Somos Primos

June 2008

102nd Issue online

Editor: Mimi Lozano ©2000-8

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research


Do you recognize the Ladies Buck Skin Regalia?
It was found discarded in a trash can near Vancouver, British Columbia.
We would like to return it the rightful owner or the family of the owner.

It is suspected that the collection may have come from Alberta or the United States.
Click for more information.

Content Areas
United States 
National Issues
Action Item
Bilingual Education
Hispanic Heritage Month

Anti-Spanish Legends
Military/Law Enforcement 
Patriots, American Revolution

Orange County,CA  
Los Angeles,CA


Northwestern US

Southwestern US 


East of Mississippi

East Coast


Family History

Jan 27:  
Mar 17:  
Apr  29:   
May 2
Aug 25:  




Dear Mimi,  
Congratulations on the publication of your 101 issue of Somos Primos!  A big thank you for giving us, Primos, an opportunity to have our voices heard.  Your contributors have submitted information that is vital in educating all of us about our history. Each issue gets better and better.  
Best wishes, always,  Lorri Frain

Have you sent your URL to Ken Burns yet? 
Seriously, though, your website is a welcome 
contribution to the internet...and Hispanics.

Francisco A. Espinoza
Agricultural Business Enhancement Center        
Bowling Green, OH  43402

Please permit me to subscribe to your 
enjoyable site and publications.
Rachael Moreno
Laingsburg, Michigan 48848

I have just found this marvelous resource. 
Please include me in the monthly mailing list. 
Mil gracias,

Dr. Cruz C. Torres
Professor Emeriti
Texas A&M University
College Station, TX

Estimada Ms. Mimi Lozano, 
Con mucho gusto veo el gran trabajo que han venido haciendo. Cosa curiosa comparto el interes de ustedes por el estudio de los ancestros.
Deduzco que el Lozano de ustedes proviene de Mexico, el mi madre (Lozano) de Cuba y bisabuelos de Aragon, Espana.  Yo vivo en Miami, Florida desde hace algunos anos, naci en Venezuela. 
Un gran saludo prima, me encanta haber hecho contacto con ustedes.


 Somos Primos Staff:   .. 
Mimi Lozano, Editor
Mercy Bautista Olvera
Bill Carmena
Lila Guzman
Granville Hough
John Inclan
Galal Kernahan
J.V. Martinez
Armando Montes
Dorinda Moreno
Michael Perez
Rafael Ojeda
Ángel Custodio Rebollo
Tony Santiago
John P. Schmal
Howard Shorr 
Ted Vincent

Submissions for this issue:
Tupac Enrique Acosta
Fredrick Aguirre, Esq.

Mercy Bautista Olvera
Luis Brandtner y Nava-González
Lisa Brenneisen
Chris Burgard

Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.
Bill Carmena
Henry J. Casso, Ph.D.
Ed Cota
Tim Crump
Boyd De Lario
Joan De Soto
Charlie Erickson
Francisco A. Espinoza

Karla Everett
Lorri Frain
Manuel Frias
James E. Garcia
Wanda Daisy Garcia
Lauro Garza
Raul Garza
Edmund Gomez, Ph.D.
Richard Gonzales
Carlos Ray Gonzalez
Tomas Saenz Gonzalez
Walter Herbeck
Jose Luis Hernandez
Manuel Hernandez Carmona
Miguel Hernandez
Elena M. Herrada
Granville Hough, Ph.D.
John Inclan
Nathalie Ojeda
Rafael Ojeda

Lizette Jenness Olmos
Kathie Kennedy
Larry Kirkpatrick
Rick Leal
Juan Marinez
Joe Martinez, Ph.D.
César E. Martínez
Debbie Martinez
Loretta Martinez Williams
Alva Moore Stevens
Jane Moorman
Dorinda Moreno
Rachael Moreno
Carlos Munoz, Ph.D.
Rafael Ojeda
Willis Papillion
Ignacio Pena
Jose M. Pena
Raúl A. Ramos
Angel Custodio Rebollo
Armando B. Rendón, Esq.
William I. Robinson
Alfonso Rodriguez
Dr. Roberto Cintli Rodriguez 
Rudi R. Rodriguez
Catherine Robles Shaw
Steve Rubin
Viola Sadler
Tomas Saenz Gonzalez
Rubén Sálaz Márquez
Tony Santiago
Richard G. Santos
John P. Schmal
Howard Shorr
Robert Smith
Anthony M. Stevens-Arroyo
Richard Tapia, Ph.D.  
Dorina Thomas 
Cruz C. Torres, Ph.D.

David Valladolid
Margarita Velez
Margaret Villanueva
Gwen Vieau
Ted Vincent
Kirk Whisler  


SHHAR Board:  Bea Armenta Dever, Gloria Cortinas Oliver, Mimi Lozano Holtzman, Pat Lozano, Yolanda Magdaleno, Michael Perez, Crispin Rendon, Viola Rodriguez Sadler, John P. Schmal, Tomas Sanez  


An Illegal Immigrant Turned Brain Surgeon -- With His Own Two Hands 
Dr. Jose Manuel de la Rosa and the Paul L. Foster School of Medicine
Ribbon Cutting Marks Monumental Milestone
The America GI Forum, Message from your Founder, Dr. Hector P. Garcia
Latest census information, May 1, 2008
More People with Hispanic Last Names Registering to Vote
National Museum of the American Latino Signed Into Law
National Hispanic Veterans Museum: Why a Hispanic Veterans Museum?
NHMC Congratulates Xavier Becerra effort to secure Latino Cultural Legacy
National Hispanic Veterans Museum



An Illegal Immigrant Turned Brain Surgeon -- 
With His Own Two Hands 
by Max Alexander 
from Reader's Digest


Unsure of his destiny in Mexico , Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa jumped the fence to illegally enter The United States. Today he saves American lives as a brain surgeon. Photographed by Chris Hartlove

He was an illegal immigrant making a living picking tomatoes. 
Now Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa excels in a different field—
as a top brain surgeon

Hopping the Fence

The hot sun seared his skin as Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa bent in the field to pick tomatoes. It was work few Americans would do for just $155 a week, and most of his co-workers on this 10,000-acre farm in central California were, like Quiñones, illegal Mexican immigrants. It was a grim existence: He lived in a decrepit truck camper -- without the truck -- in the middle of a field.

One day the farm owner's son came by. "He looked at us like we were less than dirt," recalls Quiñones. Other workers were only too happy to be disdained by wealthy Americans who could have them deported, but not Quiñones. He carried an English dictionary in his pocket and studied it every day. He was studying to become an American.

It had been a year since Quiñones jumped the fence in Calexico. His cousin was supposed to be waiting for him on the American side. Instead he was met by the U.S. Border Patrol. Half an hour later, Quiñones was back in Mexico .

Figuring the border police would never expect the same guy to cross in the same spot on the same night, he went over the fence again. This time, his cousin was there. Quiñones hopped in his car, and the two roared off into the night toward El Centro . It was January 2, 1987, Quiñones's 19th birthday.

The oldest of Sostenes Quiñones and Flavia Hinojosa's five children, Alfredo began work at age five, pumping gas at his father's Pemex station, where the family also lived, on a dusty road 37 miles south of the border town of Mexicali. It was hard work, but Quiñones didn't mind. He also got to drive the cars now and then, perching on a stack of pillows.

By Mexican standards, the Quiñones family was almost middle-class. But in 1976 the Mexican government devalued the peso, throwing the country into turmoil. "We lost everything, just like that," Quiñones says with a snap of his fingers. "I remember going to the back of the house to find my father crying."

Sostenes turned to his brothers, who were working in the United States as migrant farmworkers. They supplied the family with sacks of potatoes and beans. Quiñones helped bring in extra money by working at a taco stand.

Still, he kept up with school. "My father kept telling me, 'You want to be like me? Just never go to school.' And I was not going to follow the same path." At age 14, Quiñones qualified for an accelerated program in Mexicali that prepared students for jobs as elementary school teachers. Each morning, he rose at 4:30 to take a bus to the school. There was no bus home in the afternoon, so he hitchhiked -- or walked -- in the blistering heat.

He graduated near the top of his class. But because his family had no political connections, he says, he was assigned a teaching job at a remote school far down the Baja peninsula. "I wasn't willing to put up with that injustice," he says.

Shortly after, he decided to leave Mexico in search of better options. He had been to America twice before, doing summer labor. So on his arrival, Quiñones headed with his cousin for the San Joaquin Valley to work in the fields. "I picked tomatoes, cauliflower, broccoli, corn, grapes."

After a year, he had saved $8,000 -- almost all of his pay. "I ate what I was picking," he says. "I wore the same pair of jeans the whole year."

When Quiñones looked up from the dirt, the best job he could see was driving the big tractors. The drivers were skilled, and they supervised crews. He was told it took ten years of fieldwork to land such a promotion, but Quiñones was soon behind the wheel of sophisticated plows and ditchdiggers. He learned how to service the engines and qualified for a temporary work permit. "I had that hunger in my gut," he says.

Livin' La Vida Loca

A few months later, Quiñones told his cousin he was going to leave the farm. His response was, "What are you talking about? If you keep working here, one day you'll be the foreman!"

"Sometimes you have to be willing to risk," Quiñones said.

He moved to Stockton and took a job in a rail yard so he could attend night school at San Joaquin Delta College , learning English. His first job, shoveling sulfur, was the worst of his life -- smelly and filthy. Once again, he scrambled to acquire new skills, this time as a welder repairing valves on tank cars. Within a year, he'd become a foreman.

With his English improving, Quiñones switched to the night shift and began full-time studies in science and math. To make ends meet, he also tutored other students.

One day, outside the school cafeteria, he met Anna Peterson, an American student. "I was fresh out of high school," she says. "Alfredo was this fascinating guy, always in a hurry. He had long, curly hair and earrings. I walked up and introduced myself. We became friends."

After graduating with an associate's degree in 1991, Quiñones was accepted to the University of California , Berkeley . He moved to a low-rent district in Oakland , getting by on a combination of scholarships, loans, a small grant and, as always, work. He became a teacher's assistant in three departments and also took a job at a men's clothing store.

Peterson stopped by the store one afternoon. The two had lost touch, but the reunion was fateful. Soon they fell in love.

Quiñones excelled in the competitive environment of Berkeley, getting straight A's in advanced classes, writing his honors thesis on the role of drug receptors in the brain and teaching calculus on the side -- not that he paid much attention to his standing. In the spring of 1993, his mentor, Hugo Mora, looked over his transcripts and told him he stood a good chance of getting into Harvard Medical School . "I thought," recalls Quiñones, "number one, this guy is very nice, and number two, he's clearly living la vida loca." Quiñones had been to a doctor only once in his life.

Then he thought some more. "My grandmother was a curandera, a town healer," he says. "I saw the respect that she had. I decided to give it a shot."

Harvard accepted him, and Quiñones moved East in the fall of 1994. Peterson followed, and they married in '96. A year later, Quiñones became a U.S. citizen. "I'm sitting there, ten years after hopping the fence, and it hits me how fast I came up."

Quiñones says he understands why people might resent him for entering the country illegally. His only excuse is that he was a brash and desperate teenager. "The last thing I was thinking was that I was going to break the law," he says. Once he arrived, Quiñones says, the United States "opened its doors to me" -- a welcome, he adds, that would be unlikely today given the heated immigration debate. He offers no solution but suggests it will not come from higher walls. "As long as there is poverty in our neighboring countries, there will continue to be this influx."

Quiñones gave the commencement address when he graduated from Harvard Medical School and continued his training, in neurosurgery, at the University of California , San Francisco . It was an exciting but daunting prospect. Could an illegal Mexican fieldworker become a brain surgeon? It didn't seem possible.

Residency turned out to be a low point in Quiñones's American journey. "Neurosurgery has been reserved for people who come from a long pedigree of medicine," he says carefully. "It's rare that you have someone like me go into this highly demanding field, where lots of patients die." He'd experienced prejudice before -- the farm owner's son who looked right through him, a former girlfriend whose mother disdained him for his nationality. "They just ignited my fire even more," he says.

He admits there were times, working 130 hours a week for $30,000 a year, when he considered quitting. "I felt what my father felt, not being able to put food on the table for my family," he says. "But I had a dream."

A grateful grandmother embraces Dr. Q after surgery on patient Maggie Bull.  
Photographed by Stephanie Kuykendal

"Are we ready to rock and roll?" Dr. Quiñones, now 40, sits on the edge of a patient's bed. It's a Friday morning at Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center in Baltimore , and this will be Quiñones's second brain surgery patient of the day. The woman, who's in her 60s, has two tumors; one is in the highly sensitive part of the cortex that controls motor movements. Quiñones holds her hand and looks into her eyes. "I walk a fine line every day between good and bad outcomes, and bad outcomes can mean life or death," he tells her frankly. "Also, there is a chance that you will be paralyzed on the right side." She nods. Dr. Q, as everyone calls him, believes patients deserve both compassion and honesty. "That is the risk," he concludes. "So we're set. You and I have a date."

An hour later, in operating room five, surrounded by six attendants and an anesthesiologist, Dr. Q cuts through the woman's scalp to expose her skull. Using a whirring tool, he carves out a two-inch-wide section of bone and pops it off like a manhole cover. He carefully cuts back the dura, a leathery layer of tissue under the skull, and the brain is exposed.

Brain SurgeonDr. Q specializes in a high-tech form of brain surgery called motor mapping, in which an electrical stimulator is used to locate sensitive areas. "Let's have complete silence, please," he says, and the room falls quiet. He touches the stimulator to the brain surface, and the woman's arm twitches -- a spot to avoid. Eventually he determines a safe path to the tumor, which he painstakingly removes, piece by piece, with an electrical forceps that cauterizes as it dissects.           The doctor conducts brain motor mapping.
                                                                      Photographed by Stephanie Kuykendal

The four-and-a-half-hour procedure goes well -- the patient comes to with no loss of motor function -- and Dr. Q is ecstatic. "Holy guacamole, that was a great day!" he says, shedding surgical garb as he heads to a meeting with the family of a man who recently suffered a massive brain hemorrhage.

Although Dr. Quiñones is a relatively young doctor, his colleagues are already impressed. "Not only is he a talented and conscientious surgeon, but he's very sensitive to the needs of patients," says Dr. Henry Brem, director of neurosurgery at Johns Hopkins. "And he's a joyous person -- full of enthusiasm and the mission to do good for the world."

It's now after seven, and Dr. Q has been working for 12 hours. Other surgeons are going home for the weekend, but he is headed for his research laboratory in downtown Baltimore . The lab is an extension of his operating room: Cancerous tissue that he removes in surgery is studied with the goal of finding new therapies. "One hope is that we can make brain cancer a bit more chronic, like diabetes, instead of a devastating lethal disease," he explains.

Dr. Q joins more than a dozen med students and residents from around the world at a table with a projector. Over Chinese food cartons, they present and discuss studies with titles like "A Functional Role for EGFR Signaling in Myelination and Remyelination." The work is serious, but after a full day of surgery, the meetings give Dr. Q a chance to unwind.

ImageThe following afternoon, many of the students show up at Dr. Q's home for a Tex-Mex cookout. The house, in a suburban subdivision, is spacious but hardly palatial; several rooms have no furniture, though toys are everywhere. The doctor's hectic schedule means little time relaxing with his three children -- Gabriella, eight, David, six, and Olivia, two -- so today he dotes on them.

                                        Quiñones-Hinojosa plays at home with his family.
                                                 Photographed by Stephanie Kuykendal

Work is never far from home. Recently, Dr. Q removed a chest tumor from Gabriella's pet hamster, Theodore. "It was very aggressive, and I wanted to give him a chance," he says.

Meanwhile, his BlackBerry chirps constantly with hospital and lab updates. Anna, 35, smiles. "I'm not one of those clingy, needy wives who have to talk to their husbands 50 times a day," she says. "I run the house completely."

Except the grill on the back porch, where Dr. Q is flipping tortillas. "I think my background allows me to interact with my patients in a more humanistic way," he says. "When they're scared, I'm one of them. I'm just lucky that patients allow me to touch their brains, their lives. When I go in, I see these incredible blood vessels. And it always brings me back to the time I used to pick those huge, beautiful tomatoes with my own hands. Now I am here, looking at the same color -- that bright red that just fills the brain with nutrition and wonder. I'm right there in the field, and I'm just doing it."

Sent by JV Martinez



The American GI Forum

by his daughter 
Daisy Wanda Garcia

My papa represented different things to many people. To most he was a hero, to some a rabble- rouser. "La Gente" affectionately called him "El Zorro Mexicano." On 9/3/1990 in an interview on the "Portada Show," the commentator introduced Dr. Garcia as "a physician, an activist, a philanthropist, but above all, a rebel with a cause. "

Each year Papa promoted his "cause" to the AGIF membership via the American G.I. Forum (AGIF) National Convention booklet. My father wrote a column for the booklet entitled "Message From The Founder." In the column, he discussed his views on the important issues affecting veterans and Mexican Americans. The topics covered areas such as veterans' benefits, equal education, and the English only movement.  

In addition, Dr. Garcia set goals for the AGIF to accomplish during the year. 

The column "Message From the Founder" is Dr. Hector Garcia's narrative of his hopes for his people and his organization. These columns discuss the work of the AGIF in Dr. Hector's words. They are a history of the struggle of the Mexican American for social and political equity. The columns span a period of fifty years. They fall in these categories. The columns written from 1949 through 1961 are in the category the early years; 1963 through 1972 are in the civil rights revolution; 1984 through 1986 are in the glory years, and 1990 the last message.

The Early Years 1949 through 1961
After witnessing certain conditions in his travels, Dr. Garcia was convinced of the need for an organization that would advocate for the veteran. Dr. Garcia said: 

"There are veterans in that part of the country who do not even know there is such a thing as a service officer, who are totally ignorant of the benefits of the GI Bill of Rights-and what's worse those that do know do not attempt to help them! Our work lies largely in those territories where such conditions exist; there is much to be done in seeing that the lot of ALL veterans are improved if possible."

During the early years, Dr. Hector focused on building his organization. He cultivated the concept of the AGIF being a family organization. Therefore, he gave the women and youth a role within the organization by creating the Ladies Auxiliary and the Junior G.I. Forum. Dr. Hector gave women and the youth equal standing with the veterans by giving them the right to vote and to elect officers. My father's mantra was "one person one vote."

The dates of the National conferences coincided with national holidays so it would be easy for families to attend the conferences. Papa's strategy was to include everyone. During the conferences, Papa recognized everyone for their accomplishments. Sometimes the recognition went on for hours, but my father felt it was important to give everyone his or her due. Tony Canales, Dr. Hector's nephew, recalled, "I remember meetings would last all day and all night because he would introduce everybody." Papa wished to remain a positive and constructive force within the AGIF. Therefore, he never became involved in the AGIF internal politics, but remained above the fray focusing on the larger issues outside the organization. 

One year after the founding of the AGIF in March 1948, Dr. Hector broadened the scope of the AGIF mission to embrace not only veterans' issues, but also social conditions facing the veterans and their families. Dr. Garcia wrote, "We must constantly strive to improve the social, economic and welfare conditions of the veterans and their families." 

The American G.I. Forum held The First Annual Convention on September 24 - 25, 1949 at the Plaza Deck Hotel, Corpus Christi, Texas. Dr. Hector Garcia's message in the convention booklet dealt with veterans' issues and growth of the AGIF. He set the goal of the establishment of 50 new chapters of the AGIF during 1949. 

The American G.I. Forum First Annual Convention, September 24 - 25, 1949 Plaza Deck Hotel, Corpus Christi, Texas
Dr. Garcia traced the progress made by the Forum 1 year after the founding of the organization:
Established trade and academic schools in fifteen cities; 
Successfully lobbied for representation in the draft boards;
Taken the initiative in the elimination of such-un-American practices as the segregation of citizens of Mexican extraction;
Sponsored back-to school drives in various sections of Texas; 
Involved in civic duties and contributed to all worthy community funds. 
Initiated pay-your-poll tax campaigns in every town and city where Forums are established. 

Dr. Garcia emphasized that veterans "should stick together and resolve to make the AGIF the strongest veterans' organization in Texas."

We forward in time to the fourth Annual AGIF Convention held in 1959, ten years after its founding. Dr. Hector's focus is still on expansion. Dr. Garcia acknowledges the significant contributions of the ladies auxiliary and the youth groups to the organization. In this convention booklet Dr. Hector begins to use his trademark closing statement "Que Dios los bendiga."

Fourth Annual Convention 1959 Swiss Gardens Holgate, Ohio
The fourth group in the history of The AGIF was organized in Port Clinton, Ohio on December 12, 1954. Today with chapters all over the State of Ohio, it is recognized as an important factor and force in the State of Ohio. 

The G.I. Forum has done magnificent work, however without the help and inspiration of the Ladies Auxiliary and the Junior G.I. Forum their efforts would have been in vain. 

We must organize other towns like Cleveland, Akron, Dayton, etc. We must carry the AGIF to other groups and other towns. Let us expand East, West and South. 

The whole expansion program of the AGIF depended on the work and action of the Ohio Forum in 1954. It is because of their work and efforts that we are well established in the Midwest and Northeast. Your National Chairman Founder salutes you, greets you, and wishes you congratulations on your Anniversary Convention. "Que Dios Los Bendiga Y Sigan Adelante."

By the dawn of the 1960's decade, Mexican Americans made political strides. The 1960ies found Mexican Americans appointed to federal positions and elected to the U.S. Congress and state offices, largely through the efforts of the AGIF. Dr. Hector was pleased by the progress the AGIF made. In this congratulatory note to the AGIF of Ohio, he lists the many victories of his organization in the push to obtain social equity for Mexican Americans. 

Congratulations To The AGIF Of Ohio On Their 1961 Convention
The year of 1960 has been one of the best years for the Americans of Mexican origin. We are proud that this year has brought us special recognition that we never had. This is directly attributed to the work that our group has done and especially the work of the AGIF of Ohio.

We have federal judges, we have ambassadors, we have assistant State Dept. officials, and we have Senators and Congressmen. Their names are Garzas, Telles, Chavez, Montoya, Carreons and Garcias. The AGIF is greatly responsible for this achievement.

Let these victories be but the beginning of many years of further victories, recognitions and requests. We will have many more important positions by 1964. We will have obstacles and heartbreaks, but when the clouds clear, we will be bathing in the sun of victory and greatness. Buena suerte que Dios los bendiga.

Next issue, 1963 through 1972 the Civil Rights Revolution

Text from the First AGIF Convention booklet:

50 New Forum Chapters Goal for 1949, Dr. Hector P. Garcia Says: 

The establishment of 50 new chapters of the American GI Forum during 1949 is the goal of the local (and original) American GI Forum, Dr. Hector P,. Garcia, president stated this week.

Reviewing the past years activities, Dr. Garcia emphasized that veterans "should stick together and resolve to make the American GI Forum the strongest veterans organization in Texas."

Dr. Garcia whose dynamic personality and leadership has earned him the following of some 10,000 war veterans in some 12 cities, emphasized that he would continue to work toward the expansion of the Forum "despite the criticism of some elements and at time poor health."

The Forum has gained almost statewide proportions since the first chapter was organized here in April, 1948

Reporting on conditions as hw saw them in such West Texas towns as Lubbock and Big Spring, where Forums were organized last year, Dr. Garcia said.

Thre are veterans in that part of the country who do not even know there is such a thing as a service officer, who are totally ignorant of the benefits of the GI Bill of Right and what's worse those that do know do not attempt to help them!"

"Our work lies largely in those territories were such conditions exist, there is much to be done in seeing that; the lot of ALL the veterans is improved if possible."

Dr. Garcia traced the progress made by the Forum its inception. The Forum, he said, has established trade and academic schools in fifteen towns, has successfully lobbied for representation in the draft boards, has taken the initiative in the elimination of such-un-American practices as segregation of citizens of Mexican extraction.

Also, he said, the Forum has ?really started somethin" in sponsoring back-to-school drives in various sections of Texas; has taken part in civic duties and contributed ot all worthy community funds.

Another important phase of the Forum program was uncapped the first of the year when pay-your-poll tax campaigns were pushed in every town and city where Forums are established, he concluded.

He expressed satisfaction at the progress made but warned against letting up, adding that "we must constantly strive to improve the social; economic and welfare condition of the veterans and their families".

In the last 25 years only two four-year medical schools have been opened in the United States. Paul L. Foster School of Medicine in El Paso, Texas became the second,  thanks to the effort of Dr. Jose Manuel de la Rosa.

Dr. Jose Manuel de la Rosa and the Paul L. Foster School of Medicine
By Margarita Velez

“El Paso is not behind rather; El Paso is ahead of the rest of the country in regards to addressing border health needs.  We are alone out here, isolated geographically, financially, and culturally, and we get more done here than anywhere else.”    Dr. Jose Manuel de la Rosa .

Dr. Jose Manuel de la Rosa is the Founding/Regional Dean for the Paul L. Foster School of Medicine at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in El Paso .  A native of El Paso , Dr. de la Rosa attended parochial schools, and graduated from Cathedral High School and Notre Dame University .  He also graduated from Texas Tech University medical and residence schools.  

“When I first signed up for medical school; we didn’t have a whole lot of money; I wasn’t the smartest person in the world, so I didn’t have scholarships.  I signed up for the National Health Science Corps, where you can get an Army captain’s salary, a stipend to live on, and the NHSC paid for all my books and supplies, in return I had to go wherever they sent me.”   

After graduation from Texas Tech Medical School , Dr. de la Rosa interviewed in a number of places, and while in Chicago , he was asked one question, “Do you speak Romanian?”  His negative response ended the interview.  Returning in El Paso , he asked the Texas Tech Director of Admissions, “Why would they fly me across the country and ask only one question?” She said, “What are you doing in Chicago , you belong here.”  Within two months, de la Rosa was hired by Centro Medico Del Valle, a NHSC site in Fabens, Texas , a few miles east of El Paso .   

“I graduated as a fully trained physician, and they (NHSC) were going to send to me Fabens, pues que suave!”  Dr. de la Rosa says with a smile. “I did my three years in Fabens, where I would get visiting residents and medical students, and I would talk to them about the colonias, and teach them about pediatrics.”  Colonias are rural communities found in Texas , New Mexico , Arizona and California which often lack the basic necessities like running water, electricity, and paved roads.  Texas has the most colonias, with close to 3,000 located along the state’s 1,250 mile border with Mexico .    

While serving in Fabens, a group of nursing students from UTEP was brought out for a rotation.  “At that time I was serving the community in a little trailer, which the students thought that it was rather quaint.”  After working with the colonias residents, Dr. de la Rosa became a spokesman for them as they sought city water rights.  He also spoke for them in the discussion for the Texas Colonias Water Rights Bill.  

After his three year obligation with NHSC, Dr. de la Rosa stayed in Fabens and worked with a Kellogg Foundation that taught nurses, doctors, social workers, anthropologists how to work in the rural areas.  After ten years, the Kellogg funding ended, and the Centro Medico del Valle began running the clinics.  When the Centro Medico del Valle ran into financial difficulties, the clinics were taken over by UTEP and Texas Tech.  Today, Texas Tech still runs the Community Partnership Clinics.  

“I got good solid training at Texas Tech, but it didn’t prepare me for practicing on the border.  I had seen patients coming over with their medicine from Juarez, but as a clinician I had never thought that patients could get some of the prescriptions filled in Juarez for a dollar.”  The Fabens clinics stayed open late, but by the time the doctor saw a patient and gave him a prescription, the local pharmacies were closed.  Patients were used to making the trip across the border to the Mexican pharmacists, who filled it for less.   

Dr. de la Rosa, “Little by little, I started going over to Caseta, across the border from Fabens, and getting to know the Mexican system.  I would work with a doctor who was doing his ‘servicío social’ in Caseta, down the river, and in all sorts of other places.  Once I got to know that system, I got very involved in the public health system.”   

Dr. de la Rosa says the Kellogg experience helped him to learn about border health.   “Infectious disease doesn’t recognize borders,” he says, and described how he designed an experimental curriculum in community medicine.  That curriculum became a model for national teaching efforts in cultural sensitivity, cultural awareness, and cultural competence in medicine.   

After being named Regional Dean for the School of Medicine at TTUHS Center-El Paso, Dr. de la Rosa says, “I saw the needs of the community and knew that the answer lay in bringing the school to El Paso .” He set a goal to bring a full-fledged four year medical school campus. He admits that at first his staff and others in the community expressed doubt about his plan. But, he convinced everybody, and ten years later, Dr. de la Rosa who made the dream come true, credits many people in the community for joining in the effort to make the school a reality.  He says contributions came in many forms; from the people who donated the land for the school, to the foundations and hospitals that made donations that demonstrated the community’s commitment, to the nurses who pooled their resources to endow a chair.  Paul Foster of the El Paso based Western Refinery donated fifty million dollars for the school that now bears his name.   

In February 2008, the Liaison Committee for Medicine Education, the nationally recognized authority for medical education programs that lead to M. D. degrees in the U. S. and Canada , accredited the Paul L. Foster School of Medicine.  The school will enroll the first four year class in 2009.   Already, the school boasts several endowed chairs, and Dr. de la Rosa envisions more in the future.     

In 2005, Dr. de la Rosa was appointed by President Bush to serve on the U. S. – Mexico Health Commission.  “The Commission allows me to forge alliances not only with El Paso , but all along the border, and understanding the different systems.   One of the things we’re working with now is forging relationships between universities, exchanging residents and students whether it’s Arizona Sonora , El Paso – Ciudad. Juarez; Nuevo Leon , Tamaulipas, and UT San Antonio and Pan American.  So the Border Health Commission has been a good opportunity to really explore getting communication going.” Dr. de la Rosa is an active participant in community based research for the study on H. Pylori infection in children along the US-Mexico border. 

Dr. de la Rosa, a husband and father of six children, is an excellent role model who speaks quietly but has much to say.  When asked what advice he would give a student entering high school, he thought for a moment before responding.  “I would say ‘Read everything you can, take all the hard subjects, like Calculus, and learn to speak Spanish.’”  He says speaking Spanish helped him in treating patients in the colonias and continues to serve him in his role with the US – Mexico Border Health Commission.   

Dr. de la Rosa serves on many medical associations including the Texas Pediatric Society and the Texas Medical Association’s Council on Medical Education.  He serves on various advisory committees at the University of Texas at El Paso .  

When asked what he envisioned for the Paul Foster School of Medicine in ten years, Dr. de la Rosa’s face lit up, “We will have grown to seven or ten schools, and will become a Health Science Center in El Paso .”  With Dr. de la Rosa at the helm, there is no doubt that he will turn that vision into a reality.   

The city of El Paso has less than 1 million residents, the majority Hispanic.  But with its close neighbor Juarez, the El Paso region is one of the world’s largest border communities with 2.6 million people.


             Ribbon Cutting Marks Monumental Milestone  
January, 2006
On January 31, 2006, supporters of Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso School of Medicine proudly gathered for a ribbon cutting ceremony for Medical Science Building I- the first of three buildings comprising the four-year medical school.  After the Ribbon Cutting Ceremony, guests toured the facility and were introduced to  the new face of medical technology, science and research Medical Science Building

El Paso, Texas  79904  

Proprietor Brown Eyed Girl Books & More                                2001 - Present
Retired – Regional Director -  
U. S.
Senator Phil Gramm 1985-2002 

Born and educated in El Paso, Margarita has been involved in many agencies and activities throughout the El Paso. 

Paso del Norte Health Foundation, Past Ch Northeast Community Prayer Breakfast  
Blessed Sacrament Catholic Church
Wells Fargo Bank Advisory Committee  
Pres. Northeast Civic Leader’s Council 
Board, Mutual Savings Association 
President, El Paso Council of PTAs 
Secretary, Crime Stoppers of El Paso, Inc.

Northeast Citizen of the Year     1993
Adelante Mujer Hispana            1982
Nominated El Paso Women’s Hall of Fame  2001  

 Border Buster
Available at;, and
Chicken Soup for the Latino Soup  Available at; Stories from the Barrio and Other ‘Hoods Available at,,

Special thank you to  Jose Luis Hernandez  who suggested that Dr. de la Rosa's story should be told.  When I called Margarita Velez about writing the article, she said she knew Dr. de la Rosa and would be delighted to do so.  Thanks for sharing.


 Latest census information, May 1, 2008

Great Report . . .

Sent by Rafael Ojeda


Voter registration among Dallas County residents with Spanish surnames climbed in the first four months of 2008, records show. More than 7,500 residents with Hispanic last names registered to vote during that time, said Dallas County elections administrator Bruce Sherbet. At the current pace, newly-registered Spanish-surnamed voters could easily surpass the 8,000 voters with Hispanic last names who registered in all of 2007. Voter rolls are expected to soar through the Oct. 6, the cutoff for registering to vote in the November elections, Sherbet said. A presidential election year and "the dynamic candidates that we have" have boosted voter registration. Concerns about illegal immigration, the economy and the Iraq war also contributed, Sherbet said. "It is not just one thing you can point to," he said, "But those things adding up have caused this situation." Coalitions of groups have been working to increase citizenship and voter registration among immigrants.
Kirk Whisler

Many groups hailed the enactment today of a bipartisan bill to make the vision of a National Museum of the American Latino a reality. The Commission to Study the Potential Creation of the National Museum of American Latino Act of 2007 (S.500/H.R. 512) will establish a 23-member commission to study the potential creation of a national museum in Washington, D.C. dedicated to the art, culture, and history of the Latino Community in the United States. The Latino museum legislation signed by the President today was a part of the Consolidated Natural Resources Act of 2008.

"The Congress and the President have joined together to acknowledge that America's success would not be possible without the political, cultural and economic contributions of the Latino community," said Senator Robert Menéndez (D-NJ). "The National Museum of the American Latino Community is an idea that is overdue -- Latino culture, dreams and advancements are not outside but within the very fabric of American life, and I am delighted that we are working to share these proud traditions with the public."

"If progress is measured in baby steps, I think it's fair to say that the president's pen today has brought this important project into its adolescence. It is my hope that the commission will begin its work soon so that this vision, this dream, will further mature into full reality. It is truly an incredible day," Congressman Xavier Becerra (D-CA), the House author of the Commission to Study the Potential Creation of a National Museum of American Latino Act, said.

Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid said, "By enacting a bill that would bring us a step closer to honoring Latinos with a national museum in Washington, D.C., we helped bring long overdue recognition to the vital place that Latinos have in our national mosaic." 

"Today is a big day for the Latino community throughout the United States as we move forward to highlight the rich contributions of the community to American life in a national museum. The end result will be a more complete record of our past and a better experience for the 20 million visitors that come to our nation's capital to learn about our shared culture and history," said Senator Ken Salazar (D-CO). 

The bill sets up a 23-member commission charged with producing three things: 
" One, a national conference to bring stakeholders, experts, policymakers and other interested parties together to discuss the museum's viability; 
" Two, a fundraising plan to create an extensive public-private partnership; and 
" Three, a report to Congress detailing a recommended plan of action on how to move forward with taking the museum from concept to reality. 
All of this will happen within 24 months of the bill being signed into law. 


              Bush signs legislation for National Museum of the American Latino

NHMC Congratulates Xavier Becerra effort to secure Latino Cultural Legacy

The National Hispanic Media Coalition, the country's foremost American Latino media advocacy organization, joins citizens across the country today in congratulating Congressman Xavier Becerra (CA-31) for the passage of bill H.R.512. The bill, sponsored by Becerra and Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, in the House of Representatives, establishes a commission to study the feasibility of a National Museum of the American Latino and brings the nation one step closer to realizing the full vision of President Lyndon B. Johnson and others in recognizing Latino contributions to America's past, present and future. Thanks to the leadership of Majority Leader Harry Reid, Sen. Jeff Bingaman, Sen. Ken Salazar, Sen. Robert Menendez, Sen. Mel Martinez and their staff, this important legislation secures the opportunity to follow in the footsteps of the efforts that established the forthcoming Smithsonian Museum of African American History and Culture, and the extraordinary National Museum of the American Indian on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. "If progress is measured in baby steps, I think it's safe to say that the president's pen has brought this important project into its adolescence," explained Mr. Becerra, "It is my hope that the commission will begin its work soon so that this vision, this dream, will further mature into full reality. It is truly and incredible day."

Congressman Becerra, Assistant to the Speaker of the House, introduced this legislation during Hispanic Heritage Month in 2003. The measure, part of a larger legislative package, creates a 23-member bipartisan panel that will give the president and Congress recommendations about the scope of the project. Over a two-year period, the panel will consider the location, the cost of construction and maintenance, and the presentation of art, history, politics, business and entertainment in American Latino life. 

"It's taken Congressman Becerra nearly 5 years to get this bill signed which is a testament to his commitment to the American Latino community and the need to have a permanent place to showcase the contributions of Latinos throughout American history," said Alex Nogales, NHMC President & CEO. "American Latinos have contributed to this country by serving in all her wars, by engaging in business and sharing the unique music, art, food and culture that has created a strong and colorful influence on the fabric of the Unites States." Nogales continued, "This is truly a momentous occasion and we heartily thank Congressman Becerra for his leadership and tenacity throughout this important endeavor that has finally coming to fruition."

The National Hispanic Media Coalition is a non-profit, media advocacy organization established in 1986 in Los Angeles, California. With statewide chapters across the country, the NHMC works to improve the image of American Latinos as portrayed by the media, increase the number of American Latinos employed in all facets of the media industry, and to advocate for media and telecommunications policies that benefit the American Latino community. For more information about the NHMC please go to or call (626) 792-NHMC (6462). 

Sent by Dorinda Moreno
Armando Rendon 


Why a Hispanic Veterans Museum?

Today, in 2008, there are more than 100,000 Hispanics serving on active duty in all branches of the U.S. Armed Forces. This includes dozens of commissioned officers and the first Hispanic woman general of the US Marine Corps commanding Marines at Camp Pendleton in San Diego, CA. 
The reasons so many Hispanics join the military are varied, but patriotism and professional opportunities are at the top of the list. Both men and women are dedicating their lives to preserve our freedom and we seek to honor them by building this museum to share their accomplishments and sacrifices to keep our nation free. 
For all these accomplishments, and many more, Hispanic military veterans deserve special recognition for their unselfish deeds in defending you and me! 


News Release
May 21, 2008
Former Museo Alameda Director Joins
National Hispanic Veterans Museum
The former director of the Museo Alameda del Smithsonian, Laura Esparza, has volunteered to join the board of directors of the National Hispanic Veterans Museum in San Antonio .
Ms. Esparza believes this museum must be built to preserve our strong Hispanic history. She added, “The legacy of the Latino men and women who have served this country is undeniable. We need to tell their stories to a broad audience to do justice to the greatness of their gift.”
Esparza also has personal reasons for wishing to see this veteran’s museum built. Her dad was a WWII veteran who was at Iwo Jima .  Also, her uncle is a retired career officer with the U.S. Air Force. But her roots go back to the Alamo, as Laura’s great-great-great-great grandfather, Gregorio Esparza, died at the Battle of the Alamo . She is descended from his wife Ana and her four children, who survived. 
Laura is currently building a museum in Austin in the home of Susannah Dickinson, dedicated to the memory of the women and children who survived the Battle of the Alamo .
The former Museo Alameda director has also been a museum consultant and organizer for numerous years. She has conducted museum workshops for the Smithsonian Institution and the California Association of Museums. Laura has also been the vice president of the board for the California Association of Museums.
As the founding Artistic Director for the Mexican Heritage Plaza , a $35 million cultural complex in San Jose , CA , she was responsible for the design development of a 6.2-acre cultural facility, including a professional theater, a museum, and the facilities’ public art.
Esparza holds Bachelor and Master of Arts degrees, as well as numerous certificates regarding her work with museums, cultural institutions and colleges. She is currently the Division Manager of Cultural and Arts Division for the City of Austin, TX.
The National Hispanic Veterans Museum has also launched its new website:
The National Hispanic Veterans Museum is a 501(C)(3) Nonprofit Organization. IRS certification is pending. The board plans to have this modern museum completed by 2011/12. The museum is based on research for the book, “Hispanic Military Heroes”, written by San Antonio native, former journalist, Executive Director,Virgil Fernandez.
P.O. Box 12206     San Antonio 78212    512-297-3731



Anniversary of Illegal Immigration - May 6 , 1882 
Population Changes
New Resources for Military Families
FNS News: Migrant Mental Health Concerns Grow
Manifest Destinies: The Making of the Mexican American Race

Hispanic Link, Weekly Report, Vol 26 May 5, 2008
"Your News Source for 26 Years"

The total U.S. population is 301.6 million. Hispanics now comprise 15.1% of the U.S. population, the U.S. Census Bureau informed May 1. The Hispanic population is now 45.5 million, it estimates as of July 1, 2007. 

Blacks are the second largest group of color, 40.7 million. Asians follow with 15.2 million, American Indian and Alaska Natives, 4.5 million, Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders, 1 million. The non-Hispanic white population is 199.1 million.

GROWTH RATE: Hispanics were the fastest growing group of color. The community had a 3.3% increase in population between July 1, 2006 and July 1, 2007. Asians were second with a growth rate of 2.9%. The population of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders grew by 1.6%, blacks by 1.3%, and American Indians and Alaska
Natives by 1.0%. The non-Hispanic white population increased 0.3%.

STATE DISTRIBUTION: Hispanics are the largest group of color in 20 states. Blacks are the largest in 24 states. Hispanics exceed 500,000 in 16 states, while blacks exceed 500,000 in 20 states. Hispanics are mostly concentrated in California (13.2 million), Texas (8.6 million) and Florida (3.8 million).

The largest Latino population increase between 2006 and 2007 was in Texas (308,000), followed by California (268,000) and Florida (131,000).

The largest proportion of Latinos to the total population is in New Mexico (44%), California (36%) and Texas (36%).

Blacks are mostly concentrated in New York (3.5 million), Florida (3 million) and Texas (3 million). The largest black population increase between 2006 and 2007
was in Georgia (84,000), Texas (62,000) and Florida (48,000). The largest proportion of blacks to the total population is in Washington, D.C. (56%), Mississippi (38%) and Louisiana (32%).

MEDIAN AGE: Hispanic, 27.6, Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, 30.2, American Indian and Alaska Native, 30.3, black, 31.1, Asian, 35.4, white, 40.8. The national median age is 36.6. For more information, visit  A new survey found that VCR ownership by Hispanics increased from 17% in 1984 to 66% in 1987


New Resources for Military Families

Below are many new resources for military families.  Please share this information with those who can use it.  Iowa Federation of Families for Children's Mental Health does have 2500 video's of  "Military Youth Coping with Separation: When Family Members Deploy" addresses a variety of deployment-related concerns for teens. For elementary age children there is a "Mr. Poe and Friends Discuss Reunion After Deployment" DVD. 

'Sesame Street' Releases New Video
The furry denizens of "Sesame Street" are starring in a new program focusing on multiple deployments and family adjustments upon a parent's return. "Talk, Listen, Connect: Deployment, Homecoming, Changes"  is a new video workshop that aims to aid children in understanding and unbundling the tangle of complex emotions many feel in the midst of a mother's or father's
tour of duty away from home, and discusses the difficult subject of dealing with a parent's debilitating war injury. The DVD kit or downloadable video is available at the Military OneSource website . For more information, including downloadable materials, visit the Sesame Workshop website

To find more family resources visit the Military Spouse Network  .

Camp Addresses Children's Grief
Camp Magik is a Georgia-based camp for children who suffered the loss of a parent. The camp provides around-the-clock access to counseling, including addressing post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which often accompanies grief. At Camp Magik, children enjoy traditional camp activities such as hiking and canoeing while interacting with other children who have also lost a parent. There are three sessions a year with a limit of 50 children per camp. For more information, call  (404) 790-0140 or visit the Camp Magik  website.
More information and resources on PTSD  .

Videos Help Children Cope with Grief 
Military pediatricians and youth professionals developed videos and DVDs to help military children understand and deal with the emotions related to a family member's deployment. The video "Military Youth Coping with Separation: When Family Members Deploy" addresses a variety of deployment-related concerns for teens. For elementary age children there is
a "Mr. Poe and Friends Discuss Reunion After Deployment" DVD. Both videos are available for online viewing on the American Academy of Pediatrics Deployment Support website .
They are also available for ordering, in DVD format, through Military One Source at               1-800-342-9647  or at the Military One Source
website .

To find more family resources visit the Military Spouse Network  .

Lori Reynolds, Executive Director
Iowa Federation of Families for Children's Mental Health
Anamosa,  Iowa  52205

Sent by Willis Papillion


The State of Migrant Mental Health 
FNS News: Migrant Mental Health Concerns Grow
May 14, 2008, Health/Immigration News 

Immigration law crackdowns and the growth of anti-foreigner sentiment in the United States are translating into increased psychological problems for migrants, mental health professionals and community leaders say. "Hispanics live with fear. I see it every day in my clinic," said Tanya
Mundo, a therapist in Jefferson County near Denver, Colorado. "They are fearful of going out on the street and making use of their rights."

An August 2007 study by Patrick Steffen, associate professor of psychology at Brigham Young University, supports the observations made by Mundo. According to Steffen's study,
the fear of deportation or separation from loved ones results in anxiety, insomnia and depression. Lack of sleep, in turn, can lead to higher blood pressure and increase the risk of heart attack.

Sentimental dates or special days like the recent Mother's Day celebration can also trigger feelings of sadness, frustration and impotency. Separated by borders and travel restrictions, members of migrant families, especially individuals without papers, cannot easily visit relatives.
Grandparents and grandchildren come to know each other only through pictures or long-distance telephone calls. In many migrant families, anger, powerlessness and physical alienation arise from the denial of a travel visa at the US Embassy.

Although immigrants face an array of mental health issues because of their status in US society, few seek or receive any kind of professional help. According to the US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS),
only one in 20 Latino immigrants with mental health problems searches for help. Of those who do get assistance, only one in four receive adequate treatment, according to the DHHS.

Even though the need for mental health services in the Latino and immigrant communities is greater than ever, few Latino professionals work in the field.
In the United States, only 29 Latino mental health professionals exist for every 100,000 Latinos. In contrast, there are 173 mental health professionals for every 100,000 Anglo-Saxon residents of the country.

"The paradox is that at the same time the need is growing for Hispanic mental health professionals or at least culturally competent ones, due to the increasing number of Hispanics we see with mental health problems, very few of these professionals exist," Colorado therapist Mundo said.

Sources: Univision, May 10, 2008. La Voz de Nuevo Mexico/EFE, May 9, 2008.

Frontera NorteSur (FNS): on-line, U.S.-Mexico border news
Center for Latin American and Border Studies
New Mexico State University
Las Cruces, New Mexico

For a free electronic subscription email



by UNM Law Professor, Laura Gomez


Although criminal law and jury composition are not my primary fields of scholarship, I wanted to draw people's attention to the issue of Mexican origin persons on juries, which has surfaced in two recent important studies.

In the first, UNM law professor Laura Gomez has published MANIFEST DESTINIES: THE MAKING OF THE MEXICAN AMERICAN RACE (NYU Press, 2007). In it, among other things, she analyzes juries in occupied and territorial New Mexico. As one case study, she studied San Miguel County, the seat of which is Las Vegas, NM. The county (where NM Highlands University is located) was 12 % Anglo in 1880, and 80 % of grand jurors and 86 % of petit jurors were Mexican men. (at p. 89) She elaborates upon this in the book, of course, and in LEG, Race, Colonialism and Criminal Law: Mexicans and the American Criminal Justice System in Territorial New Mexico, 34 L. & Soc. Rev. 1129 (2000).

In a book that was published last week, my UH history colleague Raul A. Ramos published BEYOND THE ALAMO: FORGING MEXICAN ETHNICITY IN SAN ANTONIO, 1821-1861 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2008). This is another wonderful book on a very complex issue. But among other things, I was taken with his treatment of juror selection in Bexar County (San Antonio), which was, like territorial NM, overwhelmingly Mexican in early to mid-19th century (and today, for that matter). His data, attached in the pdf above, show the decline in jury service by Mexicans from over 90% in 1838 to lower than 10% in 1858. (at 194)

Earlier, I shared the 2004 study by Larry Karson, on Harris County juries, which were 7% Latino (Harris County is 28% Latino, mostly Mexican). It is posted on the Hernandez website.

When I speak about the Hernandez case, people regularly ask me about these densely Mexican-populated jurisdictions, and how they seated Mexicans on juries, and how Ft Bend and Jackson County, Texas-the Aniceto Sanchez and Hernandez venues, with 15% and 16% Mexican populations-differed. My answer is that there simply were not enough Anglos to go around in some of these overwhelmingly Latino counties, but even the 15-16% was not enough of a political tipping point to guarantee jury representativeness. This is, of course, part of a larger agenda of needed scholarship.

I pass these on, as bread on the water: that means, all of you have to send me this stuff as well.

Happy summer, Michael
Michael A. Olivas
University of Houston Law Center
Email:<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /


Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.


BORDER Documentary Raises 10K for Ramos and Compean Defense
Pacific War Hero Deserved Higher Honor 
Defend the Honor May 21, 2008 Newsletter
Policy Summit on Latino Higher Education 

May 6th Benefit Screening of "Border" Documentary 
Raises 10K for Ramos and Compean Families to Heighten Defense

Tuesday’s event at  L.A.’s Skirball Cultural Center featured a panel discussion on possible solutions to America’s failed immigration policy with Mexico              

     (Los Angeles, May 8, 2008)  Tuesday night’s screening of the new documentary BORDER at the Skirball Cultural Center in Brentwood, raised over $10,000 for the beleaguered families of jailed U.S. Border Patrol agents Ignacio Ramos and Joseph Compean.   KFI radio personalities Ken Chiampou and John Kobylt presented the check to T.J. Bonner, President of the National Border Patrol Council, which will earmark the funds directly to the legal defense of the agents. 

     Following the screening of the film which presents a disturbing portrait of how dangerous the U.S./Mexican border has become to both U.S. and Mexican citizens, Bonner joined BORDER filmmaker Chris Burgard, Tara Setmayer, communications director for U.S. Congressman Dana Rohrabacher and Somos Primos editor and chief, Mimi Lozano for a spirited debate on the current state of the border.

     When asked by Burgard how those who advocate border security can avoid being referred to as racists (a key problem in the on-going debate on securing the border), Lozano recommended that young Hispanics need to learn their own history and how it is so intertwined with that of non-Hispanics.  “How can you separate two cultures that are so much a part of each other? Lozano asked. “Through inter-marriage and assimilation over the centuries, Hispanics are related  to every racial and ethnic group in the country.  This isn’t a United States versus Mexico issue, it’s about getting the two governments together to realize how dangerous the border has become to both countries.”  

     Also attending the sold-out event were Mr. and Mrs. Jamiel Shaw, parents of slain high  school football star Jamiel Shaw, members of the executive board of the National Border Patrol Council and representatives from a number of immigration reform organizations.

(Contact: Steven Jay Rubin at (213) 300-1896)  



Guy Gabaldon (right) poses in a group that includes Japanese prisoners in 1944. U.S. Marine Corps  

National Public Radio  
Filmmaker: Pacific War Hero Deserved Higher Honor
by Richard Gonzales  
Listen Now
[6 min 41 sec] add to playlist  

Morning Edition, April 25, 2008 · In 1944, during the bloody fighting for control of the Western Pacific island of Saipan, Marine Pvt. Guy Gabaldon single-handedly captured more than 1,000 Japanese soldiers — a feat never before accomplished in U.S. military history. His secret weapon: the diminutive Mexican American spoke Japanese. Two years after his death, a documentary questions why he wasn't awarded a Medal of Honor.

Gabaldon learned Japanese growing up among Japanese Americans in East Los Angeles during the Depression.

"My ability to speak Japanese was very limited," Gabaldon told NPR in 2000. "But it wasn't difficult to say, 'Raise your hands and come on out.' At night I'd usually go to caves — Saipan is just full of caves — and I'd get to one side of the mouth of the cave and I'd say, 'You are completely surrounded. I've got a bunch of Marines here with me behind the trees. If you don't surrender, I'll have to kill you.' And usually it worked. Not always. I'd have to throw grenades in and kill. And I'd [capture] maybe 10 or 15, 20 [Japanese soldiers] at a time and one day I got 800."

Gabaldon died in 2006 at age 80. For his war service, he received the Silver Star, which later was upgraded to the Navy Cross. Now, as the memories of his heroics fade with time, the Pentagon is considering awarding him a posthumous Medal of Honor, the nation's highest military recognition. And a Hollywood filmmaker is releasing a new documentary about the World War II hero.

America first learned about Gabaldon in 1957 when he appeared on the popular television show This Is Your Life. That appearance turned the truck driver into an instant hero and Hollywood soon came knocking on his door.

In 1960, Gabaldon's story was turned into a feature film called Hell to Eternity. The movie featured some of the most realistic combat scenes shown up until that time. But it also took certain liberties with Gabaldon's story. The 5-foot-4-inch Marine was portrayed by 6-foot-1 actor Jeffrey Hunter.

"The biggest glitch in the movie is that Guy Gabaldon is portrayed as a Caucasian living with Japanese Americans," says filmmaker Steve Rubin, who has made a documentary about Gabaldon. "That was completely inaccurate. His Hispanic heritage, his ethnicity, his whole background, was obliterated and plays no reference in the movie."

Rubin was just a kid when he saw Hell to Eternity, but the story of the Marine who spoke Japanese always stuck with him. Years later, through a series of coincidences, Rubin met the man himself.

"I get a phone call at home around 8:30 at night and lo and behold it's Guy Gabaldon calling me!" Rubin says. "And he was very apologetic and he says I'm sorry to call you so late. And I just say 'Guy!' It's like hearing from Davy Crockett! I was just blown away that I was on the telephone with one of my childhood heroes."

The two men became friends and Rubin eventually produced a documentary about Gabaldon called East L.A. Marine. One of the central questions he asks is why Gabaldon was passed over for the Medal of Honor.

The Pentagon is reviewing the cases of about 80 Hispanic and Jewish-American World War II soldiers to determine whether they should be awarded the Medal of Honor. A spokesman confirms that Gabaldon is among them.

Related NPR Stories  ·       
Sep. 5, 2006 : Guy Gabaldon, 'Pied Piper of Saipan,' Dies at 80 
May 29, 2000 : 'Talk of the Nation:' A Multicultural View of War

             Defend the Honor Newsletter, May 21, 2008 

The mission of Defend the Honor is to create a greater awareness of the contributions of the Latino WWII generation.  Be sure and sign up to receive the Defend the Honor Newsletter with .

Mailing address: Defend the honor, P.O. Box 7907 Austin, TX78713

The articles in the May 21 issue include the following: 

Legacy of Valor : Patriotic Photo Mural Display 

Mexican Heritage Plaza from May 16-June 16, 2008
Hispanic Medal of Honor Society
50-foot display, 15 years in development will be at the 
Mexican Heritage Plaza, 1704 Alum Rock Avenue, San Jose, California 

It's a beautiful display and has been featured in major conferences. Learn about the 41 Hispanic Medal of Honor recipients from the Civil War to the Vietnam War and the six Navy ships named after Medal of Honor recipients.  
For more information, contact HMoHS,

 President Rick Leal at

Defenders and Offenders 
Nominations for Defenders and Offenders of the Honor are being sought. The purpose is to find those that have been outstanding in their efforts to defend the honor of Hispanics veterans who served during WWII.  In addition,  Defend the Honor wants to  compile a list of offenders.  Ken Burns naturally will be on the top of that list. Nominations will be taken through July 4th.   

A Latino Museum in DC?
The Bill to begin the process of establishing a Latino Museum another step closer to reality.  Don't sit back.  It is a far from being done.  Be sure and contact your U.S. Senators and Assemblyman/women. 
Cartoon Contest
The Southern California Defend the Honor group seeks to leverage the artistic creativity of our talented cartoonists.  The goal is to educate the public at large by showcasing cartoons that address the issues raised concerning the neglect, omission, distortions, and demeaning of the contributions of Latinos in the US Military Armed Forces.  The cartoons may be sent to you editor:

A book Club of our Own
Las Comadres Para Las Americas has teamed up with the ssociation of American Publishers and Borders to create a Latino book club that will meet at select Borders stores in eight states. The club will select and read an English-language book by a Latina or Latino

The 2008 selections are listed below.
June: A Handbook to Luck by Cristina Garcia (Vintage)
July: The King’s Gold by Yxta Maya Murray (HarperCollins)
August: Mexican Enough by Stephanie Elizondo Griest (Washington Square Press)
September: More Than This by Margo Candela (Fireside)
October: The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao by Junot Diaz (Riverhead)
November: The Gifted Gabaldon Sisters by Lorraine Lopez (Grand Central)
December: And Their Dogs Came With Them by Helena Maria Viramontes (Washington Square Press)

List of books sent by Armando Rendon, Ph.D.

Policy Summit on Latino Higher Education 
Policy Summit on Latino Higher Education that is being hosted by the University of New Mexico, in Albuquerque this coming June.  A cross section of community Hispanic and Latino Leaders are being invited to come together and address through four developed strands, the low graduation rates of Hispanic and Latino Students. One of the strand led by Tomas Arciniega and John Burkhardt from the University of Michigan, is on Immigration, the impact it is having on our students and education. All who are concerned about this issues are invited. Registration can be done on line. The website is:

For more information contact: Manuel Frias, Ph.D.
602-725-9009 or


Famous Hispanic Inventors - Top 10 Mexican Inventors
Google, LULAC, and the US Hispanic Chamber of Commerce 
Lulac and GM partner to create websites for LULAC councils across the nited States
Mexico Welcomes Spain's Business 
Axis of Global Inequality: Native and Immigrant Workers
Spanish Power Company to Invest $8 B in U.S. Renewable Energy
Hispanic-Owned Businesses Estimated to Reach at Least 2.2 Million in 2008
            Famous Hispanic Inventors - Top 10 Mexican Inventors

From birth control pills to color television Mexican inventors have contributed to creating many notable inventions.

HEP@NASA LaRC e-Newletter - May 2008
Sent by Debbie Martinez

             Items from Hispanic Business Newsletter: May 20, 2008 • Vol 4, Issue #291 
Spanish power corporation Iberdrola will invest 8 billion U.S. dollars in renewable energy in the United Sates between 2008 and 2010, the company said in a statement Sunday.
HispanTelligence estimates that existing trends support the projections of at least 2.2 million Hispanic-owned businesses generating close to 388.7 Billion Dollars in revenues in 2008 according to a new report released by Hispantelligence. With a compound annual growth rate of 9.1 percent over the last 5 years, Hispanic-owned businesses are increasingly impacting the overall U.S. Economy.



Google, LULAC, and the US Hispanic Chamber of Commerce 

May 16, 2008,  Washington, DC - Google, League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) and the United States Hispanic Chamber of Commerce (USHCC) joined this week to present a historic Spanish-language seminar geared to helping Hispanic small business owners access the latest Google tools that are being offered.

"We are very pleased to be a part of this monumental partnership with Google and the United States Hispanic Chamber of Commerce in using the latest Google tools. These new online tools will make it easier for small businesses to prosper," said LULAC National Executive Director Brent Wilkes. "The tools offered by Google have opened new avenues for Hispanic small businesses to connect and better serve their customers in ways that we could not have imagined a decade ago."

"We are really excited to have this opportunity to work with LULAC and US Hispanic Chamber members to reach out specifically to Hispanic small business leaders and help them take advantage of Google tools to expand their customer base and businesses. Google is committed to helping small businesses prosper on the Internet, and we
place tremendous value on our relationships with them," said Bob Boorstin, Google's Washington director of policy communications.

Google 101 was the first presentation conducted in any language other than English to take place in Google's new Washington, DC office, which opened January 2008.  The objective of the seminar was to demonstrate useful tools Google offers entrepreneurs to become more efficient and attract new clients through their web sites.

"Over two-thirds of Hispanic households are online, and this is double the amount in 2001," said Augustine Martinez USHCC President and CEO. "Clearly, the Hispanic community is gaining ground on the digital divide.  The USHCC partnered with Google
and LULAC for this important event to help further educate our community on ways to enhance their online experience, be it as consumers or businesses."

The Google Washington office officially opened in January, 2008 and this presentation represents the office's first Spanish-language presentation. To receive a free copy of the video presentation, please submit a request to Galen Panger at  Lizette Jenness Olmos, LULAC (202) 365-4553

Lulac and GM partner to create websites for LULAC councils across the United States
May 15, 2008: Over 700 individual web sites have been created to provide Latino communities with information about programs and activities available through local LULAC councils

Washington, DC - The League of United Latin American Citizens is proud to announce a partnership with General Motors that will enable LULAC councils to disseminate information about their programs and activities to Latino communities across the United States through
customized websites.

The new service will enable LULAC to provide local councils with a set of easy-to-use Internet tools for developing and managing centrally-branded, localized Web sites. Latinos in need of LULAC programs and services will be able to access web sites featuring programs, services, events, news, membership information, photo albums and helpful links. In addition each web site will include content from the LULAC National Office and General Motors Corporation and its eight divisions Chevrolet, Buick, Pontiac, GMC, Saturn, HUMMER, Saab and Cadillac.

"General Motors generous donation to LULAC will enable LULAC Councils to provide a new avenue of communication with Latino communities in need of our programs and assistance," stated LULAC National Executive Director Brent Wilkes. "The 700 customized web sites that we have created through GM's support constitute an unparalleled network of community web sites serving the needs of Latinos across the country."

"GM is proud to partner with LULAC on the creation of a website template that will make communication faster and easier for LULAC district councils across America," said Rod Gillum, GM Vice President, Corporate Responsibility and Diversity. "GM also appreciates the opportunity each new website gives us to share information about our products, and strengthen relationships we have developed with LULAC members for more than 20 years."

LULAC contracted with Convio to create the back end databases which power the 700 LULAC council websites and enable the councils to make changes to the sites using simple web based forms.
Contact: Lizette Jenness Olmos
(202) 833-6130 ext. 16

Mexico Welcomes Spain's Business 
Commerce News, May 15, 2008

In recent years, Spanish businesses have invested large amounts of capital in the Mexican tourism, banking, media and other economic sectors. Spain was honored as the invited country at this year's San Marcos National Fair in Aguascalientes.

US federal banking regulators have given the go-ahead to a multi-state bank merger pursued by the Spain-based Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentina, S.A. (BBVA).  The deal will fold the long-established Laredo National Bank (LNB) which was once controlled by Mexican billionaire Carlos Hank Rhon, into the BBVA-owned Compass Bank. The Spanish company purchased Compass Bancshares for $9.12 billion in 2007.

Two other banks, State National Bank and Texas State Bank, will also become part of the expanded Compass Bank. Once the merger is finalized by the end of 2008, Compass will count on 593 branches in Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Texas, Alabama, and Florida.

Operating with 40 branches across Texas, LNB's $3.5 billion in assets, which include important trust funds headquartered in the border city of Laredo, will help bring Compass' asset portfolio to $58.6 billion. A large international firm, BBVA has $700 billion in total assets. The US merger will expand the range of financial services offered to clients in various states. "We're getting additional products that we've not had in the past, which will be very good for customers," said Edward Whitworth, LNB chairman.

BBVA is far from alone among Spanish banks in its forays into the US market. Santander, Caja Madrid, Banco Popular and Banco Sabadell all have acquired interests in the US. Luring Spanish capitalists back to North America are a variety of economic factors including the weak dollar, the growth of Latino populations and buy-out opportunities arising from the collapsing financial structure connected to subprime mortgage crisis.

"The appreciation of the euro is a very important factor and also the fact that Miami is a key financial center for Latin America and the US Hispanic market," said David Schwartz, president of the Florida International Bankers Association and vice-president of the Regions Bank Financial Corporation. The current international economic situation is favoring Spanish banks in the US, said Fernando Perez-Hickman, president of the
Trans-Atlantic Bank, which was acquired by Sadabell Atlantico last year.

A May 16 Houston meeting of the Spain-US Council is expected to discuss investment possibilities for Spanish banks in this country.

Frontera NorteSur (FNS): on-line, U.S.-Mexico border news
Center for Latin American and Border Studies
New Mexico State University
Las Cruces, New Mexico
For a free electronic subscription email:


 Axis of Global Inequality: Native and Immigrant Workers
Guest Columnist: William I. Robinson

Source: Vol 26, No. 19 May 12, 2008
Interim Editor: Charlie Erickson

The division of the global labor force into immigrants and citizens is a major new axis of inequality worldwide. Securing a politically and economically suitable supply of labor has been a major challenge for capital throughout its 500-year history. In earlier epochs, this was accomplished through such institutions as the transatlantic slave trade and colonialism or the imposition of rigid caste systems.

In this new epoch of globalization, transnational capital is coming to depend increasingly on spontaneous flows of immigrant workers who are denied the rights of citizenship.
The late 20th century began a period of massive new migrations worldwide. A low-end estimate by the United Nations placed the number of immigrant workers in 2005 at some 200 million, double the number from 25 years earlier. As countries and regions have
integrated into global capitalism, hundreds of millions of people have been uprooted from the land, expelled from national economies and thrust onto an increasingly globalized labor market.

In other words, the transnational circulation of capital induces the transnational circulation of labor. Supplying global capital with immigrant labor is now a multibilliondollar industry. Globally organized networks of "migration merchants,"
or usurious middlemen, provide a full range of legal and illegal services needed for migration, including the supply of passports, visas, work permits, cash advances, safe houses, above ground and clandestine transport, border crossing by coyotes, and
employment opportunities in countries of destination.

Their fees can add up to tens of thousands of dollars and place the transnational migrant in a situation of indentured servitude for many years. Once they arrive at their destinations, undocumented immigrants join the ranks of a super-exploitable labor force available for transnational corporations, local employers, and native middle classes.
Most people associate these new "untouchables" with the United States and Western Europe. But the use of immigrant labor goes beyond the North-South divide. Intense transnational corporate activity, wherever it takes place in the new global economy - from the factories along China's southern coastal belt to the South African mines and farms, the Middle East oil meccas and Costa Rica's service industry - becomes a magnet drawing in immigrant workers.

Wherever these workers end up, they face the same conditions: relegation to low-paid, low status jobs, the denial of labor rights, political disenfranchisement, state repression, racism, bigotry and nativism.

The super-exploitation of an immigrant workforce would not be possible if that workforce had the same civil, political and labor rights as citizens, if it did not face the insecurities and vulnerabilities of being undocumented or "illegal." It is the status of being non-citizen/undocumented, and therefore deportable, that transnational capital and local elites must reproduce if they want to assure a controllable super-exploited labor

It is crucial to see, therefore, that state controls over immigrant labor and the denial of civil, political and other citizenship rights to immigrant workers are intended not to prevent but to control the transnational movement of labor and to lock that labor into a situation of permanent insecurity and vulnerability. In sum, the maintenance and strengthening of state controls over transnational labor creates the conditions for "immigrant labor" as a distinct category of labor in relation to capital. The creation of these distinct categories ("immigrant labor") becomes central to the global capitalist economy, replacing earlier direct colonial and racial caste controls over labor worldwide. The struggle of immigrant workers is therefore at the cutting edge of popular struggles worldwide against the depredations of global capitalism.

(William I. Robinson is Professor of Sociology, Global and International Studies, and Latin American Studies, at the University of California at Santa Barbara. His latest book, Latin America and Global Capitalism, will be published in the fall of 2008. He may be
reached by e-mail at


June Graduate
Road Ahead, Commencement Address by Dr. Richard Tapia
Out Before the Game Begins
'First teachers' go to class


Spring Commencement, May 16, 2008

Sarah Marie Acuña pictured with Texas A&M University-Kingsville 
President Dr. Rumaldo Juarez and State Senator Eddie Lucio.


Dear Friends, Yesterday I received a beautiful gift and day from the Lord. I got to see my first grand daughter, Sarah Marie Acuna graduated from the local University Texas A&M @ Kingsville.  Sarah graduated Summa Cum Laude with a Bachelor of Arts in Political Science. She has accepted a $56,000 Graduate Diversity Fellowship to continue her education at the Bush School of Government and Public Service at Texas A&M University-College Station.

17 out of  37 Summa Cum Laude grads were Hispanic; 24 out of 40 were Magna Cum Laude, and 27 of 47 were Cum Laude

This says a lot from the time many of us graduated. Our Lord is magnificent.  A good reminder that a
lot of our youth are not as portrayed in the media.
Raul Garza

About Sarah Marie Acuna:
1) Just turned 22 on 7th May
2) Jr.High…Varsity volleyball…Cheerleader
3) A Gymnast from age 8 until a Freshman in HS.  8 ft. fall when she missed a bar in a  tournament in Dallas, Tx.  Received crack on her back. Pediatrician recommended that she end her gymnastic career.  She had made All State in Gymnastics League. 
4) High school…Cheerleader 4 yrs.  All American Cheerleader Jr. & Sr. year.  
5) Jr. Year…Leadership Seminar in Wash, DC & Chicago, Ill.
6) University… Cheerleader Freshman yr. Voluntarily dropped at end of season because of back sprain over the cracked back.  She also advised sponsor at the time she was from a one parent family and needed to work and concentrate on her studies. The sponsor thanked Sarah and told her if she decided to come back anytime during her college career she had a place without another tryout.
7) Jr. Year attended one summer semester at Oxford University in London, England.
8) Sr. Year…asked by University of Colorado to be a Student Counselor for  for their Leadership Seminars; also attended the Lyndon B. Johnson Politcal Science School for one session at Texas University @ Austin, Tx. Finally, the last semester of her Sr.Year attended a session at the University in the Capital City of India.  She was one of six students chosen from the Local University.|
9) May 16, 2008, Sarah Marie Acuna graduated fromTexas A & M @          Kingsville (TAMUK) with a BA Degree in Political Science. Sarah graduated SUMMA CUM LAUDE.

Sarah is a product of the Kingsville Independent School District and  the Local University.   Several Universities offered Sarah a scholarship for her Master's Degree, amongst them Texas U.@ Austin, Texas and Texas A &M @ College Station @ (Bryan, Texas).  Sarah has chosen to go to A & M For her Master's. 

Gracias Mil, Raul G. Garza     


Road Ahead

Claremont Graduate University
Commencement Address

May 17, 2008

      Richard Tapia, Ph.D.  


Claremont Graduate University administration, faculty, graduating students, family and friends it is a pleasure and an honor to share this day with you. We are all proud of you, the graduating students, and congratulate you on your accomplishments. This is a good time to pause, celebrate, and reflect. Reflection is important. It will help prepare you for future decisions and will help you to guide those that come after you. In our few minutes together I will share with you things that I have learned from my own life, and believe that you should know. Now, you may already know many of these things, but you may not know that you know them.

I am a Chicano (Mexican American) and a mathematician. My mother came from Mexico to Los Angeles at the age of eleven, entrusted with the care of her 10 year old sister. They came alone. My father came from Mexico with his two older brothers at the age of seven. My parents told me that they came to the United States in search of education for themselves and hopefully for future children. Times were tough, they had to support themselves, and were not able to graduate from high school. However, their educational dreams were fulfilled through their children, out of five, four of us have graduate degrees, albeit, two of us are lawyers. My father taught the value of inclusion-he loved everyone and they loved him. My mother taught me that pride in being Mexican American, hard work, and education can take you any place you want to go. She was aware that her message was in contrast to more widely held beliefs in our community and spent a good amount of time dealing with this conflict, helping us to maintain our pride and belief that we could: si se puede. I used to think that she was rather naïve with this belief, but I have learned that she was right. I tell you today -mothers are always right. My family was my support system.

You are here today in part because of your support system; your family, your friends, the faculty. Graduation is an important opportunity to formally acknowledge this support system and let them share with you the joy and satisfaction of your accomplishments. Formal ceremonies and celebration are wonderful parts of life. They give us closure, a time to reflect, and a time to appreciate. Forty years ago when I received my PhD from UCLA, it was the late 60's and some of us thought that we should forego graduation ceremonies. I was very wrong, as my wife has been telling me for all these years. So, it is with great pleasure that today I become an honorary member of the Claremont Graduate School PhD class of 2008, and acknowledge my wife who is here to share this experience with me. I am proud to have as honorary class mates the distinguished Robert Merton and the distinguished Sheila Widnall.

Your must realize by now that your entire life consists of a sequence of tasks, one right after the other-high school, undergraduate school , graduate school, and career development. Moreover, each subsequent task is much less structured and therefore offers more challenge and requires more original thought and creativity ; intelligence alone is not sufficient. Yet with each step comes the opportunity for a broader impact.

As you move through these tasks of life, do not expect the balance of good and bad, or success and adversity, to be uniformly distributed across the population. The statement -I have had my bad, now comes my good - is at the very best, wishful thinking.

My wife Jean and I were married while I was a sophomore at UCLA. She had just graduated from high school. Our daughter, Circee, was born when I was a junior. Since we were young parents the three of us grew up together. Jean's passion was dance and mine was math. Jean danced in various Hollywood shows and with several companies. Circee acquired a passion for dance and academics. I received a PhD from UCLA the same year that our son Richard was born. The four of us went off to the University of Wisconsin Madison and then to Rice University in Houston, Texas to conquer the world.

We had more than our share of successes in Houston. Jean had a very successful dance studio, I received tenure in record time, Circee was a dance and academic star and danced with a company in New York before returning to Houston to study at Rice. In 1977 Jean was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis and in 1979 with myasthenia gravis. She had to give up her studio and navigate life from a wheelchair. Three years later, Circee was killed in an automobile accident. Jean said that these were three strikes for her and she was out.-her life was over. Finally, I convinced her that she still had much to contribute. She started an exercise program for people in wheelchairs called "Coming Back" and won national recognition for her work. Our daughter Becky came into our life at this time and contributed to setting the mood for the comeback.

I was the first Hispanic elected to the prestigious National Academy of Engineering, I was appointed to the National Science Board by President Clinton, and I was appointed to the position of University Professor at Rice University, only the sixth person to be so honored in the history of the school. Both Jean and I would trade these awards and honors, and she would suffer multiple sclerosis many times over, just to have Circee back with us. 

But we do not have that choice. Our only choice is to give up or play the hand that we were dealt. The choice is easy. Life has its strange twists. I am now on expert on things that I really never wanted to know about, like wheelchairs and how to travel with a person in a wheelchair. 

I share this personal story to tell you this: when you encounter obstacles and adversity, learn to look both ways. Your challenge is to handle adversity. Prosperity is quite easy to handle. Remember that failure is a part of every successful person's life. 

True success is not the education that you have, but what you do with this education. It is not the hand that you are dealt, but how you play it. At each stage of your life and career, continue to dream and work to make your dreams come true, but learn to cope and still enjoy life if they do not come true.

I have now been on the Rice faculty for almost four decades and have been involved in addressing inequities, both for women and underrepresented minorities at all levels-university, state and nation-for literally all of those years. I did not plan on doing this-it was just something that had to be done, and I knew that I could help. Nowhere does the job description of a Rice mathematician include this work. And for most of you, your job description won't say, "make the world a better place". Yet I implore you to care about this and do a part to solve current critical societal and educational problems. Realize that we, the United Sates, no longer set the bar on national well being including , protection of the environment, health care, and public K-12 education; indeed we share the bottom with a host of third world nations . 

Our national image has deteriorated world wide to an unprecedented low level. Whether or not we won the war, all must agree that we have paid a huge price in losing the peace, we could have done a much better job.

Violence today is at a frightening level. Drugs, disrespect, anger, and hate are the characteristics of the times. Little by little we have let TV, the media, and the internet define the value system for today's youth. As a nation we can not let this continue? Yes, you will be the leaders of tomorrow, but this youth will be the leaders of the day after tomorrow. To not care, to not speak out , to not reach back would be the most unpatriotic action you could perpetrate upon your country..

On health care and violence I share the following personal story. Diana , a Mexican American single mother , cleaned our house for us once a week . I befriended her son Fernando, who was going to high school part time. I convinced him to go to school full time and move on to college. He helped me around the yard and with my show cars. He was quite smart Diana was diagnosed with stomach cancer, she had no health insurance, and by the time she could be seen at a free clinic, it was too late; she died at the age of 35 about four years ago. Her death was very hard for Fernando and I stayed close to him in the interim. Last weekend while drafting this talk, I received a call saying that Fernando had been killed in a drive by shooting. At his funeral I thought about things that I have included in this address.

Fifty years or so ago, California set the standard for quality public education. Today as a nation, we are a country of richly different racial and ethnic people. Today California and Texas are majority minority states. As such we face unprecedented potential and challenges. I offer the following universal educational axiom:

Race and ethnicity should not dictate educational destiny.

Unfortunately, today they do. As such we maintain a class system that follows along racial and ethnic lines. This endangers the entire health of the country. My warning is that the rate at which the minority population is growing outpaces the rate at which we are improving our effectiveness in educating this segment of the population.

Not unrelated to our education failure , it is with great sadness and frustration that I acknowledge that a growing contemporary challenge in big city American society is the escalation of violence and killing in the relationship between African Americans and Latinos; here my home town Los Angeles arguably leads the nation. This frustration is magnified by the fact that I have worked very hard to have my legacy be that of bringing Blacks, Browns, and other groups to the table to work together. The two conferences that carry my name, The David Blackwell- Richard Tapia Mathematics Conference and The Richard Tapia Celebration of Diversity in Computing Conference are strongly modeled along these lines.

California and Texas have the potential to either lead the nation in creative and innovative solution of these complex educational problems or lead the nation down a path of public education disaster.

Dr. Donna Nelson , a chemist at the University of Oklahoma, recently conducted a study concerning the gender and racial distribution of faculty in the nations top 50 science and engineering departments. She found that not only is there a shortfall in the faculties of these departments in terms of women and underrepresented minorities, but there is also a short fall in terms of American white males. The hires are going to individuals from foreign countries. Even on our academic home court we can not compete with those from other countries.

You may say that we have left you with these problems, and I would answer that this is true. But we can't re-deal the hand, your challenge is to play well what you have been dealt. The future of the world's scientific and societal health is in your hands. Many of you will distinguish yourselves with prestigious awards and recognition, including a possible Nobel or Pulitzer Prize, or a Field's Medal. This will be of significant value to America's scientific health and bring you great prestige, but this alone will not be enough. It will not bring you the satisfaction of helping those less privileged to live better lives, and improving the health of the nation. It is not someone else's job, it is now your job.

Finally, life and people around you are beautiful, reach for them. They need you and you need them. I wish you all the best of luck

Thank you.
 Out Before the Game Begins

Studies by Public Agenda and the Tomás Rivera Policy Institute, which were presented at the summit, detail how America's education system is failing the Hispanic community for careers in math and science despite the overwhelming wishes for college-based careers in these areas.

Hispanic youth, according to demographic data, already account for more than 34 percent of the total U.S. Hispanic population and more than 18 percent of the total U.S. youth population.

"Out Before the Game Begins: Hispanic Leaders Talk About What's Needed to Bring More Hispanic Youngsters Into Science, Technology and Math Professions" 

This Public Agenda report, prepared for IBM's summit on "America's Competitiveness: Hispanic Participation in Technology Careers," is based on in-depth interviews with 19 key leaders from vastly different fields and backgrounds. Nearly all of the interviewees said that when it comes to Hispanic and Latino students, the education pipeline is all but broken. 

Sent by Willis Papillion




'First teachers' go to class


It was Friday night, and Kim Wash was exhausted. But there was no time to unwind.

The single mom, who is staying in a Minneapolis shelter, was helping daughter Jamila, 13, with a science project on the endangered Hawaiian monk seal and encouraging son Kenyon, 4, to keep scribbling his name. She was doing so after a full week of classes at Century College in White Bear Lake and two parent-education classes piloted by the Minneapolis school district, one for each child.

But fatigue would have to wait. "Yeah, it's hard," said Wash , 33. "But I'm trying to make a better life for them."

Wash is determined to make good use of the Minneapolis district's six-week program for parents who want to improve their children's school performance and plan for their postsecondary education.

More than 400 families signed up for the Minneapolis Schools' Connecting Parents to Educational Opportunities (CPEO) program, hoping to complete the course and take advantage of an alluring incentive: If a participant's child graduates from a Minneapolis high school and is admitted to either the University of Minnesota or Minneapolis Community and Technical College (MCTC) and qualifies for federal Pell Grant funding, that child will be awarded a scholarship to cover tuition at either school.

On Week One, which started on April 14, only half of the families enrolled in the course showed up. District staffers speculated that some felt an antagonism toward school dating back to their own childhoods.

But by last week, after a flurry of phone calls by district staffers and supportive parents who'd attended the inaugural class, attendance rose at the four participating elementary schools: Andersen, Lucy Laney, Nellie Stone Johnson and Sullivan.

Steering a course for college

Class topics include how parents can interact with their children's teachers, create a positive learning environment at home and build their children's self-esteem. Parents also must map out an academic plan that steers their kids toward college.

The Minneapolis model came from the Parent Institute for Quality Education (PIQE), a 20-year-old San Diego organization that teaches parents how to be more assertive with their kids' learning.

Parents are a child's "first teachers," said David Valladolid, the institute's president. Even before enrolling their kids in preschool, parents should tell their children that they will help them reach their full academic potential, he said.

"These children see the world through their parents' eyes," Valladolid said. "You must not be cynical about their education. You must be encouraging, instill self-esteem. Tell them that college is an expectation, not an exception, a maybe, or an 'I don't think so.'"

A track record of success

More than 400,000 families in California , Arizona and Texas have completed the program since 1987, Valladolid said. That success was among the reasons Minneapolis chose the program, said Eleanor Coleman, the district's student support chief. The U and MCTC subsequently signed on as partners.

This year's pilot costs about $30,000 to operate. The district hopes to expand the program to more schools next year, pending a grant and partners to help subsidize child care, food and transportation.

After recently visiting the Minneapolis sites, Valladolid said everybody was enthusiastic.

So far, the classrooms have been abuzz. Whether facilitators are speaking English, Spanish, Hmong or Somali, the energy and subject matter are the same.

"Language should not be a barrier. We're telling them to stick it out," said Marisol Gutierrez, who teaches a class of Hispanic parents at Johnson.

"If we can get parents more involved with teachers, administration and even with each other, it strengthens the schools as a whole," said Damon Gunn, a district program coordinator. "If students don't have the help at home, then we're fighting an uphill battle."

The reinforcement she gets is why Wash goes to class at both Andersen and Johnson, where Jamila, an eighth-grader, and Kenyon, a preschooler, attend, respectively.

"I need all the support I can get," she said.

Boosting kids' self-esteem

Wash was among the more vocal participants in her class of nearly 20 parents on a recent Wednesday night at Johnson. She brought along a friend, Angela Butler, whose 11-year-old daughter is a fifth-grader at the school.

The topic: fostering self-esteem. The ebullient bunch shared strategies on how to motivate their kids and set priorities, alternating between serious dialogue and banter.

Wash said that when her daughter was teased and called "big head" because she was among the tallest and brightest in her class, she told her to say, "That's because I have a lot of knowledge and I'm going somewhere, baby!"

The class laughed and cheered.

Up next, a group exercise. Wash and Butler gave grades to "Anthony," who was profiled on paper as an underachieving third-grader who does and says little in class.

They debate. All F's? D's? They gave him a mixture, rounding out to about a 1.3 grade-point average.

Anthony has very low self-esteem, they conclude, and his parents must meet his teachers. Immediately.

"We can't write him off like that. He's too young," said Wash to applause from other parents. She smiled.

"See you next week?" facilitator Nicole Randolph later asked Wash.

"I'll be here," she said.

Article sent by
David Valladolid, President & CEO

Parent Institute for Quality Education
4010 Morena Blvd., Suite 200
San Diego, CA 92117
Tel: (858) 483-4499  Fax: (858) 483-4646

Cell: (619) 884-2218

 "Education either... is used to facilitate integration of the younger generation into the logic of the present system and bring about conformity, or it becomes the practice of freedom, the means by which men and women deal critically and creatively with reality and discover how to participate in the transformation of their world."     --Paulo Freire



Manufacturing hope and despair: school and kin support networks
Nearly 25 Percent of Children Younger Than 5 Are Latino, Census Says

Book: Manufacturing hope and despair: 
the school and kin support networks of 
U.S-Mexican youth

by Ricardo D. Stanton-Salazar

Mexican Americans have one of the most dismal educational attainment levels in the nation, a problem that both educators and social scientist struggle to understand. This excellent work attempts to explain a very complex problem in an objective but compassionate way. 

The research was conducted in the city of San Diego among high school students and their families. Stanton-Salazar (Center for Urban Education, Univ. of Southern California ) uses social network analysis, an approach standard to both sociology and social anthropology, to illustrate the importance of the family in the academic lives of students. The author shows that the parents are deeply concerned with the academic achievement of their children. Especially moving are ethnographic vignettes, which provide a window into the lives of these students. The work also illustrates the importance of teachers as a source of support. This informative, gripping work makes a major contribution to Mexican American studies. Essential for educators who work with Hispanics, and for sociologists of education. All levels. -- 
R. S. Guerra, University of Texas --Pan American
Stanton-Salazar, Ricardo D.  Manufacturing hope and despair: the school and kin support networks of U.S-Mexican youth.  Teachers College Press, 2001.  332p bibl index afp ISBN 0-8077-4109-4, $54.00; ISBN 0-8077-4108-6 pbk, $25.95.  
Outstanding Title!
Reviewed in 2002mar CHOICE. • 
New from Teachers College Press •

Sent by JV Martinez, Ph.D. who writes:
"I have followed some of Stanton Salazar’s work for some time now and know him personally.  He has revealed factors in the education of Hispanic youth in Southern California that merit attention in the design of instruction methods to reach such youth.  The factors he has observed have not been considered by the powers-that-be to assure program design takes them into account to aid more effective and appropriate delivery of instruction to these youth.


Nearly 25 Percent of Children Younger Than 5 Are Latino, Census Says

By N.C. Aizenman
Washington Post Staff Writer
Thursday, May 1, 2008; A02

Hispanics, the nation's largest and fastest-growing minority group, now account for about one in four children younger than 5 in the United States, according to U.S. Census Bureau estimates released today.

"Hispanics have both a larger proportion of people in their child-bearing years and tend to have slightly more children," said Jeffrey S. Passel, senior demographer at the Pew Hispanic Center and co-author of a recent study predicting that the Latino population will double from 15 percent today to 30 percent by 2050.

Hispanics account for more than half of children younger than 5 in New Mexico and California, where their share of the overall state population is 44 and 36 percent, respectively. In Texas, Arizona, Nevada and Colorado, about one-third or more of children younger than 5 are Hispanic.

The figures are less dramatic but still notable in Virginia and Maryland. In both states, Hispanics account for 11 percent of children younger than 5 -- and 7 and 6 percent of the overall population, respectively.  Although the census is not scheduled to release county-level data until later in the year, statistics compiled by Washington-area school systems indicate that the number of youngsters who are Latino is even higher in the Maryland and Virginia suburbs. In Montgomery County, for instance, Hispanics make up 14 percent of residents and 22 percent of public school students. In Fairfax County, Hispanics account for 13 percent of residents and 17 percent of students.

Many researchers warn that the higher-than-average poverty rate of U.S.-born Latino children and the fact that many are raised by immigrant parents pose particular challenges to their education and integration.

"Based on what we know, many in this population may not be growing up speaking English in their homes," said Margie McHugh, co-director of the National Center on Immigrant Integration Policy at the Migration Policy Institute in Washington. In a recent study, McHugh found that 75 percent of limited-English-proficient students in Los Angeles County elementary schools were born in the United States.

Adding to the difficulties facing such children, McHugh said, is the fact that Latinos are increasingly moving to states and counties where they have not been historically concentrated.

"Because of the accountability requirements in the No Child Left Behind law, many of these states and localities have already been thinking hard about how to serve these children," she said. "But the gap between the services they have in place and what's needed is quite large."

The shifts in focus and resources that local school systems make to address the needs of growing Latino and immigrant populations can arouse concern and resentment among other residents, said Audrey Singer, a researcher with the Brookings Institution who has studied new immigrant gateway states.  "Schools are often on the frontline for debate in communities because they are on the leading edge of change," Singer said. "People who might not otherwise have an opinion take notice when the schools begin to change."

Database editor Dan Keating contributed to this report.
© 2008 The Washington Post Company
 Sent by Howard Shorr  




U.S. Latino Patriots: From the American Revolution to Iraq 2003 - An Overview
Latino Patriots in American Military History                                      
The Scoop, a Publication Serving Vance Air Force Base, Enid, Oklahoma
World’s Largest Online Military Film and Video site


Refugio I. Rochín, Ph.D., University of California, Davis/Santa Cruz
Lionel Fernandez, Ph.D.
With the assistance of Jose Alonso Oliveros



From the American Revolution to Iraq 2003 - An Overview

By Refugio I. Rochín, Ph.D.
Lionel Fernandez, Ph.D.
With the assistance of Jose Alonso Oliveros

Abstract of a 58 page docoument that can be downloaded in its entirety: 

This book, the first in the Julian Samora Research Institute’s E-Book Series, seeks to inform a popular audience that there have been Latino Patriots in all major wars in United States history. Thus investigators interest in the history of patriots must consider the roles that Latinos have played.

Professors Refugio Rochín and Lionel Fernández consider theirs an exploratory work, for the topic has not been investigated in great depth. Rochín and Fernández emphasize the need for additional research and the creation of more archival and oral collections that document Latino participation in war, valor, and even the term “Latino Patriot” itself.

U.S. Latino Patriots complicates our understanding of Latino identity, evident in many of the stories related in this book. The “Latino Patriots” who receive attention in this work express a particularly strong identification with the nation.

Refugio I. Rochin. "U.S. LATINO PATRIOTS " Julian Samora Research Institute - Michigan State University e-book series (2005): 1-58.  Available for free downloading at:

For more on Dr. Rochin, go to:

The Scoop, a Publication Serving Vance Air Force Base, Enid, Oklahoma  

Introduction to article: Hispanic Americans answer call to arms during WW II.

America celebrates Hispanic Heritage Month from Sept. 15 to Oct. 15 each year. 
To recognize the month, this article highlights Hispanic American Airmen during World War II. Hundreds of thousands of Hispanic Americans answered their nation’s call to war, leaving cherished families and communities to help ensure the freedom of future generations. In December 1941, the nation’s cadre of experienced Airmen included Elwood “Pete” Quesada, who later led the IX Fighter Command on D-Day, and Manuel Asensio, the general who later built critical airfields in the China-Burma-India Theater.

The article includes photos of three experience airmen, Elwood "Pete" Quesada, Hector Santa Anna, Harold Valderas.

Sent by Rafael Ojeda, who also sent these two websites of additional study on "Pete" Quesda.



Latino Patriots in American Military History
Patriotas Latinos en la Historia Militar Estadounidense

  Smithsonian Latino Center
FREE DOWNLOAD, 56 page document 


Letter of Introduction

This publication recounts the story of U.S. Hispanic military heroes who have played a pivotal role in making the Untied States the great nation is is today.  From America's earliest days, Latino patriots have served their country with exceptional determination, valor and pride. The soldiers profiled in this publication have been select to represent the broad range of the Latino military experience, from the American War of Independence through the Vietnam War. There heroes are merely a small group of the thousands of Latinos who have served in our armed forces with distinction. The Smithsonian Latino Center would like to introduce these heroes to both our Latino and non-Latino audience, to enhance awareness among all American students of the positive and valiant contributions that Latinos have made to the United States ' military history.
Pilar F. O'Leary, Director, Smithsonian Latino Center


This publication recounts the history of little known Latino military heroes who helped make the United States what it is today. The Smithsonian Latino Center particularly hopes to reach the younger generations of Latinos, many of whom are unaware of the contributions made by Latino patriots. In addition, the Center would like to introduce these patriots to our non-Latino audiences, to enhance awareness among all students of the positive contributions that the Latino community has made and continues to make to U.S. society. The patriots highlighted in this publication are only a few of the many that have served their country with exceptional determination, dedication, valor, and pride.  The goal is to further the interest and increase the knowledge and study of Latino history and show its important place in American history.  



En esta publicación se relata la historia de héroes latinos poco conocidos que ayudaron a hacer de los Estados Unidos el país que es en la actualidad. El Centro Latino del Smithsonian espera especialmente alcanzar a las generaciones más jóvenes de latinos, muchos de los cuales desconocen las contribuciones hechas por patriotas latinos. Además, el Centro quisiera presentar a estos patriotas al público que no es latino, a fin de elevar la conciencia entre todos los estudiantes sobre las positivas contribuciones que la comunidad latina ha hecho y continúa haciendo a la sociedad estadounidense. Los patriotas que se presentan en esta publicación son solo algunos de los muchos que han servido su país con excepcional determinación, dedicación, valor y orgullo. La meta es aumentar el interés y el  conocimiento y estudio de la historia latina y resaltar el importante lugar que ocupan en la historia de los Estados Unidos.


The publication can be downloaded in two parts below:

Latino Patriots_1-21.pdf 

Latino Patriots_22-56.pdf 


The individual handouts that are part of the lesson plan activities can be downloaded here:

LP handouts_Farragut.pdf 

LP handouts_HerreraGalbadon.pdf 

LP handouts_RasonBenavidez.pdf 

LP handouts_Seguin.pdf 

LP handouts_SernaCantu.pdf 



To request a hard copy of the publication, please contact the Smithsonian Latino Center at 202.633.1240.


Sponsored by:



Sent by Rafael Ojeda
Information shared by Isabel Lara



World’s Largest Online Military Film and Video site
Sent by Bill Carmena JCarm1724


San Ysidro Labrador, Patron Saint of farmers and Ranchers
First Place Folk Art Award, Catherine Robles Shaw  
Dream Act


San Ysidro Labrador 
Patron Saint of Farmers and Ranchers

"Celebrating the many blessings of our farming heritage in the South Valley"

May 15, 2008

Special thanks to Jane Moorman for the photos and their accompanying text, and also Juan Martinez, Michigan State, University for contacting Dr. Eusbio Gomez, New Mexico State University, who arranged for Jane to share the photo history 
of the occasion. 

  As the patron saint of farmers and ranchers, San Ysidro is one of the most popular saints of the American Southwest where so often a living must be wrenched out of a resisting land.  When problems arise with livestock, crops, or weather, San Ysidro is surely called upon for help.  He is also invoked for protection against bad neighbors.

Born: in 1070 to a poor Spanish family, he became a farm worker for Juan de Vargas at Madrid, remaining there all his life.  He loved to visit various churches on holidays and was often in prayer.  When neighbors complained that Ysidro was not attending to his work, his employer checked and found that an angel was driving two oxen to plow the field so that Ysidro could attend to his devotions.  He often shared what he had with the poor, including his food.

San Ysidro died on May 15, 1130, and forty years after his deaht his body was moved ot a shrine.  He was said to have appeared in a vision to King Alfonso of Castile in 1211 to show him a path to use to defeat the Moors.  His wife, who died several years after he did, is also honored as a saint, Santa Maria de la Cabeza (Maria Toribia).

The patron saint of farmers and farm workers and of Madrid, he is honored on Mary 15.  In the American Southwest on that day, his image is carried through the fields as a blessing for young crops.



Atrisco (Albuquerque), 
New Mexico

Thursday, May 15, 2008

Albuquerque, New Mexico, has not seen a drop of rain since light snow in January.  So for May 15 to be overcast and drizzling seemed to be the answer to many prayers that had been made to San Isidro, the saint to which many farmers turn for blessings in the form or rain, good crops and overflowing harvests.

Atrisco is a community within Albuquerque's borders, which has been in existence since the Spanish settlers followed the Rio Grande (river) from New Spain, now known as Mexico.

Deacon Santo Abeyta opened the ceremony.  Gene Carlos Chavez carried the Holy cross as his  father had before him.

For as long as people can remember, and beyond that time, the residents of this area have conducted the Festival de San Isidro y Santa Maria de la Cabeza.  This year despite chilly temperatures and drizzling rain, more than 50 people came together at the Holy Family Parish in Atrisco to bless the acequia (irrigation ditch) waters and fields in the name of San Isidro and Santa Maria de la Cabeza.

                                                          Johnny Pino and his wife Dianne were this years'
                                                                             Madromas of the Santos.

As the ceremony opened with prayer from Deacon Santo Abeyta and dancing from the Danzantes, dressed in Aztec head dresses, the rain stopped and the clouds thinned to allow some of the setting sun's light to shine on the participants.


As the procession moved from the church yard onto the street behind Gene Carlos Chavez carrying the cross. A Spanish choir led by Virginia Rael sang the song of San Isidro while being accompanied by three guitars.


The procession made its way through the neighborhood to the acequia where Deacon Abeyta blessed the water and then sprinkled water on the participants who were gathered around the culvert that where the water flowed from under the road.

The group then moved to a private garden and Abeyta blessed the plants and all of the fields in the area by sprinkling the acequia water over the rows of corn, lettuce, melons and chile.  Children then planted chile plants and the Danzantes performed a dance of blessings.

The group returned to the acequia for the ceremony of throwing flower petals in the flowing water.  Lauro Silva explained the meaning of this act.  

The procession begun at 4:00pm.
at the Holy Family Parish
562 Atrisco Dr. SW
.  There was a
chile plant Give-away, and planting activity for Kids! Participants were asked to bring flower petals for the ceremony, and your seeds, gloves, and small tools to be blessed.  

Supporters: Holy Family San Isidro Committee, Kalpulli Izkalli, and SW Network for Environmental and Economic Justice. 


The procession walked a long the acequia road singing with the guitars. 


A final prayer was given under the spreading branches of an ancient cottonwood tree.  The procession then made its way back to the church yard where the care of the santos was passed from Johnny and Dianne Pino to Gilbert and Ruth Sanchez, who will pray to San Isidro and Santa Maria de la Cabeza for the community's safety around the acequia, good crops and harvest.  
      For more information call: Lita Pino 836-9604 or Sylvia Ledesma452-9208.  


Brief Story of San Isidro  
(Press release information)

Isidro’s parents were peasants, extremely poor and could not even afford to send him to school. He was taught at home to be fearful of offending God and to have great love and charity towards his neighbor and a deep appreciation for prayer, Holy Mass and Communion. He was an orphan at age ten and alone in the world Isidro got a job as a laborer in the fields, working for Don Juan de Vargas the owner of a farm near Madrid. He spent many years there, cultivating and harvesting the land. He married a farm girl who also became a saint; she is Santa María de la Cabeza which translates to St. Mary of the Head, not because this was her last name, but because her head is paraded in procession when there are long periods of drought.

Isidro awoke early in the morning and began his day by attending Holy Mass.  Many of his co-workers were envious and accused him of being absent and abandoning his work. Mr. Vargas went to observe the fields. He realized that Isidro arrived an hour later, but while Isidro was at Mass an invisible person, believe to be an angel, took his oxen and ploughed the fields diligently as though the farmer himself were doing the work.

The moors seized Madrid and its surroundings and all the faithful Catholics had to flee.   Isidro as an immigrant suffered for a long time in a place where he did not know anybody. It was very difficult to get a job and meet people who would trust him; but he knew that God had promised in Sacred Scripture, “I will never abandon you.” He trusted in God and never lack in any way.

Whatever he earned as a farmer, Isidro distributed in three parts: for the church, for the poor and for his family.  




First Place 
Traditional Folk Art Award
Archuleta, New Mexico 

   Catherine Robles Shaw   

In these times America has forgot that we were the people who settled the Southwest and deserve much more honor than is bestowed upon us. We like the Indians have suffered greatly under the American rule.

My ancestors strived to live in peace with the indigenous peoples and this is the birth of the Mestizo peoples in our land.


I hope through my artwork that America understands the richness and simplicity of our culture and its deep love of family and faith that was started before Plymouth Rock here.


It is an honor to be included in Somos Primos.


catherine robles shaw  METEPEC

Editor: Do visit her site.  You can view Catherine in the process of producing one of her retablos



Cultural Arts Coalition: Dream Act

In April "Dream Act" was presented at the Playhouse in Phoenix.  The play was presented in English and Spanish in separate performance each night and during each matinee performance. 

 "Dream Act" is a one-act by James E. Garcia.  The performance in Phoenix was directed by John Tang and Luis Avila.  The storyline of the play is about graduate student Victoria Nava came to the U.S. with her parents as a small child. She is undocumented, but dreams of practicing medicine in the United States (the only country she’s ever known). In the face of growing anti-immigrant sentiment she fears her dream may be slipping away.

Special acknowledgements: This production of “Dream Act” is being produced in alliance with the Cultural Arts Coalition, ASU Center for Community Development and Civil Rights, CADENA (, Hispanic Institute of Social Issues, Chicanos por la Causa/Victoria Foundation and the American Dream Fund Coalition, Community Advocacy Symposium (ASU Downtown), Aguila Youth Leadership Institute, Phoenix First Congregational United Church of Christ, the 2008 Border Justice Festival and Film Event, La Buena Onda, 1190 AM (Phoenix), Raul H. Castro Institute, and ALAC: Advocates for Latin@ Arts & Culture Consortium, Inc.

 About Colores Actors-Writers Workshop:  CAWW was founded in 2002 by James E. Garcia. It is an incorporated non-profit theater company dedicated to the presentation and development of Latino and multicultural theater. Recent productions include:  American Pastorela: The Shepherds’ Odyssey (Playhouse on the Park, 2007), A Mother’s Will ( SMCC Performing Arts Center , 2007); In a Glass House: The Life and Times of Raul Castro ( Herberger Theater Center , 2007).

 Information: Call 602-460-1374 or

 Sent by Rick Leal



A Good Example by Vicente Rivas-Palacio
Celestial Prayer-Wheel by Rafael Jesús González
Durango, Mexico Poet, Enrique Torres Cabral


By Vicente Riva Palacio

 Translation by Ted Vincent


(This story was first published 1882 in Riva Palacio’s book of literary criticism,  
“Los Ceros,  Galeria de Contemporanos,”  in which fun was had at the expense of the pompous  in intellectual circles.)     

     I am going to relate an occurrence that happened in the Southern region of our Republic that has truthful witnesses, although they do not believe it.  

    It is the case that in a certain country town there was a school teacher called 
Don Lucas, and it happened that this 
teacher had a parrot in the doorway of  his establishment, who all day was hopping around on his post while, listening to what occurred in the school, and exchanging phrases, more or less amusingly with the children.

     One day, the parrot, annoyed with his station in life, and perhaps believing that 
he had had enough primary education, rose to fly and in less than a quarter hour he was in the nearby mountains where there was
 an abundance of parrots, parakeets,  cockatoos,  macaws, and all the grand family of birds that were candidates for orators.

      The pain felt by Don Lucas over the ingratitude of his favorite was, as one can imagine, deep and prolonged; but as there 
is not a pain that time can not cure.  A month latter he no longer thought of the parrot.

     One day, Don Lucas had the need to travel to the mountain in order to get to nearby villages, and arising early before 
the sun, he saddled his skinny horse,  placed a bread sandwich with a piece of cheese and a bottle of mescal in his saddlebags by his seat and without entrusting himself to God, as Don Quixote, nor to the devil as the do witches,  and choosing the freshest path to trod, he had gone but a short ways before taking a few swigs of the bottle.

     It was around ten in the morning, when passing through the thickest of the forest he began to hear from all sides great shouts  from human sounding voices that said, 
b, a, n,  ban, b, e, n,  ben, and so successively.  Being a school teacher,  he was annoyed to hear the lettering out came with trivial capriciousness, as if by school children,  and parenthetically he thought to himself perhaps they needed a Herod for their teacher, or a Kansa,  the tyrant of India, according to the books of the Brahmans many centuries before Herod, who had suffered the same problem. As he was muttering, Don Lucas first told himself that this was an hallucination, that he had taken a little too much of the convenient mescal, or that the devil was trying to torment him; but little by little he became convinced that it was real, and that these shouts came from in the trees.

    He felt himself twisting in circles trying to explain this mystery when suddenly an immense band of parrots crossed rapidly over his head, all of them in chorus, b, a, n, ban;  b, e, n, ben;  and flying alone among them , guiding them, was the ingrate, the parrot deserter, who said with much dignity as he passed by his surprised teacher.  

     “Don Lucas,   now I have a school.”  

    And from this point on, the parrots of the realm, marching through the century, have dispelled the shadows of obscuritanism 
and ignorance.

     I have had the nerve to make this story
 a fable, and the moral, which, of course, ought to be in verse, is,   “We will be counting on the Lord the day our literati open a school.”


   Y así voy a referir una historiá que de testigos veraces, aunque no les creí, supe en una de las poblaciones del Sur de la Republica.  

   Es el caso, que en ese pueblo había un maestro de escuela llamádose Don Lucas, y el cual dicho maestro tenía en la puerta del establecimiento un perico que todo el día estaba dando vueltas en su estaca, oyendo lo que pasaba en la escuela y cambiando frases más o menos graciosas con los muchachos.  

Una mañana, el loro, enfadado de aquella vida, o creyendo quizá que había terminado su educación primaria, levantó el vuelo y en menos de un cuarto de hora estuvo ya en la sierra inmediata y en donde abundaban los loros, los pericos, las cotorras, las guacamayas y toda esa gran familia de pájaros que son candidatos a oradores.

La pena de don Lucas por la ingratitud de su favorito fue, como debe suponerse, honda y prolongada; pero como no hay dolor que el tiempo no cure, al mes no se acordaba ya del perico.

   Un día Don Lucas tuvo necesidad de atravesar la sierra para ir a una de las poblaciones cercanas;  ensilló su caballo flaco, puso en las cantinas de la silla una torta de pan, un pedazo de queso y una botella con mezcal, y sin encomendarse a Dios como Don Quijote, ni al diablo como las brujas, echó por la vereda aprovechando la fresca para caminar, no sin tomar de cuando en cuando algunos tragos de la botella.  

Serian las diez de la mañana, cuando atravesando por lo más espeso de la selva, empezó a oír por todas partes en grandes gritos, voces como humanas que decían, b, a, n, ban; b, e, n, ben, y así sucesivamente:  como maestro de escuela, fastidiado estaba de oír deletrear y de tratar con muchachos, entre paréntesis, me figuro que los maestros deben tener por patrón a Herodes, aquel que degolló tantos chicos, o a Kansa, aquel tirano de la India que, según cuentan los libros de los Brahamas muchos siglos antes de Herodes, había también tenido el mismo inofensivo capricho.  Pues como iba diciendo don Lucas creyó al principio que aquello era un  alucinación, que había  tomando un poco más de mezcal del que convenía, o que el diablo trataba de martirizarle; pero poco a poco se fue convenciendo de que real y efectivamente aquellos gritos partían de los árboles.

Loco se volvía tratando de explicarse ese misterio, hasta que repentinamente una inmensa bandaba de loros cruzó sobre su cabeza repitiendo todos en coro: b, a, n,  ban; b, e, n, ben, y detrás de ellos solo, y como cuidándoles, el ingrato, el desertor perico, que con mucha gravedad dijo al pasar junto al asombrado preceptor:  

   “Don Lucas, ya tengo escuela.”  

   Desde ese época los loros de aquella comarca, adelantándose a su siglo han visto disiparse las sombras del oscurantismo y la ignorancia.  

   Yo he tenido ganas de hacer de este cuento una fabulilla, y la moraleja, que por supuesto debe ser en verso, ha de decir: “Dios nos tenga de su mano, el día en que muchos de nuestros literatos abran escuela.”

(Riva Palacio altered this story in his 1896 volume “Cuentos del General, “and the next to last paragraph above is in the later version but not the first one.)



Luna Plena - Full Moon

 Celestial Prayer-Wheel -  Celeste Rueda de Oración

There was a man, not wise but prodigious with his heart, liberal with his blessings. Everywhere he went he left pieces of his heart here and there. They called him fool for thus giving his heart away, for being so free with his blessings. (He didn't much mind for he thought that there were far worse things to be.)

Through the years, the persons (not to mention the places) who laid claim to his heart grew to be too many to visit. Alas, he could not travel over the world to bless each one; the days were too short to write them each a letter; in fact, the nights were too short to pray for each of them by name.

At best he would recite their names like a litany and gradually this litany became his prayer. But he would grow sleepy and before he had said a half, a third, a fourth, a fifth the list, the sun would wake him.

He took to writing out the names of each and placed them on his altar before which he would perform his rites. But soon there was no room for his images, his power-objects, his offering bowls, his incense burner, his prayer-feathers.

So, learning from the Lamas of high Tibet, he obtained a huge prayer-wheel in which he put his litany of names. But he was not a strong man and he could only turn the wheel at most five times, four, three, two, one - and finally not at all.

It came to be that on nights of the full moon, he would sit in contemplation and fancy the moon to be a huge prayer-wheel, containing the names of all he could ever bless, turned by the angels. His coyote soul (his nagual) would howl to the moon and he fancied that its celestial spin echoed his howl of prayer, of blessing to each who held a piece of his foolish heart.

*                *                *
Occasionally on the full moon he would gather the names and signs of those he could (those family, friends, colleagues of many years. of those who occupied a brief space in his life, of those encountered for a moment, perhaps in a strange city, or with whom, nameless, he merely exchanged a glance that left a deep mark in his heart, his memory) and sent out into space of the electronic net (the others would not read it) a poem that read like this: 

                     Lunar Prayer-Wheel

                      The moon tonight is
                     a silver prayer-wheel
                   in the heights of heaven
                        turned by the angels.

                   Listen closely:
                each spin
                       sends you blessing. 

And then he would turn to the full moon, attempt to empty his mind of thoughts, and let the angels do their turning, their turning of the wheel.

        © Rafael Jesús González 2008  

Había un hombre, no sabio pero prodigioso con su corazón, liberal con sus bendiciones. Donde quiera que iba dejaba pedazos del corazón aquí y allá. Le llamaban tonto por entregar así su corazón, por ser tan libre con sus bendiciones. (No le importaba gran cosa porque creía que había cosas mucho más peores que ser.)
A través de los años, las personas, los seres (no decir los lugares) que tenían derecho a su corazón aumentaron hasta ser demasiados para visitar. ¡Ay! jamás podría viajar el mundo para bendecir a cada uno de ellos; los días eran demasiado cortos para escribirles cartas a cada uno de ellos; en verdad, las noches eran demasiado cortas para rezar por cada uno de nombre.
A lo más, recitaba sus nombres como una letanía y poco a poco esa letanía se convirtió en su rezo. Pero se adormecía y antes de que dijera la media, la tercera, la cuarta, la quinta parte de la lista, el sol lo despertaba.

Recurrió a escribir los nombres de cada uno y los colocó sobre su altar ante el cual hacía sus ritos. Pero pronto no había lugar para sus imágenes, sus talismanes, sus jícaras de ofrenda, su zahumador, sus plumas sagradas.

Entonces, aprendiendo de los Lamas del alto Tibet, obtuvo una inmensa rueda de oración en la cual colocó su letanía de nombres. Pero no era hombre fuerte y sólo podía voltear la rueda a lo más cinco veces, cuatro, tres, dos, una - y al fin ni una.
Así pasó que en noches de luna plena se sentaría en contemplación e imaginaría que la luna era una inmensa rueda de oración que contenía los nombres de todos los que él anhelaba bendecir rodada por los ángeles. Su alma coyote (su nagual) aullaba a la luna y él se imaginaba que su rodar celeste repercutía su aullido de oración, de bendición hacia cada uno que tuviera un pedazo de su necio corazón.

*                *                *
En ocasión de la luna plena, recogía los nombres y señas de los que podría (la familia, amigos, colegas de muchos años, de los que ocupaban un breve espacio en su vida, con los que se encontraba por un momento, tal vez en una ciudad extraña, o con quien, sin nombre, solamente había compartido una mirada que dejó una marca profunda en su corazón, su memoria) y enviaba al espacio electrónico (los otro no lo leerían) un poema que decía así:

                       Rueda de rezo lunar

                     Esta noche la luna es
                   una rueda de rezo de plata
                      en las alturas del cielo
                        rodada por los ángeles.

                Escucha bien:
                   cada rodar
                        te envía bendición.

Y luego volvía hacia la luna plena, intentaba vaciar su mente de pensamientos, y permitía a los ángeles su voltear, voltear de la rueda.

          © Rafael Jesús González 2008

Rafael Jesús González
P. O. Box 5638
Berkeley, CA 94705
U. S. A.    (English)   (español)  


Enrique Torres Cabral




El Gomezpaletino Enríque Torres Cabral
en sus horas de insomnio le da rienda
suelta la creatividad


Por Gerardo Gómez Cano 
Foto: Jorge Valenzuela

El poema más reciente que escribió surgió, como siempre, en una eterna noche de insomnio. Desde 1970 Enrique Torres Cabral comenzó a padecer ese mal que, si bien le ha robado horas de sueño, le ha regalado el mismo lapso de creatividad paraque su mano plasme, siempre en rima, situaciones que han ido cambiando según la etapa de lavida en la que se ha encontrado.

Acontecimientos históricos de México, el amor, la mujer, situaciones sociales y la justicia, son sólo algunas de las cosas quehan llegado a inspirar algomezpalatino. Sin embargo, desde hace dos décadas el crear poemas dedicados a personas que ha conocido en la calle, en el trabajo en cualquier otro lugar, es algo que realiza con facilidad y mayor entusiasmo.  


Por eso, durante esta entrevista, al preguntarle si era entonces un poeta urbano él descubrió que ese término era el que mejor podría definirlo: "Fíjese que no se me había ocurrido, pero sí, eso soy, soy un poeta urbano", expresó.  

El 23 de diciembre de 2003 fue el último día en que la inspiración visitó a Enrique Torres Cabral sin previo aviso. Aún no sabe qué día se colará de nuevo por la ventana. "El poema lo empecé a las tres de la mañana y lo acabé a las ocho; le saqué 200 copias fotostáticas y tanto el día 24 como el 25 me dediqué a repartirlo en los cafés para que toda la gente pudiera verlo", señaló.  

Es que aunque suena un poco extraño, publicarlos en un libro no es su prioridad, sino compartir lo que generalmente de viva voz no se atreve a decir "porque soy muy vergonzoso".  

"Ese poema en verso se lo dediqué a Maclovio Nevárez, un licenciado que tiene como principal característica su gusto por el deporte; destaqué su filosofía en la vida, los consejos que da respecto a cuidar el cuerpo, hacer ejercicio y cuidar el medio ambiente", explicó.  


El poeta se inspira en situaciones de personas que no son siempre acreedoras a puestos muy importantes, pero que forman parte de Durango y, sobre todo, de su vida y recuerdos. "Hace mucho escribí sobre Vicente Salazar, un señor que era intendente del Edificio Central de la Universidad Juárez, que saludaba a los visitantes".  

El personaje de otra de sus creaciones fue "Juanón", quien fuera dueño de un restaurante que estaba a un lado de Catedral, "él nos daba de comer gratis a los estudiantes, porque era muy rico, pero cuando quebró su negocio muchos nos olvidamos de él", recordó Torres Cabral.  

El escritor, quien labora como vocal secretario del Instituto Federal Electoral (IFE), de manera constante escribe poesía, cuentos, ensayos, entre otras cosas más, pero "no me interesa registrarlos, yo siempre digo que son de todos", aseveró. Desde junio de 2002 tiene la posibilidad de compartir su trabajo a través de una página de Internet que le diseñó su primo Salvador Cabral Valdes, la cual es:  

"Me da gusto que gente de todo el mundo ingrese a la página para leer mi trabajos que, incluso, pueden imprimir; entra gente de diferentes partes de México, Estados Unidos, Argentina, Francia y de muchos países más", dijo mientras revisaba la página un tanto sorprendido.  

La retroalimentación por parte de los visitantes es algo que, según sus palabras, le agrada, ya que se da cuenta de lo que opina la gente de su manera de escribir.  


Enrique Torres Cabral manifesto que solamente ha publicado un libro, cuyo título es "Recuerdos de Gómez Palacio y otros Poemas" y que fue distribuido en 1991. La idea surgió luego que José Rebollo Acosta, quien era Presidente Municipal de Gómez Palacio, su ciudad natal, vino a Durango para preguntarle si tenía poemas referents a ese lugar.  

Torres Cabral detalló: "Le comenté que había realizado algunos que hablaban de varias personas de la calle que eran conocidas allá y que yo recordaba como parte de lo que viví en mi niñez. Le mencionéa una limosnera en específico a “la loquita del barrio (llamada Teresa 'La Loca') y él se acordó de ellos, pues también los conoció,”aseguró.  

Debido a que eran personajes urbanos que reflejaban una importante época de la sociedad gomezpalatina, Rebollo Acostale pidió sus creaciones y las publicó con mucha aceptación.  

El poeta y escritor señaló que además de la poesía en verso elabora los haikus, poemas realizados con una técnica japonesa que, según definió, consta de tres renglones, el primero y tercero de cinco sílabas y el segundo de siete. El objetivo es incluir un mensaje bello y conciso, principalmente dedicado a la naturaleza. El poeta ha realizado alrededor de 500 que tratan varios temas.  

El poeta urbano afirmó queentre sus planes se encuentra publicar un ensayo corto acerca de la obra "El Ser y la Nada" de Jean Paul Sartre, para tratar de explicar con un lenguaje más sencillo su contenido. Dijo que esperó a concluirlo a finales de 2004, y salío en el 2005, cuando se cumplieron 100 años del natalicio de dicho autor francés.  

Torres Cabral, quien durante 18 años impartió en la Facultad de Derecho la cátedra de Filosofía del Derecho -labor que abandonó para trabajar en el IFE-, también disfruta pintar retratos, tanto en óleo como con lápices de colores, "he hecho como 100 de los primeros y 300 de los otros a personas que conozco; yo no se los vendo, se los regalo", manifestó.          


TERESA LA LOCA.                               

Tere la loca,       

                         te recuerdo:                                                                        Como eras de geniosa.      
       De cabellera canosa.
       Loca de Gómez Palacio.                                       
      Década marabillosa 
            la de los años cincuenta.

 cómo te gritan los niños,               Teresa,Tere la loca,

 y tú, 
cámo les contestas, 
cámo contestas rabiosa, 
te levantas el vestido 
y les enseñas tus cosas 

 y muchas malas razones 
les arrojas con tu boca.

 Cómo te gritan los niños: 
"Teresa, Tere la loca, 
la loca tiene una troca, 

 pero no la maneja , 
porque está loca":

 Teresa, Tere la loca, 
te recuerdo 
y me recuerdo, 
tú de viejilla geniosa,

 y yo de niño que grita: 
Tere la loca."



Julio Cajitas

Cara de niño viejito
un curpito que se aguita,
un canto de gemido,
un sonido de cajita,
unos saltoes dientitos,
unas tétricas risitas
y el baile de unos piececitos:
es Julio,Julio Cajitas.  


"Hi Mimi,
I found this article interesting for Somos Primos, Enrique Torres Cabral is a famous poet from Durango, Mexico.  I hope you can use it. Most of his poems were based on
people from his neighborhood. These two poems were dedicated to a woman and a boy with disabilities..."
The information was from

Send by Mercy Bautista-Olvera


The Tree of Hate
The American Experiment of Democracy and the Vanishing White Man

Propaganda and Prejudices
Affecting United States Relations with the Hispanic World

Philip Wayne Powell
Introduction by Robert Himmerich y Valencia

First published in the early 1970s, Tree of Hate is Philip Powell's exploration of "the Black Legend"-  the popular myth that colonial Spain and her military and religious agents were brutal and unrelenting in their conquest of the Americas.

"Powell seeks not merely to trace the origins of what he calls Hispanophobia but to analyze its impact on American education, textbooks, religion, and especially foreign policy.  The evidence easily demonstrates that English-speaking scholars and diplomats speak with  biased tongue . . .  Too many critcs of Spain, to use Powells's central theme, have merely erected a "Tree of Hate" out of ignorance or to justify their own prejudices and activities.  Powell's book deserves careful reading" - Journal of American History.

Phillip Wayne Powell was professor of history at the University of California, Santa Barbara from 1948 to 1981. He was founding member and first chair of the UCSB Department of History.  Robert Himmerich y Valencia was profesor of history at the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, and editor of the New Mexico Historical Review.  He is author of The Encomenderos of New Spain, 1521-1555.  

Paperback 978-0-8263-4576-9  $26.95 ($29.50 Cdn)
University of New Mexico Press     800-249-7737

On May 30th, 2008, a Tree of Hate Committee met in Albuquerque. Co-chaired by Dr. Henry J. Casso and Dr. Tomas Chavez the goal was to discuss specific strategies to give visibility to the presence of persistent and lingering Anti-Hispanic attitudes.  The following are some notes from Dr. Casso visionary  in the effort.  

"A small committee will convene seven advisors who will help identify the fifteen individuals who will assemble in the fall to write given papers on assigned topics which will be the basis for a national symposium here in Albuquerque.  The outcome of which will go into a publication which the UNM Press has agreed to publish.  We are asking selected presenters to provide a current Bibliography, identify areas for minor and major areas of further research in the objective to et Masters and Doctoral students writing thesis and dissertation in these areas, thus, increase the body of knowledge.  

We are getting the Cervantes Institutes to search their world-wide Centers toward developing a Bibliography on the Black Legend. I have observed Cairo, Egypt has one of the most extensive works on this topic.  Find this interesting.  Hopefully this will be available for the Symposium participants.  

The group of seven will help us identify six university sites where we propose to have follow-up symposium such as Rendon’s group at UC Berkeley.  One is proposed for Madrid and the University of Guadalajara.  

I tried contacting the authors of the decade of Betrayal, left messages, with no success.  I see this as a classic application of results with roots in the Tree of Hate.  I want also to know if they are doing research on other areas besides the California concentration on the topic. "

Sent by Dr. Henry J. Casso
Project Uplift
Witness to Heritage Co-Creator



The American Experiment of Democracy and the Vanishing White Man

The Anomaly of Histories, 

When the Adivasi, Indigenous Peoples of the Indian subcontinent, relate their experiences under the colonizing regimes that have swept their homelands, even references to Alexander the Great are preceded by the invasions of the Aryans and the introduction of the "white" concept of human cultural identity and superiority as the determinant for the caste systems that continue to plague the cultural landscape of India even after five thousand years.

To fast forward to the current dialogue on race and institutionalized racism in US society that is intensified by the presidential campaigns, everyday we see and HEAR echoes of the memes of caste that are reinforced every time the phrase "white people" or "white" is used to describe the European American populations of the United States.  That perpetuation of a caste based society would be completely antithetical to the precepts of the "American Experiment of Democracy," yet remain embedded in the vernacular of public and private discourse regarding social relationships has roots in the Indo-European histories, but is codified in the US Civil Rights statutes as follows:

United States Code
Equal rights under the law

(a) Statement of equal rights

All persons within the jurisdiction of the United States shall have the same right in every State and Territory to make and enforce contracts, to sue, be parties, give evidence, and to the full and equal benefit of all laws and proceedings for the security of persons and property as is enjoyed by
white citizens, and shall be subject to like punishment, pains, penalties, taxes, licenses, and exactions of every kind, and to no other.

The term WHITE CITIZEN is contextualized further by the language of the 14th Amendment to the US Constitution which states:

Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside.

Thus the connection is made institutionally and culturally via the jurisprudence of the Master's Narrative, between concepts of white citizen and WHITE PERSON, establishing legal personality within the US social construct as a function of relationship to the dominant "white" power structures of rights and obligations.  The anomaly being the Nican Tlacah Indigenous Peoples who supercede the US jurisdiction as sovereign confederations of nations holding treaty relationships with the US and other government states of the world.


The historical moment of transformation which is evident nationally and globally, provides the opportunity to suggest a clarification in terms:

Specifically, TO EXCHANGE use of the term "WHITE", "white citizen", and "white person" with the term European-American in the public discourse on race and racism.  If the term "Black" can be correlated with African-American, why cannot the same principle apply for the "whites"?

What prevents us from clarifying one of the terms of the social discourse involved in the experiment in American Democracy and let's see what happens.  After all, the first victims of racism are the racists themselves, for what have they done to their own families and innocent children to produce such a culturally twisted and dehumanized constituency such as "white people" generation after generation?

Shall we collectively continue the experiment in democracy in this hemisphere, without perpetuating the institutionalizing of a continental affirmative action program of racism and superiority for one sector of society, the descendants of the European colonizers of the 15th century?

Tupac Enrique Acosta

Sent by Dorinda Moreno


Latinos/Latinas - Ultimate - Sacrifice, Part V by Mercy Bautista-Olvera
Compilation of Purple Heart Sites by Rafal Ojeda
Hispanic Military Heroes with Non-Hispanic surnames by Tony Santiago
Half Mystery Solved by Long Distance Friends
WWII Photo and Why They ARE Very Important in 2008
Norman D. Cota, Major General, US Army, WWII
Introduction to article: US in Focus, Immigrants in the US Armed Forces
Latinos Claim Larger Share of U.S. Military Personnel - Population Reference
Information for Members of the Military and Their Families
Naturalization Information for Military Personnel

– Ultimate – 

 Part V


Mercy Bautista-Olvera

In the coming months this series “Latinos/Latinas Ultimate Sacrifice” will present the stories and contributions of heroes who have sacrificed their lives for United States . The reason for me to be interested in writing about Hispanics, who lost their lives in Wars, I want to be one of their voices. We do appreciate their sacrifice. It is my sincere belief and commitment, that these heroes are never forgotten. Take time to look at their faces, read their histories, and keep their spirit alive…  


Army Spc. Aleina Ramirez Gonzalez 33, of Hormigueros, Puerto Rico., died on April 15, 2005     when a mortar struck her forward operating base in Tikrit , Iraq . Ramirez Gonzalez was assigned to the 3rd Brigade Troop Battalion, 3rd Infantry Division, Fort Stewart , Georgia . Aleina Ramirez Gonzalez grew up watching her father serve in the military from Vietnam to two tours in Iraq during the first Gulf War.” She was a brave one because it was the third time she went to Iraq ," said her father, William Ramirez. Aleina Ramirez Gonzalez was born in the southwestern Puerto Rico town of Guayanilla, spent 14 years in the National Guard and joined up for active duty. Her father said she hoped to retire from military service after 20 years and become eligible for a pension.

Marine Cpl. Ramona M. Valdez, 20,  of The Bronx, N.Y.; died  June 23, 2005 when a vehicle-borne improvised explosive device detonated near her convoy vehicle in Fallujah, Iraq. Valdez was assigned to Headquarters Battalion, 2nd Marine Division, II Marine Expeditionary Force, Camp Lejeune, N.C. Ramona M. Valdez was born in the Dominican Republic . Her mother raised her in Bronx , NY . Following graduation from Jane Addams High School when she was 15, Ramona attended community college. In 2002 she enlisted in the Marine Corps and was married. She was working as a (E-4) communication specialist assigned to Headquarters Battalion, 2nd Marine Division, II Marine Expeditionary Force, Camp Lejeune, N.C. Ramona, eight months from the end of her four-year tour, deployed to Iraq in March. She had talked her mother into moving away from the Bronx and in March her family moved to Reading , PA --a home Ramona never got to see. Ramona had already filled out application forms to become a highway patrol officer in Pennsylvania upon her discharge from the Marines. When she was killed, she was four days short of her 21st birthday.

Marine Corps Pfc. Eric A. Ayon 26, of Arleta , Calif. , died April 9, 2004 by hostile fire in Anbar Province , Iraq . He was assigned to 2nd Battalion, 4th Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division, I Marine Expeditionary Force, Camp Pendleton , Calif.

As a young kid, Eric played with G.I. Joe action figures and dreamed of becoming a Marine to fight for his country. Eric married his high school sweetheart Angie. The couple had been married for eight years and had a son. He sent a birthday card to his 7- year old son Joshua, before his death, the day his family mourned his death. Eric’s friends and family remembered him as a devoted father who also gave back to his community. Eric worked as a youth counselor helping kids keep away from drugs and gangs before joining the Army.  “He loved being able to help and touch a lot of people. He was a wonderful father with such big heart. All the kids loved him,” his wife said. Marine Corps Pfc. Eric A. Ayon enjoyed Mexican music as well, he took his favorite music to Iraq , and he listened to it on his spare time.

Army Staff Sgt. Victor A. Rosales-Lomeli 29, of Westminster , Calif. , died on April 13, 2004 when an improvised explosive device exploded near his escort vehicle in Iraq .  Rosales-Lomeli was assigned to the 2nd Battalion, 2nd Infantry Regiment, 1st Infantry Division, Vilseck , Germany .

Victor Rosales and his wife, Sgt. Sandra Rosales, both served in Iraq while relatives cared for their infant son, Victor Gabriel. "He was proud to be a soldier, I am proud to be a soldier,” his wife said.

Victor was born in Mexico City , the family moved to California ; he performed Mexican dances at local events as a boy. He joined the Army in 1995. He was known as a tough infantryman with a twinkle in his eyes, both warm and professional with other soldiers. "I only regret that he won't be around to teach me more," one of his close friends said at a goodbye ceremony in Iraq . At the ceremony, roll call was conducted, a sergeant calling out the name of Rosales three times, only to be echoed by silence.     

Marine Staff Sgt. Jorge A. Molinabautista 37, of Rialto , Calif. , died  by May 23, 2004 by hostile fire in Unbar province, Iraq. Photo of Staff Sgt. Jorge A. Molina Bautista Molinabautista was assigned to 1st Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion, 1st Marine Division, 1st Marine Expeditionary Force, Camp Pendleton , Jorge was born in Chihuahua , Mexico , He wanted from childhood to become a Marine, said his sister, Connie "He believed in what he was doing," she said. "He was so proud. He's a hero." His wife, Dina, and three boys survive Molinabautista. The Defense Department said. He served in the Marines for 13 years, and trained others as a drill sergeant at Camp Pendleton , where he was based. He was an infantry unit leader for the 1st Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion, 1st Marine Division, I Marine Expeditionary Force. He had asked the Marines to change his last name from Molina to Molinabautista to honor his mother and the military accommodated his request. At the burial, a Marine gently murmured his condolences on bended knee as he handed Molina Bautista's wife, Dina Molina, a folded American flag in memory of her husband. The fallen Marine's younger brother, Air Force Sgt. Ismael Paez, offered comforting words and an identical flag to Molina Bautista's mother, Maria Bautista.

  Molina Bautista's oldest son, 12-year-old Jorge, suddenly stood up and approached the microphone. Dressed in camouflage khaki pants, shirt and hat, Jorge seemed so much older than his years as he uttered the words:"Because of these two beautiful children (his brothers, Joey, 7, and Carlos, 4) I am going to be strong and do what my dad would want me to do," he said. He then walked over to his father's coffin, grabbed a handle and helped Molina Bautista's fellow Marines carry his father’s casket, and  the fallen comrade to his grave.  


Marine Cpl. Rafael Reynosa Suarez, 28 of Santa Ana , Calif , died May 29, 2004 from hostile fire in Al Anbar Province, Iraq. Rafael immigrated to the United States from Mexico as a child to join family who had settled here. He graduated in 1994 from Santa Ana Valley High school in Orange County . A standout soccer player, he went on to play at Santa Ana College and on military teams. Rafael often said the hardships and sacrifices that came with military life would pay off for their family. A family member stated, "He just wanted to have a better future. 

Marine Lance Cpl. Benjamin R. Gonzalez, 23 of El Monte , Calif. , died on May 29, 2004. He was assign to 2nd Battalion, 4th Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division, from Camp Pendleton , Calif. He died in an explosion while providing security in the Al Anbar Province in Iraq . After an eight-month tour in Iraq , during which he encountered heavy combat, Cpl. Gonzalez came home to El Monte in September. In April, Gonzalez was re-deployed to Iraq , but with a different battalion. A month later, he was killed. The funeral procession for the El Monte resident attracted hundreds of mourners, including Marines from Gonzalez’s former battalion regimen, El Monte city Officials and members of law enforcement. Cpl. Gonzalez was laid to rest at Riverside National Cemetery in California . "This is a nightmare for us that we want to wake up from. We cannot believe it still," said Benjamin Gonzalez, the slain Marine’s father. "We are proud of what he did. It was his dream to serve this country and he died doing it." After the burial U.S. Rep. Hilda Solis, presented his parents a U.S. Flag.  


Marine Lance Cpl. Manuel A. Ceniceros, 23 of Santa Ana , Calif , died June 26, 2004 as the result of enemy action in Anbar Province , Iraq . Manuel was assigned to Regimental Combat Team 1 Headquarters Company, 1st Marine Division from Camp Pendleton , Calif. The 23-year-old had served four years as a Marine. He had seen combat in Afghanistan . He would come home fallen in love and gotten married, still he re-enlisted. He joined the Marines in January 2000 and distinguished himself as a rifleman. Manuel Ceniceros was an only child, lost his father when he was sixteen, and shy as a teenager; the military boosted his confidence and served as a second family after his father died. Ceniceros said to his wife, "It’s the best thing you can be in the military." He would say, "We’re not there to push papers. We’re actually there to help and fight." Looking ahead, he thought of settling down in Santa Ana , California , where he was born, starting a family and working for the police department.


Marine Cpl. Roberto Abad, 22, of Bell Gardens , Calif. , died Aug. 6, 2004 as the result of enemy action in An Najaf Province , Iraq . Born in Los Angeles , Abad attended Garfield Elementary School and graduated from Bell Garden High School . He first joined the Marines on Sept 18, 2000. Prior to his redeployment to Iraq , he decided it was time to father a child. "He wanted to have a child in case he never came back," said his father, Robert Abad. "We’re going to be able to have a memory of him now." Although proud of his service, he looked to the future and planned to attend college and become a firefighter. The oldest of seven children, he joined the Marines just after high school and participated in the first U.S. invasion of Iraq . "I looked up to him my whole life," said Abad’s brother Diego, who also enlisted, "He would tell me to never give up on anything you believe in."  


Marine Corps Pfc. Geoffrey Perez, 24 of Los Angeles , died Aug. 15, 2004 of injuries suffered due to enemy action in Al Anbar Province, Iraq. Pfc. Perez was assigned to 3rd Battalion, 1st Marine Regiment, from Camp Pendleton , Calif. Blanca Riaheta de Perez said her son was upbeat and aspired to become an actor. "He wanted to make movies and be like Jean-Claude Van Damme." He was also a "party person," said his sister Lidia, "the kind of person whose cheery demeanor could light up a room."


Special thanks to Alan Lessig, Director of Photography, for the website, “Military   Times, Honor the Fallen” ( for granting permission to reproduce photos for this article.


             Compilation of Purple Heart Sites by Rafal Ojeda



Hispanic Military Heroes

                  with non-Hispanic surnames

                            (continued, Part 2)


                 Commodore Uriah Phillips Levy


                        By: Tony (The Marine) Santiago



                                 Commodore Uriah Phillips Levy

Commodore Uriah Phillips Levy (1792-1862), a Sephardic Jew of Hispanic descent born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was the great grandson of Dr. Samuel Nunez a Spaniard.  A  Sephardi,  is a Jew originating in the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal and Spain), including the descendants of those subject to expulsion from Spain by order of the Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella (as codified in the Alhambra decree of 1492).  

Levy was assigned as assistant Sailing master on the ship Argus, which interdicted English ships in the English Channel during the War of 1812. The ship confiscated more than twenty vessels, but itself was captured. Levy and the crew were taken prisoner until the end of the war. Upon his return to the United States, Levy was placed in charge of the 74-gun ship Franklin and in 1817 was elevated to the rank of Lieutenant. In 1855, Levy was promoted to the rank of Commodore, in recognition of his superior abilities, making him one of the Navy's highest-ranking officers and the first Sephardic Jew of Hispanic descent to reach the rank the rank. Prior to the American Civil War, the highest rank in the U.S. Navy was Commodore. Levy  ended the Navy's practice of flogging, and prevailed against the antisemitic bigotry he faced among his fellow naval officers.  


Brigadier General Rudolph William Riefkohl  

                    By: Tony (The Marine) Santiago  

Brigadier General Rudolph William Riefkohl (born c. 1885), was the first Puerto Rican to receive a "tombstone promotion" to Brigadier General after his death which technically makes him the first Hispanic general in the United States Army.  

                                       Early years  

Born and raised in the town of Maunabo, Puerto Rico,  Riefkohl was the oldest of five siblings born to Luis Riefkohl and Julia Jaimieson. His other siblings were  Frederick Louis, Helen, Emily and Luise Riefkohl.  Riefkohl's younger brother was Rear Admiral Frederick Lois Riefkohl, an officer in the United States Navy who was the first Puerto Rican to graduate from the United States Naval Academy and the first to be awarded the Navy Cross for his actions in World War I.  

                                    Military career  

In 1905, Riefkohl earned a degree in Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) before joining the United States Army. According to the United States War Department, on April 1, 1918, Riefkohl served as Captain of Coastal Artillery at the Letterman Army Medical Center in Presidio of San Francisco, in California.  

In June 1919, Col. Harry L. Gilchrist was informed to assist Poland in coping with its typhus epidemic. He emphasized the necessity of having trained personnel to deal with the emergency and to instruct the Poles with the use of the equipment being purchased. General John J. Pershing had decided that organizational matters should be handled by General William Durward Conner, who in turn instructed Lieutenant Colonel Frank E. Estes, of the Army Service Corps, to mount the expedition.  

Etses then dispatched Riefkohl, who was then a Major, and Captain Pumhrey to Brest, France where they were instructed to assemble a new command. The Army Service Corps at Brest was organized into two separate units and later reorganized into a battalion commanded by Riefkohl. Riefkohl's battalion was successful in its mission and played an instrumental role helping the Poles overcome their epidemic. 

Riefkohl was among the Army officers who attended and graduated form the third course of the Army Industrial College which was held from February 2, 1925 to June 30, 1925  

Rudolph W. Riefkohl retired as a Colonel in the United States Army Corps of Engineers. Upon his death he received a "tombstone promotion" which was once was the custom of the military.  The  posthumous promotion technically makes Riefkohl the first Hispanic general in the United States Army.  

                                        Further reading  

The American Polish Typhus Relief Expedition, 1919-1921 By Alfred E. Cornebise, Published 1982, University of Delaware Press, ISBN 0874132169


Brigadier General  Mihiel Gilormini

                   By: Tony (The Marine) Santiago



                                Brigadier General Mihiel "Mike" Gilormini  

Brigadier General Mihiel "Mike" Gilormini (August 3, 1918 – January 29, 1988) born in Yauco, Puerto Rico, was a United States Air Force officer who served in the Royal Air Force and in the United States Army Air Corps during World War II. He was the recipient of the Silver Star Medal, the Air Medal with four clusters and the Distinguished Flying Cross 5 times. He was also the founder of the Puerto Rico Air National Guard.  

                                         Early years


Gilormini (born Mihiel Gilormini Pacheco), was raised in Yauco, which is located in the southwestern region of the island. In the early 1940s, he moved to San Diego, California where he took private flying lessons earning his pilot's license in 1941. On November 23, 1941, he enlisted in the Royal Canadian Air Force with the rank of sergeant /Pilot.  

                                        World War II



                                                   P-47 Thunderbolt
                                        Type of aircraft flown by Gilormini


Upon the outbreak of World War II, Gilormini offered his services to the Royal Air Force and served with them until November 30, 1942, when he joined the United States Army Air Corps with the rank of second lieutenant. In October 1942, he was assigned to the 346th Fighter Squadron and flew the P-39 interceptor. In March 1943, he was transferred to the 345th Fighter Squadron of the 350th Fighter Group in North Africa and Italy, to replace pilot losses. He stayed with the 345th "Devil Hawks" and flew a P-47 Thunderbolt until February 1945. During the war he was promoted to captain and flew a total of 200 combat missions over England, North Africa, Corsica and Italy. On May 19, 1943, Gilormini was involved in an aircraft accident when his P-39 went down over Maison Blanche, Algiers.  

In an interview, Colonel Earl Miller, a former buddy and roommate of Gilormini, recalled the following:  

"Gilormini was the commander of "A" Flight while I was commander of "C" Flight. We sometimes flew together. In fact, our last combat mission was attacking the airfield at Milano. I led the attack. The flak was real heavy. The 88 shells were bursting all around and also hitting a high bank (we were flying real low) to my right. Mike said, "Dutch, you better bail out, you are on fire!" Followed immediately with, "Don't bail out, it's another guy." Unfortunately, my wingman crashed and was killed."  

Gilormini and Miller flew their last flight in Italy together giving air cover for General George C. Marshall's visit to their group at Pisa. They both returned to the United States on the same ship. Gilormini was awarded a Silver Star Medal and five Distinguished Flying Crosses. The Distinguished Flying Cross is a medal awarded to any officer or enlisted member of the United States armed forces who distinguishes himself or herself in combat in support of operations by "heroism" or extraordinary achievement while participating in an aerial flight.


                                  Post World War II  

After the war he continued to serve in the Army Air Corps. In 1947, he was reassigned to the newly formed United States Air Force and named base commander to the 198th Tactical Fighter Squadron in Puerto Rico. On November 23, 1947, the Puerto Rico Air National Guard came into existence as a result of the efforts led by Lieutenant-Colonel Jose Muñiz, Colonel Alberto Nido and Colonel Mihiel Gilormini. Gilormini was promoted to brigadier-general and served as commander until his retirement in 1975.

 On January 29, 1988, Brigadier-General Mihiel "Mike" Gilormini died in San Juan, Puerto Rico, and was buried with full military honors in Puerto Rico National Cemetery located in Bayamón, Puerto Rico[5]

Awards and decorations
Among Gilormini's awards and decorations were the following:

Silver Star Medal
Distinguished Flying Cross (5 times)
Purple Heart Medal
Air Medal with four clusters
European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal
American Campaign Medal
National Defense Service Medal

Badge of the Royal Canadian Air Force
Badge of the Royal Air Force
WW II Army Air Force Pilot Badge
US Air Force Pilot badge  

Next month I will continue with the more stories of our “Hispanic Military Heroes with non-Hispanic surnames.” Until then, “Que Dios los Bendiga“.






Richard G. Santos  

                    Zavala County Sentinel – 14-15 May 2008    



The 7-8 May 2008 column in the Zavala County Sentinel by Richard G.  Santos opened the column with a couple of paragraphs concerning the photo above. 

We begin this week's column by directing your attention to the accompanying photo. It is obviously of religious services being held in front of a WW II bomber. Because the ladies in uniform on the right are of olive complexion, I thought the photo was taken in the Pacific Theatre of Operations and most likely on one of the Philippine Islands. However, Ernesto Berrones who gave me the photo says his father served in the African Theatre of Operation. Luis Berrones served as a waist gunner on a B-24 Liberator. That means the WAFS were not Philippine but could have been Hispanic or sporting a suntan. Another problem is that to me the plane looks like a B-17. It should be noted both planes had four engines but only two are seen in the photo. However, on close inspection we note a two engine plane taking off o the far left side of the photo. So, was the photo taken stateside where the crews trained on B-17s or smaller two engine planes? Or, did airman Berrones start in a B-17 and later transferred to a B-24 while in Africa? 

Like most veterans, the late Luis Berrones did not like to speak about his wartime experiences. We do know that the Army Air Corps in Africa had double duty in bombing Italian and Eastern European targets as well as transporting personnel, munitions and equipment. We may never know the answer to the questions raised by the photo. However, regardless of where the photo was taken, it is important to note the Dilley, Texas native and long time resident served honorably during World War II in the U. S. Army Air Corps and kept this and other photo as reminders. We thank his son Ernesto for sharing it. Incidentally, Neto fondly remembers his father being fiercely proud of having served in WW II and dragging his kids to all military air shows in San Antonio. 

 Read the happy networking results in Santos' May 14-15 column.  

                I emailed last week’s column to Juan Marinez in Michigan for him to ask his internet network to help identify the airplane in question. It did not take long for Miguel Hernandez to solve the mystery. As he pointed out, the bomber seems to be a B-25 Mitchell. The plane is famous for many reasons but especially for being the plane used by General Doolittle on his raid of Tokyo, Japan. It should also be noted that it served in all World War II Theatres of Operations and was used by many countries for over twenty years thereafter.  

                Named after General Billy Mitchell, the B-25 Mitchell had two Wright, 1700 H.P. engines. It featured a wingspan of 67 feet four inches, was 52 feet 11 inches long, 16 feet 4 inches high and weighed 35,000 pounds empty. Added weight included the eighteen 50 caliber machine guns and 4,000 pounds of bombs. Its range was 1,350 miles at 244 mph and ceiling was 24,200 feet. It was manufactured by North American Aviation Company. Of the 10,000 built, there are 164 still in existence today.  

                Miguel Hernandez is a graduate student in Michigan earning his Master’s Degree. His thesis is titled “American Foreign Legion; Puerto Ricans in America’s Defense.” He is also a re-enactor and a 16 year U. S. Army and New York Army National Guard veteran. Following military service, he worked for the Department of Justice in the Community Relations Service and Drug Enforcement Agency.  

                Juan Marinez, meanwhile, with Zavala County family roots, called with a certain excitement to his voice. He correctly noted the religious services were Catholic, apparently Palm Sunday and as a former altar boy was able to identify items used in Mass. Once I lightened the photo all three agreed that the ladies in uniform were olive skinned Hispanics and not Filipinas or sun tanned WAFS as previously guessed. In fact, we also agreed that it was interesting that all personnel seemed to be black-haired (Hispanic ?) Catholics. He was so excited with the photo that I authorized him to distribute it via the internet to military as well as Hispanic organizations and collections honoring the service personnel of World War II.  

                One final observation, it matters not if the photo might have been a memento for the personnel or a public relations photo-op for the Army Air Corps. The fact remains it captured World War II (1) Air Corps personnel (men and women) at religious services, (2) Hispanics by their bomber hearing Mass, and/or Catholics and non Catholic Christians at Palm Sunday services. It is and will remain an important and treasured photograph to be shared and never forgotten. To the WW II unknown/unidentified personnel in the photo, muchisimas gracias damas y caballeros.  

                Changing topics, last week I sat in absolute silence watching Our Lady of the Lake University in San Antonio burn to a shell. I lament the loss of the 100 year plus buildings not only for their historical value, but for very personal reasons as well. I started my teaching career at OLLU when I was the same age or younger than my students. The six years I served as Director of Ethnic Studies and taught history and anthropology at OLLU left heartwarming memories of a full range of students and experiences. The male and female students of the Winter Garden Area and especially Eagle Pass, Laredo, Brackettville, Pearsall, Charlotte and smaller towns were a joy due to their sense of humor and determination to earn a university education against all odds. The street-wise older types from San Antonio and night students who worked hard during the day and still managed to squeeze night classes to earn degrees were determined to improve their personal finances and careers for their families. The same was true for the older widowed, divorced or independent wives and mothers who struggled juggling child rearing, jobs, household chores and male dominant obstacles. Of course, I also remember the students who did not graduate and later (1) robbed a bank, (2) got arrested for criminal activities (3) voluntarily removed as sheriff for questionable activities, and even those who after graduating got elected to the City Councils, State Legislature, joined the military, FBI and/or DEA. Many established their own businesses, became attorneys, teachers, principals and CEOs of different businesses and organizations in Texas, Arizona, New Mexico and elsewhere. I will not lie by saying I remember them all, but I certainly remember those who stood out and above the crowd for one reason or another. Some, like “the space cadet from Eagle Pass’ and the “bato loco del barrio” who is now a CEO in Tucson and his best friend, a recently retired Hallandale ISD principal have remained friends and in contact. Others I read about or run into now and then and always it is a pleasure to learn who well they have succeeded since I last harassed them in class. It took years for them to discover the reason I harassed them and gave them a rough time was to get them to expand their minds, goals and make full use of their abilities.  

                So I sat in silence keeping an eye on the balcony which served as the private get-away to my office. Many were the times I alone or with a group of students made use of the balcony to solve problems or deal with sensitive issues faced by the students. I saw one of the steeples fall in flames but for selfish reasons, I particularly felt pangs when I saw my former office and private balcony engulfed in flames and black smoke. Only the memories remain today but they are good, heartfelt memories. I am sure not only my former OLLU students but anyone who ever attended the school laments the loss of such an historic, architecturally unique, educational institution. I also could not help but remember that “catholic” means universal and remembering my students from all walks of life, from all ethnic/racial ancestry I can personally attest OLLU at my time as Director of Ethic Studies and instructor was and hopefully still is, and will remain, a universal educational institution of higher learning.  

                This week I am cutting my column short to allow the paper the space needed to include the photo of the B-25. So again I thanks Juan Marinez, Miguel Hernandez, and all my former students from OLLU, Trinity U, School of Aero Space Medicine and not to be forgotten, SWTCC. To quote comedian Bob Hope’s famous hit, “Thanks For the memories”.

Sent by Juan Marinez 



WWII Photo and Why They ARE Very Important in 2008

General Eisenhower was correct when he predicted that future generations would attempt to forget these tragic events from the holocaust.

It is a matter of history that when Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces, General Dwight Eisenhower, found the victims of the death camps, he ordered all possible photographs to be taken, and for the German people from surrounding villages to be ushered through the camps and even made to bury the dead. 
 He did this because he said in words to this effect: 'Get it all on record now - get the films - get the witnesses - because somewhere down the track of history some b*stard will get up and say that this never happened'  'All that is necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing'  Edmund Burke 
This week, the UK removed The Holocaust from its school curriculum because it 'offended' the Muslim population which claims it never occurred. This is a frightening portent of the fear that is gripping the world and how easily each country is giving in to it.  
It is now more than 60 years after the Second World War in Europe ended. This e-mail is being sent as a memorial chain, in memory of the six million Jews, 20 million Russians, 10 million Christians and 1,900 Catholic priests who were murdered, massacred, raped, burned, starved and humiliated with the German and Russian peoples looking the other way!
Now, more than ever, with Iran , among others, claiming the Holocaust to be 'a myth,' it is imperative to make sure the world never forgets
because we cannot let it ever happen again.|

These photos were taken in Germany by James Emison Chanslor, an Army Master Sergeant who served in World War II from 1942 until 1945.  
Source: Photos courtesy of John Michael Chanslor. 

Sent by 



  Norman D. Cota, Major General, US Army, WWII

Name: Cota, Norman Daniel "Dutch"
Date of birth: May 30th, 1893, Chelsea, Massachusetts
Date of death: October 4th, 1971, Wichita, Kansas

Rank: Brigadier General (Brigadier)
Unit: Assistant Division Commander 29th Infantry Division "Blue and Gray" U.S. Army
Action: The President of the United States takes pleasure in presenting the Distinguished Service Cross to Norman D. Cota (0-5284), Brigadier General, U.S. Army, for extraordinary heroism in connection with military operations against an armed enemy while serving as Assistant Division Commander, 29th Infantry Division, in action against enemy forces on 6 June 1944, at Normandy, France. General Cota landed on the beach shortly after the first assault wave of troops had landed.

At this time the beach was under heavy enemy rifle, machine gun, mortar and artillery fire. Numerous casualties had been suffered, the attack was arrested, and disorganization was in process. With complete disregard for his own safety, General Cota moved up and down the fire-swept beach reorganizing units and coordinating their action. Under his leadership, a vigorous attack was launched that successfully overran the enemy positions and cleared the beaches.

Brigadier General Cota's superb leadership, personal bravery and zealous devotion to duty exemplify the highest traditions of the military forces of the United States and reflect great credit upon himself, the 29th Infantry Division, and the United States Army.

Details: Headquarters, First U.S. Army, General Orders No. 29 (June 29, 1944).
Rank: Major General as of June 29, 1944.
Unit: Commander 28th Infantry Division "Keystone" U.S.Army

Distinguished Service Medal (DSM), Legion of Merit - US Military, Silver Star, Purple Heart and the Distinguished Service Order (DSO)

Information sources: - Ewing, J.H., 29 Let’s Go! – A History of the 29th Infantry Division in World War II, The Battery Press, Nashville, USA, 1979 - Author: U.S. Army, 28th Infantry Division in World War II, The Battery Press, Nashville, USA, 1999.

Remarks, Norman Cota was the grandfather of Alfred (Ed Cota) Moch. Actor Robert Mitcham played him in the “Longest Day,” the story of the “D-Day Invasion of France.” (April 12, 2008)

Source: ElMensajeVol.27, June 2008, Editor, Robert Smith

Introduction to article: 
US in Focus, Immigrants in the US Armed Forces

Introduction to article: US in Focus, Immigrants in the US Armed Forces
By Jeanne Batalova, Ph.D.
Migration Policy Institute, 2008

Source: Migration Information Source: Fresh Thought, Authoritative Data, Global Reach
More data on the subject:

According to data from the Department of Defense, more than 65,000 immigrants (non-US citizens and naturalized citizens) were serving on active duty in the US Armed Forces as of February 2008. Since September 2001, US Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) has naturalized more than 37,250 foreign-born members of the US Armed Forces and granted posthumous citizenship to 111 service members.

The current presence of immigrants in the military has a number of historical precedents. According to USCIS, the foreign born composed half of all military recruits by the 1840s and 20 percent of the 1.5 million service members in the Union Army during the Civil War.

Naturalized citizens, lawful permanent residents, and certain nationals of three countries in free association with the United States — the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, and Palau — are eligible for military service. In addition, Congress can deem other foreign-born individuals as eligible to serve if the secretary of a specific military branch "determines that such enlistment is vital to the national interest."

This Spotlight focuses on the statistics and policy changes regarding the foreign born in the army, navy, marines and air force. The data come from the Department of Defense (as of February 2008) and from USCIS (as of April 2008) unless otherwise noted.

Note: In this Spotlight, the terms "immigrant" and "foreign born" are used interchangeably and refer to members of the US military who are either naturalized citizens or noncitizens.

Click on the bullet points below for more information:

Statistics on Immigrant Service Members on Active Duty

Citizenship and the Armed Forces


Sent by Rafael Ojeda (Tacoma, WA) and Juan Marinez (Lansing, Michigan)


Latinos Claim Larger Share of U.S. Military Personnel - Population Reference

 by Mady Wechsler Segal and David R. Segal

(October 2007) More than 35 million Americans identify as Hispanic, making them the country's largest ethnic minority. However, Latinos have been underrepresented in the all-volunteer armed forces, especially among officers. This is beginning to change, as increasing numbers of Hispanics enter the military. Moreover, despite the traditionally masculine culture of the military and of Hispanics, the Hispanic share of military women has been increasing faster than the Hispanic share of military men.1

The past 20 years have witnessed dramatic increases in the percentage of Latinos (of both sexes) among active duty enlisted personnel (see Figure 1).

Figure 1
Hispanics in the U.S. Civilian Labor Force and Military Services, 1997 to 2004

Note: Percent of men and women ages 18-44.
Source: Department of Defense, Population Representation in the Military Services, Fiscal Year 2004.

The increase in Latinos in the military has not quite kept pace with their rise among 18-to-44-year-olds in the civilian labor force. Latinos made up 16 percent of the civilian labor force in 2004, but less than 10 percent of enlisted personnel and 13 percent in September 2006.2 However, the civilian figure includes those who do not meet military requirements for enlistment, including education and immigration status. Until recently, enlistment required a high school degree. Almost all (99 percent) of enlisted personnel in Fiscal Year (FY) 2001 (Oct. 1 to Sept. 30) had either a high school degree or the equivalent, such as a General Education Development (GED) certificate. Also, until recently, immigrants had to be citizens or legal permanent residents to enlist. Under these qualifications, Latinos actually have been overrepresented among enlisted personnel. In FY 2001, Latinos made up 8.2 percent of the qualified civilian work force and 9.5 percent of enlisted service members.3

Sent by Rafael Ojeda (Tacoma, WA) and Juan Marinez (Lansing, Michigan)


Information for Members of the Military and Their Families

This section of the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) website contains immigration-related information and links to resources geared specifically for members of the military and their families. USCIS is working with the Department of Defense to ensure the military community has accurate and up-to-date information about immigration services and benefits.  

Military Help Line

USCIS has established a toll-free military help line, 1-877-CIS-4MIL (1-877-247-4645), exclusively for members of the military and their families.  USCIS customer service specialists are available to answer calls Monday through Friday from 8 a.m. until 4:30 p.m. (CST), excluding federal holidays.  After-hours callers will receive an email address that they can use to contact USCIS for assistance.  Callers will receive assistance with immigration-related information, such as:

·        Tracking their application for naturalization (Form N-400);

·        Notifying USCIS of a new mailing address or duty station;

·        Checking the status of an application or petition;

·        Bringing a spouse, fiancé(e) or adopted child to the United States;

·        Obtaining posthumous citizenship for a deceased member of the Armed Services; and

·        Submitting an application for expedited processing.

Service members and their families stationed in the United States or overseas may access the help line using the toll-free number, through their base telephone operator or using the Defense Switched Network (DSN).  Operators will ask members of the general public to call our main customer service line: 1-800-375-5283.


             Naturalization Information for Military Personnel

If you are a member of the U.S. Armed Forces and are interested in becoming a U.S. citizen, you may be eligible to apply for citizenship under special provisions provided for in the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA). Generally, service in the U.S. Armed Forces means service in one of the following branches:

·        Army,

·        Navy,

·        Marine Corps,

·        Air Force,

·        Coast Guard,

·        Certain Reserve components of the National Guard, and

·        Selected Reserve of the Ready Reserve

Recent changes in the relevant sections of the INA (Sections 328 and 329) make it easier for qualified military personnel to become U.S. citizens if they choose to file a naturalization application.

U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) has created a streamlined process specifically for military personnel serving in active-duty status or have recently been discharged.

This brochure provides you with some basic information about the laws that govern citizenship for military personnel and the process you should follow to begin your journey to citizenship.

Do You Qualify?

There are general requirements and qualifications that must be met in order for you to become a U.S. citizen. These include:

Demonstrating that you have good moral character
Demonstrating knowledge of the English language
Demonstrating knowledge of U.S. government and history (“civics”), and
Demonstrating attachment to the United States by taking an oath of allegiance to the U.S. Constitution.
As a member of the military there are other naturalization requirements that you may be excepted from, including the required residency and physical presence in the United States. These exceptions are outlined in Sections 328 and 329 of the INA.


Section 328, INA

This section applies to all members currently serving in the U.S. Armed Forces or those who have already been discharged from service.

·        Have you served honorably for a total of one or more years?

·        Are you a lawful permanent resident?

·        Will you be filing your application for naturalization while still in service or within six months of being discharged?

Section 329, INA

This section applies to members of the U.S. Armed Forces who currently serve or have served in active-duty status during authorized periods of conflict as outlined in the INA (WWI; September 1, 1939-December 31, 1946; June 25, 1950-July1, 1955; and February 28, 1961-October 5, 1978) or any additional period designated by the President in an Executive Order.*

* Recently, the President signed an Executive Order identifying September 11, 2001 and after as an authorized period of conflict.

·    Have you served honorably in the U.S. Armed Forces during an authorized period of conflict?

·    After enlistment, were you lawfully admitted as a permanent resident of the United States, OR at the time of enlistment, reenlistment, or induction were you physically present in the United States or qualifying territory?

Changes on October 1, 2004

Recent legislation has called for additional benefits to members of the military. These benefits will go into effect on October 1, 2004.

·        No fees will be charged when you file for naturalization.

·        The naturalization process will be made available overseas to members of the Armed Forces at U.S. embassies, consulates, and where practical, military installations abroad.

If You Qualify…

Every military installation should have a designated point-of-contact to handle your application and certify your Request for Certification of Military or Naval Service (N-426). You should inquire through your chain of command to find out who this person is, so they can help you with your application packet.

Your point-of-contact will send your N-400, G325B, and certified N-426 to:

The Nebraska Service Center
PO Box 87426
Lincoln, NE 68501-7426

The Service Center will review your application and perform the necessary security checks. Then, they will send it to the district office closest to your location. If you have a preference as to where you would like to be interviewed, you can provide that information in a cover letter attached to your naturalization packet. The district office will set a date to interview you and test your knowledge of English and Civics. If granted, USCIS will inform you of the date you can take your oath of allegiance.

Forms you will need to complete and submit:

·        N-400, Application for Naturalization

·        N-426, Request for Certification of Military or Naval Service (This form requires certification by the military prior to submission to USCIS)

·        G-325B, Biographic Information

Forms and Handbooks

To get these forms, you can call the USCIS Form Line at: 1-800-870-3676 to request the “Military Packet” and obtain a copy of the handbook, “A Guide to Naturalization”

Spouses of U.S. Citizens Deployed Abroad

If you are married to a U.S. citizen who is a member of the U.S. Armed Forces and your citizen spouse is or will be deployed abroad by the Armed Forces for one year, you may be eligible for expedited naturalization under section 319(b) of the INA. For more information, please refer to the USCIS handbook, "A Guide to Naturalization" (page 22).

Posthumous Benefits

The INA allows for the awarding of posthumous citizenship to active-duty military personnel who die while serving in the Armed Forces. In addition, surviving family members seeking immigration benefits are given special consideration. To learn more, contact your military point-of-contact or the local district USCIS office.



N.Y. Revolutionary War Encampment Faces Development
Spanish Patriots of Peru, Part 8 (Garibay to Hac) 

N.Y. Revolutionary War Encampment Faces Development


A strip mall may take over the site of an important Revolutionary War supply depot in Fishkill, N.Y. Of the depot's 70 acres listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974, 18 acres are slated for new development.

But the town, Dutchess County, and local preservation groups plan to meet next month to consider passing a building moratorium to prevent any construction on the last acres of the Fishkill Supply Depot and Encampment, located across the street from an empty mall.

"Hopefully in this meeting with the town we can accomplish something," says Dutchess County Legislator Alison MacAvery.

Modeled after a Roman encampment, the Fishkill Supply Depot functioned as the main supply camp for the Continental Army throughout most of the war. Visited by George Washington, the Marquis de Lafayette, and other important figures, the depot was a rallying and assembling point. In addition to extensive barracks, a prison, a hospital, and a powder magazine, a cemetery also existed on the site. Today, the buildings are gone, and the exact location of the cemetery, where hundreds of soldiers are buried, is unknown.

The depot was central to the Continental Army's success, says Rich Goring, state archaeologist and regional historic preservation supervisor.

"Its strategic significance is linked to the strategic significance of the Hudson River," Goring says.  "Communication across the river was critically important for both sides."

Two private developers currently own the depot site, but a local group called Fishkill Historical Focus is working with the town to preserve at least eight crucial acres. At a meeting next month, city and county officials and community preservationists will discuss a preservation plan.

"It is a tremendous legacy for a town to have, and many towns dream to have such an important history," says Mara Farrell, co-founder of Fishkill Historical Focus. "It's a remarkable story, and it's an untold story."



(Names beginning with Garibay to Hac) 

Compiled by Granville Hough, Ph.D.

Mariano Garibay.  Sgt, Mil Urbanas de Inf de Huancavelica, 1800.  Leg 7288:XVI:26.

Antonio de la Garma.  Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Huanta, 1800.  Leg 7288:XVIII:16.

Cayetano de la Garma.  Capt, Mil prov Urbanas Inf de Huanta, 1800.  Leg 7288:XVIII:3.

Martin Garmendia.  Capt, Agregado Inf del Real Asiente de Paucartambo, 1798.  Leg 7286:XIX:5.

Eugenio Garro.  Sgt, Mil Inf española de San Juan de la Frontera de Chachapoyas, 1792.  Leg 7284:VI:32.

André Gastañaduy.  SubLt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de San Antonio de Cajamarca, 1797.  Leg 7287:III:24.

Juan José Gastañaga.  Sgt Mayor, Mil Prov Discip Cab de Cuzco, 1792.  Leg 7284:XVII:2.

Manuel Gastea.  Sgt, Mil Prov urbanas Inf de Urubamba, 1797.  Seg 7287:XXXVIII:43.

Manuel Gatica.  Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Dragones de Chota, 1797.  Leg 7287:XIII:19.

Francisco Javier Gavidia.  Capt, Comp Cab de Milicias del partido de Santa, 1799.  Leg 7286:XXIII:3.

José Gayangos.  Capt de Granaderos, grad de Lt Col, Inf Real de Lima, 1800.  Leg 7288:XXII:6.

Juan Gayoso.  Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Chota.  1797.  Leg 7287:XIII:5.

Mariano Gaztelu.  Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Huanta, 1800.  Leg 7288:XVIII:55.

Agustín Gil.  SubLt, Mil Urbanas Inf San Antonio de Cajamarca, 1797.  Leg 7287:III:19.

José Antonio Gil.  SubLt, Mil Urbanas, Inf de Huancavelica, 1800.  Leg 7288:XVI:17.

Pedro Pablo Gil.  Lt de Granaderos, Mil Discip Dragones de Arica, 1800.  Leg 7288:II:33.

Pedro José Gil y Montes Lt, Mil Discip Dragones de Arica, 1800, Leg 7288:II:21.

Ramón Gil del Valle.  Capt grad, Comp sueltas Cab Morenos de Lima, 1790.  Leg 7283:X:1.

Francisco Gilgonio.  Alf, Mil Urbanas Dragones de palma, partido de Jauja, 1800.  Leg 7288:XXI:19.

José Ginester.  Lt, Mil Discip Cab de los Valles de Palpa y nasca, 1795.  Leg 7285:XX:12.

Luis Giron.  SubLt de Granaderos, Mil Prov urbanas de Inf Cajamarca, 1797.  Leg 7287:IV:16.

Pedro Givaja.  Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Urubamba, 1797.  Leg 7287:XXXVIII:40.

Agustín Goche.  Ayudante Mayor, Mil Discip Cab Arnero de Chancay, 1800.  Leg 7288:III:11.

Juan Manuel Gochi.  Cadet, Inf Real de Lima, 1800.  Leg 7288:XXII:119.

Vicente Godinez.  Alf, Mil Discip Cab Trujillo, Perú, 1797.  Leg 7287:XXXVI:17.

Blas Godoy.  Sgt, Mil Discip Cab Arnero de Chancay, 1796.  Leg 7286:III:26.

Gervasio Godoy.  Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Cab de Huamalies, 1800.  Leg 7288:XVII:23.

Pedro Godoy.  SubLt, Mil Prov Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800.  Leg 7288:IX:59.

Ignacio Goicoechea.  Cadet, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Clendin, partido de Cajamarca, 1792.  Leg 7284:XV:42.

Andrés Gomero.  Lt, Mil Prov urbanas inf de Huánuco, 1796.  Leg 7286:V:18.

Agustín Gomez.  Sgt, Mil Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800.  Leg 7288:IX:107.

Bernardo Gomez.  Capt, Comp sueltas de Inf del partido de Carelmapu, Chiloe, 1800.  Leg 7288:XIII:3.

Felipe Gomez.  Lt, Mil prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1792.  Leg 7284:III:34.

Francisco Gomez.  Sgt, Mil Prov Discip de Cab del Valle de Chincha, 1797.  Leg 7287:XII:38.

Francisco Gomez.  SubLt, Comp Veteranos de la dotación de Chiloe, 1798.  Leg 7286:XV:9.

Francisco Gomez.  Capt, grad Lt Col, Inf Real de Lima, 1800.  Leg 7288:XXII:;7.

Francisco Antonio Gomez.  SubLt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1800.  Leg 7288:I:56.

José Gomez.  Lt, Mil de Dragones Prov de las Fronteras de Tarma.  1797.  Leg 7287:XXXV:13.

Juan Antonio Gomez.  Sgt, Mil Prov Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800.  Leg 7288:IX:81.

Juan Ignacio Gomez.  SubLt de Bandera, Mil Prov Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800.  Leg 7288:IX:79.

Juan Ventura Gomez.  SubLt, Mil Prov Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800.  Leg 7288:IX:63.

León Gomez.  SubLt, 34d Comp, Mil Urbanas Inf Moyobamba, 1797.  Leg 7287:XXIX:20.

Luis Gomez.  Lt de Granaderos Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Huánuco, 1796.  Leg 7286:V:16.

Manuel León Gomez.  SubLt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de San Antonio de Cajamarca, 1797.  Leg 7287:III:28.

Martin Gomez.  Alf, Mil de Dragones prov de las Fronteras de Tarma, 1800.  Leg 7288:XXIX:25.

Modesto Gomez.  Lt de Granaderos, Mil Prov Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800.  Leg 7288:IX:49.

Pascual Gomez.  Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Huambos, Partido de Cajamarca, 1797.  Leg 7287:XVII:31.

Pedro Gomez.  Sgt, Mil Prov Discip de Dragones de Caraveli, 1796.  Leg 7287:VIII:41.

Santiago Gomez.  SubLt, Mil Discip de Cab de Castro, Chiloe, 1800.  Leg 7288:X:6.

Sebestián Gomez.  Ayudante Mayor, Mil de Cab Partido de Santa, 1799.  Leg 7286:XXIII:11.

Tomás Gomez.  Lt, 3rd Comp Mil Urbanas Inf Moyobamba, 1797.  Leg 7287:XXIX:11.

Pedro José Gomez de Celis.  Sgt Mayor, Mil Discip Cab Ferreñafe, 1797.  Leg 7287:XIV:3.

Mateo Gomez Gonzales.  Sgt Mayor, Mil Dragones Prov de las fronteras de Tarma, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIX:4.

Manuel Gomez Guevara.  Capt, Mil Discip Cab Ferreñafe, 1797.  Leg 7287:XIV:10.

Fausto Gomez Miro y Lara.  Capt, Mil Discip Dragones del Puerto de Tumbez, Piura, 1795.  Leg 7285:XXIII:10.

Ambrosio Gomez Trigoso.  Capt, Mil Urbanas Inf de Húamanga, 1797.  Leg 7286:IV:11.

José Gomez Trigoso.  Cadet, Mil Discip Cab de los valles de Palpa y Nasca, 1797.  Leg 7287:XXXI:re.

Julián Gomez Trigoso.  Capt, Mil Discip Cab de los valles de Palpa y Nasca, 1797.  Leg 7287:XXXI;6.

Santiago Gomez Trigoso.  Lt Col, Mil Urbanas Inf Moyobamba, 1797.  Leg 7287:XXIX:2.

Agustín Gonzalez.  Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Huambos, Partido de Cajamarca, 1792.  Leg 7284:XIV:33.

Agustín Gonzalez.  Lt, Mil de Pardos de Lima, 1792.  Leg 7284:XII:3.

Alejo Gonzalez.  Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Abancay, 1793.  Leg 7284:II:32.

Carlos Gonzalez.  Comandante, Mil Urbanas de Dragones de Palma, Partido de Jauja, 1800.  Leg 7288:XXI:3.

Cipriano Gonzalez.  Capt, Mil Discip Cab de Camaná, 1798.  Leg 7286:XIV:8.

Cristobal Gonzalez.  Lt Col, Mil Urbanas Cab San Pablo de Chalaquez, 1798.  Leg 7287:XI:2.

Dionisio Gonzalez.  Alf, Mil Prov Urbanas de Dragones de Chota, 1797.  Leg 7287:XIII:31.

Domingo Gonzalez.  Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Huambos, partido de Cajamarca, 1797.  Leg 7287:XVII:27.

Domingo Gonzalez.  Capt, Mil prov de Dragones de Chota, 1797.  Leg 7287:XIII:7.

Eugenio Gonzalez.  Lt, Mil Discip Cab de Camaná, 1798.  Leg 7286:XIV:13.

Felipe Gonzalez.  Lt, Comp sueltas de Inf del partido de Carelmapu, Chiloe, 1800.  Leg 7288:XIII:6.

Felipe Gonzalez.  Alf, Mil Cab del partido de Santa, 1792.  Leg 7284:XXIII:14.

José Gonzalez.  Capt, Mil Discip Dragones de Lima, 1788.  Leg 7283:III:36.

José Gonzalez.  Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Cab de Huanta, 1798.  Leg 7286:XVII:12.

José Ricardo Gonzalez.  Alf, Mil Discip Cab de los Valles de Palpa y Nasca, 1797.  Leg 7287:XXXI:22.

Juan Gonzalez.  Lt, Mil Discip Dragones de Lima, 1788.  Leg 7283:III:41.

Juan José Gonzalez.  Lt, Mil Urbanas Inf de Huamanga, 1800.  Leg 7288:XV:12.

Manuel Gonzalez.  Portaguión, Mil Discip Dragones de Lima, 1790.  Leg 7283:IX:67.

Manuel Gonzalez.  Lt, Inf Real de Lima, 1800.  Leg 7288:XXII:47.

Manuel Gonzalez.  Col, Inf, Real de Lima, 1800.  Leg 7288:XXII:1.

Mariano Gonzalez.  SubLt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Abancay, 1793.  Leg 7284:II:61.

Mateo Eustaquio Gonzalez.  Alf, Mil Prov Discip Cab de Cuzco, 1797.  Leg 7287:X:23.   

Juan Gonzalez de Santayana y Rosas.  SubLt, Mil Discip de Inf de Cuzco, 1800.  Leg 7288:XXIV:30.

Alonzo Gonzalez del Vale, Marqués de Campo Ameno.  Sgt Mayor, mil Discip de Cab de Ica, 1800.  Leg 7288:XX:2.

Juan Gonzalez Villagra.  Capitan, Inf del Real Asiento de Parcartambo, 1796.  Leg 7286:XIX:11.

Manuel Gonzalez Viscardo.  Capt, Comandante Milicias Discip de Cab de Camaná, 1798.  Leg 7286:XIV:3.

Manuel Gorbea.  Capt, Mil Discip Cab de Arnero de Chancay. 1800.  Leg 7288:III:9.

Agustín Gordillo.  Sgt, Mil Discip Cab del Reino de Ferreñafe, 1797.  Leg 7287:XIV:44.

Ignacio Gornes.  Cadet, Mil Discip Cab de los Valles de palpa y Nasca, 1797.  Leg 7287:XXXI:42.

Pedro Gornes.  Capt, Mil Discip Cab de los Valles de Palpa y Nasca, 1797.  Leg 7287:XXI:7.

Diego Gorostizaga.  SubLt, Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1790.  Leg 7283:VII:37.

Juan Goyeneche.  Sgt Mayor, Mil prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1800.  Leg 7288:I:2.

Juan Mariano Goyeneche.  Cadet, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1800.  Leg 7288:I:95.

Manuel Goyeneche.  Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Huanta, 1800.  Leg 7288:XBIII:24.

Juan Antonio Grados.  Cadet, Mil Discip Cab de los Valles de Palpa y Nasca, 1797.  Leg 7287:XXXI:44.

Lorenzo Grados.  Lt, Mil Prov Discip de Dragones de Caraveli, 1797  Leg 7287:VIII:14.

Pedro Grados.  Alf, Mil Prov Discip de Dragones de Caraveli, 1796.  Leg 7287:VIII:22.

Pedro Antonio Grados.  Lt, Mil Prov Discip de Dragones de Caraveli, 1796.  Leg 7287:VIII:11.

Pedro José Grados.  Lt, Mil Prov Discip Dragones de Caraveli, 1797.  Leg 7287:VIII:16 bis.

José Granados.  Alf Mil Discip Cab Arnero de Chancay, 1800.  Leg 7288:III:22.

Esteban de la Granda.  Lt, Mil Discip Cab de Camaná, 1798.  Leg 7286:XIV:12.

Diego Grimaldos.  Sgt, Mil Discip Cab de Arequipa, 1792.  Leg 7284:XIII:43.

Carlos Garreti.  Lt, Mil de Pardos Libres de Lima, 1800.  Leg 7288:XXV:4.

Ramón Guemes.  Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de Calca, 1797.  Leg 7287:V:22.

Hermenegildo Guerra.  Lt, Mil Discip Cab Arnero de Chancay, 1800.  Leg 7288:III:12.

Jorge Guerra.  Sgt, Mil Urbanas de Inf de Huancavelica, 1800.  Leg 7288:16:18.

Manuel Guerra.  Sgt, Inf Real de Lima, 1800.  Leg 7288:XXII:97.

Pablo Guerra.  Lt, Mil Urbanas de Dragones de Palma, Partido de Jauja, 1800.  Leg 7288:XXI:14. 

Pablo Guerra.  Lt, Mil Discip Cab Arnero de Chancay, 1800.  Leg 7288:III:15.

Estaquio Guerrero.  Cadet, Mil Prov Urbanas de Dragones de Chota, 1797.  Leg 7287:XIII:52.

Remigio Guerrero.  Cadet, Mil Prov Urbanas de Dragones de Chota, 1797.  Leg 7287:XIII:51.

Manuel Guerrero de Luna.  Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Dragones de Chota, 1797.  Leg 7287:XIII:22.

Fulgencio Guerrero y Vazquez.  Lt, Mil Discip de Cab de Ica, 1800.  Leg 7288:XX:20.

Zénon Guerrero Vazquez.  Cadet, Mil Discip Cab de Ica, 1800.  Leg 7288:XX:42.

Domingo Guevara.  Cadet, Mil Discip de Blancos de Barcelona, Prov de Cumaná, 1799.  Leg 7295:VII:75.

Francisco Guevara.  Cadet, 3rd Comp Inf Mil de Blancos de la Isla de la Margarita, 1800.  Leg 7295:XIII:12.

Juan Santos Guevara.  Alf, Momp Mil Discip de Cab del Reino de Ferreñafe, 1797.  Leg 7287:XIV:33.

Luis Fermin Guevara.  Alf, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Huambos, Partido de Cajamarca, 1792.  Leg 7284:XIV:26.

Pedro Guevara.  Cadet, Comp Vet de Inf de la Isla de la Margarita, 1798.  Leg 7295:XIII:30.

Pedro Lorenzo de Guevara.  Capt, Mil Reglada de Vol Blancos, Valenia, Caracas, 1799.  Leg 7295:VIII:13.

Rafael Guevara.  Cadet, 1st Comp, Inf Mil de Blancos de la Isla de la Margarita, 1800.  Leg 7295:XIII:10.

Santiago Guevara.  Sgt, Comp Mil Discip Cab del Reino de Ferreñafe, 1797.  Leg 7287:XIV:39.

Teodoro Guevara.  Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Dragones de Chota, 1797.  Leg 7287:XIII:45.

José Vicente Guevara Astudillo.  Cadet, Mil Discip de Blancos de Barcelona, Prov de Cumaná, 1799.  Leg 7295:VII:74.

Santos Guillen.  Sgt de la Comp de los Tongas, Mil Prov Discip Cab de Arequipa, 1797.  Leg 7287:II:53.

Tomás Guillen.  Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas Cap de Huanta, 1798.  Leg 7286:XVII:15.

Tomás Guillen de Mendoza.  Cadet, Mil Prov Urbanas de Cab de Huanta, 1794.  Leg 7285:III:39.

Juan Guisla.  Capt, Mil Discip Cab de los Valles de Palpa y nasca, 1797.  Leg 7287:XXXI:11.

Juan de Guisla y Larrea.  Col, Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1800.  Leg 7288:XXIII:3.

José Manuel Gustini.  Sgt, Mil Pardos Libres de Lima, 1800.  Leg 7288:XXV:13.

José Gutierrez.  Sgt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Qrequipa, 1800.  Leg 7288:I:62.

Liberato Gutierrez.  Capt, Comp sueltas Mil Discip Cab de Calbuco, Chiloe, 1800.  Leg 7288:VI:1.

Manuel Gutierrez.  Sgt, Inf Real de Lima, 1794.  Leg 7285:IX:97.

Manuel Gutierrez.  Lt, Mil Urbanas Inf de Huamanga, 1797.  Leg 7286:IV:18.

Marcos Gutierrez.  Capt de Granaderos, Mil Pardos Libres de Lima, 1796.  Leg 7286:XII:19.

Pedro Gutierrez.  Sgt, Mil Prov Discip Cab de Cuzco, 1792.  Leg 7284:XVII:51.

Prudencio Gutierrez.  Alf, Mil Urbanas de Dragones de Pallma, partido de Jauja, 1800.  Leg 7288:XXI:20.

Tomás Gutierrez.  Lt, Comp Mil Discip Cab del Reino de Ferreñafe, 1797.  Leg 7287:XIV:19.

Raimundo Gutierrez de Otero.  Lt Col, Mil Prov Discip Cab de Qrequipa, 1797.  Leg 7287:II:5.

Juan Antonio Gutierrea de Prio.  Ayudante Mayor, Mil Prov urbanas de Dragones de Chota, 1793.  Leg 7284:XXVI:3.

Bartolomé Gutierrea de Siguenza.  Lt Col, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Quispicanchi, Cuzco, 1798.  Leg 7286:XX:2.

Angel Guzman.  Capt, Mil Españolas Cab de Luya y Chillaos, Prov de Chachapoya, 1792.  Leg 7284:XX:7.

Domingo Guzman.  Sgt, Mil Discip Dragones de Amotape, Piura, 1795.  Leg 7285:XXIII:21.

Eulalio Guzman.  Lt, Comp Mil Discip Cab del Reino de Ferreñafe, 1797.  Leg 7287:XIV:22.

Luis Guzman.  Sgt, Inf Real de Lima, 1800.  Leg 7288:XXII:101.

José Guzman y Medina.  Lt de Granaderos, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Urubamba, 1797.  Leg 7287:XXXVIII:18.

Laureano Guzman Portocarrero.  Sgt Mayor, Mil Urbanas Inf Moyobamba, 1791.  Leg 7287:XXIX:3.

(to be continued.)


 Guerra, de la Guerra Family Crest and Name History

Below are a few of the surnames as related to the California Los Pobladores 200 members, as well as their basic historical background, and their locations prior to establishing the New World in the 1500s. Repared by Bob Smith

Family Crest and Name History. Guerra, de la Guerra Family Crest and Name History: Recorded in many spellings including Guerre, Guierre, Laguerre (French), Guerra, Guerrero, de la Guerra (Spanish), Guerreiro (Portugese), Guerri (Italian), Guerriero (Sicillian), and Warr or Warre (English), the name derives from the word ‘guerre’, meaning ‘war’.

Seemingly the surname was originally a nickname, which described either a soldier who had returned home from the wars, or a belligerent person. The word as “Guerre,” was introduced into England by the Normans after the Conquest of 1066 AD, by Norman the Conqueror, but it is by no means clear as to how the surname spread to Italy and the Spanish Peninsula, as it does not appear to have a Latin base. Medieval nicknames were given for a variety of reasons including personal appearance, physical peculiarities, or moral characteristics. This gave rise to some very unusual surnames, many of which were obscene and crude! Examples of the name recordings taken from various countries include John Warre of Lincoln, England, in 1468; Jan Guerre, at Bornville, Meurthe-et-Moselle, France, on August 7th 1575; Magdalena Ortiz Guerra, at Nazar, Navarra, Spain, on October 19th, 1586, and Bartolome Guerro, at San Sebastian, Spain, on September 28th, 1613, when he married Ana de Ortega. An interesting recording is that of Maria Josefa Guerra-Noriega, at Santa Barbara, Alta California on July 2nd, 1826.

The ancient coat of arms has the distinctive blazon of a red field, charged with a single silver lure. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Herebertus la Guerre, which was dated about 1179, in the pipe rolls of the county of Dorset, England, during the reigh of King Henry II, known as “The Church Builder,” 1154 - 1189. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England, this was known as “Poll Tax.”

Throughout the centuries, surnames in every county have continued to develop often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. (Name Origin Research 1980-2007)

Captain-Don Jose Antonio Julian de la Guerra y Noriega 
Born: March 6, 1770, Novales in Santander, Spain
Baptized: March 1770, Santander, Spain (España)
Died: February 11, 1858, Santa Barbara, California
Buried: February 12, 1858, Mission Santa Barbara
Married: May 16, 1804, Mission Santa Barbara, California
Spouse: Maria Antonia Juliana Carrillo
Born: March 15, 1786, Mission San Gabriel
Baptized: March 17, Mission San Gabriel, California
Died: December 27, 1843, Santa Barbara, California
Buried: December 28, 1843, Mission Santa Barbara

Captain Jose Antonio Julian de la Guerra y Noriega was born on March 6, 1770, a native of the Pueblo de Novales en las Montana de Santander, Spain. The legitimate son of Don Juan Jose de la Guerra Y Ceballos (who died in 1820) and of Dona Maria Teresa de Noriega (who died 1815). He married the daughter of Lieutenant (Don) Jose Raymundo (Raimundo) Carrillo of the Presidio of Santa Barbara and Dona Tomasa Lugo in 1803, in the Santa Barbara Mission, Alta California by Father Esteban Tapis where her family worshiped (the record indicates the number 56 in the register). His ancestors were montaneses or mountaineers, blue-eyed and golden-haired because their region had never been penetrated by the Moors. His great-grandson, Father Joseph A. Thompson O.F.M., said that Don Jose was to play a unique and important role in the mission history of California. He was an exemplary Catholic, irreproachable caballero, and a gallant officer in the forces of Spain.

The marriage between Don Jose de la Guerra and Dona Maria Antonia Carrillo produced three daughters: Maria de las Angustias de las Guerra who in a second marriage to a Dr. James Ord; Maria Teresa de la Guerra who married William Edward P. Hartnell (a native of Lancaster, England and a resident of Monterey) on April 30, 1825, and Anna Maria (Anita) de la Guerra who married Alfred (Don Alfredo) Robinson (author of Life in California, a native of Massachusetts) on January 24, 1836. And sons named Pablo Andres Antonio Maria Saturnino de la Guerra, born in 1819, and in 1840, he was known as Pablo Gaspar, and in 1844, he was a grantee of the Rancho Nicasio, California. Don Antonio Maria de Guerra, born in 1825, he never married. And Captain Jose Antonio de Guerra, born in 1805, a grantee of Rancho Los Alamos in 1839.

Jose de la Guerre was just entering his teens in 1792, when he sailed from the port of Cadiz for Mexico where he came under the care of his maternal uncle, Pedro Gonzales de Noriega. At the time, he was wavering between the priesthood and the military. The military won out, Don Jose became a cadet in the Royal Army of Spain in 1798. He was promoted rapidly, by 1800, he was an Alferez or ensign. He was assigned to the Presidio of Monterey, capital of Alta California.

Don Jose's lifelong association with Santa Barbara began in 1806, when he was promoted to first lieutenant, second in command of the Presidio of Santa Barbara. He was later transferred to San Diego to season and mature in the military. It was in San Diego that Don Jose occupied himself with commercial enterprise, approved under the law, working with his Uncle Pedro in Mexico City, Colonial Spain.

In 1810, he was named finance (habilitado) general of Alta (Upper) and Baja (Lower) California. On his way with his wife and daughter, he was captured at San Blas by revolutionaries and would have been put to death had it not been for the victory of Spanish troops under General Jose de la Cruz in 1811. The revolutionists returned Jose his travel desk, in a secret compartment which contained $30,000 in gold. He found the gold intact and used it buy a frigate, Princesa Real, on which he could sail back to California.

In 1815, Lieutenant Jose de la Guerra became Comandante of the Presidio of Santa Barbara, succeeding Don Jose Dario Arguello. He served as commander for 27 years, a time frame which contained some of Santa Barbara's most exciting history.

On March 16, 1822, De la Guerra represented Santa Barbara at a junta held in Monterey by Governor Pablo Sola, at which time California pledged allegiance to General Augustine Iturbide, breaking free of the rule of Spain. Under Mexican rule, the government was empowered to give large grants of ranch land to worthy recipients. Captain de la Guerra got first choice of ranchos in the Santa Barbara and San Buenaventura region under his command. Thus becoming the sole owner of Rancho Los Alamos, 48,803 acres; Rancho Corral de Quatin north of Los Olivos, California, a ranch of 13,322 acres; the two ranches in the Cuyama Valley totaling more than 71,000 acres; the Rancho San Julian, 48,221 acres lying west of Gaviota Pass; and in modern Ventura County, the Rancho Las Posas, with 26,623 acres; Rancho El Conejo with 48,671 acres; Rancho Santa Paula y Saticoy (by purchase) with 17,773 acres; and the Ranchos El Simi and El Tapo, Los Angeles County, California, totaling 113,009 acres.

On February 18, 1827, the electors met at San Diego by order of Governor Echeandia and unanimously elected Jose de la Guerra to represent California in the Mexican Congress for the term of 1827 to 1828. He sailed for Mexico in January 1828, but he was not permitted to take his seat in Congress because his cradle had stood in Spain.

On May 10, 1827, the Mexican Congress decreed that no person of Spanish birth should hold any public, civil, or military office. That on December 20, 1827, the Mexican politicians, who certainly had not at heart the welfare of the people ordered Captain de la Guerra to surrender his office of military commander of the Presidio of Santa Barbara (because he was a Spaniard by birth), he along with other Spaniards under the age of 60, were ordered to leave California. That was unless they had married a Mexican wife and had taken the oath of allegiance to Mexico. In 1828, he turned over his command of the presidio to Lieutenant Romualdo Pacheco. Lt. Pacheco, who on December 31, 1828, reported that the military jurisdiction of Santa Barbara comprised the presidio and the missions with their ranchos. 

These missions included the Mission Santa Barbara
(Ranchos de San Marcos and de Dos Pueblos), Mission Santa Ynez (Santa Ines)(Rancho de Calaguaza),
Mission Purisima Concepcion and San Buenventura, (Rancho de Santa Paula), and Mission San Fernando (Ranchos de Cahuenga and de San Francisco) and the Presidio of Santa Barbara (with Ranchos del Refugio, de San Julian and El Conejo), California.

Although he was Spanish to the core (he changed his Mexican citizenship back to Spanish in 1847 instead of embracing American citizenship, which would have been automatic), Captain de la Guerra was friendly with foreigners. Three of them married into the family - William E.P. Hartnell, became the husband of Maria Teresa, Doctor James Ord married Maria de las Augustias and Alfred Robinson married Anna Maria (Anita) de la Guerra, born in 1815, Santa Barbara, California.

In 1842, four years before the American take-over of California under Commodore Stockton and Lieutenant Colonel Fremont, Jose de la Guerra resigned from the military after almost 52 years of service. For the remaining 16 years of his life, he lived in peaceful retirement at his Santa Barbara casa grande facing the plaza, which was loved by both the Mexicans and Americans alike.

El Grand Capitan (Captain), as he was called, died at Casa de la Guerra, Santa Barbara, California, on February 11, 1858, just short of reaching his eightieth birthday. His body laid in state in the sala grande until the day of his funeral, when it was borne up to the Old Mission on an ox cart. Six grandsons carried the coffin inside the church, where the Bishop of Monterey, Thaddeus Amat, vested in full pontifically, celebrated the requiem mass. Then Don Jose de la Guerra was deposited under the altar next to his wife, in the same vault which shelters the remains of his friend Governor Jose Figueroa, whose dying wish was to be buried in Santa Barbara.

In September 1845, Captain Jose de la Guerra y Carrillo was acting as the Commandante of the Royal Presidio of Santa Barbara.

Source: ElMensajeVol.27, June 2008, Editor, Robert Smith


Huehuetlatohli: The Ancient Word of (my) Creator Couple
Tomas Saenz Gonzalez Life Story

MAY 7, 2008
By Dr. Roberto Cintli Rodriguez 

How many times have I spoken to friends who speak of a massive hurt that does not go away because of words left unspoken, because of never having reconciled with ones' parents, because of never having had that conversation? How many times have I heard friends speak highly of their parents and how many funerals have we all attended where the most beautiful of words flow freely but always spoken with a deep regret of never having told them so while they were alive?

Ten years ago, my family celebrated my parents' 50th wedding anniversary. At that time, many of my uncles and aunts on my mom's side of the family still lived. Now, she is the last of the Garcias though there are many cousins. On my dad's side, he has a brother, and also many cousins. My Dad is 85 and my mom is soon to be 80. Last week, they completed 60 years of marriage. Due to health reasons, never did I ever believe that there would be a 50th anniversary, much less a 60th.

Last week, my wife and I were fortunate not simply to honor them, but  also, to finally have that conversation with them. For me, it came in the form of presenting them my published dissertation which came in the mail last week.

It's difficult to capture in words their reaction. Perhaps at one time they saw me as a bright star at UCLA then life changed. I think they had wanted me to become an attorney. A generation later and years of being nationally syndicated probably meant less to them than seeing my
dissertation dedicated to them. But it wasn't simply dedicated to them; I had that conversation with them about how it was precisely their knowledge - shared with me when I was growing up - that formed the basis of my dissertation.

At five years old, it is they who taught me never to view myself as an alien they also tricked me into never losing my language (they told me that if I didn't eat chile, I would be remanded to the world of monolingualism.)

The morning after I presented my dissertation to them, I found that they had placed it on their altar. With tears in their eyes, they told me that they were but two burros that had produced a doctor of philosophy in the family.

Two doctors, I told them, reminding them that Patrisia had also received her doctorate. And yet, of course, I told them that they were anything but burros. For me, they are Creator couple and they are wisdom keepers. It is through them that I received not simply the stories and the Huhuetlahtolli (the ancient word), but also, from whom I received the concept of a ceremonial discourse (Centeotzintli: Sacred maiz) of learning from ones' elders.

This conversation is what I have lived for, virtually my entire adult life. The past few years in cold Wisconsin, my greatest fear was that they would pass into spirit world before they could see me finish my doctorate before I could have that conversation with them.

This is what motivates me to write this today.

Patrisia and I once wrote that what are missing in our society are elder honoring ceremonies. I now understand this more than ever: To see their eyes, to feel their hands and to receive their blessings is beyond any words that I could possibly muster.

Perhaps that's why I write; to encourage that we all honor the elders in our midst - parents, grandparents, family, neighbors to honor their life's journey to honor their stories and to do so while they can still know and understand that their lives have meant something.

One of Patrisia's friends told me once that universities teach you everything except how to be a good human being. And she is right; I learned that from my parents, who have but an elementary school education from Mexico. It was their examples and their intellectual contributions that also provided me with my inspiration for relying on elder epistemology or elder knowledge (theirs) for my research. It was their contributions that also inspired me to develop my own diplomas -
granted to them and several other elders  - for contributing to my doctoral research on maiz.

Just as I had seen the eyes of the other elders in my life - when I presented them the diploma  - I now have also seen my own parents' yes. No more regrets. And no more thank yous are necessary.

(c) Column of the Americas 2008

Rodriguez can be reached at: or 520-743-0376
Column of the Americas - PO BOX 85476 - Tucson, AZ 85754

Column of the Americas is archived at:

Sent by Dr. Carlos Muñoz, Jr.
Professor Emeritus, Department of Ethnic Studies, 510-642-9134



Life Story

The December 2007 issue of  “Somos Primos” featured the family of Samuel and Santos Saenz’ story in a brief format.  It is the story of a former migrant family that struggled through many years of hard work and in the end was successful in achieving and enjoying the famous “American Dream”.  Again, the story was brief and did not include many details of the hardships the family endured through the years.  With encouragement from Mimi Lozano, Editor of “Somos Primos, Tomas Saenz, one of the family members, tells his story.


Tomas Saenz was named after his Grandfather, Tomas Gonzalez Elizondo and was born on 27 December 1938 in Alice, Texas.  His parents were Samuel Saenz Vera and Santos Gonzalez Perez.  His parents were born and raised in the farming community of Rios (Mother), and Santo Nino (Father), Duval County, Texas. 


Tomas was the first to be born at the first family house on 103 Beckham St. in Alice.  This house was moved in from another location in Alice.  It was there too, where most of the twelve children born to Samuel and Santos Saenz were born.  He attended Nayer Elementary and Strickland Junior High in Alice and due to family necessity, was forced to quit school after his eighth grade year. 


El Barrio Del Alto

While el Barrio del Alto was within the city limits, it was out in the outskirts and rather rural in nature.  Domestic animals such as chickens, goats, cows, etc were allowed.   The streets were not paved and most households still had an outhouse.  During the rainy season severe flooding was common and this of course, caused much hardship.  Cars and trucks would get stuck in the mud and there would be people pushing them to get them unstuck.  Poor planning by the City Fathers was evident.  One block away from Beckham Street there was a cotton gin and during the harvest season it was in operation twenty- four hours a day.  The noise and pollution from this gin was horrible!  Two houses over from the Saenz house was a dance hall by the name of El Salon de las Perlitas and on weekends the barrio became alive with what they now call Tejano music!  Less than a half a block away from their house was Bernal's Cantina and it too was alive with business, loud music, etc.  Fistfights were common and almost always the police had to be called in.    The railroad running south/north was also less than a half a block away and the loud sounds of trains were very present.  Steam engines were still popular in those days and once or twice a night they would pass through our barrio.  The railroad tracks were actually quite interesting, there was always something happening there.  The barrio kids would often use the railroad tracks as part of their play area.  When boxcars were parked for long periods they would climb up to the top and run from one car to the other barefooted.  There was one area where they used to load and unload cattle on special boxcars.  There used to be piles of sand on the side of the boxcars and their thing was to climb the boxcars and jump onto the piles of sand.   Every now and then they would run into a hobo. These characters used to travel on the trains. 


Certainly, the environment described above was not child friendly.  Kids had to learn to be tough and "street wise" as in large part; they spent much of their time out in the streets.  The youth in the barrio had much freedom to wander around the neighborhood.  Tomas' parents were busy, his mother taking care of the young children and taking care of the housework while his Dad was at work.  Tomas and his siblings learned how to be independent and how to fend for themselves.  Money was tight and poverty was commonplace.  Coming from a large family one could not expect such things as allowances.   Money for clothing, shoes, etc. was limited.    And so, we learned to survive. 


Alice, Texas

Alice was a relatively small town but it was alive with entertainment.  In addition to the dance halls, there were also two movie theaters, the Rex and Realto Theaters.  The admission fees were low but we did not always have the money.  Somehow, we always found the money to attend the movies on weekends.  Tomas and his brothers sometimes offered to help clean up the theater in exchange for an admission ticket.  In the late 1940's there used to be a group that offered Mexican movies in a huge tent.  This apparently was a traveling group.  Tomas recalls seeing some of the first Tarzan and Cantiflas movies there.  Later, in the 1950's, the Rio and Iris Theaters were built and it was there where they showed Mexican movies exclusively.   The admission fees were about fifteen cents in those days.   These theaters are no longer there.  The Rex and Realto buildings downtown are still existing but not as movie theaters.


Sounds of The Barrio

Despite these hardships, those were memorable years for the Tomas and his brothers/sisters in El Barrio del Alto.  Tomas states that he can still recall some of the daily routines and happenings.  Early in the morning around 5:30-6:00 a.m. it was common to hear Don Simon walking the streets selling barbacoa - "tingi-ling, tingi-ling, barbacoa", he would yell as he walked the streets of the barrio.  A little later around 7:00 a.m.,  Don Tacho came along and he sold pan dulce (Mexican pastries).  Later, around 9:30-10:00 a.m. Don Paz came ringing his bell and he was selling "hot off the grill" corn tortillas.  He used a horse drawn wagon and by noon he had covered all the Alice barrios.  At about 11:00 a.m. the iceman came along selling ice by the block.  Most families did not have refrigerators and instead used iceboxes.  These iceboxes had a drip pan down under and the ice had to be replaced every other day.


First Jobs 

Early on in life, Tomas and his brothers began to do odd jobs in and around the neighborhood.  He and his brother Rogelio used to sweep Bernal's Cantina two or three times a week.  The pay was $.35 cents each time.  Each of the kids built their own shoeshine box and went out into the town and bars where the customers were.    They also helped clean the local theaters for a free admission to a movie.  Most of our earnings were turned over to their Mother Santos so she could buy milk for the baby - with a total of fourteen children; there was always a baby in their family!   


The Migrant Years

In 1942 Tomas' parents, Samuel and Santos Saenz, moved to Port Author, Texas and lived there for approximately a year and half.  Port Arthur was rich in oil and there was at the time some demand for workers.  As it later turned out, this adventure was to be the first in a series of migrating years that took Tomas' family to several states in the course of fourteen years. 


The family's next venture out of state was when they contracted with a sugar beet company in 1946 wherein they were taken to the state of Michigan to work the sugar beet fields.  This was not a very profitable experience but there were some good lessons learned. 


During the years of 1946-1950 Tomas' family concentrated on working the fields in and around Alice including the farms out in Duval County, where his parents grew up.  Shortly thereafter, they started going to the surrounding towns in South Texas such as Taft, Taylor, Robstown and even a few trips to West Texas where they picked cotton.


During 1951 through 1956 they made annual migrating trips that took them to Florida, Michigan, Mississippi, and West Texas. These trips were made in a one and half ton truck that had a canvas over the bed where carried some essential belongings and the children.  The average time for a trip from Alice, Texas to Michigan was three days and two nights.  They would always travel on a very tight budget.  Every year their dad would go to the local bank and borrowed one hundred dollars for the trip expenses.  This amount was barely enough for the gas and other truck expenses.  They had to survive on one or two meals a day.  When mealtime came along, they would stop at a grocery store to buy a pound of bologna, cheese, a loaf of bread and some sodas.  They would then stop at some convenient roadside location to eat picnic style. 


Housing was a challenge to find during these trips and most often it was an abandoned building, part of tool shed or a barn.  On one occasion the boys even used an old school bus as sleeping quarters.  They always carried along a kerosene lamp and three-burner kerosene stove for their mother to do the cooking. On a few occasions they were fortunate in finding a place that had one of the old fashion wood burning stoves.  Early on Tomas’ parents ventured out and bought one of the first Maytag washing machines and this was a major asset when it came to doing the washing for a very large family.


Turning Point

The year 1956 was a turning point for the family.  Some of the boys were getting older and were tired of all the traveling back and forth and wanted to settle down in one place.  This was the year Tomas’ brother, Sam was discharged from the army and he brought in the experiences he had while in the army.  He convinced his parents and the rest of the family to take the big step and settle in Grand Rapids, Michigan.  He then went on to buy a house on Broadway Street where we all lived.  All the older boys took jobs in local factories and started earning steady income.  The younger children enrolled in school on a regular basis and permanently.


After the army, Sam decided to enroll in Grand Rapids Junior College and to eventually peruse a degree in engineering at Michigan State University.   Sam also convinced Tomas to return to school and after having dropped out in the eighth grade a few years before.  Tomas also enrolled in some night high school classes starting in the fall of 1957.   Two years later I decided to attend Central High School and graduated on June 1962 at the age of 22.


Higher Education

Following high school graduation Tomas went on to enroll at Grand Rapids Junior College where he attended for two years.  After one year at Grand Rapids JC, Tomas married his wife; Linda Zamarripa and she supported him through his last few yeas of college.   Her strong support continued throughout his educational career.  After junior college Tomas transferred to Aquinas College, a liberal arts Catholic College, also in Grand Rapids.  In 1967 he graduated from Aquinas with a degree in secondary teaching.    


Career in Education

His first teaching assignment was at Godwin Heights High School where he successfully taught for two and half years.  In June 1969, he and his wife Linda decided to take their two daughters, Marsha and Michelle, and go join Tomas' bothers, Sam and Tony in Orange County, California.


In the fall of 1969 Tomas accepted a teaching position with the Orange Unified School District and was assigned to El Modena High School where he taught Spanish, history and English.  During this period Tomas was also doing his graduate work at Chapman University and earned a Masters Degree in Education in 1973.  He remained at El Modena High School until 1973 when he was promoted to a district level job as Administrator of Special Programs.  He served in this capacity until 1991 at which time he accepted the position of principal at Prospect Elementary School.  


The years Tomas spent as Administrator of Special Programs were challenging as throughout California and other parts of the country, Hispanics had joined the civil rights movement and were demanding improvements in education and in other areas.  School districts were in a scramble in trying to find qualified Latinos to meet the community's demands.  Tomas states that in his case, it was a matter of being at the "right place" at "right time".     Tomas was one of those few Latino educators who were called upon to help solve the problems both in the school district and in the Hispanic community.  Before he knew it, he was wrapped up in a movement that lasted an estimated twenty (20) years.  He became deeply involved in establishing meaningful educational programs for Latino students.  Some of the major focuses were in curriculum development, staffing, and staff training and community leadership. 


Community Work

While living in California, Tomas became active in civic affairs in and around the city of Orange.  He served in numerous boards, commissions, and committees for various organizations in the City of Orange, Orange County and at the state level.  He was also active in politics and even managed several political campaigns.  In November 1991 Tomas decided to seek public office and ran for the position of Trustee of the Rancho Santiago Community College District.  He was successful in getting elected and served a four-year full term at Rancho.  Due to his retirement plans Tomas did not seek re-election.   



In California Tomas and his wife, Linda made the City of Orange their home and it was there where their three children grew up and went to school.  Marsha received a degree in Marketing from Chapman University.  Michelle attended California State University at Fullerton and her degree was in International Business.  Their son Tom also attended California State University Fullerton and his degree was in International Business.  He later earned an MBA from Chapman University.




Both Tomas and his wife Linda were employed by the Orange Unified School District in the City of Orange.  Linda worked as a secretary in the Psychology Department.  After many years with the school district, in 1996 they both decided to take early retirement and moved to Cadillac, Michigan (Northern Michigan) where they bought an old farmhouse with sixty acres as a retirement project.  However, the main reason for returning to Michigan was to spend time with their respective relatives who still live there. 


The move to Michigan was not meant to be Permanente and after five years there, Tomas and Linda sold their re-modeled farmhouse and once again returned to Orange, California, where they live near their three married children and nine grandchildren.  Tomas is presently serving as Secretary of the Somos Primos Board of Directors.


Orange County Celebrates Law Day with General Salinas 
Court Tour Program Needs Volunteer Docents 
Culture Clash and the Sadler Family
SHHAR May 24the Quarterly Meeting Honored John Inclan and John Schmal

Photo by Sheila Recio


On May 14, 2008, the Orange County Superior Court , the United States District Court and the California Court of Appeal hosted a formal Law Day celebration.  Hundreds of middle school children were invited to the Flag Raising Ceremony on the front steps of the Old Orange County Courthouse and then were given tours of the Superior Court, Federal Court and Court of Appeals.  U.S. Marine Corps Color Guard and Brass Quintet provided the ceremonial protocol.  Brigadier General Angela Salinas, the highest ranking Latina in the U.S.military, was the featured speaker.  She is the Commanding General, Marine Corps Recruit Depot/Western Recruiting Region.  The California native shared her personal story of growing up in a close knit Hispanic family and rising through the ranks to become a Brigadier General.  She introduced her 94 year old mother, Florita Salinas, to the students, Judges and guests.  Orange County Superior Court Judge Frederick P. Aguirre's father, Alfred V. Aguirre, was also given special recognition at the ceremony.  Alfred, an Orange County native who died on January 9, 2008, was a decorated World War II veteran who also headed the fight to integrate the public schools in his hometown of Placentia.  "Taps" were also played in his honor.  Attached is a photo of General Salinas and her mother with several Judges.  Superior Court Judge Francisco Briseno (Col., USMC, Ret.) is to the General's right side, holding the red folder and Superior Court Judge Aguirre is to the General's left side.

Sent by Fredrick Aguirre



Superior Court of California, County of Orange

Date: May 29, 2008

To: All Superior Court Judicial Officers
From: Nancy Wieben Stock, Presiding Judge
Subject: Court Tour Program Needs Volunteer Docents

The Superior Court of Orange County needs additional docents to host eighth through
twelfth grade students and their teachers for its Court Tour program. Some 3,000
students visited the Central and North Justice Centers during the past school year, and
more guides are needed to accommodate students for the next school year.

The Court Tour program started in the early 1970s, organized by a local legal support
group. It is now part of the Court’s community outreach efforts. Docent teams host
tours several times per month at the Central (Santa Ana) and North (Fullerton) Justice

Tours are 9:00 a.m. to 12:00 noon and include:
• An overview of the justice system, juvenile laws, and court careers;
• Observing court hearings such as arraignments and/or traffic, drug, or small claims
• Participating in a scripted mock trial in which students enact various courtroom roles
(judge, attorney, witness, court clerk, bailiff, etc.); and
• Observing an actual criminal or civil trial.

Please share this memo with individuals (spouse, friends, or colleagues) or groups
(clubs or docents for other organizations) who may want to contribute a few hours per
month to teach our youth about the justice system. Interested individuals should
contact Gwen Vieau, program coordinator, at (714) 834-2717 or


Culture Clash and the Sadler Family

From left: Herbert Sigüenza, me, Viola Sadler, Chuck Sadler, Charles Sadler, Ric Salinas and Richard Montoya.

We had caught their show at the South Coast Repertory about a month earlier. If you have never seen them before, let me tell you that they do satirical skits. Some have a political bend, but they do other topics.

From the introduction to one of their books, Tony Taccone says, "They make fun of stoners and CEOs, beaners and white trash, black, brown, yellow, red . . . the full rainbow laid wide open for relentless, satiric dissection." One skit that I particularly enjoyed was about how to tell a Mexican from a Cuban from a Puerto Rican--it's all in the way he dances! Then, we see how the Mexican uses his arms--chicken like; with the Cuban it is all in the shoulders; and the Puerto Rican it's all in the hips. Of course, all the moves are exaggerated, and the audience is breaking with laughter agreeing.

The book signing was at the Muzeo in Anaheim. It was the last day of the Cheech Marin Chicano Art exhibit. There were really several things going on, besides the wonderful art work and the book signing there was also a separate exhibit mounted having to do with the so-called Chicano culture (I still prefer the term Mexican American). Part of that exhibit dealt with the border culture in Texas. I could identify with the music of Flaco Jimenez, Little Joe y la Familia, Lydia Mendoza, etc. Part of the section having to do with East LA had a trick low-rider car that children and parents could "ride." We did not try that one.

The only sad part of this experience was that there were very, very few of us taking advantage of this wonderful event. We need to support these events when they come to our area, or else they will stop coming.

Talk to you later, Viola

SHHAR May 24th  Quarterly Meeting 
Honored John Inclan and John Schmal


Ignacio "Nacho" Pena (left) enjoyed meeting his primos for the first time. Researcher John Inclan and his sister Bernadette and her husband came from Phoenix to attend the  SHHAR meeting.  It was particularly exciting for many who have been helped by the family pedigrees that John has compiled.  "Nacho" said he had to have a photo taken with John because John's work had helped him to go back on his family lines hundreds of years.  If you have Texas or Mexican lines  primos on many Tejano lines, I strongly suggest you go to John's research : 

John Schmal is another outstanding research. He has authored four books, teaches family history classes, and is a frequent presenter throughout California.  John is a regular submitter to HispanicLinks and Somos Primos.   

John has begun to specialize in the area of Southwest indigenous family research.  His indigenous research has been organized into a PowerPoint presentation and will soon be online. 

Book titles: 
Following the Paper Trail to Mexico  
Mexican American Genealogical Research   
The Indigenous Roots of a Mexican American Family  
A Mexican American Family of California, in the Service of Three Flags


June 1, Lecture: African Presence in Mexico Exhibit
June 11: LISTA Technology Trends Breakfast Series 
Pechanga Scholarship Award Program
Isabel Rodriguez, the 94 year old Matriarch
Inaugural Gala honoring the life of Dionicio Morales
Las Dos Republicas, Los Angeles, California, October 12, 1895

African Presence in Mexico Exhibit

­­Padre Glyn Jemmott, a leading advocate for the Afro Mexican community, will speak on Sunday, June 1st at 2:00 p.m. at the California African American Museum in their Gallery Area.  Padre Glyn will discuss his work of 25 years with the Afro Mexicans of the Costa Chica and its new immigrants in the Los Angeles/Pasadena area and how both groups cope with marginalization and economic and societal challenges.  This will be a unique opportunity for all who attend as a closing event to the exhibit African Presence in Mexico

This is a day filled with lots of activities, such as entertainment, and hands-on mask making, craft exhibits and food vendors.

Admission to the Museum, located in Exposition Park, is free.  Parking is available nearby at Figueroa and 39th Street for $6.  For further information visit or call 213.744.2132

Sent by Alva Moore Stevens


June 11th 2008:  
LISTA Technology Trends Breakfast Series in Los Angeles California.  

On behalf of Latinos in Information Sciences and Technology Association Los Angeles Technology Council, we would like to invite you to join us for our LISTA Technology Trends Breakfast Series in Los Angeles California.  

On Wednesday, June 11th 2008, the Los Angeles Technology Council of Latinos in Information Sciences and Technology Association (LISTA), in collaboration with Microsoft’s Vida Digital Latina will be hosting our Technology Trends Breakfast Series. 

The Breakfast Series will feature some of today’s most dynamic technology and business leaders who will share their insights to the future of Latinos in technology and the trends we need to be aware of in order to prosper in this technological society we live in today. LISTA bring together Latino Technology Professionals, government officials and business leaders from Los Angeles to have an open discussion on how we can move our community to the next level.  

Keynote Speakers:  
Jose Luis Rodriguez,
National Chair of Latinos in Information Sciences and Technology Association
Jose Marquez, National CEO of Latinos in Information Sciences and Technology Association.
Andres Moreno, CEO Open English, President of LISTA Los Angeles Tech Council
Jose Pineiro, Microsoft, Director
David Contreras, IBM Tech Specialist, LISTA National Board of Director Regional Vice President
Juan Ulloa, Microsoft Tech Guy

There is no cost to attend the event, which includes the opportunity to interface with corporations looking for minority suppliers, a one -year membership in the San Francisco Tech Council, gifts and opportunity to win Microsoft gifts at a raffle conducted at the end of the event. 
The attendees will be treated to a continental breakfast during registration and will have the opportunity to network. 

        Ventura Adult Continuing Education Tech Development Center 
5200 Valentine Road, Ventura, California 93003
8:30am - 10:30am
Click Here: Register Today

This year we are celebrating our “First Tour of the Technology Trends Breakfast series sponsored by Microsoft Windows Vista. The Technology Trends Breakfast was launched in 2006, the Series has attracted over 5,000 Latino/a business owners, corporate and government officials who have benefited from the ½ day series in the Northeast, now we bringing it to Los Angeles. The series was created as a unique forum for the Latino community to gain the knowledge needed for them to deploy technology in their own businesses, and life or take their existing business to the next level.  




Pechanga Scholarship Award Program

The Pechanga Band of Luiseño Indians and KTLA are proud to offer 125 deserving students from around the Los Angeles area a $2,000 scholarship toward their future education.
Check out Pechanga Scholarship Award Program

To see some of the previous winners:
Sent by Joan De Soto  Casa San


             Isabel Rodriguez, the 94 year old Matriarch
of the LA based activist Rodriguez Family died May 20, 2008

Isabel Rodriguez was known as a strong willed woman, she was 94 years old. She was born on July 8, 1913 in Basis, a silver mining town in the high Sierra Madre of the Mexican State of Durango. With several of her children, she crossed the border in El Paso-Texas and arrived in Los Angeles on August 20, 1956 to meet with her spouse Antonio Rodriguez. 

Along with her sons and daughter, she became a passionate supporter of the Latino Civil
Rights movement of the late sixties. In 1971 she joined Bert Corona the founding father of the contemporary immigrant rights movement and became the treasurer of C.A.S.A., the Autonomous Center for Social Action. Since then she fought and marched for
immigrant rights and supported many progressive causes. She was also staunchly against the war in Iraq. In 1985 she acquired her US citizenship to vote for her son's candidacy for the LA City Council and since then never missed an election.

In 1985, she was a co-founder of nationally famous La Serenata de Garibaldi Restaurant.

Her eight sons and one daughter have been activists and leaders in LA politics since the late sixties and were key leaders of the mass street movement that led to the 1986 IRCA Amnesty Law that successfully legalized several million immigrants. Again in 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008 they have been key leaders, initiators and motivators of several of
the mega mass street demonstrations that have made history in this country in the fight for a humane immigration reform and legalization for over 13 million undocumented immigrants.

Isabel leaves seven sons and one daughter and dozens of grandchildren, great grandchildren and great great grandchildren. Her life story in articles and interviews has been published in the LA Times, La Opinion, Eastside Sun and other venues. 

For information contact Javier Rodriguez 213-909-6397 
Javier Rodriguez Communications Los Angeles,  
2900 Calle Pedro Infante LA, ca 90063 213-909-6397

Sent by Dorinda Moreno

Please Save the Date for the upcoming Dionicio Morales Foundation
Inaugural Gala honoring the life of my father Dionicio Morales.

Saturday, September 27, 2008
5:00 p.m.  Ricardo Montalban Theatre
Hollywood, CA

We will be featuring Diana Jimenez, Mexican opera singer and mother of Salma Hayek performing romanticos from my father's era as well as Harp performances from the Orange County Therapeutic Arts Center playing music from Veracruz and Chiapas as well as other cultural entertainment.

We will include my father telling his wonderful stories, special guests speaking of their experiences and influence of my father in their lives and typical Mexican food from Oaxaca, Yucatan and other states.

The event will raise funds for the Dionicio Morales documentary,(we want to make sure my father's story and work is not forgotten & is taught to the new generations) and for the pride in heritage projects of the new foundation.

Sponsorships opportunities are available as well as ads for the tribute program book. 
Please contact me for more information.  I look forward to hearing from you.

Magdalena Morales, President
Dionicio Morales Foundation
"Pride in Heritage Project"
(323) 988-0151
(323) 908-4097 fax



            Las Dos Republicas, Los Angeles, California
October 12, 1895:

Manuela V. de Machado.
R. Q. P.

Visit the California-Spanish website at

    Fallecio el 2 del corriente a las 12 del dia despues de una larga y penosa enfermedad, a la edad de 51 anos 8 mesas 8 dias; sus funerales tuvieron lugar el dia siguiente en el Cemeterio Catolico de Santa Monica.
    Su afijido (?) esposo y demas deudos don dan las gracias a todos los que se sirvieron acompanaria a su ultima morada.
Ramon Valenzuela - Padre
Asencion S. de Valenzuela - Madre
Antonio Machado - Esposo

Antonio Machado
Cristobal Machado
Ygnacio Machado

Zenaida C. de Machado
Cleotilde C. de Spencer
Maria Ygnacia de Spencer
Emma Machado
Adela Machado
Estafana Machado
Juvencio Valenzuela
Gaspar Valenzuela
Jose Valenzuela
Ramon Valenzuela
Arnulfo Valenzuela

Felipa V. de Reyes
Salvadora V. de Ruiz
Clotilde V. de Ibarra

     Hermanos Politicos.
Andres Machado
Rafael Machado
Cristobal Machado

     Hermanas Politicos.
Alcala Machado
Joe Spencer
John Spencer


The Legacy of Valor
Stop the Hijack of a National Park
Land She Loved Loses Noted Native Daughter
Between Two Worlds: Voices of the Elders and the Youth
New Website for California Researchers 
Know Who You Are Before They Tell You*

For Northern California Patriots, Don't Miss this Opportunity of Seeing

The Legacy of Valor
May 16- June 16th 

Mexican Heritage Plaza 
1704 Alum Rock Ave.
San Jose, California

Be sure and stop by, you'll never know who might also be viewing the display.  

The exhibit, "The Legacy of Valor," is being presented and displayed for the First Time at MEXICAN HERITAGE PLAZA located at 1704 Alum Rock Avenue, San Jose, CA. The exhit has been extending to June 16, 2008. This traveling  exhibition measures 8 ft. tall by 50 ft. long.   

The Legacy of Valor is an exhibit depicting a photo mural display presented in 4-segments: 

1. First display is of the 41 HISPANIC MEDAL OF HONOR RECIPIENTS from Civil War to Vietnam War. 

2.  Second display is entitled: " RETURN WITH HONOR "the Story of Commander Everett Alvarez, Jr. the First American Pilot shot down over North Vietnam was captured and survived and spent  8 years 7mos. as POW. 

3.  Third display is entitled:  'JUSTICE FOR MY PEOPLE" the Story of true legend 'Dr. Hector P. Garcia first civil rights activist, founder of the American G.I. Forum and in 1994 President Ronald Reagan presented Dr. Garcia at White House Ceremony the highest civilian award the "PRESIDENTIAL MEDAL OF FREEDOM". 

4.  Fourth display: Are Six separate photo murals of NAVY SHIPS named after HIspanic Medal of Honor winners...the;  USS: GARCIA, USNS: BENAVIDEZ, USS: VALDEZ, USNS: MARTINEZ, USNS:VALDEZ, USS:GONZALES



Stop the Hijack of a National Park

by Boyd De Lario

Congress’s founding legislation of the Presidio Trust states in its introductory findings that, "as part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, the Presidio’s significant natural, historic, scenic, cultural, and recreational resources must be managed in a manner which is consistent with sound principles of land use planning and management, and which protects the Presidio from development and uses which would destroy the scenic beauty and historic and natural character of the area and cultural and recreational resources."

In this act, the Presidio Trust was established as a non-profit federal corporation with great authority and the requirement that it become independent of annual federal appropriations by fiscal year 2013. Only Congress has authority over the Trust.

Deals like building the Lucas Arts Industrial Light and Magic facility on the former site of Letterman Hospital have apparently created enough income to sustain operating costs at current levels and meet the goal of self sustainability by 2013 set by Congress. However funds for any further restoration projects are very limited.

Now the Presidio Trust is proposing changes to plans and construction guidelines to allow multiple new constructions in the Main Post Area in the National Historic Landmark District (NHLD). Many believe the Presidio Trust is approaching this problem with desperation, little imagination, and forgetfulness of its mission.

The National Trust for Historic Preservation, the Sierra Club, the Presidio Historical Association, 50 San Francisco neighborhood associations, and other organizations have opposed the multiple new construction developments in the NHLD. In spite of very creditable opposition, including from within the National Parks, the Presidio Trust seems bent on placing a massive art museum/gallery in the head of the Main Parade Ground, enlarging the historic theater next to it by 18,000 sq. ft, closing in the Main Parade Ground with new 3-story hotel construction on the east side, and other projects, some unknown. Critics believe this will destroy the historic and cultural landscape.

The Presidio Trust has rushed the public hearings and approval process on these issues, although no one has seen final plans for these developments. Many so-called plans such as the hotel are just ideas with few or no design documents. However the Presidio Trust has already selected a hotel developer.

A Supplemental Environmental Impact Study (SEIS) is scheduled for release on June 1, 2008. Meanwhile, the Presidio Trust and Donald Fisher, the ex-Board of Directors member and multi-millionaire founder of Gap and Old Navy Stores are lobbying energetically to have his proposed art museum accepted in the heart of the NHLD. The SEIS is being drafted by Presidio Trust staff and its contents will most probably be unknown until its release.

This is a National Park, part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area. This park should celebrate the 230 years of history associated with the Spanish, Mexican, and US military presence there. The Presidio Historical Association, after years of proposing a history center, made a formal submission to the Presidio Trust to compete with the art gallery proposal. The PHA’s proposal was rejected for lack of a ready $80 million dollars such as Donald Fisher will provide to house his art collection.

The Presidio Historical Association’s idea was for a history center with electronic media and other methods of continually changing and updating exhibits. Their belief is that the San Francisco Presidio should be used to interpret the history of the western United States and the involvement of our country in the Pacific Ocean countries. This center could be a hub for historical and cultural tourism in the area. Additional museums for the Indian tribes of California, the founding of the Presidio by the Anza Party in 1776, Buffalo soldiers, Civil War in the West, World War I and II, and Korean conflict, as well as cultural museums for the nations of the Pacific would enhance this experience.

It is not too early to make our Congress aware that the Presidio Trust is violating OUR trust. Please write your local Congressman now and object to the misuse of this historic and scenic National Park by local private interests and the Presidio Trust.

If you have the energy, copy any letter you send to Speaker Nancy Pelosi, Senator Barbara Boxer, and Senator Diane Feinstein, all of whom helped make the SF Presidio a National Park and who should be very concerned that it is being hijacked for local interests. Most importantly, let Executive Director Craig Middleton of the Presidio Trust know that you have complained. His street address is PO Box 29052, 34 Graham Street, San Francisco, CA 94129

We will need to respond to the SEIS after June 1, 2008. Since the Presidio Trust is rushing this process, there may not be time to ask for responses to the SEIS in a further article. Please check further at the Presidio Historical Association’s Website at for further developments. If you would like to know what the Presidio Trust says, but not necessarily what it does, try


The proposed new construction of a massive art gallery, an undefined hotel, conversion of a historic theater into a multiplex and other inappropriate uses for the heart of the National Historic Landmark District of the San Francisco Presidio ignores, insults, and dishonors the 230 years of military service represented there.
Please contact me with any questions or concerns.  

Boyd de Larios




Los Angeles Times, Dec 9, 1912

Visit the California-Spanish website at

Senora Francisca Escandon de Sanchez, 
Descendent of one of California's oldest and wealthiest families, is dead.

    With her demise from old age at the home of one of her daughters, Mrs. J. M. Barker, at No. 1616 Bridge street, yesterday California lost one of its historic feminine notables, a woman who in her 74 years of life witnessed the evolution of the State from the days before its organization and admission to the Union to the present time.

    Senora Escandon was the widow of the late ex-State Senator Angel G. Escandon, one of the first Senators from what was then Ventura county, elected in 1874, two years after the county was created, and who divided it into Santa Barbara and Ventura.  She survived her husband a full quarter of a century and since his death has lived in Los Angeles.

    The senora was born on the Rancho Santa Clara, her father's great property, in what is now Ventura county, in 1838, eleven years before the State Constitution was framed and adopted, twelve years before California was admitted to statehood and thirty-four years before Ventura became a county.  Don Juan Sanchez, once owner of vast tracts of California, was her father.

    Requiem high mass will be said over her remains at St. Mary's Church at 10:30 o'clock tomorrow morning.  Interment will be at Calvary cemetery.

    Surviving Senora Escandon are Senora Anita Moreno de Sanchez, a sister, Mrs. Barker and Mrs. J. B. Sanchez, daughters, Alix Escandon of Salt Lake, and John Escandon, now in the East, sons.

    While the Escandon fortune at one time was enormous, it has dwindled until comparatively little is left.




 New Website for California Researchers

Alfred Moch (Ed Cota) has setup another website for members and guest to view information and events as related to the Los Pobladores 200, this is in addition to the official Los Pobladores 200 website that has been setup by Marie G. Moreno  and  and

Members can access all three websites for information and links to additional organizations related to California and other historical organizations.


 Know Who You Are Before They Tell You*  

Front row:Yolanda Aranda (entertainer), Susan Alcaraz-Pitts, Lorri Ruiz-Frain, Joanne Hoffman, Ernie Miramontes, Benjamin Reynolds, Evangeline Alcaraz, Christine Alcaraz-Coleman, Magdaline Castillo-Reynolds. Back row: Katie Halsted, Alex John Salas, Craig Coleman, Margaret Reynolds, Nik Angel, Alexandria Angel.  

The Juana Briones house which she had built more than 160 years ago, faces Old Adobe Road in Palo Alto.  Today, this old, rundown treasure of an adobe is still standing; however it is in jeoparding of being demolished. Another court hearing is scheduled for June 5, 2008, in San Jose regarding its fate.
My family and I lived and worked in the Silicon Valley for 30 years when at last we discovered our Briones y Tapia roots.  I joined the Los Californianos Organization early in the 1990s and now was seriously searching for my antepasados. Soon after joining the organization and with the support and assistance of the members and genealogist, I learned of my Californio heritage and family history. As Briones descendants, my family and I were honored by being invited by the members of the Women's Heritage Museum of San Francisco and BANELA (Bay Area Network of Latinas) to participate in placing a marker in honor of Juana Briones de Miranda in Washington Square Park in San Francisco on October 5, 1997. A few years later, we were informed about the Juana Briones House in Palo Alto and so I became involved in the campaign to help Save the Juana Briones House.
As a result of researching and discovering our roots, my family and I have met many primos over a period of less than twenty years. This has been a surreal and fulfilling experience for me, as my dear Mother is into her 90th year of life and finally has an awareness of her self-identity.  Best wishes to everyone in search of their ancestors.

Lorraine Ruiz Frain

*Dicho - An Old Saying,  Author may be unknown  


Ceremony to dedicate historic landmark in Neah Bay
New park marks site of state’s first European settlement, honors veterans

Below is the press release for the ceremony held
May 17th, on the Makah Indian reservation

NEAH BAY, Wash. – A park on the Washington coast that marks the site of the region’s first European settlement 216 years ago and honors veterans will be dedicated at a ceremony starting at 11 a.m. May 17 on the Makah Indian reservation.

The dedication of the Fort Núñez Gaona – Diah Veterans Park will begin with a military flyover, followed by a veterans’ procession, a blessing, speeches, a welcoming dance, a formal (cedar bark) ribbon cutting, and a signing of a welcome treaty between the Makah Nation and the Spanish government.

Lt. Gov. Brad Owen, who was instrumental in the project’s development by bringing parties together and securing state funding toward its construction, will join Makah Tribal Chairman Micah McCarty and Luis Fernando Esteban, honorary consul of Spain, in giving opening remarks at the ceremony.

First Gentlemen Mike Gregoire will be among those taking part in the dedication, as will several representatives from the armed forces, local tribal officials, Spanish dignitaries, veterans groups and land donors.

 Fort Núñez Gaona – Diah Veterans Park is on the site of a Spanish trading fort constructed in 1792. It also stands as a memorial for the nearly 300 Neah Bay veterans who served in the U.S. military.  Diah was the ancestral name of part of the village now called Neah Bay.

The project is a collaboration of the Spanish government and Consul Esteban, the Makah Tribal Council, the Office of the Lieutenant Governor, Neah Bay area veterans and members of the local Neah Bay community. 

The structure on waterfront property overlooking Neah Bay is comprised of six large cedar columns to resemble a traditional Makah longhouse.

Left to right: 
Rafael Ojeda & Spanish Consul Don Luis Fernando Esteban. 


 The columns were made from a tree felled on the property. Along its western side is a tall fort-like fence of logs. The site bears the flags of the United States, Spain, the Makah Nation, Washington state, the Nuu-chah-nulth Tribe of Canada and each branch of the United States military. A stone monument bears the names of Neah Bay area veterans.  

Lt. Gov. Owen said the park began with a conversation between he and Ed Claplanhoo, who, together with his wife, Thelma, donated a substantial pziece of property for the park. “We both wanted to recognize the history and honor the veterans,” he said.  Claplanhoo will be among the speakers at the dedication. 

Owen said the monument “will stand as a very important marker not only for the history of our state but for the history of the United States and area tribes. It also pinpoints a very important time in our state’s history, the place where international trade first began.”  

The park “is a huge testament to our participation in international trade prior to becoming citizens of the United States,” added tribal chair McCarty.

“It’s a very interesting aspect of our history. It’s important to know how some of the dynamics of history shaped the course of how we became Americans.”   

Rafael Ojeda stands between and Edward and Thelma Claplanhoo. 

That it is also serves as a tribute to area veterans is a particular source of pride because of the Makah’s long history of serving in the armed forces, McCarty said. The project may also open some new avenues of tourism and cultural exchanges with Spain, he said, as well as draw new attention to the diverse role the tribe and the area has in maritime history.

McCarty adds that the welcome treaty is an important element of the ceremony as it will help the tribe to forge a stronger relationship with Spain. The treaty, to be signed by representatives from the Makah Nation and from the Spanish government, formally welcomes the nation of Spain to Neah Bay and, in return, the Makah Nation to Spain.   

Left to right: Rafael Ojeda with Micah McCarty,  tribal chair of the Makah Tribal Council and another Council member. 

From the perspective of Spain, Esteban said the park “is a beautiful reminder of Spain’s legacy in establishing Washington’s first European settlement and site of the first international trading.  

Rafael and daughter Nathalie Ojeda with Spanish military officers representing the three branches of the Spanish Armed forces. 

“I am deeply grateful for the key role that Lt Gov. Brad Owen and the Makah Tribal Council played in bringing people together in the spirit of cooperation to officially realize for the first time the significance of our important shared history,” he added.   

The park was built with $58,000 in state funds; $40,000 from the Spanish Embassy; donated labor and equipment from Forks area residents Bill and Kitty Sperry; $30,000 in graphics services donated by Orca Creative Group Inc. of Woodinville; a $2,000 donation from Neah Bay Veterans and the donation of land from the Hawley and Youngblood families and Edward and Thelma Claplanhoo. 

Photos taken during the event by Nathalie Ojeda
Information sent by Rafael Ojeda

Fact Sheet on Fort Núñez Gaona – Diah Veterans Park

Media Inquiries: Office of the Lt. Governor  
Brian Dirks (360) 786-7707 or or
Dr. Antonio Sanchez (360) 786-7786 or

Makah Nation: Rose Taylor (360) 645-3103 or Washington Department of Veterans Affairs: Heidi Audette (360) 725-2154 Northwest Chapter Paralyzed Veterans of America: Skip Dreps (206)241-1843
State of Washington,  Lt. Governor Brad Owen


Open Letter to the Mayor and City Council of Santa Fe
So called "Repatriation" of Mexican-Americans to Mexico
Are there any lists of names for the repatriated?
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and The Texas Revolution: A Conflict of Cultures?
In the Conflict over Immigration, Turn to International Law by Armando Rendón, J.D.  


Re: 400th Anniversary Resolution of 2007
Date: Monday, May 26, 2008

Resolution No. 2007-59 ( passed by the Santa Fe City Council and signed by Mayor David Coss on July 11, 2007 has opened the floodgates to an oppressive and destructive socio-cultural dynamic adversely affecting New Mexico's traditional Spanish people and their cultural and historical heritage.  

The Resolution addresses the 400th anniversary of the founding of the Spanish American villa real of Santa Fé amid preparations to mark that founding, an important event in the history of the city and state of New Mexico. The Resolution proposes that the city of Santa Fe, on behalf of "the citizenry of Santa Fe", shall "pass on to their children and grandchildren the Indo-Hispano heritage".  

The founding of the villa real of Santa Fé is not the exclusive heritage of the city of Santa Fe. Santa Fe is the capital of the state of New Mexico and if the founding of the villa real of Santa Fé is the cultural and historical heritage of the citizens of Santa Fe then it is necessarily also the cultural and historical heritage of all the citizens of the state of New Mexico.  

But the problem with the Resolution is more serious than that. The founding of the villa real of Santa Fé is a seminal event in the 410-year history of Spanish New Mexico.  

Who are the Indo-Hispanos? And by what right do they and the City Council of Santa Fe in the name of the citizens of Santa Fe claim to appropriate a seminal event in the history of Spanish New Mexico by renaming that event and claiming it as their own? 

My ancestors were among the soldier-settlers who with their Spanish and Spanish American families came to New Mexico with the Oñate expedition of 1598-1600 and helped found the New Spanish province and kingdom of Nuevo México and subsequently the royal town of Santa Fé

I am deeply offended by the re-naming and re-defining of my ancestral heritage as "Indo-Hispano".  

I view the passage of the 400th Anniversary Resolution of 2007 as a governmental act of cultural genocide, intended or otherwise, against the traditional Spanish culture and people of New Mexico in violation of the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights universally adopted in 1948, and of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide signed by the President of the United States in 1948 and ratified by the US Senate in 1988.  

The Convention against Genocide defines genocide as the committing of certain acts with intent to mentally, physically, culturally or socially destroy, wholly or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group and deems it a crime under international law, whether committed in war or in peace. 

The Resolution is also in direct opposition to the human rights principles embodied in the US Declaration of Independence of 1776 and in the US Constitution of 1789 pursuant to its Preamble and its Bill of Rights.  

The Preamble to the Constitution is the Fundamental Law of the Land and if it applies equally to all Americans collectively as a people then it also applies equally to all Spanish New Mexicans collectively as a traditional people and as a constituent part of the greater whole. Nothing less is acceptable. 

The cultural genocide of the traditional Spanish New Mexicans is today as unacceptable as it was beginning in 1846. It is today as unacceptable as was the physical genocide and extermination of the indigenous Amerindians beginning in 1607. And it is as unacceptable today as was the physical enslavement of abducted Africans beginning in 1619. 

Sincerely,  Luis Brandtner y Nava-González
Santa Fe, New Mexico


              Question: Are there any lists of names for the repatriated?

Karla,  Are there any lists of names for the repatriated?
I posted an item several years ago regarding the 'repatriation' of Californians to Mexico.
Jesus Islas was the organizer. I just ran across Islas's advertisement for recruits and the group's manifesto in El Clamor Publico, Los Angeles, February 1856.

It's in Spanish and lengthy, but if anyone would like to read it contact me privately.

Karla Everett

Reply-To: Karla Everett
Date: May 16 2004 

I'm reading parts of "The Los Angeles Barrio, 1850 - 1890: A Social History," by Richard Griswold del Castillo; University of California Press; Copyright 1979 by The Regents of the University of California (had to get all that in)

One of the first repatriation groups was formed in Los Angeles about 1855. The Mexican government encouraged Californios to 'return' to Mexico. "One of the first recorded repatriation societies was formed in Los Angeles in 1855 during the height of racial conflict and violence." This Los Angeles group was called, "La Sociedad de Colonization de Nativos de California para el Estado de Sonora." (I hope they used an acronym) Andres Pico helped organization this group, but it disbanded because other colonization societies were, apparently, more successful.

Jesus Islas from San Jose organized an expedition which reached Los Angeles in September 1856. Islas advertised for recruits in the local newspapers and rounded up nearly 300 people. These folks left for Sonora in October 1856. Upon arriving in northern Mexico, they received thirty-acre parcels of land. Others from Alta California joined them. This was the first repatriation period and it lasted until 1880.

"Altogether, about 31,000 Mexican-Americans migrated back to Mexico. The largest numbers came after 1880, when the Mexican National Railroad, linking El Paso with Mexico city, was completed."

The second repatriation period began when dictator Porfirio Diaz attempted to encourage all foreigners, as well as Mexican-Americans to settle in Mexico. His plan was to encourage the industrialization of Mexico.
Lisa Brenneisen

Visit the California-Spanish website at

             So-called "Repatriation" of Mexican Americans to Mexico
More information on the subject, with another perspective of governmental involvement.

Carlos Ray Gonzalez


The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and
The Texas Revolution: A Conflict of Cultures?

What happen to "Mexicans' right to  property, language, and culture." 


The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo gave Mexicans the right to remain in United States territory or to move to Mexico. About three thousand chose to move, but the overwhelming majority decided to stay. These people could choose to retain Mexican citizenship or become citizens of the United States. The treaty explicitly guaranteed Mexican Americans "the right to their property, language, and culture." 

The United States Senate revised Article IX, which guaranteed Mexicans civil and political rights (substituting wording from the treaty acquiring Louisiana territory from France), and deleted Article X, which protected Mexican land grants. Officials feared that Article X would revive old Mexican and Spanish land grants and would have thrown into question land grants made by the Texas government following its declaration of independence in 1836. Many Mexicans did not have perfect title to their lands. Frequent changes in political administrations, the slowness of the Mexican bureaucracy made it difficult for land holds to obtain clear title. Article X would have allowed them to complete the process under administration by the United States. The article specifically recognized the rights of Mexican land-grant claimants in Texas, most of whom had been dispossessed of their lands by Anglo-Texans following Texas independence. The article would have allowed them to resurrect their claims and fulfill the conditions of Mexican law.

             The Texas Revolution: A Conflict of Cultures?  José María Sánchez  
Source: José María Sánchez, "A Trip to Texas in 1828," trans. Carlos E. Castañeda,  
During the Texas Revolution, Tejanos faced a test of conflicting loyalties: whether to fight for independence with Texas Anglos, or to side with General Antonio López de Santa Anna. Gregorio Esparza, a Tejano, was one of 183 Texans who died defending the Alamo. His brother Francisco was in the victorious Mexican army. Families, like the Esparzas, were split by the fight for Texas independence.

Was the Texas Revolution essentially a conflict of cultures? The answer is ambiguous. Anglo-Texans provided most of the leadership for the revolution. Some Anglo-Texans, including Stephen Austin, made statements that suggest deep ethnic hostility. In 1836, Austin wrote that the conflict in Texas pitted "a mongrel Spanish-Indian and Negro race, against civilization and the Anglo-American race." But a significant number of Tejanos took an active role in the Texas Revolution. The Texans who captured San Antonio in 1835 included 160 Tejanos and seven Tejanos died defending the Alamo. Many elite Tejanos, who regarded slave-grown cotton as the key to the region's prosperity, opposed Mexico's 1829 decree prohibiting slavery. They also favored repeal of an 1830 law forbidding further immigration from the United States, and wanted improvements in the court system, lower tariffs, and separation from Coahuila.

Among the rebel Tejanos was Juan Seguin. Seguin, the son of a wealthy rancher, recruited a company of Tejano volunteers which helped defend the Alamo. During the siege of the former mission, Seguin and some of his men went to look for reinforcements. Later he did essential service harassing and delaying Santa Anna's army, which gave Sam Houston time to gather reinforcements from the southern United States. He served as mayor of San Antonio until 1842, when Anglos accused him of supporting a Mexican invasion of Texas. He was forced to flee to Mexico, having become "a foreigner in my native land." 

Another rebel was Tejano Gregorio Esparza, who died defending the Alamo. His brother Francisco was in the victorious Mexican army. Families, like the Esparzas, were split by the fight for Texas independence.

After Texas secured its independence in 1836, and especially after two failed Mexican invasions of Texas in 1842, anti-Mexican sentiment soared. Anglo-Texans threatened to banish or imprison all Tejanos unless Mexico accepted the Rio Grande River as the southern border of Texas. 

This selection examines the attitudes of the Tejanos and Anglo-Texans, eight years prior to the Revolution. It is excerpted from a journal kept by José María Sánchez, who served on a Mexican government directorate commissioned in 1827 to survey the boundary between Texas and Louisiana. 

The Americans from the north have taken possession of practically all the eastern part of Texas, in most cases without the permission of the authorities. They immigrate constantly, finding no one to prevent them, and take possession of the sitio [site] that best suits them without either asking leave or going through any formality other than that of building their homes. Thus the majority of inhabitants in the Department are North Americans, the Mexican population being reduced to only Béjar, Nacogdoches, and La Bahía del Espíritu Santo, wretched settlements that between them do not number three thousand inhabitants, and the new village of Guadalupe Victoria that has scarcely more than seventy settlers. The government of the state, with its seat at Saltillo, that should watch over the preservation of its most precious and interesting departments, taking measures to prevent its being stolen by foreign hands, is the one that knows the least not only about the actual conditions, but even about its territory.... Repeated and urgent appeals have been made to the Supreme Government of the federation regarding the imminent danger in which this interesting Department is becoming the prize of the ambitious North Americans, but never has it taken any measures that may be called conclusive.... 

The Americans from the North, at least the great part of those I have seen, eat only salted meat, bread made by themselves out of corn meal, coffee, and homemade cheese. To these the greater part...add strong liquor, for they are in general, in my opinion, lazy people of vicious character. Some of them cultivate their small farms by planting corn; but this task they usually entrust to their Negro slaves, whom they treat with considerable harshness.

Source: José María Sánchez, "A Trip to Texas in 1828," trans. Carlos E. Castañeda, Southwestern Historical Quarterly, 29 (1926), 260-61, 271.
Sent by Carlos Ray Gonzalez    





Armando B. Rendón, Esq.

*Copyright, Armando B. Rendón, Washington , D.C. , 1982


The Treaty  of Guadalupe Hidalgo, enacted 134 years ago to affirm peace and friendship between the United States and Mexico, gave birth to a unique “person” in the Americas—the Mexican American or Chicano.1

As subsequent events bear out, the Treaty also generated a mass of litigation, from trial court to Supreme Court. However, the nature of these actions almost exclusively asserted only one of the rights guaranteed specifically to the Mexicans who elected to stay on this side of the new border, the first Mexican Americans.

THE EARLY LITIGATION                    

The Tre at y of Guadalupe Hidalgo, in spite of its years, is a living document. It provides guarantees which are protected not only on a domestic level but internationally as well. Within a relatively new human rights system, the Treaty represents a valuable and practical tool in seeking redress for viol at ions of these rights. Unfortunately, the Treaty has been relegated to a land grants document rather than pursued as a viable alternative and foundation for sound human rights assertions in domestic and international tribunals.

From the earliest cases which ensued almost from the moment the Treaty was signed until the more recent cases which deal with American Indian claims,2 the right to “property” has been the dominant focus in challenging or citing to the Treaty. The ownership of land, for a number of reasons, was uppermost in the minds of the inhabitants in the lands taken from Mexico by the United States . Land meant a livelihood, if not wealth, prestige, a patrimony, certainly the means to sustain life itself.

The Mexican Americans, robbed, cheated, taxed, beaten, murdered and lynched, or otherwise driven off their lands (See Appendix A), went into the U.S. courts only to find either that they had no protected titles where Texas was concerned3 or that the 
Treaty, instead of validating previous land claims had only given claimants the right to seek validation or clarification in U.S. tribunals.4 As one court saw it, Mexicans in the ceded territories got merely the status of citizenship under the Treaty; they gained no special guarantees under it.5

Article IX of the Treaty specifically cites the right to “liberty and property.”6 At the time, the right to challenge land claims or validate titles was an important and perhaps the crucial issue, often a life-and-death matter, to the early Mexican Americans. However, we assert that the Treaty conveyed—under the rubric of the right “to liberty” and by virtue of other documents specifically incorporated into the Treaty—a whole range of values and individual guarantees which apparently were not then considered assertable theories in litigation but which have since become both national and intern at ional standards of law.

Moreover, while the right to property and claims stemming from it exclude Texas , U.S. citizenship was afforded all Mexicans within the territories who did not elect to retain Mexican citizenship by the end of one year. The other rights, to life and liberty, in other words, adhered to all Mexicans who remained on the U.S. side of the new border: in effect, these guarantees were extended not only to individuals but to the group clearly identifiable by their n at ional origin as Mexican/Americans. The significance of this factor will become clearer in the light of subsequent developments in the law.

Because land constituted the very sustenance of life in the society of the 1800s, it is understandable th at claims to property depended on assertions of title, adverse posses­sion, riparian rights, community ownership, and the like. In time, the significance of land has given way to the right to life and liberty as the primary values in affecting redress for wrongs against civil and human rights, for example, where denial of one’s civil rights results in de at h at the hands of another, code law supplants the direct murder charge. See 18 U.S.C.A. §242.

Chicano claims for justice are basically at an impasse. Claims related to property rights obviously have faltered not only in the courts but also in the public conscience. The efforts of Reies Tijerina and the Alianza Federal de Mercedes Libres in the 1960s’ land claims movement in New Mexico sought redress in the courts and in public opinion, even in the halls of the United Nations7—to no avail.

What this paper urges is a new approach, retracing many of the same documents, but reexamining them in light of the development of intern at ional systems for the protection of human rights. The inter-American system, in particular, did not exist as a forum even two decades ago. Now, by reviving the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo along modern conceptual lines of human rights, Mexican Americans may, in fact, have a new opportunity to redress decades-old grievances.


We present here a review of the basic documents providing us with the framework to understand th at “life and liberty” were perceived as human rights, each part of the other, at the time of the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo with the goal in mind of bridging these views with the modern documents on human rights. The purpose, of course, is to provide an overall analysis of U.S. and Mexican documents, with greater attention paid to the Mexican sources which are less known in the United States .

America ’s commitment to basic individual rights is embodied first in the Declaration of Independence, al­though these principles also appear in the earlier “Declarat ion and Resolves of the First Continental Congress”.8 The second paragraph of the 
Declaration of Independence asserts that ,

“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty , and the Pursuit of Happiness.”9

Not till 1868, however, did the United St at es constitu­tionally bestow upon the concept of “life, liberty and property” the status of protected individual rights, interdependent facets of the fundamental equality and worth of the human person. The 14th Amendment reads:

§1. All persons born or nationalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No 
State ... shall ... deprive any person of life, liberty or property, without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.10 (Emphasis added.)

These two tenets, taken together with Article 11 §2 (2) which places tre at y making authority in the President11 and Article VI (2) which asserts th at the Constitution of the United States and its laws and Treaties shall be “the supreme law of the land ...12
indicate that pre-1848 in the United States, “life, liberty and property” were understood as a whole, each element complementing and encompassing the other. Later Statutes, such as 18 U.S.C.A. §242 and 42 U.S.C.A. §1983, reinforce, this view.13 Under these laws, a U.S. citizen may seek redress in court against viol at ions of Constitutional and Treaty rights involving Government officials or agents.


Mexican views on the right to life and liberty are well-rooted in official documents of the Republic both prior and subsequent to 1848. Citing the seminal nature of the 
Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen by the National French Assembly in 1789 to Mexican constitutional thought, Noriega, in tracing the sources of individual rights in the Mexican Constitution of 1917, says,

... the Law, and for that matter, the laws, enacted in chapter one of our Constitution, make crystal clear the challenge stemming from that great dynamic of the natural law of a 
Nation: that law which has been evolving in the heat of the struggle begun in 1810, which fomented in 1814 and became incorporat ed in 1824 in the life of the Republic; felt and absorbed in 1847 and which became flesh and spirit in 1857.14

Noriega reinforces the notion posited herein, that life, liberty and property are essentially interrelated to each other and to the derivative rights which become successively more specific to social, economic and cultural needs of an increasingly complex world.

Noriega states,

... I shall seek to enumerate the most salient rights which the St at e should recognize and protect: the right to life, to existence; the right to physical freedom, the right to bodily integrity, the right to be master of one’s own destiny.15

In the prior quote, Noriega referred to a series of historic documents, for one, the Constitution of 1824, which averred in Article 24,

The happiness of a people and of each individual consists in the mutual enjoyment of equality, security, property, and liberty. The preservation as a whole of these rights is the goal of Government and the only objective of political bodies.16

Furthermore, in the Actas de Reformes of 1847, Article 5 asserts, “...the declaration that a single law would insure the guarantees of liberty, security, and equality in favor of all citizens of the Republic...17 (Emphasis added.)

Finally, in the Constitution of 1857, Article 14 stipulates,

No one shall be deprived of life, liberty or property without (due process) before tribunals already established which conform with the essential procedural steps and comply with the laws previously enacted toward that end.18

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo incorporates language reflecting much the same conceptual framework of these Mexican documents and by reference those Statutes and Treaties more familiar to the United States . Further on, a review of the inter-American human rights documents demonstrates that an unbroken line exists between the Guadalupe Hidalgo and 20th century human rights law, a fact that has yet to be tested after nearly a century and a half.


The formulation of the Treaty, as early and then revised texts indicate, progressed from a full recognition of inalienable rights of those already on the northern side of the new border, citing longstanding intern at ional agreements, to a well-excised document, grudgingly granting the new Mexican/Americans the most minimal protections.

However, as we shall see, by reference to U.S. documents, other treaties, the Treat y of Guadalupe Hidalgo itself, and to some extent a suppressed protocol, the full scope of rights encompassed in the Treaty will become apparent.

Moreover, a review of the inter-American human rights documents demonstrates that an unbroken line exists between the Treaty and today. This fact has not been recognized nor, consequently, put into practice in litigation since 1848.

Article VIII, in para. 1, identifies as a group, “Mexicans now established in territories previously belonging to Mexico ...” and adds in para. 2, “...who have remained in the said territories (beyond the year from the date ratifications were exchanged) without having declared their intention to retain the character of (citizens of Mexico ) shall be considered citizens of the United St at es .”19

The grant of citizenship, therefore, is not made with regard to propertied st at us or place of residence: that group of persons of Mexican origin who simply decided to stay behind the new boundary line became citizens by operation of Treaty law.

However, Article IX declares that ,

(These) Mexicans... shall be incorporated into the Union of the United States and be admitted, at the proper time (to be judged by the Congress of the United States) to the enjoyment of all the rights of citizens of the United St at es according to the principles of the Constitution; and in the meantime shall be maintained and protected in the free enjoyment of their liberty and property, and secured in the free exercise of their religion without restriction.20 (Emphasis added.)

Both conditions, the tacit election to assume U.S. citizenship after one year and the admission of the territory into statehood, are since fully complied with by operation of law, although in the case of New Mexico, it took more than half a century before it was finally admitted as a state. Congress, in effect, withheld full citizenship from the Mexican/Americans by setting a vague point in the future (“ at the proper time”) for grant of citizenship.21 Congress’ fears are clear from a reading of the original text of Article IX, as follows:

Those Mexicans (who by operation of law become U.S. citizens under Article VIII) will be incorporated into the Union of the United St at es and will be admitted as soon as possible in conformity with the Federal Constitution and to the enjoyment of full rights of U.S. citizens and meanwhile shall be maintained and protected in the enjoyment of their liberty, their property and of the civil rights which they now have according to Mexican law.22 (Emphasis added.)

Article IX originally also provided:

... with respect to political rights, their condition shall be on an equality with that of the inhabitants of the other territories of the United States (and at least equally as good as th at of the inhabitants of Louisiana and the Floridas ) when (they) became territories of the United States .23

Thus, the explicit extension of protections already in effect by virtue of Mexican law as to personal (human), property and civil rights were diluted. And, by deleting reference to the Floridas ’ treaties, Congress also sought to curtail extension of treaty precedents by reference to the Louisiana and Floridas ’ treaties. The words in Article IX, as to “equality with that of the inhabitants of the other territories,” and “ at least as good,” apparently appeared too generous.

However, two U.S. and one Mexican commissioner drafted and signed a protocol on May 26, 1848 , setting forth the understanding which each side had of the revised document. The protocol stipulates that Article IX reflects and in effect incorporates Article III of the Louisiana Treaty (April 30, 1803) as well as the intent of Article VI in the Floridas Treaty (February 27, 1819). 24 The three commissioners affirmed that the U.S. Congress, by substituting Article III of the Louisiana Treaty for Article IX of Guadalupe Hidalgo,

... has in no way sought to diminish what was agreed to in Article IX. ...As a consequence, all the freedoms and guarantees of a civil, political, and religious nature which the inhabitants of the ceded territories would have under Article IX, the same without difference are contained in the substituted article.25

Controversy surrounds the drafting of the Treaty as well. N. Trist, the U.S. negotiator, had been deprived of portfolio before entering into negotiations with Mexican authorities. The protocol itself was suppressed and never made a part of the Treaty. Despite this questionable genesis, the Treaty was accepted by Congress, amended, and 
ratified on U.S. Independence Day, July 4, 1848 . All but one question is moot: Does the Treaty contain protections of relevance to current human rights issues or is it a dead letter?


The concept that “life” itself is a right inherent in the nature of human beings seems so obvious th at it hardly requires documentat ion. Yet, from this essential notion are derived, as Contardo indicates, so many related protections that human existence as a value in itself becomes the starting point for the projection of a whole series of affairs and conditions within a number of intern at ional documents.

Contardo, writing in the Revista Chilena de Derecho, notes how often the right to life is omitted as a specific reference in many if not most constitutional documents: though it seems so apparent, the right to life, as the most immediate possession of oneself, must be memorialized, especially in light of “the new multiple forms of at tack” humanity now faces.

Contardo adds, As a consequence of (the right to life’s) gaining constitutional recognition, there may be derived numerous legal means to protection this right, to sanction its unjust violation, and to create proper conditions for its exercise.26

“From this root sprout other concerns,” (De alli brotan otras exigencies) Contardo asserts, which demand the creation of structures within society to protect and augment the assurance and protection of human rights such as medical care, social security, police protection, employment, even economic stability:

No one can be barred from the exercise of these rights, because to do so indirectly at tacks one’s right to life.27

The United Nations Charter, that momentous document in the whole history of world affairs, itself does not specifically assert a “right to life”, rather it characterizes its 
es Party to the Charter as, “Determined ... to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights and in the dignity and worth of the human person.”28

More to the point is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, a derivative document of the UN Charter. Several articles specify that life is a protected value and elaborate its many ramifications into society.

Article 3 cites the right to “life, liberty and the security of person”; 4, denounces slavery and any form of forced servitude; 5, condemns “...torture, cruel, inhuman or de­grading treatment or punishment”; 7, entitles the person “to equal protection of the law”; 8, 9, and 10, assert rights to effective remedies before competent tribunals, fair and public hearings by impartial tribunals, and freedom from arbitrary arrest, detention or exile; 25, promotes the right to a decent standard of living, and 27, seeks progress for all by participation in or benefiting from cultural, artistic and scientific progress.29

Of immediate relevance to human rights in the Americas is the Declaration of Rights and Duties of Man, adopted by the Organization of American States in Bogotá in 1948, which is also quite explicit. The introductory paragraphs assert basic assumptions about “the dignity of the individual” and the generic nat ure of “life in human society...” The Preamble adds substance and depth to the “life” value, promoting culture as the highest social and historical expression of ... spiritual development is the duty of man to preserve, practice and foster culture by every means within his power.30

Several articles assert a series of related rights: I, “life, liberty and security of person”; II, equality of all persons before the law without distinction; XI, preservation of health and well-being; XIII, the “benefits of culture”; XVII, the recognition of a juridical personality and of civil rights; XVIII, the right to a fair trial; XXV, protection from arbitrary arrest, and XXVI, due process of law.31

In the Statute of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights which was approved in 1960, Article 2 assumes by reference the listing of rights as set forth in the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man. In Article 9 and 9 (bis), among the functions and powers vested in the Commission is th at it pay “particular attention to observance” of certain of the rights cited in the American Declaration, including the ones cited in the preceding paragraph (except for Articles XI and XIII which the author added).32

Finally, the Regulations of the Commission, approved in October 1960, places the Commission under the governance of the OAS Charter with its functions determined by the Statute while its scope of goals and activities derive from the American Declaration of Rights and Duties of Man. The full impact of the Commission’s powers is spelled out in following sections. The significance to Mexican American needs and aspirations will also become apparent.33

Reflecting its derivation from the American Declaration and other human rights documents, the American Convention on Human Rights further enhances the understanding of “right to life” as an inherent human value and societal goal. The Convention, of course, is of crucial importance, as we shall discuss, with respect to the procedural, administrative and juridical system now established in the Americas .

Because of the particular focus of this paper on inter-American human rights, specific references within the American Convention which fall into the general penumbra of “life”-related rights are reviewed as follows:

Preamble            ...the essential rights of man are not derived from one’s being a n at ional of a certain stat e, but are based on at tributes of the human personality; and they justify international protection...complementing the protection provided by the domestic law of the American states.

Article 4.1.         Every person has the right to have his life respected...No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his life.

Article 5.1.         Every person has the right to have his physical, mental and moral integrity respected.

Article 7.1.         Every person has the right to personal liberty and security.

Article 8.1.         Every person has the right to a hearing... for the determination of his rights and obligations of a civil, labor, fiscal, or any other nature.

Article 11.1.       Everyone has the right to have his honor respected and his dignity recognized.

Article 24.          All persons are equal before the law. Consequently, they are entitled, without discrimination, to equal protection of the law.

Article 25.          Everyone has the right to simple and prompt recourse, or any other effective recourse, to a competent court or tribunal for protection against acts that  
violate his fundamental rights.34

Under the American Convention, Article 41 reflects the same functions as Article 9 and 9 (bis) in the St at ute, with an important distinction between communications (complaints) and petitions. Submission of communications to the Commission and cases to the Court of Human Rights vary decidedly in regard to restrictions.

Under Article 44, “Any person or group of persons, or any non-Governmental entity legally recognized in one or more member states of the Organization, may lodge petitions with this Commission containing denunciations or complaints of violatin of this Convention by a State Party.”35 (Emphasis added.) To submit a case before the Court, however, only a State Party or the Commission has such right under Article 61.36

Where communications involve allegations by one St at e Party against another, Article 45 requires that at the time a State Party files its instrument of ratification of the Convention, it include a statement recognizing the competence of the Commission to consider such communications before the Commission will accept a State Party communication against another stat e party; similarly, under Article 62, the competence of the Court of Human Rights must be recognized by a State Party before decisions of the Court become binding upon th at State Party.37

An Article 44 petition has a series of hurdles to over­come before receiving full Commission attention. Article 46, §1, requires the exhaustion of domestic remedies and submission of the petition within six months of the date “the party alleging viol at ion of his rights was notified of the final judgment.”38

An Article 44 petition must contain the name, nationality, profession, domicile, and sign at ure of the petitioners or the legal representative. The requirements for exhaustion and six months’ period need not apply where, under Article 46, §2, there are no domestic remedies nor due process afforded by the state concerned in regard to the right allegedly violted, the party making the allegation has been denied access to the remedies or prevented from exhausting them, or there has been unwarranted delay in obtaining a final judgment.

If Article 46 requirements are not met, the facts do not tend to establish a violation, or the petition is “manifestly groundless or substantially like another case already studied by the Commission or another international body,” Article 47 provides for the Commission to find the petition inadmissible.39

However, once these barriers are overcome, a petition then undergoes a series of procedures under Articles 48 to 50: the cause may be settled or submitted to the Court of Human Rights, or the Commission may vote to take appropriate measures such as making recommend at ions to the state concerned or publishing a report on the matter.

Because only a State Party or the Commission may approach the inter-American Court, who that complainant would be becomes the paramount—and extremely political—question. Two state parties have clear standing to sue: the United States and Mexico . It is doubtful that the U.S. Government would implicate itself on a charge of a human rights violation. (In one of the first cases before the Court, however, Costa Rica itself initiated an inquiry. Government of Costa Rica, In the matter of Viviana Gallardo, et al. Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Decision of Nov. 9, 1981, No. G101/81.) Mexico would face enormous political and economic considerations before taking action. Most likely, only the Commission would approach the Court.

Another approach involving the Court involves recourse to the advisory function of the Court. In order to determine the validity of issues stemming from interpretative problems related to internal domestic law or inter-American agreements, Article 64 specifically provides that any member State or the Commission “...may consult the Court regarding the interpretation of this Convention or of other treaties concerning the protection of human rights in the American States.40 (Emphasis added.) Such advisory jurisdiction may be invoked with regard to any state whether or not it recognizes the Court’s competence. Buergenthal, a member of the Court, asserts that , though not binding, states may find it as difficult to disregard an advisory opinion as they would a judicial decision.41 In the realm of international affairs, the publicity such an event can generate might prove an effective means of seeking redress.

As a treaty, then, which falls clearly within the purview of American documents establishing obligations among nations, the Treat y of Guadalupe Hidalgo must also be considered an inter-American document “...concerning the protection of human rights” and thus within the jurisdiction of the Commission and the Court. Certain questions need to be raised and resolved, such as: what is the nature and extent of the Treaty’s human rights protections, can Chicanos in fact have standing as claimants, and where do remedies lie, within the jurisdiction of the Commission, the Court or the OAS General Assembly? An American forum exists in which to do so and a document exists, however old, which warrants renewed attention and review with respect to the deprivation of human rights which the Mexican American is now experiencing in the United States.


Against this background of human rights thought and practice, the case of the Mexican American provides an unusual perspective for understanding and testing of the inter-American human rights system.

The Mexican American or Chicano was born on February 2, 1848 , taking for his birth 
date the day on which the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed by U.S. and Mexican ambassadors in Mexico . The Chicano was a party, albeit a silent third party, to this international agreement whereby “those Mexicans” choosing not to elect formally the retention of Mexican citizenship obtained the full guarantees of U.S. citizenship. It was by virtue of the Treaty, through the operation of law, not birth, ownership of land, 
naturalization, or any other way, that the Mexican American came to be.

The Chicano’s juridical personality, then, stems from an international agreement: at the very least, this would confer upon the Chicano a rare if not unique status among inhabitants of the Americas. The scope of this paper did not permit inquiry into whether other identifiable racial/ethnic groups have come into existence in a similar way. The Treaties of Louisiana and the Floridas refer only to “the inhabitants” of the territories;42 the U.S. Supreme Court has found that American Indians, while U.S. citizens, have distinct juridical st at us as parties to treaties with the U.S. Government (U.S. v. Sandoval, 198 F.540 (1912).

Vigil v. U.S. , 293 F.Supp. 1178 (1968), at tempted to draw on civil rights statutes to regain control of land grants in New Mexico, but the claim was dismissed for failure to state a claim. The complaint cites the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo outside any human rights context and otherwise fails as “vague and general”, at 1183.

The distinctiveness of the Chicano person was alluded to in In Re Rodriguez,43 one of less than a handful of cases cited in Shephard’s under the Tre at y (9 St at . 922) reaching the Supreme Court or District Courts based on other than a property claim. Rodriguez’ application did not fit the description of either a white or African as the immigration laws required. The Court noted that color or race had not been a condition for becoming a citizen; rather it had merely been used to distinguish the nature of rights permitted. 
(Statutory exclusion of Asians from becoming citizens through the naturalization process was upheld in In re Ah Yup, 5 Sawyer. 155, 1 Fed Cas. 22.) Rodriguez was granted citizenship essentially, the Court held, because under the Tre at y of Guadalupe of Hidalgo, Mexicans were granted citizenship stat us without regard for color or race and besides, Rodriguez had been a model American for more than 10 years as a resident of San Antonio .

A more famous case, for different reasons, provides another perspective on the Chicano person. In Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. 586 (1856), the Treaty was cited to show that the Constitution had not excluded “colored aliens from citizenship,” i.e., color of a certain kind was not a necessary quality to obtain citizenship. The grant or withholding of citizenship is the prerogative of Congress. In the case of the Mexican American, he obtained citizenship by virtue of Treaty powers, without regard to color or race, but certainly with regard to his identificion with a national origin. Cases which have since sought to establish the character of the Mexican American as an identifiable ethnic group took no cognizance or had no knowledge of this fact, e.g., Hernandez v. Texas, 347 U.S. 475, 74 S.Ct. 667, L.Ed. 866 (1945); U.S. v. Texas , (E.D.Texas) 342 F.Supp. 24 (1971).

What this line of thought suggests, then, is that the Chicano may have special status with regard to domestic forums, but certainly should have special standing in international ones dedicat ed to the protection of human rights. Such a theory, of course, has yet to be tested in a domestic or international forum.

With regard to the lat ter avenues, the thrust of the analysis here suggests that the 
international character of the harm inflicted upon Chicanos would constitute a basis for submitting proposals for study by the Commission as well as petitioning the Commission for redress of alleged violations. The doctrine of exhaustion, moreover, would indicate that redress of grievances in the area of human rights within the Americas be instituted in the inter-American arena before recourse to other international bodies.

Besides, while the United States is not technically bound by the Convention, it is not free of public scrutiny: the Convention having gone into effect July 18, 1978 , the United States cannot simply ignore the findings of a body duly established by the Convention. The inter-American system is designed as a forum for bringing world scrutiny and opinion to bear in as many ways as possible on the preservation and extension of human rights to all persons in the Americas .

If, in fact, Chicanos are victims of conduct proscribed by treaty, they should have full recourse to its protections. In short, the inter-American system of human rights may constitute the next step in Mexican Americans’ continuing pursuit of the right to life and liberty.

Mexican Americans could gain access to inter-American forums through three principal means:

·        under the Statute of the Commission on Human Rights, seek consideration of Chicano rights as topics for Commission study,

·        under the Regulations, file petitions, and,

·        under the Convention, have the Commission conduct investigations and submit and/or publish reports of a public nature, or bring a specific case before the Court of Human Rights.

Because domestic remedies must be followed through to some final judgment under the doctrine of exhaustion, cases must be carefully selected which in fact have reached a final determination or have been stymied or delayed at some point in the adjudicatory system within the United States (Article 46, §2) before a petition or case may be found admissible and either dealt with by the Commission or passed on to the Court.

An additional hurdle exists where the St at e Party must have filed, either with their instrument of ratification or some time since, a statement acceding to the competence of the Commission and the Court before communications related to that State Party may be accepted for consider at ion. The United States has signed and r at ified the OAS Charter and is thus bound by the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man. However, it is only a signatory at present to the American Convention (signed June 1, 1977 ). Until ratification, it need not submit itself to adjudicatory proceedings under the Court but it is still open to studies by the Commission and to submittal of petitions alleging human rights violat ions.


In order to give substance to the theory and analysis behind treaty and case law, philosophical and historical literature, at least one case should serve to indicate within the scope of this paper, the nature of Mexican American claims for redress of violations of their human right to life and liberty.

To provide some context for a lengthier recital of a specific case, the following is a brief chronological account of nine incidents which took place between 1973 and 1978 in cities, both large and small, throughout Texas :

Nov. 15, 1973 - Santos Rodriguez, 12, shot once in the head while a police officer held a revolver to his head inside a police squad car during questioning about a burglary. The officer, Darrell Cain, was convicted and sentenced to five years in prison.

Sept. 14, 1975 - Richard Morales, the case history, will be described in detail below.

May 5, 1977 - Joe Campos Torres, 23, Houston , death by drowning while in the custody of Houston police officers. Two officers, Terry Denson and Stephen Orlando, were convicted in state court of criminally negligent homicide, a misdemeanor, after being tried for murder. In a district court trial, these two and a third officer, Joseph Janish, were found guilty of civil rights violations and sentenced to 10-year suspended sentences (maximum penalty for such violations is life in prison); each had to serve one year for misdemeanor violat ions.

May 18, 1977 - Juan Deloz Zuniga, 33, a Mexican national in Odessa, killed in the Hudspeth County jail when struck by a homemade club made from a pool cue. The grand jury no billed Sheriff Clayton Hutchins in the incident.

Nov. 6, 1977 - Tiburcio Santome, in his early 30s, Garden City, shot four times while in the custody of sheriffs’ officers, after being arrested for drunk and disorderly conduct at a church festival. The grand jury did not return an indictment against either Sheriff Royce Pruitt or a friend, G.B. Thurwanger, who fired the pistol.

Dec. 8, 1977 - Juan Galaviz, 19, Big Spring , shot once in the head, after allegedly at tempting to abduct the wife of a college basketball coach during a game. The grand jury did not return an indictment against Sgt. LeRoy Spires, who fired the gun.

Jan. 22, 1978 - Larry Ortega Lozano, 22, Pecos , dead of a crushed larynx while in the Ector County jail. a six-member jury panel ruled the death an accident and the Ector County grand jury took no action against any of the officers implic at ed, Sheriff Elton Faught and his deputies.

Jan. 22, 1978 - Danny Vasquez, 17, Moon City ( El Paso County ), shot once by a shotgun in the hands of Deputy Sheriff Sergio Guzman. The grand jury returned a no bill in the case.44

The case of Richard Morales, a resident of Castroville, a small town just west of San Antonio across the Bexar County line into Medina County, is cited in U.S. v. Hayes, 589 F.2d 811 (1979). Perhaps it suffices as an introduction to the incident to quote the opening sentence of 5th Circuit Judge Fay’s opinion: “This case involves an outrageous episode in law enforcement.” at 815.

Although the events leading to Morales’ death began at 10:30 PM on Sept. 14, 1975 , with a call by Frank Hayes, then Castroville Chief of Police, to an officer, Donald McCall, to pick up Morales on misdemeanor arrest warrants, the background dates back much longer.

Morales had been in trouble with Castroville police before. The warrants Hayes referred to (actually satisfied by Morales by an appearance at a court hearing two days ear­lier) were on charges of failure to deliver several cows he had sold. Hayes suspected Morales of having stolen a stereo and television set and sent McCall to get the serial numbers—actually Morales had rented the items in San Antonio. In short, Hayes had already been at odds with Morales, and perhaps for some time.

This hostility was borne out when Hayes, arriving at Morales’ home in his personal car accompanied by Dennis Dunford, his brother-in-law, called Morales, according to witnesses, a “thieving son of a bitch”, told him he was going to kill him and struck him in the stomach several times with his fist. at 815.

Finally, after a ride of several miles out to a deserted gravel road in Hayes’ own car, Hayes, with Dunford still in tow, stopped his car, obtained a 12 gauge shotgun from McCall and struck Morales with the breach of the shotgun. All the while, Hayes kept telling Morales he was going to kill him. Hayes sent McCall away, back up the road. Reportedly, then, Hayes shoved the shotgun at Morales again, Morales pushed it away and stepped back. The shotgun discharged, killing him.

Hayes then went back up the road to McCall, told him Morales had escaped and to inform the Sheriff’s office. Hayes returned to the scene and, with Dunford’s help, loaded the body onto the rear floorboards of his car. Hayes drove to his home, picked up his wife, Alice Foley Hayes (also a de­fendant), who with Haves and Dunford drove outside of Castroville, placed the body in the car trunk and returned home.

Mrs. Hayes daughter then joined her mother in driving to San Antonio where they picked up her sister, Alice Baldwin, also a defendant. All three then drove some 400 miles to Panola County near the Louisiana border, where after buying some shovels on the way, they buried Morales’ body in a shallow grave. By the time they returned to Ms. Baldwin’s home in Llano County , local authorities arrested them as they were trying to dispose of bloody garbage bags and shovels.

Tried January 1976 in San Angelo, Tom Green County , after a change of venue, on a charge of murder, Hayes was found guilty of aggravat ed assault and sentenced to 10 years in prison, of which he might have served a minimum of 18 months.

However, on a Federal Grand Jury indictment, Hayes was tried in September 1977, having been charged with viola­tion of 18 U.S.C. §242 by depriving Richard A. Morales of the right to liberty by due process of law, resulting in his deat h. After a change of venue from the San Antonio Division of the Western District of Texas to the Waco Division, he was found guilty on Sept. 19, 1977 , and sentenced to life imprisonment.

On appeal, perhaps the most telling affirm at ion by the 5th Circuit was its upholding of the rule that no constitutional bar exists to successive state and federal prosecutions for the same criminal conduct, the “dual prosecution” or Petite Policy rule. Under this policy, the Justice Department provides that defendants will not be prosecuted for federal offenses arising from the same act except when there is a compelling federal interest and approval of an Assistant Attorney General.

Then Attorney General Griffin Bell had decided at one point not to prosecute Hayes in federal court but had reversed his decision. The Court held that this did not constitute discriminatory prosecution against Hayes, noting:

Those individuals caught in the net of increased awareness and sensitivity to particular classes of crimes cannot justify their conduct by noting that at the time of their illegal activity, the community was more tolerant of similar transgressions. at 818.

Wh at had happened during the period of Morales’ death and the case reaching the Circuit Court was th at Chicano and general public pressure had forced Attorney General Bell into reviewing the Petite Policy and public awareness had indeed forced closer attention to the administration of justice in Morales’ behalf.

Similarly, appellant Hayes argued that the disparity between his sentence and that of others in factually similar cases mandated a reduction of his sentence. The Court held 
that , unless abuse of discretion by the district is shown, the sentence would stand. And it did.


In light of the continual violence being inflicted on Mexican Americans throughout the Southwest, the most significant finding posited by this paper is th at the Tre at y of Guadalupe Hidalgo is in fact an intern at ional human rights document, extending guarantees through the decades which have not been asserted on an intern at ional level. Moreover, for the first time in the Americas a system for addressing viol at ions of basic individual rights is in place which provides several means by which persons in the Americas can seek redress.

The Chicano community, by virtue of its origins in an international agreement in which it had no say at the time may not only hold U.S. citizenship, but a form of standing in certain international forums. Whether the Mexican American may seek redress in intern-American forums by virtue of this dual status has yet to be tested. Thus, while the doctrine of exhaustion may apply to the Chicano domestically, his international status may suggest a way to short-circuit a judicial system which has failed to address his claims against injustice except when a judge faces a situation so “outrageous” that it cries for vindication.

Many questions have been raised in this paper, which suggest various courses of action. The American Convention on Human Rights through its operational branches, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, holds the answer to many of these questions. Finding the suitable case, the most fitting approach, and the appropriate forum to deal with a petition or issue will require considerable effort on the part of many persons.

Many areas of research, moreover, have been indicted in this paper as well which would provide information on related facets of the history of the Mexican American from a juridical standpoint. Legal research into the land grants issue, educational 
deprivation, employment exploitation, and other elements of the Mexican American experience should help fill out what is known about “those Mexicans” who stayed on this side of the new border with Mexico 134 years ago.

The more that is discovered about the international as well as domestic stat us of the Chicano the great er will be the opportunity to redress the kinds of injustice inflicted on a Richard Morales. While Morales’ death has been vindicated at one level, the cases of many more Moraleses have not, nor have their families gained restitution, nor has the community of Mexican Americans obtained full redress. Perhaps it is only at the 
international level that such redress can be obtained for the Chicano, this offspring of war and Treaty.




Stop Thinking of the One Drop Rule
June 12, Celebration for Mixed Racial Marriage Couple 
The Eye on the Prize
Stop Thinking of the One Drop Rule

 5/2/2008 writes:
 Hola  prima mimi,

 It is wonderful to have you back online again  giving  us such wonderful and intellectual information and  thank you for  putting in something about African  Americans because I am  black/Spanish/Mexican  descent  and dark complexion. And yes I get the strange  looks  and giggling and it is funny prima to pull up to a  light  and the other car beside you is playing snoop
doggy dog and I am playing Los Tigres de el norte  and  you get this strange look, like what in the heck  is that and I smile and tell them HOLA and wave, LOL.
I just  wish that Afro-Americans would stop thinking  about the one drop rule and  free their minds and  see  that the Hispanic and Afro-American have so much  in  common and come together as one. Prima take care and  love  you.
 Your Prima
 Tami wrote:
Hi Tami  . .   I loved your sweet letter.  I plan to   include it in the section on African-Americans. If I don't hear from  you, I  will figure that it is.   OK?
There are now 101 issues online now.  You can access all the previous  issues  from the homepage  . .   _www.SomosPrimos.com_ ( 
Just  scroll down to the years.
 Enjoy . .   hugs, Mimi
5/2/2008 writes:  

Hola mi prima,

I want to say thank you for your wonderful response to my email. And thank you for having a wonderful and open mind that can teach us that we are ALL ONE. And that latino/nas come in all COLORS. From light to dark complexion. It saddens me to see hispanic groups online that do not want blacks or other minorities in their groups and they are the ones that fell asleep doing history class.

I join those groups anyway, hoping to shed some light on racial issues. I am so proud to have you as my cousin, and you have a room to stay when you come to Maryland. Anytime cousin. No hotel or motel rooms for you prima. Love you always.



            June 12, Celebration for Mixed Racial Marriage Couple 
Abstract from: 
Remembering Mildred Loving, Unsung Hero of the Civil Rights Movement
By Mark A. Huddle, Counterpunch, May 10, 2008

On May 2, Mildred Loving died from complications of pneumonia at the age of 68.  The unassuming Mrs. Loving would have scoffed at the notion that she was a hero of the Civil Rights Movement.  But for millions of Americans the Loving v. Virginia (1967) case—which outlawed bans on interracial marriage—has resonated to the present as their declaration of independence.

The Lovings' story began in June 1958 when they were married in Washington, DC.  Richard Perry Loving and Mildred Delores Jeter of Central Point, Virginia crossed into the District to evade their state's Racial Integrity Act, a law that defined the marriage of a white man and
African American woman as a felony.  Five weeks later on July 11, the newly-married couple was rousted from their bed by the Caroline County, Virginia sheriff and two deputies and arrested for violating the 1924 law.  In a plea agreement, they pleaded guilty in return for a one-year suspended jail sentence and an agreement not to return to the state together for twenty-five years.

The couple moved to Washington, started a family, and struggled to make ends meet.  Eventually the isolation from family and friends proved too much.  In 1963 Mildred Loving contacted the American Civil Liberties Union which agreed to take the case.  Eventually Loving v. Virginia was
argued before the Supreme Court of the United States on April 10, 1967.    Chief Justice Earl Warren delivered the opinion of the Court on June 12.  Warren put the question succinctly:  did the "statutory scheme adopted by the State of Virginia to prevent marriages between persons
solely on the basis of racial classifications" violate the "Equal Protection and Due Process Clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment?"  The Court concluded that the Virginia law directly contradicted the "central meaning" of those constitutional safeguards and was therefore

The Lovings were always quick to note that while they were glad their case proved so helpful to so many people their main concern was the welfare of their own family.  "We are doing it for us," Richard Loving told an interviewer in 1966.  But the Loving decision eventually impacted millions.

So-called "anti-miscegenation laws" were one of the more tenacious vestiges of Jim Crow.  The last state to strike anti-miscegenation statutes from its organic law was Alabama which waited until 2000 to do so.  In the decades since the ruling, there has been a marked increase in mixed race marriages and by the 1990s we were in the midst of an interracial baby-boom.  Also of particular importance to the growth of the mixed-race population was the Immigration Act of 1965 that eliminated many of the racist immigration restrictions from earlier legislation and contributed to the "browning of America."  Census 2000, the first to allow Americans to check more than one box for racial identity, counted 7.3 million people, about 3 percent of the population, as interracial.  The most striking fact of all from the data is that 41 percent of that mixed race population was under the age of eighteen.

It is also notable that this profound demographic shift would have such a powerful resonance in the marketplace where corporate powerhouses from Nike to the Gap have embraced interracialism in their marketing campaigns.  It has been over a decade since Tiger Woods took advantage of an appearance on Oprah to introduce the world to his "Cablinasian" heritage.  While Woods was simply pointing out that he could just as easily be considered an Asian-American golf champion as an African American golf champion, his performance proved a marketing bonanza for Nike who has made Asia the fastest growing market for golfing equipment and apparel in the world.  Since then celebrities from Halle Barry to Mariah Carey, to Johnny Depp have publicly embraced (and cashed in on) their mixed-race identities.

This is why we should take a moment to remember Mildred and Richard Loving.  Certainly their fight and ultimate triumph has proven to be so important to so many people.  June 12, the day that Earl Warren's decision in the Loving case was handed down, is observed as an informal
holiday by mixed race couples across the nation
.  But more importantly, it was the willingness of the Loving's to confront that apparatus of power—to refuse to be cowed in the face of injustice that inspires and is so instructive.  

When attorney Bernard Cohen tried to explain the legal intricacies of their case, he remembered Richard Loving's simple reply:  "Mr. Cohen, tell the court I love my wife, and it is just unfair
that I can't live with her in Virginia."  In a political age that is so often characterized by its hard-bitten cynicism, it is easy to forget the transformative power of love.

Mark A. Huddle is an assistant professor of history at St. Bonaventure Universtiy. This essay is excerpted from his forthcoming book, "The Paradox of Color: Mixed Race Americans and the Burden of History," which will published by the University of Pennsylvania Press. He can be
reached at:




The Eye on the Prize

Published: December 30, 2007
Correction Appended

Ernest C. Withers had not been a Memphis police officer very long when he saw the limits of his power. In 1948, he became one of the first nine black police officers hired by the city. They were allowed uniforms, patrol cars and guns, but they were barred from patrolling white neighborhoods or arresting white people. Their job was to keep the peace in black Memphis, particularly inside the thriving and jiving Club Ebony, Club Paradise, Club Handy, Currie's Club Tropicana and other night spots. The gatekeepers of the white supremacist code wanted to confine, contain and keep the police officers where all black Southerners were expected to stay: in their place, isolated and invisible.

Ernest C. Withers/Panopticon Gllery

Witness to an era: Withers's photograph of Ike and Tina Turner at club paradise in the mid-1960s.

But Withers had a weapon more powerful than a gun. Off duty, Withers carried cameras everywhere he went. Denied access to the people and places where white photographers flourished, Withers documented instead the lives of the other invisible people around him — starting in those black night clubs.

From the late 1940s until his death this year, Withers shot more than a million frames. The richest troves of photos focused on three main areas: black middle-class life in Memphis and the South before, during and after the civil rights struggle; the brutal hand of white supremacy and the undaunted black response at pivotal moments in this era; and black baseball stars as they moved from the Negro Leagues to the Major Leagues.

Born in Memphis in 1922, a time when former slaves and their masters were still part of the landscape, Withers didn't get serious about photography until he served in the Pacific during World War II. On Saipan, he set up a studio in the jungle that drew white soldiers willing to trade beer for a photo they could send home.

After the war, Withers returned to Memphis and took the police job. He didn't stay long on the force, however, leaving after three years to devote himself to taking nightclub photos he then sold to performers and proprietors. In 1952, The Chicago Defender, a black newspaper, opened The Tri-State Defender in Memphis. The timing could not have been better for Withers. With the emerging civil rights story, he received a steady flow of assignments from the newspaper and from Ebony and Jet magazines — and ventured deeper into the Southern heart of darkness.

Withers seemed to be everywhere during those years. It was Withers who captured the dramatic moment in 1955 when Mose Wright, the wizened uncle of Emmett Till, leaned forward in the witness's chair in a Mississippi courtroom and bravely aimed an accusing finger at Till's white killers. It was Withers who, in the dark of morning the next year, boarded the first Montgomery bus to operate after the landmark boycott led by the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. ended in victory. Withers covered the Central High confrontation in Little Rock in 1957 and the aftermath of the unfathomable lynching of Mack Charles Parker in Poplarville, Miss., in 1959. Nearly a decade later, in 1968, Withers documented the Memphis sanitation workers' strike, filling a frame with the workers as they stood shoulder to shoulder, holding signs that read, "I Am a Man." Later that year, King's life — and the arc of the civil rights movement — ended tragically in Memphis. Withers did not take the famous photo of King dead on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel; it was shot by a South African photographer. But Withers rescued it from overexposure and processed it in his darkroom.

When he wasn't rolling across the South to capture the civil rights struggle, Withers was in Memphis, nearly alone in documenting the swinging, sophisticated, sometimes sultry music scene inside Memphis's black clubs. Through Withers's viewfinder we see B. B. King playing in Bermuda shorts around 1950; and a slender Aretha Franklin, wearing short shorts and holding hands with Sam Cooke, in front of the Lorraine Motel. Withers photographed Ike and Tina Turner performing at Club Paradise in 1962; 10 years later, Isaac Hayes is there, stripped to a bikini bottom. No black entertainer, it seems, came to Memphis and escaped Withers's eye.

So powerful is the collection that the photo dealer Tony Decaneas, owner of Panopticon Gallery in Boston, was ashamed in 1991 when he first laid astonished eyes on the collection. He would see in subsequent visits to Memphis how popular the gregarious Withers had become across racial lines; he marveled that a building on Beale Street bore Withers's name; he would become Withers's fan, friend and purveyor. But he can still recall his reaction when he first saw Withers's phenomenal work: "How come I've never heard of this guy?"

That, of course, was what the gatekeepers of the segregationist South had wanted. What they did not see was that every minute Withers spent confined, contained and kept where they wanted him only added depth, significance and value to a portfolio that no history of the nation can now ignore.

Correction: January 13, 2008  

A picture caption with a Lives They Lived essay on Dec. 30 about the photographer Ernest C. Withers misstated the date of his photograph of Ike and Tina Turner. It was from sometime in the mid-1960s, not 1962.

Sent by Dorinda Moreno




Lady Buckskin Regalia
Hebrew DNA found in South American Indian populations 
American Indian Boarding Schools 
Oñate's Spirit Still Lingers
Native American Cultures, South Texas Segment of the Camino Real de Los Tejas
The Pueblo Revolt Massacre by Rubén Sálaz Márquez
Between Two Worlds: Voices of the Elders and the Youth
Do you recognize the Ladies Buck Skin Regalia?
It appears to be possibly of Southwestern USA design. The item directly to the left of the breast plate appears to be a Hopi Kachina Doll Totem. The geometric designs are like those of the Hopi, Dineh, Navajo area peoples.
This regalia includes a bone breast plate, green fringed shawl, moccasins, leggings, hand bag, hair tie ornament, knife sheath, pendant, beaded belt, white bodice/sleeves white fringed, and the KACHINA DOLL (TOTEM, FETISH, OR FAN) IF IDENTIFIED:

Please contact ALICE BALSITO immediately at:
Alice Besito
Financial Aide Worker
West & Central Regions
Sto:lo Nation Social Development
Phone: 604-847-3299 
Fax: 604-847-3280
Please mention J. Loa & Deb Marker when you call.

Sent by Dorinda Moreno




 Hebrew DNA found in South American Indian populations 
Hebrew DNA found in American Indian populations in South America?
Scott R. Woodward, executive director of the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation has announced that a DNA marker called "Cohen modal haplotype" has been found in native people in Columbia, Brazil and Bolivia. 
Although Woodward warns about using DNA as evidence for or against the Book of Mormon, it is the first time a Hebrew specific DNA marker has been discovered among native people in the New World. 

To learn more about this discovery go to:

Contact:  |
Sent by Kathie Kennedy

American Indian Boarding Schools Haunt Many

Listen Now [7 min 46 sec] 

This is the first in a two-part report.

A group of Chiricahua Apache students at Carlisle Indian school.The Public Radio includes interviews includes many very touching personal accounts.  

Introduction: Morning Edition,
May 12, 2008 · For the government, it was a possible solution to the so-called Indian problem. For the tens of thousands of Indians who went to boarding schools, it's largely remembered as a time of abuse and desecration of culture.

The government still operates a handful of off-reservation boarding schools, but funding is in decline. Now many American Indians are fighting to keep the schools open.

John N. Choate/Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Top: A group of Chiricahua Apache students on their first day at Carlisle Indian School in Carlisle, Pa. Bottom: The same students four months later.

Below are reports that substantiate the interviewees recall.

 History of Indian Schools Traced Through Reports
Throughout the history of the Native American boarding schools, the U.S. government has weighed in on the them — from arguing that Indians were savages who should be compelled to send their children to the schools by whatever means necessary to later, recommending increased Indian control over education.

The Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs to the Secretary of the Interior

In 1886, the government published the Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs to the Secretary of the Interior. It established the attitudes of Indian Affairs Agents in the early days of federal boarding schools. The report was a compilation of agent reports; the agents largely saw Indians as savages who should be compelled using whatever means necessary to send their children to schools. 

EXCERPTS: "If it be admitted that education affords the true solution to the Indian problem, then it must be admitted that the boarding school is the very key to the situation. 

"However excellent the day school may be, whatever the qualifications of the teacher, or however superior the facilities for instruction of the few short hours spent in the day school is, to a great extent, offset by the habits, scenes and surroundings at home — if a mere place to eat and live in can be called a home. Only by complete isolation of the Indian child from his savage antecedents can he be satisfactorily educated, and the extra expense attendant thereon is more than compensated by the thoroughness of the work. " 

— John B. Riley, Indian School Superintendent

"It was deemed necessary to establish during the year a stricter system of discupline than heretofore prevailed. A cadet battalion organization of five companies broke up the tribal associations." 

— Arthur Grabowski, Superintendent, Haskell Institute. 

"The parents of these Indian children are ignorant, and know nothing of the value of education, and there are no elevating circumstances in the home circle to arouse the ambition of the children. Parental authority is hardly known or exercised among the Indians in this agency. The agent should be endowed with some kind of authority to enforce attendance. The agent here has found that a threat to depose a captain if he does not make the children attend school has had a good effect." 

— John S. Ward, United States Indian Agent, Mission Agency, California. 

"Compulsion through the police is often necessary, and should this be required during the coming year, it will be heroically resorted to, regardless of results. The treaty with the Indians gives the children to the Government, for school purposes, nine months in the year, but the punishment therein provided in case they fail to comply is hardly humane or just. If taking ration tickets only metered out merited punishment to the heads of families, who are alone guilty, it would be a wise provision, but the children have to go hungry and suffer the disobedience of the parents. It is better, in my opinion, to compel attendance through the police than taking up ration tickets for non-attendance." 

— John P Williamson, Dakota Agency


The Problem of Indian Administration

In the 1920s, the federal government commissioned a groundbreaking investigation into the outcome of government policies toward American Indians, including boarding schools. The report that followed in 1928, The Problem of Indian Administration (also called the Meriam Report after Lewis Meriam, who supervised the study), found that children at federal boarding schools were malnourished, overworked, harshly punished and poorly educated.


"The survey staff finds itself obliged to say frankly and unequivocally that the provisions for the care of the Indian children in boarding schools are grossly inadequate.

"The diet is deficient in quantity, quality, and variety.

"At a few, very few, schools, the farm and the dairy are sufficiently productive to be a highly important factor in raising the standard of the diet, but even at the best schools these sources do not fully meet the requirements for the health and development of the children. At the worst schools, the situation is serious in the extreme. 

"The boarding schools are crowded materially beyond their capacities. 

"The toilet facilities have in many cases not been increased proportionately to the increase in pupils, and they are fairly frequently not properly maintained or conveniently located. The supply of soap and towels has been inadequate.

"In nearly every boarding school one will find children of 10, 11, and 12 spending four hours a day in more or less heavy industrial work—dairy, kitchen work, laundry, shop. The work is bad for children of this age, especially children not physically well-nourished; most of it is in no sense educational since the operations are large-scale and bear little relation to either home or industrial life outside; and it is admittedly unsatisfactory even from the point of view of getting the work done. At present the half-day plan is felt to be necessary, not because it can be defended on health or educational grounds, for it cannot, but because the small amount of money allowed for food and clothes makes it necessary to use child labor.

"The term "child labor" is used advisedly. The labor of children as carried on in Indian boarding schools would, it is believed, constitute a violation of child labor laws in most states.

"The discipline in the boarding schools is restrictive rather than developmental. Routine institutionalism is almost the invariable characteristic of the Indian boarding school.

"Nearly every boarding school visited furnished disquieting illustrations of failure to understand the underlying principles of human behavior. Punishments of the most harmful sort are bestowed in sheer ignorance, often in a sincere attempt to be of help. Routinization is the one method used for everything; though all that we know indicates its weakness as a method in education. If there were any real knowledge of how human beings are developed through their behavior, we should not have in the Indian boarding schools the mass movements from dormitory to dining room, from dining room to classroom, from classroom back again, all completely controlled by external authority; we should hardly have children from the smallest to the largest of both sexes lined up in military formation; and we would certainly find a better way of handling boys and girls than to lock the door to the fire-escape of the girls' dormitory.

"The result is that Indian schools for the most part have as the only system of physical training applicable to all pupils a scheme of military drilling that is largely obsolete even in Army training camps. Whatever the advantages of military drill for boys of high school age (and this is a controverted matter even among military experts), few advocates of military training would find any value for girls and little children in the formal type of drill insisted upon in most Indian boarding schools.

"Almost without exception Indian boarding schools are "institutional" to an extreme degree. This is especially true of those non-reservation boarding schools that have upwards of a thousand students, where the numbers and general stiffness of the organization create problems that would be bad in any school but are especially serious in Indian schools."


Indian Education: A National Tragedy — A National Challenge

More than 40 years after the Meriam Report criticized government boarding schools, a report known as the Kennedy Report declared Indian education a national tragedy.


"The BIA [Bureau of Indian Affairs] education budget was found to be greatly inadequate: Since most Indian children begin school with the environmental handicaps of rural poverty, cultural isolation, low level of parent education, and in many cases a non-English native language, equality of educational inputs requires greatly superior inschool resources of teachers, curriculum, facilities, and equipment to balance the inadequate preschool preparation of most Indian children. Such superior education has not been and cannot be supplied by the BIA on its current budget of some $1,000 per student year, which must also pay for the boarding expense of nealy half its students. It has been pointed out that the Job Corps spent from $7,000 to $9,000 per student year for its resident high-school level education program.

"When asked to name the most important things the schools should do for their students, only about one-tenth of the teachers mentioned academic achievement as an important goal. Apparently, many of the teachers still see their role as that of "civilizing the native." BIA administrators believe that Indians can choose only between total "Indianness" —whatever that is — and complete assimilation into the dominant society. Thus, the goal of BIA education appears to direct students toward migration into a city while at the same time it fails to "prepare students academically, socially, physchologically, or vocationally for urban life. As a result, many return to the reservation disillusioned, to spend the rest of their lives in economic and intellectual stagnation."

"School environment was sterile, impersonal and rigid, with a major emphasis on discipline and punishment, which is deeply resented by the students. 

"Dormitory discipline is often unnecessarily strict and confining. 

"Perhaps the greatest irony of all is that even as custodial institutions, the Bureau's off-reservation boarding schools are not satisfactory. Several reports point to examples of overcrowding in dormitories or classrooms, of lack of privacy for the students, of inadequate areas for study and recreation, of unappealing meals, of rules which irritate older students by their rigid enforcement and inappropriateness to the student's age, and of punitive discipline."

Sent by


Oñate's Spirit Still Lingers by Darren Meritz, El Paso Times

San Elizario is preparing once again to celebrate the First Thanksgiving -- a precarious balancing act where organizers must consider controversial historical perspectives of late 16th century explorer Don Juan de Oñate as he made his way through present-day El Paso County. View Full Story
Oñate's spirit still lingers - By Darren Meritz / El Paso Times






By Richard G. Santos

Last Thursday I had the pleasure and honor of having a lengthily meeting with Mr. Otis Halfmoon the tribal liaison for the Camino Real de los Tejas National Historic Trail. The Santa Fe based gentleman is a member of the Nez Pres Nation. He came to meet with the Kickapoo’s at Eagle Pass and with me to learn about the Native American cultures of South Texas. I took the opportunity to hand deliver this week’s column to emphasize that the history of the Coahuiltecan Indians of this area who were completely assimilated into the Tejano population.

The dominant Native American Cultures existing in Texas between the Colorado and Rio Grande rivers since pre-historic times through the Spanish Colonial Period (1518-1821) were the Gulf Coast Karankawa, south central Tonkowa, Tamaulipecos south of Laredo straddling the lower Rio Grande and Coahuiltecan straddling the Rio Grande from north of Laredo to Del Rio area and central Texas area to the San Antonio-Goliad-Cotulla-Rio Grande. The Lipan Apache (and briefly, the Mescalero) as well as Yamparica and Quahadi Comanche clans and tribes entered the area after 1700. It should be noted that by all cultural, linguistic and geographic considerations, the Coahuiltecan culture should be divided into Coahuilan Coahuiltecan (from Monclova, Coahuila to Nueces River) and Texas Coahuiltecan (from Nueces River north, east and southeast bordering the Karankawa and Tamaulipeco cultures).  The same could probably be said of the Lower Rio Grande Tamaulipecos but the linguistic, anthropological and historical studies have never been conducted. However, as late as the 1880’s, a German linguist reported 12 Karankawa speaking families residing at Rio Grande City, Texas. Texas Coahuiltecans meanwhile seemed to share their geographic area with Tonkowa and Tonkoway (which could be one and the same).

By all accounts, the Native American cultures between the Colorado and Rio Grande rivers were nomadic, hunters-gatherers and most allied themselves with the Spanish Colonial Culture for protection against the invading Apache and Comanche cultures. Consequently the Spanish government-church evangelization-assimilation program succeeded beyond expectation. Other factors, including the British and U.S. Black Legend voiced by early U. S. born travelers and settlers of the area, further served to eradicate the identity of the area’s Native American cultures as they were lumped into the Spanish speaking mestizo-castizo-lobo-coyote populations of Texas and northeast Mexico.

            The British and U. S. governments east of the Mississippi River considered the Native American cultures as non-citizens to be dealt through warfare, territorial displacement-relocation and/or commercial treaties. In the words of U. S. General Sheridan, “the only good Indian is a dead Indian”. In contrast, to the Spanish Colonial Government, “the only good Indian was a tax paying, Roman Catholic, labor class citizen.”

            Beginning in 1541 with Las Nuevas Leyes de Indias, enslavement of non-hostile Native Americans was prohibited and the encomienda land-owning system was established through which European landlords were charged with the conversion, protection and maintenance of any and all Native Americans residing on their property. It is not surprising to discover in Spanish colonial documents of northeast Mexico many of the encomienda- residing Native Americans being identified by the landowners’ last name. Hence by early 1700’s we read about the Ayala, Treviño, de la Garza, Chapa, et. al. Indians. Some were given their god-fathers’ last name at baptism. Others were given the last name of the encomendero. Their indigenous identity began to blur.

The establishment in New Spain of the Colleges of the Propagation of the Faith in the 1660’s was designed for missionary orders to launch conversion-assimilations programs. Consequently, the Spanish North American Frontier, and particularly northern Mexico, Texas and the Southwest, became the territorial domain of the Franciscan and Jesuit missionaries. After the Jesuit expulsion from New Spain, the Franciscan Colleges of the Propagation of the Faith based in Mexico City, Queretaro and Zacatecas reigned over the Spanish North American Frontier from northern Mexico and Texas to California. The Apostolic (non-missionary) Church meanwhile, tended to the spiritual needs of the civilian and military population composed of 28 ethnic, genealogical castas as recognized by the Spanish Government and Church of New Spain.

            Because the Native American Cultures along the South Texas segment of the Camino Real de los Tejas were nomadic, the Franciscan order of Missionaries established missions at key geographic sites. Through a bilingual, bicultural education-evangelization program, the Franciscans successfully converted the Native Americans to Catholicism and they assumed a Spanish citizen identity at baptism. Incidentally, the Spaniards referred to the missions as “reducciones” as the Native Americans were “reduced” from a nomadic to sedentary lifestyle. The mission Indians thus became the working labor class serving both the missionaries and civilian population. They were the farmers, ranch-hands, sheep herders, mason, construction workers, artists and eventual members of the local militia. Beginning in 1793 through 1824, the secularization of the Franciscan missions in Texas document the final assimilation step as the mission land was distributed to the mission Indians. Furthermore, on October 12, 1837, the Bureau of Indian Affairs of the Republic of Texas presented a Resolution which cemented the assimilation of the Native American cultures of the South Texas Camino Real de los Tejas. It reads “The people called Lipan (i.e. Apache), Karankara and Tonkawa your committee considers part of the Mexican Nation and are not to be considered a different people from that nation. They occupy the western part of Texas.”  In 1837 “west Texas” extended from the Colorado River to the Rio Grande. It is interesting to note the dominant Coahuiltecan Culture was not mentioned in the historic Resolution. 

            As a consequence of the Resolution, the Native American cultures between the Colorado River and Rio Grande were socially designated “Mexicans”. This social (not citizenship) designation distinguished the Native Americans from the Spanish Colonial creole and mestizo Tejano population. Thereafter, whether a mission or non-mission Indian, or descendant thereof, the Native Americans would be called Mexican by non-Spanish speakers while they themselves would and still identify themselves as mejicano (as cultural not citizenship identity).

            It is this Native-born Mejicano or Native American Tejano who appears in early mid to late nineteenth century photographs and postcards of “the Mexican of Texas”.  It must be noted that migration from Mexico into Texas did not begin until the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution in 1910. Only a small number of farm and ranch working individuals and families from Coahuila and Tamaulipas entered Texas after the U. S. Civil War. They moved to the farms and ranches within the first 50 miles of the Rio Grande. Unfortunately, U. S. Census records from 1860 to 1900 (besides misspelling first and last names) cite all Spanish speakers as “Mexican” or “born in Mexico”. Understandably, the Native Americans of the South Texas segment of the Camino Real de los Tejas were further denied their identity and as a consequence thereof, most today do not know they are true natives of South Texas! Today, they identify themselves as U. S. citizens of Tejano or mejicano (not Mexican) cultural ancestry. Above all, they are U.S. citizen descendants of families that predate both the United States and Mexico.

            At the end of our delightful luncheon meeting, Mr. Halfmoon informed me he plans to invite me to attend and speak at the planned national conference of the Indian Nations of Texas. The National Park Service will be hosting the meeting in Oklahoma. So pending approval by the National Park Service, I replied it would be an honor to speak for the silent Texas Coahuiltecans. The conference is months away so we shall see what comes of this planned important convocation of the earliest residents of Texas.   

End …………………….. end …………………. End ……………… end

Zavala County Sentinel – 23 – 24 April 2008
Sent by Juan Marinez  



Review by R.Q.

The Pueblo Revolt Massacre by Rubén Sálaz Márquez, 
Cosmic House, $19.99, 108 pp.:

A Review by Pablo Ricardo Quintana

What a genuine surprise! At last someone has the courage to tell the truth.

Mr. Sálaz slowly, patiently and carefully has presented the facts of what is known about the Acoma War and the great massacre of the Spanish people that happened on St. Lawrence Day, August 10, 1680 in Nueva Mexico. The reason Mr. Herrera's review called it angry (it isn't) and the KOB discussion called it controversial is simply that so much negativity has been written about this subject and about the Acoma War that those views are taken for the facts that they are not.

The Spanish were not the brutes they have been made up to be. It has been admitted that the Pueblos have no oral tradition about these occurrences and have gotten their "facts" from the writings of others such as Robert Silverberg and Dr. Andrew Knaut. Dr. Elizabeth Archuleta, a Yaqui, merely repeats what they wrote.

Mr. Sálaz Márquez goes through each of the events and finds the documentation as to how they actually occurred. The Acomas play the role of victims when they, in fact, were the perpetrators of that war. The Acomas instigated the Acoma War, took most of the lives lost by the warriors during the battle and did not have their feet cut off. At least there is no proof that that ever occurred.

Likewise, the massacre was waged with the intent of eradicating the Spanish from Nueva Mexico in an act of genocide, was waged against Franciscan friars, women and children, three quarters of the victims who were least able to defend themselves, and, was waged to occur in the early morning hours when the people were just waking up. Mr. Salaz also notes that Christian Indians were also killed.

Moreover, the Spanish were asked to return twelve years later. Also, Po'Pay was not the hero he has been painted up to be,  by what is known about him, but had ulterior motives and was very likely mad. His death at the hands of the Pueblos during the interregnum is also mysterious.

Generally, it was a pleasant read and a pleasant change. It is not a difficult book to read. I finished it in four hours by skipping the lists. I suggest that it should be in the library of every Hispano who takes pride in his or her heritage.

Editor: Ruben was interviewed by a local television news program.  The entire interview can be seen.  The link to get you directly to the video is:



Ragiñ Epu Mapu / Between Two Worlds: Voices of the Elders and the Youth

La Peña Cultural Center, 3105 Shattuck Ave. Berkeley, Ca. 94705
510-849-2568 For more information contact Fernando
@ 510-849-2568 x 15 or

Celebrating its 33rd Anniversary La Peña Proudly Presents the World Premier of
Ragiñ Epu Mapu / Between Two Worlds: Voices of the Elders and the Youth
A documentary film by Tierra Films & Pachamama Conservation
Saturday, June 21, 2008. 8pm. $10. At La Peña, 3105 Shattuck Ave. Berkeley. 510-849-2568

A new documentary about the story of the Mapuche peoples' struggle to retain their indigenous culture in the modern world of Southern Chile. A collective vision of a people trying to preserve what is most sacred to them: their land and culture. Q&A with filmmakers. Produced by Pachamama Conservation

Ragiñ Epu Mapu/Between Two Worlds: Voices of the Elders and the Youth documents the story of the Mapuche peoples' struggle to retain their Indigenous culture in the modern world of Southern Chile. It is a story that acknowledges the cultural pride of Indigenous people, as well as the challenges of immigration and assimilation.

Following the life of Jose Pablo Painen, a 23 year-old Mapuche student, the film illuminates the human drama of leaving the tradition-rich countryside to study in the city of Temuco. Jose Pablo's urban experience is contrasted with compelling footage of daily life in rural communities, and interviews with elders and spiritual leaders. What emerges is a collective vision of a people trying to preserve that which is most sacred to them: their land and culture.

Tierra Films is a video production company dedicated to support and collaborate with a diverse group of organizations and people who work for a positive change in the world. Using state of the art equipment and creativity Tierra Films produce the best videos to promote their ideas and work to the world. Tierra Films, films from the hearth of the earth. Tierra Films, 2894 23rd street. San Francisco. CA 94110. 415-6438210

Pachamama Conservation is a non-profit organization committed to providing alternative economic ways to fulfill basic needs of the indigenous people of Chile. By means of providing education, job training, and environmental restoration, we seek to contribute in their self sufficiency, thus enabling them to preserve and reclaim their culture and traditions. Pachamama Conservation, 88 Canyon Road, Fairfax, CA 94930. (415) 721-0774

Why this work is important

Indigenous people have traditionally lived in harmony with Mother Earth, respecting all existing forms of life.

In recent Years, the destruction of Pachamama (Mother Earth) has reached alarming proportions. The rapid extinction of indigenous cultures, the permanent loss of ancient forests, medicinal plants and wild life, and drastic changes in weather patterns have been a wake-up call to the world.

In response to the difficult reality that indigenous people face today, Pachamama Conservation was formed in 1999. Our vision is to strengthen indigenous cultures, and empower indigenous people's ability to stand for and represent their own interests. Furthermore, allow them to blend knowledge and wisdom in order to insure the wellbeing of Pachamama and the global commons.

It is of vital importance that they pass on their traditional knowledge of organic farming and the use of medicinal plants and herbs to future generations, thus insuring that their way of life will be sustainable in the next millennium. 

Production Team:

Ariel Lopez-Segovia, Technical Director
Video activist from Valparaiso, Chile. Since 1994, he has been living in the San Francisco Bay Area. He is a graduate of the Bay Area Video Coalition's video production internship. Since 2000 he has been teaching media literacy trainings with TILT (Teaching Intermediate Literacy Tools) and has produced numerous documentary videos for NGO's in the Bay Area. His video, "Two September 11ths in a Lifetime" won BEST FILM ABOUT POLITICS in the 2004 Latino Film Festival of the San Francisco Bay Area. 

Leila Salazar-Lopez, Interviewer & Co-Producer
Social justice/environmental activist. She is a native Californian/Chicana living in San Francisco, CA. Since 1995 Leila has been advocating for the rights of indigenous peoples in the Amazon and currently works with the Rainforest Action Network. She has also worked for Amazon Watch and Global Exchange.

Ana Bravo, Script Writer
Co-founder of Pachamama Conservation. She is a native Chilean living in Fairfax, California where she practices native healing. Ana has built relationships with the Mapuche elders and youth, she also helped to create the script and conducting the interviews while in the Mapuche communities. 

Mario Bravo, Photographer
Co-founder of Pachamama Conservation. He is a native Chilean living in Fairfax, CA. He is a contractor and a photographer. He has traveled to Mapuche communities on various occasions and has documented their way of life through photography. 



Ladino Remains the Link
Through Sephardic Eyes: Israel at 60

In a message dated 5/15/2008 11:28:14 A.M. Pacific Daylight Time, Jasaco writes:

Hello Ms. Lozano,

I perused your website, Somos Primos, today, hoping to find an answer to a question I have, but did not have any luck; hence I wonder if you might be able to help me.  My question is this: Are American-born sephardic Jews considered 'Hispanic'?  Could a Sephardic legitimately claim to be of 'Hispanic' background for purposes of various applications in business, scholarships, etc.?  I'd appreciate hearing your thoughts on this question, as well as any prior cases that establish the ruling, if such exists.  

Many thanks in advance for your assistance, J.C. 

In a message dated 5/15/2008 4:12:35 P.M. Eastern Daylight Time, MIMILOZANO writes:

Hi JC  . .   I don't know how to answer your question.  A few years ago, identifying yourself ethnically was left to the individual, who they felt they were, culturally. .  what group they identified with.

With the information that DNA research reveals, many are surprised with their lineage. 

The complication with Sephardic Jews being considered 'Hispanic' is because other groups, such as Greek, and Iranian also fall under the title of Sephardic Jews.  So you can be Sephardic and not necessarily be Hispanic.   

The question then becomes, did your Sephardic lines at some point come from Spain?  Was Spanish or Ladino spoken at home?

 Ladino language, a Judeo-Spanish language primarily spoken among Sephardic Jewish communities.   

Best wishes  . . .  Mimi

Thank you, Mimi.  Indeed, my Sephardic line did come from Spain, until 1492 when they relocated to Ottoman Empire (Turkey) (both my mother and father's side of the family).  My mother's parents were both born in Turkey and emigrated to USA where my mother was born.  My father himself was born in Turkey and never held a Turkish passport, only a Spanish one!  And, yes, Ladino was spoken in my father's home, as well as my maternal grandparents' home in Turkey.  The family in the USA has always identified as "Sephardic" (and been members at Shearith Israel in NYC for decades), but more recently this question has arisen as to whether family members could legitimately apply for various things and check off the box marked 'Hispanic' or 'Hispanic-origin'.  Especially with my Dad having been a Spanish citizen from birth until he naturalized in the USA, we wonder if this could be legit.  Any further thoughts?  Many thanks for engaging in this dialog with me.


            Through Sephardic Eyes: Israel at 60
On May 6, American Sephardi Federation/Sephardic House in New York
held a special event:

Exhibition: The Last Aliyah from Yemen: 
A Photographic Exhibition

The Jews of Yemen have always oriented themselves towards Israel throughout their history. The Silwa settlement in the late 19th century preceded the Aliyah Bilu (1881-1903.) The well-known Magic Carpet or "Eagles' Wings of 1949-1950, the major modern Yemen aliyah operation, is thus only one episode, albeit a significant turning point, in the history of Yemenite Jews in the Land of Israel. This exhibit will focus on the last Jews to make aliyah in 1992, with the considerable efforts of the then U.S. Senator Alphonse D'Amato to gain their freedom. Photographs, Sampson Giat 1992. In cooperation with the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee.

Film Screening: The Pioneers (Hehalutzim)
Israel, 2007, 50 mins. Hebrew w/English subtitles.
A film by Aharale Cohen and Sigalit Banai. 
Producer: Sigal Vanunu Gadish

Upon the establishment of the State of Israel, new immigrants were sent to peripheral regions in order to settle the Israeli frontier and to shape the country's borders. In 1951 a group of immigrants from Asia and North Africa arrived, in the middle of the night, to a desolate ma'abara (transit camp) location in the Negev. In time they established the town of Sderot. Today it is the target of ongoing terrorist rockets -- and yet it remains a unique and vibrant town. 

Post-screening discussion with Richard Z. Chesnoff, prize-winning journalist, N.Y. Daily News columnist and former U.S. News & World Report Senior Correspondent who has covered many of the major stories and personalities of our time - including Israel's early years and the establishment of its pioneer immigrant towns. 

Center for Jewish History, 15 West 16th Street, NYC
For information call 212.294.8350 or visit our website at:


Laredoans 1948 San Diego Recruit Training Center
Recordando a Lena Guerrero
Hispanic Heritage Center of Texas
Beyond the Alamo: Forging Mexican Ethnicity in San Antonio, 1821-1861
Inherit the Dust from the Four Winds of Revilla  
2008 Clotilde P. Garcia Tejano Book Prize
Don't mess with Texas! Fun tidbits of Information. 






Lt. to Rt. Cerda, Martinez, Gonzalez, Riojas
Sent by Walter Herbeck    Laredoans 1948 San Diego Recruit Training Center


Recordando a Lena Guerrero
La Voz de Austin, May 2008

From the Funeral Mass Program at Our Lady of Gudalupe
Lena Guerrero, former State Representative and Texas Railroad Commissioner, passed away in her sleep on Thursday, April 24, 2008 under the loving care of her husband Lionel “Leo” Aguirre. Lena was a force of nature and the center of her two Leo’s lives and that of her very extended family and extensive network of friends and
political colleagues. Lena was diagnosed with inoperable brain cancer over eight years ago and given only months to live. They didn’t know Lena!

Lena Guerrero was a champion. In her professional and political career, she was a champion for the disenfranchised, those who needed someone to help fight for
their rights in Austin. She had a particular passion for mentoring young Hispanic women.

Within her family, she was a champion too. She dealt with the struggles in her personal life in the same way she dealt with those in her public life - with tenacity, vigor and a sense of humor that will be missed more than words can say.

Lena was born in 1957 and reared in Mission, Texas. She moved to Austin in 1976 to attend the University of Texas where she became active in politics and public affairs in the Democratic Party. She was elected president of Texas Young Democrats a the age of 21 in 1979. In 1984, at the age of 25, she became only the second female Hispanic elected to the Texas Legislature. Her district included parts of central and east Austin. She quickly mastered the rules, procedures and politics of the House to become known as one of the state’s most effective lawmakers - often out good ‘ol boying the good ‘ol boys.

During her legislative career, she was known as a champion for the rights of migrant farm workers and the prevention of teen pregnancy. She also played a central role
in passing legislation to preserve the views of the Texas Capitol.

In 1992, she became the first woman and first Hispanic to serve on the Railroad Commission of Texas when appointed by Governor Ann Richards. She lead the effort
to help independent oil and gas producers increase production in Texas at a time when the industry was struggling , and she was a strong advocate for the use of alternative fuels.

Lena is the daughter of Adela Salazar Guerrero and the late Alvaro Guerrero. Her mother, her husband Lionel “Leo” Aguirre - whom she married in 1983 - and
her son, Leo G. Aguirre, survive her.

Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.


 The Hispanic Heritage Center of Texas

Dear Tejanos & Texians:  

            We are pleased to report that on April 30, 2008, led by Sen. Leticia Van de Putte and a crowd of over 150 key stakeholders from across the state overwhelmingly approved of our presentation and wholeheartedly endorsed and supported the creation of the Hispanic Heritage Center of Texas.           

            We firmly believe we are on the footpath of making history. The creation of this Center will not only be a great source of pride for all Hispanics, but for all Texans as well. It will also go a long way towards reestablishing the legacies of our ancestors and the roles that they played in building our Great State.  

            Things will be moving steadily as we move forward on this ambitious undertaking and I personally hope that we can continue to count on you as a valuable supporter. With that said, we want to formally ask for your service as a committee member, volunteer, financial contributor or in an advisory capacity. We realize your time and resources are both limited and extremely valuable. Should you care to recommend someone for possible service, we would greatly appreciate that.  

            We believe time is right to strike while the proverbial iron is hot and capitalize on the momentum we have built up. The first meeting of the interim Board of Directors is scheduled for Wednesday, May 28, 2008. In the mean time, if you have any questions or need any additional material, please contact Mr. Eric Moreno at (210) 673-3584 or by E-mail at Thank you for your valued support and friendship.  

Viva Tejano Texas!  

Rudi R. Rodriguez




Los Bexarenos Genealogy Society Monthly Meeting    

Date: June 7, 2008
Speaker: Jose M. Peña
Topic: His Book: Inherit the Dust from the Four Winds of Revilla  


Los Bexarenos Genealogy Society invites the public to a presentation by José M. Peña, author of “Inherit the Dust from the Four Winds of Revilla.” Mr. Peña will speak on the fascinating story of the ancient Mexican town of Villa del Señor de San Ignacio de Loyola de Revilla (now known as Guerrero Viejo).  The reading and book signing is informal and free to the public. 

              Peña’s book represents a historical perspective of the old colonial town that was once one of the principal cultural and trade centers of northern Mexico and southern Texas. Today, the ghost of a formerly vibrant community still stands on the banks of a dried-up Rio Salado as a mute testimony to the remarkable resilience of a proud, pioneering people.  In his talk, Peña tells the story within the broader historical context of Mexico’s turbulent history, southern parts of Texas, and the U.S.  He covers 250-years of Mexico’s historical phases, Ancient Guerrero (its establishment, its people, its land grants, and its destruction), Texas Separation, Indian conflicts, U.S./Mexican War, Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Bourland and Miller Commission,    and effects on Land Grants such as an unpaid $193 million U.S./Mexican debt for lost/stolen/confiscated Texas lands.  

              José M. Peña was born and raised in Laredo and is a graduate of the University of Texas . His parents were born in Guerrero Viejo.  He is a retired Foreign Service Officer with over 30 years of service with the U.S. Agency for International Development assigned to many Third-World countries.

               Founded on October 10, 1750, the city of Guerrero, Tamaulipas, Mexico was one of twenty-three settlements established by José de Escandón between 1748 and 1755. By the nineteenth century, Guerrero's population reached approximately 10,000 as it became one of the principal cultural and trade centers of northern Mexico and southern Texas.       

       Note: The Los Bexareños Library at the Casa Navarro Historical Site is now closed due to relocation. The Library will be closed until a new location can be found. We will announce any change in status.

      Help for the beginning genealogists. The Society assists individuals in getting started with genealogical research through beginner's workshops.  Beginners also receive assistance  from the more experienced members of the Society. Currently we are offering assistance by appointment only and on the 2nd and 4th Saturday of the month between the hours of 10:00 am and 2:00 pm at the following location:

The San Antonio Genealogical & Historical Society 
911 Melissa Drive, San Antonio, TX 78213
Contact one of the following individuals by email or phone to schedule an appointment: Dennis Moreno   210-647-5607
Yolanda Patino    210-434-3530

Meetings are normally held at 9:30 a.m. every first Saturday of the month on the first floor, Main Auditorium, of the San Antonio Public Library, 600 Soledad Street, San Antonio, Texas. Visitors are always welcome to attend.  Membership is not required.  Speakers at the meetings are people with a passion for history, professional historians, genealogists, archaeologists and researchers.

Sent by Larry Kirkpatrick


            Beyond the Alamo: Forging Mexican Ethnicity in San Antonio, 1821-1861
By Raúl A. Ramos

Author Explores How Tejanos Carved Out an Ethnic Identity
Char Miller
Special to the
Web Posted: 05/09/2008

Now called the Dynamos, Houston's major league soccer team originally was called Houston 1836; its logo Sam Houston astride a charging horse reinforced this evocation of the Texas Revolution.

The choice troubled Raúl Ramos, a University of Houston historian, and in a
Houston Chronicle commentary he challenged the decision: Whether by ignorance or design, choosing 1836 has the potential to alienate Houstonians of Mexican origin, a group that surely is a large part of the team's fan base.

His argument sparked heated rebuttals declaring that that particular past and its inequities were over. But as Ramos' article suggested and his fine first book demonstrates, history has no conclusion; it evolves in response to our present. We may never get beyond the Alamo.

That said, we won't be able to think about those momentous moments in March 1836 in the same way after reading his compelling examination of Mexican ethnicity in 19th century San Antonio.

Ramos, who attended Central Catholic, graduated from Clark High School, and wrote his Princeton undergraduate thesis on Emma Tenayuca and the 1939 Pecan Shellers strike, has an insider's passion for local detail and an academic's instinct to set this evidence in its broadest cultural context.

By tracking changes in the identity and status of Bexareños and Tejanos between the 1820s and the 1860s, Ramos reveals how deeply this revolutionary era penetrated individual lives. His analysis is bolstered by a careful reading of travelers' diaries and journals; residents' correspondence; and governmental records, and close attention to Spanish missionary reflections, Mexican federal documents, as well as a rarely consulted newspaper,
El Bejareño.

What emerges from this wealth of material is a much more complex and sophisticated vision of this borderlands outpost and the people who inhabited it.

Start with Ramos' assumption that to appreciate the transitions that would flow from the 1836 struggle, it is essential to locate the Bexareño experience within the larger narrative of Spanish colonial settlement and frontier relations with nomadic indigenous groups, and as part of the development of the Mexican nation-state in the frontier.

Those who called Béxar home created their sense of self in relation to many others: as they fought and traded with Comanches and the Lipan Apache so did some take up arms to battle for Mexican independence. Life on the frontier often thought of as a marginalized society proved politically dynamic, even liberating.

That dynamism began to shift in relation to a new migratory force, the Anglo Americans who pressed into the region in the 1820s and 1830s. Although Ramos acknowledges that this new population and its insatiable demand for land and control boded ill for the Tejanos, he offers initially a more nuanced reading: many Tejanos welcomed the migrants with hopes they might energize the local economy; gladly served as cultural brokers between the Mexican state and Anglo Americans; and imagined the possibility of prosperous, cross-ethnic alliances.

However real, these aspirations collapsed under the weight of subsequent events: intensification of immigration sparked Mexican anti-colonization laws; some Anglos and Tejanos pushed back, generating a secessionist movement that gathered momentum. This forced local Tejanos to reassess their allegiance to Mexico, as state and homeland, which was complicated further by the emergence of a new, white-controlled social order in which ethnicity and race trumped class.

Yet even as they lost power and prestige, Ramos reminds us, Tejanos carved out the space to survive in the dominant Anglo-Texan society, a persistence that reinserts them into the historical record.

This also makes their memory worth protecting, as Ramos exemplified in his opposition to the denigrating implications of a soccer team calling itself Houston 1836.

Trinity University professor Char Miller is Visiting Professor of Environmental Analysis at Pomona College and author of Deep in the Heart of San Antonio: Land and Life in South Texas.

Online at:

Raúl A. Ramos, Assistant Professor
Department of History, University of Houston
524 Agnes Arnold Hall
Houston, TX   77204-3003
(713) 743-3116

Beyond the Alamo:


 2008 Clotilde P. Garcia Tejano Book Prize

Houston – The 29th Annual 2008 Texas State Hispanic Genealogical and Historical Conference will be held August 28-31, 2008 in Nacogdoches, TX at the Fredonia Hotel and Convention Center 209 North Fredonia St. in Nacogdoches , TX 75961 The Texas State Hispanic Genealogical and Historical Conference has issued a call for entries of published books from the years 2007 - 2008 for its second annual competition.  The goal of the Clotilde P. Garcia Tejano Book Prize is to give Tejano Heritage books greater recognition from historians, scholars, academicians, film, television and multimedia communities. 

This competition focuses on Tejano Heritage and will facilitate these published books into the spotlight and bring attention to Tejano Heritage, history and contributions.  A panel of judges will determine the winner and two commendation awards based on the following criteria:  

Is the book applicable to Tejano Heritage?
Is the content a family history or a genealogy record?
Does the writing consist of a smooth writing style?
In regards to scholarship, is the book well researched; does it contain footnotes and or endnotes?
Does the book appeal to a broad audience, or is it targeted for only one group of people?  What various groups would have an interest in the book?  Would the general public, professors, and genealogists be interested?
Is the content over 100 pages?
Is the book appealing in illustrations and graphics?
Is the design, dust jacket, layout, chapter heading, paper and print attractive, legible, and easy to read?
Overall, did you enjoy reading the book?

 For the first round of judging allow a maximum of 10 points total for each question.  Any book that does not receive a total of 70 points or more will be excluded.  Those books that received 280 points or more will be in the final round for judging.

In the second round of judging, the four judges are allowed to discuss the second round of entries.  After all the final books are reviewed by the judges, two will be awarded honorable mention and the final entry will be the prize winner.

Clotilde P. Garcia Tejano Book Prize submissions cannot be returned. Each entry must contain the official entry form, including your e-mail address and contact telephone number.  All shipping and handling costs for submission must be paid by entrants. Entry packages should include one copy of the book and a copy of your official entry form.  Entries should be mailed to:

Loretta Martinez Williams
1727 Idylwood Dr.
Houston , TX 77023-4802

NOTIFICATION AND DEADLINES: We will notify each entry of the receipt of their package as indicated on your application form.  Deadline submissions must be postmarked by the close of business on July 1, 2008.  Please note that judges will read and consider submissions on an ongoing basis, comparing early entries with later submissions.  The winner and two commendation awards will be presented at the Saturday Awards Banquet August 30, 2008 at 6:30 p.m. in Nacogdoches , TX at the Millards Crossing Historical Village .  The Tejano Book Prize winner will be awarded a cash prize of $500.00.

For more information about the Clotilde P. Garcia Tejano Book Prize contact Loretta Martinez Williams, 713-673-1418 or send email to  

For more information regarding the 2008 Texas Texas State Hispanic Genealogical and Historical Conference, please visit the website of

The Tejano Book Prize was named in the honor and memory of Clotilde P. Garcia, M.D.  She was born Jan. 11, 1917 to Jose Garcia and Faustina Perez Garcia, both school teachers.  She was a graduate of the University of TX Medical School in Galveston , TX . (1954) and practiced medicine in Corpus Christi , TX .   She was a civic leader, community advocate, historian, genealogist and author of numerous books on South Texas history such as Captain Blas Maria de la Garza Falcon: Colonizer of South Texas, Captain Enrique Villarreal and Rincón del Oso Land Grant and Padre Jose Nicolas Balli and Padre Island .  She contributed numerous articles to the TX State Historical Association and many are now available online in the Handbook of Texas.  She served on numerous Advisory and Executive Boards.  In 1984 she was inducted into the TX Women’s Hall of Fame.  In 1987 recognizing a need to promote, collect and develop genealogical research she founded the Spanish American Genealogical Association (SAGA) and served as its president.  In 1990 she received Spain ’s Royal American Order of Isabella the Catholic.  She was the sister of the civil rights leader Hector P. Garcia, M.D. who founded the American G.I. Forum in 1948.  She was also the sister of Dr. C.P. Garcia, Dr. Xico Garcia; Dr. Dalia Garcia and Emilia Garcia Garza.  Her son J.A. “Tony” Canales, Attorney at Law resides in Corpus Christi , TX .  “Dr. Cleo” as she was fondly known retired in 1994 after delivering 10,000 babies.  She inspired and facilitated many Hispanics to research, study and preserve their ancestry.  She passed away May 27, 2003.



Texas Tidbits shared by Walter Herbeck

If someone in a Lowe's store offers you assistance and they don't work there, you may live in Texas;
If you've worn shorts and a parka at the same time, you may live in Texas;
If you've had a lengthy telephone conversation with someone who dialed a wrong number, you may live in Texas;
If 'Vacation' means going anywhere south of Dallas for the weekend, you may live in Texas;
If you measure distance in hours, you may live in Texas;
If you know several people who have hit a deer more than once, you may live in Texas;
If you install security lights on your house and garage, but leave both unlocked, you may live in Texas;
If you carry jumper cables in your car and your wife knows how to use them, you may live in Texas;
If the speed limit on the highway is 55 mph -- you're going 80 and everybody's passing you, you may live in Texas;
If you find 60 degrees 'a little chilly,' you may live in Texas;
If you actually understand these jokes, and share them with all your Texas friends, you definitely live in Texas.
Need to be cheered up?
Happy, Texas 79042
Pep, Texas 79353
Smiley, Texas 78159
Paradise, Texas 76073
Rainbow, Texas 76077
Sweet Home, Texas 77987
Comfort, Texas 78013
Friendship, Texas 76530

Love the Sun?
Sun City , Texas 78628
Sunrise, Texas 76661
Sunset, Texas 76270
Sundown, Texas 79372
Sunray, Texas 79086
Sunny Side , Texas 77423
Want something to eat?
Bacon, Texas 76301
Noodle, Texas 79536
Oatmeal, Texas 78605
Turkey , Texas 79261
Trout , Texas 75789
Sugar Land, Texas 77479
Salty, Texas 76567
Rice, Texas 75155
And top it off with:
Sweetwater, Texas 79556

Why travel to other cities? 
Texas has them all!

Detroit , Texas 75436
Colorado City, Texas 79512
Denver City, Texas 79323
Klondike, Texas 75448
Nevada , Texas 75173
Memphis , Texas 79245
Miami , Texas 79059
Boston , Texas 75570
Santa Fe , Texas 77517
Tennessee Colony, Texas 75861
Reno , Texas 75462

Feel like traveling outside the country? Don't bother buying a plane ticket!

Athens , Texas 75751
Canadian, Texas 79014
China , Texas 77613
Egypt, Texas 77436
Ireland, Texas 76538
Turkey, Texas 79261
London, Texas 76854
New London, Texas 75682
Paris, Texas 75460
Laredo, Tejas 78040 y Nuevo Laredo, Tamp. Mx
No need to travel to Washington D.C.
Whitehouse, Texas 75791
We even have a city named after our planet! Earth, Texas 79031


And a city named after our State!  
Texas City, Texas 77590
Exhausted?  Energy, Texas 76452
Cold?  Blanket, Texas 76432
Like to read about History?
Santa Anna, Texas
Goliad, Texas
Alamo, Texas
Gun Barrel City, Texas
Robert lee, Texas
Need Office Supplies? 
Staples, Texas 78670
Men are from Mars, women are from Venus, Texas 76084
You guessed's on the state line..
Texline, Texas 79087
For the kids...
Kermit, Texas 79745
Elmo, Texas 75118
Nemo, Texas 76070
Tarzan, Texas 79783
Winnie, Texas 77665
Sylvester, Texas 79560
Other City names in Texas , 
to make you smile.....
Frognot, Texas 75424
Bigfoot, Texas 78005
Hogeye, Texas 75423
Cactus, Texas 79013
Notrees, Texas 79759
Best, Texas 76932
Veribest, Texas 76886
Kickapoo, Texas 75763
Dime Box, Texas 77853
Old Dime Box, Texas 77853
Telephone, Texas 75488
Telegraph, Texas 76883
Whiteface, Texas 79379
Twitty, Texas 79079

And last but not least, 
Anti-Al Gore City
Kilgore, Texas 75662
And our favorites...
Cut n Shoot, Texas
Gun Barrell City, Texas
Hoop And Holler, Texas
Ding Dong, Texas and, of course,
Muleshoe , Texas

Here are some little known, very interesting facts about Texas .
1. Beaumont to El Paso: 742 miles
2. Beaumont to Chicago: 770 miles
3. El Paso is closer to California than to Dallas
4. World's first rodeo was in Pecos, July 4, 1883.
5. The Flagship Hotel in Galveston is the only hotel in North America built over water.
6. The Heisman Trophy was named after John William Heisman who was the first full-time coach at Rice University in Houston.
7. Brazoria County has more species of birds than any other area in North America.
8. Aransas Wildlife Refuge is the winter home of North America's only remaining flock of whooping cranes.
9. Jalapeno jelly originated in Lake Jackson in 1978.
10. The worst natural disaster in U.S. history was in 1900, caused by a hurricane, in which over 8,000 lives were lost on Galveston Island.
11. The first word spoken from the moon, July 20, 1969, was ' Houston.'
12. King Ranch in South Texas is larger than Rhode Island.
13. Tropical Storm Claudette brought a U.S. rainfall record of 43' in 24 hours in and around Alvin in July of 1979.
14. Texas is the only state to enter the U.S. by TREATY, (known as the Constitution of 1845 by the Republic of Texas to enter the Union) instead of by annexation. This allows the Texas Flag to fly at the same height as the U.S. Flag, and may divide into 5 states.
15. A Live Oak tree near Fulton is estimated to be 1500 years old.
16. Caddo Lake is the only natural lake in the state.
17. Dr Pepper was invented in Waco in 1885. There is no period in Dr Pepper.
18. Texas has had six capital cities: Washington-on- the Brazos, Harrisburg, Galveston, Velasco, West Columbia and Austin.
19. The Capitol Dome in Austin is the only dome in the U.S. which is taller than the Capitol Building in Washington DC (by 7 feet).
20. The name 'Texas' comes from the Hasini Indian word 'tejas' meaning friends. Tejas is not Spanish for Texas.
21. The State Mascot is the Armadillo (an interesting bit of trivia about the armadillo is they always have four babies. They have one egg, which splits into four, and they either have four males or four females).
22. The first domed stadium in the U.S. was the Astrodome in Houston.

Cowboy's Ten Commandments posted on wall at Cross Trails Church in Fairlie, TX: 
(1) Just one God.
(2) Honor yer Ma & Pa.
(3) No telling tales or gossipin'.
(4) Git yourself to Sunday meeting.
(5) Put nothin' before God.
(6) No foolin' around with another fellow's gal.
(7) No killin'.
(8) Watch yer mouth.
(9) Don't take what ain't yers.
(10) Don't be hankerin' for yer buddy's stuff
Now that's kinda plain an' simple don'tcha think.



Carmena Family Gathering, Baton Rouge, La   
Dr. Lucy Cruz Gajec and El Museo Indigenista

Carmena Family Gathering, Baton Rouge, La   
12  April 2008  

Front row L to Rt : Kyle & Jonah Carmena , Boudin(the dog)  Reagan and Chandler George (Carmena), Marina and Wesley Bullock (Carmena),Jamie Veltin (mother of Kyle & Jonah) , Susan Carmena . Back row : Joseph Carmena ,Jimmy (the dog),Stephen Carmena (father of Kyle and Jonah),Kathleen George (Carmena) ,(mother of Reagan and Chandler), Eve Carmena(my wife), Elizabeth Bullock (Carmena) , (mother of Marina and Wesley)and Joseph Carmena III . Missing : Helena Carmena, my youngest daughter, (residing in San Fransisco , Cal.)

 Dr. Lucy Cruz Gajec and El Museo Indigenista

Dear friends: We have heroes/heroines in and out of Uniform, below is one of those in Michigan.

This day marks the passing of one of the most important  and beloved people of our community, Dr. Lucy Cruz Gajec. Had it not been for her dedication to collection of news articles, clippings, historical facts and investigation, books, stories, photos and research into chronicling of the history of Mexicans in Detroit, we would have little knowledge of our history here.  

Dr. Lucy opened her own museum, El Museo Indigenista in order to house home made models of the Aztec Empire, lifesize mannequins wearing regional costumes of all states of Mexico, hand crafts of ceramic, artwork from places she had travelled in Mexico, all manner of collected material which she herself archived and displayed. Hundreds of school children and others lucky enough to know of the existence of the only museum dedicated to our peoples' experience here in Detroit passed through this humble setting on Vernor and Hubbard, by appointment only. Lucy ran the whole operation herself, without government funds, without much outside assistance so that she could do it in her own way.  

Dr. Lucy Cruz Gajec was a dedicated member of our Repatriados Committee and travelled with us to Mexico to the meet with Repatriados who had not returned, in what was to be "El Primero Encuentro de los Mexicanos en la Diaspora." She held up well, travelling around San Luis Potosi, Aguas Calientes meeting with our long lost relatives and friends from whom we were separated by repatriation and deportations during the Great Depression.  

Later, Lucy played the part of an elder repatriada in a play at the Matrix Theatre, "Recuerdos." She accompanied our committee to many speaking events and told her own fascinating story of her life, her experience with repatriation and her journey to Michigan, where she became one of the first Mexican Americans to earn a PhD, lead countless efforts at improving the life of all Latinos in Michigan and stand up for us at every turn.  

It is with deep sadness that I write about Lucy, but with a sense of greater gratitude at having known her, learning from her and sharing moments of her amazing life. In honor of Dr Lucy Cruz Gajec, we continue to struggle to bring our people to higher ground, and document it each step of the way.

 Con todo respeto y amor, Elena

Elena M. Herrada
313 961 0661
Sent by Juan Marinez



System Enslaves Tomato Pickers, Senate Committee Told

by Larry Lipman, The Palm Beach Post (Florida)

April 16, 2008

WASHINGTON - Slavery exists in the tomato fields of Florida, a U.S. Senate committee was told Tuesday.
"Today's form of slavery does not bear the overt nature of pre-Civil War society, but it is nonetheless heinous and reprehensible," Collier County Sheriff's Detective Charlie Frost told Democratic members of the Senate Health, Education, Labor and Pension Committee. No Republicans attended the hearing.
Workers are held in "involuntary servitude" through threats and actual violence against them and their families - often in Latin America - and in a system of "perpetually accruing debt," in which they are overcharged for housing, food, water and transportation, he said.
"Almost certainly, it's going on right now," Frost said.
But Reginald Brown, executive vice president of the Florida Tomato Growers Exchange, disputed the characterization as slavery in the commercial tomato industry. Isolated cases have occurred among private growers, he said.
"Florida's tomato growers abhor and condemn slavery," Brown said. "We are on the same side on this issue."
The Senate hearing focused on the living and working conditions facing thousands of migrant tomato pickers, their rate of pay and the industry's refusal to implement agreements by major restaurant chains to pay workers an additional penny a pound for harvested tomatoes.
Committee members expressed skepticism about the growers' willingness to police their members and said the industry appears to foster low wages and the exploitation of migrant workers.
At the conclusion of the two-hour hearing, Brown reluctantly agreed the exchange would cooperate if the committee requested a Government
Accountability Office study of conditions among tomato workers. But Brown said he could not guarantee that the individual companies in the exchange would cooperate.
Lucas Benitez, a co-founder of the Coalition of Immokalee Workers, told the panel that tomato pickers regularly are abused, harassed, intimidated and kept so deeply in debt that they are virtually in bondage. Benitez said female pickers additionally are subjected to sexual harassment and abuse.
"The seven cases of modern slavery that have been uncovered in the fields of Florida are just the tip of the iceberg," Benitez said, referring to federal cases in the past decade.
Frost, the Collier County detective, said slavery was the same as human trafficking, but that loopholes in state and federal law make it difficult to bring cases against those who benefit from the system.
Brown rejected the claim.
"We are paying fair wages and we're paying our workers fairly," Brown said.
Roy Reyna, a former farmworker who now is the farm manager for Grainger Farms in Immokalee, said he has not witnessed any cases of slavery or forced work during his 25 years in the fields. Reyna said the roughly 100 workers on his farm "choose to work with our company - because we pay them a fair wage, offer very inexpensive housing and treat them with dignity and respect."
Eric Schlosser, an investigative reporter and author of Fast Food Nation, testified he found it "incredible" that slavery exists in 2008.
Schlosser said he believes "there are farmers that are honest and decent, but it's unfair to them to compete with those who are imposing slavery."Sent by Carlos Muñoz, Jr. Ph.D.

Professor Emeritus  
Department of Ethnic Studies  



El Dia de la Madres
Types of Information that are found in Mexican Protocolos
Descendents of Don Giovanni Barbrigo Masaga
Descendents of Don Rodrigo de Mendoza y Pimentel
1st Marquez de Montesclaros  

El Dia de la Madres; 
Mother’s Day in Mier, MX May 2008

By Lauro Garza aka Larry Garza

Mayor Ivan Mancias and Lauro Garza celebrating Mothers Day in Mier, Mexico


Central and greatly loved on the Hispanic calendar of celebrations is Mother’s Day celebrated every May 10th. In the USA it is celebrated every second Sunday in May. We know that everywhere in the world Mothers are loved and respected. It is not in error to say that the meaning of the holiday is much more emotionally intense in Mexico. 

Sometimes the term “Mother” is used for a culture, a people group, a country, homeland, or even an idea. The term is used to communicate the origin or genesis of a person or group. The reason I believe Mother’s Day is so strong among some people groups such as the Hispanics, is that it is a celebration of a culture and origins more than just the individual mother.  

For nine generations all my grandmothers came from a very specific area, Starr County, Texas and the adjacent area across the border, including the cities of Mier, Camargo, and Cerralvo, Mexico. This area was in the Spanish colony of Nuevo Santander for about 300 years, 27 years under Mexico, and 10 years as the Republic of Texas. Mier was the social and political center of the area for about 150 years.



Mothers Day Celebration Mier, Mexico May 2008

Mothers Day 2008 I had a great opportunity to take my wife Linda Olsen mother of four to celebrate and participate as guests of honor of Mayor Ivan Mancias at their city festival. I have mentioned my mother, Delia Arzamendi, and presented her photo in previous articles, so in this article I will make mention of my grandmothers, great-grandmother, and great-great grandmothers who were born in Mier and the surrounding area by their maiden names.

Maria Reyes Canales Born in Mier 1904-1937 Lauro Garza’s (writer) mother’s, mother

Her mother, Lucinda Barrera born 1859 Mier,

Her mother Maria Reyes Garcia born 1820 Mier

Her mother Brigida Ysaguirre born October 17, 1797


Aurora Barrera, Mother of Lauro Garza’s father, his grandmother,

Aurora Barrera born April 11, 1903 San Fordyce, Texas near Mier, died 1997 Rio Grande City, TX;

Her mother Baudilia Hinojosa born May 29, 1877 Mier died 11-09-1930 in Rio Grande City, TX

Her mother was Inez Hinojosa born in Mier, Mexico



Baudilia Hinojosa Great Grandmother of Lauro Garza born in Mier, Mexico  

Types of Information that are found in Mexican Protocolos 

Fondo: Ciudad Metropolitana de Monterrey (segunda epoca)
Seccion de Fondo: Indigenas
Serie: Asuntos diversos
Titulo: Se concede libertad al esclavo mulato Juan de Mendiola.
Fecha: 29/Abr/1651
Fojas: 2
Volumen: 3  Expediente: 1  Folio: 27 V. NO.16

Notas: Descripcion: El Capitan Hernando de Mendiola, vecino del valle de Orozco, jurisdiccion de las Salinas, criador de ganados mayores y menores, "ahorra y da por libre de toda esclavitud" a Juan de Mendiola, mulato, su esclavo, de 28 años, hijo de Mariana, negra portuguesa, su esclava, debiendo gozar dicha libertad "luego que Dios lleve de esta presente vida al dicho capitan", y con obligacion de mandarle decir su esclavo una misa anual, por su anima.

Y lo liberta por que "le ha servido con toda lealtad, ayudandole al multiplico de su hacienda, y cuidando de ella sin hacerle desamparo; antes en occasion forzosa y cuando los indios cercaron la casa y estaban combatiendola para matar a la gente que dentro de ella estaba y robarle cuanto habia, habiendo llegado a la dicha casa y viendolo apear a resistir el combate, Juan de Mendiola, su esclavo, sin reparar a su menor edad y al grande riesgo de la vida en que se ponia, se apeo y lo siguio resistiendo, en defensa del dicho su amo, que ya estaba herido de un flechazo, le dieron al dicho Juan de Mendiola otro, que lo atravesaron, de que estuvo a la muerte; con cuya ayuda ganaron la casa, y, heridos, la defendieron hasta ahuyentar y retirar a los indios; conque todos quedaron libres; por cuyo beneficio y por el mucho amor y voluntad que le tiene ..." Ante el Capitan Gregorio Fernandez, Justicia Mayor y Capitan a Guerra, y Juan de Abrego, Secretario.

Testigos el Capitan Pablo Sanchez, Bartolome de Montes de Oca y Juan de Mendiola, "hijo natural del dicho capitan Hernando de Mendiola".

Fondo: Ciudad Metropolitana de Monterrey (segunda epoca)
Seccion de Fondo: Testamentos y Herencias
Serie: Intestados
Titulo: Pleito sobre testament
Fecha: 25/Feb/1690  
Fojas: 3    Coleccion: PROTOCOLOS  Volumen: 4  Expediente: 1  Folio: 122 NO 53

Notas:  Descripcion: Los Capitanes Alonso y Nicolas de Treviño, los alfereces Melchor y Baltasar de Treviño, y el Alferez Jeronimo Cantu como hijo de Juliana de Treviño, hermana de estos, hijos, ella y sus cuatro hermanos, y herederos del Capitan Alonso de Treviño en su primer matrimonio con Anastasia Gonzalez; y, por otra parte, el Capitan Nicolas Gutierrez de Lara, Manuel Perez de Oropeza y Antonio Ruiz, como maridos de doña Clara, doña Maria y doña Anastasia, y el Alferez Gonzalo de Treviño, hermano de ellas, en su nombre y en el de los herederos de Gaspar de Treviño, su hermano, hijos todos del mismo Capitan Alonso de Treviño en sus segundas nupcias con doña Mayor de Renteria, se desisten y apartan del pleito entre una y otra familia, sobre particion de 32 sitios de ganado menor, medidos por el Sargento Mayor Lucas Cabalero. Los hijos del segundo matrimonio renuncian a cinco de las dieciseis sitios que les corresponden, "quedando todas las partes pobladas en los sitios y tierras en que estan los unos y los otros, sin hacer mudanza... quedando el dicho capitan Alonso de Treviño en la parte que hoy tiene en su hacienda y a los lindes, que se tienen señalados entre el contenido y Gonzalo de Treviño, su hermano, rio arriba, hasta la junta de Manulique, con advertencia que se le ha de quedar al dicho Alonso de Treviño el puesto de su hacienda del Carrizal." Ante don Pedro Fernandez de la Ventoza, Caballero de la Orden de Santiago, Gobernador y Capitan General. Testigos Cristobal de Leon y Marcos Flores.

Fondo: Ciudad Metropolitana de Monterrey (segunda epoca)
Seccion de Fondo: Fundaciones
Serie: Misiones y pueblos de indios
Titulo: Fundacion de una capellania.
Fecha: 30/Mar/1691
Fojas: 4  Coleccion: PROTOCOLOS  Volumen: 4  Expediente: 1  Folio: 133 NO 58

Notas: Descripcion: Doña Maria Gonzalez Hidalgo, con licencia del General Martin de Mendiondo, su marido, Teniente de Gobernador y de Capitan General de este Reino, hace fundacion de una capellania, bajo las clausulas siguientes.

Primera: señala las cosas "que se componen de nueve cuartos, con una huerta cercada de adobes, con otra sala con su dormitorio, a lindes de dicha casa, que esta en la calle principal, que sale a la plaza de esta ciudad, enfrente de la casa del licenciado Jose Guajardo, cura beneficiado desta ciudad". Su valor es de 4,000 pesos y arrojan de renta 200 pesos al año. Los capellanes la poseeran despues de muerta la otorgante, reparandola o arrendandola, sin venderla. Segunda: los capellanes diran 50 misas, una cada semana, mas cuatro cantadas, en el altar de San Miguel de la parroquial, por el alma de don Pedro de la Rosa Salinas, primer marido de la otorgante. Ambos otorgantes son patronos. Nombran por primer capellan a Ventura Mendez Tovar y, por su orden, a Miguel Leal o al primero de sus sobrinos que se ordenare, hijo del Alferez Bartolome Gonzalez. Ella quedara en su casa, pagando 200 pesos al año, hasta su muerte. Ante don Pedro Fernandez de la Ventoza, Caballero de la Orden de Santiago, Gobernador y Capitan General. Testigos el Capitan Marcos Gonzalez Hidalgo, Lucas Gonzalez Hidalgo y Juan Bautista Chapa. De asistencia don Agustin de Ortega y Manuel de Mendoza.

Fondo: Ciudad Metropolitana de Monterrey (segunda epoca)
Seccion de Fondo: Testamentos y Herencias
Serie: Testamentos
Titulo: Se dictan clausulas testamentarias.
Fojas: 4  Coleccion: PROTOCOLOS  Volumen: 4 Expediente: 1 Folio: 145 NO 60

Notas: Descripcion: Alonso de Leon, hijo del General Alonso de Leon y de Agustina Cantu, dicta los clausulas testamentarias que le comunico su padre, en la forma siguiente. Primera: que en el molino de pan de la hacienda de Nuestra Señora de Regla no tienen parte los herederos de Juan Cantu, cuñado del General, pues aunque lo instalo en compañia, no puso nada; y solo le moleran el trigo a la viuda, mientras viva. Segunda: que la capellania impuesta sobre las casas de Monclova sea perpetua, a 20 reales por misa, diciendose en las fiestas de Encarnacion, apariciones de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe, y las demas a voluntad del Capellan, que lo sera el bachiller Lorenzo Perez de Leon, presbitero; y que se nombra por patrona a doña Agustina. Ella es tambien nombrada tutora de Juana y Mateo, menores. Los demas son mayores de 25 años. Ante el Alferez Juan de la Mancha, Teniente de Alcalde Mayor del valle del Pilon. Testigos Pedro Garcia de Avila, Juan Angel Fernandez de Jauregui y Jose Felipe de Quintanilla. De asistencia Miguel Navo y Nicolas Lopez Prieto. Concluye con la aceptacion de la tutela por doña Agustin Cantu.


The Descendents of

Don Giovanni Barbrigo Masaga

Compiled by John D. Inclan  

 Generation No. 1

1. GIOVANNI1 BARBRIGO-MASAGA was born abt. 1650 in Venice, Duchey of Milan, Italy. He married CATALINA POSCOLO. She was born abt. 1650 in Venice, Duchey of Milan, Italy.

Notes for GIOVANNI BARBRIGO-MASAGA:  A.K.A. Juan Barbarigo.