Somos Primos

108th Online Issue

Mimi Lozano ©2000-8

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research

Joe Martinez, center, is surrounded by family members 
at Christmas, around 2002 or 2003

The photo was published October 18, 2008 as part of the 
Orange County Register's Hispanic Heritage Month Series. 
The article was included in the November issue of Somos Primos. 

For more stories of the OC Register Series in this issue, click Southwestern US .


Table of Content Areas

United States 
National Issues
Action Item
Bilingual Education

Anti-Spanish Legends
Hispanic Heritage Month

Military & Law Enforcement Heroes
Patriots of American Revolution


Orange County,CA
Los Angeles,CA

Southwestern US 

East of Mississippi


Family History

SHHAR 2009 Meetings 


Quote for the Month:

"If your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, 
do more and become more, you are a leade

...John Quincy Adams....

Letters to the Editor:

Mimi, will you suggest to your readers 
that they send a Christmas card to:
A Recovering American Soldier
c/o Walter Reed Army Medical  Center
6900 Georgia Avenue, NW
Washington, D.C. 20307-5001

Something that Xerox is doing….
If you go to this web site, you can pick out a thank you card and Xerox will print it and it will be sent to a soldier that is currently serving in Iraq . You can't pick out who gets it, but it will go to some member of the armed services.
Jack Cowan

Bill Carmena

Somos Primos Staff:

Mimi Lozano, Editor

Mercy Bautista Olvera
Bill Carmena
Lila Guzman
Granville Hough, Ph.D.
John Inclan
Galal Kernahan
J.V. Martinez
Dorinda Moreno
Michael Perez
Rafael Ojeda
Ángel Custodio Rebollo
Tony Santiago
John P. Schmal
Howard Shorr 
Ted Vincent
Ricardo Valverde

Contributors to the December Issue:

Fredrick Aguirre
Odie Arambula
Dan Arellano
Armando A. Ayala, Ph.D.
John Arvizu
Ruben Barron
Mercy Bautista Olvera
Eric Beerman, Ph.D.
Jaime Cader
Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.
Bill Carmena
Dolores Contreras Austin
Juvencio Farias
Hal Fowler.
Virgil Fernandez
Lorri Frain
Olga Nella Gallegos
James E. Garcia
Mary Garcia
Dr. Jaime G. Gomez, MD
Eddie Hernandez
Sergio Hernandez
Jack Holtzman, Ph.D.

Granville Hough, Ph.D.
John Inclan 
Larry Kirkpatrick
Rick Leal
Jan Mallet
Juan Marinez
Joe Martinez, Ph.D.
Nolo Martinez, Ph.D.
Rosa E. Morales
Dorinda Moreno 
Carlos Munoz, Ph.D.
Victor Nelson
Maria Angeles Olson
Rafael Ojeda
Felipe de Ortego y Gasca
Willis Papillion
Jose Maria Pena
Richard Perry
Manuel Quinones,Jr.
Candace Quijas 
Xavier Quijas Yxayotl 
Juan Ramos, Ph.D.
Angel Custodio Rebollo 

Armando Rendon, Ph.D.
Pascual Pat Rivas, Jr.
Catherine Robles Shaw
Jose Leon Robles De La Torre
Alfonso Rodriguez
Rudi Rodriguez 
Ben Romero
Tony Santiago
Richard G. Santos
John Schmal
Mary Seaborn
Robert Smith
Dorina Thomas
Ricardo Valverde
Connie Vasquez
Rosemary Vasquez-Tuthill
Jose Pepe Villarino 
Kirk Whisler
Ted Vincent
Rogelio Zapata Garibay 

SHHAR Board: 

Bea Armenta Dever, Gloria Cortinas Oliver, Steven Hernandez,  Mimi Lozano Holtzman, Pat Lozano, Yolanda Magdaleno, Henry Marquez,  Michael Perez, Crispin Rendon, Viola Rodriguez Sadler, John P. Schmal, Tomas Saenz


The First Black President of the United States: A letter to Our Children 
Juliet V. Garcia, University of Texas at Brownsville President named to Obama's team
Eduardo Diaz Named New Head of Smithsonian Latino Center
Esperanza “Hope” Andrade, 107th Secretary of the Great State of Texas
California State University, Fullerton (CSUF)  
Isabel Gonzalez, the Hispanic “Rosa Parks” 
National Hispanic Cultural Center Exhibit: The Manila Trade, 1565-1815
American Pastorela: The Road to the White House 
Maria Elena Marques, Actress
Latino Public Broadcasting Announces the results of the 10th Annual 2008 Open Call


A letter to Our Children

By Eddie Martinez

November 5, 2008  

To all Our Family:  

Mom and I looked out of our window this morning to see the first falling snow of the winter season. Yesterday morning we saw a beautiful sunrise, then we turned on the TV and spent the entire day watching the final outcome of the presidential election. We were very proud and happy when Barack Obama won the election. This brought back memories.  

In 1952, our principal, Mrs. Marian Wagstaff took Joyce Euing and me to Philadelphia to receive the Freedoms Foundation Award. On the trip we visited New York and Washington D.C. While touring the nations capital, our host, a refined black woman and Mrs. Wagstaff decided to take Joyce and me to lunch on the Mall. As we approached the restaurant, a worker from inside came running to block the door and said to us without expression, “Sorry, we don’t serve N------ here.” Our host was outraged; I didn’t know what to do or say. I looked at Joyce’s face and then looked at Mrs. Wagstaff. She had a pleasant smile and kindly said to out host, come dear, will find another restaurant. Years later in 1976, Mom and I were invited by Dr. Marian Wagstaff to attend a special event in her honor in Pasadena, CA. When she spoke at that event, she told the story I described above and finished by pointing me out that I had been there, at our nation’s capital.  

Another event that comes to mind is while I was working at NBC in mid-1960. One day, I was working on the set of the Bill Cosby Show, I saw Bill Cosby walk onto the set. He looked around and said, “I don’t see any black faces,” and with that he walked off. Everyone panicked; they all quickly ran all over NBC looking for black people. They brought in janitors and commissary workers. They supplied them with clipboards, headphones, and even put some of them behind the television cameras. After that, they brought Bill Cosby back to the set; he looked around and said, “Okay, lets start shooting.” Cosby in his single act broke the union’s color barrier in Television and the Motion Picture industry.

Mom reminded me that we have witnessed in our lifetime, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, president during World War II; John Kennedy, president during The Civil Rights for Black Americans; and the president-elect Barack Obama, the nations first Black President.  

Proud of our Children and Grandchildren, and Proud to be an American!  

Love, Mom & Dad


Editor:  I asked Eddie how he had been selected for such a special honor and he sent the following: 

Below are my recollections of Willowbrook Jr. High School days and how and why Joyce and I were chosen to go to Valley Forge:

In 1950, Our school principal, Mrs. Marian Wagstaff made a presentation to the Freedoms Foundation Directors describing our motto,  “The Willowbrook Way,” showcasing the American multi-ethnicity, school activities and educational achievements. In 1951, the Foundation’s Jury selected Willowbrook along with 39 other schools to receive it’s award.

In 1951 Mrs. Wagstaff and Student Body President, Warner Davis (an African-American) went on an all-expense trip to Valley Forge to participate in a “Freedom Pilgrimage” along with other award-winning schools. They spent two days in the Valley Forge area visiting historic sites.  

My senior year at Willowbrook - In 1951, Joyce Euing (an African-American) was elected first semester Student Body President, and in 1952, I was elected second semester Student Body President. That year, the Freedoms Foundations once again selected Willowbrook to be a recipient of the award (because of Mrs. Wagstaff’s dedicated efforts). The trip’s expenses only covered one student and one teacher. So the question became, who should go to Valley Forge, Joyce or I.

The faculty decided that the school should vote to chose between us. The teachers voted for Joyce, a four-year honor student. The students voted for me, in spite of my grades. It was a stale mate. So Mrs. Wagstaff wrote a letter to the Foundation explaining our situation. They wrote back saying that other schools had a similar situation, so the Foundation extended the trip to include a second student. So, in the long run, Joyce and I both got to go.
Along with that, Mrs. Wagstaff proposed to extend our trip to include New York City and Washington DC, plus expenses. The School Board approved Mrs. Wagstaff’s proposal.

Our host Lady was an African-American.  She was a personal friend of Mrs. Wagstaff. I don’t remember her or her husband’s name (It was 57 years ago.) During our visit to Washington D.C., we were guests in their home.  She was the one who drove us about in our tour of the capital and the many Museums. She and her husband, I believe he was an attorney, were a well respected in Washington D.C.

Dr. Marian Wagstaff was the most wonderful person I ever meet in my life. If it wasn’t for her I don’t think I would have had the courage, persistence, or self pride to accomplice what I have during my lifetime.

Thank you,

Garcia on Obama’s team 
by Emma Perez-Trevino, The Brownsville Herald
2008 Nov 06; Section: Front Page; Page Number: A1    

President-elect Barack Obama has tapped University of Texas at Brownsville and Texas Southmost College President Juliet V. Garcia to his transition team.

   “I consider public service to be our highest calling; so I am greatly honored to have been invited to take part in the historic transition of our young democracy,” Garcia said in a written statement to The Brownsville Herald.

   The future of the Rio Grande Valley under Obama and Vice-President elect Joe Biden Jr. bodes well, political pundits said.  Brownsville native Federico F. Peña, former U.S. secretary of transportation and energy and former Denver mayor, was national co-chair of Obama’s campaign.

   And now Garcia, the first Mexican-American to head a four-year U.S. university, will be one of the president-elect’s advisors as the presidency transitions from President George W. Bush to Obama.  “That shows you that they are seeing South Texas,” Cameron County Democratic Party Chairman Gilberto Hinojosa said.  “They see Texas as a real, real important factor,” said Hinojosa who anticipates that his would translate to appointments and more funding.

 UTB-TSC’s Jose Bocanegra, who lectures on American political institutions and economic and public policy, said that Garcia, “will be an advocate for the area.”  Obama and Garcia have met. He visited the campus in February during his campaign, meeting with faith-based groups and then students. Also that day, Obama took a detour, surprising revelers at the annual Sombrero Festival.  Garcia’s husband Oscar Garcia was simply a proud man Wednesday.  “I think it is wonderful, just wonderful. I feel very proud of her, very, very proud,” Oscar Garcia said.

   He said that the development had been completely unexpected.  “Someone called from Washington and she said she would have to ask her boss and they said it would be a wonderful opportunity,” Oscar Garcia said of the UT system board of regents. She will be traveling to Washington D.C. soon.   

Sent by JV Martinez
and Juan Marinez

Biographical information on Pres. Juliet V. Garcia, sent by Rafael Ojeda.




Eduardo Diaz Named New Head of Smithsonian Latino Center

By Robin Pogrebin, The New York Times

Eduardo Díaz, the executive director of the National Hispanic Cultural Center in Albuquerque, N.M., has been named director of the Smithsonian Latino Center, the Smithsonian said on Thursday. Mr. Díaz, who will start the job Dec. 8, replaces Pilar O’Leary, who resigned in February after revelations that she had charged the office for personal expenses like salon, spa and gift shop purchases, solicited free tickets for the Latin Grammy Awards and stayed in four- and five-star hotels while traveling for business. In his current position, which he has held since 2005, Mr. Díaz has overseen what is reputedly the largest Latino cultural center in the United States, a division of New Mexico’s Department of Cultural Affairs. Daniel E. Sheehy, director of Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, has served as acting director since February.  Source: Latinos in The Industry 11.11.2008



Esperanza “Hope” Andrade

107th Secretary of the Great State of Texas


Hispanic Heritage Center of Texas
Contact: Rudi Rodriguez (210) 673-3584
(San Antonio, Texas) November 11, 2008 – The Board of Directors of the Hispanic Heritage Center of Texas is both pleased and proud to announce its first-ever public event, a luncheon and ceremony in honor of the 107th Secretary of the Great State of Texas, San Antonio’s Esperanza “Hope” Andrade.

This event will be held on Tuesday, Nov. 25, beginning at 11:30am at the John B. and Nellie B.Connally Conference Center at University of Texas at San Antonio’s Institute of Texan Cultures. “The Secretary has always been a dynamic force in our community,” says Chairman and President Rudi R. Rodriguez. “Like many of her supporters here in our city, we wanted to do what was right and honor her not only for her appointment into her new post, but for all of her accomplishments to date and all of her accomplishments sure to come. We at the Hispanic Heritage Center cannot think of a better example for our state than Hope Andrade.”

Mr. Rodriguez will serve as the emcee for the event, which will include an introduction of Ms. Andrade by former Secretary of State, Mr. Roy Barrera, Sr.  “One of the main tenants of the Hispanic Heritage Center of Texas is the acknowledgement of where we come from … our history,” explains Rodriguez. “With that in mind, we could think of no better person to introduce the first Hispanic female Secretary of State than the first Hispanic Secretary of State, Mr. Barrera.”

This event is by invitation only. For more information on the event or the Hispanic Heritage Center of Texas, please call (210) 673-3584.
Rudi Rodriguez (210) 673-3584


California State University, Fullerton (CSUF)

Currently across the U.S., for every 10 Hispanic children who enter kindergarten, only one will graduate from college. That has got to change. And it will.
It has already been changing for decades at California State University, Fullerton (CSUF),  The steadily rising 2008-2009 enrollment (which began the 2008-2009 academic year with 36,996 students) is already 28.13% Latino. And the trend? The Freshman Class is 37.13% Latino.
And that didn't just happen. CSUF starts early. It reaches down into the secondary and elementary schools in its service area. It supports, encourages and partners in college preparatory schooling. It defers to and cultivates parents and extended families. It welcomes them on campus. It makes sure its faculty and staff represent the diversity of the community. It is not by accident that the university presents a friendly face. . .and friendly faces..    
CSUF  takes seriously its status as a federally designated Hispanic Serving Institution (HSI). It is Number One in Latino baccalaureate degree completion in California. It is Fifth in the U.S.  And notice is being taken throughout the Nation and  beyond.
The Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities (HACU) elected CSUF President Dr. Milton Gordon its Chairman at its 22nd Annual Conference in Denver last summer, HACU represents 464 colleges and universities that are committed to Hispanic higher education success in the U.S., Puerto Rico, Latin America, Spain and Portugal.
CSUF accomplishments in the advancement of Latino higher education are reviewed for the each September by President Gordon


Isabel Gonzalez, the Hispanic “Rosa Parks” 
Tony (The Marine) Santiago


Most of us know that on December 1, 1955 Rosa Parks refused to obey a bus driver’s order that she give up her seat to make room for a white passenger. Yet, I bet that most of us are unaware that in 1902, there was a Hispanic woman who refused to be intimidated by our Government, who questioned her dignity and honor and who fought mot only for women’s rights, but for the rights of all Puerto Ricans to be recognized as United States citizens.     

Isabel Gonzalez, was a young, pregnant, single Puerto Rican mother who in 1906, set sail aboard the S.S. Philadelphia from San Juan to New York, with the intention of getting together with her family and marrying her fiancé who lived there.  While the ''S.S. Philadelphia'' was en route, the United States Treasury Department's Immigration Commissioner General F. P. Sargent issued new immigration guidelines that changed Gonzalez's and her fellow countrymen's status. These guidelines were within the racist atmosphere persistent in the United States at the time which permitted the passage of the “Chinese Exclusion Act” and the “Jim Crow Laws”. Gonzalez and the others were deemed aliens and upon her arrival on August 24, 1902 and were transferred to and detained in Ellis Island. Not only was Gonzalez detained because she was now an "alien", but her dignity was questioned and she and her children were labeled "public charge" because she was unmarried. 

Gonzalez, our "Rosa Parks", stood her ground, despite the fact that she only spoke Spanish, refused to be intimidated and took on the United States Government. From the detainment center in Ellis Island she fought for her honor. She had the option of giving up on  her quest, because during a "break" in her hearings, she married her fiancé and therefore she could legally enter the U.S., however she decided to keep her marriage a secret and then focused her fight for the right of all Puerto Ricans to U.S. citizenship. 

Her struggle caught the attention of the media of the time and of various prominent lawyers who took up her cause. Among her lawyers was Federico Degetau the first Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico, who had been an advocate of U.S. citizenship for Puerto Ricans and who saw in Isabel Gonzalez a fountain of inspiration. The final outcome of the case which became known as "Gonzalez vs. Williams" fell short of recognizing that Puerto Ricans were U.S. citizens, but was a giant leap towards the Jones-Shafroth Act of 1917 which finally granted said citizenship to all Puerto Ricans. 

Isabel Gonzalez, stood up not only for own dignity, but for the dignity and rights of f all the women in this country. She fought for her fellow countryman because she believed that they were discriminated against and that they deserved to be recognized as U. S. citizens. She shouldn't have fallen into the cracks of history and been forgotten and deserves to be recognized as the “Hispanic Rosa Parks” for her courage. She should be included among our Hispanic illustrious women and her story must be told and should be included in our history books.  

Here is the story of Isabel Gonzalez:  

Isabel Gonzalez (born c. 1882) was a young, pregnant, single Puerto Rican mother who helped pave the way for Puerto Ricans to be given United States citizenship, by challenging the Government of the United States in the groundbreaking case ''Gonzales v. Williams'', 192 U.S. 1 (1904) after immigration authorities derailed her plans to find and marry the father of her unborn child by excluding her as an alien "likely to become a public charge." It was the first time that the Court confronted the citizenship status of inhabitants of territories acquired by the United States during its deliberate turn toward imperialism in the late nineteenth century.


                 Situation in Puerto Rico pre-1904  

Under the terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1898 which was  ratified on December 10, 1898, Puerto Rico was annexed by the United States. Spain had lost its last colony in the western hemisphere and the United States gained imperial strength and global presence. The United States established a military government which acted as both head of the army of occupation and administrator of civil affairs.  Almost immediately, the United States began the "Americanization" process of Puerto Rico. The U.S. occupation brought about a total change in Puerto Rico's economy and polity and did not apply democratic principles in their colony. Puerto Rico was classified as an "unincorporated territory" which meant that the protections of the United States Constitution did not automatically apply because the island belonged to the U.S., but was not part of the U.S.    

On January 15, 1899, the military government changed the name of Puerto Rico to Porto Rico (On May 17, 1932 U.S. Congress changed the name back to "Puerto Rico") and the island's currency was changed from the Puerto Rican peso to the American dollar integrating the island's currency into the U.S. monetary system. The United States exerted their control over the economy of the island by prohibiting Puerto Rico from negotiating commercial treaties with other nations, from determining tariffs, and from shipping goods to the mainland on other than U.S. carriers.  

       Opposition to U.S. Citizenship for Puerto Ricans  

There were various factors which contributed to the opposition of giving United States Citizenship to Puerto Ricans by the Government of the United States. The U.S. Congress was reluctant to fully incorporate Puerto Rico because its population was deemed racially and socially inferior to that of the mainland. In 1899, U.S. Senator George Frisbie Hoar described Puerto Ricans as: ''uneducated, simple-minded and harmless people who were only interested in wine, women, music and dancing''  

Prior to 1898 the United States had organized new acquisitions from nontribal governments into largely self-governing territories as a prelude to statehood and had generally extended broad constitutional protections and U.S. citizenship to free, nontribal residents. After 1898 this process changed and in Puerto Rico, Congress established a centrally controlled administration and declined to recognize Puerto Ricans as U.S. citizens.  

In the ''Downes v. Bidwell'' case of 1901, the U.S. Supreme Court acknowledged that the U.S. Constitution functioned differently in Puerto Rico than on the mainland. Justice Edward Douglass White  introduced the concept of unincorporated territorial and reasoned that unlike prior territories, Puerto Rico had not been incorporated by Congress or by treaty into the U.S. union. It was thus "foreign to the United States in a domestic sense", that is, foreign for domestic law purposes, but also part of the United States under international law. The decision permitted the establishment of unequal, undemocratic polities in such territories, did not demand that those territories eventually be incorporated, and granted wide latitude to Congress and the executive in structuring those polities.  

                          González travels to New York City  


                           The SS “Philadelphia” was once the USS “Yale”                             which participated in the invasion of Puerto Rico  

Gonzalez was born and raised in Puerto Rico when the island was still a Spanish possession. She was a native inhabitant of Puerto Rico and a Spanish subject, though not of the Peninsula (Spain). She was residing in the island on April 11, 1899, the date of the proclamation of the Treaty of Paris of 1898 which ceded the island to the United States. One of the conditions of the treaty was the transfer by cession the allegiance of the islanders to the United States. Gonzalez was a citizen of Puerto Rico, but not of the United States even though the island was governed by that nation.  

Gonzalez's fiancé left Puerto Rico for New York City in 1902, leaving her pregnant and with another child from a previous marriage (she was a widow) behind. He went with the intention of finding a job in a factory in Linoleumville, Staten Island, in the neighborhood where Isabel's brother, Luis González worked. Gonzalez was to join him there and they were to marry after he settled down.  

In the summer of 1902, Gonzalez boarded the S.S. Philadelphia, a steamship which departed from San Juan, Puerto Rico with New York City as its destination. She telegrammed her family about her expected arrival which normally would be the docks of New York, however while the ''S.S. Philadelphia'' was en route, the United States Treasury Department's Immigration Commissioner General F. P. Sargent issued new immigration guidelines that changed Gonzalez's and her fellow countrymen's status. Gonzalez and the others arrived on August 24, 1902 and were transferred to Ellis Island.  

The new commissioner of immigration at Ellis Island was William Williams, a former Wall Street lawyer. He was aggressively construing the statutory bar on aliens "likely to become a public charge" and he was strictly enforcing immigration laws. Williams directed inspectors to treat aliens as suspect if they traveled with less than ten dollars. He also instructed his inspectors to attach the label of "public charge" to unmarried mothers and their children, even though most of them had jobs waiting for them. Ellis Island policy dictated that "unmarried pregnant women were always detained for further investigation" and that single women were only released if family members came to claim them.  

Gonzalez was detained by the Immigration Commissioner at that port as an "alien immigrant", in order that she might be returned to Puerto Rico if it appeared that she was likely to become a public charge. Gonzalez had eleven dollars in cash on her person and her family was to pick her up, however the immigration officials discovered her pregnancy during her early line inspection and a Board of Special Inquiry opened a file (note: her surname was later misspelled as "Gonzales" by immigration officials) on her.  

                                   Board hearings  

A hearing was held the next day and Gonzalez's uncle, Domingo Collazo, and her brother, Luis González, joined her (her fiancé was not permitted to miss his job). During the hearings the family focused on the question of preserving Gonzalez's honor and bringing her to New York. Inspectors weighed proof of legitimate family relations through presumptions that certain kinds of women were inadequate mothers and certain kinds of men were insufficient fathers and husbands. Williams stated:  

"It will be a very easy matter to fill up this country rapidly with immigrants upon whom responsibility for the proper bringing up of their offspring sits lightly, but it cannot be claimed that this will enure to the benefit of the American people."  

Two days later, without the help from the father of Isabel Gonzalez's expected child, another attempt was made by Gonzalez's brother and by Domingo Collazo's wife, Hermina Collazo. The family insisted that Gonzalez would not be a burden to the State's Welfare system since they had the economic means to support her. When these attempts failed, Collazo used his political and professional connections. In the 1890s Collazo had been active in a radical wing of the Cuban Revolutionary Party that sought an Antillean social revolution to improve the status of workers and people of African descent. He had attended meetings with Antillean activists Arturo Alfonso Schomburg and Rosendo Rodríguez. Collazo swore a habeas corpus petition for Gonzalez. During this time, a friend of Gonzalez related the story to Orrel A. Parker, a lawyer. His partner,  Charles E. Le Barbier became interested in the case and filed Collazo's petition with the U.S. Circuit Court for the Southern District of New York. Seven weeks later, the court issued its opinion. The court ruled that the petitioner was an alien and upheld her exclusion.  

 United States Supreme Court: ''Gonzales v. Williams''  

On August 30, 1902, Federico Degetau an expert in international law and the first Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico to the United States House of Representatives, unaware of the Gonzalez situation, wrote to the Secretary of State in protest of the new rules that made Puerto Ricans subject to immigration laws. His protest was forwarded to the Treasury Department. Degetau then contacted Le Barbier and Parker, who informed him that they planned to appeal Gonzalez's case to the Supreme Court.  

Once she lost her administrative appeal, Gonzalez switched tactics. She decided to appeal and to take her case to the United States Supreme Court, however this time instead of focusing on the "public charge" issue, she decided to take up the issue that all Puerto Ricans were citizens of the United States and as such should not be detained, treated as aliens and denied entry into the United States.  

Degetau saw in the case of Isabel Gonzalez, the perfect "test case" because now it would not be about whether immigration inspectors, following guidelines suffused with concepts of race and gender, deemed Isabel Gonzalez and her family desirable. The case now would be about settling the status of all the native islanders who were in existence at the time the Spanish possessions were annexed by the United States. By February 16, 1903, Frederic René Coudert, Jr., an international-law attorney from New York, who launched the ''Downes v. Bidwell'' case for clients protesting tariffs levied on goods shipped between Puerto Rico and the United States, joined Paul Fuller, Charles E. LeBarbier and Degetau in the Gonzalez case as a collaborator.  

The case, which became known as ''Gonzales v. Williams'', was argued in the U.S. Supreme Court on December 4 and 7, 1903 and was presided by Chief Justice Melville Weston Fuller. The case sparked the administrative, legal, and media discussions about the status of Puerto Ricans. The  colonial administration to issues of immigration and to U.S. doctrines in the treatment of U.S. citizens, chiefly women and people of color (dark skinned), as dependent and unequal were discussed. Gonzalez and her lawyers moved among the legal realms, aided by shared languages of race, gender, and morality, while the U.S. solicitor general Henry M. Hoyt, focused on what he considered were failed parents, rearing children outside moral, economically self-sufficient homes. 

Gonzalez, who was out on bond, secretly married her fiancé and thus became "a citizen of this country through marriage," and acquired the right to remain stateside. She could have ended her appeal, but instead she decided to press her claim that all Puerto Ricans were U.S. citizens.    

On January 4, 1904, the Court determined that under the immigration laws González was not an alien, and therefore could not be denied entry into New York. The court, however declined to declare that she was a U.S. citizen. The question of the citizenship status of the inhabitants of the new island territories, their situation remained confusing, ambiguous, and contested. Puerto Ricans came to be known as something in between: "noncitizen nationals."  



                       Cover of ''The San Juan News'' announcing the

               Supreme Court decision in the Isabel Gonzalez case of 1904  

Isabel Gonzalez, stayed in New York with her husband and children. She actively pursued the cause of U.S. citizenship for all Puerto Ricans because she believed that if the people of Puerto Rico were deceived out of one honorable status—Spanish citizenship—the United States was obliged to extend Puerto Ricans a new honorable status—U.S. citizenship. She wrote and published letters in the New York Times that the decision and surrounding events of her case revealed that the United States failed to treat Puerto Ricans honorably, breaking promises to them and marking them as inferior to "full-fledged American citizens". Gonzalez wrote the following:  

"Gen. Miles (Nelson A. Miles) went to Porto Rico to save us, and proclaimed to the wide winds his 'liberating' speech." But instead of U.S. citizenship, Puerto Ricans got "the actual [current] incongruous status—'neither Americans nor foreigners,' as it was vouchsafed by the United States Supreme Court apropos of my detention at Ellis Island for the crime of being an 'alien.'"  

Federico Degetau traveled to Washington, D.C., as Puerto Rico’s first "Resident Commissioner," or nonvoting representative. He dedicated himself to the struggle to gain U.S. citizenship for all Puerto Ricans.  

Frederic René Coudert, Jr. became a member of the State Senate from 1939 to 1946 and was elected as a Republican to the Eightieth and to the five succeeding United States Congresses (January 3, 1947 - January 3, 1959; was not a candidate for the 86th Congress).  

In 1917, Congress passed the Jones-Shafroth Act which conferred United States citizenship on all citizens of Puerto Rico and allowed conscription (military draft) to be extended to the island. The act, which was signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson on March 2, 1917, also revised the system of the government in Puerto Rico.




Albuquerque, NM – The National Hispanic Cultural Center (NHCC) is proud to announce the opening of a new historical exhibit entitled “Nao de China: The Manila Trade, 1565 – 1815” on Saturday, November 8 in the Center’s History & Literary Arts building. The NHCC is located at 1701 4th St. SW on the corner of 4th St. and Bridge Blvd. The opening will take place at 2 pm, is free to the public and authentic Filipino and Mexican refreshments will be provided. In attendance to inaugurate the exhibit will be the Consul General of Mexico in Albuquerque, the Honorable Gustavo de Unanue Aguirre and the Consul General of the Philippines in Los Angeles, the Honorable Mary Jo Bernardo de Aragón.

From 1565 to approximately 1815 there existed a lucrative trade between Spanish merchants and traders in the Philippine Islands using Acapulco and Veracruz ports in Mexico as transshipment points and using Guam as a rest stop on the long voyage across the sea. Since the Philippines had been a center of trade between China and other Asian countries like Siam and India for hundreds of years, even including major trade with Islamic peoples, the Spanish encountered many items that contained different cultural accoutrements. Thus, the ships that sailed from Spain to Veracruz then from Acapulco to the Philippine archipelago brought back to Mexico items of trade, as well as people, which over time became a part of the Mexican folklore tradition.

This exhibit examines some of these Mexican traditions and traces them to the trade that took place with the Philippines, especially through the port of Manila. Such Mexican icons as la China poblana, majólica pottery, papel de china, etc. are examined and their roots traced to the Manila trade which employed large galleon ships called “Naos” to transport merchandise and people. Thus, the title: “Nao de China: The Manila Trade, 1565 – 1815.” This exhibit will remain on view through May 30, 2009 and will be accompanied by a series of lectures and public presentations that will be announced at a later date.

“This exhibit attempts to illustrate the cultural exchanges that took place between the Philippines and Mexico over the two and a half centuries

of interaction through the Manila Galleon trade that affected both Mexico and the archipelago -- much more than it did Spain. This is true in respect to products as well as human contact over time,” says exhibit curator and director of the NHCC History and Literary Arts program, Carlos Vásquez. He adds, “It is also an opportunity to interact with New Mexico’s Filipino community.” Among the sponsors of the exhibit are the National Filipino Foundation and the National

Filipino Historical Society.

The National Hispanic Cultural Center is dedicated to the preservation and promotion of Hispanic arts and culture at the state, national and international levels. The NHCC is a division of the Department of Cultural Affairs. For additional information on all NHCC programs call (505) 246-2261 or visit 

Contacts: Danny López Carlos Vásquez
Marketing Director History Director
505.246.2261 ext 120 505.246.2261 ext 123 

Sent by Roberto Calderon

American Pastorela: The Road to the White House

New Carpa Theater Co. 

Luis Avila as Bartolo de Los Angeles 
Quintana Wong Smith, the curandero

Amanda Scharr as Angel  
Photos by Phil Soto

Mayra Amaya as Faustina, left, and Ricky Chilaca as El Diable, right

New Carpa Theater Co. presents American Pastorela: The Road to the White House, written by James E. Garcia and directed by Alan Penny, Playhouse on the Park.

Performance dates, Dec. 12, 13, 18, 19, 20, 7:30 p.m., Dec. 13, 14, 20, 21, matinee. 
This play is satire loosely based on the 500-year-old cycle plays introduced by Spanish missionaries. This adaptation was written by James E. Garcia is updated annually to reflect current events. If all the writers for Saturday Night Live were Latino, this would be their Christmas show.

Starring John Tang as Bartolo de Los Angeles Quintana Wong Smith.
American Pastorela: The Road to the White House is a hilariously satirical take on the nativity story. When the Hernandez family in Sonora hears the news of the birth of the baby Jesus, they set off on foot to Phoenix to catch the light rail to Bethlehem. Guided by Bartolo, a curandero (faith healer) who talks to God through his I-Phone, the Hernandez family encounters an odd array of characters along the way, including twin brothers Monty and Harry Dystal, La Diabla (that’s right, Satin’s a chick), Barack Obama, Sarah Palin, John McCain and those irrepressible Clintons. This year’s trip includes a stopover in the nation’s capital for the inauguration. 

The show also features cameo appearances by local personalities, including Catherine Anaya, Gerardo Higginson, Alfredo Gutierrez, Danny Ortega, Bob Hope, Soupy Sales, Vincent Price, Jon Stewart, Peter Pan, Santa, Waldo, Dale Carnegie and more… 

Tickets available at or by calling 602-254-2151, press 4 to get the box office.  Contact No.: James E. Garcia, 602-460-1374, cell  

Dec. 12-21, 2008
American Pastorela: The Road to the White House 
Written by James E. Garcia and directed by Alan Penny

Truth life testimonials we made up….

My cousin Beto said… “It made me feel weird and lightheaded, but I liked it anyway. If only it was in stereo.”

My tia Chencha calls it… “The funniest show since that one I saw on Univision with that guy doing that thing with a you know what.”

My landscaper Bruce exclaimed…“It made me exclaim, but I cleaned it up.”

NEW CARPA THEATER’s Upcoming Productions….

April 10-19, 2009
Voices of Valor by James E. Garcia
Playhouse on the Park
1850 N. Central Ave. (Palm and Central Ave)
Phoenix, AZ
Voices of Valor was inspired by the oral histories of Latino and Latinas who served during WWII. Based on more than 500 interviews conducted by researchers across the nation. Tickets available (This play premiered at ASU’s Gammage Auditorium and at the Performing Arts Center in Austin 2006.) Tickets available at or 602-254-2151, press 4

July 20-Aug. 6, 2009
Amexica: Tales from the Fourth World by James E. Garcia
Playhouse on the Park
1850 N. Central Ave. (Palm and Central Ave)
Phoenix, AZ
Amexica: Tales from the Fourth World. Told by his adoptive parents only that he was born somewhere along the U.S.-Mexico border, Alberto, an aspiring poet, sets aside his plans to attend graduate school and instead decides to walk from San Diego Bay to the Gulf of Mexico in search of his cultural and family roots. His quest, however, inadvertently sparks a revolution as millions in the region become convinced they are neither fully American nor Mexican and begin demanding their independence. Amexica ponders the promise of a new meztizo society and a clash of cultures in the face of fierce resistance by nationalists north and south of the border, and their allies across throughout the hemisphere.

Coming in 2009… (Date and location to be announced)
The Mighty Vandals by James E. Garcia
The story of the 1951 championship Mighty Vandals high school basketball team. Three years before the U.S. Supreme Court ended racial segregation in the public schools, a team of predominantly Mexican American teens living in Miami, Arizona goes undefeated and clinches the state championship. The Southeastern Arizona mining town of Miami is the kind of place that people usually leave if they expect to make it big. Not in 1951.

New Carpa Theater (formerly Colores Actors-Writers Workshop) was founded in 2002 by James E. Garcia. The company incorporated in 2006 and is launching its second full season. The company focuses on Latino and multicultural theater works. Our recent productions include Mr. Ambassador: The Life and Times of Raul H. Castro (Playhouse on the Park, 2008); Por Amor/For Love: An Operachi in One Act, (Herberger Theater Center, Second Stage West & Playhouse on the Park, 2008); Dream Act (Playhouse on the Park, 2008), A Mother’s Will (SMCC, 2007), American Pastorela: The Shepherds’ Odyssey (Playhouse On The Park, 2007 / Mesa Arts Center, 2006), and Voices of Valor (ASU Gammage and UT-Austin, 2006.)

For more information about New Carpa Theater, contact: James E. Garcia / Contact Phone: 602-460-1374, or visit

New Carpa Theater is supported in part by the City of Phoenix, Arizona Commission on the Arts, Maricopa Community College District, Phoenix College , the Arizona Latino Research Enterprise, ASU Center for Community Development and Civil Right and people like you.

Maria Elena Marques

Mexican actress was in 'The Pearl'

Maria Elena Marques, 83, a Mexican actress who starred in the 1947 movie "The Pearl," died of heart failure Tuesday, her family announced in Mexico City.

Marques played the long-suffering wife of a fisherman who finds a beautiful but ill-fated pearl in the film based on a book by John Steinbeck.

The film, directed by Emilio Fernandez, won a Golden Globe award for the luminous cinematography of Gabriel Figueroa.

One of the few surviving stars of Mexico 's "Golden Age" of movies of the 1940s and early 1950’s; Marques also appeared in the 1943 movie "Doña Barbara" alongside actress Maria Felix. She later played Native American roles in two U.S. films, "Across the Wide Missouri" (1951), opposite Clark Gable, and "Ambush at Tomahawk Gap" (1953).

-- times staff and wire reports


El Siglo de Torreon Newspaper:

La primera actriz María Elena Marqués Rangel falleció la noche del martes a los 82 años de edad.

La primera actriz María Elena Marqués Rangel falleció la noche del martes a los 82 años de edad. María Elena Marqués Rangel es recordada por la frase: “Uno nace con la belleza que Dios le da y muere con la que merece”. Amigos y familiares se despidieron de la actriz. Deja legado cinematográfico. Marqués Rangel actuó en más de 100 películas, al lado de artistas de renombre internacional.

La primera actriz María Elena Marqués Rangel, consagrada en la Época de Oro del Cine Mexicano y galardonada con un Globo de Oro y con el título de Mejor Actriz en la Bienal de Venecia, en Italia, por la película La Perla (1946), dejó de existir la noche del martes a los 82 años de edad víctima de un paro cardíaco.

Recordada por la frase: “Uno nace con la belleza que Dios le da y muere con la que merece”, Marqués Rangel actuó en más de 100 películas, al lado de artistas de renombre internacional.

La actriz, quien nació el 14 de diciembre de 1925 en la Ciudad de México y murió acompañada de sus retoños Marisela y Miguel Torruco, fue hija de Gabriel Marqués y María Rangel.

La artista fue descubierta al mundo del espectáculo por el director Fernando de Fuentes, quien un día al llegar a su casa la vio, pues era su vecino y quedó fascinado con su belleza, por lo que tuvo que rogarle a sus padres para que la dejaran hacerle una prueba.

Debutó en el cine en 1942 en la película Dos Corazones y un Tango, con el tanguista argentino Andrés Falgás. Aunque su carrera tomó un impulso definitivo al año siguiente, a partir de su intervención al lado de la actriz María Félix, en Doña Bárbara, en la cual dio vida a “Marisela”.

Después tuvo oportunidad de trabajar en Hollywood y en México alternó con las grandes figuras de los años 40 y 50, como Jorge Negrete, Mario Moreno “Cantinflas”, Arturo de Córdova y Pedro Armendáriz, en una trayectoria artística de más de tres décadas.

Participó en más de un centenar de películas, por las que fue reconocida como una de las grandes estrellas de la Época de Oro del Cine Mexicano, al tomar parte en títulos como: Así se Quiere en Jalisco (1942), Romeo y Julieta (1943) y La Trepadora (1944).

Además de Carita de Cielo (1946), La Negra Angustias (1949), Tal para Cual (1952), Las Manzanas de Dorotea (1956), Una Noche Bajo la Tormenta (1966), Las Bestias Jóvenes (1969), El Jardín de los Cerezos (1977) y El Testamento (1979).

Así como en Cuando Levanta la Niebla (1952) al lado de Emilio “El Indio” Fernández, quien cambió la imagen de la actriz, pues anteriormente se presentaba como una dama joven en las comedias rancheras de Jorge Negrete.

También fue una destacada actriz de televisión, al participar en Un Amor en la Sombra (1960), Las Momias de Guanajuato (1962), La Mesera (1963), México 1900 (1964), Amor y Orgullo (1966), Duelo de Pasiones (1968), Lo que no Fue (1969) y El Carruaje (1972), entre otros.

Marqués también fue pionera de la televisión y tuvo una participación importante en la radio de la segunda mitad del Siglo XX. Trabajó en 15 radionovelas y 30 programas para la emisora XEW; actuó en 20 teleteatros, 10 telenovelas, además de destacar en el ámbito teatral.

Entre sus últimos trabajos como actriz se pueden citar Entre dos Amores (1972), la teleserie El Honorable Señor Valdés (1973), El Jardín de los Cerezos (1978) y El Testamento (1981).

La primera actriz incursionó además en la política nacional, ámbito en el que fue diputada federal. Se retiró de la industria fílmica a finales de los años 70 por el rumbo que tomó la producción de aquella época.

Su activismo la llevó a ocupar una curul en la 50 Legislatura del Congreso Federal, a últimas fechas se desempeñó como presidenta de Jubilaciones de la Asociación Nacional de Actores (ANDA).

Se casó con el actor Miguel Torruco, aunque el matrimonio duró poco ya que él falleció el 22 de abril de 1956 de un infarto. La pareja procreó dos hijos, Marisela y Miguel Torruco Marqués, dedicado a la industria de los hoteles y el turismo en México.

Deja huella

La primera actriz María Elena Marqués Rangel, fue cremada ayer miércoles. Sus restos fueron depositados posteriormente en el Panteón Jardín, al lado de los de su esposo, el también actor Miguel Torruco.

En entrevista, el hijo de la actriz, Miguel Torruco Marqués, habló sobre los últimos días de su madre y las actividades en las que se desempeñaba, ya que dijo, ella siempre pregonaba que “el trabajo honra y dignifica a las personas”.

Comentó que afortunadamente su madre vivió una vida plena, llena de satisfacciones, y aunque estaba retirada del cine, la actriz seguía activa como presidenta del área de jubilaciones de la Asociación Nacional de Actores (ANDA).

Asimismo, indicó que hacía otro tipo de actuaciones especiales, por lo que Torruco exaltó que su madre era una mujer trabajadora, lo cual les queda como legado a él y a su hermana Marisela, quienes tendrán que aplicarlo en las distintas actividades que desempeñan, ya que ambos decidieron no incursionar en el terreno de la actuación.

“Mi madre nos dejó el legado de ser responsables y trabajadores, tanto en casa como en la vida profesional y de esta forma honraremos el apellido Torruco Marqués”, señaló.

Destacó que ella se encontraba muy orgullosa por la sólida carrera que forjó, en la que participó en más de 100 películas y además fue reconocida con el Globo de Oro que otorgan los críticos de Nueva York, así como en la Bienal de Venecia, en Italia, por la película La Perla, que fue traducida en varios idiomas.

Torruco subrayó que los últimos días de su madre estuvieron llenos de amor y tranquilidad, aunque hace varios que comenzó a sentirse mal y el martes se fue, víctima de un paro cardíaco. El cuerpo de la actriz fue velado en una agencia funeraria ubicada al sur de esta capital. Debido a la gran admiración que María Elena tenía por el actor Clark Gable, se colocó una foto al costado del féretro, junto con otros destacados como Jorge Negrete y María Félix


A continuación algunas de las películas en las que actuó María Elena y los personajes que encarnó en éstas:

-La Llorona - “Luisa del Carmen”.
-Así era Pancho Villa - “Jesusita”.
-Reportaje - “Gabriela”.
-La Perla - “Juana”.
-Me he de Comer esa Tuna - “Carmela”.
-¡Me ha Besado un Hombre! - “Luisa Montes”.
-La Trepadora - “Victoria”.
-Las Dos Huérfanas - “Enriqueta Gérard”.
-Doña Bárbara - “Marisela”.
-Cinco Fueron Escogidos (coproducción con Estados Unidos) - “Anna”.
-La Razón de la Culpa - “Blanca”.
-Así se Quiere en Jalisco - “Lupe Rosales”.
-Romeo y Julieta - “Julieta”.
-Más de 100 películas contaron con su talento como actriz.
-30 programas hizo para la XEW.
-20 teleteatros tuvieron a María Elena entre su elenco.

Sent by Mercy Bautista Olvera





Final Selection Awards Sixteen Projects for Funding

Latino Public Broadcasting (LPB), a non-profit organization funded by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, announced its tenth annual Open Call newly funded programs. The funding initiative invites independent producers to submit proposals for funding on Latino-themed programs or series.
"We salute this outstanding group of producers, including a record number of women, who bring us compelling projects from Texas to California, from Puerto Rico to El Salvador. By covering a wide range of issues and documentary genres that convey the richness and diversity of the Latino experience, these stories will capture the imagination of a broad national audience," said Patricia Boero, Executive Director, LPB.
Every year LPB invites independent filmmakers to submit proposals in various stages, from research and development, to production, post-production and outreach. All proposals are reviewed by a selected group of public television professionals, local stations programmers, independent filmmakers, academics, and executives from other funding organizations.
This year sixteen (16) proposals were selected for funding. Emerging filmmakers comprise 42% of total funded producers; mid-level producers make up 42%; veteran filmmakers constitute 16%. As far as funding history, 62% of awarded programs have never been funded by Latino Public Broadcasting before - a direct result of an extensive outreach program for independent filmmakers throughout the nation.
The funding category breakdown is as follows: Research and Development - 19%; Production - 44%; Post-production - 31% and Outreach - 6%. The final slate of programs represents filmmakers from different regions within the U.S. including Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Texas, New York and California.
The 2008 awarded projects (alphabetically) are as follows:
Animas Perdidas
Producer: Monika Navarro
Category: Post-Production
1 Episode/60 Minutes
A one hour documentary that tells the filmmaker's personal journey to explore transnational identity, as she follows her recently deported uncle in Mexico, who had spent most of his life in the U.S. and served honorably in the U.S. Navy.
Beautiful Sin
Producer: Gabriela Quiros
Category: Post-Production
1 Episode/60 Minutes
A one hour documentary that follows three infertile couples in Costa Rica as they cope with the country's unique ban on in vitro fertilization (IVF).
Cruz Reynoso: A Man for all Seasons
Producer: Abby Ginzberg
Category: Production
1 Episode/60 Minutes
A one hour documentary that chronicles the life and work of Cruz Reynoso, including his commitment and struggle for equality and justice, working in the fields as a youth and presiding on the California Supreme Court.
A Death in Mexico
Producer: Xochitl Dorsey
Category: Production
1 Episode/60 Minutes
A one hour documentary that examines the circumstances that led to the tragic death of Brad Will, an American video journalist, during the 2006 civil unrest in Oaxaca, Mexico.

¿Donde Estan? The Disappeared Children of El Salvador
Producers: Maria Teresa Rodriguez/Katherine Pyle
Category: Production
1 Episode/60 Minutes
A documentary about three children, now adults, who were separated from their families during the Salvadoran civil war and now search to reclaim their lost identities.

Give Us Your Retired, Your Rich, Your Americans
Producer: Anayansi Prado
Category: Production
1 Episode/60 Minutes
A one hour documentary exploring American retirees who are moving to Panama, and the social, economic and environmental impact and challenges of that reverse migration.
Las Marthas
Producer: Cristina Ibarra
Category: Research and Development
1 Episode/60 Minutes
A documentary about bi-cultural teenage debutantes staging their border interpretation of the Mount Vernon colonial pageantry in Laredo, Texas, to honor George Washington.
Latin Music USA
Producer: WGBH/Elizabeth Dean/Adriana Bosch
Category: Post-Production
4 Episodes/60 Minutes
From Latin Jazz to Salsa to Tejano and Latin Pop, this four-hour series tells the story of the rise of new American music forged from powerful Latin roots and explores the influence of Latin music in jazz, hip hop, rhythm and blues and rock and roll.


Making Viva Max
Director/Producer: Jim Mendiola/Faith Radle
Category: Production
1 Episode/60 Minutes
The story of how a big Hollywood movie, Viva Max, invades a sleepy Texas town for a few weeks, and the unintended social change that resulted.
Mariachi High
Producer: Ilana Trachtman
Category: Production
1 Episode/60 Minutes
This film tells the story of growing up Mexican American, by capturing a year in the lives of four teenagers who form part of a competitive high school mariachi band.
Mexican Pipe Dream
Producer: David Ruiz Marquez
Category: Research and Development
1 Episode/90 Minutes
The story of one man's quest to overcome the hardships of his troubled youth in order to follow his dream of becoming one of the world's most respected big wave surfers.
New Muslim Cool
Producer: Jennifer Maytorena Taylor
Category: Outreach
1 Episode/60 Minutes
A one hour documentary that follows a Puerto Rican-American Muslim hip-hop artist and his family facing life in post-9/11 America.

Now en Español
Producer: Andrea Meller
Category: Research and Development
1 Episode/90 Minutes
The film follows the lives of five dynamic women who dub Desperate Housewives into Spanish, and chronicles the ups and downs of being a Latina actress in Hollywood.

Our Women, Our Struggle
Producer: Melissa Montero
Category: Post-Production
1 Episode/60 Minutes
A documentary that chronicles the lives of three women, Isabel Rosado, Lolita Lebron, and Dylcia Pagan, who dedicated their lives to Puerto Rican independence.
The Third Root
Producer: Reed Rickert
Category: Post-Production
1 Episode/90 Minutes
A feature length documentary that follows Mexican guitarist Camilo Nu on a journey to discover the rich cultures embodied in the under-recognized roots of Mexican music.
Two Trinities
Producer: Sandra Guardado
Category: Production
1 Episode/60 Minutes
The film follows Ole Anthony and the Trinity Foundation in their quest to expose televangelists who prey on the poor and desperate using the lure of a "heavenly lottery".


For more information please visit
Kirk Whisler
Hispanic Marketing 101


voice: (760) 434-1223
Latino Print Network overall: 760-434-7474


Cartoon: La Cucaracha tribute to Latino vets
Pew Hispanic Center Releases 2007 National Survey of Latinos Dataset
A Notable Absence at Hearing on Latinos in Government
Significiaqnt Latino Underrepresentation on Census Staff
Current stats on immigrants in our Military Armed Forces 
Alberta Zepeda Snid, labor and education activist
Filipino Immigrants in the United States
Migraciones en el mundo contemporáneo presenta:  “Dying to live / Morir para vivir”

Sent by Armando Rendon -219-9139


Pew Hispanic Center Releases 2007 National Survey of Latinos Dataset

WASHINGTON - The Pew Hispanic Center today released the 2007 National Survey of Latinos (NSL07) dataset. The NSL07 was conducted in October and November of 2007, and produced a nationally representative sample of 2,000 Latino adults. Interviews were conducted in Spanish and English, and respondents were reached both via landline telephones and cellular phones.

Topics covered in the survey include: perceptions and experiences of discrimination; attitudes about the enforcement of immigration laws; the effects of increased attention to illegal immigration; fears of deportation; attitudes towards immigrants; and the 2008 presidential race.
The dataset is available for download on the Center's website at
Pew Hispanic Center, an initiative of the Pew Research Center, is a non-partisan, non-advocacy research organization based in Washington, D.C. and is funded by The Pew Charitable Trusts.
Contact: Mary Seaborn   202-419-3606
Advisory  November 20, 2008





A Notable Absence at Hearing on Latinos in Government
By Joe Davidson
Friday, October 24, 2008; D03

The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission hearing on Hispanic federal employment yesterday was almost over when someone noticed the elephant in, or more precisely, not in the room.

That elephant "is the absence of the Office of Personnel Management in these discussions," said Commissioner Stuart J. Ishimaru.

The lack of an OPM presence marks just one scene in a larger drama involving a strained relationship between the two agencies and OPM's approach to getting more Hispanics in government.

Given their numbers in the general population, Hispanics and the disabled are less represented in the federal workplace than other groups, according to the EEOC. Only about 7.8 percent of the workplace is Hispanic.

Participants at the hearing explored that discrepancy and discussed ways to promote increased employment of Hispanics. Many of those methods are outlined in a report the EEOC issued by its Hispanic work group. Thirteen agencies were represented on that work group, but OPM -- the agency responsible for overall federal hiring and employment issues -- wasn't.

An EEOC spokeswoman said the commission did inform OPM about the workgroup, but received no response. OPM said it was not invited.

That tit-for-tat obscures a larger issue -- the ongoing tension between the two agencies.

"There's no evidence that there's a working relationship that's fruitful," Ishimaru said in an interview.

OPM has not "fully embraced diversity and inclusion in the federal government," Naomi C. Earp, chairman of the EEOC, complained after the hearing.

OPM is all for diversity, said Susan Bryant, the personnel office's chief spokesperson, adding: "There are merit principles that say you can't favor one group over another." Except veterans, of course, whose preference is written into law.

Furthermore, Bryant noted, OPM chairs the President's Interagency Taskforce on Hispanic Employment in Federal Government.

A major bone of contention is the collection of demographic data that would allow the EEOC to track federal employment -- by race, gender and ethnic group -- from the application stage to retirement.

OPM, Earp said, wants to supply numbers in "such categories that it's useless for our purposes."

Said Bryant: "We have been very generous in sharing workforce data of a number of types, and much data is online."

The differences between the agencies reflect a different culture, mindset, certainly different missions. OPM focuses on the nuts and bolts of federal employment, such as streamlining the hiring process, while the EEOC is charged with ending employment discrimination. How well either agency meets its mandate is another issue, but their tasks sometimes conflict.

The lack of OPM cooperation isn't limited to the EEOC. When the Partnership for Public Service invited OPM to work with the good government group on a Hispanic hiring tool kit, the agency declined, Sarah F. Jaggar, a senior adviser at the partnership, told the hearing.

Again merit principles were cited. The first principle does indeed speak to merit. However, it also says recruitment should "endeavor to achieve a work force from all segments of society." The report shows that the Latino segment of the workforce is too small.

One tool that has disappeared from federal employment efforts is affirmative action. The term wasn't mentioned at the hearing, not even by those who seem to favor the concept but can no longer bring themselves to utter its name.

Yet how will the gap in Hispanic employment close if even the notion of setting goals is off limits in today's legal climate? Current efforts simply are not working very fast. Less than 9 percent of the permanent government hires between July 1, 2006, and June 30, 2007, were Hispanic, according to the report.

After the hearing, John M. Palguta, the partnership's vice president for policy, pointed to a 1997 Merit Systems Protection Board report that indicates how times have changed in the government's approach to addressing imbalances in the federal workplace.

"The federal government must do more than simply attempt to eliminate overt discrimination if it is to significantly increase the representation of Hispanics in the federal government," it said. "To achieve the goal of a workforce representative of all segments of society, therefore, federal agencies must pay special attention to all of the barriers to Hispanic employment."

Contact Joe Davidson at
Sent by Juan Ramos

Significant Latino Underrepresentation on Census Staff Remains Unresolved Issue

The Census Bureau has one of the poorest records of Latino hiring in the Federal government today. Less than 6 percent of Census staff is Latino and there is currently no plan in effect to address this serious problem just as the Bureau is poised to hire over 700,000 temporary employees this coming year to conduct the 2010 Census. 

Latino advocates are currently working with the Census Bureau to develop a plan to more aggressively and systematically increase the hiring of Latinos at all levels and offices of the Bureau. The establishment of a special task force and other proposals are being presented to Census for adoption to address this problem. It is hope that such a plan will be put in place by the end of this year.
In a related development, stressing the need to attract and retain Hispanic workers in the federal sector, a group of federal officials issued a report containing recommendations designed to increase the share of Hispanic employees in the federal workforce. The Federal Hispanic Work Group, which was led by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) and the Social Security Administration, released its report, titled
Report On The Hispanic Employment Challenge In The Federal Government, on October 23, 2008.

Source: Latino Census Network eNewsletter - Nov 9, 2008 via NILP

Current stats on immigrants in our Military Armed Forces
Sent by Rafael Ojeda, Tacoma,WA


Alberta Zepeda Snid, labor and education activist, was born on the west side of San Antonio on April 8, 1919, one of the five daughters of Cirilia Méndez and Pedro Zepeda. Pedro Zepeda was an agricultural laborer. The Zepeda family migrated south to the Río Grande Valley and as far north as Michigan and Illinois to pick cotton, corn, strawberries, and other crops. Cirilia Méndez Zepeda, her daughters, and occasionally Pedro Zepeda also worked as pecan shellers at the Zarzamora Street plant in San Antonio. Pedro, Cirilia, Concepción, and Alberta Zepeda participated in the three-month pecan-shellers' strikeqv that began on January 31, 1938. Along with other strikers, the Zepeda family was arrested and jailed for one or two days. Alberta Snid later told her children that the strikers sang the whole time that they were in jail. After the strike, Alberta Zepeda returned to work at the factory. 

Alberta Zepeda first married Santos Adame. Their son, Lawrence or Lorenzo, was born in 1941. Following the dissolution of this marriage, Alberta Zepeda married Joseph Sneed. Sneed, born in San Antonio on August 23, 1915, had grown up on the city's east side. He worked for the U.S. Treasury Department and later for himself as a television repairman. Sneed, a guitarist and pianist, performed jazz,qv blues,qv and popular Mexican songs both in local clubs and on tour as far away as Chicago. During the 1940s and 1950s, black-owned music clubs in San Antonio provided rare spaces for interracial socializing, despite police harassment.

The marriage of Alberta Zepeda, who was "Latin American" and thus "white" under Texas law, and Joseph or José Sneed, a "Negro," violated the Texas anti-miscegenation statute. The couple married in a civil ceremony in Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas. Years later they celebrated their marriage as a sacrament in St. Gabriel's Catholic Church in San Antonio although the Texas anti-miscegenation statute remained in force. 

Alberta and José had four children: José Alberto, Catalina, Angelina, and Selina. Although José, Sr., was born with the name S-N-E-E-D, he and Alberta Hispanicized the spelling of the family name to S-N-I-D. By 1962 the family lived in the Edgewood School District. Alberta was a catechist and very involved in St. Gabriel's Catholic Church. Religious classes (CCD) from St. Gabriel would often take place in the Snids' shady yard in the days before the church had classrooms. Alberta Zepeda Snid made clothing for her children from flour sacks. She was a Cub Scout mother and active in the PTAs at Stafford Elementary, Escobar Junior High School, and Edgewood High School, which her children attended. 

José Snid, Sr. died on June 16, 1967, by drowning, possibly after being beaten. Four days earlier in Loving v. Virginia, the U.S. Supreme Court had struck the Virginia anti-miscegenation statute, deeming all such laws unconstitutional. Bexar County, however, still refused to recognize the Snids' marriage, initially refusing to release José Snid, Sr.'s, remains to Alberta Snid. 

Alberta Snid had been widowed less than a year on May 16, 1968, when students walked out of Edgewood High School. Her son, José Alberto, was in ninth grade at Edgewood. Snid helped organize the Edgewood parents. Alberta and her children José Alberto, Catalina, Angelina, and Selina became plaintiffs in Rodríguez, et al. v. San Antonio ISD;qv Lorenzo was a soldier by that time. Alberta Snid was the only single woman named as a plaintiff. From about 1970 to 1977, Alberta Snid worked for the Mexican American Unity Council (MAUC) where she was a mental health outreach worker. Within MAUC Snid advocated for the rights of women employees and against changes in the organization's priorities and practices. She participated in a strike against MAUC and helped feed co-workers who quit or were fired during the dispute. Alberta Zepeda Snid died on November 22, 1994. She is buried next to her husband, José Snid, in the San Fernando Cemetery #2, in San Antonio, and was survived by her five children and several grandchildren. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Richard Croxdale and Melissa Hield, eds., Women in the Texas Work Force: Yesterday and Today, (Austin: People's History in Texas, 1979). Arnoldo De León, Mexican Americans in Texas: A Brief History (Arlington Heights, Illinois: Harlan Davidson, 1993). Virginia Raymond, Mexican Americans Write Toward Justice in Texas, 1973–1982 (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, 2007). Alberta Zepeda Snid, Interview by María Flores and Glenn Scott, Transcription, People History in Texas Records, 1976–2005, Center for American History, University of Texas at Austin. José Alberto Zepeda Snid, Telephone Interview by Virginia Raymond, March 25, 2008.

Virginia Raymond

The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article. NOTE: ("s.v." stands for sub verbo, "under the word.")
Source: Handbook of Texas Online, s.v. "," (accessed October 3, 2008).   

Filipino Immigrants in the United States
By Aaron Terrazas
Migration Policy Institute: 

There were 1.6 million foreign born from the Philippines residing in the US in 2006

The 1960 census counted 104,843 Filipino immigrants, a number that increased 15.6 times to 1,638,413 Filipino immigrants in 2006. The Filipino born were the second-largest foreign-born group in the United States in 2006 after immigrants from Mexico.
Table 1. Total and Filipino Foreign-Born Populations, 1960 to 2006
Year Foreign born Filipino born
Rank(a) Share of all foreign born Number
1960 9,738,091 20 1.1% 104,843
1970 9,619,302 11 1.9% 184,842
1980 14,079,906 7 3.6% 501,440
1990 19,797,316 2 4.6% 912,674
2000 31,107,889 2 4.4% 1,369,070
2006 37,547,315 2 4.4% 1,638,413
Notes: a Rank refers to the position of the Filipino born relative to other immigrant groups in terms of size of the population residing in the United States in a given census year.
Source: Data for 2000 from the 2000 census; data for 2006 from the American Community Survey 2006. Data for earlier decades from Gibson, Campbell, and Emily Lennon, US Census Bureau (Working Paper No. 29, Historical Census Statistics on the Foreign-Born Population of the United States: 1850 to 1990, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999). Available online.
Related Articles:
•The Philippines' Culture of Migration
•Labor Export as Government Policy: The Case of the Philippines
•World Migration Map: Philippines
•How Remittances Help Migrant Families
•A New Surge of Interest in Migration and Development  
Sent by Rafael Ojeda


Ciclo de cine Migraciones en el mundo contemporáneo presenta:
“Dying to live / Morir para vivir”

Me permito presentarme, mi nombre es Rogelio Zapata Garibay, soy estudiante del programa de Doctorado en Ciencias Sociales de El Colegio de la Frontera Norte (COLEF) en Tijuana, Baja California México. Le escribo a nombre propio y de mi compañero, Jesús Eduardo González Fagoaga, quienes estamos interesados en el fenómeno migratorio y coordinamos un Ciclo de cine-debate al que hemos denominado “Migraciones en el mundo contemporáneo”. El objetivo del ciclo de cine es ofrecer un acercamiento cinematográfico y de video al fenómeno migratorio, mostrar la complejidad del mismo y las diferentes aristas que lo componen.
Creemos que una muy buena forma de sensibilizar al público no con el tema mediante la utilización de la imagen y el video. Tenemos más de un año con este proyecto y hemos presentado doce trabajos que abordan diferentes temáticas del fenómeno migratorio. Realizamos las presentaciones en forma mensual en la sala de video del Centro Cultural Tijuana y hemos tenido una respuesta muy favorable del público.
Nos interesa dar difusión a los trabajos de realizadores que están comprometidos con la denuncia de la odisea que viven millones de inmigrantes y buscan sensibilizar sobre las vicisitudes a que se ven forzados quienes hacen de la migración internacional una estrategia de sobrevivencia.
Al mismo tiempo nos interesa que realizadores preocupados en dar a conocer su trabajo conozcan el espacio que tenemos disponible para ello. Le comento que también hemos tenido mucho apoyo por parte de estos y reconocen este espacio como una plataforma de difusión de sus proyectos. Por este medio han accedido a realizar presentaciones de sus trabajos en otros foros de difusión y denuncia.
Nos permitimos enviarle información relativa a nuestra próxima presentación,
Sin otro asunto en particular más que agradecer sus atenciones, se repiten a sus órdenes:
Rogelio Zapata Garibay
Jesús Eduardo González Fagoaga
Candidatos a Doctor en Ciencias Sociales
El Colegio de la Frontera Norte.
Carretera Escénica Tijuana-Ensenada km. 18.5
San Antonio del Mar Tijuana, B.C.
(664)631-6300 ext. 5523






"Never doubt that a small group of 
thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world;
indeed, it's the only thing that ever has."
Margaret Mead



A Killing in a Town Where Latinos Sense Hate
By Kirk Semple, November 14, 2008
Photo: Gordon M. Grant for The New York Times


Caren Cajamarca, 9, of Patchogue, N.Y., at a memorial near the site of the fatal stabbing of Marcelo Lucero last Saturday night. Prosecutors call it a hate crime.

The stabbing of an Ecuadorean laborer has brought accusations of anti-immigrant hostility to a comfortable village in Suffolk County.

PATCHOGUE, N.Y. - It was an occasional diversion among a certain crowd at Patchogue-Medford High School, students said: Drink a few beers, then go looking for people to mug, whether for money or just for kicks.

Friends of Jeffrey Conroy, a star athlete at the school, say he was known to do it, too. And last Saturday night, after drinking in a park in the Long Island hamlet of Medford, Mr. Conroy, 17, and six other teena gers declared that they were going to attack "a Mexican" and headed to the more ethnically diverse village of Patchogue to hunt, according to friends and the authorities.

They found their target in Marcelo Lucero, a serious-minded, 37-year-old immigrant from a poor village in Ecuador who had lived in the Unite d States for 16 years, mostly in Patchogue, and worked in a dry cleaning store, sending savings home to support his mother, a cancer survivor.

After the boys surrounded, taunted and punched Mr. Lucero, the authorities say, Mr. Conroy plunged a knife into his victim's chest, fatally wounding him.

The attack has horrified and puzzled many in this comfortable Suffolk County village of 11,700. Prosecutors have labeled it a hate crime and County Executive Steve Levy called the defendants, who have pleaded not guilty, "white supremacists." And some immigrant advocates on Long Island have described the attack as a reflection of widespread anti-Latino sentiment and racial intolerance in Suffolk County.

Interviews with business owners, students, government officials and immigrants in the area suggest that illegal immigration has been a wellspring for anger and tension in the neighborhood, with day laborers drawing the greatest fire. Indeed, a number of people - adults and students alike - drew sharp distinctions between assimilated immigrants, who they said should be welcomed as friends and neighbors, and newly arrived illegal immigrants, who they said do not belong.

"No disrespect here, but I'm a firm believer that if you want to come to this country, you should have a job waiting for you," said the co-o wner of the Medford Shooting Range, who gave only his first name, Charlie, and is known by the nickname Charlie Range.

He said he was offended by the behavior of some day laborers - throwing trash in the street, urinating in the bushes, hooting at passing women - and complained that illegal immigrants were crowding rental apartments and swelling the ranks of criminal gangs.

"How do you stop the illegal alien influx?" he wondered aloud. "How do you stop the rain?"

Thousands of immigrants from Latin America have flowed into Long Island in the past two decades, attracted by employment opportun ities, particularly in the construction industry, which until recently was booming. Patchogue's Latino population has risen sharply during this time, village officia ls say, with Ecuadoreans now being the single largest Latino group.

According to the 2000 census, Latinos were 24 percent of Patchogue's population, up from 14 percent in 1990, and government officials say the percentage has continued to grow. In just the past five years, the Latino student population of the Patchogue-Medford School District has risen to 24 percent from about 4 percent, said Michael H. Mostow, the district's superintendent.

Anti-immigrant hostility has led to several highly publicized attacks in recent years in Suffolk County, including the near-death beating of two Mexican day laborers in 2001 and the burning of a Mexican family's house in 2003,20both in the nearby town of Farmingville.

Immigrant advocates have accused some local politicians, particularly Mr. Le vy, of helping to fuel anti-immigrant sentiment by promoting tough policies against illegal immigration. But Mr. Levy said this week that the attack on Mr. Lucero "wasn't a question of any county policy or legislation; it was a question of bad people doing horrific things."

For all the parsing of motives and rationales in the case, many Latino immigrants here describe Suffolk County as a place where daily life can be a struggle for acceptance in a predominantly white population, particularly in this time of economic crisis. Rocio Ponce, a Brentwood resident and real-estate agent from Ecuador, said that many residents had developed a hatred against recent Latino immigrants "because they think they' re coming to take their jobs."

Latinos say the attack against Mr. Lucero, if not his murder, was foretold. Some report being threatened and physically harassed in the streets, with bottles thrown at them and their car windows smashed during the night. Anti-immigrant epithets and racially motivated bullying are common in the hallways of the schools, children say.

"They tell us to go get a green card, 'Go back to your community!' " said Pamela Guncay, 14, an Ecuadorean-American born in the United States.

Many Latinos, particularly those who are here illegally, say they would never report such incidents because they do not trust the police and fear deportation.

"We're here to work, we're not here to do any damage," pleaded César Angamarca, 45, who rents a room in a small house where Mr. Lucero lived. "We're working honorably."

Friends of Mr. Conroy and the other suspects insisted that the defendants were not racist and said they were shocked that a frivolous escapade by bored, drunken teenagers had quickly turned tragic. They pointed out that one of the defendants, José Pacheco, 17, is the son of an African-American mother and a Puerto Rican father, and that Mr. Conroy counted Latino and black classmates among his closest buddies.

"They were good kids," said Sean Ruga, 19, who graduated from the high school in 2006 and remained friends with the defendants. "It's not something I could see them capable of doing."

Mr. Pacheco's uncle, Jerry Dumas, said his nephew was with the group because he was looking for a ride home and would not have knowingly joined an attack against a Latino, especially considering his ethnic heritage. He also said that Mr. Pacheco's parents had themselves been apparent victims of violent racism: When they moved into the Patchogue area in the early 1990s, Mr. Dumas said, their house was burned down twice.

Mr. Conroy was the best known of the defendants and, according to prosecutors, the leader of the group. He was on the school's lacrosse and wrestling teams, according to his friends, who said he had a lacrosse scholarship to attend the University of Maryland next year. He also coached younger athletes, friends said.

Jeffrey Francis, 18, who is black, said Mr. Conroy befriended him soon after he transferred into the school this fall. They were on the wrestling team together, he said.

Acquaintance s of the defendants said it was not unusual for groups of students from the high school to go out looking for people to mug. "It was just for fun, or for money," said Taylor Fallica, 15, a student at the high school who said he was a friend of Mr. Conroy and the other defendants.

A friend who said he had been hanging out with the seven defendants in the park that night said there had not been much in the way of a plan before the group set out.

"We were just chilling, having a few beers," said the friend, who requested anonymity because he had also been interviewed by the police and feared making contradictory statements.

Toward midnight, he recalled, "they said they were going to go jump a Mexican," and they left.

Mr. Lucero had come to the United States to help support his family in Gualaceo, Ecuador, said his brother, Joselo, 34, in an interview this week in Patchogue, where he lives. Their father had died when they were young and Marcelo assumed the role of father figure in the family, Joselo said.

Marcelo Lucero was a hard worker and had little social life, according to his brother and a resident in a house where he rented a room. When Joselo joined Marcelo in Patchogue in the mid-1990s, the older brother frequently counseled him on how to take care of himself and be safe.

"He was a like a protector," Joselo recalled. "He told me: 'You have to be a man here. There's no mom here anymore.' "

As the mob descended, Mr. Lucero's friend managed to escape and contact the police, who rounded up the suspects minutes later.

Mr. Conroy was charged with first-degree manslaughter as a hate crime and first-degree gang assault; the others were charged with first-degree gang assault. They were arraigned on Monday and the case was sent to a grand jury, which began reviewing evidence on Thursday, according to a spokesman for the Suffolk County district attorney's office.

Joselo Lucero said his priorities were now to get his brother's body back to Ecuador for burial and to ensure that justice was served. But he said he felt no bitterness or vengefulness toward his brother's attackers.

"I don't really feel hate," he said.  "I feel sorry for the families, in some way, because they have to be responsible for their kids."

Since Mr. Lucero's death, local officials have almost universally played down any suggestion that ethnic and racial tension had been prevalent in the community. Nonetheless, local, county and state officials have responded to the killing with various plans, including the introduction of sensitivity task forces, outreach programs in the Latino community and community forums.

"It is imperative that we bridge the divide," Patchogue's mayor, Paul V. Pontieri Jr., said on Thursday, "and realize that the things we have in common far outnumber those that divide us."

Angela Macropolis contributed reporting from Medford, N.Y.
Copyright 2008 The New York Times Company
Sent by Carlos Muñoz, Jr., Ph.D.
Professor Emeritus


RESOURCE: The Immigration Policy Center 

Dear Colleagues, I happy to introduce a new resource site:

This blog is a project of The Immigration Policy Center
The Immigration Policy Center (IPC) is the research arm of the American Immigration Law Foundation (AILF).  As a new board member of  AILF  I would like to
strongly recommend our site as a reliable source of information for those interested in learning and becoming involved.  AILF is dedicated to increasing public understanding of immigration law and policy and the value of immigration to American society, and to advancing fundamental fairness and due process under the law for immigrants.

*Immigration Impact* was launched to help shape and develop a rational national conversation on immigration that shifts the terms of the debate towards achieving workable and effective comprehensive policy reform.

Dr. H. Nolo Martinez
UNCG Center for New North Carolinians
413 S. Edgeworth Street, Greensboro, NC 27401
My personal voice mail: 1-336-256-1061  Center's main number:   1-336-334-5411
FAX 1-336-334-5413


Latino Immigrant Marcello Lucero Murdered by Gang of Thugs in Suffolk County

Latino immigrant Marcello Lucero, 37, was murdered in what Suffolk Police are calling a hate crime. He was beaten and stabbed in Patchogue Saturday night by a gang of seven thugs from the East Patchogue/Medford section of South County. All seven were arrested and face a charge of first-degree gang assault.

The Lucero killing follows an eerily similar incident this past July in Shenandoah, Pennsylvania. Another gang of young thugs murdered Luis Eduardo Martinez for the crime of being an Latino immigrant. Both incidents were preceded by a growing bias incidents spurred, in part, by the irresponsible rhetoric and actions of local politicians, hate radio and national nativist agitators.

To his credit Suffolk County Executive Steve Levy immediately issued this statement: "This heinous crime that led to the death of an individual because of his race will not be tolerated in Suffolk County,"

However, what's needed for Levy, Suffolk legislators, town leaders, clergy , educators, business leaders and parents to stand united in condemning the Lucero murder. Additionally, politicians must stop contributing to a hostile environment with irresponsible rhetoric and scapegoating measures.

Link: Cops: Fatal stabbing of Patchogue man a hate crime

Photo: Marcello Lucero 
Gerry Vázquez 



Surviving Spouses Against Deportation

Because of a flaw in the law, legal spouses of American citizens are facing automatic denial and threat of deportation when their spouses die during lengthy bureaucratic green card processing. There are over one hundred seventy of these cases across the country affecting women, mothers and children.

This horrible, unintended practice is called the Widow Penalty, and efforts have been underway since 2004 to correct the misguided way that the Administration has been interpreting the law, as well as enact legislation to end the practice once and for all. 

For history and current status, please go to the website: 

Dr. Armando A. Ayala
Lecturer Emeritus 2003
Ca. State Univ.-Sacramento, Multilingual/Multicultural Ed. Dept., College of Education



The Kenneth A. Picerne Foundation, Senior Artist Project Grant Applications

Hello Everybody,  

We are pleased to announce The Kenneth A. Picerne Foundation will begin accepting Senior Artist Project Grant applications on January 2, 2009.  This $12,000 grant supports accomplished visual, literary and performing artists who are motivated to give back to their community.  Artists awarded the grant provide educational, mentoring or therapeutic experiences for in-need people served by nonprofit organizations of their choice. The Foundation expects artists to provide an average of six direct contact hours a week for one year. Artists must live in San Diego or Orange County and must be 55 years of age or older. The application deadline is March 31st 2009.  

Please share information about this opportunity with artists.  Quite often, nonprofit organizations encourage artists to apply and provide arts based programs to the people they serve. Attached you will find a one page description of the Senior Artist Project. Detailed information can be located on the Kenneth A. Picerne Foundation website at or by contacting Victor Nelson , Executive Director at 760-435-2205 or  

Sincerely, Victor Nelson, MSW, MBA

Executive Director
Kenneth A. Picerne Foundation
2741 Vista Way, Suite 109
Oceanside , California   92054




Bold Caballeros and Noble Bandidas
Bandidas y Bandidos Valientes y Generosos

Special Conference Theme: 
Warrior Women of the Mexican Revolution of 1910
at ASU's Downtown Phoenix campus


Conference Dates: April 16-18, 2009

María FelixThe Bold Caballeros and Noble Bandidas (BCNB) Conference is international in scope and considers papers and other text and visual submissions in popular culture, belles lettres and beaux arts focusing on social bandits or noble bandits throughout the world.

For information on this new field of study, of which this conference is a part, visit the Bold Caballeros and Noble Bandidas Web site's introduction:

Scholars and students of culture in all language groups and geographical areas are invited to to participate in the conference. While the conference is open to all topics pertaining to the BCNB project, special attention will be given to Iberoamerican culture. The 2009 conference theme is Warrior Women of the Mexican Revolution of 1910.

Additional Web sites: Hispanic Research Center and Bilingual Review Press
Click here to download the registration form.
Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.



Microsoft's Martha Bejar Listed Among 2008 LISTA Awardees
Making Their Dreams Pan Out
Non-White Women-Owned Businesses Grow Nationwide

Microsoft's Martha Béjar Listed Among 2008 LISTA Awardees
Executive Wins Prestigious Award for her Career as a Visionary in Technology



MIAMI – Martha Béjar, corporate vice president for the Communications Sector at Microsoft, was selected as the recipient of the prestigious Visionary Award by LISTA (Latinos in Information Sciences and Technology Association) for her continuous work in the technology field and for the company’s commitment to Hispanics and technology.

"I am honored to be part of the group of successful Hispanic professionals who compose the LISTA Awards' list of achievers," Béjar said. "At Microsoft, we are very proud to be the worldwide leader in software, services and solutions and we are committed to help Latinos realize their full potential.  We hope that people see us as visionaries in the area of developing and executing programs that address the needs of Hispanics in the U.S." 

LISTA participated with Microsoft as part of the company’s Vida Digital Latina program to bridge the gap between Latinos and technology.  Through this program, Microsoft conducted a series of educational workshops for Hispanic professionals and families to learn about technology and to apply it to their everyday lives.  This visionary approach from Microsoft empowered hundreds of Latinos with the right technology tools to help them organize their lives, protect their children online and increase their productivity. 

As corporate vice president for the Communications Sector at Microsoft, Martha Béjar is responsible for setting Microsoft’s strategy for and driving the sales and marketing of Microsoft solutions and services for telecommunications, hosting, and media and entertainment companies.

"We are very proud to grant the Visionary Award to Ms. Béjar and to Microsoft,” said Jose A. Marquez-Leon, president and CEO of LISTA National."Ms. Béjar has worked tirelessly to promote innovation and motivate Hispanics to succeed in technology, and she is truly a pioneer and a visionary in the area of technology and communications."

Martha holds a Bachelor of Science degree in industrial engineering from the University of Miami and an MBA from Nova Southeastern University in Fort Lauderdale, Fla. She also is a graduate of the Advanced Management Program at Harvard University Business School.

With a highly successful telecommunications and technology track record, Martha has demonstrated her ability to drive and support innovation.  She has an amazing track record of leadership and results with not one, but two global technology companies.  She is also a role model for both Latinos and for women in the technology field. 

Annually the LISTA Awards honor Latinos in IT for their contributions to educational opportunities, promotion of professional and personal growth, and reinforcement of the vital role of U.S. Hispanics in the IT industry.

Juan Marinez and Rafael Ojeda


Making Their Dreams Pan Out
By Anna Gorman
Los Angeles Times, October 24, 2008

LOS ANGELES, CA — Manny Diaz greets the servers and places the finishing touches on his daily special: Alaskan salmon on a bed of Moroccan couscous, finished with a passion fruit glaze. “It’s Friday, so let’s sell lots of fish!”

As executive chef of Pacific Grille in downtown Los Angeles, Diaz designs the menu, directs a staff of eight and prepares meals for more than 100 customers every day.
It’s a far cry from the first job he got after sneaking across the border in 1981: washing dishes.

It is no secret that in kitchens throughout Los Angeles, Mexican and Central American
immigrants scrub pots, empty trash, clear tables and mop floors. But the news is what’s
happening at the oven. After decades of populating the lowest-paying jobs that require few skillsand little English, the most ambitious of those immigrants are becoming top chefs at some of the most celebrated French, Asian and Italian restaurants.

“It breaks the stereotype of the role that Mexican immigrants play in our economy and in our industry,” said Daniel Conway, spokesman for the California Restaurant Association. “It shows there is a place for merit and hard work to pay off.”

Many other California industries, including agriculture and garment manufacturing, employ
disproportionate numbers of immigrants at entry levels. But few offer the wide range of
opportunities that exist in restaurants, where determination and skill can still trump education in getting to the top.

Most of the chefs who started as dishwashers in some of the city’s upscale restaurants have no formal culinary training but rather have spent years learning on the job. Diaz served a nearly 20-year apprenticeship.

Restaurateur Wolfgang Puck, himself an immigrant from Austria, judges the talent of his chefs by the quality of their meals. “At the end of the day, what is on the plate is what’s important, not what passport they carry,” Puck said.

Growing up in the Mexican state of Durango, Diaz helped his father on the farm and his mother in the kitchen. He dried peppers, picked corn, fried fish and made tortillas. The family had food on the table but not much else. So Diaz quit school after the sixth grade and started working. And when he turned 17, he followed a coyote through the mountains into the USA.  He didn’t speak any English, but a friend helped him find a job washing dishes at a private club on Sunset Boulevard and Western Avenue. The work was hard: long hours and endless stacks of plates. He earned $3.25 an hour.

Diaz, 43, remembers the night he decided he wanted to become a chef. The club was catering an event. The chefs wore crisp white jackets and hats. The platters of chicken cordon bleu and sole fillet looked beautiful. The customers lavished praise.
“I said, ‘Wow, I want to be like that,’ “ he said.
At home, he read cookbooks and experimented in the kitchen. At the restaurant, he watched the chefs and offered to help. His speed and eagerness led to his first promotion to prep cook. From there, he moved up quickly — cooking at a few upscale French restaurants in Silver Lake and finally landing as an executive chef at Nicola in 1999.

The restaurant, on South Figueroa Street, changed owners and its name to Pacific Grille but
continues to attract a weekday lunch crowd of bankers, businessmen and lawyers. “Since we have been here for so long, everyone knows Manny’s name,” said owner Aileen Watanabe.

The customers also know his dishes. The Asian-Fusion menu on a Friday last month included a saffron shrimp risotto and miso black cod with udon noodles — both Diaz’s creations.

But when he got a special request for his carne asada, which marinates for two days, Diaz didn’t hesitate to prepare it. Then he stepped out of the kitchen to say hello to the customer.
“My famous carne asada,” he said, greeting her by name. “How is it?”
“It’s delicious,” she said.
“Well, you guys enjoy your food,” he said. “And save some room for dessert.”

Across town in West Hollywood, another Mexican immigrant, Rodolfo Aguado, prepared 70 pounds of gnocchi for a special event. Flour covered his jeans and black tennis shoes.
Aguado, 29, who crossed the border illegally from Mexico as a teenager and grew up believing that only women belonged in the kitchen, found his first job as a dishwasher at Campanile restaurant. “At the beginning, I cried,” he said. “At a restaurant, the job is the worst.”

When chef Suzanne Goin opened Lucques on Melrose, she took Aguado with her and gave him a job as prep cook. Now he is the sous, or assistant, chef and Goin’s right-hand man.
“Whatever new challenge I gave him, he would really rise to the occasion and do it better than anybody else,” said Goin, who helped Aguado get a work permit. “And for being the macho guy he was, he has a very elegant touch.”

Just a few steps away, 21-year-old Gerardo Canseco washed pots, pans and silverware and occasionally looked over at Aguado. “He gives me hope,” said Canseco, who emigrated from Oaxaca two years ago. “Rodolfo told me that if I have the desire and I go to school to learn English, I could leave from here.”

After the new year, Canseco will take the next step in following Aguado’s path. He will become a prep cook.

For Salvadoran immigrant Rene Mata, being an executive chef at Wolfgang Puck’s Chinois on Main in Santa Monica has opened him to a world he never imagined. He has cooked for Anthony Hopkins, Arnold Schwarzenegger and Geena Davis.

Mata, 51, immigrated to the U.S. in 1981 and started as a dishwasher at Pear Garden. He planned to return home after a few years, but then met his wife at the restaurant. Through her, Mata got a green card and later became a U.S. citizen.

In 1988, Mata was hired as a line cook at Chinois on Main and became executive chef last year. He and the previous executive chef, also Salvadoran, had redesigned the menu to include dishes such as stir-fried Sonoma lamb and sizzling Snake River wagyu steaks. “This is, for me, a dream come true,” he said. “But I never forget where I come from. When I see people like me, I try to help.”

On a recent night after returning to his Glendora home, Diaz prepared a fresh vegetable pasta and bruschetta for his wife and two children, Denisse and Christian. The family sat beneath a painting of the Last Supper.

His wife, Veronica Tovalin-Diaz, said there are perks to being married to a chef. “When I get home from work, dinner’s on the table,” she said.

The couple met 23 years ago when they were children in Mexico. Both got green cards after the 1986 amnesty and are now U.S. citizens. After the meal, Diaz stood behind Denisse, 21, and helped her make dessert: banana flambé.
“Like this?” she asked as she scooped brown sugar into the pan.
“Put a little more, hija,” Diaz responded before adding the bananas and a macadamia nut liqueur.

Denisse, a student at UC Riverside, said she is trying to learn some of her dad’s dishes. “If I don’t learn to cook, it’s not going to look so good, because he’s a chef and my mom is a great cook,” she said.

Between the restaurant and some extra consulting and catering, Diaz earns between $70,000 and $80,000 a year. But like other immigrant chefs, Diaz has another goal. He hopes someday to open his own restaurant, perhaps Asian fusion with a Latino touch. He even has a name picked out: Bistro La Provincia, a reminder of his childhood in Mexico.

But for now, Diaz keeps busy in the kitchen at Pacific Grille — and at home. As his wife and his children cleared the dinner table, Diaz leaned over the sink, picked up a sponge and began washing the dishes.



Non-White Women-Owned Businesses Grow Nationwide
MBDA News Release
Minority Business Development Agency, October 14, 2008

WASHINGTON, DC — According to recent data released by the Minority Business
Development Agency (MBDA), women –among all [non-white male groups] – are establishing
their own businesses nearly twice as fast as male non-white entrepreneurs and more than four
times white men and women. Between 1997 and 2002, the growth in number of non-white
women-owned firms was 57 percent, compared to 31 percent for non-white male-owned firms.
Non-white firms play a critical role in generating jobs, creating wealth and introducing
innovative products and services in local communities. Nearly 1.5 million non-white womenowned
firms generated approximately $111 billion in gross receipts in 2002. All women-owned
businesses only grew 20 percent during the same time period and male-owned firms grew only
16 percent.

Out of the 57 percent growth for non-white women-owned businesses, Native Hawaiian and
other Pacific Islander businesses grew the most at 84 percent; African-American firms grew at
the second fastest rate of 75 percent; Hispanic businesses grew 60 percent; and Asian businesses
grew at a rate of 40 percent.

“Women see entrepreneurship as the key to freedom – providing flexibility and wealth creation,”
said Ronald N. Langston, MBDA’s National Director. “Women are taking advantage of their
talents and experience establishing businesses throughout our communities at astounding
rates. Many choose entrepreneurship as a way to battle the glass ceiling that still, unfortunately,
exists in corporate America.”

Though non-white women-owned businesses are expanding more rapidly than other businesses,
they still have not reached parity based on the population and they lag behind non-white maleowned
firms in gross receipts. Currently, only Asian male-owned businesses have reached parity
in number of businesses, gross receipts and employees.

“Providing resources and support for non-white women-owned businesses is important to the
nation’s economy. Finding better ways to access capital, increase financial literacy, and using
technology to expand business opportunities are the keys to entrepreneurial success,” adds

Non-white women-owned businesses span all industries, though the top five industries include:
• Health care and social services
• Other services **
• Retail trade
• Administrative and support, waste management, and remediation services
• Professional, scientific and technical services
** Other Services includes firms not provided for elsewhere in the classification system which are engaged in
activities such as equipment and machinery repairing, promoting religious activities, grant-making, advocacy,
providing dry-cleaning and laundry services, personal care services and dating services.
MBDA analyzed data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2002 Survey of Business Owners and the
1997 Survey of Minority-Owned Business Enterprises. Gross receipts generated by all non-white
female-owned businesses are MBDA estimates for 2002.
For additional information on non-white businesses, please review MBDA’s report at:
Sent by Rick Leal



Gordon Leads Hispanic Association
Income gap between whites, Latinos has grown at four-year colleges
December 4th: Third annual Parents Step Ahead/Padres Un Paso Adelante
Congressional Hispanic Caucus Institute Seeks Applicants for Internships  
Summer 2009 Tulum Ethnographic Field Research program

Gordon Leads Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities
CSUF President Elected Chairman of HACU Governing Board



Cal State Fullerton President Milton A. Gordon, center, receives congratulations on being named the new chairman of the HACU Board at the association’s annual conference in Denver. Joining him are, from left, Pamela Hillman, vice president for university advancement; Robert Palmer, vice president for student affairs; Gordon’s wife, Margaret Faulwell Gordon, dean of the College of Extended and International Education and professor of anthropology at Cal State Dominguez Hills; Silas H. Abrego, associate vice president for student affairs; and Dagoberto Fuentes, chair and emeritus professor of the Chicana and Chicano studies. Photo by Mimi Ko Cruz
mailto:?body= CSUF President Gordon Leads Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities. You can see this page at:
Cal State Fullerton President Milton A. Gordon greets CSUF student ambassadors at the HACU conference. Pictured, from left, are Christine Hernandez, Carlos Reyes, Henoc M. Preciado, Carolina Lepe, Gordon, Karla Rios, Everardo Acosta, Josué Guaderrama and Ruby Flores. Photo by Mimi Ko Cruz
Cal State Fullerton President Milton A. Gordon, a member of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities Board of Directors, was elected this month to lead the Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities (HACU) Governing Board, at HACU’s 22nd annual conference in Denver.

Gordon now serves as chairman of the national organization that represents 464 colleges and universities committed to Hispanic higher education success in the United States, Puerto Rico, Latin America, Spain and Portugal.
“It’s very humbling to become chairman of this organization,” Gordon said. “While we’ve made a lot of progress, we have a long way to go in terms of creating more support services and programs for our students. I will make seeking additional funding for Hispanic-Serving institutions a priority.”
Established in 1986, HACU represents Hispanic-Serving Institutions, where Latinos constitute at least 25 percent of the student population.

Latinos constitute 28 percent of Cal State Fullerton’s student population of almost 37,000. Since 2004, Cal State Fullerton has been designated by the U.S. Department of Education as a Hispanic-Serving Institution.
During Gordon’s 18 years as president of Cal State Fullerton, the university reached the highest enrollment of all 23 California State University campuses, and U.S. News & World Report ranks it among the nation’s top 10 public universities-master’s institutions in the West.

CSUF President Milton A. Gordon

Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education ranks Cal State Fullerton first in California and fifth in the nation in its listing of the top 100 colleges and universities awarding bachelor’s degrees to Latinos. In addition, Diverse Issues in Higher Education ranks CSUF sixth in the nation for bachelor’s degrees awarded to minority students.
Born in Chicago, Gordon earned his bachelor’s degree in mathematics and secondary education from Xavier University, his master’s degree in mathematics from the University of Detroit and his doctorate in mathematics from the Illinois Institute of Technology.
Before being appointed president at Cal State Fullerton, Gordon was vice president for academic affairs at Sonoma State University and professor of mathematics. He also served as dean of the College of the Arts and Sciences and professor of mathematics at Chicago State University, and director of the Afro-American Studies Program and associate professor of mathematics at Loyola University of Chicago.
Gordon’s many honors include the National Association of Student Personnel Administrator’s President’s Award, the Chief Executive Officer Leadership Award from the Council for the Advancement and Support of Education, California Hispanic Chambers of Commerce Chair’s Award, the Education Partnership Award from the Orange County Business Council, Cesar Chavez Community Service Award from the Hispanic Bar Association of Orange County, Manager of the Year Award from the Orange County Chapter of the Society of Advancement of Management, the National Conference for Community and Justice 2000 Humanitarian Award and the Education Award of the Hispanic Chamber of Commerce.
Media Contact: Mimi Ko Cruz, Public Affairs, 714-278-7586 or



Income gap between whites, Latinos has grown at four-year colleges
Number of Latino males entering four-year institutions dropping
By Kathy Wyer, 10/16/2008 

Over the past three decades, the income disparity between Latino and non-Hispanic white students entering four-year colleges and universities has increased fourfold, with the difference in median household income growing from $7,986 in 1975 to $32,965 in 2006, according to a new UCLA report on Latino college students.
And while the median Latino household income had increased slightly in proportional terms by 2006, narrowing the gap by 5 percentage points, Latino households still earned only 62 cents on the dollar relative to median non-Hispanic white households.
"Even though Latinos had a slight increase in minimizing the racial income gap, the central tendency of the gap remains fairly large over this three-decade-long period," said UCLA assistant professor of education José Luis Santos, an expert on economic issues in higher education and co-author of the report. "It is not surprising that adequate financial support remains critical to both college choice and persistence for Latinos."
One in five Latino freshmen expressed major concern about the ability to finance college at the start of the school year in 2006, compared with only 8.6 percent of non-Hispanic white freshmen. While a majority of white students (60.2 percent) expressed at least some concern about their ability to finance college, Latinos were more likely to do so; of all Latino ethnic groups, Mexican American/Chicano students were the most likely (79.9 percent) to express concern. The report also shows that financial assistance was among the top factors influencing Latino freshmen in their choice of a four-year college or university.
National data for "Advancing in Higher Education: A Portrait of Latino College Freshmen at Four-Year Institutions, 1975–2006," came from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program's (CIRP) annual Freshman Survey, administered by the Higher Education Research Institute at UCLA's Graduate School of Education & Information Studies. The CIRP data were reported by gender and by specific Latino ethnic-origin groups — including categories for Mexican American/Chicano, Puerto Rican and Other Latino — thereby highlighting population diversity unavailable in other national reports on Hispanic college students.
"We actually began monitoring specific Latino ethnic groups in 1971, which predates federal data collection on Hispanic students," said UCLA professor of education Sylvia Hurtado, director of the Higher Education Research Institute and a report co-author.
The report also reveals a troubling trend. Even as the number of Latino students entering four-year institutions has increased, the proportion of Latino males to females decreased dramatically. Latino men constituted 57.4 percent of Latino freshmen in 1975, but only 39 percent by 2006. Although this is confirmed by other national data sources, the UCLA report reveals that Mexican American/Chicano males experienced a more rapid decline than Puerto Rican and other Latino males.
"The gender gap in educational attainment across most racial/ethnic groups has been growing in recent years, but this gap for Latinos has been understudied," said report co-author Victor B. Sáenz, an assistant professor in the College of Education at the University of Texas at Austin. "There is little research that explains why these gender gaps are growing among Latino students and even less about what this gap could portend in light of the fast-growing nature of this population. Bottom line, these results help identify a problem that represents an area in dire need of more research."
In other key findings, Latino freshmen demonstrate a strong drive to achieve relative to non-Hispanic white students and in recent years have surpassed other peer groups in these self-ratings. They are also likely to report higher degree aspirations than their peers. In most years, a higher proportion of male and female Latinos report spending six or more hours a week on studying or homework in high school than gender groups of other ethnicities. By 2006, Latinas kept pace with female whites (38 and 37 percent, respectively), and both female groups spent more time studying or doing homework in high school than Latino males (28.8 percent) or white males (25 percent). Latinos work hard to make the grade, perhaps because of the challenges they face or the general belief that hard work leads to success, the report authors said.
"These findings serve to counter the myth that college-bound Latinos lack the effort, preparation or academic motivation to succeed in college," Sáenz said. "Quite the contrary, these results suggest that Latino college-bound students are among the most driven and motivated to achieve, a finding which puts the focus back on colleges, who need to better cultivate those initial predispositions among their entering Latino students."
Although the population of Latino non-citizen or English-language learners is not increasing in representation at four-year colleges and universities, those freshmen in the "Other Latino" category are twice as likely as Mexican Americans/Chicanos to state they are not citizens, and they are more likely to report that English is not their native language (35.3 percent), compared with Mexican American/Chicano students (31 percent) and Puerto Rican students (16.2 percent). Legal status was not asked on the survey.
Although well over 90 percent of Latinos and non-Hispanic whites have now achieved the recommended years of high school preparation in English, mathematics and foreign language study set by the National Commission on Educational Excellence in 1982, fewer Latinos students than whites report having taken the recommended two years of physical science (56.5 percent and 61.4 percent, respectively), and both groups have a way to go to meet biological science course recommendations (completed by 45.3 percent and 46.8 percent, respectively).
As competition for admission to four-year institutions has increased for all students, the percentage of Latinos reporting they are attending their first-choice institution has seen a 27 percent relative decrease, compared with a 10 percent relative decrease for whites. There is a related trend of increases in college application rates. In 1975, 14.1 percent of Latinos and 6 percent of whites reported applying to five or more colleges in addition to the one they ultimately attended. In 2006, 34.8 percent of Latinos and 23 percent of whites reported doing so.
"Latinos at four-year colleges got the message and are applying to more schools, although fewer now state they are attending their first-choice institution," Santos said. "Latinos are attracted by financial aid packages, but some of these choices may not be as close to home, where costs can be lower. The question is how Latino students from different income groups make these decisions. It is an area we want to study further."
Latinos' choice of intended major and career objectives has remained steady over the years, with biology, psychology, political science, business, nursing and elementary education among the top 10 intended majors at college entry.
Historically, Latinos have tended to characterize themselves as more liberal and less conservative politically than white students, and this is still true today: 43.2 percent of Latinos characterized their political views as "middle of the road," 34.8 percent as liberal, 17.4 percent as conservative and 1.4 percent as far right. In contrast, 26.2 percent of white students characterized their political views as liberal, and 26.5 percent reported that they were conservative.
Latinos also expressed strong support, but showed gender differences, for several possible election issues: Latino women were more likely than men to agree that same-sex couples have the right to legal marital status (71.3 percent and 57.8 percent, respectively) and that the federal government should do more to control the sale of handguns (83.3 percent and 72 percent, respectively). Latino women and men both strongly support the statements that a national health care plan is needed to cover everybody's medical costs (79.6 percent and 74.2 percent, respectively) and that the federal government is not doing enough to control environmental pollution (83.7 percent and 78.6 percent, respectively). Latino men were more likely than women to support the statement that federal military spending should be increased (29 percent and 24.1 percent, respectively), but both were less likely to do so than white students (34.3 percent).
Findings from the report will be released at the Association of American Colleges and Universities' "Diversity, Learning, and Inclusive Excellence" conference in Long Beach, Calif., on Oct. 16.
The report also features data tables on many other CIRP survey items that are part of national norms reports on students' high school experiences, expectations for college, academic experiences and psychosocial behavior.
Authors of the report include Sylvia Hurtado, Victor B. Sáenz, José Luis Santos and Nolan L. Cabrera.
For a copy of "Advancing in Higher Education: A Portrait of Latino College Freshmen at Four-Year Institutions: 1975–2006," visit or call the Higher Education Research Institute at UCLA at 310-825-1925.
The Cooperative Institutional Research Program has administered the Freshman Survey since 1966, surveying more than 13 million incoming first-year students at 1,900 colleges and universities nationwide. The CIRP Freshmen Survey is the largest and longest running survey of American college students, and it documents the changing nature of students' characteristics, values, attitudes and behaviors. The data have helped shape public opinion about key issues related to the concerns of college youth and continue to contribute to critical policy considerations in education.
The Higher Education Research Institute at UCLA is widely regarded as one of the premier research and policy organizations on post-secondary education in the country. Housed in the UCLA Graduate School of Education & Information Studies, the institute serves as an interdisciplinary center for research, evaluation, information, policy studies and research training in post-secondary education.

Kathy Wyer,
(310) 206-0513 
© 2008 UC Regents 
Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.


December 4th: Third annual Parents Step Ahead/Padres Un Paso Adelante
"Parent of the Year" Gala, Texas, Dallas 


U.S. Treasurer Anna Escobedo Cabral to be keynote Speaker at Gala. 

The event honors six parents who participated in the nonprofit organization's school-based parenting skills workshops during the year. 

Respected education expert and renowned motivational speaker Lt. Col. (Ret.) Consuelo Castillo Kickbush also will deliver remarks at the ceremony, which will take place at the Crowne Plaza Hotel. Names of the parents being honored will be announced on November 24.

"We are thrilled that these two Latinas who have accomplished so much will be participating in our Parent of The Year gala," said Lupita Colmenero, Chair of Parents Step Ahead and associate publisher of El Hispano News. "Their remarks will serve to inspire us, the perfect finale to what a milestone year for our organization." 

"United States Treasurer Anna Escobedo Cabral has a powerful personal story to tell. And Lt. Col. Consuelo Castillo Kickbusch knows families, kids and education. This is a great combination of speakers who, with passion, wit and eloquence, will move the audience," said Frank Gomez, Strategic Alliances Executive at Educational Testing Service and Parents Step Ahead board member.

To qualify for the Parent of the Year, parents or guardians must have attended one of the Parents Step Ahead seminars in the Dallas, Garland, Fort Worth or Irving independent school districts during the year. Parents who wish to be considered must write an essay about the importance of parental involvement in a child's life. Their child also writes an essay about why his/her parent should be selected. A committee of local and national community and corporate leaders selects the winners. Honorees receive a plaque, a computer system, other gifts and the opportunity to speak with local and national community and corporate leaders about the importance of education. 

"Parents who have made such an effort to ensure a better future for their children - often at great personal sacrifice - should be recognized every day of their lives," said Colmenero. "Parents Step Ahead is proud to give them the public recognition they deserve for the example they are setting for their children and the community." 

Founded in 2006 by the publishers of El Hispano News, Parents Step Ahead will have reached nearly 10,500 parents in 24 schools in four school districts in the Dallas/Fort Worth area by the end of 2008. The organization was awarded nonprofit status in May. Look for information on 2009 parenting seminars in El Hispano News newspaper. 

Kirk Whisler 
Hispanic Marketing 101


Congressional Hispanic Caucus Institute Seeks Applicants for Internships

Developing the Next Generation of Latino Leaders
2009 Internships, Fellowships, and Scholarships
 911 Second Street, N.E. Washington DC 20002                            
Congressional Hispanic Caucus Institute Seeks Applicants for 2009 Internships, Fellowships, and Scholarships,  Hispanic Students Gain National Competitive Edge, Application Available Online. 
WASHINGTON, D.C. – The Congressional Hispanic Caucus Institute (CHCI), the nation's premier Hispanic educational and youth leadership development organization, launched a national campaign to recruit Hispanic students — college-bound, undergraduate and graduate — for its nationally recognized leadership development programs and scholarships.  Developing the Next Generation of Latino Leaders
Applications for CHCI's Congressional Internship Program, Graduate & Young Professionals Fellowship Program, Public Policy Fellowship Program, and Scholarship Program are available now at   
"For almost three decades, CHCI has made a difference in the lives of young Hispanics – providing unparalleled, hands-on work experience and a national competitive edge," said Esther Aguilera, CHCI President and CEO.  "CHCI continues to meet the demands of a growing Latino youth population through innovative leadership development opportunities that prepare the next generation of Latino youth and our nation's future leaders." 
The Congressional Internship Program provides college students with Congressional work placements on Capitol Hill for a period of eight weeks from June to August, to learn first-hand about our nation's legislative processes.  Interns are responsible for conducting extensive legislative research, monitoring day-to-day hearings, managing constituent communications and assisting with general office matters.  Additionally, interns participate in weekly CHCI leadership and professional development sessions and meet with corporate representatives, national elected officials and foreign dignitaries.  Interns are provided with housing, roundtrip transportation to and from Washington, D.C., and a $2,500 stipend.  The Congressional Internship Program application deadline is January 9, 2009.    
The Graduate & Young Professional Fellowship Program offers exceptional Latino graduates and young professionals unparalleled exposure to experience in the underserved public policy areas of health, housing, law, international affairs, and science, technology, engineering and math (STEM). The fellowship is open to applicants with a graduate degree from an accredited educational institution or equivalent three years professional experience in chosen policy field. This competitive program is comprised of a nine-month fellowship including a substantive work placement at a legislative subcommittee office, federal agency, national non-profit advocacy organization, or corporate office. The International Affairs Fellowship includes three months abroad in Mexico or Spain. Travel, health insurance and a $2,700 monthly stipend is provided. The Graduate & Young Professional Fellowship Program application deadline is February 13, 2009.  
CHCI's Public Policy Fellowship Program, conducted from September to May, provides college graduates with national hands-on public policy experience in a congressional office, federal agency, nonprofit sector, or corporate setting.  Fellowship participants are provided with health insurance, roundtrip transportation to and from Washington, D.C., and a monthly stipend of $2,200.  The Public Policy Fellowship Program application deadline is February 13, 2009.     
With more than $2 million in need-based scholarships awarded to Hispanic students since 2001, CHCI's Scholarship Program is available to students enrolled in a two or four year accredited college or university.  Students pursing an associate's degree may apply for a grant in the amount of $1,000; $2,500 for bachelors candidates; and $5,000 for graduate students.  The Scholarship Program application deadline is April 16, 2009.   
To be eligible, all program applicants must be U.S. citizens or legal permanent residents, have remarkable leadership potential, and have a demonstrated history and commitment to community and public service.     
About Congressional Hispanic Caucus Institute Congressional Hispanic Caucus Institute (CHCI), a nonprofit and nonpartisan 501(c) (3) organization, provides leadership development programs and educational services to students and young emerging leaders.  The CHCI Board of Directors is comprised of Hispanic Members of Congress, nonprofit, union and corporate leaders.  For more information call CHCI at (202) 543-1771 or visit


Media Contact: Scott Gunderson Rosa 
Communications Director 
Congressional Hispanic Caucus Institute 
911 2nd St., NE 
Washington, DC 20002 
202-546-2143 fax


Shani Provost, (202) 548-5875
Sent by Ernie Martinez
Dallas, TX



Summer 2009 Tulum Ethnographic Field Research program

Summer 2009 Tulum Ethnographic Field Research program for undergraduate and graduate students. The undergraduate component is fully funded but students must attend Texas State University, UT San Antonio, Ut Pan American, or Brigham Young University. Graduate students from any institution may apply. Please spread the word. 
NSF REU (Research Experience for Undergraduates) Program that offers undergraduates the opportunity to learn about ethnographic field methods and to implement these methods in Tulum, Quintana Roo, Mexico during the Summer of 2009. The NSF covers almost all expenses related to the program, and provides a stipend of $1000 to compensate for the loss of summer employment. Students must speak Spanish well enough to conduct interviews and communicate in Mexico. Students must have taken Introduction to Cultural Anthropology, Latin American Cultures, and Ethnographic Field Methods (or similar courses). Students must be highly committed to an intensive research and writing experience, be independent, be diplomatic, be willing to live under difficult conditions (no privacy, no air-conditioning, limited food choices), and be comfortable living with a host family. This program is not your typical study abroad experience.
For further information see the Texas State Study Abroad Program Description: , and the Quintana Roo Field School Program Web Site: .
Thank you, Ana M. Juarez 
Dept. of Anthropology 
Texas State University-San Marcos 
Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.


Dallas-area schools pushing Latino parents to be involved in kids' learning
Politics and Campaign Behind Proposition 227

NASA Bilingual Website


Dallas-area schools pushing Latino parents to be involved in kids' learning 

By STELLA CHÁVEZ / The Dallas Morning News, November 17, 2008

Every night, 9-year-old Elizabeth Torres used to go off to her bedroom to read.

When her father asked about what she'd read, she didn't have much to say. Martin Torres decided to spice up the nightly ritual: Father and daughter now read together at the kitchen table.

Something surprising happened. Elizabeth eagerly chats about her books, written in either Spanish or English. It doesn't seem to matter to her that her father only reads in Spanish, most recently pretty heavy stuff about the Roman Empire.

Educators have long encouraged parental involvement, but some schools are taking a more aggressive, hands-on approach in showing parents – particularly those new to this country – that they need to help their children learn.

Experts say parents who don't speak English, or know very little, can play active roles in their children's education.

Mr. Torres of Garland attended a recent school event with dozens of other parents seeking ideas about how to help their kids at home.

Some immigrant parents don't know how to navigate the U.S. education system, experts say.

"The expectations south of the border are very different. You go, you leave your child, and anything that happens in the school is the school's problem and anything that happens at home, you take care of," said Georgina Tezer, community specialist for the Carrollton-Farmers Branch school district. "The first thing that needs to be done is to reteach the parent how to parent in a very different environment."

Carola Suarez-Orozco, professor of applied psychology and co-director of immigration studies at New York University who has written extensively about immigrant families and youth, said schools must be careful not to jump to conclusions.

“You hear [people] say immigrants don’t care about their kids or education because they don’t come to parent-teacher conferences, because they don’t speak English, because they’re shy…,” she added. “But that’s just not so. They just don’t know how to play the game exactly.”

Schools are pushing parents to do much more than setting up regular times for their children to complete homework or scanning their corrected papers.

At Watson Technology Center in Garland ISD, school officials this year began a series of workshops for the parents of children in bilingual education. The workshops are conducted by bilingual teachers, who show the parents everything from strategies for taking the TAKS test to how to conduct science experiments at home.

The idea came about after officials noticed that very few Latino parents attended parent workshops held in English at the magnet school for math and science, said principal Jenny Roberson.

"Our goal was to show parents that the school system should not be a frightening place," said assistant principal Debbie Sanders. "Often times, there's a language barrier and they're not comfortable being here. This just opens the door for better communication and better understanding."

Maria Benavente is one of the parents who attended a recent session at Watson. Like a student, she raised her hand and asked questions when the teacher showed the parents how to conduct a simple science experiment that demonstrates what objects float.

The teachers also showed the similarities of science vocabulary words in English and Spanish and handed out instructions for taking a "science walk" or conducting a "science baking experiment" at home.

"The parent needs to help the child," said Ms. Benavente. "Our children need all the help we can give them."

In Carrollton-Farmers Branch, the strategy involved helping parents with practical issues, but also putting pressure on them to get involved in their kids' studies.

Four years ago, Ms. Tezer began a cultural ambassador program that pairs immigrant parents with bilingual parents in the district. The bilingual parents help the parents new to the district with such things as scheduling teacher meetings or applying for a library card.

At R.E. Good Elementary in the Carrollton-Farmers Branch district, many of the students' parents are from Mexico or other Latin American countries.

Four years ago, the school began implementing an International Baccalaureate program, a rigorous college-prep curriculum most often used in middle and high schools. At first, very few parents showed up to workshops on how to support classroom learning at home.

Jessica Ryckman, the IB coordinator, said teachers and staff began telling the parents that for the school to maintain its IB status, parents were going to have to get involved. She said getting across that message was half the battle.

"It was simply that they didn't know," Ms. Ryckman said. "They simply needed to be told, and when they were told, they were there."

Sent by Willis Papillion


Politics and campaign behind Proposition 227


Jianzhi Wu
PLS 328 – California Politics
June 8, 2000

Abstract:  On June 2, 1998, a great travesty occurred. California voters passed Proposition 227, which severely restricted the use of primary language for instructing English learners, and instead called for a transitional program of “structured English immersion” that was not normally last more than one year. It was unfortunate for the country because we allowed ill-informed politicians and xenophobic voters and a lot of misled minorities to dictate educational policy. The scientific and educational bilingual issue was unfortunately politicized by politician Ron Unz—a computer software businessman without any teaching experience. But bilingual education is not a recent phenomenon in this country. Its history in the U.S. falls into two distinct period: the first being from 1840 to 1920 and the second beginning in the early 1960s. Through out the whole initiative process, we can see that campaign strategies, mass media’s bias, money spent in the campaign all have influence on voters. Proposition 227 passed with big margin 61 to 39 percent and became the law. However, the conflict still exists, the demand for bilingual education is still growing. The fast growing Latino population is soon becoming minority-majority. The new model of one-year sheltered English immersion program is untested and unproved. The future for the California’s students remains unclear. This raised a question that is there a backlash on Proposition 227 in the future? People may fine clues from the demographic projection for the Latino students who will be enrolled in California’s public schools. Who are losers in long run? It may be our your children—the country’s future.


Politics and campaign behind Proposition 227


The original 1849 Constitution was clear: “All laws, decrees, regulations, and provisions, which, from their nature, require publication, shall be published in English and Spanish.”[1] The constitution itself was handwritten in both languages, reflecting California’s two dominant cultures. Possibly due to the influx of Euro-Americans during the Gold Rush, that bilingual requirement was eliminated in the 1879 constitution. California has struggled with this issue ever since. In the 19th century, the teaching of German in the public schools of America was the most visible example of bilingualism in education. By the 1920, German language classes were virtually extinct because of, among other factors, a backlash following World War I. In 1923, the United States Supreme Court declared unconstitutional those state laws that prohibited German language instruction in private schools. From the 1920s until the 1960 and 1970, when the Hispanic population in this country had escalated, there was little action regarding bilingualism in America’s school. In 1974, the United States Supreme Court issued a ruling that Title VI of the 1964 Civil Right Act mandated that the City of San Francisco provide special instruction for approximately 1800 non-English speaking Chinese students (Lau V. Nichols). Following this decision, the federal government issued Lau guidelines that seemed to move the public schools of America toward bilingual status. By the late 1970s, however, and continuing through the 1980s, numerous political and educational debates had called into question the effectiveness of bilingual programs. California’s bi-culture was rapidly becoming bipolar (two cultures in conflict and/or poles apart). In some communities, the influx of immigrants from Asia and elsewhere suggested a multi-polar state. Many white Californians were increasingly uncomfortable with the pluralism around them and the bilingual policies that resulted. In 1986, voters overwhelmingly approved Proposition 63, which declared English as the official language of the state. Its purpose was to “preserve, protect and strengthen the English language.”[2] In 1998, they also rejected bilingual education in the public schools by approving Proposition 227. The long-term impact of these measures remains unclear but they do reflect discomfort with hyper-pluralism in the Golden State—an attitude which tells newcomers: “If you want to live and learn in the Golden State, speak English—our language.” (David G. Lawrence, 1999).

            This paper has two purposes. Fist, to identify the politics and political conflict associated with the issue such as who is involved, and what are what are the points for and against Proposition 227. Second purpose is to analyze political mechanism and campaign strategies involved in passing Proposition 227 in term of who stands to benefit and who stands to lose.

Historical Background—
political and political conflict with Bilingual Education

             Bilingual education programs were mandated under California state law in 1976 and the number of students enrolled in these programs has grown dramatically from year to year. The 1992 official California Department of Education census showed a total of 1,078,705 limited-English students in the state’s school and, based on the rate of past growth, this figure approaches 1,442,692 in 1999,[3] or nearly one in four school children. Nationally, California far outranks all other states in the number of LEP children. Almost half of all limited-English students in the country are enrolled in California schools, and they represent more than 150 different language backgrounds. California was one of the first states in the nation to enact a comprehensive bilingual education bill. The Chacon-Moscone Bilingual-Bicultural Education Act of 1976 followed on the heels of the historic Lau vs. Niochols Supreme Court decision requiring that schools take affirmative steps to ensure that English learners had access to the standard curriculum. The impetus for California’s legislation was the observation that limited English proficient students do “not have the English language skills necessary to benefit from instruction only in English at a level substantially equivalent to pupils whose primary language is English.” Thus, “The legislature…declared that the primary goal of all programs under this article was, as effectively and efficiently as possible, to develop in each child fluency in English” (California Education Code, 1976, Section 52161), while at the same time ensuring that they had access to the core curriculum. The preferred means for doing so was through early use of primary language. However, in spite of legislation that mandated bilingual education, the policy was never without controversy, and over the years there were numerous attempts to modify the law and abandon the practice of primary language instruction. In part because of this controversy, no policy was ever adopted to provide certified bilingual teachers for all English learners. Thus, while the Commission on Teacher Credentialing offered the Bilingual Cross-cultural, language and Academic Development (BCLAD) credential, by 1979, only one-third of English learners in California were actually in classrooms taught by teachers with bilingual certification. The remaining two-thirds of these students were assigned to some other kind of program, or to no special program at all and often were taught by teachers with no special training to teach English learners.[4] Controversy over native-language education was at boil in California. In 1987, the California legislature failed to reauthorize the Bilingual-Bicultural Education Act, allowing it to expire. It was in this context that Proposition 227 came onto the California political scene. Proponents of Proposition 227 contended that bilingual education had failed as a pedagogical strategy and should be abandoned.

Who is involved?

Ron Unz, 39 then, a wealthy multimillionaire Silicon Valley computer software businessman and a single man with no kids of his own wrote the initiative know as “English for the Children” and seized enough signatures from Californians and put it on the 1998 ballot to eliminate bilingual education and all other English language development programs that use primary language to ensure access to academic courses such as math, science, and civics.[5] He had contributed substantial amounts of his private funds to the campaign and had formed One Nation/One California to run the campaign. He has no background whatsoever in education generally or in the education of English learners. He ran for governor in the Republican primary in 1994 and lost to Governor Peter Wilson. He has enlisted the support of individuals associated with the English Only movement, such as English immersion teacher and former U.
S. English board member Gloria Matta Tuchman. The group’s initial financial disclosure statement reveals significant initial out-of-state support for this California initiative: about 1/3 of the total funding has come from 2 donors in Florida, and another 1/3 from Unz himself---1.2 million—more than half of it his own money—to pass a ballot initiative that would all but abolish bilingual education in California.[6]

            Those that against the passage of Proposition 227 are The California Teacher’s Association (CTA), California Teachers of English as a Second or Other Language (CATESOL), California School Board’s Association (CSBA), Association of California School Administrators (ACSA), American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), and Los Angeles Unified School District and some other school districts, National Association for Bilingual Education (NABE), A. Jerrold Perenchio, CEO of Univison, the nation’s largest Spanish-language network, and the National Hispanic Leadership Agenda (NHLA), California Association for Bilingual Education (CABE).

Argument in Favor of Proposition 227

Why do we need to change California’s Bilingual Education system?

  • Begun with the best of intentions in the 1970s, bilingual education has failed in actual practice, but the politicians and administrators have refused to admit this failure.
  • For most of California’s non-English speaking students, bilingual education actually means monolingual, SPANISH-ONLY education for the first 4-7 years of school.
  • The current system fails to teach children to read and write English. Last year, only 6.7 percent of limited-English students in California learned enough English to be moved into mainstream classes.
  • Latino immigrant children are the principal victims of bilingual education. They have the lowest test scores and highest dropout rates of any immigrant group.
  • There are 140 languages spoken by California’s schoolchildren. To teach each group of children in their own native language before teaching them English is educationally and fiscally impossible. Yet this impossibility is the goal of bilingual education.[7]

Rebuttal to Argument in Favor of Proposition 227

            Several years ago, the 1970’s law mandating bilingual education in California expired. Since then local school districts—principals, parents and teachers—have been developing and using different programs to teach children English.

            Many of the older bilingual education programs continues to have great success. In other communities some schools are succeeding with English immersion and others with dual language immersion programs. Teaching children English is the primary goal, no matter what teaching method they are using.

            Proposition 227 outlaws all of these programs—even the best ones—and mandates a program that has never been tested anywhere in California! And if it doesn’t work, we are stuck with it any way.

            Proposition 227 proposes

  • A 180-day English only program with no second chance after that school year.
  • Mixed-age classrooms with first through sixth graders all together, all day, for one year.

Proposition 227 funding comes from three wealthy men…one from New York, one from Florida, and one from California.

            The New York man has given Newt Gingrich $310,000! The Florida man who put up $45,000 for Proposition 227 is part of a fringe group that believe “government has no role in financing, operating, or defining schooling, or even compelling attendance.” These are not people who should dictate a single teaching method for California’s schools. If the law allows different methods, we can use what works.[8]

Passing Proposition 227

            Ron Unz filed the English-only education initiative (the “Unz initiative”) with the California Attorney General’s Office on May 9, 1997. On June 26, 1997, the Attorney General’s Office issued a proposed title and summary, permitting the proponents to begin collecting signatures to qualify the initiative for the June 1998 ballot. On June 2, 1998, California voters resoundingly passed Proposition 227 by 61-39%, requiring all students in California’s public schools to be taught academic subjects in English. Effectively dismantling the bilingual education system that had been in effect for the previous twenty years, the new law mandates that instructors at public schools teach all subjects to non-English speaking children in “sheltered English immersion” programs. The day after California voters passed Proposition 227, public interest attorneys filed a class action suit against Governor Pete Wilson, the State Board of Education and its members, and the State Superintendent of Public Instruction Delain Eastin, on behalf of 1.4 million students classified as “Limited English Proficient” (LEP), alleging that the new law violated their rights under the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Equal Education Opportunities Act (EEOA).

What we learned from the politics behind “English for the Children” initiative 

            By closely reviewing the whole process of campaign fro and against Proposition 227, we came to understand why one side won, while the other side lost. Someone attributed the victory to the smart strategies used by Yes on 227 campaigns, while others attributed its victory primarily to mistakes by the No on 227 campaigns.

            Strategies used by Yes on Proposition 227

            First, on Unz entitled Proposition 227 English for the Children, a brilliant stroke of packaging. Here was a goal that no one could dispute. Who wanted to vote against English, or against children? The label also established a false choice in voters’ minds: either teach students the language of the country or give them bilingual education. Perhaps most important, it focused debate on practical issues of educational effectiveness, avoiding the inflammatory symbolism of earlier English-only campaigns and thereby broadening the initiative’s appeal. Unlike previous English-only advocates, Unz made special efforts to “decouple” opposition to bilingual education from “anti-immigrant and anti-Latino views”. He filled campaign posts with Latinos and Asians, including Jaime Escalante, the legendary math teacher of Stand and Deliver fame, and Gloria Matta Tuchman, a first-grade teacher and candidate for state superintendent of public instruction. Rather than attacking immigrants for speaking other languages, Unz campaigned in their communities for children’s “right” to learn English. In short, he posed as their advocate against unresponsive schools.

            Second, political science theory tells us that the mass media, whatever their disclaimers, are not simply a mirror held up to reality or messenger that carries the news. There is inevitably a process of selection, of editing, and of emphasis, and this process reflects, to some degree, the way in which the media are organized, the kinds of audiences they seek to serve, and the preference and opinions of the members of the media. Unz’s attack strategy proved appealing to the news media, which gave massive coverage to Proposition 227 as compared with other ballot initiatives and primary races. More than 600 newspaper articles (not to mention countless radio and television broadcasts) appeared on the anti-bilingual initiative in the six months before Election Day.[9] Most of these reports featured inflammatory charges by Ron Unz, rarely accompanied by effective counter-arguments. By and large, the press defined the debates as Unz did: not “How can programs for English learners be improved?” or “Do school districts need greater flexibility in teaching these students?” but “Should bilingual education be eliminated in favor of intensive English instruction?” This way of framing the issue—as a misleading either/or decision—clearly benefited the Yes on 227 campaigns. Moreover, it cast opponents in an unfamiliar and uncomfortable role: defenders of the status quo. Media bias is a complex phenomenon-reflecting various external influences, internal working of the “news business,” and the culture of journalism. All of these sources contributed to the distorted and unbalanced coverage of Proposition 227.

            Third, in order to indict the “current system,” Unz seized a misleading figure from the California Department of Education. Since the early 1990s, about 5 to 7 percent of LEP students had been “re-designated” as fluent in English each year. He dubbed this the 95 percent annual failure rate”—a memorable sound—bite that was circulated widely by journalists. Seldom was it noted that, owing to an estimated shortage of 27,000 bilingual teachers, less than 30 percent of California’s English learners were enrolled in bilingual classrooms and only 20 percent were taught by fully certified instructions.[10] If programs were indeed “failing,” it was more logical to blame English-only methodologies. Nor did the news media ask many questions about Unz’s one-year standard for English acquisition, despite its lack of scientific support. The pros and cons of bilingual education—not of the initiative itself—commanded center stage throughout the campaign. Because Unz avoided nativist appeals and targeted pedagogical issues, few commentators saw the initiative as an attack on ethnic minorities. Rather, they portrayed it as a choice between a “depressing status quo,” “the dismal experiment known as bilingual education,” and “a meat-ax, ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach to a complicated issue,” “a blunt instrument” requiring schools to stress English. Most voters opted for the latter. (James Crawford, 1999)

            Fourth, for Ron Unz, the assault on bilingual education served a broader, neoconservative agenda. He argued, “most Hispanics are classic blue-collar Reagan Democrats” whose views on social issues like abortion draw then toward conservatism, while Asians are a privileged stratum “much like Jews…but without the liberal guilt.” He portrayed both groups as “natural constituencies” for Republicans. Thus the party should seek “to unite rather than divide conservative natives and immigrants” by stressing “core policies” such as free markets and limited government. Conversely, it should oppose “divisive” programs like affirmative action and bilingual education in the name of “individual liberty, community spirit, and personal self-reliance.” In other words, conservatives should be both “pro-immigrant” and pro-assimilation. Ron Unz “recognized that in many respects the political climate was extraordinarily inopportune for such an effort (Ending what he called “this failed and legally dubious program-bilingual education). The ethnic wounds inflicted by 187 had been reopened by the destructive handling of 209, and for a Republican like myself to jump in with a proposal to dismantle the bilingual cornerstone of Latino public education was to risk a terrible explosion. In order to mitigate the risk, it was absolutely crucial that the ballot measure be properly perceived as being both pro-immigrant and politically nonpartisan.”[11] Unz’s initiative provided the first test of his ideas for conservative coalition building: Could the fears of English speakers be assuaged without alienating too many minorities? Was opportunity-through-assimilation an idea that could be sold to immigrants and natives alike? Would it be credible to attack bilingual education on behalf of those it was designed to benefit? The results were missed. Unz fell far short of the 80 to 90 percent support among Latinos that he predicted at the outset of his campaign; in the June primary they opposed the initiative by nearly 2 to 1 (Los Angeles Time—CNN Poll, 1998). His dream of a political realignment in California looked even more outlandish, as ethnic minorities turned out in record numbers to back Democratic candidates in November 1998. Clearly, immigrants and their descendants continued associate the Republican Party with the nativist elements it had courted in recent years. Nevertheless, judging by the vote on Proposition 227, Unz’s short-term strategy had a wide appeal among Californians. The initiative passed easily, despite a disproportionate turnout of liberal and Democratic voters, who defeated other conservative ballot measures.[12] Ethnic opposition was considerable weaker than it had been over Proposition 187 four year earlier: 37 percent of Latinos and 57 percent of Asians voted for the anti-bilingual initiative (Los Angeles Times CNN Poll, 1998),[13] versus 23 percent of Latinos and 47 percent of Asians for the anti-immigrant initiative (Los Angeles Times Poll, 1994). In other words, attacking bilingual education did not result in the polarization than many had expected. Evidence is fragmentary on which language-minority voters supported Proposition 227 and why. Opinion polls indicate, however, that its popularity among all voters was closely correlated with economic status. Respondents with annual household incomes over $60,000 were more than twice as likely to oppose bilingual education as those with incomes below $20,000. Among Latinos, the vote was close in middle-class Huntington Park. A poll of Chinese Americans in San Francisco-a less affluent Asian community, where most respondents preferred to be surveyed in Cantonese or Mandarin-found that 73 percent planned to vote no. Thus the available data suggest that recent immigrants with children in bilingual education were far more likely to oppose Proposition 227. It appears that Unz’s arguments had more resonance for higher-income, English-proficient Asians and Latinos. For many, class tended to take precedence over ethnicity as a prism for viewing the issue. Having limited contact with current programs for English learners, they formed opinions largely on the basis of media accounts. In short, they seemed to approach Proposition 227 not very differently from affluent Anglos. And they rendered the same verdict on bilingual education: guilty as charged. The outcome might have been different however, if the program’s advocates had mounted a defense.

To view the entire essay, go to:
Sent by Richard Esquivel
President, La Raza Network

Co founder
El Comite Consultivo De Padres MECHA JFK
JFK MECHA Parents Advisory Committee

Richard Esquivel -
CEO/ President, Western Trading Company Communications
Innovative Learning Concepts



NASA Website 
My Dear Friends,
Some great Nasa web sites that our children can share with their Spanish speaking
parents or grandparents or Moms and Dads that can read in Spanish can share and
learn with their children. Many of these web sites can be change over to English and
the children can learn to read Spanish and English at the same time.

Rafael Ojeda




Dream in Color
Aztlán US/Mexico Border Culture and Folklore, An Anthology, Fourth Edition
Brotherhood of the Light
Barefoot Heart: Stories of a Migrant Child
¡Ask a Mexican!
Eyes to the Past by John Arvizu  and Rose Hardy

Dream in Color is a remarkable and inspiring story for everyone in America. The Sanchez family's journey is nothing short of amazing! Two Mexican immigrants, without a high school education, managed to raise seven children and send each one to college. Loretta and Linda's strong sense of self, determination, and hope come to life through perfectly placed stories of their childhood and accounts of their time in Congress. From tales of a winning softball team, to meeting Cesar Chavez, to a party at the Playboy Mansion, Dream in Color keeps the reader interested and wanting more. In fact, my only critique of the book is that I wish I could have learned more from their parents, Maria Macias and Ignacio, grandmother, Amalia, and great- aunt, Betty. Dream in Color reminds us all that the American Dream is very much alive and the Sanchez sisters are proof. 

John Schmal


Aztlán US/Mexico Border Culture and Folklore, An Anthology, Fourth Edition

Announcing the 4th Edition of Aztlán US/Mexico Border Culture and Folklore an Anthology edited by José “Pepe” Villarino and Arturo Ramírez to be published by McGraw-Hill Spring 2009. One of the features of this edition is the makeuo of its authors; out of 24 writers 12 are women. “What is history today will become folklore tomorrow”. (Miguel Méndez). Professors teaching culture or folklore should consider using this edition in their classes. ISBN # 0073538515 and fax is: 563-584-6301 for desk copy. ¡Sí se puede!

José “Pepe” Villarino Professor Emeritus
Department of Chicana/Chicano Studies (CCS)
San Diego State University
San Diego Ca 92182


Brotherhood of the Light: 
A novel of the Penitentes and Crypto-Jews of New Mexico. 
By Ray Michael Baca

A novel about the un-easy and often misunderstood relationships of Crypto-Jews and Hispanos in New Mexico and their deep common roots in Spanish history--conquest and colonization--and religious faith and shared values. Brotherhood of the Light follows the lives of three men from one family who lived in different centuries but were inexorably bound by the legacy of a cross that was brought from the Old World to the New. A relic that had come to prominence at the battle for Granada, when Spain united to expel the Moors.  Descendants of Sephardic Jews who fled the Inquisition in Spain, the family joined Los Hermanos Penitentes. This secretive society of lay Catholic men in Northern New Mexico, who believe in emulating Christ’s Passion, his trial, his walk, and his suffering on the cross at the end of each Lenten season, was used for a dozen generations as a shield by the family to disguise their Crypto-Jewish identity while they struggled with the legacy bestowed upon them.  


Barefoot Heart: 
Stories of a Migrant Child 
by Elva Trevino Hart 

Winner of the American Book Award, 
the Alex Award, and the Violet Crown

Hart’s expressive and remarkably affecting memoir concerns her childhood as the daughter of Mexican immigrants who worked as migrant workers to feed their six children. Hart remembers...when the entire family participated in the back breaking field labor, driven mercilessly by Apa (her father), who was determined to earn enough money to allow all his children to graduate from high school. Hart eloquently reveals the harsh toll that poverty and discrimination took on her family in sharply etched portraits of Ama, Hart’s worn-out mother who clearly loved her daughter but was too exhausted to show it; of her brother Rudy, who refused to sit at the back of the bus because he was a Mexican; and of her teenage sisters, who struggled to keep their dignity in the muddy fields. At 17, she drove her father back to Mexico to visit his family; she recalls how he suddenly changed into a happy man who felt at home with his land, his language and his people. This is a beautifully written debut from a writer to watch. 

Editor:  Information from press release for an event in November at UT, Austin



Hi from Lou Serna. 
Books can be expensive due to the high costs to produce them, and it is often difficult to add even one more book to our budgets..!  With that in mind, I have decided to produce my most popular books as E-Books, as well as "hard bound books"...  The dream of every author is to have your books read and hope that they bring the same joy in reading as they do in the writing..! So to that end, I have reduced the price of my books by half or more, by offering them as E-Books.
If you are unfamiliar with E-Books, they are simply books that have been produced in PDF format, with all pictures in full color. The buyer can then place an order and the file immediately downloads to the buyer's computer, to a file of their choice. The buyer can then read the book on their computer or print it on their home printer and then either save it in a 3 ring binder or have it spiral bound at your nearest Office Depot, or other, for just a couple of dollars. It is a very convenient and economic way to order books.
If you are interested in any of my books, I have them on my website at; 
To place an order, just go to the "Cart" button for that book and click on it. Then go to the "View Cart" button and click on it and then pay for the book(s) by PayPal or Credit Card. You will receive a "download" button with which to receive your book instantly.
I hope you find this process convenient, economical, and above all; that you find my books interesting and informative..!!!  
Lou Serna        (505) 681-9458


Ask a Mexican

¡Ask a Mexican! is a U.S. syndicated weekly column written by Gustavo Arellano published by Orange County's alternative weekly OC Weekly. It was first published in 2004 as a one-time spoof, but it ended up becoming one of the weekly's most popular columns.  Now available in a book, ¡Ask a Mexican!
Every week, readers submit their questions based on Mexicans, including their customs, labor issues, and illegal immigration. Arellano responds to these questions in a politically incorrect manner often starting with the words "Dear Gabacho." The column now appears in 38 newspapers across the country and has a weekly circulation of more than 2 million. Arellano has won numerous awards for the column, including the 2006 and 2008 Best Non-Political Column in a large-circulation weekly from the Association of Alternative Newsweeklies, the 2007 Presidents Award from the Los Angeles Press Club and an Impacto Award from the National Hispanic Media Coalition, and a 2008 Latino Spirit award from the California Latino Legislative Caucus. 
His email is   
Plus another book by Gustavo  . . . .  Orange County: A Personal History" is now available for purchase at Latino Books Y Mas. Call 760-323-3778 and we will be more than happy to ship one to your home. 

"Orange County: A Personal History" is also available on-line from our website, .  

Watch a short video on Gustavo!
Sent by Jack Holtzman 


New book, to be released


A Pictorial History from Families of Azusa, Baldwin Park and Irwindale
by John Arvizu and Rose Hardy


About The Authors

John Arvizu is a descendant of the early Californio families and can trace his line back to the days of the Aztec Emperor, Moctezuma and the Conquistador, Hernan Cortes.  He has long been interested in Early California history since hearing stories, which were handed down to his father, of the days of the ranchos, fandangos and the bandidos of early Spanish California.  These cultural ties are what have helped to create the California life style, which we all enjoy.  

John’s ancestral family came to California with the early Spanish explorers such as De Anza, and Moncada and who brought with them a richness of culture, foods, language, religion and family traditions which still live with us today.   These family traditions are what have motivated John to preserve his pictorial memories of a bygone era.  “My hope is that the reader of our book will feel a connection and understand why we are who we are because the past, after all, is what defines who we have become.”   

About The Authors

Rosanne (Rose) Gonzales-Hardy was born and raised in Azusa. After high school she decided to expand her horizons and ventured a move to Chico, California in 1979. She lived there for 27 years and raised her family. It was during this time when she became interested in genealogy and has been a genealogist for the passed 17 years. After her two daughters moved to Phoenix, Arizona she decided to relocate to Fresno to be closer to her Northern and Southern California roots.  

Rose can trace her mother’s lineage back to many early Californio families who traveled with Juan Bautista de Anza in 1776 and has traced her father’s ancestral line to the Aztec Emperor Moctezuma. Besides her love of history and genealogy she enjoys painting Egyptian and Mexican folk art.  

Click to read several chapters from Eyes to the Past included in this month's issue. 
El Patrio
The Value of a Penny
Facundo Ayon and Rev. Alexander Moss Merwin

 Contact John for information on purchasing a copy of  Eyes to the Past.



The Beginning of the fall of the Mayan Empire
The Art
of Catherine Robles Shaw
Dec 12-20, Play, American Pastorela: The Road to the White House 
José José, Ésta es mi vida
Bonds of bread: Pan dulce is a slice of Mexican life
The American Guitar Society
        Editor:  Hi Sergio . . .  f u n n y . . . 
Thanks for sending it along . .  I think I will include in the December issue.  
Do you think it might be taken as disrespectful . . ? 

I think it is funny, but I read the cartoons everyday.  If I go away from the house for a few days, my husband actually saves the cartoons for me . . .  Hugs, Mimi
In a message dated 10/31/2008 6:07:36 P.M. Pacific Daylight Time, writes:
Someone will have something to say no doubt...but that's what cartoons are all about....anyway who in day and age thinks piecing yourself you know where is not disrespectful...........Serg 


The Art of Catherine Robles Shaw

Hand made art always is a gift from the heart.
Please view our 56 page catalog.  Hope to hear from you  soon.

Please visit my site and bookmark it for this Christmas Season and share our site with your friends and family.  Thanks again 

David Archuleta, "American Idol" runner-up

Although Archuleta is a runner-up for the 2008 season of "American Idol", the 17-year old is hoping all those votes on TR's top-rated show will parley into album sales.  His self-titled debut is in stores now.  So far, the tenn's future looks promising.  His single "Crush" peaked at No.2 on the Billboard Hot 100 chars and is a top download on iTunes.

"It is quite a challenge trying to balance both school and this crazy music world, but I've been trying to keep up that . .  so far it's been pretty good."  OC Register, 11-16-08




December 12-20, 2008  
American Pastorela: The Road to the White House by James E. Garcia


New Carpa Theater's Upcoming Production
Dec. 12-20, Playhouse on the Park, 1850 N. Central Ave. American Pastorela is a satirical take on the nativity story. When the Hernandez family in Sonora hears news of the baby Jesus, and set off to Phoenix to catch the light rail to Bethlehem. Guided by Bartolo, a curandero who speaks to God through his I-Pod, the Hernandez family encounters an array of characters along the way, including the Minutemen, twin brothers Monty and Harry Dystal, El Diablo, and more than a few failed presidential candidates. 

Mr. Ambassador: The Life and Times of Raul H. Castro
A world premiere play by James E. Garcia, directed by Terry Earp was presented November 7th at the Playhouse on the Park in Phoenix, Arizona. 

The drama inspired by the life of Raul H. Castro. Born in 1916 in Cananea, Sonora, Mr. Castro has been a farm worker, boxer, hobo, U.S. ambassador to three nations. In 1974, he made history when he was elected the state’s first and only Hispanic governor. His motto: “I’ve never wanted to be loved, never loved, I’ve wanted to be respected.”  Starring in the lead as Raul H. Castro was James E. Garcia. 

For More information, go to www., call 602-460-1374 or email



José José: Ésta es mi vida
Book Signing/Firma de Libro in California

I just chance to see a performance of José José last week on television.  It was a tribute to José José. It was most interestingly done.  A huge background displayed films of previous concerts by José José while young artists in front of the screen and on stage sang the same song interchangeably with the recorded José José.  The camera would cut to José José viewing both the film and the artist, encouraging with facial and hand movements, the young artists.  It was quite outstanding.  
José José: Ésta es mi vida
November 24th
24 de Noviembre
5:00 PM - 7:00 PM
Librería Martinez
Plaza Mexico
11221 Long Beach Blvd., Suite 102
Lynwood, CA 90262

310 637 9494


José José: Ésta es mi vida
ISBN 978-0-3073-9244-2
Memoir | Trade Paperback | $18.95

José José's big break came on March 14 1970, when he represented Mexico in an international song festival "II Festival de la Canción Latina" (predecessor of the Festival OTI de la Canción) with an amazing performance of the song "El Triste". The performance of the song was so touching that caused tears, standing ovations, expressions of amazement and cheers from Angélica María, Alberto Vázquez, Marco Antonio Muñiz, the judges and the spectators in the Teatro Ferrocarrilero in Mexico City. The fact that José José got the third place shocked the audience. After that hit, his popular romantic ballad style mixed with a unique voice made him the star of stars in Mexico. 

Libreria Martinez - Lynwood | (Plaza Mexico) | 11221 Long Beach Blvd., Suite 102 | Lynwood | CA | 90262   Sent by


Bonds of bread
Bonds of bread

Pan dulce is a slice of Mexican life

Pan dulce
is a slice of Mexican life

It’s 8 p.m. in a Mexico City suburb. Kids are still playing on the streets when a van honks its horn and the guy driving it shouts: “!El pan y la leche!”

Housewives come out and buy some bread pieces for the merienda (a light afternoon meal), and even some bolillos for tomorrow’s tortas. Once the van is gone, everyone goes home. It’s time to gather with parents and siblings and share the experiences of the day while enjoying a concha fresh from the oven and a hot chocolate.
Every night el pan dulce bonds families, a tradition that Mexicans have taken with them beyond its borders.
El pan dulce is as essential to the Mexican culture as el mariachi. It dates back to the Colonia era in 17th century, when the Spanish crown brought new recipes to Nueva España. During the 1860s, the European influence in the cooking of bread increased with the presence of the French emperor Maximilian. Years later, when the Mexican Revolution was over, soldiers took home bread recipes from different regions, creating a great variety of panes that today can be found in any panadería.
The first thing to learn about Mexican sweet bread is the name of each pan, which usually refers to the shape it resembles. For example, el cuernito, la concha, el cochito or el elotito (the horn, the shell, the pig and the corn cob).
However, these names sometimes have another meaning with some kind of playful tease or even sexual connotation. El ombligo is a bread with the shape of a popped-up belly button, but it also looks like a breast, which gives it the nickname of Chichi de Monja (Nun’s breast).
Some people refer to breads such as el bizcocho to use as pick up lines. They say, “Oye guapa, estas hecha un bizcocho!” (Non-literal translation: “Hey, good-looking, you’re as sweet as a bizcocho!”)
 Another characteristic of the breads’ names is the items they are associated with, such as la bandera cookies because they has the green, white and red colors of the Mexican flag.
In many Mexican celebrations it is essential to have some kind of sweet bread. During Dia de los Muertos, all panaderías have pan de muerto, which is asoft round shaped bread with pieces in the form of bones on top of it and covered with sugar. It is usually put in the ofrendas, or altar offerings, and when eating it is dipped in sweet drinks like chocolate caliente.
This upcoming Dia de los Muertos stop by most, authentic Mexican panaderías in the Valley, get your tray and clamps and shovel inas many panes as you hunger for. Pan de muerto, un panque o una concha, for your merienda, breakfast or snack. Just make sure you get the freshest pan calientito.
So like the song says:
En la tarde
la hora de la merienda
don Juanito’s voz
would sing again.
Pan Calientito!
70-year-old viejito
carrying en su Canastota
el dorado corazon
de nuestra gente...
Don Juanito by Jesus “El Flaco” Maldonado
Where: Panaderías
Azteca: 416 N. 7th Ave., Phoenix 
La Toteca: 1205 E. Van Buren, Phoenix
El Fenix: 6919 S. Central Ave., Phoenix
La Purisima:
4425 W. Glendale Ave, Phoenix
Flores Bakery: 8402 S. Avenida del Yaqui, Guadalupe
Sonora Panadería: 347 E. Southern Ave., No. 108, Mesa
El Sol: 760 N. Arizona Ave., Chandler


The American Guitar Society,
Department of Music, California State University, Northridge, California
and The Augustine Foundation presented a concert on November 15, 2008

The artists Cantar y Tañer were:  Sandra Lohr, voice and guitar & Enrique Velasco, guitar

One of Mexico's foremost concert guitarists, Enrique Velasco´s career spans over 38 years, with performances in over 32 countries in Europe, Asia and the Americas, and featuring five tours of Italy and six of the former Soviet Union. Venues at which he has performed include the Kennedy Center in Washington; Tchaikovsky Hall and Tetryakov Hall in Moscow; the Philharmonic National Concert Halls in Kiev, Odessa, St. Petersburg, Vilnius, Baku, Alma-Ata, Tbilisi, Zelinograd and Tashkent; Chopin Auditorium in Warsaw, UNESCO Auditorium in Paris; and the National Palace of Fine Arts, Netzahualcoyotl Hall and the National Center of Arts in Mexico. Velasco has been a guest soloist for many of the foremost orchestras of Mexico as well as several prestigious foreign orchestras including the Washington Chamber Orchestra and the Vermont Symphony, the Cremona Chamber Orchestra, and the Guatemala National Symphony. His discography comprises seven CDs. Currently, Velasco teaches on the music faculty of the Universidad Veracruzana, where he also served as chairman, and the Superior Institute of Music in Veracruz, Mexico. Amongst his numerous acheivements, Velasco was awarded First Place in the National Guitar Contest of Mexico, nominated Concert Artist of the Year by the Mexican Union of Critics, and elected President of the Jury of the Polish Manuel Ponce International Guitar Competition.

Sandra Lohr devotes her professional activities to the performance of Mexican and Latin American traditional song, with its wealth of classical and folkloristic charm. Her research of this repertory dates back to childhood. Lohr studied at Mexico´s National School of Music and later at the University of Veracruz. She has performed throughout Mexico, and across the United States, Central America, Italy, France and Russia. The award of Revelation of the Year by the OTI (International Spanish Music Festival) is one of her many notable distinctions. Her recordings include Cantar y Tañer (Mexican/Latin American music); La Casa de los Muñecos (children´s songs) and Cantares de mi Tierra (traditional Mexican songs).

A concert of traditional Mexican and Latin Amerian music, including works by Alfonso Esparza Oteo, Luis Bahamonde, Hector Ayala, Augustín Lara and José Alfredo Jiménez




Anti-Spanish Legends


From Somos Primos: A Website Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues, December 2008.

By Felipe de Ortego y Gasca

Scholar in Residence, Western New Mexico University; Professor Emeritus, 
Texas State University System—Sul Ross

[Hic et Ubique--Number 5 in a series on La Leyenda Negra]  


At the start of the 20th century, the United States had acquired Hispanic citizens who came with the Louisiana Purchase (1803)—principally in New Orleans , the Florida Cession (1819), the U.S.-Mexico War (1846-1848), and the Spanish American War (1898)—Puerto Rico, Cuba, Guam, and the Philippines from the latter, wresting the last vestiges of the Spanish empire in North America. By this time, also, a national amnesia began to cloud the derring-do of 19th century American imperialism fueled by Manifest Destiny. While ostensibly paying homage to the Spanish enterprise in North America, the World’s Fair of 1892 in Chicago drew attention to the Columbian Exchange mostly as an Italian initiative since by then Italian Americans had appropriated Columbus as an Italian icon.   

But hic and ubique across the continent there were mordant pockets of anti-Hispanic sentiment fueled by xenophobia and the Black Legend. What better way to blot out the achievements of the Spanish enterprise in North America than by omitting them from the national narrative or else by presenting them as stereotypic caricatures. For example, Senator Albert J. Beveridge of Indiana, an outright anti-Hispano, led the fight against statehood for Arizona and New Mexico on the grounds that Mexican Americans were unaspiring, easily influenced, and totally ignorant of American ways and mores; that despite the passage of fifty years since the Mexican American War, Mexican Americans were still aliens in the United States, most of them having made no effort to learn English. According to Beveridge, such linguistic resistance was treasonous (Charles Edgar Maddox, The Statehood Policy of Albert J. Bevaeridge, 1901-1911 (Master’s Thesis, University of New Mexico, 1938, 42). Never mind that over 600 Mexican Americans, more than half the complement of Teddy Roosevelt’s Rough Riders, served in Cuba with distinction during the U.S. War with Spain in 1898. Both Arizona and New Mexico were admitted to statehood in 1912 by which time the majority population of both states was white.  

Twentieth century America looked to Mexico for cheap labor. The American motto was “When we want you, we’ll call you, when we don’t –git” (Ernesto Galarza, “Without Benefit of Lobby,” Survey Graphic, May 1, 1931, 135). The increasing presence of “Mexicans” in the United States fueled anti-Hispanic sentiments further. In government reports and public news stories, “Mexicans” were characterized as “lacking ambition” and were inclined “to form colonies and live in a clannish manner” (Samuel Bryan, “Mexican Immigrants in the United States,” The Survey, September 7, 1912, 726).  

In a 1917 piece for The Survey (“My Mexican Neighbors,” March, 3, 624), Edith Shatlo King wrote in nuce: “When there is no occasion for personal loyalty, the Mexican is bitter in hatred. He is supersensitive to insults and slights, quick tempered, proud and high spirited. He lacks a habit of sustained industry and a practical sense which Americans cannot accept. And his mañana or faculty of putting off until tomorrow, and his slowness of movement are constant irritants. So, too, in American eyes, the looseness of their marriage ties is an obstacle to their development”  

Avarice and prejudice saw “Mexicans” (including Mexican Americans) from different perspectives. Avarice saw them as cheap, exploitable and therefore necessary; prejudice saw them as alien, unnatural and therefore unwanted. Both won, for “Mexicans” were discriminated against as much as they were exploited. In 1928 (August), Erna Ferguson wrote that “the Mexican frankly hates work and refuses to be bullied into believing that he loves it” (“New Mexico’s Mexicans,” The Century Magazine, 438). In that same piece she explained “Mexicans love to hold office. A title, even the title of Sheriff, fills a whole family with pride. An office that involves a sword or gold braid is so much the better. Spanish pride seems to rest on ancestry, on offices or titles more than on the individual’s achievement. Struggling for years to win wealth or power appeals to the Mexican not at all. This may be a social quality founded in a deep fatalism” (440).  

So completely had the spurious profiles of Mexicans and Mexican Americans gained acceptance in the United States by the end of the 1920s that even Mexican Americans themselves had come to reiterate dysphorically their assigned characteristics as articles of faith. In a piece entitled “Pachita” (The Family, April 1927, 44), Emilie Baca suggests that Pachita’s problems of promiscuity and immorality had something to do with the fact that she was Mexican: “Embued [sic] with the futile philosophy of the peon, she yields to whatever emotion is uppermost in her mind, taking her sorrows without much complaint as she takes her pleasures without comment—her outlook on life utterly apathetic.”  

These were the popular images of Mexicans and Mexican Americans pandered by the American public media, though some historians contend that by this time the Black Legend had begun to fade. Not true! It was as virulent as ever. World War I did not lessen that virulence. Neither did World War II. “For a century after the 1840s, Mexican Americans were subject to laws, norms and practices akin to the Jim Crow apartheid system that discriminated against blacks after the Civil War” (Ruben G. Rumbaut, “Pigments of Our Imagination: On the Racialization and Racial Identities of ‘Hispanics’ and ‘Latinos’” in How the U.S. Racializes Latinos: White Hegemony and its Consequences, edited by José A. Cobas, Jorge Duany and Joe R. Feagin, Paradigm, 2008, 4)  

In the 20th century, the Mexican Civil War of 1910-1921 spurred a mass exodus of Mexicans to the United States. Estimates of that exodus place the number at more than a million and a half Mexicans who came north from Mexico, fleeing the destabilization of the country by a military coup. The population of this exodus swelled the number of “Mexicans” in the United States to a significant population size which along with the population of the conquest generation made up the foundation population of Mexican Americans today. In part, this ingress of Mexicans in American society kept the cauldron of anti-Hispanic sentiment hot.  

Interestingly, the term “La Leyenda Negra” (the Black Legend) was not coined until 1914 by Julian Juderia in his book La leyenda negra y la verdad histórica (The Black Legend and Historical Truth). Until 1914, the smear campaign of the Black Legend was carried out without label. However, the work which provided a broader view of the Black Legend was Historia de la Leyenda Negra hispanoamericana (History of the Hispanoamerican Black Legend), by Rómulo D. Carbia (1943).

   Copyright © 2008 by the author. All rights reserved.  




Americans in Focus Short Vignettes: Hispanic Heritage Month
Sponsored by Farmers Insurance Group

Fernando Barragan
Fernando Barragan is self-taught artist and muralist who is committed to using his talents to honor history and bring beauty to his Los Angeles neighborhood.

Alex Pels
Alex Pels, immigrated from Argentina, to the U.S. and honed his skills in production and management to become a General Manager of the television network mun2.

Dr. Juan Carlos Finlay
Dr. Finlay discovered the cause and eventual cure of the transmission of Yellow Fever. But it wasn't until after his death, 39 years later, that he finally received proper credit for his discovery.

Beatrice Porto
Beatrice Porto's mother began Porto's Bakery in her kitchen more than 30 years ago. Today, it's a multi-million dollar business operated by Beatrice, her brother and sister.

Civil Rights in the Classroom
Little known, but historic cases of Mexican-Americans who fought for the civil rights of their children in the classroom such as Alvarado vs. the Kansas City, Kansas School District and Mendez vs. Westminster Schools in Orange County, California.

Squadron 201
In 1944 Squadron 201, a group of Mexican Fighter pilots, joined forces with the United States and helped defeat the Japanese in the Philippines.

Roxana Lissa
At the age of 25, Roxanna Lissa, who is from Argentina, opened 'RL Public Relations' and within ten years turned the company into a multi-million dollar business with offices in Los Angeles and New York.

Victor Villasenor
Victor Villasenor overcame dyslexia and racial bias to become an award-winning author of seven best sellers.

Dr. Mayra Sanchez
Dr. Mayra Sanchez is a first generation American whose parents are from Bolivia. Dr. Sanchez proved all the naysayers wrong when she beat the odds and followed her passion to become a physician.

Irivn Trujillo
Irvin Trujillo is a 7th generation textiles weaver who is one of few in the world who has mastered and continues to work in the 300 year old Rio Grande textile tradition.

Admiral David Farragut
In 1866, Civil War Hero David Farragut became the first U.S. naval officer ever to be awarded the rank of Admiral. He coined the phrase, 'Damn the torpedoes! Full speed ahead!'
Sent by Fredrick Aguirre

Military and Law Enforcement Heroes



- Ultimate Sacrifice

Part XI

 By  Mercy Bautista-Olvera

In the coming months this series “Latinos/Latinas Ultimate Sacrifice” will present the stories and contributions of heroes who have sacrificed their lives for United States . The reason for me to be interested in writing about Hispanics, who lost their lives in Wars, I want to be one of their voices. We do appreciate their sacrifice. It is my sincere belief and commitment, that these heroes are never forgotten. Take time to look at their faces, read their histories, and keep their spirit alive…


Civilian Santa Garcia Ramirez, 33 of Florence , Arizona , died on June 28, 2007 when a suicide car bomber detonated near her convoy in Afghanistan .

Santa Garcia Ramirez was born in Casa Grande , Arizona . She was a corrections officer in Florence , Arizona for 12 years before joining Pacific Architects & Engineers in August 2006 servicing the United States Department working for the NATO, and had been in Afghanistan since October of 2007 as an advisor helping to rebuild their prison system leading to the International Security Assistance Force. Not many people have been written about her, perhaps because she was a Civilian. A notice of her death was sent to Lockheed Martin connected to the Pacific Architects & Engineers Company. Not much has been written about Civilian Santa Garcia Ramirez just a Reuters report of the incident. Carlos Ramirez, daughter Soriah Prokopich, her parents, three brothers and six sisters, survives Civilian Santa Garcia Ramirez. 

Army Sgt. Giann C. Joya Mendoza 27, of North Hollywood , Calif. , died June 28, 2007 of wounds sustained when insurgents using improvised explosive devices attacked his unit in Baghdad , Iraq . Assigned to the 2nd Battalion, 12th Infantry Regiment, 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 2nd Infantry Division, Fort Carson , Colorado . 

Giann Carlo Joya-Mendoza was born on the Fourth of July in Honduras , immigrated with his mother as a teenager, attended Birmingham High School in Van Nuys. He enlisted in the Army when he was 20 years old, served in Germany and South Korea . After completing his tour of duty, he worked at Los Angeles ’ Mondrian Hotel working as a busboy than he held a job as an accountant, but he reenlisted in June 2005. “His goal was to eventually transfer into ‘some analytical branch of the Army, and learn another language, possibly French,” his stepfather said.  “We love Giann Carlo, a simple, down to earth kind of guy who loved what he was doing,”  

Army Capt. Maria Ines Ortiz 40, of Bayamon , Puerto Rico., died July 10, 2007 in Baghdad , Iraq of wounds sustained from indirect enemy fire. Assigned to the Kirk United States Army Health Clinic in Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland .

Maria Ines Ortiz was born in Pennsauken, N J, and raised in Bayamon , Puerto Rico . She enlisted in the Army in 1991 and got her nursing degree in 1999 from the University of Puerto Rico followed by her master’s degree in Quality Management from the Massachusetts National Graduate School in 2004. She volunteered to be deployed to Iraq in September 2007. Army Capt. Maria Ines Ortiz became the first Army nurse to die in Baghdad , from wounds suffered during a mortar attack on the Green Zone. Army Capt. Maria Ines Ortiz was assigned to the 28th Combat Support Hospital , 3rd Command as the head nurse for the Intermediate Care Ward where she attended to Iraqi civilians and American soldiers. She had been caring for patients at the hospital inside the fortified district and not wearing body armor because she felt safe inside the walls of central Baghdad ’s Green Zone district. Before being assigned to Kirk as the Chief Nurse of general medicine, Maria had been stationed in Puerto Rico , Korea and at Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Washington ; D. C. Ortiz was buried in Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia . Her name was inscribed in “El Monumento de la Recordación,” dedicated to Puerto Rico’s fallen soldiers in San Juan , Puerto Rico on May 26, 2008 during Memorial Day.


Army Spc. Roberto J. Causor Jr., 21, of San Jose , Calif. , died July 7, 2007 in Samarra , Iraq , of wounds sustained when insurgents attacked his unit with an improvised explosive device and small-arms fire. Assigned to the 2nd Battalion, 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 82nd Airborne Division, Fort Bragg , North Carolina .


Within a year, he became a paratrooper with 82nd Airborne Division. His family said they had hoped Causor would not join the Army after high school they soon realized his strong conviction to serve his country. Army Spc. Roberto, J. Causor Jr., burial in Oak Hill Cemetery in San Jose for this brave soldier drew nearly 100 family members and friends including fellow soldiers from Fort Bragg . “It is an honor and privilege to have had the opportunity to serve alongside Spc. Roberto Causor,” said Cpt. Buddy Ferris, commander of C. Company, 2nd Br. , 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment. “Spc. Causor epitomized the words courage, selfless service and honor; he was a Paratrooper that represented all that is great about America ”. He completed Infantry One Station Unit Training in November 2004 and the Basic Airborne Course in December 2004 at Fort Benning , Georgia . “His sacrifice strengthens our resolve to accomplish our difficult mission to keep America safe.” “My wife and I knew from when Roberto was a young boy that he had a desire to serve his country and join the Army, “Roberto Causor Sr., said. Words cannot express how proud we are of him; he will always be our hero.” 


Army Sgt. 1st Class Luis Enrique “kiki” Gutierrez-Rosales 38, of Bakersfield , Calif. , died on July 18, 2007 in Adhamiyah , Iraq of wounds sustained when enemy forces using an improvised explosive device and small-arms fire attacked his vehicle. Assigned to the 1st Battalion, 26th Infantry, 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 1st Infantry Division, Schweinfurt , Germany .

 Luis E. Gutierrez Rosales, known as “Kiki,” was born in Tepic , Mexico , immigrated with his mother when he was 16 years old. He graduated from Bakersfield High School after that he served in the California Conservation Corps and then joined the Army at 21. On his second, tour of duty in Iraq Army Sgt. Luis Enrique Gutierrez Rosales 38 was a platoon leader. “He just wanted to be a soldier,” said his mother, Maria. Gutierrez Rosales was an 18-year Army veteran, was a voracious reader and enjoyed writing to his family. He stationed in South Carolina , Alaska , Thailand , Panama and Germany , while stationed in Germany he sent a computer to his mother so both could e-mail each other often. While he was on leave from the Army, he visited his family and enjoyed jogging. He was a divorced father who would split his time with his family and daughter Amber who lives in North Carolina , with his mother, most of all he enjoyed his time with his daughter.


Army Spc. Vincent A. Madero 22, of Port Hueneme , Calif. , died on October 17, 2007 in Balad , Iraq , of wounds sustained when an improvised explosive device detonated near his Humvee.  Assigned to 2nd Battalion, 82nd Field Artillery Regiment, 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 1st Cavalry Division, Fort Hood , Texas .   

Vincent A. Madero was born in San Jose , California . “He was a rambunctious child who never said no to a dare,” said his mother Sybil. His family nicknamed him Evel Knievel as a 6- year-old by hurtling down a winding playground slide on a skateboard. “He had a hard time struggling to find out who he was; he wanted a change in his life,” said his sister. Army Spc. Vincent A. Madero had grown up hearing stories from his father Blas Madero, about his time in the Marine Corps. He loved to see his father’s photos from foreign countries. Madero decided to join the military when he was 18. Army Spc. Vincent A. Madero was stationed in Fairbanks , Alaska where he met his wife Ellen and her son Jamie. Madero returned from his first tour in Iraq , he surprised the family in June when he married his girlfriend Ellen; and that had planned to adopt her son. Vincent was talented at drawing and photography and loved to listen to various types of music, he also like working on old cars as well. Madero’s online profile shows a glimpse into a life cut short. There are snapshots of Madero in uniform in Iraq and Kuwait . “ Moon River ,” sung by Audrey Hepburn, plays in the background. When Army Spc. Vincent A. Madero returned to Iraq for a second tour, told his mother, “Mom, they need me, if I don’t go out there, one of those young kids will go out and get themselves killed. I have the experience."


Air Force Staff Sgt. Alejandro Ayala 26, of Riverside , Calif. , died Nov. 18, 2007 of injuries sustained as a result of a vehicle accident in Kuwait . Assigned to the 90th Logistics Readiness Squadron, F.E. Warren Air Force Base, Wyoming .  

Alejandro Ayala had a twin sister Liset; Alejandro attended Arlington High School in Riverside , California .  He was a cadet in the Junior ROTC all four years, by his senior year; he was the cadet corps commander and knew he was destined for a military career. His ROTC instructor during his final year, Col. Kenneth Brady, remembers Alejandro as “one of the most respected among all the cadets, he led by example.” When Ayala joined the Air Force, it was rare for family time. Since he enlisted in the Air Force, it was difficult for him to visit his family. He had been in the Air Force for eight years. Air Force Staff Sgt. Ayala had been stationed in North Carolina , Wyoming , England and Kurdistan before his tour in Kuwait , but Alejandro had said that he planned to take 30 days of leave in April.  


Alejandro and Cesar AyalaAir Force Staff Sgt. Alejandro Ayala, left, and his brother Cesar, a sergeant in the Marine Corps, last saw each other in August 14 at the Camp Virginia military base in Kuwait as Cesar was returning home to Riverside after completing his second tour in Iraq . Alejandro was killed on Nov. 18. 


Alejandro fascination with the military began in high school, where he served with the ROTC. “He loved the Air Force and talked of making it his career, his brother had basic training in Lackland Air Force Base and then was assigned to Seymour Johnson Air force Base, where met his future wife, Megan. said his brother Marine Corps Sgt. Cesar Ayala. The youngest in the family, Angelica, 19, prizes a stuffed bunny her brother mailed her on her 11th birthday. "He named it "Mija," she said. The name was the one he used for her, a Spanish conflation of the words "my daughter." Alejandro’s father, Faustino fondly recalls frequent family trips to Rosarito , Mexico , how the twins Alejandro and Liset, Cesar, the eldest brother Francisco spent long day riding motorbikes on the sand dunes and sleeps in tents at night. “Those were happy days,” said his father.  

Army Spc. Ivan E. Merlo 19, of San Marcos , Calif. , died Jan. 8, 2008 in Samarra , Iraq , of wounds sustained during combat operations.  Assigned to the 2nd Battalion, 327th Infantry Regiment, 1st Brigade Combat Team, 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault), Fort Campbell, Kentucky .

Ivan E. Marcos graduated from San Marcos High School in San Marcos California in 2006. He joined the Army in October of the same year and arrived at Fort Campbell , Kentucky four months later, he was planning to reunite with his wife, Nicole. Army Spc. Ivan Merlo was supposed to serve as the best man at the wedding of his best friend and brother in combat. Pfc. Phillip J. Pannier. 20, of Washburn , Illinois , both friends were killed on the same day in Samarra , Iraq .    Merlo and Pannier “would do anything for each other,” said Pannier fiancée. Ivan’s brother Diego Merlo said he‘d miss his older brother’s magnetic personality. He also expressed admiration for the way his brother aspirated to achieve greater things in life. The brothers last talked to each other on Dec. 12, on Diego’s 15th birthday. During the conversation, “he said to be strong and said he soon would see me, and I told him to stay safe.” Diego Merlo said. “I’ll always remember how he was always smiling. Army Spc. Ivan E. Merlo is also survived by his parents Tony Merlo and Joanna Villegas.  

PhotoArmy Cpl. Jose A. Paniagua-Morales 22, of Bell Gardens , Calif. , died March 7, 2008 in Balad , Iraq , of wounds sustained in Samarra , Iraq , when his vehicle encountered an improvised explosive device. Assigned to the 4th Battalion, 9th Infantry Regiment, 4th Stryker Brigade Combat Team, 2nd Infantry Division, Fort Lewis , Washington

Jose A. Paniagua-Morales graduated from high school and joined the Army in September 2004 he arrived at Fort Lewis the following January after initial training at Fort Benning, Georgia. The brigade has taken operations to clear Al-Qaida in Iraq fighters from Diyala province and in recent months in towns and cities farther north. Officials said Jose A. Paniagua-Morales mother, lives in Tacoma , Washington and his wife in California . “It’s hard to comprehend why he was taken from us so soon. Only four months left in Iraq , and then he would return home. However, not the way we imagined.” said his aunt Ana. In Lakewood , California , that has a special “connector community” relationship with the 4th Brigade, made note of the fact this would be the first local funeral for a unit soldier. Most soldiers come from the other parts of the country, “it’s an honor for Lakewood ,” said Councilwoman Claudia Thomas.  Army Cpl. Jose Paniagua-Morales home state California , Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger ordered that flags be flown at half-staff at the capitol in Sacramento . “Jose A. Paniagua-Morales a true patriot who gave his life in the defense of liberty. He fought with honor, bravery and loyalty to our country and his fellow soldiers. On behalf of the people of California , Maria and I offer our prayers and deepest condolences to Jose’s loved one as they mourn the loss of an extraordinary Californian,” the governor said in a statement.  


Army Sgt. Gabriel Guzman 25, of Hornbook, Calif. , died March 8, 2008 in Organ , Afghanistan , of wounds sustained when his vehicle encountered an improvised explosive device in Golem Hydra Kala, Afghanistan . Assigned to the second Battalion, 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment, fourth

Brigade Combat Team, 82nd Airborne Division, and Fort Bragg , North Carolina .  

Gabriel Guzman graduated from Concord High school . He joined the Army in 2003 went to Iraq and then Afghanistan . When Gabriel was 17 and Amy was 16, they had a baby, Angela. They knew she would be born with Down syndrome but they wanted to keep her and raise her. “He really had that warrior mentality,” Amy said when he was not doing martial arts; he also could be a “goofball,” a class-clown type who stayed sober at parties. “He was someone everyone looked up to, “Amy said. “He did not follow the crowd. He led the crowd. He knew how to talk to people.” At Army Sgt. Gabriel Guzman funeral, one of his commanders spoke about his skill and character. “Gabe was a warrior, and a fierce one,” “He had talked about making a career out of the Army, but after his time in Iraq, he talked about maybe becoming a California Highway Patrol officer or going to college said his sister Anni. Amy, his daughter’s mother said that even thought she and Guzman had broken up; he wanted to have a closer relationship with his daughter.

 Special thanks to Alan Lessig, Director of Photography, for the website, “Military   Times, Honor the Fallen” ( for granting permission to reproduce photos for this article.  In Memory - - Afghanistan

Noonie Fortin:




Honoring our Veterans 

Veterans honored at Ambrosio Guillen Texas State Veterans Home
Students get special lesson
By Stephanie Sanchez / El Paso Times


Click photo to enlarge Military veterans Luis Lopez, left, Jesus Zamora, center, and... (Rudy Gutierrez / El Paso Times)«123»EL PASO - The familiar tune of the song "El Paso" by Marty Robbins played at a veterans' home Tuesday, as dozens of Fort Bliss soldiers talked and interacted with the home's elderly residents in a Veteran's Day celebration.

All 159 veterans at the Ambrosio Guillen Texas State Veterans Home in Northeast El Paso were honored for their time served in the armed forces.
The celebration included a visit by 70 soldiers from the 1-56th Air Defense Artillery Division and the 401 1st Artillery Division, a live performance by local musician David Huerta, gifts from the Kiwanis Club and a presentation of a "Pied Piper of Saipan" painting, which depicts Pfc. Guy Louis Gabaldon capturing about 1,500 Japanese soldiers and civilians during the Battle of Saipan in World War II.
Also Tuesday, military veterans visited Indian Ridge Middle School as part of Veterans Day.  Students asked the veterans questions about their military service and veterans showed items from their military career, such as a training manual.
Vietnam veteran Augustin Hernandez fought back tears as he spoke to a class. 
"After all these years, it's still inside me," he said.
At the state veterans home, World War II veteran Ricardo Garcia Sr., 83, who served in the Marines, sat with a walker in front of him inside the home's library and shared his experiences as a 19-year-old serviceman in the war.
"I was in for three years. I was in when World War II was going on," he said. "In Okinawa, I was in the front lines for about 10 days. I had a machine gun because aircraft was coming in to bomb us and try to get rid of us. It was close to where we were and I got hit. I got hit on the side and got a piece of shrapnel in my eye - they couldn't get it out."

Those battle wounds are visible now - Garcia wears a black patch over his left eye. But the scares and war memories, don't steer him away from feeling proud.
"I'm really proud of what I did. I did good," Garcia, who wore a World War II veteran hat adorned with about a dozens pins and a gray T-shirt with the "Marines" slogan, said.
Sent by Connie Vasquez




Korean War hero shares story

La Habra veteran wounded in Korea was honored for holding his position. 
(Originally published November 2002.)
By Eric Carpenter, The Orange County Register, May 28, 2008
HONORED: Jesus Rodriguez of La Habra was a Silver Star recipient for his heroism during the Korean War.

Jesus Rodriguez darted through the darkness, diving in and out of foxholes carved into a Korean hillside, shaking with fear as a bullet sliced through his pant leg. A field phone rang, ordering him to hold his ground. Cold and alone, the 18-year-old  clutched his M-1 rifle and, for hours, spit bullets at oncoming attackers. At one point, he used  the rifle to club a North Korean soldier who lunged at him.Rodriguez doesn't remember how many he killed that night n a dozen at least -- but he's  never forgotten the fear.``I don't like to think about it. It's  not like all that John Wayne stuff,'' he said.

``I was constantly in fear for my safety, doing all I could just to see the light of day again.''

The sun did rise, and along with it came a peaceful silence. His attackers retreated. And Rodriguez, a ghostly figure dazed from battle, his clothes and gear tattered by enemy fire, came down the hill to meet his platoon.

Still too young to shave, Rodriguez earned the Silver Star for his heroism that night.

Today, the La Habra resident, now 70, will share his story at California State University, Fullerton, where he will be honored among dozens of Latino veterans of the Korean War in an event organized by the Latino Advocates for Education.

``There is a treasure of stories about the military contributions Mexican-Americans have made waiting to be discovered,'' said Frederick Aguirre, an Orange County Superior Court judge who helped organize the event.

Latino Advocates for Education has held the gathering since 1997. This year, it chose to honor Korean War vets -- around the 50th anniversary of the conflict (1950-53).

Aguirre, president of LAE, said the goal is to expose the public, as well as the Latino community, to contributions Hispanic veterans have made to preserve democracy.

During the Korean War, Orange County's Hispanic population was about 7 percent. But of the Orange County men who died in the conflict, 32 percent were Hispanic -- indicating there was a larger percentage of Hispanic soldiers serving in Korea.

Aguirre hopes stories such as Rodriguez's will instill pride in Hispanic youth and prompt them to consider military service. Today, the U.S. military is about 9 percent Latino.

``I've seen a lot of pain in my life. Of course, it makes me sad that there still are wars,'' Rodriguez said.  ``But I still do encourage teens to consider joining the military. It helped me understand what life is about.''


PRESENTATION: Major General Milton B. Halsey, Deputy GG, 6th Army, presents the silver star to Corporal Jesus Rodriguez, RA19356336, Infantry, Company 1, 35th Infantry, United States Army. Febuary 2, 1951, a numerically superior hostile force launced a determined assault on friendly positions near Anyang-Ni, Korea. Despit the proximity of the onrushing foe, Rodriguez remained at his post on the right flank to deliver a heavy counterfire. When his rifle jammed, he used it as a club against the encircling enemy until the attack had been repulsed. Rodriguez's exemplary courage, tenacity of purpose and unwavering devotion to duty were an inspiration to his fellow soldiers and reflect the highest credit on himself and the army forces. Entered the military service from California. 


Rodriguez grew up the eldest of three children in a tiny house in a mostly Hispanic neighborhood of Los Angeles, near Chinatown. He was raised by his mother; his father left when he was a boy.  

He dropped out of the 11th grade and joined the Army on the condition that he be sent to Japan. Rodriguez wound up in Okinawa just before the conflict in Korea began.  

``When I first heard about what was happening in Korea, I pictured an uprising where we'd be facing pitchforks and sickles,'' he said. ``I had no real concept of what we were in for.''

The military exposed Rodriguez to many other cultures. And at 5 feet, 7 inches, he quickly learned he was dealing with two obstacles in the military: his size and his heritage.

When he was issued his military weapons a sergeant told him, ``Now you Mexicans can carry a knife legally.''  

``I didn't back down to any of it. I stood up for myself,'' Rodriguez said. ``It made me tougher. And it earned me respect.'' He made new friends, but never tried to hide his culture.  

After hard days of training, he often gathered with other Mexican-Americans in a bar in Okinawa to play guitar and sing Mexican rancheras.  



Rodriguez said he and other Hispanics endured taunts and racial slurs. But he said it was tame compared to the discrimination black soldiers endured when his platoon was integrated for the first time.  

Rodriguez saw the worst example when he was injured in combat. Shrapnel from a mortar round struck him in the right thigh. He struggled to get away from the enemy fire, walking with his heel facing backward and his leg squirting blood.  

``Several people just passed me by,'' he recalled. ``A black soldier came to my aid and stopped a tank to get help.''  

The tank driver reluctantly stopped and used a racial slur when asking what he wanted. When the soldier said an injured infantryman needed help, the tank driver asked whether Rodriguez was also black.  

When the soldier said no, the driver stopped to help Rodriguez onto the tank, but told the black soldier he couldn't come along.  ``I couldn't believe it,'' Rodriguez said. ``I told him to give him a break, he just saved me.''


Back in California, life didn't get much easier. He stayed in the Army for a year and everywhere he went, military police stopped him to ask if he'd stolen his decorations.

After being discharged as a corporal at 19, Rodriguez tried to put the military behind him. He worked several jobs before securing a janitorial job with a weather-stripping maker.

He met and married his wife, Julia, and raised three children, rarely talking about his past. He focused on work, completed high school, and moved up the ranks to become plant manager.

But he never forgot his war experience. And about 15 years ago, he got a call from a member of his 29th Infantry Regiment. He reluctantly attended a reunion.

It prompted Rodriguez to talk about the war again. He hasn't stopped since.

He accepts every invitation he gets to talk to veterans groups, ROTC units and the local Korean community.

``Like a lot of people who fought in Korea, I feel it is the forgotten war,'' he said.

``Now a lot of the guys I fought with are dying. I'm fit as a fiddle. It makes me feel guilty. I want people to know what these guys did.''

Rodriguez talks to sick veterans on the phone and visits whenever he can. He's watched three close friends die in the past two years. 

He even dressed in his old work jumpsuit and sneaked into a VA hospital late one night. He pretended to be a maintenance worker so he could be at a friend's bedside as he died.

Every day has become a kind of Veterans Day for Rodriguez.

``There's not a day that goes by that I don't think about my friends in Korea,'' he said. ``We're losing so many now, I need to make it my priority.''



Register news researcher Eugene Balk contributed to this report. 
Posted from archives by Ron Gonzales
Sent by Ricardo Valverde




Images of Valor: 
U.S. Latinos and Latinas of World War II



17 year old Joe Bernal stands in uniform in front of the American flag.

Joe Bernal at age 17
 in Salinas,
September 1, 1945.

Courtesy of the U.S. Latino & Latina WWII Oral History Project.

"I was a young man with seemingly a lot of time and energy 
and I wanted to do right...." 
– Joe Bernal, b. 1927, San Antonio, Texas

After the war, more Latinos, including veterans, took active 
political roles to press for crucial improvements. WWII veteran 
Joe Bernal served first in the Texas House and later in the Texas Senate. Bernal was the primary author of a bill that expunged state statues supporting racial segregation and of another that created the University of Texas at San Antonio in 1969.


Through images and stories, this twelve-panel exhibit, created by the U.S. Latino & Latina WWII Oral History Project in partnership with the School of Journalism and Center for Mexican American Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, provides a historical overview of U.S. Latino participation in World War II.

In addition to historical photographs from the project's archives, "Images of Valor" incorporates contemporary photographs of men and women of the WWII generation by photojournalist Valentino Mauricio. The exhibit focuses on individual stories that reveal larger themes such as citizenship and civil rights and features excerpts from the more than 500 oral history interviews that were part of the project.

"Images of Valor" was sponsored in part by a We the People grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities.

Learn more about the U.S. Latino and Latina World War II Oral History Project online

Exhibit format: 
12 one-sided panels,  Wall space required: approximately 37 linear feet*

*Panels are lightweight and can also be displayed on easels as a free-standing exhibit.
Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.


Sanchez: Father, Son and Grandson

Briggs, 23, is the fourth generation of the Sanchez family to serve in the U.S. military, following his father, grandfather, and great-grandfather, Dionicio P. Sanchez.  He looks forward to next year when he will see 
the father-son duo embracing when they return home. 

Sent by Rosa E. Morales (or)



Tomb of the Unknown Soldier

 On Jeopardy one night, the final question was How many steps does the guard take during his walk across the tomb of the Unknowns --- All three missed it 

This is really an awesome sight to watch if you've never had the chance, it's very fascinating. 

1. How many steps does the guard take during his walk across the 
tomb of the Unknowns and why? 

21 steps. It alludes to the twenty-one gun salute, which is the 
highest honor given any military or foreign dignitary.

2. How long does he hesitate after his about face to begin his 
return walk and why? 

21 seconds for the same reason as answer number 1 

3. Why are his gloves wet? 

His gloves are moistened to prevent his losing his grip on the rifle.

4. Does he carry his rifle on the same shoulder all the time 
and if not, why not? 

He carries the rifle on the shoulder away from the tomb. 
After his march across the path, he executes an about face 
and moves the rifle to the outside shoulder.

5. How often are the guards changed? 

Guards are changed every thirty minutes, twenty-four hours a
day, 365 days a year.

6. What are the physical traits of the guard limited to? 

For a person to apply for guard duty at the tomb, he must be 
between 5' 10" and 6' 2" tall and his waist size cannot exceed 30." Other requirements of the Guard: They must commit 2 years of life to guard the tomb, live in a barracks under the tomb, and cannot drink any alcohol on or off duty for the rest of their lives. They cannot swear in public for the rest of their lives and cannot disgrace the uniform {fighting} or the tomb in
 any way. After two years, the guard is given a wreath pin that is worn on their lapel signifying they served as guard of the tomb. There are only 400 presently worn. The guard must obey these rules for the rest of their 
lives or give up the wreath pin.
The shoes are specially made with very thick soles to keep the heat 
and cold from their feet. There are metal heel plates that extend to the top of the shoe in order to make the loud click as they come to a halt.  There are no wrinkles, folds or lint on the uniform. Guards dress for duty in front of a full-length mirror.. 

The first six months of duty a guard cannot talk to anyone, nor watch TV.
All off duty time is spent studying the 175 notable people laid to rest in Arlington National Cemetery . A guard must memorize who they are and where they are interred. Among the notables are: President Taft, Joe E. Lewis {the boxer} and Medal of Honor winner Audie Murphy, the most decorated soldier of WWII, of Hollywood fame. 

Every guard spends five hours a day getting his uniforms ready for 
guard duty. 


In 2003 as Hurricane Isabelle was approaching Washington , DC , our US Senate/House took 2 days off with anticipation of the storm. On the  ABC evening news, it was reported that because of the dangers from the hurricane, the military members assigned the duty of guarding the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier were given permission to suspend the assignment.
They respectfully declined the offer, "No way, Sir!" Soaked to the skin, marching in the pelting rain of a tropical storm, they said that guarding the Tomb was not just an assignment, it was the highest honor that can be afforded to a serviceperson. The tomb has been patrolled continuously, 24/7, since 1930.. 



Recommended Internet sites

Recommended sites to keep up with resources for Veterans.
Defense Prisoner of War/Missing Personnel Office
Search the website for information related to:
  1991 Gulf War --- Vietnam War --- Cold War---  Korean War---  World War II 

  Latino Pilots

I did a google search on the SR-71 aircrews (pilots) and found two Latinos: The last name of Ochotorena is from Spain, some were in Cuba and the Phillipines. Two Air Force pilots, Gilbert Martinez was promoted to Major and Domingo Ochotorena was promoted to Lt Colonel. 

Sent by Rafael Ojeda


Patriots of the American Revolution

Contributions of the San Diego Presidio in the cause of the American Revolution
Patriots of Peru During American Revolution, Pe-Q , # 14, by Granville Hough, Ph.D.


Photos in 2008 Presidio Plaque Commemoration.ppt
Father Serra Museum in San Diego on Nov 15, 2008

Sons of the American Revolution, San Diego Chapter celebrated the contribution of the San Diego Presidio in the cause of the American Revolution, on November 15. The event was held at the Serra Museum and included a tour of the Museum and a musket salute.  

Information and photos were gathered through the courtesy of George W. Marston, Maria Angeles O'Donnell Olson, Robert Smith, and Monica Herrera Smith (not related to Robert Smith).

Hola Mimi,

Here are some photos of the San Diego Presidio ceremonies by the SAR.  My son Jeff is eligible as a descendant of a Tucson Presidio soldier and may soon become a member.  I thought you my be interested since they are actively recruiting Colonial Spanish descendants.  

Love, Monica Herrera Smith


Maria Angeles O'Donnell Olson, Honorary Spanish Consul of San Diego shared the historical importance of the contribution made by the inhabitants of the San Diego Presidio 
to the cause of the American Revolution. 
SAR San Diego Chapter President, Mr. Michael Howard leads the group in the pledge of allegiance to the American flag . 

Bob Smith on the left as Lt. Ortega stands with Mr. Olson (in the middle), husband 
of Maria Olson, the Honorary Spanish Consul of San Diego. 

Bob is very active with the Sons of the American Revolution, Los Californianos, and Los Pobladores. Currently Bob is the editor for the Los Pobladores newsletter.
For more information of Spanish soldiers in California, contact Bob at: One  




(Pe through Q) Compiled by Granville Hough, Ph.D.


Francisco Pecero. Sgt, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:93.
Tomás Pedreros. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Cab de Huanta, 1798. Leg 7286:XVII:24.
Antonio Peña. Capt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:6.
Domingo Peña. Lt, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:43.
Francisco de la Peña. Lt de Granaderos, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Huanta, 1800. Leg 7288:XVIII:25.
Manuel Antonio Peña. SubLt, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:66.
Mariano Peña. Cadet, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:109.
Simón Peña. Lt, Bn Prov de Mil de Pardos Libres de Lima, 1796. Leg 7286:XII:59.
José Peñalosa. SubLt, Bn prov de Mil de Pardos Libres de Lima, 17966. Leg 728s6:XII:17.
Francisco Plácido de Peñalosa y Hurtado. SubLt Escuadrones Mil Urbanas Dragones de Moquegua, 1797. Leg 7287:XXVII:11.
Juan Esteban Peñalosa y Hurtado. Lt, Mil Urbanas Inf de Moquegua, 1797. Leg 7287:XXVI:18.
Nicolás Peñalva. Capt, Mil Discip de Inf de Cuzco, 1800. Leg 7286:XXIV:6.
Andrés Peralta. Alf, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Huambos, Partido de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:XVII:21.
Manuel Peralta. Sgt, 1st de Fusileros, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IV:34.
Mateo Peralta. Sgt 1st de la 3rd Comp, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1792. Leg 7284:III:71.
Matías Peralta. Lt, Mil Prov Discip Cab de Cuzco, 1797. Leg 7287:X:15.
Matías Peralta. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:64.
Venancio Peralta. SubLt, Bn Prov de Mil de Pardos Libres de Lima, 1796. Leg 7286:XII:35.
Raimundo Pereira. Lt Col, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Celendin, Partido de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IX:2.
Cristóbal Perez. SubLt, grad, Inf Real de Lima, 1800l Leg 7288:XXII:83.
Domingo Perez. Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IV:12.
Domingo Perez. Lt Col, Mil Prov Urbanas Cab de Huanta, 1798. Leg 7286:XVII:1.
Domingo Perez. Sgt, Mil Cab del partido de Santa, 1799. Leg 7286:XXIII:18.
Felipe Perez. Sgt, Escuadr?n Mil Discip Cab de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:X:9.
Fernando Perez. SubLt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:71.
Francisco Perez. Sgt, Inf Real de Lima, 1796. Leg 7287:XXIV:91.
Joaquin Perez. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de San Antonio de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:III:7.
José Perez. Lt, Mil Discip Cab de Huaura, 1797. Leg 7287:XIX:11.
José Perez. Lt, Mil Discip Cab de Ferreñafe, 1797. Leg 7287:XIV:28.
Juan Antonio Perez. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Dragonnes de Chota, 1793. Leg 7284:XXVI:17.
Manuel Perez. Sgt, Mil Discip Dragones de Lima, 1795. Leg 7285:VII:60.
Marcelo Perez. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Dragones de Chota, 1797. Leg 7287:XXIII:43.
Mateo Perez. Sgt, Mil Urbanas de Inf de Huancavelica, 1800. Leg 7288:XVI:20.
Pablo Perez. Capt, Mil Prov Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:25.
Pastor Perez. Sgt, Mil Discip de Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:69.
Pedro Perez. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Cab de Huanta, 1796. Leg 7286:XVII:7.
Vicente Perez. Sgt, Mil Discip Dragones de Acari y Chala, 1796. Leg 7286:I:28.
Vicente Perez. Sgt, Mil Discip Cab de Camaná, 1798. Leg 7386:XIV:29.
Vicente Perez. SubLt, Mil Pardos Libres de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXV:8.
José Perez Bermejo. Cadet, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IV:42.
José Perez de Bustamante. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Dragones de Chota, 1793. Leg 7284:XXVI:10.
Pedro Perez del Clavo. SubLt de Bandera, Mil Prov Urbanas de Huanta, 1800. Leg 7288:XVIII:40.
Ramón Perez de Guardamus. SubLt, Bn Prov de Mil de Pardos Libres de Lima, 1796. Leg 7286:XII:18.
Mateo Perez Buerra. Capt, Bn Prov Mil Discip Inf, Española de Lima, 1796. Leg 7286:X:27.
Manuel Perez Huerta. Sgt, Mil Discip Cab Arnero de Chancay, 1800. Leg 7288:III:28.
Francisco Perez Hurtado. Cadet, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:116.
Santiago Perez Jaramillo. Cadet, Bn Prov Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1796. Leg 7286:X:54.
Manuel Perez Mejia. Lt, 8th Comp, Mil Urbanas Inf de Moyobamba, 1797. Leg 7287:XXIX:17.
José Perez de Mendozda. Capt, Bn Prov de Mil de Pardos Libres de Lima, 1796. Leg 7286:XII:22.
Francisco Picoaga. Lt Col, Mil Discip Inf de Cuzco, 1800. Leg 7286:XXIV:2.
Diego Antonio de la Piedra. Capt, Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1788. Leg 7283:I:23.
Ramón de la Piedra. Alf, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Celendín, Partido de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IX:28.
Tadeo de la Piedra. Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Chota, 1797. Leg 7287:XIII:20.
Juan Antonio de Pielago. Capt, Mil Prov Discip inf de Arequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:16.
Fermin Pierola. Sgt Mayor, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Urubamba, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXVIII:2.
Antonio Pilares. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de Urubamba, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXVIII:3
Fernando Pimentel. Alf, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Quispicanchi, Cuzco, 1798. Leg 7286:XX:27.
José Pimentel. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip Cab de Cuzco, 1792. Leg 7284:XVII:39.
Juan José Pimentel. Sgt, Mil Discip Dragones de Arica, 1800. Leg 7288:II:54.
Juan Pineda. SubLt de Bandera, Bn Prov Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1794. Leg 7285:VIII:10.
Francisco Pinedo. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de Urubamba, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXVIII:42.
Gabriel Pinedo. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf San Antonio de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:III:29.
Juan Francisco Pinillos. Portaestandarte Mil Discip Cab deFerreñafe, 1797. Leg 7287:XIV:8.
Francisco Pino. Portaguión, Mil Prov Dragones de Celendín, Partido de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IX:22.
José del Pino. SubLt, Mil Urbanas Inf de Huamanga, 1800. Leg 7288:XV:23.
Pedro Piñeiro. Alf, Mil Discip Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:53.
Miguel Piquemans. Alf, Mil prov Discip Dragones de Caraveli, 1796. Leg 7287:VIII:30.
Cosme Agustín Pitot. Capt, Mil Dragones Prov de las fronteras de Tarma, 1800.. Leg 7288:XXIX:9
José Pitot Mair. Alf, Mil Dragones Prov de las fronteras de Tarma, 1800l Leg 7288:XXIX:32.
Antonio Pizarro. SubLt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Abancay, 1793. Leg 7284:II:25.
José María Planella. Cadet, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:26.
Manuel Planella. Capt, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:26.
Juan Pola. Sgt, Inf Real de Lima, 1788. Leg 7283:II:123.
Baltazar Polo. Capt, Mil Discip Cab de los Valles de Palpa y Nasca, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXI:5.
Patricio Polo. SubLt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Lambayeque, 1797. Leg 7287:XXII:26.
Fermin Poloni. Cadet, Inf Real de Lima, 1790. Leg 7283:VIII:141.
Luis de Pomareda. Cadet, Escuadrones Mil Urbanas Dragones de Moquegua, 1797. Leg 7287:XXVII:15.
Timoteo Pomareda. SubLt, Mil Urbanas Inf de Moquegua, 1797. Leg 7287:XXVI:26.
Juan Pomiano. Lt, Mil Discip de Cab de Ica, 1800. Leg 7288:XX:17.
Ramón Pomiano. Alf, Mil Discip de Cab de Ica, 1800. Leg 7288:XX:24.
Antonio Ponce. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de Urubamba, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXVIII:6.
Francisco Ponce. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de Urubamba, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXVIII:39.
José Ignacio Ponce de Leon. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de San Antonio de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:III:36.
Pedro Ponce de Leon. SubLt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1792. Leg 7284:III:59.
Tomás Ponce de Leon. Sgt, Mil Discip Inf de Cuzco, 1800. Leg 7286:XXIV:41.
José Ponciano. Alf, Portaguión, Mil Discip Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:56.
Mariano Ponton. Alf, Mil Discip Cab Camaná, 1795. Leg 7285:XII:19.
Juan de Mata Portocarrero. Ayudante Mayor Mil Urbanas Inf de Moyobamba, 1797. Leg 7287:XXIX:18.
Manuel Portocarrero. Lt, Mil Provciales Urbanas Dragones de Chota, 1793. Leg 7284:XXVI:23.
Toribio Portocarrero. Ayudante Mayor, Mil Inf Española de San Juan de la Frontera de Chachapoyas, 1792. Leg 7284:VI:2.
Toribio Portocarrero y Hermosa. Sgt, Mil Inf Española de San Juan de la Frontera de Chachapoyas, 1792. Leg 7284:VI:33.
Eugenio José Portu. Lt, Mil Discip Cab de Arequipa, 1792. Leg 7284:XIII:20.
Bernardo Portugal. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:65.
Gregorio Portugal. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Huanta, 1800. Leg 7288:XVIII:65.
Ramón Porras. Alf, Mil Discip Cab de Ferreñafe, 1797. Leg 7287:XIV:37.
Carlos Ambrosio Postigo. Cadet, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:133.
Gabino Miguel del Pozo. Capt de la 7th Comp, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Lambayeque, 1797. Leg 7287:XXII:9.
Juan Antonio Prado. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Abancay, 1793. Leg 7284:II:8.
Manuel Prado. SubLt de Bandera, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Huanta, 1800. Leg 7288:XVIII:39.
Miguel Prado. Cadet, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf Abancay, 1793. Leg 7284:II:38.
Juan Marcelo Pravia. Lt, Mil Urbanas Cab San Pablo de Chalaquez, 1798. Leg 7287:XI:14.
Conde de Premio Real. Col, Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIII:2.
Gregorio Prendes. Sgt, Mil Urbanas Dragones de Palma, 1800. Leg 7288:XXI:38.
Francisco Prieto. Lt, Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIII:10.
Luis Pro. Lt de Granaderos, Mil Discip Inf de Zuzco, 1800. Leg 7286:XXIV:13.
Hermenegildo de la Puente. Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Carabayllo, 1800. Leg 7288:IV:16.
Manuel de la Puente. Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Carabayllo, 1800. Leg 7288:IV:15.
José de la Puente y Arce. Capt, Comp Sueltas Mil Discip Inf de Trujillo, Perú, 1800. Leg 7288:XXX:2.
Manuel de la Puente Arnao. SubLt, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:61.
Fernando de la Puente y Juaregui. Lt Col, Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1796. Leg 7286:X:8.
Ignacio de la Puerta. Lt Col, Mil Prov Discip Cab de Cuzco, 1797. Leg 7287:X:5.
Martín Puertas y Segarra. Lt, Mil Prov Discip Dragones del Valle de Majes, 1797. Leg 7287:XXV:14.
José Puertolas. Sgt, Inf Real de Lima, 1790. Leg 7283:VIII:103.

Andrés Quadros. Lt, Mil Prov Discip Cab de Arequipa, 1797. Leg 7287:II:25.
Jacinto Quesada. Portaestandarte, Mil Discip Cab de Ferreñafe, 1797. Leg 7287:XIV:7.
Bernardo Quevedo. Lt Col, Mil Urbanas Inf de Huancavelica, 1800. Leg 7288:XVI:2.
Mariano Quijada. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Cab de Huanta, 1798. Leg 7286:XVII:27.
José Quijano. Capt de Granaderos, Mil Prov urbanas Dragones de Chota, 1797. Leg 7287:XIII:6.
Agustín Quijano y Velarde. Col, Mil Discip de Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:6.
Antonio de la Quintana. Alf, Mil Discip Cab de Ica, 1800. Leg 7288:XX:22. 
Antonio Santiago Quintana. SubLt,, Mil Dragones Prov de las Fronteras de Tarma, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXV:35.
Lorenzo de la Quintana y Prieto. Sgt Mayor, Mil Prov Discip Dragones del Valle de Majes, 1797. Leg 7287:XXV:3.
Cornelio Quintanilla. Alf, Mil Discip Cab de Camaná, 1798. Leg 7286:XIV:25.
Francisco Quintanilla. SubLt, Mil Urbanas Inf de Huamanga, 1800. Leg 7288:XV:18.
Juan Quintos. Alf, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Chota, 1797. Leg 7287:XIII:25.
Antonio Quiñones. Cadet, Mil Prov Discip Inf, Lambayeque, 1797. Leg 7287:XXII:38.
José María Quiñones. Cadet, Mil prov Discip Inf de Lambayeque, 1797. Leg 7287:XXII:39.
Manuel Antonio Quiñones. Cadet, Mil prov Discip inf de Lambayeque, 1795. Leg 7285:XVII:41.
Manuel Antonio Quiñones. Capt, 6th Comp, Mil Prov Discip Inf, Lambayeque, 1797. Leg 7287:XXII:3.
Mariano Quiñones. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip de Cab de Cuzco, 1792. Leg 7284:XVII:32.
José Quiroga. SubLt, Comp Sueltas de Mil Urbanas Inf de Anco, 1797. Leg 7287:I:8.
Marcos Quiroga. Lt, Comp Sueltas de Mil Urbanas de Inf de Anco, 1797. Leg 7287:I:6.
Miguel Quiroga. Sgt, Comp Sueltas de Mil Urbanas de Inf de Anco, 1797. Leg 7287:I:10.
Alberto Quiros. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Qrequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:72.
Aniceto Quiros. Sgt de la 4th Comp, Mil Prov de Cab Prov de Cañete, 1797. Leg 7287:VI:24.
Casimiro Quiros. Sgt, Mil Discip de Cab prov de Cañete, 1797. Leg 7287:VI:25.
Gabriel de Quiros. Alf Mil Urbanas Cab de San Pablo de Chalaquez, 1796. Leg 7287:XI:25.
José Joaquin Quiros. Portaguión, Mil Prov Dragones de Chota, 1793. Leg 7284:XXVI:5.
Rafael Quiros y Llanos. Lt de la 4th Comp, Mil Discip de Cab, Prov de Cañete, 1797. Leg 7287:VI:13.
(to be continued.)


Christmas Traditions by Daisy Wanda Garcia
El Patrio 
by John Arvizu and Rose Hardy
The Value of a Penny
by John Arvizu and Rose Hardy
Fair Shake by Ben Romero



Daisy Wanda Garcia



Christmas was always a special season for me.  It was special because it meant gathering with family, friends, and the observance of the family Christmas rituals. With the passing of the years, my family’s traditions changed to accommodate a growing family and the coming and goings of extended family members.  Even with these changes, family was at the heart of 
the Christmas season. This holiday season draws me to the past, to my roots.  I often reflect on the Christmases past when the Garcia family was young.  Certain Christmas celebrations stand out in my memory. Some in particular stand out, one spent at our first home at 634 Ohio Street when I was a child in 1949, and the later ones spent at 401 Peerman Place when I was an adult.        


In 1947, my father, Dr. Hector P. Garcia built our first home for my mother, Wanda.  Since my mother came from Italy, Dr. Hector made sure the home had special European touches.  Italian cypresses lined the front sidewalk.  In the interior, were French doors, hardwood floors and a beautiful fireplace mantel!  The mantel and French doors were crafted from special imported woods.   

Photo: Christmas taken in 1959 at the house on Ohio St. Wanda F. Garcia, Dr. Hector P. Garcia in the back.  Hector Garcia Jr (Sonny) and Daisy Wanda Garcia in front.

Christmas was a very special celebration for our family. The year was December 1950. I was a child of 4 years and my brother Hector aka Sonny was two years old. My father Hector and my mother, Wanda and I went to a Christmas tree lot to select a tree.  Papa would take great pains in selecting the tree. Always, he would pick the largest tree he could fit in his car.   Then we would drive home with the tree and place it in the living room. Setting such a large tree in a stand was difficult.  Dr. Hector would struggle with the tree helped by my uncle Xico. The tree was so heavy that most of the times he would have to tie it to the walls with ropes.  Then the decorating began. The bubble lights came first. Papa was in charge of testing and placing the lights on the tree. The bubbles fascinated me.  Many of the times, I would break the lights trying to figure out how they worked.  Papa also placed the angel on the top - a sweet plastic angel with blond hair and stars on her skirt.  Mama would get out the box of glass ornaments and would let us put a few on the tree.  After that came the tinsel and the angel hair.  Mama and I would set up the nativity set. Then we would hang the stockings on the fireplace. The beautiful grand tree was such a wondrous sight for a four-year-old child. On Christmas Eve, my brother and I went to bed with great anticipation.  My mother issued the usual warnings about not peeking and going to sleep early so that Santa would come sooner.  

On Christmas Day, I would arise early. Behold there were presents all the way to the front door. This was a considerable distance.  I would run to my parents’ bedroom and wake them up overwhelmed with excitement about what Santa had brought.  Somehow, they were not as enthusiastic as I was and wanted to sleep later.   When my parents finally got out of bed, we would open gifts. While Uncle Xico and Aunt Cleo lived with us, they would participate in the festivities by playing Santa.  My brother Sonny and I spent all morning opening the gifts. My mother spent all day preparing turkey with all the trimmings for the afternoon Christmas meal. My mother’s sausage dressing and giblet gravy were "too die for."  At the dinner table, my father said the blessing and then we ate until we could not move anymore. 



In 1959, we moved to the new house at 401 Peerman Place. This house was my mother’s dream house.  She had taken great pains with the landscape and the furnishings.  The holiday season was an opportunity to display her handiwork. This was our first Christmas in the new house. The traditions changed somewhat because of the addition of my two sisters, Cecilia and Susie.  

My father became busy with his medical practice and advocacy work and no longer participated in the tree purchasing and decorating.  My mother undertook this task.  Instead of purchasing a green tree from a Christmas tree lot, we bought a flocked tree from Currie Seed Nursery.  The nursery delivered the tree to our home during Christmas week.  Once the tree arrived, we began to decorate and set up the nativity set. Mama brought out the family ornaments.  Italian lights replaced the bubble lights. We stopped using tinsel and angel hair because now we had a flocked tree.  

1964.  Dr. Garcia trying to guess at gift while daughter Susanna Garcia looks on.

Papa would bring home all the cakes, cookies and gifts he received from patients to share with us.  My favorite treat was the pan de polvo.  He would also buy champagne for the Christmas meal and give us each a bottle. On Christmas Eve, Dr. Cleo invited all the Garcia clan to her house.  Relatives would come from all parts of Texas and Mexico to attend these gatherings.  Dr. Cleo had a beautiful home that overlooked Corpus Christi Bay. The holiday spread had the traditional Mexican holiday dishes like fideo, tamales as well as the eggnog, turkey and ham. After Christmas Eve supper, the adults would gather in the living room while the kids played outside.  I would enjoy listening to my relatives discuss their family stories and tell jokes.  

After the celebration, we would return to our home to exchange and open gifts. We waited until midnight to begin the distribution of gifts.  We took turns playing “Santa.”  “Santa” would hand each person a gift. The spectators would comment while the chosen one opened the gift.  With Papa, we handed him his gifts and he had to guess what was in it and the color.  I enjoyed studying my father’s actions during the guessing game. He would turn the gift around and then concentrate. He was a mind reader because he always guessed what the gift was. We enjoyed watching Papa at work.  These were silly traditions, but the important thing was that we were all together.  On Christmas Day, Mama would cook her delicious turkey with the special sausage dressing and giblet gravy.  The children would set the table. Papa would say a special blessing and then we would begin to eat.   

1984 at the house on Peerman Place, Left to Right:  
Wanda F. Garcia, Dr. Hector P. Garcia, Cecilia Akers, Daisy Wanda Garcia and Susanna Garcia in front.  

After we children moved away from Corpus Christi, Texas, we still returned for the Christmas holidays.  Everyone looked forward to returning home to spend Christmas together. Papa would buy bags of groceries in anticipation of our visit.  We always knew when Papa would arrive home because he would honk his car horn twice.  Then we would hear his car round the corner, the garage door would open and Papa would come in loaded with bags of groceries. Meanwhile Mama decorated the house with Department 56 houses, a nativity set and a beautiful tree.  We celebrated 36 Christmases in the Peerman house.  

I will always have warm memories of our family Christmas celebrations.  Now both of my parents are gone and the family no longer gathers for Christmas.  New traditions replaced the old ones. However, the memories of Christmases past will sustain me.  May Spirit bless everyone!  Merry Christmas y Feliz Navidad! 





Selection From: Eyes to the Past
by John Arvizu and Rose Hardy


Before television, before radio and even before video games there were the storytellers.  There were some who could mesmerize and transfix the listeners with tales of long ago.  They could, by the twist of a word or a phrase, make their stories come alive.  They were part historian, story-teller and fantasizer.  Domingo, according to his grandson Bill, was one of these.  On many a night after the evening meal and before bedtime, he would captivate his young children with stories which Abran, the eldest son, passed onto his son, Bill.  Domingo Arvizu had seen much since his youth, when he mined for gold in Azusa Canyon during the “Gold Rush” of California, in 1849.  The work was hard and dirty and while he did not become a wealthy man, his source of wealth was his wife and many children.  He managed to find enough of the precious metal to provide food, shelter, and the basics for his growing family of twelve, while saving away enough for a small plot of land in what was to become Azusa.  

On this long warm evening, so typical of summer nights in Azusa Canyon, he captivated his young children with the story of Joaquin “El Patrio” Murrieta, who came through the mining camp on the way to meet his jinetes who were running mustangs from Northern California to Sonora, Mexico.  Abran sat transfixed, as his father, on that warm summer night, talked of the famous “El Patrio.”  As Domingo spun his tale, Abran wondered if there was a family connection to his grandmother, Susanna Murrieta.  After all, Susanna and Joaquin shared the same last name and both families were from Sonora, Mexico.  “It was not impossible!”, thought Abran.  

Joaquin the bandit or the patriot, depending on ones perspective, had become a legend in the days of the “California Gold Rush.”  His wife had been raped and killed, and Joaquin’s own brother had been hanged while trying to save his sister in-law from the murderous claim jumpers of 1849.  When Joaquin came upon the terrible event, he was bull whipped to near death.  “El Patrio” vowed vengeance against those responsible when the Sheriff of Calaveras County would not arrest the culprits.  Robbery and running mustangs across the border into Sonora, Mexico became his new trade when it became obvious he could no longer remain in Calaveras, County.  “Business must have been good”, said Domingo, and he spun his tale while his children sat with eyes glazed.  “Joaquin had become a wealthy man and had accumulated $1,400,000 and run more than 10,000 horses across the Mexican border.”  On this night, in Azusa Canyon of 1851, he was riding south to meet his men and split the profits from this latest herd of horses.  

Why the famous Joaquin “El Patrio” Murrieta would stop at the Arvizu mining camp in Azusa canyon, one can only surmise, but according to Bill, the grandson it was because of the Murrieta family connection.  Reality or fantasy?  It made an interesting tale for those warm summer nights.                                         


From: Eyes to the Past
by John Arvizu and Rose Hardy

It now costs two cents to make a new penny, according to a recent survey.  So, the question around the US government mint is whether it is more cost effective to stop the production of the long honored Lincoln penny.  Should the minting of the penny go the way of the rotary phone or the model T?  What is the value of nostalgia?  

Times were hard for the small Alva family of all women who looked to an aging grandfather for support.  Around the early 1900s the Alva women were already living on Dalton Street, in Azusa.  Grandpa Hetrudis Macias had built his home out of whatever he could afford or what discarded building materials he could find.  He was already an elderly man but he had to provide for his young widowed daughter, Casimira and her three small children, Soledad, Julia and Ester.  To do this and to bring in some money for the family, they opened a small store at the front of the house on Dalton.  Locals from the small community near Dalton, which others called “El Barrio”, would come and buy some items from the small store run by the Alvas.  The locals would bring their bills and coins to buy merchandise and more than once Julia would accidentally drop the small coins which would find their way through the small cracks to the dirt below the floor of the store.  Some coins were only pennies and there they stayed for decades.  

Years later, Julia’s son, after hearing this story, became intrigued by what treasures were hidden below the floor of his grandmother’s old house.  For a coin-collecting boy of ten years, this became a treasure hunt and needed exploring.  “Forget the spiders and the tight dusty crawl space beneath the old store”, and which was now the living room of the old house, thought the young grandson of Casimira.  There were treasures to be had!   

Pulling on some old clothes and recounting what grandma Casimira had said about the old coins hiding in the dust beneath the old floor boards, the youngster thinking himself a miner looking for gold, plunged in.  After some scraping away of surface dirt, and some amount of digging, the old coins caught his eye.  Putting the old dusty coins into a coffee can, he brought them out for a closer inspection.  There were old Lincoln Head Pennies, even an Indian Head Penny or two, as well as a few Buffalo Nickels.  Small stuff for a boy expecting to find treasures of gold!  With disappointment he thought about throwing them back or going down the street to buy a cold cola for ten cents.  Instead he took a second look at one penny with the birth year of his mother, Julia, on the coin.  It was 1911 and beside the year was the small letter S.  “By God”, he thought, it was a 1911 S!!   This was as good as gold, for penny collectors, because a 1911 S is a real find.  Understand that it is not the Holy Grail, 1909 S VDB, of penny collectors, but it was a 1911 S, and nearly as important.  He ran to show grandma Casimira and his mother, Julia.  Grandma did the sign of the cross and Julia screamed in delight!  “See!  I told you so” Julia cheered.  

Other coins came out from under the old house but none as special as that 1911 S.  So, the question remains……………..What value does nostalgia have?  To the boy of ten many, many years ago, it is priceless!       



FAIR SHAKE by Ben Romero


I came to love Columbus Day in 1977. It was my third year working for the US Postal Service. I’d just made “regular” and it was the first time I’d received a paid holiday. I soon found out it was also the day when many postal workers attended the Big Fresno Fair (although I don’t think they called it big back then).
My wife’s cousin, Ronald lived near the fairgrounds, so for several years we parked for free at the apartment building that he and his wife managed. Paid parking is always expensive. During the fair, everyone living within a mile from the fairgrounds becomes an entrepreneur, renting space on their front lawn and driveway. Entry tickets have never been cheap, and everyone knows the cost of food is outrageous. All I ever wanted for my money was a fair shake.
Every year I made an effort to take my wife and children to the fair during one of the weekends to spend as a family day. But on Columbus Day, my wife always worked and my children had school. Therefore, it became a day of free-spirited fun for me. I didn’t spend much time looking at exhibits or visiting food booths. The holiday was a day to enjoy the horse races. Some years I won a little and other years I lost, but the thrill of being in the stands surrounded by a cheering crowd was worth it.
Years passed. My children grew to be adults. One son and one daughter became postal employees. They soon learned to love the Columbus Day holiday and joined me at the races. Sometimes my other son would join us, too. We’d grab some food, buy a large drink, and sit in the stands, studying the stats on every horse and rider. As the horses paraded in front of the stands, we’d each give our opinions on which one was going to beat the odds and emerge as the winner. Despite our bets, we always seemed to favor the underdog.
Gabe liked to bet cheap and out of the ordinary. He claimed a two dollar bet on a long shot horse on a trifecta would pay much more than anything he could make betting on favored animals.
Pedro liked to bet heavy on horses with the best odds.
Victoria enjoyed taking risks and often bet on horses with the catchiest names.
I liked to study the stats on each animal and jockey, then see each horse for myself before taking a calculated risk. But if a horse looked especially good to me, I’d go against reason and bet a little something on it.
On one warm race day, the four of us were enjoying cold drinks and fat sandwiches in the stands. We’d all had a little luck during several races. None of us wanted to bet alike on any race, so we carefully monitored one another.
On the eighth race of the day, we’d each placed our bets when I got a good look at one underdog horse and decided to run and place a last minute bet. Having limited funds, I placed a one-dollar trifecta bet that included the underdog with the two favored animals - in every order. This cost me six bucks.
After a highly contested photo finish that showed my horse coming in at second place, the official announcement was made. I couldn’t believe my ears. Better yet was the resulting payout - $203 on that one dollar bet.
I jumped up with spontaneous motion; eyes closed, hips revolving madly. Despite Victoria’s laughter and Gabe’s claims of unimaginable embarrassment, I continued my little shuffle until I was able to contain myself.
It was right then and there that I invented the move that my children would forever refer to as The Fair Shake.

Ben Romero
Author of Chicken Beaks Book Series




Conquistadors, Priests and Conversion to Christianity
The Many Legends of La Llorona 

Premio Aztlán Literary Prize



 by Vicente Riva Palacio,   
introduction and translation by Ted Vincent

In 1892 author, historian and Ambassador from Mexico to Spain, Vicente Riva Palacio, addressed an audience of scholars in Madrid on the topic, 
The Establishment and Propagation of Christianity in New Spain.  The speech raised the question of how millions of Native Americans went from worshipers of their own old gods, to worship of a new one in less than one generation.? 
Presented here is a condensation of the discourse.  In opening remarks Riva Palacio  sought an accepting mood by acknowledging the dignitaries in the audience, including the illustrious president of the Ateneo – the literary forum society that was presenting the event.  He then explained that his remarks were in the new spirit of “scientific” history, the analysis of the facts rather than the presentation of them to support a preconceived perception..  
Columbus landing in the New World - greeted by Native peoples, as cross is raised



by Vicente Riva Palacio

... The conversion to Christianity of so many millions of people in the new world, and in such a short period of time, and occurring coincidently with the fracturing of the Catholic church in powerful nations of the old continent, is a phenomena so singular and strange as to make the 16th Century the most notable period in the history of the religions of humanity.  Although we can not attribute the same cause to the schism of the Christian church in Europe and to the apostasy of all the races that inhabited the islands of the Atlantic and the massive continent of the New World, nor the methods in which events transpired, the phenomena can be compared..
In Europe , the spirit of a great religious evolution prepared itself slowly, until it found manifestation in the pen of Luther.  That powerful weapon created the controversy that prepared for a consummation on a basically theological battle ground...  . . . 

In contrast, the conversion to Christianity of the races inhabiting the
New World was a sudden and inescapable disorder.  It was not the cause of  war, as was the religious reform in Europe , but the result of that war.  The ripping from the people of their worship of  their old idols was not from the call of the apostle, but rather the sword of the conquistadors and the ax and torch of the soldiers that threw down the gods from their pedestals and put to the fire those who adored them.
Slow and difficult, should have been the course of converion to Christianity which occurred in half a century among the multitude of  peoples that inhabited the immense territory from Florida to the straights of Magellan, and among whom there was a diversity of languages, so many different gods and cults and such dissimilarity in customs and practices.  It took more than three centuries of preparation for Christianity, with its apostles, martyrs, confessors and apologists to achieve religious domination over a small part of Europe , another part of Asia and a corner of Africa . ... Tertulian (who, circa 200 a.d. feared his Christian cause was lost to pagans) lamented that “they have they have made us past history, placing themselves among you, filling our cities, fortresses, towns, market-places, the senate and the forum.  You have nothing but the chapels for your gods.
In New Spain , only a few years after the conquest, in 1537, the converted totaled not hundreds, nor thousands, but millions.  Friar Toribio de Motolina, one of the first missionaries to arrive there, spoke of baptized persons in the Lent of that year saying that “in merely the province of Tepeyacac there has been baptized, as far as can tell, more than 60,000 souls, in this manner, at my order. Truly there have been baptized in fifteen years, more than 9,00,000 souls of Indios.
The same missionary mentions five days during which he and another priest administered the baptism in the Monastery of Quecholac to 14,200 souls.
We could take this testimony as an exaggeration by the missionary, in that despite the presentation of many ciphers, he took care to mention that they were Aas far as can tell@   But  when we gather the findings of many chroniclers of the epoch concerning this material we find not a single one has been contradicted.   The question of the accuracy of the count seems of little significance.  No need for concern by the chronicles over exaggeration when there was no prohibition on simply baptizing a multitude with a sprinkle.  Pope Paul III solemnly declared it a sin to administer the baptism without the stated rituals of the Church... And yet, one finds the practice of a very short baptism, which the Franciscans explained, and one can refer to Beaumont in his history of Michoacan, was necessitated by the great number of those who solicited baptism leaving little time for each one.
One must acknowledge that this rush was not the result of the preaching of the catechism, nor of convincing. ... The Captains of the conquistadores used the ministering of the chaplains to conduct immediate baptism of the defeated., thus lending to the ceremony a recognition that this could be considered the first homage rendered to their victors.  It was total capitulation celebrated in front of the chiefs who had come to undertake the adventure of new discovery. In these events there was always  a recognition given to the King of Spain along with the propagation of Christianity.  And all who had gathered in common to exalt a spirit of religious propaganda  made each Spanish soldier feel instinctively that he was the armed apostle of the Christian faith...
The people defeated by the Europeans, who were called Indians, had not the remotest idea of the Christian doctrine, nor of Catholic service.   But they saw that conversion to this doctrine and this service was a necessary consequence of their defeat and an indispensable requisite to affirm their vassal hood and subservience to the Spanish monarch.  
The defeated Americans all feared the wrath of the conquistadores and came to believe that baptism was a powerful protection that cloaked one from cruelties and persecutions.  Consequently, the people presented themselves in mass asking the missionaries for baptism, as in search for precious guarantees of liberty and life....
And thus, Tzinzintcha, King of Michoacan, at the hour of his death on the scaffold, threw a grand reproach at his executioners because they were going to torment him and give him death after he had with such diligence and good will received the baptism.
      In the case of the Indio Caciques and land masters who feared losing their life or their domain, they were the quickest to comprehend that the change of religion was a necessary consequence of their defeat, and were the most diligent in procuring a baptism for themselves. They energetically contributed to the propagation of Christianity.  These senores sought and accepted the Christian religion, receiving the baptism and accepting among the captains of the conquistadores those who would be their lords and masters, adopting the first and last names of the masters.   For this they received special protections that were similar to ones in Rome .  They formed a clientele that in shadow and shelter lived with a measure of security in these dangerous times.
In religion, the mysteries are neither proven nor demonstrated.  The faith of the converts comes to be all.  But it is fair to ask what might it be that they believed.   And this has not been studied in the instance of the conversion of the Indios to Christianity.  Thus there appears to have been little questioning of how it was that at the beginning the Indios gathered crosses and imagines that they were given by the Spaniards and placed them in their adoratorios, at the side of their own idols, as the Romans, in the years of the Antonios, placed beside the gods unknown, the god of the Christians, among their household gods, or at the side of Jupiter, Minerva, Vaticanus or Fabulinus.
Also, it is certain that if one accuses the missionaries of carrying out baptisms without care, nor with a requisite answers when they were asked to give the sacrament, it must be said that the conquistadores, for their part, believed enough had been given for the natives to occupy themselves in learning the fundamentals of the religion.  As Jeronimo Lopez declared in his letter to the Emperor, the Indio needs no more than to know the Paternoster and the Avemaria....and no more, and this, simply, without clarifications, nor notes, nor expositions of doctrine, nor to know nor distinguish the trinity.   Father, Son and Holy Spirit, not the attributes of each one, and no more is sufficient faith for belief.
Traces can still be found of the violence with which the victors obliged the vanquished to receive the religion of the winners.  It is seen in the devotion to the Saints which is marked characteristic to Indian worship of the Catholic religion.  It represents what is in all polytheisms  that emerged in this period that Hegel called magic.  The believer has the enormous task of finding in each event of one’s life ,the protection, or, at least, the benevolence of each one the gods that preside over each phase of existence, and that over each had a species of power, each being soverign and independent and yet as in the magic pot, or with interceders or with intermediaries, as in Egypt.  These gods were capable of causing the disgrace of a nation, of a family, or of an individual, their caprices often putting themselves in conflict with the will of other equally powerful gods, and for this there were such diverse sacrifices given, as numerous as were the gods.  The Indians, passing rapidly to Christianity, did not understand the place in this religion of the Saints, nor could they discern if this church to which they gave tribute was of dulia or latria, commemorative or of adoration, and judging the new religion for themselves, they placed Christianity as one more species of polytheism....
(Riva Palacio states in conclusion:)
In respect to the missionaries and their pilgrimages, labors and triumphs, and above all, their struggle against the Economendias, that horrible institution invented and planted by Christopher Columbus, authorities greater than I have spoken.

The picture I have given you perhaps does not fulfill your expectations, but I have tried to grasp the colors of certain historic moments, and paint them as I comprehend the 16th Century.  I have sought to present the contradictory events of the epoch that taken together reestablish the equilibrium of the world, and for this, in spite of having to have to give a paradox, the historian has to say that the discovery of the New World was a scientific necessity , its occupation, a right of humanity, and the conversion of its inhabitants to Christianity, an unescapable demand of civilization and progress.
The above condensed version of the address omits a discussion of the argument that shame over the practices of original discourse, which includes discussion of the argument  that shame over the practices of human sacrifice led the Indians to quickly convert, in contrast to the old world, wherein it took many centuries of civilized life before these practices were considered deplorable.  Also discussed is the argument that the basic story of the Christian faith had innate appeal.  Riva Palacio points out that not only did the Indians have a language barrier with the priests doing conversions, but the native languages lacked words for the concept of resurrection and other Christian constructs.
Regarding the reluctance of the missionaries with the conquistadors to give Native Americans the sacrament, it was nearly forty years after the fall of the Aztecs before the church conceded to give these rites.   A folk history of how the Church was made to change its mind is in the story of Padre Jacobo Daciano.  Riva Palacio told the tale in his  short story “Homage to Carlos V which is the second installment of this series and can be found in Somos Primos for January 2007.
The full 1892 discourse by Riva Palacio can be read in its original Spanish in Ensayos Historicos by Vicente Riva Palacio, compiled by Professor Jose Ortiz Monasterio of the Universidad Autonomy de Mexico, who has in this and other anthologies has been essential for the presentation of Riva Palacio in Somos Primos.

Editor:  Dr. Henry J. Casso in a conversation with me, stated that he strongly believes that the conversion of the Indigenous were more tied in to the appearance and reverence for the Virgen de Guadalupe, than any other single element.  



The Many Legends of La Llorona
by C. F. Eckhardt 

Author's Note: To set the La Llorona story straight once & for all. I've been digging into La Llorona for nearly forty years. This article pretty much sums up what I've found. - CFE

La Llorona. The Spanish verb llorar means ‘to weep,’ the suffix on means great, large, or copious, and the suffix a indicates feminine gender. La Llorona, then, can be translated ‘she who weeps copiously.’ That’s exactly what she does. 

Why does she weep? Especially, why does she weep always by a waterside? Or rather, almost always by a waterside, for the Austin version of la Llorona appears not at a creekbank but on deep East 6th Street. In Phoenix, Arizona she appears in girls’ restrooms in elementary schools. Who is this la Llorona, anyway? 

There are many versions of the story, but the two most popular are these: -

A young, very beautiful, but also very poor girl is seduced by a wealthy young man. When she becomes pregnant he abandons her. When the child is born she discards it by throwing it into a watercourse. Shortly afterward she dies. When she appears at the Gates, St. Peter tells her that, because she lived a blameless life save for her one indiscretion, she will be allowed to enter Heaven—but only if she brings with her the soul of her child. She is condemned, therefore, to wander watersides, calling “¡Mi niño! ¡Mi niño!” in search of the soul of the child she cast away until she finds it.

In the second fairly common version, the young woman is married and the mother of identical twin boys. She takes them to the church to have them baptized. As the boys are being baptized by the priest, a company of soldiers marches past. One of the children keeps his eyes on the priest, while the other turns his head to watch the soldiers. The mother takes this as an omen— one of her sons is destined to be a priest, the other a soldier. In Spanish Mexico, to the common people soldiers were a symbol of oppression, not of benevolence. As she cannot, later, remember which of the boys turned to look at the soldiers, she drowns both—with the same result as the former story, save that she cries “¡Mis niños! ¡Mis niños!”

These, however, are not the only la Llorona stories. In Austin, a young man is walking along East 6th Street when he sees what is apparently a very attractive young prostitute, always dressed in the latest fashion of prostitutes—and always in bright red—leaning against a building or a post, sobbing her heart out. He approaches her and asks her what is wrong. She doesn’t reply, but turns toward him. Instead of the beautiful face he expects, her face is that of a donkey—and the jaws are open. The open jaws lunge for his throat. The ‘donkey woman’ is a common Hispanic folk-tale. Only in Austin, however, is she known as la Llorona. 

Professor John Igo, in San Antonio, believes he has the original source of la Llorona—an Aztec water goddess who wept by the waterside to draw young men to her. She would then seize the man and leap into the water with him, drowning him in the process. Actually, she was a very useful goddess. Any Aztec who reached the age of 60 could drink himself or herself into oblivion with no consequences other than a hangover the next morning. However, if a man—or a woman-- under 60 got drunk, that person was executed. So was his/her whole family. Therefore when Papa got a snootful and fell into the creek and drowned, it was very wise to say “I guess the water goddess got him. We heard her crying last night.” 

The Aztec water goddess may be one source of la Llorona stories, but it certainly is not the only source. Were it the only source, la Llorona would be purely a Western Hemisphere story. It isn’t. Weeping women by the waterside also appear in Spain, France, Ireland, Scotland—and Greece. 

Much of the west coast of Europe holds people of Celtic stock. The Celts have their own weeper-by-the-waterside. She is called be’an sighe, which has been Anglicized to ‘banshee.’ The banshee is an omen of death. In her earliest form she appears as a small woman dressed entirely in green, who is washing winding sheets (the old name for a shroud) in a watercourse, weeping as she does so. When she is asked who has died and needs winding sheets, she either says “You!” or gives the name of someone very much alive. That person dies in the next few days. In a later form, a banshee attaches herself to a family and appears to wail when death for a member of the family is approaching. She may appear as a dark shadow, or as a beautiful woman dressed in white, with long, flowing, usually red hair. 

Many pagan legends and myths were given Christian overlays after Christianity took Europe. Nearly every Christian celebration was overlaid atop a pagan holiday, the most notable of which is Christmas itself. The Roman Saturnalia took place just after the winter solstice, as did the birth of the pagan deity Mithras—a religion with a lot of similarity to Christian practices, including baptism. The followers of Mithras were baptized in the still-warm blood of a sacrificial bull, leading to the New Testament admonition “Keep yourself free of (or clean of) blood.” It was not unknown, in Biblical times, to ‘hedge one’s bets’ by attempting to follow several religions at once, but Christians were forbidden to follow any religion but Christianity. 

Yet is la Llorona the banshee with a Christian overlay to keep the Inquisition at bay? There is a far older ‘weeper-by-the-waterside,’ and she comes from Greece. According to Greek folklore, the woman who weeps by the waterside is none other than Medea herself, weeping for the children she bore to Jason, then slaughtered, cooked, and served to Jason and his crew as a grisly stew. There were Greek colonies on the west coast of Spain before Rome even existed. Could the banshee have grown out of the Greek story about Medea, changed to fit the landscape? 

In Phoenix, Arizona—and so far as is known in Phoenix alone—la Llorona has taken on yet another face. In the old ‘girls’ restroom’ story of Bloody Mary or Mary Wales, if a girl turns out the lights in the room, stands before a mirror, and repeats either “Bloody Mary, bloody Mary, you killed your children” or “Mary Wales, Mary Wales, you killed your children” nine times, the horrid, blood-covered face of Bloody Mary/Mary Wales will appear in the mirror as if looking over the girl’s shoulder. In Phoenix, Hispanic girls repeat “La Llorona, la Llorona, tu matan tus niños.” 

So where did la Llorona actually originate, and which story is the oldest? There’s a fine, old, and very useful phrase in Spanish that covers the only reasonable answer—“¿Quien sabe?” 

Sent by John Inclan


Premio Aztlán Literary Prize


The Premio Aztlán Literary Award is a national literary award, established to encourage and reward emerging Chicana and Chicano authors.  Renowned author, Rudolfo Anaya and his wife, Patricia, founded Premio Aztlán in 1993.  This year’s the award and lecture will be given at the National Latino Writers Conference, May 21-23, 09.



  • Literary prize is for a work of fiction (novels and collections of short stories) published within the calendar year.
  • Authors must have published not more than two books.
  • Entries must be the work of living authors.
  • Edited works, self-published books or manuscripts in process are not accepted.
  • No poetry, children or young adult literature will be considered.
  • Recipient must be present to receive the award and is expected to give a lecture. 
  • Deadline for submission is January 30, 2009.
  • Past prize recipients include:

Veronica Gonzalez

Reyna Grande

Gene Guerín

Mary Helen Lagasse

Sergio Troncoso


Ronald Ruíz

Wendell Mayo

Norma Cantú

Alicia Gaspar de Alba


Sent by Roberto Calderon




Wednesday, December 23, 1992 * EXCELSIOR Volviendo a Nuestras Raices




The name PEREZ is considered by many historian to be the oldest surname in all Christendom. The name has a Hebrew root meaning, "He/She who dares" and is first recorded in the Bible, 1300 B.C. Perez (or Pharez) son of Judah, and his descendents appear to have been a family of great importance for many centuries in Israel, and even into the present. The current President is Simon Peres.

The PEREZ coat of arms is only one of three shields among all heraldry which anciently include the royal color, purple. King David was a direct descendent of Pharez/Perez and the Lord Jesus Christ a direct descendent of David. (Matt 1:1).

Proudly, all those carrying the name PEREZ would hope to descend from this most noble of all lines. Most likely however, researchers will find their original ancestor was first in Spain as one of many "son of Pero/Pedro," who then were ultimately identified as a Perez (es,ez-son of).

The surname seems to have its beginnings In Castilla, spreading from there into Vizcaya, La Rioja, and Santander. Many of the Perez families tie directly into the ancestry of Spanish royalty. There are thousands of individuals that have proven noble lineages, in 1084, Rui Perez de Abanades fought with King Alfonso VI against the Moors in Madrid and Toledo.

In the United States, Perez is the 7th most popular surname among modern Hispanic families. Particulary interesting, since prior to the 1900's, it was a very rare surname in the United States. In Mexico however, many Perez are found among the earliest of soldiers and colonizers.

Juan Perez de Arteaga arrived in Santo Domingo ca. 1502. Seventeen years later, in 1519, records show he was in Cuba as a member of Cortes' entrada. Juan served as an interpreter during the early colonization of Nueva Espana, undoubtedly having learned the native language from his first wife, who was an Indian and by whom he had a son and six daughters. As some Perez lines may tie into nobility in Israel or Spain, so they might tie into nobility on this continent.

Some researchers have found that the double Spanish name of Perez de Garfias is connected to the last Tarascan Emperor. A daughter of a Perez de Garfias line married the Emperor. Therefore those families finding Perez de Garfias lineage may descend in fact from the last Tarascan Emperor.

ANTHONY CAMPOS, Diamond Bar resident, has traced his father's line back to a Isabel Perez de Garfias, daughter of Gonzalo Perez de Garfias and Maria de Lupiana. Isabel Perez de Garfias married Juan Campos de Friere January 8, 1607 in Zamora, Michoacan. Thus a possible Tarascan royal connection for descendents of this marriage. 

Mr. Campos traced his mother, CARMEN PEREZ, to NICOLAS PEREZ de VARGAS born ca. 1610 in Ocotlan, Jalisco. Nicolas married Anna Ramirez de Ortega. Many descendants of this marriage have remained in the same area since that time.

CARMEN PEREZ, carries the Perez name on both sides of her line. Her father was Romulo Perez and mother Thomasa Perez, married in Ocotlan, 1881. Carmen never carried the Vargas name. Although other Perez de Vargas lines maintained the hyphenated name combination, two of Carmen's great, great, great grandfathers, brothers bom in the 1760s, were the last of her ancestors to do so. The Vargas was dropped by subsequent generations. Resentment had grown steadily towards the Spanish rule and obvious privilege status of those bom in Spain. During the 1810-1820's many Mexicans dropped a surname or surnames, as a statement that a new Mexico was about to emerge. Hyphenated names provide valuable clues to the Hispanic family researcher.

Carmen Perez married Ramon Campos January 8, 1913 in Atacheo, Jalisco. Ramon Campos worked as a wholesale clothing salesman. In addition, assisted his father at home in planting and harvesting. He was strongly opposed to the revolutionary activities and subsequent turmoil engulfing Mexico. Wanting a better future for his wife and baby girl, in 1917 he entered the United States, finding field work in California.

By 1919, Ramon was able to send for his wife. Tragically he never saw his young daughter again. She died during the influenza epidemic of 1918. Four children were born to Ramon and Carmen in California. Three children survived to adulthood. Tony Campos and two sisters.

"When I think of my ancestors I am overcome with admiration. They endured with patience, persistence, and through pain, they endured." "Their stability was also astounding, as many remained in the same locality for some 400 years. Am I proud of having Mexican parents? Oh, Yes."

Mr. Campos entered the military during the second World War. He was sent immediately for officer training and completed his service as a Lieutenant. During the Korean War, he received a commission of Captain. Graduating with a BS from the University, of Illinois, he went on and received a Master's degree in Sociology from the State University of Iowa. Mr. Campos worked for the Los Angeles County Probation department for 27 years.
Married with 3 children, Mr. Campos is currently a State licensed marriage counselor. He has been investigating his family history for 25 years. Other surnames on his pedigree are:
Mendoza, Castallanos, Navarro, Gonzales, Martinez, Ochoa-Garivay, Arias-Maldonado,

Compiled by Mimi Lozano (c) 1992, member of Society of Hispanic and Historical Research.

Editor:  I was fairly new into genealogical research when I literally stumbled onto the surname Perez in a Bible dictionary.   It really interested me because my maternal Great Grandmother was a Perez.  To realize historically that the lineage went back to the line of Our Lord, Jesus Christ filled me with an overwhelming  sense of joy. 

It was during this time of awareness that Shimon Peres was Prime Minister of Israel and Carlos Andres Perez was President of Venezuela.   It fascinated me that the name survived and was still playing a prominent role in world history.  As tragic as their history of persecution is, they are a symbol of the truthfulness of the Bible.  The Jewish people are only 0.02% of the world population, but as promised, they have survived.

I feel privileged to carry the name of Perez in my lineage.




Longtime community leader Manuel Marquez dies
9/11 hero returns home to O.C.


Longtime community leader Manuel Marquez dies
The Orange County Register November 20, 2008

Leader remembered: Manuel "Manny" Marquez, who was involved in a variety of Latino and other community organizations in Orange County, died Nov. 13. He was 80. Marquez, of Garden Grove, was elected state director of the League of  United Latin American Citizens and served four years, was a charter member of the Stanton LULAC Council 245 and served as its president. He also chaired the 1985 LULAC national convention in Anaheim, and in 1988 founded the California LULAC Foundation, which has provided scholarships to hundreds of young people.  Among his passions were the preservation of Olvera Street, the portrayal of Latinos in the media and movies, and youth football, LULAC officials said.


Manuel R. Marquez
Profile: Q&A Lulac news ? September | October 2007

Q: When and where were you born?
A: July 11, 1928 in Pike, Arizona
Q: How long have you been involved with LULAC?
A: Since 1951.
Q: Whom do you admire most?
A: My Grand Parents.
Q: Who is your mentor?
A: Mario Obledo, Dr. Anita Del Rio and Bob Gnaizda
Q: What made you want to get involved with LULAC?
A: Witnessing acts of discrimination against Latinos.
Q: What do you think is one of the most important issues affecting Latinos today?
A: Anti-immigration laws persecuting Latinos.
Q: What was your most memorable LULAC moment?
A: The completion of the formation of the California LULAC Educational Foundation
Q: What are the activities you are involved in?
A: Retired but involved with the California LULAC Educational Foundation. I was the
Founder and President of the foundation, which was created in 1988. The purpose of this
organization is raising funds to provide academic scholarships to underprivileged yet
deserving college bound Latino Youth.
Q: What is an important leadership characteristic?
A: Integrity combined with commitment and personal sacrifice
Q: What do you do when you are not with LULAC?
A: Reading about current events. Following football (U.S.C. Trojans), Basketball (Lakers), working in my yard, hearing from my children and winning the war of wills with my dog "KOBI".
Q: What has had the biggest impact on you this year?
A: Seeing Latinos finally speaking up and defend their rights.
Q: What are you most proud of accomplishing?
A: Providing Academic Scholarships to deserving and needy Latino Youth via the California LULAC Educational Foundation.
Q: What do you feel still needs to be addressed this year?
A: Health Insurance, Mortgage and Financial Fairness to all Latinos.
Q: What is your message to those reading this?
A: Actions speak louder than words. Get Involved! Create a positive role model for the Latino Youth.

Sent by Ricardo Valverde


9/11 hero returns home to O.C.

Army sergeant who plucked survivors, bodies from Pentagon to speak at Veterans Day event by Greg Hardesty, The Orange County Register, Saturday, November 8, 2008


The burly soldier said a prayer. "Dear Lord," Army Staff Sgt. Christopher D. Braman said
before charging into the inferno, "give us the strength for what we are about to do."It was Sept. 11, 2001. Braman  worked at the Pentagon.The cook who whipped up  meals for the Army secretary got rocked by the explosion  caused by a terrorist-hijacked American Airlines flight 77 that crashes into the Virginia landmark, killing 184 people.  After being evacuated, Braman said his prayer. He then sprinted back to the Pentagon and crawled in through a window to search for survivors.

For the Orange County native, who played football and wrestled for El Toro High School and was in such good shape on 9/11 that he could run 10 miles for fun, the ordeal that followed never will fade.

Braman, 40, will deliver his tale of horror and hope at a Veterans Day event that pays tribute to Mexican American veterans at Cal State Fullerton on Saturday.

"It's kind of weird being part of history," he said this week from his home in Alexandria, Va.  "I didn't do it for the medals," he said.

"To me, it's ultimately a story of salvation. Seeing what I saw, I also realized that we are all the same — regardless of race or creed."

Braman spent three dangerous and gruesome days as a search and rescue worker, plucking survivors and human remains from the building, working alongside firefighters are other rescue workers.

He shed 19½ pounds from the strain and stress, and at one point was believed to be missing and presumed dead.

Only his wife, Samaria, knew he was alive during the hours after the plane hit, immersed in a job he strove to carry out with delicacy and dignity.

In all, Braman recovered and bagged 63 separate sets of remains, making sure none of the body bags touched the ground — out of respect.

He and other rescue and recovery workers pulled the first 17 bodies out of the Pentagon and Braman arranged for those and other remains to be temporarily stored in a refrigerated truck.  

Braman also saved a life. Sheila Moody was on her second day at work at the Pentagon and was one of only three in her office of 34 to survive. Braman pulled her and two others from the building. The other two later died.

"I could taste the adrenaline on my lips," Braman said of the traumatic task. "My faith and training got me through it. It was as if a switch had been flipped."

Later, Braman said, the nightmares started. He suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder. 

The sight of ribs at a family barbecue sickened him. "To this day, I can't eat them," he said. "Human rib bones were in my hands." 

For working non-stop for more than three days, repeatedly going back into the Pentagon to search for victims, Braman received a Purple Heart and a Soldier's Medal for bravery. Super-heated smoke damaged his lungs.


Braman comes from a Mexican American family with a history of U.S. military service. His grandfathers served in the Army and Navy.

Two of his uncles, Sgt. Gary Miranda and Officer Tony Miranda, are veterans of the Santa Ana Police Department.

Tony Miranda, in the 1970s, helped launch search and rescue teams in Orange County.

Braman's second cousin is Frederick P. Aguirre, an Orange County judge who spearheads the annual Veterans Day event for Latino Advocates for Education.

The 9/11 hero was born at St. Joseph Hospital in Orange and spent his first few years in Placentia before his family relocated to what was then El Toro.

As a boy, Braman delivered the Orange County Register on his bicycle.  After attending El Toro and Saddleback high schools, Braman went to Saddleback College before joining the Army.


Chris Braman 
poses with his family
in Alexandria, Va., 
in this July photo. 
His wife, Samaria, 
is joined by 
(clockwise, from top) 
Lauren, 17, 
Miranda, 9, and 
Courtney, 14.

He will be the keynote speaker at the 12th annual Veteran's Day event co-sponsored by Cal State Fullerton and Latino Advocates for Education.

"One of my main goals is to educate people about terrorism," he said. "We all can become participants in the fight against terrorism, to some degree."

More than 1,000 people are expected to pack the auditorium filled with flags, banners, hand-painted murals and quilts. Veteran's memorabilia will be on display and on hand will be several authors of books on Latino veterans.

Since 9/11, Braman, who is married with three daughters, has spoken around the country. His wife went to Mission Viejo High School.

The sergeant first class, who joined the Army in 1990, is in the process of retiring due to the permanent lung damage he suffered.  At first, the damage was so bad he would collapse walking from his front door to his car. He had severe asthma, sleep apnea and other ailments.

Now, Braman's medical condition has become manageable enough for him to participate in long bike rides to honor war veterans.

He is pursuing a college degree in computer sciences while he assists combat veterans with their benefits.

He also is the Virginia state representative for Combat Veterans Motorcycle Association.

"I'll always consider Orange County home," he said.

Contact the writer: 949-454-7356 or
Sent by Ricardo Valverde





Manuel Dominic Badilla - A Life not Forgotten
Dec 3: Lyrical Recital of Zarzuela and Opera
Hispanic Marketing 101


Manuel Dominic Badilla - A Life not Forgotten

By Harold Fowler, Nephew


His name is Manuel Dominic Badilla, a descendant of two founding families of Los Angeles, the Olivas and Feliz families.  Manuel was born on the 16th of May, 1921, in Santa Barbara , California .  His parents were Manuel Badilla and Soladad Cush “Sallie” Olivas – Badilla.  Manuel, with his younger sister Margarita Cecilia Badilla, was baptized at Our Lady of Sorrows Church in Santa Barbara .

Sometime between 1922 and 1930, Manuel’s mother separated from his father and moved to Long Beach , California .  Manuel’s father, a truck driver, died of a sudden heart attack, June 18th 1930 in Santa Barbara .  Manuel was 9 years old at the time.  The Badilla family lived on the west side of Long Beach called the Seaside District on Terminal Island .  Sallie Badilla worked in the Canneries as a machine operator.  These were hard times.  The country was in a depression and things were getting worse. Sometime between 1930 and 1933, they moved into an upstairs apartment near downtown Long Beach at 3rd and Cedar Ave.   When the 1933 earthquake struck, Margaret recalls, “the apartment wall facing the street collapsed and we had an open view of downtown“.  

After the earthquake, the family moved again into the Poly High School District of Long Beach.  Margaret remembers, “When my honor was at stake, my big brother would intercede and beat up the guy.  Many days, my brother would come home with a black eye and a smile on his face“.  In Manuel’s sophomore year at Poly High School , Manuel joined the track team.  During this time, he obtained a part-time job to supplement the family income. The depression was at an all time low, and his mother was having a hard time making ends meet.  By the time he turned 17, Manuel had dropped out of High School to work full time.   

Manuel wanted to join the Navy, but his mother said no.  Manuel kept begging her until she finally gave in and agreed to sign the papers.  He joined the Navy in 1938.  

His boot camp was in San Diego , California ; afterwards Manuel was assigned to the Battleship U.S.S. Arizona.  The Arizona ’s home port was Pearl Harbor , Hawaii .  The last cruise of U.S.S. Arizona, before the attack on Pearl Harbor , was on a hot Friday morning as it raised anchor and steamed out of Lahaina Roads, on July 1940.  The Arizona was heading south toward the equator to enter Neptunus Rex Domain.  An ancient maritime ceremony was going to occur, when Pollywogs became Shellbacks.  Pollywogs were sailors who had not participated in the ceremonial crossing of the equator for the first time.  The Pollywogs ranged from Navy Lieutenant Commanders to enlisted seamen, of the crew.  Manuel Badilla Seamen 2nd class received his Shellback Certificate. 

On December 7, 1941, the U.S.S. Arizona was at anchor in Pearl Harbor .  The Battleship’s Band won the battle of the bands the night before, and was getting ready to play the National Anthem at 9 a.m.  Wave after wave of Japanese Navy planes arrived and attacked the ships in the harbor.  After the attack, twenty ships were sunk or severely damaged.  The Arizona lost 1,177 sailors, including Manuel Badilla.   

Worried about her son, Sallie tried contacting the War Department, to no avail.  On January 16, 1942, Sallie received a telegram from Rear Admiral Randall Jacobs, Chief of Bureaus of Navigation, informing her that her son Fireman 1st Class Manuel Badilla was officially declared dead.  When Sallie received the telegram, the song “Silent Night” by Bing Crosby, was playing on the radio.  From that time on, every time Sallie heard the song she would cry, blaming herself for letting her son talk her into signing the papers so he could join the Navy.   Sallie carried that guilt to her grave; passing away in San Pedro, May 29th, 1975.  

In 1938, Manuel’s sister met and married Harold Fowler who was stationed on the Aircraft Carrier U.S.S. Lexington. They had a son named Harold in April 1939, who Manuel affectingly called “squirt”.  Years passed.  Manuel’s sister remarried, Chief Petty Officer James Berry.  In 1958, Berry was transfer to a ship stationed at Pearl Harbor .  After they moved to Hawaii , one of the first things Margaret wanted to do was visit the Arizona where her brother died.  They went to the Memorial.  Margaret discovered her brother was not listed as being on the ship.  Upon inquiry, she discovered records reported Manuel was buried at the National Cemetery called the Punch Bowl at Diamond Head .  

Margaret had her husband petition the fleet Chaplin to have the body exhumed.  She wanted to have the body exhumed for re-identification.  Margaret knew the body in the grave was not her brother.  The petition included a deposition from her uncle, Chief Petty Officer Gregory Jankowiak, stationed on the U.S.S. Pensacola during the attack on Pearl Harbor .  The deposition stated that Greg and Manuel had attended the battle of the bands the night before the attack and were planning to attend Mass on the Arizona the next morning and then go to Honolulu for the day.  Greg said he was on a motor launch going to the Arizona to meet Manuel when the first planes came over the harbor.  The planes started dropping their bombs and torpedoes. Greg knew this was no drill.  The launch turned around and headed back to his ship when Greg heard and felt the blast of the Arizona exploding.  Greg looked back and saw the ship sinking feeling no one could have survived the explosion.   

The petition was granted. The body was exhumed and dental records identified the body.  It was not Manuel.  In 1958 Manuel Dominic Badilla, Fireman 1st Class was officially listed as being on board the U.S.S. Arizona.

May 30, 1959, Memorial Day Services were held on the U.S.S. Arizona.  Manuel’s sister and her husband attended ceremonies at the ship.  At 8:10 AM Margaret and her husband, Chief Petty Officer James Berry, placed a floral tribute to her brother and his best friend, Robert Clayton, who also died on the Arizona.  Manuel and Robert had plans after leaving the Navy. They were going to buy a Commercial Fishing Boat and go into business together.




Lyrical Recital of  Zarzuela and Opera 
December 3, 7:30



The Consulate General of Spain   in association with the 
City of Los Angeles
Department of Cultural Affairs,

proudly present  a Lyrical Recital of  Zarzuela and Opera interpreted by 
Baritone, Pablo Galvéz, Soprano, Carmen Checa,
and pianist, Yana Reznik  

Barnsdall Gallery Theatre
4800 Hollywood Blvd.
Hollywood , CA 90027  

Wednesday, December 3rd, 7:30pm
(Free admission)
For map and driving directions:



Bilingual Foundation of the Arts and Target 
present at Teatro Carmen Zapata


December 6 to 28, 2008
421 N. Avenue 19
Los Angeles, CA 90031
For more information go to or call 323-225-4044
Adapted by Margarita Galban & Lina Montalvo from Gary Soto's book
Directed by Cecilia Garcia Serrano & Margarita Galban
Ticket prices: $15 children under 12   $17 adults 

Hispanic Marketing 101
Volume 6, Number 44    November 18, 2008 

Looking Ahead at the Latino Book & Family Festivals 2009


In 1996 my compadre, Edward James Olmos, and I co-founded the Latino Book & Family Festivals. Since then over 700,000 people have gone to the 42 Festivals that have been held. For the next Los Angeles Festival a wonderful new site has been found: L.A. Live. Read below for more about this exciting event.
With our second article we'd like to salute the efforts of Latino Public Broadcasting. Annually this important organization funds dozens of Latino film projects. 
At HM101 Podcasts this week we have another new Hispanic marketing podcast. We keep the podcasts short and insightful on various aspects of Hispanic marketing and the community.
Un abrazo, 
Kirk Whisler
Great New Venue for the 12th
Los Angeles Latino Book & Family Festival
Latino Literacy Now is pleased to announce a new home for the Los Angeles Latino Book & Family Festival to be held August 29-30, 2009: L.A. Live. Home to the Nokia Theater, Club Nokia, the Grammy Museum, the Conga Room, Lucky Strike Lanes, the AEG Broadcast Studio, the ESPN studios and restaurants such as Trader Vics, Wolfgang Puck's, Lawry's and the ESPN Zone, L.A. Live will also feature two world class hotels, the Ritz-Carlton and the JW Marriott. This entertainment complex is revitalizing the downtown Los Angeles scene and quickly becoming the Times Square of the West. As the new, preferred venue for major events and concerts, including the 2008 & 2009 Primetime Emmy Awards, L. A. Live is perfectly located in downtown Los Angeles, just across the street from the Staples Center and the Los Angeles Convention Center.
The Festival exhibit area will occupy the Nokia Plaza and Chick Hearn Court (the street that runs between the Plaza and Staples Center). This dramatic new festival venue portends an exciting new beginning for the twelve year old Los Angeles festival. Look for more celebrities, more authors and more literacy based initiatives than ever before.
The Los Angeles festival has had its greatest successes when held in late August and positioned as a "back-to-school" event, so we are very excited about staging the event the last weekend in August.
Attention Sponsors & Exhibitors: in addition to reducing the costs of all sponsorships for 2009, our new published rates feature a built in "Early Bird" discount for savings of up to 20% on all booth packages for those getting involved early.
Attention Authors: The festival would not be possible without your participation. Speakers slots, signing opportunities and seminars are now being scheduled. If you are interested in participating, please contact us at 760-434-4484.
For your copy of our 2009 Sponsors & Exhibitors Opportunities Kit, or for any questions on the entire 2009 Festival tour (Chicago, Washington D. C., Los Angeles and Houston), please call 760-434-4484.
Kirk Whisler, Hispanic Marketing 101
voice: (760) 434-1223
Latino Print Network overall: 760-434-7474



Honor Them by Remembering
Chicano Park, San Diego 
Desert boxing tournament pays tribute by looking ahead
Eyes to the Past
In Memory of Edward Balthazar Flores
In Memory of Rosanne Helen Miller (Lopez)
Senorita Josefa Martinez Dies; Born Here in Mexican War
San Jose's 231st Birthday at the Peralta Adobe in San Jose


November 14, 2008

“Honor Them by Remembering”
Logan Heights veterans and soldiers 
will be recognized in future memorial site
By Pablo Jaime Sáinz


When filmmaker Ken Burns’s 2007 PBS documentary The War failed to include the voices and testimonies of Mexican-American and Latino veterans, the Latino community raised its voice against being left out.

Burns didn’t take into account the thousands of Mexican-American veterans that fought so bravely for the freedoms we now enjoy in the United States.

Chicano Park Steering Committee Member Ramon “Chunky” Sanchez, Logan Heights Veterans Memorial Committee Chairperson Felipe Pulido, and Father Richard Brown, break ground for the future Logan Heights Veterans Memorial.

But the veterans and soldiers of the Logan Heights area in San Diego have many people that will always be grateful for their contributions and sacrifices.

Last Tuesday, Nov. 11, Veterans’ Day, the Logan Heights Veterans Memorial (LHVM) Committee in partnership with the Chicano Park Steering Committee broke ground during a ceremony where a future memorial will be built in the northeast side of Chicano Park to honor all the veterans and soldiers of the area.

“This memorial when completed will stand as a testament to the courage, valor, and sacrifices made by all,” said LHVM Committee spokesperson and master of ceremonies, John Crespin. “The monument will honor the veterans and soldiers of the very diverse community of Logan Heights and all of San Diego. It will be a place to pay homage, to reflect, and to remember. Our fallen heroes have certainly earned it and the community deserves it.”

The mission of the Logan Heights Veterans Memorial Committee is “to acknowledge and recognize the service and ultimate sacrifice of our brothers and sisters in the Logan Heights community.”

During the ceremony, which was attended by elected officials and hundreds of community members and veterans, speakers highlighted the contributions that Mexican-American veterans and soldiers in general, and those from the Logan Heights area in particular, have made in every American war since World War I.

Crespin said that there’s no set date for completion of the memorial. He said that the LHVM Committee is currently revising design proposals from different artists. He added that funds are being raised through community donations.

Some of the guest veterans that were present at the ceremony included LHVT Committee Chairperson Felipe Pulido and World War II veteran Adam Gastelum.

The groundbreaking ceremony was followed by a reception at the nearby Don Diego VFW Post 7420 on Logan Avenue.

State Assemblymember Mary Salas, who was appointed Chair of the Committee on Veterans Affairs in 2007, said that her father and six uncles all served in the armed forces.

She said that thanks to their military service, her family was able to move ahead and have a better future in the United States through education and housing benefits for veterans.

“The story of my family is not unusual in the Mexican-American community; in fact, it is very common,” she said. “For my family, being part of the military was a way of giving back to the United States for the opportunities we found here.”

And Salas is right: Mexican-Americans have long been recognized as some of the bravest and more courageous soldiers in time of war. While some have criticized the recruiting campaigns that the military has done in Latino communities, the truth is that the armed forces represent a career options for many Latinos.

“As Mexicans, we come from a long line of warriors,” said musician Ramon Chunky San-chez, member of the Chicano Park Steering Committee, which administrates the park. “All the way from Cuauhtémoc and Pancho Villa and Zapata to Cesar Chavez, we carry it in our blood and in our heart. Warriors come in many aspects: Some of us carry rifles, some of us carry books, some of us carry a guitar, but all of these warriors have a lot of hear, mucho corazón.”

City of San Diego District 3 councilmember-elect Todd Gloria, who has been active in the veteran community for nearly a decade, said that he will continue advocating for the rights and benefits of veterans when he becomes council-member.

“I have enjoyed my association with this community of patriots and will continue to make a contribution to the veterans’ community,” said Gloria, whose family has a long history in the military. “I will make sure that they are always represented in city hall. I want to let them know that they will always have a voice.”

For Congressman Bob Filner, who is the chairman of the House Committee on Veterans’ Affairs, the Logan Heights Veterans Memorial in Chicano Park will be a constant reminder that Mexican-Americans have proudly served the United States—even if filmmakers like Burns ignore them.

“This spot (Chicano Park) is sacred ground to many people. To have this veterans’ memorial here says that we will not forget those who fought. Ken Burns forgot some of our heroes. This memorial says we will not forget our hometown heroes,” Filner said.

To learn more about the Logan Heights Veterans Memorial please visit There you will find a link to make a donation.

Sent by Armando Rendon

Chicano Park, San Diego Steering Committee Members

Back row: Sal Barajas, Rigoberto Reyes, David Rico, Olivia Puentes Reynolds, Victor Orozco Ochoa and Mario Torero Acevedo. Next row: Teresa Alvarez, Tommie Camarillo, Adelina Lopez, Irene Mena, Cathy Espitia Puente, Rachel Brooks and Michael Schnorr. Front row: David M. Rico, Jr., Monica Bernal, Lucas Cruz, Felicia Castillo, Octaviano Quintero, Christina Cruz, Solo Hernandez, Rosa Olga Navarro, Rebecca Romero and Marco A. Anguiano. CPSC members not shown: Brent Beltrán, Mariana de la Rosa, Eugene "Huge" Flores, Ernesto Gomez, Richard Gomez, Howard Hollman, Consuelo Manríquez de Beltrán, Carlos Pelayo, Ben Prado, Christian Ramírez, Tony Ramírez, Rolando Ricasa, Luis Rosas Diaz, Rick Saenz, César Sánchez, Ramon "Chunky" Sánchez, Isabel Sánchez, Harry Simon, Charline Valencia and Ramon Ventura.

¡Que viva Chicano Park!

The CPSC is a grassroots organization comprised of individuals who volunteer their time and energy to ensure that the original stated goals of the development and expansion of Chicano Park "all the way to the bay" are never forgotten or abandoned.

When we established ourselves in April of 1970 the CPSC's stated objective was, "To oversee (on behalf of the community) the continuing development and expansion of the Chicano Park and to insure that the park would be developed in a Chicano/Mexicano/Indigenous style." One of the original goals of the Chicano Park and the CPSC was to transform the cold grey concrete and rock-hard dirt that once dominated the site into a glorious thing of beauty that would mirror and showcase the beauty, culture and spirit of the Chicano people. Today the murals in Chicano Park are world-famous and constitute (along with various sculptures) the world's largest outdoor art gallery.

Another of the original stated goals/objectives of the CPSC is to keep alive the concept of "Chicano Park all the way to the bay." One of the loudest and most adamant declarations of April 22,1970 was that some day Chicano Park would stretch all the way to the bay. Some day it would be possible to walk from the edge of Interstate 5 to the San Diego Bay with out ever leaving the park. In 1987 the CPSC, with the support of the Barrio Caucus and the California State Legislature, was finally successful in getting the California Coastal Commission to vote in favor of developing the land at the foot of Crosby Street into a park. This followed years of intense, often hostile and antagonistic, negotiations with the San Diego Unified Port District. Port District officials and commissioners had been adamantly opposed to the notion that a park could be developed in the midst of a maritime industrial area. We were just as adamant! This was the last undeveloped site on the San Diego Bay and as such represented our only chance to reacquire bay access for our community.

Although the two ends have been secured it still remains to fill in the three block gap between the existing park sites. Our mission will not be accomplished until the three block connection has been completed, however it happens and however long it takes. For the CPSC "All The Way To The Bay" is not just a catchy phrase referring to our ambitions rather it represents the community's aspirations and dream that someday such a park will be a vibrant cultural and recreation center for all people to appreciate and enjoy.

In recent years the CPSC has spearheaded the community's campaign to prevent the damage and/or destruction of the murals during the ongoing seismic retrofit project to reinforce the bridge supports in the event of an earthquake. The CPSC is currently involved in mitigation negotiations with CalTrans relative to how the park will be put back together at the conclusion of the retrofit project and what improvements will be made.

Down through the years the CPSC has taken on virtually every level of government except the federal level. We have been victorious at every level. We did not win every single battle but we have won every major community based struggle with which we have gotten involved! Our track record is quite impressive. We are always on the side of right and justice and that is why we are always on the winning side.

The CPSC is a vibrant and seasoned community organization intricately involved with community issues and is here to stay. We also find time to conduct the annual Chicano Park Day Celebrations. Most CPSC members have jobs and families and that makes their dedication to the spirit of Chicano Park even more special. Take a look around Chicano park today. All that you see represents the fruits of our labor for the past 30 years. The Chicano Park Steering Committee: a group of people who dared to share a dream and work to make that dream become a reality.

Chicano Park Info:

Map of Chicano Park featuring each mural, names of artists, and dates.
What is the Chicano Park Steering Committee?
The Battle of Chicano Park: A Brief History of the Takeover
Press on Chicano Park
Link to unofficial Chicano Park website

Sent by Dorinda Moreno





Desert boxing tournament pays tribute by looking ahead
By Ed Castro 
The Press Enterprise, July 10, 2007

Gabino Saenz, 18, of Indio, is the 106-pound champion in the BCR Championship Series, named by Desert Showdown founder Ralph Romero to honor the boxing career of his uncle, Bert Colima. The tournament begins today at Spotlight 29 Casino.
Photo: Rodrigo Peña / The Press-Enterprise
COACHELLA - Desert Showdown amateur boxing tournament founder Ralph Romero has heard all the stories about his uncle Bert Colima. The prizefighter from Whittier made quite a name for himself during a 14-year, 197-fight career that began in 1919.  Romero has been so captivated by Colima that he decided to name a series of bouts -- what he calls the BCR Championship Series -- in Colima's name.  Story continues below 

The bouts are staged during the Desert Showdown as an added attraction and feature many of the best amateurs in the country. 

The Desert Showdown starts today at Spotlight 29 Casino and runs through Saturday. 
"I wanted to make sure people understood why these championship belts are so classy and important," said Romero, who expects 1,000 entries for this week's tournament. "The way my uncle fought ... he was the kind of champion every fighter should want to be." 
One of the first boxers to win a BCR championship belt was Indio's Gabino Saenz. 

"The belts are for the best of the best," said Saenz, who will be at the tournament this week. 
Colima (1902-79) was inducted posthumously into the World Boxing Hall of Fame in 1997. He was born Ephram Romero in Whittier, but early in his career, he changed his name to Bert Colima as a tribute to his mother, who was born in Colima, Mexico. 

Colima's career record was impressive (135 wins, 37 losses, 47 knockouts, 19 draws and 6 no-contests), but it was his willingness to "mix it up" in the ring that made him a fan favorite. Colima retired in 1933. 

"At the time, there were a lot of fighters, but there were not that many attractions," said Don Chargin, an International Boxing Hall of Fame matchmaker and promoter inductee in 2001. "He was an attraction. People loved the way he fought. He was one of the first Mexican attractions in the area."  Story continues below 

Gabino Saenz, right, 18, of Indio, works with trainer
Timothy Bradley Sr., 44, af Palm Springs, at the Boys & Girls Club in Indio. 
Desert Showdown founder Ralph Romero said he expects 1,000 fighters. 
Rodrigo Peña / The Press-Enterprise 

Colima fought throughout Southern California and occasionally ventured out of state as well, fighting in New York at both Madison Square Garden and Ebbets Field, and at the Arena Nacional in Mexico City. 

Colima won the Mexican middleweight title in 1928 and fought for the Mexican heavyweight title in a losing cause in 1932, both bouts in the Arena Nacional. 

But it was in Los Angeles that Colima became a hero to the Mexican and Mexican-American communities -- he fought at the famed Olympic Auditorium there 15 times during his career. 

"Colima was greatly admired as a boxer because of his resistance in the ring, his able maneuvering of the ropes, his rapidness and agility, the serenity he always showed and his strong left hook," said Servando Ortoll, a visiting research professor at the Center for Cultural Investigations-Museum of the University of Baja California in Mexicali, Mexico.  Ortoll, interviewed by e-mail from Mexico City, said his book "Bert Colima, caballero del cuadrilátero" will be published next year.  Prof. Ortoll is also planning to produce a documentary on Colima's life. 

"In terms of identity, Mexican immigrants felt he was Mexican, and every time he fought, Mexicans flocked to the arena," Ortoll said. "Colima was a symbol to all immigrants who identified with a man who many thought was a Mexican who had 'made it' in the U.S." 
Colima's following eventually lured in a handful of celebrities, most notably Mexican actress Lupe Velez. She starred alongside Douglas Fairbanks in the 1928 film "The Gaucho" and later gained fame for starring in a series of films that garnered her the nickname "Mexican Spitfire." Velez was an avid fight fan, especially if bouts featured Colima.  "She was a big name in the movies back then," Chargin said. "She used to be ringside for every one of his fights." 

Reach Ed Castro at 760-837-4416 or
Sent by 
We are still waiting for Prof. Servando Ortoll's book: 
"Bert Colima, caballero del cuadrilátero" .


Facundo Ayon and Rev. Alexander Moss Merwin
From: Eyes to the Past
By John Arvizu and Rose Hardy



Facundo Ayon and Rev. Alexander Moss Merwin, upon hearing those two names one would never guess that these two men shared something in common, but they did.  

Facundo Ayon was a Sonoran gentleman who moved to California in the mid 1800’s. He settled in San Juan Capistrano and married a local girl, Isabel Parra, the daughter of Miguel and Maria Parra. After their marriage, Facundo and Isabel raised a family of six children. But after his wife’s early death, Facundo at the age of 46 met and married, 22 year old, Catarina Paredes, of Los Angeles, on the 17th of June 1876. It was from this union that Facundo and his new wife moved to the area of Azusa, as that is where her father, Severo, resided. Together, Facundo and his new wife Catarina raised six more children and lived in the area known to many back in the olden days as Spanish Town or the Mexican Settlement, otherwise known as Irwindale.  

While a resident of Azusa, Facundo took a business trip to Los Angeles, sometime in 1883, to sell a load of wood. While riding with his loaded team, he arrived in Los Angeles on this particular Sabbath morning and came upon a man named Antonio Diaz, who was preaching to a group of Spanish speaking citizens. Facundo was so intrigued by this gentleman that after the service he introduced himself and Antonio invited Facundo into his home, where Facundo stayed for three days.  

When Facundo arrived back home in Azusa, he was a changed man. He had become a convert to the Presbyterian religion and preached the gospel to his friends and family.  It wasn’t until 1887 when Facundo met Connecticut-born Rev. Alexander Moss Merwin.  

In 1885, Rev. A. Moss Merwin, returned to the United States from “Spanish Mission” work in Valparaiso, Chile. While working in Chile, he learned the Spanish language.  It would help him in later years in Southern California. In 1886 he and his family moved to California and first settled in Santa Barbara, where he worked at the Santa Barbara Presbyterian Church. A year later he and his family moved to Pasadena making it his permanent home until his death in 1905.

Spanish Presbyterian Church. This was the type of work the reverend did within the Spanish and Mexican communities, and he would go on to organize the construction of other Spanish churches throughout Southern California. With the help of Don Enrique Dalton, church membership for the Azusa Spanish Church increased.  This helped fund its construction. Since rocks were abundant in the area, it was only logical that the areas natural resource be utilized in its construction.  

On the 11th of August 1889 the Azusa Spanish Church was organized and Facundo became its first elder. Many years after the passing of both men, Facundo Ayon and Rev. Alexander Moss Merwin, the church changed its name, in 1944, to the Divine Saviour Presbyterian Church.  

The stone building still stands to this day, over 100 years later, at its original location and can be found at 5516 Irwindale Avenue. Many of Facundo’s descendents attended Divine Saviour over the years, as well as their Irwindale friends and neighbors.  

The history of Facundo Ayons conversion to the Presbyterian faith was written by the Rev. Antonio Diaz and was found in his old manuscripts.  The “History of Facundo and the Azusa Spanish Church” was written by none other than Facundo’s dear friend, Rev. Alexander Moss Merwin in 1903.  

Together, both men shared a dream and with it a reminder to the community of Irwindale. It should also be mentioned that Rev. A. Moss Merwin’s name lives on in Irwindale as the elementary school bares his name.



During the early part of the 1900s, Azusa and the surrounding communities were still rural and agricultural.  The citrus industry was a thriving industry, with workers like Bill Arvizu, the Alvas and other Azusans, they helped 
to bring in the bountiful harvests of ripe sweet oranges.  

Bill Arvizu picking oranges in 
Glendora , Ca in 1929

Group of orange pickers 1925


Abe Arvizu Jr. working the orchards in 1937 in Azusa.

Despite the depression which left much of the rest of the country unemployed there was work to be had in the orange groves of Southern California .


December 20, 1933 - November 6, 2008


               Eddie was a very gentle, loving and caring soul.  He always put others first and anyone that ever met him liked him immediately.  He was completely selfless, opening his home and heart to all.  He never had anything bad to say about anyone and when it came to gossip he would prefer to say only good about others or nothing at all.  

               Eddie had a sense of humor and wit that was unmatched.  He would sit and quietly listen during a conversation and then suddenly inject his unique wit into the exchange to the delight of everyone.  To know Eddie was to laugh.   

               He was a diligent and conscientious worker with the County of Los Angeles for 29 years.  After his retirement in 1988 he stayed in contact with his co-workers often meeting for lunch and other social occasions.  

               His hobby was genealogy, but it was more of an obsession.  He served as an officer in numerous organizations, spoke at their meetings and traveled widely for research.  He was well respected by his fellow members and often included them in his research.  He eagerly passed along any information that might be of interest to them.     

               Proceeding him in death were his father Louis Flores, mother Emily Bensor, brother Gilbert and brother Rosendo who took the name of Father Louis as a priest.  

               His cousins Viola, Florence, Rachel, Margaret, Lucy, Aurelio, Robert, Rose and Vivian were very dear to him and because they were raised together as children were more like sisters and brothers.  Although they lived all over the country he kept in constant contact with them.  He always remembered and attended the major events in their lives.  Eddie was the glue that bonded the family together.   

               Eddie profoundly influenced the life of his best friend and companion Kenny.  It was through genealogy taught by Eddie that Kenny was able to locate his birth family after almost 40 years of separation due to his adoption.  

               Eddie will be deeply missed by his friends and family, but we rejoice in his memory.  We are all better humans for having had him in our lives.  His love shines on through all who knew him.              





Rosanne Helen Miller (nee Lopez) was born on February 17, 1917 at the Queen of Angels Hospital, Los Angeles, the daughter of Francisco Earle Lopez (born on January 25, 1891 and died on August 25, 1937 in Los Angeles) and of Emma Tjoda Hinrichs who was born on February 20, 1891 in Alton, Ill. and died on December 11, 1978 in Los Angeles. 

Rosanne was the granddaughter of Francisco Eulogio Lopez and of Rose Catherine McFarland. They were married on January 17, 1916 in Los Angeles, with two other children born; Jane Elizabeth Lopez and Robert Earle Lopez. Rosanne Helen Miller, nee Lopez is survived by her brother, Robert Earle Lopez, her children, Steven Miller, Pamela Williams and Christine Miller, granddaughter, Erin Williams, and many nieces, nephews and cousins.
Rosanne Helen Lopez during World War II, served as a Petty Officer 1st Class (Waves) in the United States Navy as a Classified Document Courier at Terminal Island, San Pedro, Los Angeles, California from about 1942 to about 1945. In 1942, she attended Hunters College in New York for the Navy and returned to San Pedro for her assignment, where she met her future husband, Eugene (Gene) Miller a Bowsonsmate, a Shore Patrolman in the U.S. Navy until 1947, and after the war, he later served in the Police Department in Los Angeles. They were married on April 28, 1946 and were married in their military uniforms (according to Bob and Margaret Lopez). Rosanne’s military awards included the World War II Victory Medal, Navy Good Conduct Medal, the National Defense Medal, and Divisional Medals.

Attached Photographs of Rosanne Helen Lopez, as a Petty Officer 1st Class, United States Navy (WAVES) of WW II

Rosanne Miller and sister Jane Traub were members of the Los Pobladores 200, as well as their brother, Robert Earle Lopez who is a past president and current membership chairman of the Los Pobladores 200 with two of the founding families on September 4, 1781. She was also a direct descendant of the founders of the Mission San Buenaventura (Ventura) on March 31, 1782, and the Royal Presidio of Santa Barbara on April 21, 1782.

Rosanne Lopez’s ancestry includes Jose Ygnacio Maria de Jesus Lopez and Maria Facunda de Mora of Colonial Spain (Nueva España), of Andres de Cota and Maria de Leon of Nueva España, their eldest son, Private Roque Jacinto de Cota, born in 1724, at El Real de El Fuerte, Sinaloa, Nueva España, who in 1754, married Juana Maria Verdugo, born in 1743 at the Presidio of Loreto, Baja California. Luis Manuel Quintero who was born about 1726 in Jalisco, New Spain and Maria Petra Timotea Rubio, who was born 1741in Alamos, Sonora, New Spain, and both of these families were of Moorish-Spanish backgrounds dating back before the 1500's in Spain, and of Indian Ancestry of Nueva España (Mexico after September 15, 1821). These families were two of the original 15 Spanish families totaling 71 individuals, who founded El Pueblo de los Angeles (the City of Los Angeles) on September 4, 1781. 

Another ancestor Rosanne, Jane and Robert Lopez was a Jose Ygnacio Maria de Jesus Lopez, who was born in 1724, at the Royal Presidio of Loreto, Baja California, who married Maria Facunda de Mora, who was born about 1725, in Santiago de las Caras, Baja California, were among the founding families of Alta or Spanish California in the late 1700s. With their son, Jose Maria Claudio Lopez, born in 1767, at Real de San Antonio, Baja California, who married Maria Luisa de Cota, who was born on June 24, 1777, at the Mission San Borja, Baja California, the daughter of Roque Jacinto de Cota and Juana Maria Verdugo. Between 1821 and 1830, Jose Maria Claudio Lopez became the majordomo of the Mission San Fernando, in 1826, he became the alcalde of Los Angeles and on January 7, 1833, he died and was buried under the Holy Water Font inside the Mission San Gabriel Arcangel, and his wife was buried there on February 15, 1851.
References include records maintained by Robert E. Lopez, (cousin) Robert E. Smith, California Mission Records, books written by Marie Northrop titled, “Spanish-Mexican Families of Early California, 1769-1850", Bancroft Books on California, records maintained by the Los Californianos and the Los Angeles Historical Society and many more books and sources. 

Sent by Robert Smith

Senorita Josefa Martinez Dies; Born Here in Mexican War
Los Angeles Times, Oct 9, 1940

Senorita Josefa Martinez Dies; Born Here in Mexican War
Mass to Be Said Tomorrow for Native Angeleno In Plaza Church in Which She Was Christened

  Senorita Josefa Mercedes Martinez ended a long, good life yesterday. She died in a modest home at 601 E. Garfield St., Glendale, 94 years after her birth on Los Feliz Rancho in the days of the Mexican War.

  During all her lifetime she devoted herself to rearing the family of her sister, Mrs. Maria Newkirk, who died leaving six children.

  She was the daughter of Juan Martinez, early-day cattleman, and Natividad Ruiz Martinez.  Second of 12 children, she was born on the rancho where her mother sought refuge from the western war.  The Los Feliz acres now are Griffith Park - and Senorita Martinez's birthplace long since has given way to the busy intersection of Glendale Blvd. and Riverside Drive.

  Requiem mass will be celebrated at 10 a.m. tomorrow at the old Plaza Church, in which she was christened.  Burial will be in Calvary Cemetery.

  Senorita Martinez died at the home of one of her nieces, Mrs. Elora Berendsohn.  She also leaves three other nieces and a nephew

Visit the California-Spanish website at



Saturday, November 29th, 2008
San Jose's 231st Birthday at the Peralta Adobe in San Jose

1:00 to 3:00. Juana Briones' mother Ysadora Tapia, was a child with her family as part of the founding of both the San Francisco Presidio and Mission and the Pueblo of San Jose.
Bring donations of non-perishable food for distribution by Second Harvest.
1:00 Information tables & Music by Lance Beeson
Los Californianos - Descendants please sign in.
Los Fundadores
Castro Adobe (Watsonville) 
2:00 Welcome by Barbara Johnston, History San Jose 
Flag raising & Lighting of Perpetual Candle
"How They Came" by Greg Smestad, author:
A Guide to the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail 
Floral memorial: 
Evalyn Martinez, Los Fundadores
Reading of Founders list:
Maria Reiger, Los Californianos
Descendants each take a flower to the family poster. 
2:30 "Birthday" cake cut by Mary Baumann
Special Awards - Lucille Corcel
Youngest descendant present
Eldest descendant present 
"Friend of the Californios" 
3:00 Announcements; Thank committee!
Thank You for coming!

Thanks to: 
California Room, King Library (City of San Jose/SJ State) for conducting Dec 3 program.
Radio station KKUP 91.5 for excellent publicity.
Bijan Bakery, 170 S. Market St. for the wonderful cake. 
City of San Jose/History San Jose for use of Peralta Adobe. 
Sponsors: Los Californianos, Los Fundadores, History San Jose.

Sent by: 
Jeanne Farr McDonnell
and Lorri Frain



Orange County Register, Hispanic Heritage Month Series
Son of migrants fulfilled his parents' dreams by Tomas Saenz
They tilled the soil in pursuit of their dream by Dolores Contreras Austin
Local family's roots run deep, from Tustin to Mexico by Pascual Pat Rivas, Jr.
From her grandfather, she learned self-reliance by Rosemary Vasquez-Tuthill
Grandfather 'Deddy' taught lessons with laughter by Mary Garcia
Their immigrant family focused on opportunity by Ruben Barron, Ed.D

Editor: The following articles are a series of family stories that were published in the Orange County, California Register in celebration of Hispanic Heritage. The Register asked readers to tell their family stories of the Latino experience in Orange County. Special thanks to Ron Gonzales, of the Register, who organized the effort.

In the October issue of Somos Primos we published the very moving story of Ricardo Valverde's family.  Ricardo has been sending me the articles as they appeared.   

I share this information to promote the concept that each of you might want to pursue:  Contact your local newspapers now and suggest that your community consider the same kind of Hispanic/Latino involvement.  Surely an appropriate season to share with their neighbors an understanding of the Hispanic historical presence.


Samuel and Santos Saenz and their family 1961, Grand Rapids, Michigan.  


Son of migrants fulfilled his parents' dreams

Tomas 'Tom' Saenz Sr. learned the value of taking a risk and helping others from his parents, son says.

My father achieved success in life through hard work, upholding strong values, commitment to family and service to the community.

As an educator, community volunteer and civic leader, my father, Tomas 'Tom' Saenz Sr., has dedicated his life to helping others.

The story begins with the family of Samuel and Santos Saenz, a former migrant family that struggled through many years of hard work and in the end was successful in achieving and enjoying the American Dream.

The South Texas Saenz family spent about ten years as migrant workers and their travels included states such as Florida, Mississippi, Arkansas, Michigan and a good part of Texas. The family finally settled in Grand Rapids, Mich. in the mid-1950's. It was there where this family of 12 children and parents made the transition to industrial-type jobs and the children to a normal school setting. Four of the children went on to college and attained advanced degrees.

One of the four college graduates was my father, a graduate of Aquinas College in Grand Rapids. He received his BA degree in teaching with a major in Spanish and minor in history. After teaching two years in Grand Rapids, he moved to Orange, with my mother, Linda, and their children.

In the fall of 1969 my father accepted a teaching position with the Orange Unified School District and was assigned to El Modena High School where he taught Spanish, history and English. He was also doing his graduate work at Chapman University and earned a master's degree in education in 1973.

He remained at El Modena High School until 1973 when he was promoted to a district level job as administrator of special programs. He served in this capacity until 1991 at which time he accepted the position of principal at Prospect Elementary School.

Hispanics had joined the civil rights movement and were demanding improvements in education and in other areas. School districts were in a scramble in trying to find qualified Latinos to meet the community's demands. My father was one of those Latino educators who were called upon to help solve the problems both in the school district and in the Hispanic community.

He became deeply involved in establishing meaningful educational programs for Latino students. Some of the major focuses were in curriculum development, staffing, and staff training and community leadership.

Community work

My father became active in civic affairs in and around the city of Orange. He served in numerous boards, commissions, and committees for various organizations in the city of Orange, Orange County and at the state level. He was also active in politics and managed several political campaigns. In November 1991 my father ran for the position of trustee of the Rancho Santiago Community College District. He was elected and served a four-year term at Rancho.


My parents made Orange their home and it was there where their three children grew up and went to school. Marsha received a degree in marketing from Chapman University. Michelle attended California State University at Fullerton and her degree was in international business. I attended Cal State Fullerton and obtained a degree in international business, and later an MBA from Chapman.

Family legacy

When asked what influenced him to pursue a career in education and community work, my father said that much of it was the example set by his parents early in life. He said that both his parents were compassionate and giving, always willing to help others in need, even during hard times. His parents were risk-takers and ventured out to unknown areas in the pursuit of opportunity for their large family. These values and having a united and loving family are the legacy of Samuel and Santos Saenz.


Both my father and mother were employed by the Orange Unified School District. Linda worked as a secretary in the Psychology Department. After many years with the school district, in 1996 they both decided to take early retirement.

The retirement years have been fun and productive. They spend time with their married children and their nine grandchildren. They have done a considerable amount of domestic travel.

My father continues to be active in other ways. He walks daily, and has been researching his family history and genealogy for several years. He has traced his paternal and maternal roots back to the 1500's. The family originated in South Texas with the original ancestors migrating to Texas in the mid-1850's. He is also a member of Somos Primos, an organization that devotes itself to promoting family genealogy/history as well as Hispanic culture/heritage.

Thomas Michael Saenz, 36, lives in Fullerton.


They tilled the soil in pursuit of their dream

The Contreras and Fierro families are among the 20th century pioneers of Orange County agriculture.

Along with the well known prominent landowners like the local Irvine and Segerstrom families, the Daniel Contreras and Francisco Fierro families can also be counted among the early pioneer families of Orange County.

Both the Contreras and Fierro families, who came from Mexico about 1910 and settled in Orange County, contributed to the early development of the county and to the vital growth of the County's agricultural economic base.

My paternal grandfather Daniel Contreras primarily worked as a farmer and also for a time on the Santa Fe Railroad; my maternal grandfather Francisco Fierro was an independent agricultor,or farmer, who tilled his own land by growing a variety of vegetables for market.

PATRIARCH; Photo taken circa 1910 of Francisco Fierro (1878 to 1960) at the time of his engagement in Ciudad Camargo, Santa Rosalia, Chihuahua, Mexico. He settled in Fountain Valley and became a farmer. Courtesy of Dolores Austin

My paternal grandparents Daniel Contreras and Ruperta Ortiz came from an ancient town west of   Mexico City named Purepero in the western state of Michoacan. They settled in Huntington Beach where they bought an acre of land near Beach Boulevard in the 1940s.

My maternal grandparents Francisco Fierro and Luz Vera came from the city of Ciudad Camargo, Santa Rosalia, in the state of Chihuahua, located in northwest Mexico. The Fierro family settled in an enclave called La Colonia Juarez in Fountain Valley where my Grandfather Fierro farmed the land he bought on Warner Avenue across from today's Mile Square Park.

MATRIARCH: Photo taken circa 1910 of Luz Vera (1885 to 1951) at the time of her engagement in Ciudad Camargo, Santa Rosalia, Chihuahua, Mexico. She settled in Fountain Valley with her husband, Francisco Fierro.  Courtesy of Dolores Austin

What drew these two Mexican born patriarchs to an uncertain future at this faraway place called Orange County, California, which was at the time a sleepy rural suburb of Los Angeles?

Without a doubt, it was the rich Orange County soil and farmland that beckoned them here and lured them permanently away from their native homelands.

Neither family planned to stay here for very long — it was supposed to be temporary. But after their children were born (each family had seven children), and time went on, they assimilated and literally found their new home. My grandparents saw the potential of the great combination of the fertile farmland and ideal Mediterranean climate that would be their future and that of their descendants.

As farmers, the perfect duo of soil and climate would enable them to make a living off the land. In particular, my grandfather Fierro, along with his brother Jesse, made a profitable living by growing their own vegetables and selling them in the Los Angeles marketplace.

My mother, Margaret Fierro Contreras, often referred to my grandparents as the "pioneers."

They were the immigrant generation that had left their Mexican homelands to come to the United States with hopes and dreams in search of a better life and greater opportunity because there was little or no future for them where they had been born.

These pioneers were a generation of hard-working people that followed the rules and respected the laws of their adopted country. They came to America with a limited knowledge of the English language, customs, and culture.

There were no English as a second language classes, unemployment insurance, or any other state or federal programs for them.

Nevertheless, they persevered — working hard everyday of their lives to prosper and provide for their families which always came first and foremost. At the same time, they bestowed their work ethics upon their children and grandchildren. They left a legacy of hard work, raising their offspring with good morals and ethics, and instilled in them the value of obtaining a good solid education in order to succeed.

They were honest and decent law-abiding human beings who never asked for a handout. All they possessed they earned with their skills and abilities, lots of hard work, and plenty of determination. This is their unforgettable legacy which they handed down to their children and grandchildren.

My grandparents and parents have since passed away. It is interesting to note that my paternal grandmother, Ruperta Ortiz Contreras, was given the gift of longevity — she died in 1991 at the age of 105 years.

Today, almost 100 years later after their arrival in Orange County, although many of their descendants have scattered throughout Southern California and across the country, many of us still reside and work in and around the cities that these two humble immigrant families helped to settle.

I am sure that my grandparents can look down on us today and be proud of the many productive American citizens they left behind. As a third generation American of Mexican descent, I am proud and honored to be a citizen of the greatest country in the world which was made possible by the foresight of my immigrant grandparents.

Dolores Contreras Austin lives in Irvine.



Local family's roots run deep, from Tustin to Mexico

It took 40 years and a fascinating history for Pat Rivas to appreciate his heritage


I was born in Santa Ana and grew up in Tustin with seven brothers and sisters. We all graduated from Tustin High School, and I was captain of the football team and student body president when I graduated in 1953. I knew my parents, Pascual and Maria, had immigrated from Mexico after the Mexican Revolution, and that my dad was only a kid when he crossed the border, alone, into El Paso. He never talked about it much, and we didn't really ask questions.

HISTORY:Pascual Rivas Jr. discovered at age 40, that he was the grandson of Calixto Contreras - a general in the Mexican Revolution. Rivas travelled to Mexico to learn about his family and connected with cousins.

We kids spoke English growing up, and our parents let us get away with it because they wanted to learn English, too. I didn't really have any connection to Mexico, other than my parents spoke Spanish. That changed when I was 40. I traveled to Mexico City and my dad told me I had cousins there, and I should go meet them. I wasn't too interested, but I felt like I had an obligation to my dad.

I showed up and met my cousin. He started making phone calls, and soon I was surrounded by all these cousins and relatives I had never met before. That's how I discovered more about my family's history, that my grandfather was Calixto Contreras, a general who fought under Pancho Villa in the Mexican Revolution. Later, I met his daughter, my aunt Otilia, who told me why my grandfather fought. She remembered being asked to get the tequila for my grandfather so they could take a bullet out of his shoulder when he was wounded in the Battle of Torreon.

My aunt brought out a folded white bed sheet and unrolled it. Inside was a .38 pistol, my grandfather's, and she wanted me to have it. I couldn't take it and insisted it go to one of my cousins, instead. But I have piles of articles and pictures. I have two old bills that were printed by the revolutionaries, stained with my grandfather's blood, because he had a lot of money in his vest when he was assassinated in 1916.

A lot of people fled the revolution, including my dad. He was just 13 when he came to this country and managed to get a job on the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway, and traveled the Midwest. My mom's family also immigrated to El Paso, and both my dad and mom ended up in Santa Ana. They met there and got married in 1933 at Our Lady of Guadalupe Church. I was born in 1934. My brothers are Antonio, Bob, Fernando and Gilbert. My sisters are Rosemary and Margaret; my little sister Hortense died of breast cancer.

My mom and dad worked the agricultural circuit, traveling from Hemet through the Imperial Valley and down to Oceanside, depending on what was in season. When the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor and some local Japanese-American farmers were sent to internment camps, my dad leased their land from The Irvine Company. Today it's the Tustin Marketplace, but back then it was alfalfa fields and orange groves, and we grew up in a little farmhouse where a Costco stands today. We planted tomatoes, peas, and cucumbers near Peters Canyon from 1942 to 1946.

My dad quit farming and opened up the Grande Tortilla Company with a business partner. He sold his interest after a few years and opened a restaurant. In 1959 he and my mom started Calidad Mexican Foods, and he kept that business until he retired in 1988.

He and my mom were proud Tustinites, and she lived in their house on 2nd Street in Old Town Tustin until she died in 2000.

My dad taught me the value of hard work, and my mom taught me the meaning of family. I believe the most important Mexican value is family, family, family. Every Sunday my mom cooked menudo for whoever showed up – kids, grandkids, neighbors, you name it. The neighbors weren't even Mexican, but they loved my mom's menudo. Now that she's gone, my sisters carry on the tradition of making menudo for the family on Sundays. We cherish that, and we'll continue doing it until there's nobody left.

The grandchildren never spoke Spanish and don't know a word of it, so that's sort of gone. The Rivas family name has also changed with marriages – now we have Jensens and Schmitts in our family, too.

I was at a party once with my cousins from Mexico, and I was taken aback when they called me a "Norte Americano." They asked me if I felt like a Mexican, and who I would fight for if the U.S and Mexico ever went to war. I told them I had already sworn my allegiance to the United States, and that I proudly served my country in the Army. But learning about my family's history did make me proud of my Mexican heritage.

For my mother Maria's last birthday in 2000, we threw her a huge party in her back yard and hired a great mariachi. She was just overcome, she was so nostalgic. She took the microphone and told us all to enjoy the party, because this would be the last birthday she would spend with us.

She died a few months later, but I will always remember that night. She held that microphone until the party ended, and sang every song along with the mariachi.

Pat Rivas, 74, is retired and lives in Irvine with his wife Gloria.



From her grandfather, she learned self-reliance

From her muralist father, she developed a love of art.


In 1916 at age 15, my grandfather Santiago Vasquez left his small village of Santa Maria de Arriba in Jalisco state, Mexico.

He followed his brothers to Jerome, Arizona, to work the copper mines there. He worked for a period of time and then returned to Mexico. On one of his return visits he became engaged to Guadalupe Chavez. Eight months later, in July 1924, they married and left for Jerome the following month.

Again, he found work in the mines. In 1925, Ezequiel, the first of their 10 children, was born. The 1929 The Great Depression hit, and work in the mines slowed to a crawl. Santiago was one of many laid off. He struggled for years doing odd jobs, then returned to the mines.

In 1941, the mines closed, and the operators offered to pay for the miners to return to Mexico. My grandfather refused their offer, and brought the family to Orange. Here, they lived with Guadalupe's sister's family, the De Leons, for a month until Santiago bought a house a few doors away on Cypress Street. This was not a moment too soon, since there were 19 people living in a two-bedroom house with one bathroom.

PATRIARCH: Santiago Vasquez, circa 1971. He came to Orange when the mine he was working at in Arizona closed. Courtesy of Rosemary Vasquez-Tuthill

Santiago worked in the ship yards around San Pedro building Liberty ships, picked oranges, and then worked as a laborer. He also worked at Disneyland on the Casey Jr. train ride.

1946 was a trying year for my grandmother. Her eldest son Ezequiel came down with rheumatic fever and died at the age of 21. At that time, she was expecting the last of their 10 children, Gilbert.

In the 1940s, their daughters worked at the Orange packing house on Cypress Street, and their sons worked picking oranges.

As time went on, the children pursued various careers. Emigdio Vasquez, my father, became a well-known artist and muralist.

All of Santiago and Guadalupe's children at one time lived in Orange, with their families. We were a close family.

I grew up in my grandparents' back house until I was 13. My memories are of my grandmother cooking and watching her novelas, and my grandfather, on a daily basis, building and fixing things around the house. I lived there for seven years while I was beginning my career as an engineer, working for an aerospace company.

My father, Emigdio, lived in the attached apartment of his parents' house until they passed away in the early 1990's.

I learned with hard work and self reliance I could live the American dream as they did. I learned how to care for my family.

I learned a lot from my grandfather, and I seem to have inherited an affinity for art from my father. I find myself building and fixing things around my house, and painting an occasional mural, too.

Rosemary Vasquez-Tuthill, 48, lives in Colton.



Grandfather 'Deddy' taught lessons with laughter

Stories Logan Barrio pioneer told often carried moral, granddaughter says.

For the Orange County Register


LOGAN SETTLERS: Pedro and Maria Rodriguez, circa 1930s or 1940s. They settled in the Logan neighborhood of Santa Ana early in the 20th century. Courtesy of Mary Garcia.

My grandfather Pedro Rodriguez came alone to work in the United States from Durango, Mexico when he was about 14.

Young, yes, but desperate times in Mexico brought him and many others to los Estados Unidos. Working on the railroads he laid tracks from the border, in the Southwest and all the way up to Colorado. This must have been about the 1890s.

At the turn of the century, when he was in Texas, he met my grandmother, Maria Martinez. Maria and her cousin, Agustina, were from Zacatecas, Mexico and were assisting Maria's mother in providing food for the railroad workers. Her mother, Apolinar Ruiz Martinez, provided the food from a railroad car.

The family eventually set up their home in Dawson, New Mexico and he went to work in the coal mines. In 1906 Pedro sent for his parents and sibling to come to join him in Dawson. Soon after that, his brother, Tiburcio, while riding a horse, crashed into a tree. Tiburcio died from these injuries.

In 1912 Pedro made the decision to take his five children and move to California. Stopping along the way in Gallup. New Mexico, another child was born.

My Mama Maria (grandmother) said they came with another compadre of my grandfather's, to work in Santa Ana on the railroads.

She would follow him anywhere because she knew all her family would be well taken care of, Mama Maria said.

Many a time my grandmother would say, "Mexico para morir y Los Estados Unidos para vivir"— "Mexico was for dying and the United States for living". But she proudly celebrated all the Mexican traditions, the 16th of September (Independence Day), and putting up the altar for Our Lady of Guadalupe.

Along with his mother-in-law, the family of nine arrived to the Logan Barrio in Santa Ana in 1913 with the promise of work in the railroads.

In October, 1913 Pedro received the news of a mine explosion in Dawson, New Mexico. More than 200 miners were killed, including his father Pedro Rodriguez Sr. His father's body was never identified, being charred so badly. But a body was handed over to his widow, Mercedes Avalos Rodriguez.

Pedro Sr. was buried in the Dawson cemetery. The coal mining company Dodge Phelps provided them all with iron crosses to signify they were victims of that mine explosion. Dawson, New Mexico is no more, but the cemetery now is in the National Registers of Historic Places in honor of all the miners who have been killed there in Dawson.

My grandfather Pedro worked in many labor-type occupations, including agriculture, to provide for his family. In total, Pedro and Maria had 15 children, 10 reaching adulthood.

While working for a lady rancher in the Logan neighborhood he earned her respect for his work ethic and character. She in turn gave to him and four other Logan families land to build their family homes. She even put it in her will.

Times being what they were in the 1920s her family overturned her request and her stepson was given the properties back. The Logan residents involved were given the option to buy the properties. Since all had already built their homes in the Logan barrio, they chose to buy back their properties in monthly installments. I heard this story when my grandfather would gather his grandchildren around him in to tell us stories.

It was not until doing research at the Santa Ana Library and at the Orange County Archives that I stumbled onto the documents that proved he was telling us the truth, except for the part of the witches in the orchards.

He was a great storyteller, keeping us laughing, crying and entertained far into the night. His stories always had a moral to them.

He was a humble man. He rarely spoke of the hard times his family experienced but rather entertained us with humor. Laughter and hard work were some of the attributes we remember him by.

All his children were close and caring with each other and, especially his daughters, exemplified the meaning of family love to the end of their lives. Growing up I had 60 first cousins, all ages, most of them within the Logan barrio. We all called him "Deddy", for daddy, after one of his first grandchildren nicknamed him that.

At the times my grandparents came to the United States, communication resources were very limited. Consequently the data I have on where they came from has been through his stories and my further research. I have no known relatives in Mexico.

In 1995 at the Rodriguez family reunion in Orange, more than 400 direct descendents signed in, and that was only the adults. Not all of them came to know this man I remember as an extraordinary, caring man, a man's man. A true role model of a father – "Deddy".

He must have had a good role model himself with his father, Pedro Rodriguez Sr.

Mary Garcia, of Orange, has written a book about the Logan neighborhood's history.



Their immigrant family focused on opportunity

Felix and Maria Barron left a legacy in their children of faith and perseverance.


The Barron family posed for this photo in 1955, when they left Mexico for the United States. Top row, (l-r): Lupe, Lucina, Rebeca. Middle row (l-r): Felix Jr., father Felix, mother Maria, Ruben. Bottom row (l-r): Rose, Socorro, Frank.  Courtesy Ruben Barron. 


A child of the Mexican Revolution, my father grew up working in Waco, Texas with his family commuting freely between his birthplace in Mexico and work in the U.S.

He often bragged about doing a man's full day's work and driving the family's Model A to his origins in El Tepozan, San Luis Potosi, Mexico, after harvest, at age 12. Those two adolescent experiences became a type of bar mitzvah and character traits.

Indeed, my father and work became inseparable friends. Around the house he loved to improve on working gadgets and make old ones "good as new". As for cars, he never considered buying a used one.

My mom hailed from Cerritos, within walking distance from my dad's native pueblo.

Their path eventually led them to Santa Ana, and mine to Yorba Linda.

By 1955, the northern economic magnet was sufficiently strong to lure the young couple with their eight children ranging from nine months to 15 years (a ninth child was born later in the U.S.).

Half the kids had a rural Mexican school experience and learned basic math, reading and writing.

Before starting a family, my mother had briefly taught school. While cooking, which she seemed to be constantly doing, she related stories, poetry, and history, engendering in us an enduring interest in literature.

From her, we always heard a reassuring, "Yo quiero a todos mis hijos" — I love all my children. It was a tender reminder that there was enough love to go around among nine kids and a husband.

As new immigrants, my dad augmented a meager income with family tending crops in the San Joaquin Valley and living in make-shift wooden shanties.

In the fall, the start of school was determined by when the ripe fruit had been picked, not by a school calendar.

After school, we went directly home to do chores that continued through week-ends and long hot summers. Life was definitively better in Mexico where we had farm animals, rode horses, and played leisurely. It was nearly impossible for the kids to understand that it had to be so difficult to get better.

Perhaps resulting from his lengthy stay in Mexico during the U.S. Depression and afterward, my father was never one to complain about anything, and least about work, leaving us without recourse.

My dad's only brother lived in Santa Ana, and eventually our six-year savings enabled us to buy a modest home in the city's south side, near the bean and strawberry fields that became South Coast Plaza and in a neighborhood where English sounds reigned.

Still, the family continued picking watermelons in Hemet and onions in Corona. Being the oldest brother, and lacking adequate car space, I rode to work in the trunk of the car.

On a recent visit to juvenile hall, a teen asked me if early challenges cause permanent damage. I told him anyone can learn from initial setbacks to become even stronger. I think he got it.

Growing up we encountered the obstacles of poverty and minority status that immigrant families often face: from home, the need to work; from school, low expectations and poor counseling, if any; and from society, the constant reminder that we were outsiders.

Our strong family values helped us focus on the opportunities and dismiss the stereotypes. Within our family, we felt rich in health, blessed with life and challenged by our parents to be decent, hard-working people.

Our parents expressed hecho y derecho (to be mature and straight) as a reminder and an expectation of truthfulness and accountability. The grades we brought home were never as important as our moral fiber.

Facing social pressures were by no means easy but at the core, we grew up knowing who we were. Our parents closely monitored our behavior and, under no circumstance, would allow us to skip Sunday Mass.

A stern look from my dad, even at a distance, was sufficient to change our course. "Wait 'til your father gets home," (stated in Spanish) was all that my mother had to say to ruin our fun.

The old Santa Ana home is still in the family after almost fifty years and four generations, but little else remains the same.

My mom, dad, and oldest sister have passed away. 

From my parents, we learned the value of hard work, Christian principles, and loyalty. My brothers and sisters are home owners and productive U.S. citizens. Four have university degrees and the others manage businesses and families. My brother and I served in Vietnam where he was honored for bravery in combat. Our grown-up kids are educated professionals and entrepreneurs. Some speak only English, most are fluent bilingual. Their spouses are an assortment of ethnicities, further enriching the family.

My parents would be proud of what's become of their nine children, just as we are grateful for their courage and foresight.

Along with their grand- and great grand-kids, we symbolize what they envisioned upon leaving their homeland. There are no family gang members and no one has done time. The exception being time devoted to volunteer community and church work — a lesson learned in the U.S.

Ruben Barron, of Yorba Linda, spent 30 years in education and retired as deputy superintendent of the Anaheim City School District.




The African Presence in Mexico: From Yanga to the Present
Families become more diverse through adoption

The African Presence in Mexico: From Yanga to the Present

The African Presence in Mexico is a groundbreaking exhibition about the contributions of African descendants to Mexican culture over the past 500 years. Organized by the National Museum of Mexican Art, this comprehensive project takes a broad, deep look at the history, artistic expressions and practices of Afro-Mexicans. It includes a comprehensive range of work ranging from 18th-century colonial caste paintings to contemporary artistic expressions. Don't miss the important "missing chapter" in Mexican history. Curated by Sagrario Cruz-Carretero and Cesáreo Moreno.

The Museo Alameda is an affiliate of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. Exhibitions and programs receive major support from Ford Motor Company. The museum receives partial operating support from the City of San Antonio and the Office of Cultural Affairs.

Source: The Official Newsletter of the Museo Alameda November 2008
Sent by Elsa Herbeck

Families become more diverse through adoption
By Janine Zeitlin • • November 19, 2008


Roxanne Roberts and Kenneth Roberts Sr. are raising eight children at their home in Lehigh Acres. Roxanne Roberts is both an adoptive mother and foster parent. Pictured on Nov. 6 from left are: Rachel Roberts, 9, Kenneth Roberts Sr., Sariah Roberts, 2, Stephan Felix, 3, Kendal Roberts, 8, Roxanne Roberts, Nevaeh Shinhoster, 4, Kenneth Roberts Jr., 3 weeks, Elizabeth Roberts, 17, and Neal Levine, 24. (John David Emmett,/

When they first arrived home, Roxanne Roberts' biracial adopted children believed they, like their new mother, were white.

Her son, then 2, used to cry in dispute when she told him otherwise. To teach them about their heritage, Roberts checked out library books. The pair, now 8 and 9, learned to call themselves "biracial butterflies."

"Everyone should know where they come from, regardless of their race," said Roberts, 34, of Lehigh Acres. "Same with my black kids. They're going to know their heritage."

Roberts and her partner of 12 years, Kenneth Roberts, who is black, are caring for seven black and biracial children ranging from 17 years to 3 weeks old, as well as a 24-year-old, who is white and has cerebral palsy, in their cozy but crowded six-bedroom home.

Transracial adoptions have become more common in Southwest Florida as prejudices about mixed-race families dissipate. From July 2004 to August 2008, 74 families have adopted transracially, according to the Children's Network of Southwest Florida, which contracts with the Department of Children and Families to care for foster children in this region and find them homes.

Under state law, black and biracial foster children are tagged as special needs. Research shows minority children wait longer than white children for adoption, are over-represented in the child welfare system and at higher risk for not finding a home.

Last week, Gov. Charlie Crist praised Roberts' multicultural family that includes former foster children and recognized her as a Point of Light, a weekly community service award. The network is recruiting homes for 33 children. About 77 percent of the ready-to-adopt foster children in this region are not white. As part of national adoption month, The News-Press is taking a look at transracial adoptions.

Child welfare leaders say Southwest Florida families don't let race deter them from adopting children.

"Our numbers for transracial adoptions are pretty healthy for our area. We're constantly breaking down any barriers," said Nadereh Salim, the network's CEO. "Adoption doesn't happen overnight. It's a process. You are blind to all that. For all intent and purposes, the kids could be green."

However, a national study released in May questioned a federally mandated color-blind approach to adoption. It argued race must be one consideration given a child's needs surging from racial and ethnic differences.

The executive director of the New York-based Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute has been surprised by resistance to the report by backers of the current law, which bars the use of race, color or origin to deny or delay a child's placement.

"Even if they think their approach is a better one, our common purpose is the same: to improve the odds of kids getting homes," wrote Adam Pertman, the organization's executive director, in an e-mail. "Isn't it worth at least considering something that might work better?"

Lee County Judge James Seals said he typically finalizes transracial adoptions between white parents and black children. Each child's longings should be considered when determining if a transracial adoption is right, he said, noting the family may face awkward moments and discrimination.

"We know that most children have a very strong inner drive to be back home with their parents. Do they want to be with people who are like their parents?" Seals asked. "If we set this child up for a life that is going to be difficult, then we shouldn't do it. ... Despite the fact that we've come a long way, we haven't come all the way."

It's also hard to find black families willing to adopt, Seals said. Research points to cultural and social barriers in recruiting more minority families to foster and adopt children, and the adoption report noted there has been no enforcement of the federal requirement to expand the pool of minority foster and adoptive parents.

Seals closes many cases in which black foster children are taken in by relatives as guardians who don't want to adopt them, although the dollars they could reap to support the child are far lower than that of an adoptive parent.

"The relative does not want to adopt the child because they want their daughter or their niece to still be the mother," he said. "They have a much more informal social welfare system than white folks do."

Challenges of adoption

Of the 93 adoptions the network completed in 2007-'08, 23 children were categorized as black and 70 were white, Hispanic or other, which percentage-wise nearly reflected the network's breakdown of black children in care.

The adoption study noted transracial adoption in itself does not ignite psychological problems but highlighted challenges transracially adopted children face such as grappling with being different, coping with discrimination and cultivating a positive racial and ethnic identity.

The study, which was endorsed by seven national child welfare groups, analyzed the 1994 federal law, and found it has not led to equity in adoption rates for children. Black children still stay in foster care an average of nine months longer than white children, it stated.

Multiple forces may be at work. Black children are over-represented in the child welfare system. In Florida, a 2007 federal government oversight study found black children are over-represented at a rate of almost twice their proportions in the population. In explanation, it pointed to higher rates of poverty, hurdles in tapping support services and racial bias and difficulties in finding permanent homes.

For adoptive parents in Southwest Florida, race didn't figure into their decisions, but they considered the implications.

Lehigh Acres couple Kimmie and Armando Alvarez adopted two children who blended with them. Kimmie Alvarez, 35, who is white, worries a child of another race might feel out of place.

"I don't want other kids ridiculing them because when I drop them off for school saying, "Why is your mom white and you're black?'" she said.

The couple is fostering a 9-year-old Guatemalan boy and Kimmie Alvarez is aware of stares when the group heads to the grocery store.

"You get all these discerning looks like, 'I can't believe you fooled around that much.' At first, I was like, 'People are going to think this of me.' But it's really my business and I'm doing the right thing," she said.

Ellen and Kory Hamaker, also of Lehigh, decided race didn't matter when they started the adoption process.

"You can specify, but we knew that this was such a spiritual thing that we didn't put any restriction other than larger disabilities that we couldn't meet financially," said Kory Hamaker, 38, owner of a mural and faux finish company.

They prepared for a Hispanic girl but were matched with a white infant who blended with their racial background.

Foster children said they want stable families, no matter the color. Stephen, 12, who is white, and Tracey, 14, who is black, are up for adoption in Lee County.

"I stay with different races a lot," Tracey said. "I like it. It's not a big deal as long as you end with somebody who's nice."

One of Roberts' children, Elizabeth Roberts, 17, who is black, said the home is the first place she felt embraced.

"You look around and you see what you got and you're happy with it," said Elizabeth, a former foster child. "I didn't really have a mom and dad and since I got here, I have that."

She asked Roberts to adopt her. Like Roxanne Roberts has done, the network encourages parents to lead their children to their heritage and offers transracial adoption guides and support groups.

Among the concerns Salim has fielded in transracial adoptions is white parents who seek help in caring for their black child's hair.

Before going through a transracial adoption, experts recommend people also mull questions of racism and how to instill cultural pride.

Rebecca McGuire, executive director of the Southwest division of the Children's Home Society of Florida, an organization that handles private adoptions, recommends parents think critically about race before adoption.

"You're bringing a child into a village and your network needs to be OK with it and you need to be OK if they aren't," she said, noting a white woman who adopted a black baby and eventually returned the child because her family struggled with it.

Some families want their adopted children to look like them and whites can be unwilling to adopt black children, she said.

Roxanne Roberts would bring more children into her home, black, white or mixed, if she could afford it. The current brood doesn't fit into the household's only vehicle, a Ford Expedition.

"It doesn't matter. A kid is a kid," she said. "If I could have a million kids, I would take a million kids."


Xavier Quijas Yxayotl Performing with Yanni Voices Acapulco, 2008
Yaqui Marriage Document, between a Buitimea and a Baisea 
The Yaqui Indians: Four Centuries of Resistance
List of some of the Yaquis who were married in Guaymas in the 1780s.
Navajo Tribal Police mystery novels 
Fred Loftin Receives Gold Medal in Mixed Media for his American Indian spirit
Purepecha Tribe History

Xavier Quijas Yxayotl Performed the Fire Flute 
in Acapulco with Yanni Voices 

Xavier and his group performed the first song: Yanni - Nican (In Your Heart) during the Yanni Voices in Acapulco during November.  There were four performances in Acapulco to an very enthusiastic audiences.

You can view a portion of Xavier playing the Fire Flute during the performance at You Tube

The “Fire Flute” – Sounds of the Night Spirits, this flute is very dramatic having fire flaming off the end of it.  When played the clay warms, making haunting and spiritual sounds.  Invented by Xavier, they are the only ones in the world with no one else having this rarity.  These now famous flutes can have from 7 to 14 chambers in one!  Some of these chambers are ocarinas replicating wind, eagle, hawk, and bird whistles.  By having everything contained all in one flute he doesn’t have to pick up any other ocarinas or flutes.  The Fire Flute was born from a vision during a Huichol Indian peyote ceremony in 1976.  Xavier was watching the fire, and the fire was singing and dancing.  A little fire flame came jumping to him and gave him the inspiration to make this unique flute.

For concert sound visit and hear other playlist samples, and see tour dates coming to your area. YANNI VOICES are to air on PBS running for most of December.  Check out the televised time for your channels.

For more about the art of Xavier, please go to: Ancient Music for a New Generation

Yaqui Marriage Document, between a Buitimea and a Baisea 
Information compiled and translated by John Schmal



The Yaqui Indians: Four centuries of resistance

By John P. Schmal  



Over the years, I have met many Americans who have proudly stated that they had a Yaqui grandmother or Yaqui great-grandfather or are in some way descended from the Yaqui Indians of Mexico's northwest coastal region.  Many Mexican Americans have indigenous roots from various parts of Mexico , but the assimilation and mestizaje that took place in many northern and central states of Mexico has obscured any cultural or linguistic identity with specific tribes.  However, the Yaqui Indians - and their cousins, the Mayo Indians - have held tightly to their ethnic and linguistic identity in a way that many other indigenous groups have not.


Although many cultural, spiritual and linguistic traits of Mexico 's Amerindians have been preserved in the southern states. It is difficult to find indigenous tribes in northern Mexico who have continued to practice at least some of their ancient practices.  The Tarahumara, Tepehuanes, Huicholes, Yaquis and Mayos stand in that rare breed of Native Americans that has held onto many aspects of their original culture.  The story of the Yaquis and their resistance is a truly dynamic story that reminds that the spirit of a people cannot be conquered if a people truly believe in their unique destiny.


The story of the Yaquis and their Mayo cousins takes us to the Mexican states of Sinaloa and Sonora . The State of Sinaloa , with a surface area of 58,487 square kilometers (22,582 square miles), is basically a narrow strip of land running along the Pacific Ocean . The state of Sonora , which lay north of Sinaloa, consists of 182,554 square kilometers (70,484 square miles) and has a common border with Arizona and New Mexico . The following paragraphs analyze the various confrontations and wars that the Yaquis and Mayos waged to protect their native lands and customs from imperialism.


First Contact: 1531.
In December 1529, Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán left Mexico City with an expedition of 300 Spaniards and 10,000 Indian allies (Tlaxcalans, Aztecs and Tarascans).  Guzmán, a lawyer by profession, had already gained a reputation as a ruthless and cruel administrator when he served as Governor of Panuco on the Gulf Coast .  Traveling through Michoacán, Guanajuato, Jalisco, and Sinaloa, Guzmán left a trail of devastation and terror wherever he went.


In March 1531, Guzmán's army reached the site of present-day Culiacán (now in Sinaloa), where his force engaged an army of 30,000 warriors in a pitched battle. The indigenous forces were decisively defeated and, as Mr. Gerhard notes, the victors "proceeded to enslave as many people as they could catch."


However, before long, however, reports of Guzmán's brutal treatment of the Indians reached the authorities in Mexico City .  In 1536, the Viceroy of Nueva España Antonio de Mendoza arrested Guzmán and imprisoned him.  He was returned to Spain in chains where he was put on trial and died in obscurity and disgrace.


The indigenous people confronted by Guzmán in his 1531 battle belonged to the Cáhita language group, and were most likely the Yaqui Indians. Speaking eighteen closely related dialects, the Cáhita peoples of Sinaloa and Sonora numbered about 115,000 and were the most numerous of any single language group in northern Mexico . These Indians inhabited the coastal area of northwestern Mexico along the lower courses of the Sinaloa, Fuerte, Mayo, and Yaqui Rivers .


During his stay in Sinaloa, Guzmán's army was ravaged by an epidemic that killed many of his Amerindian auxiliaries. Finally, in October 1531, after establishing San Miguel de Culiacán on the San Lorenzo River , Guzmán returned to the south, his mostly indigenous army decimated by hunger and disease. But the Spanish post at Culiacán remained, Mr. Gerhard writes, as "a small outpost of Spaniards surrounded on all sides by the sea by hostile Indians kept in a state of agitation" by the slave-hunting activities of the Guzmán's forces.


Epidemic Disease - Sinaloa and Sonora (1530-1536). 
Daniel T. Reff, the author of "Disease, Depopulation, and Culture Change in Northwestern New Spain, 1518-1764," explains that "viruses and other microorganisms undergo significant genetic changes when exposed to a new host environment, changes often resulting in new and more virulent strains of microorganisms." The Indians of the coastal region, never having been exposed to Spaniards and their diseases previously, provided fertile ground for the proliferation of smallpox and measles. It is believed that as many as 130,000 people died in the Valley of Culiacán during the Measles Pandemic of 1530-1534 and the Smallpox Plague of 1535-1536.


As the Spaniards moved northward they found an amazing diversity of indigenous groups. Unlike the more concentrated Amerindian groups of central Mexico , the Indians of the north were referred to as "ranchería people" by the Spaniards. Their fixed points of settlements (rancherías) were usually scattered over an area of several miles and one dwelling may be separated from the next by up to half a mile. The renowned anthropologist, Professor Edward H. Spicer (1906-1983), writing in "Cycles of Conquest: The Impact of Spain, Mexico , and the United States on the Indians of the Southwest, 1533-1960," stated that most ranchería people were agriculturalists and farming was their primary activity.


Hurdaide's Offensive in Sinaloa (1599-1600). 
In 1599, Captain Diego de Hurdaide established San Felipe y Santiago on the site of the modern city of Sinaloa . From here, Captain Hurdaide waged a vigorous military campaign that subjugated the Cáhita-speaking Indians of the Fuerte River - the Sinaloas, Tehuecos, Zuaques, and Ahomes. These indigenous groups, numbering approximately 20,000 people, resisted strongly.


Initial Contact with the Mayo Indians (1609-1610). 
The Mayo Indians were an important Cáhita-speaking tribe occupying some fifteen towns along the Mayo and Fuerte rivers of southern Sonora and northern Sinaloa. As early as 1601, they had developed a curious interest in the Jesuit-run missions of their neighbors. The Mayos sent delegations to inspect the Catholic churches and, as Professor Spicer observes, "were so favorably impressed that large groups of Mayos numbering a hundred or more also made visits and became acquainted with Jesuit activities." As the Jesuits began their spiritual conquest of the Mayos, Captain Hurdaide, in 1609, signed a peace treaty with the military leaders of the Mayos.


Spanish Contact with the Yaqui Indians (1610). 
At contact, the Yaqui Indians occupied the coastal region of Sinaloa along the Yaqui River . Divided into eighty autonomous communities, their primary activity was agriculture. Although the Yaqui Indians had resisted Guzmán's advance in 1531, they had welcomed Francisco de Ibarra who came in peace in 1565, apparently in the hopes of winning the Spaniards as allies in the war against their traditional enemies, the Mayos.


In 1609, as Captain Hurdaide became engaged with the pacification of the Ocoronis (another Cáhita-speaking group of northern Sinaloa), he reached the Yaqui River , where he was confronted by a group of Yaquis. Then, in 1610, with the Mayo and Lower Pima Indians as his allies, Captain Hurdaide returned to Yaqui territory with a force of 2,000 Indians and forty Spanish soldiers. He was soundly defeated. When he returned with another force of 4,000 Indian foot soldiers and fifty mounted Spanish cavalry, he was again defeated in a bloody daylong battle.


Conversion of the Mayo Indians (1613-1620).
In 1613, at their own request, the Mayos accepted Jesuit missionaries. Soon after, the Jesuit Father Pedro Mendez established the first mission in Mayo territory. In the first fifteen days, more than 3,000 persons received baptism. By 1620, with 30,000 persons baptized, the Mayos had been concentrated in seven mission towns.


Conversion of the Yaqui Indians (1617-1620).
In 1617, the Yaquis, utilizing the services of Mayo intermediaries, invited the Jesuit missionaries to begin their work among them. Professor Spicer noted that after observing the Mayo-Jesuit interactions that started in 1613, the Yaquis seemed to be impressed with the Jesuits. Bringing a message of everlasting life, the Jesuits impressed the Yaquis with their good intentions and their spirituality. Their concern for the well being of the Indians won the confidence of the Yaqui people. In seeking to protect the Yaqui from exploitation by mine owners and encomenderos, the Jesuits came into direct conflict with the Spanish political authorities. From 1617 to 1619, nearly 30,000 Yaquis were baptized. By 1623, the Jesuits had reorganized the Yaquis from about eighty rancherías into eight mission villages.


Detachment of the Province of Sinaloa and Sonora (1733). 
In 1733, Sinaloa and Sonora were detached from Nueva Vizcaya and given recognition as the province of Sonora y Sinaloa. Ms. Deeds commented that this detachment represented a recognition of "the growth of a mining and ranching secular society in this northwestern region."


Rebellion of the Yaqui, Pima, and Mayo Indians - Sinaloa and Sonora (1740). 
The Yaqui and Mayo Indians had lived in peaceful coexistence with the Spaniards since the early part of the Seventeenth Century. Ms. Deeds, in describing the causes of this rebellion, observes that the Jesuits had ignored "growing Yaqui resentment over lack of control of productive resources." During the last half of the Seventeenth Century, so much agricultural surplus was produced that storehouses needed to be built. These surpluses were used by the missionaries to extend their activities northward into the California and Pima missions. The immediate cause of the rebellion is believed to have been a poor harvest in late 1739, followed in 1740 by severe flooding which exacerbated food shortages.


Ms. Deeds also points out that the "increasingly bureaucratic and inflexible Jesuit organization obdurately disregarded Yaqui demands for autonomy in the selection of their own village officials." Thus, this rebellion, writes Ms. Deeds, was "a more limited endeavor to restore the colonial pact of village autonomy and territorial integrity." At the beginning of the revolt, an articulate leader named El Muni emerged in the Yaqui community. El Muni and another Yaqui leader, Bernabé, took the Yaquis' grievances to local civil authorities. Resenting this undermining of their authority, the Jesuits had Muni and Bernabé arrested.


The arrests triggered a spontaneous outcry, with two thousand armed indigenous men gathering to demand the release of the two leaders. The Governor, having heard the complaints of both sides, recommended that the Yaqui leaders go to Mexico City to testify personally before the Viceroy and Archbishop Vizrón. In February 1740, the Archbishop approved all of the Yaqui demands for free elections, respect for land boundaries, that Yaquis be paid for work, and that they not be forced to work in mines.


The initial stages of the 1740 revolt saw sporadic and uncoordinated activity in Sinaloa and Sonora , primarily taking place in the Mayo territory and in the Lower Pima Country. Catholic churches were burned to the ground while priests and settlers were driven out, fleeing to the silver mining town at Alamos. Eventually, Juan Calixto raised an army of 6,000 men, composed of Pima, Yaqui and Mayo Indians. With this large force, Calixto gained control of all the towns along the Mayo and Yaqui Rivers


However, in August 1740, Captain Agustín de Vildósola defeated the insurgents. The rebellion, however, had cost the lives of a thousand Spaniards and more than 5,000 Indians. After the 1740 rebellion, the new Governor of Sonora and Sinaloa began a program of secularization by posting garrisons in the Yaqui Valley and encouraging Spanish residents to return to the area of rebellion. The Viceroy ordered the partition of Yaqui land in a "prudent manner." The Yaquis had obtained a reputation for being courageous warriors during the rebellion of 1740 and the Spanish handled them quite gingerly during the late 1700s. As a result, the government acquisition of Yaqui lands did not begin began until 1768.


Mexico Wins Independence – 1822.
Mexico won independence from Spain . Following independence, Nueva Vizcaya in 1824 was divided into the states of Chihuahua and Durango .


Yaqui, Mayo and Opata Rebellions of 1825-1833.

After Mexico gained independence in 1822, the Yaquis became citizens of a new nation. During this time, there appeared a new Yaqui leader. Ms. Linda Zoontjens, the author of A Brief History of the Yaqui and Their Land, referred to Juan de la Cruz Banderas as a "revolutionary visionary" whose mission was to establish an Indian military confederation. Once again, the Mayo Indians joined their Yaqui neighbors in opposing the central authorities. With a following of 2,000 warriors, Banderas carried out several raids. But eventually, Banderas made an arrangement with the Government of Sonora. In exchange for his "surrender," Banderas was made the Captain-General of the Yaqui Militia.


By early 1832, Banderas had formed an alliance with the Opatas. Together, the Opatas and Yaquis were able to field an army of almost 2,500 warriors, staging repeated raids against haciendas, mines and towns in Sonora . However, the Mexican army continued to meet the indigenous forces in battle, gradually reducing their numbers. Finally, in December 1832, volunteers tracked down and captured Banderas. The captive was turned over to the authorities and put on trial. A month later, in January 1833, Banderas was executed, along with eleven other Yaqui, Mayo and Opata leaders who had helped foment rebellion in Sonora .


The Yaqui people, after the capture and execution of Banderas, subsided into a tense, uneasy existence. Some, during periods of food shortage, would take up "peaceful" residence outside the presidios, to ask for rations. Others undertook low-level raiding.


The Resistance of the Yaqui Indians (1838-1868). 
After the death of Banderas, the Yaqui Indians attempted to forge alliances with anyone who promised them land and autonomy. They would align themselves with the Centralists or Conservatives as long as those groups protected their lands from being encroached upon. But when General José Urrea took power in 1841, he oversaw the division of Yaqui lands from communal plots into private plots.


Governor Ignacio Pesqueira of Sonora drew up a list of preventative measures to be used against the Yaquis, Opatas and their allies. These orders called for the execution of rebel leaders. In addition, hacienda owners were required to make up lists of all employees, including a notation for those who were suspected of taking part in rebellious activity against the civil government. These measures were ineffective in dealing with the growing unrest among the Yaqui and Opatas.


In 1867 Governor Pesqueira of Sonora organized two military expeditions against the Yaquis under the command of General Jesus Garcia Morales. The expeditions marched on Guaymas and Cócorit, both of which lay in the heart of Yaqui territory. These expeditions met at Medano on the Gulf Coast near the Jesuit-founded Yaqui town of Potam . The two expeditions, totaling about 900 men, did not meet with any organized resistance. Instead, small parties of Yaquis resisted their advance. By the end of the year, the Mexican forces had killed many Yaquis. The troops confiscated much livestock, destroyed food supplies, and shot most of the prisoners captured.


Yaqui Insurgencies - Sonora (1868-1875).
During these years, the Yaquis regained their strength and periodically attacked Mexican garrisons in their territory. In March 1868, six hundred Yaquis arrived near the town of Bacum in the eastern Yaqui country to ask the local field commander for peace terms. However, the Mexican officer, Colonel Bustamante, arrested the whole group, including women and children. When the Yaquis gave up forty-eight weapons, Bustamante released 150 people but continued to hold the other 450 people. Taking his captives to a Yaqui church in Bacum as prisoners of war, he was able to identify ten of the captives as leaders. All ten of these men were shot without a trial.


Four hundred and forty people were left languishing in the church overnight, with Bustamante's artillery trained on the church door to discourage an escape attempt. However, during the night a fire was started in the church. The situation inside the church turned to chaos and confusion, as some captives desperately tried to break down the door. As the Yaquis fled the church, several salvos fired from the field pieces killed up to 120 people.


In 1875, the Mexican government suspected that a Yaqui insurrection was brewing. In an attempt to pacify the Yaquis, Governor Jose J. Pesqueira ordered a new campaign, sending five hundred troops from the west into the Yaqui country. A force of 1,500 Yaquis met the Mexican troops at Pitahaya. In the subsequent battle, the Yaquis are believed to have lost some sixty men.


Cajeme and the Yaqui Rebellions During the Porfiriato (1876-1887).
During the reign of Porfirio Díaz, the ongoing struggle for autonomy and land rights dominated Yaqui-Mexican relations. An extraordinary leader named Cajeme now took center stage in the Yaquis' struggle for autonomy. Cajeme, whose name meant "He who does not drink," was born José María Leyva. He learned Spanish and served in the Mexican army. Although Cajeme's parents were Yaqui Indians, he had become very Mexicanized.


Cajeme's military service with the Mexican army was so exemplary that he was given the post of Alcalde Mayor of the Yaqui River area. Soon after receiving this promotion, however, Cajeme announced his intention to withdraw recognition of the Mexican Government if they did not grant the Yaquis self-government. Cajeme galvanized a new generation of Yaquis and Mayos and led his forces against selected towns in Yaqui Country.


Mexican Offensives Against the Yaquis (1885-1901).
Dr. Hatfield, in studying the struggle over Indian lands, wrote, "Rich Yaqui and Mayo valley lands possessed a soil and climate capable of growing almost any crop. Therefore, it was considered in the best national interest to open these lands to commercial development and foreign investors." During the 1880s, the Governor of Sonora, Carlos Ortiz, became concerned about his state's sovereignty over Indian lands. In the hopes of seizing Indian Territory , Ortiz withdrew his state troopers from the border region where they had been fighting the Apache Indians. In the meantime, Cajeme's forces began attacking haciendas, ranches and stations of the Sonora Railroad in the Guaymas and Alamos districts.


With rebel forces causing so much trouble, General Luis Torres, the Governor of Sonora, petitioned the Federal Government for military aid. Recognizing the seriousness of this rebellion, Mexican President Porfirio Díaz authorized his Secretary of War to begin a campaign against the Sonoran rebels. In 1885, 1,400 federal troops arrived in Sonora to help the Sonoran government put down the insurrection. Together with 800 state troops, the federal forces were organized into an expedition, with the intention of meeting the Yaquis in battle.


During 1886, the Yaquis continued to fortify more of their positions. Once again, Mexican federal and state forces collaborated by making forays into Yaqui country. This expedition confiscated more than 20,000 head of livestock and, in April 1886, occupied the Yaqui town of Cócorit . On May 5, the fortified site of Anil was captured after a pitched battle. After suffering several serious military reverses, the Yaqui forces fell back to another fortified site at Buatachive, high in the Sierra de Bacatet, to make a last stand against the Mexican forces.


Putting together a fighting force of 4,000 Yaquis, along with thousands of Yaqui civilians, Cajeme prepared to resist. On May 12, after a four-day siege, Mexican troops under General Angel Martinez attacked Buatachive. In a three-hour battle, the Mexican forces killed 200 Yaqui soldiers, while capturing hundreds of women and children. Cajeme and a couple thousand Yaquis managed to escape the siege.


After this staggering blow, Cajeme divided his forces into small bands of armed men. From this point on, the smaller units tried to engage government troops in small skirmishes. Although Cajeme asked the Federal authorities for a truce, the military leaders indicated that all Yaqui territory was part of the nation of Mexico . After a few months, expeditions into the war zone led to the capture of four thousand people. With the end of the rebellion in sight, General Luis Torres commenced with the military occupation of the entire Yaqui Nation.


With the end of hostilities, Mexican citizens began filtering into Yaqui territory to establish permanent colonies. On April 12, 1887, nearly a year after the Battle of Buatachive, Cajeme was apprehended near Guaymas and taken to Cócorit where he was to be executed before a firing squad in 1887. After being interviewed and photographed by Ramon Corral, he was taken by steamboat to Medano but was shot while trying to escape from the soldiers.


Government forces, searching for and confronting armed Yaquis, killed 356 Yaqui men and women over a period of two years. A comprehensive search for the Yaqui holdouts in their hiding places forced the rebels into the Guaymas Valley where they mingled with Yaqui laborers on haciendas and in railroad companies. As a result, the Mexican Government accused owners of haciendas, mining and railroad companies of shielding criminal Yaqui fugitives. Circulars were issued which forbade the owners from giving money, provisions, or arms to the rebels. During this time, some Yaquis were able to slip across the border into Arizona to work in mines and purchase guns and ammunition. The Mexican border guards were unable to stop the steady supply of arms and provisions coming across the border from Arizona . Eventually, Mexico 's Secretary of War ordered the recruitment of Opatas and Pimas to hunt down the Yaqui guerillas.


In 1894-95, Luis Torres instituted a secret police system and carried out a meticulous survey of the entire Sierra de Bacatete, noting locations of wells supplying fresh water as well as all possible entrances and exits to the region. Renegade bands of Yaquis, familiar with the terrain of their own territory, were able to avoid capture by the government forces. During the campaign of 1895-97, captured rebels were deported to southern Mexico to be drafted into the army.


In 1897, the commander of the campaign forces, General Torres initiated negotiations with the Yaqui leader Tetabiate, offering the Yaquis repatriation into their homeland. After a number of months of correspondence between the guerilla leader and a colonel in one of the regiments, a place was set for a peace agreement to be signed. On May 15, 1897, Sonora state officials and the Tetabiate signed the Peace of Ortiz. The Yaqui leader, Juan Maldonado, with 390 Yaquis, consisting of 74 families, arrived from the mountains for the signing of the peace treaty.


In the six years following the signing of peace, Lorenzo Torres, the Governor of Sonora, made efforts to complete the Mexican occupation of Yaqui territory. Ignoring the terms of the peace treaty, four hundred Yaquis and their families defied the government and assembled in the Bacatete Mountains . Under the command of their leader Tetabiate, the Yaquis sustained themselves by making nighttime raids on the haciendas near Guaymas.


In the meantime, Federal troops and army engineers, trying to survey the Yaqui lands for distribution, found the terrain to be very difficult and were constantly harassed by defiant rebel forces. The government could not understand the Yaqui refusal to divide their land and become individual property owners. Their insistence of communal ownership based on traditional indigenous values also supported their objection to having soldiers in their territory. However, resentful of the continuing military occupation of their territory, the Yaqui colonies of Bácum and Vícam took up arms in 1899. Large detachments of rebel Yaqui forces confronted troops on the Yaqui River and suffered large casualties. Afterwards, a force of three thousand fled to the sierras and barricaded themselves on a plateau called Mazocoba where they were defeated by government troops.


When Tetabiate and the rebel forces fled to the Sierras, the government sent out its largest contingent to date with almost five thousand federal and state troops to crush this latest rebellion. Laws restricting the sale of firearms were reenacted and captured rebels were deported from the state. On January 18, 1900, three columns of his Government forces encountered a party of Yaquis at Mazocoba in the heart of the Bacatete Mountains . The Yaquis, mostly on foot, were pursued into a box canyon in a rugged portion of the mountains.


After a daylong battle, the Yaquis ceased fighting. The soldiers had killed 397 men, women, and some children, while many others had committed suicide by jumping off the cliffs. Roughly a thousand women and children were taken prisoner. By the end of 1900, there were only an estimated 300 rebels holding out in the Bacatete Mountains . Six months later, Tetabiate was betrayed and murdered by one of his lieutenants and the Secretary of War called off the campaign in August 1901.


Deportation of Yaqui Indians (1902-1910). 
After the turn of the century, the Mexican federal government decided on a course of action for clearing Yaquis out of the state of Sonora . Colonel Emilio Kosterlitzky was placed in charge of Federal Rural Police in the state with orders to round up all Yaquis and arrange to deport them southward. Between 1902 -1908, between eight and possibly as many as fifteen thousand of the estimated population of thirty thousand Yaquis were deported.


The years 1904 through 1907 witnessed an intensification of guerilla activities and corresponding government persecution. The state government issued passports to Yaquis and those not having them were arrested and jailed. The Sonoran Governor Rafael Izábel was so intent on pacifying the Yaquis that he conducted his own arrests. These arrests included women, children as well as sympathizers. "When Yaqui rebellion threatened Sonora 's mining interests," writes Dr. Hatfield, "Governor Rafael Izábel deported Yaquis, considered superior workers by all accounts, to work on Yacatán's henequen plantations."


In analyzing the Mexican Government's policy of deportation, Dr. Hatfield observed that deportation of the Yaquis resulted from "the Yaquis' determination to keep their lands. Yaqui refusal to submit to government laws conflicted with the Mexican government's attempts to end all regional hegemony. The regime hoped to take Yaqui lands peacefully, but this the Yaquis prevented."


The bulk of the Yaquis were sent to work on hennequen plantations in the Yucatán and some were sent to work in the sugar cane fields in Oaxaca . Sonoran hacendados protested the persecution and deportation of the Yaquis because without their labor, their crops could not be cultivated or harvested. In the early Nineteenth Century, many Yaqui men emigrated to Arizona in order to escape subjugation and deportation to southern Mexico . Today, some 10,000 Yaqui Indians live in the United States , many of them descended from the refugees of a century ago.


The Yaquis Indians Today. 
Dr. Hatfield, in looking back on the long struggle of the Yaqui against the federal government, writes "A government study published in 1905 cited 270 instances of Yaqui and Mayo warfare between 1529 and 1902, excluding eighty-five years of relative peace between 1740 and 1825." But from 1825 to 1902, the Yaqui Nation was waging war on the government almost continuously.


By 1910, the Yaquis had been almost entirely eliminated from their homeland.  In the 1910 census, 5,175 persons classified as speakers of the Yaqui language five years of age and older lived within the Mexican Republic .   However, by 1930, the Yaqui population had dropped to 2,134.  It is very likely that many persons of Yaqui heritage may have denied that they spoke the language or belonged to the ethnic group.


The Yaquis fought their last major battle with Mexican forces in 1927.  However, in 1939, Mexican President Cardenas granted the Yaqui tribe official recognition and title to roughly one-third of their traditional tribal lands.


Even today, the Yaquis have managed to maintain a form of autonomy within the Mexican nation.  In the 2000 Mexican census, Sonora had a total of 55,694 persons who were classified as speakers of indigenous languages five years of age and over.  This group represented only 2.85% of the entire population of Sonora .  The population of persons speaking the Yaqui language, however, was only 12,467.


The Yaqui identity endures in the present day, but is in danger of extinction.  "They are threatened continually by the expansion of the Mexican population, as landless Mexicans invade their territory or intermarry with Yaquis and start to take over some of the lands," said Joe Wilder, Director of the University of Arizona 's Southwest Center .  "The Yaquis are at once deeply admired by Sonorans and deeply despised," said Wilder, noting that the Yaqui deer dancer is the official state symbol.


To many Americans, the Yaqui Indians represent an enduring legacy of the pre-Hispanic era.  Because the mestizaje and assimilation of many Mexican states was so complete and widespread, the Yaqui Indians are seen as a rare vestige of the old Mexico .


© 2008, John P. Schmal.




Susan M. Deeds, "Indigenous Rebellions on the Northern Mexican Mission Frontier: From First-Generation to Later Colonial Responses," in Susan Schroeder, Native Resistance and the Pax Colonial in New Spain . Lincoln , Nebraska : University of Nebraska Press, 1998, pp. 1-29.


Shelley Bowen Hatfield, "Chasing Shadows: Indians Along the United States-Mexico Border 1876-1911." Albuquerque : University of New Mexico Press, 1998.


Oscar J. Martínez, "Troublesome Border." Tucson : The University of Arizona Press, 1988.


Cynthia Radding, "The Colonial Pact and Changing Ethnic Frontiers in Highland Sonora, 1740-1840," in Donna J. Guy and Thomas E. Sheridan (eds.), "Contested Ground: Comparative Frontiers on the Northern and Southern Edges of the Spanish Empire," pp. 52-66. Tucson : The University of Arizona Press, 1998.


Daniel T. Reff, "Disease, Depopulation and Culture Change in Northwestern New Spain , 1518-1764." Salt Lake City : University of Utah Press, 1991.


Robert Mario Salmon, "Indian Revolts in Northern New Spain : A Synthesis of Resistance (1680-1786)." Lanham , Maryland : University Press of America , 1991.


Edward H. Spicer, "Cycles of Conquest: The Impact of Spain , Mexico , and the United States on the Indians of the Southwest, 1533-1960." Tucson , Arizona : University of Arizona Press, 1997.


Edward H. Spicer, "The Military History Of The Yaquis From 1867 To 1910: Three Points Of View." <Online: . September 12, 2001.


Linda Zoontjens, "Brief History of the Yaqui and their Land." Online: . July 8, 2001



list of some of the Yaquis who were married in Guaymas in the 1780s.



By John P. Schmal

In recent years, many Americans have taken an interest in their indigenous roots from northern Mexico . From the Late Eighteenth Century to the present, significant numbers of people from the State of Sonora migrated to Los Angeles and other areas of California .  From the 1880s to the 1920s, Los Angeles Times newspapers were filled with stories about the battles fought between the Yaquis and the Mexican Government forces. Many Yaquis and other indigenous peoples in the State fled north to escape persecution from government forces. Some people simply needed to get away from the constant turmoil to find stable employment in California or Arizona . And today, many Californians claim descent from these refugees.  

Located in northwestern Mexico , Sonora occupies 180,833 square kilometers, which amounts to 9.2% of the national territory of Mexico . Sonora shares 588 kilometers of borders with the United States , specifically with the States of Arizona and New Mexico . This state also shares a common border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua (on the east), Sinaloa (on the southeast), and Baja California (northwest). Sonora also has a long shoreline along the Gulf of California .  

In 2000, Sonora had a total population of 2,183,108, making up 2.2% of the national population of the Mexican Republic . Sonora , with Hermosillo with its capital, is a mostly mountainous state, with vast desert stretches located along its western coastal region. Politically, Sonora is divided into seventy-two municipios.  

The Ethnic Makeup of Sonora

Many people identify Sonora with the Yaqui, Pima and Pápago Indians. However, Sonora actually has a very diverse mix of origins.  Among the many Spaniards who came to the area were significant numbers of Basques from northern Spain .  Equally important to Sonora ’s economy was the large number of African slaves who were brought into the region to work for the mining industry.  A 1783 census indicated that there were 13 gold mines and 100 silver mines in twenty mining districts throughout Sonora (from Pfefferkorn, “Description of Sonora,” published in 1989 by the University of Arizona Press in Tucson).  
The ethnic diversity of Sonora was illustrated by the 1921 Mexican census, which asked the residents to classify themselves in several categories, including “indígena pura” (pure indigenous), “indígena mezclada con blanca” (indigenous mixed with white) and “blanca” (white). Out of a total state population of 275,127 residents, 37,914 persons (or 13.8%) claimed to be of pure indigenous background. A much larger number - 111,089, or 40.4% - classified themselves as being mixed, while a slightly larger number – 115,151 (41.9%) – claimed to be white.  

Although 37,914 persons were classified as being of pure indigenous background, only 6,765 residents of the State in 1921 actually admitted to speaking an indigenous language. The most commonly spoken indigenous language was the Mayo language, which 5,941 individuals used. The Yaqui language was spoken by only 562 persons. This meager showing may have been the result of the deportations taking place in the previous three decades, but may also indicate that many Yaqui speakers were fearful of admitting their linguistic and cultural identity, for fear of government reprisal.  

Tracing Your Indigenous Roots in Sonora

Many people have expressed an interest in finding a connection to their Yaqui ancestors.  Others indicate some indigenous background, but are not clear if it is Pima, Mayo, Opata or Yaqui.  In recent years, I have worked with several individuals in tracing their lineages, utilizing the resources of the Family History Library (FHL) in Salt Lake City . Through this library and its associated Family History Centers scattered around the United States , you can access many church and civil records for most of the cities and towns of Sonora . Anyone can access this online catalog to see the availability of records for his or her specific region:  

Once you have determined what records you need, you can order each roll of microfilm for $6.05. Once this arrives, you will have one month to utilize it at your local Family History Center . If you see long-term value in the film, you can renew it permanently and the library will make it part of its permanent collection.  

The Problems

There are a number of issues that can complicate researching indigenous roots in Sonora . These problems are discussed below:  

Racial Classifications

Up until 1822, most Sonoran priests recorded the racial classifications of the persons they baptized and married.  The Spanish racial order included a large variety of categories that included español (White), mestiso, mulato, indio , coyote and lobo, which covered the spectrum of skin color.  Although this method of categorization was, in our present-day eyes, a very racist and degrading system, it does offer the researcher and family historian some insight into their own ethnic makeup.  

After 1822, the racial classifications were made illegal in Mexico , although some parishes in Sonora continued to designate people as Yaqui, Opata, Pima, Pápago and Seri. Other Parishes –like Hermosillo and Guaymas – almost completely abandoned the labeling. By the 1850s, most of these tribal designations disappear from the church registers and you can usually not tell what kind of an Indian your ancestor was. At best, they occasionally referred to an indigenous person as “indígena.”  

The Generic Classification “ Indio / India

Because of the “lost identity” of so many indigenous people who had become assimilated into Mexico’s colonial life, parish priests employed the generic terms “indio” or “india” to describe many of the persons being baptized or getting married in their parish books.  Once the ancestors of these people had been baptized as Christians, they had become subjects of the Spanish empire and, in essence, the children of the local mission or parish.  Their tribal identity had become unimportant because they were living, working and worshipping in the Spanish-speaking Christian community.  

More than most Mexican states, however, Sonoran priests did frequently describe their parishioners as Pima, Yaqui and Pápago.  But in a large parish like Alamos in the south, researchers are more likely to see lobo, coyote, mestizo and indio applied to their ancestors during the colonial period.

Jurisdictional Issues and Missing Church Records

Another problem with parish records in Sonora is the placement of church records.  Sometimes several towns or cities may be attached to one parish.  For example, in the Family History Library Catalog, you will notice that there are no church records available for Pitiquito or Caborca. However, both towns are close to Altar, where the parish records date back to 1771.  

The Presidio de Santa Gertrudis de Altar was established in the 1775 within the territory of the Pimas. However, the nearby town of Caborca was established earlier (in 1688) by the Jesuit missionary, Eusebio Francisco Kino. Originally called “Caborca Viejo,” the modern mission was established in 1790. The Altar jurisdiction was very large and for a long time was the central administrative point for the present-day municipios of Caborca, Oquitoa, Tubutama, Saric, Pitiquito, Puerto Penasco and San Luis Rio Colorado .  

Because of these jurisdictional issues, many baptisms and marriages of people from Pitiquito and Caborca can be seen in the Altar records.  For example, the following 1806 marriage of two Yaqui Indians from the “Mision de Caborca” can be seen in the Altar records:  

En el año del Señor de mil ochocientos y seis, dia veinte, y ocho de Julio, haviendo precedido las tres amonestaciones, que dispose el Santo Concilio Tridenino, y no resultando impedimento alguno, Yo, Fr. Santiago Visategui, Pon. App. y Ministro de esta Mision de Caborca, pregunte a DOMINGO YGNACIO BUITEMEA, soltero, hijo de PEDRO DOMINGO BUITEMEA, y de JUANA MARIA BAISEA, difuntos, y a JUANA MARIA CECILIA, doncella, hija de FRANCISCO BUITEMEA, y de MARIA DOMINGA LILIJAN tambien difuntos, todos Yndios Yaquis de los Pueblos de Vica y Buimiris, y haviendo dado su mutual consentimiento por palabras de presente, que hacen verdadero matrimonios…  

During the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries, many Indians in Sonora frequently moved from their traditional areas to towns and missions in the territories of other tribes. Although Pimas inhabited the area around Altar and Caborca, researchers will frequently find baptisms of Opatas, Seris, Yaquis, Pápagos and Yumas , all of whom came to or were brought to the presidio and the mission.  I have transcribed the following baptism of a Pima Indian child from Caborca’s Mission records in 1799:  

En el año del Señor a mil setecientos noventa y nueve dia dos de Diciembre, Yo Fr. Ramon Lopez, Misionero Ap. De esta mission de Caborca, bautice solemnemente a un parbulo, que nacio el dia veinte y nueve del mes proximo pasado de Noviembre, hijo de MANUEL GALINDO, y de CALENDARIA SERRANO, conyuges, Yndios de esta mision. Se le puso por nombre JUAN MARIA CALIPTO….  

The family history researcher exploring Sonora roots should be prepared to see Spanish words and names spelled differently from the way they are spelled today. Except for the Yaquis, most indigenous people will also carry Spanish surnames.  

Although Altar’s records go back to 1771, the marriage records are largely incomplete and mixed with the baptisms. Altar’s records are contained on 49 rolls of film. It is most unfortunate that there appear to be no baptism or marriages available for Altar from 1836 to 1850. For anyone whose ancestors came from Altar, this is a potential stumbling block, although it can be worked out.  

Another problem with searching for your indigenous roots in Sonora is that the parents of newly converted Indians may not be recognized in the church records. Essentially, if the baptized person was now a Christian his non-Christian parents were not considered important to the church record. As an example, I have transcribed the baptism of a Yuma Indian girl in Altar’s church in November 1853:  

En la Parroquia de Guadalupe de Altar en trienta dias del mes de Noviembre de mil ochocientos cincuenta y tres, bautisé solmnemete á una niña de edad siete años á quien pusé por nombre MARIA SELAYA, hija de PADRES NO CONOCIDOS, Indígena Yuma. Fueron Padrinos: CLAUDIO SELAYA y JOSEFA SELAYA, á quienes adverti el parentesco y de mas obligaciones de que doy fé.

With this baptism, a young indigenous girl without parents was given the Spanish surname of her godparents.  

Rayon and San Miguel de Horcasitas

In both Altar and in Rayón, near the center of Sonora , I have found various baptisms and marriages of some Yaquis and Pimas as late as the 1830s. Like Altar, Rayón was a center of attraction in terms of employment, and I have seen Pimas, Pápagos and Yaquis equally represented in the City during certain periods.  

The parish registers of Nuestra Señora del Rosario in Rayón commence in 1813 and the registers for nearby San Miguel Arcángel in San Miguel de Horcasitas begin in 1750.


Although Santa María Magdalena Church in Magdalena has some records as far back as 1698, its marriage records only reach back to 1850.  In genealogical research, working with both marriage and baptism records from one location is important and when one or the other is missing it can make an already difficult search more complicated.   

Some of the earlier records of Magdalena include baptisms of both Pima and Pápago Indians.  (In the United States , the Pápagos are known as Tohono O'odham). Below, I have transcribed the 1771 baptism of a Pápago Indian child from Magdalena ’s parish records:  

En quarto de Julio de mil setecientos setenta y uno, Yo el infra escrito Ministro por su Magestad de esta Mission de Santa María Magdalena bautice solemnemente d un parvulo, que nacio el dia dos por la mañana, hijo de JOACHIM ARELLANO, Pápago, y de su legitima mugger, MAGDALENA PARMA, Pápago, hijos de dicha Mission alque puse por nombre, FELIS MARIA. Fueron Padrinos FELIPSE GONZALEZ, Pima Govez., y su muger MARIA SUSANA, Pápago, hijos de la Mission….

Even in Magdalena , in the northern border area far from Yaqui territory, researchers can find some Yaqui records. As an example, I have transcribed this March 1841 baptism of a Yaqui child, whose parents have Yaqui surnames:  

En dicha Yglesia e el mismo dia mes y año, yo el Br. Trinidad Garcia Rojas, cura encargado del Rio de San Ygnacio y puntos de la linea, bautizé y escrcizé y puso el Santo oleo y sagrado crisma an niño de seis meces de nacido aquien puse por nombre JOSE LUIS DE LA CONCEPCION (de la nacion Yaqui), hijo legitimo de JUAN AGUSTIN AGUIBUAMEA and JUANA MARIA GUAISATA.  Fueron sus padrinos: JOSE LUIS HUYUAMEA y MARIA REFUGIA CONSEPCION….


The Mayo Indians inhabit southern Sonora and northern Sinaloa.  In 1614, a Jesuit mission, Santa Cruz de Mayo, was established in what is now the municipio of Huatabampo to assist the Mayo Indians with their spiritual lives. However, the actual town of Huatabampo was not founded until 1898 and parish records of the town only begin in 1906.  

Nearby Navojoa, also in the territory of the Mayo Indians, has parish records that only go back to 1891. Navojoa, Cohuirimpo, Masiaca, Navojoa and Tesi were, until 1917, part of the large Alamos district, and it is there that the researcher can hope to find records for their ancestors.  

Quiriego and Sahuaripa

Quiriego, which lies on the border between the traditional Yaqui and Mayo homelands, was, for some time, attached to the Parish of Sahuaripa, for which church records are available. Sahuaripa, located in southeast Sonora , was originally a town of Opatas . A mission was founded there in 1641 and we currently have access to Sahuaripa’s baptisms as far back as 1781. However, marriage records only start around 1810 and are not complete until 1854. The registers include events from several parishes, including: Arivechi, Bacanora, Bacum, Carrizal, Cócorit, La Dura, Movas, Onavas, Nuri, Quiriego, Rebeico, Rio Chico, Rosario , San Antonio de la Huerta, San Nicolás, Santa Rosa , Santo Tomás, Soyopa, Tacupeto, Tepachi, Tepoca, Tezopan, Trinidad and Yécora.  

The Parish of Alamos

Alamos is a colonial Mexican town established in the late Seventeenth Century in the territory of the Mayo Indians. The parish itself was founded in 1685 and the records we have access to begin in 1696. However, there are gaps of several years in both baptisms and marriages during the next hundred years, complicating intensive research. For example, the baptisms from late 1699 to early 1751 are missing, as are the marriages from between 1699 to 1758.  

As an important part of the silver mining industry, Alamos attracted many kinds of people:  Spaniards, African slaves, free mulatos, Indians from other parts of Mexico and Mayo and Yaqui Indians from the surrounding regions. And this diversity is represented in the colonial Alamos records.  However, the generic term “ indio ” is applied more frequently than the Yaqui and Mayo classifications, and coyotes, lobos, mulatos and mestizos are fairly abundant in the Alamos colonial registers.  


Hermosillo , the capital of Sonora is located in the west central portion of the State. The city was originally founded in an area that contained Seri, Tepoca and Pima Bajo Indians.

In 1741, the town was given the name Pitic. Much later in 1828, it was renamed Hermosillo in honor of the revolutionary general, José María González de Hermosillo, but it did not become the capital of Sonora until 1879.  

Hermosillo ’s Church, La Asunción, was not established until the 1780s and the parish registers – contained on 194 rolls of film by the Family History Library – begin in 1783. The early records of Hermosillo contain a fair amount of indigenous peoples and an equally large amount of Spaniards. Many of the early indigenous parishioners had not yet adopted the Spanish apellidos, which is illustrated by this 1783 baptism in Hermosillo :  

En Veintiguatro de Septiembre de 1783 baptizé solemnemente aun parvulo Pima, que nacio el 22 del mismo mes, y se le puso por nombre FRANCISCO XAVIER, hijo de JUAN BAPTISTA, y de su muger TOMASA, Indios Pimas de esta Villa y Mission del Pitic: Padrinos: Francisco Duarte, Pima de Cumuripa, y Rosa Seamo, india del Pueblo de Santa del Mayo, aguienes adverti el parentesco spiritual the y para que conste lo firmé en dicho dia mes, y año ut supra

Although Hermosillo was not in the territory of the Yaquis, a fair amount of Yaquis moved to this population center to work and raise their families.  With time, many of the Yaquis started to use surnames. One example of this is in the baptism record of a person whose parents had Yaqui surnames in 1784:  

En seis de Junio del 1784, Yo el infrascrito --- asistemente de Santa Villa de San Pedro de la Conguista baptize solemnemnte el parvulo, el primero que nacio el 30 del mes anterior, y se le puse el nombre, FRANCISCO, hijo de MANUEL BUSAAEL y de MARIA CHANAYEI, conjuges Hiaguis de Huirivis, sirvientes de Duarzo…  

In the colonial records, the Mexican priests had many different spellings for Yaqui. The above-reference record used the spelling, Hiaguis, but there were other kinds as well.  

I am happy to report that the records for Hermosillo , for a period of many years before and after the end of the revolution (1823) are quite good and fairly easy to understand. However, designations of “ Indio ” and “Yaqui” become very scarce after 1810.  It is quite likely that many Yaquis baptized or married in the church may not have been categorized as such.  For the most part, the marriage records at Hermosillo began in 1814 and are quite detailed for most of the Nineteenth Century.  


Guaymas is located along the Sea of Cortez , approximately 120 kilometers south of Hermosillo . This town was near the northern edge of the Yaqui territory. When the San José de Guaymas Mission was established by the Jesuits in 1701, the territory was within the domain of the Seri Indians. Guaymas was not promoted to the status of a town until 1859.  

The parish registers of the San Fernando Church are contained on 63 rolls of film and begin in 1783. However, with the exception of several years in the 1780s, the marriage records for Guaymas do not start until 1846.  Although large numbers of Yaquis moved to this town for employment, the Guaymas records, like the Hermosillo records, are not filled with many indigenous classifications after 1820. If you are looking for your Yaqui ancestors in Guaymas, you may find them, but they will probably not be called Yaquis. 


The Mission 2000 Database

Mission 2000 is a database of Spanish mission records of southern Arizona and northern Sonora containing baptisms, marriages, and burials from Seventeenth Century to the mid-Nineteenth Century. Some of the mission records extracted for this database include Arizpe, Caborca, Magdalena , San Ignacio and Horcasitas. The ethnicity of the names in this database include Apache, Seri, Opata, Yuma , Yaqui, Spanish and Mexican. You can access this database at:

Copy of 1787 Baptismal Parish Document

A Challenge

Tracing your indigenous roots in Sonora can be very challenging.  The movement of people – both Spanish and indigenous – from one city to another can complicate your research.  However, the International Genealogical Index and the FHL’s Pilot Database can be valuable tools in helping your research and help you detect the movements that may have taken place from generation to generation. These tools are available at:

For those who have an interest in understanding Sonora ’s indigenous research, please read the following story written by this author:

Dedication:  I have traced indigenous roots in Sonora with several friends and acquaintances, but I dedicate this article to my friend, Teddy Whitefeather, a true daughter of Sonora .

Copyright © 2008 by John P. Schmal. All rights under applicable law are hereby reserved.

Primary Sources:  
John P. Schmal and Donna S. Morales, “Mexican-American Genealogical Research: Following the Paper Trail to Mexico ” (Heritage Books: 2003).

Various films of the Family History Library. Catalog Website:  





Navajos, late author Hillerman shared affection in his novels
Navajo Tribal Police mystery novels 
By Felicia Fonseca,  Associated Press, October 27, 2008

FLAGSTAFF, Ariz. -- On the Navajo Nation where tribal members sometimes hesitate to open up to outsiders, they embraced Tony Hillerman as an honest and genuine man who wanted to learn about their culture and get the details right.

Hillerman, who died Sunday of pulmonary failure at age 83, was author of the acclaimed Navajo Tribal Police mystery novels. His books in the Navajo series were characterized by vivid descriptions of Navajo rituals and of the vast reservation in the Four Corners region.

But Hillerman's relationship with the Navajo Nation stretched far beyond the pages of those books, which featured two of the unlikeliest of literary heroes _ Navajo police officers Joe Leaphorn and Jim Chee. He shed light on Navajo culture, his books becoming a bridge to the reservation for tribal members who moved elsewhere, and encouraged Navajo youth to ask elders about traditions and ceremonies.

"The people spilled their guts to him," said James Peshlakai, who is characterized as a Navajo shaman in one of Hillerman's books, "The Wailing Wind." "The elders, they told him stories about things their own children never asked about."

Hillerman returned the blessings he received from Navajos by donating money for a water delivery program at St. Bonaventure Indian Mission and School in Thoreau, N.M., to the Little Sisters of the Poor in Gallup, N.M., and to put up lights at a football stadium in Monument Valley, Utah.

Staff at the Thoreau mission, where a murder takes place in Hillerman's "Sacred Clowns," "have already been saying Mass for him and saying prayers," executive director Chris Halter said Monday.

Hillerman's daughter, Anne Hillerman, said the Navajo values of family, community, generosity and enjoying the beauty of the world, resonated with her father's own Catholic values. He felt blessed in his life and saw the needs of the Navajo Nation and responded, she said.

"He was a storyteller at heart, and so when people started buying his books and he didn't have to struggle so hard financially, he felt it was a good way to share the blessings," she said.

Joe Silversmith regards Hillerman as an idol. An avid reader, Silversmith often takes Hillerman's books out with him while he herds sheep in Thoreau, N.M. His daughter would pick up the novels from the library and give them to her father to read.

His admiration stems from Hillerman's seemingly inside-out knowledge of Navajo life, said Silversmith's wife, Ramona.

"He seems to know what he's talking about; he's very accurate about it," she said. "He's an outsider, but really knew something about the Navajo life."

Some Navajos were offended that Hillerman would write about the culture and was seen as an expert in it, said Adam Teller, a tour guide at Canyon de Chelly National Monument in Chinle.

"They would rather see a Navajo scholar being given credit as an expert in that subject," he said.

Teller, whose grandmother, Mae Thompson, was consulted for one of Hillerman's most acclaimed books, "Talking God," said she believed the Navajo way was a beautiful teaching that needed to be shared with the world but was criticized for giving Hillerman too much sacred information.

Hillerman's books are popular buys for tourists, some of whom visit the reservation after reading his books and feel like they've already been there, said Tina Lowe, a National Park Service ranger at the Hubbell Trading Post in Ganado.

His books in the Navajo series are used at schools across the Navajo Nation to teach vocabulary and cultural relevance.

"The young people that read his books would ask the elders, 'Is it true?'" Peshlakai said. "And then when they're interested, we tell these stories."

Dorinda Moreno 

Fred Loftin's American Indian spirit receives Gold Medal in Mixed Media

RIVERSIDE, Sat Oct 25, 2008 - Fred Loftin has lived out of his truck for the past six years.  He works as a nighttime security guard and spends most of his time at work sitting in his truck.
This past week, however, the jovial Encinitas man has enjoyed an all-expenses-paid trip to Riverside, staying at the local Marriott, because of his skills as an artist.
For nearly 30 years, the Department of Veterans Affairs has supported local art competitions that display the efforts of veterans. Out of these competitions comes the National Veterans Creative Arts Festival. This year's event has been going on all week at the Riverside Convention Center. It culminates Sunday with the Art Exhibit and Gala Performance.
Loftin received this year's Gold Medal in Mixed Media for his American Indian spirit ceremony set. It includes a leather shirt featuring buffalo teeth and hair along with beaded fringe, painted with a design representing the nature of opposites. There's also a bracelet made of bone, beads and shells, as well as a beaded knife scabbard.
Loftin expressed disappointment at not being able to display a real knife but said he understands the safety issues.
"I am overwhelmed," he said of the event. "I still can't believe I won gold.."
Born and raised in the swamplands of southern Georgia, Loftin, nicknamed "Little Fred Two Feathers," came to California shortly after leaving the Army in 1976. Loftin has always strongly identified with his American Indian background and spirituality and feels his spirit set shows the respect he has for those beliefs.
Though his attendance sometimes varies depending on his personal life, Loftin has regularly participated in recreational therapy art classes offered through Veterans Affairs in La Jolla for the past 25 years. Loftin acknowledged the importance of the art classes in his own life.
"If I am at peace with myself, my world will be at peace with me," he said.
Loftin's inspiration for the piece came years ago while flipping through a magazine, though he gives credit to his teacher, Linda Collette, for encouraging him to pursue the idea. Loftin describes the piece as a result of a vision, and is proud of how well it turned out, although he doesn't think of himself as very talented. He said he is in awe of some the artwork on display around his.
Loftin works mostly in leather crafts and jewelry making, and proudly displays the silver and turquoise bracelets he has made and wears daily.
The artist spent more than two years working on the spirit set, the process continually delayed by a lack of supplies and a lack of money for supplies.. At one point the project was stolen from his truck, and Loftin thought he would have to start over. But a few friends were able to track down the piece and return it to him.
"It wasn't anything that couldn't be replaced, but I had put a lot of work into it," Loftin said. "I was really glad to have it back."
Loftin's art has helped him maintain a positive outlook despite his living situation and health problems. He has diabetes and suffers from associated heart problems and neuropathy in his legs.
Though Loftin is concerned about his health and advancing clumsiness - he has fallen out of his truck a few times because of his "bad legs" - he is fairly content and isn't letting anything negative get in the way of enjoying the festival.  "Checkout time is on Monday," he said, "and I'm in no rush to get there."
Sent by Dorinda Moreno


Purepecha Tribe History
 The rise of youtube videos have certainly expanded the potential to broaden our historical understanding. This video focuses on the success of the Purepecha in Southern Mexico and withstood Aztec attacks, remaining undefeated by the Aztec nation.
Sent by Dorinda Moreno


Namibia: Race against time to save ancient Portuguese shipwreck

Oranjemund, Namibia - Archaeologists are racing against the little time left to salvage a fortune in coins and items from a 500-year-old Portuguese shipwreck found recently off Namibia's rough southern coast.

Despite its importance, the project, in a restricted diamond mining area, is itself costing a fortune in sea-walling that cannot be sustained after October 10.

"The vast amounts of gold coins would possibly make this discovery the largest one in Africa outside Egypt," said Francisco Alves, a Lisbon-based maritime archaeologist.

"This vessel is the best preserved of its time outside Portugal," he said.  "But the cultural uniqueness of this find is priceless."  Alves is part of a multi-national team combing the seabed where the wreck was discovered six months ago.

The 16th-century "Portuguese trade vessel was found by chance this April as mine workers created an artificial sand wall with bulldozers to push back the sea for diamond dredging," Namibian archaeologist Dieter Noli told reporters invited to view the site.

"One of them noticed an unusual wooden structure and round stones, which turned out to be cannon balls," he said.

The abundance of objects unearthed where the ship ran aground along Namibia's notorious Skeleton coast, where hundreds of vessels were wrecked over the centuries, has amazed even hardened experts.

Six bronze cannons, several tonnes of copper, huge elephant tusks, pewter tableware, navigational instruments, and a variety of weapons including swords, sabres and knives have all been tugged out of the beach sand.

"Over 2,300 gold coins weighing some 21 kilograms (46 pounds) and 1.5 kilograms of silver coins were found -- worth over 100 million dollars," Alves said, adding that the ship's contents suggest it was bound for India or somewhere in Asia.

"About 70 per cent of the gold coins are Spanish, the rest Portuguese," Alves said. Precise dating was possible thanks to examination of the coin rims that showed "some of them were minted in October 1525 in Portugal."

About 13 tonnes of copper ingots, eight tonnes of tin and over 50 large ivory elephant tusks together weighing some 600 kilograms have also been excavated from the seabed.

-- This discovery is the largest in Africa outside Egypt --

"The copper ingots are all marked with a trident indent, which was used by Germany's famous Fugger family of traders and bankers in Augsburg, who delivered to the Portuguese five centuries ago," said South African archaeologist Bruno Werz.

The team also includes experts from the United States and Zimbabwe, and the salvation efforts were made possible by the erection of sea walls to keep back the fierce Atlantic surf.

Namibia's culture ministry and Namdeb, the state diamond mining company, have shared the enormous expense, which "costs some 100,000 Namibian dollars (12,500 US dollars, 8,500 euros) per day," according to Peingeondjabi Shipoh, the culture ministry expert in charge of the recovery project.

But that is shortly coming to an end, even though "I believe there is still more to be found," he told reporters.

"From October 10, the walls will not be maintained anymore and the ship's remnants left to the elements again."

At one point it was thought the wreck was that of legendary Portuguese explorer Bartolomeo Diaz, the first known European to sail around the southern tip of Africa in 1488.

In line with the custom of Portuguese explorers of the time, Diaz left a huge stone cross to the glory of his country's king, called a "padrao", that same year at what is today's harbour town of Luderitz, which Diaz baptised Angra Pequena or "small cove", 750 kilometres (465 miles) southwest of the capital Windhoek.

Around 1500, he and his sailing vessel went missing and were never found.

But hope that the Oranjemund find might end the mystery was laid to rest when it was established that the coins on the shipwreck were put into circulation 25 years after Diaz' disappearance.

Under international maritime laws, a wreck and its treasures belong to the country where they were found, and all the coins are now locked in the vaults of the Bank of Namibia in Windhoek.

The government said it plans at some point to mount an exhibition of the findings and later erect a special museum in Oranjemund to house the incredible collection.
 Sent by John Inclan




Pop Star Isaac Angel releases his first album
Moses Levy of Florida: Jewish Utopian and Antebellum Reformer 
Rahm Emanuel, An Adopted Surname
La Santa Catalina's Precious Cargo of 1580
Pop Star Isaac Angel releases his first album
Jaime Cader

On November 12, 2008, pop star Isaac Angel had a release party for his new CD "Body Moves." This event took place at a dance club in San Francisco, California where Angel performed his hit song "Forever" -which he said meant something personal to him. The main melodic line in the song says "You're forever, love forever, we're together, you've set me free... you're the one for me." Besides the singer's unique voice, the song has excellent instrumentation, a catchy melody and a good beat for dancing.

Angel was born in Israel to Sephardic Jewish parents from Turkey who taught him to speak Ladino, the ancient Spanish-based language. In addition to his several songs in English, Angel has worked on recording songs in Turkish (please read the bio section in his website) and different Mediterranean influences can be heard in some of the tracks. 

To learn more about Isaac Angel and his recordings, go to his website at



Moses Levy of Florida: Jewish Utopian and Antebellum Reformer 
(ISBN: 0807130958) Monaco, CS 


Book Description: Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge, 2005. Hardbound. xiv, 240 pp., b/w illustrations, notes, bibliography, index Moses Elias Levy (1782-1854) was one of the antebellum South's most influential and interesting Jewish citizens. Only recently, however, have historians begun to appreciate his role as a social activist. C. S. Monaco discovered Levy's Plan for the Abolition of Slavery in the late 1990s, and now, in the first full-scale biography of Levy, Monaco completes the picture of his life and work. Long known only as the father of David L. Yulee, the first Jew elected to the U.S. Senate, Levy appears here in all his many, sometimes contradictory roles: abolitionist and slave owner, utopian colonizer and former arms-dealer, religious reformer and biblical conservative. 

Each aspect of Levy's life and character comes into sharp relief as Monaco follows him from his affluent upbringing in a Sephardic Jewish household in Morocco-where his father was a courtier to the sultan-through his career as a successful merchant shipper, to his radical reform activities in Florida. With his many residences abroad-in Morocco, Gibraltar, Danish Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Curacao, England-Levy virtually epitomized the Atlantic world, and Monaco escorts readers from country to country, considering Levy's accomplishments in each. 

The sole Jewish voice during the British abolitionist crusade, Levy was so extraordinary in his activism in London that some Protestants believed he heralded the millennium. In his search for equilibrium between Enlightenment thinking and pre-modern religion, Levy founded the United States' first Jewish communitarian settlement in the wilds of the East Florida frontier. 

As one of the region's largest landowners, he also reintroduced sugarcane as a viable crop, organized the first Florida development corporation, helped establish the earliest free public school, and served as the territory's first education commissioner. In Moses Levy of Florida, C. S. Monaco offers a radical reappraisal of this complex and formerly underestimated figure, bringing to light for the first time the full and fascinating extent of his remarkable contributions to nineteenth-century America. " 




Rahm Emanuel, an Adopted Surname


Editor:  I am sure as many other researchers did, when President Elect Obama selected  Rahm Emanuel as his new Chief of Staff, you searched for the origin of  a  surname,which suggests Spanish roots.  My conjecture was that the Emanuel surname was Sephardic.

The surname of EMANUEL was a Jewish surname from the Hebrew given name of Emanuel meaning 'God is with us'. When traditional Jews were forced to take family names by the local bureaucracy, it was an obligation imposed from outside traditional society, and people often took the names playfully and let their imaginations run wild by choosing names which corresponded to nothing real in their world. 

No one alive today can remember the times when Jews took or were given family names (for most Ashkenazim this was the end of the 18th century or the beginning of the 19th) although many remember names being changed after emigration to other countries, such as the United States and Israel in recent years. The name was also a French surname used in the Middle Ages by Christians in honor of a minor 3rd century martyr. Most of the European surnames were formed in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The process had started somewhat earlier and had continued in some places into the 19th century, but the norm is that in the tenth and eleventh centuries people did not have surnames, whereas by the fifteenth century most of the population had acquired a second name. Emanuel I, also Manuel 'the Fortunate' (1469-1521) was the king of Portugal, succeeded John II in 1495. His reign, marred only by persecution of the Jews, was the golden age of Portugal. He prepared the code of laws which bears his name, and made his court a centre of chivalry, art and science. The discovery of Brazil and the expeditions encouraged by Emanuel, did much to make Portugal the first naval power of Europe and the centre of commerce.


Origin: Italian and Jewish
Book: Emanuel: Savoy to America by Garvin R. Emanuel

By a strange coincidence, I just read the blurb on Emanuel that appeared in today's Washington Post. Indeed he is Jewish. His father fought with the underground to establish the state of Israel. His mother was a union organizer in the Chicago area and when involved with the civil rights movement took her children to marches. He has at least 2 brothers and the three brothers were referred to in the article as super achievers. Emanuel was with the Clinton Administration, left for the corporate sector where he became a multi-millionare and then was elected to Congress. Not too shabby, huh? Apparently he is quick and is strong as flint. Mercy! Go get them, Tiger.

JV Martinez 


Richard G. Santos

The following statement was in a personal letter to Juan Marinez who requested permission for Somos Primos to publish La Santa Catalina's Prcious Cargo of 1580 written by Richard G. Santos.

"The original version of this article was release in the San Antonio Express News in 1988. In time a web magazine picked it up and messed it up by re-typing it. Consequently, there were so many typing errors and others like changing spelling of Carvajal to Carabajal and Cathay to Cathy and even omitting my middle initial that I asked them to please seek my authorization and proof reading before they distribute without my knowledge or permission. Moreover, as an author I automatically retain copyright to all my publications in all fields of publication. At any rate, I have re-written the basic story expanding and emphasizing certain points. Hope it meets with your approval. 

This is my Columbus Day - Dia de la Raza reminder for the party-goers. 
Richard G. Santos"

In the past this column has covered the importance of Spanish mariner Cristobal Colon (aka Christopher Columbus). The three small ships he led to the re-discovery of the New World heralded a major historical, demographic, cultural volume in the annals of history. However, there was another ship called La Santa Catalina that had a tremendous impact on northern Mexico, Texas, New Mexico and the U.S. in general. It was a small ship, dual masted, squared-rigged, displaying only 30 tons fully loaded. It slipped into the port of Tampico in September 1580 and quietly began to unload its treasure. It carried neither spices from Cathay nor silks from Persia. Yet, its cargo was more precious than any that had sailed in the opposite direction from the Inca’s or Montezuma's treasury. The Santa Catalina carried people. 

The two hundred family units and over two dozen single men that sailed aboard La Santa Catalina were Spanish and Portuguese Sephardic Jewish colonists. They were settlers brought by conquistador, Captain General, Governor Don Luís de Carvajal y de la Cueva for the purpose of establishing the Nuevo Reyno de León. This "new" Kingdom of León was decreed to begin at the mouth of the Pánuco River (Near Tampico) and extend 200 square leagues in all directions. Four centuries later, the states of Nuevo León, Coahuila, Tamaulipas, south Texas and parts of Veracruz, Chihuahua and San Luis Potosi would comprise the extent of the original New Kingdom of León.

Although the families (including the Governor and relatives) were all of Sephardic descent, a great number were sincere and devout Christians. They were called conversos (converts) or nuevos cristianos (new Christians). A number of the families were anusium (forced ones) who had been forcibly converted to Christianity. Moreover, according to the records of the Mexico City based Holy Office of the Inquisition, a greater number of the colonists were Crypto-Jews who outwardly practiced the Christian faith while privately observing what the Inquisitors called “the Law of Moses."

A hurricane hit the Tampico area shortly after their arrival dispersing the families. Many fled towards the interior of New Spain settling in Mexico City, Taxco, Puebla and Querétaro. Others moved into the mining areas of the north to meet old friends and relatives at Zacatecas, Mazapil and Mapimi. Still a number stayed with Carvajal y de la Cueva and entered into the exploration and colonization of El Nuevo Reyno de León.

One old friend who had apparently been waiting for the families was Don Diego de Montemayor. Somehow related to the governor, Don Diego enlisted in the ranks bringing along another old friend, Don Gaspar Castaño de Sosa. Also joining them was Captain Alberto del Canto who in 1577 had been the officer-on-record as founder of Saltillo. The four men had been active prospectors and slave runners in the Zacatecas-Mapimi-Mazapil area of the northern frontier of New Spain and Nueva Vizcaya. Through a coordinated effort, Carvajal y de la Cueva sent them to select townships and mining sites. Later the governor would also claim he had sent Antonio de Espejo into the terra incognita now called New Mexico. Some of Espejo's men who later served under del Canto, Castaño de Sosa and Montemayor and settled in the Nuevo Reyno de Leon would seem to verify the claim. 

In 1582, Carvajal y de la Cueva entered the heart of Nuevo León and first settled at the site del Canto had named San Gregorio in 1577. The governor renamed it Ciudad León. Years later it was again renamed and is still known as Cerralvo, Nuevo León. The next stop by Carvajal y de la Cueva was the place del Canto had in 1577 named Santa Lucia. Carvajal y de la Cueva renamed it San Luis. After the governor’s fall Montemayor resettled the site and renamed it Monterrey, Nuevo León. 

Late in 1585, the Mexican Supreme court ordered Carvajal y de la Cueva to present himself in Mexico City. Upon arriving, he was quickly placed under house arrest and charged with maltreatment of the Indians and overstepping his authority in regards to infringing on the jurisdiction of abutting frontier kingdoms. Shortly thereafter, an Indian uprising in Nuevo León forced acting governor Diego Montemayor to retreat to Saltillo, taking all families and prospectors there for safekeeping. Consequently in early 1588, Carvajal y de la Cueva fled Mexico City and appeared in Saltillo where he regrouped his men and re-entered Nuevo León. On May 2, 1588, Carvajal y de la Cueva formally re-established the mining township that del Canto in 1577 had named Nuestra Santisima Trinidad. The Governor renamed it Almaden. Captain Castaño de Sosa was appointed mayor while Montemayor continued as acting governor at San Luís and del Canto stayed at his home base at Saltillo. Today, the township is called Monclova, Coahuila.

However, in fleeing Mexico City, Carvajal y de la Cueva had become a fugitive of the law and was rearrested at Almaden and taken in chains to Mexico City. While in prison, the governor learned that his sister and some of her children had been arrested for being Crypto-Jews. The governor himself was charged with being of Jewish descent and a "protector of Jews." Two of the governor’s nephews had already fled from New Spain. Miguel and Baltazar Rodriguez de Matos (alias Carvajal) changed their names and resettled in Salonika (Greece) after stopovers in Havana, Sevilla, Madrid and the Vatican State. Also fleeing at the time were the husbands of the two nieces; Jorge de Almeida (husband of Leonor) and Antonio Diaz de Casares (husband of Catalina).They managed to escape with their respective children. The governor's namesake and heir apparent, Luís Rodriguez de Matos, alias Luís de Carvajal the younger was also arrested. Under severe torture by the inquisition, the younger Luís identified 116 Crypto-Jews. The people he identified were in Europe, dead or already under arrest.

The arrests in Mexico City prompted Castaño de Sosa to act. On July 27, 1590, He gathered the 170 people at Almaden and marched towards New Mexico. They crossed the Rio Grande at a crossing later called Paso Grande de los Judios (large river crossing of the Jews). It later became known as Paso de los Quemados (river crossing of the burnt people). Many years later the community of Quemado, Texas was established within sight of the crossing. The would-be New Mexico colonists followed the Pecos River to the Taos, New Mexico area. Shortly after their arrival the entire group was arrested and returned to Chihuahua. Most of those families slipped back to Saltillo while others joined the 1598 New Mexico colonization expedition of Juan Pérez de Oñate. 

In early 1591 Don Luis de Carvajal y de la Cueva died of unknown causes while imprisoned at the Royal Jail in Mexico City. The governor's relatives, who had been reconverted to Christianity and released in 1590, were rearrested beginning February 1, 1591. There was no excuse this time for they were confirmed “un-repented Jews who had reverted to the Law of Moses." Their physical torture began exactly one year and five days later. Found guilty, their executions were held in an Auto de Fe (Act of Faith) on December 8, 1596. All arrested as well as friends and distant relatives, were executed.

The inquisition was lenient with the women. They were first strangled with a wire before their bodies set on fire. Luís Rodriguez de Matos, alias Luís de Carvajal, alias Joseph Lumbroso was burned alive for refusing to denounce his faith. Church historians and others would later debate a possible last minute conversion. His manner of execution argued against it. 

All family members named Carvajal y de la Cueva died at the stake. There would be no survivors carrying the family name. The in-laws and close relatives who did survive included Almeida, Rodríguez, Nuñez, Casares, Hernández, Díaz, Fonseca, Pérez, de Leún and Chavez. Also surviving would be the brothers Miguel and Baltazar who chose to honor their brother, the young Luís by changing their name to Lumbrano. 

Today, 428 years after the arrival of La Santa Catalina, the descendants of the passengers of La Santa Catalina are primarily scattered throughout Northeast Mexico, Texas, New Mexico and various parts of the United States. Most of the descendents are Christian today. All that remains is a whispered oral tradition handed down for more than 400 years that the family is of Jewish descent.

This week as some celebrate Columbus Day while others observe El Dia de la Raza (The Day of the People), we choose con orgullo y terquedad (with pride and tenacity) to recall La Santa Catalina and its most precious cargo, its passengers, our ancestral roots. 

End ………………………… end …………………… end ………………. End

Zavala County Sentinel 8-9 October, 2008 Richard G. Santos



La herencia judía en España dio origen al dialecto LADINO que nace de la mezcla del español, el hebreo y el sefardí de los Judíos Sefarditas. De esta mezcla nace el LADINO. La expulsión de los judíos sefarditas ocurrió en la época de Los Reyes Católicos, Fernando e Isabel. En esa época los judíos sefarditas o judíos conversos se diseminaron por el Mundo. Algunos de los que tenían dinero se fueron a Holanda, haciendo fuerte a dicho país con su trabajo e industriosidad. Muchos de los judíos Sefarditas que no tenían dinero se vinieron al Nuevo Mundo: algunos a Sud América y otros fundaron el Nuevo Reino de León (Monterrey). Los apellidos: Treviño, Garza, Fernández, Muguerza, Sada, Villarreal, Martinez, Guajardo, González y otros más son de origen sefardita: Junto con esta breve explicación en correo adjunto (enciendan parlantes) va una canción en Ladino. Espero les guste y con ellos puedan tener una idea de quiénes somos muchos de nosotros y de dónde vinimos.

La expulsión de los judíos Sefarditas de la Península Ibérica alrededor del 1490, por los Reyes Católicos Fernando e Isabel, (Real decreto de 1492) ha sido una de las fechas más negras de la historia Española y Portuguesa; con el ingrediente del drama humano que eso significó, España y más tarde Portugal perdieron a una de sus comunidades más industriosas, ricas y llenas de sabiduría: el pueblo judío.  Su repercusión retrasó el desarrollo social Ibérico por varias centurias. Desde el 1390, en la medida que avanzaba la reconquista de los últimos reductos musulmanes en las regiones ya cristianizadas, lo judíos españoles se vieron obligados a abrazar la fe cristiana, pasando a ser llamados conversos o “Cristianos nuevos”. En el resto de Europa así como en las regiones Islámicas los llamaron “marranos”, si eran conversos, o sefarditas, si conservaban la fe de Moisés.

Las carabelas colombinas trajeron judíos al Nuevo Mundo. Quizá el primer judío que hizo la travesía, fue Luis de Torres. Como era de esperarse, estas primeras oleadas de judíos se dieron técnicamente en la clandestinidad. Isabel la Católica y después Carlos V prohibieron el paso al Nuevo mundo a todo aquel que no fuera “Español y Cristiano Antiguo” (hidalgo). No obstante, a pesar de todas estas medidas los conversos cruzaron el océano Atlántico casi enseguida del descubrimiento de América, de tal manera que la diáspora Hebrea en el Nuevo Mundo se inicio el día en que este apareció ante los Europeos. Por desgracia casi no existe constancia escrita de dicho acontecimiento.

Los primeros hebreos que pisaron tierras mexicanas fueron Gonzalo de Morales y Hernando Alonso, quienes acompañaron en 1521 a las huestes de Hernán Cortés. A pesar de que en 1523 se publicó el primer edicto contra los judíos en la Nueva España, es un hecho que para 1570 la comunidad Hebrea de México era ya numerosa, pues integraban el 25% de la población peninsular; inclusive dicha comunidad, al parecer, estaba encabezada por un Gran Rabino. Entre 1540 y 1571 los judíos gozaron en la Nueva España de los beneficios de la tolerancia gubernamental y eclesiástica, que se les negaba en la Península.

El implacable movimiento antisemítico del siglo XVI mexicano solo se puso de manifiesto en un momento tardío de la Contrarreforma; básicamente con la implantación del Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición, en el año de 1571, presidido por el clérigo Moya de Contreras. Dadas las circunstancias adversas del momento, en la medida que podían, los “conversos “se alejaban de la capital de la Nueva España, hacia los lugares más recónditos posibles; mientras más lejos mejor, por eso se vinieron al norte y se asentaron en Monterrey. Era una diáspora sin Clero, sin cabeza visible, sin Ciudad Santa, sin escuela teológica organizada; sin embargo, quedaron identificados entre ellos mismos más que por la Thora (el libro que contenía su leyes), por sus prácticas religiosas comunes. La constancia de ésto quedó registrada por los procesos inquisitoriales legados en los archivos parroquiales.

 La “Santa Inquisición” no sólo se encargó de los asuntos “judaizantes” (que eran los menos), también de todo tipo de actos sospechosos de herejía, de los cuales estaban exentos los naturales de estas tierras. Sin embargo, habría que agregar que para entonces una gran cantidad de “conversos” realmente eran cristianos, puesto que descendían de más de tres generaciones de conversos cristianizados, y por lo tanto una vez en América no ejercieron ninguna practica judaizante. Pero a pesar de todo eran vulnerables a las denuncias hechas por “cristianos antiguos” cuando por alguna circunstancia mediaban intereses encontrados entre ellos. En algunas ocasiones, los posibles sospechosos tenían que conseguir documentos falsos que los acreditaran como cristianos antiguos (hidalgos), para obtener algún cargo público.

Es aquí donde la leyenda y la realidad se entremezclan, puesto que un manto nebuloso cubre toda la Época Colonial, y la única constancia escrita que queda fueron los procesos del Santo Tribunal de la Inquisición. Por eso, las observancias comunes sobre las normas teológicas judías se hacían en la más completa clandestinidad. Prefirieron conservar su vida, ocultando y disimulando sus prácticas para no ser expuestos a la condena y martirio. En algunos casos hasta llegaban al extremo de tratar de aparentar prácticas contrarias a su fe, como cocinar carne de cerdo en la calle. Los de Nuevo León heredaron las costumbres sefarditas como la tortilla de harina, la carne asada y el cabrito asado, una práctica del norte del país que ocurre en Nuevo León y Coahuila.

Con el paso del tiempo, larga lucha favoreció a las instituciones que defendían la ortodoxia religiosa, por lo que la comunidad Judía no pudo evitar asimilarse poco a poco a la sociedad cristiana que la cobijaba, y al final de la Colonia termino por diluirse completamente con ella. Si bien, dentro de la mexicanidad existe la conciencia colectiva de que en muchos linajes mestizos y criollos corre sangre judía por sus venas, acentuándose más en estados como Nuevo León, Jalisco, Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, Coahuila, Durango etc, cuyos habitantes no ven esto simplemente como una Leyenda, sino que hasta están orgullosos de su ascendencia judía, la cual fue conocida por ellos seguramente a través de añejas consejas que les fueron referidas por sus ancestros y escuchadas y repetidas por ellos hasta el cansancio desde su infancia.

Sent by Juvencio Farias


Jesus Moron, Artist
Dec 5: Tejano Monument Committee
Dec 6: Emma Tenayuca and Her Legacy
You Aren’t Here
National Hispanic Veterans Museum

Author finds area ancestor
Texas Genealogy Sites on the Internet


Soy historiado y artista plastico, tengo una coleccion de pinturas al oleo de mi autoria sobre la primer independencia de Texas por Don Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara y deseo contribuir a la organizacion somos primos mi e mail ea soy el biografo de don bernardo quien independizo tejas de Espana abril 2, 1813. 

El de la izquierda es la ceremonia de entrega del retrato del col Bernardo gutierrez de lara hoy en exhibicion permanente en el palacio del gob. espanol en San Antonio texas, el que sigue es la encargada del museo recibiendolo en abril 6, 2008 y el tercero soy yo posando con una pintura que tenia en proceso de la plaza de armas de san fernando de bexar "hoy san antonio texas" tengo una coleccion de 26 oleos sobre la historia de la primer independencia de texas, lograda por don Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara en 1813 soy el biografo de el y pintor autor de tales pinturas con base en la historia mi tele fono es 210 627 9134 en san antonio texas, soy amigo de Dan Arellano y Bob benavides.




Nosotros Los Tejanos



 On Friday Dec 5th at 1:30 P.M. in room E 1.018 in the State Capital Building in Austin the Tejano Monument Committee will be meeting with the Consul General of Spain and other officials to discuss the placement of the Tejano Monument on the front lawn of the Capital grounds.  

Tejano citizens, along with Anglo Texans fought and died in the Battles of Medina, the Alamo, Goliad and San Jacinto, etc. that made the State of Texas what it is today. Yet, this historical contribution by our ancestors has been neglected at the State Capitol for more than 190 years. To correct this oversight HCR 28, 77th Texas Legislature was finally authorized and amended twice by HCR 12, 79th Third Called Session.  

In 2001, the Tejano Monument Corporation, a nonprofit corporation, was created for the purpose of planning, obtaining funds, constructing, and emplacing an appropriate monument to these unsung heroes of Texas .  

The problem is that the State Preservation Board wants the monument installed at the rear of the capital grounds: whereas our community requests that it be installed on the front lawn, where it belongs.  

Please show your support by attending this meeting or sending a representative from your organizationFor more information contact:

Dan Arellano, Vice President
Tejano Genealogy Society



Emma Tenayuca and her Legacy


Date: December 6, 2008, 9:30 a.m.
First floor, Main Auditorium, of the San Antonio Public Library, 
600 Soledad Street, San Antonio, Texas.

Speakers: Carmen Tofolla and Sharyll Tenayuca
Topic: Emma Tenayuca and her Legacy

Dr. Carmen Tafolla is an internationally published writer and native of San Antonio, Texas. One of the most anthologized of Chicana writers, her latest book, The Holy Tortilla and a Pot of Beans, a collection of short stories, made the Top Ten Bestseller 

List at the 2008 Texas Book Festival. In 1999, she was the recipient of the Art of Peace Award, for literary work which furthers peace, justice, and human understanding. 

Ms. Sharyll Teneyuca is a practicing lawyer and former Municipal Court Judge. Teneyuca was voted Outstanding Young Lawyer by the San Antonio Young Lawyers Association in 1985 for her work as the founder and director of the Pro-Bono Law Project, the first 
volunteer attorney assistance project for the representation of indigents in civil matters in Bexar County. 

Both Tafolla, Emma Tenayuca's friend, and Teneyuca, Emma Tenayuca's niece, are at work co-authoring the adult biography of Emma Tenayuca. In December of 2007, they authored the first book ever published on Emma, a children's picture book entitled That's Not Fair: Emma Tenayuca's Struggle for Justice.

Sent by Larry Kirkpatrick


You Aren’t Here
November 2008  TexasMonthly
by Garcy Cartwright  

A lack of reverence for the Alamo’s sacred battleground has turned much of the iconic site into a place no one remembers.

Considering the abuse heaped on it through the ages, it’s a miracle the Alamo survives at all. The Catholic Church hadn’t even completed work on the church in 1793, when it decided to close the mission. The church didn’t have a roof, much less its famous bell-shaped parapet, until sixty years later, when the U.S. Army used it as a quartermaster’s depot. Following Mexico’s independence from Spain, the building’s stones were nearly sold for auction to finance the new state of Coahuila y Tejas. Shortly before the battle, Sam Houston proposed abandoning the fort in a letter to then-governor Henry Smith, a proposal Smith had the foresight to dismiss. The Alamo was about to be converted to a hotel in 1905 when Clara Driscoll rescued it with a gift of $65,000 and put the Daughters of the Republic of Texas in charge of the site. Somehow it managed to survive several pitched battles within the ranks of the DRT, the most notable being the one between Driscoll and her rival, Adina De Zavala, who barricaded herself inside the convento to protest Driscoll’s plan to demolish the building’s second floor. Another plan, fortunately aborted, would have razed the convento and replaced it with a Beaux Arts—style building.

It was not until 1968 that the long barrack was restored and opened as a museum—at least in name. There wasn’t much to see. When Greg Curtis was there, the relic that caught his eye was the coonskin cap worn by John Wayne in The Alamo. In 2005, to celebrate a century of custodianship of the property by the DRT, the barrack was renovated and upgraded into a true museum. Its artifacts now include weapons of frontier defense, a Bible that belonged to a prominent early Texas family, a ring that belonged to Travis, and reproductions of uniforms worn by the Mexican infantry and the New Orleans Greys (Wayne’s coonskin cap is no longer displayed). The panels covering the windows that face Alamo Plaza are painted with bright depictions of life in the first half of the nineteenth century. At the north end of the barrack porch is a representation of the first hospital in Texas, established at the Alamo’s Spanish garrison in 1805. Outside, between the barrack and the gift shop, is the Wall of History, placed there in 1997, presenting in detail a timeline of the mission and the village across the river, San Antonio de Béxar, and outlining the indispensable role each played in the history of Texas.

Yet inside the nave of the church, visitors will find few explanations. “People want to see the space, not signs,” Alamo historian and curator Bruce Winders told me. Even so, the DRT has always seemed more worshipful of the Alamo than respectful of its history, piously referring to the church as “the shrine.” Fighting through a mob of people, many of them pushing baby carriages, I gave up trying to get a close look at exhibits and concentrated instead on inhaling the essence of the place. People spoke in whispers, sounding more confused than enlightened but curious and aware of a palpable connection to these old walls. Some of them listened to a narration on headsets supplied by the Alamo’s audio-tour service. I crowded in behind a Latino family trying to get a glimpse of Crockett’s rifle and caught fragments of Spanish as the parents explained the story to their two young children. I wasn’t sure of their words, but it was clear from the shimmer of pride in their eyes that they regarded the Alamo as an irreplaceable part of their heritage. Whoever we Texans are as a people, it started here.

The last defenders of the Alamo, probably fewer than twelve, fought inside these church walls. Though neither of the two rooms just inside the main entrance is identified, the one on the right was the baptistery and the room across from it the confessional. Both were used as powder magazines at the time of the battle. Robert Evans, an Irishman who had joined the cause of Texas independence, was attempting to torch the magazines to keep them out of enemy hands when he was shot dead near the front door. Another of the final defenders was James Butler Bonham, who carried a message through the Mexican line asking for reinforcements, then raced back to the Alamo, knowing he would die inside. Jacob Walker, of Tennessee, ran into the sacristy to hide, but pursuing Mexican soldiers shot him and hoisted his body onto their bayonets. The sacristy, a double room on the left side of the corridor, was where the women and children took shelter during the fighting. After the battle ended, Susanna Dickinson and her infant daughter, the only Anglos in the group, were led from the sacristy and out the front door of the church, where she recognized amid the carnage the mutilated corpse of Davy Crockett. She identified Crockett because of his “peculiar cap.” Historians are not certain if Crockett died in battle or was executed, but the oral history handed down from Dickinson (who couldn’t read or write) places the spot where his body fell just outside the northwest corner of the chapel, below walls that still appear pockmarked and battle-scarred. A Mexican olive tree grows there today. As Curtis reminded us, all this drama and more happened in the chapel, but you have to go to considerable trouble to appreciate it.

The City of San Antonio owns 70 percent of the original Alamo compound (the state owns, and the DRT manages, the church and the grounds behind it). Were it so inclined, it could make substantial improvements, as it did a few years back when it renovated the Main Plaza, located next to San Fernando Cathedral. In 1994 the city closed Alamo East, one of two streets that ran through Alamo Plaza. Visitors no longer choke on the fumes from idling tour buses. The motivation for closing the street was as much political as historical, however, coming in response to protests by Native Americans that the plaza had been a burial ground for their people.

No one has yet implemented a grand vision for giving the Alamo a comprehensive perspective, connecting the historical dots, as it were. Foreman represents a group of business, professional, and educational leaders who are working on a plan, but he’s not ready to reveal who they are or what it is. My guess is that Foreman’s scheme will be too grandiose to be practical. He and his people will have to persuade the federal government to repurpose the post office, and restoring the west wall would require demolishing the work of Alfred Giles. “The quandary is,” Winders says, “do you destroy something historic to put up something nonhistoric?”

Unfortunately, this question went unasked for many years. Yet as I crossed the sacred ground, weaving my way through snow cone stands and listening to the grating voice of Stumpy and the other wonders in the phony world of Ripley’s, I realized that we shouldn’t aspire to have the Alamo restored all the way back to 1836, to the ruins of a roofless, dirt-floor church. For one thing, we’d miss the world-famous bell-shaped parapet. Short of total restoration, however, there is plenty of room for improvement. The city could start by closing the remaining lanes of traffic on Alamo Street. It is not too late to remember the Alamo. Believe it or not.

Sent by Rick Leal
and Jack Cowan 


National Hispanic Veterans Museum
Buenos dias,
We are proud to announce the first fundraiser for the National Hispanic Veterans Museum will be the Hispanic Veterans Museum Golf Tournament to be held June 6, 2009 at the Republic Golf Club on SE Military Dr. in San Antonio.
We ask for your support to help us raise funds to build this very special museum.  
For more information please visit our website:
Virgil Fernandez


Author finds area ancestor
Laredo Morning Times
Sunday, November 16, 2008 

Laredo author Jose Maria Peña, having embarked on a personal genealogical study of the Zapata-Guerrero frontier, felt confident he was on track to discover his family roots.

He had no idea, however, that his search would lead him to some ancestors who played roles in opposition Centralist rulers at the height of Texas' struggle with Mexico for independence.

As it turned out, the Centralists eventually were overthrown in continued frontier warfare after San Jacinto and on through closure to the French intervention.

The Laredo author noted that the early settlers on both sides of the Rio Grande supported a movement to get rid of Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna and later threw their support to activities to remove the French.

These movements led to the strategies that took these men to the establishment of the short-lived Republic of the Rio Grande.

In his book, "Inherit the Dust from the Four Winds of Revilla," Peña dug into the genealogy of his family background of that post-San Jacinto era.

It touched into some of the historical aspects of Zapata's recent sesquicentennial observance.

Peña, who graduated from Laredo Martin High School and did undergraduate work at Laredo Junior College before completing work at The University of Texas, discovered that his ancestors hailed from Revilla, later to become Guerrero Viejo across old Zapata, and neighboring Mier and Camargo.

Peña discovered that these settlers had ties to the vecinos in Villa de San Agustin de Laredo who shared similar opposition views, along with other upriver residents in Presidio of San Juan Bautista (Eagle Pass).

In the midst of his five-year literary project, Peña ran into archived material of one of these outstanding forefathers.

His name is Jose de Jesus Plagio Peña Vela. Jose Jesus, born on March 27, 1823, was the oldest child born to Jose Antonio Vela and Antonia Vela.

Peña wrote about his ancestor, "Don Jesus distinguished himself in a number of ways.

He defended the city of Guerrero against bandits and Indians."

The Archivos de la Nación (national archives) hold reports from the Santander villa of Revilla describing how residents lived under constant fear of attacks by marauding Indians (Lipan Apaches, Comanches) and how residents were encouraged to maintain firearms for protection.

When visitors took tours of little San Ygnacio, tourists were impressed by an old home, somewhat restored and resembling a fort.

It had openings on the mud brick walls from where the occupants would take rifle shots at Indians who often came from the Mexican side of the river.

Nuevo Leon historian Ernesto Zertuche, who would talk to Lampazos gatherings at the town's Logia (Masonic Lodge) or the Casino, about Indians who raided on the border and returned with horses, goods and an occasional hostage.

Peña wrote of an incident wherein Don Jesus is credited with having rescued a hostage from Lipan Apaches.

"Fighting the barbarous Indians became a way of life for the early settlers of the region," Nuevo Leon historian," Ernesto Zertuche of Lampazos used to tell this writer.

"The Indians killed and robbed on both sides of the river. They would come down from the mountains and raid the ranches.

They took livestock, horses and whatever they could get unless someone shot them first. Ranchers were encouraged to have firearms.Everyone had a rifle and more than one handgun."

some Indians rode their horses to the Rio Bravo and raid on the other side. 
In the larger ranchos, which had more animals, Zertuche would hire gun-fighting cowboys for protection.

Peña wrote that Don Jesus was known to be "a tough Indian fighter."  A story about his having rescued a hostage from the Lipan Apaches became legend. 

He served three terms as municipal president of Guerrero and as an officer in the military. In subsequent years, Don Jesus was director of public security for the Guerrero (Viejo) jurisdiction and became one of the staunchest opponents of French intervention.

Region historians compared his presence in northern frontier history with the likes of Jose Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara, Antonio Canales, Antonio Zapata, Gregorio Garcia, Ildefonso Ramon Davila and Bacilio Benavides. Benavides served as alcalde of Laredo at three crucial years in Laredo and Texas history (1836-37, 1843-44, and 1848-50).

History tells that Gutierrez de Lara maintained liaisons with Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla and leaders of the insurgency for Mexico independence. Hidalgo sparked the rebellion against Spain at the door of his parish at Dolores (September 16, 1810).

His closest allies (Aldama, Allende) fled the Guanajuato region and headed north to seek support for the cause of independence.

Author Peña's forefather, Jose de Jesus Pelagio Peña Vela, having inherited his father's land grant on the Sabinas River, became a leading farmer and rancher.

Peña described Don Jesus as an individual of "courage, charisma, principles, character, vision, convictions, decisiveness, ambition and honesty.  These qualities were handy throughout his life."

Don Jesus' reputation as a leading citizen of the region is part of the stories recorded by historians and genealogical research. He is cited in genealogical works of Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza of Nuevo Laredo and Ernesto Zertuche of Lampazos.

According to Chema Peña, Don Jesus was an opinionated individual, taking political positions that "carried great risk of reprisals and retributions."  Don Jesus felt Santa Anna was bad for Mexico.

In 1854, his view was that Santa Anna "was no longer any good for the country and should be removed."  "Santa Anna had appeared in the political horizon of Mexico since 1821," Peña wrote.

"At different times throughout 30 previous years, this man persuaded six to ten thousand men go into battle with him.  He lost a leg in battle, lost his wife, married a 15-year-old girl ... he became bored, claimed sickness and took leave."

The man retired to his hacienda but he continued to come back to San Luis Potosi and Mexico City "to be president time and time again."

Don Jesus became part of the military leadership in Guerrero that confronted the French 1866.
Under his leadership, the Mexican military once caught more than 1,000 French prisoners and 200 railcars of weapons, munitions and supplies.  History tells that the French were overwhelmed in1867.

In a talk, Peña told of finding material detailing Don Jesus' men raiding an Indian group (September 20, 1867) who had killed a Peña neighbor (Trinidad Alegria), his wife and a child.

Peña told how his forefather died at age 80 on February 20, 1907.  A monument (obelisk) was place at a hill near the town at Santa Gertrudis in 1906 "to commemorate the combat between the French and the Mexican troops led by Don Jesus, a native of Guerrero."

Don Jose de Jesus Plagio Peña Vela's legacy is part of the region's history and Jose Maria Peña's descendants.

(Reach Odie Arambula at

Here is another excellent story written by Odie Arambula, in the November 16, 2008, Laredo Morning Times.  Odie, thanks for basing it on my book, 'Inherit The Dust From the Four Winds of Revilla." It covers one of our Grandfathers.  Jose De Jesus Pelagio Peña Vela was indeed a fabulous personality.  If you have my book, check his story on Page 190.  His relationship to us can be found on Page 351, Appendix 17 and Page 363, Appendix 22.  In other words, he (and Maria de Jesus Vela) were the grandparents of  (Hortencia, Adelfa, Josefa, Geronimo, Diamantina, San Juana, Alfonso, and six others).  In my case, I have two grandfathers from the same family: Jose de Jesus Pelagio Peña Vela and his brother Jose Maria Peña Vela, who was the father of my father.
His story is really fantastic.  At a time when siding against Santa Anna called for execution and beheading -- this had happened to Col. Antonio Zapata -- our Abuelo took fearless positions, just like Odie depicts it.   As a result, Santa Ana was deposed and never made it back to power.  Our  abuelo, together with numerous others, helped overthrow Maximilian and Carlota and was Municipal President of Guerrero 3 times. 
One thing missing from Odie's article is the name of Sabas Rodriguez.  He was the man our abuelo saved from the Indians.  Why do I mention him?  It so happens that Sabas Rodriguez was the grandfather of Olga (Oscar's wife) Gallego, both from Laredo, my close friends, and who live right here in Austin.   Fabulous coincidence.  Sabas also had a hero's background.  Oscar and Olga, you should tell it in more detail.
All of you, enjoy an excellently written and integrated story by Odie Arambula.
Best Regards,
Chema  (Jose Maria Pena)

Hi all:
Here is an addition from Olga Nella Gallegos:
Beautiful article by Odie, Chemita.  Thanks for again mentioning my great-grandfather, Sabas Rodriguez.   The story of his kidnapping by the Indians and being saved by your abuelo is beautifully written in your book.  I couldn't add anything more.  My father often spoke of his grandfather's years with the Indians but never went into detail, so I can only assume what he went through at that time.  I'm very proud of the  history Sabas Rodriguez left behind and so appreciative to read it in a book written by a very special and talented friend.  Gracias, Chemita.
Olga Nella



Texas Genealogy Sites on the Internet
Compiled and published by Hogar de Dallas, Nov/Dec Newsletter

Contact person: Dorina Thomas  Fax: (214) 324-4268  

1. Texas State Archives -------------------

2. Texas Land Grant Database ------

3. Texas GLO Name Search Form

4. Texas GLO Map Collection --------

5. Maps of Texas ------------------------

6. Texas Army Roster (1836) ----------

7. Republic of Texas Claims -----------

8. Texas Adjutant General Service Records ----

9. Military Rolls of the Republic of Texas ------

10. Texas Historic Sites Atlas ---------------------

11. Gammel’s Laws of Texas online ----

12. Early Texas Newspaper Abstracts ---

13. The Old 300 Database -------------- -

14. Handbook of Texas Online ----------

15. SW Historical Quarterly ----

16. Southwest Classics Online --

17. Lone Star Junction, Texians Online Database ------



Finding Mexico -- in Detroit Artes Unidas de Michigan
Hispanic economic impact in Southeast Michigan.

Finding Mexico -- in Detroit 
Artes Unidas de Michigan: LA Times Author Finds Mexico in Detroit

As others fled, Detroit's Latino population doubled from 1990 to 2007. 
Gregory Rodriguez, October 20, 2008 

DETROIT -- You don't expect to stumble into a little piece of Mexico right on the U.S.-Canadian border. But after I crossed the bridge from Windsor, Canada, into southwest Detroit, that's exactly what happened. I saw a "mercado" sign, and then a few blocks on there was La Jaliscience tortilla factory, the Mexican Village restaurant and La Colmena/Honey Bee grocery store.

Over the last decade, I've encountered Mexican immigrants from Grand Forks, N.D., to Clinton, Ill. But Mexicans traveling thousands of miles to live in the most maligned city in the United States?

No one should be surprised. As early as World War I, thousands of Mexicans came to southeast Michigan in search of work. Though most were drawn to the region's sugar beet fields, many stayed to join the diverse labor force that served Detroit's booming auto factories. By the late 1920s, Ford Motor Co. surpassed Inland Steel Co. to become the largest employer of Mexicans in the Midwest.

For the most part, early 20th century Detroit -- like Chicago -- offered a kinder social climate for Mexicans than did much of the Southwest. In the Midwest, Mexicans faced less discrimination and had more opportunities to cast themselves as Americans. Not seen by Anglos primarily through the prism of race and conquest, they tended to be perceived as just one more set of Catholic, working-class immigrants. Consequently, by the 1940s, the Mexicans drawn here by wartime industrial jobs had higher rates of naturalization than did their brethren in the Southwest.

This is not to say that Mexican Detroiters were immune from anti-Mexican sentiment. During the Depression, Mexican muralist Diego Rivera -- whose glorious fresco cycle "Detroit Industry" graces the Detroit Institute of Arts -- lent his fame to an inglorious campaign by the city's "Mexican Bureau" and the Mexican consulate to ship Mexican relief applicants back to Mexico. (Detroit wanted to rid itself of unemployed workers; Mexico wanted its lost manpower back.) Rivera and his wife, Frida Kahlo, attended a "celebratory" Detroit send-off for Mexicans who had been frightened into "voluntarily" returning to their homeland.

Like other immigrant groups, Mexicans have tended to view Detroit as a gateway to the leafier suburbs. By the late 1980s, such suburban out-migration, coupled with the city's infamous economic collapse, pretty much left southwest Detroit as little more than a few long-standing Mexican restaurants. Immigration had long since slowed to a trickle.

But that all changed in the mid-'90s, when immigrants -- many of whom hailed from the highlands of Jalisco -- came looking for jobs in landscaping, construction and automobile-related light manufacturing. Even as Detroit experienced a net loss of both white and black residents over the last two decades, the Latino population doubled from 1990 to 2007; it now represents 6% of the city.

Within a few years, Mexicantown and surrounding southwest Detroit were reborn. "Other than downtown, this is the only neighborhood that is succeeding in Detroit," Steve Tobocman, state representative for this part of the city, told me over lunch at Taqueria Lupitas on Bagley Street. "Sure, you can find a couple of blocks here and there, but you can't find an entire residential community and say that the quality of life has actually gotten better over the past 15 years."

Demographer Kurt Metzger agrees. Over the last decade, downtown Detroit has seen renewed investment and gentrification, but "in terms of density, entrepreneurship and diversity," Metzger says, "southwest Detroit is the most vital part of the city. And in a city where people shop for food at corner 'party stores,' it's the only area where you can find fresh fruits and vegetables."

More significantly, the Mexican part of town is not just for Mexicans. Tobocman's district is the most diverse in Detroit. Southwest Detroit is roughly 50% Latino, 25% black, 20% white and 5% Arab American. The high percentage of both blacks and whites is not an accident.

"Mixed black-white neighborhoods are traditionally unstable," Metzger explained. "As soon as one group hits the tipping point, one group or the other tends to leave. But in southwest Detroit, Hispanics tend to act as a buffer between black and white. And that's how the neighborhood has maintained its diversity."

Nor has the small but growing Latino population here had the same tensions with African Americans that are talked about in L.A. and other cities. Maria Elena Rodriguez, who ran the Mexicantown Community Development Corp. for 10 years, says it's a function of demographics. "This is a majority black city. Blacks have the political power. That's the lay of the land, and you have to work with it. The black-Hispanic thing is really not an issue here."

So are Mexican immigrants and their children destined to shape the future of Detroit? Probably not. Talk to people in Mexicantown and they'll generally tell you they want to make a move. The rents are cheap in southwest Detroit and the businesses remind newcomers of home, but the best jobs have headed to the suburbs and, like everywhere else in this city, crime haunts residents.

"I'm 100% certain that I'll leave Detroit," 32-year-old Yadira Garza told me in Spanish from behind the counter at Xochi's Gift Shop. She came from Mexico City four years ago, but, she says, "I'm not going to raise my kids here. And it's not because of racism. This city is just not safe."


Hispanic economic impact in Southeast Michigan. 

The first-ever study of the Hispanic/Latino community's economic impact on Southeast Michigan shows that residents of Hispanic descent contribute at least $14.5 billion to the regional economy. The study, which also documents a 27.9 percent increase in the Hispanic population living in the seven-county Southeast Michigan region since 2000, was released today at the 2008 Hispanic Business Expo & Economic Summit in Detroit. 

Wayne State University (WSU) researchers forecast rapid growth in the Hispanic community in Southeast Michigan, estimating that Hispanics will make up a larger portion of the overall population, increasing from 2.4 percent to 7.3 percent between 2005 and 2035. The vast majority of this growth will come from U.S.-born Hispanics, as opposed to new immigrants, as 78.1 percent of Southeast Michigan's Hispanics are U.S. Citizens 

The Southeast Michigan Hispanic/Latino Economic Impact Study seeks to understand and ultimately increase the impact of Hispanics/Latinos on the economy of Southeast Michigan and Michigan as a whole. To meet that objective, the group is pursuing a three-tiered study to measure the economic impact of the Hispanic/Latino community, identify the community's patterns of investment and increase Hispanic/Latino economic power and political representation. 

Using the Regional Economic Model, the study estimates that the economic activity of Hispanic residents in the region supports 181,053 total jobs in Southeast Michigan. "That is relatively high, compared to other communities," said Dr. Lyke Thompson, Director of the WSU Center for Urban Studies and lead researcher on the study. "Essentially, for every 100 Hispanic jobs in the region, Hispanics help support approximately 95 additional jobs." 

"For too long, we had only anecdotal information about the Hispanic business community's economic force in this market," said Frederick Feliciano, President of the Hispanic Business Alliance, a 30 year-old organization committed to bringing together Hispanic entrepreneurs. "Now, we have some hard evidence that should serve as a point of pride for our community, as well as encourage the greater business community to recognize the opportunities in doing business with us." 

The study also finds that, though Hispanics represented only 3.5 percent of the total population in the region in 2006, their economic activity accounted for 6.5 percent of the total employment, 6.4 percent of the total earnings and 6.2 percent of the total economic output in Southeast Michigan. 

"This report reinforces our philosophy in Wayne County to highlight and promote our diversity," said Wayne County Executive Robert Ficano. "The Hispanic community makes up a significant part of our workforce. The study also shows that jobs within the Hispanic community help create more jobs. This community, filled with a rich history and culture, will have a great impact on the economic future of our county." 

"Around the country, Detroit is considered an emerging market for Hispanic business. Now, we have facts to support that reputation," said Feliciano. 

For more information at
Sent by Juan Marinez


Historia de Juanchorrey y Tepetonga, S.A.
La historiadora Lilia Eunice Villanueva de Cavazos falleció
La Nativitas in Salamanca, Guanajuato


Por: José León Robles De La Torre 

Foto tomada en Kansas City, USA, en 1917. 
De izquierda a derecha: 
don Tereso de la Torre Gamboa, con sus padres 
don J. Encarnación de la Torre Gamboa y doña Crescencia Gamboa de la Torre, nacidos en  Juanchorrey, Tepetongo y Zacatecas y radicados en Estados Unidos.

Don J. Encarnaciónde la Torre Gamboa, nació en Juanchorrey, Tepetongo, Zacatecas el 25 de marzo de 1853
Don J. Encarnación y doña Crescencia, contrajeron matrimonio en Juanchorrey, Tepetongo Zacatecas el año de 1877. Don J. Encarnación de la Torre Gamboa falleció el cinco de abril de 1931, sus padres fueron don Antonio de la Torre Sánchez, nacido Ap. en 1824 y su esposa doña Maria del Refugio Gamboa Montoya. Sus abuelos paternos fueron don Antonio de la Torre Montes. Generación siete del árbol genealógico de los De la Torre en este libro, nacido Ap. 1776 y doña Soledad Sánchez Marcos. Don J. Encarnación contrajo matrimonio con doña Crescencia Gamboa de la Torre, nacida en Juanchorrey el 19 de abril de 1863 y falleció el 11 de junio de 1929, y procrearon 11 hijos, al igual que sus padres y fueron José Cruz, Tereso, Teodoro, Jesús, Jesús María, Mónico, José Ventura, José, Fidel, Joaquina y Maria Florentina, todos con el apellido De la Torre Gamboa.

En 1916, a raíz de la revolución, se fueron a los Estados Unidos de Norteamérica, encabezando una caravana de 30 personas de Juanchorrey.

Veamos el siguiente texto de mi libro arriba citado: “Pues bien, don J. Encarnación con su familia, al igual que mucha gente de Juanchorrey, tuvieron que emigrar a los Estados Unidos, debido a la revolución y la cristiada y la crisis económica por la falta de cultivos, las persecuciones y asesinatos y otros sucesos que tenían asustada a la gente. De las 30 personas que componían la caravana, quien esto escribe, decía don Juan de la Torre Robles, era el más pequeño, pues tenía solamente, al salir de Juanchorrey, diez meses con 13 días de nacido”.

“Por boca de mi compadre don Salvador Muro, dice don Juan, gran memorista, he logrado saber quiénes eran que iban con nuestros padres, al salir de su pueblo natal, de quienes, por un justo recuerdo los anoto aquí en estos apuntes: fueron ellos, mis abuelos paternos, don J. Encarnación de la Torre Gamboa y Crescencia Gamboa de la Torre, Fidel Joaquina, Buenaventura y Francisca González, Gabriela, Luis y Paula de la Torre, Jesús de la Torre y Claudia Robles de De la Torre, Juan de la Torre R. (niño), Epitacio Nava y Aurelia González de Nava, Jose Guadalupe Nava, Luis y Ma. Concepción Nava, Jose Refugio Muro Gabriela González, Salvador y María Muro, Cosme Barrios y Simona, María Barrios, Maria Mercedes de los Santos, Regino y Simona, Juan Correa y Lorenza Luna, Dionisia de la Torre y Juana Álvarez”.

Antes de seguir adelante, quiero dejar asentado que todos eran de familias muy prolíficas, pues don J. Encarnación de la Torre Gamboa, que encabezaba la caravana, tuvo diez hermanos que fueron: Teodoro (mi bisabuelo), María, Juan José, Francisco, Nicolás, María Inés, Ruperto, Juanita, Jesús y Cruz, todos De la Torre Gamboa.


Foto tomada en Kansas City, USA, en 1920 de don Marcelo de la Torre González y su esposa doña Guadalupe Reveles Sánchez.

Don Marcelo de la Torre González, nació en Juanchorrey, Tepetongo, Zacatecas, Mexico el día 16 de enero de 1891 siendo hijo de don José Guadalupe de la Torre Carlos y de su esposa doña Nicolasa González González. Sus abuelos paternos fueron don Rafael Ciríaco de la Torre Sánchez, nacido en Juanchorrey el día 12 de junio de 1825 y su esposa doña María Cosme Carlos Martínez. Don Rafael Ciríaco era de la generación B-B del árbol genealógico de los De la Torre de este libro. 


Los hermanos de don Marcelo fueron: Andrea de la Torre González, nacido en Juanchorrey el 30 de noviembre de 1890; Francisca de la Torre González, nacida en Juanchorrey y casada con don Francisco Román; Juanita de la Torre González, nacida en Juanchorrey y casada con don Crisóforo Balderas, que fueron padres de Antonio y Víctor Balderas de la Torre, amigos del que esto escribe; don Felipe de la Torre González, nacido en Juanchorrey y casado con doña María González, que procrearon a Esteban de la Torre González, casado con María Mejía de la Torre, prima hermana del que esto escribe; y Jesús de la Torre González, casado con María Borrego Ortiz; y a Antonio de la Torre González, casado con Ana María Barraza del rancho El Salitrillo.

Don Marcelo de la Torre González, contrajo matrimonio con la señorita Guadalupe Reveles Sánchez y procrearon a Justo de la Torre Reveles, nacido en Kansas City, USA, el 18 de mayo de 1917, casado con Rafael Escobedo; a Filogonio de la Torre Reveles, casado con María de la Torre Sánchez, hija de don Tereso de la Torre Gamboa y su esposa doña Efrén Sánchez González, María nació en Juanchorrey el 15 de noviembre de 1921; a María de la Torre Reveles, nacida en Burton, Kansas, USA, el 29 de marzo de 1920, casada con don Juan de la Torre Robles (padre de los sacerdotes Jesús y Tobías de la Torre), procrearon numerosa familia; y se pueden ver en los árboles genealógicos Robles y De la Torre en este libro; a Manuel de la Torre Reveles, nacido en Kansas City, USA, el 14 de abril de 1930, casado con Maria Concepción Sandoval; a Manuel de la Torre Reveles, nacido en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua el ocho de mayo de 1927 y casado con Ana González; a Juan de la Torre Reveles, nacido en Juanchorrey el 12 de junio de 1932 y casado con Juanita Barrios Gómez; y por último a Timoteo de la Torre Reveles, nacido en Juanchorrey el 14 de enero de 1935, y casado con María de Jesús Correa González.

Sent by Mercy Bautista-Olvera



La historiadora Lilia Eunice Villanueva de Cavazos, esposa del cronista emérito de Monterrey Israel Cavazos, falleció la tarde de ayer por causas naturales.

Jueves, Noviembre 06 de 2008 



Monterrey, NL.- Ardua promotora cultural e investigadora de los temas históricos, nació en Saltillo, Coahuila, pero vivió desde su juventud en esta ciudad, donde cursó sus estudios profesionales en la Escuela Normal “Miguel F. Martínez” y en la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras de la UANL, institución de la cual recibió el título de Licenciada en Letras.

Se distinguió como docente en el antiguo Colegio Civil y en el Colegio Excélsior.

Además fue una gran investigadora, prueba de ello están sus intervenciones en los archivos históricos nacionales y en los de de Sevilla, Simancas, Londres, entre otros.

Su esposo, el cronista Israel Cavazos, la define como una “lectora admirable”, “inteligente viajera” y “de exquisita sensibilidad para la música”.

Algunos de sus títulos son Datos biográficos de… Francisco Beltrán (1962); Leyendas de Nuevo León (1988 y 1997), traducido al inglés (1989); Testamentos coloniales de Monterrey (1991); Familias de Nuevo León, su limpieza de sangre (1993). Le sobrevive un texto inconcluso llamado La mujer en Nuevo León en el siglo XVII.

Los preparativos para su funeral han sido dispuestos por su familia y el velatorio será a partir de esta mañana.

Sent by Manuel Quinones





La Nativitas in Salamanca, Guanajuato
Tiny barrio chapel

It is often in humble places that the most imaginative art and architecture can be found. This is especially true of Mexico, where buildings like La Nativitas often brighten and uplift the dingiest city barrio.

Dedicated to the Nativity of the Virgin, this delightful folk baroque chapel is located in a workaday quarter on the east side of Salamanca, an industrial city in the Bajío region of Guanajuato.

The narrow church front is a study in geometrical baroque style. Bold estípite pilasters rise to support a serrated rounded gable which shelters three statues couched in decorative niches. These comprise the crowned figure of the Virgin in the center flanked by endearingly naive statues of her parents, saints Anne and Joachim.

Carved by native artisans from salmon colored stone, the entire facade is awash in decorative, popular baroque elements, including lambrequins, rosettes, shells, twisting foliage and a variety of ingenious scrollwork, all simply carved in an orderly overall design. No wild flights of fancy here!

An unusual serrated stone cross* surmounts the chapel front, carved with the face, hands and feet of Christ together with several Instruments of the Passion.

Sent by Richard Perry
Exploring Colonial Mexico





Ramon J. Jimenez


For Puerto Ricans she was our Rosa Park and Fannie Lou Hammer, our Mother Jones and our Mother Teresa. She was a warrior, an activist, an educator an organizer while also being a Leader of a powerful community organization. She was a mother for her children and a mother for many of us who were lost children. She understood us, care for us, pushed us to be strong, provided support and contributed in so many ways to the success of many, many people. She was Evelina Antonetty.

There are individuals in our history that deserves volumes written about their lives, accomplishments, people they touched, institutions and organizations they helped built and other experiences. Such was the life of Evelina Antonetty, a Puerto Rican Woman that was one of my mentors, my friend, my second mother and my sister in struggle.

First you must know that Evelina was an exceptional organizer. We all now know the power of community organizers but Evelina was one of the first in East Harlem and the South Bronx.

Her best asset as an organizer was her personality. She was kind, understanding and compassionate. To move people from passivity to activism was her talent. As a person, she was strong and understanding. At the same time, Evelina was compassionate and when necessary, calculating. She was always a real 'peoples' person. Evelina's concerns were for both the cleaning man and the bank president. She treated everyone with dignity and humility.

I first met Evelina during the 1975-1976 Struggle to Keep Hostos Community College open. As a result of a fiscal crisis, the City declared that the only bilingual college in the South Bronx would be closed. We rejected the "Budget realities" and began a massive protest movement.

When we took over the college for 20 days, Evelina and United Bronx Parents were our main supporters. They provided food, volunters and helped with day care. Evelina believed in "creative civil disobedience" and used it often. One of her mentors was Vito Marcantonio from East Harlem

I later participated with Evelina in takeovers of a public library that was slated for closing and a abandoned building which later became "La Escuelita".

As an organizer Evelina understood the importance of food and nutrition. She was instrumental in establishing the Free Lunch program, the school meal program and other nutritional services. These programs also provided jobs for the community. Many young Puerto Rican activist began their employment with United Bronx Parents.

While fighting for these programs she understood the importance of meals as a way of people coming together to discuss strategies and develop alliances. A good plate of rice and beans with pernil often stimulated creative tactics.

One of Evelina's first campaigns was focused on the issue of community control of the Schools. She was a valiant woman in that struggle which actually resulted in Community School Boards(later eliminated). The whole concept of community control in the 60's was a progressive empowering one..

Evelina learned her organizing skills as a young person working with Congressman Vito Marcantonio. She had the ability to communicate with people of all kinds and was very successful in building alliances. She used all kinds of tactics to advocate for her community-from the outrageous to more traditional apprentices. She gained the respect of many City Governments by providing excellent services to the community.

There are so many Evelina stories to tell. I am inviting all my readers to tell me their stories.  

I remember representing a group of tenants in East Harlem who were protesting lack of services. In a dispute with police, I was arrested for "inciting a riot", I was released just before midnight and arrived home very late. There on my answering machine was a message from Evelina and Lolita Lebron. After spending decades in prison for her fight for the independence of Puerto Rico, Lolita Lebron, spent one of her first days of freedom with Evelina
who shared her concerns for my safety and ecnouraged her to call me. Evelina was always there when you needed her. She deserves books, volumes, films, yearly memorials and everything else due to a heroine.

Its time for those thousands who were touched by Evelina to step up to the Plate. Time to let the future generations know who this woman warrior was.

Sent by Dorinda Moreno


Passport offer for Spanish exiles
Spain to help families track Franco-era victims' remains
Mr. Jack Holmes receives the Cruz de Caballero, 1979 
Don Pedro Fernández
de Velasco, II


Passport offer for Spanish exiles
Descendants of people who fled Spain during the country's 
civil war are to be allowed to apply for citizenship.

The decision will allow an estimated 500,000 children and grandchildren of civil war-era exiles to seek to return.  That number is believed to include 300,000 people in Argentina alone, Spain's government says.

The measure is part of new legislation passed last year that aims to compensate and rehabilitate victims of Spain's 1936-1939 civil war.  An estimated 500,000 people died in the civil war, which left Spain as a dictatorship under the rule of the Fascist General Francisco Franco.

Old wounds

Descendants of Spaniards who left the country for fear of political persecution or economic hardship between 1936 and 1955 will now be able to apply for nationality before 2011.

Spain's government has said those who accept any offer of citizenship would not be required to give up their current passports.

Thousands of Spaniards fled their home country during the war, which saw the Nationalists defeat the Republican armies.  An estimated 500,000 people died in the conflict, which divided Spain sharply along ideological lines.

The country only began a transition to democracy after the death of Gen Franco in 1975. As part of the new law, the current Socialist government will now be allowed to embark on an effort to remove Franco-era symbols and rename roads, avenues and squares.

Passing the law of restitution - of which the citizenship offer forms a part - was controversial in Spain, where opposition conservatives complained the legislation reopened old wounds.

Elderly former members of the International Brigades, the collection of anti-fascists who travelled to Spain to fight Gen Franco's forces, will also be eligible for citizenship under the new law. Previously members of the International Brigades would have been required to give up their other nationality to accept a Spanish passport, the Associated Press reported.
Sent by


Spain to help families track Franco-era victims' remains 
MADRID (AFP, Nov 19, 2008) – Spain on Wednesday promised to help families of victims who disappeared during the 1936-39 civil war and the ensuing dictatorship of General Francisco Franco to track their remains.

The government will "help families seeking (the bodies) all possible help they may need," said Justice Minister Mariano Fernandez Berjemo, a day after a top Spanish judge reversed his decision to probe possible crimes against humanity committed during that period.

Judge Baltasar Garzon on Tuesday said the enquiry could not go ahead as Franco and 43 of his associates could not be held legally responsible because they were dead.

He complied with a demand by public prosecutors that regional courts be handed responsibility for the excavation of mass graves thought to contain the bodies of thousands of people who disappeared during the period.

Interior Minister Alfredo Perez Rubalcaba on Wednesday underlined the state's commitment to help families of victims in their quest and spoke of "the pain of people who have not been able to bury their loved ones."

Garzon, Spain's most prominent judge, had announced on October 16 he would investigate the disappearances of 114,266 people at the request of families of the victims.
But the public prosecutor's office appealed the move, arguing it violated an amnesty agreed by political parties in 1977, two years after Franco's death, for crimes committed under the general's rule.

Garzon had last month ordered the opening of 19 mass graves, including one near the southern city of Granada where Spain's most widely acclaimed 20th century poet, Federico Garcia Lorca, is thought to be buried. He ordered four more mass graves be opened this month.

Dozens of mass graves have been unearthed in recent years but the exhumations have been organised by relatives of the victims and volunteers.
Historians have estimated that about 500,000 people from both sides were killed in Spain's civil war, which was sparked by Franco's insurgency against the democratically elected left-wing Republican government. 
Sent by Jaime Cader




Dear Mimi:

    Attached is "Sir Jack"´s entry in 1979 in the Order of Isabel la Católica. I saw it in his "Honor and Fidelity" book. Mercedes Palau of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Jose Luis Catalines of the Fundación Mapfre are organizing a presentation so when it does come out, I would send it on to you. Things are moving a bit slow these days in Spain. We keep up pretty well on what is going on in your side of the Atlantic.

    Next Thursday, 23rd, we are invited to the Ministry´s Escuela Diplomática for the presentation of the volume on a conference in July 2006 on Spain and the US in 18th century. Gil Din was there. My paper was on "La bella criolla Felicitas de Saint Maxent, viuda de Bernardo de Gálvez, en España. It was sponsored by the Fundación Consejo España-EE.UU. The president will be there, José Ignacio Goirigolzarri. Who is also presdient of the Basque bank, continuing) BBVA, who has been buinh up banks in the US, China, etc. My son put in a new printer and am getting initiated. 

Best regards, Eric (Beerman)


Don Pedro Fernández de Velasco, II 

Don Pedro Fernández de Velasco, II conde de Haro, señor de la villa de Frías y de otros

lugares, fue el I Condestable de Castilla desde 1472  (hijo de Pedro Fernández de

Velasco y Solier, conde de Haro, desde 1430, y de Beatriz de Treviño o Beatriz Manrique de Lara, Contessa de Trevino y el marido de Mencía de Mendoza (hija de Iñigo de Mendoza, I marqués de Santillana, y de Catalina Suárez de Figueroa.) Heredó Bernardino de Velasco (*1454 -+ 9.II.1512), I duque de Frías. Casó con Blanca de Herrera, señora de Pedraza de la Sierra, y en segundas nupcias con Juana de Aragón. María de Velasco, hermana de Bernardino, casó en 1472 con Juan Pacheco (+1474), I marqués de Villena, I duque de Escalona, etc. y en 1482, con Beltrán de la Cueva (+1492), I duque de Alburquerque46. Hernando de Velasco y Solier (hijo segundogénito de Juan de Velasco y de María de Solier, señora de Salinas del Río Pisuerga), casó en 1426 con Leonor de Carrillo y Mendoza Laso de la Vega, señora de Cervera y de Pernia, fundadora de los mayorazgos de Salinas y Siruela. Su bisnieto, Pedro de Velasco y Carrillo de Mendoza, señor de Salinas de Río Pisuerga y de las Casas de Carrión, enlazó con Isabel Manrique y Enríquez de Ribera (hija de Juan Fernández Manrique, II conde de Castañeda, señor de Aguilar [de Campoó] y de Catalina Enríquez de Ribera.) 47


El libro, Historia Genealogica de las familias mas Antiguas de Mexico por Ricardo Ortega y Perez Gallardo dice que Diego Tremino de Velasco era el hijo ilegitimo de

El trecer Conde the Haro Francisco Fernandez de Velasco y Maria de Enrique Sarmiento.


Diego tomo el apellido “de Trevino”, por los senores de Trevino y de su abuela, La Contessa de Trevino. Este Diego se caso con Dona Francisca Alcocer.


En realmente, el trecer Conde de Haro era el primer Duque de Frias y III Conde de Haro. Este Duque Berdadino Fernandez de Velasco se caso 1) Blanca de Herrera, y con 2) Dona Juana Maria Angela de Aragon, la hija ilegitima de Fernando II el Catolico, Rey de Aragon y Dona Aldonza Ruiz de Iborre y Alemany.


Ademas, este Duque tuvo various hijos ilegitimos.

Research by John Inclan




The Other Less Known Pilgrims
The European Voyages of Exploration: The Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries 

The other less known Pilgrims


498 Years ago on November 25, 1510, a Basque Capitan Lope de Olano discovered and named Santa Catalina in the West Caribbean sea, midway from Panama to Cuba. Shortly thereafter, he and his crew landed in another island he baptized Providencia to thanks God for preserving their lives in the storm.

The two are separated by a narrow channel named after Commodore Luis Aury. This information was obtained by a book published in Bogotá in 1888.  It is very likely than on November 30, 1510  the third island was found and named in honor to the saint of that day: San Andres. The islands were shown for the first time in a Map of the world drawn
by Diego de Rivera in 1529. In 1530 the Archipelago was claimed by the Spanish Crown.

In 1620 Santa Catalina was rediscovered by Diego de Mercado and Simon Zacarias. A letter to the King of Spain was written and a map enclosed. These sailors were informing than English sailors have left hogs and hens to reproduce in the island.  They were concerned that the British would start colonizing the place.   In fact some time latter in 1660  Edward Manning an English Pirate, established his headquarters in Santa Catalina.  After his death, Henry Morgan became the head of the privateers.  From this base he sailed to Panama, crossed the istm and raced Panama City.

An outstanding figure was Morgan's surgeon: Alexander Oliver Exquemelin, a French man who wrote in the Dutch language "De Americaenche Zee Roovers" published in Amsterdam in 1678.

In  1735 Pilgrims  from London sailed to Santa Catalina in the Seaflower, a sister ship of the well known Mayflower. They were sent to colonize the islands by the Company of Adventurers  of Providence, sponsored by William Pitt and Crownwell.  The Puritans established themselves in the islands for ten years.  Under the command of Captain
Samuel Axe, they built Fort Warwick to protect their homes.  At the end of this time the  Spanish Armada under Admiral Francisco Diaz Pimienta, rooted them out and sent them back to England.

Islanders wrote to the King of Spain in 1802 requesting to be assigned to the Viceroy of Nueva Granada they preferred to Guatemala.  The King granted the wish in 1903.

Commodore Luis Aury establish himself, his sailors and his ships in Santa Catalina around 1818.  They rebuilt the old fort and renamed Liberty.  They also build houses and a Hospital. Aury died from a horse accident.  After Colombia won Independence from Spain, the people of the Islands joined the new country and raised the Colombian flag in 1822.

Around 1912 The Starlight newspaper was started by Francis Newball, an attorney that campaigned to change the territorial dependence from Cartagena to their own mandate.  A Law  from the Colombian Parliament established the archipelago as "Intendencia".  Mr. Newball was the first appointed Intendent born in the Islands.

The San Andres, Providence and Santa Catalina people have a high degree of education. Literacy is the highest in Colombia and most inhabitants are bilingual, speaking English and Spanish.  Technical schools and a University are providing for higher education.

A treaty between Colombia and Nicaragua signed in 1929 conceded the Mosquitos Shore to Nicaragua and fixed the sea limits in Longitud 82*W. Nicaragua claimed soberany over the islands  at the International Court of The Hague.  This was denied in 2007.

In 1953 Gustavo Rojas Pinilla was the first President of Colombia to visit the islands.  His administration signed a law to declare the archipelago a Duty Free zone.  After that, merchants from the Caribbean shore of Colombia were attracted to start new stores.
Under the Government of Simon Gonzalez, electric plants, water desalinization and control of waste was started.   In 1991 a new Constitution of the Republic of Colombia was enacted and San Andres, Providence and Santa Catalina became a Department.

The natural beauty of the islands became an attraction for tourists.  The surrounding reefs are a paradise for diving and sailing.   Fishing  is common and the islanders are excellent sailors.  Voluntaries from  the Islands started the Colombian Navy in 1932.   From 1853 to 1953 the basis of economy were coconut export: around ten million nuts were exported a year.  Plans to return to production of biodisel from coconout oil and jatropha will free the islands from importation of fossil combustibles. Solar and Wind energy are to be implemented.

New hotels and a new Hospital  were built and people from Colombia came to the islands. Hyperbaric chambers are available in case of diving accidents.   Possibility of a new airline connection with Miami, will increase the flow of tourists.

Celebration of the 500th anniversary of the discovery in November 25-30, 2010 will mark of the highlights of the history with special programs to be organized for the occasion.

Dr. Jaime G. Gomez, MD
148 Newcastle dr
Jupiter, Florida, 33458, USA

European Voyages of Exploration: Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries

The modern world exists in a state of cultural, political, and economic globalisation. During the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries two nations, Portugal and Spain, pioneered the European discovery of sea routes that were the first channels of interaction between all of the world's continents, thus beginning the process of globalisation in which we all live today. This tutorial introduces the student to these two pioneering nations, their motivations, their actions, and the inevitable consequences of their colonisation. This tutorial also examines the geographical, technological, economic, political, and cultural patterns of that era.


Introduction to Portugal

The Age of Exploration marked the apogee of Portuguese imperial power and wealth. At the beginning of the fifteenth century Portugal had a population of one and a quarter million and an economy dependent on maritime trade with Northern Europe. Although Portugal lacked the wealth and population of its contemporaries, it would lead the European community in the exploration of sea routes to the African continent, the Atlantic Islands, and to Asia and South America over the course of the sixteenth century. Several factors contributed to Portugal becoming the pre-eminent European pioneer in maritime exploration. 

The first was its geographical position along the west coast of the Iberian Peninsula, which allowed for the natural development of a seafaring tradition. 

The second was the evolution of a complex maritime economy in which the port cities of Lisbon and Oporto became the commercial centres of the country. The merchant community used these port cities as their base of operations from which they financed the majority of the various exploration and trading ventures.

Sent by Alfonso Rodriguez


El Nombre de America
Verdad o Leyenda
Isla Aracena



Desde pequeño recuerdo que los profesores nos decían que el nombre de América era por Amerigo Vespucci, pero curiosamente pocos profesores nos explicaban el porqué, solo decían que fue una confusión.. Hace poco y leyendo unos datos sobre el piloto italiano, he encontrado lo que al parecer fue el origen de todo.

El cartógrafo alemán Martin Waldseemüller  tuvo noticias de que Amerigo Vespucci mantenía el criterio que las tierras descubiertas por Cristóbal Colón eran un Continente distinto de las Indias Occidentales, como se había pensado hasta entonces en Europa, y al imprimir un mapa del mundo que contenía datos geográficos revelados por el piloto italiano, dio como nombre a lo descubierto; América, en honor del insigne marino, mientras que aquí la seguíamos llamando Indias.

¿Pero quien era Amerigo Vespucci ¿. Habia nacido en Florencia el 9 de marzo de 1451 y era hijo de Anastasio Vespucci y de Isabel Mini. Vino a Sevilla para trabajar con su paisano Juanoto Berardi, hasta que este murió.

Ya en 1499 acompañó como piloto a Alonso de Ojeda en la primera expedición que hizo para descubrir nuevas tierras y después marchó a Portugal navegando con los portugueses, hasta que lo llamó el rey Fernando para una reunión que tuvieron en Toro, ya que el monarca quería enterarse, de primera mano,  de los proyectos que tenían en la nación vecina, entrevista que fue muy productiva, ya que fue  premiado por sus servicios y los que le prestara a la Corona en el futuro,  con la naturalización española el 25 de abril de 1505.

Al poco tiempo, en unión de Vicente Yáñez Pinzón fue encargado en preparar una armada para ir a la Epicería , que se vio frustrada por las reclamaciones del Rey de Portugal.

Fue nombrado por el Rey, piloto mayor, cargo que se cree no llegó a ejercerlo en el mar, porque desde 1505 no volvió a embarcarse.  Estuvo casado con Maria Cerezo, de cuyo matrimonio no se le conocen hijos.

El 22 de febrero de 1512, murió en Sevilla, sucediéndole en el cargo de piloto, el lepero Juan Díaz de Solís.

Y esta es la historia de cómo una errónea interpretación, no sabemos si con intención o sin ella, se le dio al Nuevo Continente el nombre de América.

                                      Custodio Rebollo  

Publicado en ODIEL INFORMACION; Huelva, España, el 25 de noviembre de 2008


Verdad o leyenda

A todos los que investigan, desde hace siglos, los años anteriores a la aventura de Cristóbal Colon, hay un nombre que siempre les crea discordancia y ese es el de Alonso Sánchez de Huelva.

La leyenda o la historia dice que, Alonso Sánchez era un piloto de Huelva, que en un viaje hacia Inglaterra, fue arrebatado por un temporal y después de unos dos meses, cuando dejó su nave de ser un juguete para el mar, llegó a una isla en unión de varios marineros, la mayoría también procedentes de tierras onubenses. Con el cargamento que llevaban a Inglaterra y lo que consiguieron entre los nativos que le proporcionaron una buena acogida,  lograron sobrevivir y emprender el viaje de vuelta con el que arribaron a la Isla de la Gomera.

Hasta aquí todo es uniforme, pero cuando se dice que llegaron a La Gomera , cada investigador se inclina por un destino y hay quien dice que fue a la Isla de Madeira, y allí es donde conoció a Colon, aunque otros creen que fueron a parar  a Cabo Verde.

Creo que los pocos tripulantes que llegaron con vida después de aquella tremenda aventura, entre los que se citan a Juan Bermúdez, Pero Francés, Francisco Niño, Pedro Fernández , Pedro de Ledesma,  Mateos y Juan de Umbría, llegaron exhaustos, desnutridos y casi todos con fiebres por el estado de los alimentos que habían consumido.

La primera alusión a que Alonso Sánchez de Huelva  informó a Colón de su descubrimiento, la hizo Juan López de Velasco en 1547 y mas tarde el Padre Acosta menciona al piloto, pero sin conocer su nombre, por lo que creo que ya empieza a circular la noticia como leyenda y todos los historiadores opinan sobre ello.

Fernández de Oviedo, López de Gómara, Baldomero de Lorenzo, Fray Bernardino de Ramos, y otros muchos, hablan de este hombre, unos creyendo su existencia y otros poniéndolo en duda, incluso como el Padre Gumilla, que dice que no era de Huelva, pero si de Vizcaya.

Y fue la mención que hizo el Inca Garcilaso de la Vega , quien manifestó en sus “Comentarios reales de los Incas”,  que había escuchado en su casa hablar del mencionado Alonso Sánchez de Huelva, lo que dio mas fuerza a la verosimilitud de este enigma.

                                               Custodio Rebollo  

Publicado en ODIEL INFORMACION, Huelva el 18 noviembre del 2008






Todo empezó cuando mi amigo Alberto me preguntó si yo conocía que había una isla en la zona del estrecho de Magallanes, que se llamaba “Aracena”.

Como todo lo que “ huela” a vestigios de nuestra presencia en América siempre  nos interesa, emprendí la tarea de investigar lo máximo posible sobre ello, y esto es lo que he podido averiguar sobre esta isla y, como es lógico, sobre el apellido Aracena, para intentar localizar alguien que pudiera ser el introductor/a en aquella zona.

La isla que pertenece a Chile, se llama *Isla Capitán Aracena*, y se denomina así en honor del capitán de aviación Diego Aracena, que en agosto de 1922,  en un avión “De Havilland”  bautizado con el nombre de “El Ferroviario”, en un vuelo por etapas que duró cerca de dos semanas,  unió Chile y Brasil, algo que fue considerado una gran hazaña para aquella época.

El objeto del vuelo era llevar al primer mandatario brasileño los saludos del presidente chileno con motivo del Centenario de la Republica Brasileña

Desde entonces el Capitán Aracena fue escalando puestos en su carrera militar hasta llegar a general de aviación, retirándose del servicio  en 1939, yéndose a vivir a Santiago con su esposa e hijos, donde falleció el 2 de mayo de 1972.

La Isla Capitán Aracena se encuentra en un archipiélago al sur de la Patagonia , tiene un área de 1164 kilómetros cuadrados  y su punto mas alto es el Monte Vernal con 1158 metros . En la actualidad hay piscifactorías para cultivo del salmón..

Toda esta historia me hizo pensar como había llegado allí el apellido Aracena, pero en lo encontrado en los archivos no me aclara nada, y puede que llegase de alguna persona oriunda  de Aracena que fuera a Perú o a Río de la Plata y adoptase el nombre de su ciudad natal como apellido, algo muy normal en aquellos tiempos.

En mi deseo de localizar ahora algún residente en la provincia de Huelva que tenga el apellido Aracena, me encuentro que de los 323 que hay en España, no hay ninguno registrado aquí y donde mas abunda este apellido es en Málaga que hay 97 personas que lo tienen. También los hay en Alicante, Cádiz, Barcelona, Córdoba, Lérida, Madrid, Las Palmas y Tenerife.

                                       Custodio  Rebollo

Odiel Informacion el 5 de noviembre del 2008



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30 Million More Records Added to Record Search Pilot

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