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"One of the penalties for refusing to participate in politics 
is that you end up being governed by your inferiors."  

Greek philosopher  
(c. 428-348 B.C.) 

Somos Primos

129th Online Issue

Editor: Mimi Lozano ©2000-2010

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
 Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research

Frente a Frente: 
The Mexican People in Independence and Revolution, 

Click for more information

Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research 
P.O. 490, Midway City, CA 

Board Members: 
Bea Armenta Dever, Gloria C. Oliver, Mimi Lozano, Pat Lozano, Cathy Trejo Luijt, Viola R. Sadler, Tom Saenz & John P.  Schmal


Somos Primos Staff 
Mimi Lozano, Editor
Mercy Bautista Olvera
Bill Carmena
Lila Guzman
John Inclan
Kim Holtzman
Galal Kernahan
Juan Marinez
J.V. Martinez
Dorinda Moreno
Rafael Ojeda
Ángel Custodio Rebollo
Tony Santiago
John P. Schmal
Contributors to this issue: 
Mary Acosta Garcia
Rudolfo F. Acuna, Ph.D.
Laura Adame
Natalia Almada
Joan Aleman
Ruben Alvarez
Dan Arellano
Francisco Barragan
Steve Bass
Mercy Bautista Olvera
Corey M. Blake
Jaime Cader
Roberto Camp
Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.
Gloria Candelaria
Bill Carmena
Rafael C. Castillo
Carlos Rugerio Cazares
Yolanda Centennial
LeRoy Chatfield
Gus Chavez
Jorge Chino
Andrew Costly
Jack Cowan
Richard Crowe
Pat Daniel
Adam England
Joel Escamilla
Angelo Falcon
Gary Felix
Glen Frost
Johnny Galveston
James Garcia
Wanda Garcia
Margarita Garza
Mary Gehman
Ron Gonzales
Bobby González
Pam Gremling 
Eddie Grijalva
Odell Harwell
Walter Herbeck
Lorraine Hernandez
Tom Holman 
John Inclan
Galal Kernahan
Alex King
Jose Antonio Lopez
Jan Mallet
Juan Marinez
Leroy Martinez
Don Milligan
Dorinda Moreno
Stephanie Mushrush
Sylvia Navarro Tillotson
Paul Newfield III
Rafael Ojeda
Lizette Jenness Olmos
Michael R. Ornelas
Ricardo Raúl Palmerín Cordero
Rudy Padillo
Jose M. Pena
Rueben M. Perez
Angel Custodio Rebollo
Crispin Rendon
Armando Rendon
Jose Leon Robles de la Torre
Rudi R. Rodriquez
Ben Romero
Benicio Samuel Sanchez Garcia
George Santayana
Antonio Santiago
Fabiola Santiago
Sister Mary Sevilla
Robert Smith
Zaragosa Vargas
Norma Vazquez
Albert Vela, Ph.D.
Connie Villarreal
Doug Westfall
Kirk Whisler


Memories of 9-11 by Mimi Lozano
Taxation and the Growth of Government Agencies to collect these taxes

100 years ago We DID NOT not have these taxes 
1934 Cartoon published in Chicago Tribune
Somos Primos' Antonio Santiago recognized as Puerto Rico’s foremost military historian

Hispanics Breaking Barriers, Part XX by Mercy Bautista-Olvera
Jesse Villarreal Jr.: UT graduate advances to become chief of staff for FDIC chairman.
Majority/Minority Report By Wanda Daisy Garcia
A Wise Latina by Mercy Bautista-Olvera

Fernando Laguarda Joins LULAC Corporate Advisory Board 

Rosie's Garage Gets Pat on the Back in People

Intro: American Bar Association to Study Hispanic Legal Issues
Report to the President on Hispanic Employment in the Federal Government 



Editor:  Talk about timing  . . .September 11, 2001, I was at the Orange County airport at 7 am. PST, waiting to board for a flight to Washington, D.C. to meet with other members of the Senate Task Force on Hispanic Affairs. After numerous delays, an announcement was made.  We were informed, the United States had been attacked by Muslim terrorists at 8:45 am, EDT. The Pentagon had been struck, lives lost and they were evacuating the Pentagon. The televisions in the airport soon relayed the horrifying results of the attack on the Twin Towers in New York, the collapsing walls, smoke, fire, confusion.  Eventually, we were informed that all air traffic was stopped in and out of Orange County Airport.  We were directed to call our families, let them know that all the streets coming into the airport were blocked off,  retrieve our luggage and leave the airport immediately.   

I went downstairs with everyone else to the luggage area.  Since all the flights had been canceled, the baggage area was really chaotic, but people were strangely quiet.  I stood, back against the wall, watching people silently grabbed their bags, and hurriedly dash out of the area, somber expressions.  

Suddenly, as if coming out of a dream, I realized that I was the only passenger left in the entire baggage area. All the other passengers had left the area.   A airport worker asked me if I needed help.  I told him I was trying to find my luggage and needed to call my husband again.  The worker led me to an area where unclaimed bags were sitting. I called my husband and waited outside.  I was alone.  When my husband picked me up. I asked him if he had trouble getting through the road blocks.  He said he had no problems, all the streets were open, "The airport was empty. You were the only one there."

In evaluating my state of mind, I  realize now that I was in shock.  I did not personally experience the devastation that I viewed on the television, but the realization of what the attacks had meant to the United States had pushed me into a state of shock.  America, my country had been attacked, a devastating attack.  We, as a nation were no longer safe.  

Flashback: It brought back a 1942 memory. I was 8 years old, standing with my folks in front of our house in East LA.  We were looking towards the coast, northwest of where we lived.  We were watching flames shooting high, flashing lights and booming sounds coming from the Santa Barbara area.   My Dad said quietly that some Japanese submarines had torpedoed the coast.  Although he was calm,  I could sense my Mom and Dad's fear. Very soon after that event, Dad moved the family inland.  We moved to Ontario, about 60 miles inland.  A year or so later we returned to East LA.  Los Angeles was on alert.  I remembered the window black-outs and siren warnings.  I remembered the school air-raid practices, sitting on our tiny little blankets underneath our desks, fearing that someday it would be real.  I remembered the fear.  

Wikipedia: During 1941 and 1942, more than 10 Japanese submarines operated in the West Coast. The United States mainland was first shelled by the Axis on February 23, 1942 when the Japanese submarine I-17 attacked the Ellwood Oil Field west of Goleta, near Santa Barbara, California. Although only a pumphouse and catwalk at one oil well were damaged, I-17 captain Nishino Kozo radioed Tokyo that he had left Santa Barbara in flames. No casualties were reported and the total cost of the damage was officially estimated at approximately $500–1,000.[1] News of the shelling triggered an invasion scare along the West Coast

As soon as I got home from the airport, I put on the television news and watched the news late into the night. Two more incidents magnified my concern of being invaded.  Flipping the channel, I caught a news item from a San Diego station.  The camera showed about 40-50 young men from the Middle Eastern that were attempting to enter the U.S. on student visas,  through Tia Juana.  They did not look like a typical Arab, they looked more like American students. It was late at night and the students were not being allowed to enter the U.S.. They were told that they had to wait until the next day.  My thoughts were, we are being invaded.  Where else in the US is this happening?  It was, and is, a frightening thought.

Just as I was ready to turn off the late news coming from the East Coast, the news caster said they had a special.  A young man claiming he had the last photos taken of the Twin Towers had just come to the studio.  The interview that followed was most disturbing.  The young man said he was part of a group that published news of interest to the Arab community in New York.  One of their members, happened to be in area just before the attack and took the photos.  The young man also had some stunning photos of the towers in flames, from angles closed to the public. The news caster questioned how those photos had been taken.  The young man said, their group member was on a motorcycle and had simply gone around the police blockades.  The before and after photos apparently were intended to show the effects of the attack.  Suddenly the interview was abruptly and quickly ended.  My thought, armies of these young men are already here.

I scoured the newspaper the next day for information on these two incidents, but did not find anything.  Everyday, I looked and I kept looking. Finally after about 6 weeks, I found a little article about the students.  Mexico was sending 90 Middle Eastern men on student visas, who were attempting to enter the U.S.,  back to their homeland.  

It made me proud that Mexico had stood with us.  They are our neighbors and share with us both a history and bloodlines that should encourage collaboration and friendship.  We should learn from history.  

Taxation & the Growth of Government Agencies to collect these taxes

100 years ago
We DID NOT not have the taxes below 

New Medicare tax
August 6 editorial in the Orange County Register touched on the new EQUITY TAX, 3.8-percent tax.
The new tax applies to "interest, dividends, annuities, royalties, rents, passive income" as well as "net capital gain from the disposition of non-business property," including personal residences.

Who is responsible for all these taxes? 

One hundred senators, 435 congressmen, one president, and nine Supreme Court justices equates to 545 human beings out of the 300 million are directly, legally, morally, and individually responsible for the domestic problems that plague this country.

The system of Social Security was introduced by Franklin Roosevelt with the following promises:

1.) That participation in the Program would be Completely voluntary; 
No longer Voluntary 

2.) That the participants would only have to pay 1% of the first $1,400 of their annual Incomes into the Program; Now 7.65% on the first $90,000 

3.) That money the participants elected to put into the Program would be deductible from their income for tax purposes each year; No longer tax deductible 

4.) That the money the participants put into the independent 'Trust Fund' rather than into the general operating fund, and therefore, would only be used to fund the Social Security Retirement Program, and no other Government program; 
Money was moved to The General Fund and Spent. 

5.) That the annuity payments to the retirees would never be taxed as income; 
Up to 85% of your Social Security can be Taxed 

Sent by Glen Frost



Accounts Receivable Tax
Building Permit Tax
CDL license Tax
Cigarette Tax
Corporate Income Tax
Dog License Tax
Excise Taxes
Federal Income Tax
Federal Unemployment Tax (FUTA)
Fishing License Tax
Food License Tax
Fuel Permit Tax
Gasoline Tax (currently 44.75 cents per gallon)
Gross Receipts Tax
Hunting License Tax
Inheritance Tax
Inventory Tax
IRS Interest Charges IRS Penalties (tax on top of tax)
Liquor Tax
Luxury Taxes
Marriage License Tax
Medicare Tax
Personal Property Tax
Property Tax
Real Estate Tax
Service Charge Tax
Social Security Tax
Road Usage Tax
Recreational Vehicle Tax
Sales Tax
School Tax
State Income Tax
State Unemployment Tax (SUTA)
Telephone Federal Excise Tax
Telephone Federal Universal Service FeeTax
Telephone Federal, State and Local Surcharge Taxes
Telephone Minimum Usage Surcharge Tax
Telephone Recurring and Nonrecurring Charges Tax
Telephone State and Local Tax
Telephone Usage Charge Tax
Utility Taxes
Vehicle License Registration Tax
Vehicle Sales Tax
Watercraft Registration Tax
Well Permit Tax
Workers Compensation Tax



Cartoon in Chicago Tribune, 1934



"Those who forget history are doomed to repeat it."


Antonio "the Marine" Santiago 
recognized as Puerto Rico’s foremost military historian

On August 10, 2010, Secretary of State of Puerto Rico Kenneth D. McClintock made the following welcoming Remarks at the Memorial Wall before the Presidential National Commission on the American Latino Museum in Puerto Rico where he declared Antonio Santiago Puerto Rico’s foremost military historian:

"First of all, on behalf of Governor Fortuño, welcome to Puerto Rico and, in this case, welcome to one of the most hallowed symbols of Puerto Rican life, our Memorial Wall.

We stand before over a thousand names chiseled in stone. Each name representing a living human being from Puerto Rico who gave his or her life, not for the well-being of their fellow Puerto Ricans, but for the well-being of all Americans. Each name, represents a face, each face a lifestory, and each lifestory ends in the tragedy of a premature death.

Each name on this wall was nominated by a person or an organization that could attest to the qualifications to be included in this hallowed place. In most cases, the names were submitted by the Defense Department. In other cases, other organizations or individuals were able to connect a name to Puerto Rico.

There is one man, whom I consider Puerto Rico’s foremost military historian, not because of his academic background in history, which he lacks, not because of a large series of books, which he hasn’t authored, but because of his devotion to making sure that Puerto Ricans contribution to military history, under the Spanish and American flags, are known, because of his integrity in sourcing and verifying absolutely everything before putting it out as a fact, and because of his resourcefulness in choosing a new media, Wikipedia to, as President Kennedy would trumpet, to “Let the word go forth from this time and place, to friend and foe alike,” that Puerto Ricans have made major contributions to military history.

LtoR: Nov 28, 2007, Secretary of State, Kenneth McClintock presents Tony with the Puerto Rican Resolution #3603 on behalf of the government and the people of Puerto Rico in recognition of Tony's history related work.   

That man, Antonio Santiago---Tony the Marine---as most Puerto Ricans, no longer lives in Puerto Rico. In his case, he chose to live in Phoenix, Arizona, long before S.B. 1070. Through his birth as a natural-born American citizen, and his service in Vietnam, he shouldn’t have to answer to any racial-profiling law enforcement official in his state who didn’t have to serve as he did. The Constitution he defended in Vietnam and for which the men and women whose names stand in silence before us today, does not require him to answer. But whether he lives in Arizona, or New York or Puerto Rico, Tony Santiago’s life work documenting Puerto Rico’s military history is reaching millions every day through the internet.

As you gather in Puerto Rico to reach consensus on how best to immortalize the history of Latinos in America… remember this Wall… remember the fallen Latino in each American war… and remember and engage those who, like Tony the Marine, would be more than willing to help etch in the conscience of all Americans with the same force that the names before us were etched in stone the heroism and the dedication of millions of Latinos who have served in America’s armed forces.

On behalf of Gov. Fortuño… on behalf of nearly 4 million Puerto Ricans in Puerto Rico… on behalf of over four million Puerto Ricans, like Tony the Marine, who live in the states… and on behalf of the over one thousand men and women whose names silently honor us from this Wall… welcome to Puerto Rico, the place where America becomes a Caribbean nation."


Part XX


Mercy Bautista-Olvera


The 20th article in the series “Hispanics Breaking Barriers” focuses on contributions  of Hispanic leadership in United States government. Their contributions have improved not only the local community but the country as well. Their struggles, stories, and accomplishments will by example; illustrate to our youth and to future generations that everything and anything is possible.  

Gloria Navarro:  U. S. District Judge for Nevada (Confirmed by the Senate Judiciary Committee)  

Joseph Garcia:  Lieutenant Governor for the state of Colorado (Candidate)  

Keila D. Cosme:  Sixth District Court of Appeals Judge in the state of Ohio (Appointed) 

Wifredo Antonio (Willy) Ferrer:  U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of Florida (Confirmed by the Senate Judiciary Committee)  

Victor Vasquez:  Deputy Secretary for Rural Development in the U.S. Department of Agriculture (Confirmed by the Senate Judiciary Committee) 


Gloria M. Navarro  

The Senate Judiciary Committee has approved Gloria M. Navarro as a United States District Judge for Nevada . She becomes the first Hispanic woman on a Federal bench in Nevada .  

Gloria M. Navarro, is the daughter of Cuban immigrants, she speaks both English and Spanish. She is married to Brian Scott Rutledge, Chief Deputy District Attorney in the offices’ Criminal division.  

From 1994 to 2001, Navarro served in private practice, representing clients in federal and state litigation relating to criminal, civil, and family law. In 2001, she was awarded the Louis Wiener Pro Bono Service Award for her representation of a victim of spousal abuse.  

In 2002, she received the Nevada State Bar Access to Justice Pro Bono Public Lawyer of the Year award. 

Navarro worked for the Clark County special public defender's office, where she handled murder cases. In 2005, Navarro joined the district attorney's office. She provided legal counsel and litigation defense to the Clark County Board of Commissioners. She served as Chief Deputy District Attorney in the Office of County Counsel.  

Navarro replaces Brian Sandoval, who gave up the lifetime appointment to run for governor. ”I think diversity on the federal bench is important, so she is a pioneer in that sense," said Carl Tobias, a former law professor at the University of Nevada .  

Navarro said she found it noteworthy that U.S Senator Harry Reid first called to talk to her about the judicial position on Sept. 11, that President Barack Obama nominated her for the job on Christmas Eve, and that the Senate confirmed her on Cinco de Mayo. "I'm thinking we've got to have the investiture on the Fourth of July or something," she joked. 

“I am impressed by this Nevadan’s professional record and her [Gloria Navarro] commitment to public service in all areas of her life. My meetings with her have certainly confirmed her dedication. She is a very personable individual and a professional who is devoted to justice and the rule of law. We have talked about our families, our shared respect for the law and our experiences growing up in Nevada , and it is clear that Ms. Navarro is yet another example of the quintessential American story,” stated U.S. Senator Harry Reid, as he presented her to the Senate Judiciary Committee. 

Navarro has worked for nearly 20 years in both the private and public sectors, and is experienced at handling very complex litigation at both the federal and state levels. Navarro is committed to the Nevada community. Among other things, as President of the Latino Bar Association, she created a mentoring program pairing high school, college, and law students with community lawyers.

Navarro’s new office is in the Lloyd George U.S. Courthouse in downtown Las Vegas ; she will be working across the street from the building where her grandparents, parents, aunts, uncles, and cousins became U.S. citizens.


Joseph Garcia  

Joseph Garcia, the President of  Colorado State University-Pueblo since August of 2006, has been tapped by Democrat Colorado gubernatorial candidate John Hickenlooper, as his running mate as Lieutenant Governor for the state of Colorado.  

Joseph Garcia, and his wife, Claire, an English professor at Colorado College , have four children.  

In 1979, Garcia earned a Bachelor's Degree in Business from the University of Colorado-Boulder. In 1983, he obtained his Law Degree from Harvard Law School .   

From 1994-1999, Garcia served on the Board of Directors of the Colorado Housing and Finance Authority under then Colorado Governor Roy Romer, then in 2001, Governor Bill Owens appointed him again to rejoin the Board of Directors.  

He also has served as the Mountain States Representative for the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, and as Executive Director of the Colorado Department of Regulatory Agencies. He also has served as a partner in the Colorado Springs Office of Law firm Holme Roberts & Owen.  

Garcia served five years as President of Pikes Peak Community College in Colorado Springs . At Pikes Peak , Garcia oversaw three campuses that serve about 16,000 students annually through associate's degree programs, business-training workshops or continuing education programs. He effectively also oversaw the successful reaccreditation process by the Higher Learning Commission in 2003.  

"Joe [Garcia] has been a strong leader in Colorado higher education and in the business world. His diverse professional background as an attorney, community college president and federal housing official makes him ideal to confront the challenges that face higher education in Colorado . Throughout the search process, Garcia received strong support from campus and community leaders, as well as the Search Committee,” stated Patrick Grant, Chairman of the Board of Governors. 

Garcia also serves on a number of boards and committees, including the Colorado Springs YMCA, the Colorado Springs Economic Development Corp., the Downtown Depot Arts District, the Pikes Peak Community Foundation, and the Goodwill Industries of Colorado Springs.  

Garcia has been selected twice, as Hispanic Business Magazine's "Hispanic Legal Elite," and as 2004, Outstanding Administrator in Higher Education by the Colorado Springs NAACP.  

In a ceremony on April 22, 2010, nineteen Colorado State University–Pueblo students and four faculty members, including President Joseph Garcia, were inducted into the Honor Society of Phi Kappa Phi.  

The March 8, 2010, Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education, a national publication magazine covered a story of the “Just an Ordinary Joe - Going the Extra Mile at Pueblo .” Garcia was featured on the cover of the magazine, which is dedicated to exploring issues related to Hispanics in higher education. This is Garcia’s second cover appearance on the magazine. In the early 2000’s,   he was featured with three other Hispanic community college presidents from the Colorado Community.

The 2010, article focuses on Garcia’s tenure and accomplishments at CSU-Pueblo. It describes the addition of programs, resurrection of football, dramatic enrollment growth, particularly from out of state, and a construction boom that has remade the campus and the school’s image. It also discusses Garcia’s goal to make CSU-Pueblo a university of first choice for students.  

“We want to make this the University of First Choice – not because of its lower cost or because it has lower admission standards but because it’s smaller, it has more of a family feeling, it’s safer, [and] you get the opportunity to conduct

undergraduate research…There are a lot of good reasons to be here,” stated Joseph Garcia. 


Judge Keila D. Cosme      

 Judge Keila D. Cosme

 On October 30, 2009, Judge Keila D. Cosme was nominated by Ohio Governor Ted Strickland to the 6th District Court of Appeals. Keila Cosme is the first Hispanic American to serve on any of Ohio 's 12 District Courts of Appeals. The seat was vacated by the death of Judge William Skow. Cosme was appointed, and took the bench on November 16, 2009. To retain the seat, Judge Cosme must run in the November 2010 general election.  

Keila D. Cosme was born and raised in Guaynabo , Puerto Rico, and moved to Massachusetts at the age of 17 in order to attend Boston University . Among the challenges, she faced, learning English even as she attended college. She managed to overcome these obstacles and became proficient in the English language.  

She is married to Joseph M. D'Angelo and has two sons; Roberto and Diego.  

In 1990, Judge Cosme served for a year on the Boston Stock Exchange and at a law firm.  

Also in 1990, Cosme earned a double Bachelor’s Degree in Political Science and Sociology from Boston University after four years while working part-time in the Office of Career Services in the College of Communications , and working for the U.S. Department of Defense. In 1994, she earned a Jurist Degree from the Cleveland-Marshall College of Law.  

Cosme served as a Staff Attorney with Calfee, Halter & Griswold, LLP, in Cleveland , handling complex commercial litigation. In 1998, Cosme arrived in Toledo , Ohio when Gallon, Takacs, Boissoneault & Shaffer Co LPA recruited her

husband and then Cosme opened her own office representing individuals and start-up companies. In 2001, Cosme and her husband were the founders of the law firm of Cosme, D’Angelo & Szollosi, LPA, and remained the managing partner until her appointment to the bench.  

Cosme’s practice has focused primarily on commercial and civil litigation; she has also counseled and represented private and pro bono clients on a wide range of legal matters that fall within the jurisdiction of the appeals court, including criminal, domestic relations, and juvenile law.  

“Keila is an accomplished attorney who has exemplified competence and professionalism throughout her career. Her unique life experiences and determination to overcome barriers will add a distinct voice to the Court of Appeals,” stated Governor Strickland.  

“We need an exposure to other cultures and ideas, the contribution that [each judge] brings to the caucus is critical and my experiences will bring something to that caucus,” stated Judge Cosme. She further added, “I’m honored by this appointment, and I am committed to serving the Court of Appeals with integrity and fairness.”    

Cosme served as a member of the Ohio Association for Justice, the Hispanic National Bar Association, and the Ohio Hispanic Bar Association. She also served as a member of the AFL-CIO Lawyers Coordinating Committee. 


 Wifredo Antonio (Willy) Ferrer

Wilfredo A. Ferrer, the Assistant County Attorney and Chief of the Federal Litigation Section in the Miami-Dade County ’s Attorney’s Office has been approved by the Senate Judiciary Committee to become the U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of Florida.  

Wilfredo A. Ferrer was born in 1966, a Miami-Dade native; he is the son of Cuban immigrants Wilfredo Ferrer and Zenaida Ramirez-Ferrer. He is married with two sons.  

Ferrer was Valedictorian at Hialeah-Miami Lakes Senior High. In 1987, he earned a Bachelor’s of Arts Degree in Economics at the University of Miami , Coral Gables , Florida , where he was also the President of his class. At the University of Pennsylvania Law School, he earned a Jurist Degree from the Law School .  

From 1990 to 1991, he Clerked for then District Court Judge Stanley Marcus in the Southern District of Florida.  

From 1991 to 1994, he served as an Associate in the Litigation Department of Steel Hector & Davis (now Squire, Sanders & Dempsey LLP) in Miami , Florida .

From 1994 to 1995, Ferrer was a White House fellow and special assistant to Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, Henry Cisneros, in Washington , D.C.  

From 1995 to 2000, Ferrer, served as Counsel and Deputy Chief of Staff to former Attorney General Janet Reno at the Justice Department headquarters in Washington , D.C. , "First of all, he understood better than anybody I've worked with how the federal government works with local and state governments. If I wanted to write the book about how to be the U.S. attorney, Willy would be one of my models," stated former Attorney General Janet Reno. 

From 2000 to 2006, Ferrer served as an Assistant U.S. Attorney in the Southern District of Florida in Miami .  

The position is among the most powerful of the 93 U.S. attorney's offices nationwide. The Miami post is also among the most demanding and sprawling -- with 290 prosecutors handling white-collar fraud, public corruption, drug-trafficking and human-smuggling cases from Key West to Fort Pierce . Ferrer replaces U.S. Attorney Jeffrey Sloman.  

He would be the fourth lawyer of Cuban descent to fill the prominent job -- but the first appointed by a Democratic president.


 Victor Vasquez  

Victor Vasquez has been named Agriculture Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development, at the USDA in Washington , D.C. U.S. Department of Agriculture Secretary, Tom Vilsack, appointed Vasquez. 

A former migrant worker, Victor Vasquez holds a Bachelor of Science Degree from the University of Oregon , and a Master’s Degree in Public Administration from Harvard University 's John F. Kennedy School of Government. He has also pursued coursework toward a doctorate degree in Community, and Economic Development from Southern New Hampshire University.  

Vasquez previously was a National Board Member on the Harvard Journal of Hispanic Policy, a Board Member to the University of Oregon Alumni Council , and the Executive Alumni Council for the John F. Kennedy School of Government.  

During President Clinton Administration, Vasquez served in Washington as the Director for both Economic Development and Work First programs. He also served with the Department of Defense as the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for the Military Community. He also served at the Family Policy Office in the Office of the Secretary.   

Vasquez also spent more than five years working in rural development, serving as USDA Assistant Administrator in the Office of Community Development with responsibility for launching the Rural Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community program.  

Most recently, Vasquez served as Deputy Assistant Commissioner for the Department of Transitional Assistance for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts . His responsibilities included policy and program management for TANF, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance, and the Housing and Homeless Services programs. He has also served in state governments in New York , Oregon , and Washington .  

As Agriculture Deputy, Vasquez will now bring his skills to the Rural Development agency which helps rural areas to develop and grow by offering Federal assistance that improves the local quality of life - targeting communities in need and then empowering them with financial and technical resources. The mission of the United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Rural Development division is to improve the economy and quality of life throughout rural America . Through financial lending and assistance programs, rural communities receive essential public facilities, and services such as water and sewer systems, housing, health clinics, emergency resources, and utilities, as well as agricultural cooperatives.  

Vasquez emphasizes the value of using the Rural Development system as a model for other data and intranet projects. "Not only have we implemented technology that improves the efficiency of our own operational area, but we have leveraged the power of the Web to empower community leaders to take charge of their own development and rely less on the federal government, we know that using technology is an important way for the government to consolidate and reduce administrative costs. We believe this system is a shining example of that vision," stated Vasquez.  

"Victor Vasquez is a welcome addition to the USDA team because he brings a solid understanding of both economic development issues as well as meeting the most pressing needs facing people in our communities. Because of this broad knowledge, he will be able to quickly work to strengthen rural communities throughout our country," stated U.S. Secretary of Agriculture, Tom, Vilsack.  

Vasquez has had more than two decades of experience in working with the community, and economic development at the local, state, federal, and international levels.   



Jesse Villarreal Jr.: UT graduate advances to become chief of staff for FDIC chairman.
By Barry Harrell 
American-Statesman Staff, July 31, 2010

When Sheila Bair was appointed chairwoman of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. in 2006, one of her first key decisions was choosing a chief of staff to run the day-to-day operations of her office. The decision wasn't difficult, Bair said. The right person, she said, was a young man from Austin: Jesse Villarreal Jr. Bair had worked with Villarreal at the Treasury Department a few years before, and "he was always at the top of my list," Bair said. "He was the first and only person I talked to about the job."

With that decision, Villarreal, a 36-year-old graduate of Austin's Crockett High School and the University of Texas, became one of the key advisers for Bair, one of the nation's most powerful financial officials, during a time of historic turmoil for the banking industry.

The FDIC is an independent federal agency that insures more than $7 trillion of deposits in U.S. banks and savings and loans. It has the power to shut down banks that are insolvent, and gained new powers in the recently passed financial reform legislation.

As the FDIC's powers have expanded, so has Bair's influence. In 2008 and 2009, Forbes magazine ranked Bair as the second most powerful woman in the world, after German Chancellor Angela Merkel.

As Bair's chief of staff, Villarreal has had a front-row seat to the financial crisis that has caused the failure of about 270 banks since 2008, including Guaranty Bank in Austin, one of the largest FDIC seizures last year.

The early days of the crisis were some he'll never forget, Villarreal said.

"It was a really challenging time," Villarreal said. "We were working weekends and in some cases through the night to get some major decisions done. Being at a board meeting at 6 a.m. — when everyone has been in the office the entire time and no one getting any sleep — is just one of those experiences you never thought you'd see."

As chief of staff for Bair, Villarreal said his responsibilities "include everything from making sure the trains run on time to making sure we are in line with the chairman's thinking. I'm also a liaison to other agencies \u2026 so a lot of what I do is relationship management."

Villarreal's impact on the FDIC is illustrated, Bair said, by his work on a problem during the banking crisis. On Sept. 19, 2008, Bair was in New York when she woke up to learn of a Treasury Department plan to provide unlimited guarantees to money market mutual funds.

"This could have been highly destabilizing to banks if depositors began transferring their money to money market funds to get unlimited coverage," Bair said.

So at about 6 a.m., Bair said, she picked up the phone, and "my first call was to Jesse." Her second call was to then-Treasury Secretary Hank Paulson.

"Hank agreed in principle to limit the guarantee to current balances, and Jesse worked the phones all morning to make sure this agreement was implemented, using the office of a friend of his at" the New York Stock Exchange, Bair said.

"Ultimately, the program that was announced reflected our input, and we were satisfied with the outcome. This demonstrates (Villarreal's) unique ability to react, coordinate, analyze and advocate on behalf of the FDIC."

Getting started

A 10th-generation Texan, Villarreal was 6 years old when his parents, Jesse Villarreal Sr. and Connie Villarreal, moved from San Antonio to Austin. His parents still live in Austin; Connie has retired from elementary school teaching and Jesse Sr. from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

From the beginning, they made clear family and education were important.

"School has always been important. My mother being a teacher, she always instilled that," Villarreal said.

Villarreal played baseball from Little League through high school — he was an infielder on Crockett's baseball team — and was a member of the National Honor Society in high school, as well as working as a bagger and a checker at a local supermarket.

After graduating from Crockett in 1992, Villarreal had no doubt that he would go to the University of Texas. Initially, Villarreal intended to major in biology. But during his junior year at UT, he said, "I really just didn't feel that was the route I wanted to take."  UT's business school was beckoning, he said, in part because of his involvement with the Hispanic Business Student Association.

Villarreal's leadership ability was clear, said Margarita Arellano, the group's faculty adviser while Villarreal was at UT.  Arellano, who is now dean of students at Texas State University, described Villarreal as "a doer."  "I would not have predicted he was going to be the chief of staff for the chairman of the FDIC," Arellano said with a laugh, "but I will tell you, I could predict he was going to be a success."

Different challenge

When Villarreal graduated from UT in 1997, he interviewed for a training program with what was then Texas Commerce Bank — now part of the JPMorganChase empire — and started in January 1998.

After about 15 months in the program, Villarreal went to work as a small-business specialist. Within two months, he had been promoted to small-business relationship manager, overseeing small and medium-sized business relationships at two branches.

Even with things going well in his banking career, Villarreal decided to try a different kind of challenge, working for the government. One of Villarreal's cousins was part of former President George W. Bush's 2000 presidential campaign, and Villarreal helped out with Hispanic outreach strategy. After Bush was elected, Villarreal decided to apply for a job in the new administration.

"I'd had some really early success with what I was doing (in banking) \u2026 so I figured I could always go back to doing that if things didn't work out, and I wanted to kind of take the opportunity to see what I could do," Villarreal said.

After a lengthy interview process, Villarreal landed a job with the Treasury Department, becoming special assistant to Bair, then assistant treasury secretary for financial institutions.

Valued adviser

In April 2003, Villarreal moved to the White House, becoming associate director for the Office of Cabinet Affairs. In that role, Villarreal had one of his most memorable experiences, helping the White House coordinate President Ronald Reagan's funeral in 2004.

"Me and a colleague were responsible for getting the Cabinet secretaries there ... so I was walking them through to their seats, and it was amazing to see all the congressional delegation, all the international leaders, and seeing all the former presidents and all the other dignitaries," Villarreal said. "That was an experience where I'm thinking, 'Wow, how did I get here?' "

In January 2005, Villarreal went back to the Treasury Department. He remained there until October 2006, when Bair brought him to the FDIC.

"He had really proven himself in positions of responsibility ... He was somebody I had a lot of confidence in and a good trust relationship with," Bair said. "He's a really valued adviser and someone I have complete trust in."

Although a career in public service wasn't always in his plans, Villarreal, who is single and hopes to eventually move back to Austin, said he has no regrets.

"I never really expected to be in the government sector, but it's just been an amazing experience here," he said. "You just see all the commitments from the civil servants, and it's been very rewarding for me."; 912-2960

PLEASE click to Jesse Villarreal Jr. and view his 11-generation pedigree, back to the early families of Texas.



Majority/Minority Report
Wanda Daisy Garcia

There has been much controversy about what actually happened at Three Rivers, Texas.  I have read the allegations  of the Three Rivers crew’s  that the incident portrayed by historians was not accurate. They cite  the Majority Report conducted by the Texas Legislature as proof that no discrimination existed against the family of Felix Longoria.  So, I decided to conduct my own research and went to the source to get the facts at the Texas State Library on Friday. 

The Library staff was very excited when I let them know that Dr. Hector P. Garcia was my father.  When I filled them in on the controversy surrounding the incident, they were so shocked, that they were silent for 5 minutes.  They asked how could anyone dispute what happened when there is so much historical documentation supporting that this was indeed a fact?  They suggested that I read the report of the Texas Legislature House of Representatives, Special Investigation Committee on the Reburial of Felix Longoria, Correspondence, Majority and Minority reports, 1949.

The Legislature appointed a five member legislative commission to investigate conflicting reports alleging that discrimination has been shown in handling the funeral arrangements of Felix Longoria. 

Prior to the hearings, J. F.  Gray, Live Oaks Representative in the Texas House of Representatives and company stacked the five member panel with regular Democrats committed to finding results the Anglo establishment  wanted.  House Speaker Durwood  Manford appointed four establishment representatives,  Speaker Manford claimed that Chairman Cecil Storey for Longview and Tom Cheatham of Cuero “were there as representative of the Three Rivers Chamber of Commerce, and not as impartial investigators…

It is my opinion that the committee will probably render a four to one report clearing Three Rivers of discrimination, but certainly the language will have to be very soft because the record is overwhelmingly conclusive that there was discrimination at the onset.  1

The Legislative Committee report reads as follows. The Legislative Committee finds that Mrs. Longoria asked T.W. Kennedy, owner of the Rice Funeral Home,  if she could have the body of her deceased husband, Felix Longoria brought to the funeral home in connection with the re-interment.   And  at this particular time,  Mr. T.W. Kennedy, did discourage the use of the funeral home for said purpose and suggested that it would be better that the widow have such service take place in her home situation in Three Rivers, Texas.   Kennedy would make available all of his equipment and facilities necessary for such purpose.  Mrs. Longoria and the funeral director T.W. Kennedy had made full, complete and final arrangements for the lying in state of the body prior to its final re-interment…

The Committee further finds that there was a very heated telephone conversation between Dr. Hector P. Garcia and Kennedy and with a newspaper reporter claiming that there had been discrimination in regard to the proposed re-burial of the deceased soldier. ..

The committee further finds that Kennedy,  the undertaker gave the mayor of Three Rivers, TX. Mr. J.M Montgomery authority to send to Dr. Garcia a telegram which stated:

I have just interviewed Mr. T.W. Kennedy Rice Funeral Home.  Did not refuse use of his facilities and does not refuse use. Arrangements can be made for use if desired by Longoria family.  American Legion had arranged full military honors.  Also offered use of American Legion Hall.  (Mayor’s Home offered if necessary. (Signed J.M. Montgomery, Mayor of the city of Three Rivers, Texas.)

The Committee further finds that subsequent to the mutual arrangements made between the undertaker and the deceased soldier’s wife relative to the burial of the deceased soldier’s body at Three Rivers, Texas, heated conversations occurred between third Parties and the undertaker concerning funeral arrangements and the burial.  In such conversations, over the phone, the undertaker used some very unfortunate expressions; upon reflections he explained and apologized for same.

The next document I examined was the Minority Report on the Longoria Investigation written and signed by Frank Oltorf.  Oltorf was one of the original members of the Committee.  He refused to sign the Majority report and instead filed his Minority report:

I deeply regret the necessity of filing a minority report in the matter pertaining to alleged discrimination in the handling of the body of Felix Longoria.  Sincere men may differ in the interpretation of evidence and their subsequent conclusions.  I therefore could not concur in their majority report without violating both my sense of justice and my intellectual honesty…Mr. Kennedy, the owner of the funeral home at Three River was the only person who had the opportunity to discriminate, and I shall concern myself solely with his words and actions…

Oltorf further elaborates: On the 8th of January, 1949, Mrs. Beatrice Longoria tried to avail herself for the use of the funeral home chapel for her husband’s funeral.  In the testimony she stated that Mr. Kennedy said, ‘He couldn’t do it because the whites would object to it.” 

After Dr. Garcia contacted Mr. Kennedy at Mrs. Longoria’s request, to ask about the use of the funeral home, Kennedy replied that he could not do it because “The whites wouldn’t like it.”  After the conversation with Kennedy, Dr. Garcia then contacted George Groh, Corpus Christi Caller Times reporter and advised him of his conversation with Mr. Kennedy.  Mr. Groh then phoned Kennedy on the same night to get the story for his paper.  When Groh asked Kennedy twice if the refusal was based on the fact that Longoria was a Mexican, Kennedy replied yes, stating “We have never made a practice of letting Mexicans use a chapel and we don’t want to start now.”  Kennedy admitted making those remarks.

The question of racial discrimination arose and received wide spread publicity due to Mr. T.W. Kennedy’s statements to Mr. George Groh, Dr. Hector P. Garcia, and Mr. Thomas Sutherland.  Mr. Kennedy admitted saying that the “Whites might object” and later publically apologized to the widow and her sister for having made such remarks.  There is no evidence that his words reflected the view of the citizens of Three Rivers.  …The statements of Mr. George Groh, a disinterested reporter are indisputable and undeniable.  I cannot look into the heart of Mr. Kennedy to ascertain his true intent but can only accept his oral words which appear to me discriminatory.  Frank C. Oltorf.

The significance of Oltorf’s statement prove  that the Longorias had suffered discrimination at Kennedy’s hands.  The signers of the Majority Report were the Chairman, Mr. Storey, and Representatives Windham, Cheatham, and Tinsley.  When newspapers all over the state published the two findings together, one regular member of the committee, Byron Tinsley of Greenville, was so embarrassed that he requested that his signature be removed from the majority statement. 2

I have read about and heard the facts about the Longoria incident for most of my life.  I did not know that Texas Representative Abraham Kazen, Jr., sent the document to U.S. Senator Lyndon B. Johnson with the statement:  “We will formulate some sort of procedure to be followed from this point.”  I do not know exactly what that meant. But I do know that LBJ in his memoirs consider the handling of the Felix Longoria affair one of his great accomplishments.

Also, I was struck by the newspaper articles and the pictures of the family. I had stepped back in time to 1949. The small house that the Longoria’s lived in was hardly appropriate for a wake. So, I wonder why Kennedy thought he was doing the Longoria family a favor by recommending the use of their house for the Wake. The headlines in the newspapers mentioned how the city of Three Rivers Texas apologized to the Longoria family for the Kennedy’s insult and made every effort to distance them from Kennedy. Why would the City of Three Rivers made any apologies if there was no discrimination? Some members of the Texas Legislature in a punitive effort tried to get the Texas Good Neighbor Commission disbanded. When Texas Legislators contacted Texas Representative Lloyd M. Bentsen Jr. in an effort to gain support for their movement , Bentsen[i] stated that he felt the Commission was doing a good job, and disassociated him from this movement. 

The Three Rivers crews seek to convince the public that there was no discrimination by rewriting history. The facts clearly speak for themselves and are clearly documented on both sides. Both sides agreee that the Longoria family suffered discrimination at the hands of Tom Kennedy. I hope this settles the issue of reinterpreting information that is historically documented. 

[i] Wake of Felix Longoria, Patrick Carroll, University of Texas Press, 2003, pgs. 170 – 180.

The Latino/Latin American Studies Center Austin Community College Riverside Campus and the Tejano Genealogy Society of Austin present the Felix Longoria Story. Scheduled to speak are Dr Pat Carroll author of “The Felix Longoria Story,’ Wanda P. Garcia daughter of Dr Hector P Garcia founder of the American G.I Forum and Jim Akers son-in-law of Dr Hector P. Garcia. 

The event begins at 3 P.M Saturday September 18 in the Auditorium at Austin Community College Riverside Campus 1020 Grove Blvd. The event is free and open to the public, refreshments will be provided. For More Information contact: Dan Arellano President Tejano Genealogy Society of Austin 512-826-7569

"Roberto Calderon"
Date: Thursday, August 26, 2010, 5:46 PM

My friends,
This writing by Mr. Richard Hudson has upset the Longoria family. He even had the audacity to send them an autograph copy of his work. This is a complete distortion of the facts pertaining to the Longoria case in 1949 and a complete insult. I ask that you join me in writing letters or emails to the Frank W. Mayborn Graduate Institute of Journalism at the University of North Texas to voice your displeasure. I have supplied you with these contacts:

1155 Union Circle #311460
Denton, TX 76203-5017
940-565-4564  940-369-8959 FAX   

DR. MITCH LAND, DIRECTOR  940-565-4564

Thank you for your support.
Santiago Hernandez, Civil Rights Chairman
Pvt. Felix Z. Longoria Chapter of the American GI Forum; Corpus Christi, TX
(361) 249-5222

Judge Mary Helen Murguía


Judge Mary H. Murguía

A Wise Latina



Mercy Bautista-Olvera


Judge Mary Helen Murguía is a United States District Judge for the District of Arizona, and first Latina to serve in Arizona . She is a currently Federal Judicial nominee to a seat on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit.    

Mary Helen Murguía was born on September 6, 1960. She grew up in Argentine, a neighborhood of Kansas City , Kansas . She is the daughter of Alfred Murguía (1920-2001) and Amelia Murguía. Judge Murguía is the twin sister of Janet Murguía, a former Clinton advisor. Janet is currently the President and Chief Executive of the National Council of La Raza, (the nation's largest Latino Civil Rights group) and sister of five other older siblings Martha and Rosemary, older brothers Alfred Murguía Jr., who was the first to attend college, and District Judge Carlos Murguía, who serves for the District of Kansas. Carlos previously served as Wyandotte , County District Attorney . Mary Helen and Carlos are the only set of siblings sitting on the Federal bench in United States . Her brother Ramon; is a Harvard educated lawyer and community activist. The Murguía’s come from a large, tight-knit family. Four of the seven siblings, including the two sisters, hold law degrees. Five hold undergraduate degrees. All of the siblings attribute their success to the values of hard work, sense of community, family, and humility. 

In 1982, Mary Murguía earned two Bachelor’s Degrees in Journalism and Spanish, from Kansas University , and in 1985, she earned her degree from the Kansas University School of Law.  

Judge Murguía is a former state and Federal Prosecutor. She began her legal career in 1985 with the Wyandotte County District Attorney’s Office in Kansas City , Kansas .  During her tenure on the district court, Judge Mary Murguía issued important rulings in environmental protection and patent infringement.  

From 1990, Murguía served as Assistant U.S. Attorney in Arizona and was the office’s Deputy Criminal Chief from 1994 to 1998. Murguía also provided guidance on law enforcement issues and policy initiatives at the Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys at the Department of Justice in Washington , D.C. She also served as Counsel to the director’s staff (1998-99), Principal Deputy Director (1999) and Director (1999-2000).  

On July 21, 2000, former President Clinton nominated Murguía to a new seat on the United States District Court for the District of Arizona. The Senate Judiciary Committee confirmed Murguía on October 3, 2000. She became the first Latina to serve on the Federal bench for the District of Arizona.  

In 2008, in the midst of her professional life of public service, Judge Murguía also has served her legal alma mater with great distinction. She served a two-year term on the Kansas University School of Law’s Board of Governors. She became a founding member of Kansas University ’s Women’s Advisory Council. In that role, she has shared her wisdom and experience as a mentor, and adviser to the students who will follow her footsteps into the legal profession. In the same year, ruling by Judge Murguía derailed efforts by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service under the George W. Bush administration to remove protections for desert-nesting bald eagles. 

In 2009, Judge Murguía came to notice in the intellectual property field when she doubled a jury's award of damages to $371 million to be paid to a New Jersey medical device manufacturer that had developed breakthrough vascular tubing. An Arizona company, W.L. Gore & Associates Inc., was found to have infringed on the patent rights of C.R. Bard Inc, now branded simply as Bard, a manufacturer of medical equipment headquartered in Murray Hill , New Jersey .  

Throughout her career, Murguía has presided over thousands of civil and criminal cases, including Arizona ’s first federal death penalty case since the enactment of the Federal Anti-terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996. Recently, she presided over a controversial case regarding racial profiling by law enforcement.

President Obama in a statement released by the White House, stated, "Judge Murguía has displayed an outstanding commitment to public service throughout her career and as a district judge in Arizona, I am honored to nominate her today for a seat on the United States Court of Appeals and confident she will serve the American people with fairness and integrity."  

The Kansas University School of Law is proud to have another one of its graduates sit on the federal court of appeals. “Mary is well suited for the job and will make an outstanding judge for the Ninth Circuit. We were delighted to learn that President Obama has nominated Judge Mary Murguía to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit,” stated Gail Agrawal, Dean of the law school.  

“Judge Murguía is a jurist with great wisdom and integrity. As a first-generation American who grew up in a working-class family in Kansas City , Kansas , she has been a source of inspiration to our students. We take great pride in her and her many achievements and look forward to her confirmation by the Senate,” stated Stephen Mazza, professor of law and Interim Dean designate for the law school.  

On April 10, 2010, the Kansas University in Lawrence , Kansas inducted five women alumnae, administrators into Women's Hall of Fame. Among them was Judge Mary H. Murguía as well as her sister Janet Murguía President and CEO of National Council of La Raza.   

In 2010, Judge Mary Murguía and her twin sister Janet delivered the Emily Taylor and Marilyn Stokstad Women’s Leadership Lecture, administered by the Hall Center for the Humanities. The fund supports lectures by prominent women on women’s leadership issues.    

If confirmed by the Senate Judicial Committee, Judge Mary Judge Murguía  will serve the sprawling Ninth Circuit which covers Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon and Washington. It is the largest of the 13 courts of appeals, with 29 active judgeships.

Fernando Laguarda Joins LULAC Corporate Advisory Board 

“Laguarda, a Vice President at Time Warner Cable, will serve on the Board as Vice President of Policy.”

Washington, DC – Fernando Laguarda, Vice President, External Affairs and Policy Counselor for Time Warner Cable has joined the LULAC Corporate Advisory Board and will serve as Vice President for Policy. 

“It is an honor to serve on the LULAC Corporate Advisory Board and work to further our educational and career development mission,” stated Fernando Laguarda. “Time Warner Cable has long shared in this mission through its STEM initiative known as Connect A Million Minds as I am confident that together we will be able to maximize the number of Latino youth to fill the gap of professionals in the fields of science, technology, engineering and math.”

The LULAC Corporate Alliance, an advisory board of Fortune 500 companies, fosters stronger partnerships between Corporate America and the Hispanic community. The role of the advisory board is to support the strategies, goals, and mission of LULAC and advocate on its behalf.

The mission of the LULAC Corporate Alliance is to establish and foster partnerships between corporations, the Hispanic community and LULAC. The Alliance will promote economic development initiatives as well as provide advice and assistance to the LULAC organization. Corporations participating in the Alliance will work with LULAC in developing national and community-based programs to address the needs of the Hispanic community and will work toward ensuring that the nation’s future workforce obtains the necessary education and skills to keep America productive.

In his current position, Fernando helps Time Warner Cable develop and advance its policy positions, focusing on consumer protection, competition issues, intellectual property and telecommunications regulation. Fernando has primary responsibility for working with non-governmental policy stakeholders, such as think tanks, foundations, the academic community, public interest and inter-governmental groups, and civil and human rights representatives. He also serves as Director of the Time Warner Cable Research Program on Digital Communications, which seeks to expand scholarship in fields of interest to the cable and telecommunications industries. Prior to joining Time Warner Cable, Fernando was a partner at Harris, Wiltshire & Grannis and at Mintz Levin. In private practice, he represented a wide range of communications, entertainment industry, health care and technology clients in proceedings before state and federal courts and regulatory agencies. Fernando received his A.B. with honors from Harvard College and his J.D. with honors from Georgetown University Law Center, where he was Notes and Comments Editor of the Georgetown Law Journal. Currently, he serves on the Board of Directors of Women Empowered Against Violence Inc. (WEAVE), the Harvard Alumni Association, the National Network to End Domestic Violence (past Chair), the Family Online Safety Institute, and the Friends of the National Museum of the American Latino. 

The League of United Latin American Citizens, the oldest and largest Hispanic membership organization in the country, advances the economic conditions, educational attainment, political influence, health, housing and civil rights of Hispanic Americans through community-based programs operating at more than 700 LULAC councils nationwide.

Sent by:

Lizette Jenness Olmos

(202) 365-4553 mobile

Rosie's Garage Gets Pat on the Back 
in People, "Heroes Amongt Us"
by Lou Ponsi

LA HABRA, California — Rose Espinoza has again received national recognition for the tutoring center for low-income children she started in her garage 20 years ago.  Espinoza, 58, is featured in the Aug.9 issue of People in the magazine's "Heroes Among Us" section for her efforts with Rosie's Garage, a non-profit tutoring center she started after being alarmed with gang activity in her La Habra neighborhood.

In this 2003 photo, Rose Espinoza, stands in front of her La Habra garage where she started a tutoring program in 1991. The "Rosie's Garage" tutoring program was featured in the Aug.9 issue of People Magazine under the "Heroes Among Us" section.  Kevin Sullivan, The Orange County Register, Orange, California

Today, says Espinoza, the neighborhood has changed for the better, with homes spruced up in the enclave just north of Lambert Road, between Monte Vista and Walnut streets.  "I'm grateful to People Magazine," Espinoza said. "The message is that people can do something in their communities."

Rosie's Garage, which has provided homework help to more than 1,000 school-age children, has been featured in publications of Women's World, O, The Oprah Magazine, OC Metro and on the front page of the New York Times.

A La Habra councilwoman since 2000, Espinoza was also profiled by the Register as one of the "100 People Who Shaped Orange County."

Accolades she's' received for Rosie's Garage include the National Caring Award, National Hispanic Business Woman of the Year Award and Presidential Service Award. She's also a member of the National Association of Women Business Owners Hall of Fame.

"I keep telling people, 'I'm just ordinary,'" said Espinoza, who spent Saturday volunteering on a rebuilding project at Guadalupe Park. "I go to these incredible events all over the place and come back to this low-income neighborhood ... it keeps you humble.

Espinoza said she never intended to continue Rosie's Garage for more than three years, but the neighborhood children had other ideas.

"The kids came to my gate after they got home from school and kept yelling, 'Rose, Rose, are you going to open escuela?' So I said I would do it one more year and one more year and one more year."

Espinoza operated Rosie's Garage from her home until 2003. In 1995-96, Espinoza herself tutored from a second location, which was a friend's backyard. The program received non-profit status a year ago, Espinoza said.

In the late '90s Espinoza relocated the tutoring center to 348 Grace St, but still visits low-income neighborhoods and sets up makeshift tutoring sessions from the trunk of her car, she said.

Donations and grants have enabled Espinoza to equip the center with learning tools such as computers.

"I started with nothing and was able to get results," she said.

You can learn more about Rosie's Garage at

Contact the writer: Contact the writer:714-704-3730 or lponsi@ocregister

Judge Mary H. Murguía

A Wise Latina



Mercy Bautista-Olvera


Judge Mary Helen Murguía is a United States District Judge for the District of Arizona, and first Latina to serve in Arizona . She is a currently Federal Judicial nominee to a seat on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit.    

Mary Helen Murguía was born on September 6, 1960. She grew up in Argentine, a neighborhood of Kansas City , Kansas . She is the daughter of Alfred Murguía (1920-2001) and Amelia Murguía. Judge Murguía is the twin sister of Janet Murguía, a former Clinton advisor. She is currently the President and Chief Executive of the National Council of La Raza, (the nation's largest Latino Civil Rights group) and sister of five other older siblings Martha and Rosemary, older brothers Alfred Murguía Jr., who was the first to attend college, and District Judge Carlos Murguía, who serves for the District of Kansas. He previously served as Wyandotte , County District Attorney . Mary Helen and Carlos are the only set of siblings sitting on the Federal bench in United States . Her brother Ramon; is a Harvard educated lawyer and community activist. The Murguía’s come from a large, tight-knit family. Four of the seven siblings, including the two sisters, hold law degrees. Five hold undergraduate degrees. All of the siblings attribute their success to the values of hard work, sense of community, family, and humility. 

In 1982, Mary Murguía earned two Bachelor’s Degrees in Journalism and Spanish, from Kansas University , and in 1985, she earned her degree from the Kansas University School of Law.  

Judge Murguía is a former state and Federal Prosecutor. She began her legal career in 1985 with the Wyandotte County District Attorney’s Office in Kansas City , Kansas .  During her tenure on the district court, Judge Mary Murguía issued important rulings in environmental protection and patent infringement.  

From 1990, Murguía served as Assistant U.S. Attorney in Arizona and was the office’s Deputy Criminal Chief from 1994 to 1998. Murguía also provided guidance on law enforcement issues and policy initiatives at the Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys at the Department of Justice in Washington , D.C. She also served as Counsel to the director’s staff (1998-99), Principal Deputy Director (1999) and Director (1999-2000).  

On July 21, 2000, former President Clinton nominated Murguía to a new seat on the United States District Court for the District of Arizona. The Senate Judiciary Committee confirmed Murguía on October 3, 2000. She became the first Latina to serve on the Federal bench for the District of Arizona.

In 2008, in the midst of her professional life of public service, Judge Murguía also has served her legal alma mater with great distinction. She served a two-year term on the Kansas University School of Law’s Board of Governors. She became a founding member of Kansas University ’s Women’s Advisory Council. In that role, she has shared her wisdom and experience as a mentor, and adviser to the students who will follow her footsteps into the legal profession. In the same year, ruling by Judge Murguía derailed efforts by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service under the George W. Bush administration to remove protections for desert-nesting bald eagles. 

In 2009, Judge Murguía came to notice in the intellectual property field when she doubled a jury's award of damages to $371 million to be paid to a New Jersey medical device manufacturer that had developed breakthrough vascular tubing. An Arizona company, W.L. Gore & Associates Inc., was found to have infringed on the patent rights of C.R. Bard Inc, now branded simply as Bard, a manufacturer of medical equipment headquartered in Murray Hill , New Jersey .  

Throughout her career, Murguía has presided over thousands of civil and criminal cases, including Arizona ’s first federal death penalty case since the enactment of the Federal Anti-terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996. Recently, she presided over a controversial case regarding racial profiling by law enforcement.

President Obama in a statement released by the White House, stated, "Judge Murguía has displayed an outstanding commitment to public service throughout her career and as a district judge in Arizona, I am honored to nominate her today for a seat on the United States Court of Appeals and confident she will serve the American people with fairness and integrity."  

The Kansas University School of Law is proud to have another one of its graduates sit on the federal court of appeals. “Mary is well suited for the job and will make an outstanding judge for the Ninth Circuit. We were delighted to learn that President Obama has nominated Judge Mary Murguía to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit,” stated Gail Agrawal, Dean of the law school.  

“Judge Murguía is a jurist with great wisdom and integrity. As a first-generation American who grew up in a working-class family in Kansas City , Kansas , she has been a source of inspiration to our students. We take great pride in her and her many achievements and look forward to her confirmation by the Senate,” stated Stephen Mazza, professor of law and Interim Dean designate for the law school.  

On April 10, 2010, the Kansas University in Lawrence , Kansas inducted five women alumnae, administrators into Women's Hall of Fame. Among them was Judge Mary H. Murguía as well as her sister Janet Murguía President and CEO of La Raza.   

In 2010, Judge Mary Murguía and her twin sister Janet delivered the Emily Taylor and Marilyn Stokstad Women’s Leadership Lecture, administered by the Hall Center for the Humanities. The fund supports lectures by prominent women on women’s leadership issues.    

If confirmed by the Senate Judicial Committee, Judge Mary Judge Murguía  will serve the sprawling Ninth Circuit which covers Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon and Washington. It is the largest of the 13 courts of appeals, with 29 active judgeships.



Intro to: American Bar Association to Study Hispanic Legal Issues

Miami Herald (August 7, 2010)

In an unprecedented move to address the legal issues of Hispanics in the United States, the 400,000-member American Bar Association -- under the new leadership of Stephen N. Zack, a Cuban-American lawyer from Miami -- will announce Monday the creation of the Commission on Hispanic Legal Rights. 

The ABA commission, to be headed by Miami lawyer César L. Alvarez, also a Cuban-American, will hold public hearings in major U.S. cities with Hispanic populations to study whether the legal system is addressing the needs of the country's largest and fastest-growing minority. 

"We need to find out the facts and we need to see how the system is working or not working to make sure that Hispanics are fully integrated and treated equally within our justice system,'' said Zack, who will make the announcement when he officially becomes the ABA's first Hispanic president at the group's annual convention in San Francisco. 

Sent by Angelo Falcon
NiLP, National Institute for Latino Policy

Report to the President on Hispanic Employment in the Federal Government 

The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) submits the Ninth Annual Report on Hispanic Employment in the Federal Government pursuant to Executive Order 13171, issued in October 2000. This report presents data on Hispanic employment in the Federal Government for the reporting period running from July 1, 2008, through June 30, 2009.

Some progress has been made with respect to higher level positions. Hispanic hiring increased at the GS-15, Senior Executive Service (SES) level, and senior pay levels. The number of Hispanics among new SES hires doubled and the percentage increased from 2.0 percent to 3.2 percent. Additionally, the number of Hispanic permanent new hires into higher level positions (GS 9-13) increased by 22.0 percent.

Overall, a great concern that remains is that the percentage of Hispanics in the permanent Federal workforce is 8.0 percent, while Hispanics make up 13.2 percent of the Nationwide Civilian Labor Force. There were two factors that appear to contribute to an overall Hispanic representation of 8.0 percent for a second year in a row. While there was a decrease in Hispanic representation among permanent new hires from 9.2 percent (14,142) to 7.3 percent (12,091), there was also an increase in the number of Hispanic employees in the permanent Federal workforce, from 137,767 in June 2008 to 144,288 as of June 30, 2009, increase of 6,521. This suggests that the higher retention of Hispanics helped to offset the overall decrease in Hispanic new hires, maintaining the same relative percentage at 8.0 percent.

The Department of Homeland Security, the Department of the Treasury, the Department of Veterans Affairs, and the Department of Defense hired over three-fourths of all Hispanic permanent new hires. Among the 23 large agencies' and departments' workforces, 10 increased their percentage of Hispanics on-board as of June 30, 2009; seven posted declines; and six remained unchanged from the previous reporting period. Five of the seven with percentage declines actually increased in the total number of Hispanics employed.

Overall Hispanic student hiring utilizing the Student Career Experience Program (SCEP) increased by 39 students, from 238 in June 2008, to 277 in June 2009. While there was a slight increase in Hispanic student hiring, in relation to overall SCEP hires, Hispanic new hires under this program decreased from 5.1 percent to 4.9 percent. 

Kirk Whisler, Hispanic Marketing 101
email: voice: (760) 434-1223
Latino Print Network overall: 760-434-7474




Do you know what it means? 
One detail that is never mentioned is that in Washington, D.C. there can never be a building of greater height than the Washington Monument. 
With all the uproar about removing the ten commandments, etc., this is worth a moment or two of your time. I was not aware of this amazing historical information.

On the aluminum cap, atop the Washington Monument in Washington, D.C., are displayed two words: Laus Deo. No one can see these words. In fact, most visitors to the monument are totally unaware they are even there. 

Once you know Laus Deo's history, you will want to share this with everyone you know. These words have been there for many years; they are 555 feet, 5.125 inches high, perched atop the monument, facing skyward to the Father of our nation, overlooking the 69 square miles which comprise the District of Columbia, capital of the United States of America.

Laus Deo! Two seemingly insignificant, unnoticed words. Out of sight and, one might think, out of mind, but very meaningfully placed at the highest point over what is the most powerful city in the most successful nation in the world.

So, what do those two words, in Latin, composed of just four syllables and only seven letters, possibly mean? Very simply, they say, "Praise be to God!" Though construction of this giant obelisk began in 1848, when James Polk was President of the United States, it was not until 1888 that the monument was inaugurated and opened to the public. 

It took twenty-five years to finally cap the memorial with a tribute to the Father of our nation, Laus Deo "Praise be to God!"
From atop this magnificent granite and marble structure, visitors may take in the beautiful panoramic view of the city with its division into four major segments. From that vantage point, one can also easily see the original plan of the designer, Pierre Charles l'Enfant .... a perfect cross imposed upon the landscape, with the White House to the north. The Jefferson Memorial is to the south, the Capitol to the east and the Lincoln Memorial to the west. 

A cross you ask? Why a cross? What about separation of church and state? Yes, a cross; separation of church and state was not, is not, in the Constitution. So, read on. How interesting and, no doubt, intended to carry a profound meaning for those who bother to notice.

Praise be to God! Within the monument itself are 898 steps and 50 landings. As one climbs the steps and pauses at the landings the memorial stones share a message. 

On the 12th Landing is prayer offered by the City of Baltimore ; 
On the 20th is a memorial presented by Chinese Christians; 
On the 24th a presentation made by Sunday School children from New York and Philadelphia quoting Proverbs 10:7 , Luke 18:16 and Proverbs 22:6 .. Praise be to God! 

When the cornerstone of the Washington Monument was laid on July 4, 1848 deposited within it were many items including the Holy Bible presented by the Bible Society. Praise be to God! Such was the discipline, the moral direction, and the spiritual mood given by the founder and first President of our unique democracy "One Nation, Under God."

I am awed by Washington 's prayer for America. Have you ever read it? Well, now is your unique opportunity, so read on!

"Almighty God; We make our earnest prayer that Thou wilt keep the United States in Thy holy protection; that Thou wilt incline the hearts of the citizens to cultivate a spirit of subordination and obedience to government; and entertain a brotherly affection and love for one another and for their fellow citizens of the United States at large. And finally that Thou wilt most graciously be pleased to dispose us all to do justice, to love mercy, and to demean ourselves with that charity, humility, and pacific temper of mind which were the characteristics of the Divine Author of our blessed religion, and without a humble imitation of whose example in these things we can never hope to be a happy nation. Grant our supplication, we beseech Thee, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen."

Laus Deo! 

When one stops to observe the inscriptions found in public places all over our nation's capitol, he or she will easily find the signature of God, as it is unmistakably inscribed everywhere you look. You may forget the width and height of "Laus Deo", its location, or the architects but no one who reads this will be able to forget its meaning, or these words: "Unless the Lord builds the house its builders labor in vain. Unless the Lord watches over the city, the watchmen stand guard in vain." (Psalm 127: 1)

It is hoped you will send this to every child you know; to every sister, brother, father, mother or friend. They will not find offense, because you have given them a lesson in history that they probably never learned in school. With that, be not ashamed, or afraid, but have pity on those who will never see this because someone failed to send it on. 

Sent by: Jose M. Pena

"If my people, which are called by my name, shall humble themselves, and pray, and seek my face, and turn from their wicked ways; then will I hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin, and will heal their land."  2Ch 7:14




279th Anniversary of the First Civil Government, State of Texas by Rueben M. Perez
Report of the 5th Annual Tejano Battle of Medina Losoya Texas August 21, 2010
City of Los Angeles History Book Reprinted with Historical Mistakes
1836 Battle of the Alamo is a chapter of Mexico’s history, not the U.S. by Jose Antonio Lopez
Imperial Valley Solar Project a damage to the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail 

in the State of Texas

 By Rueben M. Perez

                 The San Antonio Canary Islands Descendants Association celebrated the 279th Anniversary of the first civil government in the state of Texas.  The Canary Islanders entered Presidio de San Antonio de Bejar on March 9th, 1731.  All together, there were sixteen families and some unattached bachelors, 56 people total.   Shortly, after they arrived the newly arrived settlers started work immediately to establish the settlement of the Villa of San Fernando.  Juan Antonio Perez De Almazan would have the responsibility to assist the newly arrived Canary Islanders by providing assistance, distribution of land, and establishing the first municipal government in the state of Texas.  A group would gather together on July 20, 1730 as Captain Almanzan organized the first city council called the “cabildo”.  Juan Leal Goraz was appointed to head up the council as the first regidor or councilman.  Other appointments for councilmen would include: Juan Curbelo, Antonio Santos, Salvador Rodriguez, Manuel de Nis, and Juan Leal Jr.  Vicente Alvarez Travieso would be appointed as sheriff, Francisco de Arocha, as secretary, and Antonio Rodriquez in charge of public lands.

               Today, forms of the first Cabildo exist today in San Antonio’s municipal government.  Other contributions made by the Canary Islanders include laws of family relationships of adoption and rights of inheritance, independent executors of wills in Texas, laws of matrimonial property (community property), protection of certain land and tools from creditors’ claim, homestead law and water rights.


In honor of the First Civil Government, the Canary Islands Descendants Association celebrated this special event  on August 7, with a reenactment, "Cabildo" written by Alicia Burger. The script was performed by the members of the San Antonio Founding Heritage. They are listed according to speaking roles. Following the reenactment, President Dorothy M. Perez inducted the newest members into the Canary Islands Descendants Association.  

Serving as the narrator was the well-known historian,
Dr. Almaraz, playing the role of Friar Olivares

Scene 1
Dr. Felix D. Almaraz Jr. 
. Don Juan Antonio Perez de Almazan:
Patrick Martinez
Manuel de Niz:
Michael Cunningham   
Perez de Almazan:
Patrick Martines 
Juan Leal Goraz:
Bain Smith  
Antonio Rodriquez:
Joe Cunningham Jr.    
Juan Curbelo:
Jacinto Casas 
Vicinte Alvarez Travioso:
Manuel Lizcano 
Francisco de Arocha:
David Bhirdo  
Antonio de los Santos:
Richard Contreras   

Scene 2 
1st Narrator:
Stella Cunningham   
2nd Narrator:
Olga Lizcano  
3rd Narrator:
Mary Ozuna  
4th Narrator:
Karen Tugame                                                 

Jose Padron: Morgan Hartman 
Juan Leal Goraz:
Bain Smith 
Alcade Antonio de los  Santos:
Richard Contreras  

Dr. Felix D. Almaraz Jr.  
Vince Scarnato  

2nd Narrator: Eloise Douglas

3rd Narrator
: Estella Quintero

Women’s sewing circle
Mariana Melano:
Kyle Contreras
Juana Curbelo: Kathy Hartman
Maria Francesca Sanabria:
Tense Cunningham
Maria Robania de Bethencourt:
Ann Broussard
Sebastina de Niz:
Marty Urias

4th Narrator: Elizabeth Smith

Cabildo” References
*Mattie Alice Austin’s thesis of
  Municipal Government Villa de San
Fernando de Bexar

* Diamond Jubilee Archdiocese of San Antonio ©1949 Robert El Lucy

*Bexar Archives Translations Vol. VI pp 

*Our Catholic Hertiage in Texas by C.E. Castenda –Latin American Librian, University of Texas

At the podium, Armandina Sifuentes, 2nd Vice President.
On the right, President Dorothy M. Perez 

The men establish the form and structure of the first San Antonio City Council. 

Patrick Martinez representing Captain Perez de Almazan

*The ladies were present at the next table over from the males.   They ladies dialogue back and forth regarding the difficult conditions of the settlement, while they quilted.

Canary Islands Descendants Assn 
P.O. Box 6153, San Antonio, Texas 7820-0153.  210-658-3184

San Antonio Founding Heri
512 Adams San Antonio, Texas 78210 and

Sent by
Rueben M. Perez 

Report of the 5th Annual 
Tejano Battle of Medina Losoya Texas 
August 21, 2010

The 5th annual Tejano Battle of Medina was again a huge success. The community of Losoya, as well as several groups from as far away as Laredo, Houston and Dallas, who are hungry for the truth, attended this important
event in Tejano History. This was a Tejano event and it is important that we remember the sacrifices and hardships OUR ancestors paid for wanting to be free.

Mr Ferguson, who lives six miles from Losoya wowed the audience by showing off his cannon balls from the Battle of Medina, which we discovered during an archeological dig on his land. Major General Alfred Valenzuela was also
very impressive with his newly acquired knowledge of the Battle of Medina. Author and Historian Robert Thonhoff handed out a new publication on the real story of this famous incident and as always delivered a powerful message on the importance of finding the battle site.

County Commissioner Tommy Adkisson delivered a powerful speech on the overall importance of the battle and how important it is that we locate the actual site.  A graduate student from the University of North Texas, Brad Folsom from the Department of History attended for the second time, who, by the way, is doing his dissertation on the life of General Joaquin de Arredondo and who promised me a copy of his soon to be published dissertation. A good friend and activist from Goliad, Benny Martinez delivered a report on the soon to be built Tejano Monument at the state
capital in Austin.

As usual Charles Lara and ALMA, along with several reenactors in period attire marched in step and presented the colors, along with several Native American tribes which were well represented. For the 5th year bugler Ray
Gutierrez performed magnificently with the playing of the National Anthem and Taps at the end of the ceremony.

Eddie Arevalo and Pete Diaz from the public access TV show in Austin, The Eddie Arevalo Spotlight Show, attended and recorded the event for viewing on the Public Access channel. Perhaps they will do a documentary, hopefully.

Afterwards I met with several property owners that will be giving me permission to search for artifacts on their property and as soon as I obtain it we will be doing a dig when the weather is cooler, perhaps late fall.

Dan Arellano
Author/Historian  <  Lots of photos

City of Los Angeles History Book Reprinted with Historical Mistakes
Editor: The organization of the descendants of the founders of Los Angeles, Los Pobladores, were hoping that corrections to "My City, My History: A Guide to Discovering Your History and the History of El Pueblo de Los Angeles," would be made, prior to any republishing.  The old historical mistakes in the first publication of the book were not corrected.  

The book published in 2006 by the City of Los Angeles.  is highly criticized by Robert Smith, a descendant, who makes several points in his letter to the Mayor's office. 

He points out that they do not understand some basic history because . . the book continues 

(1) to make *Mexico the founder of Los Angeles in 1781, 

(2)  includes the wrong **ethnic backgrounds for the colonizing families 

(3) ignoring the fact that the four Spanish Soldiers and their families were founders, not just escorts 
*El Grito de Dolores was 1810 and Mexico gained its independence in 1821. The colonizing families were Spanish citizens. 

** The list of the 44 colonizers, 22 adults and 22 children. Racial categories of Pobladores are based on the racial definition recorded in the parish registers of the Catholic Church, and the Spanish classifications for children of mixed marriages. The 44 colonizers would be correctly identified as:



For a full listing of the ethnic (racial) make-up, go to
the booklet, Black/Latino Connection, which includes data from the official Spanish Census taken in 1781. 
I prepared the booklet in 2000 at the request of the Black Chamber and Hispanic Chambers of Commerce. 

1836 Battle of the Alamo is a chapter of Mexico’s history, not the U.S.
by Jose Antonio Lopez

Editor: Email sent August 5th, 2010 to the San Antonio Express-News regarding the city’s plan to show a downtown banner celebrating the 175th anniversary of the 1836 Battle of the Alamo.

Mr. Huddleston (Scott), reference your SA Express-News and Conexión articles regarding the Alamo banner to be displayed downtown, marking the “175th” anniversary of the 1836 Battle of the Alamo.  

I agree that the Alamo is the biggest tourist draw to downtown.  That is all well and good because the San Antonio area and the entire state of Texas profits.  However, isn’t it time to start putting the story of the 1836 Battle of the Alamo in perspective?  

Most of your article’s readers (and most people, in general) do not know that the 1836 Battle of the Alamo is a chronological chapter of Mexico’s history, not the U.S.  (Texas did not join the U.S. until 1845 as a slave state.)   

If historians (and reporters) insist on writing about it as part of U.S. history, then they should claim not just nine years to 1836.  In fairness, they should go back to the spark that lit Texas independence – Father Miguel Hidalgo’s “Grito” on September 16, 1810 (el Diezyseis).  That is when Don Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara began his quest to make Texas independent; a goal he accomplished three years later.  For that reason, the number of years on the proposed banner should refer to those key events and read “200” and not “175” years.  

In my view, much of the meanness directed against the Southwest Hispanic culture, its people, and the speaking of Spanish during the ugly on-going immigration issue is caused by those who are terribly ignorant of Texas history and the Spanish Mexican roots of the U.S. Southwest.  Most have no clue that this is New Spain, not New England.   

It is time to market the Alamo and the La Bahia Presidio for their strength, beauty, and creativity of their Spanish Mexican builders.  They should no longer be show-cased because armed Anglo illegal aliens from the U.S. died there.   

In short, we need a more fair, balanced, and inclusive approach in the telling of Texas independence.  The descendants of Spanish Mexican pioneers, the first citizens of Texas, have been waiting for justice for over 170 years.  Thank you.

Very Respectfully, Jose Antonio “Joe” Lopez

Mr. Lopez, thank you for making contact.  

I'll try to take time later to carefully read and reflect on your ideas. But I wanted to respond quickly, and just acknowledge that I think you have expressed, very eloquently, some well-grounded sentiments about historical interpretation. This week's dust-up with the banner brought out, once again, some of the harsh realities associated with the way Texas history has been interpreted. 

You're absolutely correct about balance and inclusivity . I'm hopeful that the 175th anniversary of the Texas Revolution will provide an opportunity to promote those ideals and heal old wounds. I'm currently talking to some of my colleagues here at the Express-News on how we can accomplish that.    

Respectfully,   Scott 
Scott Huddleston, staff writer, San Antonio Express-News

Imperial Valley Solar Project, CA  
would cause irreparable damage to the 
Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail. 


Imperial Valley Solar Project, Docket 08-AFC-5

August 16, 2010

Christopher Meyer
Project Manager
California Energy Commission
1516-9th Street ,  MS-15
Sacramento , CA 95814
(916) 653-1639    

My name is Ernest Garcia and I am a resident of Folsom, CA, and a 7th generation Californian.  I’m a member, past Board Member and current Chair of the Expedientes (Land Grant Records) Committee for Spanish and Mexican land grant holdings of Los Californianos. This is a group of some 750 members who trace their roots back to the first Spanish colonists that came to California , starting in 1769.  I’m also Vice President of the National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, Sacramento , CA Chapter, and a member of Spain ’s Society of the American Revolution (based in Madrid , Spain ).  The relevance of this background will soon be apparent.           

The proposed location of the Imperial Valley Solar Project site near Coyote Wells and Plaster City , CA would cause irreparable damage to the interpretation and appreciation of California’s unique history, specifically to the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail.  As my background illustrates, the history of the Anza trail has not only national, but also international implications.   

The trail crosses territories once governed by American Indian peoples, by Spanish and Mexican citizens and, ultimately, by Americans.  If approved as currently planned, the project would cut across the historic Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail, established by acts of the U.S. Congress and administered by the National Park Service. 

None of the documents on the CEC and BLM websites for the application describe adequate mitigation for the permanent destruction of the local habitat, the flora and fauna unique to the telling of the story of California’s and America’s immigrant past.  It is my sincere concern that the project would forever destroy an important segment of this historic route and deprive generations of Americans from meaningful first-hand experiences that can bring them to a better understanding of our multiethnic culture and heritage.  This concern is for the trail corridor itself and its nearby recreational components.           

The Anza trail was first used by the indigenous peoples of California and Arizona .  It was later used as an early and important line of communications between New Spain and Alta California, current day Mexico and California , respectively, during the 18th and 19th centuries.  In 1776, Spanish Army Captain Juan Bautista de Anza used the trail to bring over 240 Spanish soldiers and their families to establish the city of San Francisco , the Mission Dolores and the Presidio of San Francisco.  In 1782, Captain Fernando de Rivera y Moncada used the same trail to guide Spanish soldiers and settlers to establish the cities we know today as Los Angeles , Ventura and Santa Barbara .  Among the group that established Los Angeles and Ventura came my maternal, Sons of the American Revolution compatriot, and fourth great-grandfather, Josef Manuel Valenzuela, a soldier, who (like all Spanish Colonial citizens at the time) monetarily supported the Continental Congress and Army during the American Revolution.  In 1780, King Carlos, III, asked every Spanish soldier in Spain ’s domain to contribute two pesos to the American Revolution, and this money was subsequently transmitted to the American Colonies, in part, by way of the Anza trail.           

If approved, the project would set a dangerous precedent.   This project is no more appropriate on this trail than it would be on the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail, the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge or the National Mall in Washington , D.C.  I urge the commission to deny the application for the licensing and construction of the Imperial Valley Solar power plant in its current location.  I do not believe that you have the right and authority to rescind or modify Public Law 90-543, and Public Law 101-365 that recognized the contributions and importance of this trail and my ancestors.   The Federal government is tasked with the identification and protection of the historic route and its historic remnants and artifacts for public use and enjoyment.  

Sincerely, Ernest J. Garcia
105 Puffer Way
Folsom, CA 95630

(916)  261-1120  

National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution (SAR) has about 28,000 members.
2.  California Society SAR has about 1,500 members.
3.  Spain ’s Society of SAR has 53 members.

Sent by Leroy Martinez




Lolita Lebrón Dies: Organizer/Activist             November 19, 1919-August 1, 2010

José Saramago: A Voracious Intellectual         November 16, 1922 - June 18, 2010
Mario Obledo:  Hispanic Rights Leader             April 9, 1932 - August 18, 2010
Esteban "Steve" Jordan, Tejano accordionist    Feb. 23, 1939 - August 13, 2010                
David J. Weber, Renowned Historian              December 20, 1940 - August 20, 2010

Lolita Lebrón Dies

 November 19, 1919-August 1, 2010

San Juan- The Nationalist heroin, Lolita Lebrón, who was jailed a quarter century in the United States for leading a commando attack on the Congress, died August 1, 2010.  

The 89 year old Puerto Rican nationalist leader was in a hospital in San Juan for a few weeks due to cardio respiratory complications she could not overcome, sources said. 

"We were very anxious about the clinical picture presented in the last few hours and certainly expected this sad and painful end at any time," International News Service said a source close to the family, who declined to be identified. 

Lebrón was active in the struggle for the independence of Puerto Rico until her last breath, as relatives explained that only the deterioration of her health prevented her from being present in the latest protests in the country. 

She also regretted not being able to be in the welcoming last Tuesday of former Puerto Rican political prisoner Carlos Alberto Torres, as she was already very poor health. Torres spent 30 years in prison in the U.S. for "seditious conspiracy" related to the struggle for independence as a suspected member of the Armed Forces of National Liberation (FALN). 

Lebrón led an integrated command team in 1954 that included Rafael Cancel Miranda, Irving Flores and Andrés Figueroa Cordero, who remained imprisoned for 25 years before being pardoned in 1979 by President Jimmy Carter in the wake of an intense international campaign. 

The action sought "to denounce to the world the farce of the Commonwealth," a system of government that had been founded in 1952 to remove Puerto Rico from the list of colonies.  On one occasion, nationalist leader stated that the attack on the U.S. Congress did not intend to cause the death of any congressman and, on the contrary, members of the command intended to blow themselves up because they thought they would be killed there.


More on Lolita Lebrón:
Newsreel of 1954 Nationalist Assault on Congress 
Mi Puerto Rico Video: Lolita Lebrón
Audio of Lolita Lebrón on 1954 Congressional Attack
2009 Interview with Lolita Lebron by Dan Berger

Sent by Dorinda Moreno 



José Saramago: A Voracious Intellectual
November 16, 1922 - June 18, 2010

The only Portuguese-language novelist to win a Nobel Prize
By Jorge Chino

“This prize is for all speakers of Portuguese, but while we're on the subject, I shall keep the money,” said José Saramago after receiving the $950K for is 1998 Nobel accolade. Not a surprising statement for a writer whose novels depict ordinary people confronting the complexities of life under seemingly omni-powerful authorities or collapsing social systems. He died June 18, 2010.

In his winning of the Nobel Prize of literature, the Wall Street Journal simply said: “an inveterate communist with anti-religious views”. Born November 16, 1922 outside Lisbon, Saramago a late-starter writer who came from a poor family and he never finished his university studies. Saramago was “indeed a voracious intellectual ... acquiring information as much as he could,” said Helder Macedo, emeritus professor of Portuguese literature at Kings College London.

José Saramago’s imagination blended fact, fantasy, and folklore, always taking on grandiose subjects and themes. In his 1986 novel, “The Stone Raft,” Spain and Portugal snap off from the rest of the European continent and floats off into the North Atlantic. In Blindness, his best-known novel in the United States and was made into a movie, the entire population of a city loses its sight.

Condemned by the Catholic Church, his 1992 The Gospel According to Jesus Christ, portraits a Jesus living with Mary Magdalene, who tries to back out of his crucifixion. God is a manipulator pulling on the world’s strings and in cahoots with Satan to make people suffer needlessly. 

I loved Saramago’s Gospel that I read in a long taxi cruise in Mexico City. The novel is terrifying, provocative and deeply philosophical about the evil of God to create religious domination by imposing Christianity through the inquisition, the crusades and other God-made catastrophes.

Jesus rows to a center of a large lake filled with fog. When he gets there, the fog begins to dissipate and God appears right before him. In the conversation that ensues between father and son, God tells Jesus about his plan to impose Christianity to the world by a series of wars and Jesus himself has to sacrifice and die on the cross to serve His will. In this conversation that lasts 40 days Jesus discovers the close alliance between his father and Satan. 

Born José de Sousa Saramago in a family of landless peasants, Saramago is the only Portuguese language (spoken by 170 million people around the world) writer to have received a Nobel Prize of Literature.

In 1992, a heated conflict ensued between Portuguese under-secretary of state for culture Antonio Sousa Lara and Saramago after the publication of The Gospel according to Jesus Christ that motivated Saramago's move to the island of Lanzarote in the Canaries, off northwest Africa. Saramago’s name had been withdrawn from Portugal's nominees for the European Literature Prize.

Popular at home in Lisbon José Saramago was not. His unflinching support for Communism until his death at 87, at his home in Lanzarote as well as his blunt manner and his controversial works antagonized man and made him very unpopular in countless circles.  “People used to say about me, ‘He’s good but he's a Communist.’ Now they say, ‘He’s a Communist but he’s good,’” he said to The Associated Press in 1998.

His historical fantasy called in English “Baltasar and Blimunda” explores the battle between individuals and organized religion, and is set during the Inquisition.

Saramago never courted the kind of fame offered by the Nobel Prize and other similar awards. “I am skeptical, reserved, I don't gush, I don't go around smiling, hugging people and trying to make friends,” he once said to a magazine.

In 2002, he compared Ramallah, the Palestinian city blockaded by the Israeli army, to the Nazi death camps at Auschwitz and Buchenwald. The accusations of anti-Semitism and condemnations by even the most progressive Jewish individuals came like an avalanche. This is only one of the many accessions his bluntness has put him against the wall, and attitude he never changed until his death a couple of months ago.

Splendor Magazine: A magazine featuring the world of today's fashion, real estate, jewelry, fine dining, business, visual and performing arts and travel. Jorge Chino, Publisher  

Mario Obledo, Hispanic Rights Leader, Dies at 78

By Douglas Martin

New York Times  (August 20, 2010)

April 9, 1932 to August 18, 2010


Mario G. Obledo, who slept on the floor with 12 siblings as the child of illegal immigrants and went on to become the founder and leader of major Hispanic-American organizations, a top state official in California and an acid critic of stereotypical treatment of Mexicans, died Wednesday in Sacramento. He was 78.


Mr. Obledo's overarching accomplishment was to help usher Hispanics toward the center of the American political discussion, declaring they would no longer "take a back seat to anyone." Known just as Mario, in the manner of his ally Jesse Jackson, he helped forge alliances with other minorities and build political power by registering hundreds of thousands of Hispanics to vote.


During the administration of Gov. Jerry Brown, he became the first Hispanic chief of a California state agency: health and welfare, the largest in both budget and workers. In 1982, he was the first Hispanic citizen to mount a serious run for governor of California.


When President Bill Clinton presented him with the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1998, the citation said Mr. Obledo had "created a powerful chorus for justice and equality." He was called the "Godfather of the Latino Movement" in the United States.


His approach was as unsubtle as it was impassioned. He created a national commotion in the 1990s by protesting the stereotypical Mexican accent of the Chihuahua in Taco Bell commercials. When someone put up a sign at the California border saying, "Illegal Immigration State," he threatened to burn it down personally.


He ignited an explosive response in 1998 when he said in a radio interview that Hispanics were on the way to taking over all of California's political institutions. He suggested that people who did not like it go back to Europe.


In the face of criticism that Hispanics have lagged behind blacks in creating political and civil rights institutions, he created and led many. These included the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund, the Hispanic National Bar Association, the Southwest Voter Registration Education Project and the National Coalition of Hispanic Organizations.


He was president of the League of United Latin American Citizens and chairman of the National Rainbow Coalition, the leftist political organization that grew out of Mr. Jackson's 1984 presidential campaign.


Mario Guerra Obledo was born in San Antonio on April 9, 1932, and grew up in a tiny house on an alley off a dirt street. His father died when he was 5, and he and his 12 brothers and sisters had to hustle to find chores to help supplement welfare to pay the $5-a-month rent and other expenses.


His mother hammered into him the importance of education, telling him that "teachers are second to God." The pharmacist he started working for at 12 urged him to go to college. His four brothers were convicted of crimes like burglary, robbery and narcotics, but he himself was never jailed, he said in an interview with The New York Times in 1982.


"I was involved in everything, I guess, that everyone else was," he said. "I just never happened to get caught in a serious situation that would embitter me to the point where I would continue in that pattern."


Mr. Obledo entered the University of Texas at Austin in 1949, then interrupted his studies to enlist in the Navy in 1951. He specialized in radar technology and was on a ship during the Korean War. He returned to the university and graduated with a degree in pharmacy. He worked as a pharmacist while earning a law degree from St. Mary's University in San Antonio.


One day, another young lawyer, Pete Tijerina, spotted Mr. Obledo dancing with his wife at a dinner for the League of United Latin American Citizens. Mr. Tijerina was pondering how to start a legal organization to fight for the rights of Hispanics.


"I need a guy like him," Mr. Tijerina recalled thinking in an interview with The San Antonio Express-News in 2001.


The two war men founded the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund with $2.2 million from the Ford Foundation and guidance from the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund.


They had no trouble finding injustices. They filed a suit saying a utility discriminated against Hispanic job candidates by having a height requirement, and they won. They forced schools to desegregate, courts to reform jury selection, swimming pools to integrate and businesses to take down signs barring Mexicans from entering.


"Discrimination was so widespread, I claimed that filing a lawsuit was like picking apples off a tree," Mr. Obledo told The Express-News.


He joined the Harvard Law School faculty as a teaching fellow for eight months in 1975. Then Governor Brown of California named him secretary of health and welfare. He held the post for seven years, and sharply increased the number of minorities working in the agency. After losing badly in his bid for California's Democratic nomination for governor, he practiced law, consulted and kept a generally low profile.


Mr. Obledo is survived by his wife and nine brothers and sisters.


Saying he was alarmed at what he saw as rising anti-Hispanic sentiment in immigration and education, he re-emerged in the late 1990s to take on issues as diverse as the exclusion of a Latino float from a Fourth of July parade and cutbacks in bilingual education - not to mention that Taco Bell Chihuahua.


Mr. Obledo's arguments were far from simplistic. In 1987, he wrote a letter to The Los Angeles Times protesting proposals to raise excise taxes on gasoline, liquor and cigarettes. He said such taxes disproportionately harmed the poor, because their incomes were smaller and the taxes were the same for everyone.


He accepted The Times's editorial argument that such taxes would help limit consumption and that this was good. But he then zeroed in for the kill: "Is it our government's intention to deny these everyday items only to the poor?"

Source: National Institute for Latino Policy (NiLP)

Dr. Mario Guerra Obledo's rosary and funeral were held Sacramento at the Cathedral of the Blessed Sacrament located at 1017 11st in downtown Sacramento, Califas.  A Catholic mass on August 26 at 5 P.M. Following the mass an evening rosary was held for public viewing through midnight. Funeral services were held the following morning beginning at 9 am.  As a proud veteran Dr. Obledo received military honors.

With the most sincere thank you to the many, many of you who sent information and person comments honoring Dr. Obledo.  I did not have the privilege of ever meeting Dr. Obledo, but it is apparent that he surely profoundly touched many. Gus Chavez has written a tribute to Dr. Obledo which I've included under Texas for Dr. Obledo's legal impact on the La Elliott School in Sonora Texas.  Click 

Esteban "Steve" Jordan, 71 
Influential Tejano accordionist Esteban 'Steve' Jordan dies at 71

By Terence McArdle, The Washington Post,  

February. 23, 1939 - August 13, 2010 

Esteban "Steve" Jordan made his mark as an accordionist by creating a layered sound dubbed "psychedelic polka." (Arhoolie Productions) 

Esteban "Steve" Jordan, 71, the innovative Tejano accordionist who broadened the range and repertoire of conjunto music in the 1970s and influenced such performers as Los Lobos and Brave Combo, died Aug. 13 at his home in San Antonio. He had liver cancer. 

Mr. Jordan added many electronic devices to the instrument and adapted jazz standards such as "Harlem Nocturne" and "Midnight Sun" to a genre best known for its polkas, waltzes and boleros. He was often called the Jimi Hendrix of the button accordion. 

A charismatic performer who often dressed in purple vests and shiny gold shirts with buccaneer sleeves, Mr. Jordan was known as "El Parche" (the Patch) because of the snakeskin pirate's patch he wore over his right eye. On recordings, he used the Spanish and English forms of his first name, Esteban and Steve, interchangeably. 

Juan Tejeda, organizer of the annual Tejano Conjunto Festival in San Antonio, once called him "one of the best accordion players in the world and the history of conjunto music. He's a maverick, a rebel, he's an innovator." 

In addition to singing, Mr. Jordan said he played more than 20 instruments. His credits included guitar work with the Latin jazz percussionist Willie Bobo in the 1960s -- a job that opened his ears to rhythms and harmonies beyond the traditional conjunto style. 

But it was on the accordion that he made his mark as he added rock effects such as echo and synthesizers to its basic sound, creating a layered sound that Latino disc jockeys dubbed "psychedelic polka." 

Mr. Jordan played a traditional button accordion, not a piano type. However, it was no ordinary model. He took it apart to retune the reeds and extend its harmonic range. The Hohner company in Germany later built a custom model for him, the Tex-Mex Rockordeon, with leveled buttons for faster fingering. 

Esteban Jordan was born Feb. 23, 1939, in Elsa, Tex., in the Rio Grande Valley. He was one of 15 children born to migrant farmworker parents. A midwife blinded him in his right eye just after birth when she rinsed his eyes with a contaminated fluid. 

"I couldn't work in the fields because of my eye," he told the Austin American-Statesman. "I couldn't pick cotton, so I stayed behind in the camp with all the people who were too old to work. They taught me about life. I couldn't read or write, but I was getting the best education. When I was 7 years old, I was 70 in my mind." 

By age 7, Mr. Jordan had learned harmonica and guitar. In a migrant camp, he met and jammed on guitar with teenage accordionist Valerio Longoria. Longoria, later a star himself in the conjunto genre, inspired him to take up the squeezebox. 

He took four of his brothers out of the fields and taught each one an instrument to fill out a band, Los Hermanos Jordan. In later years, he would also teach his three sons to accompany him. In 1958, he settled in San Jose, Calif., and married singer Virginia Martinez, with whom he made his first commercial recordings five years later. 

His marriages to Martinez and later to Imelda Perez ended in divorce. Survivors include three children from his first marriage, Anita Jordan of San Antonio, Maryann Jordan of Phoenix and Esteban Jordan Jr. of Bainbridge, Ga.; three children from his second marriage, Ricardo Jordan, Esteban Jordan III and Estela Jordan, all of San Antonio; and a brother, Bonificio Jordan of Edinburg, Tex. Bonificio Jordan and all three sons performed in Mr. Jordan's band. 

In the 1970s, he returned to Texas. He recorded several regional hits including "El Corrido de Jhonny el Pachuco," a corrido (or story song) about a womanizer and hoodlum who comes to a bad end; "El Piedrecita (The Little Rock)"; and his signature song, "Squeeze Box Man." 

Mr. Jordan received a Grammy Award nomination in 1986 for "Turn Me Loose," an album released by RCA's Latin division. He also contributed music to the soundtrack of the Cheech Marin comedy "Born in East L.A." (1987). 

Mr. Jordan had a reputation for his bravado and short temper. He survived a near-fatal stabbing outside a nightclub in 1973 and gave up drinking after a fall during his 53rd birthday party. 

"Society can't touch me, man," he told the Austin American Statesman in 2001. "I never went to school, never been trained how to act. I'm not afraid to die. I've already been dead." 

In the last year, he released the self-published CD "Carta Espiritual," dedicated to his mother, on which he played all the instruments. It was the first of a projected nine CDs that he had been laboring on for the last decade. 


David J. Weber, Renowned Historian  December 20, 1940 - August 20, 2010

We thank our colleague and historian John Chavez for forwarding this brief announcement in response to our query to confirm the death yesterday (Friday, 20 August 2010) of renowned historian David J. Weber, in Gallup, New Mexico. Our condolences to his immediate family and to all who worked closely with him during his long and distinguished career at Southern Methodist University and beyond. To view Dr. Weber's CV go to: . QEPD.  David J. Weber was born December 20, 1940 in Buffalo, New York and died in Gallup, New Mexico on August 20, 2010, a few months shy of his 70th birthday.

Sent by Roberto R. Calderón 

Personal comment by Benjamin Johnson, Clements Center for Southwest Studies: 
"I don’t need to tell the members of this list that David was one of the leading scholars of the North American West, the Spanish and Mexican Borderlands, Mexico, and colonial Latin America. He was known widely, far beyond this country, for his scholarship, published in the more than seventy articles and twenty-seven books that he wrote or edited. He played leading roles in revitalizing the study of the U.S.-Mexico borderlands, in the emergence of Mexican-American history as a robust field in the 1970s, and in the study of the colonial Americas more broadly. David was the founding director of the Clements Center for Southwest Studies at SMU and mentored numerous students in our history PhD and MA programs. The importance of his work was recognized in multiple book prizes; by the governments of Spain and Mexico, each of which gave him the highest honor that they bestow on foreigners; by his induction into the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; and by the high regard in which he was held by so many in the profession.

Those of us who knew David well mourn the loss of the person, not just the scholar. We will remember not only the books and the articles, but his smiles, the warmth in his eyes, his easy sense of humor, and his largeness of spirit. Earlier today I found myself thinking about his talk when he was knighted by the King of Spain, which stressed how we ought to thank Mexico and Mexicans for the presence of Spanish culture in the United States. It was characteristic of how he could be a gentle contrarian – in this case on behalf of a people and culture that is increasingly vilified by white America.

David Weber was as generous and warm a soul as I’ve ever known. I am grateful to have had him as a friend and colleague.

He is survived by his wife, Carol Bryant Weber of Dallas; son Scott David Weber of Dallas; daughter Amy Weber del Rio of Colorado Springs, Colorado; and grandchildren Sarah Margaret Weber, 19, and Dickson Scott Weber, 14, of Dallas; and Amaya Eloise del Rio, 10, of Colorado Springs. Plans for a service in Dallas are pending. As per the family’s request, memorial contributions can be sent to the Clements Center for Southwest Studies, SMU Office of Development, P.O. Box 281, Dallas, TX 75275, or the Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation.

A tribute panel to David and his work will be held at this Fall's Western Historical Association on Thursday, October 14, with Juliana Barr, Alan Taylor, Albert Hurtado, and Albert Camarillo as panelists.

Sadly, Ben
Benjamin Johnson
Interim Director, Clements Center for Southwest Studies
Associate Professor of History
Department of History
P.O. Box 750176
Dallas, TX 75275



On the Issue of the Drug War
    Facts and figures 
    Drug War's Death Toll in Mexico: 28,000 Killed Since 2006
    Those Who Do Not Learn From History,  are Bound to Repeat It by George Santayana
     NALIPster Receives Grant for New Doc El Jardin 
     Costly Efforts to Secure Border Not Paying Off 

On the Issue of  Immigration
    Immigration Inflows and Comparisons from the Past vs Today by Francisco Barragan

    Unauthorized Immigrants and Their U.S.-Born Children
    Costly Efforts to Secure Border Not Paying Off 
    Salute the Danish Flag - it's a Symbol of Western Freedom

On the Issue of Religious Freedom

    Word of the Day: Dhimmitude
    NYC Streets blocked by Muslim Worshipers 
    Rumors and Tidbits of History 

    American Missionaries Gunned Down for 'Preaching Christianity' 

On the Issue of Racism
    Attacks against Mexicans inflame tensions in NYC
    American Bar Association to Study Hispanic Legal Issues

On the Issue of  Farmworkers 



More than 28,000 people have been killed since President Calderon launched a crackdown against narcotics cartels in 2006.  8/4/10

During Calderon’s tenure, a total of 915 municipal police, 698 state ice and 463 federal agents have been killed at the hands of criminal gangs, according to Public Safety Secretariat figures.

Congratulations on another great issue. I am presently in Ciudad Juárez while awaiting closing on a Mexico City apartment.

Things are worse than ever in Juárez. Two sons of important local families were killed Wednesday, when a bomb scare also happened right when I was getting a haircut in Downtown Juárez. The U.S. Consulate, the largest in Mexico, did not open today and will be closed until further notice because of security concerns.

Saludos. Lic. Roberto Camp

Frontera NorteSur: on-line, U.S.-Mexico border news
Center for Latin American and Border Studies
New Mexico State University Las Cruces, New Mexico
For a free electronic subscription email:

Sent by Walter Herbeck


Blog del Narco, an anonymous blogger, operating from behind a thick curtain of computer security has in less than six months become Mexico's source of information on Mexico's drug war.  Fear of the drug cartels has curtailed mass media coverage.  7/13/10 OCRegister

Washington, DC: Project Deliverance, US arrests 2,266 people and seized nearly 75 tons of drugs and confiscated $154 million in cash. 6/10/10 OCRegister

Ciudad Juarez, Mex: At least 30 gunmen burst into a drug rehabilitation center and opened fire killing 19 men and wounding four people.  Gunmen also killed 20 people in another drug-plagued northern city.  The bullet-riddled bodies of 18 men and two women wee found in five different parts of Ciudad Madero. 
6/12/10 OCRegister

Mexico City: Guards and officials at a prison in northern Mexico let inmates out, lent them guns and sent them off in official vehicles to carry out drug-related killings, including the massacre of 17 people .  
7/28/10 OCRegister

California: Nearly 100 people were arrested in a a 3-week sweep of marijuana-growers operations that has netted more than $1.7 billion worth of pot in the Sierra Nevada range.  Fresno County Sheriff Margaret Mims said several Mexican drug cartels were involved in the growing operations.

A TV commentator said that San Diego, CA and Cuidad Juarez are approximately the same population size.  San Diego had 16 murders last year and Cuidad Juarez had 1,700.


Drug War's Death Toll in Mexico: 
28,000 Killed Since 2006

Associated Press

August 03, 2010, 6:49 PM

A soldier stands guard on the roof of the house where, according to Mexico's Defense Ministry, a top leader of the Sinaloa cartel, Ignacio Coronel Villareal, aka Nacho, was killed in Guadalajara, Mexico, Friday July 30, 2010. Soldiers killed Coronel on Thursday in a raid on his posh hideout, dealing the biggest blow yet to Mexico's most powerful drug gang since President Felipe Calderon launched a military offensive against organized crime in 2006.

MEXICO CITY — More than 28,000 people have been killed in drug violence since President Felipe Calderon launched a crackdown against cartels in 2006, a government official said Tuesday.

Intelligence agency director Guillermo Valdes also said authorities have confiscated about 84,000 weapons and made total cash seizures of $411 million in U.S. currency and $26 million worth in pesos (330 million pesos).

Valdes released the statistics during a meeting with Calderon and representatives of business and civic groups. Attendees are exploring ways to improve Mexico's anti-drug strategy.

Drug violence in Mexico "is still growing," Valdes said.

The most recent official toll of the drug war dead came in mid-June, when the attorney general said 24,800 had died. He did not specify a time frame.

The government does not regularly break down murder statistics, but leading newspapers who kept their own counts say last month was the deadliest yet under Calderon: According to national daily Milenio, 1,234 were killed in July.

The Mexican government says most victims were involved in the drug trade.

Kingpin's death could mean more violence

One of the world's most powerful drug cartels took a major hit last week when soldiers killed a top kingpin in a gunbattle, and his death will likely will mean more violence as factions fight for the cocaine and methamphetamine empire that he left behind.

The death of Ignacio "Nacho" Coronel during an army operation also challenges a long-held notion that Mexican government officials at the highest levels have been helping the Sinaloa cartel win the drug war. Coronel was the No. 3 of the gang led by Joaquin "El Chapo" Guzman, Mexico's most-wanted drug lord.

The attack was an exclusively Mexican operation, unlike other recent raids targeting top drug lords that have relied on U.S. intelligence, Mexican and U.S. officials said Friday. After month of intelligence work, the Mexican army zeroed in on Coronel at his mansion Thursday in a ritzy suburb of Guadalajara.

"I absolutely believe that this will have an impact on ... the Sinaloa federation's capability to move their drugs, at least in the short term," said Dave Gaddis, deputy chief of operations that the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. "They will require time to rebuild."

Continuing the raids Friday, soldiers killed Coronel's nephew, Mario Carrasco Coronel, in a shootout in the suburb of Zapopan.

Mexico's Defense Department said in a statement that Carrasco Coronel was one of his uncle's possible successors. He opened fire on soldiers, wounding one, before he was killed, the department said.

$5 million U.S. bounty on his head

The elder Coronel, who had a $5 million U.S. bounty on his head, is considered one of the founders of Mexico's methamphetamine trade, building clandestine laboratories in the country and smuggling the drug into the United States. He controlled meth and cocaine trafficking routes that extended from Mexico's Pacific coast and inland up to Arizona.

Gaddis said a battle over who will control those routes next is "a distinct possibility." Sinaloa cartels rivals are already thought to be encroaching into some of the territory that Coronel dominated, including the Pacific port of Manzanillo that has been a major entry point for meth precursor chemicals, he said.

"It would be reasonable to suspect that either a new trafficking group or components of the current Sinaloa drug trafficking organization would try to take over the area that he once controlled," Gaddis said in an interview with The Associated Press. "And that may spawn some resistance from people have worked for him."

And experts said Coronel's death would not mean the imminent destruction of the Sinaloa cartel, which some U.S. law enforcement officials believe has become the most powerful drug trafficking organization in the world.

Mexican police once captured "El Chapo" Guzman himself, only to see him escape from a high security prison in a laundry truck. He has since become one of the world's richest men and Forbes magazine even listed him as one of the "World Most Powerful People." U.S. law enforcement officials say he has won control over trafficking routes in Ciudad Juarez after a bloody fight with the Juarez cartel in the border city.

Sinaloa cartel forms alliances vs. Zetas

Most recently, the Sinaloa cartel co-opted several other cartels into an alliance to destroy the Zetas gang. That could help Sinaloa keep control of the southern Pacific trafficking routes that Coronel ruled, said George Grayson, an expert on Mexico's drug war at the College of William & Mary in Virginia. One of Sinaloa's new allies — La Familia — has a growing presence in the so-called Pacific route, he said.

"It's a blow but it's not a knock out punch," Grayson said.

President Felipe Calderon's government has brought down several kingpins since he deployed thousands of troops in 2006 to fight traffickers at their strongholds.

Those victories have nearly always unleashed waves of violence that have terrified ordinary citizens and sapped popular support for Calderon's drug war, an effort supported by millions of dollars in U.S. aid for equipment and training. Nearly 25,000 people have been killed by drug violence during Calderon's government.

Cartels have fought back with brash attacks against security forces and even their families. In December, hit men gunned down the mother aunt and siblings of a marine killed in a raid that took out kingpin Arturo Beltran Leyva. And Leyva's death opened a new front in the drug war, turning the picturesque central town of Cuernavaca into a bloody
battleground for control over his cartel.

This time, the army was careful not to reveal the name of the only soldier killed in the raid on Coronel's home.

Government subdued after capo's death

The government was subdued in victory, making no immediate comment beyond the initial announcement that the capo was dead. Defense Department officials said the government did not want to compromise the safety of its security forces or compromise its intelligence strategies by discussing the attack.

Calderon — who at the time of the operation had been attending a public event just miles away in the same Guadalajara suburb — made no public appearances Friday. This, even though Coronel's downfall gives
him ammunition against those who have long alleged that the Sinaloa cartel is protected by top government officials.
drug-war-mexico-trees-soldier-072910.jpgView full sizeAssociated PressA soldier guards a street in the area where, according to Mexico's Defense Minister, Mexican drug cartel leader Ignacio Coronel Villareal, aka Nacho Coronel was killed during an army raid in Zapopan, near Guadalajara, Mexico, Thursday July 29, 2010.

Coronel's death "does lay that perception to rest," Grayson said.

The insinuations have come from Mexican analysts, politicians from Calderon's own National Action Party and countless banners put up by rival gangs. Scandals ensnaring top officials have fueled the suspicions.

In May, the newspaper Reforma reported that secret police documents containing the names and contact numbers of federal officers were found in the car of an associate of "El Chapo" Guzman. The government never confirmed or denied the report. Two years ago, Mexico's former anti-drug czar and several other high-ranking officials were arrested for allegedly protecting the Beltran Leyva gang, which as the time was allied with the Sinaloa cartel.

The suspicions have increasingly provoked violence against government security forces, including a July 15 car bomb that killed a federal police officer and two other people in Ciudad Juarez. The Juarez cartel claimed responsibility for the bomb and threatened more attacks against unless federal police who protect the Sinaloa cartel are arrested.

Washington discounts insinuations about Calderon

Washington officials have always dismissed insinuations that Calderon favors any cartel.

"The government of Mexico has given full attention to combating the drug trafficking threat from the Gulf cartel, the Beltran Leyva organization, the Sinaloa or Pacific organization, La Familia Michoacana all equally," Gaddis said.

And Calderon has always insisted that he is aggressively trying to root out corrupt officials who protect any criminals. Two months ago, Mexican marines arrested the captain of Manzanillo — the port where Coronel brought in many of his meth shipments — on charged of drug trafficking ties.

Mexico's military made clear they had long been learning details that proved crucial to bringing Coronel down, including his habit of traveling with only one bodyguard, Iran Francisco Quinonez, who was captured in the raid.

Coronel and Quinonez were the only ones in the house when soldiers stormed in, backed by helicopters hovering overhead. The army said Coronel grabbed a gun and opened fire, provoking a shootout in which he and the soldier were killed.

Associated Press writers Alexandra Olsen and Alicia A. Caldwellcontributed to this report.  
© 2010 All rights reserved.

Sent by: Roberto Calderon, 

Those Who Do Not Learn From History, 
are Bound to Repeat It
George Santayana 

If we think there is a problem now with immigration, it can only get worse, especially if something is not done now to control the problem. If not, this is where it can lead:  Susan MacAllen, a Canadian citizen, is a contributing editor for ( ) Salute the Danish Flag - it's a Symbol of Western Freedom By Susan MacAllen 

In 1978-9 I was living and studying in Denmark . But in 1978 - even in Copenhagen, one didn't see Muslim immigrants.  The Danish population embraced visitors, celebrated the exotic, went out of its way to protect each of its citizens. It was proud of its new brand of socialist liberalism one in development since the conservatives had lost power in 1929 - a system where no worker had to struggle to survive, where one ultimately could count upon the state as in, perhaps, no other western nation at the time. 

The rest of Europe saw the Scandinavians as free-thinking, progressive and infinitely generous in their welfare policies. Denmark boasted low crime rates, devotion to the environment, a superior educational system and a history of humanitarianism. 

Denmark was also most generous in its immigration policies - it offered the best welcome in Europe to the new immigrant: generous welfare payments from first arrival plus additional perks in transportation, housing and education. It was determined to set a world example for inclusiveness and multiculturalism. How could it have predicted that one day in 2005 a series of political cartoons in a newspaper would spark violence that would leave dozens dead in the streets - all because its commitment to multiculturalism would come back to bite? 

By the 1990's the growing urban Muslim population was obvious - and its unwillingness to integrate into Danish society was obvious. Years of immigrants had settled into Muslim-exclusive enclaves. As the Muslim leadership became more vocal about what they considered the decadence of Denmark 's liberal way of life, the Danes - once so welcoming - began to feel slighted. Many Danes had begun to see Islam as incompatible with their long-standing values: belief in personal liberty and free speech, in equality for women, in tolerance for other ethnic groups, and a deep pride in Danish heritage and history. 

An article by Daniel Pipes and Lars Hedegaard, in which they forecasted, accurately, that the growing immigrant problem in Denmark would explode. In the article they reported: 

'Muslim immigrants constitute 5 percent of the population but consume upwards of 40 percent of the welfare spending.'

'Muslims are only 4 percent of Denmark's 5.4 million people but make up a majority of the country's convicted rapists, an especially combustible issue given that practically all the female victims are non-Muslim. Similar, if lesser, disproportions are found in other crimes.' 

'Over time, as Muslim immigrants increase in numbers, they wish less to mix with the indigenous population. A recent survey finds that only 5 percent of young Muslim immigrants would readily marry a Dane.' 

'Forced marriages - promising a newborn daughter in Denmark to a male cousin in the home country, then compelling her to marry him, sometimes on pain of death - are one problem.' 

'Muslim leaders openly declare their goal of introducing Islamic law once Denmark 's Muslim population grows large enough - a not-that-remote prospect. If present trends persist, one sociologist estimates, every third inhabitant of Denmark in 40 years will be Muslim.' 

It is easy to understand why a growing number of Danes would feel that Muslim immigrants show little respect for Danish values and laws.

An example is the phenomenon common to other European countries and Canada: some Muslims in Denmark who opted to leave the Muslim faith have been murdered in the name of Islam, while others hide in fear for their lives. Jews are also threatened and harassed openly by Muslim leaders in Denmark, a country where once Christian citizens worked to smuggle out nearly all of their 7,000 Jews by night to Sweden - before the Nazis could invade. I think of my Danish friend Elsa - who, as a teenager, had dreaded crossing the street to the bakery every morning under the eyes of occupying Nazi soldiers - and I wonder what she would say today. 

In 2001, Denmark elected the most conservative government in some 70 years - one that had some decidedly non-generous ideas about liberal unfettered immigration. Today, Denmark has the strictest immigration policies in Europe (Its effort to protect itself has been met with accusations of 'racism' by liberal media across Europe - even as other governments struggle to right the social problems wrought by years of too-lax immigration.) 

If you wish to become Danish, you must attend three years of  language classes. You must pass a test on Denmark's history, culture, and a Danish language test.

You must live in Denmark for 7 years before applying for citizenship. You must demonstrate an intent to work, and have a job waiting. If you wish to bring a spouse into Denmark, you must both be over 24 years of age, and you won't find it so easy anymore to move your friends and family to Denmark with you. 

You will not be allowed to build a mosque in Copenhagen . Although your children have a choice of some 30 Arabic culture and language schools in Denmark, they will be strongly encouraged to assimilate to Danish society in ways that past immigrants weren't. 

In 2006, the Danish minister for employment, Claus Hjort Frederiksen, spoke publicly of the burden of Muslim immigrants on the Danish welfare system, and it was horrifying: the government's welfare committee had calculated that if immigration from Third World countries were blocked, 75 percent of the cuts needed to sustain the huge welfare system in coming decades would be unnecessary. In other words, the welfare system, as it existed, was being exploited by immigrants to the point of eventually bankrupting the government. 'We are simply forced to adopt a new policy on immigration.' 

'The calculations of the welfare committee are terrifying and show how unsuccessful the integration of immigrants has been up to now,' he said. 

A large thorn in the side of Denmark 's imams is the Minister of Immigration and Integration, Rikke Hvilshoj. She makes no bones about the new policy toward immigration, 'The number of foreigners coming to the country makes a difference,' Hvilshoj says, 'There is an inverse correlation between how many come here and how well we can receive the foreigners that come.' And on Muslim immigrants needing to demonstrate a willingness to blend in, 'In my view, Denmark should be a country with room for different cultures and religions. Some values, however, are more important than others. We refuse to question democracy, equal rights, and freedom of speech.' 

Hvilshoj has paid a price for her show of backbone. Perhaps to test her resolve, the leading radical imam in Denmark, Ahmed Abdel Rahman Abu Laban, demanded that the government pay blood money to the family of a Muslim who was murdered in a suburb of Copenhagen, stating that the family's thirst for revenge could be thwarted for money. When Hvilshoj dismissed hisdemand, he argued that in Muslim culture the payment of retribution money was common, to which Hvilshoj replied that what is done in a Muslim country is not necessarily what is done in Denmark. 

The Muslim reply came soon after: her house was torched while she, her husband and children slept. All managed to escape unharmed, but she and her family were moved to a secret location and she and other ministers were assigned bodyguards for the first time - in a country where such murderous violence was once so scarce. 

Her government has slid to the right, and her borders have tightened. Many believe that what happens in the next decade will determine whether Denmark survives as a bastion of good living, humane thinking and social responsibility, or whether it becomes a nation at civil war with supporters of Sharia law. 

And meanwhile, Canadians clamor for stricter immigration policies, and demand an end to state welfare programs that allow many immigrants to live on the public dole. As we in Canada look at the enclaves of Muslims amongst us, and see those who enter our shores too easily, dare live on our taxes, yet refuse to embrace our culture, respect our traditions, participate in our legal system, obey our laws, speak our language, appreciate our history. We would do well to look to Denmark, and say a prayer for her future and for our own.  

Canadians board migrant ship.
Security officials boarded a cargo ship Thursday, August 13. The ship was carrying 490 asylum seekers from Sri Lanka were on board, including some people Canada says may be terrorists.  In 2006, Canada labeled Tamil Tigers as a terrorist group. Currently about 300,000 Tamils live in Canada, the most outside Sri Lanka and India. The cargo ship had approached Australia  a few months ago, but then changed course and turned towards Canada.  
7/13/10 OCRegister

NALIPster Natalia Almada Receives Grant for New Doc El Jardin 

NALIP member Natalia Almada (LPA 2003, Estela) has been awarded a grant by Chicken & Egg Pictures as part of their 2010 Spring Open Call. Chicken & Egg Pictures is a hybrid film fund and non-profit production company dedicated to supporting women filmmakers. 

The grant was awarded to Natalie Almada for her film El Jardin (working title), currently in post-prodution. El Jardin is a portrait of a cemetery in the drug heartland of Mexico. Since the war on drugs began in 2007, the cemetery has doubled in size and the mausoleums have doubled in height creating a skyline that looks like a fantastical surrealist city more than a resting place for the deceased. Here, the lives of the cemetery workers and families of the victims, guilty and innocent, intersect in the shadow of this bloody conflict that has claimed over 23,000 lives.  
Latinos In The Industry 

On the Issue of Anchor Babies and Immigration

Immigration Inflows and Comparisons from the Past vs Today
Francisco Barragan

– July 27, 2010 Posted in: Education, Fresh Juice, Youth, economy, family values, immigration, military, patriotism

“The earliest influx of new arrivals started in the mid 1840's when Europe felt the throes of a bitter famine.

This FIRST wave of immigrants – primarily Northern Europeans from Ireland, England, Germany and Scandinavia – fled starvation, feudal governments, and the social upheaval brought about by the Industrial Revolution.

A SECOND wave of immigrants streamed out of Southern and Eastern Europe from 1890-1924. Along with fleeing the burden of high taxes, poverty, and overpopulation, these “new” immigrants were also victims of oppression and religious persecution. Jews living in Romania, Russia, and Poland were being driven from their homes by a series of pogroms, riots and laws enforced by a Czarist government.

Similarly the Croats and Serbs in Hungary, the Poles in Germany, and the Irish persecuted under English rule all saw America as a land of freedom and opportunity.

Furthermore, from 1892 to 1954, over 12 million immigrants entered the United States from Ellis Island.

While most immigrants entered through New York Harbor, the most popular destination of steamship companies, others sailed into ports such as Boston, San Francisco and Savannah.

FIRST AND SECOND class passengers who arrived in New York were NOT required to undergo the inspection process unless they were sick or had legal problems. These passengers underwent a cursory inspection aboard ship, the theory being that if people could afford to purchase a first or second class ticket, they were less likely to become a public charge. The government felt that more affluent passengers would not end up in institutions, hospitals or become a burden to the state.

Upon arrival in New York City, first and second class passengers would disembark, pass through Customs and were free to enter the United States.

The STEERAGE and THIRD CLASS passengers were transported from the pier by ferry or barge to Ellis Island where everyone would undergo a medical and legal inspection.

If the immigrants’ papers were in order and they were in reasonably good health, the Ellis Island INSPECTION PROCESS WOULD LAST APPROXIMATELY THREE TO FIVE HOURS. The inspections took place in the Registry Room, where doctors would briefly scan every immigrant for obvious physical ailments.”

Some points to consider about immigration from the PAST to immigration of the PRESENT:

1) 12 million immigrants were processed which represented a greater percentage of the TOTAL and Past US population of 92 million from the 1910 Census vs the current percent of 10.8 million undocumented immigrants estimated to be in the US today out of our total US population of over 300 million.

2) Practically nothing was known about the past immigrants. About 45-50% of the 10.8 million current undocumented overstayed their Visas, and thus a lot is known about them by our government, and these people had background checks and other information verified.

3) Past immigrants were fleeing starvation, their governments, and social upheavals. There was no overriding argument that they go back and improve their countries and their societies.

4) Past Wealthier passengers were NOT inspected. Poorer Past immigrants were processed in about 3-5 HOURS. Current documented and undocumented immigrants have to wait several years, sometimes 10-15 YEARS before they can received proper documentation. In the meantime, the economic needs of the US are pulling immigrants into America in spite of the ineffective and ineffective immigration processing system currently in place.

5) There was no guarantee that past immigrants would become contributing members of society. There are several independent studies that show that the vast majority of TODAY’s undocumented immigrants are contributing to our Economy, PAY MORE in taxes and fees than they receive in services, and they have a positive impact to the pocketbook of individual American households.

6) The Majority of Past immigrants did NOT have established roots in America. The current 10.8 million undocumented immigrants live in households of mixed status (documented and undocumented). This means that they have established roots, where one spouse is a citizen or documented immigrant, or children are US citizens (about 4 million US born citizens live in mixed status households) or Both.

7) Again, the children of past immigrants did NOT have established roots in America, and were not familiar with our American values and customs. Today’s undocumented immigrants consist of about 1.5 million undocumented children who were brought to the US as children, and who have grown up with our American Values and pledging Allegiance to our US Flag on a daily basis, who want to serve in our military as adults, in whom we as a society have already invested in their elementary education, and who many times do not even know they are undocumented until they grow up.

8) In the past, neither the US nor the rest of the industrialized world was facing a graying of its population, as it currently does. Currently, the US will have about 75-80 million baby boomers retiring in the next couple of years. Thus, to maintain the viability of the US Social Security, and the competiveness of America, and America’s standard of living, America will have to replace the 75-80 million baby boomers that will be retiring, but this will have to done in competition with other nations that will also need to replace their retiring workers with younger workers, and who in spite of this significant, but short-term, economic recession are attempting to attract the young immigrant labor force.

9) In the past, millions of dollars were spent to facilitate the quick processing of these newly arrived immigrants in a matter of HOURS. Today we spend BILLIONS and BILLIONS of dollars to try to deport people who are contributing to America’s well-being, and who live in mixed status households, which then separates families or which leaves US citizen children in terror of having their families broken up, or which leaves these US citizen children in an uncertain future.

10) In the past, we expedited the past immigrants’ entry INTO the US. Today we continue to pursue people and a failed policy that wastes America’s limited resources to try to REMOVE people OUT OF the US. For example, Federal border enforcement costs have gone up about 8-10 times within the last decade. And under the Obama administration, the federal government has stepped up enforcement, and the expenditures have increased tremendously, and are at the highest levels than they have ever been under any other past administration.

11) In the past, Americans could recognize when course correction needed to be done for the well-being of America. Today, we try to follow the failed course of attempting to deport people who are contributing and knowing that at this rate it would take about 30 years just to deport. And yet we allow the politicians to think more about how they can win the next election even at the expenses of obstructing progress or solutions that work for the well-being of America.

Finally, we know that we have an undocumented immigration issue. But we disagree on the HOW to solve. But many people seem to offer what I think has been demonstrated to be a non-working solution (Deportation), and seem to argue for PROCESS (the process of deportation) at the EXPENSE of a REAL SOLUTION that would allow us to focus on our real issues or that take the TRUE FACTS into consideration.

The thinking goes something like this. They should get out and get in line, and start all over. We have no problem with them (the undocumented immigrants), if they follow the rules.

Well, my understanding is that as part of the CURRENT process that someone who came here undocumented or overstayed their VISA (This is a Civil Infraction and NOT a Felony), CAN PETITION AND HAVE their status adjusted FROM UNDOCUMENTED TO DOCUMENTED/LEGAL status, AFTER paying the required processing fees plus the PENALTIES for coming over undocumented or for overstaying their VISA, after meeting certain conditions . . . and yet a major hurdle or condition seems to be one of TIME . . . sometimes waiting 10-15 years. 
If so, then it seems to me that Comprehensive Immigration Reform (CIR) IS CONTEMPLATED WITHIN the CURRENT process, and we could adjust status within the CURRENT rules, and comprehensive immigration reform would do THIS EXPEDITIOUSLY, if only our government officials acted more as leaders of a nation rather than politicians looking out for their own personal interests. 

Francisco “Paco” Barragan (My opinions only and not those of any group)
Santa Ana, CA 


Unauthorized Immigrants and Their U.S.-Born Children 

Editor:  I strongly encourage sociologists and statisticians to review carefully this latest PEW report.  It appears that the study was specifically  targeting unauthorized Mexican immigrants.  

Given the current problems of mosques being built all over the U.S., I was really puzzled why this study does not include any mention of the Middle East presence.  Why no data was included on the Middle East population. 

As I studied the paragraphs looking for clues, I finally concluded that they could justify the exclusion of Middle East information because the study was based on the restricting the data to "unauthorized immigrants."  Since VISA holders (student, work, tourist) are authorized,  they did not need to be included in the study. 

Look at a few of their perimeters. 

"These figures are based on data from the U.S. Census Bureau's March 2009 Current Population Survey, augmented with the Pew Hispanic Center's analysis of the demographic characteristics of the unauthorized immigrant population using a "residual estimation methodology" it has employed for the past five years."

For example the study states that the "The initial estimates here are calculated  . . . in six states (California, Texas, Florida, New York, Illinois and New Jersey) and the balance of the country and for 35 countries or groups of countries by period of arrival in the United States."  The 6 states identified for the study are the states  identified as having a very high population of Latinos.   

In addition the study states that "The basic information on coverage is drawn principally from comparisons with Mexican data, U.S. mortality data and specialized surveys conducted at the time of the 2000 Census."   

It doesn't appear that data was collected for other minority groups with the same dedication.  It appears also that their was considerable mathematical dependency
on estimations.   

From the study:
An estimated 340,000 of the 4.3 million babies born in the United States in 2008 were the offspring of unauthorized immigrants, according to a new analysis of Census Bureau data by the Pew Hispanic Center, a project of the Pew Research Center. 

Unauthorized immigrants comprise slightly more than 4% of the adult population of the U.S., but because they are relatively young and have high birthrates, their children make up a much larger share of both the newborn population (8%) and the child population (7% of those younger than age 18) in this country.

These figures are based on data from the U.S. Census Bureau's March 2009 Current Population Survey, augmented with the Pew Hispanic Center's analysis of the demographic characteristics of the unauthorized immigrant population using a "residual estimation methodology" it has employed for the past five years.

The new Pew Hispanic analysis also finds that nearly four-in-five (79%) of the 5.1 million children (younger than age 18) of unauthorized immigrants were born in this country and therefore are U.S. citizens. In total, 4 million U.S.-born children of unauthorized immigrant parents resided in this country in 2009, alongside 1.1 million foreign-born children of unauthorized immigrant parents. 

The report, "Unauthorized Immigrants and Their U.S.-Born Children" authored by Jeffrey S. Passel, Senior Demographer, Pew Hispanic Center, and Paul Taylor, Director, Pew Hispanic Center, is available at the Pew Hispanic Center's website,

The Pew Hispanic Center, a project of the Pew Research Center, is a nonpartisan, non-advocacy research organization based in Washington, D.C. and is funded by The Pew Charitable Trusts.

Costly Efforts to Secure Border Not Paying Off 

Costly efforts to secure border not paying off 
By Emma Perez-Trevino, The Brownsville Herald, 06-19-2010 

From the construction of the border fence to the deployment of unmanned aerial drones, federal initiatives have cost billions of dollars to secure the U.S.-Mexico border and have been mired in challenges and setbacks, public records show.

Audits by U.S. Congress’ investigative arm, the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO), also reflect that numerous initiatives have been stymied and plagued by mismanagement, lack of coordination and no oversight.

And in the case of aerial drones, the rush to deploy new units to secure the border could compromise safety and more.

In November 2005, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security implemented its most expensive and challenging initiatives under U.S. Customs and Border Protection’s (CBP) Secure Border Initiative (SBI).

The components of SBI included the construction of about $2.6 billion worth of fencing and a $1.6 billion virtual fence.

“It has been an utter failure,” Cameron County Judge Carlos Cascos, a Republican, said of SBI, which began under Republican President George W. Bush and has continued under Democratic President Barack Obama’s administration.

GAO reported that as of April, CBP had completed 646 of the 652 miles of fencing and that it plans to have the remaining six miles completed by December. CBP also plans to construct 14 more miles of fencing in the Rio Grande Valley Sector by September.

“CBP reported that tactical infrastructure (fencing), coupled with additional trained agents had increased the miles of the southwest border under control, but despite a $2.6 billion investment, it cannot account separately for the impact of tactical infrastructure,” GAO found.

“I don’t believe that it is doing what they thought, what I thought it was going to do,” Cascos said. The fence is still being constructed in the county, and Cascos said that it has numerous gaps that are being lit by floodlights. “The initiative is not working, not in our part of the country; not based on what I see.”

Meanwhile, the $1.6 billion virtual fence, initiated in 2006 and known as SBInet, covers 53 miles in the Yuma and Tucson sectors. But GAO reported that as of April, Border Patrol agents continued to rely on existing technology rather than SBInet.

“According to my calculations, (the cost of the virtual fence) equals nearly $20 million per mile,” U. S. Rep. Bennie G. Thompson, D-Mississippi, chairman of the U. S. House

of Representatives’ Homeland Security Committee, said in a statement issued June 17, when a hearing was held on the initiative in Washington, D.C.

The plan was to have SBInet in place throughout the 1,989-mile U.S.-Mexico border by 2009.

The virtual fence is composed of a network of sensors, cameras, towers and radars that are supposed to detect and track movement on the border, and transmit the data to video terminals at command centers and agents’ vehicles to assist in identifying illegal activity.

GAO found that sensors can’t differentiate between vehicles, humans and animals — although the ability had been a requirement of the system. The radar also couldn’t differentiate between humans and vehicles.

But those in charge of the project decided to waive these and other significant requirements. “The system is now only required to achieve a 49 percent probability of identifying items of interest that cross the border,” GAO found.

“As even my two daughters know, 49 percent is not even close to a passing grade,” U.S. Rep. Henry Cuellar, D-Texas, and chairman of the House Subcommittee on Border, Maritime,and Global Counterterrorism, said June 17 in a written statement.

“I think the big issue is the way border security has been handled by the past and present administration,” Cascos said. “There is divisiveness and partisanship and a lot of animosity. I believe that it is affecting some of the decision making process. They all work for the same people — the taxpayer — but yet they are also so protective of their own department that they don’t speak to each other, costing time and money.”

DHS Secretary Janet Napolitano in March froze funding for SBInet and reallocated $50 million to other available technologies, such as mobile radios, according to GAO.

U.S. Sen. John Cornyn, R-Texas, also isn’t satisfied with SBInet, but, “while the implementation of SBInet has been unacceptable, the last thing we need to do is cut border security funding,” Cornyn told The Brownsville Herald in a written statement Friday.

Cornyn said that Obama’s budget request for fiscal year 2011 would cut SBI by more than 25 percent and the High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area program by more than 12 percent.

“The White House even wanted to cut the Border Patrol by 181 agents — before Congress made clear that wasn’t going to fly,” Cornyn said.

Cornyn said that he introduced legislation that would have reallocated $2 billionin unspent stimulus funds toward much needed personnel, equipment and resources to southwest border communities.

“Unfortunately, it was defeated because Democrats and the president continue to underestimate the gravity of the situation and pay lip service to our citizens who are demanding that their government act,” Cornyn said.

U.S. Sen. Kay Bailey Hutchison, R-Texas, did not return a request for comment.

U.S. Rep. Ruben Hinojosa, D-Texas, said that, “a border wall running through our South Texas land is not the answer to our nation’s security,” adding that alternatives and new tools must first be assessed for their viability and efficiency.

The Merida Initiative is a three-year plan initiated in 2007 for $1.4 billion in U.S. assistance to Mexico and Central America to fight criminal organizations and disrupt drug and weapons trafficking, illicit financial activities, currency smuggling and human trafficking, the Congressional Research Service noted in a report to Congress in May 2009.

At a May congressional hearing, Thompson said that records showed Mexico has received only $161 million since the plan was implemented.

GAO noted in December 2009 that factors affecting the timing of the Merida funding process included statutory condition of the funds, challenges in fulfilling administrative procedures, and the need to enhance the ability in the U.S., Mexico,and Central America to implement the assistance.

The spokesman for U.S. Rep. Solomon P. Ortiz, D-Texas, said in a statement Friday that Congress and the administration are working with counterparts in Mexico to develop the next phase of the initiative.

According to information from Cornyn’s office, major Mexican drug cartels have 100,000 members, rivaling the size of Mexico’s military.

Cornyn’s office also noted that:

22,700 lives were lost since Mexico’s President Felipe Calderon launched the offensive against drug cartels in December 2006.

9,635 people were killed in Mexican gang or cartel-related violence in 2009, more than triple 2007.

4,324 people were murdered in Cuidad Juarez since 2006.

3,365 lives were lost in the first three months of 2010 as a result of drug-related violence in Mexico.

522 Mexican military and law enforcement officials were killed in 2008.

$25 billion in estimated annual sales of Mexican drugs to the U.S.

“By many accounts, Mexico now ranks as more violent than Iraq or Afghanistan,” Shannon O’Neil, with the Council on Foreign Relations, said in a statement May 27 before congressional committee and subcommittee hearing in Washington D.C. on the future of the Merida Initiative.

O’Neil elaborated that the initiative does not take into account that the U.S. must do its part.

“The Merida Initiative overlooks three U.S.-based factors that perpetuate the drug trade and drug violence: guns, money, and demand,” O’Neil said, noting that all serious studies show that the vast majority of the guns used by the drug trafficking organizations come from the U.S. “As the United States asks Mexico to uphold its laws at great monetary and human cost, it should enforce its own laws.”

Hinojosa said that the Merida Initiative is a crucial strategy that unites the U.S. and Mexico in a commitment to secure the border.

“Both countries are committed to stopping the violence, cracking down on the flow of drugs and weapons that cross our border every day,” he said in a statement to the Herald on Friday. “By helping Mexico in its fight against crime, we are also helping the United States.”

A GAO review found in June 2009 significant challenges to the country’s efforts to combat firearm sales in the U. S. and the flow of weapons into Mexico, but the agency noted that evidence indicates that a large proportion of the firearms fueling Mexican drug violence originate in the U.S.

GAO said that according to Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) officials, U.S. efforts are hampered by laws relating to restrictions on collecting and reporting information on purchases, a lack of required background checks for private firearms sales, and limitations on reporting requirements for multiple sales.

GAO also documented another problem: ATF and DHS’” Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), do not consistently coordinate efforts because the agencies partly lack clear roles and responsibilities, resulting sometimes in duplicate initiatives and confusion during operations.

GAO said that law enforcement agencies and the U.S. Department of State have provided some assistance to Mexican counterparts in combating arms trafficking, but that it has been limited and has not targeted arms trafficking needs.

The Federal Aviation Administration is being bombarded.

State and federal elected officials and private enterprise have been pressuring FAA to issue waivers and exemptions, allowing for unmanned aircraft, also referred to as drones, on the National Airspace System throughout the country and Texas where they would operate together with commercial and private aircraft.

FAA recently approved DHS’s request to allow CBP to operate a drone in West Texas for border security, but a problem occurred in the first flight June 1 into Texas. Although not all details are known, it was serious enough to bring a temporary halt to CBP’s operations to provide personnel with further training.

A request to FAA to allow a drone along the border from West Texas to Brownsville and to the Texas coast is pending.

Ortiz’s spokesman said that the congressman supports the use of unmanned aerial vehicles amid other security initiatives.

In a speech on Nov. 18, 2009 in Arizona, regarding the future of UASs in the national airspace, FAA Administrator J. Randolph Babbitt noted that, “While the UAS is undoubtedly the way of the future, my concern must be on today, and right now, the era of the unmanned aircraft system in civilian airspace is just not here yet. Much as we’d all wish the case were different, the level of technical maturity isn’t where it needs to be for full operation in the National Airspace System.”

Noting that standards need to be developed, Babbitt said that everyone must move in the same direction before it happens. “Those safety standards must be the same for everyone, even if no one’s in the cockpit.”

In the event that FAA approves drone flights into Cameron County, Cascos’ hope is that personnel who operate the drones are well trained and that the aircraft be fully tested “and tested and tested” in a barren area.

“You don’t test it up and down the Rio Grande among urbanized areas. They are a lot larger than kites, and weigh more than kites,” the county judge said.

Brownsville Mayor Pat M. Ahumada Jr. said drones in Cameron County would be fine, “if we were at war with Mexico. But we are not at war. I’m very concerned,” the mayor said about the possible advent of drones in the community.

Ahumada said that the drones, the border fence and virtual fence are “very expensive initiatives with very poor returns.”

“We have gone to extremes. It has caused division in our country,” he said, suggesting that the billions of dollars should instead be spent on combating the demand for drugs in the U.S. and the exportation of firearms, while

reinforcing the Border Patrol with more officers.

“Let (the officers) do their job,” he said.

© Copyright 2010 Freedom Communications. All Rights Reserved. 

Sent by: Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.

Salute the Danish Flag - it's a Symbol of Western Freedom 

By Susan MacAllen

Thanks Dick. The attached is an excellent article written in Canada about Denmark. Because of the disproportionate influx of cultural demographic immigration -- and related adverse criminal effects -- Denmark has become very conservative in its citizenship requirements. The following is a quick summary of how Denmark is solving its problems: 

In 2001, Denmark elected the most conservative government in some 70 years - one that had some decidedly non-generous ideas about liberal unfettered immigration. Today Denmark has the strictest immigration policies in Europe. (Its effort to protect itself has been met with accusations of 'racism' by liberal media across Europe - even as other governments struggle to right the social problems wrought by years of too-lax immigration.) 

If you wish to become Danish, you must attend three years of language classes. You must pass a test on Denmark's history, culture, and a Danish language test. 

You must live in Denmark for 7 years before applying for citizenship. You must demonstrate an intent to work, and have a job waiting. If you wish to bring a spouse into Denmark, you must both be over 24 years of age, and you won't find it so easy anymore to move your friends and family to Denmark with you. 

You will not be allowed to build a mosque in Copenhagen. Although your children have a choice of some 30 Arabic culture and language schools in Denmark, they will be strongly encouraged to assimilate into Danish society in ways that past immigrants weren't. 

-----Original Message-----
To:  Subject: Fwd: A Warning to Everyone
Date: Fri, 06 Aug 2010 
Salute the Danish Flag - it's a Symbol of Western Freedom By Susan MacAllen
(Susan MacAllen is a contributing editor for Family Security 

In 1978-9, I was living and studying in Denmark. But in 1978 - even in Copenhagen, one didn't see Muslim immigrants. 

The Danish population embraced visitors, celebrated the exotic, went out of its way to protect each of its citizens. It was proud of its new brand of socialist liberalism one in development since the conservatives had lost power in 1929 - a system where no worker had to struggle to survive, where one ultimately could count upon the state as in, perhaps, no other Western nation at the time. 

The rest of Europe saw the Scandinavians as free-thinking, progressive and infinitely generous in their welfare policies. Denmark boasted low crime rates, devotion to the environment, a superior educational system and a history of humanitarianism. 

Denmark was also most generous in its immigration policies - it offered the best welcome in Europe to the new immigrant: generous welfare payments from first arrival plus additional perks in transportation, housing and education. It was determined to set a world example for inclusiveness and multiculturalism. How could it have predicted that one day in 2005 a series of political cartoons in a newspaper would spark violence that would leave dozens dead in the streets -all because its commitment to multiculturalism would come back to bite? 

By the 1990's the growing urban Muslim population was obvious - and its unwillingness to integrate into Danish society was obvious. 

Years of immigrants had settled into Muslim-exclusive enclaves. As the Muslim leadership became more vocal about what they considered the decadence of Denmark's liberal way of life, the Danes - once so welcoming - began to feel slighted. Many Danes had begun to see Islam as incompatible with their long-standing values: belief in personal liberty and free speech, in equality for women, in tolerance for other ethnic groups, and a deep pride in Danish heritage and history. 

An article by Daniel Pipes and Lars Hedegaard, in which they forecasted, accurately, that the growing immigrant problem in Denmark would explode. In the article they reported: 'Muslim immigrants constitute 5 percent of the population but consume upwards of 40 percent of the welfare spending.' 

'Muslims are only 4 percent of Denmark's 5.4 million people but make up a majority of the country's convicted rapists, an especially combustible issue given that practically all the female victims are non-Muslim. Similar, if lesser, disproportions are found in other crimes.' 

'Over time, as Muslim immigrants increase in numbers, they wish less to mix with the indigenous population. A recent survey finds that only 5 percent of young Muslim immigrants would readily marry a Dane.' 

'Forced marriages - promising a newborn daughter in Denmark to a male cousin in the home country, then compelling her to marry him, sometimes on pain of death - are one problem' 

'Muslim leaders openly declare their goal of introducing Islamic law once Denmark's Muslim population grows large enough - a not-that-remote prospect. If present trends persist, one sociologist estimates, every third inhabitant of Denmark in 40 years will be Muslim.' 

It is easy to understand why a growing number of Danes would feel that Muslim immigrants show little respect for Danish values and laws. An example is the phenomenon common to other European countries and Canada: some Muslims in Denmark who opted to leave the Muslim faith have been murdered in the name of Islam, while others hide in fear for their lives. Jews are also threatened and harassed openly by Muslim leaders in Denmark, a country where once Christian citizens worked to smuggle out nearly all of their 7,000 Jews by night to Sweden - before the Nazis could invade. I think of my Danish friend Elsa - who, as a teenager, had dreaded crossing the street to the bakery every morning under the eyes of occupying Nazi soldiers - and I wonder what she would say today. 

In 2001, Denmark elected the most conservative government in some 70 years - one that had some decidedly non-generous ideas about liberal unfettered immigration. Today Denmark has the strictest immigration policies in Europe. (Its effort to protect itself has been met with accusations of 'racism' by liberal media across Europe - even as other governments struggle to right the social problems wrought by years of too-lax immigration.) 

If you wish to become Danish, you must attend three years of language classes. You must pass a test on Denmark's history, culture, and a Danish language test. 

You must live in Denmark for 7 years before applying for citizenship. You must demonstrate an intent to work, and have a job waiting. If you wish to bring a spouse into Denmark, you must both be over 24 years of age, and you won't find it so easy anymore to move your friends and family to Denmark with you. 

You will not be allowed to build a mosque in Copenhagen. Although your children have a choice of some 30 Arabic culture and language schools in Denmark, they will be strongly encouraged to assimilate into Danish society in ways that past immigrants weren't. 

In 2006, the Danish minister for employment, Claus Hjort Frederiksen, spoke publicly of the burden of Muslim immigrants on the Danish welfare system, and it was horrifying: the government's welfare committee had calculated that if immigration from Third World countries were blocked, 75 percent of the cuts needed to sustain the huge welfare system in coming decades would be unnecessary. In other words, the welfare system, as it existed, was being exploited by immigrants to the point of eventually bankrupting the government. 'We are simply forced to adopt a new policy on immigration.' 'The calculations of the welfare committee are terrifying and show how unsuccessful the integration of immigrants has been up to now,' he said. 

A large thorn in the side of Denmark's imams is the Minister of Immigration and Integration, Rikke Hvilshoj. She makes no bones about the new policy toward immigration, 'The number of foreigners coming to the country makes a difference,' Hvilshoj says, 'There is an inverse correlation between how many come here and how well we can receive the foreigners that come.' And on Muslim immigrants needing to demonstrate a willingness to blend in, 'In my view, Denmark should be a country with room for different cultures and religions. Some values, however, are more important than others. We refuse to question democracy, equal rights, and freedom of speech.' 

Hvilshoj has paid a price for her show of backbone. Perhaps to test her resolve, the leading radical imam in Denmark, Ahmed Abdel Rahman Abu Laban, demanded that the government pay blood money to the family of a Muslim who was murdered in a suburb of Copenhagen, stating that the family's thirst for revenge could be thwarted for money. When Hvilshoj dismissed his demand, he argued that in Muslim culture the payment of retribution money was common, to which Hvilshoj replied that what is done in a Muslim country is not necessarily what is done in Denmark. 

The Muslim reply came soon after. Her house was torched while she, her husband and children slept. All managed to escape unharmed, but she and her family were moved to a secret location and she and other ministers were assigned bodyguards for the first time - in a country where such murderous violence was once so scarce. 

Her government has slid to the right, and her borders have tightened. Many believe that what happens in the next decade will determine whether Denmark survives as a bastion of good living, humane thinking and social responsibility, or whether it becomes a nation at civil war with supporters of Sharia law. 

And meanwhile, Canadians clamor for stricter immigration policies, and demand an end to state welfare programs that allow many immigrants to live on the public purse. As we in Canada look at the enclaves of Muslims amongst us, and see those who enter our shores too easily, dare to live on our taxes, yet refuse to embrace our culture, respect our traditions, participate in our legal system, obey our laws, speak our language, appreciate our history....we would do well to look to Denmark and say a prayer for her future and for our own. 
Sent by Jose M. Pena

On the Issue of Religious Freedom



Dhimmitude is the Muslim system of controlling non-muslim populations conquered through jihad. Specifically, it is the TAXING of non-muslims in exchange for tolerating their presence AND as a coercive means of converting conquered remnants to islam. 


It appears that the new healthcare policies may well be facilitating Dhimmitude in the United States. Muslims may be specifically exempted from the government mandate to purchase insurance, and also from the penalty tax for being uninsured.  Islam considers insurance to be "gambling", "risk-taking" and "usury" and will be specifically exempt.  So will other other religious groups, identified in the bill, Amish, Christian Scientists and Scientology.  

Please go to Snopes and Wikipedia for information on Dhimmitude and the subject of exclusion from taxation.



ON THE ISSUE OF MUSLIM MOSQUE AT GROUND ZERO NYC Streets blocked by Muslim Worshipers 
Every Friday afternoon New York City Muslims block/stop traffic by worshiping in the streets. There are several locations throughout NYC where there are mosques with a large number of Muslims that cannot fit into the mosque. They fill the surrounding streets, facing east for a couple of hours between about 2 & 4 p.m. Besides this group photographed at 42nd St & Madison Ave, there is another, even larger group, at 94th St & 3rd Ave.

Editor: Connecting this scene to immigration issues reinforces my  concerns over current Amnesty  proposals. 

I greatly fear that the current suggestions for Amnesty, will follow the same program procedures of 1986.  The government decided to FIRST process Overstayed VISAs, because they knew who they were and could be processed quickly.  

Surprisingly, the Hispanic Caucus agreed to the government's plan, which essentially put undocumented Mexicans and other Latin Americans at the end of the line.  

It was a real tragedy for many Mexicans who had lived in the United States for many, many years.  They were required to show paper proof of residency, which was a real challenge to many.  Store front advisors promised assistance for exorbitant prices.  


Soon, the Amnesty window was closed. The end result, many illegal Overstayed Visa holders with minimal residency in the U.S. passed over 
our Mexican neighbors.  Now 25 years later, let us hope that our elected Latino representatives will not allow this to happen again.


Rumors and Tidbits of History 
Editor:  With all the heartbreak and fears attached to the horrors of 911, it is to be expected that anti-Muslims rumors will develop, especially with their thoughtless plans to build a mosque overshadowing Ground Zero in New York.  A current rumor ties the Muslims to 7/11 stores and their invasion of Spain in the year 711.

Doug Westfall, historian, author, publisher of SpecialBooks responds to the questionable connection: 

Eddie:  This guy is trying to show a parallel of the Arab invasions of Europe and the convenience stores called 7/11.  The Muslims began their expansion after the death of Mohammed in 632: Gaza in 635, Jerusalem in 637, Persia in 638, Armenia in 639, etc. By the year 700 they had advanced to Algiers in North Africa, then invade Spain in the year 711, Seville in 712, Lisbon in 716, and entered France in 720, etc.  The French stopped the westward movement of the Arabs or Moors as they were called in 732.

The famed El Cid (Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar) was born in Castille in 1040 and began fighting the Moors in 1057 -- this was the beginning of the push to move the Moors out of Spain, ending in the spring of 1492 -- allowing Columbus to sail under the Crown and interestingly the beginning of the eradication of Jews from Spain. Sephardic Jews left Spain at this time period and it was known as the Spanish Inquisition. What followed were the Crusades to take back Jerusalem..

Yet the apparent connection between the invasion of Spain in the year 711 and the convenience store called 7/11 is false.

The supposed high number of middle eastern people working in 7/11s is actually superseded by the number of eastern Indians working there and has no relation to the Muslim religion. The Store chain called 7/11 began as a single store in Texas in 1927 by an American. As the chain expanded, the open hours were increased to 7am to 11pm in 1946 -- unheard of at that time. The chain continued to expand as a franchise to where they are the largest chain store in the world with some 38,000 outlets in many countries including Japan. In 1991, a Japanese holding company gained a controlling share and now owns the franchise.

7/11 stores are Japanese.

It is true however that many words in Spanish come from Arabic language -- even El Cid meaning The Lord is Arabic. California (Caliph - Ornia) means place of the ruler in Arabic. Yet there are thousands of words in American English which include Arabic, French, German, Dutch, Spanish, Italian, Armenian, Chinese, Japanese etc. All languages in the world contain words from other languages because of invasions, trade, intermarriages, etc. But that is no connection to their religion.

Catsup is Chinese, tycoon is Japanese, reservoir is French, schooner is Dutch, California is Arabic, etc.

Any questions?

Best Always, Doug Westfall 


American Missionaries Gunned Down for 'Preaching Christianity' 
Kathy Gannon - Associated Press Writer - 8/7/2010 

KABUL, Afghanistan - Taliban terrorists have declared they shot and killed a team of missionaries, including six Americans, because they were 'preaching Christianity.'

Ten members of a medical team, including six Americans, were shot and killed by the Islamic terrorists as they were returning from providing eye treatment and other health care in remote villages of northern Afghanistan, a spokesman for the team said Saturday.

Dirk Frans, director of the International Assistance Mission, said one German, one Briton and two Afghans also were a part of the team that made the two-week trip to Nuristan province. They drove to the province, left their vehicles and hiked for hours over mountainous terrain to reach the Parun valley in the province's northwest.

Taliban spokesman Zabiullah Mujahid told The Associated Press in Pakistan that they killed the foreigners because they were "spying for the Americans" and "preaching Christianity."

Frans said the International Assistance Mission is registered as a nonprofit Christian organization but it does not proselytize.

"This tragedy negatively impacts our ability to continue serving the Afghan people as IAM has been doing since 1966," according to a statement released by the charity. "We hope it will not stop our work that benefits over a quarter of a million Afghans each year."

The team, made up of doctors, nurses and logistics personnel, was attacked as it was returning to Kabul following a two-week mission in Nuristan, Frans said. They had decided to travel through Badakhshan province to return to the capital because they thought that would be the safest route, Frans said.

Among the dead was team leader Tom Little, an optometrist from Delmar, New York who has been working in Afghanistan for more than 30 years, Frans said.

Little was expelled by the Taliban government in August 2001 after the arrest of eight Christian aid workers _ two Americans and six Germans _ for allegedly trying to convert Afghans to Christianity. He returned to Afghanistan after the Taliban government was toppled in November 2001 by U.S.-backed forces.

Frans said he lost contact with Little on Wednesday. On Friday, a third Afghan member of the team, who survived the attack, called to report the killings. A fourth Afghan member of the team was not killed because he took a different route home because he had family in Jalalabad, Frans said.

According to Frans, two members of team worked for International Assistance Mission, two were former IAM workers and four others were affiliated with other organizations, which he did not disclose.

He said five of the Americans were men and one was a woman. The Briton and German also were women.

Gen. Agha Noor Kemtuz, police chief in Badakhshan province, said the victims, who had been shot, were found Friday next to three bullet-riddled four-wheel drive vehicles in Kuran Wa Munjan district.

He said villagers had warned the team that the area was dangerous, but the foreigners said they were doctors and weren't afraid. He said local police said about 10 gunmen robbed them and killed them one by one.

He said the two Afghans were interpreters were from Bamiyan and Panjshir provinces. A third Afghan man, who had been traveling with the group, survived.

"He told me he was shouting and reciting the holy Quran and saying 'I am Muslim. Don't kill me,'" Kemtuz said. 



Attacks against Mexicans inflame tensions in NYC
APWriter Cristian Salazar, Aug 16, 2010

Aug. 4, 2010 photo, Isaias Lozano shows a reporter where he was wounded during a robbery.

NEW YORK – When Rodolfo Olmedo was dragged down by a group of men shouting anti-Mexican epithets and bashed over the head with a wooden stick on the street outside his home, he instinctively covered his face to keep from getting disfigured. Blood filled his mouth. 

"I wanted to scream, but I couldn't because of the beating they were giving me," said the 25-year-old baker. Nearly five months later, he is still taking pain medications for his head injuries.

Recorded by a store's surveillance camera, the assault was the first of 11 suspected anti-Hispanic bias attacks in a Staten Island neighborhood, re-igniting years-old tensions between blacks and Hispanics in New York City's most remote borough.

Residents of Port Richmond — where an influx of newcomers from Latin America over the past decade has transformed the community — alternately blame the attacks on the economy, unemployment and the debate over Arizona's immigration law.

And although most of the suspects were described as young black men and investigated for bias crimes, a grand jury has indicted only one of seven people arrested on a hate-crime charge.

But Isaias Lozano, a day laborer, said he knows why he was attacked and robbed in December by "morenos" — the Spanish word he uses to describe his black neighbors.

"They hate us because we're Mexicans," he said while sitting at El Centro del Inmigrante, a center for immigrant day workers. "They aren't robbing just anybody."

Across the United States, the immigration debate plays out in suspicion of outsiders and sometimes escalates into violence. Port Richmond, tucked in a corner of New York City that most visitors never see, is wrestling with the perennial question of how people from different backgrounds can live together and get along.

Some community leaders here blame the attacks on hoodlums preying on day laborers, who are perceived as easy targets because they often carry cash home from work. Others say the Arizona law is stirring up a climate of intolerance, even these thousands of miles away.

"It's a cascading effect," said the Rev. Terry Troia, a board member of El Centro del Inmigrante. "There are negative impulses being put out there both nationally and locally. People on the fringe catch a piece of that, and they are acting on it."

Some of Port Richmond's black residents assert that newcomers' presence touches a nerve. Mike Mason, 47, a teacher who works in New Jersey, said the arrival of Mexican immigrants had changed the texture of the community.

"America has got to do something as far as immigration goes," he said. "In the morning you can see the streets lined with undocumented workers ... That's always in the back of people's minds."

Staten Island is a relatively isolated, suburban-like borough of New York City. It is home to nearly 500,000 people, most of whom live in detached homes instead of apartments, need cars to get around and a ferry to get across New York Harbor to Manhattan.

Between 2000 and 2008, the number of Hispanics living on the island grew roughly 40 percent, according to Census bureau statistics analyzed by City University of New York's Latino Data Project, with much of that growth coming from the Mexican community.

Many of those began to coalesce around the Port Richmond neighborhood, which had long been predominantly black and low-income. The neighborhood's main commercial thoroughfare, once marked by empty storefronts, suddenly came alive with Mexican businesses selling pinatas, bars playing Spanish-language heavy metal, and grocers stocking chilies and tomatillos. The neighborhood developed a new nickname: "Little Mexico."

Mexicans soon began reporting that they were attacked by their black neighbors.

One organization documented 21 assaults against day laborers one summer in 2003. When a day laborer was viciously stabbed and killed two years later, neighbors quickly blamed the black community, until reputed Latin Kings gang members were charged with the man's death.

In recent months, police have deployed additional foot and mounted patrols, a command post and Mexican-born officers to distribute bilingual fliers with safety tips. The FBI joined in creating a task force to look into civil rights abuses in the neighborhood. Residents have aired grievances at numerous town hall meetings. 

On a recent summer day, Nicomedes Rocha said she was afraid of being targeted by blacks while walking on the street.  "I have to watch on both sides," said the 33-year-old dishwasher at a local taqueria, who was on her way to work carrying a shoulder bag. "They think I carry money." 

But some black residents said it was wrong to talk about bias as the main motive for the attacks. David Johnson, an amateur boxer who has lived in the neighborhood for seven years, blamed the incidents on drug addicts looking to rob people for cash to feed their habits. "They would do that to anybody," he said. "To jump toward bias issues is out of whack." 

Rodolfo Olmedo was beaten and robbed of his cell phone and wallet on April 5. Four suspects have been arrested and charged; police investigated it as a bias crime, but a grand jury indicted the suspects only on robbery and gang assault charges. 

William Smith, a spokesman for the Staten Island district attorney's office, said the attack on Olmedo was retaliatory. The suspects, he said, believed Olmedo had been involved in an earlier altercation. 

Olmedo, who was hospitalized for five days and was briefly in a coma, contends he was targeted because of his ethnicity, not because he had been involved in a related incident or because the suspects wanted to steal his belongings.  

After all, Olmedo said, they didn't take an expensive watch that he was wearing. "It was," he said in Spanish, "a hate crime." 
Sent by John Inclan

Editor:  It brings to mind the case of Luis Ramirez that was beaten to death in Pennsylvania by a gang of young men, as they screamed anti-Mexican statements.  The harshest punishment received by two of the men was a half a year in jail.
That was it!!  

American Bar Association to Study Hispanic Legal Issues


Miami Herald (August 7, 2010)

In an unprecedented move to address the legal issues of Hispanics in the United States, the 400,000-member American Bar Association -- under the new leadership of Stephen N. Zack, a Cuban-American lawyer from Miami -- will announce Monday the creation of the Commission on Hispanic Legal Rights. 

The ABA commission, to be headed by Miami lawyer César L. Alvarez, also a Cuban-American, will hold public hearings in major U.S. cities with Hispanic populations to study whether the legal system is addressing the needs of the country's largest and fastest-growing minority. 

"We need to find out the facts and we need to see how the system is working or not working to make sure that Hispanics are fully integrated and treated equally within our justice system,'' said Zack, who will make the announcement when he officially becomes the ABA's first Hispanic president at the group's annual convention in San Francisco. 

A number of Hispanics in a cross-section of fields will be named in the coming weeks to the new commission, Zack and Alvarez said. 

After the public hearings are held and the legal issues studied, the findings would be culled into a report similar in scope to the one issued earlier this year by the ABA's Commission on Immigration. That report, circulating in Washington D.C., proposed an overhaul of the deportation system under the Justice Department. 

"The ABA is obviously the premier organization for lawyers in United States,'' Alvarez said. "It carries a lot of weight.'' 

A report on the legal rights and responsibilities of Hispanics "can be a pretty important source of information particularly in this period of time when there's a lot of rhetoric and misinformation floating in the market place,'' said Alvarez, of the law firm Greenberg Traurig. "I've been working on these issues all of my life, not only with Hispanics, but making sure that others get to have at least the chance of living the American dream that I've had the opportunity to live. I'm knocking down barriers and making sure people have a shot.''

Sent by Angelo Falcon, 8/7/2010
National Institute for Latino Policy (NiLP) | 101 Avenue of the Americas | New York | NY | 10013-1933


Farm Workers

GREETINGS Friends/Supporters:
Rick Tejada-Flores writes: 

“Many years ago Cesar Chavez went on a fast in Arizona in response to an unjust labor law. I was a young filmmaker working for the UFW at the time. With my partner Gayanne Fietinghoff, I documented the fast in the film Si Se Puede! This was the birth of the historic phrase, that was reborn as Yes We Can. The film has not been available for over 30 years. I have finally put up a website to make it available. All profits from sales will go to the Cesar Chavez Foundation to support their important work.

The website is  I hope you can take a look at the site, and help me spread the word that this piece of history is available again. If you know people or organizations who would link to the site please forward this to them. I’d love your feedback on suggestions, ideas for more links, etc.”

The Work of the FMDP Never Ends!

For those of you who thought the documentation of the farmworker movement was “finished” – think again! Thanks to Madeline Rogero and Mark Pitt – UFW volunteers from 1972-1977 – I will soon publish their private archive collection relating to their UFW work in Ohio, Belle Glade, Chicago and the Midwest, Proposition 14 (Torrance office), Delano, Coachella and LaPaz. This is one of the largest private collections received to date. The Documentation Project has already published the private archives of former UFW volunteers: Mike Miller, Juanita Brown, Susan Due Pearcy, Tom Dalzell, Nori Davis, Debbie Miller, and Sam Trickey. Who will be next?

- LeRoy Chatfield

Please visit
Farmworker Movement Documentation Project 
LeRoy Chatfield, Director 
5131 Pleasant Drive, Sacramento, CA 95822

Sent by: Roberto Calderon,  




Hispanic Heritage Month, Sept 15- Oct 15
      Theme: Heritage, Diversity, Integrity and Honor: The Renewed Hope of America
Stolen Valor Act deemed Unconstitutional by 9th Circuit 



Hispanic Heritage Month, Sept 15-Oct 15, 2010 Theme

Two choices

"Celebrating History, Heritage and the American Dream"

Heritage, Diversity, Integrity and Honor: The Renewed Hope of America"

It appears that there are two official themes this year.  The Congressional Hispanic Caucus Institute released the following as the unifying theme for 2010 Hispanic Heritage Month activities: "Celebrating History, Heritage and the American Dream".  I had found the second, which appears to be the official government theme.  Thank you to Rafael Ojeda for finding both.  I guess we can make a choice.  

Remember: It is not too late to celebrate Hispanic Heritage Month.  There are many resources, just GOOGLE it!!  

A quick effort is to ask for a city council proclamation.  Sample proclamations can be found online. Historically, the celebration of  Hispanic Heritage Month goes back to a 1974 action by Congress which ask the citizens of the United States to observe the time period with appropriate ceremonies and activities.  Another simple opportunity presents itself with the opening of a meeting of any Hispanic organization.  Include the recognition in the announcements. 

In 1997, I prepared a booklet of  historical material for easy use in the classroom, or at any youth activities.  Soon after Somos Primos went online, the information was made available online at:   Enjoy . . . Mimi

Please do support community events that are celebrating Hispanic Heritage Month. I received information on so many activities, I just could not include them.  Check your newspapers and local news.

Stolen Valor Act deemed Unconstitutional by 9th Circuit
Pasadena, CA: A 3-year old federal law that makes it a crime to falsely claim to have received a medal from the U.S. military is [now] considered unconstitutional, an appeals court panel ruled.  The decision was in the case of Xavier Alvarez of Pomona, a water district board member who said at a public meeting in 2007 that he was a retired Marine who had received the Medal of Honor; the nation's highest military decoration.

A panel of the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals sided wish him in a 2-1 decision, saying his free-speech rights had been violated and that his lies caused no harm.  The dissenter said the majority refused to follow precedents holding false statements are not entitled to free-speech protection.

Editor: I can not even fathom this legal decision. "his lies caused no harm".  This is another blow against all Americans, against American patriotism, disguised as a free speech issue. As Americans we are harmed when our heroes are disrespected and their deeds not honored.  Woe be to us, when false statements can be uttered with impunity, with the court left to decide if someone was harmed.  




Hispanic Presence on Corporation's Board
¡Si se puede! By Pat Danel
MicroTech Named Fastest Growing Hispanic Owned Business in the Nation 
Presence on Boards

Hispanics have one of the poorest representations on Boards.  They comprise about 3.28% of Board members, one-fifth of the 15% they represent in the U.S. population.

Native Americans make up approximately 5% of their actual population.

Blacks/African Americans have the highest representation at 8.77% compared to their population, reporting a Board ratio of about 69%. 
Kirk Whisler Hispanic Marketing 101

VP and General Manager of Univision TV stations KMEX Channel 34 and KFTR Channel 46 Maelia Macin could not join us in person, due to her busy schedule, at the NHBWA 10thAnnual Awards and Scholarship Dinner held last May. Maelia was recognized as one of the three Women of the Year. We appreciated the fact that she kindly recorded her acceptance speech, which was played during the event. However, we were very excited when she invited us to her offices at Univision as it gave us the opportunity to share with her NHBWA’s mission and objectives.

Maelia commended NHBWA for the scholarship program mentioning how much education means to her. Maelia attributes her success, to her perseverance in education that was instilled in her by her immigrant parents. Maelia hopes that more and more females continue believing in the importance of education that will allow them to aspire to higher positions, especially in those industries that are male driven. It was truly our honor to meet with Maelia and to present her with the well deserved award in the Corporate Responsibility category. Seen on the photo above from left to right, NHBWA President Yobany Banks-McKay, VP and General Manager of KMEX Channel 34 and KFTR Channel 46 Maelia Macin, and NHBWA Interim Executive Director Pat Danel.

NHBWA is very proud of Maelia’s accomplishments and for being such a great role model for young Latinas as she truly personifies the “Si se puede” motto!.

NHBWA News Brief August 2010, Vol. 3 - Issue 8

MicroTech Named Fastest Growing Hispanic Owned Business in the Nation for
Unprecedented Second Consecutive Year
"A Virginia IT company, run by a go-getting Hispanic Veteran, mixes passion, commitment and hard work with a slavish devotion to quality. The result? A business that keeps outpacing the competition."–Hispanic Business Magazine

Technology Systems Integrator (SI) MicroTech has been named by Hispanic Business Magazine in its annual "100 Fastest Growing Companies" list as the 2010 No. 1 Fastest-Growing Hispanic-Owned Business in America. Referred to as a "dynamo of growth," this is the second consecutive year that MicroTech has been ranked at the top spot on the prestigious national list — a feat never before accomplished in the history of the survey.

The July/August 2010 edition of the magazine reported MicroTech's 5-year sales growth total at almost 1800%, propelling the firm to its number one ranking. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's latest statistics, the number of Hispanic-Owned Businesses totals 2.3 million. 

"For a six-year-old Hispanic Business, I can't imagine a better indicator of industry success than the Hispanic Business 100," said Tony Jimenez, MicroTech's President & CEO and National Chairman of LISTA "



2010 Million Father March 
Film Screening to Raise Money for SDSU Chicano Collection
Why History Matters? Sometimes By Rodolfo F. Acuña
Summary of Dream Act 
602 Cities Have Signed Up for the 2010 Million Father March
If your city has not signed up, why not? 

There is still time to put strong positive men in the lives of children in your community. If school has already started in your city, you can still participate in the National Men Take Children to School Day on Tuesday, September 7, 2010 and you can ask your fathers and men to take the Million Father March Pledge. You are the ONE who can make the difference in your community! 

Million Father March Pledge for Fathers
I will take my children or a child to school and I will be at a school on the first day to encourage all children to do their best every day at school.
I am responsible for the education of my child.
I will volunteer at my child's school three times this school year.
I will pick up my child's progress report or grade report when required.
I will meet with my child's teachers at least two times this year and support them in educating my child.
I will teach my child the value of family as well as the value of education.
I will work with my child's mother or guardian to achieve the best academic and social outcomes for my child even if I do not live with my child.

The Million Father March is a community program of the Black Star Project represented by Street Positive™ 

Please call 773.285.9600 to register your city today. The 2010 Million Father March is managed by The Black Star Project, U.S.A. and sponsored by the Open Society Institute's Campaign for Black Male Achievement.

***During the Vietnam War, California Latinos represented 12% of our population and yet were 22% of its casualties. While at the same time our enrollment in colleges and university was around 2% i.e. . . last in education and first in our country's wars.***   Frank M. Sifuentes

Film Screening to Raise Money for SDSU Chicano Collection
By Leonel Sanchez Staff Writer 

What: Screening of documentary films about Chicana and Chicano history
When: 2 p.m. Sunday
Where: Barrio Station, 2175 Newton Avenue, San Diego, CA
Donation at door: $20 students $10

When longtime Chicano Studies professor Rene Nunez died four years ago, his widow requested that his papers be donated to the library where he taught--- San Diego State University.

Around the same time, his friends and former colleagues noticed the lack of a special collection on the Chicano movement in San Diego and decided to do something about it. So began the Chicana and Chicano Archive Project, whose organizers are hosting a fundraiser Sunday to honor filmmakers at the Barrio Station in San Diego. 

Proceeds will benefit the group’s efforts to collect original research material, such as letters and hard-to-find newspaper articles, photos and artwork.

“We decided to mount an effort to collect papers and photographs that would help later generations understand the Chicano movement as it developed in San Diego,” said Ricardo Griswold, Chicano studies professor emeritus at San Diego State University and the project’s coordinator.

The SDSU library has a Chicano book collection that is heavily used by students, Griswold said.

While it dates back several decades, the Chicano movement often is associated with the Mexican-American civil rights movement of the 1960s and early 1970s when political, labor, educational and other rights were being asserted.

Information about the Chicana and Chicano archives at SDSU can be obtained through the university’s library, where the documents are kept in boxes. A display of selected material is being planned for the fall, Griswold said.

The collection includes the Nunez papers, which documents his work promoting educational equality, parental involvement and his help in founding the SDSU Chicano studies department.

The Maria Garcia papers include documents of the educator’s work promoting bilingual education and the establishment of the Chicano Federation of San Diego County.

The Arturo Casares papers document the founding of the Barrio Station, a social services agency in Barrio Logan. And organizers are processing documents on the founding of the Mexican- American Women’s National Association. 

Last year, the project received a $15,000 grant from the President’s Leadership Fund at SDSU and $2,000 was generated by a fundraiser at the Barrio Station.

On Sunday, filmmakers Paul Espinosa, Laura Castaneda and Isaac Artenstein will show clips of their work. The Media Arts Center of San Diego will screen documentaries produced by young people about Barrio Logan. Espinosa, who will show parts of the docudrama “The Lemon Grove Incident,” said the event will also act as a call for “people in the community who may have archival material that documents history to donate it to the Chicano collection at San Diego State University.”

Sent by:  Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.

Rough Draft

Why History Matters? Sometimes
Rodolfo F. Acuña

While history cannot repeat itself, it should inform us. The Mexican American population much like other minorities has fought for an equal education as a key to a better life. Their strategy has included ending segregation and making public schools accountable.

The community was lost in a black hole in the 1920s a decade of American cultural jingoism when many public school districts replaced the words “my flag” in the pledge of allegiance with “the flag of the United States” that according to nativists would prevent immigrants and others from swearing allegiance to a foreign flag.

School segregation increased during the decade and most Mexican children were placed in “Mexican schools.” IQ testing and myths such as that the Spanish language was a “very real educational barrier” to the Americanization of Mexican children justified segregation and Americanization programs. By the end of the decade about half of Mexican
students attended segregated schools.

The districts profited from Mexican schools because they spent less on educating Mexican students. They did not care if Mexicans dropped out because they could spend more state funds on the education of white students.

In Tempe, Arizona, in 1925; a Mexican American rancher named Adolpho “Babe” Romo Sr. successfully sued the Tempe Elementary School District for denying admission to his four children in the newly opened Tenth Street School. Since it was not a class action suit, the impact was limited, and only Romo’s children were admitted to the white school.

Mexican Americans suffered disproportionately during World War II and the Korean Wars enhancing their feelings of entitlement. Education was the priority of Mexican American organizations as a way of ending inequality. As the Mexican American middle class grew so did its demands for equal education and pressure for the schools to end the dropout problem.

Real breakthroughs were made in bilingual education (/Lau v//.//Nichols/), school financing (Serrano v. Priest), segregation (Cisneros V. Corpus Christi ISD), the teaching of Chicano and ethnic studies, employment discrimination to name a few. All these gains have all but been eliminated by the courts that initially supported them. Even before
Gore v. Bush (531 U.S. 98) (/2000/), the Supreme Court politically intervened on behalf of corporate interests.

In 1992 Miriam Flores brought a suit on behalf of English Language Learner (ELL) students alleging that the Nogales Unified School District failed to teach ELL students English. After seven years of pretrial proceedings the case went to trial in 1999.

In 2000, the District Court concluded that defendants were violating the Equal Educational Opportunity Act (EEOA) of 1974 provision to take "appropriate action" to help students overcome language barriers. The amount of funding the State allocated for the special needs of ELL students was arbitrary. The court ordered the State to "prepare a cost
study to establish the proper appropriation to effectively implement" ELL programs.

In January 2005, the court told the State it had 90 days to "appropriately and constitutionally fun[d] the state's ELL programs taking into account the [Rule's] previous orders." The State was held in contempt after a year of non-compliance and imposed a fine of $500,000 to $2 million per day until it complied.

In 2006, the state legislature passed HB 2064, which was designed to address problems found by the District Court. It increased ELL incremental funding, put a 2-year per-student limit on such funding and created a structured English immersion fund and a compensatory instruction fund. The investment of new state funds was to be offset by available federal moneys.

U.S. District Judge Raner Collins criticized a state plan’s use of federal poverty dollars to help foot the bill for classroom instruction. He also questioned a two-year limit on how long a student could remain in an English-language program.

Upon review the District Court found that HB 2064 did not establish "a funding system that rationally relates funding available to the actual costs of all elements of ELL instruction," and the District Court again held the State in contempt.

The case was appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court. The Flores case had been strengthened by George Bush’s No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 requiring the state to satisfy the requirements in the 1974 law to take "appropriate action" to help students overcome language barriers.

On June 25, 2009 the Court ruled on Horne v. Flores, changing the legal standards for the EEOA. As expected, its ruling was highly political, splitting 5-4 along political lines. Justice Samuel Alito wrote the majority opinion questioning why schools and states should remain under the direction of federal courts for so many years. Justices John Roberts, Anthony Kennedy, Antonin Scalia and Clarence Thomas joined Alioto. Justice Stephen Breyer wrote a dissent, joined by Justices Ruth Bader Ginsburg, John Stevens and David Souter.

In essence, the Supreme Court sided with Arizona officials who wanted an end of oversight in teaching non-English-speaking students. It reversed a law that required ''appropriate action'' to help English language
learners overcome language obstacles. It remanded the dispute to a federal judge in Arizona for another look at whether the schools in Nogales now provide equal opportunities to English language learners.

The state superintendent of public instruction, Tom Horne, declared victory. Critics, however, charge that the Supreme Court intentionally gutted the Civil Rights statutes. Without federal oversight Arizona could now violate the Equal Education Opportunities Act of 1974 and the No Child Left Behind law. In other words, it was a step back to the
1920s and the establishment of “Mexican schools.”

Justice Breyer wrote that given that 47 million Americans do not speak English at home, ''I fear that the court's decision will increase the difficulty of overcoming the barriers that threaten to divide us.'' Breyer cautioned judges to take care when the standard of enforcement of federal statutes revolves around whether it “will impose significant
financial burdens upon states.'' ''An attitude,” which he said, “is not a rule of law.''

The Ninth Circuit Hearings will now determine how much money is sufficient to meet federal law, which requires an equitable education for all students. The Court said that the “record contains no factual findings or evidence that any school district other than Nogales failed to provide equal educational opportunities to ELL students, and respondents have not explained how the EEOA can justify a statewide injunction here.” It added that “Unless the District Court concludes that Arizona is violating the EEOA statewide, it should vacate the injunction insofar as it extends beyond Nogales.” At stake is the education of 138,000 English-learners in Arizona that most experts say are warehoused in “Mexican Rooms.”

The Latino community doubts whether Arizona will keep its promise that EL students can reach proficiency in English in one year as promised by the new 4-hour English Language Development (ELD) block.

Under the aegis of the highly respected Civil Rights Project at the University of California at Los Angeles (formerly at Harvard), 21 researchers and graduate students from four of the nation's top research universities conducted new empirical studies assessing instructional models and assessment practices for English learners. The results are online

These findings will be presented to the federal court in September.

If allowed to stand, the dictum in Horne v. Flores would return Mexican Americans to a time when there was no federal oversight of the schools. The ruling would empower Tom Horne to play Bull Connor or Joe /Arpaio/.
Just like Gore v. Bush stole the presidential election of /2000/ and caused an uproar and consternation among liberals, Horne v. Flores weakens the rule of law.

According to Scalia, his judicial philosophy of "orginalism," means interpreting the Constitution “on what it originally meant to the people who ratified it over 200 years ago.” A time when there were no Mexicans in the United States, women could not vote and blacks were slaves.

Scalia says, "You think there ought to be a right to abortion? No problem. The Constitution says nothing about it. Create it the way most rights are created in a democratic society. Pass a law. And that law, unlike a Constitutional right to abortion created by a court can compromise. It can…I was going to say it can split the baby! I should
not use… A Constitution is not meant to facilitate change. It is meant to impede change, to make it difficult to change."

The problem is that laws were passed—the Equal Education Opportunities Act of 1974 and the No Child Left Behind Act of 2002, as well as countless court decisions. As in the case of Gore v. Bush, Horne v. Flores came down to the judges’ bias, not what was constitutional. If this same standard had been applied in /Brown v//. //Board of Education// /of Topeka there would still be de jure segregation in the United States—segregation would be the law of the land.

S U M M A R Y 

Source Migration Policy Institute 

The Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors (DREAM) Act seeks to provide a path to legalization for eligible unauthorized youth and young adults:

1 It does not provide permanent legal status outright to potential beneficiaries. Rather, it allows individuals to apply for legal permanent resident status on a conditional basis if, upon enactment of the law, they are under the age of 35, arrived in the United States before the age of 16, have lived in the United States for at least the last five years, and have obtained a US high school diploma or equivalent.

2 The conditional basis of their status would be removed in six years if they successfully complete at least two years of post-secondary education or military service and if they maintain good moral character during that time period.

3 According to our analysis, the law’s enactment would immediately make 726,000 unauthorized young adults eligible for conditional legal status; of these roughly 114,000 would be eligible for permanent legal status after the six-year wait because they already have at least an associate’s degree. 

Another 934,000 potential beneficiaries are children under 18 who will age into conditional-status eligibility in the future, provided that they earn a US high school diploma or obtain a General Education Development (GED) degree. 

An additional 489,000 persons ages 18 to 34 would be eligible for conditional status under the law’s age and residency requirements, but they lack a high school diploma or GED and therefore do not currently qualify for this status. While slightly more than 2.1 million youth and young adults could be eligible to apply for legal status under the legislation, historical trends indicate that far fewer are likely to actually gain permanent (or even conditional) status, due primarily to the bill’s education attainment requirements. 

We estimate that roughly 38 percent of potential beneficiaries — 825,000 people — would likely obtain permanent legal status through the DREAM Act’s education and military routes while as many as 62 percent would likely fail to do so.

Sent by Rafael Ojeda




The True Meaning of North Americanism 

Rudy Padilla, columnist for the Kansan  


Many modern societies such as ours are dependent on accurate and complete documentation by our historians.  It is possible for some historians to promote their countries at the expense of others. Giving credit to the overlooked contributions of his native Spain, Carlos B. Vega gives rise to questions concerning on how we are taught history in our classrooms.  

The Truth Must Be Told: How Spain and Hispanics helped build the United States By Carlos B. Vega – originally from Spain – now living in New Jersey:

Excerpts from the book: “Mexico is home to an ancient aboriginal civilization which has remained vibrant to this day and which epitomizes the true meaning of North Americanism. The U.S. was forged mainly by European immigrants with the total exclusion of its native population, while Mexico was forged mainly by Native Americans mixed with European immigrants. The United States is not really America but rather an American version of Europe. The America of the future belongs to Mexico.  

A Hispanic should never walk the earth head-bowed but with his head up high above his shoulders, for he is the direct heir of the grandest of civilizations. When you think of a Hispanic, you think of a 2000-year history going back to the Phoenecians, Carthagenians, Greeks, Romans, Visigoths, Arabs, and starting in the 15th century, the Incas, Mayas, Aztecs, plus the blacks, all of whom are woven into a very special culture which we call today “La Raza.” Think of the greatness of Athens and Rome, Toledo, and Córdoba; of Homer, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Seneca, Caesar, Virgil, Saint Augustine, El Cid, King Alphonse X, Maimonides, Queen Isabella, the Emporor Charles V and King Philip II, Saint Teresa of Avila, Velázquez, Saint Ignatius of Loyola, Cervantes, Cortés, Pizarro, Junípero Serra, Coronado, De Soto, Cabeza de Vaca, Balboa, Unamuno, Azorín, Ortega, Lorca, Machado, Picasso, the Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, Bello, Bolivar, San Martin, Darío, Martí, Hostos, Azuela, Rivera, Orozco, Hernández, Gallegos, Mistral, Neruda, Asturias, Márquez, and Borges.  

Walk the earth tall, with your head up high and never forget who you really are.  Your history, as a Hispanic, did not begin in the 19th century but one thousand years before the birth of Christ.  That is the legacy you have inherited and what has made you what you are today. Thus, next time you say “I am a Hispanic,” take a deep breath, fill your heart and soul with great pride and honor, and shout it out with all the strength you can muster.”  

“How did it all begin? What made the United States the great nation that it is today? Many people would say that it all began in 1607 with the arrival of the English and, therefore, give full credit to England for forging the nation while perhaps acknowledging the contributions of other European nations, namely Germany and Holland. This has been the consensus for over 200 years continuing through today. However, this is not how the distinguished American historian Charles F. Lummis interpreted it when he wrote: If Spain had not existed 400 years ago, the United States would not exist today.  

And Mr. Lummis added: “When the reader finds out the best English textbook does not even mention the name of the first mariner who circumnavigated the globe (a Spaniard), nor of the explorer who discovered Brazil (another Spaniard), nor the discoverer of California (also a Spaniard), nor of the Spaniards who discovered and settled colonies in what is today the United States, and that said book contains such blatant omissions and a hundred historical accounts that are as false as the omissions are inexcusable, he will understand that the time has come for us to do more justice to a subject that should be of the utmost interest to all true Americans.  

This historical fact has been systematically glossed over by most historians and general academia in the United States for over 200 years. Consequently, people in this country have long had a blurred vision of Spain’s awesome contributions to United States history. In the halls of learning across the nation, in everyday classrooms where American history is taught, teaching focuses on England’s contributions, while disregarding the over 100 plus years that preceded the true dawn of our nation.”  

“Spain’s aid to the American Revolution came in multiple ways both in and outside of Spain. The truth is that for many years up to 1776 and beyond, the nation of Spain and her people embraced the American cause as their own.  

It must be pointed out that the funds given to the American colonies, amounted to millions of what we would call today hard currency—Spanish gold and silver—were derived mainly from the mines of Mexico, Peru, and Bolivia. Thus, when American historians write that the Spaniards plundered the gold of the Incas and the Aztecs, guess where a large portion of those treasures ended up? Well, you guessed it, in the very heart of Colonial America, in the war chests of the insurgents to help finance their struggle against the tyrant, as Jefferson called archenemy king George III.  Should we, meaning the United States, be grateful to the conquistadors and to the natives of those three countries for so contributing to our independence?  Indeed we should. Many papers were signed, many meetings held, and many promises made, but they all went up mostly in smoke. The United States only partially re-paid that debt and never thanked Spain, Mexico or Peru for it which it should have done, even if belatedly. And among those to be thanked should also be Cortés and Pizarro, Moctezuma and Atahualpa, as well as the Indians and Black slaves who labored in the mines.”  

“On the subject of the Black Legend, from which all of this modern aberration against Spain originated, we can now state categorically that is no longer valid or credible. At long last, after many years of scholarly work by some of the world’s most distinguished historians, it has been proven to have been nothing more than a propagandistic scheme concocted by Protestant Europe to undermine Catholic Spain’s well-earned fame and glory. The conquistadors lust of gold and their inhumane treatment of natives was a blatant exaggeration of the facts propagated around the world by Spain’s eternal rivals. If Spain was to have a black legend she was by no means the only one to deserve it. In fact, many nations around the world have earned their own black legends from antiquity to modern times, and some not only have had one but several.”  

The Spanish Inquisition and the destroying of Aztec temples and documents are discussed. For example: ‘Thomas Jefferson was a slave-owner because that was a sign of his time, just as Cortés subdued an empire. Judging Jefferson or Cortés from today’s perspective is foolish and can only lead to hatred or contempt, or worse yet to holding historical grudges which can be very harmful to the future of any nation.’  The ‘Tolerance Act’ of the state of Maryland in the middle 17th century, prescribed death and seizure to anyone convicted of denying that Jesus Christ was the son of God.  Modern research has proved that the Spaniards destroyed much less than is commonly said.  

The book details that only a small percentage of gold from the America’s actually arrived in Spain.  Most of the wealth was used in the building of Cathedrals and churches to spread Christianity. Pirate ships, knowingly operating out of England, hijacked many Spanish ships on the high seas and took over their cargo of gold and silver. Before the English-speaking arrived on the Mayflower, there were many cities founded by the Spanish in the Southwest and on the West Coast.”  Many of those churches stand today.  

The deep belief and use of religion by the Catholic clergy had an immense impact on the Native Americans in North America. The difficult and dangerous work by the Spanish missionaries which happened long before the arrival of the English speaking is covered in the book.  In 1963, by an Act of Congress friar Junípero Serra was honored as ‘The Apostle of California.’ The book comments that the recognitions are welcome but hardly enough for such a national towering figure. Further, rather than calling him the ‘Apostle of California’ he should be called the Apostle of the United States, and perhaps not only the founder of California but the founder of the United States.  

“Thus, after 500 years in America, Spain finally departed both exhausted and economically bankrupt and bearing the burden of an unjust world. Historian Salvador de Madariaga was indeed right when he said that Spain bled to death in America. Her only consolation, perhaps her only recompense, was the belated realization that she had contributed like none other to the creation of a new civilization. An America without Spain?  Possible. Today’s America without Spain? Impossible.  

Europe, all of Europe, but especially England, France, and Holland owe a big apology to Spain for inflicting so much harm on her both in words and deeds for so long, and for conspiring to re-write history in their favor. And the United States must recognize the immense gratitude it owes to Spain, Mexico, and other Hispanic countries, for having contributed so notably to its history and to being what it is today.”  Rudy Padilla is a columnist for the Kansan and can be contacted at 

Sent by Juan Marinez




July:  SOMOS en escrito
Syndic No.1 – Publication Announcement 

The Mission Center for Latino Arts

July Somos en escrito
Somos en escrito ran the gamut of genre in the month of July, from two essays by our Fort Worth contributor, Raúl Caballero, on immigration matters, part of our virtual symposium on immigration reform, a book review by Armando Rendón of King of the Chicanos, a novel about the times he lived through that has come to be known as the Chicano Movement, a poem about Arizona by San Antonio poeta Nepthalí De Leon, and a bitingly witty short story by newcomer author, Tommy Villalobos. (See below.) 

We want to urge our readers to spread the word about our online magazine, encourage struggling young writers to submit their works for our review, and let educators know about the resource that Somos en escrito represents for their classrooms.  Armando Rendón, Editor 

Immigration Reform: Virtual Symposium: En la víspera de SB 1070 
Se institucionaliza el odio 
Por Raúl Caballero 
“Redacto estos apuntes antes de saberse si entra o no en vigencia la ley SB1070 en Arizona. Pero es un hecho que el odio contra los inmigrantes ya se ha exacerbado entre los grupos extremistas.” 

Immigration Reform: Virtual Symposium 
Nuestro futuro – inmediato 
Por Raúl Caballero 
“La buena noticia de estos días para la comunidad inmigrante que en los Estados Unidos apoya a los trabajadores indocumentados, la que respalda una reforma migratoria y repudia leyes retrógradas como la SB1070 de Arizona es sin duda la demanda anunciada por el gobierno federal en contra de esa ley que, de entrar en vigencia, su aplicación sería a partir del próximo 29 de julio.” 

King of the Chicanos, Book Review By Armando Rendón 
King of the Chicanos, by Manuel Ramos. Wings Press, San Antonio, Texas, 2010. 
An entertaining book, a solid effort to convey the spirit and scope of the Chicano Movement through an avatar, the King of the Chicanos. 
“History being what it is, our past, we constantly look for ways to retrieve it. More than a century ago, H.G. Wells dreamed up a time machine, which has been re-invented over and over in the sci-fi idiom ever since. In King of the Chicanos, Manny Ramos dreams up a way to take us back to a momentous time for la raza, and the Nation. His fast-paced story-telling spins us back through time to the 1960s, a decade of unrest and change in America.” 

Rock and Roll Raza! By Nephtalí de Leon 

“I celebrate Arizona 
and sing 
to the Nation of Aztlán 

forget the tapados 
and the taco-loving racists 
trying so hard for our color 
and part of our bilingual brain … 

Seeing Green 
By Tommy Villalobos 
The Green Bar was a dive. The owner Hank Ramos won it in a poker game from a gentleman who was glad to lose it in that same poker game. Hank’s newly secured saloon was perched on a lomita between East Los Angeles and Alhambra proper. It was not quite in one or the other, just somewhere in between, as were its patrons. 

Armando Rendón
510-219-9139 Cell

Syndic No.1 – Publication Announcement 

A new online literary journal – Syndic No. 1 – published by LeRoy Chatfield is now LIVE. You are invited/encouraged to review the journal and send the LINK to friends/colleagues who may be interested: (1) reading it; OR (2) submitting literary content for the next issue. Syndic No. 2 will be published in November 2010 – the submission deadline is: October 15, 2010. All are welcome and encouraged to submit literary content. For more information and/or to make a submission, contact:

If you need to cut/paste the link, use this link:

Please visit
Farmworker Movement Documentation Project 
LeRoy Chatfield, Director 
5131 Pleasant Drive, Sacramento, CA 95822

Sent by: LeRoy Chatfield

The Mission Cultural Center for Latino Arts
El Tecolote: Celebrating 40 years of Community-based Journalism in the Mission


When a few local poets and activists got together in Spring 1970, they were unsure whether the literary newspaper they were publishing would survive through the next issue. But 40 years later El Tecolote is still going strong! During the month of August, MCCLA Main Gallery was filled with photos from El Tecolote's extensive 40-year-old photo archive. The Mission Cultural Center held special events recognizing the unique contributions of El Tecolote during its 40 year reign as the Mission's paper of record. 

This year marks the 40 anniversary of El Tecolote, the Mission District's own bilingual weekly newspaper. For many years El Tecolote was the only news outlet capturing the day-to-day life of the Latino community in San Francisco. El Tecolote's photo archive tells the story of the political, cultural and social development of that community. In celebration of 40 years of service, the MCCLA presents Imagining the Mission: Pasado, Presente, Futuro an exhibition featuring images from the the archive and past El Tecolote staff, photos from present day staffers, and the work of local youth. 

Imagining the Mission: Pasado, Presente, Futuro
Exhibition was open from August 7 through August 29, 2010

On August 29, a poetry event was held to honor the history of El Tecolote in the literary community of the Mission and beyond. Invited poets include: Francisco Alarcon, Cathy Arellanos, Adrian Arias, Devreaux Baker, Charles Blackwell, Lorna Dee Cervantes, Estela De la Cruz, Patricia Fernandez Villaseñor, Xisco Gonzales, Rafael Jesus Gonzalez, QR, Leticia Hernandez-Linares, Beatriz Herrera, Juan Felipe Herrera, Jack Hirschman, Genny Lim, Devorah Major, MamaCoAtl, Jacqueline Mendez, Dorinda Moreno, Alejandro Murguia, Joe Navarro, Gerardo Pacheco, Reina Alejandra Prado, Naomi Quinones, Tomas Riley, Margarita Robles, Miguel Robles, John Ross, Mary Rudge, Nina Serrano, Jorge Tetl Argueta, Alfonso Texidor, Roberto Vargas, Roberto Ariel Vargas, Vickie Vertiz, Nellie Wong. 

Sent by: The Mission Cultural Center for Latino Arts | 2868 Mission St. | SF | CA | 94110 


As part of this celebration a special 20-page edition of EL TECOLOTE LITERARIO is to be released on July 28, 2010. A bilingual hard-copy anthology featuring the works of established poets as well as those emerging new voices is in process at the moment. This collective reading of 37 poets is a fundraising benefit for the edition of the anthology book. for more information contact: Eva Martínez (415) 64-1045;

Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.



The Sons of Guadalupe: Voices of the Vietnam Generation and Their Journey Home    
      by Michael R. Ornelas
San Clemente, California Photo book 

The Men Named Antonio López de Santa Anna

José Antonio Navarro: In Search of the American Dream in Nineteenth-Century Texas

Women of the Mexican Oil Fields:  Class, Nationality, Economy, Culture and Oil   

      Revolution in Mexico   
Labor Rights Are Civil Rights: Mexican-American Workers in 20th Century America 
     by Zaragosa Vargas
Aurora by Rafael Castillo
Tunaluna by Tomas Atencio Alurista, Ph.D.
Mujeres de Conciencia/ Women of Conscience by Victoria Alvarado.

The Sons of Guadalupe: Voices of the Vietnam Generation and Their Journey Home by Michael R. Ornelas with a foreword by Guadalupe Vietnam Veteran Rudy Razo. 

Michael R. Ornelas has been a Professor of Chicano Studies at San Diego Mesa College for over thirty years. He is originally from Guadalupe, California. He earned his Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees from the University of California at Santa Barbara. He lives in San Diego with his wife and three children.  Mr. Ornelas writes, "I am currently working on a documentary based on the book with Cinewest Productions of San Diego, California."

Michel R. Ornelas, 
For signed copies send $39 (includes shipping and handling) per copy to: Aplomb Books

5331 Lavade Lane
Bonita, CA. 91902



This unique book documents the extraordinary story of Guadalupe’s 230 Vietnam era veterans, which included over 90% of the age-eligible men from the town.   Guadalupe is largely a Latino small town of 2500 residents in central California. In 1970, 67% of the age-eligible men were Latino.  There were also Filipinos, Japanese-Americans and Anglos whose ancestors instilled in their sons the ethic of hard work and honor to country. Included are chapters of local history of the Japanese, Filipino and Mexican communities and transcribed interviews of 27 of the veterans. Read about these men: the 57 sets of brothers, the countless citations for gallantry, and their life struggles since the days of Vietnam. They are Ernie Serrano, an army medic awarded 12 medals for gallantry and Joey and Jesse Castillo, awarded over 24 commendations for bravery in Vietnam. They are Ahumada, Castillo, Deleon, Escalante, Inguito, Kitagawa, McCormick, Peña, Pritchett, Razo, Rivas, Rojas, Ruiz, Sanchez, and Tesoro. From the Gulf of Tonkin to the evacuation of Saigon to the Mayaguez Incident, they were there.



San Clemente is one of the latest communities to become the latest icon in a series of picture books showcasing communities across the United States.

Arcadia Publishing, a South Carolina firm that specializes in publishing local histories, will release the 127-page book May 17. Retailing at $21.99, it will be available at stores and online services or from the San Clemente Historical Society. It becomes one of some 4,500 titles in Arcadia’s “Images of America” series, the company said.

The book, with 190 historical photos, is a collaboration between local author Jennifer Garey and the historical society, which opened its photo archives to the project. The book tells the story of San Clemente through captioned pictures, starting with Ole Hanson’s dream in 1925 of creating a Spanish village by the sea.

Garey is the owner of Arts & Antiquities Inc., a museum consulting company based in San Clemente. She previously wrote a picture book for Arcadia Publishing about the San Diego Naval Training Center. Garey, an eight-year resident of San Clemente, said she realized Arcadia had published books about Laguna Beach and Orange County but not San Clemente. 

“We have such a great story,” she said. Garey approached the historical society about collaborating. Maryann Comes, the historical society’s president, said the group was delighted, having long wanted to publish its archives. “We didn’t have the expertise,” Comes said. “She had it down pat.”

As Garey did her research, the historical society assembled photos, and longtime residents such as Bill Ayer, Lois Divel and Liz Hanson Kuhns came forward with more photos. “We dedicated the book to the people of San Clemente,” Comes said. “We’re excited about it.”

For information on obtaining the book from the historical society, call Comes at 949-498-0116.  
Source: OC Register, Saturday, May 15, 2010
Photo book celebrates San Clemente’s history By: Fred Swegles, Local page 14


José Antonio Navarro: In Search of the American Dream in Nineteenth-Century Texas

Navarro was an early friend of Stephen F. Austin, sharing a vision of Texas with the famed empresario in which both Tejanos and Anglos could thrive. Navarro believed that Texas was a place where peoples of all colors and backgrounds should be able to realize the American Dream. First biography to appear in more than a generation on the most influential native Texan/Tejano leader of nineteenth century Texas!

A book signing will be held in San Antonio on October 16 at Neiman Marcus La Cantera in San Antonio.
Sent by Sylvia Navarro Tillotson 

Women of the Mexican Oil Fields 
Class, Nationality, Economy, Culture and
and Revolution in Mexico, 1900-1938 

Hello Mimi, this is Yolanda Centennial. I talked to you a long, long time ago concerning my quest to find information about my grandmother from Panuco, Veracruz Mexico. I wanted to share some information with you. Have you read a book by Myrna Santiago titled Women of the Mexican Oil Fields Class, Nationality, Economy, Culture, 1900-1938? and Oil and Revolution in Mexico by Jonathan C. Brown? In doing my research, I came across these two books (or citations). I am overwhelmed by the contents and mental images these book gave me. I have not finished reading them, have only read the chapters about the working and living conditions. Anyway, I believe I am closer to finding the truth about what happened to her mother, sister and brother. I still need to research the census for that area during the 1910-1916 time frame, the death registrations, etc. I am excited, although I feel a strange sadness that possibly there were sinister reasons behind the separation of the whole family. I hope someday I can go to Panuco and Tampico and research their historical documents. My research is slow and tedious, but sometimes fruitful. I have found other very interesting information connecting the people that took her from Mexico in 1914.
Thanks for being there.

Thanks, please do mention these books. Google the author's names and you should be able to get a look at the chapters I was talking about. These are very good books. I especially like Myrna Santiago's book because she tells the story of the way the women were treated and how they had to adjust. ( Personal note: The oil master's wives were the usual slave owners of poor peons.) Both books dwell into the oil well boom so thoroughly. It's painful to know that those rich oil masters that owned the oil wells were so evil and devious. I wonder if they would dare return all that land to the poor Mexican people they stole it from. 

Sent by: Yolanda Cenntenial

Labor Rights Are Civil Rights: 
Mexican-American Workers in 20th Century America by Zaragosa Vargas

Mexican-Americans stand up to Jim Crow
Review: Justin Akers Chacón looks at the hidden history of Mexican-American workers.
April 4, 2008 | Issue 668

"PLACING A premium on interracial and interethnic collaboration as a central component of unionization, the CIO [Congress of Industrial Organizations] served as a center and training ground for activism for thousands of Mexican-Americans."

Zaragosa Vargas, Labor Rights Are Civil Rights: Mexican-American Workers in 20th Century America, Princeton University Press, 2007, 400 pages, $22.95.

So unfolds Zaragosa Vargas' seminal work, Labor Rights Are Civil Rights, which concludes that the mass strike movement of the New Deal era not only toppled capital's resistance to industrial unionism but forged a generation of Mexican-American working-class fighters whose struggles against racism laid the basis for the Chicano civil rights movement and the eventual overthrow of legal segregation.

By the turn of the 20th century, most Mexican-Americans and Mexican migrants in the Southwest were incorporated into a highly oppressive dual-labor structure, adapted from the Jim Crow model fanning westward from the Deep South through Texas.

Mexican-American men and boys were confined to the lowest echelons of labor, particularly in agriculture and mining, while women and young girls were clustered in domestic work, sweatshop garment labor and agricultural packaging and processing. Segregation extended from the workplace to home to school, as legal, institutional racism confined Mexican-Americans to impoverished barrios and a woefully inadequate educational system.

Super-exploitative conditions of work, especially in the isolated fields, packing plants and mining camps, were maintained by Grower and Mine Operator Associations. As Vargas illustrates by examining agriculture in Texas, "growers and their cronies had command of the courts, the sheriff's offices and the justices of the peace, and utilized the Texas Rangers, who monopolized armed force in south Texas to sustain control over Tejano and Mexican national alike."

Growers in politicians' clothing gathered to represent their own interests in Washington, such as Texas Congressman Richard Kleberg, whose family owned the massive 825,000-acre King Ranch and controlled politics in Corpus Christi and surrounding counties. They controlled state government, such as the Texas Farm Placement Service (which distributed farm labor) and various relief agencies which would deny support to farmworkers if they tried to organize for better conditions.

Mine operators also wielded tremendous power. According to Vargas, "State legislators and mining industry heads served on government boards together and developed tax, welfare and law enforcement policies favoring the metals industry." This convergence of capital and state power was further backed up by immigration policy that kept Mexican workers under a permanent threat of deportation, especially if they tried to organize unions.

The near collapse of capitalism during the Great Depression fractured the American ruling class and created the space for working-class radicalism to offer its own solutions to the crisis. Republican Herbert Hoover's efforts to blame and deport a million Mexican and Mexican-American workers failed in creating new jobs or revitalizing the economy, but did begin a tradition in which immigrants would be perennially scapegoated for capitalism's woes.

While it succeeded in terrorizing the Mexican-American community, it also pushed its working-class majority to find a collective means to combat racism and poverty. The election of Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1932 coincided with the emergence of working-class militancy, especially as the Communist Party (CP) launched efforts to organize grassroots opposition in the workplace and community.

The party had prioritized the multiracial organizing and "helped Spanish-speaking workers obtain relief...provided legal aid to fight against discrimination and protest police violence, and defended the workers against deportation." Challenging the long-standing AFL tradition of excluding or marginalizing immigrant workers, the CP (and later the CIO, which it influenced) sought to directly organize Latinos into unions across the Southwest.

When small handfuls of party and union organizers were sent deep into hostile territory--San Antonio, Texas; Gallup, New Mexico; Los Angeles, California or numerous other locales, "resolute Spanish-speaking workers took up the call to organize and took center stage in the struggle that commenced in the Southwest." The experience forged a new generation of leaders who carried the struggles deeper into their own communities.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

VARGAS PAYS close attention to the integral role that Latinas played in the union movement, taking up key roles as strike leaders, militant participants and supporters. In 1933 for instance, Mexican female garment workers in Los Angeles were the first workers in the city to strike under the National Recovery Act (which enabled the legal formation of unions).

Mexican-American women also played a key role in building the United Cannery, Agricultural, Packing and Allied Workers union (UCAPAWA), which grew to become one of the largest unions in the CIO. Some Latinas who came up through the ranks of the CP/CIO gained national prominence as a result of their leadership and accomplishments. One example was Emma Tenayuca, a diminutive, working-class Tejana who was first arrested for picketing at the age of 16.

Tenayuca organized a strike movement in the 400 non-union pecan-shelling sheds that comprised one of San Antonio's largest agricultural industries. The 12,000 predominantly female workers averaged $1 to $4 per week, ranking them among the lowest paid workers in the country.

The strike culminated in the establishment of a UCAPAWA-affiliated union which eventually grew to over 10,000 members. As Vargas concludes, "her efforts brought Tejana workers to the forefront of the demonstrations marches and picketing, as well as bringing the issue of wages, relief services and civil rights to the attention of the public."

Tenayuca ultimately became a prominent leader of the Texas CP, explaining, "no one but the Communists expressed the least interest in helping San Antonio's dispossessed Mexicans." She became a key contributor to the development of the party's theoretical orientation toward Mexican and Mexican-American workers and their relationship to the rest of the working class.

In the landmark essay, "The Mexican Question in the Southwest," she and her husband Homer Brooks concluded that "the Southwest's Mexican-Americans and Mexican nationals did not constitute a separate nation because they lacked territorial and economic community," but were bound together through their treatment as a conquered people since the time of the Mexican-American War.

Though exploited as a separate ethnic group, "Spanish-speaking communities were interconnected through a shared economic life and were linked to the Anglo working-class populations of the Southwest as a result of the region's economic and political integration with the rest of the United States." Multiracial working-class unity, therefore, was contingent upon combating the institutional racism facing Mexican-Americans in daily life.

The CP helped organize community-based campaigns, often under the leadership of women. One antiracist organization, the Congress of Spanish-Speaking Peoples, foreshadowing the Chicano civil rights movement, launched grassroots and direct-action campaigns to overturn segregation.

El Congreso's founding convention in 1938 declared its support for the extension of labor protections to agricultural and domestic workers (excluded from FDR's NLRA), extension of relief to unemployed Mexican-American workers, an end to workplace discrimination, and an increase in wages. They also called for rent controls and an end to discrimination in housing and rampant police brutality.

Understanding how immigration policy was being used to divide workers, they called for a cessation of deportations of undocumented workers and advocated for their inclusion in access to social services. Recognizing how the education system underdeveloped Mexican children to prepare them as commodities of manual labor, they advocated for "cultural democracy" in the classroom. This included the demand for bilingual education and the promotion of Mexican-American teachers.

Recognizing how Jim Crow laws like the poll taxes kept Mexican voters disenfranchised, El Congreso organized voter registration drives and fund-raisers for the poor to pay poll taxes. At its height, the organization had 73 chapters representing 70,000 members across the Southwest.

Members of the CP and its affiliated organizations also provided crucial material aid and political support for LA's Mexican community during the Second World War. After the declaration of war against Japan, racist sentiment was stoked across the country. While Japanese-Americans were being internally deported into concentration camps, Mexican-American youth became a target for persecution in inner cities across the West.

The growing population of Mexican-American workers in the cities, the emergence of Chicano youth culture that challenged the norms of forced assimilation, and the emergence of social problems associated with poverty and segregation in the barrio provided the kindling for nativists to ignite a lynch-mob atmosphere against Mexican-Americans.

In what became known as the Sleepy Lagoon Case (or as Vargas identifies it, the "West Coast complement of the Scottsboro Campaign"), 17 Mexican-American youths were arrested and put on trial for an unsubstantiated murder. The CP and the Congreso, CIO-affiliated unions and progressives from Hollywood united to form the Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee (SLDC) to defend the boys and expose the campaign as racial persecution.

Organizers, led by CIO veterans Luisa Moreno and Revels Cayton, planned a multi-pronged campaign to "develop an educational program to solicit support for the SDLC, coordinate efforts to end racism against Mexicans within unions, and launch a CIO membership drive in the Spanish-speaking working-class neighborhoods."

After three years, the national campaign resulted in all the charges being dropped and the youth released. The fight evolved into numerous other campaigns that directed multiracial, working-class organization and power against the structures of segregation.

While the CP and CIO ultimately retreated from their efforts to directly confront racism, the Mexican and Mexican-American workers who rose through their ranks and were trained on the front lines of class struggle laid the groundwork for the ultimate defeat of Jim Crow in the Southwest. As Vargas concludes, the civil rights movement of the 1960s witnessed "a new generation of leaders and plans," but rather than serving as a starting point, Mexican-American militancy only "deepened and expanded."

It is in understanding this continuity of class struggle that makes Vargas' book an indispensable read for a new generation of activists confronting the new Jim Crow assault on immigrants, as well as for the next generation of Emma Tenayucas that carry with them the hope and possibility of a better world.

By Rafael Castillo

650 Castro St., Suite 120-331, Mountain View, California 94041
General Information: 
ISBN: 978-1888205-30-5 

Rafael Castillo's characters are a Chicano variation of Edward Hopper's "Nighthawks," sleepless souls lost in their own thoughts," Jacinto Jesus Cardona, author of Pan Dulce: Poems These eleven tightly-packed short stories, often allegorical yet visceral, range from the phantasmagorical "Aurora", whose misdeed has condemned her to a cyclical river of Eternal Return, to the agnostic Tomas and faithful Pedro in the theological "Penitent of Guadalupe Street", where truth is an enigma wrapped in a metaphor. In another story, a bellicose dwarf is murdered and the story is told from shifting points of view. In "Dwarfs and Penitents," an angry jilted husband searches the cobblestone streets of Prague in search of vengeance, while in "The Sands of Dhahran," a middle-age soldier battles his demons during Operation Desert Storm. In these luminous stories, Castillo give us penitents, dwarfs, lost youth, WWII vets, pachucos, doppelgangers, and memorable others populating the American literary landscape. ___ Rafael Castillo teaches writing and literature at Palo Alto College in San Antonio, Texas. He is the author of Distant Journeys, and his writing has appeared in The Arizona Quarterly, College English, Imagine, English Journal, Frank, New Mexico Humanities Review, Puentes, Southwestern American Literature, Saguaro, and ViAztlán. His fiction has also been widely syndicated and anthologized in Under the Pomegranate Tree (Washington Square Press), Lone Star Literature (W.W.Norton), Hispanic Link, (Washington, DC) and New Growth (Corona Press). "Castillo has a poet's feel for language and a gritty sense of urban reality. Aurora and other stories is a welcome addition to the growing body of Mexican American literature," Don Graham is the J. Frank Dobie Regents Professor of American Literature and English at UT-Austin, and a writer-at-large for Texas Monthly.

"Complicated, interesting, and enthralling, Castillo has one of the most authentic voices coming out of Aztlan. Our inheritance is in his words." Sheila Sanchez-Hatch, author of Strong Box Heart

"A personal memory of profound intimacy and delicately layered...Castillo's book is enticing and energizing." Carmen Tafolla, Sonnets To Human Beings.

Rafael C. Castillo was the first editor of ViAztlan: a journal of Chicano Arts and Letters established in San Antonio, Texas in 1979. The journal was funded through the City of San Antonio and the culture-based arts organization, Centro Cultural de Aztlan. A veteran free-lance writer, Castillo authored articles germane to the Mexican American community and established philosophy-based issues and supported international causes that promoted Mexican American arts and letters. He later served as contributing editor of The Saguaro,a literary journal published at the University of Arizona, Tucson. In 1985, Castillo visited Paris, France, and met briefly with David Appelfield, editor of FRANK, an international literary journal, and became its San Antonio correspondent. In 2001, Castillo was asked to serve on the editorial board of Puentes, an international bilingual journal based at Texas A&M University–Corpus Christi.

His writings have appeared in The Arizona Quarterly, Saguaro, Frank (Paris, France), Southwestern American Literature, English Journal, College English, South Texas Studies, English in Texas, Imagine, Puentes, ViAztlan, Caracol and other international literary quarterlies. He is included in Don Graham's (2003) Lone Star Literature, an anthology of prominent Texas writers whose works have been canonized within the literary pantheon of W.W. Norton. Castillo is the author of Distant Journeys, (Bilingual Review Press/Arizona State University) which was published in 1991. The collection was nominated for the Before Columbus Award, the Texas Institute of Letters, and the Ernest Hemingway Award. His most recent addition to the literary canon is Aurora, a collection of fiction published in 2010 by Floricanto Press of California.

In 1985, Castillo was selected as the first English faculty at Palo Alto College and the subsequent year became its first chairperson. The college opened in 1985 and is located in the Southside of San Antonio. In 1987, Rafael Castillo was awarded the first Palo Alto College Teaching Excellence Award ($2,000/laptop) voted at-large by the Faculty Senate, and the following year, the National Council of Teachers of English awarded him the English Journal Writing Award. In 1988, Rafael Castillo inaugurated and founded the student-centered Palo Alto Review which later morphed into the broad-based academic journal, The Palo Alto Review. In 1990, Castillo was asked to serve on the Editorial Board of Publications of NCTE, the National Council of Teachers of English. Dr. Castillo is listed in Who's Who in U.S. Writers, Editors, and Poets; Men of Achievement, and Who's who among Scholars.

A graduate of St. Mary's University (B.A.), the University of Texas at San Antonio (M.A.) and Capella University in Minnesota (PhD), Rafael Castillo was one of the early free-lance writers whose contributions opened the door for Hispanics in mainstream journalism. He was a board member of Gemini-Ink of San Antonio, a non-profit literary arts organization and served on the San Antonio Express-News Community Board in 2004–2005. Currently, he is serving as Vice-President of Los Bexarenos Genealogical and Historical Society for 2008-2009, a Hispanic focus group. He will be serving as Director (2009-2010)for Los Bexarenos Genealogical and Historical Society in charge of programs. In 2010, Castillo was selected as one of four outstanding professors at Palo Alto College in the category of teaching excellence.

A brief literary biography of Rafael Castillo is included in The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Ethnic American Literature (2005) and the 1986–1987 Who's Who in U.S. Writers, Editors, and Poets. Other biographical listings include Rafael Castillo in the Dictionary of Literary Biography Volume 209, Gale Publishing, and papers listed at the University of Texas in the Nettie Lee Benson Latin American Collection. Catalogued as SRH-1.109 by Gilda Baeza-Ortego, Mexican American Studies Librarian, the papers are used by visiting researchers, biographers, and scholars. Currently, Rafael Castillo is a tenured professor of English at Palo Alto College in San Antonio, Texas.

[edit] References
Rosales, Jesus. "Rafael Castillo" Dictionary of Literary Biography. Vol. 209. Gale Publishing, 2000. 
Oakley, Helen. "Rafael C. Castillo" Greenwood Encyclopedia of Multiethnic Literature. Greenwood Press, 2005. 

Retrieved from 
Categories: American writers of Mexican descent | Living people | University of Texas at San Antonio alumni


Aztlan Libre Press, a new, independent publishing company based out of San Antonio, Texas that is dedicated to the promotion, publication, and free expression of Xican@ Literature and Art, announces the publication of its first book, Tunaluna, by the renowned veterano Chicano poet, Tomas Atencio Alurista, Ph.D. This is Alurista’s first publication in ten years.

Alurista is one of the seminal and most influential voices in the history of Chicano Literature. A pioneering poet of the Chicano Movement in the late 60s and 70s, he broke down barriers in the publishing world with his use of bilingual and multilingual writings in Spanish, English, Nahuatl and Maya. A scholar, activist, editor, organizer and philosopher, he holds a Ph.D in Spanish and Latin American Literature from the University of California in San Diego and is the author of ten books including Floricanto en Aztlán (1971), Timespace Huracán (1976), Spik in Glyph? (1981) and Z Eros (1995). His book, Et Tú Raza?, won the Before Columbus Foundation National Book Award in Poetry in 1996. Author of “El Plan Espiritual de Aztlán,” he is a key figure in the reclaiming of the MeXicano cultural identity, history and heritage through his integration of American Indian language, symbols and spirituality in his writings.
Tunaluna is classic alurista: passionate, sensuous, and political. Alurista’s tenth book of poetry is a collection of 52 poems that takes us on a time trip through the first decade of the 21st century where he bears witness to the “Dubya” wars, terrorism, oil and $4 gallons of gas, slavery, and ultimately spiritual transformation and salvation. The “Word Wizard of Aztlan” is at his razor-sharp best, playing with his palabras as well as with our senses and sensibilities. alurista is a Xicano poet for the ages and a chronicler of la Nueva Raza Cózmica. With Tunaluna he trumpets the return of Quetzalcoatl, the feathered-serpent of Aztec and Mayan prophecy, and helps to lead us out of war and into the dawn of a new consciousness and sun, el Sexto Sol, nahuicoatl, cuatro serpiente, the sun of justice.

“Alurista experiments on the edge, thickly layers multiple meanings onto each cryptic line through language play, brilliant code-switching (‘tu mellow dia’) and love songs to la raza. A statement of survival, he confronts the politics and the hypocrisy of ‘the estados undidos de angloamérica’ with an irrepressible rhythm, with the ‘slingshots in our hands’ of pre-Columbian truths, and with the ability to craft real words from our unreal world of avarice and oppression. alurista’s tenth book holds many spirit treasures calling out to us from between the lines. Con razón k he hears the haunting spirits beneath the surface—‘ayer paré x tu casa/y me ladra/ron/los libros.’”

(Carmen Tafolla, Ph.D., Doctor of Philosophy, poet and Visiting Faculty, University of Texas at San Antonio)

Tunaluna is a work of hope, humor, outrage, and beauty by one of our most notable Chicano bards. alurista reminds his readers of the political possibilities of the poetic; in his poems, we hear the song of a people.”

(Cristina Beltrán, Associate Professor of Political Science at Haverford College and author of The Trouble with Unity: Latino Politics and the Creation of Identity)

ISBN-13: 978-0-9844415-0-1 * $15.00 * 76 pages * Trade Paperback * Publication: October 2010
For more information, contact Publishers/Editors Juan Tejeda or Anisa Onofre at e-mail address below.

Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.

Mujeres de Conciencia/ Women of Conscience

Spanish English parallel text and photography 

by Victoria Alvarado.

 ISBN: 978-0-9796457-7-8. 2008 $79.95 Oversized, Hardbound. 

This is an art book with magnificent black and white photos of prominent Latinas who have made definite and long standing contribution to the Hispanic community and the country at large. This photographic essay constitutes an important collective biography as well, with great journalistic insight and integrity into the lives of leading Latina women in the fields of education, science, literature, business, law, the arts, journalism, politics, and other fields of endeavor. This coffee table monograph, which has been published with art-book quality as a collector's edition, provides stunning artistic, B&W photographs of each subject with a parallel biographic journalistic essay in Spanish and English. The biographies explore the life-changing events of each subject, the personal mix of elements, circumstances, and values which allowed these women to set goals and objectives toward most successful careers and contributions to society. There are 72 leading women included in this collective biography and an extraordinary photographic essay offering the most incredible array of role models to inspire, guide and motivate young Latinas. This title is an important addition to reference collections and individual libraries for they are testament to the vision and values of la Mujer Latina.

Sent by Victoria Alvarado


Hispanics in the United States Coast Guard by Tony "The Marine" Santiago
Cuban's Involvement in the Civil War
Cold War Museum
Scholarships for the spouses
WWII plane lifted from bottom of California reservoir
Civil War Photos
Kate Smith and song, You're in the Army Now
Cuban's involvement in the Civil War
Japanese Surrender Signing Aboard Battleship Missouri 

It was a Fortress Coming Home: They could hear it before they could see it.
One Soldier's Amazing Survival Story
The Death of Pfc. Juan Restrepo: Tragedy becomes a movie


Hispanics in the 

United States Coast Guard

By: Tony (The Marine) Santiago


Hispanics in the United States Coast Guard can trace their tradition of service to the early 19th century when they initially performed duties at light house stations as keepers and assistant keepers in its predecessor services (the United States Revenue Cutter Service and the United States Life-Saving Service). Hispanics, such as Rear Admiral [[Ronald J. Rábago]], who in 2006 became the first person of Hispanic American descent to be promoted to Rear Admiral (lower half), have reached the top ranks of the Guard, serving their country in sensitive leadership positions on domestic and foreign shores. Hispanics currently account for a total of 9% of the United States Coast Guard Academys student body.  

Hispanic is an ethnic term employed to categorize any citizen or resident of the United States, of any racial background, of any country, and of any religion, who has at least one ancestor from the people of Spain or is of non-Hispanic origin, but has an ancestor from Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Central or South America, or some other Hispanic origin. The three largest Hispanic groups in the United States are the Mexican-Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the estimated Hispanic population of the United States is 42.7 million (This estimate does not include the 3.9 million residents of Puerto Rico.), thereby making the people of Hispanic origin the nation's largest ethnic or race minority as of July 1, 2005.


The 1824 St. Augustine lighthouse  
The United States Coast Guard was formed in 1915, when its predecessors, the United States Revenue Cutter Service, which was established by Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton in 1790 as an armed maritime law enforcement service, and the United States Life-Saving Service were merged. According to Dr. William H. Thiesen, Ph.D., Atlantic Area Historian of the United States Coast, the following events involving Hispanics occurred in the early years of the Coast Guard its predecessor services.  

The first Hispanic to serve in the United States Revenue Cutter Service, predecessor to the Coast Guard, was Juan Andreu who from 1824 to 1845 served as the Keeper of the St. Augustine Lighthouse in Florida, thus making him also the first Hispanic to oversee a federal installation of any kind. Maria Andreu (a.k.a. Maria Mestre de los Dolores), a family member, followed in his foot steps and served as Keeper of the same lighthouse from 1859 to 1862, becoming the first Hispanic-American woman to serve in the Coast guard (USRCS) and the first Hispanic-American woman to command a federal shore installation.  

The first Hispanic-American to command a Coast Guard vessel (USRCS) was Joseph Ximenez who took command of the Carysfort Reef Lightship in Florida in 1843. He was not, however the first Hispanic officer, that distinction belongs to Domingo Castrano, who is listed by the United States Revenue Cutter Service Register as having served aboard Revenue Cutter Grant in 1872, as an engineering officer. The first known Hispanics to have served in the U.S. Life-Saving Service were  Surfmen Telesford Pena and Ramon Delgado who in 1897, served at the Brazos Life-Saving Station in Texas.  


USS Algonquin


In 1914, the schooner Isaiah K. Stetsen  sank off the coast of Massachusetts during a storm. Mess Attendant First Class Arthur J. Flores and SN John E. Gomez, members of the  cutter Acushnet, volunteered to save survivors of the schooner and were awarded the awarded the Silver Lifesaving Medal for their heroism. That same year, the Revenue Cutter Algonquin, which was stationed in the Caribbean, set sail with a crew of fifteen Hispanic-Americans (a fourth of the cutter's complement) to San Juan, Puerto Rico to assist the Puerto Ricans battling fires that threatened to destroy parts of that city. In 1915, the City of San Juan, Puerto Rico, paid tribute to the crew of the cutter Algonquin and presented them with an Official Resolution of Thanks. The Coast Guard was already formed by 1919, with the merger of United States Revenue Cutter Service and U.S. Life-Saving Service, when Seaman Richard E. Cordova became the first Hispanic member of the Coast Guard to perish in a military conflict when his cutter, the CGC Tampa, was torpedoed and sunk with all its crew by a German U-Boat during World War I. The Coast Guard can be transferred to the Department of the Navy by the President or Congress during time of war. BM 1/c Pablo Valent and Surfman Indalecio Lopez, members of the Texas Brazos Life-Saving Station crew were awarded the Coast Guard's Silver Lifesaving Medal and The Grand Cross Medal from the American Cross of Honor Society for their assistance in the rescue of the crew of the schooner "Cape Horn" on September 16, 1919. In 1935, BMC Pablo Valent was given command of the Port Isabel (Texas) Boat Station, becoming the first Hispanic-American to do so.

On September 28, 1925, CWO2 Joseph B. Aviles, Sr. (1897-1990), born in a farm near the town of Naranjito, Puerto Rico when the island was still a Spanish colony, became the first Hispanic Chief Petty Officer in the Coast Guard. During World War II he received a war-time promotion to Chief Warrant Officer, becoming the first Hispanic to reach that level as well. Aviles joined the United States Navy in 1915 and served seven years and eight months, eventually reaching the rank of Chief Gunner's Mate (rank equivalent to Chief Petty Officer/E-7). During the years that he served in the Navy, the United States Congress passed the Jones-Shafroth Act (1917) which conferred United States citizenship on all citizens of Puerto Rico. On September 28, 1925, he entered the United States Coast Guard with the rank of Chief Gunners Mate and served for two years before re-enlisting on September 11, 1928. Upon the outbreak of World War II, Aviles received a war-time promotion to Chief Warrant Officer (November 27, 1944), thus becoming the first Hispanic American to reach that level as well. He retired from the Coast Guard on July 27, 1946 and worked as a security guard at a hospital in Baltimore until 1962 when at the age of 65 he retired. Aviles died at his residence in Columbia, Maryland, on February 22, 1990 amd was buried with full military honors in Plot D O 2220A of the Baltimore National Cemetery at Catonsville, MD.


World War II

During World War II, the Coast Guard was transferred to the Department of the Navy and as such many men saw action in said conflict. During the invasion of Saipan, which began on June 15, 1944, Valentin R. Fernandez, a landing craft coxswain, was a awarded Silver Lifesaving Medal for maneuvering a Marine landing party ashore under constant Japanese attack. The first known Hispanic-American Coast Guardsman to be awarded with a Bronze Star Medal was Louis Rua, whose craft, a U.S. Army large tug en route to the Philippines, went to the rescue of another ship which had been torpedoed by enemy action and helped saved 277 survivors from the abandoned ship.  while serving aboard a U.S. Army large tug en route to the Philippines.  

Gunner's Mate Second Class Joseph Tezanos, a native of Santander, Spain, was aboard LST 20 in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, when an explosion on board one of the armada’s LSTs set off a chain reaction. Tezanos along with a gang of several other hastily assembled volunteers scrambled on board a rescue boat. Tezanos and his shipmates rescued men from the water in danger of drowning and evacuated others from the burning ships. He was awarded the Navy and Marine Corps Medal for "distinguished heroism while serving as a volunteer member of a boat crew engaged in rescue operations during a fire in Pearl Harbor, Oahu, T.H. on 21 May 1944. Under conditions of great personal danger from fire and explosions and with disregard of his own safety he assisted in the rescuing of approximately 42 survivors some of whom were injured and exhausted from the water and from burning ships." Tezanos saw action at Kiska, Alaska; Tarawa Atoll in the Gilbert Islands; and Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands. Tezanos was sent to New London, Connecticut, at the Coast Guard Academy to take the four-month program, from which he graduated in 1945, becoming the first known Hispanic American to complete the service’s Reserve Officer Training Program and one of the very first Hispanic American officers in the United States Coast Guard. After the war he built a successful career in the international business world.

 US San Pedro in World War II
Paul Powers Perez was born in New York City in 1920. In 1941, he received an appointment to the United States Coast Guard Academy and upon his graduation in 1945 ,received his ensign commission. He served in the Pacific theater of operations on board the patrol frigate USS San Pedro (PF-37). In 1946, the San Pedro, which was escorting ships to and from the Philippines, came under heavy enemy air attacks and Perez, the gunnery officer, directed the gunfire which downed a number of Japanese aircraft in the process. After the war Perez attended Columbia University taking undergraduate courses in psychology and in 1955 earned a doctorate in psychology from New York University.  

Another graduate of the USCGA, was Lieutenant John Gazzo Martinez, who was born in New Orleans and entered the service during World War II. In 1946, he received an appointment to the Academy and, in 1951 was commissioned an ensign in the Coast Guard. From 1954 to 1956 LTjg. Martinez  served as commanding officer at the LORAN Transmitting Station in Yonago, Japan. Martinez prepared and delivered classes in LORAN (Long Range Aids to Navigation) procedures at the U.S. Air Force’s nearby 34th Bombardment Squadron. He was later assigned as advisor in the U.S. Naval Mission to the Haitian Garde-Cotes d’Haiti. He taught classes for the Haitian military leadership and later oversaw the overhaul of Garde-Cotes patrol vessels.  

Not everyone served aboard ships during the war. Some men like Jose R. Zaragoza served on missions on some lonely atolls. When 19 year old Zaragoza, a native of  Los Angeles, California, joined the Coast Guard, he was sent on patrols in the Pacific coast of the United States defending against sabotage and invasion from the Japanese. Later he received instructions in the then-emerging and secretive field of Loran navigation and sent to Ulithi atoll, located between Guam and the Philippines where he worked in Long Range Aids to Navigation, which is akin to radar work. He served on Ulithi Island for 15 months. 

Vietnam War  

During the Vietnam conflict, Heriberto S. Hernandez from San Antonio, Texas, enlisted in the Coast Guard. In 1968, he was deployed for duty in Vietnam and was assigned to the Point Cyress, an 82-foot cutter. In May, the Point Cyress was under attack and Hernandez was among those who perished. He was posthumously awarded the Bronze Star Medal with a combat "V" for valor and a Purple Heart Medal. Vice Admiral Elmo R. Zumwalt wrote: "Fireman Hernandez’s heroic actions under enemy fire were instrumental to the success of friendly forces in harassing and destroying the enemy’s morale and feeling of security. Fireman Hernandez’s professional skill, courage under enemy fire, and devotion to duty reflected great credit upon himself, and were in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service" The first Hispanic-American Coast Guard member to receive the Silver Star Medal for combat action was Larry Villareal in Vietnam on January 21, 1969.

Post Vietnam War

Coast Guard Medal

On September 16, 2000, Seaman Apprentice William Ray "Billy" Flores, was posthumously awarded the Coast Guard Medal in a ceremony near Ft. Worth, Texas. The Coast Guard Medal is awarded to any service member who, while serving in any capacity with the United States Coast Guard, distinguishes themselves by heroism not involving actual conflict with an enemy. On January 28, 1980, Flores' cutter, 
the Blackthorn, collided with the tanker Capricorn. After the ships collided, the Blackthorn capsized, Flores and another crew member threw life-jackets to their shipmates who had jumped into the water. As the Blackthorn began to submerge, Flores used his own belt to strap open the life-jacket locker door, allowing additional life-jackets to float to the surface. He remained aboard to assist trapped shipmates and to comfort those who were injured and disoriented. Flores died in the line of duty.  

In 2006, Ronald J. Rábago became the first person of Hispanic American descent to be promoted to |Rear Admiral (lower half) in the Coast Guard. He is the Coast Guard's Program Executive Officer (PEO) and Director of Acquisition Programs. On July 13, 2007, Rábago relieved Rear Adm. Gary T. Blore as the program executive officer of the U.S. Coast Guard’s largest recapitalization and modernization initiative, the $24 billion, 25 year programed Integrated Deepwater System Program. The Integrated Deepwater System Program (IDS Program), or '''Deepwater''', is the 25-year program to recapitalize the United States Coast Guard's aircraft, ships, logistics, and command and control systems. The $24 billion program includes equipment that will be used across all missions. Rábago not only acted as program executive officer of Deepwater, but also as director of all Coast Guard acquisition programs. His office will oversaw all major acquisitions of cutters, aircraft, C4ISR and boats.  

Apprehending illegal immigrants and drug smugglers  

The Coast Guard is focusing on retaining Hispanic and Spanish-speaking front-line workers as it aims to intercept illegal immigrants. The current Coast Guard workforce both meets diversity goals and operational demands for having Spanish-speaking workers on hand to communicate with apprehended illegal immigrants and human traffickers who pack people into boats and race along the Florida coastline in an attempt to elude American enforcement.  

The need of Spanish speaking members of the coast guard was emphasized on September 17, 2008, when two cocaine-laden semi-submarines from Colombia was captured enroute to the United States in the eastern Pacific. Just five days later, on Wednesday morning, a 60-foot semi-submersible was seized about 200 nautical miles south of Guatemala. As the boarding team unloaded the last few bales, the Coast Guard said, the unstable vessel began to take on water through its exhaust vents and sank. The U.S. Navy, Coast Guard and Drug Enforcement Administration officials say South American drug cartels are turning to semi-submersible vessels, which have a low profile to avoid detection, because of the government's success at thwarting other smuggling techniques, including the use of fishing trawlers and speed boats.  

The U.S. Coast Guard Academy  

The U.S. Coast Guard Academy, located in New London, Connecticut, accepts about 250 young men and women into its program each year. The four-year academic program leads to a bachelor of science degree in a variety of majors. The first Hispanic to graduate from the academy was Paul Powers Perez, class of 1945, followed by John Gazzo Martinez, class of 1951. The Hispanic student body which is a 9% of the total student body compose the largest minority group in the academy. In accordance to the statistics the ethnic and racial break down of the student body in the academy as of 2010, is the following: 81% White/Non-Hispanic, 9% Hispanic, 2% Black/Non-Hispanic, 3% Asian/Pacific Islander and 1% American Indian/Alaskan Native.  

The Coast Guard is active promoting U.S. Coast Guard college and career opportunities among Hispanics. Captain Adolfo Ramirez is an in-house Executive on Loan at the Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities (HACU) at San Antonio, Texas, which represents more than 330 colleges and universities. His job is to explain the college programs, and military and civilian career opportunities that the Coast Guard can provide to Hispanic communities in education, and in service to the country.  

Chronological list of personal Hispanic accomplishments in the USCG

MSST HH-60 Jayhawk helicopter.

The following Hispanic-Americans are the first in their respective USCG fields to accomplish the following:  

* YNC Grisel Hollis was the first Hispanic-American female advanced to E-7 on May 1, 1991. 

*In 1991, LTJG Katherine Tiongson became the first Hispanic-American female to command an afloat unit when she took command of USCGC Bainbridge Island.  She was also the first Hispanic-American female intelligence officer in the Coast Guard.

* The first Hispanic to command a TACLET (Tactical Law Enforcement Team), was then-Lieutenant Jose L. Rodriguez when he took command of TACLET South, 1996-1998. He was also the first Coast Guardsman to command a U.S. Marine Corps unit when he took command of the Riverine Training Center, Special Operations Training Group, II MEF at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina in July 1999.  He was also the first Hispanic-American Coast Guardsman to earn his Gold Navy/Marine Corps jump wings while in the Coast Guard and assigned to a Jump Billet (USMC Majors Billet at Special Operations Training Group II MEF). He earned his wings that same year. He also became the first commanding officer of one of the two MSSTs commissioned in the Coast Guard.

*In 2002, Lieutenant Junior Grade Angelina Hidalgo became the second Hispanic-American female to command an afloat unit.

*Lieutenant Commander Quique Ramon Ortiz and Lieutenant Commander Jose Rodriguez commissioned the first Maritime Safety and Security Team (MSST)s in Coast Guard history, MSSTs 91101 and 91102 (East and West Coast).  The MSST is an anti-terrorism team established to protect local maritime assets.

* In 2006, LT Isabel Papp became the first female medical officer to be assigned to a Port Security Unit (PSU). PSU's are deployable units organized for sustained force protection operations. She was also the first Hispanic-American female MD to be assigned to a PSU.  She had also been the first Hispanic-American female Physician's Assistant in the Coast Guard Reserve.

* In July 2009, RDML Joseph R. Castillo  became the first Hispanic-American district commander in the U.S. Coast Guard when he was appointed Commander of District 11.  


Cold War Museum




Sent by Bill Carmena

Update on Scholarships for the spouses of our active duty Military members:


Sent by: Rafael Ojeda

WWII plane lifted from bottom of Calif reservoir. The plane was spotted by a fisherman. It had been submerged for 65 years.

Sent by Lt. Col. (ret) Henry Cervantes

Civil War Photos


In early 1940, Kate Smith, a fiercely patriotic American, and the biggest star on radio, was deeply worried about her country. She asked Irving Berlin if he could give her a song that would re-ignite the spirit of American patriotism and faith. He said he had a song that he had written in 1917, but never used it. He said she could have it.

She sat at the piano and played it and realized how beautiful it was. She called Mr. Berlin and told him that she couldn't take this from him for nothing. So, they agreed that any money that would be made from the song would be donated to the Boy Scouts of America.  Thanks to Kate Smith and Irving Berlin, the Scouts have received millions of dollars in royalties.

Click from the movie "You're in the Army Now". 
Sent by Jan Mallet

Cuban's involvement in the Civil War
Sent by Bill Carmena 



Japanese Surrender Signing Aboard Battleship Missouri

Historical Footage: Japanese Surrender Signing Aboard Battleship Missouri Sunday Sept. 2, 1945.  This is an actual film made of the surrender ceremony of the Japanese to McArthur in Tokyo Bay in September 1945. The actual voice of the General, which has never been shown to the general public before, can be heard. It is interesting to observe the other signers to the document, from New Zealand/Australia to Europe/Russia.  Fascinating and important piece of history.

Sent by Bill Carmena


They could hear it before they could see it.
By Allen Ostrom

Amazing WWII Story
A great story about the crew of a fortress with the 'Mighty Eighth' during Oct. '44.

They could hear it before they could see it!

Not all that unusual in those days as the personnel at Station 131 gathered around the tower and scattered hardstands to await the return of the B-17's sent out earlier that morning.

First comes the far off rumble and drone of the Cyclones. Then a spec on the East Anglia horizon Soon a small cluster indicating the lead squadron. Finally, the group.

Then the counting. 1-2-3-4-5... ..

But that would have been normal. Today was different! It was too early for the group to return.

"They're 20 minutes early. Can't be the 398th." They could hear it before they could see it! Something was coming home. But what?  All eyes turned toward the northeast, aligning with the main runway, each ground guy and stood-down airman straining to make out this "wail of a Banshee," as one called it.

Not like a single B-17 with its characteristic deep roar of the engines blended with four thrashing propellers. This was a howl! Like a powerful wind blowing into a huge whistle.

Then it came into view. It WAS a B-17!

Low and pointing her nose at the 6,000 foot runway, it appeared for all the
world to be crawling toward the earth, screaming in protest.

No need for the red flares. All who saw this Fort knew there was death aboard.

"Look at that nose!" they said as all eyes stared in amazement as this single, shattered remnant of a once beautiful airplane glided in for an unrealistic "hot" landing. She took all the runway as the "Banshee" noise finally abated, and came to an inglorious stop in the mud just beyond the concrete runway.

Men and machines raced to the now silent and lonely aircraft. The ambulance and medical staff were there first The fire truck....ground and air personnel... .jeeps, truck, bikes.....

Out came one of the crew members from the waist door, then another. Strangely quiet. The scene was almost weird. Men stood by as if in shock, not knowing whether to sing or cry.

Either would have been acceptable.

The medics quietly made their way to the nose by way of the waist door as the remainder of the crew began exiting. And to answer the obvious question, "what happened?"

"What happened?" was easy to see. The nose was a scene of utter destruction. It was as though some giant aerial can opener had peeled the nose like an orange, relocating shreds of metal, Plexiglas, wires and tubes on the cockpit windshield and even up to the top turret. The left cheek gun hung limp, like a broken arm.

One man pointed to the crease in chin turret. No mistaking that mark! A German 88 anti-aircraft shell had exploded in the lap of the togglier.

This would be George Abbott of Mt Labanon , PA. He had been a waist gunner before training to take over the bombardier's role.

Still in the cockpit, physically and emotionally exhausted, were pilot Larry deLancey and co-pilot Phil Stahlman.

Navigator Ray LeDoux finally tapped deLancey on the shoulder and suggested they get out. Engineer turret gunner Ben Ruckel already had made his way to the waist was exiting along with radio operator Wendell Reed, ball turret
gunner Al Albro, waist gunner Russell Lachman and tail gunner Herbert Guild.

Stahlman was flying his last scheduled mission as a replacement for regular co-pilot, Grady Cumbie. The latter had been hospitalized the day before with an ear problem. Lachman was also a "sub," filling in for Abbott in the waist.

DeLancey made it as far as the end of the runway, where he sat down with knees drawn up, arms crossed and head down. The ordeal was over, and now the drama was beginning a mental re-play.

Then a strange scene took place.

Group CO Col. Frank P. Hunter had arrived after viewing the landing from the tower and was about to approach deLancey He was physically restrained by flight surgeon Dr. Robert Sweet.

"Colonel, that young man doesn't want to talk now. When he is ready you can talk to him, but for now leave him alone."

Sweet handed pills out to each crew member and told them to go to their huts and sleep. 

No dramatics, no cameras, no interviews. The crew would depart the next day for "flak leave" to shake off the stress And then be expected back early in November. (Just in time to resume "normal" activities on a mission to Merseburg!)

Mission No. 98 from Nuthampstead had begun at 0400 that morning of October 15, 1944. It would be Cologne (again), led by CA pilots Robert Templeman of the 602nd, Frank Schofield of the 601st and Charles Khourie of the 603rd.
Tragedy and death appeared quickly and early that day. Templeman and pilot Bill Scott got the 602nd off at the scheduled 0630 hour, but at approximately 0645 Khouri and pilot Bill Meyran and their entire crew crashed on takeoff in the town of Anstey . All were killed. Schofield and Harold Stallcup followed successfully with the 601st, with deLancey flying on their left wing in the lead element.

The ride to the target was routine, until the flak started becoming "unroutinely" accurate.

"We were going through heavy flak on the bomb run," remembered deLancey.  "I felt the plane begin to lift as the bombs were dropped, then all of a sudden we were rocked by a violent explosion. My first thought - 'a bomb
exploded in the bomb bay' - was immediately discarded as the top of the nose section peeled back over the cockpit blocking the forward view."

"It seemed like the whole world exploded in front of us," added Stahlman. "The instrument panel all but disintegrated and layers of quilted batting exploded in a million pieces It was like a momentary snowstorm in the cockpit."

It had been a direct hit in the nose. Killed instantly was the togglier, Abbott. Navigator LeDoux, only three feet behind Abbott, was knocked unconscious for a moment, but was miraculously was alive.

Although stunned and bleeding, LeDoux made his way to the cockpit to find the two pilots struggling to maintain control of an airplane that by all rights should have been in its death plunge. LeDoux said there was nothing anyone could do for Abbott, while Ruckel opened the door to the bomb bay and signaled to the four crewman in the radio room that all was OK - for the time being.

The blast had torn away the top and much of the sides of the nose. Depositing enough of the metal on the windshield to make it difficult for either of the pilots to see.

"The instrument panel was torn loose and all the flight instruments were inoperative with the exception of the magnetic compass mounted in the panel above the windshield. And its accuracy was questionable. The radio and intercom were gone, the oxygen lines broken, and there was a ruptured hydraulic line under my rudder pedals," said deLancey.

All this complicated by the sub-zero temperature at 27,000 feet blasting into the cockpit.

"It was apparent that the damage was severe enough that we could not continue to fly in formation or at high altitude. My first concern was to avoid the other aircraft in the formation, and to get clear of the other planes in case we had to bail out. We eased out of formation, and at the same time removed our oxygen masks as they were collapsing on our faces as the tanks were empty."

At this point the formation continued on its prescribed course for home - a long, slow turn southeast of Cologne and finally westward.

DeLancey and Stahlman turned left, descending rapidly and hoping, they were heading west. (And also, not into the gun sights of German fighters.) Without maps and navigation aids, they had difficulty getting a fix. By this time they were down to 2,000 feet.

"We finally agreed that we were over Belgium and were flying in a southwesterly direction," said the pilot.

"About this time a pair of P-51's showed up and flew a loose formation on us across Belgium . I often wondered what they thought as they looked at the mess up front."

"We hit the coast right along the Belgium-Holland border, a bit farther north than we had estimated. Ray said we were just south of Walcheren Island ..."

Still in an area of ground fighting, the plane received some small arms fire. This gesture was returned in kind by Albro, shooting from one of the waist guns.

"We might have tried for one of the airfields in France , but having no maps this also was questionable. Besides, the controls and engines seemed to be OK, so I made the decision to try for home."

"Once over England , LeDoux soon picked up landmarks and gave me course corrections taking us directly to Nuthampstead. It was just a great bit of navigation. Ray just stood there on the flight deck and gave us the headings
from memory."

Nearing the field, Stahlman let the landing gear down. That was an assurance. But a check of the hydraulic pump sent another spray of oil to the cockpit floor. Probably no brakes!

Nevertheless, a flare from Ruckel's pistol had to announce the "ready or not" landing. No "downwind leg" and "final approach" this time. Straight in!

"The landing was strictly by guess and feel," said DeLancey. "Without instruments, I suspect I came in a little hot. Also, I had to lean to the left to see straight ahead. The landing was satisfactory, and I had sufficient braking to slow the plane down some. However, as I neared the taxiway, I could feel the brakes getting 'soft'. I felt that losing control
and blocking the taxiway would cause more problems than leaving the plane at the end of the runway."

That consideration was for the rest of the group. Soon three squadrons of B-17's would be returning, and they didn't need a derelict airplane blocking the way to their respective hardstands.

Stahlman, supremely thankful that his career with the 398th had come to an end, soon returned home and in due course became a captain with Eastern Airlines. Retired in 1984, Stahlman said his final Eastern flight "was a bit more routine" than the one 40 years before.

DeLancey and LeDoux received decorations on December 11, 1944 for their parts in the October 15 drama. DeLancey was awarded the Silver Star for his "miraculous feat of flying skill and ability" on behalf of General Doolittle , CO of the Eighth Air Force. LeDoux for his "extraordinary navigation skill", received the Distinguished Flying Cross. 

The following deLancey 1944 article was transcribed from the 398th BG Historical Microfilm. Note: due to wartime security, Nuthampstead is not mentioned, and the route deLancey flew home is referred to in general terms.


AN EIGHTH AIR FORCE BOMBER STATION, ENGLAND - After literally losing the nose of his B-17 Flying Fortress as the result of a direct hit by flak over Cologne , Germany on October 15, 1944, 1st Lt. Lawrence M. deLancey, 25, of Corvallis, Oregon returned to England and landed the crew safely at his home base. Each man walked away from the plane except the togglier, Staff Sergeant George E. Abbott, Mt. Lebanon , Pennsylvania , who was killed instantly when the flak struck.

It was only the combined skill and teamwork of Lt. deLancey and 2nd Lt. Raymond J. LeDoux, of Mt. Angel , Oregon , navigator, that enabled the plane and crew to return safely.

"Just after we dropped our bombs and started to turn away from the target", Lt. deLancey explained, "a flak burst hit directly in the nose and blew practically the entire nose section to threads. Part of the nose peeled back and obstructed my vision and that of my co-pilot, 1st Lt. Phillip H. Stahlman of Shippenville , Pennsylvania . What little there was left in front of me looked like a scrap heap. The wind was rushing through Our feet were exposed to the open air at nearly 30,000 feet above the ground the temperature was unbearable.

"There we were in a heavily defended flak area with no nose, and practically no instruments. The instrument panel was bent toward me as the result of the impact. My altimeter and magnetic compass were about the only instruments
still operating and I couldn't depend on their accuracy too well. Naturally I headed for home immediately. The hit which had killed S/Sgt. Abbott also knocked Lt. LeDoux back in the catwalk (just below where I was sitting) Our
oxygen system also was out so I descended to a safe altitude.

"Lt. LeDoux who had lost all his instruments and maps in the nose did a superb piece of navigating to even find England .."

During the route home flak again was encountered but due to evasive action Lt. deLancey was able to return to friendly territory. Lt. LeDoux navigated the ship directly to his home field.

Although the plane was off balance without any nose section, without any brakes (there was no hydraulic pressure left), and with obstructed vision, Lt. deLancey made a beautiful landing to the complete amazement of all personnel at this field who still are wondering how the feat was accomplished.

The other members of the crew include: 
1. Technical Sergeant Benjamin H. Ruckel, Roscoe , California , engineer top turret gunner; 
2. Technical Sergeant Wendell A. Reed, Shelby , Michigan , radio operator gunner; 
3. Technical Sergeant Russell A. Lachman, Rockport , Mass. , waist gunner; 
4. Staff Sergeant Albert Albro, Antioch , California , ball turret gunner and 
5. Staff Sergeant Herbert D. Guild, Bronx , New York , tail gunner. 

Sent by Bill Carmena



One Soldier's Amazing Survival Story
By Adam Hunter
August 4, 2010 

Guideposts Magazine
Today I read the most incredible story. It comes from the Daily Express, a newspaper in the UK. And it concerns a British soldier, deployed in Afghanistan. The newspaper called what happened to him a coincidence. But it seems to me that something more was at work…

Nineteen-year-old Glenn Hockton was stationed in the Helmand province of southwestern Afghanistan. The province is one of the most dangerous places in the country—notorious producing the world’s largest supply of opium and for being one of the last Taliban strongholds.

One day, Glenn was on patrol when he felt the rosary beads he wore around his neck slip off. He tried to catch them, but they fell to the dusty ground. He bent down and reached to grab them. At that moment, he saw an object loosely covered with dirt, embedded in the ground at his feet.

A land mine.

Glenn did as he was trained. He didn’t move. He called for help. For 45 minutes, he stayed still until his fellow soldiers were able to defuse the explosive.

Was it a coincidence the beads slipped from his neck at that moment, in that place? Maybe.

But there’s more...

Glenn was not a religious man. He brought the beads to Afghanistan because of a story his mother had told him, about his great-grandfather.

His great-grandfather, Sunny, fought in World War II. He was held as a POW by the Nazis, and forced to march away from the advancing Allied forces. While marching, he caught sight of something on the ground in front of him. He stopped walking, and bent over to pick it up.

Just then, a shell exploded in front of Sunny, missing him by a hair.

The object he stopped to pick up? A rosary.

Glenn and Sunny, both saved in wartime, both saved the same way? Now that’s more than coincidence.

Not all of us have stories as dramatic as Glenn's, but many of us have experienced moments that are too incredible to be only "coincidence." In next week's blog, I'll share a few stories from my own family. Please keep sending me your stories at

Permalink: /blogs/mysterious-ways/mysterious-ways-soldier-survives-land-mine-afghanistan 
Sent by Odell Harwell  

The Death of Pfc. Juan Restrepo: Tragedy becomes a movie
One Platoon, One Year, One Valley (National Geographic Entertainment), a feature-length documentary that won a Sundance Film Festival Grand Jury Prize, opens at the AMC Aventura 24 Theater on July 23 -- three years and a day after PFC Juan Sebastian ``Doc'' Restrepo, Second Platoon, Battle Company, 2nd Battalion, 503rd Infantry Regiment (Airborne), 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team, was killed.

Traveling with [Sgt. Brendan] O'Byrne were two other privates. . . and a combat medic name Juan Restrepo. Restrepo was born in Colombia but lived in Florida. . . He spoke with a slight lisp and brushed his teeth compulsively and played classical and flamenco guitar. . . Once in garrison he showed up at morning [physical training] drunk from the night before, but he was still able to run the two-mile course in 12.5 minutes and do 100 situps. If there was a guaranteed way to impress Second Platoon, that was it.  (From War, by Sebastian Junger, Twelve press, 2010. )

For 20 years and nine months, Juan Sebastian Restrepo was Marcela Pardo's son.  For 17 months, he was a U.S. Army soldier.  Now, because of an award-winning documentary, his name is becoming shorthand for America's vexing war in Afghanistan.

On July 22, 2007, Juan Restrepo of Pembroke Pines died on a craggy hillside 7,000 miles from home in eastern Afghanistan's Korengal Valley: a Taliban-infested death trap where nearly 50 U.S. soldiers lost their lives in five years of conflict.

In the dead of night two months after his death, Second Platoon, the Spartans, hacked OP (for ``outpost'') Restrepo from the rock-strewn dirt where he fell: ``the most vulnerable base in the most hotly contested valley of the entire American sector,'' Junger wrote.  He and photojournalist Tim Hetherington spent much of a year there, then chose the base's -- and consequently Juan's -- name, for a film about combat soldiers' lives.

Recently, Pardo met Junger at the Biltmore Hotel in Coral Gables. She asked him to describe exactly how her son died.

Junger wasn't with Second Platoon that day, but he interviewed soldiers who were. They said Juan's patrol was ambushed. He took two bullets. One tore through his throat.

Dodging gunfire, his buddies scrambled to rescue him. He bled to death on a medevac helicopter.

He was awarded the Bronze Star, Purple Heart, National Defense Service Medal, Afghanistan Campaign Medal, Global War on Terrorism Service Medal, Army Service Ribbon, Overseas Service Ribbon, Basic Parachutist Badge and the Combat Medical Badge.

Recalling that meeting, Junger said both he and Pardo ``struggled for composure,'' she more successfully than he. And he understands why a mother might want to hear the details.

``Information helps with processing the tragedy,'' he said. ``There's this black hole. You have a son -- and suddenly you don't.''

He was able to offer small comfort: ``He didn't die alone. He died surrounded by his `family.' ''

In dangerous, isolated war zones, platoon is family, and from 2005 until April 2010, no place was more dangerous and isolated than the Korengal. It was a transit point for Kabul-bound Taliban fighters from Pakistan, and a base of operation for al Qaeda leaders. 

There, few soldiers were more admired than Restrepo, ``because he was brave under fire and absolutely committed to the men. If you got sick he'd take your guard shift,'' Junger wrote. ``If you were depressed he'd come to your hooch and play guitar. He took care of his men in every possible way.'' 

Read more: 

More Links:
Sent by Margaret Garza



Arizona's History and How it Relates to the American Revolution

Revolutionary War Rolls: Free Trial on Footnote
Granaderos & Damas de Galvez

Site Regarding Spanish Patriots

The Battle of Galveston
National SAR Trip Celebrate the 4th of July in Spain
The Battle of the Galveston

Arizona's History and How it Relates to the American Revolution

Quick View related to the American Revolution.  Thousands of Spanish troops fought British troops throughout the Americas and provided diplomatic support:  

Sent by: Juan Marinez  

"Granaderos & Damas de Galvez" 

Our webmaster, Roland Cantu, recently updated our website picture albums. To view them log on to, click the hypertext "Media" and then on "On Line Photo Albums" entries. 

FYI, many of the pictures of the trip to Spain were taken and submitted by Granadero James Salinas; most of the 4th of July photos, by Granadero Frank Galindo. Thanks to these gentlemen for their fine work!

Joel Escamilla, Operations

Revolutionary War Rolls: Free Trial on Footnote
Search for a name, date, place or topic. View the actual digitized records. Browse these rolls by state and name of organization (regiment, battalion, guard, company, etc.). Find names of soldiers with the help of annotations supplied by other Footnote users and feel free to add your own. Thousands of records from 138 rolls of microfilm provide names and details about the men who fought for independence.…

Site Regarding Spanish Patriots


This article is very interesting. I always like his articles. I had not seen this one. It is very impressive on Mexican American and Spanish American and how Texas was under Mexico for only 14 years, etc. 

Please note that the article says that everyone that was between 14-60 was in the military during the period of time of the American Revolution time. 
Sent by Margarita Garza

National SAR Trip Celebrate the 4th of July in Spain
An SAR trip was planned to honor Spain's participation in the American Revolution. In particular, the Galvez family town of Marcharaviaya was visited with great reception. A video was shared by Philip Hinshaw regarding this towns Celebration of the American 4th of July. The National SAR President General Ed Butler is educated in Spain's aid to the American Revolution and the one responsible for the SAR trip.  Go to: 

Respectfully shared, Compatriot Leroy Martinez 

Philip L. Hinshaw
A.D. Hinshaw Associates
PO Box 13200  El Cajon, CA 92022
(619) 258-8213  (619) 258-8214 [fax]

Francisco S.Guitard, creative director

The Battle of Galveston
(1 January 1863) 

In the fall of 1862, Union Commodore William B. Renshaw sailed into Galveston harbor and demanded the surrender of the island city by its occupants. With virtually no defense force, the Confederate commander on the island, Colonel Joseph J. Cook, had little choice but to comply. 

About the same time in late 1862, Major General John B. Magruder was named Confederate commander of the District of Texas. Upon arriving in Houston, Magruder immediately began making plans to recapture Galveston. To implement his plan, Magruder outfitted the decks of two river steamers, the Bayou City and the Neptune, with bails of cotton. The compressed cotton would be used to protect an on-board attack force to challenge the Federal fleet in Galveston harbor. A land force would also be used in a joint land-sea attack. 

On New Years Eve, the Confederate Cottonclads, as the curious looking vessels were called, threaded their way from Harrisburg, through Galveston Bay, and toward the western entrance to Galveston harbor. 

About dawn on New Year's Day, 1863, the Confederate Cottonclads entered the west end of Galveston harbor. Their nearest and first target was the Union's Harriet Lane. 

After a brief encounter and some maneuvering, the tide of battle foretold an almost certain Union victory. The Confederate ground forces had been outgunned and effectively held in check by the Federal warships. After only a brief contest at sea, one-half of the two-vessel Texas fleet was lying on the bottom of the harbor. Further, the lone surviving Confederate Cottonclad, the Bayou City, was outnumbered six-to-one among the armed vessels in the harbor. 

After recovering from its first encounter, however, the Bayou City circled around and made a second desperate run on the Lane. This time, the Confederates hit their target with remarkable precision. In short order, the crew of the Bayou City succeeded in storming and overpowering the crew of the Lane. 

Meanwhile, across the harbor, the Federal Flagship Westfield, with Commodore Renshaw on board, had become hopelessly grounded in shallow water. The crew tried furiously to dislodge her, but she would not budge. At that point, a temporary truce was negotiated as both sides considered their positions. 

During the truce, Renshaw decided to destroy the still immobilized Westfield and attempt a Federal escape from the harbor. Even this plan went terribly awry. As Renshaw and his crew fused the gunpowder on the flagship and quickly rowed away, nothing happened. They returned for another attempt. But as they debarked the second time, the gunpowder prematurely exploded, rocking the entire harbor. The explosion killed Renshaw and thirteen of his crew. 

With flags of truce still flying, the remaining Federal vessels stoked their boilers, and quietly began heading for the open sea. In this endeavor they were successful, for the Confederates had little means to pursue. 

Thus, the island of Galveston was recaptured. Twenty-six Confederates had been killed and 117 wounded. About twice that many Federals died in the conflict. The Union's showcase vessel and nearly 400 men were captured. More importantly for the Texans, however, was that their victory restored control of Galveston to the Confederacy, where it would remain for the balance of the war. 

Return to Lone Star Junction Home Page
Copyright © 1996 Lone Star Junction 
Sent by Margarita Garza



Ancestors of Jesse Orlando Villarreal
Jose Lucas Rodriguez Father of 32 Children
Alejo de la Garza
Apellidos y Heráldica

Jesse Villarreal Jr.'s Villarreal's family lines go back eleven generations to the earliest of Spanish soldiers assigned to San Fernando de Bexar, current San Antonio. 

In November 2005, Jesse Villarreal Jr. brought his parents, Connie and Jesse Sr., to meet President George W. Bush in the Oval Office. Such visits are standard practice for departing White House staffers; Jesse Jr. had left his Cabinet Affairs post to return to the Treasury Department in January 2005.

Ancestors of Jesse Orlando Villarreal

Father of Jesse Villarreal Jr 

Generation No. 1  

        1.  Jesse Orlando Villarreal, born 04 Feb 1945 in San Antonio Bexar Co., TX.  He was the son of 2. Santos Cuellar Villarreal, Sr. and 3. Juanita Solis.  He married (1) Guadalupe Connie Perez 17 Jun 1972 in San Antono, Bexar Co., TX (Source: Texas Marriage Collection, 1966-2002, Jesse O Villarreal;  Marriage Date: 17 Jun 1972; Spouse: Guadalupe C Perez; Bexar County, Texas.).  She was born Jan. 6, 1947 in San Benito, Cameron County, Texas.

Generation No. 2  

        2.  Santos Cuellar Villarreal, Sr., born 28 Sep 1907 in Villa Union, Coahuila, Mexico (Source: Jesse Orlando Villarreal < >, Place of Birth  for Santos Cuellar Villarreal Sr., -  Villa Union, Coahuila, Mexico,  --  Date of Birth: 28 Sep 1907; Source: Social Security Death Index. .); died 07 Nov 1979 in Carrollton, Dallas County, Texas (Source: Social Security Death Index, Santos Villarreal, Died: Nov 1979, Carrollton, Dallas, Texas; Also -- Texas Death Index, 1903-2000,, Santos Villarreal died: 7 Nov 1979, Dallas County, Texas.).  He was the son of 4. Santos Villarreal and 5. Teresa Cuellar.  He married 3. Juanita Solis Abt. 1930 in San Antonio, Texas.

        3.  Juanita Solis, born Feb. 19, 1912 in San Antonio, Bexar Co., TX; died Aug. 20, 1947 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas.  She was the daughter of 6. Pablo Cayetano Solis and 7. Dolores Alcorta.       

Children of Santos Villarreal and Juanita Solis are:

                          i.    Santos Guadalupe Villarreal, Jr., born 20 Oct 1936 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas.

                         ii.    Pablo (Paul) Federico Villarreal, born 02 Mar 1939 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas; died 13 Mar 2005 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas (Source: Social Security Death Index.).

                          iii    Madalina Villarreal, born 14 Feb 1942.

                          iv.   Juanita Dolores Villarreal, born 13 Nov 1943 in San Antonio Bexar Co., TX.

        1               v.    Jesse Orlando Villarreal, born 04 Feb 1945 in San Antonio Bexar Co., TX; married Guadalupe Connie Perez 17 Jun 1972 in San Antono, Bexar Co., TX.

                          vi  .Teresa Elva Villarreal, born 07 Feb 1947 in San Antonio, Bexar Co., TX.                        


Generation No. 3  

        4.  Santos Villarreal  He married 5. Teresa Cuellar.

        5.  Teresa Cuellar, born Abt. 1886 in Mexico; died Aft. 1930.       

Children of Santos Villarreal and Teresa Cuellar are:

        2                i.    Santos Cuellar Villarreal, Sr., born 28 Sep 1907 in Villa Union, Coahuila, Mexico; died 07 Nov 1979 in Carrollton, Dallas County, Texas; married (1) Juanita Solis Abt. 1930 in San Antonio, Bexar County, TX.

                         ii.    Rueben (Ruby) Villarreal, born Abt. 1915.

                        iii.    Madalina Villarreal  


        6.  Pablo Cayetano Solis, born 21 Dec 1884 in Texas; died June 19, 1943.  He was the son of 12. Jesus Maria Solis and 13. Juana Francisca Martinez.  He married 7. Dolores Alcorta Jan. 14, 1904 in Atascosa County, Texas.

        7.  Dolores Alcorta, born 1886 in San Diego, Duval County, Texas; died Aft. 1930.       

Children of Pablo Solis and Dolores Alcorta are:

                          i.    Jesus Solis, born Oct. 10, 1904, died April 25, 1975.

                         ii.    Pablo Solis, born Dec. 19, 1905, died April 29, 1938.

                           Iii   .Manuela Solis, born Abt. 1907. died Abt. 1938.

                          Iv    Donaciano Solis, born Abt. 1911, died Abt. 1940.

        3               v.    Juanita Solis, born Feb. 19, 1912 in San Antonio, Bexar Co., TX; died Aug. 20, 1947 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas; married Santos Cuellar Villarreal, Sr. Abt. 1930.

                          vi.    Lilia Solis, born March 21, 1914, died Nov. 23, 1944.



Generation No. 4  

        12.  Jesus Maria Solis, born Mar 1854 in Mexico; died Aft. 1900.  He married 13. Juana Francisca Martinez born Dec. 11, 1880 Probably in Atascosa County, Texas.

        13.  Juana Francisca Martinez, born 20 Jun 1842 in San Fernando de Bexar, now San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas (Source: San Fernando Baptisms, 1826, - 1858, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page: 60., SFB # 707.  Baptized June 26, 1842.  MARTINES, Juana Francisca, 6 days old, legitimate daughter of Manuel MARTINES and Encarnacion HERNANDES.  Godmother: Juana RUIS.  Father Galvan baptized the child and signed the book.); died Aft. 1900.  She was the daughter of 26. Juan Manuel Nepomuceno  Martinez and 27. Maria Encarnacion Hernandez.       

Child of Jesus Solis and Juana Martinez is:

        6                i.    Pablo Cayetano Solis, born 21 Dec 1884 in Texas; died June 19, 1943; married Dolores Alcorta in Jan. 14, 1904 in Atascosa County, Texas.  

Generation No. 5  

        26.  Juan Manuel Nepomuceno Martines, born 01 Nov 1801 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Baptisms, 1793 - 1813, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 51., 51. SFB # 553, Baptized: Nov 8, 1801; MONTES, Juan Manuel Nepomunceno, a mestiso, 7 days old,  legitimate son of Jose Manuel MONTES and Juana MUSQUES.  Godparents: Yhnacio de la Pena, a soldier of this presidio, and Lus Navarette, all natives of this city.  Father Valez baptised the child and signed the book.* John Ogden Leal misspelled the surname. It should be Martines/z.); died Abt. 1857 in Atascosa County, TX.  He was the son of 52. Jose Manuel Martinez and 53. Juana Musquez.  He married 27. Maria Encarnacion Hernandez 1828 in San Fernando de Bexar, San Antonio, Texas.

        27.  Maria Encarnacion Hernandez, born Bet. 1810 - 1812 in San Fernando de Bexar, now San Antonio, Texas; died Bet. 1880 - 1900 in Atascosa Co., TX.  She was the daughter of 54. Francisco Xavier Hernandez and 55. Maria Polonia de Olivas.       

Children of Jose Martinez and Maria Hernandez are:

                          i.    Jose Manuel de Jesus Martinez, born 02 Jan 1829 in San Fernando de Bexar, now San Antonio, Texas (Source: San Fernando Baptisms, 1826 - 1858, translated by John Ogden Leal.,, Page: 14., SFB # 156, Baptized: Jan. 7, 1829.  MARTINES, Jose Manuel de Jesus, 5 days old, legitimate son of Manuel MARTINES and Encarcacion HERNANDES. Godparents: Geronimo Gasano and Anna Fuentes.  Father de la Garza baptized the child and signed the book.).

                         ii.    Juan Francisco Martinez, born Bet. 1833 - 1839.

                        iii.    Maria de los Santos Martinez, born 29 Oct 1834 in San Fernando de Bexar, now San Antonio, Texas (Source: San Fernando Baptisms, 1826 - 1858, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page: 43., SFB # 494.  Baptized: Nov. 11, 1834.   MARTINES, Maria de los Santos, 14 days old,  legitimate daughter of Don Manuel MARTINES and Dona Encarnacion HERNANDES.  Godparents:  Don Tomas Galan and Dona Gertrudes HERNANDES.   Father de la Garza baptized the child and signed.).

                        iv.    Jose Miguel Martinez, born Bet. 1835 - 1839 in Texas.

        13             v.    Juana Francisca Martinez, born 20 Jun 1842 in San Fernando de Bexar, now San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas; died Aft. 1900; married Jesus Maria Solis Abt. 1881 in Probably in Atascosa County, Texas.

                        vi.    Maria Antonia Martinez, born 31 Dec 1846 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas (Source: San Fernando Baptisms, 1844 - 1850, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page: 87., SFB # 1052.  Baptized: Jan. 7, 1847.  MARIA ANTONIO, born: Dec. 31, 1846.  legitimage daughter of Manuel MARTINES and Encarnacion HERNANDES.Godparents:  Remele Zepeda and Juana Ruis.  Father Calvo baptized the child and signed the book.).

                       vii.    Demeteria Trinidad Martinez, born 22 Dec 1847 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas (Source: San Fernando Baptisms, 1844 - 1850, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page: 96., SFB # 1171.  Baptized: Jan. 3, 1847. MARTINES, Demeteria Trinidad, born: Dec. 22, 1847.  legitimate daughter of Manuel MARTINES and Encarnacion HERNANDES. Godmother:  Gertrudes Hernandes.  Father Calvo baptized the child and signed the book.).

                      viii.    Crescenciana Jacinta Martinez, born 16 Aug 1850 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas; married Jose M. Estrada.

                        ix.    Jose Antonio Martinez, born 20 May 1852 in San Antonio, Bexar Co., TX (Source: San Fernando Baptisms, 1826 - 1858, translated by John Ogden Leal.,, Page 163., SFB  # 1988.  Baptized: May 27, 1852.  MARTINES, Joes Antonio, born May 20- 1852, legitimate son of Manuel MARTINES and Encarnacion HERNANDES. Godparents:  Ramon Sala and Santa Martines.  Father Calvo baptized the child and signed the book.  Entry in the book in Spanish.).  


Generation No. 6  

        52.  Jose Manuel Martinez, born 25 Apr 1770 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Baptisms, 1761 - 1793, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 23., SFB # 343.  Baptized: May 3, 1770, MARTINES, Jose Manuel, Spanish, 8 days old, legitimate son of Carlos MARTINES and Gracia LEAL.  Godparents: Inis Charo and Philipa Charo. .); died Bet. 1820 - 1826.  He was the son of 104. Carlos Martinez and 105. Maria Gracia Leal.  He married 53. Juana Musquez Abt. 1797 in San Fernando de Bexar.

        53.  Juana Musquez, born Abt. 31 Jan 1780 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Baptisms, 1761 - 1793, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page: 63., SFB # 955.  Baptized: Jan. 31, 1780.  MUSQUES, Juana Maria, mestiza, legitmate daughter  of Xabier MUSQUES and Clara de SANDOBAL.  Godparents: Pedro Gonsales and Maria de Jesus Nis. .); died Aft. 1826.  She was the daughter of 106. Xavier Musquez and 107. Clara Sandoval.       

Children of Jose Martinez and Juana Musquez are:

                          i.    Ana Petra Martinez, born 25 Jul 1798 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Baptisms, 1793 - 1813, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 33., SFB # 364.  Baptized:  July 28, 1798.  MARTINES, Ana Petra, a collota, 3 days old,  legitimate daughter of Jose Manuel MARTINES and Juana MUSQUES, both natives of this city.  Godparents:  Don Jose Luis Beltran, a native from Sacatecas, Mex. and Antonia Bueno, of this city. Father Valdez baptized the child.); died 31 Jul 1798 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Church Burials translated by John Ogden Leal, 1761 - 1808., Page 69., Burial # 1771. July 31, 1798. MARTINEZ, Ana Petra, coyota, 3 days old,  legitimate daughter of Jose Manuel MARTINEZ and Juana Maria MUSQUES.).

                         ii.    Josefa de Jesus Simona Martinez, born Abt. 30 Oct 1799 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Baptisms, 1793 - 1813, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page: 40., SFB # 433.  Baptized: Nov. 6, 1799. MARTINES, Josefa de Jesus Simona, a metisa, 8 days old,  legitimate daughter of Manuel MARTINES and Juana MUSQUES. Godparents:  Joaquiin Menchaca, a soldier of this military company, and Antonia Bueno, all natives of this city. Father Valdez baptized the child and signed the book.).

        26            iii.    Juan Neponeseno Manuel Martinez, born 01 Nov 1801 in San Fernando de Bexar; died Abt. 1857 in Atascosa County, TX; married Maria Encarnacion Hernandez 1828 in San Fernando de Bexar, San Antonio, Texas.  


        54.  Francisco Xavier Hernandez, born 01 Dec 1778 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: (1) San Fernando Baptisms, 1761 - 1793, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 54., SFB # 889.  Baptized:  Dec. 9, 1778. HERNANDES, Francisco Xabier, Spanish, 8 days old, legitimate son of Cayetano HERNANDES & Maria Ignacia ORANDAY. Godparents:  Jose Miguel Sanches & Thomasa  PERES.., (2) San Fernado Baptisms, 1761 - 1793, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 54., SFB # 889.  Baptized:  Dec. 9, 1778.HERNANDES, Francisco Xabier, Spanish, 8 days old, legitimate son of Cayetano HERNANDES & Maria Ygnacia ORANDAY.  Godparents:  Jose Miguel Sanches & Thomasa PERES.); died 29 May 1841 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: Composanto Burials, 1808 - 1860, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 76., CSB # 42.  May 29, 1841. HERNANDEZ, Francisco, married to Polonia OLIVARES. He was killed by indian arrows at the age of 57 years.).  He was the son of 108. Cayetano Hernandez and 109. Maria Ygnacia de Oranday/Orandain/Orendain.  He married 55. Maria Polonia de Olivas 28 Dec 1803 in San Fernando de Bexar, San Antonio, TX (Source: San Fernando Marriages:  1798 - 1856, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 9., SFM # 66.  Dec. 28, 1803. HERNANDES, Francisco, Spanish, of this city, legitimate son of the late Calletano [Cayetano]  HERNANDES & Maria Ygnacia ORANDAY; to Polonia de OLIVAS; Spanish, of this city, legitimate daughter of the late Antonio de OLIVAS and Josefa VANOS.  Godparents:  Miguel Flores & Antonia Abila.  Witnesses:  Ygnacio Briones & Jose Ramon Leal, all of this city.  Father Bernardino Vallejo performed the marriage.).

        55.  Maria Polonia de Olivas, born 06 Feb 1783 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Baptisms, 1761 - 1793, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 74., SFB # 1137.  Baptized:  Feb. 15, 1783. OLIVA, Maria Polonia, Spanish, 9 days old, legitimate child of Tomas OLIVA & Josefa VASQUES.  Godparents:  Xabier Laso & Matiana de los Santos.); died 19 Sep 1849 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: Composanto Burials, 1808 - 1860, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 98., CSB # 744,  Sept. 19, 1849. OLIVAS, Apolonia, widow of Francisco HERNANDEZ, died last night. .).  She was the daughter of 110. Thomas Antonio de Olivas and 111. Maria Josefa Peres y Banos.       

Children of Francisco Hernandez and Maria de Olivas are:

                          i.    Jose de Jesus Florencio Hernandez, born 27 Oct 1804 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Baptisms, 1793 - 1813, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 67., SFB # 725.  Baptized:  Nov. 2, 1804. RAMIREZ, Jose de Jesus Florencio, a metiso, 7 days old, legitimate son of Francisco RAMIREZ & Polonia OLIVAS.  Godparents:  Francisco Galban & Teodora Montes.  Father Arocha baptized the child and signed the book. *NOTE*  The surname for this child should be  HERNANDES not RAMIREZ.  Francisco "Xabier" HERNANDES's step father was PEDRO RAMIREZ, and apparently that  is why this child of Polonia OLIVAS was given the surname RAMIREZ  in this baptismal recording.  Francisco HERNANDES was raised by his step father PEDRO RAMIREZ and his mother Maria Ygnacia ORENDAIN not by his father Cayetano HERNANDES.).

                         ii.    Jose Manuel Nepomunceno Hernandez, born 14 May 1807 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Baptisms, 1793 - 1813, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 78., SFB # 831.  Baptized:  May 20, 1807. HERNANDES, Jose Manuel Nepomunceno, Spanish, 6 days old, legitimate son of Francisco HERNANDES & Polonia OLIVAS. Grandparents, paternal: Jose HERNANDES & Maria Some FLORES. Grandparents, maternal:  Manuel de OLIVAS & Ana Maria MANDUJANO. Godmother:  Dona Catarina URAGA.  Father Arocha baptised the child but did not sign the book. * NOTE*:  The paternal & maternal grandparents for this child are incorrect.. Paternal grandparents should be:   Cayetano HERNANDEZ  & Mary Ygnacia ORENDAIN. Maternal grandparents should be: Thomas Antonio de OLIVAS & Maria Josefa PERES y BANOS. .).

                        iii.    Jose Candido Dario Hernandez, born 14 Dec 1808 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Baptisms, 1793 - 1813, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 88., SFB # 925.  Baptized:  Dec. 19, 1808. HERNANDES, Jose Candido Dario, a mestiso, 5 days old, legitimate son of Jose Francisco HERNANDES and Maria Polonia LIVA. Grandparents names not given. Godparents:  Seferino Losoya & Maria Teresa Rivas. Father Arocha baptized the child but did not sign the book.[*NOTE* The mother of the child was Maria Polonia de OLIVAS.].).

        27            iv.    Maria Encarnacion Hernandez, born Bet. 1810 - 1812 in San Fernando de Bexar, now San Antonio, Texas; died Bet. 1880 - 1900 in Atascosa Co., TX; married Juan Neponeceno Manuel  Martinez 1828 in San Fernando de Bexar, San Antonio, Texas.

                         v.    Gregorio Hernandez, born Abt. 1814; died Aft. 1832.

                        vi.    Maria Gertrudis Hernandez, born 16 Nov 1820 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Baptisms, 1812 - 1825, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 70., SFB # 614.  Baptized:  Nov. 20, 1820. HERNANDES, Maria Gertrudes, indian, 4 days old, legitimate daughter of Francisco HERNANDES and Polonia OLIVAS.  Godparents:  Eusebio Ansures & Maria de Jesus Trevino.  Father de la Garza baptized the child and signed the book. *[NOTE*    Maria Gertrudes HERNANDEZ was not INDIAN. All her ancestors were Spanish decendants.].); died 04 Feb 1890 in Pleasanton, Atascosa Co, TX (Source: Rodriguez - Esparza Cemetery, Atascosa Co, TX, HERNANDEZ,  Gertrudis.  Died:  February 4, 1890.); married (1) Francisco Fuentes; died Bef. 1850; married (2) Enrique Esparza 13 May 1850 in San Antonio, Bexar Co, TX (Source: San Fernando Marriages:  1798 - 1856, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 74., SFM # 589.  May 13, 1850.ESPARSA, Enrique; to Gertrudis HERNANDES, widow of Francisco FUENTES.  Godparents and Witnesses:  Francisco ESPARSA, Apolonia Trevino & Antonio Chaves.  Father Miguel Calvo performed the marriage rites and signed the book.); born 08 Sep 1828 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Baptisms, 1826, - 1858, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 12., SFB # 134.  Baptized:  Sept.12 , 1828. SALASAR, Maria de los Dolores, 4 days old, "natural" child of Matias [?] & Francisca SALASAR.  Godparents:  Don Alexo BUSILLOS & Dona Josefa GARZA.Father de la Garza baptized the child & signed the book.); died 21 Dec 1917 in Losoya, Bexar County, Texas (Source: El Carmen Church Burials, transplated by John Ogden Leal., Page  56., El Carmen Church Burials, transplated by John Ogden Leal.Page 56.  Burial # 621. died: Dec. 21, 1917.  ESPARZA, Enrique, died in the villa of Losoya, at 4:30 a.m. surrounded by his children and relatives, at the age of 89 years, 4 months old.  Father Inocencio Martin, C.M.F., singed the burial book.  (He is the man who was at the Alamo during the battle in 1836, while he was a young boy with his parents and brother and sister.).  


Generation No. 7  

        104.  Carlos Martinez, born 1734 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: With the Makers of San Antonio, by Frederick C. Chabot, 1957, published privately, printed by Artes Graficas, San Antonio, TX, Page 81..); died 26 Aug 1803 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Burials translated by John Ogden Leal. 1761 - 1808, Page: 823., August 26, 1803, Burial # 87.  MARTINEZ, Carlos, mestiza, 56 years old, married to Maria Gracia LEAL.  Both from this city. .).  He was the son of 208. Joseph Martinez and 209. Juana de Carvajal.  He married 105. Maria Gracia Leal 1761 in San Fernando de Bexar.

        105.  Maria Gracia Leal, born Abt. 1744 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Baptisms, 1731 - 1760, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page: 11., SFB # 173. Baptized: April 5, 1748. LEAL, Maria de la Encarnacion, Spanish, legitimate child of Jose LEAL and Ana SANTOS. Godparents: Ygnacio de Armas and Antonia Cabrera, his wife.  All adults natives of the Canary Islands.  Age of child not given. .); died Aft. 31 Dec 1804.


Children of Carlos Martinez and Maria Leal are:

                          i.    Joseph Maria de la Concepcion Martinez, born 08 Dec 1761 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Baptisms, 1761 - 1793, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page: 2; SFB # 24., Baptized:  December 15, 1761.  MARTINEZ, Jose Maria de la Concepcion, Spanish, born Dec. 8, 1761, legitimate son Carlos MARTINEZ and Maria Gracia LEAL. The Godparents were: Domingo Perez and Maria Concepcion de Carvajal.).

                         ii.    Maria Gertrudis Martinez, born 25 Apr 1769 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Baptisms, 1761 - 1793, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page: 20.  SFB # 303., Baptized: April 30, 1769.  MARTINES, Maria Gertrudis, Spanish, 5 days old, legitimate child of Carlos MARTINES and Gracia LEAL. Godparents:  Bartolo Seguin and Maria Gertrudis Flores.).

        52            iii.    Jose Manuel Martinez, born 25 Apr 1770 in San Fernando de Bexar; died Bet. 1820 - 1826; married Juana Musquez Abt. 1797 in San Fernando de Bexar.

                        iv.    Jose Antonio Martinez, born 15 Sep 1772 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Baptisms, 1761 - 1793, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 29., SFB # 472.  Baptized: Sept. 23, 1772.  MARTINES, Jose Antonio, Spanish, 8 days old, legitimate son of Carlos MARTINES and Gracia LEAL.  Godparents:  Jose Ximenes and his daughter Antonia Ximenes. .).  


        106.  Xavier Musquez  He married 107. Clara Sandoval.

        107.  Clara Sandoval       

Child of Xavier Musquez and Clara Sandoval is:

        53              i.    Juana Musquez, born Abt. 31 Jan 1780 in San Fernando de Bexar; died Aft. 1826; married Jose Manuel Martinez Abt. 1797 in San Fernando de Bexar.  


        108.  Cayetano Hernandez, born 10 Feb 1753 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Baptisms, 1731 - 1760, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 18., SFB # 290, Baptized:  Feb. 18, 1753. HERNANDES, Cayetano, 8 days old, legitimate son of Jacobo HERNANDEZ and Justa GUERRERO.  Godparents:  Juan Jose MONTES & Micaela de la PENA.); died Aft. 1797 in ? San Fernando de Bexar.  He was the son of 216. Jacobo Hernandez and 217. Justa or Juana Luisa Guerrero.  He married 109. Maria Ygnacia de Oranday/Orandain/Orendain 01 Jul 1777 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Marriages 1775 - 1780, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 4., SFM # 120.  Married:  June 30, 1777. HERNANDES, Cayetano, to Maria Ygnacia de ORENDAIN, Spanish, of this villa, legitimate daughter of Joaquin de ORENDAIN and  the late  Maria Josefa LEAL.   Witnesses:  Francisco FLORES, Pedro BESSERR and  Jose SEGURO. Godparents:  Francisco CASSANOBA and  Juan Gertrudes de la ZERDA. Father Fernandez married the couple & signed the book. Note:  The marriage on the next day, July 1, 1777, was in question by order of Father Fernandez, and by the church laws.  So, it looks like they married agian on July 1, 1777. SFM # 121.  July 1, 1777. HERNANDEZ, Cayetano, to Maria Ignacia de ORENDAIN. [No pudieon por que no ubo lugar.] .).

        109.  Maria Ygnacia de Oranday/Orandain/Orendain, born Abt. 1754 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Church Confirmations, 1759, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 14., Baptism for Maria Ygnacia ORANDEIN / ORANDAI / ORANDAY not recorded at San Fernando Church. San Fernando Confirmtion # 350.  1759.  Maria Ignacia ORANDAI [not Granados]  Parents:  Juaquin GRANADOS [this is incorrect, original on microfilm for San Fernando Confiramtion reads  Juanquin ORANDAI]  & Josefa LEAL. Godparents:  Gracia LEAL. On page 10 of John Ogden Leal's translations for confirmations: # 226.  GRACIA MARIA LEAL, parents:  Juan LEAL & Magdelena FLORES, Godparent:  Antonia Carabajal.); died 29 Dec 1804 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Church Burials translated by John Ogden Leal, 1761 - 1808., Page 85., Burial # 188.  Dec. 29, 1804.  FLORES, Ignacia, Spanish, 46 years old, married to Pedro RICHARDO, both of this city.  She died of "pulmonia" and left no will.).  She was the daughter of 218. Juaquin de Oranday/Orandain/Orendain and 219. Josefa Leal.       

Child of Cayetano Hernandez and Maria de Oranday/Orandain/Orendain is:

        54              i.    Francisco Xavier Hernandez, born 01 Dec 1778 in San Fernando de Bexar; died 29 May 1841 in San Fernando de Bexar; married Maria Polonia de Olivas 28 Dec 1803 in San Fernando de Bexar, San Antonio, TX.  


        110.  Thomas Antonio de Olivas, born Abt. 1733 in Real Mines of San Joseph de el Parral (Source: Feb. 11, 1773, Petition of Marriage, Thomas Antonio states he is 45 yrs. old.); died 09 Mar 1790 in San Fernando de Bexar, San Antonio, TX (Source: San Fernando Burials, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 54., Burial # 1414.  March 9, 1791. OLIVAS, Jose Antonio, married to Josefa _______? [faded] who died at the age of 56 years.*NOTE*  Thomas Antonio OLIVAS was married to Maria Josefa Peres y Banos.).  He was the son of 220. Joseph Juachin de Olivas and 221. Nicolasa de Escudera.  He married 111. Maria Josefa Peres y Banos 12 Mar 1773 in San Fernando Church, San Antonio,TX (Source: San Fernando Church, Petition of Marriage, Page 15., February 11, 1773.  OLIVA - PERES BANOS --Petition of THOMAS ANTONIO de OLIVA, Spanish, 40 years old,  a native from the Real MInes of San Joseph de el Parral, a soldier of this precidio of Bexar,  widower of Teodora MARTINEZ, legitimate son of Joseph Juachin de OLIVA and Nicolasa ESCUDERA.   He wants to marry MARIA JOSEPHA PERES BANOS, Spanish, 27 years old, a native from the city of Monterey, but now lives in this villa of San Fernando.  She is the widow of XAVIER SEGUIN, and the legitimate daughter of MANUEL ANTONIO PERES BANOS & ANTONIA MARGARTIA ROMERO. Father Pedro Fuentes y Fernandez, gave the order for 3 days of festivities to be held, at different dates.  After th last day of festivities, no one made objections to his coming marriage.  Father Pedro Fuentes married the couple on MARCH 12, 1773.  It was signed by Father Pedro Fuentes y Fernandez.  .).

        111.  Maria Josefa Peres y Banos, born Abt. 1746 in Monterrey, Mexico (Source: Marriage Petitions amd  Permissions, San Fernando Church, San Antonio, TX, Feb. 11, 1773, Maria Josefa Perez Banos to Thomas Antonio de Olivas states her age: 27 yrs. old born in Monterrey; therefore, she was born: ca 1746.); died Bet. 31 Dec 1804 - 1817 in San Fernando de Bexar, San Antonio, TX.  She was the daughter of 222. Manuel Antonio Peres-Banos and 223. Antonia Margarita Romero.       

Children of Thomas de Olivas and Maria Banos are:

                          i.    Maria Petra de Olivas, born 25 Dec 1773 in San Fernando de Bexar, San Antonio, TX (Source: San Fernando Baptisms, 1761 - 1793, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 36., SFB # 547.  Baptized:  Jan. 2, 1774. ABILA, Maria Petra de, Spanish, 8 days old, legitimate child of Antonio de ABILA & Maria Josefa PERES y BANES.  Godparents:  Bartolo SEGUIN & Magdalena Martines.); died Aft. 1832 in San Fernando de Bexar, San Antonio, TX; married Juan Antonio Esparza 20 Jul 1799 in San Fernando de Bexar, San Antonio, TX (Source: (1) San Fernando Marriages:  1798 - 1856, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 2., SFM # 15, July 20, 1799. ESPARZA, Juan Antonio, mestizo, originally from San Juan del Mesquital, and raised since a child at Saltillo, and has been in this city for 2 years, legitimate son of Juan Antonio ESPARZA and Polonia PERES, from Saltillo; to Maria Petra OLIVAS, Spanish, of this city, legitimate daughter of the late Antonio OLIVAS and Josefa PERES.  Godparents:  Jose Antonio de la GARZA & Concepcion FARIAS.  Witnesses:  Ygnacio de los SANTOS & Jose Ramon LEAL, all of this city., (2) San Fernando Marriages:  1798 - 1856, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 2., SFM # 15.  July 20, 1798.ESPARZA, JUan Antonio, mestizo, orginally from San Juan del Mesquital, and raised a child at Saltillo, and has been in this city for 2 years, legitimate son of Juan Antonio ESPARZA & Polonia PERES, from Saltillo; to Maria Petra OLIVAS, Spanish, of this city, legitimate daughter of the late Antonio OLIVAS & Josefa PERES.Godparents:.); born Abt. 1772 in San Juan de Mesquital, Saltillo, Mexico; died 18 Jul 1811 in San Fernando de Bexar, San Antonio, TX (Source: Composanto Burials, 1808 - 1860, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 8., CSB # 355.  July 18, 1811.  ESPARRAGO, Juan de, Spanish, married, wife's name unknown.  He died of "edopresio.").

                         ii.    Maria Antonia Eulalia de Olivas, born 14 Aug 1777 in San Fernando de Bexar, San Antonio, TX (Source: San Fernando Baptisms, 1761 - 1793, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 50., SFB # 792, Baptized:  Aug. 19, 1777. OLIVA, Maria Antonia Eulilia, Spanish, 5 days old, legitimate child of TOMAS OLIVA & Josefa  RAMOS.   Godparents:  Don Marcos de Casaro & Dona Antonia de Estrada.[Note by Nancy Peche:  Maria Antonia Eulalia's parent's were:  Thomas Antonio de OLIVAS  & Maria Josefa PERES y BANOS.].).

                        iii.    Jose Sacobo de Olivas, born 16 Jul 1778 in San Fernando de Bexar, San Antonio, Texas (Source: San Fernando Baptisms, 1761 - 1793, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 55,, SFB # 854.  Baptized:  July 24, 1778. OLIBA, Jose Sacobo de, Spanish, 8 days old, legtimate son of Antonio de OLIBA & Maria Josefa de Ybanes.  Godparents:  Pedro ORANDAIN & Rosalia RAMOS..); died Aft. 1804.

        55            iv.    Maria Polonia de Olivas, born 06 Feb 1783 in San Fernando de Bexar; died 19 Sep 1849 in San Fernando de Bexar; married Francisco Xavier Hernandez 28 Dec 1803 in San Fernando de Bexar, San Antonio, TX.  


Generation No. 8  

        208.  Joseph Martinez  He married 209. Juana de Carvajal 1721.

        209.  Juana de Carvajal  She was the daughter of 418. Christoval de Carvajal and 419. Josefa Guerra.

        Children of Joseph Martinez and Juana de Carvajal are:

                          i.    Angela Martinez, born 1722 (Source: With the Makers of San Antonio, by Frederick C. Chabot, 1957, published privately, printed by Artes Graficas, San Antonio, TX, Page 81..).

                         ii.    Christoval Joseph Martinez, born 1725 (Source: With the Makers of San Antonio, by Frederick C. Chabot, 1957, published privately, printed by Artes Graficas, San Antonio, TX, Page 81..).

                        iii.    Juan Joseph Martinez, born 1728 (Source: With the Makers of San Antonio, by Frederick C. Chabot, 1957, published privately, printed by Artes Graficas, San Antonio, TX, Page 81..).

                        iv.    Joseph Maria Martinez, born 1730 (Source: With the Makers of San Antonio, by Frederick C. Chabot, 1957, published privately, printed by Artes Graficas, San Antonio, TX, Page 81..).

                         v.    Juana Ignacia Martinez, born Aft. 1730 (Source: With the Makers of San Antonio, by Frederick C. Chabot, 1957, published privately, printed by Artes Graficas, San Antonio, TX, Page 81..).

                        vi.    Maria Ignacia Martinez, born Aft. 1730 (Source: With the Makers of San Antonio, by Frederick C. Chabot, 1957, published privately, printed by Artes Graficas, San Antonio, TX, Page 81..).

        104         vii.    Carlos Martinez, born 1734 in San Fernando de Bexar; died 26 Aug 1803 in San Fernando de Bexar; married Maria Gracia Leal 1761 in San Fernando de Bexar.  


        216.  Jacobo Hernandez, born Unknown; died 26 Dec 1769 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Burials, 1761 - 1808, translated by John Ogden Leal, Page 6., Burial  # 129,  Oct. 4, 1751. HERNANDEZ, Jacobo, Spanish, married to Jesusa GUTIERREZ.  He left no will. [Note: This is thought to be Justa GUERRERO not Jesusa GUTIERREZ].).  He was the son of 432. Francisco Hernandez and 433. Ana Garcia.  He married 217. Justa or Juana Luisa Guerrero 1729.

        217.  Justa or Juana Luisa Guerrero, born Unknown; died 06 Feb 1777 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Burials, 1761 - 1808, translated by John Ogden Leal, Page 29., Burial # 590.  Feb. 6, 1777.  GUERRERO, Justa, widow of Jacobo HERNANDEZ.).  She was the daughter of 434. Cayetano Guerrero and 435. Ana Hernandez.       

Children of Jacobo Hernandez and Justa Guerrero are:

                          i.    Maria Magdelena Hernandez, born 28 May 1736 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Baptisms, 1731 - 1760, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 4, SFB # 62. Baptized:  June 3, 1736. HERNANDEZ, Maria Magdalena, born May 28 last, legitimate child of Jacobo HERNANDEZ and Ana Justa GUERRERO.  Godparents:  Joaquin de URRUITA and hiw wife Josefa HERNANDEZ.); died 03 Jun 1736 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Burials, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 5., Burial # 99, March 30, 1750. HERNANDES, Maria, a doncella [Miss], legitimate daugher of Jacobo HERNANDES and Justa GUERRERO.).

                         ii.    Prudencia Hernandez, born Bef. 1742 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Confirmations, 1759, translated by John Ogden Leal,, Page 15., Confirmation # 364.  Prudencia, HERNANDEZ;  Parents: Jacobo HERNANDEZ, Juana Luisa GUERRERO; Godmother:  Micaela Menchaca. * Note*  Baptism not found at San Fernando Church.); married Phelipe Hernandez.

                        iii.    Maria Zopapa Hernandez, born 30 May 1743 in Mission San Antonio de VALERO, [The Alamo], San Fernando de Bexar (Source: MISSION  San Antonio de VALERO, baptisms, translated by John Ogden Leal, Page 75., Valero Baptism # 621.  Christened:  May 30, 1743. HERNANDES, Maria Zapopan, legitimate daughter of Jacobo HERNANDEZ & his wife, Juana Justa GUERRERO. Godparents:  Baltazar de los Reyes PEREZ & Maria Gertrudes RINOJOSA, neighbors of the precidio of San Antonio.  Father Diego Martin Garcia baptized the child & signed the book.  Entry in Spanish.).

                        iv.    Maria Zapopa Hernandez, born 06 Nov 1744 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Baptisms, 1731 - 1760, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 5., SFB # 82. Baptized:  Nov. 21, 1744 ? HERNANDEZ, Maria Zapopa, 15 days old, legitimate child of Jacobo HERNANDEZ & Juana HERRERA.  Godparents:  Francisco de Abrego & Heregilda Hernandez. [Juana Herrera ????].); died 07 Jan 1818 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: Composanto Burials, 1808 - 1860, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 35., Burial # 886,  January 7, 1818. HERNANDEZ, Zapopa, widow who died of old age and left no will.).

                         v.    Santiago de los Reyes Hernandez, born 19 Feb 1749 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Baptisms, 1731 - 1760, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 13., SFB # 196.  Baptized:  Feb. 27, 1749. HERNANDEZ, Santiago de los Reyes, Spanish, 8 days old, legitimate son of Jacobo HERNANDEZ & Justa ______?  Godparents:  Pedro Garcia & Leonor DELGADO.); died Abt. 1782; married Maria Ygnacia de Oranday/Orandain/Orendain Abt. 1779; born Abt. 1754 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Church Confirmations, 1759, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 14., Baptism for Maria Ygnacia ORANDEIN / ORANDAI / ORANDAY not recorded at San Fernando Church. San Fernando Confirmtion # 350.  1759.  Maria Ignacia ORANDAI [not Granados]  Parents:  Juaquin GRANADOS [this is incorrect, original on microfilm for San Fernando Confiramtion reads  Juanquin ORANDAI]  & Josefa LEAL. Godparents:  Gracia LEAL. On page 10 of John Ogden Leal's translations for confirmations: # 226.  GRACIA MARIA LEAL, parents:  Juan LEAL & Magdelena FLORES, Godparent:  Antonia Carabajal.); died 29 Dec 1804 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Church Burials translated by John Ogden Leal, 1761 - 1808., Page 85., Burial # 188.  Dec. 29, 1804.  FLORES, Ignacia, Spanish, 46 years old, married to Pedro RICHARDO, both of this city.  She died of "pulmonia" and left no will.).

                        vi.    Juan Hernandez, born 31 May 1751 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Baptisms, 1731 - 1760, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 15., SFB # 248,   Baptized:  June 7, 1751. HERNANDEZ, Juan, Spanish, 8 days old, legitimate son of Jacobo HERNANDEZ & Justa GUERRERO.  Godfather:  Nicholas Trevino.); married Ildefonsa de Avila.

        108         vii.    Cayetano Hernandez, born 10 Feb 1753 in San Fernando de Bexar; died Aft. 1797 in ? San Fernando de Bexar; married (1) Maria Ygnacia de Oranday/Orandain/Orendain 01 Jul 1777 in San Fernando de Bexar; married (2) Thomasa Peres Abt. 1779 in San Fernando de Bexar,  San Antonio, Texas.

                      viii.    Cayetano Guerrero Hernandez, born Aft. 1759 (Source: Baptism not found at San Fernando Church.); died 15 Sep 1763 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Burials, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 3., SFB # 71.  Sept. 15, 1763. HERNANDEZ, Cayetano Guerrero, Spanish, legitimate son of Jacobo HERNANDEZ & Justa Guerrero.).  


        218.  Juaquin de Oranday/Orandain/Orendain, born Bef. 1736 in Villa of Saltillo, Mexico (Source: San Fernando Church, Petition of Marriage, March 1762.  Deposition of Juachin de ORANDAY:  He states he is Spanish, a soldier stationed in the Royal presidio of San Saba, and knows both [ Santiago Nunes & Thomasa Basques ] well and both are free to marry.  He said he was 26 years old.   He signed his depositon as did the notary public, Ygnacio Calbillo.  Approximate year of birth  of Juachin de ORANDAY,  1762 - 26 = 1736..); died 20 Mar 1798 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Church Burial # 1752, Page 69, March 20, 1798.).  He was the son of 436. Francisco de Oranday and 437. Catarina Valdez.  He married 219. Josefa Leal Bef. 1759 in San Fernando de Bexar,  San Antonio, Texas.

        219.  Josefa Leal, born Bet. 1737 - 1743 in San Fernando de Bexar; died Bet. 30 Nov 1760 - Feb 1772 in San Fernando de Bexar.  She was the daughter of 438. Unknown and 439. Unknown.


Children of Juaquin de Oranday/Orandain/Orendain and Josefa Leal are:

        109            i.    Maria Ygnacia de Oranday/Orandain/Orendain, born Abt. 1754 in San Fernando de Bexar; died 29 Dec 1804 in San Fernando de Bexar; married (1) Cayetano Hernandez 01 Jul 1777 in San Fernando de Bexar; married (2) Santiago de los Reyes Hernandez Abt. 1779; married (3) Pedro Ramirez Abt. 1783.

                         ii.    Jose Andres de la Trinidad de Oranday, born 30 Nov 1760 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Baptisms, 1731 - 1760, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 32., SFB # 512, Baptized:  Dec. 6, 1760. ORANDAY, Jose Andres de la Trinidad de, spanish, born last Nov. 30, legitimate son of Joachin de ORANDAY & Josefa LEAL.  Godparents:  Sargent Don Baltazar de los REYES  & Dona Rosalia LEAL..); died 14 Jul 1772 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Burials, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 20., Burial # 371.  July 14, 1772. ORANDAIN, Jose Andres, Spanish, a 12 year old legitimate son of Joaquin de ORANDAIN and Michaela ROMERO.).  


        220.  Joseph Juachin de Olivas  He married 221. Nicolasa de Escudera.

        221.  Nicolasa de Escudera       

Child of Joseph de Olivas and Nicolasa de Escudera is:

        110            i.    Thomas Antonio de Olivas, born Abt. 1733 in Real Mines of San Joseph de el Parral; died 09 Mar 1790 in San Fernando de Bexar, San Antonio, TX; married (1) Petra Perez Reyes; married (2) Teodora Martinez; married (3) Maria Josefa Peres y Banos 12 Mar 1773 in San Fernando Church, San Antonio,TX.  


        222.  Manuel Antonio Peres-Banos  He married 223. Antonia Margarita Romero.

        223.  Antonia Margarita Romero

Child of Manuel Peres-Banos and Antonia Romero is:

        111            i.    Maria Josefa Peres y Banos, born Abt. 1746 in Monterrey, Mexico; died Bet. 31 Dec 1804 - 1817 in San Fernando de Bexar, San Antonio, TX; married (1) Francisco Xavier Seguin-Ximenez 10 Jan 1760 in Sagrario Metro, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico; married (2) Thomas Antonio de Olivas 12 Mar 1773 in San Fernando Church, San Antonio,TX.  


Generation No. 9  

        418.  Christoval de Carvajal  He married 419. Josefa Guerra.

        419.  Josefa Guerra       

Child of Christoval de Carvajal and Josefa Guerra is:

        209            i.    Juana de Carvajal, married Joseph Martinez 1721.


        432.  Francisco Hernandez, born Bef. 1700; died 04 Oct 1751 in San Fernando de Bexar, San Antonio, Texas (Source: San Fernando Burials, 1744 - 1760,  translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 6., Burial # 129.  Oct. 4, 1751. HERNANDES, Francisco, widower of Ana GARCIA.).  He married 433. Ana Garcia (Source: San Fernando Church Marriages # 118, Page 15, April 15, 1731.).

        433.  Ana Garcia, died Bef. 1751.       

Children of Francisco Hernandez and Ana Garcia are:

                          i.    Ana Hernandez, married Cayetano Guerrero 1729; died 05 Dec 1757 in San Fernando de Bexar, San Antonio, Texas (Source: San Fernando Burials, 1744 - 1760,  translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 9., Burial # 194. Dec. 5, 1757. GUERRERO, Calletano, married to Dona Ana HERNANDES.).

        216           ii.    Jacobo Hernandez, born Unknown; died 26 Dec 1769 in San Fernando de Bexar; married Justa or Juana Luisa Guerrero 1729.

                        iii.    Andres Hernandez, died Aft. 1748; married Juana de Hoyos; born in Coahuilla, Mexico.

                        iv.    Francisco Hernandez, married Rafaela de Avila 1778.

                         v.    Diego Hernandez, died 07 Jan 1757 in San Fernando de Bexar, San Antonio, Texas (Source: San Fernando Burials, 1744 - 1760,  translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 9., Burial # 179.  Jan. 7, 1757. HERNANDES, Diego, married to Juana de SOSA, legitimate son of Francisco HERNANDES & Anna GARCIA..); married Juana Josefa de Sosa 08 May 1729 in San Fernando de Bexar, San Antonio, TX (Source: (1) Marriages of Mission San Antonio de Valero [Alamo], translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 1., # 98.  May 8, 1729. HERNANDEZ, Diego, Spanish, a soldier; to Juana Josepha de ZOZA, a doncella Miss].  Godparents:  Phelipe de Sierra & the wife of the Alferes, Sartuche, Josepha Nabarro.  Witnesses:  Sargeant Juan de Galvan, Juan de Castro and Asencio Raso, all soldiers of this precidio of San Antonio de Valero.  Father Salvador de Amaya married the couple and signed the book.  Entry in Spanish., (2) Marriage Petitions amd  Permissions, San Fernando Church, San Antonio, TX.).

                        vi.    Hermeregilda Hernandez, died 16 Mar 1772 in San Fernando de Bexar, San Antonio, TX (Source: San Fernando Burials, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 20., Burial # 348.  March 16, 1772.HERNANDEZ, Hermenegilda, Spanish, widow of Francisco FLORES.); married (1) Juan Bautista Rincon; married (2) Francisco Flores Bef. 1743; died 21 Dec 1757 in San Fernando de Bexar, San Antonio, TX (Source: San Fernando Burials, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 9., Burial # 195.  Dec. 21, 1757.FLORES, Francisco, legitimate son of the late Francisco FLORES & the late Maria SAUCEDO, from Saltillo, married to Dona Esmeregilad HERNANDES.).

                       vii.    Josefa Hernandez, born 1720; married First Name Unknown Flores.

                      viii.    Maria Hernandez, married (1) Miguel de Castro 27 Nov 1726 in Mission San Antonio de VALERO, [The Alamo] San Antonio, TX (Source: MISSION  San Antonio de VALERO, marriages, translated by John Ogden Leal, Page 9., # 63,  Married:  Nov. 27, 1726 at Mission San Antonio de VALERO.CASTRO, Miguel de, Spanish, a soldier of this presidio of San Antonio de Valero; to Maria HERNANDES.  Godparents:  Domingo FLORES & his wife, Marcela de TREMINO.  Witnesses:  Juan de SOSA, Juan de CASTRO & Antonio JIMENES, soldiers & assistants of this mission.  Father Joseph Gonzales married the couple & signed the book.  Entry in the book in Spanish.); married (2) Matias de la Zerda 24 Feb 1759 in San Fernando de Bexar, San Antonio, TX (Source: San Fernando Marriages 1742 - 1780, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 11., SFM # 104.  Feb. 24, 1759.ZERDA, Don Mathias de la, a soldier of this company of this precidio, a widower of Maria Florencia de el RIO, to Maria HERNANDEZ, of this city, widow of Don Miguel de CASTRO.  Witnesses:  Don Juan Jose Montes de OCA and Jose Antonio Estrada.  Godparents:  Don Xptobal de los Santos Coy & Dona Antonia de el Torro.).

                        ix.    Nicolás Hernández, married Simona de Sepulveda.

                         x.    Francisco Hernandez, married Marciana Longoria.



        434.  Cayetano Guerrero, died 05 Dec 1757 in San Fernando de Bexar, San Antonio, Texas (Source: San Fernando Burials, 1744 - 1760,  translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 9., Burial # 194. Dec. 5, 1757. GUERRERO, Calletano, married to Dona Ana HERNANDES.).  He married 435. Ana Hernandez 1729.

        435.  Ana Hernandez  She was the daughter of 432. Francisco Hernandez and 433. Ana Garcia.


Children of Cayetano Guerrero and Ana Hernandez are:

                          i.    Andrea Rosalia Guerrero, born 08 Mar 1732 in San Fernando de Bexar, San Antonio, Texas (Source: San Fernando Baptisms, 1731 - 1760, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 1., SFB # 11.  Baptized:  March 16, 1732. GUERRA, Andrea Rosalia, 8 days old, legitimate daughter of Cayetano GUERRA & Ana HERNANDEZ.  Godparents:  Diego HERNANDEZ & Ana GARZA. .); married (1) Francisco Sanchez; married (2) Pedro Jose Leal 1765; born Abt. 1732 (Source: San Fernando Church Confirmations, 1759, translated  by John Ogden Leal., Page 2., SFC # 47.  PEDRO JOSE, s/o Jose LEAL & Ana SANTOS.Godparent:  Juachin Menchaca.); married (3) Joaquin de Soto Silvestre Aft. 1772.

        217           ii.    Justa or Juana Luisa Guerrero, born Unknown; died 06 Feb 1777 in San Fernando de Bexar; married Jacobo Hernandez 1729.

                        iii.    Matias Antonio Guerrero, married (1) Maria Catarina Angulo 1744; married (2) Mariana Luisa Ramon 1776.

                        iv.    Juan Ignacio Guerrero

                         v.    Maria Bernarda Guerrero, married (1) Margil Falcon; married (2) Bartolo Seguin.

                        vi.    Antonia Guerrero, married Pedro Flores de Abrego 1760.



        436.  Francisco de Oranday  He married 437. Catarina Valdez.

        437.  Catarina Valdez, born Bef. 1724; died 06 Nov 1793 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Burials, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 58., SFB # 1544.   Nov. 6, 1793.  VALDEZ, Catarina, 69 years old, married to Francisco de ORANDAIN.).       

Children of Francisco de Oranday and Catarina Valdez are:

        218            i.    Juaquin de Oranday/Orandain/Orendain, born Bef. 1736 in Villa of Saltillo, Mexico; died 20 Mar 1798 in San Fernando de Bexar; married (1) Josefa Leal Bef. 1759 in San Fernando de Bexar,  San Antonio, Texas; married (2) Maria Micaela Romero Aft. 1760.

                         ii.    Francisco de Oranday, born Bet. 1740 - 1742 in Native of San Fernando de Bexar; died 14 May 1797 in San Fernando de Bexar (Source: San Fernando Burials, translated by John Ogden Leal., Page 67., SFB # 1720.  May 14, 1797. ORANDAIN, Francisco, Spanish, 55 years old, married to Encarnacion GALVAN.  He was an army gunsmith, [Armero].); married Maria Encarnacion Galvan.

         438.  Unknown  He married 439. Unknown.

        439.  Unknown       

Child of Unknown and Unknown is:

        219            i.    Josefa Leal, born Bet. 1737 - 1743 in San Fernando de Bexar; died Bet. 30 Nov 1760 - Feb 1772 in San Fernando de Bexar; married (1) Unknown; married (2) Juaquin de Oranday/Orandain/Orendain Bef. 1759 in San Fernando de Bexar,  San Antonio, Texas.




Jose Lucas Rodriguez Father of 32 Children

I am from a very large family of twelve children so when I found Lucas Rodriguez in my database with over thirty children, my first thought was, I have to correct this embarrassing error. There is no possible way he had that many children. I found Lucas as the result of looking for large families. I have a gigantic genealogy database (over 190,000 individuals), all linked together, that I queried for a parent with the largest number of children. Being always happy to find and correct errors in my records, I starting checking his marriage records.

Church marriage records clearly establish that Lucas married five women. The first marriage gives the names of his parents and each subsequent marriage gives the name of his previous spouse. I found all the church marriage images presented in this article at I also checked the death records for his first four spouses. The marriage and death records show two things that led Lucas to have so many children. He married younger women, his last wife was 30 years younger than him, and shortly after his wives died he remarried.

The five marriage records, arranged in chronological order, and my observations are on the following pages. A complete listing of all his children is found at the end of this article.

Figure 1. 1832 Marriage of Lucas to Ramona Escamilla

Details from the church record above:
September 22, 1832 in Cadereyta Jimenez, Lucas Rodriguez, single, born here but had lived in Monterrey for eight years, legitimate son of Jose Trinidad Rodriguez and Maria Francisca Saldivar is married to Maria Ramona Escamilla, born here at Hacienda de Castillo, legitimate daughter of Jose Vicente Escamilla and Maria Gertrudis Garza.

The first marriage gives the names of Lucas’ parents. The subsequent marriages don’t, instead they list him as a widower and name his previous spouse. Ages are not given for the couple.
This marriage yields two children.

Maria Ramona died May 21, 1839 from a fever. Her death record gives her age as nineteen. This is probably an example of how wrong ages found on death records can be. If true then she married at age 12.

Lucas remarried 3 months 18 days later. This is the longest mourning period he observed between marriages.
Figure 2. 1839 Marriage of Lucas to Isabel Cantu

Details from General Teran marriage record above:
September 8, 1839 in Valle de La Mote [former name of General Teran] the groom Jose Lucas Rodriguez from Cadereyta Jimenez, local resident for almost two years, widower of the late Maria Ramona Escamilla, buried in our parish cemetery, marries Maria Isabel Cantu, local resident age 17, legitimate daughter of Jose Miguel Cantu and Maria Ursula Rodriguez (both deceased)

Maria Isabel is an orphan.
This marriage yields two children.

Isabel died December 25, 1941. Her baby Maria Jesus was baptized two days later. Lucas remarries 25 days later.
Figure 3. 1842 Marriage of Lucas to Maria Carmen Guijarro

Details from General Teran church record above:
January 19, 1842 in General Teran, Lucas Rodriguez, local resident, widower, of Isabel Cantu his second wife, buried in the local cemetery, marries Maria Carmen Guijarro, local resident, legitimate daughter of Jose Urbano Guijarro and Maria Salome Olavarrieta.

Lucas is twice the age of Maria Carmen who is only 14.
This marriage yields 4 children.

Maria Carmen dies December 20, 1848. One month and one week later on January 17, 1849, Lucas remarries.
Figure 4. 1849 Marriage of Lucas to Juliana Rodriguez

Details from General Teran church record above:
January 17, 1849, in General Teran, Lucas Rodriguez, age 36, originally from Cadereyta Jimenez, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, local resident, widowed from third wife, Carmen Guijarro, buried in this parish, he marries Juliana Rodriguez, age 26, local resident, legitimate daughter of Jose Epifanio Rodriguez and Maria Gregoria Rodriguez (deceased).

Juliana Rodriguez’s mother is deceased. This marriage yields nine children. Juliana dies March 31, 1861, a few weeks after giving birth.

Figure 5. 1861 Marriage of Lucas to Maria Marta Rodriguez

Details from General Teran church record above:
May 18, 1816 in General Teran after being given a dispensation in this diocese for being second cousins, marriage of Lucas Rodriguez age 48 from Cadereyta Jimenez, widowed from his forth wife Juiliana Rodriguez, buried in this parish less than two months ago, to Maria Marta Rodriguez age 18, from China, Nuevo Leon and local resident, legitimate daughter of Simon Rodriguez and Decidora Sendejas (deceased)

Lucas is 30 years older than Maria Marta. The marriage record states she is 18 but her baptism date indicates she was 16. The bride has lost her mother. This marriage yields 15 children. Lucas is 70 years old when his last child is baptized. Lucas is married to Maria Marta one month 17 days after Maria Juliana died.

Descendants of Jose Lucas RODRIGUEZ and Maria Ramona ESCAMILLA and Maria Isabel CANTU and Maria Carmen GUIJARRO and Juliana RODRIGUEZ and Maria Marta RODRIGUEZ

Jose Lucas RODRIGUEZ, born 1813 in Cadereyta Jimenez, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, son of Jose Trinidad RODRIGUEZ and Maria Francisca SALDIVAR. He married (1) on 22 Sep 1832 in Cadereyta, Nuevo Leon, Mexico Maria Ramona ESCAMILLA, daughter of Jose Vicente ESCAMILLA and Maria Gertrudis GARZA; (2) on 8 Sep 1839 in General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico Maria Isabel CANTU, born 1822, daughter of Jose Miguel CANTU and Maria Ursula RODRIGUEZ; (3) on 19 Jan 1842 in General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico Maria Cresencia Carmen GUIJARRO, born April 22, 1828 in Montemorelos, Nuevo Leon, daughter of Jose Urbano GUIJARRO and Maria Salome OLAVARRIETA; (4) on 17 Jan 1849 in General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico Juliana RODRIGUEZ, born 1823, daughter of Jose Epifanio RODRIGUEZ and Maria Gregoria RODRIGUEZ; (5) on 18 May 1861 in General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico Maria Marta RODRIGUEZ, born 1846 in China, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of Simon RODRIGUEZ and Maria Decidora SENDEJAS.

Children of Jose Lucas RODRIGUEZ and Maria Ramona ESCAMILLA were as follows:
+ 1 i Jose Cosme Damian RODRIGUEZ, christened 30 Sep 1833 in Cadereyta, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married Alejandra BENAVIDES.
+ 2 ii Jose Florencio RODRIGUEZ, christened 2 Nov 1834 in Cadereyta, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married Guadalupe ELIZONDO.
Children of Jose Lucas RODRIGUEZ and Maria Isabel CANTU were as follows:
3 i Jose Nabor Felix Guadalupe RODRIGUEZ, christened 13 Jul 1840 in General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
4 ii Maria Jesus RODRIGUEZ, christened 28 Dec 1841 in General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
Children of Jose Lucas RODRIGUEZ and Maria Carmen GUIJARRO were as follows:
5 i Maria Josefa Barbara RODRIGUEZ, christened 5 Dec 1842 in General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
6 ii Maria RODRIGUEZ, christened 24 Feb 1845 in General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
7 iii Jose Donato RODRIGUEZ, christened 28 Oct 1846 in General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
8 iv Jose Dario Guadalupe RODRIGUEZ, christened 26 Dec 1848 in General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
Children of Jose Lucas RODRIGUEZ and Juliana RODRIGUEZ were as follows:
9 i Jose Cristanto RODRIGUEZ, born 25 Oct 1849 in General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 25 Oct 1849 in General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
10 ii Maria Alvina Concepcion RODRIGUEZ, christened 16 Dec 1850 in General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
11 iii Jose Andres Jesus RODRIGUEZ, christened 8 Dec 1851 in General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
12 iv Jose Filemon Jesus RODRIGUEZ, christened 5 Dec 1853 in General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
13 v Maria Dolores RODRIGUEZ, christened 5 Apr 1855 in General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
14 vi Ciprian RODRIGUEZ, christened 1 Oct 1856 in General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
15 vii Barbara Melecia RODRIGUEZ, christened 18 Dec 1857 in General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
16 viii Maria Paula RODRIGUEZ, christened 3 Mar 1859 in General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
+ 17 ix Maria Anastacia RODRIGUEZ, christened 5 Mar 1861 in General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. She married Jose Doroteo RODRIGUEZ.
Children of Jose Lucas RODRIGUEZ and Maria Marta RODRIGUEZ were as follows:
18 i Jose Anastacio RODRIGUEZ, christened 10 May 1862 in General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
19 ii Maria Gertrudis RODRIGUEZ, christened 25 Mar 1863 in General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
20 iii Maria Dolores RODRIGUEZ, christened 24 Aug 1864 in General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
21 iv Jose Mateo RODRIGUEZ, christened 5 Nov 1865 in General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
22 v Jose Jesus RODRIGUEZ, christened 26 Oct 1866 in General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
23 vi Maria Merced RODRIGUEZ, christened 3 Oct 1868 in General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
24 vii Concepcion RODRIGUEZ, christened 16 Jun 1870 in General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
25 viii Maria Concepcion RODRIGUEZ, christened 29 Apr 1871 in General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
+ 26 ix Irine RODRIGUEZ. She married Jose Margarito GARCIA.
27 x Celestina RODRIGUEZ, christened 18 Oct 1876 in General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
28 xi Julian RODRIGUEZ, christened 28 May 1877 in General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
29 xii Clara RODRIGUEZ, christened 7 Nov 1878 in General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
30 xiii Brijida RODRIGUEZ, christened 8 Apr 1880 in General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, died 23 Jul 1958 in Guadalupe County, Texas.
31 xiv Eulogia RODRIGUEZ, christened 18 May 1881 in General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
32 xv Maria Francisca RODRIGUEZ, christened 14 Feb 1883 in General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.


Sent by


Alejo de la Garza 
Alejo de la Garza ( 1836 - 1900) and Macedonia Palacios ( 1839 - 1915). They were husband and wife and lived in what is now Brooks County, Texas. Alejo was born in Victoria, Texas sometime after the Texas War for Independence. His Father, Jose Julian de la Garza y Guerra was killed by Indians on his Rancho in June of 1836 and his mother died during his birth. My research on Alejo has still not told me where he went and who cared for him after his parents both died. The main body of the original Mexican settlers of Victoria ( the De Leon, Benavides and de la Garza Families ) traveled to Louisana after Texas independence because of anglo Texian deprediatons upon the Mexican populace. Their lands were taken over during these dangerous times and with the change in government it was convenient for the authorities to claim the lands that had been settled by the founders of Victoria Colony. There were two possibilites of what could have happened to the Alejo, one is that he went to Louisana with the Victoria group and the other is that he went south to the Camargo, Tamaulipas area to be with his older half sisters. One of them, Antonia de la Garza previously married to Agapito De Leon and later married to a prominent citizen of Camargo, Matias Ramirez could have cared for him to adulthood. Later we know from early Starr County records and later Brooks County records as it was formed that he settled in the Falfurrias, Texas area. Land was purchased to raise stock and a way station built to serve travelers between the salt mines near Falfurrias and Mier, Camargo area. Land holdings were purchased from the original grantees and a sizeable ranch was built. There is evidence that Alejo borrowed money from English sources that were lending funds in the area. His family and workers are listed in the U.S. census of 1870, 1880 and 1900. Alejo is buried in the family cemetery on what was his rancho, "Los Tajitos" and his wife Macedonia is buried in San Diego, Texas.    Editor: Website includes copies of these documents, plus photos and a family pedigree: 
Apellidos y Heráldica
Website with an alphabetical listing of the meaning of Spanish surnames.

Linaje astur, muy extendido por toda la península. Trae como armas: Escudo partido, 1º de azur, un castillo de piedra de tres torres y, asomada a una ventana, una doncella con una espada en su mano diestra, y delante de la puerta un can en actitud de acometer; y 2º de oro, una nave al natural sobre un pino, frutado y terrazado, acompañado de tres flores de lis de gules, una a cada lado del pie del árbol y la tercera en lo alto.

Sent by John Inclan



Early 1920s Truck by Albert Vela, Ph.D.
Reflections on Freedom by Margarita Garza
A Moment of Silence by Ben Romero
Two Band-Aids by Ben Romero

Early 1920, El Monte, California

In my story of the Barrio of Westminster, I mention climbing onto the driver's seat and being scared to death when I saw a snake suddenly slither away while on the bench . . . The truck was no longer in use and was parked in back of the house we were renting. . .  This is what it looked like. Wheels spokes and rear tires were solid rubber. It was 1943/44 and I was 5/6 yrs old. It was parked under two eucalyptus trees. . . where we rented briefly on Spruce St. Look at wind mill on right. We had lots of these in old Westminster. The truck probably dates to early 1920s. Looks like a train depot on left. 

Tanis, the owner of the truck, was bedridden when I knew him. I am told Tanis used to sell fire wood to neighbors for their wood stoves. The truck didn't have the side boards at the time. I had a hard time finding a picture of the truck I remembered long ago. Found this one on Google, "The Brief History of El Monte" by Jack Barton who wrote his account in 1988.

Sent by Al Vela, Ph.D.

Reflections on the freedom that we enjoy, 
and the Heavy price for it
Margarita Garza

The American dream means many things to so many different people. I am proud to be a second generation American of Mexican decent. My ancestors are the original ranchers of northern Mexico and South Texas. Later in 1848 our families on both sides of the river were divided with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. During my lifetime our country has been in several wars, and our ancestors were involved in them.. 

Our soldiers so willingly sacrificed their own lives to protect us and our country. As I was doing research, I heard the newscaster talking about a soldier that died three years ago that effected me so much that I wanted to share it with Somos Primos readers. 

I also wanted to share the saying " that time is supposed to heal everything, but also the scars will remain forever. 

I was only 7 years old when one of our hometown farm boys in Rancho Santa Cruz was called to serve his country. He married and left right away, never to return. It was quite an impact on the mind of a little girl. This young man had married my teacher would never return to our Rancho. I can still remember the playing of tabs at the full military funeral.

The years passed and now it was time for my own son to serve his country, and needless to say, I was terrified.

I did not tell him this story, mothers are supposed to encourage their children to "Go Forward and be the best they can be" You want them to be winners not losers. I was walking on a tight rope, but he was walking a tighter one. I instilled on all of them a positive attitude which is, "yes, I can", 

Margaret Garza

by Ben Romero

“Pasame las papas.”


“Please, pass me the potatoes.”

I was nine years old, sitting at one end of the dining room table. Next to me were my grandmother, aunts, cousins, and my siblings. It was a special occasion because my cousin, Dorothy and her family were visiting. I held a plate in one hand and a fork in the other. Bowls of steaming potatoes, corn and squash, green chili stew, fried chicken, and corn on the cob sat in the center of the table. 

Why was it so quiet? Didn’t anybody care that I was hungry? Mom was in the kitchen heating up tortillas, otherwise she would have taken care of my needs.

I looked around the table and noticed for the first time that everyone’s head was lowered in prayer. They all looked so still and solemn, that they almost appeared to be dead in their seats. I shivered at the thought. At the same time, I suddenly felt very small. I was no stranger to prayer. Mom had taught me at an early age to pray at bedtime, at church, and sometimes even when it was time to get up. But with a house full of children, we rarely prayed before meals, although we often gave thanks when we were done eating. 

I set my plate down and lowered my head. My only thought was that I was in deep doo-doo. I was sure Grandma would say something to my mother about my table manners and I would get scolded. 

After a few minutes, my grandmother’s droopy eyes opened and she straightened in her seat. Almost like magic, everyone around her followed suit, and the table came back to life. Plates shuffled, forks scraped against china, voices echoed from all sides of the room. Merriment and laughter consumed the premises once more. That was more like it. I wondered if my cousins had really been praying, or if they simply went through the motions to please Grandma. I know I didn’t pray.

Late that night, in a fitful sleep, I had the first of a string of pesadillas (recurring nightmares) in which I looked around a room full of relatives and everyone was dead in a sitting position with their head lowered. I woke up in a cold sweat. I feared that if I told anybody about the dreams, they might come true. On many Sundays, when we entered the only church in the small village of Nambé, New Mexico and I knelt down in our pew, with the rest of the family, I said a silent prayer that the nightmares would stop.

Fast forward fifty years. I now attend Holy Spirit Catholic Church in Fresno, California. Before mass, I kneel with my family in our pew, and I say a silent prayer of thanks. There are no nightmares, no secrets, nothing to fear. 

The Central San Joaquin Valley is home to hundreds of churches of numerous denominations. I wonder how many people fake praying and how many have said prayers in silence because of secret fears.

Ben Romero

by Ben Romero

My two-year-old granddaughter scraped her heel the other day and discovered the healing wonder of Band-Aids. She learned to "milk" the injury by tending to it well past the healing stage, and became obsessed with Band-Aids.

While she was under my care, she noticed I had a tiny scratch on my knee, and when she touched it, I pretended to be in pain. I was relaxing on the couch, wearing cut-offs while she watched Barney on television. My eyes grew heavy and I started dozing off. Big mistake. A few minutes later I felt her rubbing my bare leg, and noticed Band-Aid wrappers strewn all over the living room floor and coffee table. She had Band-Aids pasted on her bare feet and arms, up to her elbows.

“What are you doing?” I asked.

"I have a bang egg for your booboo."

"That's okay,” I said, through half-opened eyes. “I don't need one."

She yanked it off of my hairy leg.


She laughed. "Poppa, you're funny," she said, running into the kitchen.

She soon reappeared with a jar of grape jelly.

“You can’t eat on the couch,” I warned, sitting up.

"It's medicine for your booboo."

A few days ago, I took a group of elderly residents on a sight-seeing trip. The ride to Piedra was filled with countryside scenery: orange orchards along winding roads, speckled with brown fields and rocky hillsides. A calming joy seemed to overtake my passengers when we reached the cool, clear waters of the Kings River.

“I’d like to take a swim in that river,” remarked one of the ladies, in a melancholy voice that told me she longed to relive a joyful past experience. I guessed she was merely expressing the same thought that was running through the minds of most of the others.

“Do you want me to pull over?” I teased.

“Sure,” she said, “only I forgot my swimsuit.”

“That’s too bad. I can’t let you get into the water without one,” I said.

“Back in the forties, when I lived in Hawaii, I had a great swimsuit,” she said. 

The only male resident in the van perked up in his seat and said, “Tell us about it.” 

I looked at her through my rear-view mirror. Her eyes lit up and her cheeks flushed. “Two Band-Aids and a cork,” she answered, with a wicked smile.

Before I could stop myself, I asked the obvious question: “Where is your swimsuit now?”

“Well,” she answered, with a mixture of sadness and orneriness, “the Band-Aids are long gone, but sometimes I can swear I still feel the cork.” 

Ben Romero



Inclan Tidbit
El siglo de la conquista 
Tip of the Week: Searching for Immigrant Ancestors
Save the Date: Feb 10-12, 2011 A New Genealogy & Technology Conference
A tidbit from John Inclan The marriage records for Floresville are held in the Archdiocese of San Antonio.  Recommended websites: 
El siglo de la conquista - Google Books

This is an example of the availability history books which are out of print, but which have been digitized and made accessible to the public by Google.

Sent by Bill Carmena


El siglo de la conquista, by Leopoldo de la Rosa Olivera, is an on-line Google book (in Spanish) detailing vignets into the early history of the Canary Islands during the first century after its conquest, in the XV & XVI & XVII centuries. The author's careful research into ancient testaments, dowries, land transfers and other such primary source documents provides much useful genealogical information, both for the native Guanches, Gomeros and Canarios, as well as for many of the Spaniards, Portuguese, Italians, French and others who formed the core population of the Canary Islands. The book is not indexed, but the on-line version is searchable. I obtained my copy of the book from Amazon.


Sent by Paul Newfield III



Searching for Immigrant Ancestors 
Searching for an ancestor in immigration databases? These tips from the Tracing Immigrants Family Tree University course (starting Aug. 16) can help you find what you're looking for:

If you know (or suspect) the port where your ancestor arrived, start by searching the individual database for that port to avoid hundreds of hits from other places. 
Pay attention to the date ranges of the database you're searching. If it doesn't cover your ancestor's year of immigration, you won't find a record. 
Don't discount results with names that don't exactly align with what you know—your ancestor's name might be recorded differently from what you expect. 
Experiment with leaving off a first or last name from your search. The name recorded on the passenger list might be completely different or badly mis-transcribed in a way you'd never think of. ; 
Especially for early immigrants, search the Passenger and Immigration Lists Index of 5 million names spanning 1538 to 1940. It covers all US and Canadian ports, and includes passenger lists, naturalization records, church records, family and local histories, voter registrations, census records, land records, diaries and more.

  Save the Date: February 10-12, 2011
A New Genealogy & Technology Conference
A brand new genealogy conference is in the works, announced today by FamilySearch. The first annual RootsTech Conference, hosted by FamilySearch and sponsored by several leading genealogical organizations, will be held in Salt Lake City, Utah, February 10-12, 2011. The goal is to bring technologists and genealogists together to help deepen understanding of current technologies and foster innovation in applying technology to genealogy.

"When the users and creators of technology come together, innovation occurs," said Jay Verkler, president and CEO of FamilySearch. "The RootsTech Conference will accelerate that innovation through panels, discussion groups, and interactive demonstrations."



Sept 4th: SHHAR Monthly Meeting 
Sept 5th: LA Vida Music Festival
Sept 12: Festival of Lights
Sept 12 Dia de la Familia 
Sept 25: Annual Logan Barrio Reunion
Mexican Revolutionary family stories sought by Orange County Register 
The National Hispanic Business Women Association
El Cerritos Teen Team
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research

Saturday, Sept 4th: SHHAR Monthly Meeting 
9:30 to 11:30 am  One-on-One Computer Assistance  

10-11 Exploring the Internet for Family Research 
Power Point Presentation by Mimi Lozano & Cathy Trejo

If this is the year, you decided to definitely start on your family history, this is the session to attend. 
FREE, no membership. Open to the public.

Orange Multi-Regional Family History Center
674 S. Yorba St.
Orange, CA  92863-6471

Information: Mimi 714-894-8161 or 

LA Vida Music Festival
Sun. September 5, 2010 at 7:00 p.m.

The Second Annual LA Vida Music Festival combines an exciting blend of music influenced by diverse Latin cultures. LA Vida is headlined by the extraordinary Louie Cruz Beltran and his Latin Jazz Ensemble.  Performing with Louie as his special guest is the one and only Poncho Sanchez.   The evening also features Real Tango, from Argentina, with famed tango dancers Sandor & Parissa; Grammy-winning Mariachi Divas, Robert Kyle’s Brazilian Quartet, the high energy Samba/percussion group Chalo Eduardo’s Brazilian Beat, and Tommy Hawkins as Master of Ceremonies. 
Sent by Ruben Alvarez

Sunday, Sept 12 11th Annual Festival of Lights
Over 35 different faith-based organizations involved. Enjoy the music, entertainment and words of wisdom.  Starts at 2:15 pm.  For more information please contact Tom Hohman at (714) 745-3788 

Sunday, Sept 12 Dia de la Familia 
Westminster Community Services and Recreation Dept.
Sigler Park, 7200 Plaza St.  1-5 pm
Food, entertainment, information booths highlighting the variety of services available to Westminster residents.  
No cost for booth/table.  For information, contact: 
Pam Gremling, 714-548-3679


A century ago this fall a revolution that changed Mexico forever began, transforming the country and the lives of its citizens.  In the midst of the war, many of them headed north — to escape the violence and to begin their lives anew. Thousands settled in Orange County and throughout Southern California.

Were members of your family among the Mexican immigrants who came during the 1910-1920 war or in its aftermath? If so, we want to hear their stories, and yours. What moved your family to leave Mexico for the United States - the threat of violence or the promise of prosperity? Who in your family came? From where? Why? Where did they settle? How did you come to live in O.C.? What do you think about when you reflect on their experience?

Send your story and your photo, along with photos of your immigrant parent, grandparent or ancestor (.jpg format) to Ron Gonzales. Your story can range from about 400 to about 900 words.

Ron Gonzales  
News Team Leader  

Saturday, September 25, 2010
Annual Logan Barrio Reunion At Chepa’s Park
1009 Custer St.
Santa Ana, CA

12 Noon -6PM
Enjoy a great day with friends and family.
Potluck, water available, no alcohol.
Live Band & D. J.  
Donations for Raffle Appreciated 
Photo/Memories Display welcomed 

Another more detailed Logan History Book in the making. We need your stories and photos. More Info:
Norma Cardona Peralta(714)543-5743
Helen Parga Moraga (714) 771– 4474
Cecelia Andrade Rodriguez (714) 697-4594
Jeanne Alvarardo Alvarez (714) 454-8078
Clara Alvarado Soria (714) 832-2836

Sent  by Mary Acosta Garcia (714) 415-8629




The National Hispanic Business Women Association is presenting a 5-part series on How to Develop a Successful Business, offered in the evening and in Spanish.  There are still three sessions left.  There is no cost.


Please click on the following link for further information.

Business Seminars in Spanish

Thank you, National Hispanic Business Women Association

(714) 836-4042


Rancho Los Cerritos

Rancho Los Cerritos launched an ambitious service learning opportunity for local high school students in 2006, the RLC Teen Document Program. During the fall, our docents-in-training are thoroughly coached in Rancho history, museum interpretation, curatorial techniques, and oral presentation skills. In the winter and spring, these talented teens give interactive tours of the Rancho to local youth groups, help with preservation projects, and also staff our public programs and festivals. Over the four years this program has been in operation, our RLC Teen Docents have, as an aggregate, given over 2,700 hours of service to the museum and its visitors. Plus, these teens proudly represent nearly every LBUSD high school- and nine of them returned this year for their second or third year of service!

Congratulations,  graduating high school this year:
Suzie Chhouk (Poly) - International Christian U Japan 
Alissa DeJongh (Wilson) - Purdue University
Lincoln Goss (Poly) - Cal Poly San Luis Obispo
Ahmed Groce (Poly) - US Air Force Academy
Rica Halili (Wilson) - University of California Irvine
Yanire Herrera (Lakewood )-Cal State U, Long Beach
Derek Nelson (Poly) – Cal Poly San Luis Obispo
Lorlene Ragat (Wilson) – Univ of Calif Santa Cruz

Source: Rancho Los Cerritos Voices
Published by Rancho Los Cerritos Historic Site
4600 Virginia Road, Long Beach, CA 90807
Volume 1 Number 2 Summer 2010, pg 3
Activities are held throughout the year, geared for family enjoyment and education  562-570-1755




Sept 4: Los Angeles City Birthday Celebration
Sept 4-6: San Gabriel Mission in Southern California celebrating Mission History
Sept 18: Machado Reunion
“New Children/New York” documentary world premiere in Los Angeles
L.A. County sheriff to turn over Ruben Salazar files
A Brief History of El Monte by Jack Barton


Saturday, September 4 , 2010 6:00 am - 6:00 pm

229th Anniversary of the founding of Los Angeles 
with Los Pobladores walk to L.A. from the San Gabriel Mission, historic re-enactments,
artisan demonstrations, exhibits, food, entertainment and plenty of birthday cake!

The San Gabriel Mission in Southern California will be celebrating their Mission History, September 4-6, 2010.

Friday, September 4, 2009, 6 p.m. to Midnight
6 p.m. : Ringing of the Bells Ceremony at bell wall,
followed by Blessing of Fiesta grounds.

Saturday, September 5, 2009, 3 p.m. to Midnight
9 a.m.: Children & Pets' Costume Contest on fiesta stage. 
11 a.m.: Blessing of the Animals near fiesta stage
1 p.m. - 4 p.m.: Re-enactors of History in Mission Gardens
4 p.m.: History Reception in museum patio. More info...
5 p.m.: Birthday Cake celebration near fiesta stage

Sunday, September 6, 2009, 2 p.m. to Midnight
9:30 a.m.: Founder's Memorial Mass in old Mission Church
1 p.m. - 4 p.m.: Re-enactors of History in Mission Gardens
11:30 p.m.: Closing Ceremonies, Prize Drawings. 

Sent by Leroy Martinez leroymartinez1@cox.netL.A.

Machado Reunion
Saturday, September 18th, 10-A.M. -8 PM. Machado reunion/fiesta that has been going on for many years.  Music, great food, beer, water  and good company  It will be held at the Dominguez Rancho Adobe Picnic area, located at 18127 So. Alameda St. Rancho Dominguez, CA 90220. The closely related Talamantes- Farias Families are also invited. Dead line to register is Sept. 10.
If you have any questions call Ron at. 310-548-1818 or email your request
The “New Children/New York” full-length documentary film had its world premiere as an official selection at the 14th Annual Los Angeles Latino International Film Festival (LALIFF) in Hollywood, California on August 20th .  In addition, “New Children/ New York” has been chosen for a special screening for high school students in the Los Angeles metro area in the Festival’s YOUTH PROGRAM. Filmmakers Gisela Sanders Alcántara and Lauren Mucciolo were in attendance.

Set in a community workshop in a rarely seen New York, “New Children/New York” portrays three Latino youth who are bravely offering an intimate and emotional, first-person window into the contemporary immigrant experience as they learn filmmaking and produce their own short, personal films.

San Bernardino County Museum
2024 Orange Tree Lane, Redlands, Ca 92374
Activities for ALL AGES through-out the year in:
Anthropology, Archaeology, Biological and Geological sciences, plus History, Trips, Events and lots of Hands-On opportunities.  For updates, go To: 

County sheriff to turn over Ruben Salazar files to watchdog agency By Robert J. Lopez and Robert Faturechi, Los Angeles County Sheriff Lee Baca said Wednesday that he would turn over thousands of pages on the 1970 slaying of former Times columnist and KMEX-TV News Director Ruben Salazar to the civilian watchdog agency that monitors the Sheriff's Department so a report can be prepared on the 40-year-old case.  Article can be viewed at:
 LA Times,  Aug 19, 2010

Sent by Mercy Bautista Olvera




Perhaps the best place to begin any discussion of the history of this area is with the name itself -- El Monte. Obviously, the word is Hispanic in origin, but what is not obvious is its original meaning and the descriptive nature of that meaning.

Most non-Hispanic persons with some knowledge of Spanish assume that the name El Monte must pertain to a hill or a mountain of some sort. If this were true, it would belie the physical realities of El Monte as a place, for there are no hills or mountains in any evidence with the exception of the distant San Gabriel's.

Rather, one must search for a meaning to the name El Monte in the obscure and somewhat archaic definitions which were current in Spanish usage in the late 18th century. For it was in the 1770’s that a group of Spanish soldiers and missionaries first explored this part of southern California and discovered, located between two rivers, an island of rich, low-lying land, covered with dense growths of slender willows, alders, and cattails. The "Island", approximately 7 miles long and 4 miles wide, constituted a veritable oasis unmatched in the midst of what naturally is a rather harsh, semi-arid environment.

Indeed, it was these self-same Spaniards who gave name to the rivers surrounding the island - the river to the east and northeast was named the San Gabriel; the smaller river to the north and west (actually a secondary channel of the San Gabriel) was christened the Rio Hondo. To the south of the "island", the two rivers flowed toward one another to form a "narrows" of ponds, small streams, and marshes. The island itself was also criss-crossed with little streams which fed expansive meadows, while along the river banks succulent watercress proliferated and vines of wild grapes clung to the dense stands of willow which grew there.

It was this prospect of precious water, abundant wood (for fuel) and deep, rich, alluvial topsoil which was presented to the Spaniards, who found respite and replenishment in the cool greenness of this "island paradise". And, one among their number, first used the term in Spanish which, at that time (1770's) would best describe this beautiful "wooded spot". That name was El Monte, variously translated as the "meadow or marsh", or, as the "wooded place". In any translation, the significant characteristics were clear - El Monte meant water, wood (fuel), and soil!

In the time following its Spanish baptismal, El Monte was to become the "watering hole" and campsite for successive groups of travelers and immigrants who made their way into Southern California from its eastern approaches. Indeed, for many thousand of years prior to the advent of the Spanish, small bands of nomadic Indians frequented the "wooded island" to avail themselves of its life-sustaining resources. Indian burial sites and "kitchen middens" from their ancient campsites have told of these aboriginal visitors.

In more recent times, during the era of the "Missions" (1770’s to 1830’s) and the "Land Grant" ranchos (1830’s and 40’s), El Monte continued to serve as a natural resting place for whatever weary journeyer came its way. In 1826, the famous mountain man and explorer, Jedediah Smith, led a small party of Americans into the area. One among his party was a diarist by the name of Harrison Rogers, who referred to the rest and rehabilitation afforded by "Camp Monte" or "Monte Camp".

                                                                                                                                 Jedediah Smith

The Gold Rush Days

It was the great Gold Rush of 1849-50 that brought the first permanent resident to El Monte. Swept along by the great tide of "gold fever", wave after wave of prospectors and immigrant pioneers inexorably moved toward the wealth promised in golden California. They all came seeking gold and most were denied their dreams, but some were to find riches far beyond those dreams in the form of fertile land and happy homes.

 One such group of pioneer travelers had left their old home in Iowa to come to the gold fields of California. But after 14 months of bone-wearying travel across vast mountains and deserts, and tragic deprivations at the hands of hostile Apaches, the Thompson Party (Family), water-famished and dead-tired, vowed not to search for gold but rather to settle at the first spot which offered a permanent supply of fresh water and a sufficiency of soil to provide farming possibilities.

The Great Desert


And so it was that the Thompson’s, in 1851, crossed the San Gabriel River, entered into the "island" and found the opportunities for a home in California. By putting down their roots they began the development of the permanent community of El Monte.Additional pioneer settlers arrived in El Monte within the year following the Thompsons. Like the Thompsons, these small groups, suffering deeply from their parched passage through the California deserts, had committed to taking residence at the first source of abundant fresh water. Most notable among these next arrivals was the Johnson Party (1852) under the able leadership of one Captain Johnson, late of Lexington, Kentucky.

After a cursory exploration of the gold fields to the north, Captain Johnson returned to El Monte and the more realistic promise of land and agriculture. There, his natural leadership ability exerted its influence on what was a budding village of pioneers. At this point, (early 1850’s) no more than a dozen small families comprised the entire permanent population of the "island" of El Monte. At his suggestion, and because of his popularity with the other settlers, Captain Johnson proposed that the village be named "Lexington". The villagers readily concurred, as the name in their minds, paid honor to the birthplace of their leader and also, echoed the name of one of the legendary places in the Revolutionary War.

El Monte Township

Despite the citizens' enthusiasm for the name of "Lexington", the older, more meaningful name - El Monte - persisted in the background and on the sidelines. Veteran travelers who had frequented the area on many previous occasions persisted in using the name of "Monte Camp". or, sometimes, simply "The Monte". In 1866, the State Legislature, in organizing the State into smaller defined governmental units, established "Townships" in all parts of California. In designating a township in this area, some sense of venerable traditions prevailed in the Capital, for it was named the El Monte Township and the village of Lexington was selected as its seat. In 1868, bowing to long-lasting habit and practice, the village of Lexington set aside its artificial name and returned (and rightly so) to the profoundly descriptive Spanish appellation of El Monte.

The saga of El Monte through the remainder of the 19th century is typical of many growing towns following the thrust of Manifest Destiny into the great reaches of the West. It is the story of increasingly successful farmers and of growing families and growing communities. It is a "Wild West" story with its era of card parlors and dance halls, of robberies and murders, and of its own brand of "Vigilantes" with the famous and notorious "Monte Boys" riding in posse to hasten the hanging (both formal and informal) of some slinking, fleeing wrong-doer.

It is the story of the Civil War and how it divided the community just as it divided the nation. Remembering Captain Johnson’s Kentuckian roots, it is not surprising that El Montean sentiments were largely with the South even though California was a Union State.

It is a story of repeated floods and droughts, where El Monte, as throughout its turbulent geologic past, was subjected to the vagaries of meandering (and sometimes rampaging) rivers.

                                                                 Rio Hondo River During Flood of 1913


It is a story which includes: El Monte’s first "motel" - The Willow Grove Inn, established, owned and operated by the self-same first pioneer Thompson Family, and a regular way station on the Butterfield Stage route between Riverside and Los Angeles.

It includes one of the first public schools in the entire state of California (1852), a simple one room mud and willow-wattle structure located on the banks above the Rio Hondo and boasting an enrollment of 15 pupils during its first year of existence.

It includes an early, successful agrarian economy based on thriving wool, honey, grain, fruit, castor oil, hops, and cotton crops. Even El Monte Bacon graced the breakfast tables of Southern California towns.

It includes:

The first railroad through town (Southern Pacific) in 1873.

The first weekly newspaper strictly for El Monte in 1876.

The first drugstore (with a soda fountain?) in 1892. 


The Twentieth Century 

With the advent of the 20th century, El Monte continued to grow and prosper. Agriculture remained at the core of its economy. Earlier field crops gave way to fruit orchards, walnut groves, truck farms, hay fields, and an increasing dairy industry. One commercial seed company leased large tracts of fertile land in the southern part of the "island" and grew breathtaking plots of flowering plants for seed production. During blooming season, these fields of blossoms - precisely laid out in geometric patterns - were visited by people from all over the San Gabriel Valley. The farm workers employed to tend these magnificent floral gardens affectionately named the area Las Flores - a name which persists today in designating that part of the "island" of El Monte. 

                                                                                                                                                       Corn Crop, 1914

Tom Wiggins Baling Hay


Hauling Crops


It was in 1901 that the El Monte Union High School District was organized and its secondary educational services were extended not only to pupils in El Monte, but also to students residing in portions of the surrounding present day communities of Bassett, Whittier, Montebello, Rosemead, Temple City, Arcadia, and Monrovia. In its initial year of operation, in a single, upstairs classroom in the old Lexington Avenue Grammar School, the high school boasted an enrollment of 12-15 students. By 1908, the high school had its own campus at the east end of Main Street and a student body comprised of 65 students.

In 1906, vehicular travel was improved with the first grading and paving of Main Street. The following year (1907) the Pacific Electric intercity railroad service was extended to El Monte. The old "Red Cars" were to be a mainstay in El Monte transportation for the next 45 years.

Mr. Gibbs in the 1920's


  • Main Street 1908


    In 1912, some 60 years after its founding as the village of Lexington, El Monte was incorporated and with its newly elected City council was officially recognized as a municipality. El Monte had long possessed its own volunteer Fire Department, and now, as a "real" city, it would acquire its own Police Department - a far cry from the dusty riding days of the wild and famous "Monte Boys".

    The worldwide influenza epidemic which occurred following World War I, of course, touched the population of El Monte with the expected number of tragic results. One notable loss was that of Mr. Lyman W. Babcock, Principal of El Monte High School, who died of the effects of the disease in 1919. 


    Gay’s Lion Farm

    The arrival in 1923 of the famous Gay’s Lion Farm brought El Monte an outstanding tourist attraction. For the next 20 years, El Monte was to experience a continuing influx of visitors who came from everywhere to see this "one and only" exhibit. Gay’s Lion Farm has been likened to the Disneyland of the 1920’s and 30’s.

    Mr. and Mrs. Charles Gay, European by birth, were both former circus stars in their youth; he a "lion tamer" and she an aerialist. In the early 20’s, they came to southern California with the idea of raising wild animals for use in the burgeoning southland motion picture industry. Their dream cam to fruition in the Lion Farm which they located in El Monte because of the availability of suitable acreage and the relative proximity to the film centers of Los Angeles.

    At its peak, the Farm housed over 200 African lions with the site consisting of a U-shaped compound with separate individual cages for the adult lions, a larger "nursery" cage for the expected population of playful cubs, and, a very large, centrally located arena cage where the trained lions, under the whip and gun of Mr. Gay, performed a spectacular wild animal act for the massed spectators. Many of the lions did, indeed, star in numerous motion pictures during the 20’s and 30’s. Jungle features like the time-honored Tarzan films, from Elmo Lincoln to Johnny Weismuller, utilized the roaring residents of Gay’s Lion Farm. The famous "Lion Logo" which ushers in every MGM motion picture was made with "Jackie", one of Gay’s most famous stars.

    A very strong affinity developed between El Monte and its feline citizens. The affection was best represented when the teams from El Monte High School (1925) eagerly took on the nickname of "The Lions". Mr. Gay responded to this gesture by periodically designating one of the young, active male lions as the official mascot of the school. It followed naturally, that this mascot would make its appearance at certain home football games and the full-throated rumbling roar of their patron beast supplemented the crowds of cheering rooters.


    World War II saw the demise of the Lion farm. With the strict rationing of (horse) meat and of gasoline, the establishment closed its doors for the "duration" and the lions were farmed out to public zoos throughout the country. It was the sincere ambition of the Gays to reopen the Farm when the war ended, however, by 1945 and the War’s end; Mr. Gay’s health had begun to fail and his hopes to resume the spectacular showplace failed with it. Today, the only trace of this historic El Monte enterprise is the noble statue of a giant African lion, which had guarded the entrance to the Lion Farm from 1923 until 1946. All remainders of the Farm are gone with the exception of the magnificent statue, which has been relocated on the present grounds of El Monte High School. There it stands, gleaming golden in the sunlight in its eternal vigilance at the portals of the Lion campus. In 1979, the lion statue was designated as an official Historical Monument and a bronze plaque, duly inscribed with factual significance, was affixed to the pedestal on which the Lion rests.

    The 1930’s

    Some very significant occurrences took place in El Monte during the 1930's. Some of these were cataclysmic, initially in their effect, but in the long term proved otherwise. The Great Depression brought doldrums to El Monte just as it did everywhere else. Farming profitability dropped radically causing some landowners to sublet smaller farm tracts to Nisei tenants for the raising of more profitable "cash crops", such as berries, melons, and vegetables. By the late 30’s, some of the large groves and orchards in the area had been subdivided into small homesites of an acre or less. These small lots often sold for a pittance, and consequently, El Monte began to change rapidly from a "little farm town one mile square" to a growing "bedroom community" where people lived but worked and commuted elsewhere - mainly Los Angeles.

    In March, 1933, the devastating Long Beach earthquake rumbled through the southland with widespread effect in many areas including El Monte. The local high school suffered structural damage to the extent that 40% of the classrooms were rendered unsafe for use. Temporary wood and canvas bungalows were mustered into use to house the displaced students. Rather than rebuild on the damaged site, a wise decision was made to locate an entirely new school on vacant land approximately 1/2 mile south of the damaged school. The new school would not only provide more modern facilities but would allow for the increased enrollment anticipated in the ensuing years. Construction on the new high school began in 1938 and the building opened for full attendance in the fall of 1939.

    An additional new civic facility was constructed and opened in 1936. The El Monte Community and Civic Center, built in the graceful style of mission architecture, was cause for a citywide celebration when it was inaugurated in June of that year. A community event of several days duration was planned in conjunction with the advent of the new facility. This initiated the traditional Pioneer Days celebration which was to be repeated annually for over 10 years with a brief hiatus during World War II. The theme of the annual event was to recognize and celebrate the proud pioneer past of El Monte. Old fashioned games and events were scheduled and citizens were expected to dress in "old western frontier" style. The climax of the yearly festivities was a "pioneer pageant" staged in the local high school auditorium and featuring leading citizens of the town cast in the roles of the "Thompson Party", or as Captain Johnson. The Pioneer Days programs and activities provided some with an excuse for over-imbibing during its duration, and also seemed to invite the "rowdy element" from the surrounding communities. At any rate, the better part of good judgment dictated the end of these annual "bashes" and Pioneer Days, as a community-wide celebration, is now also a part of the history of El Monte.

    The good spirit, however, which motivated the celebration of Pioneer Days in conjunction with the opening of the Community Center in 1936, lives on. Recently a beautiful annex was constructed just north of the Center. That annex, today, houses the El Monte Museum of History, considered to be one of the best community museums in the State. The pride in the pioneer past of El Monte lives on.


    The 1940’s and 1950’s 

    Prior to World War II, El Monte, with the exception of its "Wild West" era, had been a small, prosperous farm town. The eruption of the conflict in 1941 signaled the commencement of dramatic changes for El Monte - changes which would forever alter its image of a "sleepy little town just one mile square".

    Very early in the war, industry in the form of small aircraft parts factories sprang up on the Westside of town. Truck farms and diaries began to diminish in number as young men’s lives were caught up in the war.

    With the building boom of the late 40’s and early 50’s, El Mount's population literally exploded. An example of this growth can be illustrated by the remarkable increase, which occurred in the high school enrollment during the years immediately following the war. In 1943, the El Monte High School student body consisted of 1500 pupils. By 1948, the enrollment had rocketed to 3700, an increase of almost 250% which necessitated five different beginning/ending times in order to accommodate all the students’ class schedules during the school day. During the first 48 years of its existence, the El Monte Union High School district (founded 1901) housed its entire student population in one school (El Monte High). From 1949 to the present, four additional high schools have been required to accommodate enrollment and A sixth School is expected in 1991.

    In 1958, a second community was incorporated and the City of South El Monte was born. This municipality, comprising the southwest quadrant of the "wooded island" is home today to much of the small industry in the area. From a population of about 10,000 in 1940, the combined citizenry of the cities of El Monte and South El Monte today numbers approximately 110,000.

    Gone is the "sleepy little town one mile square"! Gone are the orchards and the fields of flowers! Gone are the farms and the dairies! Here today is an urban community of homes and schools, supported by a strong industrial/commercial base. A community still growing and looking ahead with optimism toward the solution of whatever problems may chart its path.

    El Monte, as it has down through its 137 years of history, continues to offer a home for those who are seeking to put down roots. As with the immigrants of the early days, El Monte is still a haven for modern immigrants seeking new opportunities and respite from old oppressions. New immigrants bring fresh needs to the community. Needs, which in final analysis, still mean homes, jobs, schools, and churches. El Monte has met such needs, over and over again, through the course of its past. Whether those needs stemmed from displaced Spanish grandees, or from disillusioned miners retreating from false dreams, or from "Okie" migrants seeking land to replace their dust-blown farms - whatever these needs, and from whatever quarter they came - El Monte has been the wooded place of shelter and security, the meadowland of opportunity and promise.

    Jack Barton April, 1988

    Return to Barton Homepage
    Return to El Monte Historical Society Museum Page
    your questions or comments.
    Sent by Al Vela, Ph.D.




    SAVE THE DATE: Sunday, November 14, California Heritage Day
    List of the Signers of the First Constitution of California
    Bearing the Flag: Design of California state flag was a mistake
    Narrative of Mrs. Rosalia Vallejo Leese on hoisting of Bear Flag 
    Juan M. Luco and Jose Leandro Luco, Appellants, v. E United States
    Sept 18: Chino Valley Genealogy Seminar
    Latino Times 
    Intro to: Basques in the Americas From 1492 to1850
    Sherman Indian High School History

    Adam England, Program Director 

    Heritage Museum of Orange County 
    3101 W. Harvard St.
    Santa Ana, CA 92704


    November 14, 2010  
    California Heritage Day
    12 Flags Over California
    The Signing of the First Constitution of California

    A re-enactment and ceremony will be held at the Heritage Museum of Orange County.  

    We are looking for the descendants of all the signers of the California Constitution, whether they were newly arrived to California, or were born in California.

    The California Constitution is unique, the first bilingual constitution in the United States, and possibly in the whole world.  

    The celebration will be held at the Heritage Museum of Orange County.  3101 W. Harvard St. Santa Anta, CA 92704

    The public is invited to enjoy the 11- acre site and tour the Kellogg and Maag homes. There will be music, story-telling, displays, re-enactors, hands-on-activities, and foods to purchase.   

    Period dress is encouraged.  
    Free popcorn and lemonade will add to the festivities.

    We invite historic and genealogical societies, groups, and individuals to share their California family stories and photos.  Tables for displaying are available at no cost. Easels are in short supply.  

    SHHAR is collaborating with the Museum in this celebration.  If you have any additional questions, 
    please call Mimi at 714-894-8161.



    Name       Natives Age Where From District in California Length of Residence Profession
    Jose Anto. Carrillo 53 California Los Angeles All my life Labrador (Sp.) Farmer
    Antonio M. Pico 40 California San Jose All my life Agriculturist
    Jacinto Rodrigues 36 California Santa Barbara All my life Agriculturist
    Manl. Dominguez 46 California Los Angeles All my life Banker
    P. de la Guerra 36 California Santa Barbara All my life  
    J. M. Covarrubias 40 California San Luis Obispo and
    Santa Barbara
    All my life  
    M. G. Vallejo


    42 California Sonoma All my life Military
    Name      Age Where From District in California Length of Residence Profession
    W. M. Gwin 44 Tennessee San Francisco 4 months Farmer
    J. M. Jones 25 Kentucky San Joaquin 4 months Attorney at Law
    Winfield R. Sherwood 32 New York Sacramento 4 months Lawyer
    Henry A. Tefft 26 New York San Luis Obispo 4 months Lawyer
    O. M. Wosencraft 34 Ohio San Joaquin 4 months Physician
    Joseph Hobson 39 Maryland San Francisco 5 months Merchant
    E. O. Crosby 34 New York Sacramento 7 months Lawyer
    John McDougal 32 Ohio Sacramento 7 months Merchant
    Pacificus Ord 34 Maryland Monterey 8 months Lawyer
    M.M. McCarver 42 Kentucky Sacramento 1 year Farmer
    W. M. Steuart 29 Maryland San Francisco 1 year Attorney at Law
    B. F. Moore 29 Florida San Joaquin 1 year Elegant leisure
    Myron Norton 27 New York San Francisco 1 year Lawyer
    J. P. Walker 52 Virginia Sonoma 13 months Farmer
    Ch. T. Botts 40 Virginia Monterey 16 months Attorney at Law
    Henry Hill 33 Virginia San Diego 1 year 5 months U. S. Army
    A. J. Ellis 33 New York San Francisco 2 1/2 years Merchant
    Edw. Gilbert 27 New York San Francisco 2 1/2 years Printer
    Francis J. Lippitt 37 Rhode Island San Francisco 2 years 7 months Lawyer
    Joseph Aram 39 New York San Jose 3 years Farmer
    Elam Brown 52 New York San Jose 3 years Farmer
    Lewis Dent 26 Massachusetts Monterey 3 years Lawyer
    Kimball H. Dimmick 34 New York San Jose 3 years Lawyer
    Stephen C. Foster 28 Maine Los Angeles 3 years Agriculturist
    H.W. Halleck 32 New York Monterey 3 years U. S. Engineer
    J. McH. Hollingsworth 25 Maryland San Joaquin 3 years Lieut. Volunteers
    J.D. Hoppe 35 Maryland San Jose 3 years Merchant
    Benj. S. Lippincott 34 New York San Joaquin 3 1/2 years Trader
    W. E. Shannon 27 Ireland Sacramento 3 years Lawyer
    Thos. L. Vermeule 35 New York San Joaquin 3 years Lawyer
    Rodman M. Price 30 New York San Francisco 4 years U. S. Navy
    Jacob R. Snyder 34 Pennsylvania Sacramento 4 years Surveyor
    R. Semple 42 Kentucky Sonoma 5 years Printer
    L.W. Hastings 30 Ohio Sacramento 6 years Lawyer
    J. A. Sutter 47 Switzerland Sacramento 10 years Farmer
    Julian Hanks 39 Connecticut San Jose 10 years Farmer
    Pedro Sansevaine 31 France San Jose 11 years Negotiant
    Miguel de Pedroena 41 Spain San Diego 12 years Merchant
    Thomas O. Larkin 47 Massachusetts Monterey 16 years Trader
    Hugo Reid 38 Scotland Los Angeles 16 years Farmer
    Abel Stearns 51 Massachusetts Los Angeles 20 years Merchant


      Bearing the Flag
    Design of California state flag was a mistake.
    The states of Texas and California have much in common historically.  Admitted to the Union within five years of each other, both were much larger in area than any existing state (California was over twice as big, and Texas more than three times as the then- largest state, Missouri, and they remained the two biggest states until the admission of Alaska more than a century later, both were wrested from Mexico through uprisings led by American-born revolutionaries, both declared themselves republics before joining the United States, and both later adopted state flags bearing single stars to symbolize their statuses as previously independent entities.  One curious historical oddity distinguished California from Texas, however - the design used for California's state flag was the result of a rather large (and embarrassing) mistake.

    For the complete historical essay, go to:
    Sent by Alex King

    ON THE 14th OF JUNE, 1846



    Q: Mrs. Leese, could you please tell me what you know about the raising of the Bear Flag in Sonoma?

    On June 14, 1846, at about 5:30 in the morning, an old man named don Pepe de la Rosa came to my home and told me that a group of seventy-two ragged desperados had surrounded General Vallejo’s house.  Many of those men were sailors from whaling ships who had jumped ship. They arrested General Vallejo, Captain Salvador Vallejo, and Victor Proudon. 

    When I heard the alarming news, I quickly rushed out to the street to see if there was any truth to what the old man had said. The first thing I saw was Colonel Prudon running off to try to rescue Captain Salvador Vallejo–a ruffian named Benjamin Kelsey was trying to murder Captain Vallejo in cold blood.  What other word would you use to describe the killing of an unarmed prisoner by a strong brute who had seventy men like himself right behind him.

    Kelsey’s comrades had dragged Captain Vallejo off to where Doctor Semple and his group were located, but Prudon arrived in the nick of time to save his life. From appearances, Doctor Semple seemed more humane than the rest of that godforsaken bunch.

    I also saw ex-Commander General Vallejo, who was dressed in the uniform of a Mexican Army general. A large group of rough-looking men were holding him prisoner.  Some of the men were wearing caps made from the skins of coyotes and wolves. Others were wearing slouch hats full of holes or straw hats as black as charcoal. Most of these marauders had on buckskin pants, but some were wearing blue pants that reached only to the knee. Several of the men were not wearing shirts, and only fifteen or twenty of the whole bunch were wearing shoes.

    After talking among themselves for awhile, a good number of the men mounted their horses and rodeoff with the prisoners. General Vallejo, Captain Salvador Vallejo, Colonel Victor

    Prudon, and my husband, Jacob Leese, were taken to Sacramento and were left to the tender mercies of that demon John A. Sutter. Although he had married in Europe and had several children, he had left his wife and children behind and was living openly with two dark mistresses. These women were from the Sandwich Islands. Sutter had brought them to California on his ship.

    After General Vallejo was hurriedly taken away, the marauders who had stayed behind in Sonoma raised a piece of linen cloth on the flagpole located in the corner of the plaza near the old mission church, the cloth was about the size of a large towel, and they had painted a red bear and one star on it.

    Captain John Fremont was the man who had planned this all-out robbery of California. Even though he was an officer of the U.S. Army, it is fair to assume that Fremont was afraid to compromise the honor of his government. He was not about to let the thieves steal California while waving the flag that lovers of liberty throughout the world hold dear, That is why he adopted a flag unknown to civilized nations.

    As soon as the Bear Flag was raised, I was told by the thieves’ interpreter that I was now a prisoner. This interpreter’s name was Solis. He was a former servant of my husband’s.  Solis pointed to four ragged desperados who were standing close to me with their pistols drawn.  I surrendered because it would have been useless to resist.  They demanded the key to my husband’s storehouse, and I gave it to them.  No sooner had I given them the key than they called their friends over and began ransacking the storehouse. There were enough provisions and liquor there to feed

    two hundred men for two hundred years.

    A few days after my husband was taken away, John C, Fremont arrived in Sonoma.  He said that his sole purpose for coming was to arrange matters to everyone’s satisfaction and to protect everyone from extortion or oppression.  Many paid writers have characterized Fremont with a great number of endearing epithets, but he was a tremendous coward. 

    Listen to me! I have good reason to say this.  On June 20, we received news that Captain Padilla was on his way to Sonoma with a squad of one hundred men to rescue us..  As soon as Fremont heard about this, he sent for me.  He ordered me to write Padilla a letter and tell him to return to San Jose and not come near Sonoma.

    I flatly refused to do that, but Fremont was bent on having his own way. He told me that if I refused to tell Padilla exactly what he told me to say, and if Padilla approached Sonoma, he would order the was men to burn down our houses with us inside.  I agreed to his demands, not because I wanted to save my own life, but because I was pregnant and did not have the right to endanger the life of my unborn child. Moreover, I judged that a man who had already gone this far would stop at nothing to attain his goals. I also wanted to spare the Californio women from more trouble, so I wrote that ominous letter which forced Captain Padilla to retrace his steps.

    While on alert for Padilla’s possible attack, Fremont changed out of his fancy uniform into a blue shirt. He put away his hat and wrapped an ordinary handkerchief around his head.  He decided to dress like this so he would not be recognized.  Is this the way a brave man behaves?

    During the whole time that Fremont and his ring of thieves were in Sonoma, robberies were very common.  The women did not dare go out for a walk unless they were escorted by their husband or their brothers, One of my servants was a young Indian girl who was about seventeen years old. I swear that John C. Fremont ordered me to send that girl to the officers’ barracks many times.  However, by resorting to tricks, I was able to save that poor girl from falling into the hands of that lawless band of thugs who had imprisoned my husband.

    During the two months that my husband was held prisoner, I sent him exquisite food and gold, but that despicable Sutter arranged it so my husband never received one dollar.  On more than one occasion Sutter had been forced to acknowledge the superiority of Mr. Leese.  For an entire week, Sutter made my husband sleep on the bare floor and assigned an uncouth man from Missouri to guard his room.  Whenever the guard opened the door, he would insult the prisoners. This band of ungrateful horse thieves, trappers, and runaway sailors had deprived these prisoners of their liberty.

    I could tell you about many crimes committed by the Bear Flag mob, but since I don’t want to detain you any longer, I will end this conversation with this: those hateful men instilled so much hate in me for the people of their race that, even though twenty-eight years have gone by since then, I still cannot forget the insults they heaped upon me.

    Since I have not wanted to have anything to do with them, I have refused to learn their language.                                     
    Monterey, January 27, 1874 by Rosalia de Leese   Rosana Leese



    TESTIMONIOS, Early California through  Eyes of Women, Bancroft Library 2006 pp 25-29
    Sent by Galal Kernahan 

    December Term, 1859

    Editor: Example of Californios battles to maintain properties  

    64 U.S. 515
    23 How. 515
    16 L.Ed. 545

    THIS was an appeal from the District Court of the United States for the northern district of California. The case is stated in the opinion of the court. It was argued by Mr. Benham and Mr. Cushing for the appellants, and by Mr. Stanton and Mr. Della Torre for the United States.



    Chino Valley Genealogy Seminar
    Chino Stake Center, 3332 Eucalyptus St.  Chino, CA 
    Sat. September 18, 2010, Pre-register by Sept 7th
    Keynote Speaker - Geoff Rasmussen - Legacy Family Tree
    Class Syllabus $14  Box Lunch $7.50 Register Online: 
    Sent by Lorraine Hernandez 

    Latino Times
    a Bilingual Publication in central Valley
    Sent by Jaime Cader 

    Introduction to:
    Basques in the Americas From 1492 to1850:
    A Chronology
    By Stephen T. Bass
    Bakersfield, California February 2008

    The introduction to a 70 page study, the entire text is online with nine pages of references. 
    Excellent overview, with an emphasis of the Basque in California.

    The Basques have been a successful minority for centuries, keeping their unique culture, physiology and language alive and distinct longer than any other Western European population. In addition, outside of the Basque homeland, their efforts in the development of the New World were instrumental in helping make the U.S., Mexico, Central and South America what they are today. Most history books, however, have generally referred to these early Basque adventurers either as Spanish or French. Rarely was the term “Basque” used to identify these pioneers. Recently, interested scholars have been much more definitive in their descriptions of the origins of these Argonauts. They have identified Basque fishermen, sailors, explorers, soldiers of fortune, settlers, clergymen, frontiersmen and politicians who were involved in the discovery and development of the Americas from before Columbus’ first voyage through colonization and beyond. This also includes generations of men and women of Basque descent born in these new

    As examples, we now know that the first map to ever show the Americas was drawn by a Basque and that the first Thanksgiving meal shared in what was to become the United States was actually done so by Basques 25 years before the Pilgrims. We also now recognize that many familiar  cities and features in California and other areas of the New World were named by early Basques. These facts and others are shared on the following pages in a chronological review of some, but by no means all, of the involvement and accomplishments of Basques in the exploration,
    development and settlement of the Americas. While this paper deals primarily with what is now the Southwestern United States, Mexico, and Central America, Basques have made major contributions in South America, the Philippines, Eastern Canada and other areas of the world as well.

    This paper is not intended to be a thorough history of Basques in the New World nor is it an exhaustive study of the topic. Rather, the names and events listed herein are basically an attempt to demonstrate this extensive Basque involvement and to stimulate the reader’s individual interest in the subject matter to be used as a stepping-stone towards more serious reading and research. As such, I have not footnoted or indexed the text. This will not please academia but it makes for greater ease in casual reading. The information was gleaned from the listed references. (All
    rights are reserved and permission to cite is granted.)

    I must thank my wife Judy and the entire Errea family, without whom this project would have never been undertaken. Her paternal grandparents, Gualberto Errea and Manuela Errea Echenique came to California from Spain in 1910 and 1918, respectively. I must also thank two very important Colonial Basques scholars: Donald T. Garate and Joxe Mallea-Olaetxe. Both have been unselfish with their help to me on this project. Lastly, this paper is dedicated to the
    thousands of Basque men and women who came to the U.S. in the last waves of immigration in the mid-Nineteenth Century and early to mid-Twentieth Century. Their fortitude, work ethic and assimilation into a new society and culture are both admirable and humbling. According to Basque author Pierre Lhande, writing in 1909, “To be an authentic Basque, there are three requirements: To carry a sonorous name that indicates the origin; to speak the language of the sons of Aitor, and…to have an uncle in the Americas.” This paper is for all those uncles-- and aunts.

    Steve Bass
    Bakersfield, California

    Dear Family,
    Last evening, the story regarding the Sherman Indian School in Perris and then Riverside, was aired on TV.  It was an exellent account about how children of persons of American Indian heritage were treated in the 1800s thru 1946.  The
    web site is excellent for people who are creating their family tree histories. The names of students who have been enrolled at the school are listed.  Our past history must be revered and preserved.  
    Lorri Frain

          In 1890, Mr. Horatio N. Rust was instructed by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs to find a suitable site in Southern California for an Indian school. In 1892 the first Indian school in Southern California was located in Perris, Ca. The student population was primarily from California Indian tribes, but there were eight Pima students in attendance.
          In 1897 Superintendent Harwood Hall realized the need for a better location, as the water supply at Perris was inadequate. Mr. Hall appealed to James Schoolcraft Sherman, Chairman of Indian Affairs in the U.S. House of
    Representatives and later U.S. Vice President, for funds to build a school in the area of Riverside, Ca. On May 31, 1900, Congress authorized $75,000 for the construction of Sherman Institute on its present site.
          On July 18, 1901, the cornerstone of the old school building was laid. The school was named for Mr. Sherman who had been responsible for making this project a reality. Nine buildings were completed and officially accepted in May 1902. In the fall of 1902, eight grades were in operation. Agriculture and industrial arts programs were added later to the school’s curriculum.
          By 1908, 550 students were enrolled, using 34 buildings. A junior high school program was in effect, and was comprised of academic subjects and industrial training such as carpentry, painting, cabinetmaking, black-smithing,
    wagon making, shoe and harness shops, tailoring, agriculture, home economics, and home nursing. The “outing system” was inaugurated at that time. 
          The Sherman Farm of 110 acres, near the present community of Home Gardens on Magnolia Ave, was not only a training ground, but also a source of food for the school. The government no longer owns the property; however, a small area is set aside as a school cemetery and is owned by the U.S. Government.
          In 1909, 43 tribes were represented on the school roll, with Indians not only from California, but also from the Pacific Northwest, southwest, and the Plains. Education was limited to grades one to eight at that time. Later, in
    1916, pupils were enrolled in grades one to ten. By 1926, the school offered a complete elementary and high school curriculum, as well as a course in cosmetology. The enrollment had reached 1,000 students. An enrollment of 1,256
    was recorded in 1930, and in 1932 Sherman became an accredited high school.

    During the depression years, from 1930 to 1936, the enrollment decreased. California Indians became integrated into public schools.

          In 1946 the desperate need for education among the Navajos guaranteed the continuance of Sherman as an educational institution. October 1946 marked the opening of the Special Program to 350 Navajo young people, age 12 to 20, who had never experienced a formal education. By 1948 the regular elementary and high school programs were discontinued. The Special Program was in operation for more than 15 years. Each year the school made gradual changed to meet the needs of the students. During this time no California Indians were permitted at the school.
          In the fall of 1963 the ninth and tenth grades were revived. Sherman re-opened enrollment to other tribes, including California Indian tribes. The school again moved in the direction of a high school program, adding a grade each year until the school began graduating classes in 1966.
          In 1967 eight buildings were deemed unable to withstand a major earthquake. One of the last buildings to be razed was the old school building in 1970. The old cornerstone from this building and its contents were saved and
    placed in Sherman Museum (old Administrative Building), the last of the original buildings. In 1971, Sherman was re-accredited as a high school, and became known as Sherman Indian High School.
          The museum houses records from the school’s early days to the present. Over 2,000 catalogued items or artifacts of American Indian origin are housed there. These items were acquired from friends of the school and museum. In 1974, the Sherman Indian Museum was designated as a Riverside Cultural Heritage Landmark. It was entered into the National Register of Historic Places in 1980.
          At present day Sherman, the school hosts an average of 300 to 500 students who come from reservations spanning the United States. Any student who is a tribal member of a federally-recognized tribe with at least one-fourth blood
    quantum may apply to attend. The school is funded entirely by the United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, and the Bureau of Indian Education. Attendance is free of charge.
          The reasoning behind leaving home to come to Sherman vary. Some students attend SIHS because they live too far away from school, back at home, to attend daily. Others attend SIHS because they had negative experiences attending
    non-Native schools, and more than a few attend SIHS simply due to it being a family tradition.  Sherman enforced a Reduction In Force of employees in the spring of 2009, due to budget constraints. Approximately 34 employees were
    laid off. Despite this, Sherman faculty and staff still work to provide a safe, healthy and productive site for their Native American students.

    -Stephanie Mushrush



    Tucson La Raza Studies
    Important Southwest Historic Dates, found on a JUNE 1973 Calendar
    'La Phoeniquera' exhibit highlights urban Phoenix until, Oct. 29, 2010
    Tucson La Raza Studies
    Tucson La Raza Studies is currently building a comprehensive web site to inform the disparate communities about what La Raza Studies is and what the controversy is about. Recently I attended a conference sponsored by Tucson program on pedagogy that is far superior to what I have seen on college and university campuses.

    The web site of For Chicana/o studies is intended to complement the Tucson site and will concentrate on providing historical context by including documents and photos of historical events. Mexicans are not newcomers to the state and as in the case of the blacks in the south, Mexican labor built Arizona--especially copper mining and agribusiness.
    After the American takeover they initially arrived from Sonora and Chihuahua. By the 1900s armies arrived from the interior of Mexico. Please check out the site. 

    Donations welcomed. 
    2114 W. GRANT ROAD
    P.O. BOX 125
    TUCSON, AZ 85745

    Sent by Rudy Acuña 
    Important Southwest Historic Dates, found on a JUNE 1973 Calendar
    June 1-Two outstanding units stationed in the Phillippines were the 200th and the 515th Coast Artillery; comprised of
                Mexican Americans from Arizona, Texas, and new Mexico.
    June 2-Legal immigration from Mexico reached its peak of 65,000 in 1956; averaged more than 42,000 per year
                through 1966.
    June 3-"Zoot-Suit riots" began in Los Angeles, 1943.
    June 4-The Great Depression resulted in drastic decline in immigration from Mexico, produced a massive reverse
    June 5-Reies Lopez Tijerina, founder of Alianza de los Pueblos Libres, staged "courthouse raid" at Tierra Amarilla,
                New Mexico, 1967.
    June 6-California's Big Bear Rebellion began with the capture of General Mariano Vallejo, military commander of the
                Mexican forces in California, 1846.
    June 7-Large numbers of Chicano families earn under $3,000 per year; from 86% in some counties in Texas, to 24% in 
               some counties in California, 1967. 
    June 8-In California, Mexican-Americans outnumber Negroes by almost two to one; .
    June 9-Vicente T. Ximenes took oath of office as commissioner of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission 
                (E.E.O.C.) 1967.
    June 10-Secretary of labor Willard Wirtz and OEO Director Sargent Shriver announced the joint funding of Operation
                "SER". 1966.
    June 11-A formal inquiry was begun by the Department of State into the Los Angeles Zoot-Suit riots, 1943.
    June 12-New Mexico was first settled in 1598; Texas after 1700; California after 1769.
    June 13-Tony Calderon, San Antonio civic leader, founder, and president of involvement of Mexican-Americans in    
          Gainful Endeavors (IMAGE), born 1938.
    June 14-The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 drove the Spaniards completely out of New Mexico; they took refuge in El Paso 
                  until the re-conquest 13 years later.
    June 15-Mexican farm workers in Texas, under leadership of Eugene Nelson, called a strike, 1966.
    June 16-Ford Foundation announced formation of Southwestern Council of La Raza to coordinate efforts to achieve 
                 civil rights for Mexican Americans, 1968.
    June 17-History of Spanish New Mexico shows almost unrelieved combat between the "two majesties"; ecclesiastical              and political officials, both sought predominance.
    June 18-Mission San Buenaventura sold by Govenor Pico to Don Jose Arnaz, California's first real estate promoter,              1846.
    June 19-Julian Nava, Professor, San Fernando Valley State College; M.A. (1952) and Ph.D (1955) Harvard
          University; author, "Mexican-Americans--Past, Present, and Future" born 1927.
    June 20-The opening of the Santa Fe Trail by William Bicknell brought Anglos into Santa Fe to live, 1822.
    June 21-Luis Antonio Arguello, First governor of upper California under the government of Mexico, born in San
          Francisco, 1784.
    June 22-Alex P. Garcia, California State Assemblyman, elected in 1968; first Mexican American to serve the 40th
          Assembly District, born 1929.
    June 23-Settlement of Texas began in earnest in 1821 when Moses Austin brought American families into Texas in
          exchange for grants of land.
    June 24-After Mexico won independence from Spain (1821), California became a Mexican province with Monterey
          its capital.
    June 25-Rodolfo "Corky" Gonzalez founded the Crusade for Justice in Denver in 1965 to further Chicano demands for
          jobs, better housing, and land reform.
    June 26-Cortez attacked by the Aztecs; Moctezuma II interceded but was stoned by athe mob. 1520.
    June 27-Juan Cabrillo sailed up -- Mexico in search of -- California "very close to paradise" 1542.
    June 28-Arizona copper miners, Mexican and non-Mexican continued to strike. 1917.
    June 29-The U.S. ratified the Gadsden Purchase which brought 29,640 square miles of modern Arizona and New
          Mexico south of the Gila River to the U.S. 1854.
    June 30-Death of Moctezuma II from the effect of his wounds.1520.

    Gloria Candelaria
    Victoria, Texas

    'La Phoeniquera' exhibit highlights urban Phoenix 
    Exhibit at Arizona Latino Arts and Cultural Center runs until Oct. 29, 2010

    "The artists who created this work are living and breathing the changes that are unfolding right before our eyes, including the opening of our own cultural center," said Linda Tórres, president of Advocates for Latino Arts and Culture. "This exhibit puts the spotlight on our community's rapidly evolving urban landscape. Five years ago, we didn't have the light rail system and many of the newer buildings and other amenities we now enjoy. At the same time, urban Phoenix is about a heritage that stretches back centuries to our indigenous populations, as well as the distinct cultural mark that has been made by Latinos and others who've made their homes here. That's why we've named this exhibit "La Phoeniquera."

    ALAC's Mission is the promotion, preservation & education of Latin@ Arts & Culture for the Valley of the Sun. There are more than 25 artists represented, including José Andres Giron, Irma Sanchez, Martin Moreno, Jim Covarrubias, Reggie Casillas, Joe Ray, David Romo and Tony Tocora.

    The permanent exhibits at La Galeria 147 feature the works of Arizona artists and artisans ranging from sculpted hand carved wood, paintings, and photography, which reflects contemporary and folk art. In La Tiendita gift shop, pottery, images of photography from around Arizona, beautiful hand blown glass, hand crafted jewelry, folk art and unique treasures from Latin America is available. 

    James Garcia, 602-460-1374 (cell), 
    Linda Tórres, 602.793.1293 (cell), 
    ALAC | 147 E. Adams St. Phoenix, Arizona. 85004 | 602.254-9817 | | 



    Indigenous Pride Rising with Name Issue in Mexico
    On this day in Texas History
    History of the Americas From an Indigenous Perspective compiled by Bobby González
    Indigenous pride rising with name issue in Mexico
    By: Hector Tobar and Cecilia Sanchez, LA Times, May 2, 2007

    MEXICO CITY — The daughter born to Cesar Cruz Benitez and Marisela Rivas has no official name. Which is rather strange considering the girl is almost 2 years old.

    Her parents live in Tepeji del Rio, a town in an arid corner of Hidalgo state north of Mexico City. Speakers of the indigenous language Hnahnu, they call their little girl Doni_Zana, or "flower of the world" in Hnahnu.

    But Cruz's attempts to register the baby's name with the authorities have been rebuffed. The state's computers, officials say, don't accommodate the characters -- including an underscore -- that represent the distinctive sounds of the Hnahnu language.

    For Cruz and other Hnahnu, the case has become a human rights issue highlighting what they say is discrimination against their people, an indigenous group of several thousand people in central Mexico. To some outsiders they are known as the Otomi, a name given to them by Spanish conquistadors five centuries ago.

    "My daughter doesn't have a name yet, but I'm not going to give up," Cruz, an artisan, said in a telephone interview. "If necessary, I'll go to the international organizations to help me."

    Like Cruz and his wife, three of their four other daughters have official names not from the Hnahnu language. The girls are Jocelyn, Perla and Antonia.

    But in Hidalgo, as in other corners of Latin America, indigenous pride is growing. And the Cruz-Rivas family has been looking to embrace the language of their ancestors.

    "This isn't some whim of mine," Cruz said.

    "This has become a struggle to preserve our traditions, our culture and our language.... I don't know why it's so hard for them to understand and respect our customs."

    Cruz said members of his community are often pressured to change the names of their children to Spanish names, or at least something that sounds more Spanish. Often, he said, the pressure comes with an ethnic slur.

    When Cruz's sister went to register her son's indigenous name, she too was rejected, he said.

    "They told her at the registry that those names weren't allowed because they were Indian names," Cruz said. "They recommended another name -- Alfred. That's a foreign name. So that boy is indigenous but he's now called Alfred."

    Hidalgo officials said the problem is related to the computer system installed when the state retooled its information technology in 1999 to guard against the so-called millennium bug. The new system, used to produce identity cards, won't accept characters outside the Spanish alphabet.

    "The two dots over the A's and the underscore ... won't go through the computer," Jose Antonio Bulos, director of the State Family Registry in Hidalgo, told the Mexico City newspaper Reforma.

    "That means the child won't be able to get a Unique Population Registration Code," the equivalent of a Social Security number, Bulos said. The code is derived, in part, from the first letters of a person's given name and surname.

    The case has been taken up by the Human Rights Commission of Hidalgo.

    "We believe that it's the right of the parents to give their daughter the name they want," said commission spokesman Fernando Hidalgo Vergara.

    The commission is pushing the state to update its computers.

    State officials suggested to Cruz that he simply drop the two dots and the underscore from Doni_Zana's name on official documents. But if he did so, the name would no longer mean "flower of the world" in Hnahnu, he said. Instead, it would be "stone of death."  "Of course, we don't want that," Cruz said.

    Sent by: Sister Mary Sevilla


    "The two            

    On this day in Texas History

    Editor:  This is new to me: On this day in Texas History . . provided by Jean Heide 

     August 19:  Apaches bury the hatchet

    On this day in 1749, four Apache chiefs, accompanied by numerous followers, buried a hatchet along with other weapons in a peace ceremony in San Antonio. The ceremony signified the Apaches' acceptance of Christian
    conversion in exchange for Spanish protection from Comanche raids, which had decimated the Apache population. 

    Five years later Giraldo de Terreros established San Lorenzo, the first formal mission for the Texas Apaches, in the jurisdiction of San Juan Bautista in Mexico.  When the Apaches revolted and abandoned the mission less than a year later, the missionaries argued in favor of a new mission closer to Apache territory. Construction of the ill-fated mission of Santa Cruz de San Sabá, in the heart of Apachería, began in April 1757; on March 16 of the following year, a party of 2,000 Comanche and allied Indians killed eight of the inhabitants and burned the mission buildings.

    Links to related Handbook of Texas Online articles

    Other Texas Day by Day articles for this date
    Pioneer Methodist missionary enters Texas (1837)
    Apaches bury the hatchet (1749)
    John Selman kills John Wesley Hardin (1895

    Sent by Jack Cowan


    History of the Americas From an Indigenous Perspective. 
    A suggested reading list for the general public.
    Compiled by Bobby González

    Deloria, Vine, Jr. The World We Used to Live in: Remembering the Powers of the Medicine Men. Golden: Fulcrum Publishing, 2006.

    Galeano, Eduardo. The Open Veins of Latin America: Five Centuries of the Pillage of a Continent. New York: Monthly Press Review. 1997.

    Weatherford, Jack. Indian Givers: How the Indians of the Americas Transformed the World. New York: Fawcett Columbine. 1988.

    Minges, Patrick, ed. Black Indian Slave Narratives. Winston-Salem: John F. Blair. 2004.

    Stannard, David E. American Holocaust: Columbus and the Conquest of the New World. New York: Oxford University Press. 1992.

    Restall, Matthew. Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest. New York: Oxford University Press. 2003.

    Moore, Marijo, ed. Eating Fire, Tasting Blood: Breaking the Great Silence of the American Indian Holocaust. New York: Thunder Mouth’s Press. 2006.

    Marshall, Joseph M., The Lakota Way: Stories and Lessons for Living: Native American Wisdom on Ethics and Character. New York: Penguin Compass.

    Leon-Portilla, Miguel,ed. The Broken Spears: The Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico. Boston: Beacon Press. 1992.

    Marmon Silko, Leslie. Yellow Woman and a Beauty of the Spirit: Essays on Native American Life Today. New York: Simon and Shuster. 1997.

    Ross, John. Rebellion from the Roots: Indian Uprising in Chiapas. Monroe: Common Courage Press. 1995.

    Johnson, Sandy and Dan Budnick (photographer). Book of Elders: The Life Stories and Wisdom of Great American Indians as Told to Sandy Johnson. San Francisco: Harper Collins. 1994.

    Gonzalez, Bobby. The Last Puerto Rican Indian: A Collection of Dangerous Poetry.
    New York: Cemi Press. 2006.
    Bobby González is multicultural lecturer, storyteller and poet based in New York City. 
    "Embrace Your Roots: Create a New Future by Drawing on Your Heritage."




    Guatemala Tomb May Hold Founder of a Maya Dynasty
    Mexico Finds Tunnel, Possible Tombs Under Ruins

    Guatemala Tomb May Hold Founder of a Maya Dynasty
    The remains in the well-preserved chamber are arrayed like a dancer, and are accompanied by the bodies of six infants.

    U.S. and Guatemalan archaeologists have found an unusually well-preserved burial chamber that they believe is the tomb of the founder of a Maya dynasty, a find that promises new information about the empire's formative period.

    Archaeologist Stephen Houston of Brown University said the tomb was so tightly sealed that the team found remains of textiles, wood carvings and other organic objects that normally don't last in the humid tropics. Even after 1,600 years, the smell of decay was still present when the team broke through the walls of the tomb, Houston said.

    Members of the archaeology team work at the El Zotz site in northern Guatemala. (Arturo Godoy, AP / July 19, 2010)
    56Share  0diggsdigg  Thomas H. Maugh II, Los Angeles Times, July 26, 2010

    Enclosed with the remains of what the team believes to be an early king were the bodies of six infants, who may have been sacrificed to be sent to the afterlife with the king. Blood-red bowls surrounding the tomb contained human fingers and teeth wrapped in decaying organic matter, perhaps leaves, that may have been symbolic meal offerings, Houston said. Sacramental breads are still wrapped in that manner today in the region, he said.

    "If [Houston] is right and this is a dynastic founder … it would be one of the only times we've found one of these people," said archaeologist Simon Martin of the University of Pennsylvania, who was not involved in the research. It is also "uncommon to find sacrifices in the tomb.… That is one of the things that marks it out as pretty special."

    The tomb was found at a site called El Zotz, about six miles from the city of Tikal in the Peten region of northern Guatemala. Tikal was one of the largest and most powerful urban centers in the Maya civilization and El Zotz apparently flourished on its border, even though a variety of evidence suggests that relations between the two cities were not good.

    El Zotz was previously known as a small-time tourist destination because of a large population of bats; zotz is Mayan for "bat." Houston's team began mapping the site five years ago and excavating two years later. It had not been much explored by archaeologists, but was heavily looted.

    "The pyramids looked like Swiss cheese," he said.

    Occupation at the site began about 500 BC and was marked by "rapid-fire periods of intense building, pauses, then other periods," he said. "It had a highly episodic quality, what I would have predicted in a frontier zone, periodically buffeted by Tikal and getting caught in the political turbulences of the time."

    The city originally lay in the valley due west of Tikal. But about AD 350, the population went into a dramatic decline and moved to more defensible positions on the escarpment on the sides of the valley. "I suspect they needed to skedaddle because of the increasingly fragile political position," Houston said.

    The new tomb is in a pyramid called El Diablo in "a supremely defensive position" at the top of a steep slope that is difficult to climb. The pyramids of Tikal are visible in the distance. The tomb is at the base of the pyramid and others, most now looted, were built on top — a chronology that supports the idea that the occupant was the founder of a dynasty.

    The tomb was large by Maya standards, about 9 feet deep and 4.5 feet high. It is sealed with alternating layers of mud and rock, which helped preserve the contents.

    The primary occupant, originally installed on a green bier, was arrayed like a dancer, with bell-like ornaments made of shells and "clappers" made of canine teeth. It appears he was wearing an elaborate headdress with small glyphs on it, and his teeth were embedded with jewels.

    "We have known from the '90s on that a big role of kings was to be a ritual dancer," Houston said. "This is the clearest instance I have seen of the king being put in a tomb in that role."

    Dancing was probably associated with the maize god "and is linked to fecundity, growth of the Earth and sprouts of new seeds," Martin said. "It was a soulful, powerful thing" that emulated the swaying of maize.

    Researchers are not sure whether the infants were specifically sacrificed to join the king, but they think that might be the case because of what Houston called "a gruesome-looking obsidian blade gunked up with some red substance" found nearby. They haven't yet tested to see if it is blood.

    Other treasures in the tomb included shells imported from the Pacific coast, colorful bowls, remnants of textiles and ingots of a brilliant red pigment called specular hematite, similar to the bronze ingots in Mediterranean shipwrecks.

    "This guy is taking his riches with him," Houston said. "They speak to the vast divide that separates the king from the people who supported him."


    -This is a fantastic find. I am hopeful that the National Geographic prints the story and pictures soon. Thanks. Jose M. 

    Sent by: 

    Jose M. Pena


    Mexico Finds Tunnel, Possible Tombs Under Ruins

    Mexican archaeologists find 1,800-year-old tunnel, possible tombs under Teotihuacan ruins By Mark Stevenson, AP, Teotihuacan, Mexico 



    Jewish DNA
    International Jewish Cemetery Project
    Database for Jewish family history research includes worldwide records
    Hi Mimi, I have added additional evidence of Jewish DNA in our ancestry: UPDATE July 22, 2010 (added Ashkenazi and Ancestry Matching DNA graphics).  Please consider adding this to an upcoming issue of Somos Primos. 

    Thank you, Gary Felix
    Mexico DNA Project Admin. 
    International Jewish Cemetery Project

    Internet Resources for Jewish Latin America and the Caribbean
      South America and Sephardic links. 


    Database for Jewish family history research 
    includes worldwide records

    A valuable resource for Jewish genealogical research has expanded to include records from all over the world. The popular Knowles Collection from FamilySearch is a free database connecting Jewish records of 115,000 people in 30 countries. The combining of those records into one collection makes it easier for researchers to find family sources.

    "One of the biggest problems with Jewish records is that they are held all over the place and one person can have records in multiple locations," said Todd Knowles, FamilySearch research consultant and the collection's manager. "That means someone just starting to research their Jewish ancestry will have to drive from archive to archive and from synagogue to synagogue to find what they are looking for. What this collection does is put all the records in one location, which is an incredible time and cost savings for patrons."

    Knowles started the database in 2007 to help him find his own Jewish ancestry. The collection began with 6,500 records from the British Isles, but has now rapidly expanded into five geographically-based databases with more than 115,000 names:

    The Jews of the British Isles — 82,000 names
    The Jews of the Americas — 10,300 names
    The Jews of Europe — 18,697 names
    The Jews of the Caribbean — 2,200 names
    The Jews of Africa and the Orient — 367 names

    The Knowles Collection is compiled from more than 200 different sources that have been transcribed and combined by volunteers. There is also a complete list of where the original records can be found. The entire collection is now linked electronically as families and fully searchable on FamilySearch's Community Trees project, found at Researchers can also download GEDCOM versions of each collection from .

    According to Knowles, much of the growth of the collection is due to the continued donations of family records by people throughout the world.

    "We have received donations from families in the British Isles, Germany, Russia, Jamaica, and many places in the United States," he said. "We also have a great collection of synagogue records from Mattersdorf, Hungary, as well as burial records from Charleston, S.C., and New Orleans, La. It seems as word spreads, more and more custodians of these types of records want to be involved by donating copies of their related work to help expand the collection. "

    Those interested in donating their Jewish family records to the Knowles Collection may contact Todd Knowles at .

    FamilySearch International is the largest genealogy organization in the world. Millions of people use FamilySearch records, resources and services to learn more about their family history. To help in this great pursuit, FamilySearch has been actively gathering, preserving and sharing genealogical records worldwide for over 100 years. FamilySearch is a nonprofit organization sponsored by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Patrons may access FamilySearch services and resources free online at or through more than 4,600 family history centers in 132 countries, including the renowned Family History Library in Salt Lake City, Utah.

    © 2010 Deseret News Publishing Company

    Benicio Samuel Sanchez Garcia 
    Genealogista e Historiador Familiar
    Cell Phone (81) 1667-2480



    Ebony Society of Philatelic Events and Reflections, since 1988
    Black Heritage Stamp Issues 1978 to 2002
    Thumbmail Page and Links to biographies
     US Post Office Main site for stamp information


    Photos of Mexican and Puerto Ricans who settled in Chicago in the early 1900’s. 
    Latino Author Robert Renteria a Finalist, for 5th Annual Chicago Latino Network Awards
    Photos of Mexican and Puerto Ricans who settled in Chicago in the early 1900’s.

    Latino Author Robert Renteria Selected as Finalist 
    for 5th Annual Chicago Latino Network Awards


    Renteria's nomination results from his impact in the community, helping Latino youth make better choices, avoiding gangs, drugs and violence.
    CHICAGO, Ill. (July 20, 2010) -Becoming a role model in the Chicagoland community took Robert Renteria by surprise.  Even as he wrote his autobiography, "From the Barrio to the Board Room," he simply wanted to share his story with today's youth as a cautionary tale.  Little did he realize how his book would resonate with both youth and adults, Latino and non-Latino, and in areas far beyond the Windy City. 
    In his book, Renteria describes how he made the transition from a seventeen-year-old, struggling with drugs and violence in East Los Angeles, to becoming Vice-President of a publicly traded company on the NYSE.  He tells of growing up poor, with a single mother, and seeing how his father's path of drugs and alcohol led to an early death.  Renteria soon realized that he needed to change his own path to alter his future. 
    Although he did not graduate from high school, Renteria understood that education was the key. After receiving his G.E.D. and serving honorably in the military for more than 7 years, he came to Chicago with a mission to improve his life.  Through hard work, he found success, and as he did, he wanted to share that story of success with others.
    "This was my effort to help our youth make better choices," Renteria says. "Bright futures are built on a strong education."
    His book, "From the Barrio to the Board Room", is now used as part of the curriculum in Chicago Public Schools and around the country.  Students read the book and use the accompanying exercises and discussion questions to analyze their own lives and learn how to make better choices.
    To continue fueling the impact of this book, the non-profit organization, From the Barrio Foundation, was formed, with Renteria as chairman.  This organization uses Renteria's story as a springboard to reach youth. It's mission: to address conditions that help youth avoid choices which may lead to violence, delinquency, drugs and gangs, and to promote education, valuing a sense of pride and accomplishment, and advocating social values which foster improved self-esteem.
    Although Renteria's community leadership has sprung from his story, he confesses: "this book is not even about me.  It's about hope and dreams." 
    Cheryl Maraffio, Executive Vice President of From the Barrio agrees.  What makes the book so special, she says, is that it resonates in some way with all who read it.  "They find a piece of themselves in the book," she says.
    Now, The Chicago Latino Network is recognizing Renteria's work.  Each year, the organization of 46,000 U.S. born Latinos, seeks out people who have provided outstanding service to the community-not just in the past year, but also as a cumulative effort over several years. Renteria, and three others, were selected from a field of thirty-two candidates for Latino Professional of the Year. 
    Winners will be announced at the 2010 Chicago Latino Network Awards dinner on Friday, September 24, 2010 at the Drake Hotel in Chicago.
    While he is honored to be considered for the award, Renteria knows that whether he wins or not, his dedication to give youths hope and a road map for success will continue.
    Although "From the Barrio to the Boardroom" is currently available in Spanish and English, Renteria wants his story to reach even more people.  Working with Round Table Companies, his publisher Corey Michael Blake, and SmarterComics™ the book has been transformed into a comic book version, called "Mi Barrio".  This illustrated version provides another lens through which readers can view Robert's story.
    "This is going to be controversial," Blake says.  "When you see Robert's stories brought to life visually, it hits home differently than words on a page. We've been careful not to glamorize drug use or violence in the comic, but we keep it real.  The kids will respond because we're telling it like it is."
    Renteria proudly and honorably embraces his role as a civic leader.  "We need strong Latino role models," he says.
    His military experience helped him as well, he says.  "In the military, it's lead, follow, or get out of the way," he says.  "I chose to lead."
    About the From the Barrio Foundation
    From the Barrio Foundation is a 501(c)(3) non-profit corporation committed to using Renteria's life, business experience and role as a civic leader to help eliminate conditions that foster violence, delinquency, drugs, and gangs. The book From the Barrio to the Board Room is a tool and Renteria is a resource who promotes education, a sense of pride and accomplishment, and self-esteem within the youth of area communities. The From the Barrio Foundation will continue to expand upon Renteria's work to inspire and motivate teens and at-risk youth, as well as anyone chasing the American Dream, so they can make the choices necessary to realize their personal goals and accept the obligation and responsibility of effectively mentoring others. For more information, visit or Google Robert Renteria.
    About Chicago Latino Online
    Chicago Latino Network is in its 10th year of providing online information and networking opportunities for acculturated Latinos in the Chicagoland area. With its pulse on the Latino lifestyle, issues and culture, the Chicago Latino Network targets entrepreneurs and professionals who are influential in their community.
    To learn more, please contact Robert's publisher Corey Michael Blake at or call him at 224.475.0392.




    Delacroix, Louisiana was insulated from history by wetlands 
    Matamoros Marriage of 1837, Texas/Louisiana Connection
    New Orleans Picayune-December 1847
    LSU Friends of Spanish Studies, dedicated to Hispanic influence in Louisiana 
    The Canary Islanders Heritage Society of Louisiana

    Louisiana Genealogical & Historical Society

    Sept 18-19, 2010: Fiestas Patrias,  Aurora, Illinois Hispanic Chamber of Commerce

    Delacroix, Louisiana was insulated from history by wetlands: 
    Part two of four by Bob Marshall

    Monday, August 02, 2010, Bob Marshall, The Times-Picayune
    As children Henry Martinez, Lloyd Serigne and Thomas Gonzales never questioned why their home village of Delacroix was located deep in a wetlands wilderness 30 miles south of New Orleans. It wasn't just a great place for children -- with woods and bayous, marshes and swamps, fishing, hunting and hundreds of friends and neighbors -- it also seemed like a logical place for a growing, bustling community.

    View full size Marion Post Wolcott, Farm Security AdministrationSpanish muskrat trappers were photographed between 1939 and 1941 returning to their camp on Delacroix Island in their pirogues. "We didn't feel isolated or anything," Serigne said. "To us, living there seemed the way life was supposed to be. It just seemed like someone made a smart decision."

    History has another story, one that involves national ambitions in the age of global imperialism, royal decrees, civil wars and traumatic social upheavals.  It turns out the wetlands community of Delacroix, which thrived on the banks of Bayou terre aux Boeufs for 200 years, was never meant to be.

    "The people who left the Canary Islands never intended to live in the area around what would become Delacroix," said William de Marigny Highland, St. Bernard Parish historian, and president of Los Islenos Heritage and Cultural Society. "This is a complicated story."

    It begins in the late 1777, a period when the Canary Islands were not the vacation mecca they are today. The archipelago off the northwest coast of Africa was a strategically important staging area for Spain's colonial ambitions in the New World, but it was a hard life for residents. They struggled to scratch out a living on a dry, rocky landscape, with disease and famine constant companions.

    So when King Phillip III offered houses, a stipend and -- most important -- free holdings on fertile land in the far-off colony of Louisiana, it was no surprise the response was overwhelming. The government had sought 700 volunteers; more than 2,000 would eventually make the trip. 

    King Phillip had a specific demographic in mind, according to historian Gilbert Din. "The recruits were required to be from 17 to 36 years old, healthy, without vices, and at least 5' 1/2" tall. Butchers, gypsies, mulattoes, and executioners were not permitted to sign up." 

    The offer of new homes and land to this group was not an act of charity by the king, but a move to protect his ambitions.  "Spain had acquired New Orleans from France and knew that holding that city was the key to checking England's ideas for expanding its dominion west of the Mississippi River," Hyland explained. "Whoever controlled New Orleans, controlled the Mississippi River valley from the Gulf to Canada. 

    "Only about 4,000 people -- Europeans and slaves -- lived in New Orleans at the time. Spain knew it needed more residents and settlements to protect its claim."  New Orleans was vulnerable to attack via the high ground next to the river, Hyland said, so Spain wanted to develop communities to address that vulnerability. 


    The first Canary Islanders stepped off the Santisimo Sacramento in New Orleans on Nov. 1, 1778, and by July of the next year almost 1,600 had made the crossing. The newcomers would start four new settlements. Two would be north of the city: Valenzuela, at the point where Bayou Lafourche left the Mississippi River, near present-day Donaldsonville; and Galveztown, on the Amite River off Lake Maurepas. Two would be south of the city; one on the west bank of the river at Barataria, and the other on the east bank south of the city at Saint Bernard -- San Barnardo to the Spanish newcomers. 

    "St. Bernard would become an area of plantations growing everything from indigo and sugar cane to rice and vegetables, and raising livestock," Hyland said. "Most of the Canary Islanders would settle in that area and work on those plantations, as well as producing some of their own crops and goods on their own properties." 

    The plantations occupied prime property along Bayou Terre aux Boeufs, which at that time flowed directly from the Mississippi River. Centuries of annual floods had spread rich alluvial soils and created high ground. The plantation names are carried by many current communities: Poydras, Toca, St. Bernard, Creedmore, Kenilworth and Contreras. 

    Buyers were photographed grading muskrat furs at an auction between 1939 and 1941 at a dance hall in Delacroix.

    "This became a very prosperous area." Hyland said. "One of the first railroads in the country would be built down there to carry goods to New Orleans markets. Many of the residents would speak Spanish at home, but learned French so they could do business in the city."

    And Bayou Terre aux Boeufs was the main thoroughfare. The waterway flowed south and east all the way to Chandeleur Sound, twisting through the wild wetlands on the edges of the great delta. Trappers, fishermen and hunters had outposts there, but otherwise the area was the domain of runaway slaves and a few Native Americans. The Civil War would change all that.

    "The war destroyed the plantation culture," said Hyland. "Many of the Canary Islanders no longer had jobs. They also didn't have property.  "So when they began looking for a place to settle -- to squat -- they already knew about this area down Terre aux Boeufs that was owned by a Frenchman who had never come to Louisiana."

    The property was called La Isla du de la Croix -- the island belonging to Francois du Suau de la Croix. It was a large section of high ridges, swamps and marsh along both sides of Bayou Terre aux Boeufs, about 10 miles from the plantations.

    View full size
    A Spanish trapper's wife on Delacroix Island was photographed between 1939 and 1941 holding dried muskrat skins iIn front of their camp in the marshes.

    It was known simply as La Isla -- The Island -- because bayous, small lakes and swamps surrounded a large tract of high ground. Sugar had been planted in the area, but little else. It was still wild land, yet nature had plenty to offer.

    Los Islenos -- The Islanders, as the new settlers would become known -- could fish for shrimp, crabs, trout and turtles. They could trap fur-bearing animals like mink and muskrat and otter, hunt ducks and geese and deer and pick moss for furniture. They had plenty of high, dry land to grow vegetables and crops, raise livestock, and build their homes from the cypress and oak they also harvested. They could consume everything they took from the land and they could also sell it to markets in the city.

    "They developed a subsistence lifestyle, but they weren't poor," Hyland said. "They flourished."

    View full sizeSpanish trappers on Delacroix Island were photographed between 1939 and 1941 putting muskrat skins on wire stretchers before hanging them up to dry in back of their marsh camp.

    The success of Delacroix led to other settlements, and by the 1930s a string of communities were growing on the high bayou ridges on the St. Bernard delta, including Reggio, Ycloskey, Shell Beach and Hopedale.

    Even as world wars and economic upheaval ignited profound changes in the nation and in New Orleans, life on the bayous, insulated from history by the wetlands, changed little. Residents, spoke Spanish, married, started new families and built new houses.

    "My parents and my grandparents only spoke Spanish because they didn't know English, and they didn't know English because they didn't need it," Gonzales, 72, explained. "And none of us kids spoke English until we went to school -- if we went. "I didn't know that made us any different from people on the outside, 'cause we hardly ever went outside!"  Few residents ever left because, as Henry Martinez explained, there was no reason to leave. They had everything they wanted in the world of Delacroix.

    Bob Marshall can be reached at or 504.826.3539.
    Related stories, Gulf of Mexico oil spill is just the latest blow for Delacroix: Part one of four Video: A Paradise Lost 
    Sent by Bill Carmena

    Matamoros Marriage of 1837
     With thanks to Paul Newfield and Mary Gehman

    From: Richard Crowe
    Date: Wed, 11 Aug 2010 

    My 3rd great grandmother, Catherine HART, with her mother, Bridget HART, and two siblings, Timothy and Ann, were living in Matamoros, Mexico in 1837. They were Mexican citizens because Felix HART, Catherine's father and Bridget's husband, had become a Mexican Citizen by virtue of a Mexican Landgrant in South Texas. Felix died in 1835 and Bridget moved with, Catherine, Timoty and Ann, to the safety of Matamoros, Mexico. 

    Catherine was born in Ireland in 1822 and married David CRAVEN on 17 April 1837 in Matamoros. This date is documented in my family Bible. I am trying to find any other documentation of the marriage. I have contacted the Diocese of Matamoros and the Arch-Diocese in Mexico City, hoping to gain access to records of that marriage with no luck.

    I am also interested in any records of David CRAVEN arriving in Mexico prior to the marriage. 

    David CRAVEN and his wife Catherine HART left Mexico soon after the Marriage and arrived in Donaldsonville, Ascension Parish, Louisiana, USA by February, 1838. I am wondering if they made the journey overland or by ship to New Orleans. I have attempted to search the arrival documents at New Orleans with no luck. Are there departure documents from Mexico if the couple traveled by ship? 

    Richard Crowe
    Escondido, CA wrote: 

    Hi Richard . .  I am forwarding your email to two Louisiana researchers. I think they will find your family history path very interesting.  I will send you some information on Matamoros. 

    Best wishes on your research. 

    From: Paul Newfield []
    Sent: Thursday, August 12, 2010 7:54 AM
    Cc:;; Mary Gehman
    Subject: Re: Fwd: Matamoros Marriage of 1837 

    Hi Mary, 
    A Mexican / Louisiana / Texas connection at the time of the Texas Independence...
    Can you shed any light on this? [See original e-mail below.] 
    By calculation, I make Catherine Hart to be about 16 yrs old when she arrived in Donaldsonville in 1838, a bit young to be a bride.
    Looking under the names 'Craven' & 'Hart', I find nothing in the Diocese of Baton Rouge books, v.5 (1830-1839), nor in v.6 (1840-1847). 
    Did the family come from Mexico to Louisiana by land or by sea? Considering the recent conflicts in Texas, I would guess 'by sea', with a probable arrival in New Orleans.
    As for the missing marriage, the St. Louis Cathedral marriage records (New Orleans) for the late 1830s are not yet published.
    However, index guides for the period 1834-1840 were published in the New Orleans Genesis , in vol's 7 & 8. Looking again under the names 'Craven' & 'Hart', I find nothing in the St. Louis Cathedral index guides for that period. 
    Paul Newfield 
    For Richard: 
    Best I could do for now.
    Good luck. 
    Paul Newfield 

    Mary Gehman wrote:
    Hi Paul, 
    This is an interesting case. I looked in my La.-Mexico database and found Santiago Hart on an 1871 list in Tampico of American heads of household (Americano padrones) . He was age 40 at the time, married to Apolonia S. de Hart and had a child Juanita Hart listed as “Mexican” , indicating she must have been born there. He was a businessman but owned no property, according to that list. 

    A longer shot is the entry of Juan Hart who appears on a list of patients at the Civil Hospital in Tampico in 1837. His nationality or land of origin is not given. I suspect he may be related to Santiago Hart. 

    I realize that neither of these Hart men can be traced to Catherine Hart in Matamoros, though Tampico and Matamoros are both Gulf Coast cities only about 100 miles apart. However, there was a large and active La. Creole community in Matamoros in the 1830s. I haven’t had a chance to research that city, but several scholars have sent me names and dates of La. related people who lived and were prominent in Matamoros from the 1820s on, and a few even earlier. Several, according to stories, were responsible for founding the city of Brownsville, which is in the U.S. just across the border from Matamoros. 

    The surname Hart is well known in the N.O. Creole community – I’m not sure if it still exists in Donaldsonville, but since I live there, I’ll make a note of the name. There was a Mr. Craven who served in the La. legislature (African-American) and may still be there—aren’t you familiar with that name, Paul? I can’t recall his first name. 
    Age 16 for a young woman in the 1830s was by no means too early to marry –lots of girls became wives of much older men at the age of 13 on! And yes, they probably would have traveled from Matamoros to Donaldsonville by boat. There would have been good, direct connections via a coastal port near where Bayou Terrebonne would have emptied into the Gulf in those days. A short trip further up Bayou Lafourche would have brought the family to Donaldsonville in what was probably a very well traveled waterway to the Mississippi River in the 1830s, much different than today, of course. 

    I can speak from experience when I say it is impossible to write to Mexico for documents and records and get a response—they simply aren’t set up to do that. It’s hard enough when one goes there in person and attempts to look through records from such an early period. Passenger lists of ships leaving Mexico are spotty at best. There’s no central archive from which to access them. 

    Hopefully, this information will be helpful in some small way. I will enter the two family names in my database and see if in future research trips to Mexico I can find anything further. Donaldsonville has fairly good records in its courthouse. The phone number for the clerk of court is (225) 473-9866. Mr. Crowe could call there, and if Brett Landry doesn’t answer the phone, ask for him. He knows everything about the records there. A mention of my name as reference might also help. Landry should be able to check and see if anything about Craven and/or Hart is available. Just a suggestion – one never knows what works! 
    Mary Gehman     

    Thanks so much for the response, which I am forwarding to Mimi Lozano (editor of Somos Primos, the monthly e-Journal), and to Richard Crowe of Escondido, California, the original owner of the information request. 

    Regards from Downriver, Paul


    New Orleans Picayune-December 1847

    Some interesting newspaper tid-bits from the New Orleans Picayune-December 1847 
    compiled by Paul Newfield III

    Planters' Hotel-Lunch-Lunch
    A fine saddle of Venison, roast Pig, Oyster Pie, Chicken, Salad, and sundry other fixens will be served up at half-past 10 o'clock THIS MORNING.

    Indians in Mexico.--
    Our latest advices from Saltillo told of a conflict between the Texan Rangers and a band of Camanches. Upon looking over some late papers from the city of Mexico we find several letters from San Luis Potosi describing actions between the Indians and Mexican troops. The savages had boldly approached within seventeen leagues of the city of San Luis. In one engagement the Mexicans had fifty infantry and thirty dragoons engaged. The party was completely cut to pieces, only eight of the dragoons escaping with their lives and five of these being wounded. Another engagement took place between the Indians and one hundred dragoons of the 4th Regiment of cavalry, which were marching from Matehuala to join Gen. Avalos. The fight occurred at Mingole, and the dragoons were completely routed, seventy being killed, among whom were Col. Labastida and several other officers. The survivors of this fight at last joined Avalos. In a letter from this general, we have a report of an engagement in which the Mexican arms were more successful. With a force of about 400 cavalry, he writes on the 18th of November, that he that morning attacked a body of from 340 to 370 Indians in the hacienda of San Juan del Salado. The action began at 5 in the morning and terminated at 2 in the afternoon, (the date of the general's letter.) Only thirty or forty Indians were then left in the interior of the hacienda, whom he says it will be necessary to destroy, as they refuse to surrender, and defend themselves savagely. All the rest, he says, perished, the very small number who fled finding escape impossible on account of the difficulty of the country, the hills, &c. The Mexicans recovered two thousand horses, and set at liberty over two hundred women and children who had been captured. The loss of the Mexicans was small, though several officers were wounded and Gen. Avalos had his horse shot under him.

    It is calculated that in their incursions into the State of San Luis over four hundred Mexicans have been killed, a great number of captives made, and numberless atrocities have been committed.

    A Duel.--
    We understand, says the N.Y. Mirror, that a duel was fought on the 9th inst., by Mr. H.W. Herbert, of that city, and Mr. Valentin, a lawyer in Wall street, the parties who lately went to Canada for the same purpose. They met at a retired spot, a short distance from Newark, N.J., accompanied by their seconds and a medical friend, and having been placed at twelve paces apart, the word was given and both fired, but neither of the shots took effect. An effort was then made at a reconciliation, but in vain, and the parties again took their places, and fired with the same result. A third fire was then insisted upon, when Mr. Herbert's shot struck his opponent on the ankle, but without inflicting a serious injury; therefore, Mr. Valentin, (being the challenging party) expressed himself satisfied, and they left the ground.

    New York Gossip.

    [Special Correspondence of the Picayune.]
    New York, Dec. 11, 1847.

    The duel I told you of in my last, as having been stopped in Canada, came off in good earnest on Thursday last a few miles from this city, "Frank" having his whiskers singed and receiving a ball through the leg-of his pantaloons. Late this evening both parties were arrested for breaking the peace and carried to Hackensack jail, in New Jersey. Heigho! Why can't a fellow give or take satisfaction without being interfered with?

    ...It is said that for some time past an exhibition of flying female figures entirely nude! has given privately three or four times in the upper part of this city. This may appear incredible, perhaps, but I know that a somewhat similar exhibition did take place here for or five years ago, by a party of abandoned women, called "The Gladiators," who were dispersed at that time by the police as these will probably be after a time.

    Bracelet Lost.
    $5 Reward-Lost, on Monday, the 27th inst., on Casacalvo street, between Marigny and Mandeville streets, a GOLD BRACELET, set with three garnets. The above reward will be paid if left at this office.

    It is stated that the French house of Delrue? & Co., of Dunkirk, has completed an arrangement with the Government of the Republic of Venezuela for the introduction of 30,000 immigrants, chiefly from Germany, Switzerland and Belgium. The contractors are to receive a grant of 312,000 square miles, with various privileges, and are to pay the expense of the voyage from Europe.

    Passing Counterfeit Money.--
    Timothy Welsh, a clerk in D. McCasthy's grocery store, at the corner of Dauphin and Customhouse streets, was yesterday arrested by the First Municipality police, charged by William Alexander with having knowingly passed counterfeit money.

    The ladies of Charleston, with their accustomed kindness, have taken care that Gen. Shields shall suffer as little as possible from his wounded arm. They have presented him with a sling for its support. It is made of deep blue satin, from which a pendulum of the same material is suspended, on which is embroidered in gold cord a palmetto tree, surrounded with a golden wreath of shamrock, and surmounted with the motto-"Jasper sustained the Palmetto-the Palmetto will sustain a Shields."


    Hi Mimi, Thank you so much for the work to do to further knowledge about our Hispanic culture!

    I would like to clarify a couple of things which are in the August 2010 issue: There is no organization by the name of AmigosLSU. The official name of the organization is LSU Friends of Spanish Studies. / is the website for the LSU Friends of Spanish Studies. The purpose of LSU Friends of Spanish Studies is "To promote greater awareness of Spanish studies at Louisiana State University and the Influence of Hispanic peoples and culture in Louisiana". LSU Friends of Spanish Studies was organized in 2009.

    The Canary Islanders Heritage Society of Louisiana was established in October 1996. More information about the society and the Canary Islanders who migrated to Louisiana in the 1778-1803 timeframe can be found at .

    Your work to raise awareness of our culture is a true treasure to all of us with Hispanic heritage!

    Thanks again, Joan Aleman 

    Louisiana Genealogical
    & Historical Society

    First Families of Louisiana
    Certificate Program


    In 2004, as part of its 50th Anniversary activities, the Louisiana Genealogical & Historical Society established the First Families of Louisiana Certificate Program to recognize the heritage of colonial families of Louisiana, and to promote improved standards of genealogical research and documentation. If you have a qualifying ancestor, we invite you to apply!

    Please note that this is a certificate program, not a separate membership organization; there are no separate dues or fees beyond the initial application fee. Nor do you have to be a member of the Society to apply or to qualify, . . . but the application fee is lower for members.

    Instructions & Application
    List of Documented Colonial Ancestors

    (with links to a selection of detailed lineages)
    More Information & Discussion

    Recommended Style Manuals

    Samples of Citations

    The Certificate


         1. Colonial families are defined as those who resided within the present boundaries of the State of Louisiana on 20 December 1803 (the date the American flag was raised in New Orleans and Louisiana became a U.S. territory). You must be able to prove residence with acceptable documentation.

    To repeat, the candidate ancestor must have lived within the boundaries of the State of Louisiana as they stand today! This includes the Florida Parishes and the area that was once in dispute with Texas. This does not include any other parts of the much larger Louisiana Purchse of 1803.

         2. To qualify as a "direct descendant," you must be able to show descent -- generation by generation -- from that ancestor, and be able to prove it with acceptable documentation.

    Applications will be examined on behalf of the Society by an experienced research genealogist, who will rule on whether these qualifications have been met. If not, a request will be made for further information or proof, usually with suggestions or recommendations on how to obtain that information and on how to complete a successful application.

    Further information about the Program, as well as discussion of such issues as standards of proof, can be found on the More Information Page.

    We are gradually publishing successfully documented lineages in The Louisiana Genealogical Register and also on this website. (Your signature on the application gives us permission to do this.) We hope some of these will be not merely outlines but full narratives, including source citations. In fact, we encourage submitters to develop this material into a full-fledged article for publication, including such enhancements as anecdotes and other information which was not part of the original documentation.

    The Society subscribes to the "Hundred-Year Rule." In the interests of privacy, details on living persons which are included by necessity in the application will not be included in any article published in The Register or on this website!

    This material will, we hope, provide a continuing resource for other researchers in early Louisiana genealogy. All data will also be entered eventually into a computer database for future use by all researchers and for reference in evaluating future applications.

    Applications must be made on the forms provided by the Society. (Click HERE for detailed instructions and a downloadable application.) Forms also are included in each issue of The Register.

    We encourage you to share the research process with other members of your family. Members of the same lineage (siblings, parents and children, cousins, etc.) who make application at the same time may submit a single form -- but this must include separate proof of descent after the key point of separation. That is, siblings must each include proof of descent from the parents, cousins must include separate proof of descent from their latest common ancestor, etc.

    Last but not least, a certificate -- suitable for framing, of course -- will be issued to each member for each successfully documented lineage. You can see an example of the certificate HERE.

    We hope you will come to regard qualification in First Families of Louisiana as both a challenge to your genealogical research skills and as a point of pride in your Louisiana ancestry!

    [Return to LGHS Main Page]Return to LGHS Main Page
    If you have questions, please contact the Program by email at:

    Postal correspondence should be sent to: 
    Louisiana Genealogical & Historical Society
    ATTN: First Families of Louisiana Program
    PO Box 82060
    Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70884-2060
    Copyright © 2004-2008 / Last updated: 19 June 2008

    Sent by Bill Carmena


    Aurora, Illinois  Hispanic Chamber of Commerce
    Fiestas Patrias Aurora 2010
    September 18th & 19th

    Fiestas Patrias Aurora 2010 is a two-day event recognizing our local Hispanic heritage and culture. Held in the second largest city in Illinois, this Aurora Festival is especially significant to our community as it commemorates the 200th year Anniversary of Mexican Independence and will include a variety of music, culture, and food from Latin America.

    Fiestas Patrias Aurora 2010 is hosted in cooperation with the Aurora Hispanic Heritage Advisory Board and will provide a family friendly environment complemented by corporate exhibitors, vendors, food booths, traditional dances, carnival and a Parade showcasing Aurora residents and community organizations.
    The AHCC believes and stands for Business Advancement in an environment which promotes Cultural Sensitivity, Mutual Respect and Collaboration. Participation in Fiestas Patrias Aurora 2010 provides businesses with the opportunity to present its products and services directly to the Latino community.

    Norma Vazquez
    AHCC Executive Director
    605 N. Broadway Ave.
    Aurora, IL 60505 



    The Battle of Mier Site visited by the Texas Heritage Society
    Sept 11:  Mexico's Wars in Texas: Independence and Revolution Symposium 
    Sept 11:  Unveiling of Historic marker for  The Legacy of La Elliott School

    Sept 16: Frente a Frente, The Mexican People in Independence & Revolution, 1810-1910
    Sept 24: Carlos Guerra Day Celebration
    Sept 23-24: “War Along the Border: Mexican Revolution & its Impact Upon Tejano   

         Communities”  Conference
    Sept 25: Canales Reunion

    Sept 30: Ecos de Puerto Rico Concert
    Oct 2: Friends of Casa Navarro General Meeting
    Texas Tejanos September Schedule of Activities

    The Texas Heritage Society, Inc. is a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting awareness and appreciation of Texas' rich and unique history. It is based in The Woodlands, Texas.  View photos of the 2009 trip to Mier.

    The Battle of Mier Site visited by
    the Texas Heritage Society
    For more information: Telephone:  (832) 326-0835
    Sent by Margarita Garza

    Mexico’s Wars in Texas: Independence and Revolution

    9:30 a.m. to 3 p.m.
    Saturday, 11 September 2010
    LBJ Student Center Teaching Theater
    Texas State University
    San Marcos


    On the 200th anniversary of Mexico’s independence and 100th anniversary of the Revolution, this symposium seeks to highlight the ways in which Texas history is Mexican history and Mexican history is Texas history. At the beginning of the twenty-first century demographics, politics, and economics demand that both sides of the Rio Grande have a better understanding of their shared heritage. This symposium is meant to foster that understanding.

    Josefina Zoraida Vázquez, El Colegio de México
    “Mexico’s War for Independence and
    Revolution of 1910 in U.S.-Mexican Relations”

    Jesús F. de la Teja, Texas State University
    “The Mexican War of Independence: 

    Training Ground of Tejano Leaders”

    Martín González de la Vara, El Colegio de Michoacán
    “American Influence in the Mexican
    Insurgency in the Northern Frontier”

    Miguel Angel González Quiroga, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León
    “The Consul General and the Revolution: 

    Philip Hanna in Monterrey (1910-1919)”

    John Mason Hart, University of Houston
    “Border Culture and the Mexican Revolution”


    Program sponsored by the Texas State University Texas and Mexico, 1810-2010 Committee, Office of the Provost, and the Department of History    Texas State University-San Marcos is a member of the Texas State University System

    For more information visit: or contact:
    Dr. J. F. de la Teja, 
    Professor and Chairman
    Department of History, 
    Texas State University-San Marcos
    601 University Drive, 
    San Marcos, TX 78666

    Sent by Rudi R. Rodriguez




    The Legacy of La Elliott School and a Tribute to Dr. Mario Obledo

    U.S. District Court Closes Mexican School in Sonora, Texas June 16, 1970: 
    40 Years, September 11, 2010, Historical Marker to be Unveiled

    A request for public information related to Sonora’s “Mexican School” dated November 30, 2009 to the Superintendent of the Sonora Independent School District in Sonora, Texas shows that as early as 1924 references were made to the existence of the “Mexican School.”  On July 3, 1934, a petition signed by sixty four “taxpayers” sought a special bond election for the sole purpose of constructing a new “Mexican School.” None of the petition signers calling for the bond election were from the Mexican-American community.

    The bond election held on August 4, 1934 revealed that 126 people participated in the election. The election results certified that 107 voted in favor of the bond and 19 voted against it.  A majority consisting of 88 voters was required
    for approval.  It is highly doubtful that Mexican –American “taxpayers” participated in the bond election.

    On January 22, 1935, the school board voted to officially name the new “Mexican School” the L.W. Elliott School in honor of the President of the Board of Education.  Since the re-naming of the school, the Mexican-American community refers to the school as “La Elliott.” The school opened on January 26, 1936 and operated for thirty-four years until it was ordered closed by the U.S. District Court, Northern District of Texas, San Angelo, Texas.

    We are proud to say the closing of the L.W. Elliott School was the result of legal action filed by the Mexican American Legal Defense & Education Fund (MALDEF) CA No.  6-224 Marcos Perez, et al Plaintiffs Isael Perez, Victoriano Chavez, Santos Hernandez and Eugenio Gonzalez on behalf of their minor children. Coordination of community concerns and communication for the filing of legal action is reflected in the work of Maria Perez Chavez and most notably, the gathering of petition signers for MALDEF organized by members of the Sonora American G.I. Forum led by Pedro (Pete) Gomez, Past District Chairman of the G.I. Forum.

    Since the closing of La Elliott, much has changed in Sonora during the last forty years. The public swimming pool is now opened to the entire community as are residential neighborhoods, restaurants and equally as important, social
    interface among Sonora residents, young and old, is progressing. This event is a perfect example of the question “Why History Matters, Sometimes” by Dr. Rudy Acuna.

    We invite all communities to attend our public ceremony where the unveiling of a La Elliott Historical Marker will be formally presented to the community.  The event will be held on Saturday, September 11, 2010.

    A special Thank You and fuerte abrazo is given to all, especially members of VIVA SONORA, who helped organize this historical event.  We encourage other communities who faced similar conditions to take the time to celebrate and honor our history. For additional information, please open the attached flyer.
    Contact: Betty Hernandez 325-206-0573 or Juanita Gomez 325-206-0830.
    Gus Chavez, La Elliott Commemorative Committee – Native Sonoran/San Diego, CA
    Sent by Gus Chavez, schavez2000@YAHOO.COM

    A Tribute to Mario Obledo

    Gus Chavez, Co-founder of Defend The Honor & Former Student of La Elliott School in Sonora Texas

    The passing of Mario Obledo and celebration of life services scheduled for today in Sacramento California reminds all of us of the importance of acknowledging and thanking those who struggled and sacrificed for the betterment of our community. Mario Obledo is one of many who gave it their all to bring justice and equality not only for the Latino and Latina community but for all affected by the ravishes caused by racial, political and economic class discrimination in our country. Mario, a co-founder of MALDEF, a Tejano also became an incredible public servant in California. A Chicano/Tejano activist, together with his family, Mario fought for our civil rights for over forty-two years. 

    His legacy and contributions are well documented and without question, his imprint on the Latino and Latina community will always be remembered.

    I, as well as the other members of the Chicano community in Sonora Texas, know personally of the impact Mario’s work and commitment to social justice had on generations of Chicanos and Chicanas in our small southwest Texas town of over 2,800 residents. Specifically, he was the MALDEF General Counsel in San Antonio when a group representing our community presented him and Pete Tijerina signed petitions gathered by the Sonora American G.I. Forum requesting legal assistance. 

    The request for legal intervention against the school district for having separate and unequal schools for “Mexican” pupils up through the eighth grade was determined by MALDEF to be un-American, especially since the Supreme Court had ruled sixteen years earlier in Brown vs. Board of Education that this kind of school setting was unconstitutional. 

    Sad to say, this illegal “Mexican” school, later named L. W. Elliott School (La Elliott), operated for thirty four years and would have kept on “educating” pupils for many more years if MALDEF had not stepped in and filed legal action. 

    On June 16, 1970, in CIVIL ACTION NO. 6-224, the U.S. District Court, Northern District of Texas, San Angelo Division ruled in favor of the Mexican American plaintiffs and against the Sonora ISD. The court decision closed the school. Soon after the ruling in this case, the public swimming pool was opened to everyone, barriers to residential living areas came down and social interaction among all communities has come a long way.

    While the Sonora case has not received the national attention as other school desegregation education cases have, to those of us originally born or raised in this town prior to 1970, this was the turning point in history for the total community. This was especially true for the young Mexican American children attending school thereafter in Sonora, Texas. Unfortunately, the omission of this piece of history, has not, until now, been documented. The result is that many of these same children and those that came after them probably have never heard of Mario Obledo, Pete Tijerina or MALDEF or La Elliott School. 

    So today as people who knew Mario Obledo celebrate his life and contributions to our country, there is one sector in Sonora, Texas who will forever remember his service to the Mexican American community. 

    We value and consider his role as a risk taker, visionary, brilliant legal scholar and leader who always believed in the spirit and desire for justice for our people. As Dr. Henry Casso, another founder of MALDEF, told me “we need to take the time to recognize and write about people like Mario and others; otherwise our youth will grow up with a mind that is empty of knowledge on whom and what our leaders have sacrificed so that others can succeed.” 

    We mourn with those who knew Mario, but more than that, we from Sonora Texas, thank him for being there when we needed him. We will remember him in silence on September 11, 2010 when we erect a historical marker at the former site of the “Mexican” school officially named L.W. Elliott School but known to us as “La Elliott.” Mario Obledo PRESENTE!!

    Gus Chavez, co-founder
    Defend The Honor
    San Diego, CA 
    August 26, 2010


    Frente a Frente

    The Mexican People in Independence and Revolution, 

    Please save the date for the opening reception of Frente a Frente: The Mexican People in Independence and Revolution, 1810-1910 at the Benson Latin American Collection, 
    September 16, 2010
    from 5-7pm where we will commemorate the dual anniversaries of Mexican Independence and the Mexican Revolution. More details to follow.

    University of Texas Libraries
    The University of Texas at Austin
    P.O. Box P  Mail Code S-5400
    Austin, Texas 78713   512-495-4363 
    Sent by Viola Sadler

    Click for an article Land, Liberty, and the Mexican Revolution by the Constitutional Rights Foundation:
    Bill of Rights In Action.



    “War Along the Border: The Mexican Revolution and its
    Impact Upon Tejano Communities”

    The University of Houston Center for Mexican American Studies
    Presents a Conference at the 
    M.D. Anderson Library-Rockwell Pavilion
    September 23-24, 2010
    Thursday, September 23

    9:30 am Welcome & Opening Remarks
    Tatcho Mindiola, Ph.D., Director
    Center for Mexican American Studies 

    10:00 am “Beyond Borders: The Making, Meaning, and Impact of the Mexican Revolution at Home and Abroad”
    Paul Hart, Ph.D.
    Associate Professor, History
    Texas State University-San Marcos 

    11:00 am “The Mexican Revolution’s Impact on Tejano Communities: The Historiographic Record”
    Arnoldo De León, Ph.D.
    Professor, History
    Angelo State University

    11:45 am Lunch (on your own)

    1:15 pm Panel One:
    “The El Paso Race Riot of 1916”
    Miguel A. Levario, Ph.D.
    Assistant Professor, History
    Texas Tech University
    “The Mexican Revolution and the Women of El México de Afuera, of the Pan American Round Table, 
    and of the Cruz Azul Mexicana” 
    Juanita Luna Lawhn
    Professor, English
    San Antonio College 

    2:45 pm Panel Two: 
    “Eureka! The Mexican Revolution in African American Context, 1910-1920”
    Gerald Horne, Ph.D.
    Professor, History
    University of Houston
    “Smuggling in Dangerous Times: Revolution and Communities in the Tejano Borderlands”
    George T. Díaz, Ph.D.
    Instructor, History
    South Texas College

    Friday, September 24, 2010  .D. Anderson Library – Rockwell Pavilion

    9:00 am Panel Three: 
    “ ‘The Population is Overwhelmingly Mexican; Most of it is in Sympathy with the Revolution….’: Mexico’s Revolution of 1910 and the Tejano Community in the Big Bend”
    John Eusebio Klingemann, Ph.D.
    Assistant Professor, History
    Angelo State University
    “The Mexican Revolution, Revolución de Texas and Matanza de 1915”
    Trinidad Gonzales, Ph.D.
    Instructor, History
    South Texas College

    10:30 am Panel Four:
    “Women’s Labor and Activism in the Greater Mexican Borderlands, 1910-1930”
    Sonia Hernández, Ph.D.
    Assistant Professor, History & Philosophy
    University of Texas-Pan American 
    “Salt of the Earth: The Immigrant Experience of Gerónimo Treviño”
    Roberto R. Treviño, Ph.D.
    Associate Professor, History
    University of Texas at Arlington

    1:15 pm Panel Five:
    “Sleuthing Immigrant Origins: Felix Tijerina and His Mexican Revolution Roots” 
    Thomas H. Kreneck, Ph.D.
    Associate Director for Special Collections & Archives of the Mary and Jeff Bell Library 
    Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi
    “La Rinchada: Revolution, Revenge, and the Rangers, 1910-1920”
    Richard Ribb, Ph.D.
    Senior Academic Advisor, College of Liberal Arts
    University of Texas at Austin

    2:30 pm "Understanding Greater Revolutionary Mexico: The Case for a Transnational Border History" 
    Raúl A. Ramos, Ph.D.
    Assistant Professor, History
    University of Houston

    For more information contact
    Dr. Tatcho Mindiola at 713-743-3134 ~   
    Laura Adame at 713-743-3139 ~

    In a program of music from
    Puerto Rico and Latin America
    Thursday, September 30th
    7:30 PM
    Jackson Auditorium,
    Texas Lutheran University, Seguin
    Admission to this event is FREE

    Sent by Jack Cowan  


    Please join us in celebrating the life and legacy of civil rights leader and former San Antonio Express-News columnist Carlos Guerra while supporting the future of journalism and communications in South Texas. Your sponsorship of the Carlos Guerra Day in San Antonio celebration, Sept. 24 at El Tropicano Riverwalk Hotel, will help support the Carlos Guerra Communications and Theatre Arts Scholarship at Texas A&M University-Kingsville, transforming the lives of future leaders in journalism, advertising and public relations, radio-television, digital media, speech communications and theatre.

    TEXAS TEJANO.COM  Sept schedule of activities:
    1st Tejano Heritage Month Student Award Contests 
    4th Tejano Breakfast Kickoff @ Alamo Plaza from 10:00am - 12:00pm
    11th 6th Annual Tejano Vigil @ the Alamo at 7:00pm
    15th National Hispanic Heritage Month Starts
    23rd HOPE 7th Annual Tribute to Hispanic Heritage
    24th Annual Texas State Hispanic Genealogical & Historical Conference 25th Annual Wreath Laying Ceremony at San Fernando Cemetery #1 

    10,000 W. Commerce  San Antonio, TX 78227  210.673.3584  210.673.3583 fax



    Mexico Economic Outlook
    Old Guerrero Viejo documents
    Land, Liberty, and the Mexican Revolution
    Personajes en la Historia de Mexico:
    Por Jose Leon Robles de la Torre 

           Juan Bautista Ceballos    
           Manuel Maria Lombardini
    Genealogia de Mexico  28684 General Canales y los Soldados de Camargo
    La Terrible Epidemia de Colera Morbus in la Ciudad de Monclova, 
           Capital de Coahuila y Tejas

    "Mexico Economic Outlook" as of third quarter 2010
    BBVA Research México  BBVA Bancomer 


    Arq. Carlos Rugerio Cazares has answered the question,
    "what happened to the old Guerrero Viejo documents and archives..." as a result of the church being closed because of the violence. Carlos tell us that the archives of Nuevo Ciudad Guerrero are in fine shape. The Municipal President has designated a separate area of the New Museum to store the Historical Archives of the Municipality.  Jose M. Pena
    Source of article:
    Constitutional Rights Foundation
    Bill of Rights in Action
    Summer 2010
    Volume 25 No. 4
    Pages 9-13
    Editor: Andrew Costly

    Land, Liberty, and the

    Mexican Revolution


    Doroteo Arango Arambula, better known as Francisco "Pancho" Villa



    For more than 100 years after winning independence from Spain in 1821, Mexico suffered a stream of political calamities. These included civil wars, dictatorships, assassinations, foreign invasions, and a long bloody revolution.  

    Following the Mexican Revolution, President Lazaro Cardenas in 1934 ushered in a new era of stable government.


    Between 1821 and 1857, Mexico had about 50 different national governments as conservatives and liberals fought for control of the country. The conservatives were mainly wealthy owners of large agricultural and livestock estates called haciendas, which controlled much of Mexico’s land. Most of the liberals belonged to the business oriented middle class.  

    Both conservatives and liberals focused on protecting their property and other economic interests. Neither had much concern for the suffering of rural peasants, factory workers, miners, and other common people who made up the vast majority of Mexico’s population.



    After a brutal civil war from 1858 to 1861, the liberals defeated the conservatives and elected Benito Juarez as president. The French, however, soon invaded and occupied Mexico to assure payment of the huge foreign debt it owed.


    France set up a monarchy in Mexico under a Catholic archduke, Ferdinand Maximilian of Austria. He gained enthusiastic support from conservatives and Mexican Catholic Church leaders. When France withdrew its troops in 1866, however, liberal fighters under Juarez defeated Maximilian and his conservative allies and executed him by firing squad.


    Juarez resumed his presidency, and Mexicans elected him two more times. He wanted to run for a fourth term but died suddenly. His secretary of foreign relations, Sebastian Lerdo, won election as president in 1872.


    By this time, liberals had grown wary of presidents holding office for more than one term because they could become corrupt and too powerful. In addition, those in power usually rigged the elections in their favor.


    When President Lerdo announced his intention to run for a second term, many liberals objected. Among them was General Porfirio Diaz, a national hero who had fought against the French.


    In 1876, Diaz denounced Lerdo and seized the presidency by force. He ruled Mexico either directly or through a puppet president for the next 35 years.


    The Diaz Dictatorship

    Once in command of the government, Diaz concentrated power in his hands. He put his friends and relatives into key national, state, and local government offices. This angered the poor and middle-class liberals alike who valued local self-rule.


    One of Diaz’s main goals was to modernize Mexico’s economy. He granted tax breaks and other economic privileges to foreign investors, which Mexican business owners resented. Diaz changed the law so that non-citizens who bought Mexican land could own the resources beneath the surface such as silver, copper, and oil. He also contracted with American companies to construct a railroad system. The railroad lines reached into most regions of the country, providing easier access to Mexico’s ports. Suddenly, Mexico’s minerals, beef cattle, cash crops like sugar and cotton, and other products for export became more profitable.


    Some Mexican peasants farmed their own small plots of land. More commonly, they worked on village land that they traditionally owned as a group. Mexican peasants grew crops and grazed their livestock for food. But under the new Diaz economy, large hacienda owners, called hacendados, wanted more land to increase profits from their cash-crop and beef-cattle exports. Encouraged by Diaz, the hacendados took land from many nearby peasants and villages, often through bribery and violence.


    The loss of their land forced many Mexican peasants to work as low-wage laborers for the hacendados or to migrate to cities in search of work. Landless peasants increased the labor pool, which caused lower wages, higher unemployment, and more poverty. Less land for growing crops like corn led to higher food prices. Hunger stalked the land.


    “Debt peonage” trapped many landless peasants. They lived and worked on haciendas as laborers under brutal conditions for what amounted to pennies a week. Since they were always in debt to the hacendado’s store, they remained tied, virtually as slaves, to the hacienda for their entire lives.


    Foreigners owned the railroads and most of Mexico’s emerging industries such as textiles (cloth-making) and mining. Workers labored long hours at low pay under frequently dangerous conditions. Mexican workers particularly resented the “dual-wage system,” which paid them less than foreign employees who did the same job. Diaz tolerated abuse of workers and suppressed their attempts to form unions. In 1906, workers went on strike against a French-owned textile factory in Mexico’s chief port of Veracruz. Diaz sent army troops who killed dozens of strikers and executed union leaders.


    That same year, miners in the northern state of Sonora went on strike against a copper mine owned by an American. He had refused to meet with the miners to negotiate pay and working conditions. He hired armed Americans from Arizona 40 miles away to cross into Mexico and come to his aid. Diaz authorized the governor in Sonora to deputize the Americans who joined Mexican troops in crushing the strike. The use of foreigners

    to fight the striking miners enraged many Mexicans.


    The Revolution Against Diaz

    By 1910, Diaz’s dictatorship had lasted three decades. Landless peasants, hacienda laborers, factory workers, railroad employees, miners, and middle-class liberals hated his rule. Francisco Madero, a liberal and successful businessman, attempted to campaign against Diaz for president in 1909. But Diaz threw him in jail “for insulting the president and fomenting rebellion.” After Diaz won the rigged election, Madero managed to flee to the United States.


    On October 5, 1910, Madero declared that the election had been a fraud and he was now the provisional president. He called for Mexicans to revolt against Diaz. Madero announced a liberal program of reforms that limited the president to a single four-year term, shifted political power to state and local governments, and promoted free market capitalism. He said little, however, about the land taken fromthe peasants by the hacendados. Many local revolutionary guerilla armies formed throughout Mexico and rallied under Madero’s banner. They included all sorts of Mexicans: landless peasants, factory workers, miners, cowboys, business owners, teachers, intellectuals, and even some bandits. Two major groups seemed to form as the Mexican Revolution unfolded. First were the liberals like Madero. Most were middle class, educated, and interested in securing political liberties like free elections. Second were the much larger numbers of peasants and workers. They sought fundamental social and economic changes: the return of stolen peasant land, worker rights, schools, and an end to poverty and hunger. 


    The center of the Mexican Revolution in the north was the state of Chihuahua, a dry cattle-ranching country on Mexico’s wild frontier. Many who joined the revolution here were well-armed cowboys and small ranchers who had recently been fighting Apache Indians. They valued their freedom and hated rule from Mexico City. Francisco “Pancho” Villa was 32 when he joined Madero’s revolutionary movement in 1910. Villa made his living rustling cattle from wealthy
    hacendados in Chihuahua. An excellent horseman and gunfighter, he had killed a number of men. He dressed plainly and neither smoked nor drank alcohol.


    Villa’s motive for becoming a revolutionary was not clear except for erasing his record as a bandit and getting land for his men. Despite his unpromising background, Villa became the general of a huge revolutionary army. He won battles not by his command of strategy and tactics but because of his charisma and his ability to gain the unquestioned loyalty of his followers, known as villistas.


    The state of Morelos was the center of the revolution in the tropical south. Here huge sugar-growing haciendas had expanded by annexing as much peasant and village land as they could. Emiliano Zapata was a small landowner from a village that had lost its best farmland to the nearby hacienda.

                                                       Emiliano Zapata


    Like Villa, Zapata was a superior horseman. Unlike him, he was something of a dandy who liked to sip brandy and wear flashy outfits with a huge sombrero. In 1909, Zapatawas elected village chief. He studied documents that proved his village had a right to its land based on a grant from Spain. In 1909, he confronted the local hacendado to demand the return of his village’s cornfields. The hacendado replied that if the villagers wanted to sow their seed, “let them sow it in a flowerpot.”


    In 1910, when Madero declared his rebellion against Diaz, Zapata led a band of armed villagers to retake their stolen cornfields. Zapata was destined to become the leader of the Morelos peasants, called zapatistas. They became fearsome guerilla fighters in reclaiming their land stolen by the hacendados. Zapata’s cry of “Land and Liberty!” became the motto of the Mexican Revolution.


    In May 1911, with Villa, Zapata, and other revolutionaries hitting Diaz from all sides, the dictator left Mexico and went into exile in France. A few months later, Madero won election as president.


    The Revolution Continued

    Zapata soon learned that Madero did not intend to force the hacendados to give up their millions of acres of land. In November 1911, Zapata announced plans to confiscate parts of each hacienda’s land and redistribute it to individual peasants and villages.


    Madero sent General Victoriano Huerta and the Mexican army to Morelos to suppress Zapata’s land reform movement. Zapata took his fighters into the mountains to wage guerilla warfare against Huerta. In the north, disillusioned revolutionaries rebelled against Madero for failing to improve the conditions of workers. Villa, however, remained loyal to him.


    In February 1913, President Madero put General Huerta in charge of defending his government against a conspiracy of Diaz supporters who wanted to bring back the old dictator. But Huerta joined the conspiracy, took over the government, and had Madero executed. With Huerta in charge, Mexico reverted to a dictatorship supported by Diaz’s men, the hacendados, and top military generals. It was as if the Revolution of 1910

    had never taken place.


    Venustiano Carranza was a liberal supporter of Madero and governor of the northern state of Coahuila. Carranza declared himself “first chief” and launched a rebellion against Huerta.


    Villa joined with Carranza and organized his own paid professional army of 20,000 men and even a few women. Villa formed many of his villistas into a superior cavalry. He confiscated trains to quickly transport his troops and horses to battle. He also had a hospital train of 40 cars with the latest medical equipment and both Mexican and American doctors. To finance his army, Villa raided haciendas for cattle that he sold in the U.S. where he purchased firearms. When rustled cattle were not enough to pay his bills, he printed his own money. In Morelos, Zapata continued his guerrilla war against Huerta. But he refused to recognize Carranza as first chief. Zapata saw him as another liberal who would do little to return land to the peasants if he became president.


    To complicate things even more, U.S. President WoodrowWilson ordered a fleet of warships toVeracruz in April 1914 and occupied the city with marines and sailors. Wilson viewed Huerta’s government as illegal and supported Carranza’s effort to overthrow him. By occupying Mexico’s chief port, Wilson hoped to cut off customs revenue toHuerta’s government.


    Meanwhile, Villa’s cavalry defeated a force of 12,000 Huerta troops, and Zapata tied down another part of his army in Morelos. Carranza’s military chief, General Alvaro Obregon, fought his way toward Mexico City with his army. In July 1914, Huerta gave up and fled to

    Spain. A few months later, President Wilson ordered U.S. occupation forces to leave  Veracruz.


    ‘War of the Winners’

    Four winners emerged from the fight against Huerta: Carranza, Obregon, Villa, and Zapata. “First Chief” Carranza and General Obregon represented the Mexican liberals. They opposed the rule of dictators but were not committed to basic social and economic reforms. Villa and Zapata represented most workers and peasants who demanded labor rights and land. But who would become president of Mexico?


    In October 1914, the revolutionary winners sent delegates to a convention to decide on a temporary president, pending an election. Carranza, as self-proclaimed “first chief,” assumed the convention would pick him. When the delegates chose someone else, Carranza angrily headed for Veracruz to plot taking power with his ally, General Obregon.


    A few months later, Villa and Zapata met for the first and only time near Mexico City. They both expected Carranza to fight them to take control of the government. But they failed to agree on a joint plan to stop him. Many believe that by not joining forces at this moment, Villa, the heroic leader of a professional army, and Zapata, the champion of the peasants, lost the Mexican Revolution.


    Zapata quickly returned to Morelos.Villa took his time, enjoying life in Mexico City, before heading to Chihuahua. Meanwhile, Carranza and Obregon trained their army inVeracruz.


    Early in 1915, Obregon moved his army north to battle Villa, whom most Mexicans and even President Wilson believed would win. But Villa ignored his top military adviser, who wanted him to retreat deep into Chihuahua, which would have forced Obregon to lengthen his military supply line from Veracruz. If this had happened, Zapata could easily have sent his peasant army from Morelos to cut off Obregon’s supplies. But Villa refused to retreat, believing hewas unbeatable.


    Both Villa and Obregon commanded armies of about 15,000 soldiers. Obregon, however, had been studying European trench-warfare tactics, including the use of machine guns.


    Villa chose to attack Obregon’s trenches head-on with cavalry charges. Over two days in April 1915, Villa’s brave cavalrymen charged the trenches dozens of times, but Obregon’s machine guns ripped them apart. After Villa’s ammunition ran out, Obregon ordered his own cavalry charge and drove the villistas from the battlefield. Villa regrouped with fresh reinforcements, increasing his army to 30,000 cavalry and infantry soldiers. He fought Obregon in a series of battles during the summer of 1915. But Villa stubbornly continued to order cavalry charges along with infantry frontal attacks. The results were always the same. Villa’s defeated army finally retreated with their demoralized hero into the mountains of Chihuahua, where he assembled a small guerilla force.


    The Revolution in Retreat

    Villa’s revolutionary army, the most powerful in Mexico, had been decisively defeated. Zapata continued to fight his own guerilla war, but mainly in Morelos. Carranza formed a government, and called for a new constitution and election.


    Villa was not quite finished. He became angry when President Wilson recognized Carranza’s government. Villa mistakenly believed Carranza had agreed with Wilson to make Mexico a U.S. colony. Villa began to strike out at Americans and their property in Mexico.


    In May 1916, Villa led about 400 men across the border and raided Columbus, New Mexico, killing over a dozen Americans. Villa’s purpose is not certain, but he may have wanted to provoke trouble between Carranza andWilson.


    President Wilson reacted to the raid by convincing Carranza to allow a U.S. “punitive expedition” to track down Villa in Mexico. General John Pershing with thousands of U.S. soldiers and several warplanes hunted Villa in northern Mexico for almost a year. Pershing never found Villa, despite offering a $50,000 reward for his capture. About the only thing Pershing did accomplish was to make Villa a patriotic hero again in the eyes of many Mexicans.


    In the meantime, Carranza organized a convention to write a new constitution for Mexico. Although he barred supporters of Villa and Zapata, the delegates produced some radical constitutional provisions.


    The Constitution of 1917 put controls over foreign investment, restored ownership of minerals to the nation, listed worker rights, and outlawed debt peonage. It also required the hacendados to give up land, with government compensation, to the peasants. Carranza won election as president following adoption of the new constitution, but he did little to carry out the reforms. President Carranza decided to end Zapata’s guerilla war and sent an army to Morelos to wipe him out. When the attempt failed, Carranza conspired to have him assassinated.


    On April 12, 1919, Carranza’s commander lured Zapata into a trap and cut him down with a barrage of bullets.


    As the next presidential election neared, General Obregon decided he wanted to be president. Carranza objected and fled to Veracruz with a trainload of gold from Mexico’s treasury to plot another comeback. His enemies assassinated him on the way.


    Obregon negotiated with Villa to end his guerilla war in the north. Villa got a hacienda for himself and land for his remaining villistas. Obregon won election as the new president in 1920. The Mexican armies that had fought one another for 10 years ceased operations. This ended what some call the military phase of the Mexican Revolution.


    The continuous warfare between 1910 and 1920 claimed the lives of up to 2 million Mexican fighters and civilians. The country was a wasteland of ruined crops, burned buildings, ripped up railroad tracks, and other devastation. A quarter million Mexican war refugees had fled to the United States. Yet, President Obregon held views that seemed to be closer to the old dictator Diaz than to Villa or Zapata.


    Political violence continued. Obregon helped plot Villa’s assassination, which took place in 1923. Obregon stepped down as president in 1924 but ran for reelection four years later. A religious fanatic assassinated him before he took office. Not until the election of President Lazaro Cardenas in 1934 did the government act seriously to distribute land to the peasants and fulfill the other revolutionary reforms of the 1917 Constitution. Cardenas distributed

    land to more peasants than all previous presidents before him had.


    Cardenas instituted other reforms. He nationalized the railways, electric utility companies, and the oil industry. He did away with capital punishment. Most important, he began a tradition of transferring power by democratic election, which has continued to this day in Mexico.



    Juan Bautista Ceballos




      Datos tomados del Tomo IV, de mi obra: "La Independencia y los Presidentes de México", Libro 26, relativo al Lic. don Juan Bautista Ceballos vigésimo primer Presidente de México, nacido en la ciudad de Durango el día 13 de mayo de 1801 y aunque algunos historiadores escribieron que nació en Michoacán y en otras fechas distintas, no es verdad, porque su hijo el Lic. Ciro B. Ceballos puso en la lápida de la tumba de su padre, en París, las fechas de su nacimiento y de su muerte, como veremos más adelante realizó sus estudios en el colegio de San Nicolás, en Valladolid y posteriormente pasó al colegio de San Ildefonso en México, D.F., donde estudió Leyes hasta recibir su título de Licenciado en Derecho, ejerciendo su profesión en México, D.F. 


       Juan Bautista Ceballos

    Tiempo después, se trasladó a Morelia, Mich., a ejercer su profesión y poco después fue nombrado Gobernador Interino por unos meses, y terminado ese mandamiento, fue electo Senador de la República.

    En 1852, el Presidente don Mariano Arista, obtuvo que nombraran al Lic. Ceballos como Presidente de la Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nación.

    Al dejar la Presidencia el general Arista, el Congreso nombró al Lic. Juan Bautista Ceballos Presidente Interino de la República porque desempeñaba el cargo de Presidente de la Suprema Corte, tomando posesión de su alto cargo del dos de enero al siete de febrero de 1853, cometiendo una gran equivocación al disolver el Congreso porque no se plegaban a sus ideas. Poco tiempo después, voluntariamente salió al destierro embarcándose para Nueva Orleáns, permaneciendo en aquel lugar hasta que decidió regresar a la patria en 1855.

    En 1856, fue electo Diputado Constituyente para participar en la Constitución de 1857, participando por el Estado de Michoacán, aunque también Colima lo había elegido como su Diputado, cosa que no aceptó Ceballos porque prefirió hacerlo por Michoacán, porque en ese Estado había realizado estudios en la juventud y eso dio lugar a que muchos historiadores lo consideraban como natural de ese Estado de la República.

    Terminada su gestión como Constituyente, se trasladó con su familia a vivir a París, Francia hasta su muerte el 20 de agosto de 1859, siendo relativamente joven con 58 años de edad.

    Su hijo el Lic. Ciro B. Ceballos, que también fue Diputado Constituyente en 1917, era un gran escritor y escribió, entre otras obras, "Aurora y Ocaso", contra Porfirio Díaz, "La Oreja de Picaluga", "La Fuerza de la Democracia", entre otras. Pues bien, su hijo puso una placa en la tumba de su padre en el panteón "Pere Lechaise", en Monparnasse, en París, Francia, y que dice:


    Yo escribí a la Embajada de México en Francia, don Jaime Torres Bodet en 1957 y me envió la fotografía de la tumba del Lic. Ceballos, que figura en el libro antes citado.





    Manuel María Lombardini




    Datos tomados del Tomo IV, de XIII, Libro 27, de mi obra inédita: "La Independencia y los Presidentes de México", relacionados con el General de División don Manuel María Lombardini, vigésimo segundo Presidente de México, nacido en la Ciudad de México, según datos que obran en el Archivo de Cancelados de la Secretaría de la Defensa Nacional, en el año de 1802, sin lograr saber el nombre de sus padres, ni el día y mes de su nacimiento, que tampoco lo mencionan sus biógrafos como Carreño y don Guillermo en su obra "Memorias de mis Tiempos".

    Manuel María Lombardini

    Manuel María Lombardini

    Sólo estudió la primaria en su ciudad natal, por carecer de recursos económicos y siendo un niño de doce años en 1814, tomó la carrera de las armas y en agosto de 1821, se incorporó al Escuadrón de Caballería de Toluca.

    En diciembre de 1826, recibió el grado de Subteniente. En diciembre de 1829, se adhirió al Plan de Jalapa. En diciembre de 1830, recibió el grado de Teniente.

    En octubre de 1832, se unió a las fuerzas del General Valencia y se casó con la hermana de la esposa del General. Y en julio de 1834, fue ascendido al grado de Coronel y participó en varias batallas, y en ese mismo año fue nombrado Jefe del Onceavo Batallón de Caballería de Puebla.

    En 1838 participó en la guerra de los pasteles contra los franceses y principios de 1839 fue hecho prisionero.

    En ju