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"Give me the liberty to know, to utter, and to argue freely according to conscience, above all liberties."

          John Milton 



Somos Primos

MARCH 2011 
136th Online Issue

Editor: Mimi Lozano ©2000-2011

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues

Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research

A Necessary Step in Political Discourse
Editorial in The Daily Courier

Former United States Presidents
George H.W. Bush and  Bill Clinton
Courtesy photo

Society of Hispanic Historical and
Ancestral Research   

P.O. 490
Midway City, CA 

Board Members:
Bea Armenta Dever
Gloria C. Oliver
Mimi Lozano
Pat Lozano
Cathy Trejo Luijt 
Viola R. Sadler
Tom Saenz
John P. Schmal


Somos Primos Staff
Mimi Lozano, Editor
Mercy Bautista Olvera
Roberto Calderon, Ph,D.
Bill Carmena
Lila Guzman, Ph.D
John Inclan
Galal Kernahan
Juan Marinez
J.V. Martinez, Ph.D
Dorinda Moreno
Rafael Ojeda
Ángel Custodio Rebollo
Tony Santiago
John P. Schmal
Submitters/Sources in March issue
Rodolfo F. Acuna
Linda Aguirre
Stephanie Alvarez
Dan Arellano 
Elaine Ayala
Francisco Barragan
Esmeralda Bermudez
Eva Booher
Terry Bork
Jaime Cader
Roberto Calderon, Ph.D. 
Gloria Candelaria Marsh
Bill Carmena
Dr. Henry J. Cassi. 
Terry Cannon
Ana Cervantes
Gus Chavez 
Terry Chaffee
Ellen Cohen 
Carlos E. Cortés
Maria Cortez 
Jose Cueva
Pete T. Duarte 
Bo Egelko

Charlie Erickson 
Lorri Frain 
Gerald Frost
Eddie Garcia
Daisy Wanda Garcia
Jess George 
Rafael Jesús González 
Sylvia Gonzalez-Hohenshelt
Robert Gonzalez
Yvonne Gonzalez Duncan

Joaquin Guerra
Walter Herbeck
Odell Harwell
Danya P. Hernández
Sergio Hernandez 
John Inclan
Rick Leal
Molly Long
Juan Marinez 
Eddie Martinez
Karina Miz
Anne Mocniak
Dorinda Moreno
Carlos Munoz, Jr. Ph.D. 
Diana Murillo
Paul Newfield III
Rafael Ojeda
Edward A. Ornelas 
Felipe de Ortega y Gasca
Priscilla Portillo
Kimberly Powell 
Jack Prichett
Arturo Ramos
Juan Ramos
Angel Custodio Rebollo

Crispin Rendon
Ramón Rentería
Alfonso Rodriguez
Rudi R. Rodriguez
Norman Rozeff
Kathy Saade Kenny
Antonio Saenz
Samuel Saenz
Tom Saenz
Andy Salas
Rolando Salazar
Irma Saldana
Joe Sanchez
Robert Santillan
Miguel Santistevan
Jose Solorio, State Assemblyman
Phillip Thomas Tucker
Pablo Trejo 
Val Valdez Gibbons
Kirk Whisler

Letter to the Editor

¡"El libro total" es un sitio increíble!  Muchísimas gracias.

Your magazine is excellent. I love reading it every month. Everyone I know, I speak about your magazine. I would like to write an essay for your magazine stating my experiences in finding current relatives I didn't know I had--somewhat comedic encounters. Is this possible? Let me know.
Thank you,
Diana Murillo 

Dear Mimi,

I'm sorry to be bothering you again; but I didn't get the February issue of SOMOS PRIMOS which I used to get regularly for some time.  Would you kindly see whether my email address has been taken off the emailing list? It is 
I really miss getting it because it is SO GOOD and educational also.

Thank you and God bless.
Terry Bork
Washington DC

Editor:  If you or any that you know is having the same problem, please suggest they look in their spam folder. . . 
 just in case their computer is confused. 



The 9/11 Memorial Needs You
National Institute for Civil Discourse
Capture: America in Color from 1939-1943
Hispanic Population Doubles In Some States, 2010 Census
President Carter named in $5 million lawsuit over "Palestine" book
Policeman punished for defending 1st Amendment 
The US Constitution is Being Ignored to the Detriment of the Nation
Old School Spy Gear Meets High Tech Storage Media 
Linda Sanchez, A Wise Latina by Mercy Bautista Olvera
Hispanics Breaking Barriers, Part XXVI by Mercy Bautista-Olvera
Robert J. Nava, Esq. named vice president for University Advancement


The 9/11 Memorial Needs You
Intelligence Report, 
Orange County Register Parade,
February 27, 2011

On the 10th Anniversary of the 9/11 attacks this September, a new national memorial will open on the site of the twin towers.  The eight-acre park will eventually include an interactive museum honoring the 2,982 people who lost their lives that day and in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing - but its curators need your help. "We want to make sure that those who died are remembered as more than just victims of terrorism, " says Amy Weinstein, associate curator of the National September 11 Memorial & Museum.  "Our goal is to show how they lived their lives and what made them special."  The museum is asking anyone with photographs, videos, or mementos of people who died in the attacks to send them in for inclusion.  "This tribute is also about the spirit of 9/12, says Joe Daniels, the memorial's president, "when the entire world came together to mourn and heal."  For more information on how to get involved, visit  Brad Dunn
Editorial in the Daily Courier, 2/21/2011

National Institute for Civil Discourse,   A necessary step in political Discourse

If it's possible - even remotely possible - for something good to come out of last month's shooting rampage in Tucson, it just might have on Monday.

The University of Arizona announced a new National Institute for Civil Discourse to promote exactly what its title suggests. Is it sad that it took a national tragedy and elementally named institute to remind Americans how to converse respectfully? Absolutely.

Bipartisanship is much more than just a buzzword for the new effort. Two former presidents - one Republican (George H.W. Bush) and one Democrat (Bill Clinton) - are honorary co-chairs. And the fact that the U-of-A is sponsoring the new institute in the City of Tucson, which became the unwitting epicenter in the debate on political discourse, is also an inescapable symbol.

The central question is whether or not Americans can surrender their addiction to political sensationalism and character distortions.

The institute will champion its cause by developing programs, staging conferences, designing curricula and encouraging research intended to promote more civility in the political arena, says its director, Brint Milward. "Sort of," he explained, "how do you keep a great democracy going when everyone is always ready to man the barricades?"

Part of that process, of course, will be bringing clarity and accountability to the sources that feed the fury - endless, 24-7 media cycles. Or, as Fred DuVal, vice chairman of the Arizona Board of Regents called it Monday, "the dark arts of cable TV."

Now, some may have already failed the first litmus test of the new policy's aim. Unquestionably, some, upon just reading the names "Bush" and "Clinton," tapped into simmering resentment with everything from a cringe to a roll of the eyes or, in the extreme, irresistible anger. All from a mere mention of names or political affiliations. If that was you, then the National Institute for Civil Discourse needs you as much as you need it.

As Americans, we got ourselves into this. This progressive first step forward on the Tucson campus is a way to get ourselves out.

Additional article in the Washington Post sent by Juan Ramos includes:
1) The center will be funded with private donations, and $1 million has already been raised
2) The institute will be housed in a downtown Tucson building provided by Providence Service Corp., the lead donor
3) Former Supreme Court justice Sandra Day O'Connor and former Senate majority leader Thomas A. Daschle will serve as honorary co-chairmen.


The State of the Union: For Latinos on
Essay evaluating status of unemployment US Latinos.

Captured: America in Color from 1939-1943

Sent by Val Valdez Gibbons

Population: "In all, non-Hispanic whites make up roughly 65 percent of the U.S. population, down from 69 percent in 2000. Hispanics had a 16 percent share, compared with 13 percent a decade ago. Blacks represent about 12 percent and Asians roughly 5 percent. Multiracial Americans and other groups made up the remaining 2 percent."

Hispanic Population Doubles In Some States, 2010 Census 

* The Hispanic population in Maryland doubled and is growing faster than anticipated based on the most recent Census estimates, accounting for 40% of the minority growth in the state.

* In Arkansas, the Hispanic population more than doubled with Hispanics driving 41% of the overall growth in the state. Among those under 18, Hispanics represent 83% of the minority growth. 

* Hispanics contributed 53% of minority growth in Iowa, while the non-Hispanic white population shrank.

* Hispanics in Indiana are growing faster than any other demographic group in the state and account for 43% of the population growth – nearly 1 out of every 2 people added to the state in the last decade is of Hispanic origin.

In Vermont, Hispanics are driving 21 % of the growth in the state. 
Sent by Juan Marinez


  President Carter named in $5 million lawsuit over his "Palestine" book
By Stephen Lowman

More than four years after its publication, five disgruntled readers have filed a class-action lawsuit against President Jimmy Carter and his publisher, Simon & Schuster, alleging that his 2006 book “Palestine Peace Not Apartheid” contained “numerous false and knowingly misleading statements intended to promote the author's agenda of anti-Israel propaganda and to deceive the reading public instead of presenting accurate information as advertised.”
The five plaintiffs named in the lawsuit are seeking at least $5 million in compensation. The hard cover edition cost $27.
The suit accuses Carter and his publisher of violating New York consumer protection laws because they engaged in “deceptive acts in the course of conducting business” and alleges that they sought enrichment by promoting the book “as a work of non-fiction.”
In a press release, one of the attorneys, Nitsana Darshan-Leitner stated: "The lawsuit will expose all the falsehoods and misrepresentations in Carter's book and prove that his hatred of Israel has led him to commit this fraud on the public. He is entitled to his opinions but deceptions and lies have no place in works of history."
Adam Rothberg, a spokesman for Simon & Schuster, said in a statement sent to The Washington Post: “This lawsuit is frivolous, without merit, and is a transparent attempt by the plaintiffs, despite their contentions, to punish the author, a Nobel Peace prize winner and world-renowned statesmen, and his publisher, for writing and publishing a book with which the plaintiffs simply disagree. It is a chilling attack on free speech that we intend to defend vigorously.”
Requests for comment from Carter’s spokeswoman were not immediately returned. From the outset, Carter’s book was criticized in some quarters for being one-sided. For instance, in his review for The Washington Post, Jeffrey Goldberg wrote:
“Palestine Peace Not Apartheid is being marketed as a work of history, but an honest book would, when assessing the reasons why the conflict festers, blame not only the settlements but also take substantial note of the fact that the Arabs who surround Israel have launched numerous wars against it, all meant to snuff it out of existence.”
The suit, Unterberg et al v. Jimmy Carter et al, was filed yesterday in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York. Its attorneys say this is first time a president and publisher have been sued for violating consumer protection laws.
Policeman punished for defending 1st Amendment 
Bill Bumpas 
A U.S. appeals court has heard oral arguments in a case involving a policeman who refused to carry out his chief's orders to remove a Christian pro-life group from of a college campus.

In April 2007, a small group of Christians was peacefully demonstrating on the grounds of Kutztown University in Pennsylvania, sharing their beliefs about moral issues like abortion. Meanwhile, a much larger group of protesters who loudly opposed the pro-life message led the KU president and campus police chief to insist the Christian group leave campus. But the officer on the scene, Corporal Steven Armbruster, refused the order.

"Just because someone has a pro-life message doesn't subject them to arrest," contends Tom Marcelle, senior counsel for the Alliance Defense Fund (ADF). "It took great courage for the officer to uphold his duty to protect the Constitution and not violate the demonstrators' First Amendment rights."

Marcelle adds that the officer was subsequently suspended without pay for five days, issued a disciplinary letter, and was threatened with termination if he took such a stand in the future. ADF attorneys filed a lawsuit on Armbruster's behalf, but because a federal court dismissed the case last March, the legal group has appealed to the Third Circuit.

"We are arguing that [an] officer, whether they're in the military or the police, has a right to refuse an unconstitutional order," the ADF senior counsel explains.

The First Amendment (Amendment I) to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights. The amendment prohibits the making of any law "respecting an establishment of religion", impeding the free exercise of religion, infringing on the freedom of speech, infringing on the freedom of the press, interfering with the right to peaceably assemble or prohibiting the petitioning for a governmental redress of grievances.


   Is the U.S. ruled by men or by laws?
The US Constitution is Being Ignored to the Detriment of the Nation
Editor:  Instances:

1)  U.S. district court judge, Judge Martin Feldman, held the Interior Department in contempt for continuing to enforce a moratorium on oil drilling after he told the department it had no right to do so. 

2) Three days earlier, another district court judge, Roger Vinson of Florida, ruled in a lawsuit brought by 26 states that Congress lacked authority under the Commerce Clause to force individuals to buy insurance.  

3) That ruling followed one by Virginia District Court Judge Henry Hudson, who ruled against the individual mandate alone last December. 

4) In Virginia, Chief General District Court Judge Dean Worcester declared he would ignore a Virginia Supreme Court ruling about the rights of illegal immigrants in deportation hearings, reasoning that the higher court was "wrong."

5)  In California, voters in 2004 approved a balanced budget amendment, and not once has gotten one.  

6) In Chicago, Rahm Emanuel is running for mayor despite a law requiring candidates to have lived in the city for a year to be eligible to run.

A state of being where the rule of law is being ignored, should cause every American concern, especially serious because they are government agencies that are not in compliance with the constitution.  In Orange County we had an incident perpetuated by Muslim students a  year ago.  The Orange County District Attorney Tony Rackauckas has filed criminal changes against some of the students.  

"Faculty seek to dismiss case against Muslims" by Vik Jolly, Reporter, Orange County Register, February 10, 2011
SANTA ANA – Calling criminal charges against 11 Muslim students "detrimental to our campus," 100 faculty members at UCI signed a letter Wednesday to Orange County District Attorney Tony Rackauckas urging him to dismiss the case.

"At the very least, we urge the District Attorney and the students to agree to resolve the charges with the students performing community service and a short probation, after which the matter will be expunged from the students' records," the letter reads.

A protester is escorted from the lecture hall after disrupting Ambassador Michael Oren’s lecture (2009). Photo by Peter Halmagyi.Eleven students were charged last Friday with conspiring to disrupt a speech last year, capping a grand jury investigation. The 11 were arrested, cited and released in the Feb. 8, 2010, incident during the talk by Michael Oren, the Israeli Ambassador to the U.S.

Meanwhile, labeling the charges "unprecedented," an Oakland-based Jewish group Wednesday turned in to the district attorney petitions signed by more than 5,000 supporters of the students.

The group called the Jewish Voice for Peace, whose website says it seeks an end to the Israeli occupation of the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem, has asked the district attorney to stop efforts to criminalize the students' actions.

                                                                                                                                                Photo by Peter Halmagyi

Each of the students is charged with one misdemeanor count of conspiracy to disturb a meeting and one misdemeanor count of the disturbance of a meeting. If convicted, each faces a sentence that could include probation with community service or fines or up to six months in jail. The defendants are scheduled to be arraigned March 11.

"Our hope is that the DA changes his mind and drops the charges," said Jon Wiener, a UCI history professor, "because this has already been dealt with the university's own disciplinary process."

"The use of the criminal justice system will be detrimental to our campus as it inherently will be divisive and risk undoing the healing process which has occurred over the last year," the faculty letter says.

While signatories included five deans and 14 chancellor's professors and distinguished professors, the letter was sent independent of the university. The university has 1,078 regular faculty members, but including other teaching faculty that number rises to about 2,800.

The District Attorney's Office said Wednesday that it will not be "swayed by special interest groups voicing their opinions."

"We have gotten hundreds of letters either way, both supporting and against," said Susan Kang Schroeder, the district attorney's chief of staff. "We base filing decisions and prosecution decisions on the facts and the law. Rarely do you have a case where the entire case is on videotape and in writing."

To read the charges against the Muslim students,  go to:

District Attorney Tony Rackauckas affirmed that Oren's constitutional right to free speech was violated, stating that failure to bring the charges against the students would be tantamount to failure to uphold the Constitution. "We cannot tolerate a pre-planned violation of the law," he told Associated Press.

Editor: I happened to see the unedited videotape of the Feb 8th incident that evening in the news. Unfortunately the version online right now is edited down in such a way that the tension and pressure orchestrated by the students is lost.  The edited version shows only a few  instances, but the outbursts were many more, and they were rapid fire,  in a rehearsed, predetermined sequence.  Many of the heckling students were actually carrying cue cards, glancing at them, even in the middle of their jeers.  

I can not understand educators condoning the behavior of the Muslim students.  The speaker was  Michael Oren, the Israeli Ambassador to the U.S. .  There was no respect shown to Ambassador Oren. It was an appalling and offensive display of mob power, drowning the speaker out with their yelling and screams.  

Local Islamic groups insist that terror and violence around the world, perpetrated by Muslims, has nothing to do with any doctrines of Islam. This in spite of the fact that since 9/11 over 17,000 incidents of Islamic terror have been documented worldwide. Source: ACT 

Perhaps the problem of identifying anti-American activities is connected to the perception of  those in leadership, entrusted to protect our county.   Director of Intelligence, James Clapper, stated publicly that the Muslim Brotherhood is a "largely secular organization".  Their mission statement and facts indicate otherwise.  



Old School Spy Gear Meets High Tech Storage Media
Sponsored by - 

New Hollow Spy Coins Will Encapsulate the Micro SD Memory Card. A local firm (Dereu Manufacturing & Design) has brought back the Cold War hollow spy coin with a new twist. Back in the days of the Cold War, hollow coins were used to transfer and hide secret messages and microfilms. While the data holding capacity of a small microfilm was very generous, it holds no candle to micro memory cards available today. A Micro SD Memory card has capacities of up to 16 GB of data.

Linda Sanchez

Linda Sanchez

A Wise Latina

Nominated and written

By Mercy Bautista-Olvera


Linda Sanchez is a U.S. Representative for California ’s 39th Congressional District. The 39th district includes the communities of Artesia, Cerritos , Florence , Hawaiian Gardens , Lakewood , La Mirada , Long Beach , Lynwood , Paramount , South Gate , Watts, Whittier , and Willowbrook.  

Linda Sanchez was born on January 28, 1969, in Orange , California . She is the sixth of seven children and the daughter of Ignacio Sanchez and Maria Macias-Sanchez, whom emigrated from Mexico . She is the younger sister of U.S. Representative for California 47th District Loretta Sanchez. They are the first sisters to serve in Congress. Her other siblings include Ignacio, Martha, Mike, Frank, and Henry (killed in a boating accident in 2008).  She is married to Jim Sullivan, a Public Relations Consultant. Together the couple have one son Joaquin. Jim has three sons, Brendan, Jack, and Seamus, from a previous marriage.   

In 1991, Linda Sanchez earned a Bachelor of Arts Degree in Spanish Literature with an emphasis in Bilingual Education at the University of California at Berkeley , and in 1995, a Juris Degree from the UCLA School of Law; she also served as an editor of the Chicano-Latino Law Review at the University.    

After graduating from Cal-Berkley, Sanchez worked as a Bilingual Aide and English as a Second Language instructor while going to law school.  

During her legal studies at the University of California Los Angeles , Sanchez interned with the Honorable Judge Terry Hatter, Jr., Chief Justice of the Central District Court. She also spent a summer working for the National Organization for Women Legal Defense, and Education Fund (NOW LDEF) in New York City .  

Prior to coming to Congress, Sanchez served as the Executive Secretary-Treasurer for the Orange County Central Labor Council, AFL-CIO. Congresswoman Sanchez is still an active and card-carrying member of IBEW Local 441. As the new secretary-treasurer, Sanchez oversaw labor's political programs and lobbying efforts, as well as serve as chief spokesperson for the group that represented more than 80 unions and 106,000 members in Orange County. At the time, Sanchez was only the second woman to head the Orange County labor organization, and the group's first Latina chief.  

Linda Sanchez was admitted to the state bar in December 1995. Sanchez started her political career after a new 39th Congressional District was created following the 2000 Census.  

Sanchez is the co-founder of the House Labor and Working Families Caucus, and she serves on the Education and Labor Committee as well as the Foreign Affairs Committee.   

Representative Sanchez is the first Latina in history to serve on the House Ways and Means Committee working families. She has broken many barriers by becoming the first Latina to serve on the Judiciary Committee, and the first woman to serve as the Chair of its Subcommittee on Commercial and Administrative Law.   

In 2008, Representative Linda Sanchez for 39th Congressional District, her sister Representative Loretta Sanchez for the 47th District, along with Richard Buskin co-wrote a book, the joint memoir “Dream in Color.” The sisters present their compelling story, their history making achievements including the first sisters/women of any relation to serve together in Congress. (See Somos Primos February 2011).  

Keeping children safe on the internet has also been her priority. She has introduced legislation to criminalize cyber-bullying, and to reduce bullying, harassment, and gang activity in our schools. While in Congress, Sanchez has helped to expand Head Start and modernize the Higher Education Act.  

Linda Sanchez is well respected and recognized by her colleagues and the national media as a leading voice for working families, judiciary, and trade matters.







Mercy Bautista-Olvera


The 26th article in the series “Hispanics Breaking Barriers” focuses on contributions  of Hispanic leadership in the United States government. Their contributions have improved not only the local community, but the country as well. Their struggles, stories, and accomplishments will by example, illustrate to our youth and to future generations that everything and anything is possible.

John Sanchez:  Lieutenant Governor , New Mexico  
Irasema Coronado:
  Joint Public Advisory Committee of the Commission for Environmental Cooperation  Juan Osuna:  Acting Director of the Executive Office of Immigration Review
Dan Ramos:
  U.S. State Representative, 56th District, Ohio  
Leroy M. Garcia Jr.:
  Pueblo City Council 3rd District, Pueblo , Colorado  


John A. Sanchez


John A. Sanchez is the 31st Lieutenant Governor of New Mexico.  

He was born in 1963; he is the youngest of eight children. He was raised in Albuquerque , New Mexico ’s North Valley .  He can trace his public service roots

to his great, great grandfather, who was a State Legislator from San Miguel County in 1860, and his grandfather served as a state Representative in 1930. He is married to Debra; the couple have two grown daughters.  

Sanchez graduated from Hope High School in Albuquerque , New Mexico .  After graduating from high school, he started a small business called Right Way Roofing.  

John A. Sanchez received a Bachelor of Science in Management Degree from the University of Phoenix , and a Master of Arts in Organizational Management Degree from Ashford University , located in Clinton , Iowa .  

In 1983, Sanchez graduated from New Mexico Real Estate Institute.  In 1993, his company Right Way Roofing was named Small Business of the Year by the Albuquerque Hispano Chamber of Commerce. From 1997-2000, he was the company’s owner. John and Debra Sanchez have built one of New Mexico ’s most respected businesses. The firm has operated continuously for over 28 years and has had total sales of nearly $100 million. They have completed nearly 30,000 contracts and currently maintain a work force of 25 employees.

Sanchez was elected to the office of Councilman for the Village of Los Ranchos , New Mexico . His political experience started as a trustee for the village of Los Ranchos , 1997-2000.  

From 2000 to 2002, he served in the New Mexico House of Representatives. In 2002, he was a Republican nominee for governor.  

In 2005, Sanchez was recognized as one of the Top 40 Most Influential Hispanics in the Country. John has had diverse business interests, and maintained a New Mexico real estate license for over 20 years.  

As Lt. Governor, John Sanchez advocates job creation, economic development, private sector growth, and fairness in the state regulatory process. His significant business background, hands on management experience and genuine pro-business enthusiasm, has prepared him for the challenge of promoting economic growth in New Mexico .


Dr. Irasema Coronado  

Dr. Irasema Coronado is an associate professor in the Department of Political Science, a contributing faculty member of the Environmental Science and Engineering Ph.D. program. She has also been appointed by President Obama to a Joint Public Advisory Committee of the Commission for Environmental Cooperation.  

She is the daughter of Gonzalo Coronado (1927-2005) and Guadalupe Bejarano-Coronado. Irasema grew up in what she describes as a bi-national, bilingual, bicultural household in Nogales , Arizona . She is the second of six siblings, which includes an older sister, and four brothers.  

She served in the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC); this international organization was established in 1994. It facilitates collaboration among partner countries, such as Canada , Mexico and the United States , their goal is to protect the shared environment of the continent. The 15-member advisory committee, which serves as the source of information and guidance to the commission, is comprised of five citizens from each country with significant backgrounds in environmental affairs.    

“Dr. Coronado’s expertise in environmental policy and her extensive experience with U.S.-Mexico border issues will enable her to contribute unique and valuable perspectives to the deliberations of this important international advisory committee,” stated University of Texas in El Paso (UTEP) President Dr. Diana Natalicio.   

From 2003 to 2006, Dr. Coronado served as a member of the National Advisory Committee of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). She has conducted extensive research and published several articles about legal, political, and environmental issues in the U.S.-Mexico border region.
"This appointment will help me provide my students with real world examples and contribute to the understanding of policy-making in the environmental arena,"   stated Dr. Coronado.    

Dr. Coronado has been a professor at the University of El Paso in Texas . She has emerged in the past 10 years as one of the highest-profile Hispanic women in El Paso, and served as the Associate Provost in the university, and has mentored faculty and students, studied border issues for years and contributed on a regular basis to scholarly works, and books about the border and its people.  

"For us to address environmental issues on the border, you need cooperation of both governments at all levels. I've been doing that all my life, bringing together people from both sides of the (U.S.-Mexico) border. My family has always been committed to social justice. All of us had this in common: You treat everyone with dignity and respect, and you do your part to help humanity," stated Dr. Coronado.  

Dr. Coronado acknowledged her late father, Gonzalo Coronado, a Mexican immigrant and bread distributor, with injecting her with the passion to understand why life is so radically different in Mexico and the United States . "I can honestly say my father was a feminist," Dr. Coronado grew up in what other people might consider a privileged home, but we were not rich." Coronado 's mother, Guadalupe, still volunteers every Wednesday to help feed and clothe Mexican deportees across the border.



Juan P. Osuna  

Juan P. Osuna, formerly Associate Deputy Attorney General has been appointed by U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder as Acting Director of the Justice Department’s Executive Office of Immigration Review (EOIR).  

Juan P. Osuna was born in Colombia , South America ; he is the son of Luis Jorge Osuna and Martha Osuna. He is married to Wendy Young.  

In 1985, Osuna received a Bachelor of Arts Degree from George Washington University , a Juris Degree in 1988 from the Washington College of Law at American University , and a Master of Art’s Degree in Law and International Affairs in 1989, from the American University ’s school of International service.  

After graduating from law school, he spent ten years working as an editor for a collection of legal publications, including a prestigious immigration law journal, “The Immigration Court System: Where We Have Been and Where We Are Going.” Published by Cornell University Law School , April 10, 2009.  

Osuna has served as the ranking full-time political appointee concerned with immigration matters. It is a policy position, rather than a managerial one.    

In 2000, former U.S. Attorney General Janet Reno appointed Osuna as a member of the Board of Immigration Appeals during former President Bill Clinton's Administration; he then served as the Board's Acting Chairperson, then permanent Chair, during the Bush administration.  

Osuna spent the next nine years on the Board of Immigration Appeals (BIA) at the Department of Justice (DOJ), the top of the administrative pyramid for federal immigration law. He joined Obama’s DOJ in 2009 as a Deputy Assistant Attorney General. He now advises the Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) on immigration policy.  

The Obama administration has successively appointed Osuna as Deputy Assistant AG for the Office of Immigration Litigation, Associate Deputy AG, and now acting Acting Director of the Executive Office of Immigration Review.    

Osuna is one of the top lawyers in the Justice Department on immigration law; he has spent his entire career working on immigration law.



Dan Ramos  

Dan Ramos is the Ohio state Representative for the 56th District. He is the first person of Puerto Rican heritage elected to the General Assembly.

Dan Ramos was born on September 2, 1981 in Oberlin , Ohio . He is the son of Ramon Ramos, a former member of the Lorain School Board. His parents are Raul and JoAnn Ramos.  

He graduated from Lorain Admiral King High School . He received a Bachelor of Arts in Political Science from the Ohio State University .  

“Nearly one in five persons in Ohio is an ethnic minority. I wish the governor well, as his successes are my successes, and much more importantly, are the successes of my constituents. Whether black or white, Hispanic or Asian, Native American, Pacific Islander, native born or immigrant, gay or straight, male or female, Ohio is home to all of us. I'm here today to make certain that the voices of all Ohio 's people are heard so we can all move forward together," stated   Ramos.  

Ramos has served years in his community. He has served as Senior Policy Analyst to House Speaker Armond Budish, and Legislative Aide to Ohio State Representative, Joe Koziura, where he studied, trained, and learned the inner workings of the Statehouse, so he could best serve his area in the House of Representatives.  

In 2004, he has served as caucus field staff in Lorain , Huron and Seneca County , and in 2006, he served as Caucus/Party Field staff in Lake and Loran County . In 2008, he served as Assistant Political Director for the House Caucus.  

During his service at the Lorain County Department of Job & Family Services, he served as a union member of the United Auto Workers (UAW) Local 696.



Leroy M. Garcia Jr.  

Leroy M. Garcia Jr. is the new Pueblo City Council 3rd District in Pueblo , Colorado .  

Leroy M. Garcia, Jr. was born on September 2, 1981, in Pueblo , Colorado . He is the son of Leroy M. Garcia Sr. and Lorraine Martinez-Garcia.  Leroy Sr. and Lorraine are small business owners of a family hair salon. Leroy is the eldest of two brothers, Jake F. Garcia (USMC) and Evan P. Garcia (USMC). Leroy is married to Michelle Randall-Garcia. The couple have two sons, Jeremiah and Xan.  

In 2005, he received his Associate of Applied Science Major in Emergency Medical services from Pueblo Community College . In 2007, he earned a Bachelor of Science Degree in Management from the University of Phoenix .  In addition, in 2009, he earned a Master of Arts Degree in Organizational Management Concentration with Leadership from the Ashford University .  

From 2001 to 2008, Leroy M. Garcia served in the United States Marine Corps. Garcia was deployed during Operation Iraqi Freedom as a Mortuary Affairs   Specialist.  During Leroy’s time in the Marine Corp, he learned the value of hard work and leadership.    

Garcia was awarded medals for the Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary,     Global War on Terrorism Service, National Defense and Selected Marine Corps   among many others.  

He served as an educator for Pueblo Community College , and a Nationally Registered Paramedic with American Medical Response. Garcia understands compassion, commitment and dedication to the community. He feels it is important to listen to the concerns of constituents, and build a sense of community.  



Robert J. Nava, Esq. 
Named vice president for University Advancement

SAN FRANCISCO, Aug. 24, 2010 -- San Francisco State University President Robert A. Corrigan today announced the appointment of Robert J. Nava as the new vice president for University Advancement. Nava, formerly the associate vice president for Institutional Advancement at the University of Texas, El Paso (UTEP), will be responsible for advancing the University's external image and maintaining relationships with key University constituencies. Units reporting to him will include development, university communications, alumni relations, special events and government relations. Nava will report directly to Corrigan, serve on the president's cabinet and work as president of the University Foundation. 

"Robert Nava brings a broad portfolio of success in higher education to SF State," Corrigan said. "Not only does Mr. Nava boast a record of high achievement, but his 24-year career in higher education reflects his commitment to social justice and equity -- values that are central to SF State."

In his five years at UTEP, Nava led the development and alumni units and directed the University's Centennial Campaign, which raised almost half of its $200 million goal before its public launch.

As vice president of University Advancement, Nava will provide strategic and creative leadership for a comprehensive advancement program, serve as a highly visible representative of the University in the community, and help the University to increase its visibility.

"I was attracted to the mission of San Francisco State," said Nava, a first-generation college student. "The University's national reputation and commitment to social justice, access for residents of the region and its excellence brought me to this campus."

Nava has an intimate knowledge of higher education in California, having worked for 19 years at the University of California, Riverside, most recently as interim vice chancellor for University Advancement and president of the UC Riverside Foundation. His efforts led to the opening of the Edward J. Blakely Center for Sustainable Suburban Development, a first of its kind in California.

He also served as the University’s lobbyist in Sacramento and Washington D.C. During much of his UC Riverside career, Nava also taught as an adjunct faculty member in CSU Fullerton's Chicano Studies program.

Nava holds a bachelor's degree in criminal justice from UTEP, a law degree from Western State University College of Law and was a member of the Harvard Graduate School of Education's Institute for Management and Leadership in Education. He is a member of the Association of Fundraising Professionals and is a Certified Fundraising Executive (CFRE), a credential attained by demonstrating success in fundraising and supporting professional standards in philanthropy. 

He replaces Lee Blitch, who will retire after serving five years as vice president for University Advancement. 

SF State is the only master’s level public university serving the counties of San Francisco, San Mateo and Marin. The University enrolls more than 30,000 students each year. With nationally acclaimed programs in a range of fields – from creative writing, cinema and biology to history, broadcast and electronic communications arts, theatre arts and ethnic studies – the University’s more than 180,000 graduates have contributed to the economic, cultural and civic fabric of San Francisco and beyond.

Sent by Rick Leal 


  "Largest Minority" Still Means "Nada"
By Miguel Perez

February 15, 2011 [NiLP FYI]
Now that the statisticians have begun to crunch the numbers and interpret the information gathered by the 2010 census, get ready for a new epidemic of xenophobia.

It happens every 10 years. As census figures reveal that Latinos are multiplying at a faster rate than other segments of the U.S. population - even surpassing African-Americans and becoming "the largest minority" in additional cities, counties and states - more people get unnecessarily alarmed about the growth of the Hispanic community.

Of course, being "the largest minority" means absolutely nada. It's a completely worthless title that only serves to further scare those who already suffer from immigration paranoia. It exaggerates the false perception, shared by some white Americans, that Latinos are "taking over." And it makes some African-Americans - having lost their "largest minority" title - erroneously assume that Latinos are going after their small share of the American pie.

Perhaps the blame should go to all the politicians who have spent years telling Latinos that "soon, you will be the nation's largest minority group" - as if that would solve all our problems.

It was all lip service, a phony way of promising empowerment without having to do anything to help Latinos obtain it. They knew that mere population numbers would not automatically make Latinos the most influential minority - or even one that is represented adequately in politics. But they went ahead and flaunted the fabricated and fictitious "largest minority" milestone, perhaps without realizing that it could be used to scare those who already feel some apprehension about the growing number of U.S. Latinos.

Based on 2010 census figures being released gradually on a state-by-state basis from now until April 1, the media already are giving the impression that - as if the census were a magic wand - Latinos are about to gain significant political empowerment. Some people are scared by reports asserting that there are 50 counties and 21 states where Latinos already are "the largest minority" - as if that means anything! In fact, in most of those counties and all of those states, Latinos still are grossly underserved and underrepresented.

Unfortunately, these census-based news reports mostly serve as ammunition for race-baiting politicians, who use these figures to turn more Americans into xenophobes.

Here's the reality: Of the 48.4 million Latinos the U.S. Census Bureau estimated to be in the country last year, only 20.1 million are now eligible to vote. The majority of Latinos still fall under the other two huge categories: Some 15.5 million Latinos are U.S. citizens but too young to vote, and about 12.8 million of all ages - including some 11 million undocumented immigrants - are not yet naturalized citizens. By the way, those numbers are based on Census Bureau population estimates conducted prior to the 2010 census and released last year. The national Latino population based on the 2010 census will not be known until all the states receive their respective census results, which are due to them by April 1.

Yet when those more accurate 2010 census figures are in - still - fewer than half of U.S. Latinos will be eligible to vote. Political empowerment for Latinos, in proportion to population, is not exactly around the corner - not when the "largest minority" hoopla keeps scaring the xenophobes, not when those numbers are used to fuel anti-immigrant and anti-Hispanic measures in Congress and state legislatures throughout the country.

At a time when several states are trying to emulate Arizona's Draconian anti-immigrant and racial profiling measures and when a new crop of conservative extremists is getting ready to assault Latinos' civil rights in Congress, the news reports touting the growth of the Hispanic population could be a two-edged sword for Latinos. Unless they turn their growing population figures into a rising number of Latino voters, the census results will be more harmful than helpful.

Some Latino community leaders - in areas where the "largest minority" title now is being acquired, thanks to the 2010 census - still will argue that now they will have to be taken into account by the political establishment. Good luck!

But keep in mind that nationally, Latinos have been the largest minority since July 2002. That's when the Hispanic population reached 38.8 million, edging out the African-American population of 37.6 million. In many cities and counties throughout the nation, Latinos have been the largest minority for even longer. Yet that distinction has meant very little in places where the population figures are not converted into naturalization and voter-registration numbers.

The time will come when the U.S. Latino population (projected to be 132.8 million by 2050) is so big that even if half of them are voting, it would make a huge difference. But that time has not arrived yet. And even then, it should not be reason for anyone to be scared or apprehensive.

To find out more about Miguel Perez and read features by other Creators Syndicate writers and cartoonists, visit the Creators Syndicate Web page at<

Sent by Juan Marinez marinezj@ANR.MSU.EDU


Cesar Estrada Chavez:

Cesar Estrada Chavez: Roots Deep in the Heart of Chihuahua by John P. Schmal
Students Hail Victory As UTEP Reinstates César Chávez Day By Danya P. Hernández
150 decry UTEP dropping holiday for César Chávez by Ramón Rentería
"Forty Acres"  designated a National Historic Landmark


Cesar Estrada Chavez
Roots Deep in the Heart of Chihuahua

By John P. Schmal

 An American Hero

Cesar Chavez was an American hero, a person who was admired by both his supporters and his adversaries. In grammar school, many students learn about his advocacy and dedication to his causes, but few people know much about his roots.  Nearly everyone knows that Cesar Estrada Chavez was born on March 31, 1927 near Yuma , Arizona . The Arizona State Board of Health Certificate of Birth Number 594 states that Cesario Chavez was the legitimate son of Librado Chavez (38 years old, a farmer born in Mexico ) and Juana Estrada (35 years old, a housewife also born in Mexico). His birthplace was listed as “ North Gila Valley ” in Yuma County.  

Most of us know that Cesar was named after his grandfather, Cesario. His family spent a few decades in Yuma County, Arizona, after emigrating from Mexico , but most people do not know about his family ties to Mexico.  Cesar’s father Librado Chavez was himself the son of Cesario Chavez and Dorotea Hernandez. This information is widely known since Cesar had a rather large family and some information about his family has been published online.  

Librado Chavez (Father)

Librado was one of about eleven children, most of whom were born in Mexico , although it is believed that the last two were born in the United States . In fact, it has been stated that Librado’s younger brother, Felipe Hernandez Chavez, was born on February 3rd or 5th  of 1890 in El Paso Texas (and died sometime after 1911).  However, this account is incorrect. According to the Catholic Church records in Juarez , Chihuahua , Felipe Chaves was baptized on March 2, 1891 by Father Ramon Ortiz, the pastor of Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe Church.  The baptism record for Felipe states that Felipe was born on February 5, 1891 as the legitimate son of Cesario Chaves and Dorotea Hernandez, both of whom were originally from Carmen.  

The abuelos paternos listed were Nepomuceno Chaves and Juana Flores. The abuela materna was given as Maria Rufia, with no explanation given for the lack of a father or a surname.  This baptism can be viewed on Film 162708 of the Family History Library (Reference Number: 25-77).     

Cesario Chavez (Grandfather)

Most researchers who have studied the Chavez family already knew that Cesario’s father’s name was Nepomuceno Chavez (Cesar’s great-grandfather).  Aside from knowing that he was from a place called Villa del Carmen, very little is known about him.  However, anyone doing research in La Ciudad de Chihuahua in the middle of the Nineteenth Century will come across Nepomuceno Chavez and his wife Maria Juana Flores.  

Nepomuceno had many children, the exact number still unknown at this time. However, their first-born was Jose Luis Gonzaga Chavez Flores, who was baptized on June 23, 1831 in El Sagrario in the City of Chihuahua .  In the next two decades more children followed, including Epifana Juana (1840), Jose Manuel de Jesus (1842) and Maria Tiburcio Aniseta (1849). While most of the kids were born in La Ciudad, Jose Manuel was baptized in Santa Cruz de Rosales.  

Nepomuceno and Juana would have children for almost twenty years. The last child born to Nepomuceno and Juana was Jose Sesario Trinidad Chaves, and this is the man we know of as “Cesario Chavez” – the grandfather of Cesar Chavez. “Sesario” was baptized at Nuestra Señora de Regla de Chihuahua Church on March 2, 1851 by Father Gavino Rodela. The baptism states that he was born on the 25th of the previous month (February) and that he was the son of Juan Nepomuceno Chaves and Maria Juana Flores.  The abuelos paternos were Ramon Chaves and Ramona Anchondo. And the abuelos maternos were Pablo Flores and Sabina Granados. The four grandparents listed in the baptism of Sesario Chavez are the great-great-grandparents of Cesar Chavez. This baptism can be viewed on Family History Library Film Number 162668.  

Nepomuceno Chavez (Great-Grandfather)  

At this point we have established that Cesar’s paternal great-grandfather was born 76 years before he was born (1927).  But Cesario was the last son born in a very large family. As such, his parents were married long before his birth. The Parish Church in La Ciudad de Chihuahua contains a very detailed record of Nepomuceno’s and Juana’s marriage.  

The record states that on June 28, 1830, Father Mateo Sanches Alvarez married Nepomuceno Chaves and Juana de Dios Flores. Nepomuceno was described as the legitimate son of Ramon Chavez and of Ramona Anchondo. Juana was described as the daughter of Pablo Flores and Sabina Granados. The parents of the bride and groom are, as stated earlier, the great-great-grandparents of Cesar. The witnesses were Rafael Anchondo and Maria del Refugio Chaves, relatives of the newlyweds.  

It is not entirely clear when Nepomuceno Chaves was born or whether he was born in La Ciudad de Chihuahua or in General Trias (which was then known as Santa Isabel ). His brother Juan Ramon Chaves was baptized in Santa Isabel on March 26, 1818, and his younger sister, Maria Ramona de Jesus, was born four years later in La Ciudad (on November 24, 1822).  

Ramona’s baptism reported that she was baptized by Father Angel Molinar at Nuestra Señora de Regla de Chihuahua church when she was seven days old. She was the daughter of Ramon Chaves and Ramona Anchondo. The abuelos paternos were Tomas Chaves and Antonia Guarin. The abuelos maternos were Christobal Anchondo and Maria Conigunda Escañuela.  This set of abuelos represent the next generation back: the great-great-great-grandparents of Cesar Chavez. The baptism of Maria Ramona Caves can be viewed on Film 162665.  

Juana de Dios Flores (Great-Grandmother)

Nepomuceno married Juana in 1830 when she was only 14 years old. Juana was a local girl, born and bred in La Ciudad. On March 15, 1816, when she was eight days old, Juana’s parents took her to the church to be baptized by Father Mariano Prado. Juana de Dios Reymunda de Jesus Flores – the future wife of Nepomuceno Chavez and the future great-great-grandmother of Cesar – was baptized with holy oil and recorded as the legitimate daughter of Pablo Flores and Maria Savina Granados. The abuelos paternos were “no conocidos” (not known), but the abuelos maternos were Jose Granado and Paula Zuniga.  

Juana Flores - 1816 baptism

Pablo Torres and Savina Granados (Great-Great-Grandparents)

It is not clear when or where Pablo Torres and Sabina Granados were married (at this point in time), but it is clear that they had a very large family. One of their earlier children, Maria Eusevia Flores, was baptized on March 7, 1803 in San Lorenzo (Doctor Belisario Dominguez).  But their next child, Francisco de Paula de Jesus Vensor, was baptized on July 15, 1805 in the Church in La Ciudad of Chihuahua.  Two more daughters were born in La Ciudad in 1808 and 1813 before Juana came along in 1816.  

Although the baptism for Pablo Torres has not yet been located, the baptism of Maria Savina Granados on June 14, 1776 in San Lorenzo has been located. It is noteworthy that Savina was born 151 years before the birth of Cesar Chavez and weeks before the American Declaration of Independence was signed.  The very beautiful and detailed baptism record of Savina reveals to us that Father Manuel Cadaval baptized Savina when she was six days old and that she was the daughter of Juan Joseph Granados and Juana Paula Suniga, “legitamente casados” (a legitimately married couple). The baptism of Savina is on Family History Library Film Number 162584.


Juan Joseph Granados and Juana Paula Zuniga (Great-Great-Great-Grandparents)

Juan Jose Granados and Juana Paula Zuniga had several children. Research into this line will eventually trace the family back a few more generations. While we cannot yet determine when the couple was married, it does seem likely that the family may have alternated back and forth between San Lorenzo and La Ciudad de Chihuahua.  

One fact that seems certain is that the Maria Paula de Suniga (Zuniga) who was baptized on February 5, 1748 in La Ciudad de Chihuahua is the mother of Savina and the wife of Juan Jose Granados.  Maria Paula was the daughter of Ygnasio Martin de Suniga and Francesca Figenia de Luna.


Ygnacio Martin de Zuniga (Great-Great-Great-Great-Grandfather)

We bring this search to a conclusion (for today), with a determination to find more information at a later date. Ygnacio Martin de Zuniga married his bride, Francesca Figenia de Luna, in the church at La Ciudad de Chihuahua on February 21, 1747.  

A Son of Chihuahua

It has become evident that Cesar Chavez did, in fact, have roots deep within the state of Chihuahua . American-born, Cesar Chavez was dedicated to American causes but was also a son of Mexico. And the search for his ancestry was made possible because the baptism records in the churches of Chihuahua after 1800 show the abuelos of each child being baptized (with some exceptions).  When six names are given in a document of birth, the search for earlier generations is made easier.


This article is dedicated to Cesar Chavez (1927-1993).

© 2011, John P. Schmal. All rights reserved.  



Students Hail Victory As UTEP Reinstates César Chávez Day

By Danya P. Hernández

Hispanic Link, Vol. 29, No. 3
Your News Source Since 1983
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EL PASO Texas — Dr. Diana Natalicio, president of the University of Texas at El Paso, circulated an email message to the university’s faculty and its 20,000 students Feb. 8 that the institution’s annual celebration of César Chávez’s March 31 birthday was no longer on the chopping block.

The Day was established as an optional state holiday in 1999 by then-Gov. George Bush and readily adopted by UTEP, where the student population is three-quarters Hispanic. When the state approved only 12 holidays for academic year
2010-11, UTEP had to trim two. Its Faculty Senate announced late last month that César Chávez Day would be eliminated.

Some 150 students, supported by alumni, quickly mobilized against the decision and confronted Natalicio, who expressed sympathy for the students’ cause and requested time to work on a solution. Ten days later she made her announcement
that the Faculty Senate had rescinded its vote. While details are apparently still being worked out, student reaction was immediate and favorable.

A Facebook group, “UTEP Students for César Chávez Day,” was among the first to posted a note: “Thanks to everyone for this
victory. ¡Qué Viva César Chávez!” Student Javier San Román added the message to his facebook page, “¡Que orgullo, gracias a todos Uds. Sigan luchando. César vive, la luche sigue!”

In her announcement, Natalicio stated, “We regret the calendar confusion and the misunderstanding that resulted from it.”
Prior to the president’s announcement, campus and community groups mobilized against the decision. Among them: Movimiento Estudiantil Chicano de Aztlán (MEChA) and Cultural Artists United for Social Action (CAUSA).

A “Restore César Chávez” rally featured community speakers and members of the groups that helped organize it. A petition to
reinstate the holiday was circulated. The rally culminated with Pete Duarte, an active alumnus, declaring he would give back his Gold Nugget Award, UTEP’s most prestigious award for alumni. 

“The action taken by the Faculty Senate is not only a slap in the face to the students, faculty and staff on campus — an act of
culture and racial genocide — but also an act of racism,” Duarte said. Coordinator of Students for César Chávez Day Adrian Rivera said, “They didn’t take into consideration the population of the University and they didn’t consider the effect of changing something like that,”

Protesters used Chávez’s peaceful ways to voice their concerns — proof that his legacy lives on, said Rivers. “Faculty Senate
gave us the stage and we are going to use it to start educating about what César did for the community and the nation.”

150 decry UTEP dropping holiday for César Chávez

by Ramón Rentería \ El Paso Times

Pete Duarte, a retired health-systems administrator and the former CEO at what is now University Medical Center, symbolically returns a Golden Nugget Award, which UTEP had given him in the past for his contributions to the university, to protest UTEP's dropping of a César Chávez holiday. (Ruben R Ramirez / El Paso Times)

My name is Pete T. Duarte and I am a retired health care administrator, a University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) graduate with a Master’s Degree in Sociology, a concerned citizen and a proud El Pasoan. Today we are gathered here to protest the decision by the Faculty Senate of the UTEP to eliminate the observance of the Cesar Chavez Holiday on March 31, 2011. This University is located in the City of El Paso where the Mexican American-Chicano-Hispanic population is over eighty percent. The action taken by the Faculty Senate is not only a slap in the face to the students, faculty and staff on campus but it is an act of cultural/racial genocide against the majority population of our area.

Cesar Chavez was not only an internationally known leader who was sought out by religious, civic, political and labor leaders for his counsel on labor/minority/social justice issues during his most active years from the 1960’s until his death in 1993. He was recognized as a leader of the most neglected socioeconomic segment of American workers ---the agricultural workers of America be they Mexican American, Filipinos, African American,” poor whites”, women or undocumented immigrants.  What made him an extraordinary human being was his character since he never sought personal fame, wealth or recognition, only social justice and equality for all of us. His struggle inspired thousands of us to stand up for justice, humanity, peace, equality, freedom and nonviolent social action.  I was moved to observe leaders from all of the religious denominations. International politicians, national celebrities, athletes and thousands of students throughout the nation join him in his marches, demonstrations, picket lines, and month long fasts that reaffirmed his commitment to nonviolence . For me there will never be a more inspirational heroic figure then Cesar Chavez.

I was the eighth and last child of Eduardo S. and (Maria) Jesus Duarte who were migrant farm workers in the Central Valley of California. Every year, until I was thirteen years of age, we would leave Southern California and travel up through the agricultural farm lands of Central California ,picking cotton, potatoes, grapes, fruits, tomatoes, citrus and walnuts from early spring to early fall. Often the sky and the heavens were our roof, other times we slept and lived in barns, or farm labor shacks and even in automobiles. We were always well received but always encouraged to leave as soon as the crops were picked. Often we worked as the skies were filled with pesticides as the farmers tried to protect their crops from infestations and I learned then that the crops were more valuable than the workers’ health. If we were allowed to enroll in school, the children of farmworkers were always separated from the year round students and we were told forcefully that we would have to sit and behave or be expelled. Seldom were we taught anything except contempt and denigration of who we were as a people. I learned the bitter lessons of discrimination, inequality and racial profiling at an early age.

Despite my parents socioeconomic status I was able to rise above their social standing. I was one of three high school graduates in our family; I went on and became the first college graduate of our extended family. After graduation I joined the Peace Corps and married a fellow Corps member, Joy Hudson. I came to El Paso in 1968 as a health care community organizer during the War On Poverty where I was able to unite with outstanding community leaders and establish the Father Rahm Social Service and Referral Organization, which in the early seventies became Centro de Salud Familiar La Fe, Inc. Later I was selected by parents, students and faculty to head Project Upward Bound at UTEP and in the early nineties I became the CEO of Thomason General Hospital, now called University Medical Center.  During my tenure the hospital was twice named among America’s Top 100 Hospitals. In 2004 I resigned after serving at the hospital for fourteen years as its Chief Servant, or CEO.

I prefer the title Chief Servant to CEO because my role models and heroes were all Servants---Martin Luther King, Gandhi, Mother Teresa, Nelson Mandela, our first Chicana County Judge for El Paso County, my parents and Cesar Chavez. All of them were visionary and they all acted on hope, a value that guides all of us as we seek a better understanding of the forces that shape and determine our lives. Their lives were demonstrations of the highest moral character and the goodness that defines humanity. Cesar Chavez epitomized these virtues as he fought a lifelong battle to improve the lives of the destitute marginal population in the USA and he never once sought the limelight for his efforts. As all seekers of social justice he did what he had to do because it was the right thing to do.

I believe that the world is a better place, and I am a better person, for having men like Cesar Chavez as national icons. It is difficult for people to improve if they have no role models but themselves to copy after.  Cesar Chavez was and remains my role model.  His vision, his hopes, for a better future for all people is a laudable goal and one that I choose to follow.

I believe that the action taken by the University to cancel the Cesar Chavez Holiday is wrong and I regret this action because it is a significant step backwards for a University ostensibly trying to reach tier 1 status.  It appears that this University is getting on the Arizona bandwagon of erasing us, the Hispanic population, from history.   For too long we have passively accepted whatever fate might be bestowed upon us. Now I say, “YA BASTA!” It is time for El Paso and its majority population to speak out against this injustice. I for one will no longer support the university financially and I ask that my friends to the same thing. I am also returning the Gold Nugget Award that I received in 2004 as a clear show of my disgust at this action!!!   

Statement by Pete T. Duarte presented at UTEP on January 27, 2011 for Cesar Chavez protest  


"Forty Acres"  designated a National Historic Landmark

U.S. Department of Interior secretary Ken Salazar, second from right, speaks at the dedication of Forty Acres as a National Historical Landmark. From left is, Stephanie Toothman, associate Director for Cultural Resources for the National Park Service, Jon Jarvis, Director, National Park Services, congressman Jim Costa, Paul Chavez, Cesar Chavez Foundation, Salazar, and Arturo Rodriguez, president of the United Farm Workers.
AMERICA’S GREAT OUTDOORS: Secretary Salazar, UFW President Rodriguez, and the Chávez Family Honor Life and Legacy of César Chávez at National Historic Landmark Dedication Ceremony on February 14. 

DELANO, CA — Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar, United Farm Workers President Arturo Rodriguez, and Paul Chávez, César Chávez’s son and president of the César Chávez Foundation, celebrated the life and legacy of the legendary farm labor and civil rights leader in a ceremony to officially dedicate the “Forty Acres” site as a National Historic Landmark. Forty Acres saw many historical events from the 1960s farm worker movement that Chavez championed and which dramatically improved the lives of millions of migrant workers. 

The dedication is part of President Obama’s America’s Great Outdoors initiative to establish a conservation ethic for the 21st century and to reconnect Americans – especially young people - to their history, their culture, and the great outdoors. 

“César Chávez is an American hero and one of the great civil rights icons of our country’s history,” said Secretary Salazar. “His leadership, tireless work ethic, and selfless sacrifice helped forge a new era of justice for millions of farm workers and gave them hope for a better future, both for themselves and for their children. Recognizing the Forty Acres site as a National Historic Landmark will help ensure that César Chávez’s story, and the story of all who struggled with him, is remembered, honored, and passed along to future generations.” 

“The work my dad and so many others began at the Forty Acres laid the foundation that our movement would labor in the community as well as the workplace,” said Paul Chávez. “In so doing, they empowered and inspired millions of Latinos and other Americans to social and political activism.” 

“Over five decades, the Forty Acres has been and still is where we gather to meet, organize, serve people, gain inspiration, celebrate, and mourn,” said Arturo Rodriguez. “It is the heart of our movement in the Central Valley.” 

During the ceremony, Secretary Salazar noted that the National Park Service is conducting a “special resource study” of sites that are significant to Chávez’s life and the farm movement in the western United States. The purpose of the study is to evaluate important sites, determine whether they might be suitable for protection and interpretation, and determine if there is an appropriate role for the agency.  “Our national park system tells the story of America, and César Chávez and the farm worker movement are an important part of that story,” Salazar said. “We are looking for ways to tell this story to the American people in a way that truly honors his legacy.” 
Left to right, Paul Chavez, Secretary Salazar

Forty Acres was acquired by César Chávez’s brother in 1967 and quickly became the focal point of the movement to improve the wages, working conditions, and quality of life of migrant farm workers, serving as the headquarters of the United Farm Workers of America. Chávez, a supporter of non-violent change, engaged in long fasts at Forty Acres to attract national attention to the plight of migrant workers. 

Under Chávez’s leadership, union members successfully lobbied the California legislature to pass the California Agricultural Labor Relations Act of 1975, the first law in the United States that recognized the collective bargaining rights of farm workers. 

Source: Linda Aguirre


The Medical Office of Dr. Hector P. Garcia, M.D. by Wanda Garcia
175th Anniversary of Herrera's “Ride to the Alamo”
Descendants say promises of 1848 treaty broken by Elaine Ayala
Save Ethnic Studies Defense Committee, Inc. by Rodolfo F. Acuna
La Placita Cemetery situation, Home to Home, Heart to Heart by Eva Booher
Marquez descendant hopes to restore family cemetery in Santa Monica Canyon
Court clears way to demolish Juana Briones House


The Medical Office of Dr. Hector P. Garcia, M.D.

By Daisy Wanda Garcia
February 25, 2011

This past week I had the privilege to participate as a panelist about the Longoria Affair in the NACCS Tejas Regional Conference at South Texas College in McAllen, Texas.  Attendees arrived from all over the United States to attend this conference.  I met activists from California, Arizona, and Michigan.  

After the screening of the documentary “Longoria Affair”, produced by John Valadez, there was a Q&A Session.  I was so heartened to see young Hispanics ask probing questions as they strove to understand the dynamics of life for a Hispanic in the 1940ties and the legacy of my father Dr. Hector P. Garcia.  

The audience asked many questions about the works of Dr. Garcia and how Papa’s activism affected my life. But I was surprised by the questions about the progress on getting the clinic renovated and designated a historical site.   I replied with a status on the efforts to first obtain historical designation from the city and then the state.  Then work in partnership with the National Trust for Historic Preservation to obtain funds to restore the clinic.  I shared with the audience the results of my research and the following brief history about the HPG Clinic.   

Sarah Posos far left

According to the City of Corpus Christi, Texas, Papa, in 1994 began the work to get the clinic designated historical.  This was two years prior to his death in 1996.  It took years to file the required documents including the plat maps and floor plans.  In 2004, the Landmark Commission held a public hearing on the former medical office of Dr. Hector P. Garcia to designate the property a Historical Cultural Landmark Preservation.  The Landmark Commission identified the subject property as a significant historical element of the city and with a person who significantly contributed to the culture and development of the City.  The petition read: 

Dr. Garcia is recognized for his community service as a medical physician in Corpus Christi as well as a political and social activist.  Reports indicate that Dr. Garcia’s work began in the late 1940’s.  When establishing his medical practice in Corpus Christi, he discovered that many Mexican-American veterans of World War II were encountering a wide variety of problems.  One of the problems was receiving prompt hospital care.  Veterans were required to travel to San Antonio where the closest veterans’ hospital was located.  To combat this situation, a group of veterans, headed by Dr. Garcia worked to bring their cause to the attention of public and federal officials.  The group was successful in having a contract drawn between the Naval Hospital at the Naval Air Station and the Veterans Administration in servicing veterans.

Many community members testified at the Corpus Christi Land Mark Commission hearing.  One tribute came from Tom Utter, Special Assistant to the City Manager. Utter said he got to know Dr. Hector P. Garcia.  He was one of the most generous, kind and wonderful people he has ever met.  He is in the ranks of Martin Luther King and the ranks of history of the United States.  Many members of the American G.I. Forum testified as well including Maria Ramirez, Papa’s longtime assistant.  Ramirez stated that this is a dream of Dr. Garcia’s.  He (Dr. Garcia) talked about education for the young for many years.   

A motion was made by Councilman Berlanga and seconded by Councilman Zamora to accept staff’s recommendation for the HC=I Historical Cultural Overlay designation for this case.  The motion passed by all present.  The audience applauded the decisions of the Commissioners. (Minutes, Regular Planning Commission Meeting Council Chambers-City Hall Wednesday –November 3, 2004)

Originally the lots platted as La Gloria Subdivision on January 2, 1940 were sold to my mother Wanda Garcia on August 17, 1956.  Papa asked my mother to buy the property because he felt that the owner would not sell the property to him a Mexican American, but to my mother who was Italian with a strong European accent. Later, in March 1965 my parents entered into a contract to construct my father’s clinic.  Upon completion of the commercial building, Dr. Garcia practiced his medical profession within this structure until his death in 1996.  In 1969, Papa purchased lot 9 and sold the lot to the National Archives and Historical Foundation of the American G.I. Forum. On February 14, 1986, my mother Wanda conveyed her half of the property to my father.  Upon Dr. Garcia’s death in 1996, the subject property was devised to my mother Wanda.  On January 28, 2000, Wanda Garcia sold her interests in the lots to the National Archives and Historical Foundation of the American G.I. Forum. 

Dr. Hector P. Garcia Clinic

At the NACCS conference, I was moved by the sincere interest and many offers of help to raise money for the renovation of the building. I was touched by mothers bringing their daughters to meet me.  As for the renovation efforts, the next step is to obtain state designation and I have already started the wheels rolling to this end.  The building is in need of restoration and it will require about $800,000 just to get it in working order and to restore it to its former glory. Papa initiated work with the City of Corpus Christi to obtain historical designation.  The building was named by my father the “medical office of Dr. Hector P. Garcia, M.D.”  It was his wish to use the building for historical research purposes, the history of the Hispanic Civil Rights Movement and to archive the memorabilia of the American G.I. Forum.  It is my intention to fulfill my father’s wishes. 



Jessica was among the young people in the audience.  Wanda commented on the joyful occasion. "They were so interested in the history of what my Dad and others that done, in fighting for their civil rights, and their educational opportunity.  They were really grateful and expressed it to me in their smiles and hugs."

If you are interested in helping to create a museum fulfilling my Dad's dream of a building a museum to house the history of the Hispanic Civil Rights Movement , please email me: 
Texas Independence 175th Anniversary Events Calendar 175th Anniversary of Herrera's “Ride to the Alamo”
On Feburary 22th, the State Representative John V. Garza and The Texas House of Representatives honored Blas Maria Herrera on the 175th Anniversary of Herrera's “Ride to the Alamo.”  The event was sponsored by Los Bexareños Genealogical Society and held in the Texas State Capitol, Austin, Texas  E-Mail:

During the siege of Bexar in late 1835, Herrera served under the command of Capt. Juan Nepomuceno Seguín and was a member of the assaulting force on December 5–9, 1835. Early in 1836 Seguín sent him to Laredo to keep surveillance on Mexican troop movements and to report any advance on San Antonio. About the middle of February, Herrera brought the information that Mexican general Antonio López de Santa Anna's troops were approaching the city. Herrera's next assignment was to escort and protect José Antonio Navarro and José Francisco Ruizqqv during their trip to Washington-on-the-Brazos, where they signed the Texas Declaration of Independence on March 2, 1836.

For the complete article, go to: The Handbook of Texas Online


Descendants say promises
of 1848 treaty broken.
By Elaine Ayala


Cousins Teresa Bustillos Abrego (left) and Josephine Rodriguez Mendoza stand outside Mendoza's home. The family now owns just a fraction of the lands granted to it in 1848.
Photo: Edward A. Ornelas 

Josephine Rodriguez Mendoza's small patch of earth near the Espada Acequia was once part of 15,000 acres granted to her great-great-grandfather Domingo Bustillos by Texas in 1848.  

More than 100 years before that, his ancestor Joseph Mondragon y Zeballos laid claim to a larger chunk of land in what's now Bexar and Atascosa counties.

Like other Spanish and Mexican land grant descendants throughout South Texas, much of their property is now gone, sold off by a little and a lot, subdivided over and again, stolen outright, or lost to taxes or fraud — all in spite of provisions in the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

Today, the 163rd anniversary of its signing, grievances remain over the treaty's unkept promises.  

The document, which ended the Mexican American War and ceded 55 percent of Mexican territory to the United States, not only guaranteed citizenship to Mexican and Tejano settlers but assured them that they could keep their land.

Those provisions are widely viewed as having been ignored and reinterpreted.

But among some of the Texas reclamantes, Spanish for claimant, the pride in their ancestry is strong and their anger is still palpable.

“Treaties like Guadalupe Hidalgo don't mean anything,” said Reynaldo Anzaldua, whose ancestors held at least four South Texas land grants, one of which encompassed more than 600,000 acres in Cameron, Willacy and Brooks counties — a lot of it, he said, on the King Ranch.

“It is in the past,” he said. “But the past is affecting us now. There's no doubt in my mind what happened. Our people's land was taken away from them.” Over the years, land grant descendants have taken their claims to court, with minor success.

Anecdotally and historically, stories have abounded about discrimination, theft and even murder at the hands of land speculators, ranchers and Texas Rangers who did their bidding.

Historians such as Gilberto Hinojosa of the University of the Incarnate Word are quick to note that a series of devastating economic depressions and recessions in the late 1800s played a major role in the loss of early land grant holdings.

But he also mentioned a phrase that reverberated through South Texas:  “Sell me that land,” he said, “or I'll buy it from your widow.”

All Mendoza knows is that at one time, “Todo esto aquí,” all of this here, “era de nosotros,” was ours. Her family now lives on the last of a land grant, three-quarters of an acre, and in an adobe house more than 150 years old.

Her cousin Teresa Bustillos Abrego seems resigned that the land will never be theirs again. She doesn't seek financial compensation, either.  “We want recognition,” she said.

Last weekend, about 500 descendants met in San Antonio to hear about another potential avenue of restitution: proposed legislation that would amend the state's Unclaimed Property Act and give recognized heirs access to unclaimed mineral royalties derived from their ancestral lands.

An estimated $200 million to $561 million in such unclaimed payments rest in the Texas comptroller's office.

Fred Ballí, a member of a large group of descendants battling the Kenedy Memorial Foundation over 363,000 acres known as La Barreta that they believe belong to the family, said he won't stop fighting. 

But what he'd like to see beyond compensation is the righting of the historical record. “Put it in history books,” he said. “Tell the truth about what happened.”

Read more:

Sent by Gloria Candelaria


  Save Ethnic Studies Defense Committee, Inc. by Rodolfo F. Acuna
In support of  La Raza Studies Program in Tucson.
Dear Chicana/o scholar and supporter. We want to send out the following letter (see attachment) in support for La Raza Studies Program in Tucson. It comes down to "if we do not support our own who will support us." We would like you to be one of the endorsers. We have to act immediately. If you could get other signers please let us know and we'll contact them. Please include institutional affiliation. Send response to

For the Committee On Save Ethnic Studies,
Rodolfo F. Acuna 
David Sandoval
Mary Pardo

Dear Colleagues and Supporters:

On January 1, 2011, HB 2281 became effective in Arizona, a law passed in April 2010 that attacks La Raza Studies. The law's supporters claim that we are unpatriotic and unAmerican, a statement that we take great exception to. Books such as Occupied America and Pedagogy of the Oppressed are cited as proof of their opinions. At present the future looks grim. The Board of Education that was supposed to defend the program has bailed out. The teachers of Raza Studies have filed a suit defending the right of the program to teach the history of our people.

We feel that if the xenophobes are successful, the entire area of Ethnic Studies is threatened. It enables similar attacks on programs outside of Arizona and sanctions censorship. We feel that we must stand together and are appealing to you for support. It takes money to mount a legal challenge. The pool of available money is small in the Tucson area. It is a poor community and the hundreds of thousands of dollars that this suit will take is beyond our means.

The discovery process alone will run into the hundreds of thousands of dollars. It is the political core of the case that will show the motivation of the framers of this legislation and point to who is financing this libelous campaign.

Please take time to view

1- (Precious Knowledge Trailer)
2- (Tucson campaign)

Would you please help by sending a donation? You can also help arrange fundraisers in your area. We need transportation costs and would greatly appreciate honorariums. Concerts and the like featuring local artists, musicians and poets are a fantastic way of getting people together.  Please go online to donate and for more information: Deyanina Nevarez is the point person. You can reach her at (520) 975-1485 or via email at Make payable to: Save Ethnic Studies Defense Fund Mail to:
Save Ethnic Studies
307 S. Convent Ave
Tucson, AZ 85701
Or donate by Credit Card: 

  La Placita Cemetery situation
Home to Home, Heart to Heart
by Eva Booher

Hi family and friends I hope you can open this attachment. It has some pictures showing the goings on at the Placita Cemetery. And it shows that the organization doing this atrocity is NOT going to stop. Here are the facts for those of you who are not aware of the situation. La Plaza non profit organization KNOWINGLY began digging up the "former" Campo Santo which is the cemetery adjacent to La Placita church in downtown Los Angeles across from Olvera Street. I 
was sent an email to go to a demonstration the indians were having on January 9th. I had no idea what the situation was all about. I was never told the whole story about the goings on. 

Then I got out my notes on my family history and wow was I surprised to find we have 18 ancestors which were buried at that cemetery including 3 Great Grandmothers and 1 Great Grandfather. Well in 1844 the cemetery was getting filled up so the church closed it, but during the 1860's the widow Dominguez who owned much property in the area gave the church a parcel of land to be used as a "temporary" cemetery. the church did not open a new cemetery until 1875. But in 1885 the heirs of the Dominguez property wanted to split the property and they could not agree on who would get which part of the property so the case went to court and they still could not agree on the division of the property.

So the court divided the property for them AND gave the Church the parcel of land adjacent to the church permenately. But the church forgot about it and so here to this day are remains of some of our ancestors which are being dug up and just treated like they are just a  bunch of old rags. We have joined together with the Gabrieleno Band of Mission Indians to fight this atrocity. Another thing one of the persons who took the course to become a docent about 5 years ago told
us that they went to the class and told the class they knew there was a cemetery in that location. So 1. they have broken the law by digging up a KNOWN cemetery, and 2. they are now lying and trying to say they were surprised to find the remains.

I want all of you to know what is going on as it concerns our ancestors. I and some others went to see the Spanish Consulate a few weeks ago to see if there is something to be done by the Government of Spain as our ancestors were Spanish citizens at the time of their burials. He was going to contact he Ambassador to Spain in Washington DC to see if he should take the matter to Madrid or take care of the situation himself. I sent him an email tonight as it was 3 weeks ago today we went to see them about this. I had also contact the New Archbishop to Los Angeles and asked about the church's knowledge of the situation. 

Well I got a letter from the Director id Catholic Cemeteries and it was dynamite. They too were lied to by Mr Corzo and his Non-profit organization. I feel tha only solution ot this situation is LEGAL ACTION against all of those concerned including the Board of Supervisor Gloria Molina. Not only did she know about the situation, but her brother-in-law is the
foreman of the company building this thing. I hope you can see the pictures. If not try clicking on the attach a file above. All for now I will keep everyone updated about this atrocity.

Eva Booher 

Honorable Mrs. Molina, 
I am the Chairman of the Gabrieleno Band of Mission Indians.  We just sent via email, FAX and mail to you, the Board of Supervisors and the CEO Office requesting a meeting.  The LA Board of Supervisors has acknowledged us with an  Award of Declaration acknowledging the Gabrieleno Indians as the first inhabitants of the Los Angeles Basin. I was the first on site at LA PLaza to stop the desecration of my grandfathers and grandmothers burial site where your project for Mexican Americans is being excavated.  I have serious concerns that continued archaeological work is being done directly at the cemetery site.  I was at the site yesterday and took a few photographs - a few of which are attached.  We have written statements from Mr. Corzo and yourself that any further development was to be stopped.  This obviously leads my tribe to conclusions that you are not trustworthy and details, information and artifacts may be being destroyed or hidden.  My tribal members are very frustrated, concerned and frankly mad at having to sit idly by waiting for the coroner's redetermination and next month's meeting with NAHC while there are so many questions to be answered, grave sites to protect, historical resources to protect and facts to document.  Also, the fact that the grave site is still open to the environments is unacceptable.  Further damage is happening everyday from trash, weather, wildlife and people.  The site must be covered thoroughly.  Pending your response to our requests, I will forward these photographs to the media if necessary.
Andy Salas, Chairman
Gabrieleno Band of Mission Indians



Marquez descendant hopes to restore family cemetery in Santa Monica Canyon

Preservationists aim to learn the boundaries and burial locations of the historic Marquez Family Cemetery to develop a restoration plan and open it to the public.

Marquez Family Cemetery in Santa Monica Canyon, Los Angeles, CA 
Technicians Hans Barnard, left, and Brian Damiata use ground-penetrating radar image equipment to determine the exact location of graves at the Marquez Family Cemetery, a tiny and historic graveyard on San Lorenzo Street in Pacific Palisades. Pascual Marquez was the last person buried there. (Luis Sinco / Los Angeles Times / January 14, 2009)
Photo sent by Lorri Frain

Hola primos/primas. 

I have been in contact with cousin Joseph Peyton, who has been instrumental in the preservation of the Marquez Family Cemetery in Santa Monica Canyon, Los Angeles, CA. there has been a decision and the cemetery will stay. I am so proud of cousin Joseph, cousin Terri de la Pena, and all the people involved in stopping desecration and destruction of this small cemetery with so much historical significance. In these times, for some reason, we have to fight developers and the local government entities who want to erase the past... very strange I believe and selfish on those who want and do these terrible injustices to our past heritage/s. if you can please read the info, the last part, about the recent decision..

Thank you. I am proud of all of you, to be linked to you, and that you all feel we need to preserve our heritage's and that you will stand up, maybe lose, but still make it hard for whoever is trying to destroy sacred ground. so sad to see this happening all over America

If you can, take a look at this terrible tragedy, which happened in my home town, about 1965 or close. some relatives of mine are buried at St. Mary's along with 3,000+ and now it is a "dog park" as I refer to it now. 

Gracias & Adios, Terry Chaffee 

A project to restore the desecrated cemeteries of the historic town of San Buenaventura (now Ventura) which include the: St. Mary's Catholic Cemetery (est. 1862), Ventura (aka Protestant) Cemetery (est. 1889), and Hebrew Cemetery (est. 1895).  Editor:  This site has a series of photographs and data which documents the efforts of saving and restoring these cemeteries.

RootsWeb World Connect Project follows the history of  Pasqual Marquez through census records.
Per 1850 U.S. Federal census Pasqual Marquez is living in Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, born CA abt 1845 

Our Garcia Romero family also has Marquez family ancestors.
Excellent article (below) about the Early California Marques family cemetery and historic preservation of it.
Long before Santa Monica Canyon became prime real estate for successful Angelenos, it served as a serene resting place for some of the area's early and prominent landowners.

In the late 1840s, Francisco Marquez, the Mexican co-holder of the Rancho Boca de Santa Monica land grant given by his government, established a burial ground on the canyon's wide-open upper mesa. The cemetery contains the remains of Pascual, his youngest son, and perhaps 30 other family members, American Indian servants and friends -- including 13 guests who died of botulism after eating home-canned peaches at a New Year's Eve gathering in 1909.

Lorri Frain,0,6259243.story


Court clears way to demolish 
Juana Briones House

(02-24) PALO ALTO -- The state Supreme Court has cleared the way for the demolition of an 1844 adobe house in the Peninsula foothills that was owned by Juana Briones, a pioneering rancher, businesswoman and herbalist.

A preservationist group called Friends of the Juana Briones House had won a ruling from a Santa Clara County judge in 2008 that said the Palo Alto City Council should have conducted an environmental review before approving a demolition permit for the home, one of the oldest residences in California.

But a state appeals court reversed the ruling in October, and the state Supreme Court unanimously denied review of the case Wednesday. The property owners' lawyer, Kent Mitchell, said they would tear down the building as soon as the ruling became final, probably within a month.

Briones lived with her two sisters at the Presidio in San Francisco in the 1810s and later lived near what is now Washington Square Park. After being granted a legal separation from an abusive husband, she bought a 4,400-acre rancho on the Peninsula in the 1840s, a purchase she finally validated after more than 20 years in U.S. tribunals.

Briones, uneducated and illiterate, was renowned as a healer and operated a hospital in her home. A biographer, Jeanne Farr McDonald, said Briones was taught by Indians and others familiar with local herbs, and went to Bolinas to treat victims of a smallpox epidemic.

She died in 1889. The home on Old Adobe Road went through numerous renovations and was damaged in the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, but remained open for tours until 1993. Palo Alto's building inspector declared it a dangerous structure in 1996
and ordered the adobe section vacated.

The nonprofit National Trust for Historic Preservation listed the home among the nation's 11 most endangered historic sites last year. Palo Alto declared it a historic landmark in 1987, and the state declared the site - but not the home itself - a landmark in 1954.

Mitchell said many people, including his clients, Jaim Nulman and Avelyn Welczer, doubt that Briones ever lived in the adobe house. The couple bought the 1.5-acre tract in 1997. They initially proposed restoring the house while demolishing the surrounding wings, battled the city in court for seven years and finally obtained a demolition permit for the entire building in 2007.

In a ruling that found the permit valid, the Sixth District Court of Appeal in San Jose said Palo Alto's rules for demolitions were simple and straightforward - the residence must be vacant and any tenants must be notified - and did not involve subjective decisions that might require an environmental review.

E-mail Bob Egelko at 
Copyright 2011 SF Chronicle       

To support the effort, please contact Lorraine Frain




Segundo de Febrero
Typical British national humor?   
Letter to Herb Scannell, President BBC Worldwide America
Exodus from the Alamo, The Anatomy of the Last Stand Myth


From The National Hispanic Reporter, February 2 1984

By Felipe de Ortego y Gasca

Chair, The Hispanic Foundation, Washington, DC, Publisher and Editor-in-Chief, The National Hispanic Reporter

El Segundo de febrero (the second of February) is a  significant date in Mexican American history: it’s the day in 1848 when the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed, the Treaty that dismembered Mexico and more than half its territory (550,000 square miles, larger than Spain, France, and Italy combined) annexed by the United States. The Treaty also incorporated the Mexican population of the annexed territory into the American polity. That’s the beginning of Mexican American history.

      To commemorate the beginning of  that history, a group of Mexican Americans met in San Antonio, Texas, to organize what has become El Segundo de Febrero. When I was drawn into that circle, El Segundo de Febrero as a title for that commemoration had already taken hold as opposed to the more proper Spanish description “El dos de febrero,” attuned to the Spanish propensity for the cardinal form of numbers in these matters over the ordinal form.

      The annexed territory of northern Mexico now includes the states of Texas , New Mexico , Arizona , California , Nevada , Utah , Colorado , and parts of Wyoming , Kansas , and Oklahoma . Contrary to the propaganda of the time, the dismembered territory was not void of population. The territory included the thriving cities of San Antonia, El Paso , Santa Fe , Tucson , San Diego , Los Angeles , Santa Barbara , San Luis Obispo , San Francisco , and hundreds of smaller settlements dotting the landscape. A large population center of Mexicans stretched north along the San Luis Valley from Tierra Amarilla in New Mexico to what is now Colorado Springs .

      There are no accurate records to tell us how large a population occupied the ceded Mexican territory, but estimates range from a low of 75,000 (Carey McWilliams, North From Mexico) to a high of 3,000,000 (Rudolfo Acuña, Occupied America). The esteemed Tejano historian, Arnoldo DeLeon suggests a population size somewhere between these two figures. The point is, as DeLeon contends, that the annexed territory was not despoblado as the proponents of manifest destiny have claimed.

       The Mexicans who came with the dismembered territory (including españoles, criollos, mes-tizos and indios) have been designated by Chicano scholars as the 




“conquest generation”—the generation that prevailed 
during the period of transition from 1848 to 1912, the year that New Mexico and Arizona became states, completing the “forty and eight.” This conquest generation became the primary mass of Mexicans whose progeny are today’s Mexican Americans and Chicanos. 

El segundo de febrero is not a day of celebration. It’s a day of remembrance much the way Hanukah is a day of remembrance for Jews. El segundo de febrero marks the beginning of the Mexican diaspora in the United States —mejicanos separated politically, culturally, and linguistically from their homeland, struggling to find their place in the American ethos. This forking path of history would create a group of mejicanos who until the 1960s would struggle for self-identity and full participation in the American enterprise. Even today, Americans seem not to understand that Mexican Americans are mejicanos with a lower case “m” and Americans with a capital “A.”

      Not all Mexican Americans nor Chicanos participate in commemorating el segundo de febrero, but like Kwanza, the African American commemoration, the date is being commemorated by more Mexican Americans with each passing year and growing in importance as Mexican Americans learn more about their history. Unfortunately that history has been occulted by mainstream history. But Mexican American and Chicano historians like Rudolfo Acuña and Arnoldo DeLeon are bringing that history to the forefront of American history.

      The segundo de febrero helps to raise the consciousness of Americans about Mexican Americans and their historical relationship to the United States. It points out that, in the main, Mexican Americans are not immigrants in the United States —per the conquest generation, they are of the United States . Mexicans currently crossing into the United States represent “a return of the native”—so to speak—analogous currently to the return of diasporic Palestinians to the Palestine controlled by Israel. The passing of control of the area from the British to the newly formed state of Israel was a mandate from the United Nations.  

Copyright © 1984, 2008, 2011 by the author. All rights reserved

Typical British national humor?   

Newser) – The BBC has apologized for remarks made by the hosts of a car show following a deluge of complaints from outraged Mexicans. When reviewing the Mexican-made Mastretta sports car, Top Gear presenter Richard Hammond said that cars reflect national characteristics, so "Mexican cars are just going to be lazy, feckless, flatulent, overweight, leaning against a fence, asleep, looking at a cactus with a blanket with a hole in the middle on as a coat."
Program co-host Jeremy Clarkson joked that the show wouldn't receive a complaint from the Mexican Embassy, because the ambassador would be snoring in front of the TV. He was wrong. Mexico's ambassador to Britain wrote to the BBC complaining about the show's "outrageous, vulgar and inexcusable insults to stir bigoted feelings against the Mexican people," reports CNN. The BBC explained as part of its apology that jokes based on national stereotyping are part of typical British national humor.   
  Letter to Herb Scannell, President BBC Worldwide America
Editor: Thank you to Hispanic Link, Inc.  Feb 7, 2011 for making this letter publicly  available 
Feb. 3, 2011

Mr. Herb Scannell
BBC Worldwide America
1120 6th Avenue
6th Floor
New York, NY 10036
Re: Top Gear Episode 

Dear Herb,
The recent Top Gear episode that aired on BBC UL, that called Mexicans “lazy, feckless, flatulent, and overweight, leaning against a fence asleep looking at a cactus with a blanket with a hole, known as a coat,” and where the show’s hosts added that they would not get any complaints, “because at the Mexican Embassy, the Ambassador is going to be sitting there [asleep] with a remote control...They won’t complain, it’s fine” is an indefensible act of network bigotry. This mind-boggling two minutes of TV viewing was filled with stereotypes and clichés that would have seem dated and deeply unfunny 50 years ago. Since Top Gear also airs in the U.S. on BBC America, we call on you to assure us that this episode will not air in the United States and that the episode is removed from all future worldwide syndication deals.

The BBC has already been put on notice by the Mexican Ambassador to the United Kingdom, Eduardo Medina-Mora, who immediately responded to the Top Gear episode aired in Britain, calling the tirade “offensive, xenophobic and humiliating;” it is beyond the pale if BBC America allows this episode to air in the U.S., especially after being apprised by the Mexican Ambassador to the UK of its offensive nature.

Yesterday, February 2, 2011, the Economist reported that the BBC, who produces the show, is short of money and that the show’s writers deliberately wrote the script as a promotional stunt. BBC America is said to reach 67 million homes in the United States; and U.S. Latinos represent a sizeable portion of those homes. The insulting language is not only offensive to Mexican Nationals, but also to Mexican Americans and Latinos who know only too well the slippery slope of hateful language and behavior.

We are certain that the Top Gear episode will not pass BBC America’s Standards and Practice review for airing in the U.S.; however, we do want your assurance that the episode will not air in the U.S., and that it will be removed from all future worldwide syndication deals. We know that over the years, in your various television senior executive roles, you have been a stalwart supporter of diversity on television. Relying on both your personal record in the industry and Latino heritage we urge you to take the necessary steps to repudiate this show in an on-air apology by the hosts, writers and network executives who concocted this repugnant publicity stunt.

We look forward to your response.

Félix R. Sánchez, Lance Ríos, Founder & President
National Hispanic Foundation for the Arts Being Latino, Inc.

Janet Murguía, President & CEO Brent Wilkes, National Executive Director
National Council of La Raza League of United Latin American Citizens

CC: FCC Chair, Julius Genachowski
FCC Commissioner, Michael J. Copps
FCC Commissioner, Robert M. McDowell
FCC Commissioner, Mignon Clyburn
FCC Commissioner, Meredith Attwell Baker
Congressional Hispanic Caucus, Chair Hon. Charlie Gonzalez, D-TX
House Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Communications and Technology, Chair Greg Walden, R-OR
House Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Communications and Technolgoy, Ranking Member, Anna G. Eschoo, D-CA
Senate Commerce, Science and Transportation Committee Chair John Kerry D-MA
Senate Commerce, Science and Transportation Committee Ranking Member, John Ensign, R-NV

Made available by:
Hispanic Link, Vol. 29, No. 3
Your News Source Since 1983
1420 N St. NW
Washington, DC 20005
(202) 234-0280

“Those convinced that the 1836 Alamo battle was a heroic last stand will hate this book. Readers open to new interpretations, however, will find compelling arguments within its well-researched pages. The author, a historian who has written or edited many books involving 19th-century military campaigns, believes the Alamo defenders were overwhelmed in a surprise night attack, not a daylight assault, and many of them died outside the fort while trying to escape through Mexican lines.” —THE DALLAS MORNING NEWS 4/25/2010

“…uses recently discovered Mexican accounts and archaeological and forensic evidence to break down the “Last Stand Myth”…By recounting the Battle from a new point of view, Tucker attempts to break down the racism against the Tejano and Mexican people fueled by Alamo legends.”
—UNIVERSITAS, Saint Louis University , Fall 2010

PHILLIP THOMAS TUCKER earned his Ph.D. in American History from St. Louis University in 1990. The author or editor of more than 20 books on military history, several of which have won national and state awards for scholarship, he has worked as a U.S. Air Force Historian for nearly two decades in Washington , DC .

EXODUS FROM THE ALAMO The Anatomy of the Last Stand Myth  ISBN 978-1-932033-93-9; 384, 16 pages illustrations; hard cover; $32.95. To obtain review copies or get further information, please contact Tara Lichterman at Casemate Publishing  Phone 610/853-9131, Fax 610/853-9146 Email



Silver Star Recipient Staff Sgt Eusebio A. Perez at the age of 94 
Chief White Eagle, passes at the age of 93
Joel Rene Escobar y Saenz: Music Educator at the age of  74
Roberto Saenz Gonzalez, Educator, Social Worker, Christian Leader and the age of 60
Silver Star Recipient Staff Sgt Eusebio A. Perez at 94
S. Sgt Eusebio A. Perez, was born in Zacatecas, Mexico and came to the US as a child.  He earned the Silver Star during WWII.  He was a very active member of United Mexican American Veterans Association and a Life Honorary Member, and got to enjoy our events, and we feel blessed for also having had the opportunity to enjoy him.

He passed away on January 9th, and would have been 95 on February 21. UMAVA honored Eusebio A. Perez with a Life Time of Service Award at their meeting on February 20.
Sent by Francisco Barragan 



Basil F. Heath
March 18, 1917-Jan. 24, 2011 at the age of 93

Basil F. "Chief White Eagle" Heath, 93, 3161 N. Evergreen St., passed away at January 24th at Woodlawn Hospital, Rochester.

He was born on March 18, 1917, at the Iroquois Indian Grand River Reservation in Ontario, Canada, the son of Andrew Cleve and Amelina (Da Amorin) Heath. He attended McGill University, Montreal, Canada, and Oxford University in England. During World War II he served with the OWIUSA in the ETO as a Liaison Officer. On June 29, 1977, in Grand River Reservation, Canada, he married Roberta Bear and she survives.

Chief White Eagle's professional career started out as an iron worker and welder, building bridges and skyscrapers across Canada and the United States including the Sears Tower in Chicago, Ill. His comfort for walking on 6-inch beams at heights of over 200 feet led him to work as a stunt man for film makers. His stunt work in films led to a natural transition into action parts as well.

Chief White Eagle appeared in many movies over the years. His first movie was in 1939, "Northwest Passage," as well as appearing in the movies "She Wore a Yellow Ribbon," "Red River," "Niagara," "How the West was Won" and "Stage Coach." Film work eventually led into his television career where he wrote and acted on the longest running popular children's show in Chicago, on WTTW Channel 11 called the "Totem Club." He was nominated for an Emmy award for three years winning in 1964. His television credits also included appearing on the nationwide show "Wagon Train." As well as hosting a television show, he also hosted an ethnic radio show on WXFM, Chicago, for many years.

Chief White Eagle appeared in numerous commercials, both in local regions and nation wide. He was always in demand to appear at county fairs, rodeos, sports shows and other events as a host and master of ceremonies. He was hired by the Brunswick Athletic Organization as a champion bowler, and taught many children how to bowl.

His film work, television work and community involvement enabled him to meet many prominent people over the years including Presidents Harry S. Truman, John F. Kennedy and Bill Clinton. He was also privileged to dine with numerous foreign dignitaries including the Royal Family of Germany, Princess Elizabeth, Prince Ferdinand, Princess Leonella, Prince Wolfgang, Prince Cashimir, Prince Ott, Princess Renata and Prince Arnold. When hospitalized in the St. Joseph Hospital, Plymouth, years ago his spirits where lifted by a visit from Princess Elizabeth.

Chief White Eagle was a member or endorsed many organizations through out his life including the Screen Actor's Guild, Shriners, Kiwanis, Boys Scouts of America, where he was awarded an honorary Scout Master certificate, and was still active with the Fulton County Historical Society. His activities over the years led to many recognitions, including receiving the keys to many cities across the United States, induction into the Cowboy Hall of Fame in southern Indiana, bestowed upon the title of Honorary Commissioner of Illinois, chosen one of Indiana's "Famous Icons" and was given the title of the "Living Legend of Rochester, Indiana." In his spare time he enjoyed making walking canes and badges, and loved to collect baseball caps.

Survivors include his wife, Roberta "Bobbi Bear" Heath, Rochester; daughter Eunice Madeline Heath Collard, North Chichester, Essex, England; adopted tribal son Kenneth "Lone Eagle," Knox; granddaughter Laura Marie West, Dagenham, Essex, England; great-grandchildren, Connor Ben West and Kai Porter West, Dagenham, Essex, England; sister Mildred Burgemeyer, Converse, Texas; and several nieces and nephews. 

He was preceded in death by his daughter, Lauraine Heath; and sisters, Sylvia Schroeder and Valerie Peterson.
Private services are going to be observed. Memorial contributions may be made to the Chief White Eagle Memorial Fund. Arrangements have been entrusted to Zimmerman Bros. Funeral Home, Rochester. Online condolences may be sent to

Posted: Friday, January 28, 2011
Article comment by: Theresa and Wayne McNary
Love and prayers to your Bobby Bear. We met at the Trail of Courage.

Posted: Thursday, January 27, 2011
Article comment by: Shirley Willard
Chief White Eagle was a good man and a very good friend. He first came to the Trail of Courage in 1984. In 1985 he dedicated the new land and crowned 2 Cherokee princesses, In 1988 he performed the Great Peace Tree ceremony, an ancient Iroquois traditon in which a white pine tree is planted on top of 2 crossed tomahawks, called "buryng the hatchet."
He was not able to attend the Trail of Courage last fall. We shall miss him terribly. But his spirit will contniue to bless all who attend the Trail of Courage. We shall not forget him.

Posted: Wednesday, January 26, 2011
Article comment by: Jennifer Ringle
Chief White Eagle was a very special man and I feel honored that I had the chance to get to know him when he was at Life Care several years ago. I loved hearing the stories of his life, he lead such an amazing life. My thoughts and prayers go out to Bobbi Bear and the rest of his family and the many friends he left behind.

Posted: Wednesday, January 26, 2011
Article comment by: Thomas Dancing Feather and Jane Ebbing
We have many fond memories of White Eagle and will cherish them forever. Our loving thoughts and sympathies go to Bobbi Bear and the family, both blood and spiritual, of "The Chief." Fly with the eagles, dear friend!

Posted: Wednesday, January 26, 2011
Article comment by: Angie Gast
Chief White Eagle will be missed very much. I'm glad I can at least keep the memories of him talking at the Trail of Courage, and taking the time to talk to individual people like me. I have met with him every year at this special event. I have known him for 27 years. My thoughts and prayers go out to Bobbie Bear, and the family. God is going to have a very special man in Heaven!!!


Joel Rene Escobar y Saenz: Music Educator
July 31, 1936 to February 15, 2011 at the age of 74
Joel Rene Escobar y Saenz was called home by his Lord, Tuesday, February 15, 2011 at Comfort House at the age of 74. Joel Rene Escobar, born on July 31, 1936, in Pharr, Texas, received his early education at Donna ISD, graduating from Donna High School in 1955. Ranked third highest in his graduating class, he received numerous scholarship offers and chose North Texas State University, in Denton, Texas. He obtained his Bachelor's and Master's Degrees in Music Education, with double majors in Music and Spanish, January of '59 and August of '59, respectfully.

Inducted into Phi Mu Alpha, Alpha Chi, Blue Key and Sigma Delta, he received his greatest honor by being selected to "Who's Who in American Colleges and Universities" for the school year 1959-1960.

Joel Rene began his teaching career in 1960 at Justin F. Kimball High School at Dallas ISD, where he taught Spanish for three years. In 1963, he received a Fulbright Scholarship, (one of thirty from the US), to study Spanish History, Art & Literature at the University of Valladolid for the summer, with the studies held at Burgos, Spain. During his research, he discovered his blood relation to El Cid, the military nobleman from Spain. He later pursued his passion for genealogy and continued research on his family history.

He spent the next twenty-eight years at Deer Park High School in the Pasadena, Texas area, teaching Choral Music and Spanish I-IV. Taking early retirement in 1991, he moved to Austin, where he began working in earnest on his family history. Family matters prompted him to move back to Pharr where he enjoyed living close to his family.

Joel Rene is survived by three brothers, Romeo S. (Belia), Ricardo (Aida) Escobar, both of Pharr, Alfonso Z. (Dora) Trejo of San Antonio, Texas; two sisters, Mara Orpha Romero of Irving, Texas and Lucia Angelita Escobar of Dallas, Texas. He is further survived by nieces, nephews, cousins and many friends. He was preceded in death by his parents Jose Maria and Rev. Lucia S. Escobar; and two brothers, Jose Ruben and Jose Maria Escobar IV.

The family wishes to thank his doctors, nurses and attendants during these last few months especially Servando Chavez and Jesse Torres.

Visitation will take place from 6 to 9 pm with a 7 pm prayer service, today, February 17, 2011 at Memorial Funeral Home in San Juan. Funeral service will be held at 10 am, Friday, February 18, 2011 at the First United Methodist Church, 4200 N. McColl, McAllen, Texas. Interment will follow at Guadalupe Cemetery in Pharr where he will be laid to rest next to his beloved parents and brothers. Pallbearers will be Adrian Hernandez, Ricardo C. Escobar, Richard Balli, Ruben Escobar, Raul Garza and Eloy Gonzalez. Honorary pallbearers will be Noe C. Boghs and Ray Gonzalez.
In lieu of flowers, memorial donations can be made to First United Methodist Church of McAllen Choir Department.
Funeral services are under the direction of Memorial Funeral Home in San Juan.
Sign the guest book at

Published in The Monitor on February 17, 2011

Surce: Irma Saldana 
Sent by Eddie Garcia  

Roberto Saenz Gonzalez, Educator, Social Worker, Christian Leader
10 June 1950, Alice, TX - 06 February 2011,  Grand Rapids, MI
At the age of 60
Hi Mimi,
As you may recall, for the past few years some articles have appeared in "Somos Primos" on the family of Samuel & Santos Saenz, a family with fourteen children. In their early years they spent ten years as migrant workers and in 1956 settled in Grand Rapids, Michigan where they made the transition to industrial workers. Twelve of the fourteen children survived into adulthood and went on to live successful lives with careers in industry, business, engineering, chemistry and education. It is with much sadness that we announce the recent passing of youngest brother, Roberto Saenz who was born on June 10, 1950, in Alice, Texas. We wanted to share his obituary and Eulogy prepared by three of his brothers: Samuel, Antonio and Tomas.

Thanks! Tomas 'Tom' Saenz 


            June 10, 1950 to February 10, 2011  

On behalf of the Saenz family we want to thank you all for being here with us on this sad occasion.  We are here today to pay our last respects to Roberto and to be with his family in this difficult time.  We also want to celebrate and praise Roberto’s life. 

Let me first share a scripture passage: "HE WHO BELIEVES IN ME SHALL HAVE ETERNAL LIFE”

Robert believed strongly in Christianity and accordingly, he will go to Heaven.   We thank God for Roberto’s life.  Our religious leaders tell us that God has a purpose for each one of us.  Roberto’s unexpected death suggests that perhaps God’s purpose and mission for Roberto was completed and therefore God has called him to his Kingdom. 

Roberto was one of 14 children born to Samuel and Santos Saenz in Alice, Texas in the year 1950. At that time I was already 17 years old and I had the opportunity to carry him in my arms. Roberto was the last of the 14 children.  He was born to a migrant family who traveled throughout the United States for a period of ten years harvesting crops. We first came to Michigan in 1946 right after World War II to harvest sugar beets.

Roberto traveled with the family during his infancy and early childhood years.  There are so many experiences that I could share and one that comes to mind is the time when Roberto was only two months old.  Our Mother, out of necessity, took him along in his cradle to a cotton field worksite.  Through the years as Roberto became successful I would occasionally remind him of his humble beginnings and he would smile in recognition. 

Our family traveled and harvested crops out of necessity. Adults and children worked as a family group without the children having the privilege of attending school.  In those days, some states did not have child labor laws and those that did, rarely enforced them. Public assistance and civil rights laws did not exist as we have them today.  Consequently, large families such as ours struggled to survive and meet basic needs. Our most important basic need problem was that of not having enough food. Our father found the solution to this problem by putting the children to work.  It so happened that the first five members of the family were boys. Friends and relatives of our father occasionally would comment “Samuel is a rich man he has a work force of six in his family”. In those days, the children represented wealth that could generate money. It did not take our father long to pick up on this factor and he put us to work on the migrant labor fields. 

In 1956, after the Korean War campaign ended, I was discharged from military service and I found my family in the labor camps outside Grand Rapids, Michigan. It was here where the opportunity arose to transition ourselves from migrant workers to industrial workers. The Saenz family settled in Grand Rapids, Michigan. It provided us with work opportunities, housing, education and prosperity. The arrival into Grand Rapids was like entering into the “promised land”.   At that time Roberto was six and half years old and only spoke Spanish. He was a full blooded American citizen by birth, but did not speak English. His Hispanic ancestry in Texas dates back prior to the Treaty of Guadalupe with Mexico in 1847. 

It was here in Grand Rapids where Roberto began to assimilate into the mainstream of American life.  At the start of his education, it took him some three years to get past kindergarten and first grade. At that time, I was already studying at Michigan State. I came home and complained to our mother that “Roberto was not going to make it because he is still spinning his wheels in kindergarten” his Mama told me to give him a chance because he was still learning English and is getting his wings. He got his wings and he flew like an Eagle and he never stopped;    He progressed through the lower grades and became an “all American kid” by actively participating in competitive sports, something that would not have been possible as a migrant laborer. Roberto did well in his  education and after graduating from Central High School he attended Grand Rapids Junior College for two years.  He later transferred to Grand Valley State University where he earned his B.A. degree and a teaching credential. He continued his education at Grand Valley State University and earned his Master’s degree in Education.

Tom, Robert, Tony 

Roberto’s Career
Armed with a solid education, Roberto moved forward with his teaching career.  He worked for the Grand Rapids Public Schools for thirty-one years.   During this period, he held various positions which included high school teacher, counselor, Elementary School Principal and finally Central District Office Administrator.  His district office positions included Director of Special Programs and Director of Human Services. During most of Roberto’s career development I lived in California and Mexico’s Baja peninsula; we only met once or twice a year and stayed in contact by phone. Consequently I was unaware of the many other achievements and recognitions given to my brother by his associates and the news media as was recently reported on the Internet. 

Roberto entered into the Grand Rapids schools at a very critical time when there was a need to improve minority student programs.  He played a major role in establishing and implementing meaningful education programs for the youth.   Over the years he developed the special skills to interact with the various community ethnic groups.  He quickly won respect and recognition as an effective Hispanic leader to bring harmony between the community and the School Administration authorities. 

After retiring from the Grand Rapids School District, Roberto continued his community work by serving for three years as the Executive Director of Hope Network-West.  At Hope, he worked on the Community Outreach Program which focused on the rehabilitation programs for people with disabilities. 

More recently, Roberto served as a Consultant for the Michigan State Department of Education in the Migrant Education Program.  He never forgot his roots and it is very fitting that he was concluding his long education career by serving in a program that was very dear and near to his heart.

Roberto’s Personal Life

Roberto was a dedicated, responsible, and committed husband to Ana, his wife.  He was also a very good father to his two daughters, Amanda and Catalina.  Roberto leaves behind a legacy of family life full of memories and fun activities that they all enjoyed. Based on historical facts it is proper to say that I encouraged and supported Roberto’s marriage to the lovely Ana Ramirez. It was back on or about 1994, when Roberto made an unexpected trip to the west coast. I told my wife that Roberto is coming to town and she remarked what is he doing here, he was just here recently. I told her he is here on a love mission. During the courting and dating process there was this problem that Roberto was employed and heavily involved with his Grand Rapids Education career development while Ana was committed to working  at a high level administrative bank position in the  West Coast. Roberto came to my California home and explained to me that the marriage had the green light on everything except on the career issue.  I recommended that the love between them should be the ruling factor. I believe that Ana loved my brother so much that she shortly renounced her banking position  and moved on to Grand Rapids to marry Roberto and share her life with him.   

Roberto loved outdoor activities like fishing, hunting, boating, camping, and travel.  Roberto also enjoyed viewing sports like football, basketball, boxing, and baseball. He also liked high level adventure trips  and on several occasions we traveled together to remote areas. Late in 1966, my brother Tony and I went to Mexico City to interface with other related family members who were involved with a coconut plantation in the coast of Michoacán, Mexico. They invited us to go visit their tropical plantation and explore pre-Columbian indigenous ruins and burial grounds artifacts. They spoke about marine turtles laying their eggs on the sandy beaches.   In 1967, when Roberto was only 17 years old, he joined me and my other brother, Tony, on a two week archeological trip to the Michoacán Mexican coast.  The region was considered dangerous and we would travel over land to a certain point.  From there it would take twelve days by horseback to cross the Sierra Madre which was infested with bandits.  As a result of this assessment, we elected instead to fly in a small plane.  We landed in a small dirt airstrip on a coconut plantation. As we landed, twenty to thirty armed horsemen surrounded the small plane. We quickly asked our host “Que Pasa?”  He explained, No Problema, they are friendly amigos interested in buying ammunition and weapons. We did not have what they wanted as we only had food and recreational equipment. We explored and photographed the indigenous burial grounds and the turtle nesting areas. We enjoyed the experience so much that we decided to stay an extra two days.  Little did we know that a huge pacific hurricane was coming our way. The storm hit unexpectedly and it cut off our exit route. 

We ran out of food and water. At first the impact seemed minimal.  We had a backup contingency plan for food and water as we could not drink the local water. Roberto and Tony had been given the responsibility to maintain and protect our food and water supply.  I was in charge of the operation and decided to carry out a quick review of our inventory supplies.  I was shocked to find that the food and water had been consumed by my two little brothers without my knowledge!  As a result. we had to implement emergency measures for survival by eating only a few dried up fish and  coconut juice.  After three days of pain and stress, we were finally rescued by the small plane we had contracted.  I have to say that this was an unforgettable experience. It was here that I learned that Roberto had courage and endurance. Even at the tender age of 17 he did not panic and break down while under stress.   The picture display at the funeral home included some of the pictures of this adventure.

From the Samuel and Santos Saenz Family perspective, I want to conclude my remarks by expressing, our sincere appreciation to the State of Michigan and the City of Grand Rapids, for the many opportunities that were afforded to us which eventually lead us to live successful lives.  All family members assimilated into the main stream of American life and went on to develop successful careers.  

In exchange for the opportunities afforded us, we have all made various contributions to our society in the areas of Education, Business, Engineering and Medicine.  Roberto’s service to the community was his way of giving back what he had received. He did this not only for himself, but also for his parents, brothers and sisters who considered him as the best the family had to offer. In his field of endeavor none of us has achieved his level of excellence.   We will dearly miss our beloved brother Roberto.

Prepared by Samuel, Tomas and Antonio Saenz
Presented by Samuel and Tomas  

Additional Comments by Tomas  

Roberto was truly blessed to have been born to loving and caring parents and to have been one of fourteen children.  He was not only our parents' baby but rather, the family baby.  Due to hard times our family had to unit as one in order to survive.  Without knowing, we adopted the "all for one and one for all" philosophy, and this way of thinking has prevailed through the years in our family.

It is common among Hispanics to have a given name and often, a nickname.  One of the cousins appropriately gave Roberto the nickname of "El Piojo Blanco" (The White lice).  More than anything, it was a term of endearment.  Physically, he was a little different than most of his brothers and sisters.  His complexion was very light, his eyes were green and his hair was light. From the very start he stood out and was very special, not only to our family but to our extended family which included several uncles, aunts and cousins.

As Roberto was growing up there were early signs that he was going to be successful and would accomplish big things in life.  The picture display at the funeral home was very well prepared and it truly depicted Roberto's greatness.  I have three pictures that were special to me.  The first one is where he is on a horse, in western attire, a gun, ready to do battle, ready to conquer the world!  He reminds us of Don Quijote, the fictional character in Miguel de Cervantes' great novel, "Don Quijote de la Mancha".  Don Quijote too, got on his horse, with a lance and goes out to fight evil in the world.   

Another favorite picture which to me showed early signs for success was when Roberto was playing football at St. Al's School.  I would often take Roberto to his games.  At some of the football fields they were equipped with a public address system and an announcer would give the details of each play.  The name that kept coming up in most plays was "Saenz".  This was music to my ears! Roberto was right in there in the thick of things!  

One last favorite picture that I treasure is when in the year 2008 Roberto took Tony, Chris Pike and me salmon fishing.  In this picture you will find the three brothers showing off their big fish!  Being the family historian and family genealogist, I went to my old pictures and found a black & white picture, again showing Tom, Tony and Roberto on a fishing trip.  Roberto was in middle school, Tony was in high school and I was attending junior college. I took both pictures and merged them into one. It clearly shows how it was in the early years and now as successful adults.  

Many of the speakers at the funeral home services spoke of Roberto's love for fishing.  Yes, Roberto loved fishing as a sport, but he was at his best being a "fisherman of men"!  This is why we have a full house here today.  He touched the lives of a countless number of people and we will miss our little brother.  May God bless his soul throughout eternity!


Obituary published in Grand Rapids Press on February 9, 2011 

SAENZ - Mr. Roberto Saenz, aged 60, of Rockford, MI, passed away on Sunday afternoon, February 6, 2011 at Spectrum Health Butterworth Hospital. He was preceded in death by his parents, Samuel and Santos Saenz, and his sisters, Maria and Hercilia and his brother, David Saenz. He is survived by his wife of 16 years, Ana Saenz; his daughters, Amanda (Jesus) Farfan, Catalina Saenz; his brothers and sisters, Amando (Idolina), Samuel (Juanita), Rogelio (Marylou), Tomas (Herlinda), Olivia Saenz, Zulema (Salam) Estefan, Leonardo, Antonio (Anne), Brijida (Dennis) White, Irma DeLaGandara; sister-in-law, Petra Saenz; many nieces, nephews and friends. Roberto was a loving and dedicated brother, husband, father and a friend to all who knew him. He will be deeply missed and lovingly remembered. He worked for the Grand Rapids Public Schools for 31 years, and later worked as Executive Director for Hope Network and was recently a managing Partner at La Fuente Consulting, LLC. The Mass of Christian Burial will be celebrated on Friday at 10:00 a.m. at the Cathedral of St. Andrew, 265 Sheldon SE (please meet at the church) with procession to Resurrection Cemetery for burial. Relatives and friends may meet his family at Heritage Life Story Funeral Home - Alt & Shawmut Hills Chapel, 2120 Lake Michigan Dr. NW on Wednesday evening from 6 to 9 p.m. with a Christian Service at 7:00 p.m., and again on Thursday evening from 6 to 9 p.m. with a Catholic Vigil at 7:00 p.m. In lieu of flowers, please consider contributions in his memory to Roberto Saenz Memorial Fund to benefit his favorite charities. To read more about Roberto's life, to sign his guest book and to leave your own memory of him, visit his web page at  Heritage Life Story Funeral Homes




Islamic surnames being changed to Hispanic-sounding names: Cultural Jihad
Kamal Saleem: A Muslim Cries Out to Jesus - CBN TV-Video
1899, Sir Winston Churchill Pronouncement on Islam
Controversial Muslim cleric,  Said Jaziri caught being smuggled into U.S. over Mexico border
Sham University probed for visa fraud by Terence Chea
Harvest of Loneliness: The Bracero Program
Immigration Reform Makes Cents   
MALDEF Wina 9th Circuit Decision Upholding Verdict Against Arizona Vigilante for Attack on Immigrants
Citizens United for the Rehabilitation of Errants 
History of Mexican American Civil Rights Movement Documentary:
German Marshall Fund
Marriage Prohibitions and Guidelines

Islamic surnames being changed to Hispanic-sounding names:  a strategy for "Cultural Jihad"

Excerpt: Appearing before the House Appropriations Committee in March 2005, Robert S. Mueller, Director of the FBI testified: . "there are individuals from countries with known Al Qaeda connections who are changing their Islamic surnames to Hispanic-sounding names and obtaining false Hispanic identities, learning to speak Spanish and pretending to be Hispanic."  

Editor: Are our Latino youths the targets of proselytizing Muslims, who are pretending to be Latinos? 

Please watch this interview with a Muslim who explains the strategy of "cultural Jihad" spreading Muslim by changing the culture of the host community, city, country.  Variety of methods are used to bring about the changes, until Sharia law  can be imposed on the target country.

Kamal Saleem: A Muslim Cries Out to Jesus - CBN TV-Video
Sent by Odell Harwell

Sir Winston Churchill Pronouncement on Islam

Unbelievable, but the speech below was written in 1899!
 (check Wikipedia - The River War)

I am sending the attached short speech from Winston Churchill, delivered by him in 1899 when he was a young soldier and journalist. He was a brave young soldier, a brilliant journalist, an extraordinary politician and statesman, a great war leader and Prime Minister, to whom the Western world must be forever in his debt. He was a prophet in his own time; He died on 24 January 1965, at the grand old age of 90 and, after a lifetime of service to his country, was accorded a State funeral.


"How dreadful are the curses which Mohammedanism lays on its votaries! Besides the fanatical frenzy, which is as dangerous in a man as hydrophobia in a dog, there is this fearful fatalistic apathy. The effects are apparent in many countries, improvident habits, slovenly systems of agriculture, sluggish methods of commerce, and insecurity of property exist wherever the followers of the Prophet rule or live.

A degraded sensualism deprives this life of its grace and refinement, the next of its dignity and sanctity. The fact that in Mohammedan law every woman must belong to some man as his absolute property, either as a child, a wife, or a concubine, must delay the final extinction of slavery until the faith of Islam has ceased to be a great power among men.

Individual Muslims may show splendid qualities, but the influence of the religion paralyses the social development of those who follow it.

No stronger retrograde force exists in the world. Far from being moribund, Mohammedanism is a militant and proselytizing faith. It has already spread throughout Central Africa, raising fearless warriors at every step; and were it not that Christianity is sheltered in the strong arms of science, the science against which it had vainly struggled, the civilization of modern Europe might fall, as fell the civilization of ancient Rome."

Sir Winston Churchill; (Source: The River War, first edition, Vol. II, pages 248-50 London) 
Churchill saw it coming................ 

Sent by Gerald Frost


Controversial Muslim cleric,  Said Jaziri caught being smuggled into U.S. over Mexico border

By Daily Mail Reporter
28th January 2011

U.S. border guards got a surprise when they searched a Mexican BMW and found a hardline Muslim cleric, Said Jaziri - banned from France and Canada - curled up in the boot.
Said Jaziri, who called for the death of a Danish cartoonist that drew pictures of the prophet Mohammed, was being smuggled into California when he was arrested, along with his driver Kenneth Robert Lawler.

The 43-year-old was deported from Canada to his homeland Tunisia in 2007 after it emerged he had lied on his refugee application about having served jail time in France.

Asylum: Jaziri had allegedly paid a Tijuana-based smuggling group $5,000 to get him across the border near Tecate, saying he wanted to be taken to a 'safe place anywhere in the U.S.'

His fire and brimstone sermons and rabble-rousing antics catapulted him into the public eye during his short tenure as imam at a Montreal mosque.  He branded homosexuality a disease and led protests over cartoonist Kurt Westergaard's illustrations poked fun at Islam and were published in a Danish newspaper in 2006.v

He also caused anger when he campaigned for a bigger mosque to accommodate Montreal's burgeoning Muslim population.

Caught: Jaziri was arrested being smuggled across the San Diego border crossing, along with his driver Kenneth Robert Lawler

But after his deportation he complained that he had been physically and mentally tortured during the 13-hour flight repatriating him to Tunisia, a claim Canadian authorities deny. He was being held as a material witness in the criminal case against Mr Lawler, who has been charged with immigrant smuggling.

Danish cartoonist Kurt Westergaard sparked controversy when his drawings of Mohammed appeared in a newspaper in 2006.  Jaziri had allegedly paid a Tijuana-based smuggling cartel $5,000 to take him across the border near Tecate, saying he wanted to be taken to a 'safe place anywhere in the U.S.'

According to the court documents, a Mexican guide led Jaziri and a Mexican immigrant over the border fence near Tecate.
They then trekked across the rugged terrain under cover of darkness to a spot popular for drivers who pick up immigrants for smuggling runs into San Diego.

He allegedly told officials he had flown from Africa to Europe, then to Central America and Chetumal, Mexico, on the Mexico-Belize border, where he took a bus to Tijuana.

Lise Garon, a professor of communications at Laval University in Quebec City, told the Los Angeles Times: 'His nickname in Quebec was the controversial imam.  'I think he was deported because people hated his ideas.' His case drew support from the Muslim community as well as Amnesty International after he claimed he would be tortured if sent back to Tunisia.

Sent by gnicacio@HOTMAIL.COM

Surge Desk, of AOL News:  has a look at rather eye-catching facts about the imam, Said Jaziri,

1. He advocated Shariah law for Canada
On an appearance on CBC radio, Jaziri strongly defended the implementation of Shariah law. He also called for the government to fund the building of a $20 million mosque in Montreal.

2. He led demonstrations over the Danish cartoons of the Prophet Muhammad
After the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten published a series of 12 cartoons, some of which depicted the Muslim Prophet Muhammad, Jaziri helped organize and lead demonstration marches in Canada.

3. His bail has been set at $25,000
It's unclear whether Jaziri will make bail, but authorities believed that he paid his Mexican smugglers $5,000 to get him inside the United States.

4. He was deported for covering up his criminal record
Canadian authorities deported Jaziri after learning that he failed to disclose a conviction and jail time for his role in an assault on a person in France whose actions had helped close a prayer room, the Montreal Gazette reported. Here's a CBC report from 2007, shortly before Jaziri's deportation:

5. He bragged about converting one Canadian woman to Islam every week
While living in Montreal, Jaziri gained a reputation as an outspoken member of the large Muslim community in Canada. Among the statements he made that ruffled feathers, however, were boasts that he converted a Canadian woman to Islam every week, and his contention that homosexuality was a sin.


  Sham University probed for visa fraud by Terence Chea, AP
Extract: SAN FRANCISCO (AP) - The government of India is urging the United States to show leniency toward Indian students who were enrolled at a "sham university" in California that U.S. authorities say was a front for illegal immigration.  The U.S. attorney's office alleges the owner of Tri-Valley University in Pleasanton used the unaccredited school in California to charge foreigners millions of dollars in tuition fees and help them obtain student visas to stay in the U.S.  

There were 1,555 students enrolled at Tri-Valley last fall and about 95 percent of them were from India, according to a complaint filed Jan. 19 in U.S. District Court in San Francisco. Many of those students, who took Tri-Valley courses online, could be deported if they are found to be in violation of their immigration status.

Full text: Posted: Jan 31, 2011

  Immigration Reform Makes Cents    

By: Rep. Mike Honda
February 3, 2011 

House Speaker John Boehner’s recent selection of Rep. Elton Gallegly of California over Rep. Steve King of Iowa to head the Judiciary Committee’s immigration subcommittee is one step closer to the kind of reform for which past administrations, including those of former Presidents George W. Bush, Bill Clinton and Ronald Reagan, had long called. 

Both Republican congressmen may be opposed to the kind of reform that House Democrats call for. But Gallegly seems inclined to take a more reasoned approach. Especially if Democrats can explain the economic advantages to reform. And there are many. 

Immigration brings formidable fiscal implications. Keeping immigrants here or sending them home can save or cost taxpayers dearly. Just count the ways that reform, which puts undocumented immigrants on the path to legalization, could foot our country’s finances. 

First, any deportation plan for undocumented immigrants would cost our country’s gross domestic product a whopping $2.6 trillion over the next 10 years, according to a study by Raul Hinojosa-Ojeda, a professor at the University of California, Los Angeles. 

Conversely, if we embrace comprehensive immigration reform, we could add $1.5 trillion to the U.S. GDP over the next 10 years. The economy could also benefit from a temporary worker program, Hinojosa-Ojeda projected,by raising GDP by $792 billion. 

Second, immigrants who become U.S. citizens consistently pursue higher-paying jobs and higher education, spend more and provide higher tax revenue. Just imagine what 12 million newly documented Americans could do for the economy. 

The legalization process also brings economic benefits — like the retention of remittances. Workers send substantial portions of their salary to family members abroad, but reform could reunite families separated by our immigration system and keep monies in the U.S. 

For example, total U.S. remittances to Latin America was almost $46 billion in 2008. Of that, Mexico received almost $24 billion. Reducing remittances offers obvious cash infusion for our economy, since billions of dollars now sent overseas would be spent instead on U.S. businesses — creating jobs and helping to revive our economy.

Third, by giving 2.1 million American students the opportunity to pursue higher education or military service, our government could collect $3.6 trillion over the next 40 years. The DREAM Act, which failed in the Senate in December but remains a bipartisan effort, offers a conditional six-year path to permanent, legal U.S. residence for immigrant youth who demonstrate good moral character and complete at least two years of higher education or U.S. military service.

Without the DREAM Act, about 65,000 students a year — honor-roll scholars, star athletes, talented artists and aspiring teachers — will graduate high school and then hit a roadblock. Instead of upward mobility and higher education, they will be forced to live in the shadows and work low-paying jobs. 

Fourth, the Reuniting Families Act, which I plan to reintroduce this Congress, would allow all Americans to be reunited with their families — including gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender “permanent partners.” 

The economic benefits of this policy cannot be overstated. American workers, with their families by their side, are happier, healthier and more able to succeed than those living apart from loved ones for years on end. By pooling resources, families can do together what they can’t do alone — start small businesses, provide care for the young and old, create U.S. jobs and contribute more to this country’s welfare. 

Healthier communities have more expendable income and place a lower burden on government social services. This correlation is well substantiated — but it is up to us to make it a reality. 

We understand that during tough economic times, the natural reaction is to close borders and look inward. Yet the irony of an anti-immigration sentiment, which fears job losses for Americans if more workers enter the U.S., is that it is fiscally prudent to legalize, insure, employ, reunite and educate our immigrants than to keep families apart. 

This is a time when we must use every available resource to stimulate our economy and control government spending. To my fiscally conservative Republican colleagues, the onus is on you. Left to future Congresses, the number of undocumented immigrants will only increase and the visa waits will only get longer. Meanwhile, we will lose an opportunity to do what’s economically right.  The fiscal case is clear: reform now. 

California Rep. Mike Honda serves on the Appropriations and the Budget Committees and is the Democratic senior whip.
© 2011 Capitol News Company, LLC

Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.

MALDEF Wina 9th Circuit Decision Upholding Verdict Against Arizona Vigilante for Attack on Immigrants


SAN ANTONIO, TX – Today, Feb 4, 2011, MALDEF welcomed the Ninth Circuit’s ruling in Vicente v. Barnett, upholding an Arizona jury verdict against a vigilante rancher operating along the Arizona-Mexico border. The Ninth Circuit affirmed the jury’s decision that the vigilante was liable for assaulting a group of immigrants he found on public land. As a result of today’s ruling, the rancher will be forced to pay approximately $87,000 in damages.

The Ninth Circuit ruled that the rancher, Roger Barnett, was not entitled to claim self defense, because he admitted that none of the migrants he assaulted had threatened or attacked him. The Ninth Circuit also upheld the jury’s award of punitive damages against Barnett.

"We are very pleased with the Ninth Circuit's verdict. Today's ruling sends the strong message that vigilantes will not be tolerated in Arizona" stated David Hinojosa, MALDEF's Southwest Regional Counsel and attorney in the case.
"This case was tried in Tucson in front of Chief Judge John Roll, who was tragically killed in the recent attack on U.S. Representative Gabrielle Giffords," stated Nina Perales, MALDEF Director of Litigation. "We are pleased to have secured some justice for our clients, and to have preserved the ruling in a case in which Chief Judge Roll served so ably and fairly," continued Perales.

Prior to Barnett's attack, the plaintiffs had been resting on the ground near Douglas, Arizona. Barnett was armed with a gun – a semi-automatic .45 – and was accompanied by a large dog. He held the group captive, threatening that his dog would attack and that he would shoot anyone who tried to leave. During the encounter, Barnett kicked a woman as she was lying, unarmed, on the ground. 

Today's ruling marks the second successful case challenging Roger Barnett's vigilante attacks along the border. In September 2008, the Arizona Supreme Court upheld a jury award of close to $100,000 in damages for a family of Latino U.S. citizens who were assaulted by Barnett on state-owned land. In that case, Barnett held the group at gunpoint with a semi-automatic military-style assault rifle, cursed and screamed racial slurs at them and threatened to kill them all, including two girls aged 9 and 11.

Thomas A. Saenz, MALDEF President and General Counsel stated "This decision vindicates constitutional guarantees for all. Even in Arizona, vigilantes do not have the right to harass and victimize peaceful migrants."  The law firms of Freedman Boyd Hollander Goldberg & Ives P.A. and Dewey & LeBoeuf LLP participated as pro bono counsel on behalf of the plaintiffs.

The Ninth Circuit decision can be found at:

For the latest information of what is happening in support 
of those who are incarcerated. 

New York Chapter of CURE, Citizens United for the Rehabilitation of Errants 
207 Riverside Drive, Scotia, New York, 12302,

History of Mexican American Civil Rights Movement Documentary: Chicano! Taking Back the Schools, Part 1
Sent by Carlos Munoz, Jr.  cmjr@berkeley. edu


Report by the German Marshall Fund is a nonpartisan public policy institution that focuses on promoting cooperation between North America and Europe. “The survey shows that North Americans and Europeans have strong opinions about immigration policy, what works and what doesn’t." 
There’s a positive long-term outlook, with 59 percent of
American respondents saying immigrants are integrating well. But a racial  divide exists: While 78 percent said second-generation Hispanics are integrating well, only 62 percent said the same about Muslim immigrants. That’s still better than responses from Europe — in Germany,
only 25 percent said Muslim immigrants are integrating well.
Sent by Dr. Henry J. Casso


Every US state today has a statute defining eligibility for marriage, and each and every one prohibits marriages between parents and children, sisters and brothers, uncles and nieces, and aunts and nephews. Some prohibit all ancestor/descendant marriages, regardless of degree. Four states extend the prohibition to marriages between parents and their adopted children.

Historically, marriages between first cousins were very common in the early settlement of our nation, however the practice was discouraged. 

Twenty-four states prohibit marriages between first cousins, and another seven permit them only under special circumstances. Utah, for example, permits first cousins to marry only provided both spouses are over age 65, or at least 55 with evidence of sterility. North Carolina permits first cousins to marry unless they are "double first cousins" (cousins through more than one line). Maine permits first cousins to marry only upon presentation of a certificate of genetic counseling. The remaining nineteen states and the District of Columbia permit first-cousin marriages without restriction.

According to studies done by Nicolai Sennels, a Danish psychologist, close to half of all Muslims in the world are inbred.  Inbreeding research is revealing some interesting medical data.  

In Pakistan, marriages between cousins approaches 70% of marriages. Even in England, more than half of Pakistani immigrants are married to their first cousins, and in Denmark the number of inbred Pakistani immigrants is around 40%.

The numbers are equally devastating in other important Muslim countries: 67% in Saudi Arabia, 64% in Jordan, and Kuwait, 63% in Sudan, 60% in Iraq, and 54% in the United Arab Emirates and Qatar.

According to the BBC, this Pakistani, Muslim-inspired inbreeding is thought to explain the probability that a British Pakistani family is more than 13 times as likely to have children with recessive genetic disorders. While Pakistanis are responsible for three percent of the births in the UK, they account for 33% of children with genetic birth defects.

The risk of what are called autosomal recessive disorders such as cystic fibrosis and spinal muscular atrophy is 18 times higher and the risk of death due to malformations is 10 times higher. 

Other negative consequences of inbreeding include a 100 percent  increase in the risk of stillbirths and a 50% increase in the possibility that a child will die during labor.

Sent by Anne Mocniak



Shawna Forde convicted of murdering Brisenia and her father Raul Flores
Men get 9 years in prison for Pa. hate-crime death, do not forget Luis Ramirez
Shawna Forde convicted of murdering Brisenia and her father Raul Flores

February 23, Forde was sentence to death

(CNN) -- An Arizona jury on Monday convicted anti-illegal immigration activist Shawna Forde of murder in the killing of a Latino man and his 9-year-old daughter during a 2009 vigilante raid she led on their home.

The Pima County jury convicted Forde on eight counts, including two counts of murder for the shooting deaths of Raul Flores and his daughter, Brisenia, and the attempted murder of the child's mother, Gina Gonzales, at the family's rural Arivaca home on May 30, 2009.

The child and her father were American-born U.S. citizens.

The jury also convicted Forde on two counts of aggravated assault, and one count each of burglary, armed robbery and aggravated robbery.  The jury is scheduled to return Tuesday for the penalty phase of the trial.

Forde's alleged accomplices, Albert Robert Gaxiola and Jason Eugene Bush, are scheduled to go on trial later this year.

During the trial, prosecutors portrayed Forde as the ringleader of the hit squad, and said she had planned the raid and the murders to steal weapons, money and drugs to finance a new anti-illegal immigration outfit.

The trio picked the Flores home, prosecutors said, because of a claim made by Gaxiola they would find drugs there. While Flores had a history of drug-related offenses, none were found in the house.

Posing as border patrol and law enforcement officers, Forde, Gaxiola and Bush, whom prosecutors identified as the gunman, showed up at the Flores home after midnight, several hours after the family had returned from a shopping trip in Tucson to buy shoes for their daughter for summer camp.

Brisenia Flores was sleeping on the couch with her puppy when the killers demanded to be let into the home. They accused Flores of harboring illegal aliens and said the house was surrounded by agents.

Once inside, the gunman shot Flores in the chest and Gonzales in the leg. Later Brisenia was shot as she pleaded for her life.

Jewelry taken from the Flores home was later found in Forde's possession. Text messages discovered on her phone also implicated her in the crime.

February 14th, a Tucson jury found Shawna Forde guilty on two counts of first-degree murder, the murder of  9 year old Brisenia Flores and her father, Raul, and on one count of attempted first-degree murder for shooting Brisenia's mom, Gina Gonzalez. 

While we are satisfied with the jury's verdict, nothing can replace the loss that Brisenia's mother has experienced. Together with people around the country, we express our condolences to her family. Gina Gonzalez has yet to endure two more trials, set to begin this spring, for Jason Bush - the alleged gunman - and Albert Gaxiola, an accomplice in this horrible crime. 

We wish to honor Brisenia's memory by providing you with a way to share your prayers and thoughts with her mother through this difficult time. You can do so by clicking here: 

The murder of Brisenia Flores and her father, Raul, will not be forgotten. The guilty verdict provides an opportunity to both raise awareness of growing anti-Latino hatred and loudly echo an entire community’s demand for justice. 
The murder in Arizona inspired many in our community to say, “No te olvidaremos / We will not forget you” 
Tell Gina, that you too will not forget Brisenia by clicking here to share your thoughts and prayers with her:
Thank you y ¡adelante! 
Joaquin, Laurie, Favianna, Roberto & the rest of the team 

Source: Joaquin Guerra, 
Sent by Alfonso Rodriguez 



Men get 9 years in prison for Pa. hate-crime death

Men get 9 years in prison for Pa. hate-crime death
By MICHAEL RUBINKAM, Associated Press Michael Rubinkam, Associated Press 
Wed Feb 23, 1:59 pm ET

.WILKES-BARRE, Pa. – Two Pennsylvania men who were convicted of a federal hate crime for beating and kicking an illegal Mexican immigrant who died of his injuries were sentenced Wednesday to nine years in prison.

Derrick Donchak and Brandon Piekarsky were among a group of white high school football players in the small town of Shenandoah who attacked 25-year-old Luis Ramirez in 2008. Prosecutors alleged they beat and kicked Ramirez because they didn't like Hispanics and wanted them out of their town.

Justice Department prosecutor Myesha Braden said in court Wednesday that while Piekarsky, now 19, and Donchak, now 21, did not intend to kill Ramirez, they decided his ethnicity made him "somehow worthy of being beaten like a dog in the streets."  Defense attorneys said they will appeal the verdicts and sentences.

The pair were convicted in October. They could have received more than 12 years to more than 15 years in prison under federal sentencing guidelines, but U.S. District Judge Richard Caputo granted them a reduction because of their personal character and conduct before Ramirez's beating, as well as the numerous letters and testimonials he received.

He also noted Ramirez's death and the crimes of Piekarsky and Donchak.

"The jury found that Mr. Ramirez died as a result of his ethnicity or race. This is serious business in America," said Caputo, adding: "There are no winners here, only losers."

Piekarsky, in a statement to the court, expressed remorse for what happened and offered his condolences to Ramirez's family but said "it was not racial. I am not a racist."  Donchak chose not to make a statement to the court.

Witnesses at their trial gave conflicting accounts of the late-night brawl that pitted Ramirez — a short, stout man nicknamed "Caballo," Spanish for horse — against drunken teenagers during a random encounter on the street.

Prosecutors and defense attorneys agreed that youth, testosterone and alcohol played a role. But they argued over the mindset of a quartet of belligerent teens who called Ramirez a "spic," told him to go back to Mexico and assaulted the immigrant with their fists and feet.

Federal charges were brought against Piekarsky and Donchak after another all-white jury acquitted them of serious state crimes, including third-degree murder in Piekarsky's case. Hispanic activists decried the May 2009 verdict, calling Ramirez's death part of a rising tide of hate crimes against Latinos. They and Gov. Ed Rendell appealed for a Justice Department prosecution.

Piekarsky was accused of delivering a fatal kick to Ramirez's head after he'd been knocked unconscious by another teen, Colin Walsh, who pleaded guilty in federal court and testified against his childhood friends. A fourth teen, Brian Scully, pleaded guilty in juvenile court and also testified for the prosecution.

After the fight, the teens met and hatched a plan in which they would falsely tell police that no one was drunk, did any kicking or used any racial slurs.

Both defendants were convicted of a hate crime under the Fair Housing Act. Donchak also was convicted of two counts that he conspired with three Shenandoah police officers to cover up the crime. Those officers were tried last month in federal court on charges they obstructed a federal investigation into the fatal beating, but a jury rejected most of the government's case.

In court Wednesday, Braden said that Ramirez's death victimized "every member of the Hispanic community in Shenandoah and around the country." She urged Caputo to send a signal that U.S. courts take hate crimes seriously.

Braden also compared what happened to Ramirez to the violence committed against southern blacks in the 1940s, '50s and '60s, drawing groans and grimaces from the defendants' family members and supporters.

Defense attorney William Fetterhoff acknowledged testimony that Donchak often used ethnic slurs to refer to Hispanics. But he said Donchak also had black and Hispanic friends and recounted an episode in which Donchak, a volunteer firefighter, helped to rescue a Hispanic family from a burning building. 

"The worst caricature of all was that he was driven by racial hatred. That is a lie," he told the court. 

Angel Jirau, a community activist and former member of the Governor's Advisory Commission on Latino Affairs, called nine years a significant sentence. 

"I hope they are able to come out of this ... and teach other people no one has the right to take anyone's life because they look differently, they talk differently," said Jirau, who attended the sentencing hearing

Editor:  Somos Primos followed this case very closely.  Read previous articles on the case, do a site search on Somos Primos:





Chipotle Mexican Grill, U.S. fast food caught in immigration crosshairs
Extract: Green Jobs Are Not Evergreen Jobs
What China Wants? By Richard Russell
U.S. fast food caught in immigration crosshairs
By Lisa Baertlein, Mary Milliken and Ed Stoddard Lisa Baertlein, Mary Milliken And Ed Stoddard

LOS ANGELES/DALLAS (Reuters) - Chipotle Mexican Grill has a lot going for it -- an upscale burrito concept, a hip and eco-friendly image, expansion plans galore and a 500 percent-plus stock price gain in just over two years.

And then it has something not going its way -- a federal crackdown on its immigrant labor force that has so far forced Chipotle to fire hundreds of allegedly illegal workers in the state of Minnesota, perhaps more than half its staff there.

The probe is widening. Co-Chief Executive Monty Moran told Reuters on Friday that U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) has also issued "notices of inspection" for restaurants in Washington D.C. and Virginia.

Investors in the Wall Street darling are taking note and one firm, Calvert Investments, plans to talk to Chipotle about the large number of undocumented workers uncovered.

Dependence on illegal labor is the elephant in the room for the U.S. restaurant business. And experts say the Chipotle ICE investigations are a wake-up call for an industry that is one of America's biggest employers and generates over $300 billion in annual sales, according to research firm IBISWorld Inc.

Chipotle -- a Denver-based company whose motto is "Food With Integrity" -- is one of the most well-known names caught in the immigration enforcement shift that began two years ago.

At that time, Barack Obama, a proponent of immigration reform to help manage the 11 million undocumented immigrants in the United States, became president. Also at that time, immigrant hiring by restaurants began to rebound.

Obama has had to walk a fine line on the issue. He must uphold the law and appease Americans resentful of illegal immigrants working as the unemployment rate stubbornly sits at 9 percent. But he needs to do it in a way palatable to Hispanic voters who will be key to his re-election in 2012.

Gone are the days of big raids that snared large numbers of workers, mostly from Mexico and Central America. Under Obama, immigration enforcement agents are cracking down on employers with so-called "I-9 audits" -- I-9 being the employment eligibility verification form.

ICE says that means companies' hiring practices could be subjected to the same degree of scrutiny as their bookkeeping is by the Internal Revenue Service.

"When you get a big name like Chipotle, it stands out and sends a message," said Jacqueline Longnecker, president of Reno-based Employment Verification Resources Inc.

"The onus is on employers now ... It sends the message that nobody is going to be excused from this," she said, adding that many companies -- both large and small -- do not recognize the potential liabilities they now face.

Chipotle believes it has not been singled out.

"ICE has vowed to increase pressure on employers to avoid employing undocumented workers ... We are one of a large and growing number of companies to go through this process," Moran told Reuters by e-mail.

But to date, the majority of audits that have come to light in the restaurant business have been limited to small operators or franchisees of big chains, like Subway.


The U.S. fast-food industry historically has offered relatively low pay and paltry benefits to legal workers and, as a result, has struggled with high employee turnover.

Longnecker and other experts said restaurant owners are attracted to illegal laborers because they work hard, are loyal and will go the extra mile to hold down a job.

It is hard to know the extent of hiring of illegal immigrants in restaurants. But immigrants -- both legal and illegal -- account for about a quarter of workers in the restaurant and food services industry and their numbers are up in recent years.

Their share fell from 24.5 percent in March 2006 to 21.4 percent in March 2008 -- before and during the recession -- but then recovered to 23.6 percent in March 2009 and March 2010, according to an analysis of the government's Current Population Survey (CPS) data conducted for Reuters by the Migration Policy Institute, a nonpartisan think tank.

The overall number of immigrants employed in the sector climbed from just over 1.7 million in 2008 to 1.8 million in 2010, according to this data, even as native employment fell from 6.4 million to 5.9 million.

The Pew Hispanic Center -- whose demographic and labor market work is highly regarded -- estimated in a 2009 report that 12 percent of the workforce in food preparation and serving in 2008 was undocumented.

Chipotle, which has more than 1,000 restaurants mostly in the United States and plans to open as many as 145 more in 2011, pays its workers more than the average burger flipper but its building binge has stoked its appetite for new hires.

Alejandro, one of the Chipotle workers fired in Minnesota who asked that his last name not be published for fear of reprisals, worked there for five years and earned $9.42 per hour, taking home $1,200 a month. That allowed him to send up to $800 per month to his daughters to keep studying in Mexico.

"I thought it was a good company," said Alejandro, who lost his job in December along with 10 of his 20 co-workers. "I was even going to get training to be promoted to kitchen manager."


Alejandro, 37, and co-worker Tanya, a 35-year-old mother of four, admit they are in the United States illegally and had to use false documents to get their jobs at Chipotle.

"I believe that when you go to apply there, they know beforehand that you don't have papers," Tanya said by phone. "And after the six years I worked there, or the 10 years of some of my colleagues, they get rid of us without warning."

The false documents, which include things such as driver's licenses, Social Security cards and residence permits, are easy to come by "on the street," said Tanya. "Many people offer them. It is part of coming here and trying to make a better life for your children."

But Moran says that Chipotle has "always taken this issue very seriously, and over the last five years we have done a great deal to improve our systems, and our document review capabilities and procedures."

"Certainly this incident has been eye-opening for us and caused us to redouble our efforts to make sure we are doing all we can short of running afoul of the mandate of the Department of Justice," said Moran, adding that Chipotle performs two document reviews for each employee hired, one by the hiring manager and another by its human resources department.

The company, which has gained a cult-like following by serving natural and organic food where possible, stands out as one of the industry's top performers when it comes to sales at established restaurants and stock gains. Its stock price is flirting with $250 compared to under $40 in November 2008.

It also differs from other public traded chains in another very important way. Unlike McDonald's Corp and most other restaurant companies, it does not rely on franchisees to own and operate restaurants, which means it might be easier to hold its head office more accountable for infractions.


Investors, however, may not see much risk to Chipotle or other fast food companies from their immigration quandaries. Chipotle stock still ended 3 percent higher on Friday after the news of the widening immigration probe.

After all, the companies can simply go out and hire others or pay fines to ICE that probably won't dent their bottom lines. Total ICE fines last year were a paltry $7 million.

But Maryland-based Calvert Investments said it was surprised by the extent of Chipotle's undocumented workers because the company scores high on the issues Calvert monitors -- good social, environmental and corporate governance.

"We would urge them to put better systems in place so that the likelihood of this occurring again is slim," said Ellen Kennedy, senior sustainability research analyst at Calvert, which oversees $14.5 billion in assets.

Chipotle, which reports fourth-quarter earnings on Thursday, recognizes it is big deal for its operations.

"This incident has caused a lot of disruption -- both to us and in the lives of so many of our people," said Moran, whose company reported 22,250 employees at the end of 2009. "In addition, it's been a heartbreaking situation for us to lose so many excellent employees."

Indeed, it is not just a few workers who need to be hired and trained to keep the places running. Chipotle will not disclose the total number fired, but it could be as many as 700 of its estimated 1,200 Minnesota workers.

Those are the figures circulating among the Minneapolis legal community, according to Javier Morillo, the president of labor union SEIU Local 26, which does not represent the fast food sector but is helping the workers because of its interest in immigration reform.

The need for reform is where labor and business agree.

"We need those businesses that are being audited to speak up and say to the government this is insanity and it is not solving a thing," said Morillo.

Chipotle's Moran does speak up, saying in his email: "The system clearly isn't working very well as it is, and reform is absolutely necessary."

As for Tanya and Alejandro, they are fairly confident they will get new jobs in restaurants or factories in Minneapolis, but they probably won't get the good salary or long run they had at Chipotle.

(Additional reporting by Herb Lash in New York; Editing by Cynthia Osterman.)

Sent by Dr. Carlos Muñoz, Jr. and Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.

  Extract: Green Jobs Are Not Evergreen Jobs
By Debra J. Saunders
Townhall Magazine
After receiving at least $43 million in aid from the state of Massachusetts, Evergreen Solar announced last month that it would be closing its manufacturing plant in Devens, Mass., laying off its 800 workers and moving its manufacturing operations to China.

Michael El-Hillow, Evergreen Solar's chief executive, explained in a statement the reason for his company's move: "While the United States and other western industrial economies are beneficiaries of rapidly declining installation costs of solar energy, we expect the United States will continue to be at a disadvantage from a manufacturing standpoint."

Evergreen is -- this month anyway -- the third-largest solar panel manufacturer in the United States. The Massachusetts plant opened in 2008 with much fanfare and generous taxpayer assistance. But just one year later, The New York Times reported, company suits were talking to Chinese officials, who could offer cheaper labor -- average monthly wages below $300 as opposed to $5,400 in the Bay State -- sweetheart loans and other incentives.

Harvard economist Edward L. Glaeser saw Evergreen leave Massachusetts and opined in The New York Times that while he believed investing in green technology, "(I)t always was a mistake to think that clean energy was going to be a jobs bonanza."  And: "We shouldn't pretend that cheaper solar energy will end up employing millions of our less-skilled citizens."  The high cost of subsidizing wind and solar power should seal the deal. According to the California Energy Commission, the cost of photovoltaic solar electricity is about 26 cents per kilowatt hour, as opposed to 13 cents for electricity powered by natural gas.

American Enterprise Institute senior fellow Steven F. Hayward likes to ask people which state has the lowest unemployment rate. The answer is North Dakota, with an unemployment rate of 3.8 percent. "The reason is they've had a huge oil and gas boom," Hayward explained. They've tripled their oil output.   "Brown energy creates jobs and prosperity."

Sent by Odell Harwell

What China Wants? By Richard Russell

TCR Comment: Richard Russell is an 89 year old investment advisor that is considered one of the bright and informative writers in the U.S. TCR takes what he says seriously.

"Does anyone know what China really wants and in which direction China is going? The Russell answer: China wants to be the most powerful financial power on the planet. Note that I said China wants to be a "financial power" not a military power. Militarily, China simply wants to neutralize the US, and be on a military level with the US. China knows that nobody can win the next major war between super-powers (both sides would be utterly destroyed).

"China's initial financial strategy - to make the yuan (renminbi) the world's leading currency. China wants the yuan to take the place of the US dollar in world trade and they want the yuan to be the world's reserve currency. China is going about this in slow, deliberate steps.

"First, China is making strategic alliances with the long list of nations. This means that they will trade, using currency swaps in China's currency, the yuan. This will result in eliminating trade in US dollars. The Chinese alliances include Malaysia, Belarus, Hong Kong, Indonesia and more recently Brazil and Argentina.

"China is also moving to create currency swaps with the Arab nations. More ominously, this means that China ideally wants oil quoted and traded in yuan rather than as it's currently quoted and traded - in dollars.

"What's behind China's new strategies? The fact is that China has been smarting under many decades of bad-mouthing and disrespect. China is a nation of 1.3 million hard-working people, a nation pulling itself out of deadening poverty and fast becoming the leading economy of the world. Today, no trend or major deal is transacted without considering its affect on China or China's affect on the transaction.

"It's obvious that China wants the yuan to be the world's new reserve currency. Ask yourself this - if you are dealing with a currency, would you rather deal with the currency of a nation with a huge hard-working population, a nation with the largest reserves on the planet - or would you rather deal with the currency of a nation drowning in debt, a nation who's currency is in a multi-decade decline, and a nation which is steadily losing its productive and manufacturing capabilities?

"The next step in the progression is for China to make its yuan convertible. China wants the yuan to take the place of the dollar. It wants the yuan to be the world's leading trading and safe-haven currency. More than that, China is in a headlong rush to build its reserves of gold. Recently, China asked the IMF to create a new reserve currency, a mix of three or four leading currencies with the yuan and gold as two of its components."

"China quietly has become the world's largest producer of gold. Furthermore, China's leaders have been urging their people to accumulate gold.

"Unlike the US, China sees gold as a symbol of power and prestige. I believe that China is thinking that in due time, it will back the yuan with part-gold, thereby making the yuan far preferable to the US dollar, which is backed by nothing tangible. Today, the dollar is backed only by the "full faith and credit" of the US government.

"So it's interesting and rather frightening, while the US creates billions (trillions) of dollars out of computer transactions, all in an effort to save its banking system, China is spending part of its giant dollar hoard to buy up the resources of the earth. China already has a near-monopoly in rare earths. China is buying mining companies wherever it's feasible. China is buying arable land in South America and Africa. If it's a valuable resource, if it's for sale, China wants to buy it."

Sent by Odell Harwell


Hispanic AP Testing
Texas Heritage Online provides unified online access
Scholarship Directory
Pennsylvania School Defends Separating Blacks for Homeroom
Centro Victoria promotes reading and culture
Get Married, Save Thousands on Tuition
Education Resources on School Desegregation in National Archives 

Some 54.5 percent of all Hispanic test takers passed at least one AP test, compared with 59.6 percent of all students and 61.8 percent of white students. 
Christian Science Monitor - Ilana Kowarski - ‎Feb 11, 2011‎

Texas Heritage Online provides unified online access to Texas' historical documents and images for use by teachers, students, historians, genealogists, and other researchers.


Scholarship Directory from U.S. Congresswoman Lucille Roybal-Allard for this academic year.


Intro to article: 
Pennsylvania School Defends Separating Blacks for Homeroom
By Dana Chivvis

A Lancaster, Pa., high school is under fire for implementing a new program that has created separate homerooms for black juniors.

In December, McCaskey East High School assigned its 275 11th-graders to 19 homerooms led by teacher-mentors. The black students were separated by gender and placed in three homerooms led by black teachers. The other students were similarly assigned to teachers with whom they'd had a prior relationship. All students were allowed to choose a different mentor or to opt out of the program altogether.

"We saw the need for mentoring of all our students," McCaskey East Principal Bill Jimenez told AOL News.

But news of the program has caused concern that the school is practicing a form of segregation -- an issue that was central to the outlawing of a Mexican-American studies program in Arizona earlier this month.

"The intent of mentoring at McCaskey High School is to build strong teacher and student relations, not separate students by race," the Lancaster School District said in a statement. "The high school is disappointed by the negative perception and focus on single racial composition programming."

The program was proposed by a McCaskey East instructional coach, Angela Tilghman, who wanted to improve the academic performance of the school's black students. Last year, they fared poorly on Pennsylvania standardized exams, with only 30 percent of black students scoring a proficient or advanced grade in reading, while 60 percent of white students and 42 percent of all students achieved those levels.

The Black Star Project 

Founded in 1996 by Phillip Jackson, The Black Star Project is committed to improving the quality of life in Black and Latino communities of Chicago and nationwide by eliminating the racial academic achievement gap. Our mission is to provide educational services that help pre-school through college students succeed academically and become knowledgeable and productive citizens with the support of their parents, families, schools and communities.

Schools cannot educate children without the support of parents, families and communities. Good teachers and administrators are invaluable to the educational process, but they are not miracle workers. Schools, by themselves, do not educate children; they simply reinforce and expand what children already know when they come to school. What happens in a school is important; but just as important is what happens in the home and the community where the child lives. Societal structures, value systems, cultures, institutions, and positive environments are powerful influencers of education in children. Good schools seldom (if ever) create good communities; but good communities usually create good schools! Active and involved parents, families, communities are necessary to educate children.

For more information on our other programs and how you can get involved, click on these links below or please call 773.285.9600: 

Urban Prep charter school again beats the odds

All seniors accepted to college for second year in row

In all, the 104 members of the 2011 graduating class have been accepted to 103 colleges, including some of the country's most selective schools. With many acceptance letters still anticipated, the charter school, which has campuses in the Englewood, South Shore and East Garfield Park neighborhoods, is hoping at least one of its students this year will land an Ivy League invitation.

Sent by

Centro Victoria vision is to promote reading, culture in high schools

From: Cooke, Ken 
Subject: RE: Article
To: "Gloria Candelaria Marsh" 

Hi, Gloria. I’m glad to send this to you, and I invite you to get in touch with anyone at Centro Victoria. I like the Somos Primos website. My wife is Christine Granados, an English instructor who also works with Centro. She would be glad to talk with you about their project, or feel free to list her as a contact. 

Glad you liked the article. I hope it can be of use to Somos Primos. I think what Centro is doing is ground-breaking, and hugely important to the Latino community. Thanks, and please contact me or my wife any time. (I have CC’d her so you will have her email.) 

Sincerely, Ken Esten Cooke
Communications Specialist
Marketing Department
University of Houston-Victoria
361-570-4296 (office)

Centro Victoria vision is to promote reading, culture in high schools  

Q: I have read a little about Centro Victoria at the University of Houston-Victoria. Can you tell me more about its main focus?  

A: Centro Victoria is an initiative by the UHV School of Arts & Sciences to stay on top of the national demographic swing and to spur an interest in reading among young, Mexican-American students.  

Centro Victoria, housed in the UHV University Center, is the first of its kind – a literary arts center that promotes the rich Mexican-American culture.  

Part of its efforts are focused on a high school lesson plan, called “Made in Texas,” which, for six weeks, lets high school English classes focus on what has been an underrepresented part of their studies, according to Dagoberto Gilb, Centro Victoria’s executive director. It is hoped this will turn on additional young people to reading and writing, as their culture will be reflected more in their studies.  

In 2005, Gilb edited a literary anthology called “Hecho en Tejas,” featuring his picks of the best Mexican-American authors, poets and musicians. The “Made in Texas” lesson plan is being adapted from that book, and it features lesson plans that are compatible with the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills exam and the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills exam.  

Gilb stressed that the lesson plan is not geared solely for Mexican-American students.  

“It’s geared for a mutual understanding of who we all are,” Gilb said. “I don’t think many people realize there are so many quality writers of Mexican-American descent. We have a long history of literature and art in Texas.”  

Gilb, an award-winning author of seven books of fiction and nonfiction, and Jeffrey Di Leo, dean of the UHV School of Arts & Sciences, have assembled a staff of nationally recognized writers, to work at Centro Victoria and teach writing courses at UHV. Those include former Dallas Morning News editorial board member Macarena Hernández, a South Texas native and the Centro Victoria managing director.  

Gilb and others are now giving presentations to school districts about its lesson plan, and are drawing positive reviews from administrators and teachers in districts with a large Mexican-American population. One teacher reported that her students were voluntarily going to the library to look up the works of Tomás Rivera, Sandra Cisneros and Américo Paredes. 

For more information about this unique program, visit, e-mail or call 361-570-4101.  

Ken Esten Cooke is the communications specialist at the University of Houston-Victoria. If you have a question about UHV, contact him at (361) 570-4296 or by e-mail at  


   Get Married, Save Thousands on Tuition
By Tess Townsend, February 5, 2011
Students worldwide compete to attend the University of California, Berkeley, considered one of the best universities in the United States.

But economically, in-state students have a huge advantage over non-Californians, for whom tuition costs an additional $22,000 a year (as of 2010-11).

The financial stakes are so high that some out-of-state students are employing an unusual technique to meet the University of California’s strict residency requirements: they’re getting married.

These marriages do not technically break any laws, but students are understandably hesitant to speak publicly about them. The Bay Citizen was able to find nine such couples.

U.C. students from out of state must meet three requirements to establish residency — physical presence, intent to stay and financial independence — a complicated process that takes at least two years. The independence test is the hardest to pass.

When students marry, they can automatically claim themselves as independent, provided their parents do not claim them as dependents on their taxes. After that, gaining in-state tuition is a breeze.

A few years ago, a student from the Midwest believed she could not afford the annual $30,000 in student fees (including $20,000 in out-of-state tuition), so she posted on Facebook that she was looking for a husband.. (The woman requested anonymity out of fear of repercussions from U.C.)

An out-of-state student whom she did not know responded to her post, and they married in 2007, the summer before her junior year. She graduated in 2009 and estimated that the marriage had saved her $50,000. The couple has divorced.

Of 16,000 Berkeley undergraduates who received financial aid during 2009-10, just 416 were married. University officials said they were not aware of any students marrying for tuition purposes; the number of married students has not changed significantly in recent years, they said.

“If a student has a valid marriage license, it is accepted as proof of his/her marriage,” a U.C. spokesman, Ricardo Vazquez, wrote in an e-mail.

Together, the nine couples identified by The Bay Citizen cost U.C. Berkeley an estimated $350,000 in out-of-state tuition.

After she was accepted to Berkeley in 2006, Elaine Davis of Utah tried hard to establish California residency. She registered to vote in California, got a California driver’s license, worked full time in the state, filed her own taxes and had her parents stop claiming her as a dependent.

When Berkeley still denied her residency (living in an apartment owned by her father disqualified her as independent), Ms. Davis married a childhood friend. She saved $38,000 in out-of-state tuition over two years.

It is impossible to know how common such marriages are, but at least one national Web site exists to facilitate this kind of union., created by Rick Conley, an air traffic controller in Texas, is a matchmaking site for couples seeking to marry in order to gain in-state tuition privileges and other savings that come from being classified as independent. It has attracted only 56 registered users since going online in 2008.

Marriage, of course, does not necessarily relieve students of the cost of college. Despite the perks of saying “I do,” Ms. Davis still graduated owing $29,000 in school loans.

Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D. 

  Education Resources on School Desegregation 
School Desegregation and Civil Rights Stories:
In addition to the Mendez Case, the National Archives includes the histories of  many cases dealing with school segregation based on race.   

Orange County, California In the Fall of 1944, Gonzalo and Felicita Mendez tried to enroll their children in the Main Street School, which Gonzola had attended as a child. However, the school district had redrawn boundary lines that excluded the Mexican neighborhoods. (The school district also segregated Japanese American children. However, it passed a resolution in January 1945 allowing these children to attend the Main Street School.) The Mendez children were assigned to Hoover Elementary School, which was established for Mexican children. Other Orange County Latino parents faced similar situations with their children. With the help of the United Latin American Citizens (LUCAC), they joined with the Mendez family and sued four local school districts, including Westminster and Santa Ana, for segregating their children and 5,000 others. This suit was heard in both state and federal courts.

At the state trial, Orange County superintendents used stereotypical imagery of Mexicans to explain the basis of school policy. One declared, "Mexicans are inferior in personal hygiene, ability, and in their economic outlook." He further stated that their lack of English prevented them from learning Mother Goose rhymes and that they had hygiene deficiencies, like lice, impetigo, tuberculosis, and generally dirty hands, neck, face and ears. These he stated warranted separation. 

The attorney for Mendez, David Marcus, called in expert social scientists as witnesses to address the stereotypes. He also challenged, based on the 14th Amendment, the constitutionality of education segregation. He also had Fourteen-year-old Carol Torres take the stand to counter claims that Mexican children did not speak English. Felicita Mendez also gave testimony about her family life: "We always tell our children they are Americans."

It took also almost a year for state Judge Paul McCormick to make his decision. He ruled that there was no justification in the laws of California to segregate Mexican children and that doing so was a "clear denial of the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment". The school districts filed an appeal, partly on the basis of a states' rights strategy. In 1947 the U.S. Ninth Circuit Court upheld the state court's ruling and the Orange County school districts dropped the case. 

The case, Mendez v. Westminster School District, landed an important blow to school segregation in California. The case represents one of the growing efforts of Mexican Americans in the 20th Century to cast off systematic prejudice, confronting issues of race, class and citizenship. The Mendez case is also important because it underscored that the struggle for civil rights in America crossed regional, racial and ethnic lines. Amicus curiae briefs were filed in this case by NAACP (coauthored by Thurgood Marshall) and several other civil rights organizations, including the American Jewish Congress, the ACLU, the Japanese American League and the National Lawyers Guild. The case resulted in the California legislature passing the Anderson bill, a measure that repealed all California school codes mandating segregation. The bill was then signed by the governor, Earl Warren.




Tanka for the Year of the Rabbit 4709  by Rafael Jesús González
Coloquio Revista Cultural 
Eddie Martinez, Artist, Designer
Christopher Rios, Puerto Rican Rapper By Erika Ramirez
We are Not Alone, a Musical Tribute to Tomás Rivera  
Jack LaLanne, Celebration of Life Memorial
Mmmmm Chocolate
Hawaiian Cowboys and Hispanic Vaqueros by Norman Rozeff
Tanka for the Year of the Rabbit 4709
The rabbit, the hare,
swift, meek, may not inherit
the Earth but teach us
to confront the arrogant
with a firm, fierce compassion.  
Rafael Jesús González © 2011


Coloquio Revista Cultural 
Electronic Magazine in Spanish and English
Revista electrónica en inglés y español - Javier Bustamante, Editor, Miembro de la Academia Norteamericana de la Lengua Española


Eddie Martinez, Artist, Designer

Martinez worked as a designer in the entertainment industry on projects around the world over a 40-year time span, including theater, motion picture and entertainment attractions. He now spends his time retired in his art studio in the foothills of the Colorado Rockies.

His love for the mountains, the western coastline and his passion for history are often revealed through his art. 

Christopher Rios, 
Puerto Rican Rapper

By Erika Ramirez
For the complete article, go to:

Today (February 7th) marks the eleven year anniversary of rapper Big Punisher’s passing. Puerto Rican rapper, Christopher Rios, left us with a plethora of hits to remember him by and raised the stakes with his lyricism and perseverance. Coming from the South Bronx, New York, Big Pun was one of the most prolific Latino rappers in history and the first solo Latino rapper to go platinum, attaining a Grammy before his passing in 2000. From hits such as club-anthem, “Still Not a Player,” off Capital Punishment to significant guest appearances alongside Jennifer Lopez, Noreaga and the Beatnuts, Pun sparked inspiration throughout the Latin community and the rap game as a whole.

In memory of the late great we turned to a few rap critics for their thoughts on Big Pun, from the most memorable moment in his career to the first thing that comes up when Pun’s name is mentioned.

“Pun was one of the most prolific MC's of his generation, who garnered, not only the respect of his peers but the people,” Thomas Harden, Editor-in-Chief of Urban Latino Magazine, said. “His lyrical prowess not only changed the perception of Latino rappers in hip-hop, but set a benchmark for all MC's. It's been eleven years since Pun's untimely death and his music still resonates with us today. Timeless cuts like "Still Not a Player," "The Dream Shatter," "Twinz (Deep Cover '98)," and "Leather Face" still get the crowd moving nationwide. And don't forget, he was the first Latino rap artist to go platinum. What Pun was able to accomplish, in such a short period, has had an everlasting effect on hip-hop as a whole. 'Earth to Pun... come in Pun!' RIP!”

“Big Pun had a mastery of flow and cadence that was way ahead of his time,” David D of The Smoking Section weighed in. “He just almost had an instincts ability to take a ginzu knife to a beat and slice it to shreds. One thing that people overlook is his superb breath control. For such a big guy, he was able to rail off those lines from "Deep Cover" without losing his breath. If you look at some of the new guys out there that are mastering the double-timed flow — Cory Gunz, Joell Ortiz — you'll see that they studied Big Pun. So often, rappers are "good for their time." But Pun's breakneck delivery can stand up against the slickest rhymesayers out now.”


Bruno Louchouarn 

A Musical Tribute to Tomás Rivera  
(Part 2 of 3) 
by Carlos E. Cortés 
Professor Emeritus of History 
University of California, Riverside 

Music composed by C Professor of music, Multimedia, and Cognitive Science at Occidental College


     As I described in last month’s issue of Somos Primos, on Friday, April 22, 2011, the University of California, Riverside, will host the inaugural performance of  We Are Not Alone: Tomás Rivera -- A Musical Narrative.   It will be held at UCR’s Culver Center for the Arts in downtown Riverside.

Tomás Rivera was a national leader in higher education and an internationally renowned poet-novelist.  His acclaimed works included the novel, . . and the Earth Did Not Swallow Him, and the epic poem, The Searchers.   When he became UCR Chancellor in 1979, Rivera was the youngest and first minority chancellor in the history of the UC system.  He died of a heart attack in 1984 while still UCR Chancellor.

 We Are Not Alone  is a unique musical collaboration.  It draws on multiple musical genres, which are used to illuminate Rivera’s life.  The show was conceived by two UCR faculty members: 


Carlos E. Cortés, Professor Emeritus of  History

Juan Felipe Herrera, holder of the  
Tomás Rivera chair of creative writing

Together, Carlos E.Cortés and Juan Felipe Herrera wrote the book and most of the show’s lyrics, set to original music composed by Bruno Louchouarn (professor of music, multimedia, and cognitive science at Occidental College).  In addition, they recruited a variety of performing groups (most based at UCR) specializing in diverse musical styles.  These groups came together to contribute their talents to this musical interpretation of Rivera’s life, career, and accomplishments.

The 95-minute musical consists of four short acts, separated by three brief intermezzos.  Act 1, which uses a chamber opera form, tells the story of Rivera’s childhood as the son of poor Mexican American migrant workers.  Act 2 focuses on his creative writing career, which receives a blues-infused Latin jazz interpretation of his artistic achievements and struggles.  Act 3 draws upon hip hop to look at Rivera’s administrative career, with a particular emphasis on his five years at UCR.  Act 4 offers a retrospective look at his lasting impact, culminating with a Brazilian samba drum ensemble.  The three intermezzos, which provide transitions between the acts while exploring Rivera’s personal dilemmas and difficult decisions, feature original poetry, Andean music, and Japanese Taiko drums.  

     Tomás Rivera was a unique, complex, multitalented man:  a gifted writer; a pioneering college administrator; a dedicated man of the people; and a humanist who continues to inspire.  The integration of these multiple musical genres reflects the many-textured richness of Tomás’ all-too-brief life and symbolizes the intercultural universality of his contributions.  In the next issue of Somos Primos, I will provide additional information on the musical, including its origins and development.

     Tickets can be purchased through the UCR Creative Writing Department at (951)-827-5570.  Ask for Tiffany Long.  For more information about the show, please feel free to contact Carlos E. Cortés (951-827-1487) or  or Juan Felipe Herrera (951-827-5027) or     


  Jack LaLanne "Celebration of Life Memorial"
To my friends and family:  I attended the Jack LaLanne "Celebration of Life Memorial" held in Hollywood Hills, CA.  It was absolutely . . "Fantastic."  Enclose please find photos and words of wisdom from my friend, Jack LaLanne. 

I began bodybuilding at a young age and started working as a personal trainer.  The clubs I worked for are the following: Corpus Christi Health Club, Vic Tanny's Gyms, American Health Studios & Silhouette and Jack LaLanne European Health Spa. 

One of my members at the club was a successful Real Broker and one day he extended an invitation to to me:  He said Rick, "Go get your Real Estate License and come and work for me, and you will make more money." . . .  I immediately quit the health spa business and studied, passed the exam, received my Real Estate License, and began "My real estate career. 

Rick Leal, Sr.

1. Anything in life is possible if you make it happen.
2. Anything in life is possible and you can make it happen.
3. Your waistline is your lifeline.
4. Exercise is King, nutrition is Queen, put them together and you've got a Kingdom.
5. Don't exceed the feed limit.
6. The food you eat today is walking and talking tomorrow.
7. Ten seconds on the lips and a lifetime on the hips.
8. Better to wear out than rust out.
9. Do - don't stew.
10. People don't die of old age, they die of inactivity.
11. First we inspire them, then we perspire them.
12. You eat everyday, you sleep everyday, and your body was made to exercise everyday.
13. Work at living and you don't have to die tomorrow.
14. I can't die, it would ruin my image.
15. If man makes it, don't eat it.
16. It it tastes good, spit it out.
17. What's it doing for me?
18. Your health account is like your bank account: The more you put in, the more you can take out.
19. If one apple is good, you wouldn't eat 100.
20. It's not what you do some of the time that counts, it's what you do all of the time that counts.
21. Make haste slowly.
22. Eat right and you can't go wrong.

Jack LaLanne Feats and Accomplishments 

1. 1954 AGE 40: Swam the length of the San Francisco Golden Gate Bridge underwater with 140 pounds of equipment, including two air tanks . . . an undisputed world record. 
2. 1955 AGE: 41: Swam, handcuffed, from Alcatraz to Fisherman's wharf in San Francisco, CA. 
3. 1956 AGE: 42: Set a world record of 1,033 push-ups in 23 minutes on "You Asked For It"  a TV Show with Art Baker. 
4. 1957 AGE: 43: Swam the treacherous Golden Gate Channel, towing a 2,500-pound cabin cruiser.  This involved fighting the cold, swift ocean currents that made the 1 mile swim a 6 1/2 mile test of strength and endurance.
5. 1958 AGE: 44: Maneuvered a paddleboard 30 miles,  9-1/2 hours non-stop  hours non-stop from Farallon Islands to the San Francisco Shore. 
6. 1959 AGE: 45 Completed 1,000 Push-i[s and 1,000 chin-ups in one hour and 22 minutes. His white German Shepard "Happy" is born and the "Jack LaLanne show goes nationwide. 
7. 1970 AGE: 60: Swam from Alcatraz Island to Fisherman's Wharf, for a second time handcuffed, shackled and towing a 1,000 pound boat. 
8. 1979 AGE: 65: Towed 65 Boats filled with 6,500 pounds of Louisiana Pacific wood pulp while handcuffed and shackled in Lake Ashinoko, near Tokyo, Japan. 
9. 1980 AGE: 66: Towed 10 Boats in North Miami, Florida filled with 77 people for over a mile in less than 1 hour. 
10. 1984 AGE: 70: Handcuffed, shackled and fighting strong winds and currents, towed 70 boats with 70 people from the Queen's Way Bridge in the Long Beach Harbor to the Queen Mary, 1 1/2 miles.  
11. 2004 AGE: 90: Jack celebrates his birthday with a major media blitz in New York, San Francisco, and Los Angeles,  ESPN Classic runs a 24 hour marathon of the original "Jack LaLanne Shows."

Jack LaLanne received numerous awards, too many to mention. 
Donations In Memory of Jack LaLanne Can Be Made To:
The Jack and Janet LaLanne Scholarship Fund
C/O Hollywood High School
1521 North Highland Ave.
Los Angeles, CA. 90028
Attn: Mary Sousani
0r Operation: Children
8950 W. Olympic Blvd., #377
Beverly Hills, CA 90211-35744



Hispanically Speaking News 
February 2, 2011
Nuestra Historias

Mmmmm Chocolate


.June 2, 2010 | by CeCe B. of Lake Forest IL 
 Mmmm…CHOCOLATE! Lots and lots of chocolate. As my cold nose pressed hard against the unforgiving glass, I thought I had discovered heaven on a side street of Chicago. The window was filled with carefully sculpted chocolate masterpieces, and the heady cocoa aroma escaped beneath the green paneled door to tickle my nose and tempt my taste buds. 

I was drawn inside where I was dazzled by case after case of delicately drizzled truffles and an amazing array of exotic ingredients and flavors. I suddenly spotted something familiar among the bizarre combinations: a chocolate and ancho chili truffle. Yes, I admit, a chocolate and chili combo sounds at first about as appetizing as garlic and gummy bears, but I have known it for years as “mole,” the undisputed national sauce of Mexico which incorporates “Abuelita” chocolate and more than thirty distinct chiles and other spices. I have come to see the contrast between chocolate and chile as the yin and yang that define who I am as a bicultural, bilingual Mexican-American. 

“Mole” comes from the Aztec word “molli,” meaning concoction or stew. In many ways, that is what my life is – a mixture of seemingly unrelated ingredients that unite and complement each other to make something special without losing what each offers on its own. 

It all started with the unlikely marriage of a 6’2” gringo from Wisconsin (a “Viking,” thought Tito, my Mexican grandfather) and a 5’2” Mexicana who never expected to leave the city where she was born. I have grown up feeling at home in both countries and recognizing that “different” does not mean “better” or “worse.” Celebrating deceased family and friends on “Dia de los Muertos” instead of collecting candy on Halloween, eating tortillas instead of toast, and learning that “football” means “soccer” are simple examples that differences do not necessarily mean choices. 

My experience as the “new kid” last year at Deerfield was a stark reminder of how much I am like mole. On one of the first Friday nights, I went with a group of returners to the Greer, our weekend hangout snack bar off of the gym. I felt a little out of my element, surrounded by so many reencounters among old friends, until I heard a faint, but comforting murmur a little to my left. My intuition was right. As I tuned in more closely, I deciphered the words as Spanish, my “mother tongue.” I couldn’t believe it! I gravitated toward a small group of Spanish exchange students and Hispanic descendants, and I quickly interjected an excited “Hola!” Much to my surprise, there was a long, somewhat awkward pause before any response, and I was struck by their confused looks. I realized that my image as a new girl from Chicago, blonde, and very American-looking didn’t fit at all with the words that had just left my mouth. My whole life, I have spoken Spanish with my mother and English with my father. For me, this is completely normal, but they didn’t expect to hear me speak native Spanish with a Mexican accent. I guess in a way my Latin heritage is like that extra, unexpected “pop” of the chili that you can’t see at first glance. 

This summer, I watched “un partido de futbol,” specifically the U.S.-Mexico World Cup qualifier, surrounded by a group of very loyal, very enthusiastic Mexican fans. “Cual te gusta mas?” “Which do you like better?” Mexico or the United States? Spanish or English? Tacos or hamburgers? I have heard these questions my whole life, and they were in no shortage that night. I realized that, for me, the choice is “both.” I like watching “Rebelde” and “The Mentalist.” I enjoy celebrating independence on both “el 16 de Septiembre” and the 4th of July. I love swinging at piñatas while singing “Las Mañanitas” and singing “Happy Birthday.” I look forward to my Tia Virginia’s “rosca” on Three Kings Day and my grandmother’s oyster dressing at Christmas, celebrating my saint’s day and my half-birthday, watching Aztec descendants dance for rain and break dancers at the subway stop, and eating fried grasshoppers in the street market and ordering a chocolate malt with fries to dip at Johnny Rockets. 

Having learned to make myself at home in two different cultures has made me more observant of habits and customs and more adaptive to different situations. I have learned to try new things and never to underestimate the unexpected. I have learned the importance of compromise and conciliation of different points of view, both from my parents and my two countries seeing things differently. I believe that “the ties that bind us are more important than the differences between us.” 

I really am rooting for both teams. Like the chocolate and ancho chile truffle, my bicultural heritage makes me more than I would be if either alone. 

This article on bicultural identities made me smile, and I hope it makes others smile, too.  I know many of us can relate with the author!   Sent by
Sylvia Gonzalez-Hohenshelt | Manager of Public Programs, Villa Finale
National Trust for Historic Preservation | 122 Madison, San Antonio, TX  78204


Hawaiian Cowboys and Hispanic Vaqueros

 Norman Rozeff
January 2011

You might not think, given the great physical divide between the two, that any connection whatsoever existed between Hawaiian cowboys and Hispanic Mexican vaqueros. You would be wrong. First, a little background on the history of cattle in Hawaii is needed to further the connection. Cattle were introduced to the Hawaiian islands in 1793. This, in fact, was not many years after Spanish land grants were instituted, and ranching was subsequently scaled up on both sides of the Rio Grande as well as in Southern California. The islands had been colonized by intrepid Polynesians coming great distances from islands south of the equator. While they brought with them pigs, dogs and perhaps fowl, cows were unknown to the Polynesians of the Marquesas and Taheite.

The story of cattle in the Hawaiian Islands begins with Captain George Vancouver. George Vancouver served as a midshipman with Capt. James Cook on his 1778 discovery of the islands, which were initially named the Sandwich Islands. On a return voyage from Alaska in February 1779, the natives killed Captain Cook. Vancouver returned to the islands in 1793 in command of his own ship. Onboard he carried half a dozen California Longhorns he had obtained in Monterey on a voyage of approximately 2,000 nautical miles. He offered them as a gift to King Kamehameha I. 

The Hawaiian king soon realized the value of the cattle in that they would provide provisions for visiting whalers. He placed a kapu, a law carrying the death penalty for anyone who killed any cattle, in order to increase their numbers. It was in 1803 that Salem, Massachusetts seafarer Richard Cleveland brought the first horses—mustangs from Spanish California—to the island of Hawaii on the brig Lelia Byrd and gifted these to Kamehameha I.

The cattle propagated and became quite wild on the rangeland of the Island of Hawaii. Finally in 1815 Kamehameha lifted the kapu. Armed with only a musket, a 25-year old sailor named John Palmer Parker was appointed that year to kill some of the wild bullocks. Soon it became a sizeable business as the animals were trapped in pits, slaughtered, and then butchered for meat, tallow and hides. Salted meat was packed in barrels for local sales and for export. The whole process was very labor intensive.

Kamehameha III took the throne in 1824 after his 27-year old brother died of a measles infection. Around 1830 he sent a high chief to Mexico's California to ask for vaqueros (cowboys) to come to Hawaii and teach them how to handle the cattle. It wasn't until 1832 however that two Mexican vaqueros did come, bringing with them Spanish saddles and cow ponies. The Hawaiian came to call these cowboys paniola, a transliteration of Hispaniola or literally, Spaniard. The Hawaiian language does not have the "s" sound. The word was later changed to paniolo, a designation still used today for Hawaii's cowboys.

Along with their knowledge of cattle, the vaqueros brought the tools of their trade—saddles, lariats, spurs and other gear—as well as their traditional working clothes, including their wide-brimmed hats, colorful ponchos and leggings The paniolos of today wear cowboy hats, bandanas, chaps, flannel-type long sleeved shirts and boots as introduced many years ago by their mentors. The vaqueros introduced more efficient methods in rounding up the wild cattle. It began with the "Spanish Method" of hunting wild cattle. This was to rope the animal and then tie it to a tree for a day or two until it became calm due to fatigue. A secondary method was to restrain the animal by tying one foreleg and an opposite hindleg. Later two mounted cowboys could then lead it to a corral where it could be slaughtered. A third option was called the pini method. It was to rope the bullock and tether it to a castrated tame ox and then walk them to the corral.

Writer Thomas Carpenter in an article on Hawaii's cowboys tells us "The paniolo adapted vaquero equipment and traditions to reflect Hawaiian climate and culture. The Hawaiian saddle is an example of this evolution. Both the Mexican and Hawaiian saddle “have a rawhide-covered tree with no attached leather covering the horn fork, bars, or cantle,” Bergin reports. The Hawaiian saddle had a unique addition. “A single piece of rawhide is draped over the horn, wrapped tight, and molded over the pommel, leaving a row of long braids on each side that held the cinch ring in place,” Loomis states. The paniolo consider their saddles stronger because of this addition. The paniolo also employed a mochila, a leather apron that draped over the saddle with a hole for the pommel and a slot for the cantle. The leather provided comfort and protection to the rider. Another feature common to the Mexican and Hawaiian saddle are the stirrup guards, or tapaderos."

The utilization of Spanish methods promoted the growth of the cattle industry. By 1847 branding became commonplace and the grounds for legal ownership. 

While Parker died on August 20, 1868, his son John Palmer Parker II and others carried on his legacy. The Parker family, over time, were able to increase the ranch acreage and the ranch enterprise so that it eventually became the largest privately-owned ranch in the United States. Of course, the King Ranch initially held this honor but would later become a corporate entity. By 1932, the Parker Ranch held 327,000 acres of land in fee simple. The wild cattle were gone, and the stock had grown to a 26,000-head Hereford herd, including 400 bulls; 1,000 Holsteins in its dairy operation; 2,200 horses and mules; 12,000 merino sheep; and 1,000 Berkshire swine.

Today the ranch has about 135,000 acres and is owned by a charitable trust. It has 850 miles of fences, between 30,000 and 35,000 head of angus and charolais cattle, 300 paddocks, and 15 corrals. The cowboys ride 125 horses, a bloodline mixture of thoroughbred and quarter horse.

The year 2008 became something special for Hawaiian cowboys. It was proclaimed the “Year of the Paniolo,” because it marked the centennial celebration of the day in August of 1908 when Hawaii Island's 'Ikuā Purdy ascended to fame by winning the Frontier Days World Championship steer-roping contest in Cheyenne,Wyoming. His achievements served notice of paniolo skills that became as much a part of Hawaii's history as that of the American West's epic story. Tourists to the 50th state are surprised to find that rodeos are a regular feature of Hawaii's culture and society. Seemingly even more incongruous is to see in action a Hawaii cowboy of Japanese descent.

That Spanish cattle ranching heritage and tradition via Mexico has played an important role in Hawaii's beef industry is indisputable, and now you know of this unusual fact.





Youth in War by CSM Eliseo Garcia
Libros para Latinos
Mexican American Baseball in Los Angeles
The Choctaw Confederates by Adam Goodheart
Katrina in Five Worlds by Kathy Saade Kenny
Bed-Stuy The Way it Was: the making of a cop by Al Yevoli

"Youth in War"
We have a very interesting book for sale. It was written by CSM Eliseo Garcia who served with "L" Company, 23rd Inf Regt from Pusan to beyond Chipyong Ni, and received 2 Purple Hearts, one Bronze Star, 2 Silver Stars and the DSC by the time he was 17. A real Audie Murphy. I find it the most compelling recital of a soldier in combat I have ever read. Send $17.00 to 2ID-KWVA, PO Box 13, Springville PA 18844 and request Youth in War. Price includes S & H.  Sent by Joe Sanchez

LPN News is a news service with a variety of articles for Hispanic newspapers and magazines. All of the articles are free

If you would like to have your book, or an article included, please email a PDF of any LPN news article you might run. Email them to
 or post mail to: LPN news, 2777 Jefferson St., Ste. 200, Carlsbad, CA 92008
Thank you, Kirk Whisler,

Richard Santillan has a goal to produce a series of books on the involvement of Mexican Americans in baseball through out the nation. 

The first book entitled "Mexican American Baseball in Los Angeles" is out and comprised of 200 vintage photos from 1907 through the 1960s.

Click to the Los Angeles section for special upcoming events and exhibits.

Author Santillan is looking for all types of baseball photos looking for between 1900 and the 1960s.  His interest is includes youth teams, high school and college, military, womens, semi-professional, minor and major league teams, merchant sponsored teams, church teams, and etc. Besides teams, he is looking for individual player photos.

In a letter to Roberto Calderon, he writes: Thank you Roberto
for both your prompt responses and forwarding my request to your list serves. I greatly appreciate your time and support. Besides baseball photos from the Inland Empire between 1900 and the 1960s, I am looking for baseball photos from other communities outside the Inland Empire including outside of California. Our first book includes great baseball photos from Mexican American communities in Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Iowa, Nebraska, Illinois, Pennsylvania, Missouri and Kansas. Any help for baseball photos throughout California and other states would be most welcome. For our second book, we already have baseball photos from the states of Washington, Ohio, Wyoming, and Colorado--we want to show that baseball was a vital part of the Mexican experience through out the country, especially during the period of the 1900s and into the 1960s and 1970s. 

Roberto wrote: William Beezley's, Judas at the Jockey Club,sketches the origins of baseball among mexicanos in Mexico and the frontera. Apparently the Texas-Mexico border communities were prominent in these origins (1880s-1890s) due to their early contact with US railroad corporations and associated Anglo work forces, who introduced and promoted the sport. If we follow this thesis, then we may surmise correctly or incorrectly that the earliest possible photos of the sport among raza will be found among these communities, El Paso-Ciudad Juarez, Eagle Pass-Piedras Negras, Laredo-Nuevo Laredo, etc., and shortly after of course that of Brownsville-Matamoros (and the Mexican north generally). Some of the publicly and privately held railroad archives may also hold similar veins of precious ore, i.e., fotos of the kind being sought. Adelante y abrazos, Roberto

Editor: I love it!  This will show the early Mexican American communities, as American as "baseball and apple pie".  
It is such a positive way of showing our presence.  We are proud to say that SHHAR Board member, Bea Armenta Dever contributed family photos and memories to the Los Angeles book.   

For more information please contact Richard Santillan at or at 626-284-4957


Dr Emilio Zamora. He will be speaking on his new book “Claiming Rights and Righting Wrongs, Mexican Workers and Job Politics during WWII.” Dr Zamora is a professor and teaches at the University of Texas at Austin with his specialty in Mexican American History. He is the recipient of many awards and honors including a fellowship from the National Endowment for the Humanities Fellowship.

Sent by Dan Arellano President 
Tejano Genealogy Society of Austin


Doaksville, Indian Territory, February 1861

The Choctaw Confederates

The New York Times Opinionator, 
February 9, 2011, 9:00 pm
Library of CongressChoctaws, 1850s.

During the first week of February, while gentlemen from across the South convened in Montgomery, Ala., to establish a new nation, a meeting of another, far older nation was happening 500 miles to the west. Instead of taking place under the lofty dome of a neoclassical capitol, this one was held in a simple wooden council house, on the red clay banks of a muddy creek near what is now the Texas-Oklahoma border. Here the tribal leaders of the Choctaw Nation gathered to debate their future.

No detailed description of that council session survives. But the Choctaws on the eve of the Civil War were a heterogeneous, sometimes fractious people, poised at an intersection of races and cultures, of new ways and old ones. Here is how a white missionary described a gathering in Doaksville, the tribe’s capital, a few years earlier:

There were cabins, tents, booths, stores, shanties, wagons, carts, campfires; white, red, black and mixed in every imaginable shade and proportion and dressed in every conceivable variety of style, from tasty American clothes to the wild costumes of the Indians; buying, selling, swapping, betting, shooting, strutting, talking, laughing, fiddling, eating, drinking, smoking, sleeping, seeing and being seen, all bundled together.

Now the Choctaws’ elected representatives – like the leaders of many other native tribes across the South – faced a momentous decision: Whether to remain loyal to the United States or cast their lot with the new and untested Confederate States of America.

There was no obvious answer. After all, the United States had not always been quite loyal to the Choctaws. In the previous century, the tribe, then living mostly in what is now Alabama and Mississippi, had been one of the first to sign a treaty of friendship with the newly independent American colonies; in the War of 1812, they had fought bravely alongside Gen. Andrew Jackson against the British at New Orleans. In 1831, General Jackson – by then president – had repaid his debt by making the Choctaws the first Indian nation to be forced west along the Trail of Tears. Thousands died along the way.

Still, many of the 20,000 or so Choctaws – especially those whose families had intermarried with whites – now considered themselves not just Native Americans, but also Southerners. A significant number of tribal leaders owned black slaves. Just a few years after the move west, the General Council had passed laws forbidding any public expression of “the most fatal and destructive doctrine of abolitionism”; barring slaves from learning to read and write; and refusing to let free blacks settle within the nation’s territory. In 1856 the tribe became an object of particular revulsion among Northern abolitionists when reports spread that a Choctaw lynch mob had burned alive an enslaved woman accused of complicity in the murder of her master.

Library of Congress Peter Pitchlynn, 1842

At the same time, strong ties still bound the Choctaws to the Union, whether willingly or otherwise; not least among these were bonds of financial self-interest. Even as the tribal council met in Doaksville, one of its leading members was absent in Washington, preparing to reap the rewards of many years of skillful diplomacy on behalf of his people.

Peter Pitchlynn – who possessed only one-quarter Native American ancestry – conformed to very few white stereotypes about Indian chiefs. Tall, courtly and debonair, he read Shakespeare and Milton and hobnobbed with Henry Clay. Once, he happened to find himself aboard an Ohio River steamboat with Charles Dickens, who was touring the United States. Pitchlynn sent Dickens his calling card by way of introduction, and the two were quickly engrossed in conversation about the poetry of Sir Walter Scott. “He was a remarkably handsome man,” the great novelist wrote afterward, “with long black hair, an aquiline nose, broad cheek bones, a sunburnt complexion and a very bright, keen, dark, and piercing eye … as stately and complete a gentleman of Nature’s making, as ever I beheld.”

For more than two decades, Pitchlynn had lobbied the federal government for reparations to compensate the Choctaws fully for their lost tribal lands. He had haunted the halls and cloakrooms of the Capitol and circulated among the dining rooms of the congressional boardinghouses. Now he seemed on the verge of success, with Congress poised to enact a bill awarding $3 million to his nation. (On Feb. 6, Sen. Andrew Johnson of Tennessee gave a rousing speech on the Choctaws’ behalf: “For my part I will never consent to … bare faced robbery inflicted on the weak by the strong.”)

Not long afterward, Pitchlynn would describe the dilemma facing the tribe:

The Choctaws are completely tied up, by treaties, with the government of the United States. … By these very same treaties, we now have a complete title and right to the land we now live on and all our invested funds are now in the hands of President Lincoln. These treaties are the only guarantees we have for our country and our monies. If we now violate them by joining the secessionist, we lose that guarantee.

The Choctaws’ conundrum was similar to those facing dozens of other tribes across the continent. Native American leaders had long since grown accustomed to the high-stakes game of making or breaking alliances with various groups of whites. Each side – whether Britons battling Frenchmen or Mohawks fighting Pequots – tried to manipulate the other and defeat its enemies through various forms of proxy warfare.

Related Civil War Timeline : An unfolding history of the Civil War with photos and articles from the Times archive and ongoing commentary from Disunion contributors.

Visit the Timeline »

Now Union and Confederacy would each try to leverage Indian power, and Indian grievances, for its own benefit. So too, the Indians now wondered if a weakened United States might not be to their advantage. And some members of long-peaceful tribes relished the opportunity to revive dormant warrior traditions: in 1861, young Choctaws began donning war paint and performing dances unseen since their grandfathers’ time.

Certainly the new president-elect and his party seemed unlikely to be great friends of Indian interests. In the recent electoral campaign, the Republicans had put an alarming degree of emphasis on westward expansion, including a transcontinental railroad and the distribution of free land to white settlers. William H. Seward, the party’s political chieftain, had recently proclaimed that the country’s destiny rested in “the great west” and that hence “Indian territory … south of Kansas must be vacated by the Indians.” As for Abraham Lincoln, he often spoke proudly about his participation in the Black Hawk War, a ghastly conflict in which frontier militiamen massacred Sauk and Fox women and children. (Lincoln himself had not seen combat.)

On the other hand, Jefferson Davis had participated in that war, too. And a decade earlier, as a congressman from Mississippi, he had pushed for the forcible removal of the last few Choctaws remaining in his state. Oddly, Davis apparently also claimed descent (spuriously) from the great 17th-century Virginia chieftain Opechancanough – uncle of Pocahontas and foe of the Jamestown colonists – though it doesn’t seem to have softened his attitude toward latter-day Indians.

Ultimately, different Native American tribes chose very different allegiances. The Choctaws’ Cherokee neighbors would wage a kind of civil war within the Civil War, with different groups fighting for Union and Confederacy. The nearby Delawares went solidly for the North: by one reckoning, some 85 percent of the tribe’s eligible males enlisted in the Union army.

As for the Choctaws, their tribal council at Doaksville passed a series of resolutions on Feb. 7:

That we view with deep regret and great solicitude the present unhappy political disagreement between the Northern and Southern states of the American Union, tending to a permanent dissolution of the Union and the disturbance of the various important relations existing with that government by treaty stipulations and international laws, and portending much injury to the Choctaw government and people. …

That in the event a permanent dissolution of the American Union takes place, our many relations with the general government must cease, and we shall be left to follow the natural affections, education, institutions and interests of our people, which indissolubly bind us in every way to the destiny of our neighbors and brethren of the Southern states.

Two days later, in far-off Washington, the Senate passed a bill awarding the tribe $1.2 million. (The House would later reduce this to $500,000.) Pitchlynn, unaware of the developments in Indian Territory, set off for home to share news of his short-lived triumph. He would remain a staunch Unionist throughout the war – but three of his sons, like many other young Choctaws, would soon ride off to fight for the Confederacy.

In 1865, another momentous meeting would take place in Doaksville. On June 23, the Confederate general Stand Watie – who was also principal chief of the Cherokees – rode into town with the remnants of his cavalry brigade and surrendered to Union officers. But it was not until the following year that the Choctaw nation formally abolished slavery and signed a treaty with the United States.

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Sources: Official Records of the War of the Rebellion, Vol. 1; Grant Foreman, “Notes from the Indian Advocate” (Chronicles of Oklahoma, March 1936); John Wesley Morris, “Ghost Towns of Oklahoma”; Angie Debo, “The Rise and Fall of the Choctaw Republic”; Clara Sue Kidwell, “The Choctaws in Oklahoma: From Tribe to Nation, 1855-1970”; Donna Akers, “Living in the Land of Death: The Choctaw Nation, 1830-1860”; W. David Baird, “Peter Pitchlynn: Chief of the Choctaws”; Charles Dickens, “American Notes”; Laurence M. Hauptman, “Between Two Fires: American Indians in the Civil War.”

Adam Goodheart is the author of the forthcoming book “1861: The Civil War Awakening.” He lives in Washington, D.C., and on the Eastern Shore of Maryland, where he is the Hodson Trust-Griswold Director of Washington College’s C.V. Starr Center for the Study of the American Experience.

Sent by 


Katrina in Five Worlds
was a finalist for TWO awards from the "Best Books 2010 Awards," sponsored by USA Book News, in the categories of Best Multicultural Non-Fiction and Best Biography-Historical. 

To purchase this book please visit the website:

 “While going through family mementos after my mother’s death, I unearthed a box of letters that once belonged to my beloved Palestinian grandmother. Inside a crumbling See’s candy box were more than 130 letters in Arabic, assembled at least sixty years earlier,” said Kathy Saade Kenny, author of bilingual biography of her maternal grandmother, Katrina in Five Worlds/Katrina en Cinco Mundos. 

Drawing upon family records, taped interviews, and the discovered cache of letters, Kenny illuminates Katrina’s story, exploring the historical and social events that thrust her from a comfortable life in Bethlehem, Palestine across social divides and into widely diverse places, including the Ottoman Empire, pre-Revolutionary Russia, and Mexico during the Mexican Revolution, in the first half of the 20th century. 

“My grandmother was not famous, nor rich. She was not an important political figure or a celebrity. Her history, while unique, is the story of an ordinary person –an immigrant woman– whose life was shaped by the forces of history happening around her, and by the culture and times in which she lived.” 

Hola, Jaime and Mimi,
I am now in Mexico City, where I presented my book at the Centro Libanes on Tuesday night.  The event was sponsored by Al Fannan, an organization of artists and intellectuals of Lebanese ancestry in Mexico.  The panel was moderated by Prof. Nabih Chartouni, president of Al Fannan and included Drta. Martha Diaz de Kuri, author of many books about Lebanese immigrants to Mexico and Dtra. Camila Pastor, Professor of History at Centro de Investigaciones y Docencias Economicas (CIDE).  The Palestinian Ambassador to Mexico, the Hon. Randa Nabulsi attended, along with about sixty other members of the large and influential Lebanese/Arab community in Mexico.  All in all, it was a great thrill. 

Kathy with Prof. Nabih Chartouni

Centro Libanes.

Panel: Dtra. Martha Diaz de Kuri, Kathy Saade Kenny, Dtra. Camila Pastor, Prof. Nabih Chartouni

Dtra. Martha Diaz de Kuri, Ambassador Randa Nabulsi, 
Kathy Saade Kenny

Presentación de libro 

Katrina en Cinco Mundos
Kathy Saade Kenny 
Feb 22, 2011
Centro Libanes
Mexico DF

Muchas gracias por la oportunidad para presentar mi libro, Katrina en Cinco Mundos, la historia de mi abuela, Katrina Saade. Es un gran gusto estar aquí con ustedes. Muchísimas gracias especialmente a mi querida amiga Doctora Martha Diaz de Kuri por iniciar este evento especial. Y también al Profesor Nabih Chartouni y a la Doctora Camila Pastor para su apoyo y sus palabras tan amables. 
Primero, no necesito decir que mi español es menos que perfecto. Les ofrezco una disculpa de antemano. 

Me da mucha alegría que tengo familiares Mexicanos aquí, de los dos lados - los Saade y los Kabande. Algunos de ellos se acuerdan muy bien de mi abuelita, la querida tía Katrina. Además, hay otros amigos aquí de California y de San Miguel de Allende, donde vivimos un parte del año. Finalmente, quiero reconocer el apoyo y cariño de mi marido, David Bracker, porque sin su ayuda, no pudiera hacer la investigación que resultó en este pequeño libro. Gracias a todos por venir.

Mi abuela Katrina fue la influencia más importante en mi vida. Yo llevo su mismo nombre y soy su nieta mayor. Ella me enseñó valores primordiales como el lugar central de la familia, la apreciación por mi herencia Palestina y una respetuosa curiosidad hacia la gente y las culturas del mundo. 

Mi abuela no era famosa, ni rica. No fue una importante figura política o una celebridad. Su historia, mientras que única, es la historia de una persona ordinaria: una mujer inmigrante, cuya vida fue formada por las fuerzas de la historia que ocurrieron a su alrededor y por la cultura y los tiempos en que vivió. Como sus propios padres, abuelos y bisabuelos.

La historia que expuse en mi libro se inicia porque yo amaba mucho a mi abuela y siempre quise saber más sobre las detalles de su vida. Ella tenía 47 años cuando yo nací, y la conocía para la segunda mitad de su vida, hasta su muerte en 1989. 

Katrina vivía en cinco mundos muy diferentes durante sus 89 años. 
Nació en Belén, Palestina en 1900, en la cúspide de un nuevo siglo. 
Fue testigo del final del imperio otomano en Palestina, 
La caída del régimen zarista en Rusia, 
La Revolución Mexicana, 
La Gran Depresión en los Estados Unidos y
La vida colonial durante el mandato británico en Palestina 

En estos lugares tan lejanos unos de otros, enfrentó retos personales, superó restricciones culturales y vivió revueltas políticas, todo lo cual contribuyó a su formación como una mujer independiente.

Para mí, esta aventura empezó hace ocho años, cuando descubrí una caja de chocolates que estaba escondida en un closet de la casa de mi madre, que contenía más de 130 cartas de mi abuela, escritas en árabe. 

Estas cartas, que no pude leer ni entender, eran un tesoro y un misterio grande para resolver. 

Pasaron más de cinco años hasta que yo encontré a una persona que me pudiera ayudar con la traducción. Por una conexión de la comunidad Árabe en San Francisco, conocí al Doctor Salim Tamari, un profesor de Sociología de Palestina que se dedicaba en juntar cartas y diarios de gente Palestina de principios del siglo 20. Fue una fortuna que el Dr. Tamari estuviera al mismo tiempo en la Universidad de California que está á 15 minutos de mi casa en Oakland. Fue una gran tarea que nos tomó cuatro meses en traducir estas cartas. 

Después de terminar la traducción, el Dr. Tamari me animó a escribir su historia para publicación en un diario que el edita, Jerusalén Quarterly en 2008. Y en 2010, gracias a Camila Pastor y CIDE, el mismo material fue publicado en una revista de historia mexicana, Istor. 

Y en 2010, decidió combinar los dos textos entre un libro bilingue, con material extra, incluyendo nuevas fotos, mapas y un árbol familiar de la familia Saade. 

Yo creo que es muy importante que nosotros recordemos las historias de nuestros antepasados del Medio Oriente, una historia llena de fortaleza y valor de una generación que cruzó océanos, sufrió pobreza, aguantó guerras, y tomó riesgos para darles un mejor futuro a sus hijos. La vida que ahora tenemos es gracias a ellos quienes nos dejaron esta vida llena de oportunidades. 

Además, creo que cada familia tiene su propia historia que merece ser conservada para que no se pierda. Continuando asi una identidad a las futuras generaciones. Espero que a Ustedes los inspire y motive para seguir conservando las historias de sus familias. 

Existe también otra importante razón para recordar y conservar nuestras historias. El mundo no conoce totalmente la historia de los palestinos y la gente Arabe. Tenemos una gran cultura y una larga historia. 

Narraciones como la de Katrina ayudan a la gente a conocernos, no solo como un estereotipo, sino como personas que trabajan duro, cuidan de los suyos, y aportan al la sociedad. 

Me encuentro sumamente agradecida por esta oportunidad. Gracias. 

Kathy Saade Kenny



Bed-Stuy The Way it Was: the making of a cop by Al Yevfoli
Hi, all. My Friend Al Yevoli has his book out in print "Bed-Stuy The Way it Was: the making of a cop" Al went on the job in 1963 working over 20 years and working the 79 Pct in Brooklyn for 15 years and elsewhere. He saw it all. Many of his cop friends were shot and killed; some by the Black Liberation Army [ BLA ]. Many of you may personally know some of these officers. I took an interest in Al's book because of the many cops that were killed while I was on the job. Al like many cop writers is self published, so I got involved in trying to help him tell his story. Al was also in the Navy.

A few months ago, I went to see Albert Seedman at his home, here in Florida. He went on the job in 1941, as a Transit cop, and after serving in World War-2, came back home and became an NYPD cop. As you know, he was chief of detectives when he retired. His book is called "Chief" He is 93 years old, and doing well. I read his book 20 years ago, and decided to buy it on Amazon and read it again. It's a good read. We talked for a while and he signed his book: To Joe, It is flattering when a guy who was not on the job with me wants an autograph. Talking with you for a few minutes, the cop in you comes out. Good luck & good health to you and yours. It's been a pleasure, Chief Al Seedman 6/4/10. Now that's a cop that never forgot where he came from. I called him up a few weeks ago, and he and his wife Henny are doing well. If you get a chance, buy and read his book. It was published back in 1974, Albert Seedman & Peter Hellman. I have the hard cover. Al Yevoli is sending him a complimentary copy, since Seedman worked on the many cop killing cases that Al writes about.

I have two photos of Al Seedman on the bottom page of patrol on my Website at 
Al Yevoli's email is: He was not only a good cop, but a good Gumba.

Best and God bless, Joe Sanchez

NCLR 2008 Conference, San Diego
Lft. to Rt.  WWII Jet Pilot, Lt. Col. Henry Cervantes,
Medal of Honor Recipient, Rudy Hernandez,
Rick Leal, President, Hispanic Medal of Honor Society


Military Writers, Society of America
Video: Footage of the unconditional surrender ceremony of Japan
Latinas in the Merchant Marine.
Hispanic American Veterans
Video: East L.A. Marine, the Untold True Story of Guy Gabaldon
Video: Yo Soy el Army : America's New Military Caste
Looking for Ideas for the 60th Anniversary of the Korean War   
DOD Vietnam War 50th Anniversary Commemoration Program*
History of the Establishment of ROTC Units by Pablo Trejo
How to Find Photos of Soldiers in the Korean War

  • We are an association of more than eight-hundred authors, poets, and artists, drawn together by the common bond of military service.  Most of our members are active duty military, retirees, or military veterans.  A few are lifelong civilians who have chosen to honor our military through their writings or their art.  Our only core principle is a love of the men and women who defend this nation, and a deeply personal understanding of their sacrifice and dedication.
  • Our skills are varied.  Some of us are world class writers, with many successful books.  Others write only for the eyes of their friends and families.  But each of us has a tale to tell. Each of us is a part of the fabric of Freedom.  These are our stories…
  • For more details, click here to read more about us.  Feel free to browse our site and get to know our members and their work.

Sent by Joe Sanchez


Video: Historical Footage of the unconditional surrender ceremony of Japan, signing aboard the Battleship Missouri in Tokyo Bay on Sunday Sept. 2, 1945. The actual voice of the General is recorded. This has never been shown to the general public before. We always saw the "stills" but never the film itself. An important piece of history.
James Nava is the webmaster of this newly mounted website dedicated to Hispanic  American Veterans of Connecticut.

Sent by Rafael Ojeda

"Yo Soy el Army : America's New Military Caste," Big Noise's co-production with Producciones Cimarron, looks at the militarization of the immigration debate. As Latinos grow into America's largest minority, the community is being targeted by the US military as a new and steady source of recruits. Entering into the lowest and most dangerous ranks, Latinos have been disproportionately killed in American's latest wars.

Sent by Dorinda Moreno


Latinas in the Merchant Marine.

Below on General Manual Jose Asencio WW II China Burma India Ledo Road.


U.S. Marine PFC Guy Gabaldon captured over 1500 Japanese soldiers and civilians - single handedly. 
(2008) 78 min  Watch the Documentary Film for Free

I know you will enjoy this documentary of a Mexican-American Super-Hero, who captured several times more enemy troops than Audie Murphy. I guess double-racism, because although he was a Mexican-American, he considered himself an adoptive Japanese.      Sent by Juan Marinez

Looking for Ideas for the 60th Anniversary of the Korean War   
This is the 60 year since the Korean War started. Because of that there are a few special programs going on both in the states and in Korea. Some of them are listed below. /

Looking for Ideas for the 60th Anniversary of the Korean War   
Korea, US Prepare for 60th Anniversary of Korean War

A 2nd Infantry Division Korean War Veteran Form has been added to collect information about those that served during the Korean War.  2nd Infantry Division (2id), Korean War Veterans Alliance invites you to visit this site. If you or someone you know served with or was attached to the 2ID during the three year Korean War, click on and print MS Word application.

If you are seeking information about a relative only that served in the 2ID during the Korean War, send a message to our Secretary. Give dates, unit and action and send it to Ralph Hockley. Unless you have this information go to these sites first and get information there. They have the records, we only have a few. The following links will help you obtain your information.  Form 180

*DOD Announces Vietnam War 50th Anniversary Commemoration Program*
January 14, 2011

"No event in American history is more misunderstood than the Vietnam War. It was misreported then, and it is misremembered now."
Richard Nixon, New York Times, March 28, 1985


The Department of Defense announced today its program to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Vietnam War. 
The program will:

•Thank and honor veterans of the Vietnam War, including personnel who were held as prisoners of war or listed as missing in action, for their service and sacrifice on behalf of the United States and to thank and honor the families of these veterans. 

•Highlight the service of the armed forces during the Vietnam War and the contributions of federal agencies and governmental and non-governmental organizations that served with, or in support of, the armed forces. 

•Pay tribute to the contributions made on the home front by the people of the United States during the Vietnam War. 

•Highlight the advances in technology, science, and medicine related to the military research conducted during the Vietnam War. 

•Recognize the contributions and sacrifices made by the allies of the United States during the Vietnam War. 

DoD representatives will coordinate with other federal agencies, veteran groups, state, local government and non-government organizations for their input in Vietnam War commemoration activities. For more information call 877-387-9951 or visit the official website at

Sent by Bill Carmena

by retired U.S. Navy Submarine Commander, Pablo Trejo 
Mimi,  Stanford ran the ROTC off their campus a number of years ago because of radical Viet Nam protestors, so the government cut off a lot of research grants to some of their professors. Now they are asking for restoration of a unit. They want the grant money. There are some Stanford students that travel across the bay to attend ROTC classes at Cal Berkeley.

When the government gave all the free land to the railroads in the 1880s, they stipulated (in order to get the bill passed in Congress) that a certain number of land sections would be given the states along the railroad right away, that the states could sell for the establishment of Colleges and Universities that by law were required to have ROTC Units. This may seem strange, but at the time the Military Academies at West Point and Annapolis could not provide enough officers to fill the needs of the armed services in time of war.  

These programs would provide a reservoir of trained reserve officers that could quickly be recalled in time of war.
Universities that were founded under this law were known as "Land Grant Colleges".

The University of California if a " Land Grant College", and is required by law to have a Unit, and also at any of it's branch Colleges that want one, ie: UCLA, Davis, Santa Barbara, Santa Cruz. Texas A&M is a land grant college.
Private universities like Stanford, Yale, Columbia, University of Southern California, etc., can have government supported Naval and Army ROTC units.

In these cases the students enrolled in a program receive all their tuition and books paid for by Uncle Sam, and take 24 units of Naval Science, in addition to a civilian curriculum. The naval students take summer cruises alongside the naval academy midshipman. For their paid education, after commissioning student is required to serve two years active duty in the fleet, and four years in the ready reserve, which requires 14 days active duty each year.

It seems ironic that the first NROTC class at U.C. Berkeley started if 1928 and they were commissioned in 1932. There were only 12 members in this first class. The first professor of Naval Science there was a navy officer named Chester W. Nimitz. later Fleet Admiral and master executioner of the Navy's WW-2 Pacific War. One of those first 12 was and officer named Herbert W. Claudius and he was my Commanding Officer on the Floyd B. Parks. Nimitz stayed in touch with all 12 of "his boys" throughout WW-2, and after. It was with Claudius that I met Nimitz after the war, and that is another great story.

In 1966 the radicals burned down the NROTC building at UC Berkeley, destroying its' complete library. It was rebuilt. The Professor of Naval Science at the time was a Captain Thomas Watkins. Tom and I had attended Submarine School together, and later were classmates for two years at the Naval Post Graduate School here in Monterey. We had stayed in touch over the years. I had a whole garage full of naval science textbooks and naval history books, some left over from my own days in the fleet, and as a midshipman. I donated them all to help restock the new library at CAL. It was a win-win situation, as I emptied my whole garage!! Later I was feasted as guest of honor at the Marine Memorial Hotel in San Francisco at the Dinning In of the senior class at Cal on their commissioning. 

I was commissioned in 1947, as Ensign USN, from the NROTC Unit at the University of Southern California. Although it is a private university, like Stanford, and doesn't need a ROTC unit to survive, and yet it turns out over a hundred navy and marine corps officers ever year. I might add that UCLA also has a strong ROTC unit.

Junior ROTC is strong in Monterey High, and at several other high schools in our area. These students provide a highly trained color guard at a lot of our veteran's functions. They also can go to a special boot camp in San Diego for a eight weeks of naval indoctrination. Later if the enlist, they can skip regular boot camp and go right to a navy school and then to the fleet as rated petty officers. Two students from Monterey High won appointments to the Naval Academy through this program. It is noteworthy that a great many of these students are Blacks and Mexican/American kids, and they are smart enough to see this program offers them and opportunity to get and education, better there lot in life.

The San Francisco School District at the direction of the city council has banned all Junior ROTC activities from all it's schools, even though they were taught by volunteer former military officers. Newsom, now our state's Lt. Governor led the charge to get rid of Junior ROTC in San Francisco Schools. What he did was abolish the opportunity of a great many minority and socially disadvantage kids to get a free education.

I hope you and Wynn are both well,

God Bless,  Pablo 

How to Find Photos of Soldiers in the Korean War

The Korean War Memorial in Atlantic City, New Jersey, includes images from soldiers who served.korean war memorial in atlantic city image by Ritu Jethani from

The Korean War was waged from 1950 to 1953. Many soldiers who served are now in their 80s with worn photographs taken nearly 60 years ago. Recent advances in photo technology allow photos from that era to be digitized and preserved. These photos include personal photos from individual soldiers, pictures from veteran organizations, official military photo archives pertaining to the war, and special exhbits from news organizations taken by their war correspondents. The easiest and fastest way to search for these photos is online, using a website search engine

Read more: How to Find Photos of Soldiers in the Korean War |

Sent by Rafael Ojeda 


"We prayed fervently last evening for the success of the colonists under one George Washington, because we believe their cause is just and that the Great Redeemer is on their side."  ~Fray Junipero Serra

Espana DAR and Spain Society SAR trip to  Simancas, Spain
Granaderos y Damas de Galez of Houston, trip to Malaga, Spain

A Documentary Feature Film By Thomas Ellingwood Fortin, Executive Producer

Goals of This Project:   

This documentary will revolutionize the way both the general public and school children perceive the American Revolution, especially in regards to the Spanish and people of Spanish America during that critical time; Mexicans, South Americans, Cubans, Puerto Ricans, & Hispano Africans.


More then that, it will also bring the newest, and fastest growing demographic group in the United States into the main stream of our history, especially bringing to light their ancestor’s contributions and participation in winning our liberty and independence as a nation over 200 years ago!


In addition to funding, community support is being sought.  The public needs to be awareness of the invaluable support given by Spain and its citizens living in the Americas. 

For bio information on  Thomas Ellingwood Fortin: 
Contact Thomas at  




Saturday January 29 found members of the Espana DAR and Spain Society SAR in the town of Simancas just outside the city of Valladolid. A cold foggy day brought us to this historic town to tour the Archivo General de Simancas (AGS) the first official archive in the world of the Kingdom of Castile and dates from 1540. We were honored with a personal tour by José Luis Rodríguez de Diego, just retired after 12yrs as Director of the archives, and his wife, Isabel Aguirre who still works there.. The archives are located in a 15th century castle, whose location, design and strength of its walls hold the secret to the success of architect Juan Herrera’s renovations that make it perfect for storing millions of Royal Spanish government documents. Definitely an architect with ideas before his time, Herrera renovated the castle to include rooms with no windows for storage, ventilation systems in the walls and rooms with windows for research. In its first years, the archive is said to have received over 500 letters a day for filling. The towers, chapel and walls are original to the castle, which dates from the 1400’s. Mr. Rodriquez showed us where the front door still has remains of the original leather which covered the wood to protect it from fire. The founding King, Felipe II, made an unprecedented edict to the incumbent director in 1588 that open flames for lighting and heating, as well as water were not allowed in or around the building to further protect and preserve the documents stored there. In 1588 a regiment of archivists was formed to organize and control the entrance.  An interesting estimation is that if you lined up all the stored documents it would be 14 km long. Papers include mostly administrative activities and Royal correspondence. Special rooms for the royal papers are lined in carved wood on two levels for perfect storage and safekeeping. Today the whole building has been renovated with security systems for protection against fire or water damage. We were able to see and hold original documents dating from the 1500’s. Especially interesting were papers with secret codes in case of enemy capture. The early documents are on cloth-based paper that feels just like modern paper. Many of the documents are now available on the internet (Archivos General de Estado- AER) for study under “Estado Inglatera“Secretaria de Guerra” or “Secretaria de Estado Inglatera”. They also have catalogue books of documents relating to the American Revolution printed in 1976. The Corona de Castilla at the beginning of the discovery of America handled all the documents dealing with the Americas, and therefore provided many documents years later for when the Archivo General de Indias was established in Sevilla.  AGS is of special interest to Americans because the military papers stored there could certify which Spaniards assisted the colonists in our Revolutionary War. This opens up membership in DAR for both descendents of Spaniards living in the U.S., for example in New Mexico or Louisiana, and Spaniards who made a contribution to our independence. 

The tour was followed by lunch in the town and free time to visit the Casa Museo de Colón.  (Christopher Columbus Museum) which houses the history of his voyages to discover America. It is a very modern museum with video shows about his travels and cultures on three stories. Columbus died on May 20, 1506, in Valladolid, only two years after his final voyage. He was only 54 yrs old.               

Molly Long  Spanish Task Force Chairman NSDAR

Granaderos y Damas de Galez of Houston, under the leadership of Roland Salazar, enjoyed a fall trip to Malaga, Spain.

Malaga is presently building the Bernardo de Galvez historic ship Bergantin Galveztown. The folks with the St Augustine, Florida Maritime Museum and Lighthouse are struggling to complete the project.

Astilleros Nereo es uno de los astilleros tradicionales más antiguos de España, ponemos a su disposición toda nuestra experiencia para que realice su sueño. 

Las instalaciones de Astilleros Nereo albergan un Ecomuseo Etnográfico del Patrimonio Marítimo de Andalucía. Construimos y reparamos desde la ancestral Barca de Jábega o el tradicional Sardinal de vela latina hasta réplicas históricas como El Bergantín Galveztown, con el que BERNARDO DE GÁLVEZ, héroe de la toma de Pensacola, entró en la leyenda como figura clave para la independencia de Estados Unidos. 

La Carpintería de Ribera de los Astilleros Nereo de Pedregalejo, en Málaga, ha sido inscrita en el Catálogo del Patrimonio Histórico Andaluz  

Roland Salazar, Board of Director/Membership & Public Events Coordinator for the Institute of Hispanic Culture Houston, Inc. Arte, cultura y tradiciones Latinos (Cell) 281 220-7153





Una familia de tantas
Por Omar Soto-Rodriguez

Me refiero a la del ex-presidente de la República, Carlos Salinas de Gortari, harto conocido. El ex-mandatario nació un 3 de abril de 1948 en México D.F., segundogénito de Raúl Salinas Lozano y Margarita de Gortari Carbajal. La cuna de
ésta familia se haya en el norte, en Agualeguas y Linares, Nuevo León.
Su bisabuelo, don Severiano Salinas Cadena era originario de Agualeguas. Fue bautizado un 8 de febrero de 1854 y era hijo de don Andrés Salinas Ramírez (1813-1878) y doña María Nepomucena Cadena Villarreal (1817-1878), descendiente de las grandes familias norteñas (de la Garza Falcón, Uribe de la Cadena, González Hidalgo, Salazar y de la Serna). Severiano fue hombre inquieto, pues al ser abogado, fue Secretario del Tribunal Superior de Justicia de Nuevo León; en 1891 es nombrado Juez de letras en Linares, N.L., así como Registrador Público de la propiedad. Además, fue promotor de la Compañía de Alumbrado y Fuerza Motriz de Linares, así como de la Fábrica de Hielo, y en 1892 crea la Sociedad Recreativa linarense.
Contrajo nupcias el 4 de noviembre de 1880 con Doña Genoveva Reyna San Miguel (primogénita de Nazario Reyna de León e Isabel San Miguel de León). El fecundo matrimonio procreó 16 hijos, entre ellos: Nazario, Genoveva, Caritina, Carlos Hilario, María de la Luz, José Severiano, Andrés y Raúl. 
(En la imágen: sentados: Caritina Salinas Reyna de Garza, María Jesús Lozano de Salinas, Genoveva Reyna de Salinas, Severiano Salinas, esposas de Andrés y José Severiano Salinas Reyna; de pie: Sr. Garza, esposo de Caritina, Carlos Salinas Reyna, Raúl Salinas Lozano, Andrés y José Severiano Salinas Reyna. Fuente: Diario Regio, 15 de mayo 2007).
Carlos Salinas Reynacasó también el Estado norteño con María de Jesús Lozano Garza, con quien procreó a Carlos (Tesorero General del Estado de Nuevo León en los años 60s), Raúl (padre del ex-presidente) y Guillermo.
Don Raúl -padre de nuestro ex- fue profesor de Economía en la UNAM de 1947 a 1970. Además fungió como gobernador alterno del Fondo Monetario Internacional de 1956 a 1958; fue Secretario de Industria y Comercio (1958-1964) en el gobierno del presidente López Mateos. Luego lo mandaron como Embajador de México en la URSS en 1979. A su regreso en 1980 lo nombraron Director General del Instituto Mexicano de Comercio Exterior, hasta 1982 en que fue Senador de la República por su Estado natal, Nuevo León, hasta 1988.
Contrajo matrimonio con Margarita de Gortari Carbajal (1910-1992) (hija de don Eduardo de Gortari Zerecero y doña Dolores Carbajal Ortigosa, de Cd. Camargo, Chih.), fue una de las primeras mujeres economistas de México. El matrimonio procreó 5 hijos: Raúl, Carlos, Enrique, Adriana Margarita, y Sergio Salinas de Gortari. 
Su hermano, Eli de Gortari Carvajal(1918-1991), fue filósofo e historiador de la ciencia así como ingeniero; fue miembro prominente del Partido Comunista Mexicano y dirigente del Comité Mexicano de Solidaridad con Viet Nam del Norte.
Fungió como Presidente del Instituto de Intercambio Cultural Mexicano Ruso y fue Rector de la Universidad Nicolaita (Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo). Estuvo en prisión desde 1968 hasta 1971 por haber apoyado el
Movimiento estudiantil del 68.  
Su hijo, Hira de Gortari Rabiela, es doctor en historia por Escuela de Altos Estudios en Ciencias Sociales de París, y funge como investigador y catedrático en la UNAM. Es casado con Leonor Ludlow Wiechers, también investigadora y
catedrática en la UNAM, doctora en Ciencias Sociales por el Colegio de Michoacán; (su abuela, María de Landero y Weber, era prima hermana de José López Portillo y Weber, padre de otro ex-presidente harto conocido).  
Volviendo a los de Gortari, Eduardo de Gortari Gortari (bisabuelo de doña Margarita) casó en 1860 conCarolina Turreau de Linières Márquez, hija de doña María de la Concepción Márquez del Horno y de Edouard Turreau, Barón de Linières, de origen francés y que en 1844 pidió permiso al gobierno de México para abrir un establecimiento de enseñanza científico, agrícola, fabril y comercial. Éste era hijo de Louis Turreau de Linières, que organizó las Columnas Infernales durante la Guerra de Vendée (1793-1796) en Francia. Fue Embajador de Francia en Estados Unidos (1803-1811) y fue creado Barón de Linières en 1812 así como Caballero de la Orden de San Luis (1814). 
Eduardo Turreau de Linières Márquez(nacido en 1826) contrajo matrimonio con Josefa Gabriela Múzquiz y Bezáres (baut. 1832), hija de doña Ana Joaquina Bezárez Caballero y del Gral. Melchor de Eca y Múzquiz de Arrieta (1788-1844,
mejor conocido como Melchor Múzquiz, que fue Presidente de México). Éste don Eduardo -tío bisabuelo de doña Margarita de Gortari- casó en segundas nupcias con doña Paz Espinosa de los Monteros y Gorostiza, nieta por línea paterna del licenciado don Juan José Espinosa de los Monteros y Vera, que fuera uno de los firmantes del Acta de Independencia de México, así como Ministro de Relaciones Exteriores; y nieta por línea materna de don Manuel Eduardo de Gorostiza y Zepeda, político e ilustre dramaturgo veracruzano.  
Regresando a la familia Salinas de Gortari, Raúl -el primogénito- ha estado casado tres veces: con Ana María Pasalagua Branch, Gladys Franco Arnet, y Paulina Castañón Ríos Zertuche. Su primogénita, Mariana Margarita Salinas Pasalagua, contrajo segundo matrimonio con Alonso García Borja Loaeza, hijo de Hiram García Borja -que fuera Director de Cinematografía de la Secretaría de Gobernación- y de Enriqueta Loaeza Tovar -hermana ésta del embajador Enrique
Manuel Loaeza Tovar, de la politóloga Soledad Loaeza Tovar, y de la escritora Guadalupe Loaeza Tovar. Cabe destacar que doña Enriqueta fue segunda esposa del célebre abogado Samuel del Villar Kretchmar (1945-2005), que ocupó la
Procuraduría de Justicia del Distrito Federal de 1997 a 2000. (Los Loaeza Tovar están emparentados con los López Portillo, los Tovar de Teresa, los Lajous, los Pintado Cortina, pero será tema de otra entrada).  
La tristemente célebre Paulina Castañón Ríos Zertuche, tercera esposa de Raúl Salinas, también viene de prosapia. Es hija del chiapaneco Ramiro Castañón  Castellanos y de la coahuilteca Consuelo Ríos Zertuche Brambila, hija del Gral.
Antonio Ríos Zertuche, que fue Jefe de la Policía del D.F., embajador en Francia y participó activamente en la Revolución mexicana, al lado de sus hermanos, entre los cuales destaca Daniel Ríos Zertuche, médico y militar, así como Gobernador interino de Tlaxcala.

La familia Castañón tiene sus raíces en Chiapas; el coronel Fernando Castañón Coello participó activamente en la Independencia de Chiapas, así como en la vida política del Estado. Casó en Tuxtla en 1840 con doña María Isabel Zorrilla Gutiérrez, sobrina carnal de don Joaquín Miguel Gutiérrez Canales, procer  chiapaneco, gobernador de su Estado, y en honor a quien en 1848 se le agregó el "Gutiérrez" a la ciudad de Tuxtla; su hijo Ezequiel Castañón Zorrilla -bisabuelo
de Paulina- contrajo matrimonio con doña Leovigilda Esponda Cal y Mayor, cuya hermana Constancia, fue esposa del Lic. Ramón Rabasa Estebanell, Gobernador de Chiapas de 1905 a 1911, y fue hermano del célebre jurisconsulto Emilio Rabasa Estebanell. Carlos María Castañón Zorrilla fue gran empresario y propietario de la finca azucarera El Cañaveral, fue casado con Clotilde Gamboa y entre sus hijos destacan: Fernando Castañón Gamboa, profesor e historiador, así como
fundador de la Hemeroteca del Estado y del Archivo Histórico del Chiapas; Clotilde Castañón Gamboa que contrajo matrimonio con Pedro Alvarado Lang, creador del famoso Ballet Bonampak de Chiapas (hermano suyo fue el célebre
pintor y grabador Carlos Alvarado Lang), su hijo Pedro Alvarado Castañón estuvo casado con Ruth Rivera Marín (1927-1969) que fue la primera mujer en ingresar a la carrera de ingeniera en el IPN (hija de Diego Rivera Barrientos (1886-1957) y Guadalupe Marín Preciado); su hijo es el pintor Pedro Diego Alvarado Rivera. Regresando a Paulina Castañón Ríos Zertuche, mencionemos que ella y su hermana Eugenia casaron con Alfredo y Gustavo Díaz Ordaz -respectivamente- hijos del Lic. Gustavo Díaz Ordaz Bolaños Cacho (1911-1979), Presidente de México  1964-1970, y doña Guadalupe Borja Osorno (1915-1974). Gustavo Díaz Ordaz Castañón, hijo de Eugenia, casó en 1999 con la actriz y cantante Daniela Castro Arellano, hija de Javier Castro Levario, del grupo musical "Los Hermanos Castro" (los hermanos Arturo, Jorge, Gualberto yBenito, primo hermano suyo, actor cómico y músico, hijo del célebre actor cómico Arturo "El Bigotón" Castro).

Adriana Margarita Salinas de Gortari estuvo casada con el extinto José Francisco Ruiz Massieu (1946-1994), que fuera Secretario de Gobierno y luego Gobernador de Guerrero, y Secretario general del CEN del PRI al momento de su asesinato. Era hijo de don Armando Ruiz Quintanilla -guatemalteco- y doña María del Refugio  Massieu Helguera, poetisa y escritora. Era nieto del célebre militar e ingeniero Wilfrido Massieu Pérez que fuera Director del IPN y de doña Guadalupe Helguera Ceballos, cuya hermana Mercedes fue madre del pintor, diseñador y artista plástico Francisco Eppens Helguera (1913-1990), diseñador del escudo nacional. Claudia Ruiz Massieu Salinas-hija de Adriana Margarita y José Francisco- está casada con Francisco Guillermo Ricalde Alarcón, descendiente -a través de su madre, doña Nora Alarcón Ancira- del Lic. don Miguel Domínguez Alemán,  corregidor de Querétaro durante la guerra de Independencia, y de su esposa doña María Josefa Ortiz Téllez-Girón, conocida como La Corregidora. (Ascendencia matrilateral (línea uterina) de Francisco Ricalde Alarcón hasta la Corregidora: Nora Alarcón Ancira, Nora Ancira Ruiz, Consuelo Ruiz Gaviño, Dolores Gaviño Iglesias, Trinidad Iglesias Domínguez, Juana Domínguez Ortiz, Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez).

El ex-presidente Carlos Salinas de Gortari estuvo casado primeramente con Cecilia Occelli González, hija del ingeniero Armando Occelli Sánchez (1910-1996) y Ana María González Herrera (1916-1992). Su abuelo fue un odontólogo turinés de nombre Carlo Occelli llegado a México a principios del siglo XX. El matrimonio Salinas Occelli procreó tres hijos: Cecilia, Carlos Emiliano, yJuan Cristóbal. La primogénita contrajo matrimonio en 2003 con Alfredo "Alfie" Gatica Mercado, hijo del chileno Luis Enrique Gatica Silva (1928) y la puetorriqueña María del Pilar Mercado Cordero (1939-2006). El primero es cantante de boleros y es conocido con el nombre artístico de Lucho Gaticay su esposa fue Miss Puerto Rico 1957, actriz de cine y telenovelas con el nombre de Mapita Cortés, y fue sobrina de la legendaria actriz Mapy Cortés.

Carlos Salinas contrajo segundo matrimonio con Ana Paula Gerard Rivero, economista graduada en México, Harvard y Stanford, fue analista de crédito de Citybank, y fungió como secretaria técnica del Gabinete Económico de la Presidencia de la República. Con ella ha procreado tres hijos más (Ana Emilia, Patricio Gerónimo, y Mateo). Es hija de Hipólito Pablo Gerard Butler y de María de los Ángeles Rivero Azcárraga, a su vez hija del regiomontano Enrique Rivero
Martínez (1885-1947) y Berta Azcárraga Vidaurreta (hija del tamaulipeco don Mariano Azcárraga López de Rivera y de la veracruzana doña Emilia Vidaurreta Rovira; hermana por tanto: de Gastón Azcárraga Vidaurreta, quien en 1967 crea la
Promotora Mexicana de Hoteles (Grupo Posadas) para incursionar en la industria turística mediante la construcción y operación de un hotel en la Ciudad de México -el Fiesta Palace, hoy Fiesta Americana Reforma; de Raúl Azcárraga
Vidaurreta, pionero de la radio en México, casado con Aurora Reyes Retana Nájera  (hija de don Tomás Reyes Retana, senador porfirista, y doña Loreto Nájera y Muñoz); de Emilio Azcárraga Vidaurreta, empresario de las telecomunicaciones, presidente de Telesistema Mexicano (hoy Televisa); y de Rogerio Azcárraga Vidaurreta, también empresario de la radio, casado con doña Balbina Madero Olivares (hija de Leonor Olivares Tapia y del empresario Ernesto Madero Farías, medio-hermano de don Francisco Madero Hernández, padre de Francisco I. Madero). La familia Salinas, una familia de tantas.

Sent by John Inclan


Family stories and personal memories

Story of a Salad by by Ana Cervantes
Dream Driving in Nambé by Ben Romero




By Ana Cervantes

My aunt Zita Montenegro said to me once with her gentle laugh,
“Yes, it is true. We are all a big salad.” She was speaking of 
Mexicans, but I think it is true of all of us.

Grandparents Wedding
Septiembre 1914, Guanajuato, GTO, MÉXICO.
María Eugenia Bravo y Galván
José Miguel Cervantes Martínez

My Aunt Zita was born in the central Mexican hill town of Dolores Hidalgo, the cradle of Mexican independence. At eighteen, she came to California to scout out the territory for the rest of the family. The daughter of one of my grandmother’s brothers, Zita was one of my pathways into the history of my Mexican family.

The other pathway, albeit only briefly, was my paternal grandfather, Miguel Cervantes Martínez (I use the matronymic as the second last name, as is the custom in Spanish-speaking countries, because this was his real name). He was born in 1895 in Silao, which lies about fifteen miles west-northwest of Guanajuato, Mexico, capital of the state with the same name.

Some call Guanajuato the heart of Mexico. It is in the Bajío (lowland), which in spite of its name is a high (between 6 and 7 thousand feet) plateau suspended in the center of Mexico between the Sierra Madre Occidental and the Sierra Madre Oriental, the two great mountain ranges which run like twin spines down the sides of the country.

My grandfather was born into a family of humble origins: his father was a shoemaker from the Spanish province of Murcia who arrived in Mexico in the early 1890s. Aunt Zita says that my grandmother, María Eugenia Bravo y Galván, became enamored of Miguel Cervantes on the rebound from having been jilted by a local doctor. For Miguel to have contemplated matrimony with María Eugenia, also born in 1895 but into the family of a respected accountant in the state capital of Guanajuato, was to dream above his station, something rare even during Mexico’s early twentieth century revolutionary turbulence. Nevertheless, marry they did in Guanajuato in 1914, when they were both 19 years old. In the sepia wedding photo I have of them, they look solemn, innocent and heartbreakingly young. Their first child, my uncle Michael (Miguel Ángel), was the only one of their four children still living in 2002, when I first wrote this little essay. Born in July of 1915 in the city of Guanajuato, Michael passed on early in 2004.

How was it that his younger brother, my father, brown child of unmistakably Latino parents, was born in Olean, NY, a town of only white people, six years later? The short answer is that the family, like many families then, left Mexico and came to the United States. The longer -- and true—story is that they had to leave because there was a price on my grandfather’s head.

It was a time of almost incessant conflict in Mexico. This was the era of Francisco (Pancho) Villa, of gifted idealists and greedy power seekers, of the tremendous and often bloody ferment of a republic being born. The state of Guanajuato was the scene of a number of pivotal events in these conflicts, one of the most fought-over territories of the still young republic.

My grandfather, Miguel Cervantes Martínez, working hard to support his new family, accepted contracts to transport goods with a mule train which he ran with a few men who worked for him. At some point during this period, he was hauling grain for the federales, when he and his mule train had the bad luck to run into Pancho Villa. Villa’s men took the grain and the mules, and were getting ready to send my grandfather into the next world. The men who worked for him interceded on his behalf, saying to Villa that my grandfather was not a bad man, that he had no politics and was just doing what any man would who had a young family to feed. They must have pled eloquently, or Villa was in a magnanimous mood that day. He let Miguel Cervantes go, but he made it plain that if he were to bump into Miguel again, it would most likely be the last encounter Miguel would have with any living soul. During 1919, the family crossed the river into the United States at Nuevo Laredo. My uncle Michael was barely five, and the second child, Estela, was eighteen months of age. My grandfather Miguel Cervantes had papers only for himself. He had to trust María Eugenia and the two children to the coyotes, the operators who get people across the border illegally.

After various adventures, they wound up in that small town of Olean, New York, where the third child, Guillermo (William), and the last, my father, Roberto Martínez, were born. In Nebraska in the spring of 1876, my maternal great-grandfather James Ezekiel Davey married Rosalie Hornung, a twenty-five year old woman from the Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen, Germany who had come to the United States at the age of twelve. James’ own father had immigrated from Sligo County, Ireland around 1836.

According to the family history which my Nebraska cousin Harold Davey, tireless genealogist of this side of the family, has compiled, Rosalie’s mother, Louisa Burckhardt Hornung, single-handedly kept her family alive after the death of her husband in 1877 and after the collapse of their homesteaders’ sod house on the plains of Nebraska. She lived to the ripe old age of 80, leaving numerous great-grandchildren, a prosperous farm in Little Salt Precinct, Nebraska, and a reputation as a businesswoman of considerable acumen. Her daughter Rosalie and the Irishman’s son James had two sons and five daughters, of whom the youngest was Anna Davey.

In 1915, a year after my Mexican grandparents were married in Guanajuato, Anna Davey married a man named James Leslie Teal, and early in 1916 she gave birth to my mother, Grace Lenore Teal, in Lincoln, Nebraska. I am sure that the indomitable blood of her great grandmother Louisa ran strong in my mother’s veins. Not only was she a gifted pianist but she also earned the Master’s degree in English Literature and was Phi Beta Kappa from the University of Nebraska, a rare achievement for a young woman in the early 1940s. Like many young people with curiosity and a yen for adventure, she headed for Washington DC at the end of the Second World War. There she found a terrible housing shortage, but also a lot of interesting government jobs.

My father’s childhood cannot have been idyllic, and indeed the few tales he told me were mostly not happy ones. There was a great deal of racism in that little upstate New York town, and it often expressed itself toward the unfamiliar family with a different skin color and very little English. (As of the 2000 census, cited in Wikipedia, “Latino or any race” was only still 1.24% of the population.) My grandfather held down three jobs: in the railroad repair depot, as janitor in the bank, and at any other odd job he could get. More than once, in the depths of those terrible cold winters, he did what many other poor people must have done: he went to the railroad tracks to pick up coal that had fallen from the passing trains, in order to feed the stove in the house. Once he was found there and taken to the local lockup. Someone from the railroad had to come and vouch for him before he could be released. The story does not tell if they let him keep the coal.

As always, there were people who acted on their nobler instincts. These were the only ones my grandfather, a man of extraordinarily sweet temperament, talked about when he told me this story. The president of the bank where Miguel Cervantes worked was a good man. He helped my grandparents become citizens, and his wife was kind to my grandmother.

Somehow, through all of this, the family Cervantes seems almost always to have managed to keep a piano in the house. That Mexican accountant and maternal great-grandfather of mine, although a periodic binge drinker according to Aunt Zita and others, was a kindly and good father who saw to it that his daughters were educated. Thus my grandmother María Eugenia had some musical training and more than a little talent. She played the piano and even composed songs. My father grew up sometimes hungry for food, but with a great love of music. He enlisted in the military around 1943, the last of the four children to leave that precarious nest. During those war years, Miguel Cervantes Martínez and María Eugenia Bravo de Cervantes moved to New York City because there was more work there. It was during this time that my grandfather worked for a period of time in the Steinway piano factory in Astoria, Queens. Steinway made gliders for the United States military during the war, as they had special expertise in forming wood into these lightweight, maneuverable aircraft.

My father’s unit was preparing to ship out to the Pacific when the war ended. Instead of going to war he headed to Washington, DC to go to college on the GI Bill. That was where Robert Martínez Cervantes and Grace Lenore Teal met and married and my younger sister Madolin and I were born and raised. When I was about twelve, my mother bought herself a Steinway grand piano, no doubt built in that same factory in Queens. That piano now graces me with its presence in my life.

I grew up disconnected from both my mother’s Nebraska background and my father’s Mexican one. My father shared with many other first-generation immigrants a ferocious desire to assimilate, to put definitively behind him the past which his parents represented. In his case, this included separating almost completely from his family as well as from his mother tongue. My mother, who it seems had the stable and comfortable childhood my father lacked, nevertheless felt an  overwhelming desire to leave behind the places from whence she came, and thus to a great extent she too cut herself off from her family.

Grandparents, Anna Davey and James Leslie Teal
Circa 1915, Lincoln, Nebraska or environs

My father, Roberto Martínez Cervantes, died in 1983 without ever having set foot in Mexico, but not before he started speaking Spanish again, and not before he reconnected with his brother and with his father.

It was not until some time later that my own salad started to mix itself and the different flavors to emerge. In 1997, my sister died suddenly. Later that terrible year, I came to the city of Guanajuato for the first time and found my cousins in San Luis de la Paz, some three hours’ bus ride away. In late September of 1998, my mother Grace Lenore Teal passed on.

Six months later, in March of 1999, I was awarded a Fulbright-García Robles Senior Scholar grant to come to Mexico and develop a repertoire of contemporary Mexican concert music for subsequent performance in the United States. A scant two weeks before I left for that Fulbright year, I received an e-mail message from my Cousin Harold, whom I’d never known. Harold had found me through the Internet in the course of his genealogical research.

With him, I am part of yet another family, the Nebraskan and Mexican parts of me finding a connection. The salad continues to work itself together, and I continue to savor it, profoundly grateful for its unexpected sweetness and bitterness, its many flavors and connections.

Copyright ©1998 




by Ben Romero

Left to right: 
Teddy and Antionette Romero 
Ben and Evelyn Romero. 

I clutched the steering wheel of Dad’s black 1954 Ford sedan. My cousin, Teddy was on the passenger side of the front seat. The air inside the car was stagnant and dusty from months of sitting exposed to the elements. I’d worked the driver’s side window halfway down and pried open the vent. 

“I’m driving to California,” I announced. After-all, it was my turn to drive. I didn’t want my cousin to know that just the day before I’d sat as a backseat passenger in another car as some of my older cousins played the dream driving game. Cousin Leo had announced he was driving us to California and the destination stuck. Now I was using it as my own. All I knew about the golden state was what I had heard from relatives who’d moved out there seeking jobs and adventure. I’d heard my father say many times that he’d worked in the shipyards of Oakland and San Francisco when he was but a teenager, seeking his fortune.

Cousin Teddy worked at the radio knobs, pretending to find a Spanish station, low on static, and threw in a few lyrics. “Tu y las nubes me traen my loco, tu y las nubes me van a matar…”

“We’re getting close,” I said, pointing at the arroyo next to our house. “See the ocean?” 

Even though Teddy was big and looked older than his seven years, I felt superior because I was nearly a year older than him. He was the perfect playmate because he agreed with whatever my imagination told him.

“Maybe we can stop and go fishing in the ocean,” he suggested.

“We’ve been driving for many days now,” I said. “Too bad we didn’t pack a lunch.”

Reaching into his front pocket, he pulled out two crumbling cookies and said, “I brought food for both of us. Stop the car so we can have a picnic.”

Climbing out, we sat in the shade of the open door that faced the arroyo. Few cars traveled the dirt road that was itself part of the dry wash. But once in a while somebody drove by and we made believe that the sound of the vehicle was really an ocean wave.

Teddy found an old auto antenna in the dirt and started using it like a fishing rod. This made me jealous, because his fishing motion made it believable and it was better than anything I could find for myself.

“We have to keep driving now so we can get to San Francisco before it gets dark,” I said.

“I think we need to catch a lot of fish, so we can have enough to feed us and your aunt’s family when we get there,” he said.

Without a proper fishing rod, I didn’t want to keep fishing, and I didn’t like the idea that he was having such a good time with that car antenna.

“It’s your turn to drive now,” I said in desperation. 

Teddy placed the car antenna in the backseat and climbed behind the wheel.

“We’re going to Colorado,” he announced.

“But why? What about the ocean and the beaches and orange trees?” I protested.

“We’re going to bring home big sacks of papas for the winter,” he said.

“Did you bring lunch?” I asked.

“No. We can stop on the way and pick piñon. While you make a campfire I’ll catch us some fish in the river.”

This is how our day went. But before long, we were back home, in Nambé, gazing at the beloved Sangre de Cristo mountains that graced our northern New Mexico village with their majestic beauty. It was good to be home.
June 5, 1960 when my sister, Marcella and I made our First Communion.

Ben Romero, Author  of  Chicken Beaks Book Series



Real Gravestone Messages
Photos from the Inaugural RootsTech Conference in Salt Lake City
How to Find Hispanic American Records

These are actual gravesites in Mexico.  Sent by Pablo Trejo

RootsTech Family History & Genealogy Conference
Photos from the Inaugural RootsTech Conference in Salt Lake City
There's a lot of buzz and excitement going on at the inaugural RootsTech Family History and Technology Conference, held February 10-12, 2011. From the opening presentation by Hewlett Packard Executive VP, Shane Robison, to the pool tables and Wii stations in the Microsoft Playground area of the exhibit hall, it's obvious this is not your Grandma's genealogy conference.  Check out these pictures from the exhibit hall and convention center and see what all the excitement's about.

By Kimberly Powell, Guide


Records Background How to Find Hispanic American Records
Latino American Document Research
Webmaster writes:  I’ve been touching on a number of the American ethnicities or minority groups in recent weeks, so I wanted to discuss for a moment Hispanic American records.

You’ll find Latin-American records go back further than African-American or Native-American US records, because even though whites may not have (as individuals) always recognized their Spanish-origin neighbors, but these people were represented by nation-states, so their citizenship and the sovereignty was (usually) recognized by the U.S. government. That last statement might be up for debate in the case in many cases, but that’s an entirely different matter.

The point being, the American government has tried to record immigrants from Latin America, these people had official records back in their country, and Hispanics have tended to enter the official record at some point in their stay in the United States of America.

For all these reasons, you should be able to research your Hispanic-American heritage without too much trouble, so let me focus on researching Hispanic American records for additional background information. I wanted to point my readers to a number of nice resources on the NARA site that might help.

Hispanic American Heritage Archive

  • Education Resources on School Desegregation – 20 years before the Civil Rights Act and nationwide desegretation, a landmark case in California saw an end to desegregation of Mexicans from white in California schools. This is a story little-known by most Americans.
  • Mexican Border Cross Records – These are records kept by the National Archives and Records Administration for US-Mexican land border crossings from 1903 to 1955.
  • Bracero Mexican Labor Program Records – From 1950 to 1964, the Federally-sponsored Bracero Program allowed Mexican laborers to enter the country for seasonal work, mainly with California agricultural interests. These are the records from that period.
  • Ethnic Heritage Bibliography – NARA Spanish Resources – These are links to additional book information on Spanish/Hispanic guides, genealogical source books, histories, census records, and other Hispanic heritage research tools. You might need to scroll to the bottom of the page, but I think this link should do that automatically for you.
  • United States Army – Mexican Punitive Expedition – Here are the NARA records on the U.S. Armed Forces 1916-1917 “punitive expedition” into Mexico, in the hopes of finding Pancho Villa. Mexico was in the middle of a civil war, and Blackjack Pershing was sent with 14,000 U.S. troops to find and capture Villa, who was accused of raids across the border, and even a slaughter of a New Mexico town. I always wonder whether the 1916 action is termed a “punitive expedition” or “invasion” in Mexican schoolbooks.
  • Private Land Claim of Luis Mesa – These are the types of history studies I enjoy these days, where you see how “history” affects individuals and small groups of people. Take the case of “Luis Mesa“, who was a Mexican landowner in California during the Mexican War (1848-1849), where the U.S. collected what is now New Mexico, Arizona, and California from Mexico, and confirmed Texas’ status as the newest U.S. state. In the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo that ended the war, all Mexicans living in the ceded territory became U.S. citizens. But the Mexican government might have had a different view on the ownership of property than the U.S. government, which is what Senor Luis Mesa’s family learned when he died in 1870. These are the records filed by Mesa’s family in that 1870 court case.

More Hispanic American Records

Here are specific websites that might help you find out more about your Hispanic American heritage. Each of these is recommended by NARA, but are not affiliated with the National Archives.

Hopefully, these should help you researching Latin-American immigration records, or simply the history of the former Spanish colonies and Hispanic Americans in general. American history is intertwined with the Hispanic nations, so our official records are a treasure trove for people wanting to learn more about their Latino heritage.



Interesting DNA Success Story,,,
by J. Lackey
Editor: The sequence is a little complicated, but follow it . .  very interesting.

When my father died, my aunt told me that our surname was not really Lackey. She said that the William Lemuel Lackey that was reported to be our great-grandfather never existed. A William Lemuel did, but his name was not Lackey. My great-grandmother’s surname was Lackey, so she used this name instead. My aunt could not tell me anything more. Thus I had a brother take the YDNA test at FT (37 markers). Seven years went by and I had a few meaningless matches at 12 markers, nothing more. Then suddenly, in one week, I had three independent matches at the 37 marker level, all at a distance of 3, but none that knew each other. All had surnames that were one or another form of Carteret. One was Carteret, another Cattrett, and another Cartwright.

I knew I was onto something. So I took another look at the census for Wise County TX in 1880. This was where my great-grandmother lived when she conceived. Next to her family’s name was a Cartwright family. I was able to find out about this Cartwright family online. I saw that there was a William L. Cartwright who had died young, the very year that my William Lemuel Lackey ancestor was supposed to have died. There was an email attached to some of this family’s web posts. I was a bit nervous about this contact as the family was supposed to be devout Methodists and I feared that they would reject this possibility outright for their family member, William (as it would have been an illegitimate birth). But within a month I got a return email and the man, a Bob Cartwright, was willing to listen. He was also willing to take the YDNA test. He told me that William Cartwright was indeed a William Lemuel Cartwright. He also told me that William’s father had been somehow orphaned from his family in NC and ended up in TN, so he had no earlier info on the family.

While we waited for his DNA results to come back, I checked out the surname Carteret online. None of my matches (the Carteret, Cattrett, and Cartwright) knew about the origins of their family either, but I convinced them to join the de Carteret study for the Channel Islands. This is a royal lineage of Carterets that ultimately came to America and settled Albemarle NC and NJ. The three joined the Circle de Carteret study and one of the three had markers close enough to one of the Channel Island lineages that the head of this study declared him (and hence the others) a cousin.

Bob Cartwright then got his YDNA results back and we matched at 37 markers, distance of 0. He then connected me to all his TX relatives and we share emails weekly. We are also very connected to our distant Channel Island cousins by email and hope to join their family reunion in two years.

Source: Facts & Genes, Volume 9, Issue 1, February 2011
Sent by Paul Newfield III




March 5: "Barefoot Heart" by Elva Treviño Hart
                 Book discussion lead by Mimi Lozano
March 12: Researching for Alex Haley, author of "Roots" by 
Nancy Carlberg, professional genealogist
Thru March 13: Benjamin Franklin: In Search of a Better World
Heritage Museum of Orange County
Register for Family History Fair, April 23, 2011, FREE, 35 classes


March 5th, 2 pm 
Editor Mimi will lead a book discussion at the Bella Terra Mall, Barnes and Nobles Bookstore,
as part of Huntington Beach Reads in Huntington Beach at Edinger/Beach 

Book: BAREFOOT HEART by Elva Trevino Hart

A vividly told autobiographical account of the life of a child growing up in a family of migrant farm workers. It brings to life the day-to-day existence of people facing the obstacles of working in the fields and raising a family in an environment that is frequently hostile to those who have little education and speak another language. Assimilation brings its own problems, as the original culture is attenuated and the quality of family relationships is compromised, consequences that are not inevitable but are instead a series of choices made along the way. It is also the story of how the author overcame the disadvantages of this background and found herself.

What: Researching for Alex Haley, author of "Roots"

When: Saturday, March 12, 2011 9:30 a.m. to 11:30 a.m.

Where: Orange Family History Center, 674 S. Yorba Street, Orange, CA

Details: A free presentation...Everyone welcome...No cost. 

The presentation by
Nancy Carlberg, professional genealogist, is sponsored by the Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research (SHHAR). The presentation will include a discussion of her experience researching for Alex Haley, author of "Roots," "Roots II," and "Queen." Nancy has been helping many of us long before the internet came into being. When hired as a genealogist, she has had to travel to different areas of the world.

One-to-one research assistance is provided from 9:30 a.m. to 10:15 a.m. Presentation begins at 10:15 a.m.

For more information on this event, call Mimi Lozano at 714-894-8161.

Benjamin Franklin: In Search of a Better World

Currently, the Bowers Museum is hosting an exhibit entitled “Benjamin Franklin: In Search of a Better World.” Visitors of the exhibit can learn about one of the most influential people in history through hands-on, interactive activities. This exhibit will run through March 13, 2011, and is included with the free admission on the first Sunday of the month, from 10:00 am to 4:00 pm. You only need to show a California Driver's License, California Identification Card OR utility bill and picture ID as proof of residency.

For more information, you can contact Bowers Museum. 
2002 N. Main Street, Santa Ana. 714-567-3600 or .


Heritage Museum of Orange County

California Rancho Days Program Ready for Prime Time
Bookings Now Available for This Year
Editor:  Hooray, our successful California Birthday Day celebration at the Heritage Museum in November has lead to the inclusion of a Rancho Days Program.

The preview presentation of the new California Rancho Days program on February 4 met with rave reviews. 80 fourth-grade students from Carl Harvey Elementary in Santa Ana were treated to a free tour as the final logistics of the program were tested.

This exciting interactive presentation features living history re-enactors portraying key figures in pre-statehood California. Students have the opportunity to visit with mission founder Father Junipero Serra, mold their own adobe bricks, watch a real blacksmith in action, and learn from pioneer Santa Ana schoolteacher Anna Cozad.

This excellent program has been presented as part of Knott's Berry Farm's Adventures in Education, as well as at Sea World, Gardens of the World, Mission San Gabriel, Rancho Dominguez Hills, Forest Lawn Museums, Calico Ghost Town, and numerous schools and historical sites throughout California.

The program features living history actors Bruce Buonauro as Father Serra, Patty Boardman as Anna Cozad, and adobe expert and blacksmith Klaus Duebbert for hands-on adobe brick making.

California Rancho Days meets California Content Standards for 4th grade social studies.

The 2-hour tour costs $15 per student, with a minimum of 80 students per session. Interested schools with fewer than the minimum students are encouraged to call anyway. We will attempt to combine smaller groups who can come on the same day.

Please call 714-540-0404 during business hours to book a California Rancho Days program.

Contact Information
phone: 714-540-0404 
Sent by Yvonne Gonzalez Duncan


Five Sessions
 35 classes offered, 
something for everyone 


April 23, 2011

REGISTRATION: 8:00 a.m. - 9:00 a.m. 
ASSEMBLY: 9:00 - 10:00 a.m. 
Keynote Speaker: Kerry Bartels

Please pre-register the specific workshops that you want to attend. Circle your choices below and mail in.

Not required, but ff you would like to order a syllabus of handouts ($11.) or purchase a box lunch ($7.75), please make the check or money order payable to: ORANGE FAMILY HISTORY CENTER, and mail the check this form to: Family History Fair 11921 Manley St. Garden Grove, CA 92845

Name: _________________________________ Stake (if LDS)_________________

Address: __________________________________ Phone: ____________________

City: ____________________________ State __________ ZIP____________

 I need:  Hearing Impaired Interpreter  p    Spanish translation   p

Check enclosed for: Syllabus $11.00  p    Box Lunch $7.75      p   Total Paid                 $          

* Especially good for the beginner 
+ Good for youth 

SESSION I. 10:10 a.m. - 11:10 a.m.

SESSION II. 11:20 a.m. - 12:20 p.m.

LUNCH BREAK: 12:20 p.m. - 1:20 p.m.
Brown bag, box lunch or fast food (maps of nearby  eating places at the registration tables)

SESSION III. 1:20 p.m. - 2:20 p.m.
C. USING LAND RECORDS By Brenda Danielson

SESSION IV. 2:30 p.m. - 3:30 p.m.
C. POLISH RESEARCH By Daniel Bartosz

SESSION V. 3:40 p.m. - 4:40 p.m.
E. IRISH RESEARCH By Nancy Carlberg


March 2- 31: The Baseball Reliquary and Latino Heritage Exhibition
March 13: A Landmark Event in East Los Angeles Baseball History
March 5 - 30: Politicon 2011,  Convention of Artists Exploring the Genre of Art in Politics,  Reception, March 5th
March 12: Images from the LA Public Library Photo Collection
March 26:  Alma Llanera-Spirit of the Plains
March Pio Pico House
Survey of East Los Angeles Roots Underway
Murals of Estrada Courts
Casa del Mexicano

Sent by Eddie Garcia, Bea Armenta Dever



Saturday, March 12, 2pm  L.A. in Focus: 
Images from the Los Angeles Public Library Photo Collection

Central Library, Mark Taper Auditorium

Presented by Photo Friends. Urban anthropologist and author Eric Lynxwiler takes to the skies of 1950s Southern California in this presentation highlighting images from the recently-digitized Kelly-Holiday aerial photo collection. Free and open to the public.
The Hand in the Snow and the Crash of Northwest Flight 4422
Central Library, Mark Taper Auditorium
Saturday, March 19, 2pm

Fifty years after Northwest Flight 4422 crashed in Alaska, a frozen human arm and hand was found in the wreckage. It would take another ten years and a world class team of forensic specialists to make a positive identification of the remains. Please join us for this amazing story, told by Colleen Fitzpatrick, PhD, a forensic genealogist who worked on the case. Presented by the LAPL History & Genealogy Department. Free and open to the public.

In addition to these, I encourage you to look at the Los Angeles Public Library's Events Calendar to learn about other upcoming cultural and educational programs, including the Culinary Historians of Southern California's popular lecture series, an afternoon of chamber music with members of the Los Angeles Philharmonic, and docent-led library tours (

Validated parking is available at the Westlawn Garage at 524 S. Flower Street to Los Angeles Public Library cardholders. On Saturdays, parking is only $1 between 10am and 5:30pm with validation.

Thank you,
Mary McCoy
Librarian - History & Genealogy Department
Los Angeles Public Library
630 W. 5th Street
Los Angeles, CA 90071
(213) 228-7412


Saturday, MARCH 26, 8th
Alma Llanera-Spirit of the Plains
After over 18 months of intensive preparation Floricanto brings you this full evening work inspired by the novel Bless Me Ultima. Come enjoy the finished production!!! 

Blending the vocabulary of traditional Mexican folk dance-indigenous, African influenced and contemporary movement expressions, choreographer Gema Sandoval and her company Danza Floricanto/USA bring to the stage a vibrant dance rendition of a boy's coming of age story. After over 18 months of intensive preparation Floricanto brings you this full evening work inspired by the novel Bless Me Ultima. 

Downey Civic Theater
8435 Firestone Blvd., Downey CA. 90241
Tickets $20  Purchase tickets at: 
To view a preview please click here, 
Sent by


Pio Pico State Historic Park

Join Us for Our Next Living History Day 

Saturday, March 26, 2011 11 am to 3 pm 




Adobe Brick Making ... Archaeology Sandbox ... Bread Making Demonstration ... Children's Activities 
Old-Fashioned Victorian Games ... Costumed Docents ... Tours of Pio Pico's Historic Adobe Home ... Picnic Area 

Survey of East Los Angeles Roots Underway
By EGP News Report

Years after seeing East Los Angeles labeled as a dangerous destination without anything significant for tourists to see, Manuel Huerta, a filmmaker who previously lived in East LA, is trying to do something about it.

Working in collaboration with the Maravilla Historical Society, the LA Conservancy and the community, Huerta held a meeting to survey significant places in unincorporated East Los Angeles.

Some of the places identified are obvious choices like the Golden Gate Theatre and Self Help Graphics & Art, but through conversations, Huerta and his collaborators are collecting information on lesser-known places of importance, including some no longer there.

A ballpark at Belvedere Park called “El Porvenir,” where Black and Mexican-American baseball players faced-off in the first half of the 20th century, is no longer there, but is an important part of the area’s history, said Huerta, noting the information came from surveying elders in the community.

The survey is aimed at the unincorporated portion of East Los Angeles, but the borders are not rigid, he said, pointing out that the meeting was held at East LA College located in a neighboring city that used to be part of Unincorporated East L.A.

The goal of the project is to empower the community to preserve important places and to change the view of East LA, he said. The project is just getting started, but Huerta hopes that the result will be a website listing all the historically significant places.

For more information, email or call (323) 349-0996.

About Us: Eastern Group Publications was founded in 1979 by the husband and wife team Jonathan and Dolores Sanchez, but its roots were planted in the community long before that. In 1945, Joseph Kovner founded the Eastside Sun which became the main source of news for east L.A’s communities. The Sanchez’s bought the chain when it was on the brink of bankruptcy.

Today, EGP’s Hispanic owned newspapers boast a circulation of more than 104,000 households and businesses. A loyal readership of nearly 500,000, our newspapers provide an excellent advertising vehicle for companies trying to reach consumers in English and/or Spanish. Our community news focus gives readers the information they want most: news and events that are happening in their own neighborhoods.

Our chain of newspapers include Eastside Sun, Northeast Sun, Mexican American Sun, Bell Gardens Sun, City Terrace Comet, Commerce Comet, Montebello Comet, Monterey Park Comet, ELA Brookyln Belvedere Comet, Wyvernwood Chronicle, Vernon Sun.

Murals of Estrada Courts
by Sylvia Gonzalez-Hohenshelt

Eastside 101: Murals of Estrada Courts |  

The other day I was reminiscing about my childhood with my mother – I recalled Sunday afternoons visiting my father’s cousin who lived in the East Los Angeles housing project called Estrada Courts.  Estrada Courts were constructed to meet the affordable housing shortage following World War II.  What I recall best about visiting Estrada Courts were the larger than life murals painting on the sides of the apartment buildings – I guess when you’re eight or nine, everything looks larger than life!

  What I didn’t understand back then was that these murals create a unique identity for the housing project born out of the social issues of the 1970s.  These wonderful pieces of art are a relevant part of Latino culture and history – unfortunately, the murals have been victims of graffiti over time, and many have been painted over all together.  Hopefully our communities will recognize the significance of preserving some of this public art relevant to who we are as a people. 

You can view the murals at Estrada Courts by following the link.  There, you can also find an additional link to the artists.  My favorite is the “Earth merry-go-round” – I spent many a happy Sunday afternoon playing on the lawn facing this mural as a kid.



Casa del Mexicano

Muralist Hugo Martinez Tecoatl stands near his masterpiece: an elaborate array of murals vibrantly splashed across 4,000 square feet of space in Casa del Mexicano, a community and cultural center in Boyle Heights. Aztec gods, bicycles, serpents, marigolds and tributes to Pancho Villa, Benito Juarez and Emiliano Zapata stretch from the hardwood floor up 30- to 40-foot walls and across the ceiling. (Mark Boster/Los Angeles Times)
Inside a Boyle Heights cultural center is an array of vibrant scenes that Mexican artist Hugo Martinez Tecoatl has been toiling on for a year.

Tucked away inside of one of Los Angeles' oldest buildings, the artist could be mistaken for a squatter.

He sleeps on a ragged piece of carpet. He makes do without a shower. He wears nearly the same clothes every day: a plain T-shirt and worn-out sweat shorts.

But around the corner from where he sleeps is Hugo Martinez Tecoatl's masterpiece: an elaborate array of murals vibrantly splashed across 4,000 square feet of space. Aztec gods, bicycles, serpents, marigolds and tributes to Pancho Villa, Benito Juarez and Emiliano Zapata stretch from the hardwood floor up 30- to 40-foot walls and across the ceiling.

The work stands out even in Boyle Heights, where colorful murals are as common as taco trucks.

Quietly and with painstaking detail, the Mexican muralist has spent the last year transforming the inside of the 106-year-old building, the oldest cultural center for Mexicans in Los Angeles and home to numerous plays, concerts and other events.

At first Casa del Mexicano's director invited Tecoatl to paint scenes of Mexican history only on two arches, at opposite ends of the building. But when the artist finished those, she asked him to keep on going.

Piece by piece, he continued, never intending to paint the whole thing, until eventually, the entire interior was covered in an intricate blend of surreal images. Now only the giant cupola remains — because the center does not have scaffolding high enough to reach the 50-foot top.

"I want Mexican youth who may not know their story except for the color of their skin to see this and know we have a marvelous history," Tecoatl said. "We are different, and you can feel it when you walk in here."

Unlike Diego Rivera and David Alfaro Siqueiros, whose commissioned works were celebrated, the painter, who trained at one of Mexico City's prestigious art schools, took on the job with little fanfare — and hardly any compensation.

Each week he is paid $100. He is given a space to live inside the center, a cramped room behind the main hall's stage where actors change during performances. He is provided with all the paint, brushes and sketchbooks he needs. And to help him reach the ceiling, the center's director borrows scaffolding from an acquaintance.

"With little money and despite the struggles, we did it. And it's phenomenal," said Martha Soriano, president of the Comite de Beneficencia Mexicana, the nonprofit group that oversees Casa del Mexicano. "It gives life to our Mexico, to our building."

Located on a quiet cul-de-sac in Boyle Heights, Casa del Mexicano rises from the ground like a colossal lemon-and-lime-colored mirage. Much of the original features of the former Methodist church have been preserved, including the Roman columns and giant dome.

Back in the 1940s when the center opened, Mexican dignitaries and celebrities regularly visited. They danced and mingled in pearls and bow ties to raise money for cultural programs.

But in the late 1990s, the building fell into disrepair because of mismanagement. By the time Soriano and a new board of directors took over in 2004, the roof leaked, mice ran wild and windows were jammed shut.

Much of the building has been cleaned up and restored in recent years, but the cavernous inside remained a drab brown and beige, the cupola a blank, hollow slate.

In 2008, a muralist was hired to paint each Mexican state's emblem in the cupola, along with the faces of Juarez, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. But halfway through the emblems, he abandoned the project for another job.

It was then that a local art collector encouraged Tecoatl to offer his services. When he showed up at Casa del Mexicano, Soriano told him: "We don't have money, but I can give you all the paint you need and a place to live."

She also promised the 53-year-old painter the liberty to paint whatever he wanted — as long as it depicted the story of the Mexican people.

For Tecoatl, it was a challenge worth taking.

Eight years ago, he gave up his home, his truck and a job at a posh gallery in Polanco, Mexico City's Beverly Hills, to come to Los Angeles. The gallery, he said, had paid him well but discouraged him from painting socially and politically conscious pieces.

In L.A., people noticed his murals along the river and on the sides of several buildings. He was featured in exhibitions in Elysian Valley and East Los Angeles. To pay for rent, he worked odd jobs, decorating luxury purses and cleaning at a factory. He lived with roommates, and for some time, in his old blue Dodge van.

At Casa del Mexicano, the tall, shaggy painter moves about unassumingly, a tiny radio on the floor always humming the day's local news. He mixes his acrylic colors on Styrofoam plates, and hangs sketches on the walls for reference.

He wakes up at 3 or 4 a.m., turns on the lights and begins working.

Ask the slightest question about what you see on the walls and he will wax on about urban violence, the human spirit, the power of education and the significance of skulls and jaguars.

Each wall, each scene, he says, tells a story — provokes spectators to think.

On one, in sky blue, yellow and rose, Tonatiuh, the Aztec god of the sun, propels a cyclist to pedal at high speed. On the ceiling, in an explosion of pinks, a young boy sits in a chair reading dozens of books.

Not far away, Los Angeles City Hall and the 1st Street Bridge form the background to a dying young man sprawled across train tracks, his body surrounded by howling wolves.

"This represents violence in L.A., gangs and hate toward oneself," Tecoatl says.

Here, a mass of raised fists and angry faces depict the world's ongoing struggle for justice near a naked, red-eyed Zapata brandishing the decapitated head of an enemy.

There, a money-hungry skeleton mixes a vat of petroleum not far from a woman meditating in the lotus position.

Visitors who walk into Tecoatl's Sistine Chapel gasp when they see the changes to the space, Soriano said. They linger in front of different sections, debating meaning and taking photos.

Only a pair of skeletons making love on one section of the ceiling has raised eyebrows. (Tecoatl agreed to cover their top halves in marigolds while leaving their lower limbs intertwined.)

"We wanted something different, something never before seen," Soriano said. "And that's just what we got."

Rigoberto Tejeda, the center's theater director, first saw the murals a few months ago, when Tecoatl was halfway done.

"You walk in, and it feels like home," said the 32-year-old first-generation Mexican American from Whittier. "The walls are full of stories, not just the kind we've read in books or heard from our parents but the kind we create for ourselves."

Tejeda said he plans to take time to learn about each image, the same way he used to learn from elders during trips to Mexico as a child.

These days Tecoatl is so close to being done he no longer toils until sundown. He retreats in the late afternoon to his small room full of canvases and paint cans. Or he heads to a nearby gym to exercise and shower.

He hopes the center will be able to track down a ladder high enough to finish his work on the cupola — though, at this point, he said, he hasn't quite decided what he'll paint.  "Something with lots of warm colors and lots of strength."


Karina Miz, 
Community Outreach Coordinator 
Los Angeles Conservancy  in partnership with the National Trust for Historic Preservation 




SAVE THE DATE: 30 Apr 2011 Nueva Galicia Genealogical Society
San Diego Latino Film Festival
March 18:  Film Screening of The Longoria Affair
April 30th: Nueva Galicia Genealogical Society 2nd Annual Conference
Dispute settled over historic cemetery in Pacific Palisades
People of Watsonville 4 - Migrant Education By David Bacon
Old Mission Catholic Church Cemetery, San Luis Obispo Co.  
MEDIA ARTS Center San Diego announces the arrival of the prestigious and internationally recognized San Diego Latino Film Festival, now celebrating its' 18th edition. Over 20,000 festival attendees, 160 entertaining & award-winning movies starring such actors as Ricardo Darin, Martha Higareda, Demian Bichir, Adal Ramones, Carmen Salinas, Daniel Gimenez Cacho & more; plus, special guest celebrities, recognized filmmakers, industry professionals, artists, and musicians for all ages and tastes will gather from March 10 - 20, 2011 at the UltraStar Mission Valley Cinemas Hazard Center (just steps from San Diego Trolley's Hazard Center Station). 

All films in English or screened with English subtitles. A complete schedule of films, movie tickets, and information is available at  / 619-230-1938. 

Sent by Kirk Whisler, Executive Editor
Hispanic Print Network  760-434-1223


March 18:  Film Screening of The Longoria Affair, a film by John J. Valadez
Please review and share with all on your email list. This historical film places into perspective many of the past and present issues as well as abuses encountered by Latinos and Latinas in north San Diego County. Open attachments.

Two additional film presentations will be held at USD and Mesa College. Information regarding the film presentations will soon be released relative to dates, campus location and time of events. Coordination at each site is being done by Dr. Alberto Pulido (USD) and Mike Ornelas (Mesa College).

Latinos and Latinas, as well as the general public, are fortunate to have three local opportunities to view a great film. Please join us. Thank you.

Gus Chavez
Film screening documentary, "The Longoria Affair"
Friday, March 18, 2011 6:30 pm 
MARK 125
California State University San Marcos

The documentary "The Longoria Affair" tells the story of Mexican-American Felix Longoria, who died while fighting in World War II and his family was denied use of their south Texas town's only funeral parlor because “the whites wouldn’t 
like it.” His widow contacted Hector P. Garcia, a local doctor and activist. He, in turn, contacted a newly-elected Texas senator, Lyndon B. Johnson, for help. For more information about the film, visit:

John Valadez lives in New York and has been producing and directing award winning, nationally broadcast documentaries for the past 16 years. In November his film THE LONGORIA AFFAIR will air on the Emmy award winning series INDEPENDENT LENS. Last year his film THE CHICANO WAVE, a history of Mexican American music for the PBS/BBC series LATIN MUSIC USA received a prime-time national broadcast in both the United States and Europe. Valadez had two films on the acclaimed PBS series POV: PASSIN’ IT ON, about the false imprisonment of a former leader of the Black Panther Party and THE LAST CONQUISTADOR about an artist creating a controversial statue of a Spanish explorer who committed genocide. John directed the first hour of the PBS series MAKING PEACE about Chicano writer, activist and former gang leader Luis Rodriguez and produced THE DIVIDE, the first hour of the PBS series MATTERS OF RACE about a town in North Carolina fractured by racial division. Valadez was a director for the PBS series VISIONES: LATINO ARTS and CULTURE and a producer of the prime-time PBS special BEYOND BROWN. The film explores the re-segregation of American schools 50 years after the Supreme Court decision Brown v. Board of Ed. At CNN, Valadez wrote, directed and produced the award winning film HIGH STAKES TESTING for their prime-time documentary series CNN PRESENTS. The film was an hour-long investigative work about the Bush administration’s education policies. Valadez is a Rockefeller Fellow, has twice been a New York Foundation for the Arts Fellow and is a graduate of the CPB/PBS Producers Academy at WGBH in Boston. Valadez regularly screens his films and lectures at universities across the United States. A member of the Writers Guild of America East, Valadez is also a founding member of the National Association of Latino Independent Producers (NALIP) where he regularly mentors emerging filmmakers at the annual NALIP Producer’s Academy in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Valadez is a graduate of the film program at New York University’s Tisch School of the Arts.

This event is free and open to the campus community and the general public. 

For more information about the event, please contact the National Latino Research Center at California State University San Marcos at 760.750.3500, email or visit the website at

Parking permits for visitors are available in the parking lots. For driving directions, go to:

Sent by Gus Chavez

  April 30th: Nueva Galicia Genealogical Society 2nd Annual Conference
Rancho Cucamonga
SAVE THE DATE: Date: 30 Apr 2011 Time: 9:00 AM to 6:00 PM
The Nueva Galicia Genealogical Society will be hosting a genealogy conference on 30 Apr 2011 at the Goldy S. Lewis Community Center, 11200 Baseline Road, Rancho Cucamonga, CA. Speakers: 
Dr. Eric Van Young, Arturo Ramos, Rosalinda Ruiz, and Lorenzo Cuesta. 

Contact the Best Western Heritage Inn for accommodations.
8179 Spruce Ave., Rancho Cucamonga, CA 91730-3818
Phone: (909) 466-1111 and mention the Conference to get a group rate.
If interested in attending please contact  Rosalinda Ruiz at Email:
Cost to attend is $50.00 to Nueva Galicia Genealogical Society

Saturday, April 30, 2011
Goldy S. Lewis Community Center
11200 Baseline Road
Rancho Cucamonga, CA 75050

9:00 A.M. Registration check-in
9:30 A.M. Welcome Address – Lorenzo Cuest
9:45 A.M. The Pearl of the West: Colonial Guadalajara and its Historical Documentation – 
                Dr. Eric Van Young
10:45 A.M. Questions and Answers – Dr. Eric Van Young
11:00 A.M. Spanish Archives Online: PARES - Arturo Ramos

12:00 P.M. Lunch

1:00 P.M. Researching in Mexican Archives Online - Arturo Ramos
2:00 P.M. Border Crossing Records – Lorenzo Cuesta
2:45 P.M. Visiting Archives in Mexico: Guadalajara and Mexico City – Arturo Ramos
3:30 P.M. The Role of Local Historians (Cronistas) in Mexican Towns – Arturo Ramos
4:15 P.M. Citing Evidence in Genealogical Reports – Rosalinda Ruíz
5:00 P.M. Using Online Resources to Find Family Lines – Rosalinda Ruíz
5:45 P.M. Closing Remarks – Lorenzo Cuesta


Dispute settled over historic cemetery in Pacific Palisades

Neighbors agree to sell part of their land at a reduced price so the rancho-era burial ground can have street access.

January 30, 2011|By Martha Groves, Los Angeles Times


With a push from Los Angeles City Councilman Bill Rosendahl and a nudge from the city's Cultural Heritage Commission, a long-running dispute over a historic rancho-era cemetery in Pacific Palisades has been laid to rest.

In a deal that will help preserve the little-known Pascual Marquez Family Cemetery, neighbors have agreed to sell a portion of the land in front of the burial ground at a greatly reduced price. The space will allow for landscaping and provide access to winding San Lorenzo Street.

Once part of a vast cattle ranch, the cemetery stands amid the houses and swimming pools of Santa Monica Canyon, hidden from view by an aging wood fence. The historical landmark measures a fraction of an acre and holds the remains of roughly 30 early Angelenos, including the guests of a disastrous New Year's Eve gathering.

The agreement calls for La Señora Research Institute, a canyon nonprofit, to pay $35,000 for the parcel next to the street. The rest of the land's $127,500 value will be considered a donation by owners Fred Marcus and Davida Rochlin.

La Señora has agreed to raise funds to remove the fence that now edges the front of the parcel and replace it with an iron fence that will allow passers-by to see what will be known as San Lorenzo Garden. The institute will landscape the long-neglected property and be allowed to hold six events there a year.

"We're creating a sense of place for the cemetery," said Patricia Nettleship, the institute's director. "People will be able to drive by and see that it's part of the neighborhood."

In 1839, the Mexican government granted the area — which eventually became portions of Santa Monica and Pacific Palisades — to two Mexican citizens, Francisco Marquez and Ysidro Reyes. Marquez set aside land for burials within view of his adobe.

The cemetery contains the remains of Pascual, his youngest son, and perhaps 30 other family members, friends and American Indian servants — including a dozen or so guests who died of botulism after eating home-canned peaches at a New Year's Eve gathering in 1909.

Pascual Marquez, who died in 1916, was the last to be buried in the cemetery.

In the mid-1920s, the land was sold to Santa Monica Land & Water Co., which subdivided it for houses. The divisions left the cemetery without street frontage, although family members were allowed to enter it along a narrow easement. The frontage land on either side of the easement stood vacant for many years, but cemetery supporters worried that it would be developed.

Then, in October, the owners began digging on the southern portion of the property to lay foundations for their planned 1,800-square-foot residence.

Ernest Marquez, 86, Francisco's great-grandson, had alerted Marcus that an oral history suggested the possibility of remains buried outside the cemetery walls. An archaeologist dug in a few spots but found no evidence on the southern portion.

In November, a Marquez family member asked the Cultural Heritage Commission to expand the historic-cultural monument that now encompasses the cemetery. The city ordered Marcus and Rochlin to halt construction.

On Jan. 13, the commission recommended that the northern portion of the frontage be designated as part of the monument. That spurred both sides to finalize negotiations, with Rosendahl and a coalition of family members, neighborhood groups and preservationists urging them on.

Much work lies ahead. Marquez and Nettleship say they plan more exploration to see whether remains exist on the northern property outside the cemetery wall. They intend to clear weeds from the cemetery and replace grave markers. Marcus, meanwhile, said he looks forward to resuming construction.

Sharon Kilbride, a cousin of Ernest Marquez, said Marquez and Reyes family members previously unknown to one another have reunited because of the cemetery.

"I used to come here as a child and put flowers on the graves," she said. "It's been in my heart for a long time."

People of Watsonville 4 - Migrant Education at Ohlone School
By David Bacon

Watsonville, CA 11/19/10

Migrant Education is a product of the civil rights and farm worker movements of the 1960s. California's Migrant Education Program was established in 1967, two years into the five-year historic grape strike by the United Farm Workers. That strike, and the farm workers movement that it helped to ignite, gave migrant workers and their allies the political power necessary to get the state's educational system to respond to their needs. Today migrant education programs are one of the most important ways that farm worker families can win social equality and a future for their children beyond the fields.

The Pajaro Valley district includes thousands of students who travel with their families every year because their parents are migrant farm workers. The demographics of farm labor have changed radically over the last three decades. Today a large percentage of families come from Oaxaca and the states of southern Mexico. Many come from communities where people speak indigenous languages that were old when Columbus arrived in the Americas. The most common language among Watsonville students is Mixteco, although a few students speak Triqui or Zapoteco.

Families qualify as migrants because the parents work in farm labor, and have moved at least once in the last few years. In addition to education programs, children also get help with medical and dental care. The program has a very active parents group, with large meetings every month during the work season. Watsonville is close to the campus of the University of California in Santa Cruz, and university students help farm worker kids begin to think about the possibility of going to college.


Children of migrant farm workers, many of them from indigenous Mixtec families from Oaxaca, are part of the Migrant Education program at Ohlone Elementary School. Ofelia Lopez is a Mixteco-speaking student in Jenny Doud's class. Doud helps students learn the words to a song. In another classroom, students hold hands, jump and dance.

Natalia Gracida-Cruz is a tutor who speaks Mixteco with students for whom it is their primary language. Gabriela Diaz and Ruth Espinoza practice the sounds of the letters of the alphabet. Then Gracida-Cruz helps the two girls and Hector Cruz with recognizing letters and sounds. In another classroom she helps Victor Mendoza.

Outside, older students get ready to practice a Mixteco song, including Romualdo Ortiz, Elizabeth Espinoza, Ezequiel Espinoza and Luis Lopez. Then Gracida-Cruz and migrant education instructor Casimira Salazar lead the four students, plus Claudia Salvador, in a song honoring Mexico's first indigenous president, Benito Juarez.
For more articles and images, see

See also Illegal People -- How Globalization Creates Migration and Criminalizes Immigrants (Beacon Press, 2008)
Recipient: C.L.R. James Award, best book of 2007-2008

See also the photodocumentary on indigenous migration to the US Communities Without Borders (Cornell University/ILR Press, 2006) 

See also The Children of NAFTA, Labor Wars on the U.S./Mexico Border (University of California, 2004) 

David Bacon, Photographs and Stories 

Dr. Carlos Muñoz, Jr.  Professor Emeritus
Department of Ethnic Studies




Old Mission Catholic Church Cemetery

San Luis Obispo County, CA 

Brief History

Old Mission Catholic Cemetery is located at 9 South Higuera Street in San Luis Obispo, California. This cemetery is on the east side of Higuera Street and is sometimes confused with the I.O.O.F. - Lady Family - Sutcliffe Lawn Cemetery [Currently called the San Luis Cemetery] on the west side of Higuera Street. This is the third cemetery location used by the Mission. The first was located inside the Mission quadrangle. The second location, after 1860, fronted on Higuera Street. Both Carmel and Pacific Streets dead-ended at the cemetery on the opposite side.

On July 1, 1877, a law was passed by the City Council prohibiting burials within the city limits. After several extensions were granted, the present cemetery opened December 1, 1877. Some tombstones indicate earlier burials. These were probably moved from the two prior locations.

There were two news articles printed in the Daily Republic in October of 1888 [October 16 - October 22, 1888] with regard to the removal of bodies: "Work was commenced last Tuesday on the removal of all bodies from the old Catholic Cemetery. The work will be pushed forward until all the bodies are removed to the other cemeteries." [Page 86] And...

"The old Catholic cemetery will be cleaned out today and the old settlers will probably be disturbed no more until Gabriel toots his horn on the morning of the final round-up." [Page 88] In April of 1990, Members and Friends of the San Luis Obispo County Genealogical Society extracted full names, dates of birth and death, secondary comments, i.e. family relationships, war veteran data, photos, age, and other pertinent information as noted on the tombstone. Each section, including both mausoleums, was extracted according to the map sections. This cemetery is under the direction of the Monterey Diocese - Monterey, California.

There are 4071 recorded interments, along with many unknowns.

A "Basic Database" can be found here, in fully searchable pdf format, it contains the following information: Name, Date of Birth, Date of Death and a notation as to whether a Headstone was found. Additional Transcribers Notes and General Cemetery photos are available - Please Contact SLOCGS

A Map of the Cemetery can be found Here.  Headstone Images are now available Online.
Site Created: 25 September 2010 belongs to the San Luis Obispo County Genealogical Society

Old Mission Cemetery
San Luis Obispo, California
93401 101 Bridge St.
(Mail To) P.O. Box 13428
San Luis Obispo, CA 93401



   Hispanics/Latinos in the State of Washington

Seventy-five percent of the Hispanics in the NW are under the age of 35. (Commission on Hispanic Affairs, 2005 Annual Report)

Only about 1/3 of permanent NW Hispanics are engaged in agriculture or unskilled labor. The average household income is in the $35-40K range.  (Commission on Hispanic Affairs, 2005 Annual Report)

Since Census 2000 there are 52,000 more Hispanics in the Northwest with $1.5 billion more buying power. (The Larson Northwest Hispanic Market Report)

Washington Hispanic buying power increased from $2.1 billion in 1990 to $8 billion in 2003, a 287 % increase. (Selig Center for Economic Growth)


Ten Counties with largest # of  Hispanics/Latinos

1. King (109,419)
2. Yakima (87,495)

3. Pierce (46,844)
4. Snohomish (34,439)

5. Franklin (31,798)


6. Grant (25,673)
7. Benton (22,815)

8. Clark (20,703)

9. Chelan (14,438)
10. Skagit (14,079)


Ten Counties with highest % of Hispanics/Latinos

1. Franklin (56%)
2. Adams (51%)

3. Yakima (38%)
4. Grant (33%)
5. Douglas (22%)


6. Walla Walla (18%)
7. Chelan (21%)
8. Benton (18%)
9. Skagit (13%)

10. Okanogan (8%)


Yakima, Franklin, Grant, Benton, Chelan and Skagit counties are all among the top 10 counties with both the highest number and percentage of Hispanics/Latinos in Washington.

Washington CRA Roundtable, September 7, 2006 Immigrant Access to Financial Services



The Old Spanish Trail Association’s 2011 Annual Conference
White Peak Trades Tossed
Colorado Hispanic Genealogy Society, Connected to the Past

Seed Sovereignty in New Mexico
Soledad Chávez Chacón, New Mexico's 1st Female Governor 
New El Paso magazine, Nuevos Paisanos


Make Plans to Attend!                                 

The Old Spanish Trail Association’s

2011 Annual Conference

June 2-5, 2011

“The Old Spanish Trail in California” will focus on the commerce, the people, the cultures, events and legacies arising from the earliest link between Santa Fe and Los Angeles.

The trail takes its name from the old Spanish colonies in northern New Mexico and southern California which were linked by this rugged route. The Spanish outpost of Santa Fe, NM was founded in the early 1600's ten years before the Plymouth Colony was established by the Mayflower pilgrims. The presidio of Monterey was founded in 1770 and the San Gabriel Mission in 1771. But it was not until 1829 that a suitable land passage between these colonies in the interior of New Mexico and the California coast became established and regularly used. Today, only a few remnant traces of the trail can be seen where hundreds of fast trotting mules and their tired muleteers once traversed the high country of New Mexico and Colorado on their way to California’s fertile trading fields.

Don’t miss this chance to mingle with experts and trail buffs, as well as enjoy a California rancho-style pit barbecue.  The conference will bring together scholars and representatives from historical and genealogical societies, trail associations, colleges, museums, Native American tribes, government agencies, and participants from other organizations.  

Where:  Kellogg West Hotel,  3801 W. Temple Avenue, Pomona, CA  91768  (part of the Cal Poly campus)

Registration Fees:
OSTA members $85, Non-members $95, $50 for single day (June 3 or 4)
 Students 50% off with valid student ID

Join & register package: Single membership $20; Family membership $25—a $5 savings

More info:  Visit or telephone Jack Prichett, conference chair, at 310.895.4747.

 Concessions available for organizations, booksellers and other vendors.


Partial List of Topics and Speakers confirmed

Overview of the Old Spanish Trail in California
John W. Robinson, author of numerous books on California, OSTA member and founder of its first chapter in California

William and David Workman: Their English Background
David Fallowfield, member of OSTA's William Workman Chapter, Cumbria, UK

Fresh off the Trail - Women, Mexican California & the law: Casilda Sepulveda's 'Divorce' in 1842 & Guadalupe Trujillo de Quintana's Murder Trial in 1843
Miroslava Chávez-García, PhD. Associate professor in the Chicana/o Studies Program at the University of California at Davis

Report from OSTA's Federal Partners 
Aaron Mahr, National Park Service. Superintendent
National Trails-Intermountain Region,
Santa Fe, NM 

Sarah Schlanger, Bureau of Land Management. Associate State Archaeologist, New Mexico
and BLM Lead, Old Spanish National Historic Trail,New Mexico State Office

Kendall Clark, U.S. Forest Service. Forest Supervisor, Carson National Forest, New Mexico
End of the Trail and New Beginnings: The Los Angeles Plaza 1781-2011 William D. Estrada, Curator of California and American History, Chair of the History Dept., Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History 

Cuisines along the Trail: Beef, Mutton & Game
Charles Perry, Pres. Culinary Historians of Southern California and former LA Times food writer
2011 Old Spanish Trail Association Conference



White Peak Trades Tossed - January 25th, 2011

Copyright © 2011 Albuquerque Journal
By 2011 Phil Parker And Karen Peterson
Journal Staff Writers
A divided New Mexico Supreme Court on Monday ruled against the White Peak land swaps negotiated by former State Land Commissioner Pat Lyons and appeared to bar any future trades of private tracts for state trust land.

The high court said it wasn't ruling on whether the four-part exchange of land parcels in the White Peak area north of Ocate was a good deal or a bad one.

The opinion by Justice Richard C. Bosson says the "Land commissioner makes a cogent argument supporting his conclusion that certain private land exchanges would improve the management and value of state trust lands."

But it says that under New Mexico's 100-year-old Enabling Act, the state land commissioner can only dispose of trust land "by a true public auction."  "Without the benefit of an auction's objective means of sale ... there is no protection against favoritism," the opinion says.

Bosson, joined by Justices Petra Jimenez Maes and Patricio M. Serna stressed that the court wasn't undoing any past Land Office exchanges.

Justices Edward Chavez and Charles Daniels dissented. Chavez noted that the land commissioner's "undivided loyalty is to the designated beneficiaries and not the state as a whole." By quibbling over the specifics of the auction process instead
of questioning the commissioner's overall authority to exchange land, Chavez wrote, "the attorney general seeks to protect the best interests of the bidders (in the White Peak case), not the best interests of the trust beneficiaries." It was Attorney General Gary King who challenged the trades before the Supreme Court.

In the White Peak deal, Lyons maintained the trades he negotiated with ranchers would help clear up complicated boundaries between state and private land and prevent trespassing, poaching and vandalism. Opponents said Lyons was giving up some of the state's best public elk hunting territory.

The Supreme Court majority noted that the Enabling Act says state trust lands "shall not be sold or leased, in whole or in part, except to the highest and best bidder at a public auction." Because the White Peak deals had to be worked out ahead of time, the opinion says, the exchanges were made using negotiating and bargaining "rather than seeking the highest financial gain through objective means."

The Land Office had hoped the word "dispose" in the Enabling Act would implicitly grant authority to make swaps, but the Supreme Court decision rejected that notion.  The opinion says it "cannot be understated" how significantly allowing trades like the White Peak swaps would impact future state land management: "The Land Commissioner's interpretation would open the door to collusive deals and favoritism, a door the framers of the Enabling Act explicitly stated intentions to shut. It would allow private deals favoring select private parties."

For decades, the opinion says, the Land Office has been engaged in land exchanges with public entities involving hundred of thousands of acres of state trust land. A number of facilities in New Mexico were built on land traded away by the Land Office, including the University of New Mexico's West Side campus and the New Mexico School for the Blind and Visually Impaired in Alamogordo.

According to documentation provided to the Supreme Court, the opinion says, only two exchanges have been made with private entities. The opinion stresses that the court's ruling shouldn't affect previous deals: "We apply our writ and the reasoning behind it only to the exchanges challenged by the attorney general in this case and not to any exchanges that may have taken place in the past. ... We do not wish to leave any cloud on previously transferred titles that are not before us."

Powell reacts: Current Land Commissioner Ray Powell said he was happy the White Peak trade had been knocked down. A Democrat, he had opposed Republican Lyons' White Peak deals on the campaign trail last year.
Last week, Powell had moved to block three of the four trades that hadn't been completed.

Attorney General King, a Democrat, had asked the Supreme Court to bar Lyons from following through on the swaps. Lyons couldn't be reached for comment Monday.

One of the White Peak trades would have been with the UU Bar ranch. "The state spent a lot of money, and we, and other private landowners, spent a lot of money getting appraisals and surveys," general manager Mike Hobbs said. "It was a lot of time."

Hobbs said he wouldn't have made the deal if he hadn't looked into previous exchanges conducted by the Land Office. "That is going to be an interesting can of worms to be opened," Hobbs said.

Maximize earnings: Justice Chavez pointed out in dissent that the commissioner is obliged to maximize earnings from state trust land and accordingly is not limited to selling state lands to the highest bidder. Rather, Chavez wrote, the Enabling Act gives land commissioners broad authority to manage land for the beneficiaries, including to exchange trust lands for other lands of higher value, particularly when, as Lyons argued in the White Peak case, those swaps would make management of the rest of the state-owned land in the area easier and more cost-effective.

The dissenting justices also noted that in previous cases, the court had held that land commissioners had broad discretion to decide what land might be offered for sale and under what terms. The majority noted that New Mexico voters have twice voted against amendments to the Enabling Act that would have broadened the land commissioner's authority to make trades. "The amendment would not have been necessary had the Enabling Act authorized exchanges all along," the majority said.

Read more: ABQJOURNAL NORTH: White Peak Trades Tossed 

Sent by Armando Rendon

Colorado Hispanic Genealogy Society Keeps the Community Connected to the Past
Notitas De Noticias, February 2, 2011

In much of the Southwest, ancestry and family history information is only available from the elders of the community, as written history is either lost, or was never written in the first place, but the Genealogical Society of Hispanic America is trying to change that.

Recently, at the Southern Colorado Heritage Center, Virginia Sanchez had the undivided attention of her audience as she spoke of the nearly lost history of the town of Cucharas, a ghost town of Huerfano County in Colorado.

Sanchez, the author of “The Forgotten Cucharenos of the Lower Valley,” said that when she set out to learn the history herself, she had trouble finding information.

“That’s why I wrote the book,” said Sanchez, so someone wanting to take a look into the area’s past maybe wouldn’t have such a difficult search.

Sanchez’s reading was part of the monthly meeting of the Fray Angelico Chavez Chapter-Pueblo of the Genealogical Society of Hispanic America, which began in 1989.

“The Colorado organization was formed in Denver by David Salazar and held a meeting in Pueblo in 1989 to see if there was any interest here in a similar group,” said Charlene Garcia Simms, who has been involved with the chapter since it started.

“At one point the organization grew to more than 400 members,” she said. “That was too big, so new organizations were spun off to keep it a manageable size.”

The chapter first and main focus is only helping people find information about their family history.

“We provide a basic chart for writing a family tree. We also help people find the resources available to help trace their family origins,” said Garcia Simms.

She adds that DNA analysis, while offering a more exact picture of your roots, can cause serious questioning of the family history you were told.

“You might find out that you are a Duran instead of a Martinez. There was a lot of fence-jumping, a lot of chaos in New Mexico back then,” she said.

Heraldo Acosta, the new president of Fray Angelico chapter says the time to ask questions about your family’s past is now, before any more history is lost.

“If you don’t talk to your grandmother and she passes away, it’s like a library burning down. It’s gone.” 


Seed Sovereignty in New Mexico
Good morning everyone...

This is my first time posting to this list. I am a farmer and Mayordomo of our acequia in Taos, agriculture educator, and PhD Candidate in Biology at the University of New Mexico. 

For those of you interested in cultural survival, I have just produced and uploaded a video about Seed Sovereignty in New Mexico. This was the first time that I am aware of that an Alliance was forged between Hispano and Native American farmers to address the issue of genetic engineering and our agricultural survival. This issue affects everyone who eats, however... Those of you into Mexican food will appreciate the imagery...

Please check it out and let me know what you think or if you have any questions. It is about 10 minutes long.

We are in the middle of a struggle to protect our farmers from genetic engineering contamination liability, more info at   

Bueno, thank you, let me know what you think and please help me get the word out on this... 

Miguel Santistevan

Soledad Chávez Chacón,
'Lala' Was New Mexico's 1st Female Governor 

By Deborah Baker, Journal Staff Writer
Albuquerque Journal, October 24, 2010 
Diane Denish won't be the first woman to serve as New Mexico's governor. Neither will Susana Martinez. 
Either one, of course, would be the first woman elected to the state's top job. But the distinction of being the first woman to govern belongs to political pioneer Soledad Chávez Chacón, who presided over the young state for two weeks in the summer of 1924. 

The "hand of destiny" provided her the historic opportunity, the Albuquerque woman said in a statement as she took office June 21 — "attired in a lavender dress," according to a newspaper account. 

Chacón, a Democrat, had been elected secretary of state in 1922, just two years after women got the right to vote and a year after the New Mexico Constitution was amended to allow them to run for office.  She was the first woman to be elected secretary of state — and one of the first two women elected to statewide office — in New Mexico.  And she was the first Hispanic woman in the nation to win statewide elective office, according to the Center for American Women and Politics at the Eagleton Institute of Politics at Rutgers University.  They called her 'Lala' Chacón, nicknamed "Lala," was bright and educated. From a prominent, middle-class family, she was descended from early New Mexico governors. 

She was active in literary, artistic and issues-oriented clubs, and supported women's suffrage. But a political career likely wasn't on her mind the day a group of influential Democratic men, a couple of them her relatives, knocked on her door in 1922 and asked her to hurry over to the party's state convention. 

"My mother did not solicit the nomination," her daughter, Adelina Chacón Ward, recalled in a 1982 interview. "She was in the kitchen baking a cake, and I saw the car pull up outside." Chacón agreed to the nomination after consulting with her husband and father.  Democrats swept the election, and Chacón started her two-year term as secretary of state in 1923. 

In May 1924, Lt. Gov. Jose A. Baca died unexpectedly. So, when Gov. James F. Hinkle headed to New York the next month for the Democratic National Convention, Chacón was next in line. 

That line of succession remains unchanged today, and subsequent secretaries of state have also been called on to act as governor — typically, whenever the governor and lieutenant governor must be out of the state simultaneously. Denish, now in her second term, became New Mexico's first elected female lieutenant governor in 2003, and she has often acted as governor when Gov. Bill Richardson has been out of state. 

Chacón said she believed that her 1924 elevation was the first time in the U.S. that a woman had been called on to assume the responsibilities of governor. 

It was her "earnest desire to carry out the plans and wishes of our governor during his absence, in as fearless and conscientious a manner as has been his policy," she said. 

Chacón was greeted on her first day by an office full of flowers from friends and supporters and a steady stream of well-wishers, according to an account in the Albuquerque Morning Journal. 

The New Mexico State Tribune reported that "for the first time ... a woman has become the chief executive of one the largest states in the Union," according to a 1982 article in IMPACT, the Albuquerque Journal Magazine. 
"She is a young woman, too, and a good-looking one," the newspaper said. 

It was a busy couple of weeks for the acting governor, according to historian Dan D. Chávez, who wrote a monograph about Chacón in 1996. 

"There's no such thing, really, as an acting governor," Chávez said in a recent interview. "When the governor leaves the state ... you are indeed the governor."

Chacón signed a requisition for federal funds for the New Mexico National Guard, pardoned an inmate at the recommendation of the New Mexico Industrial School's board and superintendent, issued notary public certificates, made an appointment to the Board of Chiropractic Examiners, and requested the extradition from Kansas of a man wanted for larceny. Gov. Hinkle returned to the state July 5, according to Chávez.  

Chacón was re-elected to a two-year term as secretary of state in 1924 — the same year two U.S. women made history by being elected governors of their respective states: Nellie Tayloe Ross of Wyoming and Miriam Amanda Ferguson of Texas. 

Chávez quotes historian Charles F. Coan as saying Chacón "possesses an unusual fitness for public office, being painstaking and careful, prompt and courteous and inspired."

The office ran "without friction and without jar," Coan also said. Shortly after the 1926 elections, Chacón had to travel to Las Vegas to settle a heated dispute over the San Miguel County sheriff's race. She declared the winner by six votes. 
"She told us she thought that when she walked into the meeting there was going to be some shooting," her daughter recalled in the 1982 interview. 

Another first: Chacón added another "first" to her political résumé in 1934, when she became the first Hispanic woman elected to the Legislature from Bernalillo County. She was in her second year as a member of the state House of Representatives when she died in August 1936, of peritonitis. She would have turned 46 a week later. 
Chacón was a 1908 graduate of Albuquerque High School and completed the accounting curriculum at Albuquerque Business College. 

She married Ireneo Eduardo Chacón in 1910 — and appointed him assistant secretary of state after her first choice for the position, her close friend Imelda Espinoza Chávez, turned it down. The couple had a daughter and a son: Adelina Chacón Ward and Santiago Chacón. Ward said in the 1982 interview that her mother enjoyed her service in state government. 
"She had been career-minded when she completed her education, and she felt her dreams were being fulfilled," Ward said. 

Sent by Mercy Bautista-Olvera 

New El Paso magazine, Nuevos Paisanos
Friends and El Paso Community Supporters;

Del Pueblo Press, myself, and our five-member Editorial Board has launched our new El Paso magazine, Nuevos Paisanos. NP is a bilingual, immigration magazine and community resource guide. Our inaugural issue covers immigration sub topics such as Special Juvenile Immigrant Status (Kristin Connor-DMRS), Domestic Violence, Immigration, and VAWA (Eduardo Beckett, Esq.), and more! March will highlight the farm worker center, our area's migrant farm workers, contemporary immigration struggles, labor rights, and Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta.

Please share this link to our Nuevos Paisanos E-Magazine. Encourage your networks to submit their  articles/stories/ads/photography/and organization/event information for next month's issue.  or visit

Prisiclla Portillo
Del Pueblo Press, Inc.
500 S. Mesa, Ste. E  El Paso, Texas 79901
Phone: 915-219-2882 Fax: 1-877-904-8503

Regards,  Priscilla Portillo
Sent by  Dorinda Moreno  



Fiesta de Los Isleños
Mardi Gras Galveston 2011 
Ben Lossing's Pictorial Field Book of  the War of 1812 
Assumption Parish, Louisiana 
Pilsen Historic District, Chicago's South Side
Latin American Coalition Unveils New Techn Center in Charlotte

Editor: Do go to their website, for a much more information, videos, oral histories, and researching resources.
Sent by Bill Carmena, 



Mardi Gras Galveston 2011 
February 25th- March 8th (Fat Tuesday)

Photos by John Inclan of Mardi Gras Galveston 2010 

Galveston celebrates its 100th event since its inception in 1867. This year's celebration marks the 25th consecutive year of Mardi Gras! Galveston since its 1985 revival.

Beginning on February 25 and it's not over until the Fat Lady sings! Fat Tuesday, March 8. The island comes alive with 11 extravagant parades, more than 50 galas and festive events, bead throwing, exhibits, live entertainment in local clubs, and the best Gulf Coast cuisine in the world. One of the most popular annual events to take place in Texas, the event is rich with laughter, celebration and people watching. There is something for everyone including a beachfront carnival, shopping, and nightlife featuring everything from Cajun and salsa to jazz and rock and roll. Returning this year – the incredible Philadelphia Mummers who take to the streets in colorful costume to entertain young and old.




Location: The Mardi Gras Entertainment District includes 20th – 25th Streets and Harborside Drive to Mechanic Streets. This area includes more than 15 square blocks. Daytime parades also take place along Seawall Blvd. between 14th Street and 59th Street.  Price: FREE to attend!

El Martes de Carnaval, en el calendario cristiano, es el último día de Carnaval que antecede al Miércoles de Ceniza, inicio de la Cuaresma. En tiempos en que la Cuaresma recibía un mayor seguimiento los días anteriores al Miércoles de
Ceniza, se conocían como Carnaval o carnestolendas. Estos días previos se realizaban diversas actividades como banquetes, bailes, juegos y de esta manera se enfrentaban al comienzo de los días de penitencia.

El origen de esas celebraciones se remonta a fiestas paganas de tiempos precristianos, que correspondían al ritmo de las estaciones y de los trabajos agrícolas. La tradición de celebrar el Carnaval sigue muy viva en muchos países de Europa y América. En Europa, el Martes de Carnaval, se consumen tradicionalmente ciertos platos muy calóricos como las rosquillas, los buñuelos, los crepes o los gofres.

El Martes de Carnaval recibe distintos nombres según el país, en Alemania se le llama Fastnacht, ‘víspera de ayuno’, y algunos países del sur de Europa lo llaman carnaval proveniente de "de carnem levar" que significa ‘quitar la carne’. En los Estado Unidos de América se ha adoptado la denominación francesa Mardi Gras, que significa ‘martes graso’, al igual que Terça-feira gorda, en los países de habla portuguesa. Algunas tradiciones dan comienzo a la festividad del carnaval el jueves anterior (llamado Jueves Lardero), haciendo que las celebraciones duren hasta seis días.



Ben Lossing's Pictorial Field Book of  the War of 1812 
a Google E-Book

Editor:  This is a fascinating book.  The information reads like a newspaper article.  On page 1004, is a description of an attack on September 26, 1814, by British privateers (pirates) against General Armstrong, an America ship.  The attack takes place as General Armstrong is anchored in the neutral port of Fayal, in the Azores, an island belonging to  Portugal.  The captain of the American vessel was Samuel C. Reid.  In spite of a massive attack by a British squadron, the American sustained only two deaths and seven wounded.  The British suffered over 300 deaths and wounded.  Ultimately the Americans abandoned the ship and the British burned it. The interesting fact was that this combat crippled the British forces and prevented them from sailing and seizing New Orleans, which was their intent.,+privateer,+-ripper,

Thank you to Bill Carmena

Assumption Parish, Louisiana 

ienvenue à la Assumption Parish LAGenWeb Project! Welcome to the Assumption Parish LAGenWeb Project! This website is affiliated with the USGenWeb Project. Assumption Parish was created by an act of the legislature of Orleans territory, as the 8th parish of the territory in 1807. Under French and Spanish rule, present day Assumption Parish formed a part of the Lafourche Settlement. This area was originally settled during the middle of the 1700s along Bayou Lafourche, between the present towns of Napoleonville and Donaldsonville by the French and Spanish. From 1755 to 1765, the population was increased by the immigration of the exiled Acadians who entered the area clearing the land and building comfortable homes. Many of their descendants are numerous in Assumption Parish today. During 1785, Assumption had a population of 646. By an act of the legislature of Orleans territory in 1807, Assumption was created as the 8th parish of the Orleans territory. Napoleonville, situated on Bayou Lafourche, at about the center of the parish, is the parish seat. Assumption Parish is bordered on the north by Iberville and Ascension Parishes, on the east by St. James and Lafourche Parishes, on the south by Terrebonne and St. Mary Parishes, and on the west by St. Martin and Iberia parishes. Take time to discover the history and heritage of this beautiful unique Louisiana parish. Visitors are also invited to make the Assumption Parish LAGenWeb project more valuable to researchers by submitting research material to the site.
General Parish Historical Records
A History of Assumption Parish

Census Records
1810 Federal Census Images

1810 Federal Census Transcript
1860 Federal Census Transcript

Newspaper Records
Assumption Pioneer Abstracts: 1850-51

Assumption Pioneer Abstracts: 1850-52
Assumption Pioneer Abstracts: 1900-01
Assumption Pioneer Abstracts: 1902
Assumption Pioneer Abstracts: 1903-04
Assumption Pioneer Abstracts: 1905
Assumption Pioneer Abstracts: 1905-06
Assumption Pioneer Abstracts: 1906-07
Assumption Pioneer Abstracts: 1907
Assumption Pioneer Abstracts: 1907-08


Sent by Bill Carmena, 


Military Records
Co. H, 28th LA Regiment Roster

Co. K, 8th LA Infantry Roster
Demophon LeBlanc Discharge
Demophon LeBlanc Discharge Image

Church and Bible Records
Catholic Church Burial Records: 1913-1954

Lefort-Ferlot Marriage Certificate
Templet-Folse Family Bible

Miscellaneous Records
Deaths from Marie Aucoin Journal: 1900-14

Journal Of Mrs. Sabin Aucoin: 1922-1931
Tobias Ambre Ohmer Naturalization Papers
Certification of Doctors and Dentists: 1882-1913
Terrebonne Life Lines Articles

Property Records
Bourgeois-Thibodaux Land Sale: 1877

Mortgage: Ohmer to Christian and Lee: 1901

Probate Records
Marguerite Duhon Succession Papers: 1852

Pamela Dugas Succession Papers: 1874



Pilsen Historic District, Chicago's South Side

There are many historic districts out there that have large Latino populations. One of those is the Pilsen Historic District in Chicago’s South Side. Pilsen’s largely Mexican-American population has done a wonderful job at rehabilitating many of the structures.  Pilsen received state historical landmark status in 2006.

Pilsen Historic District

Sent by Sylvia Gonzalez-Hohenshelt | Manager of Public Programs, Villa Finale
National Trust for Historic Preservation | 122 Madison, San Antonio, TX 78204
Phone: 210.223.9800 | Fax: 210.223.9802 | Email: | 
Visit one of our historic sites. You’ll discover great architecture, extraordinary collections, and unforgettable experiences. Begin your explorations at

Latin American Coalition Unveils New Technology Center in Charlotte
to Increase Digital Literacy Among Hispanics

CHARLOTTE, NC – (February 22, 2011) – In response to the imperative need to help advance broadband access and literacy among the Hispanic community, Time Warner Cable (TWC) and the League of United Latin American Citizens have partnered to activate the “Empower Hispanic America Technology Center” at the Latin American Coalition (the Coalition) in Charlotte. 

The Latin American Coalition will host a dedication ceremony for the new technology center on Thursday, February 24 from 10:00am to noon at its building located at 4938 Central Avenue in East Charlotte. Latin American Coalition Executive Director Jess George will be joined by Carol Hevey, East Region Executive Vice President, Time Warner Cable, Brent Wilkes, National Executive Director, LULAC, Jennifer Roberts, Chairperson, Mecklenburg County Commission, and other Hispanic community leaders. 

The new technology center, which includes 10 computers and other peripheral equipment, will provide Coalition visitors with complimentary access to Time Warner Cable’s Business Class high speed Internet service and strengthen existing classes that will help Hispanics develop computer skills necessary to research career options. Additionally, the tech center will complement the Coalition’s efforts to empower Latinos with educational opportunities such as financial literacy, English language classes and online citizenship curriculum in order to compete and succeed in the workforce. 

Made possible by a $200,000 grant from Time Warner Cable, the Empower Hispanic America Technology Center in Charlotte is one of five created through the Time Warner Cable and LULAC partnership. Tech centers have also been sponsored in San Antonio, Texas; Kansas City, Missouri; Waukesha, Wisconsin; and Cincinnati, Ohio. Time Warner Cable and LULAC plan to provide free Internet access to another 13 technology sites throughout the United States in 2011. Latin American Coalition is a participating member of LULAC’s broadband adoption initiative, Empower Hispanic America with Technology which consists of a network of 60 community technology centers in 27 states. 

About the Latin American Coalition
The mission of the Latin American Coalition is to promote full Hispanic participation in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg region by informing, educating and advocating for the Latin American community. We envision a diverse and vibrant community that embraces, supports and respects people of all cultures and backgrounds. Twenty years after its inception, the Latin American Coalition is proud to be Charlotte’s oldest and largest Hispanic service agency. 
Contact: Jess George, Latin American Coalition, 704-531-3845


Sept 29-Oct 2, 32nd Annual TX Hispanic Genealogical & Historical Conference 
Texas Heritage Online
March 1834: The Texas Revolution, Texas State Archives
March 5: Hispanic Heritage Center of Texas, Hispanic Heritage Matters 
March 5: Los Bexareños Genealogical & Historical Society Meeting
                Jack Cowan, "The Texas Connection to the American Revolution"
March 12, 2011  The Longoria Story 
Battle of Medina: The Tejano Thermopylae of Texas
Pedro Veracruz at the Alamo by Gloria Candelaria
CMAS @ 40 Creative Writing Workshops 
30th Annual Tejano Conjunto Festival en San Antonio

32nd Annual Texas Hispanic Genealogical and Historical Conference, from September 29, 2011 through October 2, 2011, at the Marriott Plaza San Antonio Hotel, at 555 S. Alamo St. San Antonio, Texas.
Texas Heritage Online provides unified online access to Texas' historical documents and images for use by teachers, students, historians, genealogists, and other researchers. 
Administered by the Texas State Library and Archives Commission.

Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.


March 1834: The Texas Revolution
Texas Declaration of Independence, March 2, 1836
March 1834: The Texas Revolution
Texas Declaration of Independence, March 2, 1836. Courtesy of Archives and Information Services Division, Texas State Library and Archives Commission.

This year marks the 175th anniversary of Texas’s independence from Mexico. To celebrate, the Texas State Library and Archives Commission just published a new online exhibit on the topic: "Texas 175: A Dozen Documents that Made a Difference." Learn about these documents, the authors, and the brave acts of revolutionaries who shaped the history of Texas. 
Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D. 
March 5, 2011:
"Celebrate Tejano Heritage & Remember The Alamo" 
The Hispanic Heritage Center of Texas will be launching a new Hispanic Heritage Matters awareness campaign. We will be hosting "Celebrate Tejano Heritage & Remember The Alamo" event at the San Fernando City Centre from 11:30 to 3:00pm. 

Exhibits: Texas Traveling Exhibits, Tejano Historical Portraits, Hispanic Heritage Center Architectural Model, Tejano Artifacts

Speakers: Dr. Felix D. Almaraz, Jr., Peter T. Flawn Distinguished University Professor of Borderlands history, UTSA, Mr. Rudi R. Rodriguez, Chairman/Founder - Hispanic Heritage Center of Texas

Las Espuelas De Escaramuza
Charros de San Antonio
Grupo Amistad Folklorico Dancers
Location: San Fernando Cathedral City Centre
115 Main Plaza, San Antonio, Texas 78205
Color Guard: Alamo Legacy & Mission Association

Rudi R. Rodriguez, Chairman/Founder
For more information, (210) 892-0136.  texas
  March 5: Los Bexareños Genealogical and Historical Society Meeting
Speaker: Jack V. Cowan
Topic: "The Texas Connection to the American Revolution"
Summary: George Washington found his army broke, hungry and having difficulties prosecuting the war. Spain comes to the rescue with supplies, money, ships, an army of over 6,000 men, plus an unlimited supply of longhorn cattle from the Province of Texas. LTC Jack Cowan, dressed in George Washington uniform, will relive for us those critical periods of our country’s history as he tells one of the most thrilling stories of the American Revolution.

Speaker’s brief bio: Jack Cowan was born in Wink, Texas and attended schools in El Paso, Midland and Houston. He attended Texas A&M University, University of North Carolina, William Carey College, and the Army's Command and General Staff College. He has a degree in accounting. 

He retired as a Lieutenant Colonel in the United States Army. He was a member of the Army's elite Special Forces, and served as a Military Security Consultant. He was awarded the Army's "Writer of the Year" award and has published in several technical and professional magazines. In civilian life, Jack was National President of the Senior Claim Law Society and has lectured and instructed employees of insurance companies throughout the nation. 

Jack is the Executive Director & Founder of the Texas Connection to the American Revolution Association (TCARA), Past President of the San Antonio Chapter of the Sons of the American Revolution, Vice Chairman of Alamo Area Council of Governments- Alamo Corridor, State President of the Huguenot Society, and is currently the Governor of the San Antonio Chapter of the Granaderos de Gálvez. 

  March 12, 2011  THE LONGORIA STORY

The Mexican American Cultural Center along with the Tejano Genealogy Society, the Greater Southwest Optimist Club, the Catholic War Veterans, the Tejanos in Action, and the American GI Forum presents film maker John Valadez with a viewing and lecture on the documentary of Felix Longoria. 

U.S. Army Private Felix Longoria sacrificed his life so that others could be free, yet those same freedoms he died fighting for were denied him in his home town of Three Rivers Texas. The Three Rivers soldier was killed in action in the Philippines. After the war his body was shipped to his home town and was refused admittance to the only funeral home in Three Rivers simply because he was an American of Mexican descent. 

On Saturday March 12, 2011 at the Mexican American Culture Center 6oo River Street there will be a viewing at 7:00 PM with a lecture at 8 PM and another viewing at 9 PM. The event is free and the public is invited.

For More Information Contact:
Arellano President
Tejano Genealogy Society of Austin


               Battle of Medina
“The Tejano Thermopylae of Texas.”

The following photos are of me with a file crew from the Discovery Channel filming a reenactment of an archaeological dig searching for the location of the Battle of Medina. We filmed for two days and 9 hours and of course most of it will wind up on the cutting room floor; however they assured me that I would have at least 6 or 7 minutes and it will be viewed by over 35 million people worldwide. 
This was all due to my testimony at the Texas State Board of Education which adopted my testimony on the Battle of Medina and Jose Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara and it is now in the curriculum to be taught in the 7th grade: also because of a good friend and author, Jose Antonio Lopez sending it to the Discovery Channel when he became aware that they were looking for hidden history of Texas. Finally this important piece of Tejano History will be known world wide.

I call the Battle of Medina “The Tejano Thermopylae of Texas.” In 480 B.C the last stand of the 300 Spartans at the pass at Thermopylae has become legend throughout the world : unfortunately history has not been kind to the 1000 Thespians that also stood and fought along side the Spartans: so too with our Tejano ancestors that fought with Colonel Miguel Menchaca, our Tejano Leonidas. Up to know history has ignored the 1000 Tejanos that went out to fight a Spanish Mexican army of unknown strength. Our ancestors were determined to achieve victory or die trying just like the Spartans. They stood and fought to the last man to protect their homes, their families, and their way of life. The total death count at the Battle of Medina and the executions afterwards exceeded 1450 making it the biggest and bloodiest battle ever fought on Texas soil.

I do not have the air dates but it will be sometime in March. As soon as I am notified of the air times I will be sending out a press release and I hope all of my friends and colleagues will see it. 

Dan Arellano, Author/Historian




Dan Arellano


(25 Nov 1821--17 Nov 1895)

Gloria Candelaria, 
Victoria, Texas  February 1, 2011. 


his story was told to me by my grandfather, Antonio Candelaria, about his grandfather, Pedro Veracruz



His first visit to Texas was with General Santa Ana during the 1836 campaign in Texas. He was only a lad, but not too young to fight, yet his Superiors admired his willingness to be with the Mexican Military so they charged him with the responsibility of guarding some of the mules in the mule-train.  Pedro was totally unaware that the pack-mules he was ordered to guard contained the military payroll!  While the military was taking care of strategic business, Pedro busied himself with his own responsibilities.  He was aware of some important plans being made, and, after all, he was with a military unit.  But just being away from his mother and brothers in China, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, made this a very exciting trip for the lad.  He felt so important.  [Years later he laughed when telling his young grandchildren had he known he was guarding Santa Ana’s gold, he had missed the opportunity to abscond with the mules and made them all rich!]

Pedro was obedient to his superior’s orders, and he realized something important was going to happen when he was ordered to remain very close to his mule-train because gunfire and even hand-to-hand combat would commence on the morrow. That early March morning found Pedro in tall grass, caring for his animals, proud of his responsibility. Soon, however, he became frightened. He heard gunfire, and acknowledged men’s screams and yelling. He hid in the grass and covered his ears.  Several hours passed since he had heard the last gunfire.  He trembled and covered himself in the shadows of his uneasy animals.  He did not know how the battled had ended. Had the General lost the battle?  Had they surrendered?  When at last he felt it safe, he ran out of the fields as fast as he could to find someone whom he might recognize. He had to know what had happened. He ran and ran until, under the thickness of the smoke and fog he came into the plaza near the Mission Alamo.  He was totally out of breath, and the stench surrounding him was nauseous. When the scene where he was standing cleared, what he saw would live in his memory forever.  His General was upon his magnificent horse; soldiers were running from one end of the plaza to another; bloodied men and dead men were strewn about. And suddenly a thunderous sound of gunshots startled him: dead men lay on the ground where soldiers had shot them – and no, they were not Mexicans! Men started yelling at him for help. He staggered through the courtyard of the Alamo without talking, hearing the ringing of cries and screams, horrified that if he failed to obey orders, he too would be shot! Pedro had never seen a dead man before, but on that fateful day, March 6, 1836, he saw death – he smelled death – and as he retold the story to his grandchildren, his expressions froze in the memory of that day.  

Soon the troops left San Antonio, but the mules remained in San Antonio with many other soldiers. He was ordered to stay and help the men in whatever they needed. That’s when he saw the Lady – the very same Lady he had seen emerging from the Alamo a few weeks before – and he followed her.  Daring not to intrude on her, he remained outside her adobe home for a couple of days.  The Lady saw him and told her own children to invite him into their home.  It was so good to be in a real home, with a real family, and eat hot food! It was then he realized how much he missed his mother and brothers, and promised himself he would tell them about how he met Dona Candelaria and how her family reminded him of them. For the first time since he had left home he sat and cried.  

Soon orders came for the military to move out from San Antonio.  Rumor had it the men had been ordered to return to Mexico. Pedro had to make a difficult decision: should he remain with this wonderful family or return to Mexico with the soldiers? He was afraid of having to face another battle and its aftermath.  At the insistence of Dona Candelaria, however, he remained with her and her family for several months. When the battles had all become distant memories, and the threat of conflict seemed remote, he returned home to Nuevo Leon, Mexico, but promised his adopted family and Dona Candelaria he would one day return.



Pedro was awarded an opportunity to return to San Antonio during the early part of the 1860s. A “Civil War” had erupted in the United States and there was a demand for horses. Having an abundance of horses available, and seeing a significant profit to be made, he and his brother Juan hired several vaqueros to help transport a herd – or as my grandfather said – “un garanon y una manada de yeguas”. The trip took three months, and at last, after several hardships, the men found a profitable market for their horses in San Antonio. Within a few days, however, many of the men who had made the trip returned home.  Pedro and his brother Juan had remained to enjoy their profits and had, unfortunately, been robbed of most of their money.  What to do? While Juan had decided to go home, Pedro instead decided to look up his adopted family of 1836. He spent days looking for them in what was now a huge city, with many strangers and many new buildings. After “many a hardship” Pedro found the familiar house! But would someone there remember him? He stood at the door and pondered about his misgivings when suddenly the door swung open and the most beautiful girl he had ever seen stood there. They stared at one another – then he noticed she was very much pregnant. From the interior of the house he heard a woman exclaim “It’s Pedrito!” and he was again in shock when he realized Dona Candelaria was still alive – and remembered him!  

Pedro became a welcomed houseguest of the family again. After hours of joyous talking, Pedro confessed his plight and Dona Candelaria and her family asked him to remain with them.  That’s when he was introduced to Juanita Tejeda, the “adopted” daughter of Dona Candelaria. Juana had married a young man named Cirildo Maleno, who had joined the Confederacy but had regrettably been instantly killed. Dona Candelaria had taken the young widow into her home. Soon, however, Pedro obtained a job as a Vaquero – caring for horses were his specialty. Within a short time, he and Juanita were a permanent couple, and when Juanita was about to deliver her baby, Pedro was with her. They became a permanent couple. In fact, they baptized Juanita’s daughter at San Fernando Church and Pedro gave the child his own surname: Catarina Veracruz.  Soon other children came into the family, in fact, fourteen in all!  All were baptized at San Fernando Catholic Church in San Antonio. Sadly, however, many died young. There was Maria, born in 1864; Salvador came in 1866; Teresita de Jesus came 1868 [my paternal great-grandmother]; Carmen in 1872; Pedro in 1874; Elena in 1875; and Jesus in 1878.  As the family grew, they moved, and were residents of nearby Guadalupe, Caldwell and Hays Counties where there was a great need for Vaqueros and later, cotton pickers!  Texas records reveal that these three counties: Guadalupe, Hays, and Comal were the most significant and hub of cotton-producing counties in the state!


Pedro VeraCruz and his wife, 
Teresita de Jesus Tejada, 
estimated date between 1882-1884

Sunday, June 17, 1886, 
Happy Wedding Celebration
My grandfather, Antonio Candelaria is in the arms 
of Juanita Tejeda, his grandmother.


Pedro Veracruz was a grandfather Tonito [my grandfather, Antonio Candelaria] never forgot. He laughingly recalled the time his grandfather was so ill, they had to solicit the services of a Priest to administer the last rites. The family was in danger of losing the beloved husband, father, and patriarch of the family. It was truly a sad occasion. When the priest finally arrived, my grandfather said, the scene was obviously solemn. While the family grieved in another room, Pedro lay on his deathbed, confessing his sins before meeting his maker, and writing his Last Will [I have the original copy].  As the Priest listened intently to Pedro’s confessions, for he was gravely ill, the Priest asked once more, “Was there anything else he wished to confess?” Pedro hesitated for a moment, then recalling something in the very back part of his mind, he whispered “I am truly sorry for never having married Juanita, the love of my life.” The Priest was indignant and stood up stating in a very matter-of-fact manner that Pedro would not die that day – that he would recover and as soon as possible, he would present himself with Juanita to Church for a Matrimonial Service, immediately therewith! And just as quickly, having given Pedro the ultimatum left the home of Pedro Veracruz!  Well! as Grampa used to say “dicho y hecho” , Pedro did recover. And on Sunday, June 17, 1886 – twenty-five years after living with Juanita, the couple married in Hays County, Texas. The children – the grandchildren – the neighbors and all the relatives came to the happy wedding celebration. All gathered and a fantastic celebration ensued. No, Pedro did not die the day he was supposed to die – he carried out the Priest’s orders (and God’s orders too, Grampa said!) and made his union with Juanita legal. In fact, Pedro continued in a very happy and healthy life until November 17, 1895, when he died of natural causes. He was 73 years old.

 An entry concerning his departure from this life is found in Antonio Candelaria’s dairy. My grandfather copied exactly what was written by Pedro’s widow.  Juanita wrote “el dia 17 de noviembre de 1895 murio el calor de mis dias Pedro Vera Cruz.”



Exodus from the Alamo: Anatomy of the Last Stand Myth 
by Phillip Thomas Tucker
City Guide: New book turns most of the popular beliefs of the 1836 siege of the Alamo on their head 

As some trembling church bells will likely clang out 189 times to mark the 175th anniversary of the deaths of the defenders of the Alamo this March 6, don’t expect to see anyone hawking copies of Exodus from the Alamo: Anatomy of the Last Stand Myth during the speechifying.

The new book by former U.S. Air Force historian Phillip Thomas Tucker turns most of the popular beliefs about the siege of this “shrine of Texas liberty” on their head.

For one, little-mentioned slavery and plantation ambitions are chiefly what put the independence-minded Anglos (including slave smugglers James Fannin and Jim Bowie) at odds with Santa Anna. Another was that, according to the only surviving eyewitness accounts, rather than rally for one last noble stand, most of the defenders tried to flee on that fateful morning.

If that’s too radical a view for you, watch instead for a likely more “respectful” tome to be released by musician and lifelong Alamophile Phil Collins in early 2012. Collin’s work in progress, The Alamo and Beyond: A Collector’s Journey, is said to be about his obsession with the events of 1836 and the massive collection of Alamo-related artifacts he’s accumulated.

Stop in at the shrine itself during operating hours for an “audio and light” tour of the battle, narrated by Mr. Collins himself. While the Daughters of the Republic of Texas, responsible for the maintenance of the historic property, allow that “the facts surrounding the siege of the Alamo continue to be debated,” their website states: “People worldwide continue to remember the Alamo as a heroic struggle against impossible odds — a place where men made the ultimate sacrifice for freedom.”

Also still up for debate: whose freedom?
Read more from our 2011 City Guide here. 
Phillip Tucker

CMAS @ 40 Creative Writing Workshops 

The Center for Mexican American Studies (CMAS) is hosting two creative writing workshops in March 2011 as part of our 40th Anniversary Celebration. We invite applications from students, staff, and faculty at UT Austin, as well as members of the Austin community. These workshops are free of charge.  A public reading and performance showcase will follow the workshops for those individuals who participated in the workshops.

CMAS @ 40: Creative Writing Workshop featuring Amalia Ortiz
Wednesday, March 2, 2011  1:30 pm to 3:30 pm Meeting Room (2.120), Student Activity Center
The title of this workshop is "From the Page to the Public Stage: Reading Your Writing Aloud." This is a workshop aimed to help poets bring their poems to life on stage. 

CMAS @ 40: Creative Writing Workshop featuring Demetria Martinez
Thursday, March 3, 2011  1:30 pm to 3:30 pm  Meeting Room (2.120), Student Activity Center 
The title of this workshop is "Bearing Witness: Poetry & Social Justice." We will use samples of poetry to create our own poems about our relationship to this historical moment.

CMAS @ 40: Public Reading and Performance
Friday, March 4, 20115:30 pm to 7:30 pm Room TBA, Building TBA

CMAS is accepting applications to the workshops on a first-come, first-served basis. Each workshop will accommodate fifteen participants. Applicants must submit a one-page letter of interest that summarizes a background in poetry or writing and the goals the applicant has for the specific workshop. Applicants can apply to and enroll in one or both workshops. Workshops are aimed at all skill levels, so please apply!

The application deadline was February 25, 2011, but do try.  Application letters by e-mail is acceptable, must be sent to  For additional information: 



ATTENTION VISUAL ARTISTS AND GRAPHIC DESIGNERS. The Guadalupe Cultural Arts Center WANTS YOU to participate in this year's historic 30TH ANNUAL TEJANO CONJUNTO FESTIVAL EN SAN ANTONIO 2011 POSTER CONTEST. The Overall Winner will receive $1,000.00 cash and the winning selection will become the official poster for the 30th Annual Tejano Conjunto Festival. Additional cash prizes will be given to the Top Selection and Honorable Mention in four categories: Middle School, High School, College, and Open. Deadline for submission of work is February 18, 2011. For the complete rules and guidelines, go to  and click on last year's winning poster design by Venessa Hill (see attached). Please spread the word to your artist and graphic designer friends. 

The 30TH ANNUAL TEJANO CONJUNTO FESTIVAL EN SAN ANTONIO 2011 will be held from MAY 10-15 at the GUADALUPE THEATRE and ROSEDALE PARK. The complete schedule of activities and musical line-up will be out soon. Como siempre, gracias por su apoyo and we hope to see you here in San Antonio for this year's landmark event. Juan

Sent by Roberto Calderon,



Nuestros Ranchos Genealogy Group
Remito Fotos: Tte. Cor. Ricardo Raul Palmerin Cordero
Americas MexicoBlog
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, interview of Armando Rendon
Families of General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico
Fernando Maximiliano de Hapsburgo: Personajes en la Historia de Mexico 
     por Jose Leon Robles de la Torre
Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada: Personajes en la Historia de Mexico 
     por Jose Leon Robles de la Torre
The Descendants of Don Juan Cavazos-Montemayor por John Inclan
Centenario del Inicio de la Revolucion Mexicana 
or Ricardo Raúl Palmerín Cordero
Nuestros Ranchos Genealogy Group 
Editor:  Congratulations to Nuestros Ranchos Genealogy Group and their volunteers who have extracted, translated and made available online a tremendous wealth of information.  Thank you to Arturo Ramos who sent the following information:  

As you know, I am one of the moderators of Nuestros Ranchos genealogy group, which focuses on the Mexican states of Jalisco, Zacatecas and Aguascalientes and I wanted to share some great news with you.

Thanks to the help of a number of volunteers who are members of our group and the generosity and hard work of Guillermo Tovar de Teresa, we have been able to put online extracts of the notary records of the 17th Century found at the State Archive of Zacatecas. The extracts include a name index such that users can look for records based on the names mentioned in them.

The notary records include a variety of interesting documents such as wills, instruments of debt, rental agreements, dowry agreements, sales of slaves, etc. The earliest records date from 1614.

The extracts were created by the late Jaime Holcombe, who was a renowned genealogist focused on the histories of families from northern Mexico. His work at the State Archives of Zacatecas in the 1990s was sponsored by Guillermo Tovar de Teresa of Mexico City, who has collaborated with other Mexican genealogists such as Luz Montejano Hilton. He donated Jaime Holcombe's work to Nuestros Ranchos and volunteers from the group set out to create the name index for the extracts.

This repository is of great value for Mexican genealogy, particularly given that many of the parish archives in Zacatecas were lost in the early 20th century during the Mexican Revolution.  Most of the notary extracts relate to the books kept by the prolific Zacatecas notary Felipe de Espinosa, but other notaries include Manuel Rodríguez, José Riva Zorrilla and Pedro de Covarrubias.The collection can be found at:

Below are some examples of the extracts and their translations:

Venta de Esclava Zacatecas, 4 de febrero de 1614. Luis Pérez dueño de carros, vecino de esta ciudad en vos de Bernardino de las Barielas vecino de la ciudad de México, vende a Diego Salazar una mulata esclava llamada Beatríz de edad de 26 años en cantidad de 500 pesos.

Sale of a slave in Zacatecas. February 4, 1614. Luis Pérez, owner of stagecoaches and resident of this city, through Bernardino de las Barielas, resident of Mexico City, sells to Diego Salazar a mulatto slave woman named Beatriz, aged 26 years, for a sum of 500 pesos.

Inventario de hacienda de minas. Zacatecas, 12 de agosto 1650. Los hermanos Alonso Pérez Namorado y Francisco Solano Namorado hijos legítimos del minero Alonso Pérez Namorado e Isabel de Covarrubias, difuntos, vecinos todos de Zacatecas, mayores de 25 años. Hacen inventario de los bienes que les quedan por herencia de sus padres. Inventario.

Inventory of mining hacienda.  Zacatecas. August 12, 1650.  Alonso Pérez Namorado and Francisco Solano Namorado, brothers and legitimate sons of Alonso Pérez Namorado, miner, and Isabel de Covarrubias, both deceased, and residents of Zacatecas, being more than 25 years of age, take inventory of the estate that they have inherited from their parents.  Inventory.

Arturo Ramos!468&type=1&Bpub=SDX.Photos&Bsrc=Photomail&parid=9E7D54EB7B5FD0CE!467&authkey=EIJ0vhic9e0$
Este álbum en línea tiene 6 fotos y estará disponible en SkyDrive hasta 05/05/2011.
Para mi familia, amigos y compañeros.
En estas fotos se encuentran :
1.- Mis bisabuela materna Anna Kruzen Lutzelberger.
2.- Mi bisabuelo materno Manuel Antonio Salinas Ponce.
3.- Mis abuelos maternos, Guadalupe Cordero Calzado y Otilia Salinas Kruzen.
4.- Mi Abuelita Otilia, con sus hijos menores: Julio, Carolina y María del Refugio, mi Madre.
5.- Mis. Padres: Capitán 2°. de Caballería Delfino Palmerín Mejía y María del Refugio Cordero Salinas.
6.- Ricardo Raúl Palmerín Cordero. Saltillo, Coah. 1946.
Reciban un cariñoso saludo.

Tte. Cor. Ricardo Raul Palmerin Cordero


Mi bisabuela materna Anna Kruzen Lutzelberger.

Mi bisabuelo materno Manuel Antonio Salinas Ponce.

Mis abuelos maternos, Guadalupe Cordero Calzado y Otilia Salinas Kruzen.

Mi Abuelita Otilia, con sus hijos menores: Julio, Carolina y María del Refugio, mi Madre.

Mis. Padres: Capitán 2°. de Caballería Delfino Palmerín Mejía y María del Refugio Cordero Salinas. 

Ricardo Raúl Palmerín Cordero. Saltillo, Coah. 1946.



New from the Americas MexicoBlog:
This blog is intended as a  resource for anyone who follows Mexico. It contains information on the drug war, immigration, trade, politics, and U.S. policy.  Writing and linking from inside Mexico, blogger Reed Brundage has been tireless in adding news and reports on a daily basis, peppered by weekly editorials.  Sign up to follow the blog:

Sent by Carlos Munoz, Jr.Ph.D. 

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Video
The URL below is to a interview with me that aired in February on a program called Flashpoints, over KPFA fm in Berkeley, CA, produced by Miguel Molina. 

Con saludos a todos.
Armando Rendón
510-219-9139 Cell



Families of General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico

I have posted online Volume Three of “Families of General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.” See the link below;
This volume has marriage information on the 179 records for the years spanning 1820-1824. The church records used as a primary source for this book are available as digital images to view, print or download for free at  in the Mexican Church Records browse image collection for General Teran.

The index found on page 172 is a complete listing of all the people found in this volume. 

If you want to purchase a hard copy of this or previous volumes go to: 

Crispin Rendon




Fernando Maximiliano de Hapsburgo


Los datos siguientes son del Tomo V, de XIII, Libro 38 de mi obra inédita "La Independencia y los Presidentes de México", relacionados con el segundo Emperador de México don Fernando Maximiliano de Hapsburgo, que ejerció el mando del 11 de junio de 1864 hasta el 19 de junio de 1867 en que fue fusilado. Nació el seis de julio de 1832, era hijo del Archiduque Francisco Carlo y de doña Sofía, Archiduque. Su padre fue Emperador de Austria y abdicó en favor de su hijo mayor Francisco José.

Ingresó a la Armada de Austria donde llegó a ser Almirante, y a los 16 años de edad, navegó por varios países recorriendo mares y costas.

Se casó con Carlota Amalia, hija de Leopoldo, Rey de Bélgica, y en 1854 le construyó un Palacio en Miramar a orillas del mar Adriático, donde coleccionó muchas obras de arte. Fue Gobernador General de la Provincia San Benetto. Soñaba con tener un imperio como su hermano que solamente era dos años mayor que él y ya era Emperador de Austria.

El 13 de julio de 1863 un grupo de notables mexicanos del Partido Conservador encabezados por don José Ma. Gutiérrez Estrada, don Joaquín Velázquez de León, don Ángel Iglesias y Domínguez y otros seis más, decidieron trasladarse a Miramar para ofrecer a Maximiliano el Trono de México. Maximiliano tenía sólo 18 años y era un hombre muy culto, pues hablaba varios idiomas a la perfección y entre ellos el francés, inglés, español, griego y latín. Aceptó el Trono de México el diez de abril de 1864 y el día 14 del mismo mes partió para México en su fragata novara totalmente adornada con flores y el asta lucía la bandera de México. Llegaron a Roma a visitar al Papa Pío IX y continuando su camino, al pasar por el Estrecho de Gibraltar, la Reina Victoria hizo que las fuerzas británicas de cielo, mar y tierra, lo saludaran con el brillo y esplendor de la época.

Ya instalado en el Castillo de Chapultepec, con su ejército Imperial apoyado por el Partido Conservador, continuaban con la lucha armada con las fuerzas republicanas que mandaba el Presidente Juárez que recorría el centro y norte del país, ya que la capital de la República era dominada por las fuerzas conservadoras.

Muy pronto el Emperador Maximiliano se vio olvidado por las fuerzas francesas, ya que Napoleón III le retiró su ayuda. El nueve de julio de 1866, la Emperatriz Carlota partió rumbo a Europa para solicitar la ayuda de Napoleón III, pero ella ya iba trastornada de sus facultades mentales, se dice que a causa de que en su paso por Puebla le dieron a beber toloache. Llegó a Europa el nueve de agosto de 1866 y sus gestiones ante Napoleón fracasaron rotundamente, pues este personaje ni siquiera la recibía.

En México, las cosas empeoraban y las fuerzas del Imperio perdían las batallas y sobrevino el sitio de Querétaro donde los ejércitos del Gral. Escobedo, no daban cuartel ni dejaban salir a los sitiados y las fuerzas de Miramón y de Mejía eran muy inferiores a las republicanas y fueron hechos prisioneros Maximiliano y su ejército Imperial y sometidos a juicio.

Maximiliano abrazando a sus generales Miguel Miramón y a Mejía con voz firme, les dijo ha llegado la hora. Al abrazar a Miramón, le dijo: General, un valiente debe ser admirado hasta por los monarcas y le cedió el lugar de honor en el centro. Luego Maximiliano dio una moneda de 20 pesos oro a cada uno de los soldados que lo iban a ejecutar. Estos hechos ocurrieron el 19 de junio de 1867, en el Cerro de las Campanas de Querétaro, Qro.

Después de todos los trámites, los restos de Maximiliano fueron trasladados al Convento de las Capuchinas, de Viena, donde había 138 tumbas con los restos de 141 personas: Emperadores, Archiduques, Archiduquesas, etc. Él quedó a la izquierda de Fernando I.

Source: El Siglo de Torreon

Sent by Mercy Bautista-Olvera  






Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada


Datos del Tomo V de XIII, Libro 39 de mi obra inédita: "LA INDEPENDENCIA DE LOS PRESIDENTES DE MÉXICO, relacionados con el Lic. don Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada y del Corral, 34 Presidente de México, del 19 de julio de 1872 al 20 de noviembre de 1876. Nació, según dice la placa que está en el monumento de su tumba en la Rotonda de los Hombres Ilustres del Panteón de Dolores en México, DF., en Puebla el 25 de abril de 1823. Otros artículos, documentos y libros dicen varias fechas, como el 23 de abril del año citado, o el 24 de abril, otros el día 22 don Leonardo Pasquel, el artículo publicado dice que su hermano Miguel Lerdo de Tejada nació en 1812 y que Sebastián era seis años menor, lo que lo coloca en 1818. Yo me quedo con la fecha de la placa de su tumba que fue puesta por sus familiares. Yo mandé buscar en Jalapa, Ver., su acta de nacimiento sin lograr nada.

Fue hijo de don Juan Antonio Lerdo de Tejada, originario de la Villa de Gameo de la Provincia de Valladolid, España y de su esposa doña Concepción del Corral y Bustillo.

Estudió sus primeras letras en el Convento Franciscano. Luego ingresó al Seminario del mismo lugar y posteriormente se trasladó a la Ciudad de México, ingresando al Colegio de San Ildefonso para estudiar Leyes hasta recibir su título de abogado en 1851, luego fue Catedrático y Rector de ese colegio hasta 1856. Después fue Consultor con su hermano Miguel que era Secretario de Hacienda y Crédito Público.

Fue Ministro de Relaciones Exteriores en varias ocasiones. Muy desafortunado en el amor, pues se enamoró de la señorita Revilla Zubía, enviándole por conducto de su hermana, 61 cartas de amor que le escribió, pero ella no lo aceptó y se quedó soltero por el resto de su vida.

En octubre de 1867 fue Magistrado del Congreso de la Unión. El Presidente Juárez lo nombró Ministro de Relaciones Exteriores el 17 de enero de 1871 y al fallecer don Benito, el 19 de julio de 1872, don Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada y del Corral subió a la Presidencia de la República, interinamente. Al principio de su mandato, tenía muy buenas simpatías del pueblo, pero después se endureció y fue odiado por muchos, y principalmente con el acto que le exigieron los que lo subieron al poder, expulsó a los Jesuitas, a los que tanto les debía en su educación.

También arrojó a las hermanas de la Caridad de sus conventos. Le gustaba divertirse y la vida elegante y tenía guardias especiales que lo acompañaban a todas partes. En noviembre de 1872, se efectuaron elecciones y él se reeligió para Presidente de México constitucional.

En 1873 inauguró el Ferrocarril México-Veracruz. En 1874 expidió varios Decretos en materia aduanal. Es pertinente aclarar que Ciudad Lerdo, Dgo., lleva ese nombre por Miguel y no por Sebastián. El primero fue muy brillante en su carrera y gan músico.

Fue derrocado por la Revolución de Tuxtepec, y dejó la Presidencia de la República el 28 de noviembre de 1876.

Falleció en Nueva York el 21 de abril de 1889 y sus restos fueron traídos a México y sepultados en la Rotonda de los Hombres Ilustres del panteón de Dolores.

Yo visité su tumba y tomé una fotografía que obra en mi libro citado y en su blanca placa de mármol, tiene la siguiente leyenda:

"Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada. Su familia. Patientia Pars Magna Justitia est. Sub-lega libertas pro-patria in oficio colenda sita est vita omnis". Nació en Jalapa el 25 de abril de 1823. Falleció en Nueva York el 21 de abril de 1889".  

Source: El Siglo de Torreon  
Sent by Mercy Bautista-Olvera



The Descendants of Don Juan Cavazos-Montemayor
Research by John Inclan

Juan Cavazos-Montemayor m. (17 Jan 1699) Jacinta Fernandez-de-Castro
Su hijo
Juan-Baptista Cavazos-Fernandez m. (20 Jul 1738) Rosa-Maria Gonzalez-Hidalgo-Cantu
Su hija
Maria-Brigida Cavazos-Gonzalez m. (10 Jan 1770) Joseph-Luis-Fernando
Su hija
Ana-Maria Cantu-Cavazos m. (01 Mar 1794) Jose-Gregorio San-Miguel-Gonzalez
Su hijo
Jose-Luis San-Miguel-Cantu m. (12 Apr 1837) Maria-de-la-Luz de Leon-de-la-Cadena
Su hija
Isabel San-Miguel-de-Leon m. (26 Apr 1860) Nasario Reyna-de-Leon
Su hija
Genoveva Reyna-San-Miguel m. (04 Nov 1880) Jose-Severiano Salinas-de-la-Cadena
Su hijo
Carlos-Hilario Salinas-Reina m. Maria-de-Jesus Lozano-de-la-Garza
Su hijo
Raul Salinas-Lozano m. Margarita de Gortari-Carvajal
Su hijo
Carlos Salinas-de-Gortari, Presidente de Mexico
Marriage dates, listed above, are recorded in Monterrey and Salinas Victoria.
Research by John D. Inclan

Many Tex/Mex Family pedigrees compiled by John can be found at:
Information is free and downloadable.  




                            Por el Tte. Corl.Intdte.Ret. Ricardo Raúl Palmerín Cordero.  



En esta memorable fecha  20 de Noviembre de 2010,  Inicio del Centenario de la Revolución Mexicana, dedico este sencillo trabajo a  mis  amigos de Múzquiz para que las  presentes y futuras  generaciones recuerden y honren a los hombres y mujeres que salieron de su tierra,  para combatir en la Revolución, muchos murieron lejos de ella otros pudieron regresar, recordemos siempre a estos  valientes Coahuilenses quienes arriesgaron y sacrificaron sus vidas  por un México mejor. Asi mismo pido disculpas a los familiares  de los Generales, Jefes, Oficiales y personal de tropa que lucharon en los diferentes períodos de la revolución y que no aparecen  en esta relación.


Artículo de la Revista El Legionario, órgano de la Legión de Honor Mexicana, a la cual  el que esto transcribe tiene el Alto Honor de pertenecer.

                                              PRIMER CHISPAZO DE LA REVOLUCIÓN.

Por el General de Brigada. J.Trinidad  Rodríguez López.

“ Corrían  los días de aquel mes de Febrero de 1913,dentro de la apacibilidad, sosiego y retraimiento de la gente de mi pueblo ( Múzquiz, Coah.) dedicada a sus trabajos cotidianos de la vida campestre y la que formaba núcleo importante de trabajadores de los minerales circunvecinos de Palaú, El Menor,Conquista, Las Esperanzas y Lampacitos de la región carbonífera, así como de las minas de metal El Cedral  y Santa Gertrudis, entonces aquello en auge de una mayor importancia de beneficios solamente para las empresas.

Era a mediados de ese Febrero y rompe la calma y tranquilidad de toda aquella nuestra gente de Múzquiz y de la región minera, las alarmantes y tristes noticias recibidas de los sucesos que se registraban en la ciudad de México, por causa del cuartelazo de la Ciudadela, que culminara con el nefasto y abominable asesinato del Presidente Madero y el Vicepresidente Pino Suárez, que causara muestras justificadas de exacerbación en el pueblo y que respondiera de inmediato condenando enérgicamente el excecrable asesinato cometido por el chacal Victoriano Huerta y sus secuaces.

Don Venustiano Carranza, gobernador del Estado, movido como fue por el sentimiento del pueblo, respondió inmediatamente tomando el lugar que él decoro y honor mancillado de la nación demandaron, poniéndose inmediatamente a organizar contingentes de hombres libres y de honor, para que empuñando las armas y con ellos al frente como lo hizo,fuera en pos del castigo merecido de los asesinos y usurpadores del poder que detentaron por medio del crimen y la violencia.

A la sazón, en Múzquiz, se encontraba un grupo de ingenieros militares pertenecientes al Ejército Federal, que encabezaba un Coronel ya entrado en edad apellidado Canseco, con los Capitanes Carlos Prieto, Alberto Betanzos, el Teniente Pichardo y se acompañaban de un reducido número de soldados armados que les servían de asistentes y para cargar sus instrumentos y bagajes en el desempeño de la comisión que tenían nombrada.

Don Alberto Guajardo era Coronel y Jefe de las  Fuerzas Irregulares del Estado de Coahuila ( antes Maderistas ) que sostuviera Don Venustiano Carranza como Gobernador, para batir y exterminar a los elementos Orozquistas alzados que incursionaban por la Región Lagunera, y otros que en ocasiones procedentes del Estado de Chihuahua en correrías se internaban en Coahuila por el desierto, por el lado de Cuatro Ciénegas, a cuyas fuerzas irregulares perteneciera yo también.

Inmediatamente, a la vez que tenían desarrollo los acontecimientos sangrientos del cuartelazo de la Ciudadela, en la ciudad de México, Don Alberto, al llamado de Don Venustiano, se presentó en Saltillo, quedando a sus órdenes, reconociendo de momento el movimiento revolucionario. Como se sabe, diferencias o bien no pareciera, poco después simpatizar con los principios e ideas revolucionarias del movimiento encabezado por Don Venustiano, Don Alberto Guajardo, con cierto contingente que estuviera poco tiempo en las filas Carrancistas, volvió la espalda, desertando Don Alberto con los suyos, yéndose al lado Huertista, engrosando a los federales mandados por Joaquin Mass.

Luego que en Saltillo convino con Don Venustiano Don Alberto, se fué a Múzquiz para organizar contingentes para la Revolución y recuerdo muy bien que el 25 de ese mismo mes de febrero de 1913, en la noche, por órdenes de Don Alberto, entre los que recuerdo perfectamente, a José y Jesús de la Garza, Julián Pérez, Mencho de la Rosa, Estanislao y Vicente Aldape, Celso Tellez, Zaragoza Riojas, yo, y otros por sorpresa les caimos donde estaban alojados los soldados armados asistentes de los ingenieros militares y les quitamos las carabinas máuser y sus dotaciones de parque, sin que se resistieran de la menor manera, ya con eso, nos hicimos de elementos para reclutar y armas a tanto adepto que sobraban, dándose  de alta para engrosar las filas revolucionarias.

El 26 de febrero, o sea el día siguiente, ya sumado mayor contingente, por órdenes igualmente de Don Alberto, nos fuimos para el nacimiento de los indios Kikapús, cayéndoles en las altas horas de la noche; como son desconfiados, nos sintieron y se sostuvo una ligera resistencia y tras breve escaramuza, huyeron al monte y remontándose a la sierra, dejándonos unas carabinas 30-30 y parque.

Ya con las armas recogidas a los soldados federales de los ingenieros militares de Múzquiz, y las que les quitamos a los indios Kikapús,  se  armaron más elementos que engrosaron las filas Carrancistas, y ya organizado  regular contingente, marchamos a Monclova, donde estaba el cuartel general y donde se encontraba Don Venustiano, a fines de marzo y abril de 1913.

Esto es una narración de datos importantes hasta ahora desconocidos que no se han escrito y que bien pueden ser útiles para formar la iniciación de la historia de la Revolución, como “ uno de los primeros chispazos” habidos en el albor del movimiento Carrancista, en los días inmediatos sucesivos al 22 de febrero de 1913, en que fueron asesinados arteramente los Jefes de un pueblo, Don Francisco I. Madero y Don José María Pino Suárez. “

El General de División Don José Trinidad Rodriguez López, era originario de Múzquiz, nació el año de 1896,  hijo legítimo del Sr. Cesario Rodriguez  y de la Sra. María Carmen López, contrajo matrimonio en dicha ciudad el 21 de septiembre de 1930 con Dora Peña Botello de 24 años de edad originaria de Villaldama, N.L. hija legítima de José Gaspar Peña y de María Plutarca Botello, fueron testigos: Francisco Peña y Eriverto Solis.



Por el Mayor Legionario Bartolo Rodríguez López, hermano del General J. Trinidad  Rodríguez López.

“ María de Jesús González ( la Guera ), Toña Ortiz ( Toña la Prieta ) y Amada Múzquiz, tres mujeronas del tipo puro norteño, de contra la orilla del río Bravo, de allá de Coahuila, hechas y formadas bajo aquel sol abrasador y quemante, y por el rigor de sus inviernos, cual pasterizadas por el tremendo clima se convertían resistentes a lo malo, sirviendo de condición propiciatoria y con ese sino, se cobijaron bajo la bandera de la legalidad que flameó el constitucionalismo el año de 1913.

María de Jesús, aunque nacida en Zaragoza, púber aún, se fué al lado de sus padres a vivir a Múzquiz, trabajando como mentora en la escuela de niñas; en su adolescencia se dio a conocer por su inclinación y simpatía a las reuniones de personas liberales de pensamiento y progresistas, era de de tipo esbelto, guera pecosa, pelo colorado como jilote, parecía pelirroja; pero de carácter enérgico y decidida.

Toña Ortiz, era de la región carbonífera de Coahuila, del mineral Las Esperanzas, de grosor regular, más bien baja de cuerpo, trigueña cenizona o cambuja, maestra de escuela también, y adolescente aún se le admiraba por su oratoria fogosa y rebelde, que aprovechaba en las escondidas reuniones de trabajadores, entonces, enardecía los ánimos de los mineros, provocándolos a que brincaran las trancas de la opresión en que se les tenía.

Amada Múzquiz, del mero lugar de su apellido originaria, trigueña, medio chaparrona y bien amarrada, de ceño grave, parecido a india Comanche, con cualidades de muy buen origen, generosa, humilde y sencilla, su pensamiento de buenas ideas avanzadas, bastante inteligente, con buena instrucción, amigota hasta las cachas, de un gran corazón para lo bueno y lo contrario, se engalla lueguito y al principio con su voz de trueno, sigue su pose de gallaza capote, de muy rayada y entrampada deveras, que le para a  “evribodi”. María de Jesús, Toña y Amada, frisaban los veintiséis y veintisiete años cuando estalló la Revolución de 1913, encabezada por Don Venustiano Carranza.

A la Guera se le vió, luego que reventó la bola, vestida como hombre, de mitazas o medias chaparreras, a caballo, dos cananas de parque terciadas sobre los hombros y con su carabina, incorporada como Oficial en la gente Carrancista de Benjamín Garza y Bruno Neira, que pertenecían a las fuerzas de Fortunato Zuazua, participando y tomando parte personalmente en los primeros combates, contra los pelones federales Huertianos  de Joaquín Mass  y los chacales voluntarios irregulares de Don Alberto Guajardo, que tuvieron lugar en Monclova, y estaciones del F.C., Hermanas, Aura y Barroterán; concurriendo después a la campaña y combates habidos en Coahuila, contra los Villistas de Orestres Pereira y Rosalío Hernández, el año de 1915.

Pasado lo más cruento de la Revolución se há perdido el paradero de María de Jesús.

Toña Ortiz, al estallido del Carrancismo en 1913, dió muestras de gran actividad, desarrollando una labor entusiasta de proselitismo, logrando con su oratoria hacer intensa propaganda, que tuvo como resultados muchos adeptos para el Constitucionalismo; pasada la lucha aguda no se há sabido su paradero.

De Amada Múzquiz no se diga, con sagacidad, sigilo y sumo atrevimiento, iba y venía para el otro lado, vadeando el Río Bravo en los pasos conocidos como la Isla del Mudo, y entre El Moral  y Jiménez, río arriba de Piedras Negras, pasando de contrabando carabinas y parque para los Carrancistas.

Presto se le veía en San Antonio, como en Del Río y Eagle Pass,Texas, engatusando gringos que se prestaban, consiguiendo los elementos de guerra que necesitaban los revolucionarios, valiéndose de su reconocida changuez para estos menesteres y de la totocha que mascullaba   (Inglés mal hablado de la pochería Tejana ).

Amada sigue todavía luchando activamente por conseguir un mejoramiento de los Veteranos de la Revolución que sirven en las diferentes dependencias de Gobierno Federal, Tal conducta desinteresada, le hace tener muchísimos amigos que le guardan respeto y consideraciones, principalmente por sus importantes y meritorios servicios prestados durante la lucha armada. Vive pobremente y olvidada de ayuda, como todos los viejos revolucionarios.

Por ahora no manifiesta deseos de volver nuevamente al Norte, tal vez por considerar tener quemados los puentes para pasar al otro lado, o por si las dudas y a lo mejor no recuerde que por allá,  en sus andanzas se le haya atravesado chueco algún cristiano y resultara mal librado. El caso es que no puede  Amada beber agua en la orilla del aquel lado del Río Bravo.

Estos artículos fueron escritos por sus autores el año de 1950  y como lo mencioné fueron publicados en la Revista El Legionario.



Fuentes.- Centro de Historia familiar,  Iglesia de Jesucristo de los Santos de los Últimos Días de la Cd. de San Luis Potosí, S.L.P., films de bautismos de la Iglesia de Santa Rosa de Lima, Cd. M. Múzquiz, Coah..


Fué bautizado el 10 de julio de 1862, de un mes de nacido, hijo legítimo de Don Miguel Guajardo y de Doña Dolores Elizondo, fueron sus padrinos: Don Tirso Castillón y Doña Francisca Aldape.                           


Fué bautizado el 31 de marzo de 1868, de cinco días de nacido, hijo legítimo de Jesús María Múzquiz Peña y de María Socorro Castillo, fueron sus padrinos: Don Eugenio Jiménez y Doña Elizarda González.

                                GENERAL DE BRIGADA GENARO GUAJARDO ELIZONDO.

Fué bautizado el 2 de marzo de 1870, de seis meses de nacido, hijo legítimo de Don Miguel Guajardo y Doña Dolores Elizondo, fueron sus padrinos: Don Augusto Elizondo y Doña Santos Cortinas. 

                              CAPITAN 1/o DE  CABALLERIA TOVIAS ELIZONDO CORTINAS.

Fue bautizado el  1/o. de junio de 1876, hijo legitimo de Don Augusto Elizondo Rivas y de Doña Santos Cortinas Montemayor, fueron sus padrinos Don Francisco Flores Ramos y Doña Refugio Elizondo, murió el año de 1916.

                                                     JULIAN PEREZ GUERRA.

Fué bautizado el 25 de junio de 1876, de cuatro meses de nacido, hijo legítimo de  Yndalecio Pérez y de María del Pilar Guerra, fueron sus padrinos: Don Juan Uro y Doña Nepomucena Rodriguez.

                                              GENERAL LIBRADO FLORES LOPEZ.

Fué bautizado el 31 de diciembre de 1876, de quince días de nacido, hijo legítimo de Sirildo Flores y de María Tomasa López, fueron sus padrinos: Casimiro Cantú y María de Jesús Villarreal,  murió combatiendo el año de 1929 en el estado de Oaxaca.

                                  GENERAL DE BRIGADA EMILIO ELIZONDO BORREGO.

Fué bautizado el 17 de abril de 1877, de 27 días de nacido, hijo legítimo de Don Epigmenio Elizondo y Doña Raquel Borrego, fueron sus padrinos: Don Herminio Rodríguez y Doña María Ygnacia Zertuche.


Fue bautizado el 1/o de Septiembre de 1878, de 25 días de nacido, hijo legítimo de de Don Augusto Elizondo Rivas y Doña Santos Cortinas Montemayor, fueron sus padrinos: Victoriano Nuñez y Rosa González.


Fué bautizado el 24 de septiembre de 1878, de catorce días de nacido,  hijo legítimo de Atilano de la Garza y de  Beatriz Elguezabal, fueron sus padrinos Juan José Galán y Gertrudis Galán.

                                   MAYOR DE CABALLERIA SÓSTENES GUAJARDO ELIZONDO.

Fué bautizado el 25 de febrero de 1911, nació el 15 de febrero de 1881, hijo legítimo de Miguel Guajardo y de Dolores Elizondo, fué su padrino Francisco Terry.

                                              DIEGO DE LA GARZA ELGUEZABAL.

Fué bautizado el 17 de marzo de 1881, hijo legítimo de Atilano de la Garza y de Beatriz Elguezabal, fueron sus padrinos: Alejandro Elguezabal y Carmen Riche.

                                              NEMENCIO DE LA ROSA. ( MENCHO ).

Fué bautizado el 5 de marzo de 1883, de quince días de nacido, hijo legítimo de Cesario de la Rosa y de Rufina Lonza. Fueron sus padrinos: Francisco y Agapita Salazar.

                               TENIENTE CORONEL DE CAB. FELIPE MUZQUIZ ALDAPE.

Fué bautizado el 23 de junio de 1883, de cuatro meses de nacido, hijo legítimo de Felipe Múzquiz y de María Refugio Aldape, fueron sus padrinos: Manuel Long y Refugio Múzquiz.

                                                       VICENTE ALDAPE GUTIERREZ.

Fué bautizado el 31 de octubre de 1883, de seis meses de nacido, hijo legítimo de Estanislao Aldape y de Concepción Gutierrez, fueron sus padrinos: Jesús de León y Trinidad Sepulveda.



                                      GENERAL  DE BRIGADA  PABLO RODRIGUEZ LOPEZ.

                                       GENERAL BRIGADIER  OTONIEL RODRIGUEZ LOPEZ.

                               CAPITAN 1/o. DE CABALLERIA FILIBERTO JIMENEZ CADENA.

Fue bautizado el 15 de noviembre de 1884, de dos meses  de nacido, hijo legítimo del Teniente Coronel de Caballería Don Severo Jiménez Espinoza y Doña Agustina Cadena, fueron sus padrinos: Andrés Garza y Virginia Carr.


                                  GENERAL DE BRIGADA ABELARDO MENCHACA GUERRA.

Fué bautizado el 19 de noviembre de 1886, de un mes de nacido, hijo legítimo de Antonio Menchaca y de María Encarnación Guerra, fueron sus padrinos: Marcos Menchaca y Juana Benavidez, murió en combate el año de 1915.


Fué bautizado el 17 de abril de 1887, de ocho días de nacido, hijo legítimo de Justiniano Elizondo y Dolores Villareal, fueron sus padrinos: Antonio Aguirre y Teodora Villarreal.


Fué bautizado el 21 de octubre de 1888, de diez meses, nueve días de nacido, hijo legítimo de Antonio Berchelmann y de Celia Morales, fueron sus padrinos: Eliseo Elizondo y Asunción Múzquiz.

                                             CORONEL  AMADA MUZQUIZ LOPEZ.

Fué bautizada el 5 de febrero de 1889, de once meses de nacida, hija natural de Severo Múzquiz y de Maria Refugio López, fueron sus padrinos: Jesús Múzquiz y Socorro Castillo.

                                  MAYOR DE CABALLERIA GERARDO MALTOS CASTAÑEDA.

Fué bautizado el 6 de marzo de 1912, de 23 años de edad nació en la Sauceda en 1889, Hijo legítimo de Juan Francisco Maltos y de Epifania Castañeda, fué su padrino Ygnacio González. Murió  en combate el año de 1913 en Altamira, Tamps.


Fué bautizado el 15 de febrero de 1890, de un año de nacido, hijo legítimo de Felipe Sepulveda y Francisca Castillo, fueron sus padrinos: Vicente Castillo y Delfina Castillo.


Fué bautizado el 7 de diciembre de 1890, de tres meses de nacido, hijo legítimo de Andrés Rábago y de Marciala Castellano, fueron sus padrinos: Celso Tellez y Alejandra Cedillo.


Fué bautizado el 12 de enero de 1891, de tres meses de nacido, hijo legítimo de  Rafael Galán y de San Juana Benavidez, fueron sus padrinos: Juan Yruegas y Carolina González. murió el año de 1922 fué Sepultado en San Luis Potosí en el cementerio del Saucito, su epitafio dice:  “A la memoria del insigne Coronel. La sangre de los bienechores de la humanidad no se pierde, cada gota de ella es rocío que fecunda la ingrata tierra. Su madre y sus hermanos que jamás lo olvidan, le dedican este recuerdo “.

                                         GENERAL DE DIVISIÓN REGULO GARZA GARZA.

Fué bautizado el 9 de agosto de 1891, de cinco meses de nacido, hijo legítimo de Francisco Garza y de Juana Garza, fueron sus padrinos: Amado Castillo y Victoriana Alderete.

                                  GENERAL DE BRIGADA PORFIRIO CADENA ROJAS.

Fué bautizado el 9 de agosto de 1891, de cuatro meses de nacido, hijo legítimo de Ygnacio Cadena y de Jacinta Rojas, fueron sus padrinos Félix Rodríguez y Eriberta  Amescua.


Fué bautizado el 20 de septiembre de 1891, de seis días de nacido, hijo legítimo de Don Ignacio Elizondo Rivas y Doña Leónides Menchaca Jiménez, fueron sus padrinos: Lizardo Elizondo y Dolores Rivas.

                                  TENIENTE DE CABALLERIA MELCHOR MUZQUIZ GUERRA.

Fue bautizado el 28 de febrero de 1892, de un mes tres días de nacido, hijo legítimo de Manuel Múzquiz y de Virginia Guerra, fueron sus padrinos: Emilio Prado y María Rodríguez.

                                CAPITAN 1/o DE CABALLERIA JOSÉ DE LA GARZA ELGUEZABAL

Fué bautizado el 12 de marzo de 1892, hijo legítimo de Don Atilano de la Garza y Doña Beatriz Elguezabal, fueron sus padrinos: Francisco Treviño y Amada Villarreal.

                                           SOLDADERA MANUELA CADENA VITELA.

Fué bautizada el 13 de agosto de 1892, de tres meses de nacida, hija legítima de Guillermo Cadena y de Refugio Vitela, fueron sus padrinos: Félix Ruiz y Matiana Ruiz.


Fué bautizado el 8 de enero de 1893, hijo legítimo de Don Ignacio Elizondo Rivas y Doña Leónides Menchaca Jiménez, fueron sus padrinos: Manuel Menchaca y Dolores Menchaca, murió en combate el año de 1914.

                                  GENERAL DE DIVISIÓN IGNACIO ELIZONDO MENCHACA.

Fué bautizado el 25 de mayo de 1894, de un mes de nacido, hijo legítimo de Don Ignacio Elizondo Rivas y de Doña Leónides Menchaca Jiménez.  fueron sus padrinos: José Angel Pérez y Dolores Villarreal.

                                 MAYOR DE CABALLERIA  RAMÓN MÚZQUIZ GARZA.

Fue bautizado el 10 de marzo de 1895, de cuatro meses de nacido, hijo legítimo de Ramón Múzquiz y de Felipe Garza, fueron sus padrinos: Felipe Múzquiz y Refugio Aldape.

                                TENIENTE DE CABALLERIA  DIEGO MÚZQUIZ GUERRA.

Fué bautizado el 12 de marzo de 1895, de cuatro meses de nacido, hijo legítimo de Manuel Múzquiz y de Virginia Guerra, fueron sus padrinos: Yndalecio Pérez y María Pérez.

                                                     FAUSTINO DAVALOS  ( AVALOS)  ZAPATA.

Fué bautizado el 9 de abril de 1895, de un mes de nacido, hijo legítimo de Eustacio Dávalos ( Avalos ) y de Eufracia Zapata, fueron sus padrinos Felipe Elguezabal y Felicitas Elguezabal.

                                       GENERAL BRIGADIER  CRUZ MALTOS CASTAÑEDA.

Fué bautizado el 26 de Julio de 1895, de tres años, tres meses de nacido, hijo legítimo de Juan Maltos  y de Juana ( Epifania ) Castañeda, fueron sus padrinos: Matías Maltos y Francisca Rubio. murió combatiendo contra las fuerzas Villistas el año de 1917.


Fué bautizado el 19 de Enero de 1896, de siete meses de nacido, hijo legítimo de Jesús Romo y de Amalia Montemayor, fueron sus padrinos: Felipe Múzquiz y Maria Refugio Múzquiz.


                                   MAYOR DE CABALLERIA JUAN ROMO MONTEMAYOR.

Fué  bautizado el 19 de abril de 1896, de dos años de nacido, hijo legítimo de Ramón Romo y de María Guadalupe Montemayor, fueron sus padrinos: Juan Villarreal y Benita Castellano.

                                  TENIENTE DE CABALLERIA MANUEL MALTOS VAZQUEZ.

Fué bautizado  el 2 de marzo de 1897, de tres meses de nacido, hijo legítimo de Mariano Maltos y de María Ysabel Vazquez, fueron sus padrinos. Pedro García y Mauricia García.

                                     TENIENTE DE CABALLERIA  JOSÉ MÚZQUIZ GUERRA.

Fue bautizado el 23 de mayo de 1897, de cinco meses de nacido, hijo legítimo de Manuel Múzquiz y de Virginia Guerra, fueron sus padrinos: Estanislao Garza y María de Jesús Guerra.


Fue bautizado el 28 de septiembre de 1897, de cuatro meses de nacido, hijo legítimo de  Francisco Vidaurri  y Cristina Guajardo, fueron sus padrinos: Ygnacio Mc.Dowell y Rebeca Mc.Dowell.

                                     MAYOR DE CABALLERIA JUAN ELIZONDO RABAGO.

Fue bautizado el 18 de julio de 1898, de veinte días de nacido, hijo legítimo de Victoriano Elizondo y Encarnación Rábago, fueron sus padrinos: Felipe Sepulveda y Francisca Castillo.

                                   CAPITAN  2/o  DE  CABALLERIA   LUIS GALAN BENAVIDEZ.

Fué bautizado el 12 de Junio de 1898, de un año de nacido, hijo legítimo de Rafael Galán y de San Juana Benavidez, fueron sus padrinos: Alberto Elizondo y Beatriz suicidó a la edad de 20 años,  su epitafio dice:  “Adios hermano querido, el destino pudo apagar muy pronto la llama de la vida. pero no logrará borrar de nuestros corazones tu recuerdo “. fué sepultado en San Luis Potosí, en el cementerio del Saucito.

                                         SOLDADO ABELINO MALTOS CASTAÑEDA.

Fue bautizado el 13 de septiembre de 1898, de tres meses de nacido, hijo legítimo de Adrian Maltos y de Teresa Castañeda, fueron sus padrinos: Pedro Fuentes y Eulalia de la Rosa.

                                    TENIENTE DE CABALLERIA PABLO MÚZQUIZ GARZA.

Fué bautizado el 27 de diciembre de 1898, de cinco meses de nacido, hijo legítimo de Ramón Múzquiz y de Felipa Garza, fueron sus padrinos: Felipe Ramón y Josefa Ramón.

                                CAPITAN 2/o DE CABALLERIA ELEUTERIO MALTOS VIDAURRI.

Fué bautizado el 14 de mayo de 1899, hijo legítimo de Juan Maltos y de Felipa Vidaurri, fueron sus padrinos: Juan Boch y Elisa Boch.

                                         CAPITAN 2/o DE CABALLERIA PEDRO CASTAÑEDA.

Fué bautizado el 19 de septiembre de 1903, de cuatro años de nacido, hijo legítimo  del Mayor  de Caballería Reyes Castañeda y de Trinidad Hidalgo, fueron sus padrinos: Antonio y Adelaida Maltos.

                                     CAPITAN 1/o DE CABALLERIA  JESUS TORRES GONZALEZ.

Murió el 26 de diciembre de 1923  combatiendo en el estado de Jalisco.


                                          San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. a 2 de  Noviembre de 2010.


                                              INVESTIGADOR DE GENEALOGIA E HISTORIA.                                           





Indian Trust Settlement
Records Background: Native American Ancestry Records

New online interdisciplinary journal Nakum, a publication of the Indigenous Cultures Institute of San Marcos, Texas. 
Nakum, which means "I/we speak to you" in Coahuiltecan, was conceived as a site for productive dialogue among scholars working at the intersections and across the borders of Indigenous Studies and Mexican American/Chican@ Studies. And, as you will see, the first issue fulfills, and even surpasses, our early expectations. We invite scholars from across disciplines to continue these conversations and add to them.

For submission guidelines, please see the "Call For Papers" on the journal's home page. If you have any questions, please direct them to Lydia French at

Thank you,
Nakum Editorial Board

Indian Trust Settlement

Native American clients may be eligible for funds from the class action Indian Trust Settlement recently approved by President Obama and the Congress. Claim forms and explanations are available at the website:

Native American Ancestry Records
American Indian Ancestry Records

Those searching for Native American ancestry records tend to be able to find family history information and documents in many of the same places they might find other American genealogical records. There are a few sources devoted specifically to American Indian genealogy, such as the section of Access Genealogy I link to below.

If you are just beginning to learn about your Native American heritage, then it’s a good idea to learn more about the history and customs of your people, as they are a great deal more varied and colorful than the stereotypical assumptions of “Indian” tribes. With that in mind, I’ve linked to a number of resources that help you do quick background research on the native tribes of North America. I tend to refer to these native peoples as “Native Americans”, but since enough of these official tribal sites refer to themselves as “American Indians”, I’ll occasionally refer to the tribes by the same term.

Native American History

  • Indian Tribe Histories – Access Genealogy covers a lot of Native American tribal ancestry searches, and their pages on Native American tribe histories is excellent. You could do worse than to start a search of your Native American family tree on this site, which is associated with
  • Native American Nations – Another good resource for learning about the Native American part of your family’s history. Includes a list of tribes and nations, features on Canadian-Indian tribes, Indian biographies, Indian images, suggested books and articles, and Drake’s Indians. More important for your search, you’ll find a list of Indian cemeteries, census records, treaties, acts, and agreements, tribe listings, tribes by location, particular Southeast research, and land patents.
  • Native American Heritage Association – In existence from 1993, the NAHA is a charity to help Native Americans living on the reservations of South Dakota. This may not have ancestry research purposes, but lets those learning about their Indian ancestry help others less fortunate–if applicable.
  • Portal to Native American Tribal Culture – Whether you to learn about particular tribes or general North American tribal culture, the Pow Wow site gives a directory of American Indian tribes, a list of Native American colleges, tips on Native American jobs, and other resources to help you research Native American information.

Native American Tribal Ancestry

I’ve linked to ten different tribal sites that will increase your knowledge of North American Indian history. As time goes by, I’ll add more links to this page, as I come across the official sites for each of the Native American tribes.


  • Missouri Nation Ancestry
  • Mississippi Choctaw Ancestry
  • Munsee Ancestry
  • Omaha Indian Ancestry
  • Osage Ancestry
  • Ossipee Ancestry
  • Otoe Ancestry
  • Ottowa Ancestry
  • Pawnee Nation Ancestry
  • Pequawket Ancestry
  • Pottawotamie Ancestry
  • Quapaw Ancestry
  • Sac Ancestry
  • Seminole Ancestry
  • Shawnee Ancestry
  • Sioux Ancestry
  • Winnebago Ancestry
  • Winnesauke Ancestry
  • Wyandot Ancestry


Native American Genealogy Records

Researching the Native American genealogy records, you’ll find a history of a unique, storied, and redoubtable people. Some American Indian tribes have come through the trials and tribulations of American expansion better than others, but these cultures have survived against all odds, so those of Native American bloodlines should reconnect with their ancestors, to learn about the kind of people from which they descended. Some of your traits are drawn from these ancestors, so learn about your Native American ancestry and learn a little about yourself.

Related Posts

Real Property
Tax Records
How to Get a Copy of My Tax Return
How to Find Real Estate Records
Which Tax Records Should I Keep?
How Long Should You Keep Tax Records?

This entry was posted on Friday, January 14th, 2011 at 5:05 pm and is filed under Genealogical Records, Public Records, Web Records. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. You can leave a response, or trackback from your own site.




Early Pyramids - Jaen, Peru
Chocolate in New Mexico 
Early Pyramids - Jaen, Peru
Archeology, Volume 64 Number 1, January/February 2011
by Roger Atwood

(Photos: Courtesy Quirino Olivera Núñez/Asociación Amigos del Museo de Sipán)

Peru's towering burial mounds, with their underground chambers and layers upon layers of history, had long been thought to be a distinctive feature of the country's arid coast. But the discovery of two ancient pyramid complexes near the town of Jaen, on the western edge of the Amazon lowlands, shows that monumental architecture had spread across the Andes and well into the jungle thousands of years before the Spaniards arrived. The largest mound, over an acre at its base, was overgrown with vegetation and used by modern townspeople as a dump and latrine before Peruvian archaeologist Quirino Olivera, of the Friends of the Museum of Sipán, began excavating there. He soon found evidence of construction on a massive scale--walls up to three feet thick, ramps, and signs of successive building phases stretching back at least 2,800 years.

"People had assumed monumental architecture never reached the jungle. This discovery shows it did," says Olivera. "To build these structures, people must have had knowledge of engineering and design, and a large, stable work force. Until now, it was assumed they lived in huts made of tree trunks and leaves."

At the same pyramid he found the tomb of a high-status man who, at his burial around 800 B.C., was decked out with the shells of some 180 land snails. A layer of snails covered the man's torso, and more shells adorned his head and limbs. The man was probably a healer or priest of some kind, says Olivera. He found marine mollusk shells in another tomb nearby, testament to the busy trade ties from the coast over the Andes to the jungle. The finds suggest that, along with sophisticated architecture, complex worship had spread far from the coast centuries before once believed.

Editor: Considered, one of the top 10 archeological 2010 discoveries 


  CHOCOLATE in New Mexico
Thousand year-old cylindrical jars from Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon once held a chocolate brew, according to a new analysis of residue on shards.  The discovery is the first-known record of cacao north of Mexico - at least 1,200 miles from where it grew.  Because the vessels were place in caches and not burials, they were probably owned by the community and used for ritual purposes.


The Only Surviving Album of Auschwitz..
Jewish Women Challenging the World!
Broome and Allen Scholarship
Resolve seen in Israel; resolve needed here 
These were Ladino speaking Jews of Greek and Ottoman-Turkish descent
The Only Surviving Album of Auschwitz..

This is the story of a Hungarian Jewish woman who survived Auschwitz and found a coat belonging to a guard which she took to shield her from the cold immediately after her liberation.  In the pocket of this coat she found a photo album.  It contained pictures of what went on in this extermination camp.  Imagine her reaction when she saw a picture of herself coming off of the train as well pictures of her family who were already murdered. This
album at Yad Vashem in Jerusalem was donated by this woman in 1980 and will forever be displayed there.

 Sent by Gerald Frost


Jewish Women Challenging the World!
with Andrée Aelion Brooks

Jewish women have been the innovators behind countless social, political and artistic endeavors throughout the 2,000 years since biblical times. Andrée Aelion Brooks will introduce you to Jewish women philosophers of ancient Alexandria, converso women of the Renaissance, unsung heroines of early America, and the fiery revolutionaries whose voices affected hearts and minds during the chaotic politics of the early 20th century. 

Ms. Brooks, is a former contributing columnist and news writer for The New York Times and author of The Woman Who Defied Kings: The Life and Times of Doña Gracia Nasi, a biography of the 16th-century banker, and Russian dancer, a story of a Russian revolutionary. 

5 Tuesdays, Mar 1-29, 2011 1:30 - 3pm
$60 JCC Members /$75 Non-members  code: JLSAABW1.
More information,

Broome and Allen Scholarship
American Sephardi Federation is pleased to announce that the Broome and Allen Scholarship will be available for the 2011-2012 academic year. The Broome & Allen Scholarship is awarded to students of Sephardic origin or those working in Sephardic studies. Both graduate and undergraduate degree candidates as well as those doing research projects will be considered. 

Application deadline is May 15, 2011 

For more information email  or call Ellen Cohen at 212-294-8350 x4. 
American Sephardi Federation | 15 West 16th Street | New York City | NY | 10011 

Resolve seen in Israel; resolve needed here 
Jose Cuevas
Feb 8, 2011
How easy would it be to spot an Israeli in Midland, or a Texan in Tel Aviv? 

After a weeklong trip to Israel headed by the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs for a group of Hispanic American leaders, I think you would be hard pressed to see any significant differences.

I wasn’t surprised to find that, Israeli culture revolves around the same principle elements of faith, family and friends that we Americans hold dear or that Israelis are educated and very hard working no differently than Texans. What did surprise me though is how Israelis go about their lives without any hesitation or pause. They are living on the cusp of a war zone in the world’s most volatile region, but you would need to tune in to foreign media to have a sense of fear.

When Palestinian terrorists bombed restaurants, bars and buses, Israelis responded by spending a night out on the town and riding public transportation. When rockets rained down on Israeli towns from the Hamas-controlled Gaza Strip, Israelis built a warning system and hardened shelters. Kids go to school, parents go to work and families socialize on the weekend in malls and parks. Enemies committed to their annihilation may be just a few miles away, but the Israeli people soldier on. In 1941, the British government commissioned propaganda urging people to “Keep Calm and Carry On” during the London blitz; today, Israelis respond the same way. They have no other choice.

This isn’t to say Israelis don’t care about the violence. In spite of spending every moment of the past 62 years at war, the Israeli military leadership considers the dignity and inherent worth of everyone they counter in their security decisions - not just the rights of Israeli citizens but also those of Palestinians and even hardened terrorists.

It’s a calculation that plainly isn’t made by the terrorist organizations targeting innocent civilians. What our group saw when made privy to the internal workings of the Israeli security establishment was an effective and moral army and police force dedicated to protecting the people while maintaining the ethical integrity of the Jewish State.

Perhaps because of mandatory military service, this ethos permeates all aspects of society. Billboards calling for the release of Israeli POW Gilad Shalit, held captive by Hamas since a cross border kidnapping in 2006, are just as common as those for the latest movie or Coca-Cola. Living in a country the size of New Jersey with a population of just more than 7 million has its advantages, of course. Close knit communities are one of them. The impossibility of meeting someone that has gone untouched by the effects of war and terror is not.

Sadly, Israel is the free world’s canary in a coal mine. Before terrorists flew planes into buildings in New York or planted IEDs in Baghdad and Kandahar, they were trying to hijack Israeli planes and laying bombs for Israeli soldiers. And today, the Israelis face a menacing Iranian regime, growing in stature and confidence throughout the region. Hamas and Hezbollah, proxies of the Iranian regime, border Israel’s south and north and are armed, funded and trained by the Iranian regime. The mullahs in Tehran continue to pursue a nuclear weapons capability despite the demands of the international community. Many Israelis, some publicly but most privately, fear that if Iran is successful in developing nuclear weapons, the threat may be too great for them to continue normal lives.

Given that all too often history has shown the threats faced by Israel wind up on our shores soon thereafter, stopping Iran’s nuclear program must remain a top priority for U.S. national security. The consequences of an Iranian bomb will not be felt only in Tel Aviv or Europe for that matter. It would only be a matter of time before U.S. cities are within the reach of Iran’s weapons, as well.

This of course begs the question: Will Americans behave with as much resolve as Israelis if we fail to stop Iran from acquiring mankind’s deadliest weapon?

Jose Cuevas is the presiding officer of the Texas Alcoholic Beverage Commission and the CEO of Midland-based JumBurrito, Inc., and JumBurrito Franchises, LLC. He met with a wide range of Israeli government officials, leading academics and journalists during a week-long visit sponsored by the Washington, DC-based Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA),

These were primarily Ladino speaking Jews of Greek and Ottoman-Turkish descent.
Prominent U.S. scholars, activists and members of the Jewish community will gather to call on the government of Bulgaria to halt their continued whitewashing of the truth relating to their interaction with Jews during the era of the Holocaust

NEW YORK, NY (February 10, 2011) An address on the continued erroneous honesty of the Bulgarian government and its interaction with Jews during the era of the Holocaust, will take place on March 1, 2011 at 7pm, (exactly 70 years to-the-day, of the pact uniting Bulgaria with Germany as Axis partners, March 1, 1941). The program will be held at The Sephardic Temple (775 Branch Blvd. Cedarhurst, NY 11516), before an audience of community members, activists, scholars and Holocaust survivors. Media and members of the press are encouraged to participate in a pre-event press conference which will take place at 6pm. Svetlana Stoycheva-Etropolski, Charge d'affaires of the Bulgarian Consulate General in New York City is among the list of invitees.

On this day, a Special Report will be released to the public by Sephardic historian, author and independent scholar, Shelomo Alfassa, who has documented how during WWII, the Bulgarian government was complicit in the dispossession, torture and murder of thousands of Jews-and-how the Bulgarian government continues to whitewash this fact.

"These were primarily Ladino speaking Jews of Greek and Ottoman-Turkish descent."

While it is frequently retold that the Bulgarian government elected not to deport some 50,000 Jews from Bulgaria to German death camps in Poland-what is generally not revealed, is that Bulgaria was directly complicit in the murder of some 13,000 other Jews from their lands of Bulgarian Thrace and Macedonia-mostly, Judeo-Spanish speaking Jews of Greek and Ottoman-Turkish descent.

Mr. Alfassa said, "The Bulgarian government continues to pompously promote the fact that they "saved" (did not deport) one group of Jews (50,000), while not disclosing the fact they indeed deported another group of Jews (13,000). The latter group was sent to their deaths at Treblinka, a subject which is historically well documented. These were primarily (Ladino) speaking Jews of Greek and Ottoman-Turkish descent. "

The March 1, 2011 event will launch a campaign, which will be subsequently followed by a Northeast Regional Colloquium, that will be convened to discuss remedies to the Republic of Bulgaria's continued historic whitewashing of their direct role in the murder of some 13,000 Jews. The colloquium, expected to be held in June 2011, will be entitled, "Ending 70 Years of Whitewashing and Inaccuracies: the Bulgarian Government and its Treatment of Jews During the Holocaust."

Marcia Haddad Ikonomopoulos, President of the Association of Friends of Greek Jewry said, "These 13,000 Jews, which have been too often overlooked by history, suffered horrible deaths with the direct participation and knowledge of the Bulgarian government in their alliance and volunteer partnership with the Nazis-it is time for Bulgaria to set the record straight."

There is no charge for this program, sponsored by the International Committee for Bulgarian Holocaust-Era Truth, in cooperation with the Association of Friends of Greek Jewry, National Association of Jewish Child Holocaust Survivors, Kahal Kedosha Janina, The Sephardic Temple and the International Sephardic Leadership Council.




Rare Film of Civil War Soldiers Reunion 
Black Gotham
Archdiocese puts historic New Orleans records online
The Afro-Latin@ Reader: History and Culture in the U.S, 

Rare Film of Civil War Soldiers Reunion - this is a treasure,  22 videos on this You Tube !!  

This rare War of Secession footage primarily from 1913 is not only interesting but moving. Much of the footage is from the 50th anniversary reunion of soldiers from both sides at Gettysburg . It's also interesting to note that this 98 year old film also features African-American soldiers when the popular conception is that they were ignored in that era.
Sent by Bill Carmena

Black Gotham is a fascinating look at a little-known segment of American history: African-American elites in New York City in the 19th century, told through Carla Peterson's intriguing account of her quest to reconstruct the lives of her ancestors. As she shares their stories and those of their friends, neighbors, and business associates, she illuminates the greater history of African-American elites in New York City. Join the author for the book launch and a book signing to follow.  Sorry, the event took place in Feb., but I thought the information important to share.


Archdiocese puts historic New Orleans records online
New Orleans Archbishop Gregory Aymond announced that previously unpublished sacramental records dating from before Louisiana’s statehood are now being made available online. (FOX 8 News) New Orleans - The Archdiocese of New Orleans has done something historic, with a hi-tech twist. Centuries old records of slaves and free people of color in New Orleans are now available on its website.

Archbishop Gregory Aymond wanted this unveiling of years of work to be a tribute to the struggles of African-Americans on this first day of Black History Month.

“To read in a history book is one thing but to look at this and say ‘this is a person, a person that has a name and didn't even have a surname.’ It says a great deal,” Aymond said.

Standing before a modern project that revealed the injustices on antique pages of church history, Aymond apologized about the church’s participation in slavery.

“We're not proud of the fact we had slaves,” Aymond said. “So, by disclosing this information, it's a way for us to say as a church and as a community we do apologize.”

Never before published sacramental records from St. Louis Cathedral paint a picture of church life before Louisiana was a state.

“It will say ‘Jean Baptiste, son of slave of…’ and it will go on to give you other details,” Aymond explained.

The records start in 1777 during Spanish rule. That year, archivist Dr. Emilie Leumas says the priests began to keep records differently.

“They had the colonial books for the white people, they could trace colonial ancestry and then they had everybody else. Everybody else could be free people of color slaves, Jews or Moors,” Leumas said.

The chief priest at the cathedral in 1778, Antonio de Sedella, or Pere Anotoine, recorded his actions in the records. He saved the precious books from the great New Orleans fire of 1788.

African-American museum curator Ira Fandrich pours over the original pages of Sedella's records. His writing clear and beautiful is well preserved. Other pages are so dark and aged from deteriorating ink it is hard to make out any names. But now, anyone can browse these archives.

Click here for a link to the website of the Archdiocese of New Orleans.

The Afro-Latin@ Reader: History and Culture in the U.S, 
edited by Miriam Jimenez Roman & Juan Flores
Celebrating Black History & Our Afro-Latin@ Roots 
Texas Tour Tuesday Feb. 15-Thursday Feb. 17th

Celebrating Black History & Our Afro-Latin@ Roots 
Texas Tour Tuesday Feb. 15-Thursday Feb. 17th

Juan Flores, Professor of Latino Studies at NYU & Miriam Jiménez Román, Director of the Afrolatin@ Forum 
lead discussions at four different universities: University of Texas Austin, University of Texas San Antonio, South Texas College, and University of Texas-Pan American concerning  historical and contemporary issues of Afro-latinidad based on their new book, "The Afro-Latin@ Reader: History and Culture in the U.S." (Duke UP 2010)

The Afro-Latin@ Reader focuses attention on a large, vibrant, yet oddly invisible community in the United States: people of African descent from Latin America and the Caribbean. The presence of Afro-Latin@s in the United States (and throughout the Americas) belies the notion that Blacks and Latin@s are two distinct categories or cultures. In fact, Afro-Latin@s are uniquely situated to bridge the widening social divide between Latin@s and African Americans. At the same time, their experiences reveal pervasive racism among Latin@s and ethnocentrism among African Americans. Offering insight into Afro-Latin@ life and new ways to understand culture, ethnicity, nation, identity, and antiracist politics, The Afro-Latin@ Reader presents a kaleidoscopic view of Black Latin@s in the United States. It addresses history, music, gender, class, and media representations in more than sixty selections, including scholarly essays, memoirs, newspaper and magazine articles, poetry, short stories, and interviews.

Miriam Jiménez Román is Executive Director of afrolatin@ forum, a research and resource center focusing on Black Latin@s in the United States. For over a decade, she researched and curated socio-historical exhibitions at the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, where she also served as the Assistant Director of the Scholars-in-Residence Program. She was the Managing Editor and Editor of Centro: Journal of the Center for Puerto Rican Studies. She has taught courses on race, ethnicity, and gender in Latin America and the Caribbean at Binghamton, Brown and Columbia Universities. A frequent speaker/lecturer and consultant on African American and Latin@ issues, her essays on diasporic racial formations and inter-ethnic relations have appeared in a number of scholarly publications.

Juan Flores is Professor of Latino Studies in the Department of Social and Cultural Analysis at New York University. His research interests focus on social and cultural theory, Latino and Puerto Rican studies, popular music, theory of diaspora and transnational communities, Afro-Latino culture. Professor Flores is the author of numerous books, including Divided Borders: Essays on Puerto Rican Identity (1993), From Bomba to Hip-Hop: Puerto Rican Culture and Latino Identity (2000), and The Diaspora Strikes Back: Caribeño Tales of Learning and Turning (2009). He is the translator of Memoirs of Bernardo Vega (1984) and Cortjio’s Wake (2004). He was awarded the Casa de las Américas Prize in 1979 for his essay Insularismo e ideología burguesa, and again in 2009 for his book Bugalú y otros guisos: ensayos sobre culturas latinas en Estados Unidos. In 2009 he was honored with the Latino Legacy Award of the Smithsonian Institution.

Stephanie Alvarez
Assistant Professor of Spanish
Co-Director, Mexican American Studies
Director, Cosecha Voices
University of Texas - Pan American
1201 W. University Drive
Edinburg, TX 78539


March 10-16: 15th New York Sephardic Jewish Film Festival 
April 26:Women of Impact 2011/Mujeres de Impacto 2011
Ybor City, Florida 

Unique cultural event to showcase five U.S. premieres and six New York premieres

NEW YORK, NY (February 14, 2011) The 15th New York Sephardic Jewish Film Festival will be held March 10-16, 2011 at the Center for Jewish History, presented by the American Sephardi Federation (ASF) in association with Yeshiva University Museum (YUM). The 2011 slate of films includes critically acclaimed and award-winning films, as well as classic feature films and documentaries presented by filmmakers from differing global perspectives. The line-up includes five U.S. premieres and six New York premieres. The Festival is an exciting cultural event, drawing a diverse, international audience, the participation of notable personalities, scholars, diplomats, and many filmmakers themselves. 

At the Opening Night Gala, ASF will bestow the Pomegranate Lifetime Achievement Award to acclaimed Sephardi actor/filmmaker Ronit Elkabetz. Ms. Elkabetz has won three Ophir Awards and received, in 2010, the France Culture Award at the Cannes Film Festival. She has also received a Lifetime Achievement Award from the Israeli Film Academy. 

Since its inception in 1990, the NY Sephardic Jewish Film Festival has continued to expand its audiences, attracting over 30,000 guests and becoming one of the largest Sephardic Jewish film festivals in North America, and the only annual festival of its kind. 

The American Sephardi Federation is committed to exhibiting a selection of thought-provoking, international quality feature films and documentaries that examine the past and explore contemporary Sephardic issues and identity. "Through cinematic exploration, our aim is to further elevate the understanding of the very rich history and culture of Sephardic Jewry," says ASF President, David E.R. Dangoor.

This year's themes include a special focus on the Jews of Morocco, as part of ASF's year-long series, '2,000 Years of Jewish Life in Morocco: An Epic Journey,' presented Under the High Patronage of His Majesty Mohammed VI, King of Morocco and made possible through the generous support of the Edmond J. Safra Philanthropic Foundation. 

For a full listing of films and ticket information, please visit: All screenings will take place at the Center for Jewish History, 15 West 16th Street, NYC (except where noted). Group sales discounts are available (excluding the Opening and Closing night receptions). Information about the American Sephardi Federation is available by visiting Members of the media are invited to attend the screenings, with prior arrangements.

The Festival is supported, in part, by public funds from the New York City Department of Cultural Affairs in partnership with the City Council; and the New York State Council on the Arts, celebrating 50 years of building strong, creative communities in New York State's 62 counties. 

Contact: Lynne Winters 212.294.8350 x.2

Women of Impact 2011/Mujeres de Impacto 2011
Changing the Future/Cambiando el Futuro


An event where we recognize women who have make a contribution and a positive impact to the community! Un Evento en donde Reconocemos a Mujeres ,quienes por su dedicada contribucion han creado un positivo impacto en la comunidad! 

Join us for a business breakfast, gifts and lots of surprises!
Comparte desayuno de negocios sin costo, rifas, regalos, y muchas sorpresas.!! 

Fecha 26 de Abril 
8:30 AM-12:30 PM 

Lugar American Intercontinental University 
2250 N. Commerce Hwy 
Weston, FL 33326
For more information:

Ybor City, Florida 
If any of you are planning a trip to Florida soon, make sure you stop by Ybor City, known as Tampa’s Latin Quarter. The fine mixture of historic buildings, businesses and restaurants make for a fun get-away. And make sure you stop by the Ybor City Museum to explore how the cigar industry helped shape the city and to learn about the many ethnic groups that gave Ybor its colorful identity. Make sure you click on the link to plan a trip in the future!

Sylvia Hohenshelt | Manager of Public Programs, Villa Finale
National Trust for Historic Preservation | 122 Madison, San Antonio, TX 78204
Phone: 210.223.9800 | Fax: 210.223.9802 | Email: | 


65th Puerto Rican REGIMENT Park, Florida
In a Shift, Cubans Savor Working for Themselves 
Welcome to Cuban Culture Week 2011!
World Cultural Heritage Site Celebrates its 497th Birthday 

65th Puerto Rican REGIMENT Park, Florida

The Osceola County Commission yesterday unanimously approved naming,  a new Buenaventura Lakes Park the 65th Infantry Veterans Park

The facility, at the site of the old BVL golf course, is a brand new passive park with walking trails, a playground and a social pavilion, among other amenities. It is the brainchild of commissioner John Quiñones who secured the funds for the project.  Future plans for the park include a memorial honoring the men of the 65th Infantry. The following is an article about it that ran in today’s paper: By Jeannette Rivera-Lyles, Orlando Sentinel
The Puerto Rican men that made up the segregated 65th Infantry Army Regiment bravely fought in two world wars and Korea.

Osceola County commissioner John Quiñones wants to honor the men of the regiment — some of whom are still alive and reside in Central Florida — by naming a new recreational facility in Buenaventura Lakes as the 65th Infantry Veteran’s Park.

“It’s part of American history,” Quiñones said. “This is just a minor way to honor this regiment. We’re honored to have some of them living in our community.”

The County Commission on Monday approved the name. No others were proposed.

The new facility is at the site of the former BVL golf course. The 33.58 acres have been turned into a passive recreation park with playgrounds, hiking trails, a pavilion for social activities and landscaping.  

For more information, Hispanosphere 
In a Shift, Cubans Savor Working for Themselves
By Victoria Burnett, The New York Times
February 3, 2011

A lack of raw materials is one of the greatest stumbling blocks for people establishing their own businesses. This man in Havana was making brake seals last month from old tractor tires. 
Photo by Jose Goitia for The New York Times

“I feel useful; I’m independent,” said Ms. Álvarez, who opened a small cafe in November at her home in this scruffy town 25 miles from the capital, Havana. “When you sit down at the end of the day and look at how much you have made, you feel satisfied.” 

Eagerly, warily, Cubans are taking up the government’s offer to work for themselves, selling coffee in their front yards, renting out houses, making rattan furniture and hawking everything from bootleg DVDs to Silly Bandz and homemade wine. 

Hoping to resuscitate Cuba’s crippled economy, President Raúl Castro opened the door to a new, if limited, generation of entrepreneurs last year, after warning that the state’s “inflated” payrolls could end up “jeopardizing the very survival of the Revolution.” 

The Cuban labor federation said the government would lay off half a million of about 4.3 million state workers by March and issue hundreds of thousands of new licenses to people wanting to join Cuba’s tiny private sector, in what could be the biggest remodeling of the state-run economy since Fidel Castro nationalized all enterprise in 1968. 

By the end of 2010, the government had awarded 75,000 new licenses, according to Granma, the Communist Party’s official newspaper, swelling the official ranks of the self-employed by 50 percent. 

That is still a long way from the amount needed to create alternatives for all the workers who will eventually be laid off, and there is no guarantee that the market will support hundreds of thousands of freelancers. But licenses have been granted quickly, and the government has been encouraging the bureaucracy to keep them flowing. 

Streets once devoid of commerce in towns like this and in Havana are gradually coming to life as people hang painted signs and bright awnings outside their houses and mount roadside stalls. An electronics engineer, who for years operated in the shadows, now publishes leaflets that claim he can mend every appliance under the sun. A practitioner of Santería sells beaded necklaces, ground sardines and toasted corn used in ceremonies at the tin-roofed shop in her yard. 

Ms. Álvarez and her husband, Ivan Barroso, took out a license for the cafe and another to sell meat and fish. Now the couple does a brisk business serving soft white rolls filled with garlicky pork and fresh tuna for 60 cents at a wooden counter in the gateway of their house. Ms. Álvarez, a former school librarian who gave up work several years ago, runs the cafe with her stepson. Mr. Barroso goes fishing, culls pigs and delivers produce to clients in Havana. 

“If you have the ability, the dedication to achieve something, you should enjoy it,” said Mr. Barroso, who until November sold fish and pork without a license to a close circle of friends and clients. 

About 85 percent of all Cubans with jobs are employed by the state, earning about $20 per month in exchange for free access to services like health and education, and a ration of subsidized goods. 

Fidel Castro grudgingly allowed the private sector to take root in the early 1990s, after the collapse of the Soviet Union brought the Cuban economy to its knees. Over the years, however, the government stopped issuing new licenses and suffocated many businesses with taxes and prohibitions. 

This time Raúl Castro, who took over from his brother Fidel in 2006, says things have changed. In a speech to the National Assembly in December, he urged members of the government and the Communist Party to help the private sector, not “demonize” it. 

“It is essential that we change the negative feelings that no small number of us harbor toward this kind of private labor,” Mr. Castro said. 

Many remain skeptical. Juan Carlos Montes ran a private restaurant on the patio of his Havana home for five years but became worn down by nit-picking inspectors and closed it in 2000. Now he is reluctant to try again. 

“When someone who has made the same argument for more than 40 years suddenly changes their tune, you have to have a lot of faith to believe them,” he said. 

His wife, Yodania Sánchez, has been trying to change his mind. She has a license to rent two rooms in their higgledy-piggledy house and pays about $243 in taxes every month, whether the rooms are occupied or not. 

“The changes are really positive; there are new opportunities,” she said on a recent morning as she cleaned their tiny kitchen. “People want Cuba to become Switzerland overnight, and that’s not possible.” 

But Mr. Montes swears he will not open a new restaurant until there is a wholesale market. 

“People can’t get what they need to run a business,” he said. “The carpenter has no wood. The electrician has no cable. The plumber has no pipes. Right now, there is no flour in the shops. So what are all the pizzerias doing? They have to buy stuff that is stolen from bakeries.” 

The government says it will set up a wholesale market — though it might take years — and this year will import $130 million worth of goods and equipment for the private sector. It is also planning microloans and business cooperatives and mulling allowing people to buy and sell cars and houses, measures that some analysts speculate might be announced ahead of the Communist Party Congress in April. 

For now, carpenters like Pedro José Chávez are allowed only to do repairs, rather than make things, because there is no legal market for wood. His workshop, perched on a rooftop in the Vedado area of Havana, is filled with crude machines made of salvaged parts because proper tools are too expensive. 

“It’s absurd that they will give you a license to work but they won’t give you access to materials,” Mr. Chávez said. “Cuba is falling apart,” he added, gesturing to the crumbling buildings nearby. “We could help rebuild it.” 

For the private sector to thrive, the government should vastly expand the list of occupations open to the self-employed to include mainstream professions like engineering or law, said Ted Henken, an expert on the Cuban private sector at Baruch College. 

The list of 178 jobs currently open to self-employed Cubans — among them, fixing parasols and mending bed frames — is highly specific and seems intended mainly to legalize and tax people working on the black market. 

“There is a lot more to be done for the state to get out of the way and for people to produce and employ,” Professor Henken said. 

The government will also need to confront the question of civil and political rights that will emerge with the growth of a commercial class, including potentially divisive issues like growing disparities in wealth. 

“There’s no end to the chaos and demands of a private economy,” Professor Henken said. 

In the meantime, Ms. Álvarez and Mr. Barroso are relishing life on the almost-free market. Mr. Barroso pores daily over an exercise book where he calculates profit margins. Total sales for the two businesses are around $270 a week, he said. He and his wife each pay about $37 a month in taxes, plus 10 percent on profits at the end of the year. 

Ms. Álvarez vies for customers with a couple of cafes that have opened within two blocks of hers. On a recent morning, all three had more clients than the bleak state-run bar on the same street, whose offerings included omelet sandwiches, hand-rolled cigars and condoms. 

“I think the government has realized that state business doesn’t function,” Mr. Barroso said. “It’s the private sector that generates competition. We have a habit of doing things poorly in Cuba, but competition is going to put this straight.”


Welcome to Cuban Culture Week 2011!
February 22nd to 25th at Las Positas College, California

Cuban Culture Week is an annual festival hosted at Las Positas College in Livermore, CA. Every year Cuban talent from the Bay Area and beyond gathers to showcase their culture and share a week of fun and learning with the community. All performances take place in the campus's beautiful and modern facilities including an art exhibition, live music and dance, poetry readings and a discussion panel. Just a short drive or BART ride from most places in the San Francisco Bay Area, this event is completely free and open to all the community. Check the festival program, pick a night during the week of February 22nd - 25th and let us take you to the Caribbean! 

Who is Yemaya?
Every year, at Cuban Culture Week, we celebrate an Orisha which is a spirit or deity from the Yoruba religion. Africans from Yorubaland brought Yemaya and a host of other orishas with them when they were brought to the Caribbean and Americas as captives. Yemaya is the ocean, the essence of motherhood, and a protector of children. In the Cuban religion called Santeria, Yemaya is seen as the mother of all living things as well as the owner of all waters. Her number is 7 (a tie into the 7 seas) her colors are blue and white (representing water), and her favorite offerings include melons, molasses ("melaco" - sugar cane syrup), and whole fried fishes.

Sent by Jaime Cader



World Cultural Heritage Site Celebrates its 497th Birthday 
Camaguey, Cuba, Feb 2.- Residents in Camaguey province celebrated on Wednesday the 497th anniversary of the founding of this eastern Cuban city, first named Villa de Santa Maria del Puerto del Principe and one of the first Hispanic settlements in the Americas.

The culture festival organized as part of this city’s celebrations began on Tuesday night with a ceremony held from the balconies of the former city council, today the Municipal Assembly of the People’s Power.

Music, dance and fireworks brightened up the opening, enjoyed by a large crowd that gathered in the surrounding area of the building dedicated to governmental tasks for the longest period of time, established there since the 18th century.

The commemorative program began on Tuesday morning with the symposium “Challenges in City Management,” inaugurated with a keynote lecture by Doctor Eusebio Leal, president of the National Commission of Monuments and director the Havana City Historian Office.

The historic area of the city of Camaguey –today the third most densely populated locality in the country- was declared a World Cultural Heritage Site in 2009. (acn).


Capilla del Hospital, José B. Iturraspe de San Francisco Argentina

El fondo de pantalla de febrero es la imagen de la capilla de la Inmaculada Concepción del Hospital José B. Iturraspe de San Francisco. El Hospital se inauguró el 13 de febrero de 1916 y este templo es sostenido por una comisión que a lo largo de los años se encargó de su mantenimiento. Allí se celebran misas todos los sábados a las 17.30. Es una de las partes originales del Hospital que se mantiene en pie, dado que el resto fue demolido y modernizado en suscesivas reconstrucciones.

Archivo Gráfico y Museo Histórico de la Ciudad de San Francisco y la Región
Sent by 


History of the Philippines
Website dedicated to History of the Philippine: 

About the Philippines

Early Filipinos -Inhabitants of the Islands

Spanish Expeditions to the Philippines

Spain as Colonial Masters

The Galleon Trade

Secularization of Priests

Gomburza - Gomez, Burgos & Zamora

La Solidaridad & La Liga Filipina

The Katipunan

Cry of Pugad Lawin

The Biak na Bato Republic & Pact

The Spanish-American War

Battle of Manila Bay

Revolutionary Gov't: Malolos Congress

Filipino-American Hostilities

End of the Philippine Revolution

The Taft Commission

The Philippine Commonwealth

Tydings-McDuffie Law

Japanese Occupation, Allied Liberation

Philippine Independence from the Americans

The Philippines During Martial Law

EDSA People Power Revolution

5th Republic - 1986 to Present Time

Philippine History During the American Era


The Spanish-American war which started in Cuba, changed the history of the Philippines. On May 1, 1898, the Americans led by U.S. Navy Admiral George Dewey, in participation of Emilio Aguinaldo, attacked the Spanish Navy in Manila Bay. Faced with defeat, the Philippines was ceded to the United States by Spain in 1898 after a payment of US$ 20 million to Spain in accordance with the "Treaty of Paris" ending the Spanish-American War. On June 12, 1898, Filipinos led by Emilio Aguinaldo declared independence. This declaration was opposed by the U.S. who had plans of taking over the colony. And this led to a guerrilla war against the Americans. In 1901, Aguinaldo was captured and declared allegiance to the United States. On the same year, William Howard Taft was appointed as the first U.S. governor of the Philippines. The U.S. passed the Jones Law in 1916 establishing an elected Filipino legislature with a House of representatives & Senate. In 1934, the Tydings-McDuffie Act was passed by the U.S. Congress, established the Commonwealth of the Philippines and promised Philippine independence by 1946. The law also provided for the position of President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. On the May 14, 1935 elections, Manuel L. Quezon won the position of President of the Philippine Commonwealth.


In accordance with the Tydings-McDuffie Act of 1934, The Philippines was given independence on July 4, 1946 and the Republic of the Philippines was born.




Spaniards in American service: Basques in World War II
Capitán Andrews by Angel Custodio Rebollo
Spaniards in American service: Basques in World War II

Basque Code-Talkers 

Rafael de la Cruz emailed in to say ...

Besides all the units you mention there were also Basques fighting the Japanese in the Pacific Theatre along with the Philippines guerrillas and the US Army. Among several actions they did the same the Navajo (and other Indians) transmission units: code talkers. They also acted as Coast Watchers. As for the ETO, Spain also sent navy men to the Kriegsmarine. It wasn't a fighting unit although they were forced to see some action. Different expeditions of officers and crew were sent to learn naval warfare and the manning of E-boats since Spain was going to buy a batch of those boats. There were also a good number of individuals (ex-Republican Army) fighting in the Red Army and Soviet Air Force. There were other individuals working with the British Intelligence, especially from Catalonia.

Pedro J. Oiarzabal is also looking for Basque code-talkers or other Basque veterans of WWII or the Korean War.

I am a PhD student at the Center for Basque Studies, University of Nevada, Reno. At the moment I am researching the participation of Basque-Americans in WWII and The Korean War. In particular, I am interested in the so-called Basque code-talkers or the use of the Basque language in intelligence/communication services (Signal Corps Unit, since 1942, in San Diego or San Francisco communication centers during the Pacific Campaign). According to some sources Capt. Frank D. Carranza, and Lte. Nemesio Aguirre were involved in the use of the Basque language, under the command of General Nimitz at his California HQ. However I have not found any substantial information on the matter and that is the reason I am contacting you. Also, I am interested in contacting WWII or The Korean War veterans or relatives which could have been involved in aforementioned service. I would appreciate if you could help me in the research --through the publication of this note in your website -if possible.  Thank you,

Sincerely, Pedro J. Oiarzabal
Center for Basque Studies
University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557
Phone (775) 784-4854  Fax (775) 784-1355 

Basques at Normandy 

Basque units - probably sailors - saw service alongside Allied units at the Normandy landings on D-Day (Kurlansky, 1999). 
Reference: Kurlansky, M. (1999). The Basque History of the World. Canada: Alfred A. Knopf.

Guernica Battalion (Gernika Batalloa)  

A battalion formed by the Basque Nationalist Party to fight for the Allies in France (Kurlansky, 1999). It contained 200 men and was commanded by Kepa Ordoki. Ordoki and 60% of his men were veterans of the Spanish Civil War. The unit was part of the Foreign and Moroccan Mixed Regiment.

After the liberation of Paris (1944), the Guernica Battalion along with the FFI, the Spanish Nationalist Union, and a unit of Moroccan volunteers fought the last battles in France (Kurlansky, 1999). Their task was to flush out the Germans garrisoning the south-western coast of France - some 25,000 troops. Although isolated from their homeland the Germans had no trouble with supplies - these came from Francoist Spain.

On 14 April 1945, three weeks before the end of the war, the Guernica Battalion, Spanish Nationalist Union, and the Moroccan volunteers attacked the last Germans in the Gironde, the Bordeaux wine region on the Atlantic coast (Kurlansky, 1999). The Germans were entrenched in the Pointe-de-Grave, a point of land guarding the entrance to the mouth of the Gironde, the river that leads to Bordeaux. Fortress Gironde, as it was known, had a garrison of 4,000, significantly more than the attackers. 15 hours of combat through the budding vineyards lead to an allied success.
Ikurrina, Basque Flag

Liberated France offered the Croix de Guerre to the members of the Battalion, but they declined, preferring the medal go to their national flag (the ikurriña) instead (Kurlansky, 1999).

The Basque Nationalist Party was based in New York after the Civil War (Kurlansky, 1999). This suggests the battalion might have been equipped by the Americans. This supposition is also supported by the fact the battalion was operating in an American zone in south west France.  Reference: Kurlansky, M. (1999). The Basque History of the World. Canada: Alfred A. Knopf.

Spanish Nationalist Union 

A Communist Republican Unit fighting for the allies. Involved in taking Fortress Gironde (see above) in conjunction with the Guernica Battalion (Kurlansky, 1999).
Reference: Kurlansky, M. (1999). The Basque History of the World. Canada: Alfred A. Knopf.

Sent by Rafael Ojeda

   Capitán Andrews


Mi sobrino Kiski, me habló un día sobre la hazaña del Capitán William Andrews, veterano de la Guerra de la Secesión americana que en 1892, hizo el recorrido de Nueva York hasta Huelva en un pequeño bote que solo medía catorce pies y medio.

Quise conocer un poco mas a fondo el episodio y me indicó que podría leerla en el blog “chocotoxico”. Conforme fui conociendo los datos que me facilitaban, no daba crédito a lo que leía y me surgían dudas, ya que me parecía inverosímil que en esa “cáscara de nuez” un hombre solo atravesase el Atlántico, por lo que decidí consultar la veracidad de este relato con personas autorizadas de Marina. que confirmaron que todo cuanto había leído era la pura verdad.

Un bote pequeño, un hombre valiente y el arrojo suficiente para ir desde el puerto de Atlantic City, de donde partió el  20 de julio de 1892, llegando a Huelva el 27 de septiembre de aquel año, en los días en que se celebraba el cuarto centenario del Descubrimiento de América por Cristóbal Colón.

Fue una autentica aventura, porque en solitario y con los medios que el Capitán Andrews tendría para controlar  la navegación, que en aquel tiempo eran puramente manuales, sufría desplazamientos no deseados en su ruta, tanto que un barco que iba desde La Habana hasta La Coruña, al divisarlo en alta mar creyó que el “Sapolio”, así se llamaba el barco de Andrews porque su sponsor era un fabricante de jabón con este nombre, era una embarcación que había sido abandonada a la deriva, pero al acercarse se encontraron con su Capitán quien les dijo que no necesitaba ayuda porque quería llegar a Huelva para participar en las conmemoraciones del cuarto centenario.

Cuando llegó a Huelva, tanto las autoridades locales, como la prensa, relataron la aventura y consideraban a William Andrews un héroe, quien fue muy agasajado en la ciudad, participando en todos los actos conmemorativos.  Se difundió la noticia, y fueron muchos los periódicos españoles y extranjeros, que la reflejaron en sus páginas.

El tiempo ha pasado y los onubenses actuales conocemos la proeza de Andrews por casualidad, ¿por que no se le ha dedicado ni una modesta calle, algo que en muchas ocasiones nos recordaría esa aventura.?

                                   Ángel Custodio Rebollo



Mexican Culture admired by a Japanese 
Muslims who saved Jews in World War II
Europe's Fatwa Factories
Cameron calls for immigrants to respect British core values 
From the heart of a Muslim by Dr. Tawfik Hamid

Mexican Culture admired by Japanese 
Click at the following link to view the video clip "Muslims who saved Jews in World War II":
Sent by Jaime Cader

I never seem to be amazed.  Your site gets better every month,  every year.  I am wrapping up my tour here in Japan and realize,  there are so many Spanish speaking Japanese here. I also just recently made a visit to the islands of Palau.  The sheer raw beauty of this place is amazing. Our tour guide who is a native here,  went to school in the states. He was sharing his culture and history,  when he asked about us (Military) members, what cultures we have.  Before anyone could speak,  our tour guide mentioned his love of Mexican culture. I was touched.  To hear this all the way across the world.  Made me proud. 

Mimi, Please keep that light on,  so that others can see the path you have created!!!
Sincerely, Robert Gonzalez

Europe's Fatwa Factories
by Soeren Kern
February 3, 2011 at 5:00 am
Britain will have more Muslims than Kuwait in 2030, while France will have more than Jordan; and Germany will have more than Oman and the United Arab Emirates combined, according to a new study titled "The Future of the Global Muslim Population." The sobering projections (which are highly conservative estimates) about the exponential increase of Europe's Muslim population over the next 20 years will fuel the growing controversy over Muslim mass immigration to Europe, and also add pressure on European policymakers to find ways to ensure that Muslim immigrants are better integrated into European society.

Efforts to improve the integration of Muslim immigrants in Europe will, however, be fiercely resisted by influential figures from within Europe's Muslim community itself, many of whom, instead, are actively working to build parallel societies that keep Muslim immigrants isolated in exclusivist communities, and thus socially separated from their European host countries. Critics say these Muslim mini-societies are undermining not only European social cohesion but also European democracy.

Advocates of Muslim separatism say the Islamic worldview cannot be harmonized with Europe's secular worldview, and therefore call on Muslims living in European countries to segregate themselves and adhere only to Islamic Sharia law. European Islamic leaders, many of whom are openly hostile to Western values and laws, are also establishing Muslim lobbies to pressure European governments into synchronizing secular Western laws with Muslim religious beliefs. These initiatives are usually couched as the peaceful advocacy of minority rights, but the end result is that European societies have to adapt to Islam rather than the other way around.

European fatwa councils are at the forefront of Muslim efforts to build parallel legal systems based on Sharia law. A fatwa is a legal opinion or ruling issued by an Islamic scholar on an issue where Islamic jurisprudence is unclear. In Europe, for example, fatwas routinely are issued to instruct Muslim immigrants that Sharia law is to be respected as superior to civil law and to democracy.

The European Council for Fatwa and Research (ECFR) is the most influential fatwa council in Europe. Based in Ireland, the ECFR is chaired by Yusuf al-Qaradawi, a demagogic Egyptian Islamic scholar, and an intellectual leader of the Muslim Brotherhood. Al-Qaradawi, who is also a spiritual advisor for the Palestinian terrorist group Hamas, has defended suicide attacks against Jews as "martyrdom in the name of Allah," and has been banned from entering Great Britain and the United States.

The ECFR is an integral part of the Brussels-based Federation of Islamic Organizations in Europe (FIOE), an umbrella group that unites more than 30 Muslim Brotherhood organizations in Europe, and acts as the main vehicle for propagating Muslim Brotherhood ideology in Europe.

The ECFR's objective is to "present to the Muslim minorities in the West particularly" its interpretation of "the manifestation of Allah's infinite mercy, knowledge and wisdom." More specifically, an ECFR fatwa says: "Sharia cannot be amended to conform to changing human values and standards; rather, it is the absolute norm to which all human values and conduct must conform; it is the frame to which they must be referred; it is the scale on which they must be weighed."

The ECFR (the English-language mission statement has been removed from ECFR's website) says it wants to achieve its aims by: a) bringing together Islamic scholars who live in Europe; b) attempting to unify the views within Islamic jurisprudence with regard to the minority status of Muslims in Europe; c) issuing collective fatwas that meet the needs of Muslims in Europe, and that solve their problems and regulate their interaction with the European communities, all according Sharia; and d) conducting research on how issues arising in Europe can be resolved with strict respect for Sharia.

The fatwas issued by the ECFR reflect the Muslim Brotherhood's fierce opposition to the separation of church/mosque and state. For example, a fatwa issued by al-Qaradawi on the question of "How Does Islam View Secularism" states: "Since Islam is a comprehensive system of Ibadah [worship] and Sharia ["the path":legislation], the acceptance of secularism means abandonment of Sharia, a denial of the divine guidance and a rejection of Allah's injunctions…. The call for secularism among Muslims is atheism and a rejection of Islam. Its acceptance as a basis for rule in place of Sharia is a downright apostasy."

A fatwa titled "Challenging the Applicability of Sharia" rules on equal rights for women. It states: "Those misguided people cudgel their brains in finding out lame arguments that tend to give both males and females equal shares of inheritance… It is the nature of woman to be maintained and cared for by man ... irrespective of whether she is poor or rich."

A fatwa titled "Source of the Punishment for Apostasy" rules on the freedom of religion. It states: "All Muslim jurists agree that the apostate is to be punished. However, they differ regarding the punishment itself. The majority of them go for killing; meaning that an apostate is to be sentenced to death."

In a fatwa titled "Islamic Ruling on Female Circumcision," al-Qaradawi states that although the practice is not obligatory, "whoever finds it serving the interest of his daughters should do it, and I personally support this under the current circumstances in the modern world." In an interview with the London-based Guardian newspaper, al-Qaradawi says he accepts wife-beating "as a method of last resort -- though only lightly." He also says female rape victims should be punished if dressed "immodestly" when assaulted.

In an article called "Islamic Justice Finds a Foothold in Heart of Europe," the Wall Street Journal reports that the ECFR uses the infamous anti-Semitic forgery known as the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion" in its theological deliberations. The Journal also says the ECFR "is part of a web of organizations that spread ideology close to the Muslim Brotherhood throughout Europe."

The Muslim Brotherhood outlined its vision for the globalization of Sharia law in a 14-page policy document called "The Project." Authorities in Switzerland, acting on a special request from the United States government, discovered the document in November 2001 after they entered the Swiss villa of a Muslim Brotherhood operative, Yusuf Nada.

"The Project" is a long-term multi-phased roadmap to "establish an Islamic government on Earth." The document specifically calls for Muslims in Europe to establish "a parallel society where the group is above the individual, godly authority above human liberty, and the holy scripture above the laws."

Elsewhere in Europe, the Union of French Islamic Organizations (UOIF), a large Muslim umbrella group linked to the Muslim Brotherhood, has issued fatwas that encourage French Muslims to reject all authority (namely, secular) that does not have a basis in Sharia law.

In November 2005, for example, the UOIF issued a fatwa banning Muslims from participating in the riots that engulfed parts of France that year. At the time, Muslim youth (mostly teenagers of Arab and African origin) took to the streets after two of them were accidentally electrocuted while fleeing police.

The fatwa stated: "Under Islam, one cannot get one of his/her rights at the expense of others." The UOIF reached its conclusion by citing verses from Islamic religious texts: "Lo! Allah loveth not aggressors;" "Eat and drink of that which Allah hath provided, and do not act corruptly, making mischief in the earth," and "Lo! Allah loveth not the corrupt."

Sheikh Ahmad Jaballah, a member of the French fatwa council, said the fatwa would send a strong message to France that the riots were un-Islamic. But French officials were infuriated that in its call for calm, the UOIF's fatwa only invoked the name of Allah and made no mention of the need for Muslim immigrants to obey French secular laws.

In Germany, the Central Council of Muslims (ZMD), a group that is linked to the Muslim Brotherhood, recently asked the ECFR to issue a fatwa on whether professional Muslim soccer players may break their fast during the holy month of Ramadan. The move followed a contract dispute involving second-division soccer club FSV Frankfurt, which in 2009 gave three of its players a formal warning for fasting. The fatwa states: "The Muslim professional can make good the fasting days in times when there are no matches, and so continue to pay God and the holy month of Ramadan honor and respect." In any case, the ZMD also notes that "keeping the body healthy plays a leading role in Islam."

In Norway, the Islamic Council of Norway (IRN), a group that represents 60,000 Muslims there, was involved in an imbroglio about the Islamic approach to homosexuality. The IRN wavered on whether homosexuals should face the death penalty, even though capital punishment is outlawed in Norway. It attempted to defuse criticism for its stance by asking the ECFR to issue a fatwa on the issue. The ECFR, in a fatwa titled "Homosexuality and Lesbianism: Sexual Perversions," states: "Islam emphatically forbids this deed [homosexual sex] and prescribes a severe punishment for it in this world and the next. (…) The scholars of Islam (…) said that the person guilty of this crime should be stoned, whether he is married or unmarried."

In Sweden, the Swedish Fatwa Council recently issued a fatwa calling the December 2010 suicide attack in central Stockholm "deplorable" and "reprehensible." The attacker, however, attended Stockholm's biggest mosque which, like the Swedish Fatwa Council, is linked to the Muslim Brotherhood. The imam of the mosque, Sheik Hassan Mousa, is known for delivering fiery sermons (with sinister titles like "America Rapes Islam") that call for Muslims to take violent action against "infidels."

As for al-Qaradawi, he speaks openly about the goals of Islam: "What remains, then, is to conquer Rome. (…) This means that Islam will come back to Europe for the third time, after it was expelled from it twice. (…) Conquest through Dawa [proselytizing], that is what we hope for. We will conquer Europe, we will conquer America! Not through sword but through our Dawa.

'We need to be a lot less tolerant towards Islamic extremists': 
Cameron calls for immigrants to respect British core values 
By Jason Groves 
5th February 2011

David Cameron today pledged to make Britain ‘a lot less’ tolerant towards Islamic extremists who whip up hatred against the West. 

In a major speech on terrorism, the Prime Minister argued that Britain has been too ‘passive’ towards organisations and preachers who poison the minds of young Muslims. 

Mr Cameron said Britain needs to be less tolerant and more judgemental when faced with ideologies that threaten the country’s basic values. 

David Cameron and German Chancellor Angela Merkel at the International Conference on Security Policy in Munich today. 'Frankly, we need a lot less of the passive tolerance of recent years and much more active, muscular liberalism,' the Prime Minister said 

Signalling a major departure from Labour’s softly-softly approach, he suggested that to ‘belong’ in Britain, individuals must sign up to core values such as freedom of speech, the rule of law and democracy. 

In a barely-concealed attack on the opposition, he will say: ‘It’s time to turn the page on the failed policies of the past.’ 

The Prime Minister pledged to end all public funding for groups which give succour to extremist views. And he called for action to ban extremists from radicalising young people in universities, prisons and internet chat rooms. 

At a security conference in Munich today, Mr Cameron said: ‘Frankly, we need a lot less of the passive tolerance of recent years and much more active, muscular liberalism.’ 

His warning comes just days after Britain’s independent reviewer of anti-terrorism laws, Lord Carlile, said that human rights rulings had made Britain a ‘safe haven’ for suspected foreign terrorists. 

The Prime Minister also hit out at Labour’s experiment with multiculturalism – calling it a failure. He says society has failed to provide a strong sense of what it means to be British, making it easier for extremists to prey on youngsters seeking something to identify with. 

He added: ‘We have even tolerated these segregated communities behaving in ways that run counter to our values. 

‘So when a white person holds objectionable views – racism, for example – we rightly condemn them. 

‘But when equally unacceptable views or practices have come from someone who isn’t white, we’ve been too cautious, frankly even fearful, to stand up to them.’ 

Mr Cameron pledged to end the state funding of groups that help foster extremist views, even if they are not directly linked to terrorism. He warned that there is a ‘spectrum’ of dangerous groups, ranging from those advocating suicide bomb attacks to those who ‘may reject violence, but who accept various parts of the extremist world view, including real hostility towards western democracy and liberal values’. 

He said: ‘As evidence emerges about the backgrounds of those convicted of terrorist offences, it is clear that many of them were initially influenced by what some have called “non-violent extremists” and then took those radical beliefs to the next level by embracing violence.’ 

Shami Chakrabarti, director of civil liberties and human rights campaign group Liberty, said: 'I don't know how the Prime Minister defines multiculturalism, but I agree with every fundamental right and freedom set out in his speech. 

'These are the values enshrined in the Human Rights Act which I hope he will now promote rather than denigrate.' 

Downing Street last night declined to name the groups Mr Cameron is referring to. But controversial organisations which have received state funding in the past include Hizb-ut-Tahrir and the Muslim Council of Britain. 

Mr Cameron warned fellow European leaders that they cannot tackle terrorism simply by tracking down extremists abroad in countries like Afghanistan and Pakistan and must ‘wake up to what is happening in our own countries’. 

But the Prime Minister added that events in Egypt – where Muslim protesters are calling for democratic reforms – show that ‘Western values and Islam can be entirely compatible’. 

Sent by 


From the heart of a Muslim by Dr. Tawfik Hamid

Dr. Tawfik Hamid (aka Tarek Abdelhamid), is an Egyptian Scholar and Author, an Islamic thinker and reformer, and one time Islamic extremist from Egypt. He was a member of a terrorist Islamic organization JI with Dr. Ayman Al-Zawaherri who became later on the second in command of Al-Qaeda. Some twenty-five years ago, he recognized the threat of Radical Islam and the need for a reformation based upon modern peaceful interpretations of classical Islamic core texts.

I was born a Muslim and lived all my life as a follower of Islam After the barbaric terrorist attacks done by the hands of my fellow Muslims everywhere on this globe, and after the too many violent acts by Islamists in many parts of the world, I feel responsible as a Muslim and as a human being, to speak out and tell the truth to protect the world and Muslims as
well from a coming catastrophe and war of civilizations.

I have to admit that our current Islamic teaching creates violence and hatred toward Non-Muslims. We Muslims are the ones who need to change. Until now we have accepted polygamy, the beating of women by men, and killing those who convert from Islam to other religions.

We have never had a clear and strong stand against the concept of slavery or wars, to spread our religion and to subjugate others to Islam and force them to pay a humiliating tax called Jizia. We ask others to respect our religion while all the time we curse non-Muslims loudly (in Arabic) in our Friday prayers in the Mosques.

What message do we convey to our children when we call the Jews "Descendants of the pigs and monkeys".. Is this a message of love and peace, or a message of hate?

I have been into churches and synagogues where they were praying for Muslims. While all the time we curse them, and teach our generations to call them infidels, and to hate them.

We immediately jump in a 'knee jerk reflex' to defend Prophet Mohammad when someone accuses him of being a pedophile while, at the same time, we are proud with the story in our Islamic books, that he married a young girl seven years old (Aisha) when he was above 50 years old.

I am sad to say that many, if not most of us, rejoiced in happiness after September 11th and after many other terror attacks.
Muslims denounce these attacks to look good in front of the media, but we condone the Islamic terrorists and sympathise with their cause. Till now our 'reputable' top religious authorities have never issued a Fatwa or religious statement to proclaim Bin Laden as an apostate, while an author, like Rushdie, was declared an apostate who should be killed according to Islamic Shariia law just for writing a book criticizing Islam.

Muslims demonstrated to get more religious rights as we did in France to stop the ban on the Hejab (Head Scarf), while we did not demonstrate with such passion and in such numbers against the terrorist murders. 

It is our absolute silence against the terrorists that gives the energy to these terrorists to continue doing their evil acts. We Muslims need to stop blaming our problems on others or on the Israeli/Palestinian conflict. As a matter of honesty, Israel is the only light of democracy, civilization, and human rights in the whole Middle East .

We kicked out the Jews with no compensation or mercy from most of the Arab countries to make them "Jews-Free countries" while Israel accepted more than a million Arabs to live there, have its nationality, and enjoy their rights as human beings. In Israel, women can not be beaten legally by men, and any person can change his/her belief system with no fear of being killed by the Islamic law of 'Apostasy,' while in our Islamic world people do not enjoy any of these rights. I agree that the 'Palestinians' suffer, but they suffer because of their corrupt leaders and not because of Israel.

It is not common to see Arabs who live in Israel leaving to live in the Arab world. On the other hand, we used to see thousands of Palestinians going to work with happiness in Israel, its 'enemy'. If Israel treats Arabs badly as some people claim, surely we would have seen the opposite happening.

We Muslims need to admit our problems and face them. Only then we can treat them and start a new era to live in harmony with human mankind. Our religious leaders have to show a clear and very strong stand against polygamy, pedophilia, slavery, killing those who convert from Islam to other religions, beating of women by men, and declaring wars on non-Muslims to spread Islam.

Then, and only then, do we have the right to ask others to respect our religion. The time has come to stop our hypocrisy and say it openly: 'We Muslims have to Change'. 

Tawfik Hamid

Dr. Tawfik Hamid's Official Website- Part of the Potomac Institute ...

 Sent by Gerald Frost

“The Muslim Brotherhood was founded in Egypt in 1928. Its express purpose was two-fold: 
(1) to implement shariah worldwide, and 
(2) to re-establish the global Islamic State (caliphate).

  03/07/2011 07:23 AM