirm if, in fact, a person comes from Jewish descent.
The first Temple was built by David's son, Solomon, around 950 B.C. It was constructed according to the pattern of the tabernacle in the wilderness given to Moses to house the Ark of the Covenant. 
According to archaeologists, scholars and historians, it was built on Mount Moriah, the site where Abraham offered Isaac to be sacrificed. It was later destroyed by the Babylonians in 586 B.C. and eventually rebuilt by the remnant that returned from captivity 70 years later.
Known as the Second Temple, it was later enlarged and beautified by Herod the Great during the latter part of the first century B.C. It was built on such a magnificent scale, it became one of the great wonders of the ancient world. The Temple was again destroyed by the Romans in 70 A.D., when they ransacked Jerusalem and burned the city to the ground.
During the 7th century, when Jerusalem was under the control of the Muslims, a mosque was built over what was thought to be the Holy of Holies. It remains there to this day.
The Temple Mount is hotly disputed and is perhaps the most valuable real estate in the world today. A movement has now emerged to rebuild the Temple again, and that movement is quickly gaining momentum.
The film makes the biblical case not only for the return of the Jewish people to the land, but also of spiritual restoration.  Get "The Miracle of Israel," narrated by Leonard Nimoy in one of his last professional acts.


Mission San Luis, Tallahassee, Florida
"Tzompantli" Racks found in Templo Major in Mexico City
Bolivia:Three skulls found near Lake Titi-caca

Mission San Luis, Tallahassee, Florida

On a broad hilltop In the heart of Tallahassee, Florida, is Mission San Luis, a site with a deep history involving the Apalachee Native Americans and Spanish missionaries. In the mid-1500s, Hernando de Soto visited Anhaica, the capital of the Apalachee, an Indian nation so prominent that mapmakers bestowed its name on distant mountains; the Appalachians. 

In 1656, the Apalachee chief agreed to move his people a few miles away to Mission San Luis, the capital of Spain's settlements in western Florida. There, Spanish friars baptized thousands of the Native Americans, Amid conflict between the Apalachee, other Native American groups, the Spanish, and the English, the mission was destroyed in 17O4.

According to Grant Stauffer, a graduate student at Texas State University, archaeologists consider Mission San Luis unique because unlike St. Augustine, Spain's capital, in eastern Florida, the village offered a unique cultural mash-up, where Spanish settlers, priests, and soldiers lived and worked side by side with Apalachee families.*

"The site is also one of few, if not the only, archaeological sites where a court was unearthed in North America," he adds, referring to the ceremonial courts so prominent in Mesoamerican sites.

Unlike the grid that dominates St. Augustine, Mission San  Luis was laid out using the traditional circular pattern of Native American towns of the region. Covering 60 acres, the site included the Spanish garrison, the central plaza/ball court, a monastery, and the surrounding village. Few remains of these buildings exist today, but the site has been reconstructed on the basis of archaeological finds. Two decades of fieldwork provide Mission San Luis with one of the largest and most diverse collections of seventeenth-century Spanish and Apalachee materials, including nearly a million artifacts.

Council House Interior

The primary ceremonial and political center of the Apalachee capital was the council house, which has also been reconstructed, a circular building designed around a central fire, considered one of the largest Native American ceremonial structures in the southeast. In the circular ball court, which features a ceremonial ball pole,

the Apalachee played a stickball game tied to political succession. The myth surrounding the game, which was eventually abolished by the Spanish, is considered the oldest recorded myth in North America.

While you're there Tallahassee's rolling hills, classic architecture, and tree-lined streets have the flavor of the Old South. At Lake Jackson Mounds, one can see two mounds made by the ancestors of the Apalachee, with even older examples at the nearby Letchworth-Love Mounds. Visitors can also spend a day exploring the Maclay Gardens, especially in the spring, when the dogwoods and azaleas are in bloom.

—Malin Grunberg Banyasz
Archaeology September/October 2015, pg. 10

*Editor Mimi: According to Oakah L. Jones, Jr., it was the practice of the Spanish settlers on the Northern Frontier of New Spain to settle next to indigenous villages. The purpose was to bring the two communities together.  The census data collected from primary documents indicates the process was very successful.  Los Paisanos, University of Oklahoma Press, 1979.


"Tzompantli" Racks found in Templo Major in Mexico City

MEXICO CITY (AP) — Archaeologists have found the main trophy rack of sacrificed human skulls at Mexico City's Templo Mayor Aztec ruin site, scientists said Thursday.

Racks known as "tzompantli" were where the Aztecs displayed the severed heads of sacrifice victims on wooden poles pushed through the sides of the skull. The poles were suspended horizontally on vertical posts.

Eduardo Matos, an archaeologist at the National Institute of Anthropology and History, suggested the skull rack in Mexico City "was a show of might" by the Aztecs. Friends and even enemies were invited into the city, precisely to be cowed by the grisly display of heads in various stages of decomposition.

Paintings and written descriptions from the early colonial period showed descriptions of such racks. But institute archaeologists said the newest discovery was different.

Part of the platform where the heads were displayed was made of rows of skulls mortared together roughly in a circle, around a seemingly empty space in the middle. All the skulls were arranged to look inward toward the center of the circle, but experts don't know what was at the center.

Archaeologist Raul Barrera said that "there are 35 skulls that we can see, but there are many more" in underlying layers. "As we continue to dig the number is going to rise a lot."

Barrera noted that one Spanish writer soon after the conquest described mortared-together skulls, but none had been found before.

University of Florida archaeologist Susan Gillespie, who was not involved in the project, wrote that "I do not personally know of other instances of literal skulls becoming architectural material to be mortared together to make a structure."

The find was made between February and June on the western side of what was once the Templo Mayor complex.

The platform was partly excavated under the floor of a three-story colonial era house. Because the house was historically valuable, archaeologists often worked in narrow excavation wells six feet (two meters) under the floor level suspended on their stomachs on a wooden platform.

Periodic excavations carried out since 1914 suggested a ceremonial site was located near the site. Barrera said the location fit very well with the first Spanish descriptions of the temple complex.

Gillespie said archaeologists have found other tzompantli, which she said might be better translated as "head rack" instead of "skull rack" because the heads were put up for display while still fresh.

But experts had long been searching for the main one.

"They've been looking for the big one for some time, and this one does seem much bigger than the already excavated one," Gillespie wrote. "This find both confirms long-held suspicions about the sacrificial landscape of the ceremonial precinct, that there must have been a much bigger tzompantli to curate the many heads of sacrificial victims" as a kind of public record or accounting of sacrifices.

Sent by John Inclan 

BOLIVIA: Three skulls found near Lake Titi-caca
Archaeology September/October 2015, pg. 24

================================== ===================================
BOLIVIA: Three skulls found near Lake Titi-caca, at Wata Wata, occupied from a.d. 200 to 800, stand out among Andean trophy skulls for the violence done to them and for their association with Tiwanaku culture, for which there was no prior evidence of head-taking. 

The skulls of three adults show evidence of scalping, beheading, defleshing, and even the forcible removal of the eyes, all around the time of death. Whoever they were, the trauma likely served to symbolically disempower them—in this life and perhaps the next.




Los 83 Pueblos Mágicos de México
From gangsters to Mexico mural artists
Mapa of Mexico with links to each state and information for that state.
Referencia de historia de las culturas americanas antiguas y su evolucion
Diego Fernandez de Cordoba, Marquis of Gudalcazar, Viceroy of New Spain
Familia Lutzelberger de Hildburghausen, Shmalkalden y Meiningen, Alemania.
Defunción de Doña María Francisca Sanchez de la Chica
Asunto: II Coloquio de Genealogía e Historia de la Familia

Los Pueblos Mágicos de México, programa desarrollado por la Secretaría de Turismo, nacieron para traernos los olores, colores, sabores, la gente y la riqueza de nuestro país. Aquí en POSTA te mostramos por primera vez, las imágenes de los 83 pueblos mágicos de nuestro país. Excelentes destinos para una escapada de fin de semana.

Sent by Mercy Bautista-Olvera 


From gangsters to Mexico mural artists
Former drug gang members turn district into giant mural 
in government rehabilitation initiative in Pachuca.
Al Jazeera and Agencies | 13 Aug 2015 15:36 GMT | Arts & Culture, Latin America, Mexico

As part of a government-sponsored project that rehabilitates ex-convicts, former drug gang members, armed with paintbrushes, have turned an entire district in the city of Pachuca into the country's largest mural.

The creative initiative, called Pachuca Paints, has used 20,000 litres of paint on 209 houses, creating a vibrant, colourful image that stands out from afar.

The project also aims to promote communal unity and build a sense of trust between the former criminals and the local residents.

Irving Trejo, of the artist collective Germen Crew, picks out a can of orange paint while working on a gigantic mural in the Palmitas neighborhood [Sofia Jaramillo/AP]  The government-sponsored project is called Pachuca Paints Itself and aims to promote community teamwork. [Sofia Jaramillo/AP]

An initiate made in coordination by the national and local governments changed the face of this small, violent neighbourhood located 100km from Mexico City, by asking graffiti artists to paint the biggest mural of the country. [Omar Torres/AFP]

The Germen Crew artist collective responsible for the project, claims it is Mexico's largest mural. [Sofia Jaramillo/AP]

An artist paints a wall of one of the alleys of the hill ''Las Palmitas'' in Pachuca. [Omar Torres/AFP]

Germen Crew artist collective member Carlos Duarte is accompanied by young Regina Robles, as he paints a section of a gigantic mural in the Palmitas neighborhood of Pachuca. [Sofia Jaramillo/AP]

They have spent the last 14 months creating trust with the community, and working with residents to paint their homes with bright colorful designs. [Omar Torres/AFP]

The project aims to bring the community together and rehabilitate the area. [Omar Torres/AFP]

Blueprints and photos are displayed in the headquarters of the artist collective Germen Crew. [Sofia Jaramillo/AP]

The creative collective has used 20,000 liters of paint on 209 houses. [Omar Torres/AFP]

Sent by Dorinda Moreno

Mapa of Mexico with links to each state and information for that state.

Editor Mimi:  This is quite an outstanding site.  It is a colorful map of the states of  Mexico. You click on a state and it will take you to each individual state, with considerable information about the state, with photos and text. 

Sent by Carlos A. Campos y Escalante 

Estimada Mimi:
Le adjunto otra referencia de historia de las culturas americanas antiguas y su evolucion por si la considera de interes para sus lectores.  A este le continua el Vol. 2

Familia Lutzelberger de Hildburghausen, Shmalkalden y Meiningen, Alemania.

Mis Bisabuelos

Familia Lutzelberger de Hildburghausen, Shmalkalden y Meiningen, Alemania.

Envío a Uds. el Registro del bautismo de mi bisabuela materna Doña Ana Kruzen Lutzelberger quien se casó en Montemorelos,N.L. con mi bisabuelo Don Manuel Antonio Salinas Ponce el mes de Abril de 1866; tuvieron ocho hijos: Orlando, Otilia mi abuela, Enrique, Lidia, Natalia, Salvador, Alfredo y Manuel.

Mi esposa Gloria Martha Pérez Tijerina de Palmerín, localizó hace poco tiempo en Ancestry. Com datos de Heinrich Kruzen y de los ancestros Lutzelberger, en los lugares antes citados.

Así mismo anexo las fotos de su Padre el Dr. Heinrich Kruzen del año de 1860 en Alemania, esposos Salinas- Kruzen y de una pareja de familiares de Alemania.

Mi madre comentaba que cuando murió Tía Lidia Salinas Kruzen les dijo a sus hijas que todos los daguerrotipos de la familia Kruzen- Lutzelberger, cartas etc. fueran depositada en su féretro y así lo hicieron.

Márgen izq. No. 61. Ana Felipa Crusen. 

Baptism Ana Kruzen

En San Fernando de Tamaulipas á los 20 días del mes de Abril de mil ochocientos cincuenta. Yo el Cura encargado que subscribe bautizé solemnemente y puse el Santo Olio y Sagrado Crisma á Ma. Ana Felipa de un mes de nacida, hija legítima del Aleman Enrique Crusen y Madama Natalie Lutzelberger. padrinos Don Francisco Casaneli y Da. Ana Felipa García, a quienes advertí su obligacion y parentesco que contraian y para constancia lo firmo. Ramon Lozano ". 

Doña Ana tuvo 3 hermanos que fueron bautizados en San Fernando: Bernardo, María Felicitas y María Virginia de los Angeles, Bernardo Murió en el viaje de regreso hacia Alemania, y las niñas en San Fernando siendo pequeñas.

Dr. Enrique Kruzen 1860

Doña Natalia Lutzelberger falleció en Alemania, el Dr. Kruzen y su hija Ana regresaron a México y a San Fernando, Tamps. platicaba mi madre que su abuela Doña Ana hablaba con marcado acento Alemán, y que a Don Enrique Kruzen lo había asesinado un compadre con su propio bastón para robarlo, esto sucedió en San Fernando no hé localizado su registro de defunción).

En recuerdo de mis ancestros de Alemania.  Fuentes del Reg. Family Search. Iglesia de Jesucristo de los Santos de los últimos Días.  Investigó: Tte. Corl. Intdte. Ret. Ricardo R. Palmerín Cordero.
Miembro ce la Sociedad Genealógica y de Historia Familiar de México y de la Sociedad de Genealogía de Nuevo León.



Familiares de Alemania 1862

Riverso de la foto

Mi Tatarabuelo materno Don Enrique Crusen- Heinrich Kruzen

Las solicitudes enviadas á la Sría. de Relaciones Interiores y Exteriores por Don Jesús Cárdenas (1852) y el General Adrian Woll (1854) del Gobierno del Departamento de Tamaulipas, para que les fueran remitidas las Cartas de Seguridad para permanecer en la República Mexicana a personas de origen extranjero.

Entre ellos se encuentra mi Tatarabuelo materno Don Enrique Crusen- Heinrich Kruzen.

La primera dice " Tengo el honor de dirigir a V.E copias certificadas de las filiaciones de los extranjeros Francisco Casanelli, Francisco Ribot, Manuel F. Fernandez, Enrique Gesni, José Flehers, Leon Barrera, Silverio Urquiza, Julian Gargallo, Enrique Crusen y David Casanelli, que en cumplimiento de la ley de la materia, solicitan de nuevo sus cartas de seguridad para el presente año, suplicando a V.E. al mismo tiempo se sirva remitir a este Gobierno los precitados documentos, contesto á V.E. con tal motivo las seguridades de mi aprecio y consideración. Dios y Libertad. Cd. Victoria 12 de Enero de 1852. Jesús Cárdenas. Jorge Hopham Ofl. Mayor". 

La filiación de Don Enrique Crusen dice: 
Natural de Alemania, edad 45 años, estatura 5-5, color blanco, ojos pardos, nariz regular, pelo castaño, barba poblada.

Juzgado 2° de Sn. Fernando, Enero 7 de 1852. 
Así mismo envío el registro eclesiástico de la defunción de su hija María Virginia de los Angeles.

"En el Campo Santo Parroquial de la Villa de San Fernando de Presas, á los quince días del mes de Noviembre de mil ochocientos cincuenta y cinco, Yo el Pbro. José Luis Delgado Cura propio de dicha Villa, dí sepultura eclesiástica en cuarto tramo y con entierro menor al cadáver parbulo de María Virginia de los Angeles Crusen, quien murió de fiebre al año de edad, hija legítima de Dn. Enrique Crusen y Da. Natalie de Lutzelberger y para constancia lo firmo. José Luis Delgado"


Fuentes de las cartas de seguridad y filiación. Archivo General de la Nación.
Registro de Def. Family Search. Iglesia de Jesucristo de los Santos de los útimos Días.
Ricardo Raúl Palmerín Cordero

Defunción de Doña María Francisca Sanchez de la Chica

Envío las imágenes del registro eclesiástico de la defunción de Doña María Francisca Sanchez de la Chica viuda de Don José Pablo García Dávila, quien falleció el 29 de Noviembre de de 1827 en la Cd. de Monte Morelos, N.L.  Fuentes. Family Search. Iglesia de Jesucristo de los Santos de los últimos Días.

" En el Campo Santo de esta Ciudad de Monte Morelos en veinte y nueve de Noviembre de mil ochocientos veinte y siete Yo el Presbitero Dn. Pedro de la Rosa Saldaña Cura interino sepulte con entierro Mayor Capa Cruz Alta Vigilia Misa y prosecion hasta el Campo Santo y luego seguirá un Novenario de Misas resadas en fabrica de diez pesos tres cuerpos de tumba á Da. María Francisca Sanchez de la Chica. Adulta de cincuenta y seis años de edad viuda vecina de la Hacienda de S. Juan de la Cañada murió de calenturas intermitentes haviendo recivido los Santos Sacramentos de penitencia, viatico y estrema uncion hizo su disposicion testamentaria que autorizo el Sor. Alcalde 1°. Electo Ciudadano Antonio Casado en seis de Octubre de este presente año de veinte y siete y en la Clausula 1a. encarga que su cuerpo sea sepultado en el campo santo de esta ciudad amortajado con Abito de Nuestro Señor Padre San Francisco que se le cante vigilia y misa y en seguida dos Novenarios de Misas resadas estando presente su cuerpo y en la Clausula 2a. manda que a las mandas acostumbradas se le de den quatro reales á cada una y tres pesos a la manda patriotica. Clausula 3a. que de lo mas bien pasados de sus bienes se saquen quinientos pesos en reales para el Santo Hospicio de Boca de Leones (antes y ahora Villa Aldama) y que se entreguen al Padre Presidente para culto de la Santisima Virgen de Guadalupe. Clausula 24. asigna quinientos pesos por otras tantas Misas que se apliquen para el bien de su alma y la de su difunto Esposo D. José Pablo García Davila las que encarga que se diesen en el Colegio de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe de Zacatecas en la Clausula 27 dice que deja un doblon de oro para que con el se dore el resplandor de Nuestra Sra. de la Soledad. Clausula 29 que deja un Relicario con sera de Agnas de oro para que el valor lo imbierta en Misas para el bien de su Alma Clausula 32 y ultima que cumplido y pagado que su testamento en todas sus partes e instituye y nombra por su unica y universal heredera en los derechos y acciones á la fabrica material de la Yglesia de esta Ciudad- sus alvaceas 1° el Sr. Br. D. Juan Bautista Cantú 2° Dn. Francisco Leal de la Chica y 3° José Laureano García Davila. Y para que conste lo firmé. como encargado. Pedro de la Rosa Saldaña.

Tte. Corl. Intdte. Ret. Ricardo R. Palmerín Cordero.
Miembro de la Sociedad Genealógica y de Historia Familiar de México y de la Soc. de Genealogía de Nuevo León. 


Asunto: II Coloquio de Genealogía e Historia de la Familia.

Asunto: II Coloquio de Genealogía e Historia de la Familia.

Estimados amigos Genealogistas e Historiadores.  Envío a Uds. algunas fotos del II Coloquio de Genealogía e Historia de la Familia, organizado y efectuado en la Universidad Autónoma de la hermosa Cd. de Aguascalientes, Ags.

También otras en el Centro Histórico de dicha Ciudad con mis amigos y compañeros Samuel B. García Sanchez y Santiago Esparza.

1.- Samuel B., Tte. Corl. Palmerín y Santiago Esparza.
2 y 3.- Auditorio.
4.- Samuel, Guenter Bohem y Tte. Corl. Palmerín.
5.- Caballero Español Sr. Dr. Don Fernando Muñoz Altea y Tte. Corl. Palmerín.
6.- Sr. Doctor Don Mariano Gonzalez Leal y Tte. Corl. Palmerín.
7.- Tte. Corl. Palmerín, Don Fernando Muñoz Altea y Samuel.
8.- Sra. Doña Martha Durón Jiménez, Tte. Corl. Palmerín y Samuel.
9.- Sra. Jossie Treviño, Samuel, Don Fernando Muñoz Altea, Tte. Corl. Palmerín y Santiago Esparza.
10.- En la Birriería Martinez: Palmerín, Samuel y Santiago.
11 y 12.- Samuel y Palmerín en el centro histórico.
13.- Samuel B. y Santiago Esparza.
14.- Tte. Corl. Palmerín.
15 y 16.- Tte. Corl. Palmerín en el Mural alusivo de la Convención de Aguascalientes.

Gracias al Dr. Daniel Eudave Muñoz Decano del Centro de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, Dr. Andrés Reyes Rodriguez jefe del Depto. de Historia y Dr. Benjamín Flores Hérnández Lider del Cuerpo Académico y de la Sociedad de México por habernos otorgado la Constancia de Asistencia a este cultural evento.  Gracias Sra. Martha Durón Jiménez y a todas las personas que tan amablemente nos atendieron.

Reciban un afectuoso saludo de su amigo.
De: Ricardo Raúl Palmerín Cordero 




“Visit a centuries-old Jewish community in paradise”
Cuba to Free 3,522 Prisoners Ahead of Pope Francis's Visit 
By Jonathan Watts

“Visit a centuries-old Jewish community in paradise”
by Melissa Halper, JTA

The enchanting Caribbean island of Curaçao hosts a tiny but proud Jewish community that dates back to Sephardi Jews who arrived in 1651 and is home to the oldest continually-used synagogue (which features a white sand covered floor) in the Western hemisphere. While many islanders don’t know much about the Jews in their midst, “to avoid violating Jewish law, a man from the local Adventist church plays the organ  on Shabbat.” 

Courtyard of the Mikvé Israel-Emanuel Synagogue, Willemstad, Curaçao (Photo courtesy of Dolly442/Wikimedia) 
sent by


Cuba to Free 3,522 
Prisoners, Ahead of 
Pope Francis's Visit 
By Jonathan Watts, 
Guardian UK, 11 September 15

          Cuba will release more than 3,500 prisoners ahead of Pope Francis's visit next week in the latest sign of  relations between the island and the Catholic church. Dissident groups, however, said they were disappointed that political prisoners were not on the list of those who will be pardoned in the next three days.

The latest 3,522 prisoners to be freed will include minors, people over the age of 60, prisoners in poor health and foreigners who will be repatriated, according to the Granma newspaper. It said there will be no releases of those convicted of “crimes against state security”.

Cuban cardinal Jaime Ortega y Alamino said the choice was made on compassionate grounds, such as family problems and health issues rather than the type of crimes committed. “It’s a humanitarian gesture,” he told CNN.

The releases are consistent with Cuba’s actions ahead of two previous papal visits. In 1998, 299 prisoners were released before a visit by Pope John Paul II and in 2012, 2,900 were freed ahead of a visit by Pope Benedict XVI.

But they come at a particularly significant time as Cuba and the US move to end one of the world’s last cold war conflicts. The two nations opened embassies in each other’s capitals in Julyfor the first time in 54 years.

Fifty-three inmates who were considered political prisoners by dissident groups and the US were released in January as part of the deal reached the previous month by presidents Raúl Castro and Barack Obama.

Another 60 are still in jail, according to the dissident Commission of Human Rights and National Reconciliation.

Activists on the island said the latest list of pardons provided by the Cuban authorities did not include the names of anyone they considered a political prisoner.

“It’s a pantomime. They are trying to show a different face, but in reality the position hasn’t changed. They are not being more flexible in the political arena all,” Antonio Rodihes, of the Campaign for Another Cuba, said by telephone from Havana.

Cuba Now, a lobbying group which supports closer engagement with the island, welcomed the largest-ever prisoner release as a sign of the progress that has been made in US-Cuba relations as a result of the pope’s intervention.

But executive director Ric Herrero said in a statement that he hoped for more. “We are disappointed by reports suggesting that political prisoners may not be among those pardoned, and urge the Cuban government to reconsider as a gesture of goodwill.”

Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, the fiercely anti-Castro Republican congresswoman for south Florida said the prisoners should never have been in jail in the first place.

“We should recognize this release for the farce that it is and instead work to support Cuban pro-democracy leaders instead of congratulating an empty gesture by a tyrannical regime,” she said in a statement

The Cuban government said there will be no releases of those convicted of crimes against state security, but this would not rule out activists detained for peaceful protest, such as the artist Danilo Maldonado, alias “El Sexto”, who is awaiting trial on a charge of “disrespect” for painting a pair of pigs called “Fidel” and “Raúl” after the Castro brothers who have held the presidency since the 1959 revolution.

The pope is expected to meet both leaders – presuming the ailing Fidel’s health allows – during his visit from 19-22 September. The highlight of the trip is expected to be a mass in revolution square. Cuba will pardon and release 3,522 prisoners ahead of next week’s visit by Pope Francis, the third time the country has granted inmates freedom before a papal visit.

Sent by Robert



Casa de Aliaga, Oldest house in the Americas 
The Last Piston-Engine Dogfights
Chilean Student Discovers New Planet Orbiting Giant Star
The Rubber Thief of Brazil by Shannon Sims
Boletín de Genealogias Colombíanas, Editor: Luis Álvaro Gallo Martínez


CASA DE ALIAGA, Oldest house in the Americas

Luego de la fundación de Lima, el 18 de enero de 1535, el capitán Jerónimo de Aliaga y Ramírez, recibió un solar vecino a la casa del conquistador Francisco Pizarro (hoy Palacio de Gobierno). Desde entonces y hasta la actualidad, los descendientes del capitán Aliaga han seguido habitando la vivienda, volviéndose así la casa más antigua de las Américas que es el hogar de la misma familia durante 17 generaciones.
Sent by Ernesto Uribe 

Sent by Ernesto Uribe, who writes:  
"I got to know Col. Fernando Soto (pilot in photo) very well in the mid-1970s when I was posted in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. I believe he was a Major during the Salvador/Honduras war."  

Maritza Soto

Chilean Student
Maritza Soto

 Discovers New Planet Orbiting Giant Star

20 August 2015

Doctoral student Maritza Soto discovered the unknown planet accidentally while conducting other research on the giant star it orbits.  A Chilean university student has discovered a new planet close to 300 light years away from earth, orbiting a star that is twice the size of earth’s sun.

Maritza Soto, a doctoral student in Astronomy at the University of Chile, stumbled across the new planet accidentally when conducting related research on the giant star the new-found planet orbits.  “The young Maritza Soto on how she discovered a planet from Chile.” 

“What we wanted to do was to confirm the existence of the first planet discovered around this star,” Soto told Reuters, explaining that the star and one orbiting planet had already previously been identified. “We wanted to confirm this discovery.”

However, in the process of the investigation, Soto found another spot that turned out to not be on the star’s surface or related to its activity.  “The only other reason that remained for this signal was that there was a second planet orbiting the star which had not been confirmed before," said Soto.

According to Scottish astronomer James Jenkins at the University of Chile, Soto’s discovery is an important one.  “Great news! 25 year old Chilean astronomer Maritza Soto discovered a new planet.”  “It's a giant planet about three times the mass of Jupiter. And Jupiter is the most massive planet in the solar system,” Jenkins told Reuters. “So this is a giant planet, but the important factor here is it's also orbiting a giant star, a giant star about the mass twice that of our sun.”

Jenkins added that further research is important to understand how this two-planet solar system functions and how the planets formed.

For Soto, it is a proud moment in her research career.  "One dreams of being able to make a concrete scientific discovery,” the doctoral student said. “And knowing that I discovered another planet which is now registered is something very important for me." 

This content was originally published by teleSUR at the following address:
If you intend to use it, please cite the source and provide a link to the original article. 

Sent by Dorinda Moreno


Portrait of the world’s first biopirate?
Henry Wickham
Source: Getty

The Rubber Thief of Brazil
By Shannon Sims
August 29, 2015

Flashback . . .Why you should care?
Because the earliest biopiracy stretched 
from the Amazon to your car tires.

The pale-skinned, 30-year-old Brit made his way down the Amazon River in 1876, searching for trees. He hung a left down the Tapajós River, drifting eventually onto the riverbank near the town of Boim. After clearing a path up the highlands with a machete, he reached the sweet spot, where legend said the strongest trees grew.

He paid local families to fill woven baskets with as many seeds as they could, and to wrap them individually in banana leaves. Loading all 70,000 seeds onto his boat and casting off toward the Atlantic horizon, Henry Wickham might have looked back at the jungle and smiled. After all, he had just become the world’s first biopirate.

Today, when you roam through the Brazilian Amazon, you’ll hear his name mentioned in the forest, in museums, even in the poor riverside villages. Though you may have never heard of him, Wickham’s name is legendary in Brazil — and not in a good way. If you compliment the beauty of Teatro Amazonas, the Amazon’s grandiose theater made of European marble and gold-rimmed balconies, locals will point out that it’s one of the only signs remaining of the region’s former wealth, thanks to Wickham.

The Amazon’s 19th-century villain may not have been shooting for infamy, but he might not have minded either. The son of a British lawyer who fell victim to cholera, Wickham found himself scrambling to regain his family’s lost fortune. As Joe Jackson, author of The Thief at the End of the World: Rubber, Power, and the Seeds of Empire, told OZY, at that time “the way to become rich was as an adventurer or a planter.” Which explains why Wickham was traipsing around the Amazon, asking through a translator how to find Hevea brasiliensis — aka rubber trees.

He brought his haul back to the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew in London, where botanists worked to resuscitate the seeds, soggy and in rough shape after months at sea. Against all odds, and thanks to those carefully wrapped banana leaves protecting them (sopping up their natural oils), 12 percent germinated successfully. British scientists grew those seeds until they became sturdier, and then sent them across the world to British Asian colonies in Malaya and India. There, back in a more familiar tropical climate, the plants flourished, and Britain would soon end up controlling 95 percent of the global rubber economy. With his bold act, Wickham had singlehandedly broken the back of Brazil’s rubber monopoly, “collapsing the Amazon economy in a single year,” and plunking the region back into the jungle. 

It’s perhaps a little unfair to label Wickham a biopirate. Back then, Wickham was just a businessman, and not a very good one. He left a trail of failed plantations, from Australia to Honduras, and he never returned to Brazil after making off with the seeds. Famed Brazilianist author Warren Dean went on record in 1989, defending Wickham in an op-ed for The New York Times. “The British did not ‘sneak’ rubber seeds out of the Amazon. An open and unfettered exchange of commercially valuable plant materials was characteristic of the 19th century,” he wrote. But Wickham was not exactly forthcoming: He told Brazilian customs officials he was exporting “exceedingly delicate botanical specimens designated for delivery to Her Britannic Majesty’s own Royal Gardens at Kew.” And Jackson agrees that while Wickham didn’t break the letter of the export laws at that time, “given the magnitude of his theft, he certainly broke the spirit of the law.” 

And that’s why people in the Amazon remember him as a thief. His theft became a symbol of malicious imperial forces stripping natural resources from Brazil for their own greedy gain. Jackson found this out firsthand when, in 2008, he retraced Wickham’s boot-strapped steps up the banks of the Tapajós. Everyone had heard of the renowned Brit, Jackson says, and “there was still an awful lot of anger about what he’d done.”

Shannon Sims

Based in Brazil, Shannon is OZY’s Latin American correspondent and legal voice. In her many lives, she’s taught elementary school in Harlem, managed a hotel in Italy and researched forests in Brazil. A University of Texas law grad raised in Louisiana, she prefers cowboy boots over heels, and hot sauce over everything.

Sent by Dorinda Moreno

Editor: Luis Álvaro Gallo Martínez

Boletín de Genealogías Colombianas Nro. 144 - Agosto 2015.
Luis Alvaro Gallo

El doctor Francisco Montoya Sáenz, le ha donado a la Academia Colombiana de Historia, todo su material de investigación en el campo de las genealogías, que incluyó también el computador y los programas con los que había trabajado. Y además, la colaboración del empleado que durante muchos años fue la persona 
encargada de introducir el material al computador.

El acto de entrega se efectúo en la Sede de la Academia Colombiana de Historia, el pasado martes 18 de agosto. El equipo quedó instalado en la biblioteca de la Academia, para que pueda ser 
consultado por el público. Se informó que tiene cerca de 350 mil registros y la 
intención es contar con el púbico para crecer esta base.

La Academia Colombiana de Historia esta situada en la ciudad de Bogotá, en la 
Calle 10 Nro. 8-95, teléfono 3367350 y su biblioteca es abierta al público.

Dos Cancilleres Venidos de Colombia. Por Julio E. Revollo Acosta. 
Serie Yvonne Clays, Nro. 21 – ISBN 978-9977-76-029-2

Una publicación del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores y culto de costa Rica. Nos presenta la historia del doctor Pedro María León-Páez Brown, 1832-1903. De origen cartagenero, quien con su familia emigro para Costa Rica, y entre los diversos cargos que desempeñó allí, llegó a ser Canciller de la República.

Y de Roberto Eustaquio Smyth Pumarejo, 1871-1933, ingeniero, de origen samario, quien también se desempeñó como Canciller de la República de Costa Rica.

En un pequeño libro, nos muestran su genealogía y los diversos cargos de gobierno que desempeñaron estos compatriotas nuestros en ese país Centroamericano.

La Vigencia de un Pensamiento Fernando Gómez Martínez.
ISBN 958 8008 20 4

En tres tomos es la recopilación de la vida del doctor Fernando Gómez Martínez, que por sus muchas actuaciones en la política y el periodismo es muy rico en anécdotas y datos biográficos de personajes de la vida colombiana con quienes el actúo o compartió.

En estos libros, sabiendo buscar, uno encuentra informaciones que sirven para las investigaciones en el campo de las genealogías.

Para celebrar los 95 años de su fundación, siendo en esta forma, posiblemente la publicación periódica de una población mediana que celebra este tiempo de su circulación, sacó una edición de lujo, en la que presenta los nombres e informaciones de numerosos personajes de El Santuario. Vale resaltar aquí, que 
los habitantes de El Santuario, gozan de fama de muy buenos comerciantes, incluso se dice que el mercado de San Victorino, en la ciudad de Bogotá, es manejado por santuarianos.

José María Córdoba y el Batallón Antioquia. Por Ahmed Restrepo. 
Como un homenaje al Gran Héroe, no solamente antiqueño, si no colombiano, su autor nos muestra muchos detalles en la vida de éste héroe, en una edición de lujo con muchas fotografías, todas ellas a color dándole gran vida a este libro. Y en medio de estos recuerdos, podemos ver los nombres y trayectorias de 
compañeros de lucha y de participación política, durante su vida militar.

En esta categoria, tenemos dos obras así: Libro de Oro de Manizales. Ministerio de Educación Nacional, 1951.

Siendo alcalde de Manizales, el doctor Fernando Lodoño y Londoño, y con artículos de varias personalidades de ese momento, cada uno contándonos detalles de esta ciudad del centro occidente de 

Artículos como: Pórtico, por Silvio Villegas. Elogio de los Fundadores, por Guillermo Valencia. Panegírico de la ciudad y de la Raza, también de Guillermo Valencia. Elogio de Manizales. Oración sobre el Incendio, por Aquilino Villegas. Elogio de Caldas (del departamento de), por Bernardo Arias Trujillo. Así mismo otros artículos de Emilio Robledo, Armando Solano, Alberto Lleras Camargo, Enrique Santos, Calibán), Alfonso Robledo J., Rafael Maya, Abel Naranjo Villegas.

Salgar y su Historia. Por Roberto Robledo R.
Un edición de 1996, en un formato de 14 x 21 centímetros y 280 páginas, nos presenta una magnifica monografía de esta población del Suroeste antioqueño, contándonos desde sus pobladores indígenas, la 
fundación, las leyendas y espantos y una larga enumeración de 
personajes salgareños.

Una monografía muy rica en información general de esta población.
PRESENTACIÓN DEL LIBRO “Genealogía de Bolívar, Antioquia” El próximo sábado 29 de agosto y en la sede de la Cámara de Comercio de Ciudad Bolívar, Antioquia, a las 4.00 p.m. se llevará a 
efecto la presentación de éste libro, escrito por Jairo Restrepo Ramírez, nativo de esta población, y quien estará acompañado por Elbace Restrepo, columnista del periódico El Colombiano y de Luis Álvaro Gallo M., en nombre de la Academia Colombia de Genealogía.

Igualmente en la ciudad de Medellín, y el día jueves 3 de septiembre y en la sede del Club Unión, a las 12.00 del día, se realizará la presentación de esta obra. Esperamos compartir con un buen público en estos dos actos.

Y en la ciudad de Bogotá, se presentará este libro en la Casa de Antioquia, Carrera 6 Nro. 35-76, teléfono 6067485, será el día miércoles 16 de septiembre a las 6.30 de la tarde.

XIX Reunión Americana de Genealogía.
Continúan los preparativos para este encuentro en la ciudad de Santiago de Chile, que entre otras fomenta el acercamiento de todos nosotros, los que gustamos de la genealogía.

Por Colombia, hasta este momento sabemos que participaran el señor don Miguel Wenceslao Quintero G., y don Eduardo Lemos Ostornol.

Don Ricardo Suárez Gärtner, nos ha anunciado que ya se encuentra en proceso de impresión su libro “Entre Piedras y Papeles – Buscando ancestros perdidos”, que es la historia de los Gärtner en Colombia, desde la llegada del primero de ellos a trabajar en las minas de oro en Marmato y Supía.

Con mucha frecuencia nos pregunta el tomo IX de esta serie, pero según nuestros conocimientos, hasta este momento no ha entrado al proceso de impresión. Por lo tanto antes de dos-tres meses no estará en poder del público.

La Academia Colombiana de Genealogía, está organizando para el sábado 7 de noviembre, y con un horario entre las 9.00 a.m. y 1.00 p.m. un curso sobre  introducción a la genealogía, que incluirá temas básicos como: Metodología  en investigación genealógica; herramientas por internet; Investigación en archivo y su cita en fuentes documentales, lectura de fotografías, entre otros temas.

Se estará avisando oportunamente su costo y lugar donde se realizará este curso. Reunión de la Asociación de Amigos de las Genealogías.  La entidad que agrupa a los genealogistas del Departamento de Antioquia, y en especial de la ciudad de Medellín, y presidida por la señora doña Marylu Nicholls S.C., ha citado para una reunión ordinaria para el próximo jueves 3 de septiembre a las 12.00 m. en el Club Unión.


Filipino American, Anna Lopez Brosche defeated incumbent
Gender Equality by Eddie AAA Calderon, Ph.D. 
=================================== ===============================


Republican Anna Lopez-Brosche
 beat the Democratic incumbent for a 
Jacksonville, Florida City Council seat. Contributed photo

Filipino American Republican Anna Lopez Brosche on May 19, defeated incumbent Democrat Council Member Kimberly Daniels, becoming the first Filipino American and Asian American to serve on the Jacksonville, Florida, City Council.

Brosche defeated City Council member Kimberly Daniels in the At-Large Group 1 runoff, with 104,835 votes compared with 84,625 votes for Daniels, with 187 of 199 precincts reporting.

Brosche is managing shareholder at Ennis Pellum & Associates CPAs and chairs the United Way of Northeast Florida board of directors, among other community service activities.
She is a military veteran, founder of Spoken Word Ministries and author of the “Demon Dictionary.” Brosche and Daniels beat Republican David Taylor and Democrat Terry Reed in the March 24 election to earn a berth in Tuesday’s election.

Sent by Eddie Calderon

Gender Equality 
by Eddie AAA Calderon, Ph.D. 

My recent conversation with my Ecuadorian friends and later my cyberspace discussion groups on gender equality  has given me the  incentive to write on this  topic for the October, 2015 issue of Somos Primos magazine. Gender inequality, however, ensued as the topic of conversation during the recent meeting with my Ecuadorian friends.  I informed my friends from the very start that this topic was not only relegated to one country or culture but other cultures including modern countries which have instituted gender equality in their law books.  Our conversation started on the social aspect of gender inequality in the Ecuadorian and Spanish cultures.  

My Ecuadorian friends  all agreed especially the women  that in the Spanish culture the women were not usually accorded full equal treatment compared to their male counterparts in spite of the legislation on gender equality. This situation has happened since the beginning of time and still  true with many countries of the world especially in many Muslim countries, the Middle East in particular, where gender inequality is very noticeable, and other developing countries even with recent laws on gender equality. In mentioning this Hispanic dialogue to my cyberspace friends, it  has generated lots of interests from them.  

In the Spanish lingo, the word MUJERIEGO, womaniser in English, is a very popular and common expression, but there is no counterpart term for a woman. If I may coin it as It told my Ecuadorian friends, it would be the word  HOMBRIEGA/HOMBREGA. In hearing this, the Ecuadorian men smiled but the women gasped and told me that what I said was very true and that women were still accorded unequal treatment by society when it involved having more  men in their lives. The terms mujeriego and the word hombriega/hombrega are mild compared to other not so good words  which are not nice and appropriate to mention here against women when they do things that society expects them not to do. But when men perform the same role, they are not looked down like their female counterparts.  Suffice it to say the objectionable  term(s) start with letter p that are referred to women. These unstated, impolite terms are not used or do not exist for men when they do the same act as their female counterparts. 

This only supports the cultural fact that men can womanise and even have children out of wedlock and this has been accepted since time immemorial in spite of the advent of laws on gender equality. But women can't and if they do, they are ostracised. Or even when a woman has more than one lover, her act is not viewed favourably by society. But when a man has many girlfriends or lovers, he  gets a good response generally speaking from many people, especially men, as he is  told that he is "acting as a real man".  This attitude and its acceptance are true in all countries of the world and even in the West where women have  made significant headway towards gender equality, the majority still feels that women can't imitate the love adventures of their male counterparts without being made the object of mockery and ridicule.  

In the English speaking world the word womaniser exists, but no such counterpart word as maniser. But the word gigolo exists and this word is mentioned in the popular song entitled, The Boulevard of Broken Dreams.* The song also mentions the word gigolette to refer to a woman. But  the usage of this female term has not become popular like the word gigolo. I for one would not have known this word gigolette had not for this popular song  composed in 1933 and brought back to popularity in the early 50's during my pre-teenage years by Tony Bennett. Also the word gigolo does not have the same bad impression when we talk of women doing the same thing. Generally speaking in this profession, women's participation, especially in developing countries, does usually get negative notoriety which is not present for their male counterparts.  This indicates that fooling around with the opposite sex even in married life is only tolerated or acceptable generally speaking for men but not for women.  Even with the advent of gender equality in the West the word maniser again does not  exist  though we have seen women, both married and single, having more than one man in their lives.

Another indication of gender equality gap is that men can whistle in many countries, especially developing countries, when they see beautiful women walking on the streets, but women are not customarily expected to do this. Women can only look and gasp when they see good looking and well built men. If the women do whistle, they then become generally speaking the object of criticism or disdain from society including from many older and younger women. But this past attitude may have changed in recent years.  

In a way we are happy that the above gender inequality even in its social aspect is made harder to continue with the enactment and enforcement of laws against discrimination which are broader than the social aspects of gender inequality. This is very true in the United States in particular where the federal, state, and local governmental agencies.  They are the US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) created in the mid-60's and for the state of Minnesota where I come from, the Minnesota Department of Human Rights, the city of Minneapolis Department of Civil Rights and the City of St. Paul Department of Human Rights, they were established in the late 60's. The federal EEOC only deals with employment discrimination, but the State of Minnesota and the other mentioned city offices deal not only with employment discrimination, but educational, public services, housing, public accommodation, and union discrimination. Also the two non-federal offices have more bases for the complaints  which include not only gender, religious, race and national origin, but on homosexuality, marital status, public assistance status,, etc. which the federal EEOC does not  cover as it only deals with employment discrimination. 

The legislation for equal opportunity for both men and women starting effectively in the early 20th century has given women the opportunity to establish and upgrade their social and economic status especially in the field of employment, education, and getting elected offices equal to their male counterparts. This is a very important for women though it is not 100% guaranteed which I will mention later. Other than marriage and the affairs of the heart, women have achieved greater role in achieving meaningful gender equality. Over the years women have progressed tremendously starting from being able to cast their ballots during elections, to becoming elected officials -- including being President, Prime Ministers, members of legislative bodies, cabinet members, court judges/justices, diplomatic officers, etc.--  of their countries and holding many other important positions like being  heads of business and learning institutions.

This manifestation of equality, however, is not completely present when it involves monarchical succession because of the laws and customs dealing with primogeniture. Primogeniture is the right, by  law or custom, of the firstborn male child to inherit the family estate including the monarchical succession.  Female heirs to the throne can only happen if there are no male heirs. This has occurred in the United Kingdom when Queens Victoria and Elizabeth becoming monarchs due to the absence of  male heirs.

As history has shown women in many countries can't become monarchs if there are  male heirs to the throne including those younger than their sisters. But starting the late 20th century, a number of Western countries have instituted laws on succession where the oldest including women become heirs to the throne. They include the Basques Kingdom of Navarre in France in 1972, Sweden in 1980, Netherlands in 1983, Norway in 1990, and Belgium in 1991. During the start of the 21st century, three countries have followed suit and they are Denmark in 2009, Luxembourg in 2011, and the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms in 2015.    

We have yet to see if other countries in all of Europe, in the Middle East, in Africa, Asia, especially Japan, will follow suit and grant females the right to inherit the throne. There are also small principalities and tribal groups that still  practice only male heirs to the throne. Gender equality has still not completely come to the monarchical world. And monarchical succession is a major issue in the subject of gender inequality. 

Despite  gender inequality, however, in the succession to the throne, we have seen all this welcomed event on gender equality at the start of the 20th century. After all is said and done, my short statement on the important and significant achievements of women over the years is just "a drop in a bucket".  Women again  have accomplished a lot over the years to make gender equality an important event and accomplishment for them and it will be too tedious for me to narrate  here. But it is also noteworthy to mention  that we read news from both television and newspapers that many women do complain of being by-passed for promotion and not  being paid equally as that of their male counterparts. We also hear news of sexual harassment in the work place involving women and hardly for men. When this issue comes to the fore, then it is usually dealt with and rectified especially in Western and other countries that really observe and enforce gender discrimination.

In my conversation with fellow Americans at least two years ago, regarding women in the number one elected position in the USA, I asked them why the USA had not had a female president compared to other countries especially some Third World Countries: The Philippines (had two), Thailand, Pakistan, India, etc. had theirs. They smiled and told me that the American people were working on this issue and of course it would defend on the voters especially women voters. Wikipedia has stated that recently there have been more women voters than men in the USA. See              

I would not want to dwell on political issue in this article in spite of what I wrote in January, 2013 in the Somos Primos magazine. Refer to:

I was not aware that time of the involvement of female candidates for the position of US president when I mentioned this matter on my January, 2013 Somos Primos article as we now know of this opportunity in the coming 2016 presidential election. Again I am not here to endorse or not endorse a particular presidential candidate in the 2016 election as I would not like again to mix and include politics in this article. 

Conversely in writing this topic, I am only dealing with countries that have passed laws on gender equality. There are countries in the world due to religion, customs, and social practices where women are and have not been accorded equal opportunity in many facets of life. There are countries that prohibit women from driving cars, becoming head of institutions including educational institutions, holding high political offices and even regular, let alone high, employment positions, nor the right to divorce their male espouses which their male counterparts can do, etc. The common observation from insiders and outsiders about the practices is that women are just relegated to do house work and take care of the children in many of these countries.  And if women are caught in adulterous acts they can be put to death or be in jail for a long time and their male counterparts can do it without any problem. Also arranged marriage is more common to women imposed by their parents starting from the pre-teenage years more than their male counterparts.

Finally for the month of October is the birth day of my father, Plácido A Calderón on the 5th and my youngest son, Eddnard-Plácido on the 6th in 2007. My father now in heaven is happy to know that his second grandson, now age 8, was born a day after his grandpa's birthday in October.

Me, Pfirlani-E and Eddnard-P on Christmas Day, 2014 Eddnard-P with Dilag (white Persian cat) in late 2007.


This picture was taken in late 80's when my folks and our three Persian cats  were still alive. The picture shows me holding Pilak (Silver Persian cat) and Irog (White Persian), then my sister, my mother holding Abu (Blue Persian), and my father.

 *The Boulelvard of Broken Dreams song composed by Harry Warren and  lyrics by Al Dubin in 1933 and was originally recorded by Deane Janis with Hal Kemp's Orchestra on October 31, 1933, in Chicago before the release of the film and was issued  on the Brunswick label as  catalog number  6734.  The song then appeared in the 1934 film Moulin Rouge and was  sung by Constance Bennett.  

Here is the website for the song Boulevard of Broken Dreams sung by Tony Bennett in the early 50's and its lyrics: 


Virreyes no peninsulares en América
Las 25 Universidades que España Fundó en América
Españoles Olvidados, Gonzalo Bayón o Gayón, piloto asturiano en la Florida
Cape Verde Islands ancestry connects to Spain, Hispanics, Native Americans 
Cape Verdean history brought home
Cape Verdeans: The Forgotten Hawaiians by Ian Joaquin Freitas

Virreyes no peninsulares en América


Virreyes criollos

Virreyes extranjeros

Esto demuestra que los criollos si tuvieron las mas altas posiciones del gobierno, contrario a la historia oficial que dice que no hubo ninguno y que por eso iniciaron el movimiento de independencia (tema para otra ocasion).

Esto demuestra que los criollos si tuvieron las mas altas posiciones del gobierno, contrario a la historia oficial que dice que no hubo ninguno y que por eso iniciaron el movimiento de independencia (tema para otra ocasion).

Saludos, Dr. C. A. Campos y Escalante

Españoles Olvidados, Gonzalo Bayón o Gayón, piloto asturiano en la Florida

·      Intervención radiofónica en la emisora Es.Radio, el sábado 29 de agosto de 2015, en el programa “Sin Complejos”, dentro de la sección denominada “Españoles Olvidados”, en esta ocasión dedicado a “Gonzalo Bayón o Gayón, el piloto asturiano que participó en las primeras expediciones a la Florida” culminando sus acciones al intervenir en la expedición de Pedro Menéndez de Avilés.

Fonoteca de Es.Radio: José Antonio Crespo-Francés repasa la figura de uno de los grandes exploradores de la Florida: el piloto asturiano Gonzalo Bayón. 

·      El domingo 5 de julio de 2015 en la sección Informes de la publicación digital aparece el artículo titulado ”Españoles olvidados, el piloto Gonzalo Bayón en el aniversario de San Agustín y Santa Elena”. Traemos el recuerdo la memoria de este personaje en el bienio fundacional de San Agustín y Santa Elena, y al hablar de los grandes exploradores de la Florida, al piloto asturiano Gonzalo Bayón o Gayón quien por sus conocimientos y experiencia, tanto en el Caribe como en el Atlántico, sería seleccionado por Pedro Menéndez de Avilés para participar en la expedición que llevaría a cabo el definitivo poblamiento y asentamiento en Florida.

·      El domingo 30 de agosto de  2015 en Informes del diario digital el artículo titulado “Un sistema Irracional y antieconómico” exponiendo la actual situación de ruina económica favorecida por la corrupción y por el desastroso sistema actual de organización territorial del estado en autonomías.

Mediante la manipulación de la enseñanza y el empleo del victimismo se la logrado crear un clima ficticio de crispación social por aquellos que buscan  en el pesebre autonómico para su supervivencia personal, pesebre que en muchos casos aspira  a mantener una España cautiva de sus productos y servicios, pero a la que insulta y vilipendia sin rubor acusándola de todos sus males.


Sent by Juan Marinez 
José Antonio Crespo-Francés


With thanks to  Marcel Gomes Balla who has sent considerable information on Cabo Verde concerning a history and an ancestral connection historically overlooked.

Cape Verde Islands ancestry is connected directly to Spain, Hispanics, and Native Americans.   The islands are a 10-island chain off the West African coast 
Hi Mimi, Here I have tried to provide you some information to show you how Cabo Verde is connected directly to Spain and Hispanics as well as Native Americans. Next week, I will send info showing the connection to Africa. Hopefully, we will be able to see how all of this is connected and how Cabo Verde became the center stage for the creation of the New World. Somehow, we must find a way to connect with the different groups that understand this connection in order to support one another and eventually educate the nation. That will be the priority of this project. 

Thanks, Marcel 

People who trace their family to Belize, the Guyanas, Cape Verde, or the Philippines may be considered Hispanic, given the historical influence by Spain in their countries.  

Note: This study is based on scientific research.
Neuropsychology and the Hispanic Patient: A Clinical Handbook  editado por Marcel O. Ponton, (Harbor-UCLA Medical Center) Jose Leon-Carrion (Universidade de Seville).  


Hi Mimi, Thanks for the info on Guam. Although nothing is mentioned about Cabo Verde on the web site, it does have a close relationship to our history. The Philippines were considered to be a part of Portugal's territory claims until Sebastion DelCano returned from the voyage around the world in 1522.

Then it was argued that Spain said that the islands in that área of the Pacific actually belonged to Spain and not Portugal. The original claim was based on the Treaty of Tordesilhas in 1494 and the demarcation line of 370 degrees west of Cabo Verde.  West of this line should have been the claims of Spain and East of the line would be the claims of Portugal. The Portuguese king frequently conceded to the wishes of Spain and  a new treaty was negotiated and Spain took possession of the Philippines and held it until 1898. I found the story interesting because, I did not the whole story about the other islands. Usually, the history books would talk about the Moluccas or the Spice Islands and nothing was ever said about Guam or the Marianas, etc. In fact I never knew that the Marianas were named after the Queen. I did know that the Philippines were named after Felipe of Spain. Anyway, it was a very interesting article that as you say has been left out of history. These are the type of contributions for better or worse that make up our history and is connected to Cabo Verde and a lot of other sources that have been completely ignored.

Cape Verdean history brought home
Phillip Gomes presented a primer on Cape Verdean history, appropriately enough in front of a packed Methodist Meeting House Monday, Sept. 15, home to the Wareham Historical Society. Wicked Local Photo/Frank Mulligan

By Frank Mulligan  Crowdynews
Posted Sep. 17, 2014 @ 5:50 pm
WAREHAM - It was more than 550 years ago that Portugal began colonizing the Cape Verde Islands - or Cabo Verde as they are known in Portuguese.

The 10-island chain off the West African coast had been uninhabited when they were discovered in 1460 - a generation before Columbus "sailed the ocean blue."

The chain became the last known reference point on European maps and the port of call for explorers - including Columbus, as well as Magellan, Vasco de Gama and Pedro Alvarez Cabral. It was, in effect, the staging area for the New World's discovery.

And its early settlers were from Italy, and Spain, as well as Portugal, and their numbers in subsequent years were augmented by African slaves.

The Cape Verdean people's roots were thus planted.
Phillip Gomes presented a primer on Cape Verdean history, appropriately enough in front of a packed Methodist Meeting House Monday, Sept. 15, home to the Wareham Historical Society.

The Oakdale neighborhood native, who grew up one of 15 children, gathered much of the research from the four decades-long efforts of Marcel Gomes Balla, as well as from research provided by former U.S. Rep. Gerry E. Studds, who read his findings into the Congressional Record in 1991.

Gomes' presentation was actually part of the displays of Wareham history that were engineered by WHS's Angela Dunham to help celebrate the town's 275th anniversary of incorporation in July at Town Hall.

Gomes recalled walking by the early 19th century Meeting House over the years, and said he welcomed the opportunity to discuss Cape Verdean history in that setting.
Balla was inspired to perform his research - and in turn inspired Gomes - to fill the gaps left in "the remarkable history" of the Cape Verdean people.

Balla "took it upon himself to fill the void," Gomes said.
As Studds noted, "Most Americans know lamentably little about the Cape Verde Islands and the contributions of the Ca