Somos Primos

118th Issue Online

Editor: Mimi Lozano ©2000-9

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research

World Champions 

Little League World Series Championship Game

Sunday, Aug. 30, 2009
Click for Roster

Content Areas
United States 
Hispanic Heritage Month
Witness to Heritage
National Issues
Action Item
Bilingual/Bicultural Education

Anti-Spanish Legends
Military/Law Enforcement 
Patriots, American Revolution
Orange County,CA  
Los Angeles,CA

Northwestern US
Southwestern US 
East of Mississippi
East Coast


Family History

SHHAR Meetings 


My reading of history convinces me that 
most bad government results from too much government.

Thomas Jefferson


  Letters to the Editor : 

Dear Bill Carmena,
I read your article in Somos Primos on the celebration of the founding of Pensacola.
Tristan de Luna y Arellano is his full name and I am a descendant. His papers are at the University of Texas under the "de Luna," papers which I used as part of my research when I wrote my book "Tejano Roots, A Family Legend." He was also with the Coronado Expedition in 1540 and later became Governor of Tlaxcala from where my other grandfather came. In 1803 my 5th generation grandfather, Francisco Arellano, from La Segunda Compania Volente de Alamo de Parras, was transferred to the Alamo in San Antonio, Texas, of which the Alamo obtained its name.
Thank you for celebrating our ancestors,  we must never forget the sacrifices they made to this great country.
Dan Arellano Author/Historian

Mr. Inclan,
I must begin by saying how helpful your website has been to me in double-checking my family trees.  Thank you so much for your time and research.  I am very new to this discovery game, but I am lucky in having some very strong foundations already laid for me.  My father's side of the family are descendants of several of the Canary Islanders families in San Antonio, as well as the Duran y Chavez families, the de los Santos Coy (I believe, but am having trouble with links-I believe your site has info I haven't had the opportunity to view yet), and the Diego Ramon families.  I am very curious though about your research with the Duran y Chavez line, and the book you used, by Fray Angelico Chavez, about the founding families of New Mexico.  Is that still in print and available?  I am also curious as to whether or not you still reside in Galveston, because I live in the Houston area and if not objectionable to you, would love to meet you and see some of the details of your research (especially so that I could pass that information on to the much more experienced geneaologists in my family).
Thank you for your time,  Sarah Crandall  

John Inclan's site is at:

 Somos Primos Staff:   .

Mimi Lozano, Editor
Mercy Bautista Olvera
Bill Carmena
Lila Guzman
Granville Hough
John Inclan
Galal Kernahan
J.V. Martinez
Armando Montes
Dorinda Moreno
Michael Perez
Rafael Ojeda
Ángel Custodio Rebollo
Tony Santiago
John P. Schmal
Howard Shorr 

Submitters to issue

Juan Alonzo
Odie Arambula
Dan Arellano
Ralph Arellanes
Mercy Bautista-Olvera
Beth Barber
Francisco J. Barragan
Eva Booher

Lila Bringhurst 
Alison Bruesehoff
Gloria Cadena
Roberto R. Calderon, Ph.D.
Antonio Campos
Bill Carmena
Henry J. Casso, Ph.D.
Pedro J. Catala
Greg Collinwood
Jack Cowan
Sarah Crandall
Tim Crump
Lorri Frain
Wanda Garcia
Rafael Jesus Gonzalez
Thomas B. Green
Robert Perez Guadarrama
Mary Guerrero
Diane Haddad
Michael R. Hardwick
Walter Herbeck
Lorraine Hernandez
Manuel Hernandez
Sergio Hernandez 
Bill Carmona
John D. Inclan
Lorenzo Lopez
Gilberto Lujan

Brian C. Malina
Juan Marinez
Curtis Martinez
Joe Martinez, Ph.D

Dorinda Moreno
Carlos Munoz, Ph.D.
Paul Nauta
Ma Angeles O. de Olson
Rafael Ojeda
Gloira Oliver
John Palacio
Luis F. Ramirez
Victor Manuel Ramos
Angel Custodio Rebollo
Crispin Rendon
Jose L. Robles de la Torre 
Rogelio Reyes, Ph.D.
Viola Sadler
Ruben Salaz
Roland Salazar
Carmen Samora
Tony Santiago
Lou Serna
Frank Sifuentes 
Joseph N. Smith
Thomas Turrey
Irene Ujda
Connie Vasquez

SHHAR Board:  Bea Armenta Dever, Gloria Cortinas Oliver, Mimi Lozano Holtzman, Pat Lozano, Michael Perez, Viola Rodriguez Sadler, John P. Schmal, Tomas Saenz, Cathy Trejo Luijt.



US  Mexican-American Astronaut Takes Rare Flag into Space

Ex-migrant worker about to blast into space

Notes from the Director of the Smithsonian
Signs for Dr. Hector P. Garcia Highway to be Unveiled
Dr. Hector P. Garcia honored

Hispanics Breaking Barriers by Mercy Bautista Olvera
Maggie Rivas-RodriguezA Wise Latina By Mercy Bautista-Olvera
2010 Census
Immigration Policy Center

A Crucial Force in America
Latinas helped win 19th Amendment, celebrated today



Image above: Seated are Commander Rick Sturckow (right) and Pilot Kevin Ford. From the left (standing) are mission specialists José Hernández, John "Danny" Olivas, Nicole Stott, European Space Agency's Christer Fuglesang and Patrick Forrester. 


Mission Specialist and Flight Engineer Jose Hernandez Moreno, 47, of Mexican American heritage carried an important symbol of binational unity on his first venture into space.


Hernandez carried a historical links between the United States and Mexico. It is the replica of the Battle Flag of Fighter Squadron 201, a legendary unit of the Mexican Air Force and the only Mexican force to serve in combat with American forces in World War II.


The one-of-a kind banner is similar to a regular Mexican flag but bears the legend,  “Mexican Army Expeditionary Air Force”. (see attached photo) It was made by special order of President Manuel Avila Camacho in 1945 and carried to the Philippines where the squadron helped American forces liberate that country. The original rests in a museum in Mexico City.


The Mexican Battle Flag replica was presented to Astronaut Hernandez by the Mexican Association of Veterans of World War II, a charitable foundation that perpetuates the legacy of the famous unit and its role in fostering binational unity and solidarity between Mexico and the United States.


Partnering with the Association is Mexican-American filmmaker Victor Mancilla who made a documentary, The Forgotten Eagles, about the 201st Squadron that is currently touring the country and will be screened next in Dallas, Chicago and Mexico.


Footage of astronaut Hernandez’s historic flight in space and his return with the Mexican Battle Flag will be incorporated into the finished version of The Forgotten Eagles to complete the film. “We are honored to partner with the Mexican Veterans’ Association to preserve their story for future generations and show the pride that this Mexican American astronaut has in his heritage in both countries, said Mancilla.  For more information visit

September 9, 2009

Eravision Productions

Contact: Victor Mancilla 818-384-4040




Ex-migrant worker about to blast into space
By Marcia Dunn  


CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. - He toiled in California's farm fields alongside his Mexican migrant worker parents and didn't learn English until he was 12. Now Jose Hernandez, NASA astronaut, is about to rocket into orbit.

His parents will be in Florida next week for space shuttle Discovery's launch, as will his two older brothers and sister, who also worked the cucumber, sugar beet and tomato fields back in the 1960s and 1970s.

"A lot of kids loved summer vacation," Hernandez said in a recent interview. "We dreaded it because we knew what that meant. That meant we were going to be working seven days a week in the fields." Hernandez, 47, vividly recalls being dusty, sweaty and tired in the back seat of the family's car after a hard day of labor. Before starting the engine, his father would look back at his children and tell them, "Remember this feeling because if you guys don't do well in school, this is your future."

"That was pretty powerful," Hernandez recalled.

Parents had third-grade education
All four took it to heart. Each graduated from high school, "a moral victory" for third-grade educated Salvador and Julia Hernandez, now 71 and 67 years old, respectively. Each went to college, "the icing on the cake," according to their youngest child.

"And, of course, now being an astronaut, to them that's just unbelievable," said the soon-to-be spaceman. "I think they're higher in orbit than we're going to be in."

Discovery is scheduled to blast off in the wee hours of Tuesday. Seven astronauts will be on board for the space station supply run, including two Mexican-Americans, as it turns out, and a Swede.

Those who deal with migrant farm workers also are soaring.

"When we see an example like Jose, we are so happy," said Matthew Sheaff, a spokesman for the Association of Farmworker Opportunity Programs in Washington. "It's an example that anybody can break the cycle of poverty that they live in."

"It's a great model for these farm worker kids" just now heading home after picking crops this summer, Sheaff added.

Starts ‘Reaching for the Stars’
Children are, in fact, Hernandez's focus.

He's formed a "Reaching for the Stars" foundation in Stockton, Calif., his hometown, to inspire local youngsters to excel in math, science, engineering and technology.

Whenever he gives motivational talks, "I say, 'Look, I can trade poor stories with the best of you here, and I'll tell you that I'll probably be coming out on the shorter end of the stick than you will."

Each year, the Hernandez family would make the two-day car trip from La Piedad de Cavadas in the central Mexican state of Michoacan to California in March, working their way northward with the crops, until November. Then it was back to Mexico until the next March. The parents insisted their children always attend school.

Hernandez, who was born in French Camp, Calif., remembers asking his second-grade teacher for a couple months' worth of homework when it came time for the family's annual pilgrimage back to Mexico. The teacher urged his parents to set down roots; his father eventually started a trucking business in Stockton.

Astronaut ‘through osmosis’
Two things pointed Hernandez toward space.

During the Apollo moon landings, Hernandez would hold the rabbit ears steady on the family's old black and white TV for good reception. He likes to kid "it's through osmosis that I got to become an astronaut."

Then, during his senior year, he learned of NASA's first Hispanic astronaut, Franklin Chang-Diaz, who was born in Costa Rica.

"I said, 'Hey, if he came from poor, humble beginnings and he became an astronaut, if he can do it, why can't I do it?' " Hernandez said. He gravitated toward math and science because of his English limitations.

Hernandez ended up getting bachelor's and master's degrees in electrical engineering and, in 1987, went to work for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California. He became an expert in X-ray physics, helping to develop the first full-field digital mammography system. And during a stint at the Department of Energy, he helped with the disposal of Russian nuclear materials.

He moved to Houston in 2001 to work at Johnson Space Center as an engineer, working his way up to branch chief. He was selected as an astronaut in 2004, after 12 years of trying.

Hernandez now has five children of his own, ages 6 to 14. Wife Adela runs a Mexican restaurant just outside the Johnson gates, aptly called Tierra Luna Grill, Spanish for Earth Moon Grill.

Attracting a new audience
By coincidence, another Mexican-American will be aboard Discovery, third-generation Danny Olivas, who grew up in El Paso, Texas. It will be the first time two Hispanics fly together in space.

NASA's first bilingual Twittering astronaut, Hernandez — Astro_Jose — plans to file tweets from space. During the 13-day flight, he will help three of his crewmates suit up for spacewalks and haul thousands of pounds of supplies over from the shuttle.

His space shuttle commander, Rick Sturckow, is as inspired as anybody by Hernandez's story. He, too, grew up in California, on a turkey and cattle farm.

With his language skills and personal history, Sturckow said, Hernandez is "attracting a new audience to NASA that we might not normally reach otherwise."





Notes from the Director of the Smithsonian

Notes from the Director of the Smithsonian 

In putting together my thoughts for Hispanic Heritage Month, I called on my old friend Dr. José (Joe) V. Martinez. Joe has worked for over three decades at the Department of Energy, first as research program manager in the department’s Office of Science and now as senior science advisor in the same office. Joe hails from Arizona, earned his Ph.D. from Oregon State University, and completed postdoctoral work at Cornell University. As he rose through the U.S. higher education system, he "couldn’t help noticing how few Hispanics there are in the sciences and engineering." This led to a lifelong commitment to opening up opportunities in those fields for Latinos and other minorities. Among his many notable achievements in this area, Joe was a founder and past president of SACNAS, the Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science.

The problems he faced were stark, as revealed by data from the U.S. census that show
that only 13 percent of the Hispanic population age twenty-five and older currently hold
a bachelor’s degree or higher. Of those degrees, only small percentages--5 to 8--are in
science or technical fields. Only 2 percent of U.S. Hispanics work in STEM (Science,
Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics)-related jobs, compared to 5 percent of the
total U.S. population.

Underlying these discouraging statistics are multiple disadvantages, ranging from poverty
and language problems to poor education and lack of mentors. In truth, this is not just a
problem for Hispanic Americans. America’s future competitiveness and innovation will
depend on its ability to draw Hispanics, who, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, are
the fastest-growing and already the largest minority population, into the ranks of
scientists and engineers. And, of course, out of this pool will come many of the nation’s
future inventors.

Despite these numbers, Joe Martinez remains optimistic. Well-meaning people can make
all the difference, he believes. Early on he appreciated that mentors and positive role
models were critical to developing a scientific career, and he detects a similar attitude
among other Hispanics who have made successful careers in science, technology, and

Take the case of Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa, today a top neurosurgeon at the Johns
Hopkins University School of Medicine. (Read an interview with him in the New York
Times.) After his family fell into poverty in the late 1980s, he made his way from his
home in Mexicali, Mexico, to the U.S. border and, as he phrased it, "hopped the fence."
He struggled as a young illegal immigrant in California, first as a farm laborer and then
loading fish and sulfur onto freight cars. After being taken under the wing of a caring
speech and debate coach at San Joaquin Delta Community College, however, his life took
a dramatic turn. From there it was on to the University of California at Berkeley and
Harvard Medical School, which, by the way, he found easy compared to working in the

Astronaut José Hernández also started out as a migrant worker, spending much of his
childhood traveling with his family between Mexico and Stockton, California. His
inspiration was Franklin Chang-Díaz, raised in Costa Rica and the first Hispanic American
to travel in space. "I was always interested in science and engineering," Hernández
recalls, but hearing stories about Chang-Díaz turned his gaze upward. Along the way, he
earned degrees in electrical engineering and worked at the Department of Energy’s
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, where he helped develop a digital
mammography imaging system for the early detection of breast cancer. While applying
to the astronaut corps, he came before a review board, where he finally met the man
who inspired him in the first place, Franklin Chang-Díaz. The chain of command had
become a chain of inspiration. Here perhaps is one key to bringing the untapped wealth
of Hispanic American talent to the center of American engineering and innovation, where
it both belongs and needs to be.

Best regards till next month, Arthur Molella
Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Director




 Signs for Dr. Hector P. Garcia Highway to be Unveiled

 For Immediate Release
September 15, 2009

Contact: Arturo Ballesteros   (512) 463-0120 office  (512) 810-1294 cell  


CORPUS CHRISTI -- Senator Juan "Chuy" Hinojosa announced the unveiling of signs for the Dr. Hector P. Garcia Memorial Highway today at the Texas A&M-Corpus Christi campus.  In anticipation of tomorrow's first observation of Dr. Hector P. Garcia Day in Texas , Senator Hinojosa also announced the donation of ten trees to the Dr. Hector P. Garcia Park.  

This past legislative session, Senator Hinojosa and the Nueces County delegation, which includes Rep. Abel Herrero , Rep. Todd Hunter, and Rep. Solomon Ortiz, Jr., passed S.B. 495, designating the third Wednesday in September as Dr. Hector P. Garcia Day.  The passage of this bill authorizes the day to be regularly observed by schools and state agencies in honor of Dr. Garcia's legacy, preserving his memory for future generations.  

Senator Hinojosa commented on the value of commemorating Dr. Garcia's contributions.  

"Dr. Garcia dedicated his life, in its entirety, to public service.  His personal, professional and military life all focused on improving the quality of life of those around him.  From serving as a physician in neighborhoods where other doctors would not go, to establishing the American GI Forum, Dr. Garcia is a model for each of us. He is an American hero," Senator Hinojosa said.  

Senator Hinojosa also passed legislation in 2007 designating a portion of State Highway 286 (known locally as the Crosstown Expressway) as the Dr. Hector P. Garcia Memorial Highway . The fundraising effort for the signs was successful.  These signs will be unveiled today during a ceremony recognizing the accomplishments of Dr. Garcia.



Dr. Hector P. Garcia honored
Event at A&M-Corpus Christi draws large crowd
By Elvia Aguilar, Corpus Christi
Originally published, September 15, 2009
Updated, September 16, 2009

CORPUS CHRISTI — When Samantha Hernandez was 6 she didn’t quite grasp how Dr. Hector P. Garcia would play a role in her life. She just liked visiting the plaza dedicated to him at Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi because of its purple walls
and blue tiles.

Today, Hernandez, 20, is an A&M- Corpus Christi student and president of the Student Government Association. She attributes her dedication to school to the foundation of Garcia’s motto that “Education is our freedom and freedom should be everybody’s business.”

“After learning about Dr. Garcia in fourth grade I discovered six of my family members
were veterans and my parents were the first in their families to go to college because
of what he fought for,” Hernandez said. “Education is the key to a better future and I
learned that from Dr. Hector.”

On Tuesday at the university, Hernandez and more than 200 students, lawmakers and
family members of the local civil rights leader celebrated his contribution to the state
and nation.

Garcia will be recognized statewide today. In May, Gov. Rick Perry signed Senate Bill
495 establishing the third Wednesday of September as Dr. Hector P. Garcia Day.
The holiday, which falls during Hispanic Heritage Month, is meant to encourage
activities and ceremonies from public agencies and schools commemorating Garcia’s
efforts and the civil rights movement.

Garcia was the founder of the American GI Forum and fought for the rights of area
Hispanics and veterans who were denied educational, medical and housing benefits.
Garcia also was an adviser to three U.S. presidents, served as the first Hispanic on the
U.S. Commission on Civil Rights and was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom,
the highest honor the U.S. government bestows on civilians. Garcia died July 26, 1996.
His daughter Wanda Garcia said she hopes to see her father’s name in history books
and encouraged students who attended the event to challenge themselves to be better
than what they are.


Texas A & M University President Flavius Killebrew, Maria Jimenez, Nick Jimenez, 
former Editorial writer for the Corpus Christi Times, Dr. Pat Carroll author of the
 Wake of Pvt. Felix Longoria, and a good friend of Dr. Hector P. Garcia. 

During the ceremony state Sen. Juan “Chuy” Hinojosa, D-Mission, unveiled a new
highway sign for the Dr. Hector P. Garcia Memorial Highway on a portion of the
Crosstown Expressway, and a copy of the bill that created Dr. Hector P. Garcia Day
was presented to Tom Kreneck, associate director for special collections and archives
for A&M-Corpus Christi.

Hinojosa said it was important to recognize Garcia because he was a true American
hero who made sacrifices for everyone.

“In those days Mexican-Americans were excluded from swimming pools and
restaurants,” Hinojosa said. “Dr. Garcia was not afraid to speak up. He felt we were all
Americans and was a fearless person.”

Honoring Dr. Hector P. Garcia -- schedule of events

-- Dr. Hector P. Garcia Official Celebration, University of Texas at Galveston
11:30 a.m. today, William C. Levin Hall

-- Del Mar College Dr. Hector P. Garcia ceremony 5:30 p.m. today, Retama Room, second floor of the Harvin Student Center, Del Mar College. Special ceremony marking the nation’s first American GI Forum Student Chapter at Del Mar College.

Dr. Anthony Quiroz on the subject of the 
Dr. Hector P. Garcia Scholarship Fund.

Thomas Kreneck, Curator of the 
Dr. Hector P. Garcia Papers

-- South Texas College Mid Valley Campus Border Studies Club 7 p.m. today, Weslaco South Texas College campus

-- Dr. Hector P. Garcia Day Scholarship Breakfast 8 a.m. Thursday, Mansion Royal, 8001 S. Padre Island Drive.

-- San Marcos Women’s American GI Forum walk 6 p.m. Thursday, walk will start at 415 S. Mitchell St., the American GI Forum San Marcos Headquarters.

-- Collegiate High School Civic Minded Students honor Dr. Hector P. Garcia and the
Felix Longoria Incident

10 a.m. Friday, Congressman Solomon P. Ortiz International Center Hispanic Heritage
Texas A&M University-Kingsville will have a Diez y Seis/Hispanic Heritage Month kickoff event from 5-7 p.m. today in the courtyard of the Memorial Student Union Building
on the campus. Free. Information: 361-593-2760.

Dr. Hector P. Garcia honored : Corpus Christi Caller Times, Page 2 of 3 9/16/2009 
© 2009 Scripps Newspaper Group — Online

Dr. Hector P. Garcia honored : Corpus Christi Caller Times, Page 3 of 3 9/16/2009  

AGIF Members pose for pictures with Texas Senator Juan Chuy Hinojosa.
Presentation of gift to Lamar Elementary school from African American Cultural Society

Scholarship Check for Dr. Hector 
P. Garcia Scholarship fund.




Text of
Speech Delivered by Wanda Garcia 

Wanda receives a replica of a check for the Dr. Hector P. Garcia Scholarship Fund 
She sits between A&M Texas A & M University President Flavius Killebrew on her left 
and on her right Thomas Kreneck, Associate Director for Special Collections and Archives, 
Curator of the Dr. Hector P. Garcia Papers.


FOREWARD:  At 11:40 pm Sunday morning, I woke up and completely rewrote my prepared speech.  So, I feel my father inspired this speech.  

Introduced by Joshua Cobarrubias, ICA President 

Dr. Hector P. Garcia Day  

Honored guests, thank you! Thank you for all your hard work to make this day of recognition a reality.  A special thanks goes to Senator Chuy Hinojosa, Representatives Abel Herrero, Todd Hunter and Solomon Ortiz Jr. and all those who made this possible. I am so grateful for the tribute the citizens of Texas are paying to my father, Dr. Hector p. Garcia.  

Governor Rick Perry said about the new legislation, which establishes a state day of recognition honoring Dr. Garcia on the third Wednesday in September.  

“Texas schoolchildren will be reminded of his works, his integrity, his fight for equality. And it reminds all of us to continue his fight everyday,”


Since I was the first born of the Garcia children, I traveled with my father and had the opportunity to see many of these events first hand.

Some of the highlights of my father’s many accomplishments were:

1948 --- organized the American GI forum for veterans.

1949 --- the "Felix Longoria affair" propelled the American GI Forum to national prominence.

1950 --- worked to eliminate the exploitive "bracero program"

1952 --- worked to eliminate "no dogs or Mexicans allowed" signs in Texas restaurants and to stop the practice of whipping Mexican school children for speaking Spanish.

1955 --- worked diligently for education reform for Mexican Americans by suing school districts.

1962 --- appointed by President Kennedy to negotiate the Chamizal with the Mexican government and a defense treaty with the federations of the West Indies.

1967 --- President Johnson appointed Dr. Garcia as an alternate ambassador to the United Nations.

1968 --- President Johnson appointed Dr. Garcia to the U.S. commission on civil rights.

1984 --- President Reagan awarded Dr. Garcia this nation's highest honor, the presidential Medal of Freedom.

1984 --- Pope John Paul II awarded Dr. Garcia the equestrian order of pope Gregory the great.

July 26, 1996 --- Dr. Hector P. Garcia died in Corpus Christi, Texas at age 82 and was eulogized at his funeral by President Bill Clinton. 

If Papa were here today, he would be so proud to see the students from area schools in the audience.   

So today, I am here to deliver a message from Dr. Garcia to you. My father believed that “education is our freedom and freedom should be everybody’s business." That means yours, the state of Texas, and mine.

He would tell students how important they are for they are the future of this country, and encourage them to stay in school and to get the most education possible. But most of all he would challenge young people. He would say, “I challenge you to be better than you are”, and tell them to be proud of their language, culture and heritage.  

It is clear my father’s legacy does not just belong to Texas. Dr. Hector P. Garcia is a real American hero. Today, our youth lack real role models. My father is that role model. He had to deal with the same social, language, and heritage battles that many of our youth face daily. 

The day of recognition will provide individuals especially the youth the opportunity to study his life and legacy, and will teach the true meaning of love and community service for their fellow man, and self respect. 

I would challenge the audience to spread Dr’s legacy throughout the nation. Some measures we can take are to become more involved in ensuring that his legacy is included in the school textbooks, libraries and in curriculum throughout the nation. His battles were for all students whose heritage is not respected and included in the history of our nation.

The day of recognition is the first step. As I speak, the Texas Education Agency is in the process of distributing the story of Dr. Garcia along with photos and a chronology of events to all the social studies teachers in the state of Texas.  Many of the school districts have posted the materials on their web sites.  Dr. Rosemary Morrow, of the Texas Education Agency, told me that Dr. Hector Garcia’s name has already appeared on TAKS tests and on teacher certification tests in Texas. 

Now it is up to us to ensure that his legacy moves forward.    
In closing, as my father would say. Que dios los bendiga.

Editor: The family hopes to eventually see Dr. Garcia's legacy  recognized on a national level.  To help in this effort, please contact Wanda Garcia at . 

Dear Wanda, I already passed on your kind words to the boys and they were very grateful. The boys in the picture are: Joel Jose Resendez, Mark Saenz, Senator Hinojosa, Miguel Avila, Andrew Martinez, and Esteban Resendez. Joel, Mark, and Andrew are Seniors at Alice High School and Miguel and Esteban are Juniors. They have all been friends since they were four or five years old! Joel and Andrew are hoping to attend The University of Texas at Austin next year while Mark is planning on attending Texas A&M University at College Station. They are all in the top 10% of their respective classes as well as in the National Honor Society. I hope this has been of help to you and again if the boys or I can be of any help, please feel free to contact us. Have a great day! Curtis

Curtis Martinez 


World Champions

Little League Baseball and Softball Major Division 
Parkview Team, Chula Vista, California 


Chula Vista, Calif.'s Daniel Porras Jr. gets a hug from Andy Rios, right, as they celebrate the team's 6-3 victory over Taoyuan, Taiwan, in the Little League World Series baseball championship game in South Williamsport, Pa., Sunday, Aug. 30, 2009. (AP Photo/Tom E. Puskar)

Daniel Porras Jr. gets a hug from Andy Rios, right. 
 (AP Photo/Tom E. Puskar)

The Park View team of Chula Vista, California played in the Major Division of boys age group 11/12 years old.  World wide, there are 32,200 teams in the Major Division with 483,000 players.  

PARK VIEW ROSTER: Isaiah Armenta, Oscar Castro Jr., Nick Conlin, Kiko Garcia, Bulla Graft, Seth Godfrey, Markus Melin, Jensen Petersen, Daniel Porras Jr., Luke Ramirez, Andy Rios, Bradley Roberto. Manager: Oscar Castro. Coach: Ric Ramirez.

Comment by: Elizabeth Wagner-Howe Posted: August 31, 2009, 8:50 am

 "Although I live in North County, I can’t express just how proud I am of this team. Not only did they play as a team, but their sportsmanship surpassed their playing abilities, which is something not seen very often in the world of sports. Not only are they excellent ball players, but wonderful role models for the youth of today. Thank you Parkview…….wonderful job and a title well deserved. May you enjoy the national attention and limelight—you have earned it rightfully."

Christopher D. Downs
Director of Publicity
Little League Baseball and Softball
570-326-1921, ext. 238

For all teams, ages 5-18, there are 174,000 teams and 2.6 million players ages. 




Part X


Mercy Bautista-Olvera


In the coming months this series “Hispanics Breaking Barriers” will present the   contributions of Hispanics in United States government and leadership. Their contributions have improved not only the local community but the country as well.   Their struggles, stories, and accomplishments will by example, illustrate to our youth and to future generations that everything and anything is possible.  

Alexander G. Garza:  Assistant Secretary and Chief Medical Officer of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (Confirmed)    

Maria Otero:  Under Secretary of State for Democracy and Global Affairs in the State Department (Confirmed)      

Carlos Pascual:  Ambassador of Mexico (Appointed)   

Juan A. Sepúlveda:  White House Director, Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanics Americans (Appointed)  

Anna Gómez: Deputy Assistant Secretary for Communications and Information and Deputy National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) Administrator in the U.S. Commerce Department (Appointed)  




                                               Dr. Alexander Gerard Garza  

Dr. Alexander Garza has been named Assistant Secretary and Chief Medical Officer of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security by the U.S. Senate. Dr. Garza has served as a Staff Physician for the Level I trauma center at the Washington Hospital Center . Dr. Garza has specialized in emergency medicine in both civilian and military roles.  

Alexander Gerard Garza is the son of Fernando Christopher Garza and Mary Lou Garza. Alexander grew up as one of five brothers in Maryland Heights Missouri , a middle class suburb of St. Louis , Missouri . He is married to Melissa Heiman-Garza; they have three sons Alex, Samuel and Daniel.  

While attending college he decided, he wanted to experience medicine from the ground up. He delayed attending medical school to work as a paramedic performing Emergency Medical Services in Kansas City , Missouri so he could learn from the front lines. He continued his work as a first responder and as a Flight Medic all through medical school, working weekends and holidays to put himself through school.     

Garza volunteered as the medical expert on a Methamphetamine Task Force he directed as Jackson County Prosecuting Attorney.  In recognition of his work, he was awarded a Presidential Citation by the Office of National Drug Control Policy.  

In 1996, Garza received his Bachelor’s Degree at the University of Missouri in Kansas City . After receiving his Medical Degree from the University Of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine and a Masters Degree in Public Health from Saint Louis University School , Dr. Garza served as Associate Medical Director of Emergency Medical Services at the University of Missouri , the University of New Mexico and Georgetown University Schools of Medicine.    

Garza ultimately chose to make his career in medicine about public service when he accepted a position as a member of the faculty at the Truman Medical Center  

His plan was interrupted when he was called to active service during Operation Iraqi Freedom, leaving behind his wife, who was in law school at the time, and his then, two small children.  For the past 10 years, Doctor Garza has served as a Health Officer and Team Chief at Battalion and command levels with the U.S. Army Special Operations Command. Dr. Garza served as the Public Health Team Chief for the 418th Civil Affairs Battalion.  Dr. Garza and his team were responsible for rebuilding healthcare in Iraq .  What he found were medical schools with out of date textbooks and decades old journals. He started a textbook donation program that led to medical schools from across the United States sending texts to fill the library shelves of schools throughout Iraq . His military roes have included the Public Health Team Chief for Operation Flintlock in Dakar , Senegal , and the Public Health Team Chief for Operation Iraqi Freedom I. He has served as a battalion Surgeon, as as a paramedic and Emergency Medical Technician, and as special investigator/medical expert for Lieutenant General Ray Odierno.  

Lenard Politte MD, the President of the Missouri University School of Medicine Alumni Organization met Dr. Garza in 2008 at the school’s annual alumni awards ceremony, where Garza received an Outstanding Young Physician Award. He honored Dr. Garza by stating: “Dr. Garza is a high-caliber emergency medicine physician and leader who we are proud to claim as one of our own,” Politte said. “We have watched him excel in medical leadership positions in Missouri and Washington , D.C. , as well as in his military service here and abroad. We’re excited to see him have this opportunity to serve on a national level.”  

 “Dr. Garza brings many years of experience as both a leader in the public health field and a practicing emergency physician to the Department’s Office of Health Affairs,” said U.S. Department of Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano. “I look forward to working with him to prepare for and respond to all health threats – from the H1N1 virus to biological weapons – to ensure the safety of our nation.”


  Maria Otero  

Maria Otero, ACCION International Executive Vice President, and Chief Executive Officer has been confirmed by the Senate to serve Under Secretary of State for Democracy and Global Affairs in the State Department. She becomes the first highest-ranking Hispanic ever to serve at the State Department.  

Maria Beatriz Otero was born and raised in La Paz , Bolivia , one of nine children;   her father moved the family to Washington when Otero was 12 years old so he could take a position with the Inter-American Development Bank. She is married to Joseph Thomas Eldridge, an international human rights advocate, they have two sons, David and Justin.  

Maria Otero earned her Bachelor of Arts from the University of Michigan , than studied Economics. Otero studied English Literature at the University of Maryland , hoping to become a literature professor after graduation, though she earned a Master of Arts in English Literature.    

Otero moved to Bolivia to observe poverty on the ground. She returned to the United States to complete graduate work at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies, where she earned her Master of Arts in Economic Development and International Studies, with emphasis on Latin America, at the Johns Hopkins School for Advanced International Studies at the University of Maryland .

In 1981, Otero became a program officer for the Development Group for Alternative Policies, and the Inter-American Foundation.  Otero worked as an economist for Latin America and the Caribbean for the Women in Development Office of United States for International Development.  

The Bolivian born activist became one of the leading experts on microfinance, or helping entrepreneurs in poor countries start their own businesses by giving small loans. In 1986, Otero joined ACCION, as country Director in Honduras . She returned to the United States in 1989 to start and direct the Washington , D.C. , office. In that position, she worked with the U.S. government and nonprofit agencies to develop policies that helped families in the developing world earn money through small businesses.  A typical microfinance program extends a small amount of credit, usually with no collateral, to people or organizations that would not normally qualify for loans.  

In 1989, Otero opened ACCION's Washington , D.C. office. Under Otero's leadership, the number of poor microentrepreneurs served by ACCION's partner network grew from 460,000 to 3.7 million, in 23 countries. Over the same period, the partners' combined active loan portfolio grew from $274 million to nearly $3.6 billion. Since 2000, ACCION has expanded significantly beyond its core microfinance work in Central and South America, launching operations in Africa and India , securing preliminary approval to begin microlending in China , and opening hub offices in Accra , Bangalore and Beijing . Under Otero's direction, the ACCION staff grew more than threefold, from 65 to 220.  

Otero was named ACCION’s vice president in 1994, and president and Chief Executive Officer of ACCION International six years later. She was appointed president and CEO in 2000. In 2007, she was named to the United Nations Advisors Group on Inclusive Financial Sectors. ACCION's work to create inclusive, sustainable financial systems for the world's poor has also brought both Otero and ACCION widespread recognition and awards, including her selection by Newsweek as one of America 's 20 most powerful women. ACCION's honors include Fast Company's 'Social Capitalist Award,' bestowed for five consecutive years; Charity Navigator's highest rating, four stars, for efficiency and sound fiscal management; and, most recently, the Inter-American Development Bank's 'Juscelino Kubitschek Award' for its contributions to economic and financial development in Latin America and the Caribbean.

Otero relates the following narrative to explain the path to her current position:  “While I was studying literature at the University of Maryland , my older brother was studying economics. He became increasingly involved in politics, while I really wanted to bury myself in the protected cocoon of the humanities, yet my roots in Bolivia called to me. I thought of the rampant poverty in my country of birth and ultimately abandoned my Ph.D. dissertation and turned to the study of Political Economics. I knew then I wanted to spend my time on something that mattered. Then the early work I did in Africa and Asia with training women increased my focus on empowering women economically, which would directly affect the welfare of their children and their standing in the community. I looked for a way to fulfill my passion and found ACCION International. I've been with ACCION nearly 20 years, and it has been a privilege."

Otero brings a strong development background to her new position at the Department of State. At her confirmation, she stated that her focus would be making sure governments follow the tenets set out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. “Democracy and human rights are at the core of our foreign policy goals, and to the values we hold as a nation,” she said. “I will work to ensure that they remain central to our decision-making,” Otero said at her June 2009 confirmation hearing.  

With Maria Otero’s confirmation, the Under Secretary of State for Democracy and Global Affairs coordinates U.S. foreign relations on a wide variety of global issues, including democracy, human rights and labor; environment, oceans, health and science; population, refugees and migration; and trafficking in persons.


Carlos Pascual addresses military officers graduating from the Army's Command and General Staff College in Fort Leavenworth, Kan. , Friday, June 12, 2009. Pascual, President Barak Obama's nominee to be the next ambassador to Mexico, is the Vice President and Director of the Foreign Policy Program at Brookings Institution.

 Carlos Pascual  

Carlos Pascual Director of the US State Department Office of Reconstruction and Stabilization has been appointed to become the Ambassador to Mexico .  

Carlos Enrique Pascual was born in 1959 in Cuba , immigrated to the United States with his family when he was three. He is married to Aileen Marshall-Pascual.  

He earned his Bachelor of Arts International Relations degree from Stanford University in 1980 before moving to Boston, where he received his Master of Arts in Public Policy in 1982 from the from Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government.  

Pascual served as a key member of the U.S. government team that dealt with South Africa and Mozambique in the years leading up to their own transitions.   

From 1995-2000, Pascual worked in the White House National Security Council, ultimately as Senior Director for Russian, Ukrainian, and Eurasian Affairs.    

In 2000-2003, as the U.S. Ambassador to Ukraine , Pascual, “helped build a strong private sector and worked with the Ukrainian government on fighting terrorism and, eventually, on helping secure their participation in the Iraq war, where “he helped dismantle the former Soviet Union, the emergence of a democratizing Russia , and the safeguarding of nuclear weapons and material.”  

Pascual served as Vice president and Director of Foreign Policy at Brookings Institution, a public nonprofit body of experts on national and international economic, government and foreign affairs. The Brookings Institution, which Pascual joined while serving as Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization, describes him as “One of the most accomplished career diplomats of his generation, and for over two decades an innovator in addressing some of the most important challenges facing the United States and the international community.” His career has included work in Africa, Latin America, Europe , and the former Communist world. “He has had experience both in the field and at high levels of the executive branch, advancing political and economic reform in developing and transitional countries, combating terrorism and weapons, proliferation and dealing with sources of instability.”    


 Juan A. Sepúlveda Jr.  

Juan A. Sepúlveda Jr., has been appointed to lead the “White House Initiative on   Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans.”    

Juan Antonio Sepúlveda Jr. is the son of Juan Antonio Sr., and Aurora Sepúlveda.  Juan is married to Teresa Niño-Sepúlveda, she is currently the Director of Communication & Legislative in San Antonio , Texas . They have two children Michael and Victoria.  

Sepúlveda, a San Antonio native, grew up in a working class Mexican-American neighborhood in Topeka , Kansas . He has been involved in community organizing and politics since the age of 16 when he was the first high school student hired to work for the Kansas Secretary of State.  

Juan A. Sepúlveda Jr. earned a Bachelor of Arts in Government from Harvard University , completed a combined degree in Politics, Philosophy and Economics at the Queen's College, Oxford University , where he was a Rhodes Scholar; received his Jurist degree from Stanford Law School ; and admitted to the Texas Bar Association. He is a United States Hispanic Leadership Institute member. “Sepulveda is exceedingly well qualified for this position. Juan is arguably one of the brightest Latino stars in the Obama administration.” A colleague said.  

Since 1995, he has served as President of The Common Enterprise, which he founded to help build stronger communities across America by making non-profits, philanthropic organizations, governments, businesses, and communities more effective in their public work. Sepulveda's experience over the last 20 years includes work as a senior executive, strategist, and advocate in the non-profit and philanthropic communities with a focus in community development, capacity building, and transformational management.  

In 1997, Sepúlveda was selected as an American representative for the Migration Dialogue, an intensive three-day seminar for North American and European opinion leaders to consider. The 1997 gathering held in Berlin , Germany and included site visits to Poland . These seminars permit elected officials, journalists and other leaders of opinion to learn about immigration issues in other industrial democracies. The 1997 the group included representatives from Austria , France , Germany , Mexico , Poland , the United Kingdom , and the U.S..  

Sepúlveda is the author of “Andean Highland; An Encounter with Two Forms of Christianity” (World Council of Churches, publisher 1997). Sepúlveda was one of 17 Americans internationally selected to participate in the French-American Foundation's Young Leaders program in 1998. Created in 1981, the program's purpose is to strengthen the relationship between France and the United States by bringing together young leaders in government). He has also worked closely with the late legendary Willie Velásquez and the Southwest Voter Registration Education Project. He wrote Velásquez biography “The Life & Times of Willie Velásquez: su voto es su voz. (Your vote is your voice).”  

Sepúlveda also served as a Senior Advisor for Bill Bradley's 2000 presidential campaign. His main responsibilities were coordinating and leading the campaign's national Latino efforts including political organizing; constituency outreach; media outreach-both earned and paid media, radio and television, in both English and Spanish; issue and policy development and the development of English and Spanish language materials aimed at the Latino community.

Sepúlveda served as President and Co-founder of The Common Enterprise, a national management-consulting group that developed from a major Rockefeller Foundation initiative. He has worked as a talk show host on KLRN in San Antonio , and has served as the Texas State Director for the “Obama for America campaign.”    


  Anna Gomez


Anna Gomez has been appointed as the U.S. Commerce Department’s Deputy Assistant Secretary for Communications and Information, and Deputy National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) Administrator.  

Gomez is a graduate of the Pennsylvania State University and earned her Jurist degree from George Washington University . Gomez is a member of the District of Columbia ’s Hispanic Bar Association and the Federal Communications Bar Association.     

As acting head of National Telecommunications and Information Administration one of Gomez' key priorities will be to help with the DTV transition. NTIA is currently overseeing the DTV-to-analog converter box coupon program; the converters allow analog-only TV sets to continue to receive a TV signal after the transition to digital.  

Gomez served as the Deputy Chief of Staff in the National Economic Council during the Clinton Administration specializing in the development of U.S. telecommunications policy and issues related to Hispanic education. She also served as Staff Counsel in the U.S. Senate for the Subcommittee on Communication, Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation.  

Gomez served at the FCC in various posts, including the Common Carrier Bureau, Network Services Division, and the International Bureau.  

Gomez was previously Vice President of the State and Federal Regulatory, Government Affairs, for Sprint-Nextel on "non-spectrum issues." She was also a legal adviser to former Chairman William Kennard, who has been a telecom policy advisor to Obama.




Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez

A Wise Latina  


Mercy Bautista-Olvera  



 Dr. Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez  

Maggie Rivas was born in San Antonio, Texas ; she was raised nearby in the small town of Devine , she is the daughter of Ramon Martin Rivas and Henrietta Lopez-Rivas. She has one brother and five sisters. Maggie is married to Gilbert “Gil” Rodriguez; they have two sons, Ramon and Agustin.    

Maggie received a Bachelor’s degree in Journalism from the University of Texas at Austin while working at a Spanish-language radio station and at the “Daily Texan.” She graduated with honors in 1976.  

In 1977, Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez earned a Master’s degree in Journalism from Columbia University ’s Graduate School of Journalism in New York, and began her professional career as a Copy Editor and reporter for “United Press International” in Dallas, Texas .    

In 1982, Rivas-Rodriguez was on the committee that organized and founded the National Association of Hispanic Journalists. Rivas-Rodriguez has long been active since her college years in volunteer efforts to bring greater diversity to the news media.    

In 1992, when she was assigned to write about Texas Mexican Americans and the Civil Rights movement, she grew frustrated at how little was published about the subject -- in particular, those who lived through World War II. "I was frustrated that we really didn't have the books that would showcase and examine the contributions of this generation of people, so we started to at least think about putting together an oral history project," Rivas-Rodriguez said.  

In 1998, Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez attended the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill as a Freedom Forum Doctoral Fellow, earning a PhD in Mass Communication. Her dissertation, “Brown Eyes on the Web: Newspaper Site on the Internet,” included an analysis of a Latino Web newspaper as well as one of the mainstream newspapers in the same market.   

Now a Journalist and Professor at the University of Texas in Austin she started the Latino/Latina WWII oral history project. The project with a $36,500 grant from the A.H. Belo Corporation Foundation, hosted a conference the following year titled, “U.S. Latinos and Latinas & World War II: Changes Seen, Changes Sought,” which drew academic and public interest and helped jumpstart the project.   

Since 1999, Dr. Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez has been the Director of the Latino/Latina Veterans of World War II Oral History Project at the University of Texas at Austin . The Project has also collected interviews with more than 450 people; the project has also produced a conference, an edited volume of academic manuscripts, a play, a documentary film with educational materials, a general interest book, and a video, audio and photographic archive. Additional information can be found on their website.


The oral history archives are located at the Nettie Lee Benson Latin American Collection and at the Center for American History—both on the University of Texas at Austin campus. The archives serve as primary source material for scholars and other writers, as well as for the public interested in learning more about this generation of Latinos and Latinas.   

Since the fall of 1999, the Project publishes “Narratives” each semester.        Through this publication, journalism students have the opportunity to sharpen their writing and interviewing skills, and experience a richly diverse history. It has been especially satisfying for Latino and Latina journalism students.      

The “Los Angeles Times” and the “Washington Post” have run feature stories about the project that has prompted volunteers from around the country to send videotaped interviews, photographs and anything else they have to contribute. The project relies heavily on the work of volunteer interviewers around the country. To meet the goal of building quality archives, the project has a volunteer training manual on its website that includes release forms and guidelines for conducting interviews and submitting photos and videos.


Dr. Rivas-Rodriguez strongly encourages local communities to consider the preservation of Latino heritage through oral documentation. “Once these vital links with the past are gone, Latino history fades and cannot be recovered. I get e-mails from people saying, ‘Why don’t you just go back to where you came from?’ There is still that sense that our people are recent arrivals. In addition, I have nothing against recent arrivals, but the fact of the matter is that our people have been here for many, many generations, and that we have made major contributions to our country.  We’re not recognized as being Americans today. People should not be surprised that we have contributed during World War II, but we’re not recognized.” Dr. Rivas-Rodriguez said.  

In 2006, Dr. Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez was inducted to the Dallas Fort Worth Network of Hispanic Communicator's Hall of Fame.   

Dr. Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez helped lead the fight to bring a much-needed Hispanic perspective on World War II. She began two of the National Association of Hispanic Journalists most successful student projects: a newspaper produced by college students, professionals, and a nationwide high school writing contest. The newspaper has become the model for other industry organizations such as: the American Society of Newspaper Editors, the National Alliance of Faith and Justice, and the Asian American Journalists Association, as a way to develop mentoring relationships and to train students. 


On July 24, 2007, Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez received the Ruben Salazar Award for Communications from the National Council of la Raza at the annual conference in Miami , Florida .  

October 4, 2007, “The National Association of Latino Independent Producers” honored Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez with the organization's Lifetime Achievement for Advocacy award in Washington , D.C.  

October 2007 “Hispanics Business Magazine” named Dr. Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez one of the “100 most Influential Hispanics.”    

Preserving the Legacy of Hispanics of the WWII Generation  

9/18/07 Photo, Golden West College, Huntington Beach, California, Left to Right: Keith Gabaldon, Grandson of Guy Gabaldon, Dr. Maggie Rivas- Rodriguez, and Steve Rubin, producer  

On September 18, 2007, the documentary “East L.A. Marine: The Untold True Story of Guy Gabaldon” was shown. Presented by Producer Steve Rubin and moderated by Dr. Monte Perez. It was followed by panel discussions on how to preserve the Legacy of Hispanics of the WWII Generation. Panelists at one or both of the events were documentary producer Steve Rubin, Dr. Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez, Gus Chavez, Ben De Leon, and Mimi Lozano.

In the fall of 2007 Rivas-Rodriguez helped to establish the Defend the Honor, the campaign asked PBS and Ken Burns to revise the PBS documentary “THE WAR” and include the experiences of Latino Veterans. They both maintained that the documentary was completed more than a year ago and that the structure of the documentary was meant to be comprehensive.  

“We have men who came back after earning the Medal of Honor, and they were turned away from restaurants. This was an everyday occurrence for Latinos across the country,” Rivas-Rodriguez said. “For our story to be left out of the national collective memory one more time is unacceptable.” 

On February 27, 2008, the Indiana University Kokomo’s History and Political Science Club and the American Democracy Project sponsored a lecture by Dr.

Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez. Here she presented “Taking the Lessons to Heart: The Latino Challenge to the PBS/Ken Burns Documentary on WWII.” She helped spearhead a grassroots campaign for meaningful inclusion of Latinos in Ken Burns’ documentary “THE WAR.”  

 Dr. Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez

On July 25, 2008, she was the recipient of the National Association of Hispanic Journalists Unity Award. She was honored for her tireless work to bring diversity to the nation's newsrooms. NAHJ's Hall of Fame is reserved for journalists and industry pioneers whose national or local efforts have resulted in a greater number of Latinos entering the journalism profession or have helped to improve news coverage of the nation's Latino community. She was inducted along with New York Daily News columnist, Juan González, and 19th century journalist Francisco P. Ramirez, editor of Los Angeles' first Spanish-language newspaper, “El Clamor Público.”  

"The thing about Maggie that's really deceiving is she's got this beautiful smile. Don't let that deceive you because deep down she's very dogged in her beliefs," said Alfredo Corchado, a reporter for the Dallas Morning News who met her in the 1980’s. Corchado added, "Very steely temperament. She's quite petite, but she has an enormous passion and huge heart for giving a voice to the voiceless."  

Dr. Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez has been a rock for Latinos, an advocate for justice; she is recognized nationally for helping to create greater awareness of the contributions of U.S. Latinos & Latinas of the World War II generation. She is an unabashed optimist and a woman with character, anyone who thinks of Maggie   as a perky cupcake will discover that she is fascinating, charismatic, loyal  and courageous; a woman with an edge. She is living proof that a woman can have a thriving career and a family. To the many Latinos who fought for their country and were invisible until she came along asking them to tell their stories, their struggles; she is a woman that makes things happen, a champion in her own right. Families now have stories to tell their loved ones.     

For the past ten years of the Latino/Latina Oral History Project, people noticed, and now they know: Maggie fought for them and is still fighting for Latino/Latina WWII Veterans rights, and for these Veterans to be accepted as Americans, and never forgotten.          



“Brown Eyes on the Web: An alternative U.S. Latino Newspaper on the Internet” (Latino Communities, Emerging Voices - Political, Social, Cultural and Legal Issues)  Publisher:  Routledge Press  Hardcover 2003


Mexican Americans and World War II by Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez: Book Cover“Mexican American & World War II” 
  An edited volume of World War II  
Publisher: University of Texas Press
Paperback - April 2005
Hardcover available (On the cover, 
Dr. Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez parents 
Ramon Martin Rivas and Henrietta Lopez-Rivas) 

A Legacy Greater than Words: 
Stories of Latinos & Latinas 
of the World War II Generation"

Publisher:   University of Texas Press 
Paperback - May 2006  


“Beyond the Latino World War II Hero”
The Social and Political Legacy of a Generation  
Publisher: University of Texas Press 
Hardcover (To be published in December 2009)  






2010 Census 


Summer and fall are ideal times to spread the word about the upcoming Census. Take advantage of the good weather to talk to neighbors and friends, and tell them: Census Day is April 1, 2010. The Constitution requires that a Census be taken every 10 years – and that everyone be counted. Census is easy, safe, and important!

Counting everyone is no small task, and that’s why we’re starting early. The 2010 Census operation will be the nation’s largest peacetime mobilization. To get the word out, the Census relies on thousands of workers and volunteers. 

Census is vital to our community. By law, $435 billion in federal funding must be distributed according to Census counts. That’s $1,400 per person, per year! That means if a person doesn’t get counted, our community loses $14,000 (per person) or for the next decade. That could easily add up! For 100 local people missed, we lose $1.4 million! Census numbers determine how many representatives our state gets — as well as Congressional, state, and school district boundaries. Some Pacific Northwest states could gain or lose a representative. We need to ensure everyone is counted!

This year’s Census form is the easy – 10 questions, 10 minutes. Not since the first Census in 1790, have so few questions been asked. Questions basically ask for name, gender, address, age, date of birth, race, ethnicity and if the home is owned or rented. 

All answers are kept private. The Census Bureau does not share information with anyone else – even federal agencies. Not even the President can get information about an individual home. All Census employees take a lifetime oath to safeguard information – punishable by $250,000 and/or five years in prison. Information is kept private for 72 years. 

For more information, view or talk to your local Census staff – Partnership Specialist Lilah Gael, (253) 278-7248 or 

Sent by Rafael Ojeda


New Cato Report Highlights Economic Benefits of Legalizing Immigrants



New Cato Report Highlights Economic Benefits of Legalizing Immigrants

Reform that Includes Legalization Would Yield a Net Benefit of $180 Billion Over 10 Years, While Enforcement Efforts Alone Would Incur $80 Billion in Losses

Washington D.C. -  In a new report released yesterday, Restriction or Legalization? Measuring the Economic Benefits of Immigration Reform, the Cato Institute seeks to quantify the benefits that would flow to the U.S. economy from comprehensive immigration reform which grants some form of legal status to unauthorized immigrants already living in the United States.  The report constructs seven statistical models to simulate various immigration policy options that run the gamut from enforcement-only strategies along the border and at the workplace, to the legalization of currently unauthorized immigrants and creation of legal channels for future immigrant workers that accommodate actual U.S. labor demand.  The report concludes that "compared to either border or interior enforcement, a policy of legalization would, over time, raise the incomes of U.S. workers and their families." 

  • A program to grant legal status to unauthorized workers already in the United States, combined with new channels for the arrival of immigrant workers in the future, would increase the productivity of immigra nt workers and create more job openings for American workers in higher-skilled occupations.  The net result would be economic gains of roughly $180 billion over ten years.
  • An enforcement-only approach would shrink the overall economy, reducing opportunities for higher-skilled American workers. The net result would be economic losses of roughly $80 billion over ten years.

"As Congress begins drafting comprehensive immigration reform proposals, the latest CATO report makes the essential point that reforming our broken immigration system by bringing unauthorized workers into our tax system and on the right side of the law will help our economy. Continuing our enforcement-only policies not only neglects the broken system, but will actually cost our economy billions of dollars over the next decade," said Mary Giovagnoli, Director of the Immigration Policy Center. "The CATO report recognizes the value immigrants bring to America as workers, taxpayers, and consumers."

For more information contact: Wendy Sefsaf at 202-507-7524 or
August 14, 2009



Latinas helped win 19th Amendment, which is celebrated today August 26th
Elaine Ayala 
comments on Latino news, cultura y más  
Today is the 89th anniversary of the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, whose passage was hard-earned by women suffragists. Though guaranteeing the right of U.S. women to vote has been seen largely has a political fight waged by white, Euro American women, early Latinas also were involved.

Two among them were Lucy Gonzalez Parson and Maria Adelina Otero-Warren.
The latter was a convent-educated New Mexican, who spent time studying in St. Louis and doing settlement-house work in New York. A Republican, Otero-Warren was the first Hispanic woman to run for Congress, losing by fewer than 10,000 votes.

An ardent supporter of women's suffrage, Otero-Warren was friends with the great Alice Paul, who called Otero-Warren an influential lobbyist who helped secure ratification of the 19th Amendment in New Mexico. Here's more.

Gonzalez Parsons' ancestry was both African American and Mexican. As a member of the Working Women's Union, Gonzalez Parsons advocated for the right to vote as well as equal pay. She was also a Texas-born writer. 


Theme of 2009 Hispanic Heritage Month
Power Point Presentation for a Hispanic Heritage Presentation
U.S. Presidential Proclamation
ESPN, NFL Campaign Honors Hispanics
Great links for our Educators
Fast Facts for Hispanic Heritage Month
Britannica Profiles Hispanic Heritage CD-ROM
Kleenex Honors Hispanic Heritage with User-Generated Box Art

Walmart Celebrates Hispanic Heritage Month by Giving Back Through Education
The Chicano Wave/La Onda Chicana
Hate crimes plague Hispanic community
Verizon Resources
MÁS New Mexico, Brief Summary of historic Hispanic Contributions

2009 Theme for Hispanic Heritage Month
"Embracing the Fierce Urgency of Now!"


Everardo Sanchez who is currently attending Mount San Antonio College in California designed this year's poster.  "My poster idea 
was inspired through the love that I have for my family and friends, the Hispanic Community and my love for the Arts. I painted a family embracing one another to represent love and support, the Statue of Liberty represents our freedom and the military images honor those 
who preserve it."

To get a printed calendar of events for Hispanic Heritage Months, please call the Smithsonian Institution at 202 357-2700.   
To view the calendar online, click on

Sent by Rafael Ojeda


"Hispanics have been underrepresented for the last 39 years -- since President Nixon issued, on November 5, 1970 , the Sixteen-Point Federal Employment Plan.  Reminders to just wait 
a bit longer to tackle this challenge will bring Hispanics another 30 years of under representation.   

Thus, my theme proposal is an urgent call to channel our energies to tackle this problem NOW!”  We can’t afford to have another don’t worry, be happy theme at time of so much turbulence and lack of progress for Hispanics."

Jorge E. Ponce
Co-Chair, Council of Federal EEO and Civil Rights Executives

Power Point Online for teachers

Sent by Rafael Ojeda



Office of the Press Secretary


For Immediate Release                                                 September 15, 2009

- - - - - - -


The story of Hispanics in America is the story of America itself. The Hispanic community's values -- love of family, a deep and abiding faith, and a strong work ethic -- are America's values. Hispanics bring together the rich traditions of communities with centuries-old roots in America and the energy and drive of recent immigrants. Many have taken great risks to begin a new life in the hopes of achieving a better future for themselves and their families.

Hispanics have played a vital role in the moments and movements that have shaped our country. They have enriched our culture and brought creativity and innovation to everything from sports to the sciences and from the arts to our economy.

Hispanics have served with honor and distinction in every conflict since the Revolutionary War, and they have made invaluable contributions through their service to our country. They lead corporations and not-for-profits, and social movements and places of learning. They serve in government at every level from school boards to statehouses, and from city councils to Congress. And for the first time in our Nation's history, a Latina is seated among the nine Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States.

As Hispanics continue to enrich our Nation's character and shape our common future, they strengthen America's promise and affirm the narrative of American unity and progress.

To honor the achievements of Hispanics in America, the Congress, by Public Law 100-402, as amended, has authorized and requested the President to issue annually a proclamation designating September 15 through October 15 as "National Hispanic Heritage Month."

NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, do hereby proclaim September 15 through October 15, 2009, as National Hispanic Heritage Month. I call upon public officials, educators, librarians, and all the people of the United States to observe this month with appropriate ceremonies, activities, and programs.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this fifteenth day of September, in the year of our Lord two thousand nine, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fourth.





Sent by Rafael Ojeda


ESPN, NFL Campaign Honors Hispanics

League, Sports Net Shine Spotlight on Surnames, 
History by Laura Martinez -- Multichannel News, 9/16/2009


In celebration of Hispanic Heritage Month and to highlight the influence of Hispanic players in the National Football League, ESPN and the league this week are launching "Let's Continue Making History," a multiplatform campaign.

NFL LogoThe effort will roll out across several ESPN and ESPN Deportes platforms, including television, radio, print and online.

The campaign, which aims at highlighting the successes of Hispanic NFL players, includes a series of television spots featuring ESPN Deportes commentator Álvaro Martin and former NFL kicker and Super Bowl champion Raúl Allegre. In one spot, Martin and Allegre are seeing walking together across a virtual football field, in which one can see images of such Hispanic NFL players as Miami Dolphins wide receiver Greg Camarillo, Atlanta Falcons tight end Tony González and rookie New York Jets quarterback Mark Sanchez.

The campaign is the latest in a series of efforts by the NFL to grow its Hispanic fan base, which has increasingly tuned in to watch what it calls "Fútbol Americano." According to Nielsen Media Research, 28.5 million Hispanics watched the NFL during the 2008 season (August 2008 through February 2009.)

The NFL's Hispanic Heritage Month marketing efforts this year will include a special celebration surrounding the Oct. 12 Jets-Dolphins Monday Night Football matchup. The live English-language ESPN telecast from Land Shark Stadium in Miami Gardens, Fla., will integrate graphics and audio from ESPN Deportes' Spanish-language feed.

Sent by Rafael Ojeda

Some other great resources:



Fast Facts for Hispanic Heritage Month (U.S.) 


Britannica Profiles Hispanic Heritage CD-ROM


Encyclopædia Britannica Profiles Hispanic Heritage introduces you to the people, places, events, and traditions that have shaped—and continue to shape—the vibrant Hispanic culture that thrives in South, Central, and North America. This CD-ROM is packed with features such as insightful biographies, comprehensive country coverage, remarkable speeches, historical documents, and engaging multimedia that provide a unique look at the fascinating world of the Hispanic people.

Meet powerful and influential figures such as Fidel Castro, Vicente Fox, and Frida Kahlo. Re-live key historical events such as the Spanish-American War. Read in-depth descriptions illustrating the impact of Hispanics on the world—from the Aztecs to the Panama Canal and the Bay of Pigs Invasion. And browse a stunning image gallery for a visual history of the contributions of many Hispanics, as well as a new way of looking at Hispanic history.

Britannica Profiles Hispanic Heritage CD-ROM  Regularly: $14.95 (USD)01234567891011121314151617181920  Now: $12.95 (USD)



Kleenex Honors Hispanic Heritage with User-Generated Box Art
  Aug 27, 2009 
Brian Quinton for PROMO Xtra


Contest winners (l. to r.) Paola Lagioia, Jessica DelCarpio and Jaime Maldonado designed Kleenex upright boxes to be sold in markets to celebrate 2009 Hispanic Heritage Month.

Rounding out a search for Hispanic artists that launched in December 2008, Kimberly-Clark’s Kleenex brand has announced the winners in its “Con Kleenex, Expresa tu Hispanidad” package design contest.

The contest, which translates as ‘Express Your Hispanic Pride with Kleenex”, was aimed at finding creative talents who could translate elements of Hispanic heritage onto three upright Kleenex packages that will reach store shelves in quantity next month to commemorate Hispanic Heritage Month (Sept. 15 to Oct. 15.)

The Kleenex brand wanted to recognize the contributions of Hispanic culture to America and felt an art contest celebrating their rich heritage was an ideal way to do that,” brand manager Carolyn Eisele said in a release. “The number of quality pieces we received over a period of several months was simply amazing and shows just how much artistic talent is out there, just waiting to be discovered.”

Entrants submitted their design ideas either in digital form through the contest Web site – available in English and Spanish—or by mailing them to Kleenex in any concrete form, from paintings and photographs to textile arts and sculpture. Submissions had to be received by the end of January, and entrants had to be legal residents of the U.S., over 18 and non-professional artists.

Kimberly-Clark judges selected a dozen finalists from those submissions and posted them to the Web site for a popular vote from March through June. Those popular votes were then factored into deliberations by a final panel of judges in selecting the three contest winners from among that group of 12.

Interest in the contest was strong, both among artists and the general public, according to Kleenex. The competition received some 600 design submissions, and once the 12 finalists were selected, the contest Web site saw some 30,000 votes cast between March and June 2009.

The three winning designs came from three young artists representing different points of Hispanic origin. Jaime Maldonado lives in Chicago and is of Puerto Rican descent; Paola Lagioia of Miami has a Venezuelan heritage; and New Yorker Jessica DelCarpio’s family hails from Peru. 

In addition to seeing their designs mass-produced and sold at retail during September and October, the three will each receive a $5,000 cash award. The other 9 finalists will each get $500.

“The Kleenex brand’s decision to create this unique contest deserves the gratitude of the entire Hispanic community,” Hispanic radio personality and psychologist Dr. Isabel Gomez-Bassols said in a release. Gomez-Bassols serves as brand spokeswoman for a number of the Hispanic promotional initiatives run by Kimberly-Clark brands including Scot Tissue and Huggies diapers.

Kimberly-Clark has worked with the MASS Hispanic agency on many of its multi-ethnic campaigns, including one for Scott Tissue that won a 2008 Pro Award from Promo magazine.


Walmart Celebrates Hispanic Heritage Month by Giving Back Through Education

Walmart Helps Even More Hispanics Achieve Their Educational Dreams, 
Sep 10, 2009 


BENTONVILLE, Ark., Sept. 10 /PRNewswire-FirstCall/ -- Walmart is celebrating
Hispanic Heritage Month, September 15 - November 1, by launching the "La Mejor
Herencia es una Buena Educacion," ("the best heritage is a good education") national campaign, a continued commitment to serving the Hispanic community through education-focused initiatives. While the number of Hispanics earning degrees is on the rise, the campaign is designed to ensure that those still underserved receive the vital information and assistance necessary to gain access to a higher education.

The campaign includes:
-- National television, radio, print and online advertising - the ads, aimed at showcasing Hispanic students who can serve as role models to other aspiring students, highlight recipients of the Hispanic Scholarship Fund/Walmart Scholarship Program.

-- Enhancement of  - the site will have a designated section that will connect parents and students with individuals committed to helping Hispanics achieve a higher education.

-- Education-focused Walmart Foundation grants - Hispanic-driven organizations that will receive or have received funding include: Excelencia in Education, ASPIRA, the Institute for Higher Education Policy, the Hispanic Scholarship Fund, and the Center for Student
Opportunities (Additional information about the grants is available in Appendix 1).

Hispanics are the fastest growing demographic group in America. According to the United States Census Bureau, the latest statistics show that Hispanics have the highest high school dropout rate, at 21.4 percent. However, Simmons Data 2009 found that the number of Hispanics earning a college degree is up 33%. While only 9 percent of Latinos earned a college or higher degree in 2005, that number has improved to 12% in 2008.

"Walmart can play a vital role in supporting the communities we serve beyond the products in our stores and career opportunities for associates," said Gisel Ruiz, senior vice president, People, Walmart U.S. "Walmart remains committed to meeting the educational needs of Hispanics throughout the year by offering scholarship opportunities and initiatives that support Hispanics and higher education. We believe this is the road that leads to helping people live better lives." functions as a portal for parents and students interested in pursuing a college degree. Information and tools related to standardized tests and college placement exams, scholarship and financial aid, steps on choosing a college, and tips on writing admission essays, can be found in both English and Spanish. The site will be accessible throughout the year.

In addition to these programs, Walmart's other Hispanic Heritage Month initiatives include a partnership between Sam's Club and the United States Hispanic Chamber of Commerce to assist small business owners interested in strengthening their businesses. The nationwide contest, "Como Si," ("you can") will award 10 winners with a visit to Sam's Club corporate headquarters in Bentonville, Ark. to learn practical tips on incorporating technology into their businesses, while improving their bottom line. The contest runs from
September 15 to October 15. Please visit for more information.

Walmart, an employer of more than 171,000 Hispanic associates, has been honored for its continued commitment to the Hispanic community across the company. The retailer was named one of the "Top 12 Companies of the Year" by LATINA Style Magazine for 2009, and honored with the "Best Supplier Diversity Programs for Hispanics" award by Hispanic Network magazine, to name a few.

About Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.

Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. (NYSE: WMT), or "Walmart," serves customers and members more than 200 million times per week at more than 8,000 retail units under 53 different banners in 15 countries. With fiscal year 2009 sales of $401 billion, Walmart employs more than 2.1 million associates worldwide. A leader in sustainability, corporate philanthropy and employment opportunity, Walmart ranked first among retailers in Fortune Magazine's 2009 Most Admired Companies survey. Additional information about Walmart can be found by visiting Online merchandise sales are available at and

Ed. Note: Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. is the legal trade name of the corporation. The name "Walmart," expressed as one word and without punctuation, is a trademark of the company and is used analogously to describe the company and its stores. Use the trade name when it is necessary to identify the legal entity, such as when reporting financial results, litigation or corporate governance.

APPENIDIX 1: Walmart Foundation Grants and Scholarships 

Hispanic Scholarship Fund (HSF) - The HSF/Walmart high school scholarship program is funded by a $3 million multi-year grant from the Walmart Foundation.

Founded in 1975 as a not-for-profit, the Hispanic Scholarship Fund (HSF) is the nation's preeminent Latino scholarship organization, providing the Latino community more college scholarships and educational outreach support than any other organization in the country. For more information about HSF, please visit:

Excelencia in Education - Awarded $1.4 million in grants by the Walmart Foundation for the organization's "Growing What Works" national initiative. The initiative aims to accelerate Latino student successes by refining and replicating model educational programs that are proven to advance Latino achievement in two- and four-year colleges.

Excelencia in Education, a 501(c) (3) organization, aims to accelerate higher education success for Latino students by providing data-driven analysis of the educational status of Latino students and by promoting education policies and institutional practices that support their academic achievement.

ASPIRA - Awarded $1.65 million in grants from the Walmart Foundation to significantly expand its ASPIRA Clubs. These clubs seek to decrease the high drop out rate among Latino youth.

ASPIRA is the largest national Latino organization in the country and the only one dedicated exclusively to the education of Latin youth. Founded in 1961, ASPIRA's core program has been the ASPIRA Leadership Clubs in schools. In addition, ASPIRA provides a host of after-school programs including tutoring, mentoring, math and science enrichment programs, financial literacy, parental engagement and access and training in technology, in addition to operating nine charter schools.

Institute for Higher Education Policy - Awarded $4.2 million in grants by the Walmart Foundation to be used to award 20 colleges with grants of $100,000 to improve retention and academic success.

The Institute for Higher Education Policy (IHEP) is an independent, nonprofit organization that is dedicated to increasing access and success in post secondary education around the world. IHEP's Web site,  , features an expansive collection of higher education information available free of charge and provides access to some of the most respected professionals in the fields of public policy and research.

Sam Walton Community Scholarship - The Walmart Foundation will award 2,695 students with the 2009 Sam Walton Community Scholarship. Those students will receive $3,000 to use toward tuition, fees, books, and on-campus room and board for the 2009-2010 academic year.

SOURCE Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.
Lorenzo Lopez of Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., 1-800-331-0085


The Chicano Wave/La Onda Chicana

Posted by, 09 September 2009 
Riverdale, NY - Manhattan College will host the premiere of the film The Chicano Wave/La Onda Chicana, a documentary which explores the evolution of Mexican-American music.
The event, presented by the history department, modern foreign languages and the provost’s office in celebration of Latino Heritage Month, will be held on Thursday, Sept. 10 in the Rodriguez Room of Miguel Hall.
The film, to be broadcast nationally in October as part of the four-hour series Latin Music USA, examines the struggle of Chicano artists – among them Ritchie Valens, Freddie Fender, Los Lobos, Linda Ronstadt and Selena – against discrimination and their move from the fringes to the national stage, profoundly influencing American popular music in the process.
In attendance during the premiere will be the producer, John Valadez, who has been making and directing award-winning, nationally broadcast documentaries for PBS and CNN for the past 14 years. He directed the critically acclaimed Passin’ It On about a former leader of the Black Panther Party who was falsely imprisoned for 19 years for the PBS series POV. His most recent film, The Last Conquistador, aired in 2008 on POV.
Valadez has twice been a New York Foundation for the Arts Fellow, is a Rockefeller Fellow, a PBS/CPB Producers Academy Fellow, a founding member of the National Association of Latino Independent Producers (NALIP) and currently sits on the board of trustees of the Robert Flaherty Film Seminar.
Latin Music USA features a fast-paced mix of music and interviews. It will air in English on PBS, narrated by acclaimed actor Jimmy Smits, during two evenings (Oct. 12 & 19) with an available Spanish-language track. The series will also air on V-me, the fastest-growing Hispanic TV network in history, fully translated and narrated in Spanish.
For more information, please contact Dr. Julie Leininger Pycior, professor of history, at (718) 862-7126 or e-mail julie.pycior@manhattan.eduThis email address is being protected from spam bots, you need Javascript enabled to view it .
Founded in 1853, Manhattan College is an independent, Catholic, coeducational institution of higher learning offering more than 40 major programs of undergraduate study in the areas of arts, business, education, engineering and science, along with graduate programs in education and engineering. For more information about Manhattan College, visit



Hate crimes plague Hispanic community
Hispanic Heritage Month is an opportune time to rethink racism

Derrick Skaug, The Daily Evergreen Online - Opinion- Columns, September 15, 2009
At WSU, the only time we think about Hispanic culture seems to be when the Cinco de Mayo parties come around, and most of us don’t know what we are really celebrating. But with Hispanic Heritage Month, it is important to reflect not only on what Hispanics have done for this country, but what this country has done to Hispanics.
In this country of tolerance, Jose Osvaldo Sucuzhañay walked the streets of Brooklyn on Dec. 7, 2008, never expecting his life was about to end. Sucuzhañay, a 31 year-old Ecuadorian and father of two, was walking home from a church party arm in arm with his brother, according to The New York Times.
Two men drove up to the brothers yelling anti-gay and anti-Hispanic slurs. Sucuzhañay was struck down to the ground after a beer bottle was smashed against his head. Another attacker proceeded to bash his head in with an aluminum baseball bat. The attackers kicked and punched him as he lay motionless on the ground. Suffering severe head fractures and extensive brain damage, he died two days later. A month earlier, Marcelo Lucero was stabbed to death by a mob of seven teenagers who had one specific goal – “to hunt a Mexican.” This hatred for Hispanic immigrants is unfounded and counterproductive to the success of our country. These are not isolated cases. An FBI report from 2006 indicated that more than 1,305 individuals were targeted because of their ethnicity, and 66 percent of those cases involved Hispanic victims. These statistics are just the tip of the iceberg. Hate crimes are vastly underreported. In 2007, the FBI received only one hate crime report from Alabama and not a single one from Mississippi. This hatred is not waning. The FBI reports also showed that hate crimes against Hispanics have steadily risen during the last four years. From 2006 to 2007, the Southern Poverty Law Center found that the number of hate groups operating in America increased to 888, up 5 percent. After the election of Barack Obama, the Aryan Nation’s Web site was so overwhelmed by access requests that it went offline.
As a society, we must shun fear and hatred of what is different and embrace the uniqueness of other cultures and races. Hispanic Heritage Month is the perfect opportunity to reflect upon what Hispanics have sacrificed to help make this country great and to fight the current xenophobic, anti-immigrant fervor that is widespread in our country.
The first recognition by the federal government of Hispanic Heritage took place under President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1968. Under President Ronald Reagan, Hispanic Heritage week was expanded to a month. Hispanic Heritage Month marks the anniversary of independence for five Latin American countries – Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. In addition, Mexico declared its independence on Sept. 16, and Chile declared its own independence on Sept. 18.
Hispanics have a long legacy of contributing to American culture. They have fought and died for this country, just like everyone else. Hispanic Heritage month is a time to be proud of America’s diverse cultural heritage. At your next Cinco de Mayo party, be sure to tell your friends that you are celebrating the battle of Puebla, when Mexican forces defeated the invading French army.



Free Online Resources Help Educators Bring National
Hispanic Heritage Month Lessons to Life


BASKING RIDGE, N.J., Sept. 15 /PRNewswire/ -- From the stories of the Spanish
missions, to the artists of the Mexican Revolution to the little-known story of the Bracero guest worker program, Hispanic Heritage Month offers a unique opportunity to celebrate the diverse history and important contributions Latinos have made to American culture.
To help educators pique their students' interest in Hispanic-American history and celebrate National Hispanic Heritage Month, from Sept. 15 through Oct. 15, Verizon will offer a rich collection of free lesson plans, activities and educational resources to educators on a special section of its home page.
Verizon contains thousands of free, engaging educational resources that make learning fun. Lesson plans, in-class activities and homework help can be found quickly and searched by grade level, keyword or subject.
Among the resources available in the Verizon Thinkfinity Hispanic Heritage section are:
Mission Nuestra Senora de la Concepcion and the Spanish Mission in the New World In this Picturing America lesson, students explore the historical origins and organization of Spanish missions in the New World  and discover the varied purposes they served. Focused on the daily life of Mission Nuestra Senora de la Concepcion, the lesson asks students to relate the people of this community and their daily activities to the art and architecture of the mission. For students in grades 6-8.
Bittersweet Harvest: The Bracero Program, 1942 -1964 -- This lesson examines the program and experiences of Bracero workers and their families. A little-known chapter of American and Mexican history, the Bracero program was originally created to fill labor shortages during World War II. Between 1942 and 1964, approximately 2 million Mexican men came to the U.S. on short-term labor contracts, making it the largest guest-worker program in U.S. history.  For grades 6-12.

Five Artists of the Mexican Revolution -- In this lesson, students research the major events and personalities in the Mexican Revolution and explore how they influenced the art created at that time in Mexico. Using guided directives, students learn about the relationship between art and history. Students can complete this lesson in English or in Spanish. For grades 9-12. 
Latino Poetry Blog: Blogging as a Forum for Open Discussion -- In this lesson, students use critical-thinking skills to analyze Latino poetry. Students then refine writing skills as they respond to their peers' poetry analyses on a class blog. Students have the option of making the blog public, thus encouraging good Internet etiquette and further analysis with people outside of school. For grades 9-12.
"Hispanic Heritage Month presents a tremendous opportunity for students to learn more about the wonderful, rich history of Hispanic-Americans and Latin America," said Verizon Foundation President Patrick Gaston. "Through Verizon Thinkfinity, teachers receive quick and free access to a multitude of educational resources to bring the stories of Hispanic- American history to life."
In addition to providing standards-based resources from the nation's leading educational organizations, Verizon also offers a comprehensive professional- development program that allows teachers to sign up for free online or face-to-face training to learn how to make the most of Verizon Thinkfinity tools.
Content for Verizon Thinkfinity is provided through a partnership between the Verizon Foundation and 11 of the nation's leading organizations in the fields of education and literacy: the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Council for Economic Education, International Reading Association, The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, National Center for Family Literacy, National Endowment for the Humanities, National Council of Teachers of English, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, National Geographic Society, ProLiteracy and the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History.
The Verizon Foundation, the philanthropic arm of Verizon Communications, supports the advancement of literacy and K-12 education and fosters awareness and prevention of domestic violence.  In 2008, the Verizon Foundation awarded more than $68 million in grants to nonprofit agencies in the U.S. and abroad. It also matched the charitable donations of Verizon employees and retirees, resulting in an additional $26 million in combined contributions to nonprofits.  Through Verizon Volunteers, one of the nation's largest employee volunteer programs, Verizon employees and retirees have volunteered more than
3 million hours of community service since 2000. For more information on the
foundation, visit
Verizon Communications Inc. (NYSE: VZ), headquartered in New York, is a global leader in delivering broadband and other wireless and wireline communications services to mass market, business, government and wholesale customers. Verizon Wireless operates America's most reliable wireless network, serving more than 87 million customers nationwide.  Verizon's Wireline operations provide converged communications, information and entertainment services over the nation's most advanced fiber-optic network.  Wireline also includes Verizon Business, which delivers innovative and seamless business solutions to customers around the world.  A Dow 30 company, Verizon employs a diverse workforce of more than 235,000 and last year generated consolidated operating revenues of more than $97 billion.  For more information, visit
VERIZON'S ONLINE NEWS CENTER: Verizon news releases, executive speeches and
biographies, media contacts, high-quality video and images, and other information are available at Verizon's News Center on the World Wide Web at  T

Brian C. Malina, +1-908-559-6434,

© Thomson Reuters 2009 All rights reserved



MÁS New Mexico

 The following can be celebrated during this "acknowledgement month" of  Hispano contributions to our State, our region, and our country:

 1. Hispanics brought CHRISTIANITY to New Mexico and the Southwest.  (This is controversial in some quarters. For example, Christianity  worked against the polygamous traditions of Indian groups.)

 2. Hispanos introduced the institution of RANCHING, created cowboys and  techniques for raising livestock, along with technologies like the  horned saddle. Horses, cattle, and sheep became especially important,  all due to Hispanic efforts.

 3. Spanish/Mexican governments in NM and the SW never exterminated the  Indians nor did they deport them to Oklahoma or to reservations.

 4. Hispanics introduced the first written language into NM and the SW,  along with European technologies of the day. (For example, the wheel was  unknown to Native American groups.)

 5. Hispanos introduced new foods (like chile) and concepts like building  with adobe. (Both were unknown to NM Indians.)

 6. Charles F. Lummis wrote in his A NEW MEXICO DAVID, in the story  called "Miracle of San Felipe," that New Mexicans were "...perhaps the  most wonderful pioneers the world has ever produced..."

Ruben Salaz 

Thank you Ruben. Here are more reasons to celebrate National Hispanic
 Heritage Month that you may add to your list:

 7. The first Soldiers and Sailers that led, not just helped, but led in  the Military Victories during the American Revolutionary War. Spain  brought the first Sailors, Shipmen and Navy to support the 13 Colonies  during the American Revolutionary War to bring Independence to our  Nation.

 This was followed by Leadership during the Civil War when our country's  first Navy Admiral and First 4 Star Navy Admiral David Farragut led many  battles for the North to defeat the South in the Battles of Mobile Bay  and many others. Admiral Farragut (He is the son of Spanish soldiers)  was the Admiral best known for yelling at retreating Naval Ships "Damn  the Torpedoes, Full speed ahead". He is our Nations First Navy Admiral  and 4 Star Admiral.

 We cannot talk about the Civil War and leave out the fighting that New  Mexicans led during the Battle of Glorieta known as the "Gettysburg of  the West", the Battles of Val Verde and numerous Battles that our  ancestors fought in.

 8. Hispanics brought the first Printing Presses to the Americas in  Mexico City. These first printing presses were used to print newspapers and books long before Plymouth Rock was ever heard of.

 9. Hispanos planted, nurtured and built the orange groves in La Florida  and all agriculture products across to the West including the grape  vineyards, orange groves and apple orchards that are the very fabric of  California, Oregon and Washington.

 10. Hispanos brought the first plows, augers, chisels, the Burrow,  Donkey's, Oxen, etc for farming.

 11. Hispanos established the food base and water base through the establishment of Acequias all across the country and their ability to  divert water and conserve water through these water networks. 

 12. Employment and Civil Rights: U.S. Senator Dennis Chavez was the  ONLY Hispano and minority in the U.S. Senate from 1935 - 1962 and  authored the Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC) in the mid  1940's. Although it was Filibustered by Southern Senators in 1948 and  did not become Law, President Lyndon Baynes Johnson used the exact  language and product produced by U.S. Senator Dennis Chavez to create  the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) and made it Law  through the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and 1965.

 13. Education: In Mendez Vs. Westminster Public schools in 1947,  Hispanos successfully sued the Westminster Public Schools in Los Angeles  to end segregation in the Public School System in California. This was  followed by the 1955 case Brown Vs. Board of Education which ended  segregation in our Public School system all across the country. The
 Mendez case was used as the basis for the Brown Vs. Board of Education.

 14. Governor Octaviano Ambrosio Larrazolo is the First and only Hispano  to serve as both Governor of a State (New Mexico Governor from  1919-1920) and elected to the U.S. Senate in 1928.

 15. Read the attached piece I wrote about 9 or 10 years ago which has  been listed under the National Hispanic Cultural Center Website since  then.

 Hispanos have lots to be proud of as we celebrate National Hispanic  Heritage month from September 15th - October 15th. Often times history  has overlooked the great contributions of Hispano Americans or all too  often the media portrays Hispanos in a negative light.

 This year we celebrate 512 years of Hispano contributions to the world  beginning in 1492 when Columbus discovered America. This discovery led  to many expeditions by many Spanish explorers such as Magellan, Cortez,  Coronado and Juan De Onate. Juan De Onate's settlement of 1598 preceeded  the discovery of Jamestown, Virginia by 9 years (1607) and 22 years  before the settlement of Plymouth Rock, Massachusetts (1620).

 Juan De Onate led approximately 560 colonizers consisting mainly of  families. Women and children comprised about 40% of the total group  which also included 129 soldiers and 11 Franciscan Friars and Lay  Brothers. Their Journey and settlement is referred to as La Jornada del  Muerto - The Journey of Death on the Camino Real. This very painful
 Journey of over 1500 miles with many deaths along the way started in  what is now Mexico City (Tenochtitlan) to Northern New Mexico in the  Espanola and Santa Fe area. With their 4 mile long wagon train included  83 wagons of household goods and 61 carts bearing: wheat, oats, barley,  chile, onions peas, watermelon, peaches, apricots, plums, cherries,  figs, dates, pomegranates, quince, pears, apples, olives, almonds,  pecans, walnuts, lilacs, seeds and grape vines for wine making. They  brought thousands of cattle, churro sheep, goats, pigs, horses, donkeys,  mules, oxen and mesquite beans to feed their livestock. Mesquite bushes  still mark the trail of the Camino Real.

 They introduced metal-smithing techniques and tools such as: hoes, axes,  chisels, planes, levers, windglasses, saws, nails, augers, prongs,  scissors, and needles. They practiced and taught mapping techniques,  building and brickmaking, horno oven construction, the weaving loom and  carding techniques and printing. They also wrote literature, poetry, and
 enacted plays. They sang and celebrated with musical instruments and  dances.

 Every domestic animal including horses, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and  more were brought here to America from Spain. There are still wild  Mustang herds roaming around New Mexico that have been here for over 400  years. The orange groves of La Florida (Land of many flowers), the apple  orchards of Washington and Oregon and the grape vineyards of California  all owe their roots to the Spanish who brought their seeds and plants.  Rodeo owes it's roots to the Vaqueros who brought the sport to America.

 During the Revolutionary War (1775 - 1783) between the 13 colonies on  the east coast and England there were two superpowers in the world -  England and Spain. There is absolutely no way the colonists could have  beat the British Soldiers without the support of Spain. That is why Paul  Revere was scared to death when he yelled "The British are coming the  British are coming"!! Spain assisted the colonists with funding,  weapons, food, supplies, ammunition and soldiers. Without Spain's  support and military might, the British would have won the Revolutionary  War and the United States as we know it today would be a much different  place.

 Spain's interest in the colonists victory was due to the fact that Spain  had a strong vested interest in America. Spain's people were living in  America from Florida all the way to the west coast. This included huge  investments in exploration, land grants, livestock, language, culture,  religion and most of all Spain's descendents. Spain's desire not to give  that kind of control and power to England was also a huge motivator for  Spain's support of the colonists.

 Many Native American scholars and historians have said the reason why  the Native American survived in the southwest is because the Spanish  found them first. By the time the colonists from the east discovered the  Native Americans here in the Southwest, the Native Americans were not  considered "Savages" because they had churches and religion, etc.

 Native Americans and their pueblos are still very much alive and intact  today throughout the southwest. Which is why the world famous Indian  Market and Pow Wow's take place here in New Mexico.

 Hispanos have participated in every war the United States has ever waged  from the Revolutionary war to the Iraq war. Hispanos have the most Medal  of Honor recipients relative to our population than any other group.

 Today, Hispanos are the largest minority group in America numbering over  40 million strong. A couple of interesting facts are there are more  Hispanos living in the United States than there are people living in  Canada. New Mexico has been under Spanish rule longer than it has been a  part of the United States.

 Political candidates now know the power and value of the Hispano vote.  Within the next couple of years, Hispanos will be the majority in New  Mexico and in future generations, Hispanos will be the majority  population in the Unites States.

 So there is much to be proud of as we celebrate 512 years of Hispano  contributions to the Americas and National Hispanic Heritage month. We  must make an especially warm celebration to New Mexico's Hispanos  because it is here in New Mexico that we observe the birthplace of the  Hispano people in the United States.

 Ralph Arellanes
 President La LUCHA


Dr. Henry J. Casso and the Last Flight of the Aztec Eagles

Albuquerque Museum, New Mexico, September 21, 2009 
Dr. Henry J. Casso and Marta Sahagun Fox 

Dr. Henry J. Casso presents a special notification and invitation for former President Vicente Fox and his wife to embrace the Last Flight of the Aztec Eagles.  The Last Flight of the Aztec Eagles is an international tour of a Victor Mancilla's  Esquadron 201 documentary, depicting the extraordinary manifestation of Friendship and Neighborliness between the United States and Mexico during WW II.  Mexico responded to a Presidential plea from the United States for Mexican pilots to fight with the United States against the Japanese who where overrunning the Philippines in WW II.  

Albuquerque Museum event, September 21, 2009 


Hispanics fill only 3.6% of federal workforce in Executive slots
Bittersweet Harvest: The Bracero Program, 1942-1964 
New Report Highlights Latina Students Face Greater Challenges Than Counterparts
United States Department of Agriculture Discrimination
White Man’s Burden: A Dallas suburb struggles with its sudden diversity.
Human beings are social creatures

Mexican American astronaut isn't changing course on immigration stand.
US Forest Service, linking tortillas & Tecate to armed pot growers called profiling
New Initiative to Improve Mental Health Among Chicago Latinos
Lupe Garcia Third generation Hispanic farmer
Immigration Policy Center
Can a Mother Lose Her Child Because She Doesn't Speak English?

As of July 2008, Hispanics made up 15 percent of the U.S. population. 

Another 4 million U.S. citizens in Puerto Rico are almost all Hispanics. 

Yet Hispanics make up only 8 percent of the federal workforce and filled only 3.6 percent of Senior Executive Service slots in fiscal 2007.
Source:, September 29, 2009


Bracero Story Explored in New Smithsonian Exhibition 
"Bittersweet Harvest: The Bracero Program, 1942-1964" 
The Smithsonian's National Museum of American History 
14th Street and Madison Drive N.W.


Smithsonian Secretary Clough and the museum will open "Bittersweet Harvest" in a special ceremony featuring remarks from U.S. Secretary of Labor Solis. The exhibition explores the Emergency Farm Labor Program, more familiarly known as the Bracero Program.

Between 1942 and 1964, the Bracero Program -- the largest guest-worker program in U.S. history -- brought an estimated 2 million Mexicans into the United States on short-term labor contracts. Through photographs, oral histories and objects, the exhibition examines the experiences of bracero workers and their families while providing insight into Mexican American history and historical context to debates on guest-worker programs.

"Bittersweet Harvest" will remain on display at the museum through Jan. 3, 2010 before embarking on its nationwide tour through the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service (SITES).

Note: The gallery will remain open to the press until noon. Exhibition curators will be available for interviews during this time.  SOURCE Smithsonian's National Museum of American History

Estrada Communications Group, Inc.
13729 Research Boulevard, Suite 610
Austin, TX  78750
Tel: 512.335.7776 / Fax: 512.335.2226


Report: Latina Students Face Greater Challenges Than Counterparts


MALDEF and National Women’s Law Center Uncover Series of Unique Challenges Latina Students Face, Offer Strategies to Maximize Success

 THURSDAY, AUGUST 27, 2009- Today, the National Women’s Law Center (NWLC) and MALDEF were joined by U.S. Representative Raul Grijalva (D-AZ), Chair of the Education Task Force for the Congressional Hispanic Caucus, in releasing "Listening to Latinas: Barriers to High School Graduation", a new report that takes a close look at the drop-out crisis in the Latino community. The latest data show that 41% of Latina students do not graduate on time with a standard high school diploma. The study reports that while 98% of high school seniors want to graduate from high school, and 80% aspire to higher education, Latina students continue to face numerous challenges in reaching these goals. 

For complete report, go to:


Mexican American astronaut isn't changing course on immigration stand. 
By Tracy Wilkinson,  Los Angeles Times, Sept 16, 2009


NASA went ballistic when Jose Hernandez advocated legalization of undocumented immigrants in the U.S. shortly after his return to Earth. The California-born son of migrants isn't backing down.
Reporting from Mexico City - He may have soared a gazillion miles in outer space, but back here on Earth, U.S. astronaut Jose Hernandez has stepped knee-deep in controversy.
Hernandez, the California-born son of Mexican immigrants, is a full-fledged media star in Mexico. Fans here followed his every floating, gravity-free move during two weeks recently as he Twittered from the Discovery space shuttle mission and gave live interviews to local TV programs.
After the shuttle returned to this planet last week, Hernandez told Mexican television that he thought the United States should legalize the millions of undocumented immigrants living there so that they can work openly in the U.S. because they are important to the economy.
Officials at NASA flipped. They hastened to announce that Hernandez was speaking for himself and only for himself.
"It all became a big scandal," Hernandez told television viewers Tuesday. "Even the lawyers were speaking to me."
Hernandez was back on Mexican network Televisa's popular morning chat show, where he has seemingly been a fixture, to update host Carlos Loret de Mola on how he was adapting back on Earth.
Loret de Mola asked Hernandez, 47, about the controversy, and the astronaut said he stood by what he had said a day earlier on the same program, advocating comprehensive immigration reform -- a keenly divisive issue in the United States.
"I work for the U.S. government, but as an individual I have a right to my personal opinions," he said in a video hookup from a Mexican restaurant owned by his wife in Houston. "Having 12 million undocumented people here means there's something wrong with the system, and the system needs to be fixed."
He added that it seemed impractical to try to deport 12 million people. In the previous day's conversation, he spoke of circling the globe in 90 minutes and marveling at a world without borders.
Hernandez, whose first language is Spanish, grew up picking cucumber in the fields of California. He joined NASA in 2004. His orbit-trotting on the Discovery mission included a salsa demo and mini-science lessons for viewers back on Earth. He made taquitos for his fellow fliers.
TV host Loret de Mola said his audience was flooding him with one question above all: How does a humble son of peasant immigrants manage to become an astronaut?
Hernandez cited two crucial factors: a good education and parents who forced him to study, who checked his homework and stayed involved in his schooling.
"What I always say to Mexican parents, Latino parents, is that we shouldn't spend so much time going out with friends drinking beer and watching telenovelas, and should spend more time with our families and kids . . . challenging our kids to pursue dreams that may seem unreachable," he said.
Hernandez said he planned to visit Mexico soon to take up President Felipe Calderon on an invitation to the presidential residence for a meal. Calderon extended the invite during a nationally televised videoconference with the astronaut before the Discovery voyage.
Calderon's and Hernandez's parents hail from the same state, Michoacan, and the president has called the astronaut his paisano.  Copyright © 2009, The Los Angeles Times



 United States Department of Agriculture Discrimination


Lupe Garcia is a third generation Hispanic farmer. Since 2000 he has been fighting to bring accountability and transparency to the USDA-administered farm credit programs as the named plaintiff in the Garcia v. Vilsack law suit.

Garcia & Sons-- Lupe, his father and brother-- owned two farms in Dona Ana County, New Mexico where they grew onions, lettuce, wheat and corn. The family operation repeatedly applied for the operating loans farmers depend on to stay in business; loans the Farm Service Agency was set up to make. Despite positive cash flow, profitability and sufficient collateral, Garcia and Sons was unable to obtain the loans that were supposed to be available to them under the Equal Credit Opportunity Act. This systematic deprivation of operating capital continued until they were foreclosed upon in 1999. The foreclosure was the result of the USDA’s refusal to grant the Garcias the same loans, disaster relief and advice they were providing to other, less qualified farmers.

The Garcia family’s story is one of thousands of cases of admitted discrimination by the USDA against minority farmers and ranchers. African American, Native American and women farmers were similarly discriminated against.

In the case of African American farmers justice is being served. That group is being compensated with $2.25 billion. Justice for the others has been deferred. In the words of former Congressman Kika de la Garza “It is simply untenable logically, legally, morally or politically that four minority groups can suffer the identical discrimination from the same federal agency and yet only one of the four groups be compensated on a class-wide basis.

The issue is simply whether the decades of admitted discrimination by our government against these farmers should be rectified by granting a fair settlement of their discrimination claims. We believe there is no place for discrimination within a tax payer funded federal program and that a settlement like the one already granted to African American farmers is long overdue.

Since the beginning of Lupe Garcia’s fight over nine years ago, untold numbers of farmers and ranchers have gone out of business- lost their farms, been foreclosed upon, or just quit. Some have faced retaliation. Many, like Lupe’s father, have literally died waiting for relief. Help us win justice for Hispanic farmers and ranchers.

Sent by Juan Marinez



Human beings are social creatures


“Human beings are social creatures…We are social in a more elemental way: simply to exist
as a normal human being requires interaction with other people.”

“And what happened to them was physical. EEG studies going back to the nineteen-sixties have
shown diffuse slowing of brain waves in prisoners after a week or more of solitary confinement. In 1992, fifty-seven prisoners of war, released after an average of six months in detention camps in the former Yugoslavia, were examined using EEG-like tests. The recordings revealed brain abnormalities months afterward; the most severe were found in prisoners who had endured either head trauma sufficient to render them unconscious or, yes, solitary confinement. Without sustained social interaction, the human brain may become as impaired as one that has incurred a traumatic

“One of the paradoxes of solitary confinement is that, as starved as people become for
companionship, the experience typically leaves them unfit for social interaction.”

Human Rights Hellhole, extract article by Atul Gawande, New Yorker, March 3, 2009 CURE-NY
Editors: Amy and George Oliveras



US Forest Service warning linking tortillas and Tecate to armed pot growers called profiling
By STEVEN K. PAULSON , Associated Press
Last update: August 28, 2009


DENVER - A federal warning to beware of campers in national forests who eat tortillas, drink Tecate beer and play Spanish music because they could be armed marijuana growers is racial profiling, an advocate for Hispanic rights said Friday.

The warnings were issued Wednesday by the U.S. Forest Service, which is investigating how much marijuana is being illegally cultivated in Colorado's national forests following the recent discovery of more than 14,000 plants in Pike National Forest.

"That's discriminatory, and it puts Hispanic campers in danger," said Polly Baca, co-chairwoman of the Colorado Latino Forum. The U.S. Forest Service quickly retracted the warning.

"It is inexcusable and we regret that this insensitivity distracted attention from the real problem of illegal marijuana cultivation on federal land and the threats to human safety and environmental degradation it poses," said Hank Kashdan, associate chief of the U.S. Forest Service.

Forest Service officials said they believe illegal immigrants are being brought to Colorado by Latin American drug cartels for mass cultivation of marijuana.

Michael Skinner, a law enforcement officer with the U.S. Forest Service in Colorado, said warning signs of possible drug trafficking include "tortilla packaging, beer cans, Spam, Tuna, Tecate beer cans," and campers who play Spanish music. He said the warning includes people speaking Spanish.

The warning signs were included in a slide presentation put together for drug agents in Colorado and the public.

Skinner said this may or may not represent criminal activity, but are indicators and he urged any campers who encounter long-term campers meeting the profile to "hike out quickly" and call police.

"Our goal is to not allow organization using foreign nationals or any other persons involved in illegal drug production to take over our national forests," the department warned.

Baca said there is no evidence that Hispanics are the only people involved in large-scale drug operations and said she was "appalled that anyone, especially someone from the federal government, would say something like that."

Marvink Correa, spokesman for the Colorado Immigrant Rights Coalition, said federal officials are painting an unfair stereotype of Hispanics.

"When I go camping, I'll be sure to play nothing but Bruce Springsteen," he said.

The recent discovery was the second large seizure this summer in Colorado. Two people were arrested, but federal officials refused to provide details, saying the investigation is continuing.

In July, authorities spent more than 24 hours clearing another marijuana growing operation in Pike National Forest. They say the plants' street value was about $2.5 million, but no arrests were made.

Sent by Connie Vasquez



New Initiative to Improve Mental Health Among Chicago Latinos



The Chicago School of Professional Psychology Receives Grant from The Chicago Community Trust to Build Latino Mental Health Providers Network

CHICAGO, July 28 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- Latinos, who comprise 25 percent of Chicago's population, are a high-risk group for depression, anxiety, and substance abuse, according to the National Alliance for Hispanic Mental Health (NAHMH), a reality made worse by a severe shortage of existing mental health care providers who are culturally competent. To help reverse this trend is the Latino Mental Health Providers Network, a new initiative made possible by a grant from The Chicago Community Trust to The Chicago School of Professional Psychology's Center for Latino Mental Health.


The project comes at a critical time. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports a high rate of suicide attempts among Latino adolescents. Meanwhile, the Surgeon General reports that fewer than 1 in 11 Latinos with mental disorders contact mental health care specialists -- a statistic that becomes 1 in 20 among Latino immigrants with mental disorders. To meet this challenge, experts estimate that there are approximately only 29 Latino mental health providers per 100,000 Latinos.

Building a pipeline for more culturally competent practitioners will be a central focus of the network. It will address a finding cited in a National Council of La Raza report that even when Latinos do access services, 70 percent never return after the first visit -- a tendency attributed to the lack of competency training targeted to the cultural and linguistic needs of this population.

"Studies have shown that therapists who participate in cultural sensitivity training provide more effective treatment to ethnic minority populations," said Dr. Hector Torres, Chicago School assistant professor and Center for Latino Mental Health coordinator. "The better the experience the Latino population has with mental health services, the more likely people in need will continue to benefit. Special thanks should go to The Chicago Community Trust for its support of this critical endeavor."

The vision for the network is to become a growing and collaborative organization, strategically focused to build cultural competence through workshops and mentorship opportunities among its members, other healthcare professionals, and community agencies. It also will address the immediate need for culturally competent care by placing Chicago School clinical counseling interns and at least 75 student volunteers in agencies that serve the Latino community. Together they will deliver more than 8,000 service hours working with clients and staff. Finally, the network will engage in public awareness, research, and outreach to coordinate and strengthen efforts of grassroots agencies with limited staff and capacity to address critical needs.

The network is the latest project to be implemented by The Chicago School's Center for Latino Mental Health. Founded in 2008, the center works to bolster understanding of and access to culturally competent mental health services to Latino communities through scholarly research, community service, and education. For more information about the center, visit

About The Chicago Community Trust:

For 94 years, The Chicago Community Trust, our region's community foundation, has connected the generosity of donors with community needs by making grants to organizations working to improve metropolitan Chicago. In 2008, the Trust, together with its donors, granted more than $100 million to nonprofit organizations. From strengthening community schools to assisting local art programs, from building health centers to helping lives affected by violence, the Trust continues to enhance our region. To learn more, please visit the Trust online at

 About The Chicago School of Professional Psychology:

Founded in 1979, The Chicago School of Professional Psychology is the nation's leading nonprofit graduate university exclusively dedicated to the applications of psychology and related behavioral sciences. TCS is an active member of the National Council of Schools and Programs of Professional Psychology, which has recognized The Chicago School for its distinguished service and outstanding contributions to cultural diversity and advocacy. The Chicago School's community service initiatives resulted in recognition on the President's Higher Education Community Service Honor Roll for exemplary service to disadvantaged youth. For more information about The Chicago School, visit Follow us on Twitter at Follow us on Facebook:



Lupe Garcia is a third generation Hispanic farmer


Lupe Garcia is a third generation Hispanic farmer. Since 2000 he has been fighting to bring accountability and transparency to the USDA-administered farm credit programs as the named plaintiff in the Garcia v. Vilsack law suit.

Garcia & Sons-- Lupe, his father and brother-- owned two farms in Dona Ana County, New Mexico where they grew onions, lettuce, wheat and corn. The family operation repeatedly applied for the operating loans farmers depend on to stay in business; loans the Farm Service Agency was set up to make. Despite positive cash flow, profitability and sufficient collateral, Garcia and Sons was unable to obtain the loans that were supposed to be available to them under the Equal Credit Opportunity Act. This systematic deprivation of operating capital continued until they were foreclosed upon in 1999. The foreclosure was the result of the USDA’s refusal to grant the Garcias the same loans, disaster relief and advice they were providing to other, less qualified farmers.

The Garcia family’s story is one of thousands of cases of admitted discrimination by the USDA against minority farmers and ranchers. African American, Native American and women farmers were similarly discriminated against. In the case of African American farmers justice is being served. That group is being compensated with $2.25 billion. Justice for the others has been deferred. In the words of former Congressman Kika de la Garza “It is simply untenable logically, legally, morally or politically that four minority groups can suffer the identical discrimination from the same federal agency and yet only one of the four groups be compensated on a class-wide basis.”

The issue is simply whether the decades of admitted discrimination by our government against these farmers should be rectified by granting a fair settlement of their discrimination claims. We believe there is no place for discrimination within a tax payer funded federal program and that a settlement like the one already granted to African American farmers is long overdue.

Since the beginning of Lupe Garcia’s fight over nine years ago, untold numbers of farmers and ranchers have gone out of business- lost their farms, been foreclosed upon, or just quit. Some have faced retaliation. Many, like Lupe’s father, have literally died waiting for relief. Help us win justice for Hispanic farmers and ranchers.

Sent by Juan Marinez


Immigration Policy Center

providing factual information about immigration in America 
Sent by Rafael Ojeda

Can a Mother Lose Her Child Because She Doesn't Speak English?
By Tim Padgett with Dolly Mascareñas / Oaxaca  Aug. 27, 2009,8816,1918941,00.html


      Can the U.S. government take a woman's baby from her because she doesn't speak English? That's the latest question to arise in the hothouse debate over illegal immigration, as an undocumented woman from impoverished rural Mexico — who speaks only an obscure indigenous language — fights in a Mississippi court to regain custody of her infant daughter.

     Cirila Baltazar Cruz comes from the mountainous southern state of Oaxaca, a region of Mexico that makes Appalachia look affluent. To escape the destitution in her village of 1,500 mostly Chatino Indians, Baltazar Cruz, 34, migrated earlier this decade to the U.S., hoping to send money back to two children she'd left in her mother's care. She found work at a Chinese restaurant on Mississippi's Gulf Coast.

      But Baltazar Cruz speaks only Chatino, barely any Spanish and no English. Last November, she went to Singing River Hospital in Pascagoula, Miss., where she lives, to give birth to a baby girl, Rubí. According to documents obtained by the Mississippi Clarion-Ledger, the hospital called the state Department of Human Services (DHS), which ruled that Baltazar Cruz was an unfit mother in part because her lack of English "placed her unborn child in danger and will place the baby in danger in the future." (Read "Should a Muslim Mother Be Caned for Drinking a Beer?")

       Rubí was taken from Baltazar Cruz, who now faces deportation. In May, a Jackson County judge gave the infant to a couple (it is unclear if for foster care or adoptive purposes) who reportedly live in Ocean Springs. Baltazar Cruz is challenging the ruling in Jackson County Youth Court and hopes that if she is deported she can at least take Rubí back to Mexico with her. (She has not disclosed the father's identity.) (See the best and worst moms ever.)

       Baltazar Cruz's case has been taken up by the Mississippi Immigrants' Rights Alliance (MIRA) and the Alabama-based Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), whose lawyers say they can't comment on its specifics because of a judge's gag order. But Mary Bauer, the SPLC's legal director, says that on a general level, any notion that a mother can lose custody of a child because she doesn't speak a particular language "is a fundamentally outrageous violation of human rights." (Read "When Motherhood Gets You Jail Time.")

      Before the gag order, advocates for Baltazar Cruz had charged that the problems sprang from faulty translation at Singing River. Baltazar Cruz arrived at the hospital after she flagged down a Pascagoula police officer on a city street. She was later joined there by a Chatino-speaking relative, according to MIRA, but the hospital declined his services and instead used a translator from state social services, an American of Puerto Rican descent who spoke no Chatino and whose Spanish was significantly different from that spoken in Mexico.

      According to the Clarion-Ledger, the state report portrayed Baltazar Cruz as virtually a prostitute, claiming she was "exchanging living arrangements for sex" in Pascagoula and planned to put the child up for adoption. Through her advocates (before the gag order), Baltazar Cruz adamantly denied those claims. Since "she has failed to learn the English language," the newspaper quotes the documents as saying, she was "unable to call for assistance for transportation to the hospital" to give birth. The social-services translator also reported that Baltazar Cruz had put Rubí in danger because she "had not brought a cradle, clothes or baby formula." But indigenous Oaxacan mothers traditionally breast feed their babies for a year and rarely use bassinets, carrying their infants instead in a rebozo, a type of sling.

      MIRA has accused Singing River and Mississippi DHS of essentially "stealing" Rubí. Citing the gag order, DHS will not comment on Baltazar Cruz's case, but before the order, an official insisted to the Clarion-Ledger that "the language a person speaks has nothing to do with the outcome of the investigation." Singing River spokesman Richard Lucas calls the MIRA charge "preposterous" and, while noting that the nonprofit hospital delivered Baltazar Cruz's baby free of charge, insists it "did what any good hospital would have done given her unusual circumstances" by alerting DHS.

       Still, despite DHS statements to the contrary, language seems a central issue in the state's case against Baltazar Cruz. It wouldn't be the first time this has happened in the U.S. In 2004 a Tennessee judge ordered into foster care the child of a Mexican migrant mother who spoke only an indigenous tongue. (Another judge later returned the child to her family.) Last year, a California court took custody of the U.S.-born twin babies of another indigenous, undocumented migrant from Oaxaca. After she was deported, the Oaxaca state government's Institute for Attention to Migrants fought successfully to have the twins repatriated to her in Mexico this summer. In such cases, says the SPLC's Bauer, a lack of interpreters is a key factor. When a mother can't follow the proceedings, "she looks unresponsive, and that conveys to a judge a lack of interest in the child, which is clearly not the case," she says. She also argues it's hard enough for any adult to learn a new language, "let alone when you're a migrant working long hours for low pay."

        One of DHS's apparent fears is that an infant isn't safe in a home where the mother can articulate a 911 call solely in a language spoken only by some 50,000 Oaxacan Indians. Bauer points out that children have been raised safely in the U.S. by non-English-speaking parents for well over a century. Had they not, thousands of Italians and Russians would have had to leave their kids with foster care on Ellis Island. "Raising your child is one of the most fundamental liberties, and it can only be taken from you for the most serious concerns of endangerment," says Bauer. "Not speaking English hardly meets that standard."

       Rosalba Piña, a Chicago attorney who co-hosts a local radio program on immigration law, agrees. She likens Mississippi officials to those who fought to keep 6-year-old Elián Gonzalez in the U.S. nine years ago because they argued his life would be better here than in impoverished Cuba with his father. "They're ignoring basic U.S. and international law," says Piña. "Unless there's some real threat to the child's life back in the home country, most judges know it's in the child's best interest to be with his parents." In the end, she notes, Rubí is a U.S. citizen who could return to this country at any time as an adult.

        The next court hearing in Baltazar Cruz's case is slated for November. In the meantime, Mexican consular officials in the U.S. struck an agreement with Mississippi authorities this month to ensure that Mexico will be informed when nationals like Baltazar Cruz become embroiled in cases like this. Says Daniel Hernandez Joseph, director of Mexico's program for protection of citizens abroad: "The main concern of the Mexican government is not to separate immigrant families." Baltazar Cruz now has to persuade Mississippi judges that it should be their concern too.

Click to Print Find this article at:,8599,1918941,00.html
Copyright © 2009 Time Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part without permission is prohibited.Privacy Policy|Add TIME Headlines to your Site|Contact Us|Customer Service



Collaboration Effort Needed for Hispanics/Latinos to receive Medal of Honor 
North American Galveztown Foundation 
El Mental Menudo # 1

Collaboration Effort for Hispanics/Latinos to receive Medal of Honor 


Dear Luis, Juan and Darrien,

Thank you all for your efforts not only for Mercelino Serno but for all veterans. I think that we have missed the boat a couple of times, every time that Congress mandates the Dept of Defense (DOD) to re-evaluate the upgrade of Combat Medals, the last two were when 9 African Am. were awarded 9 MOH from WW II back in 1997 and the last one in 2004 when 22 Asian Am from WW II were upgraded to MOH.

I don't recall any of our Hispanic Caucus nor Hispanic Veterans Orgs requesting Guy Galvaldon and other worthy of begin reviewed and upgraded to MOH status. It can still be done individually with an Act of Congress.

The follow up on this is to educate and encourage our Hispanic community to submit and register their Latino and Latina veterans in these National Registries. I helped many veterans research their veterans' records, and then have encourage them to register them.

For example on Mercelino Serna, I researched the WW I Memorial, no records, the Purple Heart Hall of Honor just north of NY. West Point Academy, No Records, even though he was awarded two Purple Heart medals (The highest Latino from Puerto Rico earned 7.) 
When I search the Smithsonian National Library (LOC) Veterans History Project, No Records.

So Please, Luis, register Mercelino Serna. The reason we want relatives to register them, it because you get a pass word and can up date these records later on with more info or photos.

I am on the Wastington State Governor' Veterans Advisory Committee, so I try to push this info to all of our veterans.  I am a USAF Viet Nam retiree with 22 yrs of service. 

One more thing that I would suggest, please look at the great work that the Washington Post is doing to Honor our Fallen Heroes.  I have complied the list of all our Hispanic Fallen Heroes, over 500 names on a list "Honra a nuestro Caidos".  I have also complied over 800 Latinas names recipients of the Distinguished Service Cross, the Navy Cross and the Air Force Cross, plus over 500 Silver Crosses. I am doing this to prepare this data for our Hispanic Military Museum that Virgil Fernandez is planning to have built in San Antonio. Web sites like the Washington Post will help future historians and documentarians and researches job easier and more accurately 
include our Hispanic contributions in American History.

I have more than a page of websites to help all veterans do researches on their veterans that I have posted on many Hispanic list servers. Another reason is that I never want the Ken Burns of this world to say that they don't know or cannot find records of our Hispanic/Latino contribution in our Military.

Thank you and I hope that you join me in sharing info on how to register our Hispanic Veteran Heroes.

Mil Gracias,  Rafael Ojeda
cell: 253-576-9547

Was Louis F. Serna, denied the U.S. Medal of Honor because he did not speak English?
I was cc on a message from Moses Saldana who has been a long time advocate to have Marcelino Serna WWI veteran was not give the Medal of Honor which he rightly deserved recognized for his serves because he was a Mexican citizen when he enlisted and serve (see below). Check out Louis F. Serna, his is an author publisher with special emphasis on the Serna family genealogy. Although, it sounds like he is also expanding his interest to encompass the greater Hispanic world and history. Because most all of you are writers I thought you might be interested of his presences. Juan 

Serna was wounded in both of his legs by sniper fire, four days before the Armistice. During his recovery, General John J. Pershing, Commander-in-Chief of the American Expeditionary Forces, pinned on his chest the Distinguished Service Cross, the second highest military decoration of the United States Army to the Medal of Honor. Serna was told by an officer that "Buck Privates" were not eligible for the Medal of Honor, and that he did not know enough English to be promoted.[4] The officer in question was wrong because Private David B. Barkley who also served in the 89th Division, was awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions. It so happens that years later it was discovered that Barkley was Hispanic, thus the only Hispanic recipient of the Medal of Honor in World War I.[5] Field Marshal Ferdinand Foch, Supreme Commander of the Allied troops, awarded Serna the French Croix de Guerre for bravery.

• Marcelino Serna - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Private Marcelino Serna (April 26, 1896-February 29, 1992) was an undocumented Mexican immigrant who joined the United States Army and became the most ...
Early years - World War I - Distinguished Service Cross ... - Cached - Similar
• Marcelino Serna Became World War I Hero
Serna served the remainder of his time with occupational forces in Germany. In May 1919, Marcelino Serna was discharged at Camp Bowie, Texas. ... - Cached - Similar

Sent: Thursday, September 03, 2009 9:04 PM
To: Moses or Anna Maria Saldana
Subject: Re: Resolution for Marcelino Serna

Thank you so much...! I am in touch with Darren Meritz of the El Paso Times, who called me today asking if I know where the situation stands in the request for the Medal of Honor for Marcelino.... He is going to pursue this and perhaps write an article on it... If so, I will ask him to remember you as a contributor of information....

More later.
Louis F. Serna
Visit me at




La Compania Reale Marina de Galveztown

This is to announce the formation of a new foundation, dedicated to the financial support, and event/visit coordination of the new tall ship Galveztown. Through this foundation we will be able to collect funds to support the ship while in N. America, and this will help us also to raise money for the development of the Galveztown film.

The "Compania" will be the living history part of this foundation, to train and provide living historian mariners and Spanish Marines for the Galvezstown's programs.


This is a venture outside of my expertise, so I will be needing all of the help I can get. But I have been receiving a lot of encouragement to do this from friends in the historic tall ships community, which I have worked with for a long time.

I hope this is exciting news, I know it is for me, and more work too! But this will open up a lot of new opportunities for us, and make the promotion of Spain's and Hispanic contributions to American Independence a more viable operation for now on!

Thank you for your continuing support with this,

With Best Regards, Thomas Ellingwood Fortin


El Mental Menudo # 1 


Is an effort to join those people who wish to build an art community by gathering to discuss art topics pertinent to the participants of the platicas. It was in recognition of the native intelligence among Chicanartistas, that these juntas originated to exchange thoughts, feelings and the prevailing wisdom among Raza. A term used in New Mexico, “ el oro del barrio “ by Chicano “Academia” intellectuals, also represented the same idea, belief and motive to pursue this forum format.

The anticipated dialog aims to construct, coalesce and consider ideas of the state of contemporary visual arts. To efficiently and prudently, discuss artistic values and improvements in our community as within our aesthetic collective is an objective.. 
These juntas were developed to include a wide berth of notions by sharing technical information, thoughtful insights, network resources and topical themes. By this organized discourse, it was intended to provide a venue for artist interaction otherwise impractical by our wide geophysical locations, or time restraints or the common solitary nature of our habits and profession. 

Throughout the years, the process of group interaction made for certain rules of the verbal exchanges largely based on polite Mexican etiquette and deportment.  These sessions would be aborted by contentious or combative behavior but advanced by patience and rumination or the reflective opinions. 

A personal opinion is sought that would manifest a concern and love for the progress of our Raza cultural welfare.  Political correctness is a very broad measure, however, passionate and lively platica is welcomed with the good faith responsibility of mature concepts and presentations. Se habla some common sense. Ultimately, our intent and goal is to combine our knowledge and artistic acumen for the purpose of enhancing el arte de Chicanada.

Una dozena Chicana de topics to consider examine and discuss
1. Culture Clash in Art ( European ethno-centric issues in a democracy )
2. Art Boundaries ( experimentation and expansion of art ideas )
3. The Aesthetics in Gender ( sexual gender art forms and ideology )
4. Art as an Influence ( the power of artists to affect their society )
5. Local Art History (local acknowledgment and issues)
6. Economic Art of Economy ( efficiency of production and marketing )
7. Ethnicity and Art ( the value of ethnic oriented art motives )
8. Future Art Modes ( where will Razarte be in the future ? )
9. Humans and Technology ( how is technology affecting our cultural matrix ? )
10. High Tech and Az-Tech ( how does the past govern us in our future ? )
11. Raza meets the Globe The globalization of all cultures )
12. Future-talk ( how can we speak intelligently about the future ? )
13. Creative organizing, strategies and tactics for community infrastructure building.

Mental Menudo Think Tank: Primary proposal
To essentially provide the Mental Menudo; guidance and sustain the forum process by an orderly protocol and structure.
Members of the Think Tank are asked to provide leadership qualities for the maintenance of a mental menudo continuum.
The philosophical basis is to be inclusively democratic as a round table of shared responsibilities towards the Mental Menudo mission goal and objectives.
That is, to provide a forum to coalesce ideas and mutual support among participating artists. There are many extra benefits, from these juntas, which need to be supported and promoted as beneficial art services.
Meetings are to be scheduled with a topic and /or guest speaker to provide a calendar for advance interest in these mitotes..

Suggested Calendar speakers and topic items. 
1. Functions of the artists; what are they?
2. Art collectors; who are they?
3. Mental hygiene; why and who need it?
4. Health and Safety; physical welfare of artists
5. Cornfield as a Sacred project; local sacred art project 
6. Negotiating Arte; the art of thinking like a lawyer.
7. Learn to critique Artwork; response without the cynicism
8. Art Centers; what is our relationship to them?
9. Arte Politicos; an image challenge for contemporary artists
10. What is an Artist Consortium? A mental menudo goal ?
11. Sharing ideas and bartering art supplies and personal resources
12. What is your Aesthetic rudder? developing your aesthetic direction

We need a meeting of interested artists to form a guiding hand in the continuance of a platica for artists. 

Some intended notions for discussion;
1. Mutual respect of/ for artists
2. Responsibility for our common ground needs and services to artists
3. Coalescing our collective energy towards self-empowering benefits
4. Investigating and reflecting on our social and professional issues 
5. Sharing technical and aesthetic building ideas
6. Integrating experiences of young and the elder artists
7. A think tank group to guide our collective interests
8, To become familiar and adept with communication skills
9. Utilization of the website; make an outline/ list of it’s potential 
10. Make comprehensive; the varied opinions and attitudes of artists
11.Making the mental menudo an expedient for intellectual expansion.
12 Induce tolerance and understanding of various speaker viewpoints

Mental Menudo Credo
1. The central idea is to communicate, inform and network with other artists by focusing on professional and personal needs.
2. We respect our ethnicity enough to address it’s complexity and discuss it in study and conversation.
3. We assume that we have something of value to share with each other.
4. We respect the speaker by being polite and allowing them to complete their statement.
5. For a better flow and ebb of the session please address only the subject and keep it brief to allow others in the platica.
6. Get to know other participants in a tranquil setting for a clear and succinct adult platica.
7. We understand and appreciate the necessity of gathering to exchange ideas and information in a modern world.
8. We talk about requirements of social savvy, career astuteness, visual integrity and physical stamina as artists.
9.Our broad range of themes also accepts all opinions without the need of confirming the ideas presented.
A. Abstract visual art is a language and commonly features a nonrepresentational mode of expression.
B. Does abstract Chicano Art exist ??
C. Mental abstractions are translated into concepts applied to painting and sculpture mediums.
13. Everyone is encouraged to prepare for juntas by bringing some information or reflections for our discussion.
13. The mental menudo over the years has made changes in effort to serve the participants. 
A. We have had guests as speakers and other resources that enhance ones awareness and historical knowledge.
14. Please bring or suggest a book/ movie/ article that you would recommend to others or to become familiar and provide focus material for future talks. "The world is a book and those who do not travel read only one page." Anonymous
15. We keep a customary Mexican habit of bringing a simple food item to add to the botana or healthy menu of snacks for the participants to share.

Vision without action is only a dream. 
Action without vision is wasting time. 
Vision and Action can change the world!

Thus any action groups developed are welcomed after our meetings, if so inspired.
Each of these have been written for a specific purpose.
This first one refers to why we are meeting
The second was trying to get other artists to take on the responsibility.
The third one is about the process n stuff.
You may use these as you wish for your wonderful Somos Primos efforts.
kudos to you again.   magu

Gilberto Lujan


National Hispanic Business Women Association
Baja California Medical Tourism Association
MicroTech Named #1 Fastest Growing Hispanic-Owned Firm in the Nation
Workforce Characteristics of the Foreign Born by State

National Hispanic Business Women Association (NHBWA)


Save the date
National Hispanic Business Women Association (NHBWA)

Business Women Paving the Way for Future Leaders!

Our 9th Annual Awards and Scholarship Dinner took place on Thursday May 14, 2009 at the Double Tree Hotel, Santa Ana. The event was a success with the attendance of our sponsors, supporters, members and friends. This year's Women of the Year honorees teach us that no matter how strong the obstacles are, there is always light at the end of the tunnel and that perseverance and tenacity will lead to success.

From left to right: Dr. Erlinda Martinez, President of Santa Ana College, Ms. Thelma Gonzalez, owner of Aerospace Fastener Drilling, Corp. and Councilwoman Rose Espinoza. (photo: Silver Eye Photography)

The National Hispanic Business Women Association (NHBWA) is a non-profit organization in Orange County, California established in 1997. NHBWA's purpose is to empower and encourage women and business owners to develop and increase their business through educational seminars and speakers, by offering mutual support, the sharing of information, business referrals and networking. We are committed to educating and empowering entrepreneurs from diverse communities in Orange County. Our goal is to provide specialized information in business development, provide our members with informational resources, and offer opportunities to students who wish to pursue higher education and a career in business.

Since its inception, NHBWA has awarded 72 educational scholarships to deserving students to date. This achievement has been possible thanks to the support of our members, corporate sponsors and donors. 2009 Scholarship application and Guidelines.


September 2009
Volume 2–Issue 9
1st Anniversary Issue

National Hispanic Business Woman Association
2020 N. Broadway, Suite 100, Santa Ana, CA 92706-

Twelve Months and Counting By Patty Homo
This News Brief issue marks our 1st Year Anniversary of informing our corporate sponsors, community supporters and friends about what this great non-profit organization is doing to stay true to its mission to empower and encourage women, small business owners and future leaders of our community. During the past 12 months we have shared stories of community involvement, small business growth, educational opportunities, and great accomplishments, and the like. We are encouraged to continue our labor with your support. These are some of the faces of community leaders, members, supporters, friends and scholarship recipients that have adorned our pages. These are the faces that make up the fabric of our community.

Latina Empowerment Luncheon By Lilian de la Torre
This year’s annual Congresswoman Loretta Sanchez Latina Empowerment event coincided with the historic confirmation of Judge Sonia Sotomayor for the U.S. Supreme Court. Close to 150 Latinas gathered on August 6th at the Doubletree Hotel in Orange, California for brunch at the event titled “Women in Law” presented by Congresswoman Sanchez, the National Hispanic Business Women Association (NHBWA) and the support of our sponsor The Principal Financial Group ®.

The panel discussion was moderated by attorney Monica Lukoschek, president of the Hispanic Bar Association of Orange County. Professor Rachel Moran, president of the Association of American Law School and founding faculty member of the new Law School at UCI, and attorney Cynthia Valenzuela, director of litigation for MALDEF (Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund), both shared with the audience their excitement as history was just minutes away in the making via the confirmation of Judge Sotomayor.

Congresswoman Sanchez echoed the attorney’s arguments about the need to increase the number of Latinas in the field of law. Sanchez also spoke during the panel about the importance of access to affordable Education: “By working together we can truly make a difference. Many students are burdened by the high cost of education and many are still
paying their student loans many years after they have graduated.”

Did you know?
Exciting News From Jerri Rosen! By Pat Danel

In 2006, Jerri Rosen received the NHBWA Women of the Year award for her great vision and passion to serve the community. In 1991, Jerri helped organize the first “Day of Self-Esteem” to help survivors of domestic violence achieve self-sufficiency.
Twenty years later, that single event has evolved to Working Wardrobes, a non-profit that has empowered over 50,000 men, women and young adults emerging from life crises. The organization provides comprehensive career development and wardrobe services to clients from over 60 social service agencies throughout Orange County, Los Angeles, San Diego and the Inland Empire.

Working Wardrobes is a wonderful bridge that connects those in need with those who want to help. Visit their website at www.workingwardrobes.orgto learn more about the organization and the different ways to support them, including events like the upcoming “Blue Jeans & the Blues” fundraiser (October 4th) and the “13th Annual Men’s Day of Self-Esteem” (October 25th).  Jerri recently told us the exciting news that Working Wardrobesis moving to a new, brighter and bigger location in early November. She invites one and all to visit her amazing staff and the clients they serve at their new home in Costa Mesa. Congratulations Jerri and keep up the good work!
Jerri Rosen


  Baja California Medical Tourism Association


California association formed to promote Baja California medical tourism.  Baja California Medical Tourism Association is a state of California non-profit association


From the Mexico border north through the Greater Los Angeles Region there are 24 million residents millions of them are faced with the need for affordable high quality medical services. To reach this vast audience the Baja California Medical Tourism Association (BCMTA was organized as a state of California non-profit association for mutual benefit with offices in Tijuana and San Diego .


BCMTA becomes the only association outside the Republic of Mexico totally dedicated to advocating and promoting medical services, including veterinarian, for the entire state of Baja California . BCMTA as a non-profit California association plans on becoming the “Seal of Approval” to the general public seeking medical services information and referrals in the Western United States, with emphasis in California’s vast Hispanic and non-Hispanic population.


The organizers are prominent leaders in various fields – law, accounting, web design, tourist auto insurance, tour operations, media communications and marketing. The first Chairman of the Board is Judith Wilson, the managing partner of the Tijuana law office of Bryan, Gonzalez Vargas & Gonzalez Baz. The Secretary is a partner in the San Diego office of Lewis, Brisbois, Bisgaard & Smith, a U.S. national firm. The other organizers and board members are: Mauricio Monroy, the former managing partner of the Tijuana office of Deloitte, who left to start his own Mauricio Monroy Contadores with offices in Tijuana .  Another Tijuana personality is Carlos Rosette, co-owner of Hi-Tek Mexico web designers and web hosting. Baja Bound, a major seller of Mexico auto insurance on the internet is represented by Hank Morton, President, and Geoff Hill, Vice President. For organizing the first of its kind, Medical Tours, Alfonso Hernandez the General Manager of Five Star Tours based in San Diego. And Patrick Osio, writer and radio host, and Hector Molina, television and Spanish language radio personality both with TransBorder Communications round up the Board.

“Ideas are plentiful, what is needed by the Baja medical cluster is action,” said Patrick Osio. What BCMTA will do is go directly to the California consumer with attendance at health expos, television and radio spot advertisements, news releases, commentary articles, networking with other organizations, and as guests on television and radio programs, as well as reviving The Baja Connection radio program over the Internet. And an important element is the organizing of medical tours, several of which are already in the works.  


“BCMTA is actively inviting for membership medical institutions and practitioners who have a proven track record, and are accredited,” said Carlos Rosette, the Chairman of the BCMTA Marketing Committee. By having only those with full accreditation the California non-profit will sustain a high degree of credibility with the U.S. public.


Of importance, Molina said is that BCMTA will represent all of Baja California not just one municipality. Each municipality has or is organizing its own Tourism Medical Cluster to promote its own services. BCMTA will work with each of them while being a promoter for all of them. “It is of course important for each municipality to have its own medical tourism cluster, but it is not the same as having a presence in the market place where the consumer of medical services is found,” added Molina.
BCMTA as a California non-profit association brings credibility as California regulations are strictly enforced and monitored. “This separates BCMTA from all other out of country efforts providing the association with the advantage not available to those not  directly present in the market place,” Molina added.


BCMTA will also advocate in California for further recognition of medical services in Baja by more health insurance companies; it will work with other organizations in promoting and lobbying for Medicare payment approval for services in Mexico ; and with local authorities to expedite border crossings.  BCMTA by being a California entity can also better promote the benefits of for retirees to consider buying a home and living in Baja California to avail themselves of a higher quality of life at lower costs than those in the U.S. and the availability of very good medical services and assisted living facilities for those in need of extra assistance in their daily activities.



Hector C. Molina - (619) 395-2813 –

Carlos Rosette W. (664) 900-7427 – o

Judith A. Wilson (664)686-4924 –

BCMTA Tijuana                                                        BCMTA San Diego
c/o Bryan, Gonzalez Vargas & Gonzalez Baz                   c/o Bryan, Gonzalez Vargas & Gonzalez Baz
Centro Corporativo Centura                                               701 B Street, Suite 232





MicroTech Named the Number One Fastest Growing Hispanic-Owned Firm in the Nation 

LISTA CEO of the Year Anthony Jimenez Named No.1 Fastest Growing Top 100 by Hispanic Business Magazine

MicroTech, the Vienna based High Tech Product and Services Company that has risen to noteworthy success since being founded only five years ago has been named by Hispanic Business Magazine in its annual "Hispanic Business Fastest Growing Top 100" list as the number one fastest growing privately-held Hispanic firm in the United States.

This prestigious Hispanic-related business award is the most recent example of MicroTech's success during its record-setting past twelve months. Last October, the National Association of Latinos in Information Sciences and Technology (LISTA) honored Tony Jimenez as the CEO of the Year.

Latinos in Information Sciences and Technology Association is very happy to see that Latino Technology Businesses are beginning to make strides in an industry that just a few years ago was only a dream. "This is no surprise to the LISTA National Board, we knew Anthony and MicroTech were a special group, since we first met." said Jose Marquez, President of LISTA. "We are seeing more and more Latino entrepreneurs enter this market and it is exciting to see our members being recognized. Bravo Tony."

The magazine reported that it was MicroTech's 130% annual compounded revenue growth rate since being founded in 2004 that pushed the firm to the top of the list. Moreover, it was the firm's impressive 2693% revenue growth increase during its five-year period that was instrumental in the firm's number one ranking and its national recognition. 

According to HispanTelligence estimates, there were over 2.2 Million Hispanic-Owned Businesses in the U.S., in 2008. This is the first time that a Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned Small Business has received this notable distinction. With the vast majority of all Hispanic-Owned businesses clustered in just three states -- California, Texas, and Florida -- MicroTech is the first No. 1 Fastest-Growing Hispanic-Owned Business from the State of Virginia, as well as the Washington, DC Metro area. 

Syndicated by the New York Times and winner of the prestigious Maggie Award for "Best Business & Finance Magazine," Hispanic Business is one of the nation's foremost minority business publications, delivering more than a million readers monthly. The publication is available online ( and through subscription. 

According to Tony Jimenez, MicroTech's President and CEO, "We are honored to receive this recognition and to be featured by Hispanic Business Magazine. Despite the current economic downturn we have worked hard to develop relationships that allowed us to not only survive, but to flourish. The strong relationships we have with our clients and customers and our focus on providing exceptional products, services and solutions, and our commitment to doing it better than anyone else, have allowed us to create an excellent reputation in one of the most competitive industries in the world -- High Tech Products and Services." 

Accolades from the business community are numerous. Danny Vargas (Co-Founder, Hispanic GovCon Network/President, VARCom Solutions) states, "I have personally witnessed MicroTech's extraordinary growth and their transition from start-up to technology powerhouse. MicroTech is a fabulous company and anyone who knows Tony and his outstanding team is not surprised that they are number 1." Michel Zajur (President / CEO, Virginia Hispanic Chamber of Commerce) echoes the admiration by saying, "Tony Jimenez is a role model not only to the Hispanic community but to all business leaders." 

MicroTech has evolved into a global organization with offices across the U.S. and more than 350 employees around the world. The media frequently refers to MicroTech as one of the most exciting and efficiently run companies in the nation. MicroTech applies its Enterprise IT experience, regimented, benchmark process, and state-of-the-art engineering solutions to integrate technology and create proven results that can meet almost any high tech strategic need. 

Most recently, MicroTech's regimented benchmark processes and state-of-the-art engineering solutions were put to the test when it was selected to provide President Obama and the Presidential Transition Team (PTT) with a wide array of specialized information technology services including full lifecycle IT infrastructure, starting from the collection of requirements, the design, implementation, and operations, and at the conclusion of the transition of the new Administration - the disposition of the equipment and infrastructure. 

Tony Jimenez stated, "By providing valuable and highly sought after services to the largest and most demanding customer in the world 'The U.S. Government' we have been able to grow exponentially and our commitment to excellence is what has fueled our growth, contributed to our success, and has resulted in the recognition of this highly regarded award." 

In November, MicroTech was named a Top 100 Minority Business Enterprise, honoring minority businesses in Maryland, Virginia, and the District of Columbia. At the beginning of 2009, Minority supplier promoter ranked MicroTech as a Top 200 Hispanic-Owned Business, along with the Hispanic Business HB500 survey rank in March. And in April, the Virginia Hispanic Chamber of Commerce selected Jimenez as the "Hispanic Business Entrepreneur of the Year." 

Sent by Rafael Ojeda


Workforce Characteristics of the Foreign Born by State 
from the 2007 American Community Survey


This month, we are pleased to update the final fact sheet in our data series based on the 2007 American Community Survey (ACS). The Workforce fact sheets allow you to find out the following quick stats about the foreign born (i.e., persons with no US citizenship at birth, also known as immigrants): 

* Immigrants represent an ever larger share of the US civilian labor force, accounting for one in six US workers (age 16 and older) in 2007, one in eight in 2000, and less than one in 10 in 1990. In California, immigrants comprised more than a third of the state's employed workforce in 2007 compared to less than 2 percent in Montana. 

* Immigrants accounted for 44.3 percent of US low-educated workers and for 15.1 percent of college-educated workers ages 25 and older. California was the state with the highest share of immigrants among workers without a high school degree (77.5 percent) and the highest share of immigrants in the highly skilled workforce (29.5 percent). 

* Immigrants made up 13.1 percent of full-time workers (age 25 and older) whose hourly wage was five times higher than the federal minimum wage and almost a quarter of workers (age 25 and older) who earned less than twice the federal minimum hourly wage. In Michigan, immigrants' shares among low- and high-wage workers were almost the same, 9.5 percent and 8.5 percent, respectively. 

* Nearly a quarter of the 22.6 million immigrant workers in the United States were recent arrivals (i.e., those who arrived between 2000 and 2007). 

* More than half of all immigrant workers in the US civilian labor force in 2007 were born in Latin America and slightly more than a quarter were from Asia. The rest originated in Europe (11.7 percent), Africa (4.0 percent), Northern America (2.0 percent), and Oceania/other (0.5 percent). 

* In 2007, 9.1 percent of all workers in the US civilian workforce were limited English proficient (LEP). In ten states, the share of workers who struggled with English was higher than the national average. The top three were California (20.6 percent of the state's workforce was LEP), Nevada (14.9 percent), and Texas (14.9 percent). 
To get these and many other facts about immigrant and native workers, go to the 2007 ACS/Census tool, select a state, and then choose the Workforce fact sheet. In addition, the 2007 ACS/Census Data tool provides state-level data on social and demographic, language and education, as well as income and poverty characteristics of the foreign born. 
This data tool is a project of MPI's National Center on Immigrant Integration Policy. 

Sent by Rafael Ojeda
June 26, 2009


Moving Beyond Borders
To the Line of Fire! Mexican Texans and World War I
I Know the River Loves Me
Mujeres en la HIstoria-Historias de Mujeres
Francisco Lovato
Badmen, Bandits, and Folk Heroes: The Ambivalence of Mexican American Identity in Literature and Film


Moving Beyond Borders

Julian Samora and the Establishment of Latino Studies

Moving Beyond Borders: Julian Samora and the Establishment of Latino Studies
Edited by Alberto López Pulido, Barbara Driscoll de Alvarado, and Carmen Samora
Pre-order now from the University of Illinois Press

The lifework of a pioneering scholar and leader in Latino studies.  Moving Beyond Borders examines the life and accomplishments of Julian Samora, the first Mexican American sociologist in the United States and the founding father of the discipline of Latino studies. Detailing his distinguished career at the University of Notre Dame from 1959 to 1984, the book documents the history of the Mexican American Graduate Studies program that Samora established at Notre Dame and traces his influence on the evolution of border studies, Chicano studies, and Mexican American studies.

Samora's groundbreaking ideas opened the way for Latinos to understand and study themselves intellectually and politically, to analyze the complex relationships between Mexicans and Mexican Americans, to study Mexican immigration, and to ready the United States for the reality of Latinos as the fastest growing minority in the nation. In addition to his scholarly and pedagogical impact, his leadership in the struggle for civil rights was a testament to the power of community action and perseverance. Focusing on Samora's teaching, mentoring, research, and institution-building strategies, Moving Beyond Borders explores the legacies, challenges, and future of ethnic studies in United States higher education.

Contributors are Teresita E. Aguilar, Jorge A. Bustamante, Gilberto Cárdenas, Miguel A. Carranza, Frank M. Castillo, Anthony J. Cortese, Lydia Espinosa Crafton, Barbara Driscoll de Alvarado, Herman Gallegos, Phillip Benitez Gallegos Jr., José R. Hinojosa, Delfina Landeros, Paul López, Sergio X. Madrigal, Ken Martínez, Vilma Martínez, Alberto Mata, Amelia M. Muñoz, Richard A. Navarro, Jesus "Chuy" Negrete, Alberto López Pulido, Julie Leininger Pycior, Olga Villa Parra, Ricardo Parra, Victor Rios Jr., Marcos Ronquillo, Rene Rosenbaum, Carmen Samora, Rudy Sandoval, Alfredo Rodriguez Santos, and Ciro Sepulveda.

"Julian Samora gave his life and work to a better and more complete understanding of the Chicano/Latino experience. This text is a wonderful and valuable introduction to the man and scholar."-Mario Garcia, author of Memories of Chicano History: The Life and Narrative of Bert Corona

"This outstanding book provides marvelous insight not only into the life of a remarkable man but into the era that he helped to shape. I literally could not put the book down."-David T. Abalos, author of Latinos in the United States: The Sacred and the Political

Alberto López Pulido is director and professor of ethnic studies at the University of San Diego and the author of Sacred World of the Penitentes. Barbara Driscoll de Alvarado teaches humanities at Anna Maria College and is the author of the Tracks North: The Railroad Bracero Program of World War II. Carmen Samora teaches American and Chicana/o studies at the University of New Mexico and directs the Julian Samora Legacy Project.

Sent by Carmen Samora
Julian Samora Legacy Project
908 Fruit Avenue NW
Albuquerque, NM 87102
(505) 350-4901 - Cell    (505)-277-0741 - Campus    (505) 243-6403 - Home  



To the Line of Fire! Mexican Texans and World War I

by Steve Trevino
Published: Monday, September 14, 2009



A new, award-winning book by Laredo Community College history instructor Dr. José A. Ramírez reveals how World War I empowered Mexican Americans to launch their crusade for civil rights and equality.
A new, award-winning book by Laredo Community College history instructor Dr. José A. Ramírez reveals how World War I empowered Mexican Americans to launch their crusade for civil rights and equality.
The book, To the Line of Fire! Mexican Texans and World War I, offers insight on the transformation the Tejano community experienced during the First World War, which lasted from 1914 to 1918.
Recipient of the 2009 Robert A. Calvert Book Prize, Ramírez's work is scheduled for release next month by Texas A&M University Press.
Not your typical military history book, Ramírez's manuscript describes what life for Tejanos was like on the battle ground and on the home front during this period.
"Not only are the soldiers highlighted, but the rest of the Tejano community, as well," Ramírez said.
"(The book) looks at Tejanos' interest in war bonds, the corridos (Mexican ballads) written about the war, and American intelligence's close attention to the Mexican American community after the discovery of the Zimmermann note."
According to historical records, the Zimmermann note was a telegram from German foreign minister Arthur Zimmermann, who made an offer to help Mexico reclaim some United States soil if it agreed to form an alliance with Germany during the war.
"After the interception of this note, U.S. intelligence became very suspicious of Mexico and anyone with some connection to this country, including Mexican Americans serving in the American military during the war and those contributing to home front causes," Ramírez said.
In his book, Ramírez also mentions some of the Tejanos who surfaced as war heroes, including Private David B. Barkeley Cantu, a Laredoan whose name now graces the Fort McIntosh memorial chapel at LCC.
"Private Barkeley was the son of Josef Barkeley, who was stationed at Fort McIntosh, and Tejana Antonia Cantu of Laredo. When he enlisted in the army, the private chose to hide his mother's surname for fear that he would not be allowed to fight in the front lines," Ramírez said.
Private Barkeley kept his Mexican ancestry a secret until the very end.  Based on military records, Barkeley died on November 9, 1918, while crossing the Meuse River in France, as part of a military assignment; the war ended two days later.
"For his courageous act, Private Barkeley was awarded the highest honor a soldier can earn for bravery-the Medal of Honor.  He became the first Mexican American to receive this honor.  However, his Hispanic origins were not revealed until 1989," Ramírez noted.
All in all, the challenges and experiences Tejanos endured during and after WWI sparked some "long-term effects" in this community, Ramírez said.
"When Tejanos returned from the war, they came back as veterans who were less likely to tolerate racism and discrimination in their lives," Ramírez said.
"Now they were more likely to say, 'How do you expect me to put up with a violation of my freedom, when I was out there fighting for your freedom.'"
In his book's final chapter, Ramírez writes about the positive things that Tejanos experienced after the war.
"Tejano veterans were now getting first crack at better paying jobs, and the Mexican American civil rights movement began to take shape with the creation of several civil rights groups that would lead to the founding of the League of United Latin American Citizens in Corpus Christi.
LULAC is recognized as the oldest existing Hispanic civil rights group in the U.S.," Ramírez said.  "This is why World War I was so important to Tejanos," Ramírez added.
The 33-year-old Laredo native said his book was part of his doctoral dissertation, which took him four and one-half years to complete, while a student at Southern Methodist University in Dallas.
Ramírez said that his lifelong dream was to see his name in print.  After submitting his manuscript to Texas A&M Press to consider for publication, he received an extra reward.
Not only was his literary work approved for publication, but it was recognized by Texas A&M Press with the Calvert Book Prize, which is an annual juried award that singles out the best book manuscript on the history of the American South, West or Southwest.
"The opportunity to be recognized as a published writer was enough of a reward for me.
But to also receive this book prize was a special surprise because the honor is for my work on Mexican American history, which is my favorite subject," Ramírez said.
This fall, Ramírez embarked on his second year as an U.S. history instructor at the LCC South Campus. Although his book is now available for sale on, Oct. 5 is the official release date via, and the local B. Dalton Bookstore.
(Steve Treviño is the public relations specialist for LCC)
Copyright © 2009 - Laredo Morning Times
Sent by Walter Herbeck



"I Know the River Loves Me" 
by Maya Gonzalez 


Since 1996, Maya Gonzalez has been providing presentations to children and educators about the power of creativity. Now after 13 years, through partnership with her husband, Matthew, they have founded Reflection Press. On September 1st, they launched the first phase of their new website which you can visit at

We're very excited about our vision and hope you will share it with us! In October we will have prints of Maya's artwork available for purchase, with images from her two latest books, I Know the River Loves Me and My Colors, My World, as well as other beautiful illustrations. 

Reflection Press is committed to imagery that genuinely reflects ALL children in their wide spectrum of expression and being. We provide workshops, presentations, lectures, and curriculum that engage the creative force. We also work to provide imagery that begins to reflect children who are often overlooked in current media. For when we feel reflected in our world, we sense that we belong and that this is our world to love and create and change.

Reflection Press 
16th Street St. San Francisco, CA 94114


Mujeres en la Historia-Historias de Mujeres



On friday, August 21 at 1PM, Mexico City time, at the Universidad Autonoma de Mexico in Mexico City, Gracia Molina de Pick , Independent Scholar and Feminist Community Activist and  her co-author Carmen Lugo Hupb, Investigadora Universitaria and Human  and Feminist Rights Activist  will present their book Mujeres en la HIstoria-Historias de Mujeres.This very significant work  rescues and highlights the role that Mexican women have played in shaping the country's identity, a role largely ignored by traditional history books.

The authors used original historical sources in their  extensive research in order to uncover the names and deeds of the notable women whose lives are depicted in the book which took five years to produce. It is an accessible and amenable text  in Spanish designed for Middle and High School students and the general public, It covers the Mexican Indigenous period prior to 1492 through the first half of the XX century. The voices of women neveer before heard come to life as actors in the social, political and cultural milieu of Mexico. Many of these women were forgotten, degraded , or silenced by the official historiography. Its title Women in History/Stories of Women documents the participation of women as builders of the Mexican nationhood and identity. Their lives and stories are the legacy of the women of Mexico today and honor women of all times and places.

Similar book presentations  will take place in October in San Diego, Los Angeles, the San Francisco Bay Area and other locations in California and the U.S. during the months of October and November.  For more information contact

Dorinda Moreno


SURVIVOR by Francisco Lovato

The incredible story of one man's survival through the horrific Baatan Death March.


by Ernesto Uribe 


A spell-binding story of gut-level survival and adaptation to violent cultural change, Tlalcoyote is set in Texas and Louisiana in the early 1820s. This well-researched novel takes you from Spanish Colonial Texas to the terror and bravery of a captive's life in a Comanche camp, on into the earthy passions of slave voodoo rites on a Louisiana plantation, and finally to the colorful streets of 19th-century New Orleans with all the violence and exoticism of the period. Engagingly human, sensual, and humorous, the adventures of young Rogelio Ramirez--the Tlalcoyote of the title--are ones you will long remember. 

About the Author
Ernesto Uribe grew up on horseback, popping cattle out of the brush on a South Texas ranch where his family has raised beef since 1755. Educated in the public schools of Laredo, he went on to Texas A&M College on a track scholarship and holds a master's degree from that institution. Joining the United States Information Agency as a foreign-service officer in 1962, he filled posts primarily in Latin America until leaving the senior ranks of the service to write fiction full-time.


Badmen, Bandits, and Folk Heroes: 
The Ambivalence of Mexican American Identity in Literature and Film

Juan J. Alonzo


Badmen, Bandits, and Folk Heroes is a comparative study of the literary and cinematic representation of Mexican American masculine identity from early twentieth-century adventure stories and movie Westerns through contemporary self-representations by Chicano/a writers and filmmakers. In this deeply compelling book, Juan J. Alonzo proposes a reconsideration of the early stereotypical depictions of Mexicans in fiction and film: rather than viewing stereotypes as unrelentingly negative, Alonzo presents them as part of a complex apparatus of identification and disavowal. Furthermore, Alonzo reassesses Chicano/a self-representation in literature and film, and argues that the Chicano/a expression of identity is characterized less by essentialism ...

*Juan Alonzo is a former CMAS-affiliated graduate student who currently is an Assistant Professor of English at Texas A&M University. The book is based on a dissertation directed by Dr. José E. Limón. 
List Price:$49.95 Price: $44.79 You Save: $5.16 (10%)
Release Date: September 1, 2009


Lela Gabaldon, Maestra of Danza
Arturo Madrid
Spanish Teaching Credential in California
146 Latino Students Across the Country to Receive $680,000 in Verizon Scholarships

Lela Gabaldon, Maestra of Danza

‘Teaching is where my heart is’
By Brian Bullock/Staff 

Oakley Elementary School kindergarten teacher Lela Gabaldon comforts Ivan Castanieira-Asuncion as they wave goodbye to his mother on the first day of school Monday. Gabaldon received her second pink slip earlier this year and didn’t think she’d be in the classroom.//Bryan Walton/Staff

Monday’s first day of school probably meant a little bit more to Lela Gabaldon than to some teachers in the Santa Maria-Bonita School District.  That’s because earlier this year she didn’t think she would be part of it.

Gabaldon, 27, who teaches kindergarten at Oakley Elementary, has been a casualty of budget cuts the past two years. She received her second pink slip earlier this year, and right up until the final day of the last school year, she didn’t think she’d be in a classroom Monday.

Gabaldon was among 19 teachers at Oakley Elementary to receive layoff notices. But, as it turned out, she was not only rehired, she was placed in the same classroom, grade and school.  District-wide, 72 teachers received pink slips and 54 were rehired. Fifty-five others on year-to-year contracts also were not brought back.

“A good portion of the end of the year, the last few months of school, I had been given notice,” Gabaldon said. “That was very depressing news. Last year was my fourth year of teaching, and hearing that I was no longer going to be able to teach was devastating ...

“I tried to keep a positive attitude and hoped for the best. The last day of school, they did inform us that they would be hiring us back.”

Gabaldon was born and raised in a teaching family in Santa Maria. Her father, Ricardo Gabaldon, teaches at Righetti High School. Her brother, Ricardo Jr., teaches at Orcutt Academy.  Lela Gabaldon and Julie Steigler team teach their class. Gabaldon teaches in the morning and Steigler takes over in the afternoon. Like Gabaldon, Steigler is in her fifth year and also received a pink slip in 2008-09.

This year, they not only got to return to their same class, they both received notice they are tenured.  “It was very exciting ‘Welcome Back’ news,” Gabaldon said of the letter of tenure. “I had faith through the whole thing that things would work out. I definitely feel teaching is where my heart is.”

Gabaldon’s class includes 27 of the more than 13,000 students who returned to school Monday. Due to budgetary cuts and fewer teachers, nearly all classrooms will have more students. Gabaldon’s and Steigler’s class last year had just 20 students.

“We’re going to see larger class sizes in first and second grades,” said Maggie White, spokesperson for the district. “It’s new to some people, but not new to anybody who is familiar with life before class size reduction.”

Most area school districts will experience similar increases. Class sizes for kindergarten through third grade were at a 20-student limit. Because of budget cuts and teacher layoffs, those classes will now hold up to 30 students.

Class sizes and a district-wide enrollment total will take a few days to finalize due to late enrollments and some students moving into, out of, or within the district, White explained.
White said the estimate is for more than 13,600 students, which is an increase over last year.

“That’s good. Higher enrollment is always good. Increasing enrollment is good because that’s how schools are funded,” White explained.

In addition to getting a final count on enrollment, White said it’s important for parents or guardians to return their student’s information packets as soon as possible. That information helps the district better serve its students and helps students get settled in classes.

“Today was a great day,” Gabaldon said. “I think the kids had a great time. There were a few tears this morning. It’s always a scary time for a few kids.  “They are in the process of learning their routines. It’s always a challenge to teach them new things.”

Sent by Dorinda Moreno


 Arturo Madrid of Trinity University


Arturo Madrid of Trinity University's Department of Modern Languages & Literatures has received the 2009 Dr. John Hope Franklin Award by Diverse Issues in Higher Education magazine, another in a long series of honors and awards. 

Cited for his "intellectual excellence and integrity in research in scholarship," Madrid joins a short, exclusive list of honorees that includes poet Maya Angelou, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and Johnnetta Cole, president emeritus of Spelman College.

Madrid, whose wife is historian Antonia Castañeda, founded the Tomás Rivera Center, a national institute for policy studies on Latino issues at the Claremont, Calif., and served on the U.S. Commission on the Future of Higher Education. He also received the Matt Garcia Service Award from MALDEF and the Charles Frankel Prize from the National Endowment of the Humanities, presented to him by President Bill Clinton.

That last award also has a distinguished lists of honorees, including Pulitzer Prize-winning poet Rita Dove, historian Doris Kearns Goodwin and the incredible Bill Moyers, a longtime journalist and former press secretary to President Lyndon Johnson.

Madrid's most current award is named for African-American scholar John Hope Franklin, who helped establish the field of African-American studies.

Sent by Roberto R. Calderón and Dorinda Moreno
Source: San Antonio Express-News, July 2, 09
Latino Life by Elaine Ayala comments on Latino news, cultura y más. 

Sent by Dorinda Moreno


Spanish Teaching Credential in California




UC Davis School of Education has a Single Subject TEACHING CREDENTIAL/MA in SPANISH.

UC Davis has just started its third year of single subject teaching credential, MA in Spanish.
| All our ex-student/teachers are now hired as fulltime Spanish teachersJ

I’d appreciate if you can help me disseminate this information, so we can make this program work. Thank you so much for your cooperation,

Laura Dubcovsky, Ph.D.                                 School of Education
Lecturer and Supervisor                                 University of California, Davis
Email:                   1 Shields Avenue
Phone:(530) 792-1746                                   Davis, CA.  95616                           Fax: (530) 752-5411

Sent by Dorinda Moreno


146 Latino Students Across the Country 
to Receive $680,000 in Verizon Scholarships


BASKING RIDGE, N.J., Sept. 15 /PRNewswire/ -- Verizon has announced that it has awarded more than $680,000 in scholarships to 146 Hispanic students for the 2008-2009 school year.

The scholarship program is one of many programs that Verizon and its philanthropic arm, the Verizon Foundation, have in place to support the Hispanic community. The scholarships announcement was made in conjunction with Hispanic Heritage Month, which began Monday (Sept. 15).

"Verizon has a long history of investing in the Latino community, including in the development of tomorrow's leaders," said Magda Yrizarry, Verizon chief diversity officer and vice president - workplace culture, diversity and compliance. "Across our richly diverse marketplace, from California to Texas to New York, Verizon remains committed to investing financial and human resources in partnerships and programs that directly benefit the Latino community."

Among the organizations that have received grants from Verizon to fund scholarships are:
-- Hispanic Scholarship Fund - $200,000 for 33 scholarships. -- Hispanic Business College Fund - $150,000 for 35 scholarships. -- Hispanic Engineering, Science and Technology Program at the University of Texas-Pan American - $25,000 for 5 scholarships. -- Society of Professional Hispanic Engineers National Scholarship - $30,000 for 6 scholarships. -- University of Southern California/Mexican American Alumni Association - $45,000 for 9 scholarships. -- Ten additional organizations and colleges and universities that serve the Latino community received approximately $230,000 to award scholarships.

In all, the Verizon Foundation has awarded more than $31.7 million in grants since 2006 to nonprofit organizations that benefit and serve the Hispanic Community. Some recent initiatives include:

-- The creation of a special Hispanic Heritage Month resources section on, which provides free educational resources, lesson plans and activities for teachers, parents and students. is the Verizon Foundation's comprehensive program and online portal to 55,000 standards-based, grade-specific, K-12 lesson plans and other educational resources provided in partnership with many of the nation's leading educational and literacy organizations. -- Verizon is a major sponsor of the National Council of La Raza's Alma Awards, an annual televised awards program that celebrates the accomplishments of Latinos in the field of entertainment. -- A $1 million Verizon Foundation grant to expand the League of Latin American Citizens' (LULAC) Young Readers program, which is aimed at improving literacy and academic achievement among Hispanic children in grades 1-3.

The Verizon Foundation supports the advancement of literacy and K-12 education through its signature program,, and fosters awareness and prevention of domestic violence. In 2007, the foundation awarded more than $67.4 million in grants to nonprofit agencies in the United States and abroad. The foundation also matched the charitable donations of Verizon employees and retirees, resulting in $25.1 million in combined contributions. Through Verizon Volunteers, one of the nation's largest employee volunteer programs, Verizon employees and retirees have volunteered more than 3 million hours of community service since Verizon's inception in 2000. 

For more information on the foundation, visit .
Company News On-Call: 
Source: PR Newswire


Film "Immersion" 
Text and Reference Books Recommended for Texas School System by Jose M. Pena 

Immersion Film


Recommended film "Immersion" for Bilingual Education Advocates across our Nation.
Sent by Rafael Ojeda, Tacoma,WA{0A2790CD-E2A0-4AD1-ADCC-79|
E9FBBF6544}&DE={08EC2 557-8F72-4213-AF20-0C8CE320D4DE



Text and Reference Books Recommended 
for Texas School System by Jose M. Pena 


Editor:  Although this list is specific to Texas, the suggestions for inclusion of the Spanish presence and Mexican period should set an examples for text and reference books all Southwest history.
Sylvia:  Thanks for asking me to provide my ideas related to text and reference books that you should be recommending for the Texas School System. I hope the following ideas and reasons will help:

1. Texas Books -- either text or reference books -- should include histories of the time when the 23 original settlements were established by Jose de Escandon and when the Land Grants (both Porciones and Large Land Grants) were awarded. There are multiple reasons why this history is important; one principal one is that many land grants and porciones originated there and were later transferred to Texas after the U.S./Mexican War. Here are some books that delve into these areas:

(a) New Guide To Spanish and Mexican Land Grants in South Texas by the Texas General Land Office
(b) Inherit the Dust From the Four Winds of Revilla by Jose M. Pena
(c) Our Catholic Heritage, 7 Volumes
(d) Jose Escandon and the Founding of Nuevo Santander
(e) Jose Escandon, Colonoizer of Nuevo Santander
(f) The Kingdom of Zapata
(g) This one has a long title by Florence Johnson Scott: Historical Heritage of the Lower Rio Grande: A Historical Record of Spanish Exploration, Subjugation, and Colonization of the Rio Grande Valley........etc.

2. The text and Reference books need to discuss the historical efforts being made between 1810 and 1821 in the South West. They are interrelated. Mexico was trying to become independent from Spain. Texas was trying to become independent from the central government of Mexico. During this period, Jose Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara proclaimed the first April 6, 1813 Constitution of Texas, the Battle of Medina took place, and Mexico became independent. Books that come to mind:

(a) Dan Arellano's Book on the Battle of Medina
(b) Joe Lopez Book on Jose Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara
(c) My book, Inherit the Dust from the Four Winds of Revilla
(d) The Development of Early Mexican Land Policy By Ricki Janicek

3. Text and Reference Books need to also delve into battles of the Alamo, San Jacinto, and the 1836 decision by Texas to secede from Mexico. The Texas Constitution of 1836 -- and particularly General Provision 8 is important. Also important is the legal difference of border recognition -- Mexico recognized the Nueces as its border and Texas (and U.S.) recognized the Rio Grande.

My book, deals with those.
Some of Andres Tijerina deal in this area

4. The U.S. and Mexican War of 1846 to 1848 is essential and Text and Reference Books must discuss the following:

(a) The unprovoked invasion by the U.S. against territorial grounds of Mexico -- 

(b) The negotiations and signing of The Original Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo for following reasons:

(i) First, the condition in which the Treaty was signed; for instance, the treaty was signed under duress while the U.S. had all its forces surrounding and inside Mexico City. 
(ii) Second, Mexico was represented by an Interim President -- Santa Anna had already fled to Colombia. 
(iii) Third, the Interim Mexican Government did a decent job of negotiating the First Unedited Treaty of Guadalupe including Article VIII and Article X.

(c) The issuance of the Second (and edited) Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo now becomes relevant because:

Once Mexico and the U.S. had negotiated and approved the Original Treaty of Guadalupe, President Polk and the U.S. Senate changed and modified the terms of a negotiated treaty unilaterally. In fact, President Polk and the U.S. Senate changed Article VIII and Eliminated a most important Article X dealing with Land Grants. In sum, this is the reason why the original -- and the edited -- Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo must be presented in two parts.

(d) Once Mexico saw the modified version of the Treaty of Guadalupe, Mexico did not like the changes that were being imposed. This is why Mexico and the U.S. Signed the Protocolo de Queretaro. But, guess what, President Polk did not show the Protocolo de Queretaro to the U.S. At a later date, the Senate discovered the "Secret" Protocolo de Queretaro and there was a political mess in the U.S.

At least two books get into that:
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: A Legacy of Conflict by Richard Griswold del Castillo
My Book: Inherit the Dust From the Four Winds of Revilla

5. The Creation of the Miller & Border Commission and effects on Land Grants. 2 books:
New Guide to Spanish & Mexican Land Grants in South Texas by Texas General Land Office, and My Book: Inherit the Dust From the Four Winds of Revilla 

6. The Text and Reference Books need to discuss the Mexican Revolution, the confiscation of lands on both sides of the border ( Mexico confiscated land of rich U.S. Hacendandos and many land grants within Texas had been stolen, confiscated, etc. Books need to include discussion on The Bucarelli Agreements, because:

Both countries recognized their role in confiscating and seizing land grants on both sides of the border. As a result of the Bucarelli Agreements, the U.S. recognized the Post Revolution Government of Alvaro Obregon and commissions were set up to sort out the debts of each country. Two Books deal with that subject:

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: A Legacy of Conflict by Richard Griswold del Castillo
My Book: Inherit the Dust From the Four Winds of Revilla

7. The period when Lazaro Cardenas was President of Mexico needs to be taught. This is when Mexico confiscated the Oil Companies using the provisions of Article 26 of the Mexican Constitution of 1917. The U.S. broke diplomatic relations with Mexico.

My book deals with that era.

8. When Manuel Avila Camacho became President of Mexico, World War II loomed close by. The U.S. and Mexico signed the 1941 Treaty on Final Settlement of Certain Claims.

This 1941 Treaty is extremely important because under its terms, Mexico and the U.S. agreed to exchange all land grant debts and Mexico agreed to pay the U.S. $40 million. In other words, the U.S. agreed to pay all debts owed by Mexico for the confiscation of land from the U.S. Hacendados and the Oil Companies. In turn, Mexico agreed to pay the U.S. $40 million and pay all 433 claims (totalling $193 Million) emanating from land grants confiscated, stolen, etc within Texas.

The U.S. paid its debt to U.S. Citizens within 8 years. Mexico has never paid its debt.

The U.S. Courts have heard the case of the Associacion de Reclamantes at least twice. 

As far as I know, only my book covers the 1941 Treaty of Final Settlement of Certain Claims and the Court case against Mexico. 

9. Issues related to Mineral Rights -- as they relate to Land Grants and Porciones that were confiscated and stolen -- are extremely hard to address. I am still trying to do some research on this subject. But, to my knowledge, four documents merely touch on the subject and I have not seen court cases:

(a) The Texas Constitution of 1866
(b) The Amended Texas Constitution of 1869
(c) The Amended Texas Constitution of 1876
(d) New Guide to Spanish and Mexican Land Grants in South Texas by the Texas General Land Office 

Sylvia, this is it for now. If you need any more information or clarification, please let me know. I hope this is a helpful summation of things that should be included in the curriculum in the State of Texas.  If anyone else wants to add to this list, please feel free and send it to Sylvia Garcia copy to me. Thanks.

Regards, Jose M. Pena



Mata Ortiz Pottery
Corazon del Pueblo
"Peace" and "Culture Clash" at the Getty Villa
August Artist of the Month is writer, producer and artist Victor Payan
Nationally admired artist Ruben Trejo dies
Viva La Vida Fest: Celebrating 26th Annual Dia de Los Muertos
Dia de los Muertos 2009
San Antonio artist Joan Fredrick 
Des Plaines woman saves dance company
Latino Public Broadcasting present new season of VOCES series


Mata Ortiz Pottery


September 25, La Peña Cultural Center in California hosted a reception and exhibit and sale for the visiting master potters Pilo Mora & Ricardo Corona from the village of Mata Ortiz, Mexico. Their prized pots are in private collections, museums & galleries around the world.

Pilo Mora is considered one of the finest Mata Ortiz Potters as well as being among the pioneers of this artistic movement. Student of legendary potter Emeterio "Telo" Ortiz, Pilo is a talented artist who demonstrates his creativity in each and every one of his pieces. Each of Pilo's pots is unique and a product of his own essence and love to the art. From the moment he puts his hands on the clay to the moment the pot is burned and finished, every step is carefully completed to create a high quality piece of art. Ricardo Corona, son-in-law of Pilo has been a student of Pilos for many years and he is an up and coming potter in the Mata Ortiz village.
His interest for pottery started back when he was 12 years old. Back then, there were only about 20 people making Mata Ortiz Pottery. Because it was becoming harder to make a living out of farming due to the drought, Pilo decided to start making pots whenever he had a break from farm work.  It was then when Emeterio "Telo" Ortiz, one of the early potters, started to teach Pilo the basics of the art of pottery.  Telo taught Pilo how to prepare the clay and the pigments among other basic techniques. 
The Mata Ortiz Pottery Tradition: Some fifty years ago in Chihuahua State Mexico, a young boy named Juan Quezada found pottery shards from the ruins of Paquime near his hometown of Mata Ortiz.  Indigenous people from around 700 to 1400 had inhabited Paquime when it was abandoned for reasons still unknown today.  Juan's curiosity and love of painting drove him to recreate pottery, over many years of trial and error, based on those ancient pieces.
Today, Mata Ortiz is known all over the world for the fine hand-made, hand-painted pottery; more than 300 people in and around Mata Ortiz have become potters, some master potters whose works are collected worldwide.

3105 Shattuck Avenue, Berkeley
CA 94705



Corazon del Pueblo

Corazon del Pueblo started as an idea to bring education, culture, art and spirit to the Oakland community. Trinidad and Josefina Lopez opened the store just in time for Christmas in 1996, immediately becoming known as the place in Oakland to find Mexican, Latino and Chicano products. It is not unusual to find a Charro outfit next to a Cesar Chavez poster, flanked by a Virgen de Guadalupe statue at Corazon del Pueblo, reflecting the unique interests of its founders:
Josefina Lopez, a school teacher for over 20 years, wanted to bring cultural education and art to Oakland, providing a place for teachers to buy bilingual books and artisans to show their works. Trinidad, (who passed away suddenly on Dec, 14 2000 R.I.P.) has a deep history in this community, was very proud of his Mexican decent, and was thrilled about both the commerce and cultural aspects of the store.

Working together the two built Corazon del Pueblo with the help of family, friends and many artists and cultural activists. The store serves as a focal point for Mexican and Latino cultural celebrations, where people from all over the Bay Area come to find culture, art and a spirit of community.

Over the years, many artists have found a home at Corazon del Pueblo, including Gregory Nava, Xochitl Guererro, authors Bobby Salinas, Simon Silva, Don Ernesto Nava Villa, last living son of Pancho Villa, Calavera artisans Emilio & Miguel Angel Quintana of Puebla Mexico, and original papel picado artists, and innumerable educators, artists, students, community legends and leaders.

On Sept. 5th, Sadie Williams of Building Alliances, Tina Flores of Los Cinco de Cuba, joined with Josefina Lopez in hosting the 70th B'Earthday Celebration of Dorinda Moreno, Fuerza Mundial,
launching several inspirational campaigns that will be announced in Commemoration with the 40th Anniversary of Ethnic Studies at SFSU, and panel "The Evolution Within the Revolution', and the  l968-2008-2048/9 'Yes We Can - Si Se Puede' School The Youth On Truth' Time Capsule.








"Peace" and "Culture Clash" at the Getty Villa
Performances between September 10 and October 3

Antonio Campos, grandson of Frank Sifuentes shares his strategies as Community Relations Coordinator for the J. Paul Getty Trust. .  He writes to Grandpa:  

Groovy! Culture Clash brings Peace to the Villa

"So, you might remember that I told you I'm doing outreach for "Peace" performed and reinterpreted by Culture Clash.  I'm doing broad outreach to local latino arts organizations, including Art Galleries, Studios, a few artists, as well as Chicano/Latino Research/Resource centers in L.A. I'm also reaching out to community councils in key latino neighborhoods of Los Angeles (i.e Boyle Heights, Lincoln Heights, Echo Park, the Valley etc...)

Here is the link to the event on our website:"
Performances between September 10 and October 3.

Antonio Campos
Community Relations Coordinator
J. Paul Getty Trust
1200 Getty Center Drive, Suite 403
Los Angeles, CA 90049-1681
Phone 310/440.6616
Mobile 909/455.4274
Fax      310/440.7722

About Peace
In 421 B.C., the 27-year-old comic playwright Aristophanes launched a ribald and scathing theatrical assault on Athens' entrenched "military-industrial complex." High on Mount Olympus, the ogre War has imprisoned the goddess Peace and holds sway over all of Greece; while on Earth below, a small band of rustic patriots hatch a daring plot to engineer her rescue and restore Peace to the land.  Please be advised that Peace contains adult language and bawdy humor and is not suitable for children.

About Culture Clash
Culture Clash is the nation's most prominent Chicano-Latino performance troupe. For 25 years, writer-actors Richard Montoya, Ric Salinas, and Herbert Siguenza have imitated the workings of social anthropologists, digging deep into America's racialized culture to formulate their outrageous brand of satire. Peace is their second dramatic encounter with Aristophanes at the Getty Villa.  A special talk with Culture Clash and John Glore, co-adapter of the play, will be held on October 3.

Join the creative team behind the Getty Villa's staging of Aristophanes' Peace for a conversation about the production, their zany adaptation of this utopian fantasy, and their continuing fascination with Aristophanes and his works. Free; a ticket is required.



August Artist of the Month is writer, producer and artist Victor Payan
The August Artist of the Month is writer, producer and artist Victor Payan.

Victor Payan is an award-winning writer, producer and artist who uses humor and satire to address issues of border 
culture and social justice.  A San Diego native who moved to San Antonio in 2007, he works independently and in collaboration with creative partners to create engaging multi-faceted interventions, such as the masked Mexican wrestler project Aztec Gold with Lou Chalibre, and the Keep on Crossin’ movement. 

He served as Editor of the Stanford humor magazine Chaparral and has also written for the seminal underground Chicano humor magazine, Pocho!  His work is in the permanent collection of the Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego and has been featured in exhibitions, screenings and performances at the High Museum of Art in Atlanta, Galeria de la Raza in San Francisco and the Sweeney Art Gallery in Riverside, among other institutions.

Victor has collaborated with artists such as cartoonist Lalo Alcaraz, members of the Border Arts Workshop and Pocha Peña, and has served as Associate Producer for several Emmy-Award winning PBS documentary series, including The U.S.-Mexican War: 1846-1848 and The Border.   Since moving to San Antonio in 2007, Payan has taught the multimedia program at San Antonio Cultural Arts and served as Co-Director of CineFestival en San Antonio. He is a popular speaker on issues of art and culture, and has presented at conferences in the United States and Mexico. Mr. Payan currently works as the Development Coordinator for the National Association of Latino Arts and Culture (NALAC).

How did you get your start in the arts?
Creative expression was important to me from early on, and I was lucky to have a supportive family and inspirational teachers who allowed me to develop my creative voice. Serving as the editor of the Stanford humor magazine during the height of the culture wars a great learning experience in understanding the important laughter to any society.  When I returned to San Diego in the early nineties, I worked as cultural editor for a Latino community newspaper and I was able to have lengthy interviews with people like Guillermo Gomez Peña, Culture Clash, El Vez, Luis Valdez, Marga Gomez, Robert Rodriguez and Lalo Alcaraz during a really incredible period in their careers. Through these conversations, the importance of working in different media and mixing creativity, social justice, humor, history and community really came into focus.  I made a lot of friendships during this period with writers, filmmakers, musicians, painters and muralists, and it was great creative community to work in.

My current project, Aztec Gold, which is a collaboration with my wife, Pocha Pena, is really fun to work on.  As an intervention, we produce video interviews and live multimedia extravaganzas, like our Rudos y Tecnicos event, where we brought painters and Mexican wrestlers together to “battle it out on the canvas” with brushes. It was a great way to reimagine the luchador phenomenon and the notion of heroic struggle.

What inspires and influences your work?

Being raised in the San Diego/Tijuana border region, I was able to develop in an incredibly rich area, which was as much a zone of conflict as it was of innovation and a laboratory for finding creative resolutions to complex social and cultural issues. San Diego plays an important role in the development of the community arts movement, and like San Antonio, it is a great venue for creative experimentation. People really come together to accomplish important things, such as Chicano Park, the Border Arts Workshop and the Centro Cultural de la Raza.  What really inspires me is working with artists who know how to get the best from people and to nurture the native genius of youth and those who may not have access to education or the tools to empower their own lives through creativity.

For more information on Victor Payan visit his web site,

Sent by Dorinda Moreno



Nationally admired artist Ruben Trejo dies

Nationally admired artist Ruben Trejo dies 1937-2009
Mexican heritage key in work 

Prominent artist Ruben Trejo, who died Sunday in Spokane, is pictured in January 2008 with a self-portrait.
(Full-size photo)

The art world in Eastern Washington and across the country is mourning the loss of a premier Mexican-American artist and educator whose originality took him all the way to the Smithsonian Institution, despite his humble beginnings.

Ruben Trejo, professor emeritus at Eastern Washington University, died Sunday at Providence Holy Family Hospital from myelodysplastic syndrome, a blood disorder. 
He was renowned across the country, and his work is part of the permanent collections of the Smithsonian American Art Museum, the National Hispanic Cultural Center in Albuquerque, N.M., and the National Museum of Mexican Art in Chicago. He worked in a number of mediums, including sculpture, mixed-media installations, painting and drawing.
“A major American artist is gone,” said Tomas Ybarra-Frausto, a prominent Hispanic art scholar in New York.

“Ruben is just an absolute jewel,” said Sue Bradley, owner of Tinman Gallery on the North Side where Trejo earlier this year exhibited his “Border Series” show as part of a national tour.

“He had a wonderful sense of humor,” Bradley said. “He was extremely intelligent. He was very much an idea person.”

Trejo, 72, was born in St. Paul, Minn., in a railroad car that was used to house rail laborers. His father worked for the railroad and his mother was an illegal alien given immunity by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. He was one of 11 children, two of whom survive him.

As a boy, he lived with migrant farm worker relatives and for a time with his grandmother in Mexico. 

He earned his bachelor’s and master’s degrees from the University of Minnesota and joined Eastern Washington University in fall 1973. He co-founded the university’s Chicano Education Program. In 1987, he won the EWU Trustees Medal. He retired from EWU in 2003, but continued his art.

The Ruben Trejo Hispanic Scholarship at EWU is awarded annually to a qualifying Latino or Chicano student pursuing an undergraduate degree.  Professor Lisa Nappa, chair of the EWU art department, said Trejo took special interest in helping undergraduates from Hispanic families.  “He nurtured a lot of those kids along,” she said. 

In an interview in 1987, Trejo said, “I’d like to think something I’ve done will make the world a better place than when I came in.”  His work often dealt with the social issues surrounding his heritage, and the pieces were frequently done in a series. His style blended European modernism, American art and Trejo’s Mexican heritage, Ybarra-Frausto said. “He was an original artist who followed his own path.”

Bradley said he brought a show to her gallery that featured dancing bananas and was named “Banana Republic.”  Ben Mitchell, senior curator of art at the Northwest Museum of Arts and Culture, said Trejo was included in virtually every major Hispanic or Chicano art exhibition in the past 25 years.  

“We have lost a real lion,” Mitchell said, describing his art as brave and always surprising.  The MAC is planning a major Trejo exhibition in 2010, and a book on Trejo is nearing completion as part of the project through University of Washington Press. 
“He is certainly one of the most significant artists Spokane has ever produced,” said Lanny DeVuono, painter and art professor.  He was also known as an excellent cook and host.

Trejo is survived by his longtime companion, Joanne Hammes; a son, Eugenio Jose Trejo; twin daughters, Sonya Trejo and Tanya Trejo; and two grandchildren. “He was the most amazing father,” said Sonya Trejo, who described him as beloved and inspiring. “He was magic to the very end.” 

Source: Harry Gamboa 

His artworks were superb with humor and artist to be honored for sure !!!!!
Good journey Brother will not be missed because you have a permanent residence in my heart....AJUA !!!!! Hope to see you ....donde se juntan artistas....alli and alla.  Magu

Sent by Gilberto Lujan  1-626-363-4863


Mexic-Arte Museum
Viva la Vida Fest 2009
celebrating the 26th Annual Día de Los Muertos

Saturday, October 24, 2009
2:00-10:00 PM

Mexic-Arte Museum, the Official Mexican and Mexican American Fine Art Museum of Texas, will be celebrating its 26th Annual Día de los Muertos – Austin’s largest and longest-running Day of the Dead festival featuring Latino artists and entertainment, an exhibition, and educational programs in the heart of downtown.  Part of the proceeds will benefit the education programs of Mexic-Arte Museum, whose mission is to enrich the community through education programs and exhibitions focusing on traditional and contemporary Mexican, Latino, and Latin American art and culture.



Mission Cultural Center for Latino Arts
Dia de los Muertos 2009
"Bring Back The Dead"
"EL Regreso de Los Muertos"


Exhibition dates:
October 15- November 21, 2009 
Gala reception:  November 2, 2009

MCCLA is inviting cutting edge artists to join us in a cultural collaboration with the souls of the dead. MCCLA has a long history of calling upon the dead in the months of October and November. Some of those souls have lost their way in the journey.  The goal of this year's exhibition is  to guide the souls who have lingered, and for those who are arriving to have a safe and festive journey back into the spiritual realm. Artists are encouraged to submit proposals but please keep in mind that they have to include traditional elements in their altars or installations.  

This juried exhibition will run parallel to an exhibition of original works by print masters Jose Guadalupe Posada and Manuel Manilla circa late 1800.

Mission Cultural Center for Latino Arts
2868 Mission Street, San Francisco, CA  94110
MCCLA is 1/2 block from the 24th Street BART Station
Muni: 14, 14L, 48, 49 & 67 and is wheelchair accessible

Mission Cultural Center for Latino Arts (MCCLA) was established in 1977 by artists and community activists with a shared vision to promote, preserve and develop the Latino cultural arts that reflect the living tradition and experiences of the Chicano, Mexican, Central and South American, and the Caribbean people. More Info: (415) 821-1155



Des Plaines woman saves dance company


Des Plaines woman saves dance company
By Elena Ferrarin | Reflejos Staff
Published: 8/20/2009 12:12 AMWhen Maria Reyna decided to take the reins of Sol Azteca, a Mexican folkloric youth dance group affiliated with St. Mary's Parish in Des Plaines, she wasn't exactly fired up about it.

But it pained her too much to think that an enterprise that had been around for nearly two decades might dissolve for lack of leadership. Thanks to her effort, the group is now collaborating with the Grammy-nominated folk group Sones de Mexico, based in Chicago. 

"We are very excited," said Reyna, of Des Plaines. "This has been great for us." Sol Azteca started 19 years ago when a group of Des Plaines moms decided they wanted to keep their kids off the street while preserving their Mexican roots and heritage. Over the years, it grew from just a few kids practicing in a basement to 30 members who got together at St. Mary's auditorium.

After the group's founder, Nancy Chavez, left about three years ago, the older dancers took over to teach the little ones, Reyna said. The group even had a guest choreographer from Mexico City for about six months, but eventually things fizzled out.

Reyna's children, Marisol, now 17, and Juan, now 21, had been dancers since they were little and she knew what a positive influence it had on them.  "They learn about their heritage and their culture, and they preserve tradition," she said. "I saw so much talent, and I felt so bad that the group was going to end."

So last year she decided to give it her best shot and started to choreograph the 17 dancers, ages 5 to 21, relying on what she learned throughout the years by observing practice.

"Imagine starting something like this in my 40s," she said. "I did dance when I was younger in Mexico, but I never focused on it, I had other interests. It's been hard, for sure."  Reyna first reached out to Sones de Mexico last year, and the two groups performed together in the summer of 2008.

"Maria asked if we were interested in collaborating," Iñiguez said. "Sones has been doing this since 1996 for several dance companies in the area of Chicago and the suburbs, so of course we did it."

Iñiguez said she saw that the group had passion and even talent but was still amateurish.

"I asked (Reyna), with all due respect, if she'd be interested in some guidance, and she said yes," she said. Iñiguez and Reyna applied for an ethnic and folk arts master/apprentice grant from the Illinois Art Council and have been working together on new choreography since February.  Iñiguez's lead has energized the kids, who feel a renewed sense of pride in what they are doing.

"It has been great to work with (Iñiguez), we have learned a lot from her. I really like having her teaching us," Marisol Reyna said. "It's a commitment to be part of this; it takes up a lot of time, but it's worth it."

Emanuel Villalobos, 14, one of only three boys in the group, said that dancing plus baseball and guitar practice make for a busy life, but he enjoys participating nonetheless. "It's really good to learn the Mexican tradition," he said.

For some, Sol Azteca has become a family tradition.  Elizabeth Ramirez, 26, of Glendale Heights, was a member of Sol Azteca when she was a young girl. Now, her daughter, Arlete Montserrat, age 5, and her youngest sister, Cecilia, 17, are part of the group.

"(My daughter) is only 5 years old, but she loves it. She loves the heritage, she loves the beautiful bright dresses," Ramirez said.  "All of this is really awesome. First of all it's her culture, and, second, because it's something that I was doing in the past and now it's hers, so the legacy is going on."


Latino Public Broadcasting present new season of VOCES series

Latino Public Broadcasting (LPB) announced today that the new season of their signature series VOCES, a showcase of outstanding documentaries celebrating the rich diversity of Latino life, will be presented on national public television beginning in September 2009, in conjunction with Hispanic Heritage Month.  Featuring films about musical legends Tito Puente and Celia Cruz and documentaries about subjects ranging from the Puerto Rican activist Antonia Pantoja to Mexican "guest workers" to a unique soccer league made up of former stars from Latin America, VOCES is a presentation of Latino Public Broadcasting and is distributed by American Public Television.  Luis Ortiz, Managing Director of Latino Public Broadcasting, is Series Producer, and Gabriela Gonzalez at LPB is Associate Producer.  In addition to the public television broadcast, the eight VOCES films will be available for online viewing on their broadcast premiere dates on the VOCES website,
Acclaimed actor Edward James Olmos will introduce each week's program. Says Olmos: "Our Latino culture is deeply woven into the fabric of American life -- one doesn't exist without the other.  These Latino stories presented in this new season of VOCES -- Mexican, Cuban, Puerto Rican, Chilean, and Peruvian stories -- are above all American stories and VOCES is the only series devoted to bringing these terrific films to a national audience."
Patricia Boero, Executive Director of Latino Public Broadcasting, is the Curator and Executive Producer of the series. "We at LPB are delighted that VOCES will be airing its second season this fall. Our first season was a great hit with audiences and stations, and we think this season's lineup is wonderful. Besides being great entertainment, VOCES is a reminder of the enormous influence that Latinos have had on every aspect of American life, from music to sports to education to public service... Our hope is to bring these stories to a wide audience, including Latinos, who will be proud to see their community's achievements on screen."



Anywhere But L.A. short stories by Daniel A. Olivas
Shakespeare and the Spanish Connection
Armando Rendon, Esq.
Golondrina, why did you leave me? novel by Bárbara Renaud González
Short Stories by Lou Serna

Anywhere But L.A.

short stories by Daniel A. Olivas



Anywhere But L.A. , Daniel A. Olivas's latest collection of short stories, ranges from contemporary narratives to more traditional cuentos de fantasma, giving us a vivid and honest portrait of modern Latinos in search of their place in the world. Funny yet poignant, Olivas's characters frequently amuse, sometimes disturb, and often remind us of our own vulnerability. People who on the surface appear to be ordinary and uncomplicated reveal their deepest secrets and anxieties related to a variety of issues, such as race, gender, sexual orientation, and the human condition in general. We are given a glimpse into the complex emotions and attitudes of characters who are trying to cope with the mysteries of life. These stories ring with humor, insight, and power, and, like the city they describe, they shift and slide and refuse to be pinned down as they drive the reader to the very core of human existence through the colorful mural of a thriving Latino community.
Daniel A. Olivas is the editor of Latinos in Lotusland: An Anthology of Contemporary Southern California Literature (Bilingual Press, 2008) and the author of Devil Talk: Stories (Bilingual Press, 2004), Assumption and Other Stories (Bilingual Press, 2003), The Courtship of María Rivera Peña (Silver Lake Publishing, 2000), and a children's book, Benjamin and the Word (Arte Público Press, 2005). He has written for numerous publications, including the Los Angeles Times, MacGuffin , THEMA , Exquisite Corpse , La Bloga , the El Paso Times , and the Jewish Journal. Since 1990 he has practiced law with the California Department of Justice. Olivas makes his home in the San Fernando Valley with his wife and son. 

Arizona State University
ISBN: 978-1-931010-69-6
184 pp. | paper | $16.00
Ph # (480) 965-3867
Fax# (480) 965-8309
Daniel A. Olivas
24638 Canyonwood Dr.
West Hills, CA 91307
(w) 213-897-2705


Shakespeare and the Spanish Connection


This 28 minute documentary covers key relationships between the two theatre traditions of Spain and England, including varied materials from performances in New Mexico and California, of theatre excerpts from Shakespeare, Lope de Vega, Calderon, and Alarcon, mostly by theatre professionals. 

It has visuals from Spain (the Almagro Theatre, Velazquez paintings from the Prado), England (the restored Globe Theatre, National Portrait Gallery), and historical data from the South West, including accounts of community drama in New Mexico and California. 
Sent by Armando Rendon, shared by Hugh Richmond, the narrator and scholar behind the clip who alerted Rendon to the research that he and others have been doing on this subject; he's a prof of English at UC Berkeley.



Armando B. Rendón, Esq.  


Armando B. Rendón, Esq.  

Armando B. Rendón has explored the roots of his heritage as a journalist and author, searching to understand and impart to others what it means to be an American of Mexican heritage.  Born in San Antonio , Texas , just two years before the start of World War II, he spent his early years there but then moved to Oakland , California , with his mother. There he readily assimilated into the dominant English-speaking world through his schooling, finishing grade and high school and, something rare for Mexican Americans at the time, graduating from a liberal arts college with a degree in English.

As a reporter and editor for a California newspaper in Sacramento, Rendón launched a career in writing th at he soon realized had drawn him to seek out his true identity.  He has published articles, essays, and poetry  at tempting to answer the question of what is the character of the Mexican American. 

In 1971, his classic, Chicano Manifesto, was published by Macmillan Company. The book, a seminal work about the Chicano Movement, captured, recorded, and even inspired a cultural movement--it was the first book written by a Chicano about Chicanos.  Simply stated, a Chicano or Chicana is a person of Mexican origin, who is a product of both the Mexican and American cultures.

When this book first appeared, Chicanos were unknown in America as a social and political force. The book describes how five major uprisings seeking cultural awareness and social justice erupted throughout the Southwest in the mid-1960s and evolved into a single reality known as the Chicano Movement. The book is biographical in many ways—not only was much of the history of the revolution, persons and events, recorded because the author was there, but his own evolution as a Chicano, and perhaps of other Chicanos, is reflected there as well.

Rendón points out that the most disturbing revel at ion new readers of the book may find is that while Mexican Americans and Latinos in general have made great social and educational gains, much of the racial hatred and fear that Chicanos confronted in the 1960's still persists.

Rendón has been an educator through his writings and social activism all his life, but he has also devoted many years in the field of education. He has a Masters in Education from the Antioch Graduate School of Education and a Juris Doctor from the Washington College of Law at The American University in Washington , D.C.

Soon after moving to D.C. in the l at e 1960s, he joined in founding the first bilingual day care program in the Capital, The Spanish Education Center. He founded and directed The Latino Institute, a program for young Latino adults at AU and taught social sciences there for two years as well. In 1975, Mayor Walter Washington appointed him to the charter board of trustees for D.C. University, where he served for three years in the mid-1970s.

Since returning to the Bay Area in 1988, he has led seminar classes in the Collegiate Seminar program at St. Mary’s College, Moraga, California for the past 21 years. He recently spearheaded a program based on the concept of  Theater of the Oppressed, which utilizes interactive theater to enhance awareness of social concerns on the campus.

Rendón is now devoting time not spent with his five grandchildren to poetry, essays about Latinos in writing, and historical novels targeted at juvenile readers.




Golondrina, why did you leave me? novel by Bárbara Renaud González
The Texas Observer, July 10, 2009, review by Stephanie Elizondo Griest


The Texas Observer, July 10, 2009, review by Stephanie Elizondo Griest

The question is posed innocently enough: “¿Como cruzaste, Mami?”
“How did you cross the border, mommy?”
Yet 60-year-old Amada evades it, heating gorditas and swiveling her hips to a love tune. Why can’t her daughter, Lucero, probe her for chisme? She’d be happy to divulge the latest ’scandalo of her four sisters, or of the neighbors across the street. But no. Lucero only wants to hear that story, the one Amada is afraid to tell.
So she lays down her spatula and lights a cigarette. The story that slowly unfolds is the basis of San Antonio writer Bárbara Renaud González’s debut novel, Golondrina, why did you leave me?
First, a definition is in order: Golondrina is Spanish for swallow, the tiny songbird with the mighty wings. According to Latin lore, God gave golondrinas the gift of migration because they—of all the birds—told the best stories when they returned to their nests after a worldly adventure. Amada tells her daughter, “The best story sometimes takes a lifetime to tell, that’s why you have to tell it over and over until you get it right.”
No one knows that better than González, who spent a decade writing this book. You wouldn’t guess the effort involved from her lyrical prose, which is as breathless as it is dreamy. But you can glimpse the labor in the book’s scope, which chronicles a family of Mexicanos-turned-Tejanos from the 1700s to the present, with all the suffering and celebration along the way.
The story opens during the early part of the 20th century in post-revolution San Luis Potosí, Mexico. A young Amada tries to support her family by selling ­sweetbread in the plaza. At 15, she finds a faster road out of poverty: marrying wealth. On her wedding night, Amada’s mother informs her that a woman’s duty is to aguantar, to silently accept her plight. But Amada soon decides that no woman should aguantar like this. Night after night, her much-older husband Sapo, or Toad, violently rapes her, “thumping her body like masa for tortillas” and filling her with “toad juice.”
Three years later, she has had enough. Enlisting the help of Sapo’s handsome cousin Jorge, she makes a break for El Norte, leaving her baby girl behind. Much lovemaking ensues as the couple travels to the border at Matamoros. You can feel Amada’s disappointment when she gazes upon the promised land—aka Brownsville—for the first time. “The air here isn’t blue like San Luis ... but taffy-sticky, smelling of burned peanuts, day-old pork ... and the sweet-sour farts from the cars honking in line to cross the bridge.”
“What did you want, my beautiful refugee, the Statue of Liberty?” teases Jorge, a married man who must stay behind. “For a mexicana, you think those gringos are going to have a statue waiting for you?”
With a toss of her waist-length mane, Amada teeters across the bridge, bats her eyelashes at the Customs official, and promptly meets a Tejano called Lázaro, “a man who looks like someone’s found and sculpted a cast-off log of mesquite, breathing some life into it.” She ­marries him three weeks later—a mistake they’ll both regret for the rest of their days.
From the beginning, Golondrina is about the brutality of love. For years and years, you pine for “a shirt’s sweet unbuttoning after a long night of tequila.” Then it comes and—before you know it—is gone again, leaving you with a smashed heart, a swelling belly, or both. So you wait and wait some more, until one day you realize it’s too late. Your face is crinkling; your nalgas are prickling; your breasts, which used to be a “perfect 32A,” now resemble “a discounted mango.” Only then does it crystallize that “your dream came true after all, you had your one romance, only nobody told you it’s not supposed to be forever.”
¡Aye! Pour me some mescal. The heart ain’t the only thing aching in this novel. According to her author’s note, Golondrina is a fictionalized version of González’s own family history. “The events are completely real to Texas ... a story so cruel and sublime that if I wrote the truth you wouldn’t believe it,” she states.
Many of those truths involve the sacred vacas of Texas, including Richard King, founder of the King Ranch, the cattle concern that in its heyday was the largest the world had ever known. King generally gets the royal treatment in Texas letters, invariably depicted as a swashbuckling cowboy who presided over his empire as a benevolent patrón.
Not here. “The old man King’s first name was crooked,” contends Lázaro, whose family toils upon King’s rancho for generations, with nothing to show for it. “People considered him ‘bien nombrado, the King of Stealing.’”
What King stole was land—land that once was Mexican. The loss of that land is mourned by Lázaro, who hauls his ever-expanding family across the Lone Star State searching for ranch work. “Even the colored got their forty acres, but we didn’t get that. And we’re not slaves?” he demands.
The Catholic Church also falls prey to González’s pen. Lázaro delights in calling the Pope a “pinche potato-head.” (Papa, the Spanish term for Pope, also means potato.) Amada, meanwhile, insists that all the priests are out screwing the nuns. “What about the fetuses buried in the church’s camposanto?” she demands. There is nothing “immaculate” about that.
Through these beautifully crafted characters—Amada, Lázaro, and narrator Lucero—González wisely explicates the various neuroses of Mexican culture, starting with machismo. “The women are enslaved, only they don’t call it that, and the men are slaves too, that’s why they have to be masters of the women ... [they] take vengeance for their mothers by repeating the past, because that’s all they know,” Amada muses at one point.
González is also exceedingly perceptive about the existential identity crises unique to each generation of Mexicans—those who crossed the border, and those whom the border crossed. Back in Mexico, Amada was despised because she was born with that “telltale blotch of purple on the sole of her left foot, the Indian stain, proof she was from ... those people almost everyone came from but wanted to forget, and couldn’t because their mothers were Indians too.”
After rearing half a dozen children in the United States, however, Amada realizes, “They’re better than me, they speak inglés, they don’t understand me, and … they are forgetting me, as if in order to succeed they have to forget me.”
Her husband, Lázaro, meanwhile, worries that “everybody knows he doesn’t have anything and he has to admit that maybe the gringos are right, it’s true, they are better than the mexicanos, they have the land, don’t they?”
Their daughter, Lucero, navigates an entirely different minefield. She pees in her flour-sack dress on the first day of school because she doesn’t know enough English to ask for a bathroom. But a few years later, she discovers, “I lost some words, and I don’t know where they went. The words are from Mami…. and I’m afraid that I’ll never see them again, and then what?”
This question—and then what?—haunts every modern-day Mexican-American, the audience likely to best appreciate this work. But Golondrina will also seduce any reader craving a well-spun story. The book’s most memorable scenes capture the long nights of marathon storytelling by Lucero’s four aunts. Their parties always begin at medianoche, “when the husbands are snoring.” Each aunt specializes in a ­different kind of dance move, from Tía Toñia’s “man-eating rumbas” to Tía Paquita’s “rico mambo,” which makes the dogs howl. Together, they teach Lucero how to shake her chichis to catch the ojos of every hombre. (Too bad Lázaro has already informed her that she can date whomever she wants—as long as he isn’t white. That means no Billy Ray, whose “hot as the blue sky at noon” eyes make her quiver.)
Warning: Golondrina’s storyline can make you feel borracho at times, ­swooping as it does through the past, the deep past, and the ancestral past from one page to the next, with no road map to connect the eras.
And certain events are a little hard to swallow. Would Amada really have left her beloved baby girl behind to be raised by her violent husband, and then copulate every step of the way to Texas? If she was so quick to ditch her first husband, why did it take 20 years and heaps of kids before she dumps the second? And however much fun it is to imagine, is it really plausible that the obscenely rich and powerful Richard King ever needed to beg for brides to marry his boys? In Lázaro’s account, King pounds on the door of his great-great-grandmother’s cabin not once but thrice. She not only says no, but hell no, absconding instead with a black man fresh off the boat from Louisiana who spotted her washing clothes on the bank of the Rio Grande.
But what’s hardest to digest is the fact that Golondrina, Why Did You Leave Me? is the first Tejana or even Chicana novel ever published by the University of Texas Press, which has cranked out 2,000-plus titles since 1950. Really? In a state where one in every three of us originally hails from Mexico? Por favor.
Still, UT Press couldn’t have launched a more enticing novelista than González. And better now, I suppose, than nunca.  Stephanie Elizondo Griest is the author of, most recently, Mexican Enough: My Life Between the Borderlines.
University of Texas Press
176 pages, $24.95
Purchase at BookPeople

 Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.



Short Stories Serna Newsletter


Just a note to let you know that I am starting a "new" Short Stories section on my website. It will be similar to the stories I used to share with you all in my Serna NEWSLETTER a few years back. Of course, there is no charge for this.

My first Story is on my website now and is titled, "El Gallito Pirinello".... (translation for some of my friends; El Gallito Pirinello is the Spanish version of "Banty Rooster" which is short for Bantam Rooster. It is pronounced; El guy - eee - toe pee - dee - nay - oh. ) In Spanish folklore, a gallito pirinello was seen as an upstart, dwarf rooster who tried in every way to appear much more important than he really was in the chicken coop...! His fancy strutting and scratchy attempts at crowing were seen as entertaining and somewhat pitiful...! He was an object of ridicule and some pity and was usually compared to some members of society. 

I hope you enjoy this story... just go to  and scroll down to the "Short Stories" section.

I will be posting more stories in the future, if you find them interesting and enjoyable...

Lou Serna 

Anti-Spanish Legends

Film Review (2009.09.28)
Ken Burns’ “The National Parks” (Part 1): America’s Best Idea?
Rogelio Reyes (

“But for all the passion of the people and beauty of the places, the great drama of the film [Ken Burns’ “The National Parks: America’s Best Idea”] comes from the argument between those who would exploit the parks for private and commercial use and gain versus those who fought to preserve them as public places where all Americans could go to experience the wonder of nature. It should come as no surprise to anyone who has seen " Brooklyn Bridge," "Jazz," Baseball," "Civil War," or "The War," Burns is firmly on the side democracy.” David Zurawik 2009.

Zurawik’s recent article is, to be sure, based on first-hand evidence: Part 1 of Ken Burns’ 6-part, 12-hour “The National Parks: America’s Best Idea”, which aired last night (September 27) on PBS affiliates throughout the country.  The remaining parts of the series will continue to air nightly until completed.  

The point of departure in discussing Zurawik’s opinion—in my opinion—should be his interpretation of the term democracy.  If he means democracy in its etymological sense—from Greek democratia ‘the rule of the free, propertied classes’ (slaves and non-propertied laborers were excluded from democratia)—then I would have to agree with him.  Throughout Burns’ cinematographic career—from his release of “Civil War” in 1999 to his “The War” in 2008—he has clearly been on the side of the free, propertied classes and against those who would infringe on the latter’s “God-given” rights. 

How else could Burns support the cause of the North in his “Civil War” knowing that President Lincoln’s purpose in that war was to preserve the Union—and thereby the interests of modern industrialists—with or without slavery? (See Williams 1998).  How else could Burns support the Allied cause in his “The War” knowing these very same Allies were channeling the victims—Jewish refugees—of the fascist movement they pretended to oppose away from Britain and the US? (See History of Switzerland 2004). 

Furthermore, in his firm defense of democracy—in “The War”, at least—Burns ignored an important piece of US history: the half-million Latinas/os and Native Americans who fought the U.S. war “for freedom and democracy” only to come home and find themselves still excluded from the God-given rights of the free, propertied classes.

Turning now, specifically, to Burns’ Part 1 of “The National Parks: America’s Best Idea”, we have scenes of Yellowstone National Park, Yosemite and other awe-inspiring sites of nature intertwined with accounts of John Muirland’s, Theodore Roosevelt’s and others’ heroic efforts to keep commercialism out of these national parks so that all Americans can claim them as our own.  Only briefly are the original inhabitants of this awesome land of ours mentioned: the retreat of Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce through Yellowstone National Park in 1877 with the U.S. Army in hot pursuit after they had been forcefully dislodged form their ancestral homeland in Washington and were fleeing toward the only safe haven left to them: Canada. In the retreat through the park, two white tourists were killed, making the U.S. pursuit even hotter (we know from Essortment n/d that only 300 of the Nez Perce ever made it to that safe haven; Chief Joseph and 400 of his people were surrounded near the Canadian border, where they put up one final fierce resistance, were captured and exiled to Indian Territory in Kansas until 1885, when they were allowed to return to a small reservation in their ancestral homeland.)

In sum, after Public Broadcasting System (PBS) has spent several millions of our tax dollars on Burns’ documentaries and resisted Latino’s efforts to correct the omission of Latinas/os in Burns’ “The War” (to be sure, two Latino and one Native American episode were spliced onto Burns’ “documentary” after Defend the Honor, a Latino coalition, organized a fierce protest in 2007), where do the dispossessed of our ‘democracy’ stand with regard to Burns’ “The National Parks” and his other documentaries?

Again, in my opinion, as long as PBS controls the purse strings to its budget (which comes from our tax dollars) we can protest and demonstrate all we want but the situation, basically, will not change.  Allow me to compare PBS and Burns to the health care industry: as long as our physical and mental wellbeing is in the hands of insurance and pharmaceutical corporations for profit, as long as we through government representatives who truly represent our interests do not take control of the health care industry in our country, we will only continue to sink deeper and deeper into the quagmire of hopelessness.  The original inhabitants of this continent, with all working people as their allies, deserve to take back their ancestral homeland and turn it truly into the “American Dream”, not the nightmare of exploitation, warfare, poverty, sickness and despair it is today.

Finally, in my opinion, a not insignificant start in that direction will be the re-mustering of Defend the Honor forces to demand peoples’ control (through their true representatives) of the PBS budget, administration and production.

“Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War.” 
Essortment. n/d.  “Who Was Chief Joseph?”  
“Holocaust: Jewish Refugees in Switzerland during Worl War II.”  History of Switzerland.  2004. 
Timberg, Scottt.  2009.  “Ken Burns: Was a Backlash Inevitable?” The New York Times, Sept. 20.,0,4317393.story 
Wiliams, Walter.  1998.  “The Civil War Wasn’t about Slavery.”  World Jewish Review, Dec. 2.
Zurawik, David.  2009.  The Baltimare Sun, Sept. 25.


Guy Gabaldon documentary on the web
John Flores to be Honored for writing about the life of Marine Sgt. Freddy Gonzalez
Hispanic Engineer National Achievement Awards Conference
Martin High School (MHS), Laredo, Texas in 1945 

Guy Gabaldon documentary on the web 


What a fun surprise to find ONLINE the whole documentary:  EAST L.A. MARINE, THE UNTOLD TRUE STORY OF GUY GABALDON. This is a story that should be told.  For anyone under sixty, you might not know about one of the most extraordinary American heroes of the century.  


During WWII, Gabaldon single-handedly captured over 1,500 Japanese during the bloody battle of Saipan in the summer of 1944. This all but forgotten American hero was Hispanic and raised by a family of Asian Americans before enlisting in the service when Pearl Harbor was attacked.  His amazing accomplishment should have brought him the Congressional Medal of Honor he so truly deserved.  Even though his Commander recommended him for the Medal of Honor, it was down-graded to the Navy Silver Star.



John Flores to be Honored for writing about the life of Marine Sgt. Freddy Gonzalez
Written by La Prensa San Diego Stories Aug 21, 2009 
By Price Daniel, Special Report


Dolia Gonzalez flanked by Commanders Brian Fort and Lynn Acheson.

—The U.S. Marine Corps announced that former U.S. Coast Guardsman John Flores will receive the civilian Meritorious Service Award later this year for his years of research and writing about the lives of Marine Sgt. Freddy Gonzalez and his 80-year-old mother, Dolia Gonzalez, of Edinburg, Texas. He has also written extensively about the USS Gonzalez, a guided missile destroyer based at the Navy Base in Norfolk, VA.

On Aug. 14, the ship celebrated a change-of-command—Commander Brian Fort reported aboard in Feb. 2008, and is now being replaced by the first female officer in charge of the ship, Commander Lynn Acheson.

Last month, Ms. Ruchar Webb, of the Marine Corps Medals Incentives Board contacted Flores by phone at his home in Albuquerque, NM, he said.

“My wife finally admitted that she contacted the Navy Department in a letter about my work,” Flores said. “And the Navy Department sent her a letter last June stating they would pass her request on to the Marines.”

Flores’ wife, Rowena Flores, received a reply to her request for some type of recognition for Flores’ work, on June 5, from Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Navy Patricia C. Adams.

“…your husband’s achievements are commendable and merit consideration for a (Navy Department) or Marine Corps honorary award,” Adams wrote. “We have forwarded your letter and its contents to the staff at Headquarters (Marine) for review and consideration … (the Awards Board) will make the appropriate recommendation for the award level and approval authority.”

Ms. Webb told Flores he would be receiving the Meritorious Service Award from the Marine Corps for his work, but did not state a date for receiving it.

“It does not matter when or how it’s received,” Flores said. “What an honor this is to me. I spent some time on board the warship USS Gonzalez with the first crew at sea when the ship was en route from Norfolk to commissioning near Corpus Christi, Texas. That was 13 years ago this fall. The Navy flew me by helicopter from NAS Key West to the underway ship that was about 30 miles offshore. That got me started on the book about Sgt. Gonzalez, published finally in October 2006, exactly 10 years after my trip on board.”

Navy Captain Charles Stuppard, who is currently stationed at the Navy Yard, was in charge of all weapons systems on board the ship at that time. He attended the change-of-command, at Cmdr. Fort’s invitation.

“He wrote the foreword to my book,” Flores said. “We went through Hurricane Josephine in the middle of the Gulf of Mexico and spent about two days in forty foot seas. We still laugh about that today. He even mentioned that in his foreword.”

The USS Gonzalaz celebrated a change-of-command on board at Norfolk on Friday, Aug. 14. Commander Brian Fort reported aboard in Feb. 2008 and is being replaced by Commander Lynn Acheson—the first female to take charge of the Arleigh Burke Class guided missile destroyer.

The 80-year-old mother of Sgt. Gonzalez was invited and flew from her hometown of Edinburg, Texas, for the event. She turned 80 on August 18.

“My son died 41 years ago, on Feb. 4, 1968,” Dolia said. “I lost my only child, and I still miss him, but when I visit the ship it’s like his spirit is alive here in the crew. I always call them my boys and girls.”

Commander Fort developed a special bond with Dolia during his tour as captain of the destroyer.

“His wife picked me up at the airport that last time I was invited, in the summer of 2008, to be there for the ship’s return after a long deployment,” she said. “They took real good care of me.”

Dolia was invited last year partly so the crew could meet her and help celebrate her 79th birthday.

Ed Sere, of New York City, is a publicist for retired Marine Corps Colonel Charles Waterhouse, who presented an oil painting to Dolia that he completed not long ago—a portrait of her son in his final moments during the Battle of Hue City.

Sere said Waterhouse has completed many portraits of U.S. military Medal of Honor recipients, over the years. The Waterhouse Museum in New Jersey houses these works.

Sgt. Gonzalez died defending his platoon as they were surrounded by North Vietnamese Army troops at the St. Joan of Arc Catholic Church, in Hue City.

He gathered all the anti-tank rockets from about a dozen fellow Marines and ran to a vantage point above the raging battle, where he could get a good bead on the enemy. The portrait painted by Waterhouse correctly depicts Gonzalez crouching down as he aimed one last rocket at an enemy position.

“He had already fired almost all the rockets and silenced enemy fire,” Flores said. “Marine Corps General Ray Smith was his company commander and witnessed his death. He still feels strong emotions about what Freddy did for his men that terrible morning and the great sense of loss everyone in the company felt upon learning of his actions and hearing he was killed. They all looked up to him. He was just 21.”

General Smith, now retired from the Marines, said he will always look upon Freddy as a larger than life figure.

“I was his commanding officer, and he was enlisted while I was a lieutenant. I was a lot larger physically than he was—I think he was about five eleven and a hundred sixty five. All these years I always thought of him as a loot larger than me physically, then I saw a photo of us standing together while back and was surprised at the difference in our sizes … he will always be a big guy to me,” Smith said.

Flores included an interview with Smith in his book.

On Feb. 4, 2008, Texas Governor Rick Perry presented Dolia the Texas Legislative Medal of Honor at a ceremony in Edinburg, attended by Commander Alistair Borchert, who was CO of the USS Gonzalez.

The medal was presented at Bobcat Stadium, on the football field where Freddy played football for the Edinburg High School varsity squad in 1964. Coach Fred Akers was a young novice in charge of the team at that time. He would later move on to head coach of The University of Texas Longhorns. Flores interviewed him for the book as well.

“Freddy was not very fast, and he was not very big,” Akers said, wistfully remembering one of the most remarkable young men he ever coached.

“But he tried with every ounce of strength in his body. He gave a hundred percent on every play. His team spirit made everybody try harder.”

Doris Sanchez, press secretary for Texas Senator Eddie Lucio, said she remembers when Flores was working on the book in 2006 and he asked her how to go about getting the Texas Legislative Medal of Honor awarded to Freddy.

“He worked so hard on that, and if it were not for John, the medal would not have been awarded to Freddy,” Sanchez said. “When he called me I had not even heard of that medal.”

Sgt. Gonzalez was the sixth recipient of the Texas medal.

Flores served four years in the U.S. Coast Guard as a search-and-rescue crewman in New Orleans.

“It was sometimes pretty tough duty,” he said. “But all I got in the end was an honorable discharge, a Good Conduct Medal, and a kick in the butt from my old chief. And now the Marine Corps gives me this. A Marine Corps buddy of mine at the time, Wendel Hall, used to make fun of me for being a `shallow water sailor’. Wait till I show him the medal. He won’t believe it.”

Daniel is a freelance writer from Honolulu.
Sent by


  Hispanic Engineer National Achievement Awards Conference 


           Hi, Mimi, Here's another Hispanic engineer being recognized. As always, it is sad that folks like this get no attention in the media. NNS090818-10. National Hispanic Organization Honors ONR Employee with Leadership Award By Paula Paige, Office of Naval Research Corporate Communication Office ARLINGTON, Va. (NNS) -- The Hispanic Engineer National Achievement Awards Conference (HENAAC) recently recognized a veteran employee of the Office of Naval Research (ONR), headquartered in Arlington, Va., with the Luminary Award. Elmer Roman was honored with the award for his contributions as a leader and role model for the Hispanic technical community. "We felt his body of work is one that should be shared with the country as a role model in [science, technology, engineering and math (STEM)]," said Ray Mellado, chairman and chief executive of HENAAC. "We're very proud of all our winners. Our role is to share their stories with teachers and students so they can inspire others." Roman is the regional director of the ONR Global office in Santiago, Chile, where he is responsible for maintaining liaison with Canadian and Latin-American governments, industry and academia in areas relevant to Naval science, technology and research and development.

            Established in 1989 to recognize the contributions of outstanding Hispanic-American STEM professionals, HENAAC Luminary Award winners are chosen by their professional peers. Roman and fellow honorees will be presented their awards at HENAAC's 2009 Career Conference Oct. 8-10 in Long Beach, Calif. Roman was also recognized in 2006 by the Navy League of the United States with the Rear Admiral William S. Parsons Award for Scientific and Technical Progress. He was presented the award for his contributions while serving as science advisor to the deputy chief of naval operations for Plans, Policy and Strategy and to the director of the Naval Criminal Investigative Service to Navy programs. Roman has also played a leading role in support of the Office of the Secretary of Defense and the Navy International Programs Office. Roman assisted with negotiations and the eventual establishment of a Master Information Exchange Agreement in research and development with Chile and Colombia in 2008 and 2009, respectively. These agreements will open the doors for scientific and technological collaboration in defense security matters between the United States and countries in Latin America. "I'm honored to have been selected for this award," Roman said. "I'm really proud to represent the Navy scientific community, its Sailors and Marines. I look forward to continuing to provide a path for others, especially young folks in the Hispanic community. My role is to show that there are options and opportunities in one's career. The door (of opportunity) isn't closed to anyone. We choose to close those doors.

        My role is to show others, especially the younger generation, how to open those doors." In an endorsement letter for the award, Roman's supervisor, Capt. Dave Maynard, commanding officer of the ONR Global, said Roman's professional accomplishments had "surpassed expectations." "He will continue to be a clear role model to the Hispanic community and to the community at large," Maynard said. "His leadership, vision and dedication to the Navy and his country are helping to keep American technologically strong, by setting an example to young people in under-served communities by promoting science and technology, engineering and math (STEM)." Roman, a native of Puerto Rico, originally joined the Marine Corps and after six years of service, transferred to the Navy Reserve Engineering Duty Officer program. He is currently assigned as a Reservist with the Navy Reserve Naval Sea Systems Command Supervisor of the Salvage and Diving Unit and as a heavy lift project officer and deputy director of projects. Roman is a graduate of the Marine Corps Officers Candidate School, the Navy Engineering Duty Officer School and the Federal Executive Institute. He is also a qualified Navy acquisition professional. He has studied legislative affairs, policy and strategy from the Government Affairs Institute at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government in Cambridge, Mass., and at the Naval War College in Newport, R.I. 

Tim Crump



Martin High School (MHS) in 1945 


The message below was forwarded by Don Hendon, HS class of 1958 from St. Joe's in Laredo, Texas. It's two article written by Odie Arambula, on the topic of the Laredo war veterans, I thought you might find this articles in lighting.  Juan 

Luis F. Ramirez  
wrote on Aug 13, 2007 

This article appeared in the Laredo Morning Times (LMT) November 11, 2007 and includes a memoriam list of Laredo boys who gave their lives for their country during WWII. 

Article 1: Graduates, ex-students returned to Martin High School (MHS) in 1945 
November 11, 2007 By Odie Arambula  956-728-2561 

        The years 1945 and 1946 saw hundreds and hundreds of Laredo war veterans begin to come home to renew their lives after the end of World War II. Japan’s imperial government had signed formal surrender documents on Sept. 2, 1945, four months after the graduating seniors of Martin High School’s Class of 1945 had received their diplomas. The official commencement program, dated May 25, 1945, listed the names of 175 graduates, including seven with an asterisk, indicating they were getting diplomas in absentia. They would not walk across the stage at Shirley Field. They were still serving in the military in the states, Europe or the Pacific region. In absentia at commencement were Arnaldo Dickinson, Ignacio de Leon, Carlos Escamilla, Edward Mercer Matson Jr., Robert Boyd Stites and Wendell Philip Ward Jr. The commencement program included a memoriam list of 93 names “to honor those Laredo boys who have given their lives for their country.” 

         The World War II casualties at the May 1945 count, based on information provided by the office of the registrar, had eight young men surnamed Gonzalez. There were six with the last name of Flores, four named Garcia and two named Garza. Two, Lt. Luis Valls and Lt. Socrates Pappas, were identified as Army Air Corps personnel killed when their bomber planes were shot down. Interestingly, the Martin High yearbook of 1944 also included pictures of two of three Valls brothers who served in the same war. In addition to Lt. Luis Valls, brothers John and Alfonso “Lefty” Valls saw combat duty. Lefty was an Air Force bomber pilot and John was an infantryman who missed due recognition late in the war. John was out with a patrol in Germany when he ran into hundreds of war-weary and beaten German soldiers. They surrendered to John on the spot. Unfortunately, somebody else at headquarters got the credit. Lefty Valls piloted his bomber on a mission while another bomber crew was en route to Hiroshima to drop the big one on Aug. 6, 1944. Three days later, a second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. On Sept. 10, 1945, the Japanese government requested a cease-fire, wanting to surrender on the condition that the Emperor would retain his powers. But the Allies advised that the Emperor had to take orders from the prevailing powers. Emperor Hirohito finally went on radio Aug. 14, 1945, to tell the people that Japan had accepted unconditional surrender. American prisoners in Japanese slave camps were released Aug. 31 to tell their horror stories.

        In earlier articles, we told the story of the Valls brothers and their experiences in the war. Lefty Valls piloted one of the bombers in a flyover while the Japanese premier and generals signed the surrender papers at a table before Gen. Douglas MacArthur. At the table aboard the U.S.S. Missouri, MacArthur had Army Gen. Jonathan M. Wainwright as a signing witness for the Japanese surrender. Wainwright came to Laredo in February 1946 to ride an open car in the grand international parade of the Washington’s Birthday Celebration. Lt. Pappas, one of the first war casualties from this area, was the subject of a story by a war correspondent, William L. Worden, in 1943. The Worden article, printed in Laredo Times on May 9, 1943, was reprinted in a Laredo Morning Times salute to World War II veterans called Our Heroes, which was published May 30, 2004, in space paid for by Pappas’ niece, State Sen. Judith Zaffirini. 

        The article carried a personal tribute written by the senator and titled “Uncle Catis, a fallen hero we never knew, but always loved.” The Zaffirini narrative, as a part of the Worden material, said Uncle Catis was killed during a World War II air raid at the age of 22, “three months after his wedding.” She described him a “one of the best known young men in Laredo and liked by all who knew him.” Jose Garcia Roel, a contributing writer, and later, the Spanish editor of The Times, wrote one of the introductory articles for a November 1944 booklet in which he cited Lt. Pappas’ service to his country. Roel, who published a Spanish-language weekly at his own print shop at 1015 Sanchez St., wrote and edited a monthly booklet in Spanish to honor local men and women serving in the military during World War II. Roel, an accomplished poet and novelist from Monterrey, titled the booklet “Album del Soldado” (A Soldier’s Album) in observance of Armistice Day on Nov. 11, 1918. Roel cited Lt. Pappas as a fallen Titan, calling him “un Titan caido.” 

       The Roel publication also carried a picture of Constantino Pappas, a brother of Lt. Catis Pappas. Constantino and Catis were sons of Mr. and Ms. Santiago Pappas, 1818 Matamoros. Constantino enlisted in the Army twice. Roel wrote that Constantino volunteered for service after the death his brother. He returned to civilian life in April 1943 and re-enlisted the following the December in the Army Air Corps at Camp Bowie, Texas. A similar but larger booklet — “Our Heroes,” printed in 1959 — was edited by a 1937 graduate of Martin High School and former Times sportswriter, Homero Martinez. Both booklets carried pictures of the brothers serving during World War II. In some cases, there were three, four and as many as five at the same time. Martinez was taken prisoner by the Japanese in Java after Pearl Harbor and spent the entire war in prison camps. 

       The Roel booklet carried information and photos of two Marinos brothers, Pete and Teddy. They were the sons of Mr. and Mrs.. Gus Marinos of 2601 San Bernardo Ave. Teddy joined the U.S. Marines in 1942 when he turned 17. When the booklet was published in November 1944, Teddy, a sergeant in the U.S. Marines, was home on leave after a 26-month deployment in the Pacific. Pete, a lieutenant in the Army Air Corps, had enlisted in 1941 shortly after the outbreak of the war. He was assigned to an Air Corps unit in England. Lt. Marinos was a graduate of Martin High School. Initially, the War Department advised the parents that their son was missing in action. His plane had not returned from a mission over Germany. He later was reported as having died in action. The names of Laredo boys and girls, graduates or dropouts from secondary schools Martin High and L. J. Christen Junior High, jump at the reader from school yearbooks, archived Laredo Times and other publications of the 1940s and 1950s. Each one of them has a story to come in subsequent installments of this column.    

      These stories must be told to modern generations and their children before they get lost in time. There’s Frank Randall Nye Jr., Ramiro Garcia (Class of ‘43), Daniel Salinas (1940), Ignacio Riojas, Bill Haynes, Victor D. Gunnoe, Sinecio Gutierrez (1935), Luis Linares (1942), Joe P. Martinez (1939) Arnulfo C. Zamora (1942), Roberto San Miguel, Vidal Sepulveda, Jose Guerra (1940), Mike Saenz (1943), Cuauhtémoc Saenz, Juan Villarreal Jr. and his brother, Arturo (1939), Valentin Padilla (1943), Guillermo “Willie” Abrego (1941) and his brother, Salomon (1942), T.A. Bunn, Tom Deats Jr. (1939), Daniel Hastings (1939), Albert Hastings (1940), Lazaro Dovalina (1939) Kyle Drake, Sgt. Raymond Martin (Chato) Gutierrez (1922), Arturo Gutierrez (1941), Lt. James Leon Hearn, Mateo Miguel Treviño (1932), Edward Charles Boubel (1939), Lt. Abraham Kazen (1938), Leopoldo “Polo” Villegas, Lt. Charles H. Kazen, Fernando Llaguno, Sam J. Carpenter, Sgt. Ben Azios (1939), William Galligan Jr., Jimmy Slaughter, Juan Bazaldua, Sgt. Juan Francisco Farias, Pedro Castañeda (1941), Ralph E. Beaman (1939), Ben Azios (1939), Robert William Milton (1940) Seaman Jose Fierros (1939), Seve Valdez, Jimmy Marinos (1936), brother of Pete and Teddy Marinos, Eloy Barrera, Ed Idar (1937), the Guerra brothers, Lt. Rafael A., Tech Sgt. Refugio Jr., and Luis, Celestino Mendiola, Ralph E. Beaman (1939), Jose Roberto Gutierrez (1935) Lt. Herbert Benjamín Adams (1928), Lt. James Leon Eran, Laredo High, William Prescott Allen Jr. (1937), James Young (1942), Aubrey Vaughn (1939) and many others. Allen was the son of the Times owner-publisher, William Prescott Allen. Galligan was the son of the Laredo ISD superintendent. 

Article: 2 Living ghost classes Service and school 
Nov 11, 2007,  By Odie Arambula,  956-728-2561 

The Laredo Morning Times. They were the members of the “ghost classes” at Martin High School — students who weren’t able to graduate with their regular classes because they were drafted or volunteered for World War II before they could cross the stage to receive their diplomas. 

Some never saw those diplomas because they didn’t complete the requirements or just didn’t go back to ask for one. Some never saw the cherished parchment because it was granted posthumously. But for about 75 would-be graduates, their special day finally came in 1947 when they crossed the stage with the regular Martin High Class of ’47, which had adopted the veterans as their own. Today is Veterans Day, originally observed as Armistice Day. Veterans and their families gather for various ceremonies, including a parade downtown. Children honor their grandparents, former servicemen and women, at school events this week and last, and a grateful nation gives thanks to those who made sacrifices so the United States could remain free. It’s a time to remember. On Dec. 7, 1941, eight days after Pearl Harbor, William P. Galligan, superintendent of the Laredo Independent School District, addressed the student body at Martin High School. Galligan’s message stirred the minds of young men and women at the school campus located at San Bernardo Avenue and Park Street. Many of these young men, members of the Class of 1942, understood what the immediate future held for them. They would not be around for commencement in May. They understood that in due time, a notice would be in the mail from the Draft Board. “We have faith that when the last tyranny of this world shall have perished on the battlefield of human rights, when the last despotic dictator has been dethroned, that the tattered and torn ensigns of the free peoples of every continent shall be proudly unfurled and ripple gallantly in the purer breezes of a finer and better world,” Galligan told the student body. 

“For that faith we are now fighting and shall continue to fight until the full and final victory shall have been achieved.” President Franklin D. Roosevelt had already gone before a joint session of Congress, declaring war on Japan. Americans had heard FDR’s thundering message about the day that would live in infamy. In the ensuing weeks and months, the names of Martin High School students — mostly seniors and juniors — and a school administrator appeared on a list at the desk of the school yearbook sponsor to be included in the 1942 La Pitahaya. The yearbook was distributed before commencement in May 1942, and the student body knew the names of their fellow students who were serving in the military. The administrator’s name on the list was that of Lt. William Vela, assistant principal to Principal J.W. Nixon. The 1942 yearbook carried a picture of Vela in uniform, having been assigned to the 65th Infantry Engineering Battalion. He would later serve as a military attaché with the U.S. Embassy in Mexico City, and go on to become a leading radio-television newsman in Mexico City. The Vela family home, a two-story structure, was at the corner of Santa Maria Avenue and Washington Street, right across from the City Lumber Co. facilities. In subsequent years, from 1943 through 1945, the Martin High yearbook devoted space for a service section that focused on graduates and former students of Laredo High School and Martin High School serving in the different branches of the military. Most of them were in combat in Europe and the Pacific. The sponsor of these yearbooks was the late beloved Elizabeth Nye Sorrell, a 1927 graduate of Laredo High School who taught English literature at Martin High School. 

Some locals who enlisted during World War II were Old High School graduates of the 1920s and 1930s. Some MHS students were from the late 1930s, including members of the first class to come out of Martin High in 1937. After enabling state legislation was passed a decade later, the Laredo Independent School District invited former students and graduates to return to Martin High to get their diplomas. The year was 1947. 

That year, about 75 World War II-era students posed for a group picture on the stage of the Martin High School gymnasium. In a Laredo Morning Times special section honoring World War II veterans that was published May 30, 2004, a copy of that 1947 picture was reprinted as it is here today. The men, having served different time periods from 1943 to 1946, were in uniform, including that of the U.S. Army, the U.S. Navy, the Marines and the U.S. Army Air Corps. Each of the men is showing a diploma, tied with a ribbon. One veteran, an Army man, holds the diploma with both hands at each end across his mouth like a harmonica. The only name in the photo caption is that of Oscar M. Orozco, and it’s unclear which one of the veterans is Orozco. Slapped on the curtain behind the men are the numerals “1947.” The largest group among the servicemen in the picture are those in Navy uniforms. 




Sons of the American Revolution induction of Liam and Bill Cordero, Sept 1st
Asociación Cultural Bernardo de Gálvez y Gallardo, Conde De Gálvez

Louisiana Infantry 1779-1781 (Spain) Flag of the Regiment of Louisiana

Sons of the American Revolution induction of Liam and Bill Cordero.
 September 1st


Left to right, President Jim Olds, CASAR Harbor Chapter, Liam Cordero,
William E. Cordero II, at CASAR Spanish Patriot Recruitment 
Committee Chair Leroy Martinez.

Hello Mimi,  Here is a pic of myself and son, Liam at our SAR induction on September 1st. Those in the picture, from left to right, President Jim Olds/CASAR Harbor Chapter, Liam Cordero, William E. Cordero II, and CASAR Spanish Patriot Recruitment Committee Chair Leroy Martinez.

"I encourage all my relatives whose ancestor is Mariano Antonio Cordero to also join the Sons of the American Revolution and/or Daughters of the American Revolution. 

Please visit the Cordero website for history and genealogical information.

For further questions, readers are welcomed to contact Bill Cordero or Leroy Martinez. 
William E. Cordero II




En recuerdo y homenaje a tan extraordinaria figura se constituye en Málaga el día 1º de mayo del año dos mil ocho y con la denominación de ASOCIACIÓN CULTURAL BERNARDO DE GÁLVEZ Y GALLARDO, CONDE DE GÁLVEZ, una organización de naturaleza asociativa y sin ánimo de lucro, al amparo de lo dispuesto en el artículo 22 de la Constitución Española, la Ley Orgánica 1/2002, de 22 de marzo, reguladora del derecho de Asociación, el Decreto 152/2002, de 21 de mayo, por el que se aprueba el Reglamento de Organización y funcionamiento del Registro de Asociaciones de Andalucía y demás disposiciones vigentes dictadas en desarrollo y aplicación de aquella, así como las disposiciones normativas concordantes. Está por tanto inscrita en el Registro de Asociaciones de la Consejería de Justicia de la Junta de Andalucía y también en el Registro Municipal de Asociaciones del Ayuntamiento de Málaga.

Los fines de esta Asociación son la investigación, el estudio y la difusión  de cualquier manifestación histórica relativa a la figura de la que toma su nombre, así como de su época, y también de la trascendencia que tuvo su destacada intervención en los campos de la milicia, la política y las cuestiones sociales, con el objetivo de recuperar la egregia memoria de Bernardo de Gálvez y transmitirla a las generaciones actuales y venideras.
Presidente: D. Miguel Ángel Gálvez Toro
Vicepresidente: D. Manuel Olmedo Checa
Secretaria: Dª. Araceli González Rodríguez
Tesorero: D. Francisco Cabrera Pablos
Vocal: Dª. María Dolores Casermeiro
Vocal: Dª. Mirentxu de Haya Gálvez
Vocal: D. Rafael Illa Peche
Vocal: D. Manuel Pérez Villanúa
Vocal: D. Siro Villas Tinoco 
Michael R. Hardwick  Author: Changes in Landscape The Beginnings of Horticulture in the California Missions



Louisiana Infantry 1779-1781 (Spain) 
Flag of the Regiment of Louisiana
[Louisiana Infantry 1779-1781 (Spain)]


Two generations of our family ( Josef Morales & Roumaldo Carmena )
 served in this regiment at Galvez Town (1779-1803). 

Bill Carmena







Muchos de los apellidos que circulan por nuestra provincia son fruto de la emigración que se produjo hacia Andalucia en el siglo XIII, tras la reconquista de Sevilla, por parte de Fernando III El Santo

En el ejército del rey Fernando venían muchos extremeños, gallegos, asturianos descendientes de sevillanos que habían huido de Sevilla por la invasión musulmana, y de Castilla y León. Pero cuando finalizó la conquista, el rey Axataf le entregó el reino casi completamente vacío, por lo que se vio obligado a repoblar la zona, en principio con los descendientes de andaluces que se vieron obligados a huir hacia el norte del País, por la llegada de los musulmanes.

Pero había un problema, éstos eran pocos y Fernando decidió “primar” de alguna forma a los caballeros de órdenes militares que venían con él, con el fin de que se quedaran entre nosotros. Muchos accedieron ya que les dieron casas en las poblaciones y fincas rusticas en el entorno de ellas.

Y ese fue el origen de que llegaran a nuestra zona muchos de los apellidos que hoy tenemos; los Acosta, los Guzmán, los Domonte que después fueron los Almonte, o los Pacheco, entre otros.

Pero los musulmanes que se quedaron y con objeto de borrar, en lo posible, el rastro de su procedencia, alteraron la ortografía y pasaron a llamarse; Venegas, en lugar de Ben Egas, o Benjumea por Ben-Omeya. Hay otros mas que ahora no recuerdo.

Pero con el rey Fernando no llegaron solo españoles, también nos vinieron muchos de otros países y estos adaptaron sus apellidos a nuestra lengua; como por ejemplo un austriaco que se llamaba Honrad, aquí se cambió por Conradi.

Con el descubrimiento de las Indias, Sevilla y su entorno se convirtió en el eje de los negocios para ir o comerciar en América, y nos llegaron gente de muchos países, así como otros que estaban perseguidos en su tierra por motivos políticos o religiosos. Así tenemos apellidos de origen italiano como Astolfi, Mañara, Graciani o Balbontin.

Todos se quedaron por aquí y este fue el origen de muchos de los apellidos que hoy existen en esta zona de Andalucía y de los descendientes de muchos de ellos que después marcharon a tierras americanas.

                                                     Custodio Rebollo




La Tragedia del Vaquero
Oct. 22:
National Hispanic Business Women Association Open House
Establishment of a Mexican American Heritage & Cultural Center of Orange County.
UMAVA, United Mexican American Veterans Association 


jess araujo movie





Will Premier in Orange and Los Angeles Counties

In September 2009


Jess Araujo, prominent Orange County attorney, educator and syndicated journalist, will make his feature film debut in the Spanish language film “La Tragedia Del Vaquero” (The Cowboy’s Tragedy).  It was filmed in the rustic country town of Zapotlanejo in Jalisco, Mexico earlier this year.  The star of the film is Armando Infante, son of the undisputed Super Idol of Mexico, Pedro Infante.  The film also features roles by several other major Mexican actors including Hugo Stiglitz, Valentín Trujillo Jr., Alredo “El Turco” Gutierrez, Rojo Grau, Arturo Martinez Jr. and Rocio Muñoz.


Araujo said that he accepted the role of “Comisario Mateos”, the town Sheriff, because the role depicts some of the most nobel and admirable qualities of the people of rural Mexico.  “Using the law to achieve justice is something that has been my profession and my life for over thirty years and town Sheriff was a natural fit for me” said Araujo.  You could say that the role was a perfect fit.  Araujo, who worked as a ranch hand as a youth, was quite at home riding horses. And as a former musician, singer and band member,  he thoroughly enjoyed playing the guitar and singing with Armando Infante.  His only concern is that his grandchildren may be upset when they see that he gets shot during a break-in at his jail.


Mexican movies generally do not debut in Santa Ana, California but director Carlos Valdemar decided that it would be proper and inspiring to do so because of Jess Araujo’s significant debut.  The movie was recently selected to be “película anfitriona” (host movie) at the Los Angeles Broadway Movie Festival. 


Film star-singer Armando Infante will perform with Mariachis for 45 minutes prior to the showing of the movie starting at 5 p.m. on Saturday September 12, 2009 at THE YOST THEATRE ON FOURTH STREET IN SANTA ANA.


THE MOVIE WILL PREMIER AT 6 P.M. immediately after the Mariachi Show.Tickets are available via pre-sale by calling (800) 248-4100. Ticket price is $10.00 pre-sale or at the door and includes entrance to both the MARIACHI SHOW WITH ARMANDO INFANTE AND THE MOVIE.


Jess Araujo, Armando Infante and several of the other actors will be present for the Premier.   The community is urged to purchase tickets pre-sale since there is very limited seating.  ¡Que Vivan los Cowboys! 


Sent by John Palacio



Saturday October 10, 2009  Chino Hills , California
NO COST TO ATTEND CONFERENCE. Pre-registration not required.


T0 assure seat in desired class, PRE-REGISTER ON-LINE at:
Pre-registration must be received by Monday SEPTEMBER 29, 2009 
Available class syllabus ( $13.00 )  
Boxed lunch ($7.00 pre-ordered only)
Registration & Packet Pick-up 8:30 am to 9:00 am 

GENERAL SESSION:  9:00am to 9:35 am 
Keynote Speaker: Scott Knecht   

SESSION I:  9:45 am to 10:45 am
    *  A.     Beginning Family History Research-Basic.  by: Karen Pomeroy
        B.     Adding Time Lines to Your Research by: Nancy Huebotter
    *  C.    Beginning Hispanic Research by:  Robert & Miriam Lucero   
        D.    Online Tools for Genealogists by: Barbara Renick  
        E.    Land and Probate Research by  Caroline Rober 
        F.    German Research Sources in the  Doug Ayer 
G.    Connecting Families Through Facebook  by: Tom Underhill
  y * H.     Introduction to Family History Research for Youth by: Michael Shietze

 SESSION II: 10:55 am to 11:55 am 
 *   A.    Organizing Your Research by:  Caroline Rober 
y *   B.    The New FamilySearch and How it Works by:  Richard Wilson 
       C.     Intermediate Hispanic Research by:  Viola Sadler   
       D.     Research Strategies for England 19th Century by: Beth McCarty 
       E.     Family Insight by: Robert & Miriam Lucero   
       F.      Searching Civil War Ancestors by: Michael Sorenson 
       G.     How to Preserve Photos Rescued From Shoebox by:  Tom Underhill 
 *   H.     Legacy-How to Preserve it for Your Grandchildren by: Larry Brock

 SESSION III:  12:05 noon to 1:05 pm 
      A.     Digging Up Treasures in the Graveyard by:  Richard Wilson 
  *  B.    Introduction to Japanese Research by: Frank Chocco 
  *  C.     Hispanic New FamilySearch and How it Works by: Robert & Miriam Lucero 
      D.     The 5 “C’s” to Success in Genealogy Today by:  Barbara Renick
      E.     Naming Children in Colonial New England by:  Alice Volkert 
F.     Mapping Your Ancestor’s Home: Linking with the Past by: David Armstrong & Anne Miller
      G.    Publishing a Family History Book by Tom Underhill 
 y*  H     How to write a journal for Young and Old  by: Karen Pomeroy

     y =  Indicates Class Good for Youth     * = Indicates Class  Good for beginners  

LUNCH BREAK:  1:05 PM to 2:10 pm 

SESSION  IV:  2:10 pm to 3:10 pm
         A.    Digital Photography for Genealogists by: Alice Volkert 
     *  B.    Introduction to Chinese/Philippine Research by:  Frank Chocco
        C.   Advanced Hispanic Research by: Viola Sadler      
        D.    Finding and Using Probate Records for England by:  Beth McCarty 
        E.    Overcoming Obstacles That Interfere with Finding Your Ancestors by: Anne Miller 
        F.    Oral Histories by: Nancy Huebotter 
      G.    Internet Safety for Genealogists  by: Tom Underhill 
*    H.    Beginning German Research by:  Doug Ayer   

SESSION  V:  3:20 pm to 4:20 pm  
A.      Alternate Sources for German Birth Research by:  Doug Ayer   
         B.      Evaluating What You Have Found by: Barbara Renick
         C.      Hispanic Use Of  Ancestry.Com (In Spanish) by:  Robert & Miriam Lucero   
         D.      Workshop for Family History Center Directors & Staff by: Beth McCarty 
         E.      Courthouse Research by:  Caroline Rober 
         F.      Strategies to Find Ancestors on by: Anne Miller and David Armstrong 
         G.      Family Web Sites by: Tom Underhill 
         H.     U.S. Census Research  by Karen Pomeroy  



National Hispanic Business Women Association

5 P.M. to 7:30 P.M.
Program and Special Presentation at 6 P.M.

We've Relocated!
We Invite You to Join Us for an OPEN HOUSE at our new location!
2020 N. Broadway, Suite 100
Santa Ana, CA 92706

Our new location provides new opportunities for our community!
Parking available under and in the East parking lot of the building.


Establishment of a Mexican American Heritage & Cultural Center of Orange County


Orange County LULAC District 1 invites all to join in a collaborative Project
Share Our Dream of Mexican American Heritage & Cultural Center of Orange County

To preserve, promote and celebrate Mexican American heritage and culture in Orange County, California through education and the arts.
We will present an authentic, comprehensive exhibit through interface with other interested resources in the community to include, but not limited to, the education, professional, business and cultural community members at large.
Our stories deserve to be a permanent part of Orange County's history.

We encourage all community and barrio groups to share your history, skills, and experiences to that together, we can truly capture all our ancestors' contributions.
The Center will document the history of Mexican Americans in Orange County and national history, to include such civil rights violations as the Repatriation in the 1930's and the benchmark Mendez vs. Westminster school desegregation case; as well as our important contributions to our country's armed services.
Current participating groups:
CSUF - Chicano Studies Department
Orange County Children's Therapeutic Arts Center
Orange County LULAC District I:
      Anaheim, Orange Co., Placentia, Santa Ana, and Stanton Councils.
Orange County Mexican American Historical Society
United Mexican American Veterans' Association

Many efforts are underway:

1) The Orange County Mexican American Historical Society is currently working on its 2010 Images of Orange County calendar and is seeking photos of Mexican American historical interests in O.C.  Documenting and sharing the communities' history is our objective.   Image subjects can include: Family, church, politics, sports, children, education/school, labor, prominent/notable individuals, military, events, functions, clubs, organizations, entertainment, fashion/style, weddings/ceremonies, parades, celebrations, funerals and so on. 
Contact: Harvey Reyes  714-697-4544
2)  Santa Ana barrio reunions on the horizon: Logan, Saturday - 09/26/09, at Chepa's Park; Santa Anita, Sunday -  09/27/09, at Hart Park; Delhi, Saturday - 10/24/09, at Delhi Center (flyer attached).  Call for details and more information, Mary Rose 714-415-8629.
3)  Early Tustin Book (Arcadia Series) is currently being produced and author Guy Ball is seeking photos that include the Latino community.  If you have photos of Latino life related to the Tustin area, please email reply or call, 714-697-4544.
4)  UMAVA - United Mexican American Veterans Association is accepting membership of all American military veterans. If you are not able to stop by the American Legion Hall and are interested in UMAVA, please call Commander Fred Bella, 714-973-4771.   



UMAVA, United Mexican American Veterans Association 


UMAVA (United Mexican American Veterans Association) kicked-off Hispanic Heritage Month with its potluck at the American Legion in Orange, CA this past Saturday.

Two of our 3 Silver Star recipients (Antonio Mendez, 87; and Eusebio Perez, 94) are in the photographs, including Fred Bella, Korea War Veteran and UMAVA Founder.

We are also privileged to have State Senator Lou CORREA and Carlos PALOMINO (former World Boxing Champ and Army Veteran) as UMAVA Honorary members.

See the brief OC Register article.

And the earlier OC Register article on Carlos Palomino:

Francisco J. Barragan CPA, CIA
UMAVA Board Member and Vice-Commander
Served US Marines 1987-1994
Served CA Army National Guard 1994-1997
714.605.2544 cell

UMAVA, Group Honors Local Veterans
The United Mexican American Veterans Association meets monthly in Orange.
The Orange City News

UMAVA founder Fred Bella and Board member, Francisco Barragan

Members of the Orange-based United Mexican American Veterans Association beat the heat Saturday afternoon by gathering in the basement of the local American Legion for some munchies and camaraderie after their monthly meeting.  We caught up with them and snapped a few photos during the potluck. 

The group was started in 2005 by Korean War veteran Fred Bella, 77, to highlight the contributions of military personnel in general and honor unsung heroes in the Latino community. 

So far, it's grown to include about 55 to 60 members from all wars (including three silver star recipients) and about 15 civilians. 

UMAVA meets the third Saturday of the month at the Orange American Legion, 143 S. Lemon St. In addition, the group holds casino trips and an annual picnic and Christmas party.

Members are working on assembling a color guard that would welcome veterans, perform at community events and honor the deceased at burial ceremonies. 

Membership is open to all veterans. Family members are also encouraged to join.  
Information: Call Fred Bella at 714-973-4771 or Francisco Barragan at 714-605-2544.

To invite the Orange City News to your event or group meeting, contact City Editor Theresa Cisneros at


Photos: Courthouse and Hall of Records, Bunker Hill Homes, 1969
Former Marine Sgt Daniel L. Hernandez to receive Silver Star Medal

UCLA Chicano Studies Research Center Newsletter, Vol. 8, No. 1 Sept-Oct 2009
39th Anniversary of Chicano Moratorium The Struggle Continues
KCET to Honor Five Exceptional Latinos 
Fiery Night in Action


City of Los Angeles

and Hall of Records




Bunker Hill Home 1969


Editor:  Photos are wondrous for their ability to trigger memories.  These certainly did to me.  I remember walking past the Court House with Mom and also visiting Grandma and Grandpa in a Bunker Hill home that was shared with other families during the late 1930s.


Former Marine Sergeant Daniel L. Hernandez 
to Receive Silver Star Medal
October 3, 2009
10 am Saturday

Former Marine Sergeant Daniel L. Hernandez, President of the Hollenbeck Youth Center, will be awarded the Silver Star Medal.
2015 East 1st Street,
Los Angeles, CA

For Ceremony invitation information, please contact: 
Joseph N. Smith, Director 
Colonel, USMC (Ret.) 
Military & Veterans Affairs
2615 So. Grand Ave., Suite 100 
Los Angeles, CA 90007
(213) 744-4827
(213) 748-5473 fax


Saturday October 10, 2009

 "1846 Battle Reenactment & Early California Fandango" 


Bring the whole family to a Day of Living History at the Dominguez Rancho Adobe Museum, as Californio vaqueros & Yankee marines recreate thrilling authentic events of "The Battle of The Old Woman's Gun" during the Mexican- American War just prior to Statehood; musicians Los Californios play Fandango music while Yesteryears Dancers perform and lead audience participation in easy vintage dances for all ages; visit with Don Manuel Dominguez & other costumed historical characters; children's games; museum exhibits, military camp and docent tours; food vendors. Lovely parklands, picnics allowed, but no pet dogs, etc. See detailed schedule on museum website. Time: 10:00am to 4:00pm. Cost: free, including parking. Location: 18127 Alameda Street, Dominguez Hills (in Carson). Take Alameda Street exit from 91 Artesia Freeway, head south. Call (310) 603-0088.  and /

Alison Bruesehoff
Museum Executive Director
Dominguez Rancho Adobe Museum
18127 S. Alameda St.
Rancho Dominguez, CA 90220
(310) 603-0088 Phone
(310) 603-0009 Fax


UCLA Chicano Studies Research Center Newsletter, Vol. 8, No. 1 
(September-October 2009):

The CSRC Library & Archive announces the addition of 3 collections.



The Dan Guerrero Research Collection documents Mr. Guerrero’s successful career as a Chicano activist, producer, and artist. The collection also includes materials reflecting the life and career of his father, Lalo Guerrero, who is known as the father of Chicano music. This collection supplements the collection housed at the California Ethnic and Multicultural Archives (CEMA), a division of UCSB’s Special Collections Department. The materials donated to the CSRC include duplicate copies of ephemera, press kits, photographs, and audio and video materials. 

The Kelly Lytle-Hernandez Collection of Border Patrol Research Papers was donated by Kelly Lytle-Hernandez, assistant professor of history at UCLA. These papers, which date from 1918 through 1990, include photographs, official correspondence, and other government documents photocopied from border patrol records. 

The American GI Forum was founded in 1948 in Corpus Christi, Texas, as a resource for Mexican American WWII veterans and their families. The American GI Forum of California Collection contains correspondence, photographs, ephemera, and organizational papers that document the organization’s activities. 

Workshops on Community Archiving 

The CSRC was awarded a Ford Foundation grant to support its effort to increase LGBT and women’s collections. The initiative has a fourfold mission: to educate women and LGBT communities about the importance of documenting and preserving Latina and Latino history; to educate Latina and Latino communities about the importance of women’s stories and LGBT history within their archival efforts; to provide women and LGBT Latinas and Latinos with archival materials that can function as a source of pride, inspiration, and new scholarship; and to educate “mainstream” archival institutions about the need for both women’s and LGBT archival holdings and for culturally sensitive collecting and archival practices. To accomplish these goals, the CSRC has planned a series of workshops centered on the theme of community archiving, especially among underserved communities. The first workshop was offered during the MALCS (Mujeres Activas en Letras y Cambio Social) Summer Institute, which was held in July at New Mexico State University in Las Cruces. Another workshop is scheduled to take place at UCLA in conjunction with the Los Angeles Queer Studies Conference in October. 

Sent by Roberto Calderon,


39th Anniversary of Chicano Moratorium: The Struggle Continues

Wednesday, September 2, 2009, 2:31 AM

Hi, I wrote this the night of August 29th.

39th Anniversary of Chicano Moratorium: The Struggle Continues 

Commentary by Carlos Montes

Los Angeles, CA - Today, Aug. 29, 2009, shows that our people are continuing the fight for equality and self-determination. It was demonstrated by the many groups that were present today at Salazar Park, including the student group MECHA and the new Brown Berets, to commemorate the historic day in 1970 when over 20,000 Chicanos marched down historic Whittier Boulevard in East L.A. to protest the war in Vietnam and the high casualty rate of Chicanos. The mass peaceful rally in 1970 was attacked by the Los Angeles Police Department and the sheriffs. Ruben Salazar, news director for KMEX, was killed, along with Angel Diaz and Lynn Ward. A similar example of repression took place on May 1, 2007 when the LAPD at tacked a pro-immigrant rights rally at MacArthur Park. 

This year’s event was organized by the local Chicano Moratorium Committee and had the backing of the East L.A.-based Latinos Against War. In Latinos Against War, we organize against the war in Afghanistan and against the military recruiters in our high schools. We support self-determination for Chicanos in the Southwest, the Chicano nation of Aztlan. Our strategy is working with community-based groups like the CSO to organize poor and working class Chicanos in our community to fight for our rights. This means fighting for better education, living conditions, for the rights of our people displaced by poverty in Mexico and Central America now living here and for full legalization. 

The campaign “Escuelas Si, Guerra No,” (Schools Yes, No War) of CSO recently won the opening of a new high school in Boyle Heights. The Mendez Learning Complex had an open house today, and will open September 2009. The new school is a concrete victory won after years of struggle to relieve overcrowding at Roosevelt High School and to stop the U.S. military recruiters on high school campuses in East L.A. This is the way to build the annual Chicano Moratorium event that recently has had less participation, especially from the community. 

Latinos against War also condemns and exposes the long history of U.S. military and political intervention in Mexico, Central and Latin America. For example many people d o not know that U.S. Army General Pershing led an intervention during the Mexican Revolution to attack the forces of our famous hero General Francisco Villa; of course the U.S. failed. 

In Central America the U.S. supported the brutal military regimes that killed many of their own people, who were struggling for democracy and self-determination. Now we have the example of Venezuela and Bolivia whose people have supported and elected leaders who defend sovereignty and work to improve the lives of the many poor in their countries. But U.S. intervention continues to sneak in - like in Colombia, which will allow the U.S. military to use several bases under the guise of fighting the war on drugs. But we all know it’s a war against the revolutionary forces in Colombia like the FARC, and to attack the independent and sovereign nations like Venezuela. The U.S. is also giving billions to the Mexican army under the Plan Merida to fight the drug war, but the army commits many human rights violations against the Mexican people. 

So on this anniversary of the Chicano Moratorium, we commemorate a proud past of struggle and stand committed to a future where our people achieve liberation and self-determination. 

Carlos Montes is a veteran fighter in the Chicano Liberation movement. He was a founder of the Brown Berets and the Chicano Moratorium. Montes is currently active in the Southern California Immigration Coalition, the East L.A.-based Latin os against War and with CSO, which organizes parents in the East Los Angeles area to fight against the privatization of public education in Los Angeles Unified School District.

Carlos Montes
Sent by Dorinda Moreno


KCET to Honor Five Exceptional Latinos 
LOS ANGELES--(BUSINESS WIRE)--In celebration of Hispanic Heritage Month, Union Bank and KCET will honor five exceptional Latinos from Los Angeles and Orange County with the 2009 Local Heroes Award for their outstanding community service. This year’s honorees are: Judge Rudolph Diaz of Los Angeles; Antonia Hernandez of Los Angeles; Rueben Martinez of Santa Ana; and Raul and Maria Salinas of Pasadena. The awards will be given on Thursday, October 1, 2009 at the KCET studios in Los Angeles.


Sergio Hernandez captured the fury of the fires in San Bernardino from his home.
Fiery Night in Action :



Oct 7-9, Legacy of Valor, Palo Alto Veterans Medical Center
Oct 14-15, Legacy of Valor, San Francisco City Hall
Oct 8, San Francisco Ethnic Dance Festival in Honor of Hispanic Heritage Month
Oct 13, City of Berkeley to Honor Rafael Jesús González
Mission San José, founded June 11, 1797

October 11th, Casa de España  House of Spain "Lawn Program"
The 225th Anniversary Year of 1784 First Spanish Land Grants in California 
Southwestern College Mini-Museum opens for Hispanic Heritage Month


Photo taken July 2009 at the National NCLR Conference in Chicago  

Palo Alto Legacy of Valor Exhibit  
Open to the Public
No cost 

Palo Alto Veterans Hospital
Auditorium, Building 101
October 7-9th

Editor:  This is an absolutely outstanding display. I hope youth leaders will take the opportunity of taking young people to see the exhibit.  For information, please contact:  
Thomas Turrey, Program Manager 
3801 Miranda Ave. Bldg. 4 
Palo Alto, CA 94304
650-493-5000, X63059


October 14-15th 
City of San Francisco
Mayor Gavin Newsom 
The Latino Heritage Month Committee
The Mexican Museum
CAMINOS Pathways
The Hispanic Medal of Honor Society
Voices for Justice the Bicentennial of Latino Journalism
Cordially request the pleasure of your company to celebrate 
 2009 Latino Heritage Month Celebration


To All of My Friends:
Sixteen years ago, I decided that Hispanic Veterans were not receiving the recognition for their military contributions to the service of the United States. So, I decided to do something about it.  Gathering data and preparing visuals, I mounted an exhibit, that has grown slowly over the years to a remarkable 50' foot display.
This traveling photo exhibit at the request of San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom will be for the first time on display at San Francisco City Hall on October 14th & 15th, 2009 from  9:00a.m to 5:00p.m.  Mayor Newsom's special reception honoring Latino Heritage Month will be held on Wednesday, Oct. 14th, 2009 the event will start at the Rotunda.
There is a ton of pride in my collection and what makes it so amazing is that it's one of a kind.  In attendance will be many friends including Rodolfo "Rudy" Hernandez whom in April 11th, 1952 at White House Ceremony President Truman presented Rudy with the Highest and Most Prestigious Military Award for Valor during the Korean War the 'M E D A L  O F  H O N O R'
Please come and join us...there is NO COST'
Rick Leal, President
Hispanic Medal of Honor Society
(415) 310-0138


San Francisco 
2009 Latino Heritage Month Celebration
Wednesday, October 14, 2009
5:00 pm
The Rotunda
San Francisco City Hall
1 Dr. Carlton B. Goodlett Place
San Francisco, CA 94102
Reception to Follow Awards 
Attire - Ethnic Festive
Performances by Music National Service Fellows, Futuro Picante, Los Boleros
Honoring the Lifetime Achievements of
Peter Rodríguez, San Francisco Artist & founder of the Mexican Museum
Sr. Petra Chávez, founder of the Central American Resource Center and CAMINOS Pathways
 Latino Heritage Arts Award
Ester Hernandez, Artista
Mission Cultural Center for Latino Arts
 Latino Heritage Business Award
Dolores Reyes, owner of Los Jarritos Restaurant
 Latino Heritage Community Award
Olga Talamante, Director of Chicana/Latina Foundation & Board of National Center for Lesbian Rights
 Latino Heritage Education Award
Rosario Anaya, Director of Mission Language and Vocational School, former SFUSD Board President 
AGUILAS el Ambiente Program
 Latino Heritage Media Award
Juan González, Founder of El Tecolote Newspaper, Journalism Professor CCSF
Marcela Medina, Media Professional & Board Chair of Latino Community Foundation
San Francisco Latino Heritage Committee:
Rita Alviar, Rosario Anaya, Saúl Anaya, Eli Aramburo, Erick Arguello, Juan Barajas, Gloria Bonilla, Miguel Bustos, Arturo Carrillo, Alejandro Castillo, Anne Cervantes, Ana María Coral, Larry Del Carlo, Mario Díaz, Raquel Donoso, Lariza Dugan-Cuadra, Carolina Echeverria, Olivia Fe, Bárbara García, Estela García, Nancy González Madynski,
Brandon Hernández, Cristy Johnston, Rick Leal, John Marez, Eva Martínez, Tomasita Medal, Sonia Melara, Roberto Ordenana, Eleanor Palacios, Mario Paz, Alfredo Pedroza, Ana Pérez, Lou Ramírez, Rona Renner, Nicole Rivera, Eva Róyale, Sam Ruiz, Mitchell Salazar, Jim Salinas, Leo Sosa, Brenda Storey, Olga Talamante, Juan Alberto Tam, Nicky Trasvina, Laura Valdez, Richard Ventura, Nora Wagner, Caleb Zigas
Kindly RSVP at or (415)554-6622



San Francisco Ethnic Dance Festival in Honor of Hispanic Heritage Month, 
October 8, 2009 6-8 pm 

World Arts West and CONSULATE OF MEXICO, San Francisco special fundraiser  

Performance by Ensambles Ballet Folklorico de San Francisco
Argentine Dance Master, Pampa Cortes!
Fashion show, a private collection of authentic dress, the cultural diversity of Mexico
Fantastic raffle prizes
Exhibit of work from acclaimed photographer Dulce Pinzon
Margarita Bar and appetizers
Music of Jose Roberto Hernandez y sus Amigos
Early Bird Ticket Special, purchased by Friday, October 2nd are only $25 per person!
After that are $40.  You can also call (415) 474-3914 to purchase tickets.
World Arts West
Fort Mason Center, Bldg. D #230
San Francisco, CA 94123
phone: (415) 474-3914, fax: (415) 474-3922



City of Berkeley to Honor Rafael Jesús González

You are cordially invited to attend the City of Berkeley's honoring of
Rafael Jesús González
Tuesday, October 13, 2009 at 7:00 PM
in the Berkeley City Hall Council Chambers
at Martin Luther King Jr Way, between Allston and Center
Berkeley, California
*        *        *


Mission San José, founded June 11, 1797


Mission San José, founded June 11, 1797
Adobe Church dedicated April 22, 1809 

Destroyed by earthquake on October 21, 1868
Reconstructed adobe church dedicated June 11, 1985
Opus 14 Spanish-Style Organ installed 1989

* * * * *
Program Text:  James Welch & Manuel Rosales
Pioneer Text:  Lila Bringhurst
Program Design:  Kathie Brough

The Construction of a Spanish-Style Organ
 by Manuel Rosales
Rosales Organ Builders, Inc.

The year 1989 saw the completion of events that were begun in the early nineteenth century. An organ originally ordered in 1818 was delivered and inaugurated. The mission only had to wait 171 years!

To protect their interests in New Spain, the Spanish expanded into the territories of Alta California. A chain of missions, extending from San Diego to San Francisco, was constructed from 1769 to 1823. The 14th was Mission San José.  It was founded in 1797 and is one of four which surround the lower San Francisco Bay. Among these is Mission Santa Clara which had the most highly developed music program and to which the other surrounding missions sent their Indians to be trained. Although the Ohlone Indians of this region had a simple way of life as compared to the civilizations of Central Mexico, it is apparent that they were no less intelligent.

In 1809, a permanent structure was constructed on the present site. An organ was requested by Padre Narciso Duran in correspondence with the Bishop of Mexico. His requests in 1818 were denied. As far as we know, neither Mission San José, nor any of the other missions in Alta California, ever had an organ. The musical scene, however, was very lively. Secular and religious music were freely interchanged and performed with great gusto using string, woodwind and brass instruments. Several original compositions have survived.

As the missions increased in size and wealth, the influence of the clergy in the affairs of state became an increasing annoyance to the Mexican government of Alta California. Secularization of the missions and "Emancipation Proclamation of 1836" freeing the Indians from servitude destroyed the mission culture.

After California became a state in 1850 Archbishop Joseph Alemany of Monterey applied to the United States Land Commission for return of the mission lands.  In 1858 he secured title to 28 1/3 acres of land around the old Mission San Jose adobe buildings in 1858.  Although the Alta California missions did not regain their former stature, they gained a "mythical prominence" in California folklore. We are lucky that most of the missions still exist and many have their original structures.

In 1981, the Diocese of Oakland, with help from the local Committee for Restoration of the Mission San Jose, embarked on the reconstruction of the original building, which had been destroyed in the earthquake of 1868. With a seed gift from Bay Area philanthropist, Walter Gleason, an unprecedented authentic restoration, using adobe construction techniques, on the original site commenced.  After some graves and buildings were relocated. a lengthy archeological project commenced. Although it was successfully completed, the building restoration project taxed all involved. The exasperation of trying to use authentic materials was evident when in 1985 when we suggested the idea of having an "authentically styled" organ as well. Our delivery time was fortunately long enough to allow for the "dust to settle" on the project. As we have learned, a certain amount of patience is necessary to allow for the right solution to evolve.

In 1986, a curator was appointed for Mission San José. Kerry Quaid, who had recently graduated with a degree in Historic Preservation, systematically completed and corrected the details of the Mission reconstruction project including completion of the building decoration and the replanting of the Mission gardens with native California species. When his attention turned to the already contracted organ, his curiosity about what might be an appropriate instrument set into motion the forces which resulted in our Opus 14. Since only a year remained before we needed to commence with the design, an intensive research effort on the part of the builder and the curator ensued. This would be a unique project among the California missions. With the advice of Guy Bovet, Susan Tattershall, Dr.Lawrence Moe of U.C. Berkeley, John Fesperman of the Smithsonian Institution, Dirk Flentrop founder of Flentrop Orgelbow and organ builder, Greg Harrold, the following conclusions formed the rationale for our design:

1.      The instrument would have one manual keyboard of 51 notes divided at middle c1/c1#. A chromatic bass octave would reflect 19th century keyboards

2.      A typical Castilian stop list, with certain changes, would fit our budget but also considered were 19th century tonal developments in Mexico. Ultimately, the available literature, which is almost exclusively Iberian, dictated the final choices of stops.

3.      Mission San José, unlike most of the other missions, is a museum adjacent to a parish church. Although daily Mass is celebrated, occasions when the organ would be played are limited to special services, weddings, funerals and concerts. The opportunity presented by these requirements suggested two important considerations: 1/4 comma mean-tone tuning would be desirable and a more complete pedal board (27 notes rather that 13 notes) than those found in Iberian instruments would be necessary.

4.      The Greco-Roman revival of the 1830's was the rage for Mission decor. Painted in bright colors and sparingly gilded, the organ case would be well integrated with its surroundings. 


 On August 29, 2009, 5 p.m.
Special Concert by by James Welch, Organist

San José Mission, Fremont, California


James Welch, Organist, is a member of the Santa Clara Music Department faculty.  Previously he taught at the University of California, Santa Barbara.  He also serves as organist of St. Mark's Episcopal Church, Palo Alto.  He received the Doctor of Musical Arts degree in organ performance from Stanford University, where he studied under Herbert Nanney and served as Assistant University Organist. 

Further studies have been with John Walker; Alexander Schreiner; Josef Doppelbauer of the Mozarteum Akademie, Salzburg, Austria; and Jean Langlais, Basilique Ste. Clotilde, Paris, France.  He has concertized internationally, with performances in such prestigious venues as Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, the Leipzig Gewandhaus, National Cathedral in Washington, D.C., and the Mormon Tabernacle in Salt Lake City.  He has also performed and taught in Beijing, Taipei, Hong Kong, New Zealand, and Jerusalem.  A particular interest of his is Latin American organ music.  He received a Fulbright award to perform and conduct research on historic 19th-century Cavaillé-Coll organs in Brazil; since then he has performed in Mexico and edited three volumes of organ music by contemporary Mexican composers. 

He holds the Associate Certificate of the American Guild of Organists, and he has performed at conventions of the Guild and at the International Congress of Organists.  His articles have appeared in The American Organist and The Diapason, and he has released numerous CDs, recorded on a variety of organs in the United States and Europe.  Many of his recorded performances have been aired on American Public Media's "Pipedreams" program. He and his wife Deanne are the parents of two sons, Nicholas and Jameson.


A Mormon Pioneer History of Mission San José  

When the Ship Brooklyn arrived in San Francisco Bay on July 31, 1846 with some 238 Mormon pioneers, Mission San Jose was the only non-native settlement in the entire east bay.  John Horner, a schoolteacher and farmer from New Jersey, began a quest for good farm land.  He found it in the beautiful semi-tropical vicinity near Mission San Jose.  He and his wife, Elizabeth, bought a parcel of land and built an adobe home near the present-day Chadbourne School playground.  They had to pay for the land four times.  

Zacheus Cheney, a member of the Mormon Battalion, married Mary Ann Fisher, a Brooklyn passenger.  After her death from childbirth he married another passenger, Amanda Evans.  When John Horner built a new home on Driscoll Road, he rented his adobe house to Zacheus, who farmed the land between present-day Mission High School and Hopkins Junior High School (a school named in honor of William Hopkins, brother-in-law of John Horner).  Zacheus Cheney’s sister, Delina, came to visit, then met and married a Brooklyn passenger, Origin Mowry, for whom Mowry Avenue in Fremont is named.  Mowry built a landing on the Bay near present-day Newark.  He had a sloop and made money during the gold rush by taking passengers and goods up and down the Sacramento River.  

Horner sent for his brother, William, and together they became wealthy selling fresh vegetables to the gold miners.  Mission San Jose was a major provisioning center during the Gold Rush of 1849.  When William returned east to bring the rest of the family to California, John built a large house which still exists and has been restored on Driscoll Road.  He gave the house to William.  Horner built a schoolhouse which was used as a church by Mormons, Methodists and Presbyterians.  Hervey (Harvey) Green, a Mormon who came overland with the Saints to Utah and then to California, was the first schoolteacher.  

Other Brooklyn Saints (members of the LDS Church), encouraged by Horner, settled in the area.  Earl and Letitia Marshall and their adopted son, Simeon Stivers, ran a diary farm. Amasa Lyman and Charles C. Rich organized a branch of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in the Marshall’s adobe home on April 23, 1850.  Simeon continued to expand the farm to about 600 acres, which stayed in the family until shortly before Fremont was incorporated in 1956.  His farm is now Fremont’s Central Park.  Stiver’s Lagoon and Nature Center is just south of Lake Elizabeth.  Hiram Davis bought land that was once Horner’s and built a home that has been restored on High Street in Irvington.  Many Mormon pioneers are buried in the Irvington Cemetery.   

Mission Creekwalk Historic Site, a small park at the end of Covington Drive, was built and dedicated to John Horner and other pioneer farmers last year.  John loved the land around the mission.  On March 2, 1854, he ran an ad in The California Farmer which reads, in part:  There are many objects of attraction within the circle of a few miles around the Mission of San Jose.  Warm springs of valuable medicinal powers; mountain scenery, the mountains being accessible on horseback to their highest point.  These mountains are covered with the richest verdure, and some of the finest ornamental trees known, the evergreen, oak, bay tree, manzineto, tallow tree, etc.  Living springs are found high up, affording abundance of water, and sufficient for all purposes.  The soil is very deep and extremely rich.  Artesian wells could be introduced along the slopes, with perfect success, and the waters used for fountains to beautify as well as useful for irrigation.  There seems to be nothing wanting in the natural preparation for "Homes," and, Providence willing, in a few years this mighty valley along the entire base of those rich slopes we will have the "happy homes" of many thousands of our prosperous and enterprising citizens.”  Horner’s predictions have come true!

Sent by Lila Bringhurst


October 11th
Casa de España  House of Spain
2:00 to 3:00 p.m.
Cottages Plaza, Balboa Park, San Diego


The event honors Spain's National Day of Spain (Día de la Hispanidad) which is celebrated on the 12th of October.  With the advent of democracy in Spain, the 12th of October commemorates the discovery of America by Cristobal Colon in 1492. Spain's National Day (Día de la Hispanidad) marks the emergence of a large Spanish speaking community of more than 350 million people who share language, values, and traditions.

Performance will include
Monique Caron presenting a couple of song from the Zarzuela style and the rest will be filled with the extraordinary performances of Junita Franco and her ballet Ole Flamenco.

Samples from last year's festival

Juanita Franco

Her students of Ole Flamenco  

Great style and presentation

The crowds at the plaza

Hope you enjoyed the photos.   We invite you to join us.

Pedro J. Catala, President
House of
Spain in San Diego


The 225th Anniversary Year of 1784 
First Spanish Land Grants in California starting October 2009


We encourage any historical/heritage/cultural sites within the original 1784 First Spanish Land Grants in California to join in celebrating our mutual 225th anniversary year, and to include this milestone as an underlying banner announcement in their publicity for any upcoming events during the next 12 months.  granted in 1784 to Juan Jose Dominguez: The original Spanish land grant included what today consists of the Pacific coast cities of Los Angeles harbor, San Pedro, the Palos Verdes peninsula, Torrance, Redondo Beach, Hermosa Beach, and Manhattan Beach, and east to the Los Angeles River including; the cities of Lomita, Gardena, Harbor City, Wilmington, Carson, Compton, and western portions of Long Beach and Paramount, and Dominguez Hills. granted in 1784 to Manuel Nietos: Today, parts of Long Beach, Lakewood, Downey, Norwalk, Santa Fe Springs, Whittier, Fullerton, Huntington Beach, Bolsa Chica State Beach, Seal Beach, Anaheim, Buena Park, Garden Grove, Artesia and Cerritos are located on what was once Rancho Los Nietos. granted in 1784 to Jose Marie Verdugo: Today, the rancho includes the present day cities of Glendale, Eagle Rock, La Canada, Montrose, and Verdugo City 


"Los Pobladores 200" descendants of the 1781 Founding Families of El Pueblo de Los Angeles are enthused about participating as much as they are able, including providing advice about 18th c as well as 19th c history of the Southland

Yesteryears Dancers are willing to help local docents with Colonial New Spain / Californio Mission era music & dance, if any site wishes to have a special commemoration, either for a new event or as part of an existing event.

Irene Ujda, Director, Yesteryears Dancers



Hispanic Heritage Mini Museum

Southwestern College online site offers extensive social history


Southwestern College has new ways to delve into how San Diego's ancient and modern history have shaped its present.

To the songs of the College's expert Mariachi Garibaldi band led by Dr. Jeff Nevin, the Hispanic Heritage Mini Museum opened Sept. 15 in the School of Social Sciences and Humanities courtyard and Room 479. The inspiration of history professor Dr. Rosalinda Mendez Gonzalez and assembled by her students and the staff of the School, the Museum offers artifacts, maps and historical exhibits to show the influences of the various peoples of our region from prehistoric to modern times. The Museum, Dean of the School Dr. Viara Giraffe told students, faculty and staff gathered for the opening, "is a longtime vision finally manifested." 

An interactive online site offers an extensive social history of this region and a discussion board led by Dr. Gonzalez. Log on to, enter the user name GuestHMM, the password HHM and click on the course HMM_2009.

The exhibitions in Room 479 also include a BETSI Project presentation of the results of DNA tests of several SWC students eager to learn their ancestry. Through its Biotechnology Program, Southwestern is the only institution of higher learning in South County to offer this industry-supported mentoring project for high-school and college students preparing to work or pursue graduate degrees related to biotechnology. Find more information at

The Mini Museum is open from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. Monday through Thursday. The online site is available through Oct. 15.

Sept. 16, 2009 Beth Barber
Chief Officer for Marketing, 
Communications and Community/Media/Government Relations
Southwestern Community College District


Fiesta celebrada en Nutka
Latinos Have Been in Washington State Since the 1770’s

Fiesta celebrada en Nutka


Natives going to meet the Spanish navy schooners Sutil and Mexicana in 1792
This painting shows an encounter on 11 June 1792 between native canoes and the Spanish navy schooners Sutil and Mexicana. Mount Baker can be seen in the background. On this date in Guemes Channel (near present day Anacortes, Washington), a Spanish expedition paused to make astronomical observations that would correctly fix their longitude. Their mission was to chart the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and search for the Northwest Passage. The painting is the work of José Cardero, the expedition's official artist. (Museo Naval, Madrid). Malaspina Expedition in 1792.


Jose Cardero, "Fiesta celebrada en Nutka por su Xefe Macuina a causa de haber dado su hija indicios de entrar en la pubertad." (Aquatint)

This plate is part of a series showing Indian life around Nootka Sound in 1792, made by the artist of the Spanish Malaspina expedition, Jose Cardero. In the tradition of the narrative of Cook's third voyage, published eight years previously, Cardero produced portraits of individual natives such as the chief Macuina (whose portrait was taken, ultimately, by more Europeans artists than any native American up to his time) and plates depicting local customs. Shown here is his most ambitious scene, the festival celebrating the coming of age of Macuina's daughter.
Sent by Rafael Ojeda
Tacoma, WA



Latinos Have Been in Washington State Since the 1770’s
Source: Washington State Commission on Hispanic Affairs
El Mundo News, September 16, 2009


BELLVUE, WA — In Washington State, the familiar names of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the San Juan Islands, and Rosario Strait are a legacy of Spanish influence in the state. But what is missing is the Latino (Latin American v. Spanish) imprint. The Spanish influence is a Latino legacy, more importantly a Mexican legacy that began in the 1770s.

Two Mexicans in particular contributed greatly to early knowledge of Washington state. José Mariano Moziño participated in the 1792 expedition, known as the Malaspian Expedition. He produced an ecological catalog of 200 species of plants, animals, and birds. He documented his research in Noticias de Nuka: An Account of Nootka Sound in 1792.

Also a member of the Malaspian Expedition, Anastasio Echeverría was considered the best artist in Mexico at the time. Echeverría sketched one of the first detailed landscape profiles of the area. From Mexican mule packers in the 1770s to the farmers of today, the Latino influence in Washington State is not a new phenomena, but a tangible aspect of the society. Yakima Valley, Pasco, Burien (or Mt. Vernon) will notice an undeniable Latino influence.
In the Yakima Valley alone, from Wapato to Prosser, Latinos make up the majority of the
population. Yakima County as a whole has a population of 231,586, of which 38.6 percent, or more than 89,000 persons, are of Hispanic or Latino origin.
Estrada Communications Group, Inc.
13729 Research Boulevard, Suite 610
Austin, TX  78750
Tel: 512.335.7776 / Fax: 512.335.2226



Santa Fe's 400th Anniversary

DNA Study of New Mexico and southern Colorado Spanish American Males
Documentary On Border Wall To Debut
Rev. Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Getting Another Facelift


Santa Fe's 400th Anniversary 
By Phil Parker
Journal Northern Bureau
Tuesday, September 01, 2009


       SANTA FE — For the modern Santa Fean, there's nothing strange about living in an adobe home on a street with a Spanish name, or the question "red, green or Christmas?" coming with almost any breakfast order. 

       The Santa Fe 400 — a year-plus-long birthday party — might seem at first to be a celebration of longevity for its own sake. "It's just so old," said historian and former Palace of the Governors director Tom Chavez. But what's truly worth celebrating is the City Different's differentness.

      Linda Velasquez, a retired business owner from Albuquerque, was sitting on the Plaza one recent afternoon and said, "One thing I always like about Santa Fe, that keeps me coming back, is it's multicultural. I think it's the richness that brings to the community."

      The roots of Santa Fe as an ethnic melting pot dig through 400 years, back to this city's establishment in 1610 as Spain's seat of government over the region. The adobe Palace of the Governors was built that year and still stands as a landmark of the Southwest. But the transformational event was probably the Pueblo Revolt. In 1675, a San Juan Pueblo man named Po'pay was whipped by the Spaniards for practicing sorcery, meaning he had been performing some religious ceremony offensive to the Catholics. 

      Five years later, he led a band of Pueblo warriors in a successful effort to rid the Santa Fe area of Spaniards. The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 was a bloody six weeks, with about 400 settlers (including 21 Franciscan friars) killed. About 1,000 others fled. It is not the violence or animosity between peoples that endures today; it is the resolution to their clash of cultures. Banished from Santa Fe to what is now Juárez, Mexico, the Spaniards returned 12 years later. Though there were intermittent attempted revolts, by 1700 a relative peace had been reached. 

       Fran Levine, director of both the Palace and its latest addition, the New Mexico History Museum, said there's hefty significance to how the Pueblo Revolt is remembered. "What distinguishes us from other parts of the United States, we don't tell just a triumphalist story," she said. "We tell the history of struggle that made our culturally plural community. That's very different. The revolt and reconquest taught us that building a colony was also about building an alliance."

       The Santa Fe 400 events, she said, "celebrate not just the founding as a Hispanic colony but the way in which people of many cultures learned to live together, speak together and embrace each other's customs here in New Mexico." In New Mexico there are more tribes of Indians living on the land they occupied when the Europeans arrived than on the entire East Coast, according to Chavez. "All these cultures are still here," he said. "Imagine Santa Fe without any adobe buildings, without people speaking Spanish. We've learned it's OK to eat chile for breakfast and not kill the cook. ... There are people still gathering under the portals at the Palace of the Governors. "It's not just looking at old things — the people are still alive, speaking the same language and with the same culture. That's our message, and what could be more important than that?"

      Paul Coriz, from Santo Domingo Pueblo, has been one of those people gathering under the portals for the last 15 years to sell jewelry, pottery or small sculptures. "What happened in the past as far as between Spanish and Native American people is in the past," he said. "In the new generations we've mixed with other cultures. Now we all help each other culturally, spiritually, economically." He called the portal a "place of welcoming."
"We welcome everyone here," he said. "The same goes on the Pueblos. At each house people are welcome, to come talk or get something to drink. On the Pueblo, growing up, we're taught how to respect other people and also give them guidance."

       Across the Plaza, next to a glossy black marker that says, "This stone marks the end of the Santa Fe Trail," Roque's Carnitas is peddling tamales to tourists. The carnitas stand has been manned for 28 years by Roque Garcia de Salmeron. "That's important," he told the Journal. " 'De Salmeron.' We are the originals." Garcia said when he first set up downtown, his customers were usually native Santa Feans. He serves a lot of New Yorkers now, he said, who call his tamales "Mexican Twinkies." "If it wasn't for the tourists?" he said. "Bye bye. I'd be gone. ... I ask my friends here, 'Why don't you go downtown?' They say, 'What's there for me? There's nothing but tourists.'"

       He said he hopes the Santa Fe 400 commemoration changes that. "We need to get the Santa Feans to come down here, to come and learn," he said. "We have to teach this culture and this history." 

Sent by Juan Marinez


DNA Study New Mexico & Southern Colorado Spanish American Males 


Dr. Wesley Sutton, whose advanced degrees are in Molecular Biology and Physical Anthropology, visited Albuquerque in August, ’09. He presented the findings of his DNA project regarding the Y (male) chromosome. (The Y chromosome is found only in males and contains some 600 markers.) 

This scientific investigation was intended to compare the DNA of the male Y chromosome found in “Spanish American” “Hispano” males around New Mexico and in southern Colorado with the DNA of males from European Spain and Portugal. 

Dr. Sutton’s project discovered that 66.2% of “Spanish American” (so labeled by the men involved in this study) males from New Mexico and southern Colorado carried the (basic) European marker known as M9. Males from Spain and Portugal carried the (European) M9 marker at the rate of 64.6%. In other words, 66.2% of Hispano New Mexicans have ancestry that comes out of Europe (various countries) while 64.6% of (European) Spaniards and Portuguese have ancestry that comes out of Europe. 

Dr. Sutton’s research on this DNA project also discovered that 9.8% of male Hispano New Mexicans have Middle East (various countries) ancestry and 6.8% have North African (various countries) ancestry. 

In part as celebration of Hispanic Heritage Month, this issue will be discussed more fully at Hispanic Forum VI, Saturday October 10, starting at 10:30 a.m., Special Collections Library, Albuquerque.

Sent by Rubén Sálaz


Documentary On Border Wall To Debut
Ricardo Martinez, Chris Herbeck Direct, Produce 'The Wall'
By Jessie Degollado |
July 15, 2009


SAN ANTONIO -- The 77-minute documentary than spans America’s 2,000-mile southwest border, with its intervals of wall and fence, began with a phone call from director Ricardo Martinez to co-producer Chris Herbeck soon after learning of the Secure Fence Act of 2006.  “And, I said, what? Why?” said Herbeck.  Martinez said, “I never thought it would get this far.” 

Since then, the pair have spent the last three years documenting how the border wall itself began and currently under construction in South Texas. Both said the goal was to ignite a public debate about the project. 

“I hope that people, when they watch the movie, will start to ask themselves -- particularly people who support the fence more so than others -- to ask themselves, what are we doing?" Martinez said. 

“We may see the cost of that fence be $8 million per mile. Where is that money going to come from?” said Martinez, a television editor based in New York City who grew up in Los Angeles and Oakland, Calif. 

"I hope the viewer walks away with a more informed opinion or viewpoint of how complex this issue is,” said co-producer Herbeck, an assistant director of a New Orleans art gallery whose father is from Laredo. 

Using images and interviews, “The Wall” follows the first letters given to residents in the small town of Granjeno in the Rio Grande Valley asking they grant the U.S. Department of Homeland Security the ability to survey their properties. From there, the film shows the protests, the legal challenges, the nation’s leaders who spearheaded the effort and more -- like the illegal immigrants who die trying to enter the United States. 
For Martinez, one of the film’s most touching moments is what he calls “a strange father and son reunion.” 

Spoken in Spanish but with English subtitles, a man describes his trek across the Arizona desert to reach his son already in the U.S., who survived the same journey. 
“I don’t want my father crossing the street without me helping him get across the street, much less a desert,” said Martinez. 

Although the border fence is nearing completion as work continues in South Texas, Martinez said the Secure Fence Act of 2006 was revised the next year to give law enforcement and the public more input. 

“It’s never too late,” said Martinez of a possible public outcry. “There is a way to stop whatever is happening further or change the plan. Maybe this is not the greatest idea. Let’s debate this. Let’s talk about this for a second with the people who live on the border,” said Martinez. 

Following its premiere at 8 p.m. Friday at Cine El Rey in McAllen, “The Wall” will be screened at the Guadalupe Theater in San Antonio at 8 p.m. Saturday, followed by a question and answer session. Admission at both events is $5.
Copyright 2009 by All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed. 



Richard G. Santos



              Sometimes I marvel at how fast and unobtrusively time passes one by. I was a senior at St. Mary’s University and at the same time on my fourth year as the first Archivist of Bexar County in the Office of the County Clerk. As such I had microfilmed the entire historical collection of Spanish, Mexican and Republic of Texas documents. I had also microfilmed the archives of San Fernando Cathedral to assure their preservation.

It was while microfilming the San Fernando Archives that I encountered the hand written copy of father Hidalgo’s confession. There in front of me in an eloquent, easy to read 19th century document was Hidalgo stating he never intended for New Spain (i.e. Mexico) to be independent from mother Spain. He urged his followers to lay down their arms and pledge their loyalty to Spanish king Fernando VII.

              I realized then and there I had been deliberately misinformed! I was angry that someone for some unknown reason had deliberately altered the historical records. I recall thinking we were not uneducated, we were mis-educated. That meant the whole 16 de septiembre, Grito de Dolores and Hidalgo as the “father of Mexican Independence” was a lie, a joke, a farce. I was determined to get to the bottom of the mess.

   By that time I had already published archival guides in various journals in Texas, Mexico and the Vatican. And, as frequently as I could, I would fly to Mexico City to research specific topics at the Archivo General de la Nación de México. I would also drive to Monterrey, Nuevo León and Saltillo, Coahuila to go over their state and municipal archival collections. All along I collected copies of specific documents on selected themes, topics, expeditions and/or historical personalities. There were also periodic excursions to the Spanish Archives of New Mexico at Santa Fe, or the microfilmed copy of the Archivo del Parral at the University of Texas at El Paso and the state archives of San Luís Potosí for the documents of La Intendencia de las Provincias Internas de la Nueva España.  Along the way, at the Ramo (branch) de la Inquisición at the Archivo General I read the trials of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, José María Morelos y Pavon. In both ramos of Insurgentes as well as Provincias Internas I learned the roles of Nuevo León, Texas and Coahuila during the period I call “The Age of Turmoil” dating from 1803 to 1848. 

              Being young, ambi-lingual in English and Spanish and not the stereotypic bilingual pocho or chúntaro (a Mexican immigrant or descendent of Mexican immigrants who does not speak either language well but is English dominant bilingual).  I was frequently invited to speak at various Mexican historical conferences. My favorite recollection of those presentations was being the only U. S. citizen to present a paper to the Congreso México-Centro Americano de Historia. Only my friends from Monterrey, Nuevo León and Saltillo, Coahuila knew I was a Tejano and they relished tricking the Mexico City chilangos (aka capitalinos) and sureños. This is important as I delivered a paper on José Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara and the First Declaration of Mexican Independence. I caused a stir among the media and history buffs with one biographer of Hidalgo stating that “Father Hidalgo intended to declare independence but never had enough time to do it”. I have never forgotten his statement nor my reply that “intentions cannot be documented” while at the same time a written, signed and dated document, such as the April 6, 1813 Declaration of Independence by Gutierrez de Lara, cannot be denied. My friends from Nuevo León and Coahuila who were also presenting papers on different topics loved the confrontation. That evening at the Majestic Hotel across El Zócalo from the Palacio Nacional we celebrated a minor but significant victory of the Regiomontanos (Nuevo León), Tejanos, and Coahuilenses over the chilangos and sureños. Ironically, I was symbolically adopted by the descendents and current residents of the Nuevo Reyno de León founded in 1580 by my Rodriguez de Matos – Carvajal y de la Cueva maternal ancestors. Among various toasts of cognac and aguardiente I was recognized as “a displaced son” of San Luisito, the city now known as Monterrey, Nuevo León “by the recently arrived norteños” (anyone who settled at “la sultana del norte” after 1623).

              All this has been brought to mind not only by my recent article on Gutierrez de Lara and the First Republic of Texas, but also because some are about to celebrate the 199th anniversary of the 16 de septiembre. Moreover, since next year Mexico and Mexican citizens, the mis-informed and well-wishers (usually politicians who do not know any better but seek votes wherever they can find them) will be celebrating the 200th anniversary of the re-written yet politically correct and patriotic, Grito de Dolores.

It is with this in mind that the Catholic Archdiocese of Mexico (at Mexico City) has formally asked the Mexican government to correct its history books. As reported in El Universal newspaper and elsewhere on August 31st, Gustavo Watson Marron, director of the historical archives of the Archdiocese of Mexico is asking the government to correct the statement in the textbooks that says fathers Hidalgo and Morelos had been ex-communicated before their executions.  He notes the documents of the Mexico City based Inquisition at the Ramo de la Inquisición  distinctly point out that “Father Morelos prayed daily and especially immediately before any battle”. As to Hidalgo, he notes the documents recorded he took Catholic confession and communion right before he was executed. As the Inquisition noted in such cases “he/she died well”.

              The fact remains that Rev Hidalgo had come under suspicion by the Inquisition while an instructor at the Colegio de Valladolid (now Morelia, Michocan).  As documented by the Holy Office, he owned, read and taught his students from forbidden books and writing such as those by Voltaire and Rousseau. There was also a not too friendly comment about his house keeper and their children. Consequently, he was removed from his teaching job and in a centuries old tradition, was assigned as curate at the small village of Dolores. However, he continued to be in touch with the “literary club” of Querétaro who like Hidalgo believed the Spanish American colonies should be governed by españoles (a person of European descent without Asian, Black of Native American blood born in the New World) and stop being second class citizens to the peninsulares (born in Spain or Portugal) and Gachupinos (European born citizens of the Spanish Empire). The ruling, wealthy merchant class of the City of Querétaro, including Doña Josefa de Dominguez, belonged to the “literary club”. All were loyal to King Fernando VII but very much against Josef Bonaparte and the European born ruling class.

              Being a mulatto, Rev Morelos, more than Hidalgo, identified with the disfranchised Native Americans, Blacks, Mulattos, Asians and slaves. His Declaration of Independence (first issued south of the Rio Grande) called for the end of slavery and class discrimination.  As mentioned in a previous article, he also had a family so that when he was tried by the Inquisition he was charged, like Hidalgo, as being a philandering priest and propagating forbidden books and ideas. They were both excommunicated, defrocked and turned over to the government to be tried in a civil-military court. Finally, both Hidalgo and Morelos were charged with treason by the government and executed.  

              Now as the 200th anniversary of the Grito de Dolores approaches, the historical facts are about to be altered again. It would have been wiser to follow the Vatican’s example and just admit the Mexican Catholic Church and its Inquisition erred. Instead, they are sounding like the typical Texas history buff who seem to say “do not confuse me with the facts because my mind is made up”.


End …………………… end …………. End ……….. ……..end ……………… end


Zavala County Sentinel …………………9-10 September 2009

Sent by Juan Marinez



Slave Cemetery Found in Sugar Mills’ Valley, Trinidad
Boxing Legend Muhammad Ali Traces Irish Roots

Slave Cemetery Found in Sugar Mills’ Valley, Trinidad
acnnews 7


TRINIDAD, Cuba, Aug 22 (acn) Researchers from the History Museum and the Archaeology Department of Curator’s Office of this city on the southern coast of Sancti Sipritus confirmed the finding of the first slave cemetery in the ancient Guinia de Soto sugar mill.

Head specialist of Trinidad’s History Museum Hector Manuel Viera Cartaya, said after with the falling down of a tree and the erosion of the soil, five perfectly-preserved corpses buried in a very organized way, were brought up to the surface.  The remains have high cheekbones, perfect dentures, wide noses and resistant bones.

These, according to experts, are characteristics found in the Africans that were brought to Cuba as slaves. Local specialists also said that the stratum of the soil was unaltered which ratifies the discovery of the cemetery.

Viera Cartaya explained that burial dates back to late in the 18th century or early in the 1800's, the period of the highest development of the mills, when there were some 200 slaves in the area, according to texts on the topic.

After exhaustive field work, experts said that the cemetery was located about 30 meters away from the location of the house of Justo Germán Cantero, owner of the Güinía de Soto and the Buena Vista mills. Viera Cartaya said that slave burial grounds discovered in the
area and in other regions of Cuba were mostly found close to water streams, in mounds 40 to 50 meters away from the landowner’s house. After completing the studies, the remains were taken to the graveyard of the town, Trinidad, which was the third village founded by
the Spanish colonizers in Cuba. 

Güinía de Soto became one of the most important mills of the famous valley after Cantero brought from Paris, France, the Derosne train or steam engine that boosted the sugar production.

Dorinda Moreno

Boxing Legend Muhammad Ali Traces Irish Roots

1 of 1 Boxers Muhammad Ali and Henry Cooper parade round the ring in the back of a Landrover at the 2009 Alltech FEI European Jumping & Dressage Championships in the grounds of Windsor Castle on Aug. 28, 2009, in Windsor, England. 
Chris Jackson/Getty Images 

Muhammad Ali made a sentimental journey Tuesday to discover his Irish roots, and met distant relatives during celebrations at the local town hall and a nearby castle.

Thousands lined the streets of Ennis, western Ireland, to cheer his motorcade as the three-time heavyweight champion visited the home of his great-grandfather Abe Grady.

Fans adorned streets with red, white and blue bunting and flags, while shop windows competed to display the most impressive posters honoring Ali — including one tongue-in-cheek portrait of him appearing ready to knock out an unpopular Irish politician.

Ali, who is 67 and battling Parkinson's disease, fought only once in Ireland, knocking out Alvin Lewis at Dublin's Croke Park on July 19, 1972.

Ali offered a few playful jabs to cameras but made no public comments and steered clear of throngs of autograph-seekers Tuesday, among them hundreds of kids whose schools closed early for the event. Police blocked off roads and kept crowds in line with railings.

Grady settled in Kentucky in the 1860s and married a freed slave. One of their grandchildren, Odessa Lee Grady Clay, gave birth to Ali — then Cassius Clay — in 1942.

Genealogists pinpointed Ali's Irish links in 2002, but Ali had never visited Ennis.

His visit to Ennis Town Hall was broadcast live on big-screen televisions outside, where locals also took in a live concert by traditional musicians, including best-selling accordionist Sharon Shannon.

Ali's wife, Yolanda, said her husband's Irish blood might help explain his legendary ability to bludgeon his opponents with blarney as well as punches. She kept close at Ali's side during the public events, talking to him and steadying him as they walked arm in arm.

"When you look at Muhammad's pugilistic skills and his loquacious ways, I am sure if his great-grandfather was alive, he would swear it came from him," she said. "If he were alive today I bet he would be in every pub talking about it too."

Mayor Frankie Neylon presented Ali with a scroll and proclaimed him Ennis' first "freeman," an honor conveying him special privileges in the County Clare town of 23,000. The mayor said the most valuable privilege would be free parking.

Yolanda Ali said the couple would return to Ireland "now that we know that Muhammad is an Ennisman."

People traveled hundreds of miles from across Ireland to see Ali, among them veteran Irish boxers who sparred with Ali in New York training decades ago.

Former Irish national champ Jim O'Sullivan recalled sparring with Ali and his trainer Angelo Dundee during a U.S. tour by Irish boxers in 1978 — and wished he'd known then that "The Greatest" was "just a Paddy like us."

"We'd have dearly loved to have known he was that wee bit Irish. We'd have given him some stick," O'Sullivan said, using an Irish expression for good-natured ribbing.

Ali was driven through the town to Turnpike Road, where his great-grandfather lived before sailing for America. He met several representatives of the Grady clan, most of them O'Gradys — the O connoting "son of" in the native Irish tongue.

Later, Ali was guest of honor at a fundraising banquet at nearby Dromoland Castle, one of Ireland's premier luxury hotels. He planned to return to the United States on Wednesday.

(© 2009 The Associated Press. All Rights Reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.)

Sent by John Inclan



The Black Hills Are Everything!
Rudy Ortega, Sr. Memorial Services 
Treaties Between the United States and Native Americans

The Black Hills Are Everything!
Traditional Lakota Spiritual Leader and Head Man, David Swallow, Speaks Out 
on the Sacred Black Hills
by David Swallow, Jr. 


Traditional Lakota Spiritual Leader and a Head Man of the Lakota Nation
Edited by Stephanie M. Schwartz,
Member, Native American Journalists Association (NAJA)
Originally published at
July 5, 2009 Porcupine, South Dakota

The white man calls me David Swallow, Jr. but my real name is Wowitan Yuha Mani. I am a Tetoh Lakota of the Wa Naweg’a Band and I live on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota.

This is the way my Grandpa Najutala told me, a long time ago. He was a teenager when the 1868 Treaty was signed. He’s gone now but this is how he told me about the sacred Black Hills.

The Black Hills used to be occupied by the Crow Tribe. That was way back, like in the 1700’s, even the 1600’s. Then, the Black Hills were taken by the Shahiyela (the Cheyenne). Then, the Lakota took them from the Cheyenne. Finally, the white man took them from the Lakota.

The Lakota look at the Black Hills as having spiritual power. All the Plains Tribes look at them that way. But the white man saw only the yellow rock called gold. They tried to make deals to get the land in the Treaties of 1825, 1851, 1868, and even the Bradley Bill of the 1980’s. 

However, the only Treaty that should be recognized concerning the Black Hills is the Treaty of 1851. At that time, all the tribes signed this Treaty and they signed it in a holy way. The Lakota brought the Sacred White Buffalo Calf C’anunpa, the Cheyenne brought their 7 sacred arrows, and the Crow, Arikara, and other tribes brought their sacred bundles.

They all held ceremonies before they held the pen. They all agreed that no settlers should enter that sacred area, the Black Hills. The way that Treaty was written, this became a non-negotiable matter from that time on. No other Treaty would have the right to change that. But the government and homesteaders, the settlers and prospectors kept invading the Black Hills.

As a result, the Federal Government renegotiated the terms and called it the Fort Laramie 1868 Treaty. This time, the original signers of the 1851 Treaty didn’t want to sign. Many were fighting. There were no sacred ceremonies done and only one sacred c’anunpa, only one sacred prayer pipe, was present. 

The prospectors and homesteaders brought in whiskey to get many of the signers drunk so they would sign. My grandfather told me all about this. He saw it, personally. Mni wakan, sacred water, is what the Lakota called alcohol because it affected our people so strongly. 

So this is how we lost the Black Hills.

Six years later, in 1874, General George Armstrong Custer took an expedition into the Black Hills which included a geologist and numerous miners. What they found immediately caused a major gold rush and the white settlers and miners began pouring into the Black Hills. The treaties were completely ignored.

In 1876, the Indian Appropriations Act demanded the Sioux give back the Black Hills or starve under siege. Then they ordered the destruction of all the buffalo herds. By 1889, the Federal Government had forced the Lakota into prisoner of war camps which they now call Reservations. According to government documents, Pine Ridge Indian Reservation is prisoner of war camp #344.

Around 1990, I rode 7 years with many young people to the Crazy Horse Monument. When we crossed our so-called homelands, we were stopped by the white landowners because we didn’t have their permission. One old homesteader showed us his deed showing where he had bought the land from the Federal Government. He told us that if we didn’t like it, we should go talk to the Federal Government who got it from the Louisiana Purchase.

So, we lost our Black Hills. Some said we sold them. If so, I believe somebody took the money without any of us Lakota, Dakota, Nakota, Cheyenne or Arikara knowing it. There is no money.

In 1980, the United States Supreme Court said the Black Hills did rightfully belong to the Lakota. They wanted to buy them from us but our People have refused that money. The sacred Black Hills are not for sale.

But that’s why the Bradley Bill was introduced in 1987 in Congress, to make it look good. It supposedly would have let us live in the Black Hills while the Federal Government could still mine, trespass, and do whatever they wanted. But even that was never approved.

So, saying the Black Hills are ours and belong to us are just hollow, empty words. If they are really ours, why can’t we live there? It’s only occupied by white people with land deeds.

We cannot even go to the Black Hills and exercise our spiritual ways. We are forbidden. We have to get permission from the Government and the BLM and then we have to follow their rules and regulations. But if we are a sovereign nation like they said, we would have our own jurisdiction (county-state-reservation).

If we do still own the Black Hills, we need a new treaty, to renegotiate a new treaty. All the other treaties were violated or abandoned, often with the approval of Congress, without us knowing about it. That’s not supposed to happen in nation to nation dealings.

We have a treaty council, a council of elders, all kinds of councils but none of them are effective. The government and state have kept us hungry and distracted with their projects which accomplish very little. 

Every other foreign nation conquered by the United States has received huge efforts towards rehabilitation and rebuilding. Yet, while the U.S. cries about 20% unemployment, we have 80% unemployment. We remain isolated and have living conditions which are as bad as or worse than any “third world country.” Our life expectancy is only 48 years old for men and 52 years old for women. 

We are the longest prisoners of war in the world’s history. It must change. We need to be set free so we can deal with our own people and our children and their children.

Unfortunately, most of our old people are in the spirit world. Today, our young people have no knowledge of the treaties, the massacre of Wounded Knee, the struggle of Wounded Knee 2, or our history. These are the reasons our culture is dying. No one remembers the language, culture, virtues, or spirituality. No one knows the real history.

But they need to know. If we are to survive, people need to understand. When we’re talking about the Black Hills, it’s not just the land that was lost but our way of life. It’s not just money. Money is the least important thing. We have lost our way of life.

When we talk about the Black Hills, it is about everything. That place is holy and sacred.
Ho he’cetu yelo, I have spoken these words.
David Swallow, Wowitan Yuha Mani
Porcupine, South Dakota - The Pine Ridge Indian Reservation

Dorinda Moreno


In Memoriam 
Rudy Ortega, Sr. "Chief Little Bear"
December 12, 1926 - July 28, 2009


Dear Family and Friends,
Several members of my family and I attended the beautiful services held for Rudy Ortega, Sr., at the San Fernando Mission on 13 & 14 August 2009. Several of my Romero and Garcia cousins are related to the Ortega family and we support their goal to achieve recognition as an American Indian tribe by the federal government. The services were in the Tataviam Indian tradition, in addition to military honors and blessings by the Roman Catholic Church. Today I retyped the Memoriam for Rudy that was printed in the brochure we received at the services, not realizing that the same Memoriam was on the Internet. There is a great photo of Rudy in the article on the Internet.
Checkout the website below, regarding Rudy Ortega, Sr. -- May he rest in peace.

In Memoriam 
Rudy Ortega, Sr. "Chief Little Bear"
December 12, 1926 - July 28, 2009
Fernandeno Tataviam Band of Mission Indians

Rudy Ortega Sr. was a leader and Community organizer for the Fernandeno Tataviam Band of Mission Indians. As a teenager he became very interested in the history, culture, and rights of the San Fernando Indians. Born in 1926, he lived his early life during a time when identifying openly as an Indian was not easy. After learning of his own Indian identity and encouraged by his aunt Vera Salazar to form an Indian cultural club in the early 1940s, Rudy started to research his family and community history, lineage, and ties to San Fernando Mission.

Rudy Ortega’s efforts to form an Indian cultural club were interrupted by World War II. Rudy Ortega served in the U.S. Army from 1943 through the end of the war. As a soldier, Rudy Ortega fought in the Pacific front and took part in the Philippines campaign. When he returned to San Fernando, he again took up research of his tribal history and heritage. The San Fernando Indians were organized into three main families: the Ortega, Ortiz, and Garcia lineages. During the 1928 California Indian Judgment Roll, the Ortega family feared removal to reservations away from their traditional homeland in the San Fernando and Santa Clarita areas. Most members of the Ortega family decided not to register in the 1928 California Indian Roll based on the fears and advice of their leader and captain Antonio Maria Ortega, who was Rudy Ortega’s grandfather. Rudy Ortega, however, believed that the San Fernando Indians should register as American Indians with the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and started to campaign for the recognition of the San Fernando Indians, and sought a reservation and political recognition as an Indian tribe. The quest for federal recognition as an American Indian tribe became a primary goal for the San Fernando Indians. After the death of his father James Ortega in 1951, Rudy Ortega was appointed leader or captain by community consensus. He gained considerable historical, cultural and genealogical information in his research, and he was active in community events, and with community fundraising that provided help to needy community members.

In his research Rudy Ortega discovered that the Ortega, Ortiz, and Garcia families were descendants of Indians who lived and worked at the San Fernando Mission from about 1797 to 1846. He traced his ancestry to Indians living in the Tataviam villages located in present-day Santa Clarita, and who by 1810 moved to San Fernando Mission. Rudy Ortega’s great grandmother, Maria Rita Alipas and great great grandfather Francisco Papabubaba were one-third joint owners of Mexican land grant to one square league at Encino during the middle 1840s. Rudy’s ancestors lost the land to sharp business practices in the 1850s, while the federal government declined to uphold its responsibility to protect California Indian land. During the 1950s, the San Fernando Indians decided to make a more public presence, and organized the San Fernando Mission Indians. Rudy Ortega was elected captain, and he led the community in actively pursuing federal recognition as Californian Indians. Many members of the San Fernando Mission Indians applied and were accepted to the 1971 California Indian Judgement Roll. The roll recognized them as individual Indians, but not as a community or government. Under Rudy Ortega’s continued leadership, the San Fernando Indians engaged in community building, sought federal recognition, and recovered history and culture. The community met in regular meetings and events. In the early 1970s, the San Fernando Mission Indians created a non-profit named the San Fernando Valley Inter-Tribal, Inc. Rudy was elected chief of the new non-profit and a board of directors was elected in community gatherings. Rudy Ortega took on the name Chief Little Bear, or Tomiar Tsinuj Hunar in the Tataviam Indian language. The nonprofit raised funds, applied for grants, held community events, distributed scholarships, food, and toys. In 1976, the San Fernando Mission Indians adopted bylaws and renamed themselves to the Fernandeno Band of Mission Indians. Rudy Ortega was re-elected chief, and was continuously re-elected chief until 2007. In 2002, the tribe adopted a constitution and took on the name of Fernandeno Tataviam Band of Mission Indians. Rudy Ortega, Sr., was elected president every four years under the new constitution. Under Rudy Ortega’s leadership the Fernandeno Tataviam Band of Mission Indians were active in federal rcognition, protecting sacred sites, recovering culture and language, seeking recovery of ancestral land, and establishing ties to local, county, state and federal governments.
Rudy Ortega dedicated his life to the benefit and welfare of the San Fernando Indian community. His style of leadership was very much in the traditional Indian way. He was comfortable and had the patience to seek consensus within the community discussions. As he said, he knew his people and how far he could push them. In the late 1940s Rudy Ortega introduced by-laws to organize tribal meetings and government, but many were reluctant to give up the old consensus based discussions and community meetings. So the discussion about by-laws continued over a period of about 18 years before the tribal community adopted bylaws in 1976. After the adoption of bylaws, the community meetings continued to hold considerable political power and were conducted toward the end of gaining consensus. Rudy Ortega’s style of leadership was reminiscent of the captains or Tomiars of his Tataviam ancestors and of tribal political processes where influence, sometimes humor, and goodwill were necessary to develop agreements and action from within the community. Captains were people who were willing to share their time, resources, mentorship, and were concerned for the general welfare of the family lineages and community. They were people of great knowledge of the history and culture of the community. Rudy Ortega was recognized to have the commitment, cultural knowledge, and desire to serve the community, and for these qualities was early recognized as a community leader. He followed in the footsteps of his father, grandfather, and great grandmother in assuming the role and responsibilities of captain.

Rudy Ortega, Sr., was a father, elder, chief, captain, president, community builder, and social activist. He was the father of ten children, and had 49 grandchildren, and 54 great grandchildren. He is survived by his wife, Celia; his children, Connie, Evelyn, Danny, David, Steve, Larry, Freddy "James", Elisa, Rudy, Jr., and Aurora "Nayoka", his brother Jimmie Ortega.

Prayer Services for Rudy Ortega were held on Friday, August 14th, at the San Fernando Mission Cemetery, Mission Hills, CA.
August 23, 2009

Retyped from the brochure handed out at the services for Rudy Ortega, Sr.
Lorri Frain


Treaty With the Delawares
Chickasaw Peace Treaty Feeler
Treaty With the Six Nations
Treaty With the Wyandot, etc.
Treaty With The Cherokee
Treaty With the Chocktaw
Treaty With the Chickasaw
Treaty With the Shawnee
Treaty With the Wyandot, etc.
Treaty With the Six Nations
Treaty With the Creeks
Treaty With the Cherokee
Treaty With the Cherokee
Treaty With the Six Nations
Treaty With the Oneida, etc.
Treaty of Greenville


Treaties Between the United States and Native Americans

Yale Law School
Lillian Goldman law Library, in memory of Sol Goldman
The Avalon Project, Documents in law, History and Diplomacy

Chickasaw Treaty
Treaty With the Chickasaw
Treaty of Greenville
Chickasaw Treaty
Treaty With the Chickasaw
"Secret" Journal on Negotiations of the Chickasaw 
Treaty of 1818
Treaty With the Chickasaw : 1818
Refusal of the Chickasaws and Choctaws to Cede Their 
Lands in Mississippi : 1826

  • Treaty With The Potawatami, 1828.
  • 1830
  • Treaty With the Chickasaw : 1830, Unratified
  • 1832
  • Treaty With the Potawatami, 1832.
  • 1852
  • Treaty with the Apache, July 1, 1852.
  • 1853
  • Treaty with the Comanche, Kiowa, and Apache; July 27, 1853
  • 1865
  • Treaty with the Cheyenne and Arapaho; October 14, 1865
  • Treaty with the Apache, Cheyenne, and Arapaho; October 17, 1865.
  • 1867
  • Treaty With the Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache; October 21, 1867.
  • 1868
  • Fort Laramie Treaty : 1868

    Sent by Dorinda Moreno




    Mysterious ruins may help explain Mayan collapse
    By Dan Vergano, USA TODAY


     By Bolonchen Regional Archaeological Project
    This is one of the exceptionally well preserved buildings discovered at Kiuic. This building dates to the Late/Terminal Classic (A.D. 800-1000) and is part of the later major royal Palace discovered at the site. 
    Ringing two abandoned pyramids are nine palaces "frozen in time" that may help unravel the mystery of the ancient Maya, reports an archaeological team.
    Hidden in the hilly jungle, the ancient site of Kiuic (KIE-yuk) was one of dozens of ancient Maya centers abandoned in the Puuc region of Mexico's Yucatan about 10 centuries ago. The latest discoveries from the site may capture the moment of departure.
    "The people just walked away and left everything in place," says archaeologist George Bey of Millsaps College in Jackson Miss., co-director of the Labna-Kiuic Regional Archaeological Project. "Until now, we had little evidence from the actual moment of abandonment, it's a frozen moment in time."
    The ancient, or "classic" Maya were part of a Central American civilization best known for stepped pyramids, beautiful carvings and murals and the widespread abandonment of cities around 900 A.D. in southern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize and El Salvador. They headed for the northern Yucatan, where Spanish conquistadors met their descendants in the 1500s (6 million modern Maya still live in Central America today).
    Past work by the team, led by Bey and Tomas Gallareta of Mexico's National Institute of Archaeology and History, shows the Maya had inhabited the Puuc region since 500 B.C. So why they headed for the coast with their brethren is just part of the mystery of the Maya collapse.
    New clues may come from Kiuic, where the archaeologists explored two pyramids and, most intriguingly, plantation palaces on the ridges ringing the center. Of particular interst: a hilltop complex nicknamed "Stairway to Heaven" by Gallareta (that's "Escalera al Cieloa" for Spanish-speaking Led Zeppelin fans) because of a long staircase leading from Kiuic to a central plaza nearly a mile away.
    Both the pyramids and the palaces look like latter-day additions to Kiuic, built in the 9th century, just as Maya centers farther south were being abandoned. "The influx of wealth (at Kiuic) may spring from immigration," Bey says, as Maya headed north. One pyramid was built atop what was originally a palace, allowing the rulers of Kiuic to simultaneously celebrate their forebears and move to fancier digs in the hills.
    When the team started exploring the hilltop palaces, five vaulted homes to the south of the hilltop plaza and four to the north, the archaeologists found tools, stone knives and axes, corn-grinder stones called metates (muh-TAH-taze) and pots still sitting in place. "It was completely unexpected," Bey says. "It looks like they just turned the metates on their sides and left things waiting for them to come back."
    "Their finds look very interesting and promising," says archaeologist Takeshi Inomata of the University of Arizona, who is not part of the project. "If it indeed represents rapid abandonment, it provides important implications about the social circumstance at that time and promises detailed data on the way people lived."
    Inomata is part of a team exploring Aguateca, an abandoned Maya center in Guatemala renowned for its preservation. "I should add that the identification of rapid abandonment is not easy. There are other types of deposits — particularly ritual deposits — that result in very similar kinds of artifact assemblages," Inomata cautions, by email.
    Bey and colleagues presented some of their findings earlier this year at the Society for American Archaeology meeting in Atlanta. The team hopes to publish its results and dig further at Kiuic to prove their finding of rapid abandonment there. "I think you could compare it to Pompeii, where people locked their doors and fled, taking some things but leaving others," Bey says.
    So far, what drove people to leave the site remains a mystery, as it is for the rest of the ancient Maya. The only sign of warfare is a collection of spear points found in the central plaza of Kiuic. There are signs that construction halted there — a stucco-floored plaza sits half-complete, for example. "Drought seems more likely, that would halt construction," Bey says.
    Having climbed the "Stairway to Heaven" a few times, Bey can answer one minor mystery, however. Why weren't the palace sites looted as so many other Maya sites have been? "The hills are a good climb," he says. "People just didn't bother to climb the hills to search the rooms."




    DNA: No “Crypto-Jews” in New Mexico by Rubén Sálaz M.
    Jewish Medal of Honor

    DNA: No “Crypto-Jews” in New Mexico by Rubén Sálaz M.


    Dr. Wesley Sutton, whose advanced degrees are in Molecular Biology and Physical Anthropology, visited Albuquerque in August, ’09. He presented his already published findings of his DNA project regarding the Y (male) chromosome of “Spanish Americans.” His article, “Toward Resolution of the Debate Regarding Purported Crypto-Jews in a Spanish-American Population: Evidence from the Y Chromosome,” was published in the professional journal, ANNALS OF HUMAN BIOLOGY, Jan.-Feb., 2006.

    As some readers might know, the Y chromosome is found only in males (and contains some 600 markers). Dr. Sutton’s scientific investigation was intended to compare the DNA of the Y (male) chromosome found in “Spanish American” (their choice of ethnic labels) males (139 of them) around New Mexico and southern Colorado with the DNA of males from (European) Iberia (Spain and Portugal). Here is a synopsis of his findings:

    Spanish American males: 66.2% of the sample population had the (European ancestry) M9 marker; 9.8% had the (Middle East ancestry) M304 marker, and 6.8% had the (North African ancestry) M123 marker. Interestingly, only 2.2% of the sample population showed Native American ancestry (though it must be pointed out the Y chromosome is only about five percent of the genome).

    European Spanish and Portuguese males: 64.6% of the sample population had the (European ancestry) M9 marker; 10.3% had the (Middle East ancestry) M304 marker, and 13.5% had the (North African ancestry) M123 marker.

    As is readily apparent, Spanish-American males have about the same proportion of European ancestry as their Spanish and Portuguese counterparts. Spaniards (European) had a higher proportion of North African ancestry but about the same Middle Eastern ancestry as Spanish-Americans.

    Jews are originally a people from the Middle East but there is no “Jewish marker” to identify them so they are necessarily part of the Middle East grouping. Middle East countries include Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Iraq, Iran, and now Israel (said to be the original Jewish homeland). Spanish Americans showed a 9.8% ancestry from the Middle East, an area that includes all of the above mentioned countries. It is logical to assume the 9.8% Middle East ancestry proportion could be spread around all the countries named above. It would not be logical to assume the entire percentage came solely from the Jewish homeland. Indeed, ancestry might very well be more Arabic than Jewish.

    Dr. Sutton concludes: For all markers investigated, Spanish-American males are statistically highly different from Jewish populations. DNA proves Spanish-American males from New Mexico and Southern Colorado have no significant tie to “crypto-Jew” ancestry.

    With the “crypto-Jew” myth exploded, it would be interesting for Chicano Studies departments at the university level to test Hispano DNA for Native American ancestry. Many Chicano Studies departments have operated under the premise that “Hispanics are more Indian than Spanish” and it would be interesting to see what DNA shows. It might also be worthwhile to identify and test the “genízaro” (de-tribalized Indian; acculturated Native American) population, if it can be isolated enough for testing. 

    Sálaz will discuss this and other “Myths of New Mexico History” at 10:30 a.m. Saturday, October 10, at the Special Collections Library, 423 Central N.E. (corner of Edith and Central), Albuquerque.

    Rubén Sálaz M 
    10401 Central NW #131
    Albuquerque, NM 87121
    (505) 839-4849


    Jewish Medal of Honor recipients




    Oct 3: TCARA Road Trip to Las Cabras Ranch Headquarters for Mission Espada
    Carlos Guerra, a Great Journalist in San Antonio Retires
    Lost Architecture of the Rio Grande Borderlands by W. Eugene George
    San Antonio Missions to be for State Quarters

    Graduates, ex-students returned to MHS in 1945
    Laredo Martin High School and Heroes at the Jarvis Plaza
    Museum of the Cultural Bend is a "cultural treasure!"


    October 3, 2009
    "TCARA" Invites All  . .  Road Trip & Picnic  to Las Cabras Ranch 
    Headquarters for Mission Espada


    The TCARA van will leave AACOG Parking Lot (San Antonio) at 8:30 A.M. Motor to Las Cabras and tour the site Then Picnic at the Floresville City Park And return to the AACOG Parking Lot Transportation and Picnic = $25.00 per person.

    To reserve your seat contact: Jack Cowan 210-651-4709 or



    Carlos Guerra, a Great Journalist in San Antonio Retires



    Four days ago the last column of a great journalist in San Antonio, Carlos Guerra, appeared in the pages of the San Antonio Express-News (read below).  The original title to the column I saw was "Time for New Ventures for This Old Columnist," which was transformed to "Carlos Guerra Retires," in the currently posted version of the same.  Carlos worked as a columnist as he explains in San Antonio for a total of 18 years, beginning with the now defunct San Antonio Light, and when this newspaper folded, continued in the same capacity with the Express-News. In the many thousands of columns researched and written since and the hundreds of thousands of words that crossed his desk, goes a significant part of the history of San Antonio, the region, state, and nation.  His was a particularly hard-hitting, sage, and always politically informed view of the world.
    Originally from Robstown, Texas, Carlos was full of fight while still in high school where he was an academically high-achieving student who nonetheless participated in organizing what amounted to the first student-led walkouts at his town's high school.  He has many wonderful stories to tell of his experiences related to this set of events and many others that followed.  He attended the then called Texas A&I University in Kingsville (now Texas A&M University at Kingsville - TAMUK), when A&I was a gathering point for many young Chican@ college students from throughout South Tejas who would later go on to leave their mark in the movimiento whether in the arts, politics, education, law, writing and more.  Most of this Chicano generation, who attended college in the mid- to late-1960s, are now in their sixties.  They continued and continue to achieve in their many different areas of professional and leadership activity.  We know that Carlos Guerra will not go quietly into the night, but will instead find new and engaging projects and areas of writing and creative activity generally.  It goes without saying that we are one with Carlos in wishing him the very best in all of his future endeavors.
    I have included a copy of Carlos Guerra's signature photograph (in jpg) that appeared with his columns in the San Antonio Express-News since I first began reading him, which is when I returned to Tejas from California in August 1999.  I didn't meet him in person until several years later, and have been fortunate to share an ongoing periodic conversation with him since.  Is that a scowl that appears in his photo?  Or is it the look of a fierce determination? That of a journalist who always knew that words mattered and that his words, his stories that he told and shared with his tens of thousands of readers in particular, carried far beyond the boundaries of the various offices he occupied at the two respective newspapers during the nearly two decades long period that he served as this city's leading columnist.  And while Carlos's columns ranged over a broad range of topics and it would be unfair to call him a strictly Chicano journalist--he was and is a writer above all--there is no denying that his formative experiences growing up in South Texas and later as a leading activist in the Chicano movement, ultimately brought a seasoned voice and a critical sense of justice to his varied perspectives and approaches taken whatever the subject.
    His wit, humor, wisdom, and singularly unique storytelling will be greatly missed.  His record will be one that those who call themselves historians of Texas history, of Mexicano South Texas history, why not, will always have to come back to as they work and weave future narratives of what happened in these parts during and since 1991, when he first began to tell it his way.  Without question Carlos's accumulated writings comprise a valuable source for future historians of Texas and of Chicano history in the state and region. 
    For those who are not familiar with what the Light and Express-News represented during this long turn of the century period, know that these newspapers were widely distributed and widely read across the South Texas region, especially the Saturday and Sunday editions of these newspapers.  The audience stretched clear across Tejano South Texas, and from there to the world, lustful wanderers and migrants that we are who hail from this region as we all know.
    With that said, le enviamos un abrazo al camarada y gran periodista y ademas le deseamos hoy y siempre que siga logrando todas sus metas y no falta decir, que siga escribiendo para poder seguir leyendo. 
    Carlos has been a loyal subscriber to this (your) listserv list for some time y esperamos que siga con nosotros.
    Adelante, Roberto R. Calderón
    Historia Chicana [Historia]

    Web Posted: 09/12/2009 

    Carlos Guerra Retires . . .   in his own words .  .
    Carlos Guerra  



    Over 18 years, columns have grown shorter. But writing them hasn't gotten much easier. Researching and writing three a week is demanding, and fitting them into a set space can be stressful.  This column, my last for the San Antonio Express-News, is easily the most difficult one of my career.

    It has been my distinct privilege to be able to share my thoughts, the findings of my research and the results of my reasoning with untold thousands of readers of this great newspaper. You, my readers, have honored me with your attention and encouraging words, and especially with leads you've given me about stories that turned out to be huge ones, with ideas that turned into crusades, and with your advice to look at another side of a particular issue.

    In 1991, I was a freelance writer in a city whose two dailies were in a sizzling circulation war. A newspaper reader since junior high, I relished the skills of both papers' scribes and editors. When a San Antonio Light editor asked if I would consider writing a column for his paper, I assumed they wanted a freelance weekly piece.

    After writing five columns a week for a month that editors critiqued daily to see if I could hack it, I was floored when the executive editor offered me a full-time columnist's job, trading with Rick Casey on the paper's front page.  After the Light closed, I came to the Express-News, where I've been since.

    From the beginning, I refused to be a Hispanic columnist, though like every other columnist's my writings are shaped in no small way by my knowledge base and personal experiences. During my tenure, I have tried mightily to address matters that weren't getting adequate attention, and sought to find sources other than the usual ones to shed new light on issues of the day.

    I have tried to offer thoughtful analysis and insight, and struggled to simplify complex issues into writings that would fit into my space without distortion, and to prompt discussions I thought important, especially about issues and policies with long-term implications.

    But my favorite columns have always been about regular folks in unusual circumstances, and whose very lives teach lessons, and tales of people whose audacity put them into another, unusual realm.

    I have loved meeting great San Antonians such as the immigrant who learned English, got a GED and went to college while working at a rendering plant, and then as a school janitor, until he finally earned his degree and became a student teacher in the very school whose floors he mopped.

    And I have relished retelling tales about people like “Chano,” who booked two wedding receptions at the same time in the hall he managed — each “a gift” to the two sets of unsuspecting newlyweds — and then collected a fat fee from a gubernatorial candidate for the rally with the “guaranteed crowd” he'd promised.

    Best of all, I have enjoyed sharing the wisdom of my loving parents, my other relatives and my grandfather, whose greatest lesson to me was:“El que tiene sólo una manera de mantenerse, tendrá un dueño.” (The person with only one way to make a living will have an owner.)

    I must now consider my own future, after having the luxury of watching my wonderful daughter grow into a confident, well-educated young woman.

    After 18 years of writing columns, it is time for me to follow other pursuits I have been putting off.  The Hearst Corp.'s generous retirement policies will allow me to do that, and I want to do it while I am still young enough to enjoy it.

    I will keep writing — how could I not? — but I also want to immerse myself in new media. I will miss writing for you. But I am also happy to open opportunities for younger voices to flourish and grow, as they were opened for me.

    Thank you for the many doors you opened for me.  I will miss you all.



    Lost Architecture of the Rio Grande Borderlands by W. Eugene George
    Austin, Texas
    September 12,  2009   



    The Tejano Genealogy Society of Austin is proud to announce the winners of the Clotilde P. Garcia Tejano book prize which is awarded each year to the best book on Tejano History. Dr Clotilde P. Garcia was an early pioneer in the fields of medicine and history. She was also an author of ten books on both Mexican and American history. Dr Clotilde  Garcia earned her first degree in 1936 from Pan American University from Edinburgh , Texas . She went on to earn her B.A. from the University of Texas at Austin in 1938. She was a school teacher and principal and eventually earned enough to pay her own way through medical school earning her medical degree in 1954 from the University of Texas at Galveston . She was also the founder of the Spanish American Genealogy Association from Corpus Christi , Texas in 1986.

     Winner and Honorable Mention of the 2009 Tejano book prize is W. Eugene George for "Lost Architecture of the Rio Grande Borderlands.

    Honorable Mentions were Paul Cool for "Salt Warriors: Insurgency on the Rio Grande ," and John Adam Jr., for "Conflict and Commerce on the Rio Grande : Laredo , 1755-1955."

    Mary Guerrero Chairman 
    Book Prize Committee




    Mission San Francisco de la Espada

    San Antonio missions to be used for state quarters



    The U.S. Mint announced today the San Antonio Missions National Park has been chosen to represent Texas in the next series of state-themed quarters.  And here I thought we were just about done with state theme quarters! The facade of Mission San Francisco de la Espada was recommended  to represent the Mission parks on the quarters.  

    Gov. Rick Perry made the news official today in a press release that boasts of Texas' rich and diverse cultural fabric. "It's difficult to choose just one image to represent the span of history in the Lone Star State," Perry said. "I’m proud that San Antonio Missions State Park has been chosen to represent our state in this national program, and I look forward to seeing these new coins in circulation.”  Well, the timing is good - being as this is Hispanic Heritage Month.

    As part of the America’s Beautiful National Parks Quarter Dollar Coin Act of 2008, the mint will issue coins featuring national parks and other national sites on the reverse of the quarters every 10 weeks beginning in 2010.

    Selected sites will represent each of 56 host jurisdictions comprising the 50 states, District of Columbia and each of the five U.S. territories. A portrait of George Washington will remain on the front of all quarters. 

    The act directs the Secretary of the Treasury consult with the Secretary of the Interior and governor or chief executive of each host jurisdiction to select the national park or national site to be honored for each jurisdiction. The U.S. Mint designs, mints and issues new quarters in the order in which each site was first established as a national site. The site selection and design processes are similar to those used to create the 50 State Quarters series. 

    Information on the America’s Beautiful National Parks Quarter Dollar Act of 2008, visit 


    Laredo Martin High School and Heroes at the Jarvis Plaza


    Thanks to Luis Ramirez for sharing this article. In fact there a book written by the Valls Family title "The History of The Valls Mendiola Family" by Carmen Valls Nelson. Alfonso Valls and John Valls coached at Laredo Martin High School for many years.
    The sad news is that somebody stole the brass plaques where all those names of those Heroes at the Jarvis Plaza. What a shame that there is so low down people that steal such items. mas later.    8/13/09, Luis F. Ramirez wrote: This article appeared in the LMT November 11, 2007 and includes a memoriam list of Laredo boys who gave their lives for their country during WWII..

    Graduates, ex-students returned to MHS in 1945 
    LMT | November 11, 2007 
    By Odie Arambula 

    LEFT: 1st Lieutenant Luis Valls served the U.S. Army Air Corps in WWII. He was killed 
    in action over Italy in 1944. RIGHT: 2nd Lieutenant Alfonso “Lefty” Valls served in the 
    U.S. Army Air Corps in WWII.

    The years 1945 and 1946 saw hundreds and hundreds of Laredo war veterans begin to come home to renew their lives after the end of World War II. 

    Japan’s imperial government had signed formal surrender documents on Sept. 2, 1945, four months after the graduating seniors of Martin High School’s Class of 1945 had received their diplomas. 

    The official commencement program, dated May 25, 1945, listed the names of 175 graduates, including seven with an asterisk, indicating they were getting diplomas in absentia. 

    They would not walk across the stage at Shirley Field. They were still serving in the military in the states, Europe or the Pacific region. 

    In absentia at commencement were Arnaldo Dickinson, Ignacio de Leon, Carlos Escamilla, Edward Mercer Matson Jr., Robert Boyd Stites and Wendell Philip Ward Jr. 

    The commencement program included a memoriam list of 93 names “to honor those Laredo boys who have given their lives for their country.” The World War II casualties at the May 1945 count, based on information provided by the office of the registrar, had eight young men surnamed Gonzalez. There were six with the last name of Flores, four named Garcia and two named Garza. Two, Lt. Luis Valls and Lt. Socrates Pappas, were identified as Army Air Corps personnel killed when their bomber planes were shot down. 

    Interestingly, the Martin High yearbook of 1944 also included pictures of two of three Valls brothers who served in the same war. In addition to Lt. Luis Valls, brothers John and Alfonso “Lefty” Valls saw combat duty. Lefty was an Air Force bomber pilot and John was an infantryman who missed due recognition late in the war. John was out with a patrol in Germany when he ran into hundreds of war-weary and beaten German soldiers. They surrendered to John on the spot. Unfortunately, somebody else at headquarters got the credit. 

    Lefty Valls piloted his bomber on a mission while another bomber crew was en route to Hiroshima to drop the big one on Aug. 6, 1944. Three days later, a second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. On Sept. 10, 1945, the Japanese government requested a cease-fire, wanting to surrender on the condition that the Emperor would retain his powers. 

    But the Allies advised that the Emperor had to take orders from the prevailing powers. Emperor Hirohito finally went on radio Aug. 14, 1945, to tell the people that Japan had accepted unconditional surrender. American prisoners in Japanese slave camps were released Aug. 31 to tell their horror stories. 

    In earlier articles, we told the story of the Valls brothers and their experiences in the war. Lefty Valls piloted one of the bombers in a flyover while the Japanese premier and generals signed the surrender papers at a table before Gen. Douglas MacArthur. 

    At the table aboard the U.S.S. Missouri, MacArthur had Army Gen. Jonathan M. Wainwright as a signing witness for the Japanese surrender. 

    Wainwright came to Laredo in February 1946 to ride an open car in the grand international parade of the Washington’s Birthday Celebration. 

    Lt. Pappas, one of the first war casualties from this area, was the subject of a story by a war correspondent, William L. Worden, in 1943. The Worden article, printed in Laredo Times on May 9, 1943, was reprinted in a Laredo Morning Times salute to World War II veterans called Our Heroes, which was published May 30, 2004, in space paid for by Pappas’ niece, State Sen. Judith Zaffirini. The article carried a personal tribute written by the senator and titled “Uncle Catis, a fallen hero we never knew, but always loved.” The Zaffirini narrative, as a part of the Worden material, said Uncle Catis was killed during a World War II air raid at the age of 22, “three months after his wedding.” She described him a “one of the best known young men in Laredo and liked by all who knew him.” Jose Garcia Roel, a contributing writer, and later, the Spanish editor of The Times, wrote one of the introductory articles for a November 1944 booklet in which he cited Lt. Pappas’ service to his country. 

    Roel, who published a Spanish-language weekly at his own print shop at 1015 Sanchez St., wrote and edited a monthly booklet in Spanish to honor local men and women serving in the military during World War II. 

    Roel, an accomplished poet and novelist from Monterrey, titled the booklet “Album del Soldado” (A Soldier’s Album) in observance of Armistice Day on Nov. 11, 1918. Roel cited Lt. Pappas as a fallen Titan, calling him “un Titan caido.” The Roel publication also carried a picture of Constantino Pappas, a brother of Lt. Catis Pappas. Constantino and Catis were sons of Mr. and Ms. Santiago Pappas, 1818 Matamoros. 

    Constantino enlisted in the Army twice. Roel wrote that Constantino volunteered for service after the death his brother. He returned to civilian life in April 1943 and re-enlisted the following the December in the Army Air Corps at Camp Bowie, Texas. 

    A similar but larger booklet — “Our Heroes,” printed in 1959 — was edited by a 1937 graduate of Martin High School and former Times sportswriter, Homero Martinez. Both booklets carried pictures of the brothers serving during World War II. In some cases, there were three, four and as many as five at the same time. Martinez was taken prisoner by the Japanese in Java after Pearl Harbor and spent the entire war in prison camps. 

    The Roel booklet carried information and photos of two Marinos brothers, Pete and Teddy. They were the sons of Mr. and Mrs. Gus Marinos of 2601 San Bernardo Ave. Teddy joined the U.S. Marines in 1942 when he turned 17. When the booklet was published in November 1944, Teddy, a sergeant in the U.S. Marines, was home on leave after a 26-month deployment in the Pacific. 

    Pete, a lieutenant in the Army Air Corps, had enlisted in 1941 shortly after the outbreak of the war. He was assigned to an Air Corps unit in England. Lt. Marinos was a graduate of Martin High School. Initially, the War Department advised the parents that their son was missing in action. His plane had not returned from a mission over Germany. He later was reported as having died in action. 

    The names of Laredo boys and girls, graduates or dropouts from secondary schools Martin High and L. J. Christen Junior High, jump at the reader from school yearbooks, archived Laredo Times and other publications of the 1940s and 1950s. 

    Each one of them has a story to come in subsequent installments of this column. These stories must be told to modern generations and their children before they get lost in time. 
    There’s Frank Randall Nye Jr., Ramiro Garcia (Class of ‘43), Daniel Salinas (1940), Ignacio Riojas, Bill Haynes, Victor D. Gunnoe, Sinecio Gutierrez (1935), Luis Linares (1942), Joe P. Martinez (1939) Arnulfo C. Zamora (1942), Roberto San Miguel, Vidal Sepulveda, Jose Guerra (1940), Mike Saenz (1943), Cuauhtémoc Saenz, Juan Villarreal Jr. and his brother, Arturo (1939), Valentin Padilla (1943), Guillermo “Willie” Abrego (1941) and his brother, Salomon (1942), T.A. Bunn, Tom Deats Jr. (1939), Daniel Hastings (1939), Albert Hastings (1940), Lazaro Dovalina (1939) Kyle Drake, Sgt. Raymond Martin (Chato) Gutierrez (1922), Arturo Gutierrez (1941), Lt. James Leon Hearn, Mateo Miguel Treviño (1932), Edward Charles Boubel (1939), Lt. Abraham Kazen (1938), Leopoldo “Polo” Villegas, Lt. Charles H. Kazen, Fernando Llaguno, Sam J. Carpenter, Sgt. Ben Azios (1939), William Galligan Jr., Jimmy Slaughter, Juan Bazaldua, Sgt. Juan Francisco Farias, Pedro Castañeda (1941), Ralph E. Beaman (1939), Ben Azios (1939), Robert William Milton (1940) Seaman Jose Fierros (1939), Seve Valdez, Jimmy Marinos (1936), brother of Pete and Teddy Marinos, Eloy Barrera, Ed Idar (1937), the Guerra brothers, Lt. Rafael A., Tech Sgt. Refugio Jr., and Luis, Celestino Mendiola, Ralph E. Beaman (1939), Jose Roberto Gutierrez (1935) Lt. Herbert Benjamín Adams (1928), Lt. James Leon Eran, Laredo High, William Prescott Allen Jr. (1937), James Young (1942), Aubrey Vaughn (1939) and many others. 

    Allen was the son of the Times owner-publisher, William Prescott Allen. Galligan was the son of the Laredo ISD superintendent. (Reach Odie Arambula at 728-2561 or  11/11/2007 


    They were the members of the “ghost classes” at Martin High School — students who weren’t able to graduate with their regular classes because they were drafted or volunteered for World War II before they could cross the stage to receive their diplomas. 

    Some never saw those diplomas because they didn’t complete the requirements or just didn’t go back to ask for one. Some never saw the cherished parchment because it was granted posthumously. 

    But for about 75 would-be graduates, their special day finally came in 1947 when they crossed the stage with the regular Martin High Class of ’47, which had adopted the veterans as their own. 

    Today is Veterans Day, originally observed as Armistice Day. Veterans and their families gather for various ceremonies, including a parade downtown. Children honor their grandparents, former servicemen and women, at school events this week and last, and a grateful nation gives thanks to those who made sacrifices so the United States could remain free. 

    It’s a time to remember. 

    On Dec. 7, 1941, eight days after Pearl Harbor, William P. Galligan, superintendent of the Laredo Independent School District, addressed the student body at Martin High School. Galligan’s message stirred the minds of young men and women at the school campus located at San Bernardo Avenue and Park Street. 

    Many of these young men, members of the Class of 1942, understood what the immediate future held for them. They would not be around for commencement in May. They understood that in due time, a notice would be in the mail from the Draft Board. 

    “We have faith that when the last tyranny of this world shall have perished on the battlefield of human rights, when the last despotic dictator has been dethroned, that the tattered and torn ensigns of the free peoples of every continent shall be proudly unfurled and ripple gallantly in the purer breezes of a finer and better world,” Galligan told the student body. 

    “For that faith we are now fighting and shall continue to fight until the full and final victory shall have been achieved.” President Franklin D. Roosevelt had already gone before a joint session of Congress, declaring war on Japan. Americans had heard FDR’s thundering message about the day that would live in infamy. 

    In the ensuing weeks and months, the names of Martin High School students — mostly seniors and juniors — and a school administrator appeared on a list at the desk of the school yearbook sponsor to be included in the 1942 La Pitahaya. 

    The yearbook was distributed before commencement in May 1942, and the student body knew the names of their fellow students who were serving in the military. 

    The administrator’s name on the list was that of Lt. William Vela, assistant principal to Principal J.W. Nixon. The 1942 yearbook carried a picture of Vela in uniform, having been assigned to the 65th Infantry Engineering Battalion. He would later serve as a military attaché with the U.S. Embassy in Mexico City, and go on to become a leading radio-television newsman in Mexico City. The Vela family home, a two-story structure, was at the corner of Santa Maria Avenue and Washington Street, right across from the City Lumber Co. facilities. 

    In subsequent years, from 1943 through 1945, the Martin High yearbook devoted space for a service section that focused on graduates and former students of Laredo High School and Martin High School serving in the different branches of the military. Most of them were in combat in Europe and the Pacific. 

    The sponsor of these yearbooks was the late beloved Elizabeth Nye Sorrell, a 1927 graduate of Laredo High School who taught English literature at Martin High School. 

    Some locals who enlisted during World War II were Old High School graduates of the 1920s and 1930s. Some MHS students were from the late 1930s, including members of the first class to come out of Martin High in 1937. 

    After enabling state legislation was passed a decade later, the Laredo Independent School District invited former students and graduates to return to Martin High to get their diplomas. The year was 1947. 

    That year, about 75 World War II-era students posed for a group picture on the stage of the Martin High School gymnasium. 

    In a Laredo Morning Times special section honoring World War II veterans that was published May 30, 2004, a copy of that 1947 picture was reprinted as it is here today. 

    The men, having served different time periods from 1943 to 1946, were in uniform, including that of the U.S. Army, the U.S. Navy, the Marines and the U.S. Army Air Corps. Each of the men is showing a diploma tied with a ribbon. One veteran, an Army man, holds the diploma with both hands at each end across his mouth like a harmonica. 

    The only name in the photo caption is that of Oscar M. Orozco, and it’s unclear which one of the veterans is Orozco. Slapped on the curtain behind the men are the numerals “1947.” The largest group among the servicemen in the picture are those in Navy uniforms. The Army uniform is represented by 22. The rest are Marines or Army Air Corps veterans. After the section was published, a daughter identified her father, Richard Ortiz, as one of the sailors in uniform in that photo. 

    The turnout for the 1947 “ghost classes” graduation ceremony was disappointing.  “There were many that did not come,” the daughter said, as she gazed at her father’s image.  
    Hundreds, perhaps thousands, of Laredo men and women served in that war. The 1942 yearbook alone listed 106 students “who are in the service of their country” five months after the start of the war. 

    The service section for the 1943 La Pitahaya included the pictures of 152 Martin High graduates or former students. This group included Willie Belle Barry, who was among the first group of women chosen for officers’ training school in the Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps. The entry in the yearbook said she was the first Laredo woman to join the U. S. Army. 

    Her husband, Ralph Barry, was a major in the Army serving in the Pacific. Mrs. Berry was the coordinator for all homemaking departments at the high school. She graduated as a third officer after intensive training at Fort Des Moines, and was assigned to Fort Riley, Kan., with nine other WAC officers. She underwent special training in mess management at the Bakers and Cooks School, later transferring to Daytona Beach, Fla., headquarters and being promoted to second officer. 

    The 1944 Martin High graduates and former students included four women. 
    Pvt. Ana M. Almendarez, a 1942 graduate, was at the WAC Mitchell Field in New York City.  2nd Lt. Elmira Dalrymple, member of the Army Nursing Corps, was at the Camp Bowie Station Hospital.   Anna Maria Garcia, also a ’42 graduate, was a yeoman first class in Washington, D. C. .  Carolyn Brennan, WAC private first class, was in North Africa. Brennan was a 1924 graduate of (Old) Laredo High School.   The Martin High group from the Class of 1945 included a Martin High graduate from 1939, Josefina A. Gonzalez. Gonzalez served as an Army Air Corps medical technician at a regional hospital in Robina Field, Ga. 

    At the start of the 1945 spring semester, Martin High School had information about graduates and former students who had died in action. The list was in alphabetical order. The first name on the list was John B. Alexander, a soldier who went down early in the war. J.B. Alexander High School in United ISD is named after him. 

    The 1945 group included four Wharton boys: Wade, a 1939 graduate, who was serving aboard a Navy submarine; Sam Jr., a former student serving in India with Army Air Corps; Arthur, a former student stationed in Honolulu; and Clarence, a former student taken prisoner by the Japanese in 1943. 

    As Martin High seniors headed for the final semester and graduation in 1945, more than 100 graduates and former students had died in the war. A total of 93 were named in an incomplete list. 

    Many of Laredo’s young men who were killed or reported missing in action were school dropouts who never got to Martin High School. 

    The Records Office at the Laredo Independent School District has limited data on veterans of military service who served during World War I, World War II, Korea and Vietnam. A spokesperson in the office, however, said individual high schools have the lists of graduating classes through the years. The woman said the best information on students who served in World War II and subsequent conflicts may be available at the high schools through the registrar’s office or the school library that maintains yearbook records. 

    A Martin High graduate, Evan B. Quiros Jr., took interest in his father’s high school days, and had every Martin High annual put online from cover to cover. He also has yearbooks from Nixon High School and St. Joseph’s Academy online. Visit and click on “school annuals” to get a look at yesteryear. 

    More than double the number who attended the 1947 photo session were killed in action in the war. 

    A spokesperson at the office of the local Veterans Coalition said the names engraved in the World War II Memorial at Jarvis Plaza number 161. In a period from May 1942 to May 1945, Laredo High and Martin High accounted for 575 graduates and former students serving during World War II. Some were among the 161 who lost their lives. 

    (Reach Odie Arambula is at 728-2561 or at 11/11/2007 

    Sent by Walter Herbeck


    Museum of the Cultural Bend is a "cultural treasure!"


    The Victoria Advocate does such a fabulous job of covering Victoria's cultural opportunities. Thank you for recognizing that the Museum of the Cultural Bend is a "cultural treasure!"   Victoria Advocate, Thursday, August 27, 2009, Viewpoints, B5)\~Candelaria\~Moya-Delgado  

    Sue Prudhomme, Director
    Museum of the Coastal Bend
    The Victoria College
    2200 East Red River
    Victoria, Texas 77901
    MCB on

    Gloria Candelaria


    Hispanic Heritage Month Celebrated in Indiana

    Hillside Farmers Cooperative
    Early Hispanic Organizations in Saginaw
    Canary Islanders Heritage Society of Louisiana


    September 16, 2009
    Celebrating Hispanic Heritage in Northwest Indiana
     Posted by Juana Watson


    This is Hispanic Heritage Month (Sept. 15 to Oct. 15). The Hispanic/Latino communities are celebrating their heritage with big fiestas all over the country. Most of the celebrations start with Mexican Independence Day, which is celebrated on Sept. 15 and 16. This day marks the independence of Mexico as well as other Central American countries from Spain on Sept. 16, 1810.
    In Indiana, the celebrations go on in many communities from Sept. 13 to Oct. 15 and beyond. Northwest Indiana started the celebrations with a big Mexican Independence Day parade on Sunday, Sept. 13. The Indiana Statehouse also hosts a yearly Hispanic/Latino celebration.
    In 1968, Lyndon B. Johnson gave the nod to set aside a week to "celebrate the culture and traditions of those who trace their roots to Spain, Mexico and the Spanish-speaking nations of Central America, South America and the Caribbean."
    The Reagan administration made it a one-month celebration in 1988.
    According to the Census Bureau, the estimated Hispanic population of the United States as of July 1, 2008, was 49.1 million, making people of Hispanic origin the largest minority group.
    Never mind the numbers; there have been changes in the people and character that shape America's image of Hispanics as well. Just as we know that Taco Bell is not Mexican food, it should go without saying that assimilation has morphed many of our differences in a melting-pot manner. Chili on tamales, guacamole on burgers, french fries with jalapeno peppers, popcorn with hot salsa, not to mention many Spanish words that have been added to the English language such as amarillo (yellow), colorado (redish color), cafe, chocolate, burrito, fajitas, rancho, hacienda, rodeo, vista, etc.
    Recognizing the contributions that Hispanic/Latino people have made to this country is important, which is why Hispanic Heritage Month is necessary. Hispanic/Latino contributions (in culture, cuisine, music, arts, language, sports, economics, etc.) are a building block of this country's future, and it is worth understanding that regardless of one's ethnic background.

    Celebrating the culture and traditions of Hispanics/Latinos should be an opportunity to see what this group brought to the table over many decades as well as the present, and not to mention how far this great country has come because of it.



    Hillside Farmers Cooperative 

    Hillside Farmers Cooperative was formed to bring together Hispanic/Latino families with established farmers in the SE region of MN with the purpose of incorporating this newest immigrant populations into the larger landscape of land and farming resources and build new economic opportunities by launching local and regional farming and food value added and distribution systems. This initiative is designed to have a regional impact and to generate the creation of at least four more cooperatives in the Southern MN 38 county region.   You can follow this initiative on facebook at:

    Program of Main Street Project
    Source: Reginaldo Haslett-Marroquin, Director
    Rural Enterprise Center
    207 Third Street W.
    Northfield, MN 55057  Tel: 952 201 8852

    Sent by Dorinda Moreno 



    Early Hispanic Organizations in Saginaw

    Written by Manuela (Mamie) Ontiveros, Saginaw, Michigan  "September 2000" 


    One of the earliest Hispanic women's organizations in Saginaw was founded by a Mexican missionary priest named Jose Munoz. This missionary traveled to different cities in Michigan saying Mass in Mexican homes. His route included Detroit, Pontiac, Flint, and Saginaw. Although he said Mass at St. Joseph's Church in Saginaw, he didn't stay in the rectory but took his meals and slept in the homes of Mexican members of the Parish.

    He organized Mexican men and women to form the Caballeros y Damas de Guadalupe, a patron saint of Mexico. The men's group did not last very long, but the Damas de Guadalupe worked at doing fundraisers, such as carnivals, dances, and raffles. The goal was to obtain monies to have Novenas in December to celebrate the date of the appearance of Our Lady of Guadalupe, which was on December 12. Most of the functions of the Damas took place at St. Joseph's church and hall. The president of this organization in the late 1920's and early 1930's was Mrs. Santos Sandoval and an early member was Catarina Sanchez. The Damas are still in existence today.

    In the late 1920's, the "Sociedad Mutalista Mexican" was organized to care for Mexicans who were needy, ill, or who had no money to pay for funerals. It was active during the Great Depression. Some of the founders included Don Jesus Vilerreal, Juan Vilerreal, Daniel Montemayor, Nacho Vega, Don Jesus Gutierrez, Ramon Laria, Edwardo Vargas, Juan Salas, and Luis Gutierrez.

    The Woodmen of the World, an insurance company that sponsored a mutual aid society, was organized in Saginaw by insurance agent Frank (Francisco) Garcia in the early 1930's. The Woodmen is a national organization, but in Saginaw it was organized primarily by Hispanics. The Woodmen donated flags to schools, sponsored a youth group, sent children to summer camp, and made contributions to worthy organizations. It is still in existence today.

    The second women's group formed by Mexican women was "El Club Jasmine." These women met at the First Ward Community Center on 6th street, about 1 1/2 blocks from St. Joseph's Church. The First Ward Community Center offered lessons in sewing, canning, and other homemaking talents, which was why so many women went there. Edith Baillie was director at the time. She encouraged the women to form a club and have fundraising events so that they could fund Christmas parties and gifts for the many children that attended the center.

    The first chairman of the club "Jasmine" was Mrs. Margaret Tafoya. She was originally from Colorado, and with her husband and family, came to live in Flint during the Depression. The family moved to Saginaw in 1933. Mrs. Tafoya was fluent in English and Spanish and did a lot of interpreting for families when she first arrived in Saginaw. She became an agent for the Red Feather campaign, which is equivalent to our present-day United Way.

    At this time, in the 1930's, the Mexican community was growing and anxious to assist those newcomers that did not understand English. Mrs. Adela Gonzales, a native of Durango, Mexico, organized a group named "Chapultepec." The object was to have the people in the Mexican community put on plays or dramas in Spanish to entertain those lacking English skills. Having been a schoolteacher in her native Durango, Mrs. Gonzales was skilled in putting on plays. The group sent programs to be printed in Chicago since typewriters with the Spanish alphabet were not available in Saginaw. Some members of this club are still alive today: Mrs. Luz Roa Lopez, Antonia Montemayor and sister, Mrs. Lilly Montemayor Castillo, and Mrs. Beatrice Tafoya Ontiveros.

    Another group organized to inform Mexicans about the Young Women's Christian Association. It was called the Circle Eight and was organized by Mrs. Adela Herrera, a board member for the YWCA. Mrs. Herrera was also fluent in English and Spanish. She was a seamstress and was also able to do crocheting, tatting, embroidery, and knitting. She instructed many in these abilities. She also assisted in collecting funds for the Red Feather campaign, cancer drives, and lung diseases. Mrs. Herrera also founded the "Norteno Club" for young ladies to become active in community affairs.

    After World War II, three long-standing and influential Hispanic organizations were founded. In 1945, La Union Civica Mexicana was founded, with Antonio Vasquez as its first president and Jose V. Diaz serving as its president from 1946 to 1949. The American Legion Post 500 was founded in 1946. The American Legion Post Auxiliary was founded in 1949 with Carlotta Ayala Ortega serving as first president.

    Suggested Reading
    Saginaw NewsDecember 6, 1969; October 28, 1973, Section C, Pg. 1; June 9, 1974, November 30, 1979..
    The Saginaw NewsAdela G. Herrera (obituary). April 14, 1973, pg. A2.
    Tom McDonald. Edith B. Baillie - in A Parade of Saginaw Folks I Wish I Had Known, Part II, 1989

    Clicking on a term will search for all items that have that keyword 

    Sent by Gloria Oliver


    Canary Islanders Heritage Society of Louisiana, established 1996


    Where are the Canary Islands?

    The Canary Islands are an archipelago of seven islands, covering 2,808 square miles, and constituting an autonomous region and two provinces of Spain. They are located in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of northwest Africa, about a hundred miles west of Morocco. Tenerife, La Palma, La Gomera, and El Hierro islands are part of the Santa Cruz de Tenerife province. Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, and Fuerteventura are part of Las Palmas province. The islands are of
    volcanic origin and rise to 12,162 feet at Mt. Teide, the highest point in Spain. About 1.6 million people live in the Canaries. With their warm climate and fine beaches, the Canaries are a popular tourist center.

    ·        Who were the Canary Islanders who came to Lower Louisiana in the 18th century?

    The history of the Canary Islanders in Spanish Colonial Louisiana began in 1778 when 700 men were recruited to increase the size of the Louisiana Regiment. The Spanish Crown had held Louisiana since 1762, and foresaw the possibility of an invasion by Great Britain. Spain looked to the Canary Islands for the recruits. They initially tried to get single men, but ultimately settled for married recruits so that they could defend the area and also populate it. These recruits had to be “17 to 36 years old, healthy, without vices, and more than five feet tall”. In fact, recruiters were paid extra for every half-inch their recruits stood over five feet.

    Though it wasn’t in a written agreement, these men understood that they would be staying in Louisiana permanently. By the summer of 1779, 352 families and 100 single men had arrived in the Louisiana Territory where Governor Bernardo de Galvez settled them in four locations he considered to be major invasion routes planned by the enemy: Barataria (57), Valenzuela (113), Galveztown (114) and San Bernardo (68).

    The married men were formed into militia units led by Galvez in his conquest and occupation of British territory on the lower Mississippi River. By these actions Spain supported the Americans in their revolution against Great Britain, Spain’s historical enemy. At the end of 1783, a total of 2,363 men, women, and children from the Canary Islands had been sent to Colonial Louisiana. Living conditions were difficult in a flat, wet, undeveloped land vastly different from their volcanic homeland.

    Over two hundred years have passed since the arrival of the Canary Islanders in Louisiana. Today their Hispanic surnames still abound in Louisiana as well as in other states, and their scattered descendants still treasure the unique heritage of their ancestors from the Canary Islands.

    CIHS info sheet.indd 3/10/09

    Did you know.... .... the Canary Islands are not named after a bird, but after a dog? (from the Latin word “canis”, which also gives us “canine”) The bird is named after the people of the Canaries....  

    ·        Meetings are held at 11:00 a.m. on the 2nd Saturday of the month at the Louisiana State Archives Building on Essen Lane unless otherwise notified. Membership in the Society is only $15/year. Phone (225) 755-0422 Email: Website:
    Sent by Bill Carmena



    Kodak and Yahoo! En Espanol Celebrate Hispanic Heritage Month
    Crisis Facing the Library of Michigan

    Kodak and Yahoo! En Espanol Celebrate Hispanic Heritage Month

    Featured Broker sponsored link: Special program honors Hispanic traditions through digital photos and features a joint donation to the Hispanic College Fund

    ROCHESTER, N.Y., Sept. 15 /PRNewswire-FirstCall/ -- Eastman Kodak Company
    (NYSE: EK) and Yahoo! En Espanol ( have partnered to
    celebrate Hispanic Heritage Month and give back to the community through "Muestra Tu Herencia" (Show Your Heritage), a unique interactive online photo-sharing program where users can submit digital photos on to showcase their unique culture and traditions. For every photograph uploaded, Kodak and Yahoo! En Español will donate $2 respectively (up to $20,000 combined) to the Hispanic College Fund, a national non-profit organization that provides educational, scholarship and mentoring programs to U.S. Hispanic students.

        Through October 31, 2009, users can upload, share and comment on photos, and at the same time help change the lives of fellow Hispanics by contributing to a good cause. In addition, on October 12th, Kodak and Yahoo! En Espanol will unveil a digital photo mosaic using all of the submitted photographs as a tribute to Hispanic families across the United States, which will be featured online through the end of October.

        "One of the best ways to empower the Hispanic family is to ensure that today's Latino students have the resources and opportunity to go to college," said Idalia Fernandez, president of the Hispanic College Fund.  "Thanks to Kodak and Yahoo! En Espanol, we have an opportunity to help raise awareness and money to fund scholarships for the next generation of Latino professionals."

        According to the National Center for Education Statistics, 21.4% of Latino students dropped out of college during the 2007 - 2008 school year compared to 8.7% of white students.  The Pew Hispanic Center reports that Latino high school students are the largest ethnic minority in public schools and the Hispanic College Fund is working to ensure that they all have access to the resources they need to go to college.

        To date, the Hispanic College Fund has raised over $13 million, and provided scholarships for over 4,800 students.  Since its inception in 1993, the organization has provided Hispanic high school and college students with the vision, resources and mentorship needed to become community leaders and achieve successful careers in business, science, technology, engineering and math.  For more information about the Hispanic Heritage Fund, please visit
    Megan Kat, Ketchum,, for Kodak;
    Yezabel Varela Salcedo,, for Yahoo!



    Crisis Facing the Library of Michigan
    Column published: 22 July 2009
    By: Shirley Gage Hodges   Biography & Archived Articles

    I would like to share with you the crisis that is facing the Library of Michigan and the genealogical community.  When Michigan's Governor Granholm released her executive order on July 13th the family history research community was in shock! It has taken years and many donation dollars to build the Library of Michigan collection into one of the ten largest collections in the United States.
    The following article appeared on the front page of the Lansing State Journal (19 July 2009). Direct link to LSJ article.  As a genealogist I cannot express what the loss of this collection would do to generations of Michigan residents throughout the years. Once a collection like ours is lost it is gone forever. As a citizen of Michigan I see the loss of the State Library as something that our State has had that brought us great respect in other states and communities. When we are at national conventions, Michigan is held up as a positive example of a state that is doing everything possible to preserve the records and heritage of its people. Since Michigan was one of the great melting pots of our nation, people all over our country are aware of our great facilities and many have traveled great distances to come and use them and to bring tourist dollars into our area. Many of them have become supporters and donors.

    I personally don't believe that they have taken into consideration what closing the library will do to the economy of the Greater Lansing area. Our library draws hundreds of people each year who come to do research. They stay in our hotels, use the restaurants and greatly help the local economy.
     Governor Granholm dissolved HAL (Dept of History Arts & Librarys). If her order #36-2009 is not stopped, the 180+ years of collecting Michigan History materials will be lost.
    Please write to the governor. Ask your friends to write. Share this news item and information about the governor's executive order #36-2009. Our legislators have only 60 days to veto her order.... or it takes effect automatically.

    Governor Jennifer M. Granholm
    P.O. Box 30013
    Lansing, Michigan 48909
    PHONE: (517) 373-3400
    FAX:(517) 335-6863

    As a Michigan taxpayer, I am appalled to hear about some of the ideas for the use of that magnificent facility. I cannot believe that they could ever seriously be considered by the people who run our government.
    Please contact your family, friends, coworkers, societies, and anyone else you can think and encourage them to show their support for the Library and its fabulous collection. Let us band together and save our state's history.
    Check out the Michigan Genealogical Council's website every day or two. It is being updated daily. The newer items concerning this situation are on our home page. You will also find addresses for Michigan Representatives and our State Senator. If you live out of state and have traveled to Michigan to use this collection be sure and let them know that. For non-Michigan residents, write Senator Jason Allen.
    Please get on board. If we can lose this wonderful facility, it can happen in your location also. Shirley Hodges  President, Genealogical Speakers Guild
    Sent by Gloria Oliver



    Mexican Cooking Show
    José María Bocanegra, Personajes en la Historia de México 
    Y-DNA test results found on  

    The California, Idaho, New Mexico and Washington State Departments of Agriculture, in cooperation with Western United States Agricultural Trade Association, WUSATA, will be coordinating participation in: 
    Mexico Televised Cooking Show: September 21 - 25, 2009
    Product placement in televised cooking shows has become a standard in marketing to Mexican consumers. Products will be featured on Televisa Monterrey with Chef Lulu Pedraza. Your product will be featured and demonstrated in a 3 minute segment airing in October on the popular morning program, "Gente Regia." Each 3 minute segment will air twice - providing six minutes of total air time. This will be an excellent opportunity for companies to participate in the growing Mexico market.
    For more information contact the Chamber at: (714) 953-4289 or Mail@hcoc.rog 
    OC Hispanic Chamber of Commerce | 2130 E. 4th St, Suite 160 | Santa Ana | CA | 92705






     José María Bocanegra  

    Lic. don José María Bocanegra, ilustre tercer Presidente de México, en 1829.  



    Datos del Tomo II, Libro 8 de mi obra "La Independencia y los Presidentes de México", inédita, relacionado con el tercer presidente de México Lic. don José María Bocanegra, jurisconsulto, escritor, político, nacido en la "Hacienda de la Labor de la Troje", cercana a la Villa de Aguascalientes, que en esas fechas pertenecía a la provincia de Zacatecas, el martes 25 de mayo de 1787. Fue un magnífico escritor y filósofo. De su obra cumbre "Memorias para la Historia del México Independiente, 1822-1846", en dos tomos publicados en 1892, y que obra en mi poder, de las páginas 582 a 589 del segundo tomo, reproduzco los datos de la relación de méritos, que entre otros, figuran los siguientes: fue Magistrado del Supremo Tribunal de Justicia de Zacatecas. A los 15 años de edad, era seminarista en Guadalajara, Jal., donde estudió en 1802 gramática y retórica hasta agosto de 1804, luego en octubre de 1805 estudia dos años de filosofía. Estudió bachillerato en la Universidad de Guadalajara de donde pasó al colegio de San Ildefonso en México, D. F. donde estudió Jurisprudencia y se recibió en Derecho Civil y recibió su título de abogado el día 29 de marzo de 1813. El cinco de junio de 1821 fue nombrado Juez de Letras del Juzgado del Partido de Aguascalientes.

    En 1822 fue electo Diputado al Congreso del Tribunal Supremo de Justicia de Zacatecas. En el mes de mayo de 1828 fue nombrado por el Supremo Gobierno como Ministro Plenipotenciario en Roma, Italia.

    El 24 de enero de 1829 fue nombrado Ministro de Despacho de Relaciones Exteriores e Interiores.

    Al dejar la Presidencia de la República el Gral. don Vicente Guerrero para ir a combatir el general Anastasio Bustamante, el Congreso expidió un decreto nombrando presidente interino de la República al Lic. don José Ma. Bocanegra, tomando posesión el 17 de diciembre de 1829, dirigiendo un mensaje a la Nación. La lucha por el poder era encarnizada y Bocanegra nombró comandante de la plaza al general don Pedro María Anaya, que con menos fuerzas que las de los atacantes que encabezaba el Gral. don Luis Quintanar, el presidente ordenó suspender el ataque y contestar el pliego petitorio de Quintanar por conducto de don Agustín Viesca, pero al ver la causa perdida, Bocanegra se retiró del palacio a casa de un amigo para proteger su vida, dejando el poder el 23 de diciembre de 1829. Luego se regresó a su natal Zacatecas, donde nuevamente formó parte del Supremo Tribunal de Justicia del Estado.

    En la sesión del Congreso del Estado de Zacatecas de fecha 20 de noviembre de 1832, se propuso a Bocanegra en la terna para Gobernador del Estado, resultando triunfador don Francisco García Salinas, Tata Pachito. Con fecha dos de marzo de 1833, el Congreso de San Luis Potosí, envió a Bocanegra la credencial como Senador de la República por ese Estado y además quinientos pesos para gastos de traslado.

    El Presidente de la República, Gral. Antonio López de Santa Anna, nombró al Lic. Bocanegra como Ministro de Hacienda el 16 de mayo de 1833. Para el 26 de marzo de 1842, el Lic. Bocanegra desempeñaba el cargo de Ministro de Relaciones Exteriores e Interiores...

    Su muerte. El Lic. don José Ma. Bocanegra, ilustre zacatecano, dejó de existir el día 23 de julio de 1862, de 75 años de edad, en la antigua municipalidad de San Ángel, D. F.

    Una hermana del Lic. don José Ma. Bocanegra, que vivía en San Luis Potosí, fue la madre del poeta don Francisco González Bocanegra, autor de la letra de nuestro Himno Nacional.

    R I E C + - S



            Pedro Vélez y Zúñiga        

    Lic. don Pedro Vélez y Zúñiga, cuarto Presidente de México, encabezando el triunvirato junto con el General don Luis Quintanar y el historiador don Lucas Alemán, del 23 de diciembre al 31 del mismo mes del año de 1829.

    Datos del Tomo II, Libro 9, de mi obra inédita "La Independencia y Los Presidentes de México", que se refieren al cuarto presidente de México Lic. don Pedro Vélez y Zúñiga, nacido en Villanueva, Zacs., el año de 1785. Sus primeros estudios los realizó en el colegio de San Luis Gonzaga de su tierra natal y de allí pasó al seminario de Guadalajara, Jal., y después estudió ambos derechos en la universidad, obteniendo recibiendo el título de licenciado y maestro en Filosofía, el 13 de marzo y el nueve de febrero de 1804, recibiendo de la Real Audiencia el título de abogado y de la universidad, el título de Licenciado y Doctor en Cánones el 29 de abril y el tres de junio de 1810, y Licenciado en Derecho Civil el 24 de agosto de 1817 y el nueve del propio mes de 1818.

    En 1821, al consumarse la Independencia de México, fue nombrado Regidor del Ayuntamiento de Guadalajara, luego Diputado en el Congreso de Jalisco para 1823-1824 y siendo presidente del Congreso, suscribió la Primera Constitución del Estado de Jalisco. Estos datos fueron encontrados en un documento del archivo del canónigo Santana de la Catedral de Zacatecas, ya que en los archivos parroquiales de Villanueva no encontró datos sobre su nacimiento.

    El 19 de junio de 1823, se reunió el Congreso de Jalisco con el comandante general de Guadalajara Gral. don Luis Quintanar con objeto de estudiar la forma de regir a la provincia de Guadalajara, dando el decreto de creación del Estado de Jalisco y expidiendo la Primera Constitución del Estado.

    Después fue presidente de la Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Federación nombrado en 1828 por el Presidente de México Gral. don Guadalupe Victoria, por sus méritos y conocimientos, ya que era un gran jurisconsulto y maestro de filosofía y además derecho civil, durando en el cargo hasta el 23 de diciembre de 1829, fecha en que a raíz del cuartelazo que encabezó el general Quintanar en la Ciudad de México, se retiró el presidente provisional don José Ma. Bocanegra y él como presidente del Congreso asumió la Presidencia de México, encabezando el triunvirato con el General y Mariscal de Campo don Luis Quintanar y el historiador don Lucas Alemán, durando en el cargo hasta el 31 de ese mismo mes de diciembre de 1829.

    El 23 de febrero de 1842, rindió juramento como Ministro de Justicia, nombrado por el Presidente de México Gral. don Antonio López de Santa Anna.

    El 1o. de julio de 1852, el Lic. don Pedro Vélez y Zúñiga, fue nombrado tesorero general de la Nación.

    A principios de 1861, el Lic. Vélez fue nombrado Oficial Mayor de la Secretaría de Hacienda y Crédito Público y el cuatro de septiembre de ese año se retiró a la vida privada, falleciendo el ocho de octubre de 1862 en la Ciudad de México según se asienta en el diario de sucesos notables de don José Ramón Malo (que obra en mi poder).

    Yo en mis viajes de investigación histórica por la Ciudad de México, visitando varios panteones, encontré la tumba del Lic. Vélez en el antiguo panteón de San Fernando.

    Los otros dos miembros del triunvirato que ejerció el Poder Ejecutivo, que fueron don Luis Quintanar, General y Mariscal de Campo que participó activamente en la creación del Estado de Jalisco. Por otra parte, el historiador don Lucas Alemán que figura en el diccionario inconcluso, Tomo I, del General don José Ma. Pérez Hernández, dice: "...nosotros, aunque adversarios en política, confesamos que el señor Alemán, es uno de esos hombres que cautivan con la elocuencia de su discurso...": Nací en Guanajuato el 18 de octubre de 1792 y fueron mis padres don Juan Vicente Alemán y doña María Ignacia Escalada...".

    Source: El Siglo de Torreón newspaper

    Sent by Mercy Bautista-Olvera



    Y-DNA test results found on  


    Y-DNA test results found on for a grandson of Luis Espiridion Cavazos and Juana Cardenas. Luis is Y-DNA linked back to abriel Cavazos born in Spain spouse of Simona del Campo according to the chart attached to the results.

    Just a bit more information about someone we all descend from:  

    Gabriel CAVAZOS is the 10th great grandfather of Crispin D. RENDON.

    Gabriel CAVAZOS is the 10th great grandfather of Mimi LOZANO.

    Gabriel CAVAZOS is the 11th great grandfather of Irma CANTU.

    Gabriel CAVAZOS is the 11th great grandfather of Dahlia GUAJARDO.

    Gabriel CAVAZOS is the 11th great grandfather of Viola RODRIGUEZ.

    DYS# and Allele values

    DYS 393=14 DYS 390=24 DYS 19*=14 DYS 391=11 DYS 385a=12 DYS 385b=14 DYS 426=12 DYS 388=12 DYS 439=13 DYS 389-1=13 DYS 392=13 DYS 389-2=31 DYS 458=16 DYS 459a=9 DYS 459b=10 DYS 455=11 DYS 454=11 DYS 447=25 DYS 437=14 DYS 448=19 DYS 449=31 DYS 464a=15 DYS 464b=15 DYS 464c=15 DYS 464d=16 DYS 460=11 DYS GATA H4=11 DYS YCA IIa=19 DYS YCA IIb=23 DYS 456=16 DYS 442=12 DYS 444=13 DYS 446=13 DYS 

    * Also know as DYS 394
    Sent by Crispin Rendon


    Dr. Cornelius Rhoads, Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde” by Tony (The Marine) Santiago

    New York Young Lords 40TH
    More Puerto Ricans live in U.S. States than in Puerto Rico

    Dr. Cornelius Rhoads

                           An American Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde”      

                     By: Tony (The Marine) Santiago  



    Human experimentation
    is as old as time. Cleopatra devised an experiment in the 1st century B.C. to test the accuracy of the theory that it takes 40 days to fashion a male fetus fully and 80 days to fashion a female fetus. When her handmaids were sentenced to death under government order, Cleopatra had them impregnated and subjected them to subsequent operations to open their wombs at specific times of gestation.[1.] Human experimentation continues to our very day, all you have to do is  check your local newspaper and most likely you will find an ad from some laboratory asking for volunteers who would be willing to test a new drug. Of course everything is done under a controlled environment with highly trained professionals who will monitor everything and you also get paid for it. However, human experimentation has a darker side to it when it is carried out on unsuspecting subjects and therefore is considered a crime act against humanity.  


                                          Dr. Josef Mengele “Angel of Death”  

    During the Nazi regime, human experimentation was carried out against the Jews and Gypsies in the notorious SS concentration camps by the highly educated physicians. Among the most notable of these being  Dr. Josef Mengele (1911-1979),  a physician in the Nazi concentration camp Auschwitz-Birkenau.  

    Dr. Mengele supervised the selection of arriving transports of prisoners, determining who was to be killed, who was to become a forced laborer, and for performing human experiments on camp inmates, amongst whom Mengele was known as the “Angel of Death“. He was particularly interested in identical twins; they would be selected and placed in special barracks. Mengele's experiments included attempts to change eye color by injecting chemicals into children's eyes, various amputations of limbs and other brutal surgeries. Mengele would experiment on young  girls, performing sterilization and shock treatments. Most of the victims died, either due to the experiments or later infections.  Mengele was lucky, he escaped from Germany to South America where he lived until February 7, 1979, in Bertioga, Brazil, however he accidentally drowned while swimming in the sea. Though he was wanted for his war crimes against humanity, he was able to live in obscurity and never faced a war tribunal.[2.] Now, I ask you “Could this ever happen in our United States?” No, you say! Well, do I have a surprise for you, way before Mengeles began his monstrous experimentations there was a Dr. Rhoads.  



                                              Dr. Cornelius P. Rhoads (Dr. Jekyll)  

    Introducing Dr. Cornelius P. Rhoads “Dr. Jekyll“, considered by many as a brilliant American physician and pathologist.  During World War II, he held the rank of Colonel in the United States Army and named Chief of the Army Chemical Warfare Division. He was in charge of two chemical warfare projects establishing U.S. Army Biological Warfare facilities in Maryland, Utah, and Panama. Later, Rhoads was given a seat on the United States Atomic Energy Commission. He headed the Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research. His work was highly acclaimed and he was even featured on the cover of TIME Magazine, on June 27, 1949. The American Association for Cancer Research even named an award after him which has been given since 1979 to young physicians who excel in cancer research.  


                                      Dr. Cornelius P. Rhoads (Mr. Hyde)  

    Now, introducing Dr. Cornelius P. Rhoads “Mr. Hyde“, an American monster who practiced human experimentation and whose crimes against humanity were directed against the humble people of Puerto Rico. In 1931, Rhoads arrived in Puerto Rico as part of the Commission for the Study of Anemia at San Juan's Presbyterian Hospital for the Rockefeller Institute. Funded by the Rockefeller Foundation, Rhoads deliberately infected several Puerto Rican citizens with cancer cells. Thirteen of the patients died. In fact, Dr. Rhoads' attitude about his subjects was chronicled in a letter which later served as the basis for a criminal investigation. A copy of the letter, which was directed to fellow colleagues in Boston, was given to Don Pedro Albizu Campos, the president of  the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party.  With regard to the subjects and location of his experiments in Puerto Rico, Dr. Rhoads, expressing derogatory racist ideas about the local population,  wrote:[3.]  

    "The Porto Ricans are beyond doubt the dirtiest, laziest, most degenerate and thievish race of men ever inhabiting this sphere. It makes you sick to inhabit the same island with them.… What the island needs is not public health work, but a tidal wave or something to totally exterminate the population. It might then be live able. I have done my best to further the process of extermination by killing off eight and transplanting cancer into several more. The latter has not resulted in any fatalities so far.... The matter of consideration for the patients' welfare plays no role here - in fact, all physicians take delight in the abuse and torture of the unfortunate subjects".[4.]

    A criminal investigation against Rhoads followed and although he never denied writing the letter, he was exonerated in the deaths of his patients. The prosecutor appointed by the North “American” governor of the island dismissed the case, calling Rhoads merely "a mentally ill person or a man of few scruples."  

    As I mentioned above, Rhoads, the mentally ill person of few scruples, was given a seat on the United States Atomic Energy Commission. It is reported that he performed radiation experiments on human beings there. Don Pedro Albizu Campos, who was incarcerated for his political beliefs,  repeatedly charged that he was a target of human radiation experiments. His skin severely swollen and cracking he covered himself with wet towels. However, only his followers believed him, but today there is proof that radiation experiments did take place. It has only been within the last few years that we've learned that the Atomic Energy Commission did indeed experiment on unwitting prisoners, hospital patients, and soldiers.[3.]  

    Rhoads died in 1959, yet like the Nazi criminal Mengele, he did not pay for the murders that he committed against humanity. The American Association for Cancer Research decided that Dr. Rhoads' name would no longer be associated with this award, and that it not be given in 2003.  It was the work and influence of Dr. Cornelius Rhoads which serves as the foundation for the 1995 film “ENEMIES WITHIN“.  

    “Enemies Within” looks at a man such as Dr. Rhoads, who with a little power and influence, might be able to spread diseases which target narrow groups. It examines the way in which our own loyalties can be used against us.  

    Heaven only knows how many, American Rhoads have practiced and experimented with innocent human beings, especially those who belong to the minority groups of this nation such as the African-Americans, Hispanic-Americans, Native Americans and Asian Americans. If you for a moment think, well that will never happen again, think again.  

    1. In 1932, the Tuskegee Syphilis Study begins. 200 black men diagnosed with syphilis are never told of their illness, are denied treatment, and instead are used as human guinea pigs in order to follow the progression and symptoms of the disease. They all subsequently die from syphilis, their families never told that they could have been treated.

    2.  In 1935, the Pellagra Incident. After millions of individuals die from Pellagra over a span of two decades, the U.S. Public Health Service finally acts to stem the disease. The director of the agency admits it had known for at least 20 years that Pellagra is caused by a niacin deficiency but failed to act since most of the deaths occurred within poverty-stricken black populations.

    3. In 1940, four hundred prisoners in Chicago are infected with Malaria in order to study the effects of new and experimental drugs to combat the disease. Nazi doctors later on trial at Nuremberg cite this American study to defend their own actions during the Holocaust.

    4. In 1942, Chemical Warfare Services begins mustard gas experiments on approximately 4,000 servicemen. The experiments continue until 1945 and made use of Seventh Day Adventists who chose to become human guinea pigs rather than serve on active duty.

    5. In 1946, Patients in VA hospitals are used as guinea pigs for medical experiments. In order to allay suspicions, the order is given to change the word "experiments" to "investigations" or "observations" whenever reporting a medical study performed in one of the nation's veteran's hospitals.

    6. In 1947, Colonel E.E. Kirkpatrick of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission issues a secret document (Document 07075001, January 8, 1947) stating that the agency will begin administering intravenous doses of radioactive substances to human subjects. [3.]  

    So on and so forth. Next time you go to a doctor, pray to God that he/she is not another Rhoads or should I say another Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. 

    Human Experiments: A Chronology of Human Research by Vera Hassner Sharav

    [2.] “Josef Mengele”

    [3.]  Short History Of US BioWeapons Testing On Innocent Civilians From Brent Parker

    [4.] Rhoads INJECTED Puerto Ricans with CANCER cells-Democratic Underground


    Puerto Ricans in the United States: A Crucial Force in America 
    by Manuel Hernández Carmona 


           According to “Hispanic in the United States”, an updated presentation of the United States Census Bureau, there are 44.3 million people of Hispanic/Latino origin living in the United States mainland. Puerto Ricans who migrated to the United States before, during and immediately after World War II and those who were born and grew up in the United States have decisively become a crucial force in the clear and present development of the nation. The contributions of the Puerto Rican Diaspora to the development of the United States have not come without social, cultural and economic hurdles, but their encounter with education has provided them with a true grasp of America’s institutions. 

           There was a time when they came and settled down in inner city neighborhoods in New York, Newark, Philadelphia, Chicago and other major metropolitan cities. Just like other immigrant waves before them, they faced socio-economic, educational and cultural dilemmas which came against their desires to contribute and become successful in America. Through time, they have become a legitimate and bona fide component of American society. The United States based Puerto Ricans have made a name for themselves in education, politics, television, film-making, music, literature and in our judiciary system, as a matter of fact. During the last thirty years, they have taken their contributions beyond entertainment and sports and have entered the gateways of the highest court in America. 

           In the United States House of Representatives, there are three Puerto Ricans whose parents left Puerto Rico after Operation Bootstrap paved the way for thousands of Puerto Ricans to leave the Island. Jose Serrano, Nydia Velazquez and Luis Gutierrez all have served for more than a decade and are influential senior members of Congress. Adolfo Carrion hijo’s political career has reached further heights with his appointment as White House Director of Urban Affairs. This appointment makes him the highest ranking Latino in the Obama administration. 

          In television and film-making, the contributions have been gallant and distinctive. Juano Hernández was a pioneer in a time when Latinos in Hollywood were non-existent. He acted, produced and directed in more than two-dozen films, and his legacy stands alone even today. The legendary star of the big and small screen, Rita Moreno, is the only performer ever to win the grand slam of Hollywood, a Grammy, an Emmy, an Oscar and a Tony. The first Latino to win an Oscar in 1950, Jose Ferrer, was once selected as the American citizen with the best English diction in the United States. Miriam Colon’s mark in theater began more than five decades ago and is still an inspiration today for those Latinos interested in a career in theater. Jennifer Lopez has redefined the face of the American female protagonist in films. After more than fifteen years in the movie industry, Lopez continues to star on her own and along side Hollywood names such as Snipes, Penn and Harrelson, just to mention a few. 

          In education, Antonia Pantoja made her most insightful contribution to the Puerto Rican community in the United States in 1958 when she joined a group of young professionals in creating The Puerto Rican Forum, Inc. which paved the way for the establishment of ASPIRA in 1961. There are dissertations written on how her love and hard work not only contributed to opening the doors to millions of Latinos who had been left behind academically but was crucial in the development of Bilingual Education in the late 1960’s. 

          The Puerto Rican Diaspora has been redefining literature ever since Piri Thomas published Down These Mean Streets in 1967. Thomas’ bestselling autobiography gave birth to a new literature which depicted the failures and successes of the Puerto Rican migration immediately after World War II. Victor Hernandez-Cruz sparked the interest in Nuyorican poetry with Snaps in 1967. Nicholosa Mohr reacted with Nilda (1973), a story of a young girl who comes of age during World War II. The experiences of the revolving door, returned migrant, stranger in a foreign land and the so-called Nuyorican have all been depicted by Puerto Rican writers in the United States. Short stories, poems and essays that explore and recreate the historical and social experiences lived by Puerto Ricans who migrated before, during and after World War II have reshaped the form of American letters. Identity conflicts are examined by writers like Judith Ortiz-Cofer, Aurora Levins-Morales, Tato Laviera, Sandra Maria Estevez and Abraham Rodriguez. Poetry takes a different dimension with Miguel Algarín, Miguel Piñero, Pedro Pietri, Victor Hernandez-Cruz, Louis Reyes-Rivera, Martin Espada, Tato Laviera and Mariposa. 

           On May 26th, 2009, another Puerto Rican received the greatest opportunity to contribute to the social, historical and political outreach of the United States. Sonia Sotomayor, a Puerto Rican brought up by a single mother from The Bronx was appointed to the Supreme Court by President Obama. Sotomayor was born in and grew up in the Bronx Borough during its toughest times in the 1960's and 1970's. Through true grit and sheer will, she focused on education as the key to her success. Today, all the congressional debates and rhetoric on her appointment are part of history, and Sonia Sotomayor has entered the gates of the highest court in the United States of America. 

          The Latino population is growing at high-speed, and the Puerto Rican Diaspora accounts for 12% of the largest minority group in the United States. In a world of many voices, Puerto Ricans whisper, articulate and holler but after one-hundred years of searching for an identity, they are being heard and are ready to take their place as a crucial force in American history. 


    More Puerto Ricans live in U.S. states than in Puerto Rico
    by Victor Manuel Ramos
    Orlando Sentinel (July 13, 2009)


    A new analysis published by the Pew Hispanic Center today shows that there are now more Puerto Ricans in the U.S. mainland than on the island of Puerto Rico.


    A majority of the 4.1 million people calling themselves Puerto Ricans were born outside of the island as well, but they identify themselves with the culture of the U.S. territory that currently functions as a commonwealth.

    The largest concentrations of Puerto Ricans in the mainland are in New York (26 percent), Florida (18 percent), New Jersey (10 percent) and Pennsylvania (8 percent). About 220,000 Puerto Ricans reside in the Metro Orlando area, making up the majority of the local Hispanic population.

    The Pew analysis, "Puerto Ricans in the United States, 2007," is a compilation of U.S. Census Bureau data from the estimates found in the American Community Survey.

    Angelo Falcón, a Puerto Rican activist who is president of the National Institute for Latino Policy in New York City, had studied Puerto Rican settlement patterns earlier this decade and had predicted the stateside population would surpass the island's.

    He said the community's growth in the mainland will have an impact that shouldn't be ignored.

    "The growth of the Puerto Rican community in the U.S. will give us more influence. We already have three members of Congress that have a vote, while Puerto Rico has a member in Congress with no vote," Falcón said. "The nomination of Sonia Sotomayor --who is a New Yorker of Puerto Rican heritage-- to the Supreme Court shows the potential we have as a community."

    Some other highlights from the fact sheet:

    * Puerto Ricans are the second-largest Hispanic population in the United States, making up 9.1 percent of all Latinos.
    * Puerto Ricans have a national median age of 29, younger than the national average of 36, but older by Hispanic standards.
    * Most Puerto Ricans have a high school diploma and 971,000 have college degrees, but their educational attainment and incomes are proportionately lower than the average for the U.S. population.
    * 2.5 million Puerto Ricans report that they do not speak English at home, but 1.8 million of those say they can speak English very well. Another 1.2 million say they only speak English at home.

    "This growth will continue," said Emilio Pérez, president of the Puerto Rican Chamber of Commerce of Central Florida. "We in the chamber believe that our community's progress beyond numbers will come with the generation of Puerto Ricans who are growing here and getting an education here and we have to look at it as a long-term objective to help that younger generation create wealth opportunities."

    Related links:
    ·Document: Full fact sheet, Puerto Ricans in the United States, 2007
    ·Document: Download Puerto Ricans in Metro Orlando, American Community Survey report from the U.S. Census Bureau

    Víctor Manuel Ramos can be reached at He is also on Twitter at Blog subscribers can read and comment on the original post at

    Sent by Dr. Carlos Muñoz, Jr.
    Professor Emeritus
    Department of Ethnic Studies



    Celebration of the New York Young Lords 40th at People's Church which they took over in 1969.   First Spanish United Methodist Church
    Sent by


    Spain and Spain's history YouTube videos
    House of Cabrera 
    Modesa Falsa
    SPAIN La Tienda , the best of Spain


    Spain and Spain's history YouTube videos
    Quite a varied Collection of 60 videos


    Just a few of the titles:
    Homenaye a los Conquistadores Espanoles
    Origens del Criollo mexicaqno
    El Imperio Espanol, Capitulo 1
    Conquista del Imperio Inca 1592-1572
    Sangre de Conquistadores
    Conquista de America
    Spanish World Tour
    Spanish Empire Heritage Around the World
    Sent by Roland Salazar








    Saint Fernando III, King of Castilla & Leon 

     & Queen Beatriz de Survia


    Don Enrique, Infante de Castilla & Dona Mayor Rodriguez de Pecha


    Don Enrique Enrique & Dona Estefana Ruiz de Zeballos


    Don Juan Enriquez & Dona Maria Diaz de Haro


    Dona Violante Enriquez de Castilla & Don Pedro Ponce de Cabrera


    Don Fernando Diaz de Cabrera y Enriquez

    & Dona Mayor de Vernegas y Tolosan


    Don Pedro de Cabrera

    & Dona Inez Alfonso de Alcazar, VII Senora de Albolafias


    Don Pedro de Cabrera, VIII Senor de Albolafias

    & Dona Beatriz Ruiz de Aguayo


    Dona Inez de Cabrera y Aguayo & Governor Lope de Sosa y Mesa


                       Don Juan Alonso de Sosa  & Dona Ana de Estrada y de la Caballaria

    (Ana, daughter of the Royal Treasurer of Mexico, 

    Don Alonso de Estrada)



    Alfonso X “El Sabio” King of Galicia, Castilla, y Leon

    & Violante, Princesa de Aragon


    Dona Violante de Castilla &

    Diego Lopez de Haro, XV Senor de Vizcaya


                           Don Fernando Diaz de Haro & Dona Maria Alfonso de Portugal


                                     Dona Maria Diaz de Haro & Don Juan Enriquez


    Dona Violante Enriquez de Castilla & Don Pedro Ponce de Cabrera


    Don Fernando Diaz de Cabrera y Enriquez

    & Dona Mayor de Vernegas y Tolosan


    Don Pedro de Cabrera

    & Dona Inez Alfonso de Alcazar, VII Senora de Albolafias


    Don Pedro de Cabrera, VIII Senor de Albolafias &

    Dona Beatriz Ruiz de Aguayo


    Dona Inez de Cabrera y Aguayo & Governor Lope de Sosa y Mesa


    Don Juan Alonso de Sosa  y Dona Ana Estrada de la Caballaria

    (Ana, daughter of the Royal Treasurer of Mexico,

    Don Alonso de Estrada)

    Compiled by John D. Inclan






    Allá por el siglo XVII, llegaba a España mucha plata procedente de Perú e incluso se acuñaba la moneda castellana en aquella zona y venía; bien acuñada, o en barras, debidamente acreditadas por los ensayadores de la Casa de la Moneda, que  comprobaban sin llegaban faltas de peso o de ley, algo que podía considerarse leve y se autorizaba, o fraude lo que lamentablemente también ocurría y que daba lugar a sanciones en las que intervenía la Justicia.

    Hubo casos en los que los mercaderes de Sevilla que recibían a menudo sus pagos en plata en barras, encontraron algunas que eran “cobre plateado”, con el correspondiente escándalo e intervención de autoridades. Aunque pasaba el tiempo y el mercader perdía su dinero mientras se resolvía el pleito.

    La moneda de plata española era muy apreciada en toda Europa y era la  que se utilizaba en las transacciones comerciales en el Viejo Continente, por lo que surgió la voz de alarma, creo que fue en Flandes, donde alegaron que la moneda de plata de España que estaba circulando por allí, estaba falta de peso y aleación.

    Inmediatamente se dio orden de hacer un informe sobre el tema y encargaron de emitirlo a Rodrigo Fernándes de Rebolledo, un ensayador portugués, afincado hacia años en Sevilla y que trabajaba para la Casa de Contratación, quien relató las faltas de peso y ley que habían tenido los últimos años y como estimaba se podría evitar en el futuro.

    La moneda seguía llegando defectuosa y crecieron las denuncias extranjeras, por lo que intentaron que vinieran a España los tres ensayadores que había en Perú, pero solo llegó uno, que al parecer era el que tenía las faltas más leves.

    Intervino Felipe IV y ordenó al presidente de la Audiencia de Charcas que buscara a los culpables y éste encontró al Alcalde de Potosí, Francisco Gómez de la Rocha, contratista de la Casa de la Moneda y al ensayador Ramírez de Arellano, que fueron condenados a pena de muerte, sentencia que se cumplió en abril de 1651.

    Hubo más multas y penas de prisión y por fin la moneda de plata española volvió a tener credibilidad en las transacciones internacionales.

                                              Angel Custodio Rebollo



    SPAIN La Tienda , the best of Spain

    If you are planning to travel to Spain, you may want to read over the word list to assure that you are ordering what you choose to order.
    Sent by Bill Carmena




    Se estima que unas 450 millones de personas hablan español en nuestro planeta. De ellas, alrededor de 44 millones viven en Estados Unidos. 

    Sent by Rafael Jesus Gonzalez



    INTERNATIONAL Diario El Carabobeño

    Artículo publicado el: 09/09/09

    Historia y Tradición
    Tomás Molini, "el Secretario de Miranda"
    Eumenes Fuguet Borregales (*)


    Venezuela para materializar su aspiración emancipadora contó con la valiosa participación de hijos de otras tierras; sacrificando su vida e intereses en los movimientos precursores y en la lucha redentora, que una vez lograda decidieron quedarse laborando hombro a hombro con nuestros paisanos para desarrollar esta patria que está agradecida de su abnegación, herencia, solidaridad y fraternidad; Italia aportó más de cuarenta esforzados civiles y militares.

    Representando a este valioso grupo que ocupan un sitial de honor en la páginas de la historia mencionaremos a: los generales Agustín Codazzi, destacado geógrafo y Carlos Luís Castelli veterano soldado en la lucha emancipadora, cuatro veces ministro de la defensa, se encuentran en el Panteón Nacional. Destacaron igualmente Francisco Isnardi quien escribió el Acta de Independencia redactada por el Dr. Juan Germán Roscio hijo de italiano; capitán de navío Sebastián Boguier, coroneles Luís Santelli primer oficial exitoso en la Campaña de Coro en 1810 y Gaetano Cestari, tenientes coroneles Lanzarini, Passoni, Erzolani, mayor Perego, capitanes Ferraro, Fuenticelli, Montebruni; Baroni, Palaviccini y Giacosa y el teniente Sabino quien ofrendó su vida en la Casa Fuerte de Barcelona. La obra escultórica sobre el Libertador en el Panteón Nacional es de Pietro Tenerani y la réplica de la fabulosa estatua ecuestre del Padre de la Patria ubicada en la Plaza Bolívar de Caracas es de Adamo Tadolini. El primer monumento en el Inmortal Campo de Carabobo, la Columna Ática construida en 1901 en el mismo sitio donde actualmente se encuentra el Arco de Triunfo construido en 1921, lo realizó el conocido escultor Julio Roversi, quien por cierto trajo la primera bicicleta a Venezuela.

    En esta ocasión nos referiremos a Tomás Molini el fiel secretario y hombre de confianza de Miranda en las buenas y en las malas; lo conoce en Londres en 1805, encargándose de la coordinación del viaje que salió de Londres el 2 de septiembre de 1805 hacia Nuevas York para iniciar el 2 de febrero del siguiente año su afán emancipador sobre Venezuela, realizando escala en Haití donde se izó en el mástil del navío Leander el 12 de marzo la bandera tricolor de la expedición mirandina. Luego de la fallida incursión sobre Ocumare de la Costa, Molini el 28 de abril, llega con Miranda a Trinidad.

    Participa en los preparativos de la expedición sobre la Vela de Coro el 3 de agosto de 1806, es firmante como secretario del Precursor de la Proclama leída y colocada por él con tachuelas en las puertas de las iglesias y en varios sitios públicos de Coro con la denominación de "Proclamación de Don Francisco de Miranda, Comandante General del Ejército Colombiano, a los pueblos habitantes del Continente Américo Colombiano"; regresan el 31 de diciembre a Londres vía Trinidad. En esa ciudad europea estará presente durante las conversaciones que tuvieron con el coronel Simón Bolívar, Andrés Bello y el Dr. Luís López Méndez, comisionados por la Junta Suprema de Caracas, surgida el 19 de abril de 1810. Acompaña a Miranda en su viaje a Venezuela que zarpa en el navío "Avon" el 10 de octubre para llegar a La Guaira el 10 de diciembre de ese memorable año. En junio de 1812 Molini es enviado a Inglaterra llevando documentos confidenciales solicitando apoyo, el cual no pudo concretarse por cuanto Miranda luego de la firma de la capitulación ante Monteverde el 25 de julio de 1812, será detenido en La Guaira la madrugada del 31 de julio y llevado encadenado a la prisión de Cádiz donde fallece el 14 de julio de 1816.

    Molini informaba en Londres el no cumplimiento de la capitulación por parte de Monteverde, y solicitaba la solidaridad para que intercedieran por la liberación del "mas universal de los venezolanos". El eficiente secretario permaneció alojado un tiempo en la residencia del Precursor adquirida en 1803, casa Nro 27 de Grafton Street- ahora Nro 58, adquirida por el gobierno venezolano en 1978, remodelada y convertida en museo. Al conocer la muerte de Miranda, Molini se preocupó en informar a los familiares y allegados la infausta noticia. Este noble servidor ayudó financieramente a la viuda Sara Andrews en la manutención de los pequeños hijos Francisco y Leandro; se preocupó en ordenar el inventario de muebles y libros que poseía Miranda en Londres y Paris; logró a través de diligencias judiciales que los dos hijos del precursor recibieran todas las pertenencias como legítimos herederos. Al mantener correspondencias con el Libertador, le recomienda las atenciones a Leandro (1803-1880) y Francisco (1806-1830), quienes deseaban conocerlo y tenían previsto viajar a Bogotá en 1823. Estos jóvenes le ofrecen a Bolívar en venta los valiosos documentos de su padre; Sucre recibe la instrucción de adquirirlas para Bolivia, pero por falta de recursos no pudo realizarse la negociación. La venta se concretaría en 1827 cuando el presidente Gómez ordena el pago de tres mil libras esterlinas para adquirir los sesenta y tres volúmenes, los cuales se encuentran en la Academia Nacional de la Historia. Otra importante actividad poco conocida o difundida de Tomás Molini, cumpliendo la voluntad testamentaria de Miranda escrita en Londres en 1805 antes de salir hacia Nueva York, fue la de coordinar con la Universidad de Caracas la entrega de los "clásicos griegos" de su famosa biblioteca, con la cláusula "Siempre que se haga independiente".

    Gral. de Bgda

    Artículo enviado desde la página web del Diario El Carabobeño
    Sent by Robert Perez Guadarrama


    The Battle of Medina
    The final Battle of the First Republic of Texas.
    Tom Green

    Texas Society of the American Revolution



    The Battle of Medina occurred to the north of this area, and was the largest land battle ever to occur on Texas soil.  It is believed that this high ground was the command position of the Spanish Army.  This battle was an important event in world history as it affected the United States, Spain, Mexico, France and Texas.  On August 18, 1813, the Republican Army of the North, led by General Jose Alvarez de Toledo y Dubois was defeated by the Spanish Royalist Army, led by Spanish General Joaquin de Arredondo.  There were approximately 1,400 men in the Republican Army of the North at the time, composed of U.S. citizens from the American Revolution and other Anglos, Tejanos, Indians, former Royalist soldiers who had deserted the Spanish Army, and at least one Black slave. General Toledo and his men had camped about six miles north of this area and after struggling through miles of “sugar-sand” the Republican Army engaged the main body of the Spanish Army in the valley to the north of Galvin Creek, and were slaughtered by the Royalists Army.

    In 1821, some nine years after the battle, Jose Felix Tresplacios, the first Governor of Texas, after Mexico gained their independence from Spain, is believed to have had the remains of the Republican Army gathered from the surrounding area and buried beneath an Oak tree in this area where the El Camino Real, also called the Laredo Road, crossed the area.  There is another story that Tresplacios had the skulls of these heroes buried in a small church cemetery in the area.  Efforts continue to locate these remains. 

    The effort to free Texas from Spain was begun by Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, who rang the church bell in Dolores, Mexico on September 16, 1810, celebrated today as Diez y Seis Septiembre.  After Father Hidalgo was executed on August 4, 1811, Col. Don Jose Bernardo Maximiliano Gutierrez de Lara took up the effort to free Texas from Spain. Col. Gutierrez visited Washington, DC and gained support for his efforts.  In 1812, Lt. Augustus William Magee, who had commanded U.S. Army troops guarding the border of the “Neutral Ground” between Louisiana and Texas, resigned his commission, and formed the Republican Army of the North to aid what historians have called the Gutierrez-Magee Expedition. These actions were done with the knowledge of U. S. Secretary of State James Monroe, through his agent, U.S. Navy Captain William Shaler, who arranged for Magee’s men to resign from the U.S. Army, and come to Texas with Col. Gutierrez.  There is also a story that General James Wilkinson, the uncle of the Mother of Texas, Jane Long was involved in Lt. Magee and his men leaving the American Army and joining Bernardo Gutierrez’s Republican Army of the North, as it was called. 

    Nacogdoches was taken on August 12, 1812, with little opposition, and on November 7, 1812 the Republican Army of the North marched into what is present day Goliad where they took the Presidio La Bahia, also with little resistance. However, within six days the Spanish Army from San Antonio surrounded La Bahia beginning a four month siege, which is the longest in Texas history. While at La Bahia, Augustus Magee mysteriously died on February 6, 1813, some say from poisoning, others say suicide, while other say he died of consumption. After numerous battles, heavy losses and out of supplies, the Spanish lifted the siege and returned to Bexar.  

    On March 25, 1813, the Republican Army of the North left La Bahia for Bexar after receiving reinforcements from the Lipan, Tonkawa and Couschatta Indians recruited by Captain John McFarland.  Col. Samuel Kemper replaced Col. Magee, and Lieutenant Colonel Reuben Ross was elected second in command. 

    On March 29, 1813 the Republican Army of the North, consisting of 600 to 900 men, was marching toward the Mission San Francisco de la Espada, on their way to capture San Antonio de Bexar, when they encountered between 900 and 1,500 Royalist soldiers of New Spain near the confluence of the Rosillo and Salado Creeks.  This became known as the Battle of Rosillo Creek, which occurred about 9 miles southeast of San Antonio. The battle lasted about an hour and was a disaster for Spain, with Royalists losses between 100 and 300 men.  Samuel Kemper lost only 6 men, one of which was the Chief of the Conushatta tribe, Chief Charley Rollins who had brought 25 of his tribe to assist the Republican Army and died in the Battle of Rosillo Creek. This was the victory that brought about the First Republic of Texas, since at that time, there were no more Spanish Armies in Texas to conquer. 

    On April 1, 1813, Col. Samuel Kemper marched his men to the gates of the city of San Antonio de Bexar, where they were met by envoys of the Spanish Governor Manuel Maria de Salcedo carrying a white flag of truce. The Governor surrendered the city unconditionally to the Republican Army of the North, and the first Texas Declaration of Independence was adopted on April 6, 1813, establishing Bernardo Gutierrez as the head of the first Republic of Texas. 

    The first Republic of Texas was short lived, as considerable political intrigue resulted from the executions of the Spanish Governor and his staff.  Over all command remained with Gutierrez for a short time, but command of the Republican Army changed, as Samuel Kemper, returned to Louisiana with 100 men after the Spanish Governors were marched out of town and murdered. Bernardo Gutierrez was blamed for these murders, and many of the Americans left the expedition at this point.  Reuben Ross replaced Kemper, but the remaining troops did not trust Ross, and he rode off in the night abandoning his command. The men then elected Major Henry Perry to assume command of the army. Major Perry took charge of the Republican Army of the North and the army rode out to meet the Royalists in the Battle of Alazan, located west of the city of San Antonio. This was the last victory of the Republican Army of the North. 

    On August 4, 1813 General Jose Alvarez de Toledo y Dubois deposed Bernardo Gutierrez, who then returned to Louisiana to later fight at the Battle New Orleans.  This peaceful replacement of commanders was aided by the first news papers printed in Texas.  A copy of the first news paper can be purchased at the Old Stone Fort in Nacogdoches, Texas.  Soon after taking command of the Republican Army, General Jose Toledo learned that a Royalist Army of approximately 1,830 men was marching toward San Antonio.  Toledo marched his approximately 1,400 men south of San Antonio to the Medina River on August 15, 1813.  On the night of August 17, 1813 Toledo camped with his men near the Gallinas Creek located between the Atascosa and Medina Rivers 

    This camp was located about 6 miles from the camp of the Spanish Army commanded by General Joaquin de Arredondo.  Toledo’s plan was to ambush the Royalists Army as they marched up the El Camino Real the next morning, however General Arredondo anticipated an ambush by the Republican Army and he sent a small advance detachment, under the command of a young 19 year old Lt. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, up the road to learn the location of the Republican Army.  General Arredondo had the bulk of his army hidden in the trees near Galvan Creek, located some three miles west of present day community of Espey, Texas.  General Toledo wanted his army to wait for the main body of the Spanish Army to march into his ambush before his men were to attack, but one Royalist soldier, Alferes (Ensign) Don Francisco Lopez, wandered away from the advance Royalists unit and came so close to the Republican Army in ambush, that a trigger-happy Republican fired at Lopez. 

    The element of surprise was lost and the Anglo Republicans (called the Madison Battalion), commanded by Major Henry Perry led the American troops, and Captain Don Miguel Menchaca, who led the Mexican troops charged after the Spanish unit.  It is believed that General Toledo attempted to stop his army from charging out into the open sand field, but the men refused to withdraw, and charged madly after the advance guard of the Spanish Army probably thinking this was the entire Spanish Army.  The men trudged through deep sand for several hours, dragging their cannons, in hot pursuit of the Spanish Cavalry, which had come to the aid of the advance unit, and were mistaken for the main body of the Spanish Army.  The Republicans were hot, thirsty, and exhausted by the time they came within 40 yard of the main body of the Spanish Army hidden in the Oak Forest near Galvan Creek, who opened fire with cannons and muskets.  The Republicans killed many of the cannon crews, and almost flanked the Spanish Army, but were driven back. 

    General Arredondo was about to sound retreat, but leaned from a turncoat, believed to have been Col. Miguel Muzquiz, who was involved with the capture and death of Phillip Noland, that the Republican Army was beaten and would have to soon withdraw, so Arredondo rallied his men one last time and over-ran the exhausted Republican Army as they broke and ran. After a furious four hour battle, the Spanish Army completely destroyed the Republican Army of the North. Less than 100 Republicans are believed to have escaped as the Spaniards killed everyone they came across, butchering the men by the hundreds and hanging part of their bodies in trees. No effort was made to bury the remains of the Republican Army and the remains lay on the battle field for nine long years.  The approximately 1,300 men killed in the Republican Army exceeds the total number of “Texians” killed during the entire 2nd Texas Revolution some 23 years later in 1836. 

    It was not until 1822, when Jose Felix Trespalacios, the first Governor of Texas under the newly established Republic of Mexico, had his soldiers gather the remaining bones of the Republican Army of the North and buried them honorable under a large Oak tree that grew on the battlefield along side the Laredo Road where it crossed the battlefield.  The La Bahia Award winning author, Robert Thonhoff believes he has located the ancient Oak tree where Governor Trespalacios had his men bury the remains of the Republican Army of the North, and it is at that tree that we, the Sons of the American Revolution have placed a marker to honor Peter Sides, and the other men who died here August 18, 1813. 

    My son-in-law, Brian Childs descends from Peter Sides who was born about 1750 in North Carolina where he served as an Ensign with the 2nd Battalion North Carolina Militia in the American Revolution.  He married Barbara Carpenter in about 1774 and the family moved to Tennessee before moving on to Louisiana in about 1799.  Peter Sides then joined Lt. Augustus William Magee and his men who came to Spanish Texas with Jose Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara to free Texas from Spain. Peter Sides died at the Battle of Medina, as proven by survivors of the battle Isaac Foster and Samuel Sexton, who testified they saw Peter Sides engaged in the Battle against the Spanish Royalists on the 18th of August in 1813. 

    We also honor all the men who died in this, the largest battle ever fought on Texas soil.

    Compiled and provided by Thomas B. Green, Former President of the Texas Society of The Sons of the American Revolution, and former District Representative of The Sons of the Republic of Texas. A marker with the above information was dedicated on August 18, 2003, the 190th anniversary of the Battle of Medina.  SAR and SRT markers were also dedicated the same day in honor of Peter Sides, the only Patriot of the American Revolution to have been proven to have died in the Battle of Medina.  In succeeding years the Mayflower Society, the Daughters of the Republic of Texas, the Daughters of the American Revolution, and Daughters of the War of 1812 Society  have all dedicated markers, as has the State Historical Commission.



    Update on FamilySearch Certified Software news 
    Resources for Tracing Hispanic Roots
    Family History Library in Salt Lake City
    FamilySearch Indexing


    September 18, 2009

    Update on FamilySearch Certified Software news 

    Here is some important information regarding FamilySearch Certified software applications: FamilySearch Certified software applications have features developed by commercial entities that work directly with the Web site. Information about their products and their certified features is posted weekly at:
    A direct link to this informational Web page is available at,
    More Great Products. 
    Please check the Web page regularly to see the most current information about FamilySearch Certified software applications. The page lists each product and its certified features. It also includes a legend that describes the certified features. 
    Some of the FamilySearch Certified software applications are also certified for ordinance status, reservation, and request. These include the following: 
 from GeneSys Foundation (ordinance status only) 
    Ancestral Quest from Incline Software (ordinance Status, reservation, and request)
    FamilyInsight from Ohana Software (ordinance status, reservation, and request) 
    MagiKey Family Tree from MagiKey (ordinance status only) 
    RootsMagic 4 from RootsMagic (ordinance status, reservation, and request)

    FamilySearch  U.S. and Canada: 1-866-406-1830  
    International: go to for more toll-free phone numbers 



    Resources for Tracing Hispanic Roots
    Posted by Diane Haddad

    Today’s the start of Hispanic Heritage month, honoring the histories of the United States’ 46.9 million residents of Hispanic origin, who according to the Census Bureau make up the nation's largest ethnic minority.
    About 64 percent of the country’s Hispanic residents have a Mexican background; 9 percent are Puerto Rican; 3.5 percent, Cuban; 3.1 percent, Salvadoran; and 2.7 percent, Dominican.
    Four Hispanic surnames ranked among the 15 most common last names in the 2000 US census: Garcia (placing eighth with 858,289 occurrences), Rodriguez (ninth), Martinez (11th) and Hernandez (15th).
    Researching Hispanic roots? Here are some places to start: Our online Hispanic Heritage Toolkit has resources and tips for learning about Mexican, Spanish, Portuguese, Basque, Central and South American ancestors.  See our advice for research in the Caribbean, too.
    Visit the free FamilySearch Record Search Pilot to look for ancestors in the 1930 Mexican census; Mexican baptisms, marriages and burials; and church records from several Mexican states. (Scroll down on this page to see the list).
    The site also has a growing collection of church, civil registration and census records from the Caribbean and Central and South America. and the free Ancestry Library Edition (see if it’s available at your library) have border-crossing records from Mexico covering 1903 to 1957. These records are on microfilm at the National Archives.

    Those with Mexican ancestry can use our Mexican Research Guide, available as a $4 download in our online store.
    Besides researching your Hispanic roots, here are a couple of other ways to mark the occasion: The Smithsonian lists some events and educator resources, and takes you on a virtual Hispanic heritage cultural tour.  PBS is airing "Latin Music USA," a documentary series, Mondays, Oct. 12 and 19, from 9 to 11 p.m. ET.



    The Family History Library in Salt Lake City, Utah


    The Family History Library in Salt Lake City, Utah, is the largest genealogical library in the world and provides access to many collections of records, with more than two billion names of deceased people. Over 700 staff and volunteers assist patrons with family history work. Approximately 1,900 people visit the library each day. 

    The Church has established over 4,500 family history centers in 70 countries, with access to many of the resources at the main library in Salt Lake City, Utah. 

    The Church also operates one of the most popular genealogical services on the Internet free of charge at The site contains a billion names from over 110 counties and territories including the 1880 United States Census, the 1881 Canadian Census, the 1881 British Census, the Ellis Island database and the Freedman’s Bank Records. However, most of the Church’s vast collection of genealogical resources is yet to come online. The Church is undertaking a massive digitization project to bring most of the additional collection of the Family History Library online over the next few years. 
    Because genealogical records are irreplaceable, the Church has constructed a climate controlled storage facility in Utah which houses more than 2.3 million rolls of microfilm and 180,000 sets of microfiche. 


    3 September 2009
    New Projects Added in August


    August was a banner month for FamilySearch Indexing. Twenty five (25) projects were completed and 19 new projects were added, including 10 international. 

    • Argentina, Mendoza, San Juan—Censo 1869
    • Chile, Concepción—Registros Civiles, 1885–1903 [Parte 1] 
    • Mexico, DF—Registros Parroquiales, 1898–1933 [Parte 2]
    • Mexico, Hidalgo—1930 Federal Censo
    • Mexico, Jalisco—1930 Federal Censo
    • Nicaragua, Managua—Registros Civiles, 1879–1984 [Parte 1]
    • U.S., Arkansas—County Marriages, 1837–1957 [VII]
    • U.S., Indiana, Benton County—Marriages, 1811–1959
    • U.S., Indiana, Ohio County—Marriages, 1811–1959
    • U.S., Iowa—1920 Federal Census
    • U.S., Ohio—1920 Federal Census
    • U.S., Texas—1920 Federal Census
    • U.S., Utah, Salt Lake County—Birth Registers, 1890–1908
    • U.S., West Virginia—1920 Federal Census
    • U.S., Wisconsin—1920 Federal Census
    (See the chart below for a complete list and current status of all indexing projects.)

    Recently Completed Projects

    (Note: Recently completed projects have been removed from the available online indexing batches and will now go through a final completion check process in preparation for future publication.)

    • Argentina, Jujuy, Salta, Tucuman—1869 Censo
    • Mexico, DF—Registros Parroquiales, 1886–1933 [Parte 1]
    • Mexico, Yucatan—1930 Federal Censo
    • Nicaragua, Managua—Registros Civiles, 1879–Present
    • Perú, Lima—Registros Civiles, 1910–1930 [Parte 1]
    • U.S.—Freedmen Marriages, 1861–1869
    • U.S., Arkansas—County Marriages, 1837–1957 [IV]
    • U.S., Arkansas—County Marriages, 1837–1957 [VI]
    • U.S., Delaware—Birth Records, 1861–1922
    • U.S., Georgia—Deaths, 1930
    • U.S., Indiana, Adams County—Marriages, 1811–1959
    • U.S., Minnesota—1885 State Census
    • U.S., Oklahoma—1920 Federal Census
    • U.S., Oregon—1920 Federal Census
    • U.S., Pennsylvania—1920 Federal Census
    • U.S., Tennessee—1920 Federal Census 
    • U.S., Utah, Salt Lake County—Death Certificates, 1940
    • U.S., Virginia—1920 Federal Census
    • U.S., Washington—1920 Federal Census
    • U.S., Washington—County Marriages, 1858–1950
    • U.S., Wyoming—1920 Federal Census

    Current FamilySearch Indexing Projects, Record Language, and Percent Completion

    Argentina, Buenos Aires—1855 Censo Spanish 91%
    Argentina, Mendoza, San Juan—Censo 1869 Spanish (New)
    Argentina, Santiago, Santa Fe—1869 Censo Spanish 57%
    Chile, Concepción—Registros Civiles, 1885–1903 [Parte 1]
    Spanish (New)
    España, Avila, Moraleja de Matacabras—Registros Parroquiales, 1540–1904 Spanish 86%
    España, Lugo—Registros Parroquiales, 1530–1930 [Parte 1] Spanish 21%
    France, Cherbourg—Registres Paroissiaux, 1802–1907 French 3%
    France, Coutances—Registres Paroissiaux 1802–1907 French 3%
    France, Coutances, Paroisses de la Manche, 1792–1906 French 90%
    France, Paris—Registres Protestants, 1612–1906 [Partie 2] French 35%
    France, Saint-Lo—Registres Paroissiaux, 1802–1907 French 7%
    Italy, Trento—Baptisms, 1784–1924 [Part 1] Italian 95%
    Italy, Trento—Baptisms, 1784–1924 [Part 2] Italian 25%
    Jamaica, Trelawny—Births, 1878–1930 English 73%
    Mexico, DF—Registros Parroquiales, 1898–1933 [Parte 2] Spanish (New)
    Mexico, Hidalgo—1930 Federal Censo Spanish (New)
    Mexico, Jalisco—1930 Federal Censo Spanish (New)
    Mexico, Mexico—1930 Federal Censo Spanish 56%
    New Zealand—Passenger Lists, 1871–1915 English 17%
    Nicaragua, Managua—Registros Civiles, 1879–1984 [Parte 1] Spanish (New)
    Perú, Lima—Registros Civiles, 1910–1930 [Parte 2] Spanish 75%
    U.S., Illinois, Cook—Birth Certificates, 1916–1922 [Part 2] English 71%
    U.S., Indiana, Allen County—Marriages, 1811–1959 English 47%
    U.S., Indiana, Benton County—Marriages, 1811–1959 English (New)
    U.S., Indiana, Carroll County—Marriages, 1811–1959 English 80%
    U.S., Indiana, Ohio County—Marriages, 1811–1959 English (New)
    U.S., Iowa—1920 Federal Census English (New)
    U.S., New York—1905 State Census English 65%
    U.S., Ohio—1920 Federal Census English (New)
    U.S., Texas—1920 Federal Census English (New)
    U.S., West Virginia—1920 Federal Census English (New)
    U.S., Wisconsin—1920 Federal Census English (New)
    Venezuela, Mérida—Registros Parroquiales, 1654–1992 [Parte 1] Spanish 61%
    Österreich, Wiener Meldezettel, 1890–1925 German 2%
    Украина, Киев—Метрические Книги, 1840–1842 Russian 30%
    (*Percentage refers to a specific portion of a larger project.)

    FamilySearch Support
    Sent by Lorraine Hernandez 


    The History  of 'APRONS' !! 

    I  don't think our kids know what an apron is. 
    The principal use  of Grandma's apron was to protect the dress  underneath,because she only had a few,it was easier to wash aprons than dresses and they used less
    material, but along with that, it served as a potholder for removing hot pans from the
    It was wonderful  for drying children's tears, and on occasion was even used for cleaning out dirty ears.   
    From the chicken coop, the apron was used for carrying eggs, fussy chicks, and sometimes half- hatched eggs to be finished in the warming oven.   
    When company came, those aprons were ideal hiding places for shy kids.    
    And when the  weather was cold, grandma wrapped it around her  arms.   
    Those big old  aprons wiped many a perspiring brow, bent over the hot wood stove.  
    Chips and kindling wood were brought into the kitchen in that  apron.   
    From the garden,  it carried all sorts of vegetables.  After the peas had  been shelled, it carried out the hulls.   
    In the fall, the  apron was used to bring in apples that had fallen from  the trees.
    When unexpected  company drove up the road, it was surprising how
    much  furniture that old apron could dust in a matter of seconds.
    When dinner was  ready, Grandma walked out onto the porch, waved 
    her apron, and the men knew it was time to come in from the fields to dinner.
    Sent by Eva Booher


    12/30/2009 04:49 PM