Somos Primos

September 2006 
Editor: Mimi Lozano

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues

Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research
Celebrating 20th Anniversary 


Cake by Tammy Ravsten, friend of SHHAR,
Organization website:
Click for article


Content Areas
United States
. . . 3
Anti-Spanish Legends. . . 37 
Military & Law Enforcement Heroes
. . . 41
. . . 49 
Surname. . . 62

Spanish Sons of American Revolution
. . . 64
Orange County, CA. . . 71
Los Angeles, CA
. . . 80
California. . . 93
Northwestern United States
. . . 114
Southwestern United States
. . . 120
Black . . . 131
Indigenous. . . 137


Sephardic . . . 144
. . . 147
East of the Mississippi . . . 164
East Coast
. . . 168
. . . 170
. . . 183
. . . 186
. . . 190
. . . 193
Family History 
. . . 200
END . . . 203                    

"History is a myth that men agree to believe"...Napoleon Bonapart

  Letters to the Editor : 

Dear Mimi,
Thank you for including me in your emails. I look forward to them. I navigate though the waters of Anglo-Saxons, French, Italians, Russians and it is great to have this life line to my cultural and historical origins. Where and how do I get a Litho of the Marine in Saipan?
Michael Valencia
USMC Viet-nam Vet

Wow, Mimi, what ongoing, updated, and valuable service you are providing
with the monthly somosprimos notices. Gracias!
George Aguirre

Hi Mimi, I really love the wide assortment of articles in Somos Primos.  You do a  great job of putting it all together.  I think that you have a unique niche of providing Latinos with a place to learn about our heritage 
and also a place to keep up to date on current events.  Somos Primos is a treasure.  Keep up the good work.  I have enclosed some pictures of my stay in San 
Antonio.  The pictures are of Kathy and me at Six Flags Fiesta ,Texas.

Love, Mike Lozano



Comment on August issue of Somos Primos, Jose writes: As usual, it is replete with information. Thanks Mimi for continuing to do a fantastic job.
Jose M. Pena JMPENA

Estimada Sra. Lozano, Le envío mi colaboración que espero cumpla con los criterios editoriales de "Somos Primos." Estoy interesado en colaborar con ustedes siempre que me sea posible.  Cordialmente,

Publicaciones genealógicas en Nicaragua
Por José Mejía Lacayo
Click to information on his books.

Gracias Mimí por tu oportuna y continua información. Quiera Dios que tus aportaciones sean recompenzadas y multiplicadas.

Sinceramente, Anacleto Villarreal

Dear Mimi, Thanks for your wonderful work on Somos Primos. Carlos

Dr. Carlos E. Cortes
Professor Emeritus, Department of History
University of California, Riverside

   Somos Primos Staff:   
Mimi Lozano, Editor
Tammy Boyce, Data Entry

Johanna De Soto
Lila Guzman
Granville Hough
John Inclan
Galal Kernahan
Alex Loya
J.V. Martinez
Armando Montes
Michael Perez
Ángel Custodio Rebollo
John P. Schmal
Howard Shorr

  Contributors to issue:  
George Aguirre
Dan Arellano 
Dr. Armando Ayala 
Mary Triplett Ayers 
Michael L. Barrera
Christopher Bentley
Eva Booher 
Ellen N. Burmeister
Javier Bustamante
Jaime Cader
Gloria Candelaria 
Bill Carmena 
Robin Collins
Dr. Carlos E. Cortes
Janet Cronick
Johanna De Soto 
Sam Espino-Giordano
Richard Esquivel 
Jay Farias 
Lorraine Frain
Leo Garcia
Gloria Golden 
Eddie Grijalva
Michael Hardwick 
Walter L. Herbeck Jr. 
Gabriela Hernandez
Lorraine Hernandez 
Saul Hernandez
Serg Hernandez 
Steven Hernandez
Monica Herrera Smith 
Granville Hough, Ph.D.
John Inclan 
Chavez Jennings-McMillan, 
Karen Jepson
Nellie Kaniski 
Susanna Kirchberg de Alvarado
Larry Kirkpatrick 
José Mejía Lacayo 
Cindy LoBuglio
Mike Lozano
Henry Marquez Loza
L.D. Maxey
Dorinda Moreno
Paul Newfield III
Rafael Ojeda 
Mercy Bautista Olvera 
Jaime Pacheco
Mira Palacio Smithwick 
Elsa Pena Herbeck 
Jose M. Pena
Ignacio Pena
Joseph Puentes
Juan Ramos, Ph.D
Tammy Ravsten
LeRoy Anthony Reaza
Ängel Custodio Rebollo.
David Reyes Jr 
Jane Reifer
Tina Reyes
Tim Rivera
Temo Rocha 
Rudi R. Rodriguez
Sheila Ruiz Harrell 
Charles Sadler
Viola Sadler
Lupe Saldana
Howard Shorr 
Jack Simpson 
Tony Santiago 
Oscar Santoyo 
John P. Schmal
Michael V. Sedan
Marian Sheppard
Frank Sifuentes 
Bob Smith
Lisa Tarrant
Jose Torres Tama 
Cath Trindle 
Michael Valencia
Ricardo Valverde 
Janete Vargas
Anacleto Villarreal
Juan D. Villarreal 
Ted Vincent 
Victor Walsh 
Arturo Ynclan
SHHAR Board:  Bea Armenta Dever, Gloria Cortinas Oliver, Steven Hernandez,  Mimi Lozano Holtzman, Pat Lozano, Magdaleno, Henry Marquez, Yolanda Ochoa Hussey, Michael Perez, Crispin Rendon, Viola Rodriguez Sadler, John P. Schmal



National issues
Rosa Rosales, New  LULAC National Director attends California Meeting
Unquiet Minority: Hispanic Under-Representation in Federal Government
Employment Accountability of Numerous Federal Agencies Needed
Race Categories to Change on 2010 Census Form
Renters no more, More undocumented immigrants are able to buy homes
Mexican Government Creates Special Program to Help Undocumented
         Workers Buy Homes Back Home 

Cities make quiet plea for tolerance
Aliens rely on DNA to keep family together
Minority population surging in Texas
U.S. Census--Ethnic Transformation in the 50 States
Illegals From Terror-Sponsoring Nations At Large in US
Civil Rights Icon Albert A. Pena Jr. Dies at 89 
Where is the 2006 version of Dr. Hector?
Martyred Priests, Their Journey to Orange County, California

Action Item
Resources and ideas for Hispanic Heritage Month
Guy Gabaldon lithograph free (postage required)

Hispanic Scholarship Fund
Placentia woman schooled her children well
A Doctor from Mexicali
Listen to John Phillips Santos
Few Hispanic Teachers to fulfill need
Omaha school district to split along racial line- black, white, Hispanic 
Hispanic centers lose key funding
Orange County First "Early-College" high school opens
Pittsburg Proposal, ILConcepts

Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research Celebrate 20th
Family Health History Tool in Spanish
Tortilla Art

Bésame Cosmetics Inc.


National Issues

LULAC new national president, Rosa Rosales, 
is the  second woman to hold that title in LULAC’s 77th history

“I am elated at being elected the new President of LULAC and I am ready to work with all groups to take LULAC to the next 
level of activism. I want to thank LULAC and all the past Presidents for all the work they have done. I want to thank all of the volunteers because that is what LULAC is all about. What makes LULAC so special is because not only do the volunteers work for free, but pay dues,” said Rosa Rosales, past Vice President of the Southwest and the newly elected LULAC National President. 
Rosa Rosales stands next to the lithograph 
                                                                               Pied Piper of Saipan, Guy Gabaldon

Born April 7, 1944, in San Antonio, Texas, Ms. Rosales was among the first Mexican American women to become labor organizers in recent times. Active in LULAC, she was the first woman to hold the position of State Director of that organization. She received her B.A. in Liberal Arts from the University of Michigan. Rosa was recently on the National LULAC Board of Directors holding the position of National Vice President of the Southwest. 

The League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) is the oldest and largest Latino civil rights organization in the United States.  LULAC advances the economic condition, educational attainment, political influence, health, and civil rights of Hispanic Americans through community-based programs operating at more than 700 LULAC councils nationwide.  

Source of information: Convention Press release, July 1, 2006
Contact: Lizette Jenness Olmos  (202) 365-4553

Editor: I attended the California State LULAC Board Meeting, August 26th. I was especially pleased to be able to join the small luncheon party and hear more of the vision that Rosa Rosales has for LULAC.  The focus, as Rosa said "is simply education, education, education,"  and she added "also raising leaders."  During the general meeting, she mentioned the greater need now, then ever, with the increasing numbers of Spanish heritage individuals changing the demographics of the U.S.  
I was surely impressed with the enthusiasm and dedication of those in attendance. I sat next to Alex Maldonado, one of the founders of the first LULAC chapter organized in Orange County, in 1947.  

I also enjoyed seeing young people in attendance. The State has a Deputy Director of Youth and a Deputy Director of Young Adults. Two Council members brought their daughters, and young adults were seated within the circle.  
Benny Diaz, state treasurer addresses funds for youth programs.

Data of interest:      1973:  22 percentage of minorities in U.S. public schools
                           2004: 43%  

Extract: Unquiet Minority: Hispanic Under-Representation in the Federal Government Official's Statement Dismays Hispanic Advocacy Groups  August 8, 2006 
by Michael Todd

Three Hispanic advocacy groups have attacked statements by a federal attorney that they feel depict efforts to improve diversity in the federal workforce as "handouts."

In an Aug. 1 article in titled "Unquiet Minority," Antonio San Martin Jr., an attorney at the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) whose duties include coordinating relationships with Hispanic advocacy groups, said, "I can't show up to a conference with 50 jobs in my pocket and give them out to the people there as door prizes,"

Three groups, the Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund, the Puerto Rican Legal Defense and Education Fund and the national Hispanic Bar Association today denounced the "door prize" portion of his statement.

"The OPM statement that falsely compares Latino demands for fair federal employment policies to 'handouts' is outrageous," says John Trasvia, MALDEF's interim president and general counsel. He went on to slam OPM's efforts in hiring Hispanics in general. "OPM has failed to make any inroads in effective recruitment, hiring, and retention of Latinos by the federal government."

The GovExec article cites OPM figures that show while 12.6 percent of the general workforce is Hispanic, 7.4 percent of the federal workforce is Hispanic and that drops to 3.5 percent for senior level personnel.

"The NHLA report on Hispanic under representation in the federal government serves as a wake-up call to OPM to begin exercising its legally-mandated obligations," stated Nelson A. Castillo, HNBA National President. "The recent comments of OPM’s legal counsel are disturbing and cast serious doubt upon OPM’s commitment to a diverse workforce. The HNBA has reached out in the past to the Federal government to create a partnership designed to implement a strategic Hispanic outreach, recruitment and retention plan, to no avail. Instead, various agencies and OPM have cobbled together a patchwork of efforts, if any, many of which are demonstrably ineffective. The foregoing has been done without anything but the most limited lip service to the goal of providing equal access and equal opportunity to the Hispanic community when hiring determinations are made."

"The notion that Hispanics are looking for federal jobs as ‘door prizes’ as suggested by counsel for OPM underscores a source of Hispanic under representation in the Federal government – an unwillingness to accurately identify the systemic and institutional barriers to Hispanic representation in the Federal government and implement an effective plan to remove them," stated Cesar A. Perales, PRLDEF President and General Counsel. "We must hold OPM accountable for its failure to expend any meaningful efforts to identify and remove barriers at OPM itself and provide guidance to other agencies to do the same."

Sent by Juan Ramos, Ph.D.


Employment Accountability of Numerous Federal Agencies Needed 

Dear Manny:

Congratulations for taking the lead on behalf of the National Hispanic Leadership Agenda (NHLA) and writing the NHLA's report to Congress on the under-representation of Hispanics in the Federal government. You have been a true champion on this issue for many years. 

I am disappointed however, that the NHLA continues to blame the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) for the under-representation of Hispanics in the Federal government. The main focus of this fight, I believe, should be on the Federal Government organizations in specific, including the Departments of Health and Human Services, Education, Defense,
Veteran Affairs, Labor and others whose dismal employment profile of Hispanics are well documented in the report. 

OPM is a small Federal agency with a mere 400 or so employees and limited resources to effectively monitor and evaluate over 160 Federal organizations, and hold them accountable for their performance on hiring Hispanics. Furthermore, OPM, an independent agency, has absolutely no authority to dictate to Federal Departments and Agencies on their hiring plans and practices. Indeed, OPM has the responsibility to provide certain
guidance and recommendations to these organizations on their hiring practices, including the preparation of federal workforce and minority recruitment reports, and the Annual Report to the President on Hispanic Employment in the Federal government. If OPM is to be blamed for an injustice, it should be blamed for reporting inaccurate data and
exaggerating the reports on Federal Equal Opportunity and Hispanic Employment. This is not a new practice in Washington, DC., however. Many reports prepared for the President, Congress and others are conveniently written to please the recipient? 

The comment by Janet Murguia, President of the National Council of La Raza that, "the report blamed OPM rather than individual agencies for the continuing disparity because its a place to start, and that at least one agency is being held accountable", demonstrates the lack of knowledge many Hispanic leaders have about how Federal government organizations recruit their employees. The issue of Hispanic under-representation in the Federal government has been around for over forty years, therefore, there is plenty of information on Hispanic Federal employment, as evident in the report, to rightfully place the blame on Federal agencies with dismal Hispanic employment profiles. Instead of starting with OPM, the Hispanic leadership should start with HHS, ED, DOD, DOC, DOT, DVA, and many Federal organizations that employ nearly 3 million Federal employees, and hold them accountable for their performance. 

I am also dismayed that the NHBA, MALDEF, and the PRLDEF put so much time and effort to complain to the Director of OPM, Ms. Linda Springer, about a statement made to the press by a Hispanic employee of the Office of General Counsel, Mr. Antonio San Martin, Jr. Mr. San Martin is only one Hispanic Federal employee, who like other Hispanics in the Federal government, have very little influence and impact on Hispanic employment. I
would prefer that these influential legal Hispanic organizations, NHBA, MALDEF, and the PRLDEF, write similar letters to the President, Secretaries and Administrators of major Departments and Agencies to express the Hispanic community's concern on this issue, and to consider filing legal class action against these organizations for their noncompliance and discrimination practices. 

Finally, Ron Blackburn-Moreno, the current Chair of the NHLA, indicated to me and others after a meeting of the NHLA Government Accountability Members and Hispanic Federal Executives on February 8, 2006, that the strategy to address the under-representation of Hispanics in the Federal government would include visits with heads of key Departments and Agencies. I hope the members of the NHLA support this strategy. This initiative, I believe, would be the most effective course of action to pursue now and through the general elections on November 4, 2008. 

Please call or e-mail me if you have any questions.

Lupe Saldana
Former 42-year career Federal employee and
Former National Commander of the American GI Forum

Race Categories to Change on 2010 Census Form
By Tyler Lewis April 12, 2006
Sent by Rafael Ojeda 

How you identify your race on the Census form could change in 2010. 
The United States Commission on Civil Rights (USCCR) held a hearing on April 7 to discuss the effectiveness of the current race categories used in the form. The hearing was held to help the Census Bureau with the development of questions that will appear on the 2010 Census. 

Respondents to the 2000 Census form had the choice of five race categories: White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; and Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander. A separate question on Hispanic origin preceded the race question. 

In order to obtain data that represents more accurately how Americans see themselves respondents were allowed to check multiple boxes on the 2000 Census. 

However, the 2000 Census questions did not adequately represent America and presented problems for government agencies that use the data, according to experts at the USCCR hearing. "The present classification, however, is so beset with ambiguities that it risks failing the nation as we grope toward coherent policies for the 21st century," said Kenneth Prewitt, Carnegie Professor of Public Affairs at Columbia University and former director of the Census Bureau. 

Experts say that the Census is not meant to be a vehicle for self-expression, but a tool for government agencies. "No question is on the Census that does not have a programmatic purpose," said Prewitt. "The primary purpose [of the collecting racial statistics] is to inform the government and the society if there are population groups that continue to suffer from past discrimination, or are today being discriminated against..." 

Another problem that emerged from the 2000 Census was the addition of the "Some other race" category, which experts say is not a race at all. The category was included as a way to decrease the number of non-responses to race questions, particularly by Hispanics who don't identify with any of the five major race categories. 

After the 2000 Census, the "Some other race" category was the third largest race group in the United States, according to Charles Louis Kincannon, current director of the Census Bureau. However,  97% of those who identified as "Some other race" were Hispanic. 

Prewitt suggested eliminating the "flawed" distinction between race and ethnicity by adding "Hispanic" to the main list of racial categories as a way to diminish the likelihood of non-response rates from Hispanics. He said that this option would eliminate the need for the "Some other race" category. 

While it is too late to eliminate the "Some other race" category from the 2010 Census, experts agreed that it has no real function since most federal programs do not include it in their race classification. 

Extract: Renters no more, More undocumented immigrants are able to buy homes
Copyright 2006 Houston Chronicle, Aug. 4, 2006, 2:39PM
Although they are undocumented immigrants, Mexican couple Jorge and Maribel were able to purchase their Houston home. 

Carlos Javier Sanchez: For the Chronicle

Despite being in the U.S. illegally, undocumented immigrants can legally buy a house.
Certain lenders don't ask for immigration papers. And buyers using a special tax ID often don't need a lengthy credit history.  That has allowed many undocumented workers to realize the American Dream, experts said, while contributing to an upturn in the real estate market.

For Jorge and Maribel, a couple from Mexico who have lived illegally in Houston since 1996, an Individual Tax Identification Number, known as an ITIN, and a Texas driver's license were enough to secure their mortgage, allowing them to purchase a home in 2002.

To complete the purchase, they don't need a Social Security number. An ITIN, their last two yearly tax returns, an official ID such as a consular registration card and a few credit references, such as electricity and telephone bills, are enough to apply for a mortgage and buy a home, according to experts.

"Residency has never been a condition to purchase a home," said Frances Martinez Myers, president of the National Association of Hispanic Real Estate Professionals, which is based in Washington, D.C.  "Being in the country legally or not is not an issue when you are buying a house."

"It is not illegal for an undocumented immigrant to buy a house. What is illegal is to do so using a false Social Security number," Houston immigration lawyer José Vega warned.
Although real estate deals involving non-U.S. residents have been going on for a while, Myers said that banks have only recently begun processing mortgages with ITIN numbers.

The Internal Revenue Service started issuing ITIN numbers in 1996 to enable people without Social Security numbers, including nonresident investors and illegal immigrants, to pay U.S. taxes, according to agency spokesperson Irma Trevino. The IRS has issued 9 million ITIN numbers.

For illegal immigrants, however, buying a home can carry risks. The biggest, said Houston real estate consultant Óscar González, of González Group, is deportation. If homeowners are forced to leave the country, they might be unable to afford payments and, therefore, could lose their home, Myers said.

Fraud is another risk. Paco Felici, spokesman for the Texas Attorney General's Office, said a Dallas operation that was selling homes to Hispanics without giving them property titles was busted in June.

Another caveat for undocumented buyers: Financial institutions tend to charge illegal immigrants higher interest rates — sometimes several points higher — than other borrowers.

As for banks and lending institutions that grant ITIN loans, the risk is low, experts said. For example, Banco Popular limits ITIN loans to a maximum of $150,000, spokesman Juan Carlos Cruz said.

Banks approach such mortgages differently. Banco Popular, which has been issuing ITIN mortgages since 1997, does not believe it is the bank's responsibility to determine the immigration status of a person, Cruz said. That view is not shared by Julie Davis, spokeswoman for Bank of America, who said it is her bank's policy to verify the immigration papers of a borrower when it processes ITIN mortgages.  "We do not loan money to people who are in the country illegally," said Davis, adding that customers can open a checking account with Bank of America by using a consular registration document as identification.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, 48 percent of the more than 40 million Hispanics in this country were homeowners in 2002, the last year for which such figures are available.

Although some anti-immigration groups claim that those in the country illegally pose an economic burden, a study by the National Association of Hispanic Real Estate Professionals said that home purchases by undocumented workers could result in $60 billion in mortgages over the next few years.

The Hispanic real estate group's study estimates more than 150,000 illegal immigrants who rent housing could afford a $98,000 home. González is convinced that Hispanics, including illegal immigrants, are revitalizing the U.S. housing market.


Mexican Government Creates Special Program to Help Undocumented Workers Buy Homes Back Home 
by Marisa Trevino, Aug 24, 2006
Sent by Howard Shorr

While it's verdad(true) that every undocumented Mexican immigrant who comes to this country comes to work and improve his/her life, he/she doesn't necessarily want to live their lives here por siempre(forever).

For anyone who has sat down and really talked with someone who is here illegally, the same sentiment is expressed by the majority of Mexicans and other immigrants: they want to work in the United States and save enough money to build a house — back home.

Whether it's for themselves and their families or their parents, the so-called American Dream of owning a home doesn't always mean owning that home north of the Rio Grande.

It's only when our border policies became so intent on keeping people out that it also kept people in. Migrants who would routinely travel back and forth across the border became afraid to leave fearing they wouldn't be able to get back — back to those paying jobs that were helping their families back home.

But sending that hard-earned money home to build that dream house has been and will continue to be an incentive for many migrants to dream of the day when they can return home to a decent place to live with their families.

The Mexican government understands, that to lure their paisanos(countrymen) living in the United States back home, they must be going home to something more than just familia.

So for that reason, the Mexican government has a new housing program available only to Mexicans living in the United States, regardless of their citizenship status. It is called Mi casa en Mexico.  Set up in conjunction with several Mexican mortgage lenders, the program targets only Mexicans living and working in the United States. The program is not available to anyone who is living in Mexico.

Other strict criteria apply but once qualified for the program, migrants have the opportunity to choose where they want to buy a home for their families and can start viewing it as an investment to return home to.

Everyone involved in the program admits that there are a lot of headaches in trying to coordinate paperwork from two different sides of the border, but they all say that the end result is worth the time and trouble to reunite people with their families, and start them on the path of creating a profitable future.



Cities make quiet plea for tolerance
By Haya El Nasser, USA TODAY (August 4, 2006)
Sent by Howard Shorr

Sixty-eight cities in 28 states have decided that a plain old welcome sign is no longer enough in a nation growing increasingly diverse. In a symbolic plea for greater tolerance, communities from West Virginia to California are posting signs that say: "Welcome. We are building an inclusive community."

ACROSS THE USA: Is your town inclusive? Indiana town sings tune of racial, ethnic harmony. Some are placing the signs at city limits. Others are putting them in front of schools and city halls.

"We are not claiming to be an inclusive community," says James Hunt, a city councilman in Clarksburg, W.Va., which has erected the sign. "What we're saying is that we recognize the value of that, and we're working toward it."

That's the message behind the National League of Cities' new initiative. Hunt, president of the association this year, launched the Partnership for Working Toward Inclusive Communities to promote equal opportunity and fairness.

Brea, Calif., a city of about 35,000 people near Anaheim, is accustomed to diversity. The site of one of the first day-labor centers for immigrants, Brea is one-third minorities - mostly Hispanic and Asian. "It's not just about race," former mayor Bev Perry says. "It's for all ages, our seniors ... for people who are economically challenged." 

Casper, Wyo., wants to send the message of inclusiveness to young people. "If you remember back in high school how there are cliques and groups," Councilwoman Lynne Whalen says. "There were jocks, intellectuals. ... There isn't cross-communication." 

Clarksburg, W.Va., put up the sign outside City Hall downtown. Seven students from a predominantly black school in Selma and six students from a predominantly white school in Clarksburg met to discuss racism and intolerance.

"We need more emphasis on diverse communities than ever before," says George Galster, professor of urban affairs at Wayne State University in Detroit."  American neighborhoods are becoming much more segregated. ... If the symbolism turns into real community discussion about diversity, what it means, what people like, what people don't like, then it could have a very positive effect. "

Sixty-eight cities in 28 states in the USA that call themselves "inclusive," welcoming diversity in race, ethnicity and lifestyle, source: National League of Cities

Ala.: Aliceville, Selma
Ariz.: Avondale, Chandler, Tempe 
Ark.: Arkadelphia, Little Rock 
Calif.: Brea, Duarte 
Colo.: Lafayette, Lakewood, Steamboat Springs 
Fla.: Eustis, Margate, North Miami, Palm Bay, Palm Coast, Perry, South Bay 
Ga.: Atlanta 
Ill.: Decatur 
Ind.: Bluffton, Gary, Indianapolis 
Kan.: Abilene, Mission 
La.: Natchitoches 
Maine: Brewer, Portland 
Md.: College Park, Greenbelt 
Mass.: Cambridge 
Mich.: Kalamazoo 
Minn.: Moorhead, Rochester 
Mo.: Kirkwood 
N.Y.: Schenectady 
N.C.: Creedmoor, Sylva 
Ohio: Clayton, Columbus, Huber Heights, Kettering, Lakewood, Moraine, Oakwood, Riverside, Trotwood, Vandalia, West Carrollton, Harrison Township, Jefferson Township 
Ore.: Hermiston 
Pa.: Carlisle, York 
S.C.: Rock Hill, Walterboro
Tenn.: Nashville 
Texas: Cedar Hill, Duncanville, Plano 
Va.: Martinsville, Richmond 
W. Va: Clarksburg, Huntington, Morgantown 
Wash.: Burien, Mesa 

Aliens rely on DNA to keep family together
The Washington Times, July 29, 2006 
Sent by Dr. Armando Ayala

LOS ANGELES (AP) -- Bradley Waite wanted to bring his adult daughter to this country from Jamaica, but couldn't prove they were related -- she was born out of wedlock, so his name was not on her birth certificate. U.S. immigration officials did something that is unusual but becoming more common: They asked for DNA tests. 

Mr. Waite grumbled over the $1,000 cost as he submitted to the testing several weeks ago. "We needed more proof, but I wish I didn't have to take it, because it cost too much money," said the 52-year-old construction worker in New York City. 

Genetic tests are playing a larger role in the U.S. immigration process. In some cases, the government is asking for DNA proof of a family connection; in other cases, applicants are offering to undergo testing in hopes of speeding up a process that often takes years. Either way, the applicant must bear the cost. 

Though the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services agency says it does not track how often DNA testing is used in immigration and citizenship cases, testing companies say that in recent years they have seen a sharp increase. Generally, U.S. citizens can petition to bring spouses, parents, children or siblings here, while legal permanent residents can apply for spouses and unmarried children. 

DNA testing in applications began in the 1990s and remains "extremely rare" in the hundreds of thousands of petitions processed every year, said immigration services spokesman Chris Bentley.  "We'll consider all other documentation first," Mr. Bentley said. "If something is missing, or we need to verify a relationship, we can ask for the test." 

The DNA is used only for immigration purposes and is not put into a database, Mr. Bentley said. Some lawyers representing immigrants argue that tests are overused and wonder what the government is doing with the information. "DNA has its upside and downside," said Daniel Sharp, legal director for Carecen, a Hispanic advocacy group in Los Angeles that helps immigrants with applications. "There is a concern about how much information the government has." 

Seattle-based Genelex Corp. has gone from administering about 10 DNA tests per month in 2001 to about 40 per month over the past year, said Kristine Ashcraft, director of client relations. Several other companies reported similar increases. 

"Many immigrants are realizing the test could cut down on the length of an application," Miss Ashcraft said.     That is what motivated Joseph Mataley, a Ghanaian who paid $1,500 for testing himself and his four young daughters soon after he filed their U.S. residency applications. Immigration officials did not request the tests. 

It was a lot of money for Mr. Mataley, who works two jobs in Denver, but "it probably would have taken another year without doing the DNA so quickly," he said. He was reunited with his daughters in April after a three-year application process. 

To take the test, the petitioner in the U.S. uses a government-approved company, which collects a saliva sample. The overseas relative then heads to the nearest U.S. Embassy, where an official gathers a sample and sends it to the company. The cost generally is at least $600 for two persons. 

Immigration officials say that when they request DNA, it is usually for cases in which applicants from poor countries do not have birth certificates, or when discrepancies raise suspicions of fraud. 

Minority population surging in Texas
Nonwhites now more than 50 percent of state’s population 

Sent by Richard Esquivel

EL PASO, Texas - Texas has become the fourth state to have a non-white majority population, the U.S. Census Bureau said Thursday, a trend driven by a surging number of Hispanics moving to the state.

According to the population estimates based on the 2000 Census, about 50.2 percent of Texans are now minorities. In the 2000 Census, minorities made up about 47 percent of the population in the second-largest state.

Texas joins California, New Mexico and Hawaii as states with majority-minority populations — with Hispanics the largest group in every state but Hawaii, where it is Asian-Americans.

Five other states — Maryland, Mississippi, Georgia, New York and Arizona — aren’t far behind, with about 40 percent minorities. Public policy analysts said these states and the country as a whole need to bring minority education and professional achievement to the levels of whites. Otherwise, these areas risk becoming poorer and less competitive. 
William Frey, a demographer at the Brookings Institution in Washington, D.C., said lawmakers need to start with immigration reform, while striving to bring minorities’ education and salary levels in line with Anglos. “Immigration is good for the United States ... it’s important for us to keep our doors open, but we need to keep an eye on the people coming in,” Frey said. “While initially it will be a state problem, eventually it will be a national issue, and education is the best way to deal with it. ”Complications from the cultural shift aren’t likely to be exclusive to states that already have majority-minority populations, Frey said. ‘Pervasive pattern’

Nevada, for instance, has seen a massive influx of minorities in the last 15 years, reducing the percentage of Anglos since the 1990s from nearly 80 percent to about 60 percent. Such a rapid shift is likely to cause growing pains that include trying to balance the needs of a bigger and younger minority community with an aging Anglo community, Frey said.“That’s the kind of state that is going to have to deal with quick transition,” Frey said.Though some areas may never see this shift, the country as a whole is expected to continue the trend first noticed more than a decade ago.The nation should be more than half minorities by 2050, said Steve Murdock, a demographer at the University of Texas at San Antonio.“If you look in the 1990s, in every one of the 50 states, non-Anglo Hispanic populations grew faster than Anglo populations,” Murdock said. “It’s a very pervasive pattern.” 


U.S. Census--Ethnic Transformation in the 50 States
The share of the U.S. population that is white but not Hispanic is declining as minority groups grow more rapidly. The non-Hispanic white breakdown in 2005 by state, ranked highest to lowest, compared with 2000 and 1990: Source: Analysis of Census Bureau data by William Frey, Brookings Institution  Sent by Howard Shorr
2005  percentage    <2000 percentage    <1990 percentage
Maine 96.0% 96.5% 98.0%
Vermont 96.0% 96.2% 98.1%
West Virginia 94.6% 94.6% 95.8%
New Hampshire 93.9% 95.1% 97.3%
Iowa 91.5% 92.6% 95.9%
North Dakota 90.9% 91.7% 94.2%
Montana 89.2% 89.5% 91.8%
Kentucky 88.9% 89.3% 91.7%
Wyoming 88.8% 88.9% 91.0%
South Dakota 87.0% 88.0% 91.2%
Idaho 86.9% 88.0% 92.2%
Minnesota 86.2% 88.2% 93.7%
Wisconsin 86.0% 87.3% 91.3%
Nebraska 85.4% 87.3% 92.5%
Indiana 84.2% 85.8% 89.6%
Utah 83.6% 85.3% 91.2%
Ohio 83.2% 84.0% 87.1%
Missouri 83.0% 83.8% 86.9%
Pennsylvania 82.7% 84.1% 87.7%
Kansas 81.6% 83.1% 88.4%
Oregon 81.4% 83.5% 90.8%
Massachusetts 79.7% 81.9% 87.8%
Rhode Island 79.1% 81.9% 89.3%
Michigan 78.0% 78.6% 82.3%
Tennessee 78.0% 79.2% 82.6%
Arkansas 77.0% 78.6% 82.2%

Washington 76.9% 78.9% 86.7%
Connecticut 75.3% 77.5% 83.8%
Oklahoma 72.6% 74.1% 81.0%
Colorado 71.9% 74.5% 80.7%
Alabama 69.6% 70.3% 73.3%
Delaware 69.6% 72.5% 79.3%
North Carolina 68.4% 70.2% 75.0%
Virginia 68.3% 70.2% 76.0%
Alaska 66.7% 67.6% 73.9%
South Carolina 65.7% 66.1% 68.5%
Illinois 65.6% 67.8% 74.8%
New Jersey 63.0% 66.0% 74.0%
Florida 62.0% 65.4% 73.2%
Louisiana 61.9% 62.5% 65.8%
New York 60.7% 62.0% 69.3%
Arizona 60.2% 63.8% 71.7%
Mississippi 60.0% 60.7% 63.1%
Nevada 59.8% 65.2% 78.7%
Georgia 59.7% 62.6% 70.1%
Maryland 59.1% 62.1% 69.6%
Texas 48.9% 52.4% 60.6%
California 43.3% 46.7% 57.2%
New Mexico 42.8% 44.7% 50.4%
District of Columbia 29.7% 27.8% 27.4%
Hawaii 23.0% 22.9% 31.4%

U.S. average 66.8% 69.1% 75.6%

Illegals From Terror-Sponsoring Nations At Large in US
By Kevin Mooney, Staff Writer, August 08, 2006

( - Almost half of the illegal aliens arriving in the U.S. from terrorist- sponsoring or "special interest" nations in the past few years have been released into the American population following their apprehension. This key finding is published in an internal audit of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) obtained by Cybercast News Service . 

The so-called "catch and release" policies have allowed more than 45,000 illegal aliens from countries that are well known for their anti-American views or considered "hotbeds of Islamic fundamentalism" to be freed.

U.S. Rep. Ted Poe (R-Texas), in conversations with sheriffs operating along the Texas-Mexico border, learned that illegal aliens of Middle Eastern descent have been able to blend into the culture south of the U.S. border and pass themselves off as Mexicans. 

"They learn Spanish and assimilate into the population," Poe said. "Coming across the Canadian border they would be more conspicuous." 

The U.S. State Department's list of State Sponsors of Terrorism (SSTs), currently includes five countries -- Syria, Cuba, Iran, North Korea and Sudan. However, the DHS audit lists another category called Special Interest Countries (SICs). 

At the moment there is no public list of SICs, however, information made available through the office of U.S. Rep. Tom Tancredo (R-Colo.) indicates that countries with large Islamic fundamentalist populations such as the U.S.-liberated Afghanistan, Yemen and Saudi Arabia, are included on the State Department's SIC list. 

Between the beginning of Fiscal Year 2001 and the mid-way point of Fiscal Year 2005, the DHS audit revealed that 605,210 individuals from countries "other than Mexico" (OTMs) were apprehended and 309,733 of that total were eventually released. 

A total of 91,516 illegal aliens from SST and SIC countries were apprehended over the same time period and 45,008 were released, the audit showed.

The audit was produced by the DHS Office of Inspector General and focuses on the Detention and Removal Program, which is operated by the Immigration and Customs Enforcement Bureau (ICE). The audit was produced in April, but when completed in May, it "was made public on a Friday night with no press release," said Connie Hair, a spokeswoman for the group of citizen volunteers committed to fighting illegal immigration known as the Minuteman Civil Defense Corps. 

The audit report, Hair said "was buried in an obscure corner of the DHS website," and discovered only as a result of her group's research.

The Detention and Removal Program (DRO) anticipates over 600,000 foreign-born individuals will be incarcerated in state correctional facilities during Fiscal Year 2007. Current estimates show that at least half of these criminal aliens - 300,000 - will be released or removed due to a lack of resources, according to the DHS audit.

During the month of July ICE added 1,500 inmate beds nationwide, Zieback said. She also pointed out that over 90 percent of the non-Mexican illegal aliens being apprehended are being detained. "No aliens are being released because of a lack of bed space," she said. 

Zuieback cited statistics that show ICE fugitive teams are averaging 1,000 arrests a week. But agency officials admit that the available data only points to illegal aliens who have been detected. The DHS audit does not address the influx of illegal aliens who elude apprehension. 

"The data is incomplete," cautions T.J. Bonner, president of the National Border Patrol Council, the union representing over 10,000 "front line" border agents and part of the American Federation of Government employees. "We only know of the ones we apprehend. For every person caught there are two or three that slip by." 

Bonner said he believes front line border control agents apprehend roughly 25 percent of the aliens entering the U.S. illegally. He also expects that "catch and release" policies will continue as long as there is insufficient funding. 

It cites the "propensity of illegal aliens to disobey court orders to appear in immigration court" and "the penchant of released illegal aliens with final orders to abscond." 

Recent U.S. Supreme Court decisions also mandate the release of criminal aliens and even "high risk aliens" 180 days after the issuance of the final removal order. 

Finally, the report states that some countries "block" the repatriation of their citizens.

Civil Rights Icon, Albert A. Pena Jr. Dies at 89 
Carmina Danini,  Staff Writer San Antonio Express-News, Web Posted: 07/03/2006 
Sent by Dorinda Moreno

Albert A. Peña Jr., a scrappy former Bexar County commissioner, Municipal Court judge and pioneering civil rights leader who helped desegregate South Texas schools, died Monday at age 89. A grassroots liberal Democrat, the outspoken Peña used to say he loved a good fight. 

"I'm conditioned to opposition,'' said Peña, who often used his publication, Vanguardia, to admonish his critics. "Anybody who disturbs the status quo and convulses the establishment is going to get opposition.'' 

The first public official in Texas to denounce the Vietnam War, he lost re-election to a fifth term as county commissioner because he defended the right of Angela Davis, a black Communist Party member and assistant professor at the University of California at Los Angeles, to a fair trial. 

"People may have agreed with me or disagreed - hated me or loved me - but they always knew where I stood,'' he said when he stepped down from commissioners court. 

"I go out of office as I came in, broke and in debt, but I have no regrets.'' 

A lawyer, he was an organizer for the United Automobile Workers in San Antonio, one of the founders of the Mexican American Unity Council and the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund. 

Peña represented Precinct I, where, he said, he worked with a coalition of La Raza Unida, Chicano, labor, liberals, blacks and young people. 

Once a leading figure in the Bexar County Democratic Party, he broke with the state party when he asked Mexican Americans to vote for write-in candidates of the La Raza Unida Party. He later described himself as an "independent Kennedy Democrat.'' 

Peña headed the Bexar County Democratic Coalition and was state chairman of the Political Association for Spanish-Speaking Organizations (PASO) for several years. 

Peña, who called himself a "24-hour-a-day politician,'' spent 16 years as Precinct 1 commissioner. First elected to the commissioners court in 1956, he was re-elected in 1960, 1964, and 1968. He sought re-election in 1972 but was defeated in the Democratic primary by Albert Bustamante. 

In April 1977, Peña was appointed a Municipal Court judge; he became presiding judge six years later. Of the Vietnam War, he said Mexican Americans should stay home and fight the war against poverty and racism. 

"Asked to die in Vietnam, the Chicano returns to the same blighted barrio and discrimination,'' he said. "Support of the war by Chicanos, other minorities or working people in general, is the worst form of lunacy.'' 

Peña also demanded that FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover be fired after Hoover said that he did not worry about the president being shot by either a Puerto Rican or a Mexican because Puerto Ricans and Mexicans "don't shoot very straight. But if they come at you with a knife, beware.'' 

One of six children, he was born on Dec. 15, 1917, in the Peña home on Laredo Street. As a youngster, he sold newspapers. He graduated from Tech High School and attended St. Mary's University. After his discharge from the military in 1945, he decided to study law because it was the best way to get into politics, he told the San Antonio Express-News in a 1978 interview. 

Peña worked his way through the South Texas School of Law in Houston - he obtained his law degree in 1950 - as a salesman for Western Auto. "I had no mechanic or auto experience,'' he said. "I had tried to apply for janitor but I didn't pass the mechanical aptitude test.'' 

He returned home and joined his father and brother in the law firm of Peña, Peña & Peña. 
Active in the American G.I. Forum, Peña began volunteering his services in school desegregation cases in the early 1950s. He and another lawyer, the late Richard Casillas, worked together to get area schools in Hondo, Lytle and Natalia integrated.

Where's 2006 version of a great champion for Mexican Americans? 
Carlos Guerra 07/26/2006 San Antonio Express-News 
Sent by Dorinda Moreno

Amazingly, it was a decade ago that Austin American-Statesman editorial page editor Arnold García called me at home and said: "Dr. Hector just died."  We both held Dr. Hector Pérez García in high esteem, so there was no need for an explanation.

"I met Dr. Hector in 1968 and it was like meeting a movie star, only with substance," Arnold recalled. I met him at an earlier age, in Robstown, when my father took me in his arms to meet the man he called a hero. 

For many, Dr. Hector was a Corpus Christi physician who treated thousands who hadn't the money to pay him, and frequently reached into his pocket for the money or their prescriptions. When I last interviewed him, he was in his 80s and driving a 3-year-old car. His shirt cuffs were worn through, but he had the smile of a man ontented. Rightly so. 

He was aged, but he was erect, upright and fussy. He knew that it was his red American GI Forum cap — the one that he never took off — that made him special, nd that his short-tempered pushiness had won tens of thousands of Mexican mericans — millions, perhaps — the just rewards of their abilities and hard work, are, at the very least, the benefits of their citizenship. 

Born in 1914 into a family of seven children in Llera, Mexico, Dr. Hector's family led to the Rio Grande Valley a few steps ahead of the Mexican Revolution. In exas, Hector excelled in public schools and went on to distinguish himself at the niversity of Texas School of Medicine at Galveston, volunteering for U.S. Army upon his graduation. 

He was admitted into the officer corps, but wasn't commissioned an Army physician for two years because, as he told me later, "they kept thinking that I had one to a Mexican medical school." But his combat officer service wasn't wasted ither. Dr. Hector earned a bronze star and six commendations for valor. 

After the war, he settled in Corpus Christi but he wasn't content with being only a ealer. Numerous complaints of Mexican American veterans shortchanged of their I Bill of Rights benefits led him to call a meeting at Lamar Junior High, and there as formed the American GI Forum, which grew into a national organization, a majo civil rights group and Dr. Hector was its chief, a title he held until his death. > 

Dr. Hector is best known, perhaps, for championing the case of Felix Lonoria, a 
Three Rivers veteran whose family was refused the local funeral home's chael for a service before he was buried in the town's segregated cemetery. > That the family of a man killed in combat would be denied such basic dignity stired national scorn and, in the end, Longoria was buried in Arlington National Cemetry with military honors. 

But for all of Dr. Hector's battlefield victories, the war remains for others to win. 
"Dr. Hctor and people like him opened a lot of doors for Chicanos," Arnold García sid Tuesday, "yet people who benefited from the back-breaking effort it took to do that won't even make an effort at repaying the favor by making a difference. 

"Where is the 2006 version of Dr. Hector? Where is the leader who fights and charms and cajoles change out of state legislatures and a U.S. Congress that are at best indifferent and at worst hostile to Hispanic issues?"  He is right, of course. And too many of us are unworthy. 

Carlos Guerra, call (210) 250-3545 or e-mail


On the 21st of May, 2000, Pope John Paul II, celebrated a mass which elevated to Sainthood twenty-seven martyrs, executed during 1920 - 1931 period in Mexico.

Included among the Saints were Priests and lay persons who were brutally executed by federal troops for practicing their catholic faith, during the Cristero movement.  

Six of the Priests were members of the Knights of Columbus.  The May 2000 celebration prompted the Knights of Columbus to create a memorial cross, el relicario de plata contine ls relide los seis sacerdotes Caballeros de Colon, a reliquary bearing the relics of the six Saints: Padre Luis Batiz Sainz, Padre Jose Maria Robles Hurtado, Padre Mateo Corea Magallanes, Padres Miguel de la Mora de lar Mora, Padre Rodrigo Aguilar Aleman, Padre Pedro de Jesus Maldonado Lucero. 

The viewing of the relics was then scheduled to be viewed with special masses of celebration. The journey was first throughout Mexico, where it was received with great joy and piety by all of the faithful who attended. The decision was made to extend the journey throughout the United States, and eventually the entire continent.

The first celebration outside of Mexico was scheduled at the Cathedral in Los Angeles, California on April 29, 2006. However, an unannounced and unscheduled celebration mass was held on Friday, April 28, 2006 in Orange County, California, becoming the first mass for the MARTYRED PRIESTS outside of Mexico. 

The mass was held at the beautiful church, of St. Anne, in the heart of Santa Ana, California. I personally became aware of the viewing the day before and was therefore able to attend on that date, April 28th along with five brother knights, becoming the first to share the honor representing the Knights of Columbus, along with the California State Deputy, Emilo Moure and the director of media relations, Andrew T. Walther of New Haven, Connecticut.

I felt humbled and proud to be among the first to view outside of Mexico. The mass was presented by the pastor of St. Anne, Father Cirilo Flores and assistant pastor. Father Tim. The adoration and faith of all in the procession was indeed overwhelming.

It is ironic that the relics of these Saints made their first visit in a humble but pious parish in Orange County.

Henry Marquez Loza - Board Member of SHHAR


Action Item

Hispanic Heritage Month, September 15 to October 15th

Link to Somos Primos resource for celebrating Hispanic Heritage Month

As we prepare to share Hispanic/Latino heritage, we can think of benefiting the whole community, Hispanic and non-Hispanic, as well. 

This note from Lisa Tarrant of Campbell, TX makes the point. She is using the lithograph as a teaching tool for her 4-H club.

L.D. Maxey of California, (photo below) is also promoting general public awareness.

In 1997 I compiled  materials for classroom use in celebrating Hispanic Heritage Month. As a result of being a panelist and podcast presentor for a California State Librarian effort to better serve the Hispanic community, the materials have been expanded.

I hope the materials will prove  helpful to teachers, youth leaders, and librarians.  


New Guy webpage:

Obtain a free poster by sending a U.S. priority mail stamp. Go to Guy website for complete information.

Guy Gabaldon lithograph on display in California at the Veterans' Memorial Hall, American Legion wing, in Solvang, CA. 

Pictured alongside is L.D. Maxey, Commander of American Legion Post 160, Santa Ynez Valley, CA.  

Mr. Maxey has been corresponding with Mr. Gabaldon for several years and recently met Guy for the first time in May 2006 at the Gabaldon home in Florida.



Dear Colleague,

As the nation s leading organization supporting Hispanic higher education, the Hispanic Scholarship Fund (HSF) is pleased to announce the opening of its scholarship cycle. Beginning August 1, 2006 applications are available to download from our website at

To ensure that we reach as many students as possible, we ask for your assistance in communicating our programs to your students, faculty and staff. Any help you can provide in spreading the word about this opportunity or posting a flyer would be appreciated. Flyers can be downloaded in both English and Spanish.

On August 1st, students may begin applying to the following scholarship programs provided by HSF:

  • High School Scholarship Program (August 1, 2006 December 15, 2006):  Available to graduating high school seniors who will be enrolled in college full-time during the 2007-2008 academic year. Please email with questions relating to this program.
  • Community College Transfer Scholarship Program (August 1, 2006 February 2, 2007):  Available to community college students who will be transferring and enrolling full-time at a four-year institution during the 2007-2008 academic year.  Please email with questions relating to this program.
  • College Scholarship Program (August 1, 2006 October 16, 2006):  Available to undergraduate or graduate students enrolled in college full-time during the 2006-2007 academic year.  Please email with questions relating to this program.
  • Gates Millennium Scholars (August 1, 2006 January 12, 2007):  Available to graduating high school seniors who will be enrolled in college full-time during the 2007-2008 academic year.  Please email with questions relating to this program.

To learn more about our programs you can visit our website and or call us, toll free, at 1-877-HSF-INFO.  Thank you for your time and we sincerely appreciate your assistance in helping us reach out to potential HSF scholars.


Julian Martinez, Director
Scholarship Programs
Hispanic Scholarship Fund
55 Second Street, Suite 1500, San Francisco, CA 94105

Sent by Ricardo Valverde


Placentia woman schooled her children well, Julia Aguirre, 82, made certain all of her seven kids graduated from college.

By ROBIN HINCH   The Orange County Register Wednesday, August 16, 2006

When asked what they remember most about their mother, the children of Julia Aguirre don't cite her cooking or homemaking skills.

They remember her with her nose in a newspaper, a magazine or a book.  Her passion for reading reflected lots about Julia – about her thirst for the schooling she lacked as a child and about her dedication to ensuring a good education for her children.

She was 82 when she died in her Placentia home Aug. 9, secure in the knowledge that all seven children were successful college graduates.

A coal miner's daughter, Julia was born in Primero, Colo., and was only 13 months old when her father was killed in a mine cave-in. Soon after, her mother moved the family to Anaheim, but they didn't stay in one place for long.

Julia was moved from field to field in the San Joaquin Valley, where she helped the older family members pick crops. She attended classes on and off in 20 or more elementary schools. Her spotty schooling ended at age 12 when her mother died and Julia went to live with older sisters.

During World War II, Julia was a "Rosie the Riveter" for Douglas Aircraft in Long Beach, and in 1944, she was married to Alfred Aguirre, a stonemason. Alfred built them a house on a then isolated Placentia knoll at the end of a short, unnamed street that the city dubbed Aguirre Lane in 1951.

A hardworking, conscientious wife and mother, Julia worked with Alfred to desegregate Placentia's schools and backed his successful 1958 run for the City Council. The two worked together for the League of United Latin American Citizens and set a straight and narrow disciplinary course for their children.

Generally cheerful and light of heart, Julia listened to music all day, with radios throughout the house, each turned to a different type of music – country, rock 'n' roll, boogie, classical. When a song came on that she knew, her face would brighten as if she'd been given a gift and she'd sing along heartily.

She also loved to dance – she and Alfred met at the old Majestic Ballroom in Long Beach – and her grandchildren once spotted her in the kitchen, dancing with a broom.

At age 60 she started taking piano lessons and wanted to start right out playing Beethoven.

Deeply spiritual, Julia attended Mass each Sunday and said a rosary daily. The grandchildren steered clear of her when she was fingering those rosary beads because she would invariably draw the children to her for a detailed lesson in reciting the prayers.

Poring over newspapers and magazines each day left her knowledgeable about everything from crises in the Middle East to rankings of the local sports teams – especially her favorite Dodgers. When she came across a word she didn't know, she looked it up in the dictionary and committed it to memory.

She said she tried to learn a new word every day.

In 1966, Julia began a 26-year career with an answering service, handling calls for local doctors. She quickly mastered the medical terminology and was valued for her ability to calm patients, assess the urgency of their calls and deliver thorough and accurate messages.

Although she didn't drone on to her kids about the hardscrabble life of her childhood, it helped reinforce Julia's persistent message about the importance of an education. They knew that college was a must.

Her efforts were well-rewarded, with children whose professions include lawyer, architect, teacher and Superior Court judge.

And in May 1997, she received a plaque from the Orange County Department of Education and Los Serafinas de Orange County in recognition of her dedication to getting college educations for her kids. 

"Your commitment has set an example for others to follow ... and we offer our highest commendation," the plaque reads in part.  It was one of her great treasures.

Sent by Ricardo Valverde

A doctor from Mexicali

For a surgeon who was once an illegal immigrant, no one is 'just another Mexican.'
BY COURTNEY PERKES, The Orange County Register Thursday, August 17, 2006
Sent by Ricardo Valverde
  Photo: Cindy Yamanaka

Next to Mario Luna's hospital bed, Dr. Humberto Sauri sees a dark-green bottle. The drink is called Sangria Señorial, but it's not wine. It's a fruity, tart Mexican soda pop.

Sauri teases the 24-year-old landscaper in Spanish. If you're going to bring in alcohol, you'd better have enough to share with the doctor. Luna, whose raw legs are hidden by a suction dressing, smiles.

Do you remember the surgery? No. You can't work for a while. Do you have anyone who can take care of you? Yes.

Sauri, medical director of trauma services at Western Medical Center-Santa Ana, first met Luna on a stretcher when he was rushed to the hospital, one of three trauma centers in Orange County. Luna's legs were pinned between two trucks in an industrial yard. Sauri performed emergency surgery and skin grafts.

In the operating room, he moves his scalpel with dexterity and precision. In Luna's hospital room, observations become his instrument, as he recognizes Mexican brands and asks about the care options of a young man who lives with other immigrants, far from his family.

Sauri, 41, identifies with his patients on levels beyond language and culture. He knows some of them are illegal immigrants – just as he was once.

"I've essentially lived the life, gone through the process that they're going through of coming to the country," he says.

When Sauri was a year old, his parents and older sister left Mexicali for California. In the 1960s, crossing the border was much easier. They drove north with their passports into the Imperial Valley and a limited-access zone. Once the checkpoint closed, they headed to Los Angeles.

Sauri's father, who had a fifth-grade education, found work in a record factory.

After the Sauris had their third child, an automatic U.S. citizen, they were able to become legal, permanent residents. Sauri excelled in school. But growing up in predominantly white Burbank, he fought with kids who called him ethnic slurs. "It didn't end in elementary school," Sauri says.

He hated receiving free lunches, so in high school he took a job as a cashier in the cafeteria to earn his meatloaf and carrots.  Over a couple of summers, he worked a 3 a.m. shift with his father at the sweltering, noisy record factory.

"I felt I had to go and prove myself to my dad, my relatives and my friends that I wasn't just some book kid," Sauri says. "I knew that we came to this country to work."

Around the presses, the men showed him the hidden compartments, behind false walls or in the ceilings, where undocumented workers hid during immigration raids. Others huddled in the walk-in safe.

Despite his parents' limited education, they pushed academics for their three children. He remembers the whole family driving in their old Ford station wagon to drop him off at Stanford University for his freshman year. Their car broke down in Coalinga, so Sauri and his mom finished the trip by Greyhound.

"She was just in tears the whole bus ride," he says. "She said, 'All my life I've worked to keep our family together. You're successful, but it means a separation.' That was very sad."

During medical school at Columbia University, a friend told a story about his grandfather's ranch in Texas. The classmate caught himself after saying "wetbacks." His face fell. And he looked at Sauri.  "What was disappointing to me was the realization if something like that kind of spills out in casual conversation, these are just sort of accepted ways of speech," he says.

Another conversation proved pivotal during Sauri's research fellowship in surgical oncology at UCLA. It was 1994 and Sauri and a Chinese graduate student were partners for an elective sailing class.  Wearing wetsuits aboard a 16-foot catamaran, they discussed Proposition 187, the state ballot initiative to deny most services, including medical care, to illegal immigrants.

"I was telling him how to me it was very alienating and using that as example of how Hispanics in this country feel, and kind of justifying why I hadn't become a citizen yet." His friend cut through that: "Look at all the opportunities you've been given in this country and how far you've come. Yet, you still don't want to participate in the process."

Sauri felt indignant. Then he realized his friend was right. He applied for citizenship. The swearing-in ceremony was the proudest day of his life. "It meant that I was an American citizen," Sauri says. "I could vote. Ultimately, that's a measure of your value in our society."

Sauri rarely misses an election. But speaking up outside the privacy of a voting booth is harder.

"Even now in the doctor's lounge or in the OR, I don't know if it's because my last name isn't obviously Hispanic, I will hear fairly degrading comments toward Hispanics," Sauri says. "It's emotionally upsetting. Then you have to wonder if I'm going to call them on it, and they'll think I'm a big jerk or am I going to ignore it and let it churn in me for the next couple days."

Once, at another hospital, while Sauri operated on a sick patient, he explained a life-saving technique. A subordinate said, "What's the big deal? It's just another Mexican." "I guess you don't know I'm from Mexico," Sauri replied. That wasn't the end of it.

"It was tossed back at me. The response was, 'Well, you don't have to get an attitude about it.' It was startling." Sauri's life experience in Mexico and medicine influence what he says to his patients.

A few months ago, Sauri performed an emergency hernia operation on a Spanish-speaking woman. The mother of four had one question. Could she have more children?  "Something made me snap," he says. "I had to tell her yes." Then he asked her: Should you really be having more children?

Then there are the patients injured in stabbings and shootings.  "It's frustrating to me seeing Hispanic gang members, and you wish they were doing something positive with their lives," Sauri says. "I've said, 'I was once an illegal immigrant, and I've had opportunities.' "

Sometimes after an accident lands a child in the hospital, Sauri, a married father of three, chats with the parents. He talks about car seats, bike helmets and safety near windows. He understands they come from a different world, less bound by safety regulations.

"I remember spending summers in Mexico, and we'd all pile into the back of a pickup on the highway. I think about it now and think, 'Man, is that crazy.' We'd go swimming in irrigation ditches in the fields."

This spring, he joined janitors, gardeners and housekeepers at immigration rallies in Santa Ana and Costa Mesa.  "It was families. It wasn't just young students or radicals," Sauri says. "I bumped into patients."

Sauri didn't need a sign to make his statement on what a former illegal immigrant can contribute. He wore his white doctor's coat.

Listen to John Phillips Santos: Places Left Unfinished at the Time of Creation

Between August 7 and August 18, 2006, the Texas Public Radio presented on-air readings of the family memoir of San Antonio author John Phillip Santos, Places Left Unfinished at the Time of Creation.  The story, read by Santos himself, was broadcast on KSTX 89.1 FM.  The series is archived and can be accessed at

Podcasting is the newest way to enjoy your favorite radio programming.  Contrary to its name, podcasting does not require an Apple iPod or any other MP3 player.  All you need is your computer, an Internet connection and software that will download the sound files.  Welcome to the future of radio. 

The was a community-wide reading project to encourage all residents to read the same book at the same time.  The goal is to bring the community together through the common bond of reading.  The broadcasts on KSTX were sponsored by HEB, the San Antonio Express-News and the San Antonio Public Library Foundation.

Santos is a Program Officer at the Ford Foundation in New York and the first Mexican-American Rhodes scholar to study at Oxford.  He is a well-known journalist and author of several television documentaries.

The book is a powerful memoir of Mexican-American life.   Born in San Antonio in 1957, the author is a journalist and television documentary producer for CBS and the first  Mexican-American Rhodes Scholar.  He grew up in an extended family whose elder members remembered a Texas that had not yet become anglicized.  Through their eyes, Santos revisits that time, looking deeply into the Mexican past as a way of informing the present.

Sent by Walter L. Herbeck Jr.

Few Hispanic Teachers to fulfill need
Dallas Morning News, August 9, 2006: In the Dallas area, more than one-third of the students in the 2004-05 school year were Hispanic, according to a survey of area districts. But less than one in 10 teachers was Hispanic. 

Photo: Rex C. Curry: Bilingual teachers Paloma Pola (left) and Rosario Celaya — both from Mexico City — work on classroom materials at the Dallas school district’s School Support Service Center. 

Omaha, Nebraska school district to split along racial line-- one mostly black, one predominantly white and one largely Hispanic 

4/17/2006 Sent by Juan D. Villarreal

LINCOLN, Neb. (AP) -- In a move decried by some as state-sponsored segregation, the Legislature voted Thursday to divide the Omaha school system into three districts -- one mostly black, one predominantly white and one largely Hispanic.

Supporters said the plan would give minorities control over their own school board and ensure that their children are not shortchanged in favor of white youngsters.  
Republican Gov. Dave Heineman signed the measure into law.

Omaha Sen. Pat Bourne decried the bill, saying, "We will go down in history as one of the first states in 20 years to set race relations back."  "History will not, and should not, judge us kindly," said Sen. Gwen Howard of Omaha.

Attorney General Jon Bruning sent a letter to one of the measure's opponents saying that the bill could be in violation of the Constitution's equal-protection clause and that lawsuits almost certainly will be filed.

But its backers said that at the very least, its passage will force policymakers to negotiate seriously about the future of schools in the Omaha area.  The breakup would not occur until July 2008, leaving time for lawmakers to come up with another idea.

"There is no intent to create segregation," said Omaha Sen. Ernie Chambers, the Legislature's only black senator and a longtime critic of the school system.

He argued that the district is already segregated, because it no longer buses students for integration and instead requires them to attend their neighborhood school.

Chambers said the schools attended largely by minorities lack the resources and quality teachers provided others in the district. He said the black students he represents in north Omaha would receive a better education if they had more control over their district.

Coming from Chambers, the argument was especially persuasive to the rest of the Legislature, which voted three times this week in favor of the bill before it won final passage on the last day of the session.

Omaha Public Schools Superintendent John Mackiel said the law is unconstitutional and will not stand.  "There simply has never been an anti-city school victory anywhere in this nation," Mackiel said. "This law will be no exception."

The 45,000-student Omaha school system is 46 percent white, 31 percent black, 20 percent Hispanic, and 3 percent Asian or American Indian.

Boundaries for the newly created districts would be drawn using current high school attendance areas. That would result in four possible scenarios; in every scenario, two districts would end up with a majority of students who are racial minorities.

Hispanic centers lose key funding

EDUCATION: A request for $3.4 million in federal money is rejected. 
The centers assist students. By Michelle Mittelstadt, Washington Bureau, August 3, 2006 via Press Enterprise, Inland Southern California   Sent by Johanna De Soto

California Centers
The League of United Latin American Citizens operates centers in 17 cities, including Pomona. The centers provide:
College counseling
Help with financial aid applications
Help with admissions applications

WASHINGTON - Centers around the country that counsel low-income Hispanic students on getting into college have lost their federal funding, jeopardizing future operations.

The Education Department on Thursday officially notified the League of United Latin American Citizens, or LULAC, that its request for $3.4 million in federal grants was denied. That decision ends the government's 27-year relationship with the LULAC National Educational Service Centers, which operate in 17 cities. The nearest to the Inland area is in Pomona.

The announcement disappointed organization officials, who had applied for funds for the existing centers and sought to open facilities in eight other cities.  "We are outraged as to how this could happen and we can't imagine what their justification really could be," said Matthew Looney, national development coordinator for the centers.

The organization's grant applications fell below the cutoff score necessary for funding, Education Department spokesman Trey Ditto said. That means the group will be ineligible for the federal program during the next four years.

There were 753 applicants nationwide seeking a share of the $136 million in Talent Search grants given out for next year, 450 of which were funded.

Applicants had to score 98.6 or better on a 100-point scale -- and the organization's application fell well below that cutoff, officials said. The organization's application was below 60 on all three evaluators' reviews.

"The fact that LULAC scored below the threshold means that they did not meet the requirements of the panel," Ditto said.  Organization officials were puzzled by the low scores, noting that in the last funding cycle they'd scored 100.

While the grant process is now closed, Looney said the organization would press its case with Congress, the White House and others.  "I don't think it's the end of the road," he said.

In the past four years, organization centers have assisted 52,542 students with college counseling, financial aid and admissions applications.

With federal funds accounting for two-thirds of the centers' budgets, they will be hard-pressed to continue with the student counseling as well as services such as English-language classes for parents, Looney said.

But he said the organization is in discussions with corporate partners and foundations to make up for the loss of federal funding.

In addition to five Texas locations, the organization operates centers in Pomona, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Denver, Colorado Springs, Colo., Pueblo, Colo.; Miami; Chicago; Kansas City, Mo.; Albuquerque; Philadelphia; and Bayamon, Puerto Rico.

First Early-College high school opens
THE ORANGE COUNTY REGISTER, Monday, August 14, 2006
Sent by Dr. Armando Ayala,
Gates Foundation program aims to help underprivileged students get a head start on their postsecondary education. The first early-college high school in Orange County opens its doors today, giving struggling and underprivileged students a leg up on a college education.

Early College High School, the first new Newport-Mesa Unified School District school to be built in five years, is part of a Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation project to reduce the time and money it takes students to earn a postsecondary degree. The campus is a joint venture by the Newport-Mesa district and Coastline Community College.

Attending high school courses in the morning and college classes in the afternoon, students will be able to receive both a high school diploma and an associate of arts degree in five years.

The Irvine Avenue campus, funded in part by a $400,000 foundation grant, will be one of eight early-college high schools to open in California this year. Another 38 are scheduled to open across the country.

District and college officials have spent the last year developing the public school's curriculum and looking at how adolescents' brains operate. 

Two changes will include classes starting later, at 9:15 a.m., and having a longer lunch than at traditional schools. Classes will focus on projects and teamwork. Finals will be a digital portfolio.

"These kids are going to get excited about college long before they even get to college," said Mike Murphy, the district's student services director.

Early College will open with 90 freshmen. The student body will continue to grow 100 students at a time for the next four years.  Classes will be small, 25 students to each teacher. Newport-Mesa high schools average a 30-to-1 ratio.

Students were selected based on recommendations, interviews and on well they worked together in creating and performing a skit.

Newport-Mesa has run Middle College in conjunction with Orange Coast College for nine years, but the campus is limited to juniors and seniors.

CONTACT US: 714-445-6689 or

Pittsburg Proposal  ILConcepts

Mission Statement: Our mission is simply to help students from K-Adult make academic progress, increase self-confidence, and develop the necessary skills and training to become productive members of society to help reverse 50% plus drop out rates for Latino/a African American and other minority students as well as provide computer access along with academic support.

We are prepared to provide a fully instructional K through 8 bilingual program at the new Old Town school project and computers access, technology and academic support for all students at Hillview, Central Middle Schools and Pittsburg High Schools starting in the fall of 2006.

Business Description: We are IL Concepts (Innovative Learning Concepts), an educational center, soon to be a California Learning Education provider that provides supplemental educational services to students in the community from grades Kindergarten/ elementary through adult. IL Concepts evolved from MECHA (Moviemiento Estudiantel Chicanos de Atzlan), a parent advisory group co-founded by Mr. Richard Esquivel in 1994 at John F. Kennedy High School in Sacramento, CA. 

The goal of the MECHA Parent Advisory Committee was to enhance the participation of Chicano/Latino parents and students in the educational process and school activities. Through MECHA, after school mentoring and tutoring programs were established to help students advance their academic achievement and self-esteem. Advisory groups and mentors sat down with students and reviewed academic school records, transcripts, attendance, grade checks, class schedules, and disciplinary actions, on a monthly basis, including information on how to apply for college scholarships and financial aid. For the past 11 years, students involved in MECHA Program academic performances and graduation rate increased from 17% to as high as 95% depending on class . Out of those who graduated, the acceptance rate of students into college increased from1.5% to 97%. Because of the success of the MECHA program, IL Concepts want to continue this idea of mentoring and self-esteem building for students and providing other educational services, to all students along with computer access. We plan on working in conjunction with Western Trading Company a former Hispanic 500 business and current reseller for Cisco Systems and IWILLUSA to provide computers at a reasonable cost to students to provide connectivity. Academic support, mentoring, support services in a multilingual format along with connectivity will help to dramatically reverse the current 50% dropout rates in the Latino/a , African American and ESL learner communities. 

The mentoring program is data driven with an eleven year success record of helping to reverse high drop out rates , increasing graduation rates and engaging parents and students in their educational pursuit. Our goal is to improve students’ academic achievement, build self esteem and provide employment skills so that they can become productive citizens in the community, through the partnerships of local school districts, colleges, universities, and the California Department of Education. We bring an innovative management tool that schools, parents, students, and the community can use to raise our students’ achievement. Our staff has extensive experiences from our staff to identify and provide solutions to local school district and address community educational concerns. statewide and ultimately
national from the Kindergarten level to college in a variety of language support in call academic areas.

"Communications equals knowledge; knowledge levels the playing field." 
For more information, contact:
Richard Esquivel, President
Western Trading Company Communications, Innovative Learning Concepts
916-981-6496  916-685-8602 FAX


Richard Esquivel shares a letter from one of the participants in their program. 

Hola Senor Esquivel,

"I have just arrived from my great New York trip and I just want to thank you for exposing me to such experiences. If it wasn't for your commitment towards our education and future, I would of never had an opportunity to meet different outstanding people and a handful of the most intelligent student around the country. I had a wonderful time exploring journalism and New York. I took some pictures so when I receive my them I will forward them to you.

Thanks you for everything, Saul Hernandez "

Saul Hernandez is a straight A student.  He is a 4.2 going into his senior year and we found him a scholarship to participate in a journalism class to go to New York.
He has never been out of his barrio outside of the Pittsburg / Bay area, except for schools we have visited all of which will accept him; His sister Monica  graduated this Spring and was accepted to Berkeley, Davis,etc.  The whole family is from Mexico, all first generation and all a joy to work with.
His sister Monica wants to study nursing, but has the skills to study medicine in any capacity or field. I got a whole ton of these kids I want to send towards Frank and Tejas to study medicine
Makes mentoring worthwhile because these are the leaders of this century.
Saludos, Richard


Co-founders of SHHAR
Raul Guerra, Mimi Lozano, Tony Campos, Ophelia Marquez
Society of Hispanic
      Historical and Ancestral Research
        20 Years of

On August 12th, the Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research, SHHAR, held a 20th Anniversary meeting. Raul Guerra, first president of SHHAR, a San Antonio native, now resides where his roots were planted 400 years ago.  Raul's  surprised visit to Orange County was a perfect opportunity of taking a founder photo together and celebrating the contributions of SHHAR to the community with displays, lectures, workshops, events, conferences, many print publications, and Somos Primos online.  

Ophelia Marquez and I count ourselves fortunate; each of us met our researching mentor (Ophelia's Tony and mine, Raul) by chance at an LDS Family History Center.   Raul and Tony had developed researching skills on their own and have generously shared their expertise with everyone.   

Raul shared his research strategies for recent researching in the archives of Spain. Raul's suggestions: Take at least 6 face photos; they will be needed to obtain a researchers' access card at each archive.  Also needed is a letter of recommendation from a university or recognized genealogical or historical organization. 

Raul traveled with George Ryskamp, Director of the BYU Center for Family History and Genealogy. Rauls said that Americans conducting hands-on researchers in Spain are very few.  Prof. Ryskamp has been making yearly expedition for over 30 years and is well known throughout Spain.


Dr. Granville Hough, Professor Emertis, Department of Economics and Raul Guerra, retired aerospace engineer broke ground with their research and genealogical publications.   

Henry Marquez Loza and Steve Hernandez, current Board members and Tony Campos.

Mary and Carlos de Leon chat with former Board member, Ed Flores

Photo by Marian Sheppard

Front left to right: Mimi Lozano, Ophelia Marquez, Viola Rodriguez Sadler, Ignacio Pena.
Middle: Granville Hough, Steve Hernandez, Irma Cantu, Tony Campos, Henry Marquez, Ed Flores, and Gloria Corintas Oliver.  Back: Charles & Chuck Sadler, Raul Guerra, Cris Rendon 
Apologies to those who left before the group photo was taken: 
Daniel Bartoz, Aida Garralda, Diana Rishel, Frances Rios, Laura Shane.

If you live within traveling distance of Orange County and would like to to be notified when meetings, and or events, are held which do not make it into Somos Primos, please send your email to Cris Rendon.

Family Health History Tool in Spanish

The Department of Health and Human Services has updated its free Spanish-language computerized tool designed to help Hispanic families gather their health information.  "My Family Health Portrait" helps the user create a family health history report, which can be shared with physicians.  For more information, visit



Tortilla Art

My friend Joe Bravo has done several exhibitions of his tortilla art and he landed a great gig with McDonalds.......

Serg Hernandez

Hi all, I just got back from my McDonald’s “snack wrap” launch and it turned out great. Lots of people, lots of interest in my tortilla art. No TV stations showed up because the P.R. company decided to shoot the event themselves, edit it and send tapes out nationwide to the stations. They will give me some footage that I will try to post on my website along with some photos of me kicking it with Ronald McDonald.   Joe



Return to Classic Glamour
Welcome to the alluring world of Bésame, a captivating cosmetics lines for the romantic at heart.

In the words of Gabriela Hernandez Bésame's founder and makeup historian.  "The most effective formulations and designs have been lost in time." Bésame has re-invented that bygone era of stylish elegance by creating a feminine and functional collection that transcends the discerning standards of cosmetics for today's most fashion-savvy women.

Taking inspiration
from the vibrant colors, long-lasting formulas and artistic packaging of post-war 1940s cosmetics.  Bésame  truly honors the golden age of glamour.

Bésame Cosmetics Inc.  1558 Victory Blvd. Glendale, CA 91201
Telephone: 818-548-2628

[[Editor: I met the petite Venezuelan native Gabriela Hernandez at a meeting of the National Latina Business Women Association meeting in Pasadena.  I was impressed with the historical aspect of her Bésame catalog and products, returning to the romantic look of the 40s.  As I looked through the catalog, I remember as a child my Mom and Tias, glamorous and beautiful with the look that Gabriela is recapturing.]] 




Former Colorado Governor, Dick Lamm, Criticized For Racial Comments 
Immigration — and the Curse of the Black Legend 


Former Colorado Governor Criticized For Comments On Racial Minorities Associated Press, Jul 31, 2006, 
Sent by Ricardo Esquivel

Sen. Ken Salazar (D-Colo.) has distanced himself from the former governor's comments. U.S. Sen. Ken Salazar of Colorado on Friday distanced himself from comments by fellow Democrat and former Gov. Dick Lamm, who said racial minorities use racism and discrimination as pretexts for academic underachievement. 

Lamm, whose new book addresses minority achievement, contends that racism and discrimination have been blamed for underperformance among Hispanics and Blacks, while other minorities have treated discrimination as a hurdle rather than a barrier.

In a speech in Vail, Colo., last week, Lamm said in part: “I’m willing to say there is racism and discrimination, but that is not an excuse for minority underachievement. Blacks and Hispanics do half as much work as Asian students, and they get half as much grades. They have to stop telling people they are not succeeding because they are victims.”

Salazar says Lamm has not returned his calls to discuss the remarks. “I found the comments very unfortunate,” says Salazar. “I think they are divisive, and they don’t create a way for us to unite our country.”

“The comments that former Gov. Lamm has made about African-Americans and Hispanics are part of a legacy of hate and division. My hope is that he reflects on those comments and decides instead he’s going to place his energy into positive things we can do to provide equal opportunity for all people,” Salazar says.

Salazar participated in a summer enrichment program Friday at Colorado Academy. He says most of the dozens of students were Hispanic, and most said they wanted to go to college.

“When you have someone like former Gov. Lamm who has been in his leadership positions making comments about the Hispanic and African-American cultures as being second rate, it flies in the face of the kind of America we ought to be creating,” Salazar says. “The kind of America we ought to be creating is one that celebrates the diversity of our nation and that also celebrates the opportunity we want to create for all people.”

In an e-mailed response, Lamm said groups whose culture and values stress delayed gratification, education, hard work, success and ambition have succeeded in America, regardless of discrimination.

“We must recognize that all the civil rights and affirmative action laws in the world are not going to solve the problem of minority underachievement,” he wrote.

Dr. Frank Talamantes
Assistant Dean for Research Development
TexasTechMedicalSchoolat El Paso
4800 Alberta Ave
El Paso, Texas 79902

Immigration — and the Curse of the Black Legend 
By Tony Horwitz, New York Times, Published: July 9, 2006 Vineyard Haven, Mass.
Our denial of America's early Spanish heritage is rooted in age-old stereotypes that still entangle today's immigration debate.   Sent by
COURSING through the immigration debate is the unexamined faith that American history rests on English bedrock, or Plymouth Rock to be specific. Jamestown also gets a nod, particularly in the run-up to its 400th birthday, but John Smith was English, too (he even coined the name New England).

So amid the din over border control, the Senate affirms the self-evident truth that English is our national language; "It is part of our blood," Lamar Alexander, Republican of Tennessee, says. Border vigilantes call themselves Minutemen, summoning colonial Massachusetts as they apprehend Hispanics in the desert Southwest. Even undocumented immigrants invoke our Anglo founders, waving placards that read, "The Pilgrims didn't have papers."

These newcomers are well indoctrinated; four of the sample questions on our naturalization test ask about Pilgrims. Nothing in the sample exam suggests that prospective citizens need know anything that occurred on this continent before the Mayflower landed in 1620. Few Americans do, after all.

This national amnesia isn't new, but it's glaring and supremely paradoxical at a moment when politicians warn of the threat posed to our culture and identity by an invasion of immigrants from across the Mexican border. If Americans hit the books, they'd find what Al Gore would call an inconvenient truth. The early history of what is now the United States was Spanish, not English, and our denial of this heritage is rooted in age-old stereotypes that still entangle today's immigration debate.

Forget for a moment the millions of Indians who occupied this continent for 13,000 or more years before anyone else arrived, and start the clock with Europeans' presence on present-day United States soil. The first confirmed landing wasn't by Vikings, who reached Canada in about 1000, or by Columbus, who reached the Bahamas in 1492. It was by a Spaniard, Juan Ponce de León, who landed in 1513 at a lush shore he christened La Florida.

Most Americans associate the early Spanish in this hemisphere with Cortés in Mexico and Pizarro in Peru. But Spaniards pioneered the present-day United States, too. Within three decades of Ponce de León's landing, the Spanish became the first Europeans to reach the Appalachians, the Mississippi, the Grand Canyon and the Great Plains. Spanish ships sailed along the East Coast, penetrating to present-day Bangor, Me., and up the Pacific Coast as far as Oregon.

From 1528 to 1536, four castaways from a Spanish expedition, including a "black" Moor, journeyed all the way from Florida to the Gulf of California — 267 years before Lewis and Clark embarked on their much more renowned and far less arduous trek. In 1540, Francisco Vázquez de Coronado led 2,000 Spaniards and Mexican Indians across today's Arizona-Mexico border — right by the Minutemen's inaugural post — and traveled as far as central Kansas, close to the exact geographic center of what is now the continental United States. In all, Spaniards probed half of today's lower 48 states before the first English tried to colonize, at Roanoke Island, N.C.

The Spanish didn't just explore, they settled, creating the first permanent European settlement in the continental United States at St. Augustine, Fla., in 1565. Santa Fe, N.M., also predates Plymouth: later came Spanish settlements in San Antonio, Tucson, San Diego and San Francisco. The Spanish even established a Jesuit mission in Virginia's Chesapeake Bay 37 years before the founding of Jamestown in 1607.

Two iconic American stories have Spanish antecedents, too. Almost 80 years before John Smith's alleged rescue by Pocahontas, a man by the name of Juan Ortiz told of his remarkably similar rescue from execution by an Indian girl. Spaniards also held a thanksgiving, 56 years before the Pilgrims, when they feasted near St. Augustine with Florida Indians, probably on stewed pork and garbanzo beans.

The early history of Spanish North America is well documented, as is the extensive exploration by the 16th-century French and Portuguese. So why do Americans cling to a creation myth centered on one band of late-arriving English — Pilgrims who weren't even the first English to settle New England or the first Europeans to reach Plymouth Harbor? (There was a short-lived colony in Maine and the French reached Plymouth earlier.)

The easy answer is that winners write the history and the Spanish, like the French, were ultimately losers in the contest for this continent. Also, many leading American writers and historians of the early 19th century were New Englanders who elevated the Pilgrims to mythic status (the North's victory in the Civil War provided an added excuse to diminish the Virginia story). Well into the 20th century, standard histories and school texts barely mentioned the early Spanish in North America.

While it's true that our language and laws reflect English heritage, it's also true that the Spanish role was crucial. Spanish discoveries spurred the English to try settling America and paved the way for the latecomers' eventual success. Many key aspects of American history, like African slavery and the cultivation of tobacco, are rooted in the forgotten Spanish century that preceded English arrival.

There's another, less-known legacy of this early period that explains why we've written the Spanish out of our national narrative. As late as 1783, at the end of the Revolutionary War, Spain held claim to roughly half of today's continental United States (in 1775, Spanish ships even reached Alaska). As American settlers pushed out from the 13 colonies, the new nation craved Spanish land. And to justify seizing it, Americans found a handy weapon in a set of centuries-old beliefs known as the "black legend."

The legend first arose amid the religious strife and imperial rivalries of 16th-century Europe. Northern Europeans, who loathed Catholic Spain and envied its American empire, published books and gory engravings that depicted Spanish colonization as uniquely barbarous: an orgy of greed, slaughter and papist depravity, the Inquisition writ large.

Though simplistic and embellished, the legend contained elements of truth. Juan de Oñate, the conquistador who colonized New Mexico, punished Pueblo Indians by cutting off their hands and feet and then enslaving them. Hernando de Soto bound Indians in chains and neck collars and forced them to haul his army's gear across the South. Natives were thrown to attack dogs and burned alive.

But there were Spaniards of conscience in the New World, too: most notably the Dominican priest Bartolomé de Las Casas, whose defense of Indians impelled the Spanish crown to pass laws protecting natives. Also, Spanish brutality wasn't unique; English colonists committed similar atrocities. The Puritans were arguably more intolerant of natives than the Spanish and the Virginia colonists as greedy for gold as any conquistador. But none of this erased the black legend's enduring stain, not only in Europe but also in the newly formed United States.

"Anglo Americans," writes David J. Weber, the pre-eminent historian of Spanish North America, "inherited the view that Spaniards were unusually cruel, avaricious, treacherous, fanatical, superstitious, cowardly, corrupt, decadent, indolent and authoritarian."

When 19th-century jingoists revived this caricature to justify invading Spanish (and later, Mexican) territory, they added a new slur: the mixing of Spanish, African and Indian blood had created a degenerate race. To Stephen Austin, Texas's fight with Mexico was "a war of barbarism and of despotic principles, waged by the mongrel Spanish-Indian and Negro race, against civilization and the Anglo-American race." It was the manifest destiny of white Americans to seize and civilize these benighted lands, just as it was to take the territory of Indian savages.

From 1819 to 1848, the United States and its army increased the nation's area by roughly a third at Spanish and Mexican expense, including three of today's four most populous states: California, Texas and Florida. Hispanics became the first American citizens in the newly acquired Southwest territory and remained a majority in several states until the 20th century.

By then, the black legend had begun to fade. But it seems to have found new life among immigration's staunchest foes, whose rhetoric carries traces of both ancient Hispanophobia and the chauvinism of 19th-century expansionists.

Representative J. D. Hayworth of Arizona, who calls for deporting illegal immigrants and changing the Constitution so that children born to them in the United States can't claim citizenship, denounces "defeatist wimps unwilling to stand up for our culture" against alien "invasion." Those who oppose making English the official language, he adds, "reject the very notion that there is a uniquely American identity, or that, if there is one, that it is superior to any other."

Representative Tom Tancredo of Colorado, chairman of the House Immigration Reform Caucus, depicts illegal immigration as "a scourge" abetted by "a cult of multiculturalism" that has "a death grip" on this nation. "We are committing cultural suicide," Mr. Tancredo claims. "The barbarians at the gate will only need to give us a slight push, and the emaciated body of Western civilization will collapse in a heap."

ON talk radio and the Internet, foes of immigration echo the black legend more explicitly, typecasting Hispanics as indolent, a burden on the American taxpayer, greedy for benefits and jobs, prone to criminality and alien to our values — much like those degenerate Spaniards of the old Southwest and those gold-mad conquistadors who sought easy riches rather than honest toil. At the fringes, the vilification is baldly racist. In fact, cruelty to Indians seems to be the only transgression absent from the familiar package of Latin sins.

Also missing, of course, is a full awareness of the history of the 500-year Spanish presence in the Americas and its seesawing fortunes in the face of Anglo encroachment. "The Hispanic world did not come to the United States," Carlos Fuentes observes. "The United States came to the Hispanic world. It is perhaps an act of poetic justice that now the Hispanic world should return."

America has always been a diverse and fast-changing land, home to overlapping cultures and languages. It's an homage to our history, not a betrayal of it, to welcome the latest arrivals, just as the Indians did those tardy and uninvited Pilgrims who arrived in Plymouth not so long ago.

Tony Horwitz, the author of "Confederates in the Attic" and "Blue Latitudes," is writing a book on the early exploration of North America.



Silvestre S. Herrera Medal of Honor Recipient
Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command, seeks DNA
National United States Marine Corps Museum Opening Schedule
Send a thank you card to soldiers currently serving in Iraq
“The Tejano Battle of Medina”  August 18, 1813
Fallen Heroes of Operation Iraqi Freedom
Honor Them by Remembering . . Freedom is their Gift to Us
WWII Draft Registration Cards
Resources for Descendants of Mexican War Veterans 


Silvestre S. Herrera 
By Tony Santiago

PFC Silvestre S. Herrera Medal of Honor recipient

Silvestre S. Herrera
(born July 17, 1917) is a retired United States Army private of Hispanic heritage who was awarded the Medal of Honor for his heroic actions during World War II in Mertzwiller, France. His one-man charge on an enemy stronghold resulted in his single-handed capture of eight enemy soldiers. He is the only living person authorized to wear both the Medal of Honor and Mexico's Order of Military Merit (first class).

Herrera was born in the Mexican city of Camargo, Chihuahua, and not, as he once believed, in El Paso, Texas. His parents died when he was only a year old, and the man he had always thought was his father was really an uncle who had brought the 18-month old Herrera to El Paso to provide him with a better way of life in the United States. This fact was unknown to him until he was 17 years old. Herrera worked as a farm hand in El Paso. He soon moved to Phoenix, Arizona with his wife Ramona and three children, Mary, Elva, Silvestre, Jr. and the uncle he believed to be his father. Herrera was a member of the Texas National Guard, 36th Divison. When the United States entered World War II, his unit was to be one of the first to land in Europe. When he broke the news to his family, he was told the truth about his parents' death and his place of birth.

On March 15, 1945 Herrera's unit found itself engaged in combat in a forest in the vicinity of Mertzwiller, France. His platoon came under heavy enemy fire from the woods, forcing most of the men to seek cover. Herrera charged the enemy stronghold and ended the threat, resulting in his single-handed capture of eight enemy soldiers.

Later that same day, his platoon came under fire and was attacked by a second enemy stronghold. The platoon found itself pinned down and the situation was difficult because there was a mine field between the platoon and the enemy. Herrera entered the mine field with the intention of attacking the enemy stronghold while drawing enemy gunfire away from his comrades. A mine exploded and shattered his leg. Then another mine exploded, severing his good leg below the knee. Herrera continued to fire upon the enemy with his own rifle, an act which allowed the members of his platoon to skirt the mine field and capture the enemy position.

As Herrera lay in the Army hospital recovering from his wounds, President Truman was not sure that Herrera would be well enough for a formal presentation of the Medal of Honor. However, on August 23, 1945, Silvestre wheeled his wheel chair across the White House lawn so that the President could present him with his award.

Medal of Honor citation

Silvestre S. Herrera

Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company E, 142d Infantry, 36th Infantry Division.

Place and date: Near Mertzwiller, France, 15 March 1945.
Entered service at: Phoenix, Ariz. Birth: El Paso, Tex.

G.O. No.: 75, 5 September 1945.

Citation: He advanced with a platoon along a wooded road until stopped by heavy enemy machinegun fire. As the rest of the unit took cover, he made a 1-man frontal assault on a strongpoint and captured 8 enemy soldiers. When the platoon resumed its advance and was subjected to fire from a second emplacement beyond an extensive minefield, Pvt. Herrera again moved forward, disregarding the danger of exploding mines, to attack the position. He stepped on a mine and had both feet severed but, despite intense pain and unchecked loss of blood, he pinned down the enemy with accurate rifle fire while a friendly squad captured the enemy gun by skirting the minefield and rushing in from the flank. The magnificent courage, extraordinary heroism, and willing self-sacrifice displayed by Pvt. Herrera resulted in the capture of 2 enemy strongpoints and the taking of 8 prisoners.


A year after he was presented with the Medal of Honor, the Mexican Government presented Herrera with its Order of Military Merit, first class. He is the only living person authorized to wear both the U.S. Medal of Honor and the Mexican Order of Military Merit.

Herrera became the first resident from Arizona to receive the Medal of Honor during World War II. Arizona Governor Sidney P. Osborn declared August 14, 1945 to be "Herrera Day" and welcomed home Pfc. Silvestre S. Herrera with a hero's parade. A drive to bestow upon him citizenship of the only country he knew was started and as a result he was granted U.S. Citizenship. The citizens of Arizona raised $14,000 to provide him and his growing family with a new home.

Valle Del Sol, Inc. recognized him with a Special Recognition Award in 1994, and with a Hall of Fame award in 1999. On March 13, 1996, Herrera was honored by the United States House of Representatives upon recommendation of Congressman Ed Pastor.


An elementary school in Phoenix, Arizona — the Silvestre S Herrera School — bears his name.

On October 24, 1998, the United States Army Reserve Center in Phoenix, which houses the 164th Corps Support Group was dedicated in honor of Silvestre S. Herrera. [5]


Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command, seeks DNA
"Until they are home."

We need your help! Gathering mtDNA samples from family members of missing service members is vital to the identification process. To see if you are a potential donor go their site.

The mission of the Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command (JPAC) is to achieve the fullest possible accounting of all Americans missing as a result of the nation's past conflicts. 
The highest priority of the organization is the return of any living Americans that remain prisoners of war. 

The core of JPAC's day-to-day operations involves investigating leads and recovering and identifying Americans who were killed in action but were never brought home. This process involves close coordination with other U.S. agencies involved in the POW/MIA issue, including the Defense POW/Missing Personnel Office, Department of State, the Joint Staff, U. S. Pacific Command, Defense Intelligence Agency, the Armed Forces Medical Examiner, and Armed Forces Institute of Pathology.

On average, JPAC identifies about six MIAs each a month. To date, the U.S. government has identified over 1,300 individuals. The search for unaccounted-for Americans starts with in-depth research. JPAC historians and analysts gather information such as correspondence, maps, photographs, unit histories, medical and personnel records about POW/MIAs from many sources. At any given time, there are more than 1,000 active case files under investigation. The main goal of investigative mission is to obtain enough information to correlate or connect a particular site with an unaccounted-for individual. If enough evidence is found, a site will be recommended for recovery.

Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command (JPAC)
Attn: Public Affairs Office
310 Worchester Ave. Bldg 45
Hickam AFB, HI 96853-5530
Sent by Jay Farias 


National United States Marine Corps Museum Opening Schedule

(More: National USMC Museum Programs) If you are already a donor to the Heritage Foundation and have made a donation of $35 or more, you have most likely received a registration form to request tickets directly from the Marine Corps Heritage Foundation, to attend the Dedication Ceremony on 10 November 2006. Your request DOES NOT guarantee tickets. It WILL put your name into the drawing with the group of donors requesting tickets as the Heritage Foundation issues tickets later this year. 

There will be a limited number of tickets available from them for the Dedication on the 10th. Please recognize that the Marine Corps League is not involved in the distribution of those tickets for the Ceremony on November 10th. 

The good news is - the following day, 11 November 2006, is set-aside for the Veterans groups etc. The Marine Corps League has been slotted into a time frame from 3:00 to 5:00 to have our group tour the museum (1-hour shifts) and then attend the Twilight/Candlelight Memorial Ceremony in the adjacent Semper Fidelis Memorial Park. (Registration Below) SINCE SO MANY MARINES WILL BE IN THE WASHINGTON AREA FOR THE MUSEUM DEDICATION AND VETERANS DAY, THE MARINE CORPS LEAGUE NATIONAL HEADQUARTERS IS SPONSORING OUR FIRST EVER NATIONAL MARINE CORPS BIRTHDAY BALL TO BE HELD AT THE FAIRVIEW PARK MARRIOT ON NOVEMBER 10TH. (Registration Below) THE MARINE CORPS LEAGUE HAS SET ASIDE A BLOCK OF ROOMS FOR NOVEMBER 9, 10, AND 11, AT OUR SPECIAL RATE OF $89 a night plus taxes - AT THE FAIRVIEW PARK MARRIOT HOTEL, IN FALLS CHURCH, VA (same hotel that hosts our Mid Winter Conference). YOU CAN RESERVE A ROOM BY CALLING THE MARRIOT DIRECTLY AND TELLING THEM YOU ARE WITH THE MARINE CORPS LEAGUE. First come, first served and when that block is gone, rooms will be at market rate. WASHINGTON AREA 

SCHEDULE OF EVENTS NOVEMBER 10 - 13 2006 NOVEMBER 10, 2006 10:00 a.m. - Marine Corps Birthday Ceremony - Marine Corps War Memorial - Arlington, VA 1:00 p.m. - Official Dedication Ceremony - National Museum of the Marine Corps - Quantico, VA 6:30 p.m. - National Marine Corps League’s Marine Corps Birthday Ball - Fairview Park Marriot, Falls Church, VA  (See Registeration Link Below)

NOVEMBER 11, 2006 10:00 a.m. - Veterans Day Ceremony - Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, VA 2:00 p.m. - Marine Corps League forms up at Pentagon South Parking Lot for shuttle to National Museum of the Marine Corps at Quantico - (click here to register…….) Uniform of the Day - (where possible - not mandatory) in order of preference: 
Marine Corps League Cover 
Marine Corps League Casual Uniform - Red Blazer 
Marine Corps League - Undress Uniform (long or short sleeve) 3:00 p.m. - 5:00 p.m. - Marine Corps League tours National Museum of the Marine Corps - Quantico 
5:00 p.m. - Candlelight Ceremony/Twilight - To Commemorate Opening of Semper Fidelis Memorial Park on Veteran’s Day. * Program to consist of historically uniformed Marines, Dedication speeches, and candlelight march into the Park 
* Focus is on the memorial impact of the Park and its enhancement to overall visit experience to the Marine Corps Heritage Center 6:00 p.m. - Board shuttle buses to return to Pentagon South Parking Lot. 

NOVEMBER 12, 2006 National Museum of the Marine Corps open to active duty military and Veterans. Shuttle buses only - South Pentagon Parking Lot - (throughout the day)

NOVEMBER 13, 2006 National Museum of the Marine Corps opens to the public * Click Here to view a PowerPoint presentation the National Marine Corps Museum 
(Recommended for Broadband users only) * Register for the 1st MCL National USMC Birthday Ball * Register for the MCL Tour of the National Museum of the Marine Corps * Information and/or Registration of the Fairview Park Marriott 

Send a thank you card to soldiers currently serving in Iraq

If you go to the web site at  you can pick out a thank you card and the Xerox Corporation will print it and it will be sent to a soldier that is currently serving in Iraq . You can't pick out who gets it, but it will go to some member of the armed services. It is FREE and it only takes a second. Wouldn't it be wonderful if the soldiers received a bunch of these?

We did this and we hope you will too. Was checked on, and this is true!!! How AMAZING it would be if we could get everyone we know to send one. 

Fallen Heroes of Operation Iraqi Freedom

Remembering the servicemembers who died in the service of their country. is a contribution by Tim Rivera to the families of the fallen. You may contact the webmaster by using the online form.


Honor them by remembering... Freedom - is their gift to us 

WWII Draft Registration Cards

Learn more about these records at:


The Verdi Community will be sponsoring the “Tejano Descendents of the Battle of Medina.” President and co-founder Rick Reyes announced that he and his cousin Armando along with Austin author Dan Arellano, “Tejano Roots,” will be in the Homecoming Parade in Pleasanton, Texas. The parade kicks off at 9AM Saturday August 19th. Accompanying Reyes will be a group from Austin, the “Tejanos in Action” a Veterans group recognized by the Department of Defense and the State of Texas. Their motto is “Still Serving.” This veterans group provides deceased veterans with military funerals and marches in veterans’ parades in the Austin and surrounding communities. Along with these veterans will be Charles Lara, a Battle of Medina descendent and the Alamo Legacy and Mission Association (ALMA) Re-enactors that will be dressed in Tejano dress of the 1800’s. They have appeared in movies such as the latest Alamo movie as extras.

Contact: Project coordinator Rick Reyes 1-210-272-3322 x128 
For more information contact: Dan Arellano 512-826-7569
Below are photos from the August event:


                                          Dan Arellano and Robert Thonhoff

“The Tejano Battle of Medina”  August 18, 1813

A public ceremony was held Saturday, August 19, 2006, the 193rd anniversary of the “Battle of Medina,” the largest battle for freedom ever fought in the State of Texas. 

Many Mexican-Americans have given their lives defending freedom and democracy. A thousand Tejano’s were killed in one battle alone in defense of these causes. But this conflict was not on foreign soil. Not on the beaches at Normandy, not in Korea, Viet Nam or Desert Storm although Tejano’s were there, but much closer to home in south Texas, less than twenty miles south of San Antonio. The “Battle of Medina”…the forgotten history of the Tejano’s, these first sons and daughters of the State of Texas….unknown and unrecognized for their ultimate sacrifice.

This battle was between the evenly matched forces of The Republican Army of The North consisting of four hundred American volunteers, nine hundred to a thousand Tejano’s and two to three hundred Lipan, Coushatta and Karankawa Indians and a Spanish army led by General Joaquin de Arredondo. 

A little known fact is that the Tejano leader Colonel Miguel Menchaca, in the heat of the battle, had been ordered to withdraw his men, whereas it is said that Menchaca responded “Tejano’s do not withdraw,” and plunged back into the foray. Seven to eight hundred Tejano’s were killed in the battle itself. Another three hundred twenty-seven were executed in San Antonio after the battle and over a hundred would be executed as they fled towards Louisiana. And now it is time to honor those who fought and died 193 years ago.

Dan Arellano Author/Historian  512-826-7569

Resources for Descendants of Mexican War Veterans

To assist you in your research! Book: U.S. Veterans of the War with Mexico, 1846-1848:
A Guide to Genealogical Research. $12.50 plus postage & handling
Currently, in addition to the bi-annual journal received by active members, the society has five publications available. Proceeds from the sale of these items help us to achieve our aim of honoring U.S. Veterans of the War with Mexico. No royalties are paid to any author or editor.

U.S. Veterans of the War with Mexico, 1846-1848: A Guide to Genealogical Research
Alabama Volunteers in the War with Mexico, 1846-1848
The Eutaw Rangers in the War with Mexico
A Documentary History of the Mexican War
Sketches by a Skirmisher

This page also includes instructions on how to order DMWV publications.
U.S. Veterans of the War with Mexico, 1846-1848

by Steven R. Butler, former editor, MEXICAN WAR Journal.
(Replaces How to Find Your Mexican War Veteran Ancestor)

This 72-page comb-bound, soft-cover book is a comprehensive guide to finding your Mexican War veteran ancestor and learning more about his role in this oft-forgotten conflict. Includes chapters and appendices with the following titles:
The U.S.-Mexican War, 1846-1848 (A Brief Overview)
The U.S.-Mexican War - Recommended Reading
Soldiering in the U.S.-Mexican War
How Mexican War Veterans Fared After the War
Mexican War Veteran Records in the National Archives
Indexes to Mexican War Veteran Records in the National Archives
Requesting Copies of Records from the National Archives
Printed and Online Rosters of Mexican War Veterans
Honor Your Mexican War Veteran Ancestor with a free V.A. Grave Marker
Mexican War Lineage Societies
Appendix 1: U.S. Military Units of the Mexican War
Appendix 2: Federal Legislation Affecting Mexican War Veterans
Appendix 3: National Archives Regional Records Services Facilities
Appendix 4: Sample Mexican War Veteran Records Non-member price: $15.50 per copy (includes postage and handling).Member price: $13.00 per copy (includes postage and handling).

Veteran Graves Registry Project  You're invited to participate! 
In June 1997 the Board of Directors of The Descendants of Mexican War Veterans unanimously approved a project whereby the organization will compile a list of the known locations of graves of Mexican War veterans. WE NEED YOUR HELP! In order to meet our objective, the DMWV is asking anyone who knows the location of the grave of a Mexican War Veteran to provide us with that information. To participate in this project, please complete a Graves Registration Form and mail it to the DMWV National Office, P.O. Box 830482, Richardson, Texas 75083-0482. Thank you! Note: In order to download, view or print this form, you will need the free Adobe Acrobat Reader. Click on the icon to download the reader if you don't have it already.

How to Obtain a Free V. A. Grave Marker 
A V.A. headstone marks the grave of Capt. John Page, who was mortally wounded at the Battle of Palo Alto. Page's grave is at Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery near St. Louis, Missouri. Photo by Steven Butler. Used with permission. Unfortunately, most of the graves of U.S. soldiers who died in Mexico during the war are forgotten and unmarked. It is equally sad that the final resting place of veterans who survived the war and returned to the United States to live until their natural end are often unmarked as well.Free veteran grave markers for the unmarked grave of any American veteran can be ordered from the U.S. Veterans Administration. They are available in a variety of types and are made from marble or bronze. Any person can order a marker. It is not necessary to be a descendant or relative.

To obtain an Application for Standard Government Headstone or Marker, write to the following address:
Monument Service Department of Memorial Affairs
Veterans Administration
941 N. Capitol St., N.E., Room 9320
Washington, D.C. 20420

Upon receipt of the application, complete it as directed and return it to the Veterans Administration. Be forewarned; your application may take as long as two years to be processed. Please also note that although the marker is free, you may have to pay to have it erected or placed in the cemetery. The stones are very heavy. The V.A. recommends that you have the marker sent direct to the cemetery.




My First Celebration of Labor Day, Circa 1949 by Frank Sifuentes
The Bean contest en la Escuela Zavala by Frank Sifuentes 
Cuentos de Kiko
Learning from our Past by Michael Lozano, Part 5

Refugio "Cuca" Lozano del Bosque and children
 Grandmother of Micheal Lozano. His father Librado sits on her lap. 
The older boy, Jesus.  Younger boy in blue, Eugenio. The daughter, Rosa.
Click for their family story.

circa 1944-45 Austin, Texas USA

By the time Carmen and I were in the 6th Grade, Miss Durham - who dedicated herself to teaching us penmanship and left little doubt she was among the very best in the entire l9th Century – was also our Home Room teacher.

Seeing her handwriting on a black board using white chalk was like witnessing perfection. Her writing on the blackboard was beautiful and straight, without even needing a line beneath it!

Miss Durham just started writing without ever losing a steady motion: and with extra pretty capital letters! The entire class had to become sufficiently Anglicized, for surely we were considered the most likely to succeed in the Anglo society: because having the ability to speak, read and write in English was –indeed! – our passport to Americana USA.

Yep! We no longer were those ‘mesinkin’ children. We were now a creation of an American Citizen with universal rights as full-fledged participants of .the American Dream.

How we were viewed by the children who did not finish Zavala and their families may have felt about us is another matter. They saw us as induced, inducted and sworn into becoming like ‘bolios, posteros, gabachos, gringos for all I know. With a whole bunch of songs under our belt from Americana.

Little did anyone know we still had a long way to go. First and most ‘torturous’ for me: We HAD to get a passing Grade in Miss Durham’s Penmanship Class before graduating to Allan Jr. High where we got the privilege of getting education in a more universal setting.

Non-believers please do not read further because I do not want to be accused of being a liar like all good Texans are supposed to be.

Carmen and I always got to sit next to each other. And it made me feel secure because she was known as the smartest student that had ever been to Zavala. I had it made. The reason we sat next to each other is because they thought we were twins being we were in the same Grade.  I needed this preface. To say this story is true. (its been verified several by my sister Carmen and Irma Saldivar, Victor Sanchez, Luis Lopez, Mike Arredondo..

Frank M. Sifuentes

By the time we were in the 6th grade destined to graduate from Zavala Elementary School, the major consideration was whether we were prepared for Allan Jr. High, Austin’s only middle school where everyone, The Zavala School Administration and teachers on the whole uncertain about us because though we were well versed in English were worried because wondered why almost always spoke Spanish Hallways, bathrooms, and most of all outside in the play grounds and during recess and lunch break.

This created the impression we had not learned much English. And since they dearly loved being educators concerned for out futures they feared it would not be long before we dropped out. As Carmen, Janie and I Did. 

Therefore they put their creativity into the ultimate Test by devising a Bean Contest. They gave each of us a little sack an exact number of beans inside a bag of Bull Durham tobacco, donated by chain smokers no doubt.

And gave us instruction on the way the game was going to Be conducted. The idea was that each time we heard someone speak Spanish anywhere in the boundaries of the school we would be able to demand they gave us a bean.

They made a chart with all our names on they done by Maria Arias who although she was left-handed had the Most beautiful calligraphy. And it had lines for each week that those who got gold stars put on them for having more Beans than the week before. (Of course we were on our honor and could not raid our bean bags at home.)

Though I can barely remember I collected enough information from Carmen, Irma and others over the years. Mike Arredondo remember he demanded a bean from Jesse Solis and that he laughed in his face and called him a bolio. And made him so made he had to clobber him.

He said that when Jesse walked away he said "Le’boy a Dicer a mi hermano que me pegaste’ and that he went and took another six beans.’ And that when Jesse threatened Him again he told him, "Yea, him and what army!’

Mike had already decided he was going to be a U.S. Marine.  But to make it short: When the teachers and administrators saw that we were being motivated to hear Spanish and that there were all kinds of disputes occurring. And then cancelled the contest and confiscated the beans.

Someone planted the beans in the back of the school, motivated I guess by the story of Jack and the Bean Stalk.  And when the plants started to grow they sent the janitor to go take them out with a hoe: Dashing dreams of Jack & The Bean Stalk.




By: Frank M. Sifuentes

By the late l940’s many of the Mexicanos born in Austin, Texas in the late l920’s and early l930’s – including yours truly – had become assimilated American citizens.

We were aware of our duties as citizens: to our church, the community and to the U.S.A.

I had made come back after dropping out shortly after I turned 14 from Allan Junior High. Having come to ‘my senses’ realizing that if I did not get an education I would be destined to ‘pica y pala’ digging ditches. And had therefore begged my mother to let me go back to school. She could not be sure I knew what I wanted; however, did not object even though I had given her such a hard time becoming a juvenile delinquent: Almost ending up in reform school.

After entering Allan Junior High I become the most improved student and winning a $50 scholarship for becoming a 10th grader at Austin High School. Where I excelled in public speaking and winning the l948 Optimist Club Oratory Champion of South Texas. Plus I had even joined the Red Dragons, the school’s ‘prestigious Drama Club. The first and perhaps the only ‘meskin’ to do so.*

My picture had even come out in the Austin American. With the result that Father Green at Our Lady of Guadalupe Church got a scholarship for me at St Edward H.S., at which time I even became more than a bit ‘chiflado’, dating girls from Catholic High school, giving me a ‘chanz’ to wear my suit: A gift from the Optimist Club for being an oratory ‘boy wonder.’

So that l949 became a perfect year in just about everyway.

WWII had transformed the Friend City of Austin into a thriving community. And the League of United Latin American Citizens(s) led by my uncles Nash and Henry Moreno had registered a significant number of voters by having dances at the Driscol Hotel or the City Convention Center and having them register to vote by paying the poll tax.

And being business men they had the friendship of Mayor Austin Miller. Consequently, we the Mexicanos of Eastside Austin were invited to attend the Labor Day Dance at Zilker Springs park. It was in fact the first national celebration of the importance of labor in the U.S. And the first time we had been invited to celebrate with Anglos (Americanos).

I had adopted Americanism all the way. Assimilated and educated, and with a future.

Father Green had already assured the Our Lady of Guadalupe congregation my next step was going to Notre Dame to become a lawyer; something greatly encouraged by having a registered high IQ. Not a genius but ‘close’ enough.

My aim in going to the event was to dance with one of the best dancers in all of Austin: Agnes Guerrero. Agnes had a eye towards becoming a professional.

Agnes was almost as tall as I was and liked to dance classic Eastside Austin cheek to cheek a estilo MexTex Encanicado enamorado: Dale gas right away vato..!

A whole bunch of us ‘chicanes’ flocked to the grand celebration Labor Day: as if we had achieved equity. It included two big a la Glenn Miller bands, one on the East and the other on the Westside.

Agnes and I were we having a great time. However, as my brother recently recalled "some red necks’ got the bright idea of segregating us by stringing a rope length-wise in the middle of the dance floor, that put the Mexicano dancers to the South and pure Anglos to the North. (So no one would fail to see the symbolism!)

I had not noticed what had been happening because Agnes and I were dancing as if we had closed out the rest of the world becoming future ballroom champs.

However, I saw my Uncle Paul Reyes dancing with his future bride Sarah Quintania who was a school teacher. (And my uncle was a manger at a major drug store.)

When Paul and Sarah saw what was happening and the red blooded Americanos tried to pull the rope over their heads: No way Uncle Paul and Sarah said.

Paul grabbed the rope and would not let go. The audacious gentlemen melted like cowards always do. 

Agnes and I were so close we easily got next to Paul and Sarah, as did several other Mexicanos who were not about to let this happened.

Ironically Agnes Guerro’s future in law Stella had been dancing with an Anglo and didn’t know what was going to happen to her. Send her ‘back’ South and leave boyfriend stranded up North just for having good taste in dance pardoners. However being with an Americano won her amnesty.

When the organizers of the dance realized they had a potential riot on their hands, they took the easy route: They cancelled the dance.

And what a terrible disappointment it was for the future ballroom champions, me and Agnes. However it became an incident I would never forget. The next day the Austin American reported the ‘were hordes of Mexicans’ at the dance.

But my uncles, included Paul and Jimmy Reyes who had been in the invasion of Normandy and had returned with two purple hearts and a Silver Star having becoming the most decorated American soldier in Austin and the entire LULAC contingency stormed City Hall and had some hot words to offer to Mayor Austin Miller.

The next story in the Austin paper was in the nature of an apology. After all Austin Miller needed the votes of the Eastside by that time.


Cuentos de Kiko
Posted by: "Joseph Puentes"
Digest Number 34

Kiko Sifuentes has submitted four more short oral history stories. For some reason the recording system we are using is producing a lot of back ground noise. My apologies. . .we might need to find a better way to record. joseph
Los Cuentos de Kiko

===> "Summer Camp 1941" by Frank Moreno Sifuentes

===> "Iona: Carnival Girl" by Frank Moreno Sifuentes

===> "Going Down Hill" by Frank Moreno Sifuentes

===> "1948 Bantam Weight Champion" by Frank Moreno Sifuentes

Micheal Lozano Embarks on a Journey of Self-Discovery,
Part V
Learning from our Past 

From Mike Lozano

Hi Mimi,

Thank you so much for sharing your personal oral family history with me. You are such an inspiration. But, the fact is that you are not just an inspiration to me but with releasing your story to a ever widening audience you will be able to inspire thousands of other people who can relate to your ability to overcome early childhood adversity. Your contribution to society is providing the gift of teaching American history through family history. 

My goal is also to bring to life a record of as many people as I can in our family tree. I hope to tell the story in the context of what was going on at the same time in North American and Spanish history such as events like the Great Depression. We can see what our ancestors were going through in relation to this broader context.  Maybe this can help future generations to understand and empathize with our ancestors behaviors. I appreciate your willingness to share the personal details of your life. As a young child 
going through the rocky relationship of your parents, you bore no responsibility for their actions, but there is a lesson to learn in how to overcome those circumstances. 

I have found that as history puts more time between these events that we can look back and learn from them, how to not make the same mistakes as our parents. We also learn to not necessarily condone them, but also not to condemn them - - knowing now what the times were like in the big picture of the past. 

Mimi, we have both chosen a course in this life of giving back to society the ultimate gift - a preserved record of our personal history and an accurate account of the history of our Hispanic heritage. Thanks again,---------Love, Mike

Part V

I re-entered the United States at Roma, Texas without so much as a search from the border patrol. I was surprised that with all the hype about security, that the Mexicans seemed more concerned about searching me when I came into Mexico than the Americans did when I re-entered the United States. Well, so much for national security and the war on terror. I headed back to Harlingen to get Dudley and continue my journey. My parents and my Uncle Ruben were there when I got back to their house. There was some friction, but I don’t know why. It seems that they are too caught up in their own agendas to appreciate the significance of what I had accomplished. Well, for whatever reasons that they had for showing little interest in what I found in Mexico, I had little patience for sticking around there. I still had the whole rest of the country to discover. There have been times of friction between me and my parents. Before I left I confessed to them that I had to stay strong in the face of life’s adversity. I told them that I had defied the forces that were against me in my health, in my career, and in finding our families history. Nothing would stop me from living my dreams. The only direction for me to go was forward. I said goodbye to my parents and headed towards San Antonio and a planned rendezvous with my wife, Kathy.

As I headed across south Texas, I was reminded of the early years when this area was occupied by Indian tribes. In 1660, Indian war parties from Texas struck at the Nuevo Leon settlements of Cerralvo, Saltillo and Monterrey. By 1663, the raids were getting so bad that settlers were writing their last will and testaments when they left their homes to travel between settlements. An expedition under the command of Juan de La Garza (a great grand uncle) was organized in Monterrey to strike the Indians at their villages in Texas. With 100 soldiers, de la Garza crossed the Rio Grande River near present day Eagle Pass, Texas. They caught the Indians by surprise, killing 100 warriors and capturing 125 others. It is almost certain that two of my direct relatives, Pedro Lozano (1644) and Pedro De La Garza (1613) were involved in this operation. After this, the Spaniards took a policy of the carrot and the stick. The carrot was presented by Franciscans who sought to extend Spanish culture to the lands and Indians that the Spanish Crown had claimed. The Franciscans set up a system of concentrating tribes into church-oriented communities.

Two of the earliest Franciscans to attempt to set up missions north of the Rio Grande River were Fray Juan Larios and his assistant Fray Francisco Penasco de Lozano. In 1675, Fray Larios and Lieutenant Fernando Bosque set out on the first missionary journey deep into Texas. They went as far as the Nueces River. It is very likely that my grandmother, Refugio del Bosque (Lozano), is related to Lieutenant Fernando del Bosque. During this expedition, they freed a captured Spanish boy. They also encountered huge herds of buffalo that were not previously seen in Mexico. Bosque submitted a report recommending the establishment of three missions in the north.

The stick was presented by military men like Capitan Pedro Lozano and others who manned the missions with about 75 soldiers with orders to keep the Indian problem under control. Most of the Lozano men were military officers. In my family tree, there was Captain Pedro Lozano Senior, Captain Pedro Lozano Jr. and Lieutenant (Ensign) Andres Lozano. Andres’s brother Jose Salvador Lozano was a General, Assistant Mayor of Monterrey and Lieutenant-Governor of Nuevo Leon in 1758. Large ranches (haciendas) were created around the introduction of domesticated livestock. After visiting the ranch of my family near Monterrey, it is clear that the Lozano hacienda was similar to others in the area. As I said earlier, we were related to the de la Garzas. Captain Pedro Lozano married into the De la Garza family in 1669 when he married Mariana de la Garza. The following description of their ranch gives an idea of what the Lozano ranch was like. A Spanish official took a census of the ranches around Dolores and Camargo in northern Mexico in 1755. "The ranches contained an estimated sixty-five hundred horses, twenty-six hundred cattle, and seventy-two thousand sheep. One of the ranches, owned by Captain Blas Maria de la Garza Falcon and his father-in-law, extended north of the Rio Grande with stock counted in the thousands."

I traveled up Texas highway 281. I was really looking forward to going to San Antonio. It is one of my favorite cities. When I was growing up, I was captivated by the heroic band of Texans who were all lost at the battle of the Alamo with the Mexican army under Santa Anna. The mystery of battles where there are no survivors to tell the story has always interested me. I guess this is because it opens up all kinds of speculation about what really happened. In addition to seeing San Antonio again, the anticipation of seeing my wife Kathy who was flying into San Antonio to meet me and to join me on the Southwest segment of the journey, was reason for me to be extremely happy. San Antonio was founded after Lieutenant Fernando Del Bosque and Fray Larios recommended that additional missions be established north of the Rio Grande River. It took another 40 years before the Spanish Governors made this a priority. Finally, when news came that the French were beginning to settle along the coast of Texas, Spanish officials pushed to establish the long-planned-for missions in Texas. A string of them were planned from the coast to the vicinity of the San Antonio River. Some Indians in this area were receptive to forming a closer relationship with the Spaniards.

In May of 1718, an expedition arrived at the present site of San Antonio and began building the Mission of San Antonio de Valero. The Spaniards hope of finding riches in this area had long faded and now the dual purpose of keeping out the French and propagating the Catholic faith among the Indians seemed to be worth the effort. The men who founded the new San Antonio Mission were Captain Martín de Alarcon and Fray Antonio Oliveres. The construction of the chapel that would later be known as the Alamo was begun as a temporary structure of mud, brush and straw. One of the early missionaries of San Antonio was Fray José Francisco Lozano. At that time, there were only 57 Indians living within the Mission.

In 1719, France declared war on Spain. The North American French stronghold was in New Orleans. France was more interested in what was happening in Europe than in North America, so the Spanish were able to retain control of Texas. But by the 1720s, the Apache Indians began to present a very dangerous problem to the missions. The Apaches were followed by the Comanches. Life in San Antonio could be described as risky at best and life threatening at worst. As the Spanish continued to have trouble with the Indians, the French became less of a problem. Wars in Europe between France, Britain, and Spain finally left Britain and Spain in control of North America. For over 100 years, the missions and presidios (military forts) were scattered throughout Texas to maintain Spain’s control over the area. There was a string of about 24 missions in Texas. San Antonio was the center of power for this string of missions. The Spanish rewarded pure-blooded Spanish families with ranches and economic power. They horded the meager resources and used Indian labor unfairly. These few families controlled huge tracts of land and thousands of livestock. In all of Texas there were only about 5,000 settlers and civilized Indians. When at the close of the eighteenth century the United States had won its revolution against Britain, Mexico was watching events in the rest of North America with much interest in seeing how it might affect Mexico.

By 1803, President Thomas Jefferson had made a deal with France to buy the Louisiana Territory and now the United States was suddenly Spain’s nearest threat. In 1811, there was an insurgency in Texas. The insurgents captured San Antonio. In other parts of Mexico, Father Hildalgo learned from the American Revolution that Europe’s colonial powers could be overthrown. He felt that the few wealthy Spanish mega landowners were profiting at the expense of the lower class mixed (mestizo) and Indian populations. His hope was to create an independent Mexico with a democratic government. Both these insurgencies were put down, but the seeds of revolution were sown. It is clear that the Lozanos were part of the Royal Spanish Army at this time. My Lozano family members were officers in the army for several generations and they were part of the ruling class of pure-blooded wealthy, Spanish landowners. When it came time to put down these insurgencies, they would naturally be called upon to support the Spanish Government. But in 1821, a young Royal Spanish Army officer named Santa Anna switched sides when he saw the revolutionists under Colonel Agustin de Iturbide gaining strength. Iturbide was an influential Creole (pure Spanish born in New Spain). The Creoles felt that their hold on power was in jeopardy, so they preempted the inevitable and found a champion that would overthrow the Spanish Government. Although they still would not allow the social reforms against the caste system that the mixed blooded Spaniards and Indians hated, to be changed. The Creoles felt that an independent monarchy would preserve their wealth and authority.

In 1821, Iturbide joined forces with revolutionary Vincenti Guerrero and faced the Spanish Royal Army in battle. At this critical moment, Santa Anna switched sides and the Spanish forces were defeated. The Spanish Government signed the Treaty of Cordoba giving Mexico its independence on August 24, 1821. With Mexico free of Spanish rule, Iturbide declared himself Emperor Agustin I of Mexico. King Ferdinand VII of Spain was so angry when he found out that his viceroy to New Spain had signed an agreement of independence with Mexico that he had the documents burned. Emperor Iturbide was overthrown in 1823. Guadalupe Victoria was the first freely elected President in 1824. In 1828, a contested election between Vicente Guerrero and Manual Pedraza resulted in civil war. The forces of Guerrero won and he became president. But President Guerrero was overthrown by his vice-president, General Anastasio Bustamante. General Bustamante was overthrown by Manual Pedraza. In 1833, Santa Anna was elected President.

Between 1810 and 1847, Mexico was in a constant state of conflict and economic instability. During this time, an American named Moses Austin went to San Antonio to ask permission to bring 300 American families to Texas to help colonize the huge undeveloped open spaces. Moses died before he could launch his plan, but his 27 year old son, Stephen Austin carried on his father’s plan. He decided to settle on land between the San Antonio and Brazos Rivers. Each family was granted 4,428 acres of land. They had to agree to become Mexican citizens and to practice the Catholic religion.

In the countryside and in places far removed from the central government in Mexico City were large privately owned ranches, called haciendas—a self-governed, caste system that was exploitative and aristocratic. The new Anglo colonists came into Texas with slaves and an entirely different way of doing things. They went about the task of clearing the land, building houses, and planting crops so enthusiastically that the Mexican government officials were amazed at their productivity in comparison to the inefficiency of the hacienda system. Mexican officials became alarmed when by 1830 there were 4,000 colonists. On April 6, 1830, Mexico passed an immigration law for the new Anglo colonists. The law stated that no foreigner could cross the border without a passport from the Mexican government. It forbade any more Americans from immigrating to Texas and cancelled all impresario contracts. It prohibited the importation of slaves. It ordered military occupation of Texas. It created a system of enforcement of Mexican laws and regulations. It promoted more trade with Mexican ports by having an open port on the coast of Texas. And finally, the law encouraged more Mexican families, with government subsidies, to come to Texas. As Mexico tried to enforce these new laws, the Anglo Texans became angry and this directly led to the rebellion.

In 1833, Mexico went through still more political turmoil. Out of the chaos Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna became President. Since Mexico had declared its independence from Spain in 1821, it had had 11 presidents and one emperor. Texan leader, Stephen Austin, made the mistake of trying to lobby for Texas statehood in the Mexican Federation. Santa Anna let Austin think that he was receptive to discussions on the matter. When Austin tried to return to Texas he was arrested and put in solitary confinement for six months. He ended up being imprisoned for eighteen months before he was released. On June 30, 1835, William Barrett Travis, Lorenzo de Zavala and others captured the Mexican garrison at Anahuac because they had arrested two Texans who refused to pay some custom duties. On September 12, when Stephen Austin returned, a convention was held in San Felipe that called on all Texans to take up arms against the approaching Mexican army. Fighting started at Gonzalez when a Mexican force of about 200 soldiers tried to reclaim a cannon that the Texans had for protection against Indians. On October 2, 1835, a small battle took place with one Mexican soldier being killed. This engagement gave Gonzalez the title of "The Lexington of Texas." In the meantime, Mexican General Cos had occupied San Antonio with about 1,000 soldiers. This was the situation when Austin brought Texans to San Antonio to lay siege to the Mexicans in the first battle of San Antonio (Bexar).

Among the Texan officers were Travis, Juan Seguin and Jim Bowie. One officer named Ben Milam learned that the Mexican garrison was short on supplies and low in morale from an escaped prisoner. When the Texan commander, Colonel Edward Burleson, advised the officers on withdrawing the Texan army, Ben Milam stormed out of the meeting yelling, "Who will go with old Ben Milam into San Antonio?" Three hundred men answered his call, and an assault on the Mexican stronghold was commenced on the morning of December 5, at 3 a.m. The heroic Milam was killed, but the attack succeeded. Because of his bravery, Colonel Ben Milam was immortalized as the first hero of the Texas Revolution. After five days of house to house fighting, Mexican General Cos raised the white flag on December 10, 1835.

These events set the stage for Santa Anna to avenge this defeat and put down the Texan rebellion. He would personally lead an army of 4,000 soldiers against the Texans. Santa Anna organized an Army in the Mexican cities of San Luis Potosi, Saltillo, Monterrey and Monclova. It is possible that I had relatives on both sides of the fight for Texas. One soldier, who fought and was killed on the side of the Texans at the Alamo, was Gregorio Esparza. His brother, Francisco, fought with the Mexican Army. After the battle, Francisco found his brother’s body. Gregorio Esparza was the only defender of the Alamo to receive a Christian burial. Many Texans of Spanish descent fought and died for Texas Independence. Some of these patriots were officers in the Texan army. There were entire companies of Texans of Spanish descent fighting under General Sam Houston. They were among the dead at the Alamo. Lorenzo de Zavala, José Antonio Navarro and José Francisco Ruiz were signers of the Texas Declaration of Independence. Zavala also assumed the role of Vice-President of the young Republic. Colonel Juan Sequin carried dispatches between the Alamo and General Houston. He had the responsibility of burying the remains of the Texans who died defending the Alamo after learning of its fall. The Spanish-Texans who died defending the Alamo were: Juan Abanillo, Gregorio Esparza, Antonio Fuentes, Toribio Losoya, Andres Nava, Juan Antonio Padilla, and José Maria Guerrero. Juan Sequin said at the time that, "Texas shall be free and independent or we shall perish with glory in battle."

My male relatives who were of military age and were most likely conscripted into Santa Anna’s Mexican army were: Juan Nepomuceno Lozano (born 1806), Ygnacio Gonzalez, (wife Maria Luisa Guajardo 1830’ José del Rosario Elizondo (married 1833), Tomas Elizondo (married 1830). All of these relatives lived near Pesqueria, Nuevo Leon. When these young men were taken into the Mexican army, they had no idea what they were getting into. Mexican officer José Juan Sanchez Navarro said, "The members of the Army, in general, have no idea of the significance of the Texas war and all of them believe that they are merely on a military excursion. If, when questioned, one tells the truth about what one has seen there, one is considered a poor soul. As if the enemy could be conquered merely by despising him." The men of the Army soon found out that they would be poorly equipped and live under wretched conditions. The officers could more easily ask the General in Chief for a colonel’s commission then to ask for ten dollars to be spent for the comfort of the troops. The men had to beg for food and supplies from the quartermaster at exorbitant prices. Because the soldiers were not paid or properly supplied they resorted to raiding the families and ranches of the countryside. As the country between the northern provinces of Mexico and San Antonio was a desert-like area, the men consequently began to perish from hunger and thirst. Because Santa Anna insisted on attacking in the midst of winter, the men went through extreme misery because of lack of winter clothing and blankets. It happened that one of the worst snowstorms ever, hit that part of Texas as the Mexican Army crossed south Texas. Santa Anna rushed ahead leaving the bulk of the Army far behind. His men wondered why His Excellency was going in such haste. "Did he think that his name alone will be sufficient to overthrow the Texans?" they speculated. Santa Anna had no plan but to show no quarter when he found Texans and to burn all their houses. His overwhelming advantage in numbers would be enough to win the early battles of the Alamo and Goliad, but his lack of a plan and the abuse of his troops would come back to defeat him in the end.

On February 23, 1836, Santa Anna’s army showed up on the outskirts of San Antonio. One hundred and eighty-eight men rushed to the pre-built fortifications within the Mission of the Alamo. Among the leaders of the Alamo were William Barrett Travis, Jim Bowie and Davy Crockett. The Mexican army quickly surrounded the Alamo and bombarded the fort for 12 days. On day 13 of the siege, Santa Anna launched an assault from all sides. The outer walls were penetrated and the entire Texan command was killed. Mexican losses are uncertain, but approximately 400 to 600 were killed and wounded. The battle gave Texan General, Sam Houston, crucial time to prepare his army for a fight at the right time and with better prepared troops. The Mexican Army was never as strong as it was at the Alamo. It was said by senior Mexican officers that, "With another such victory as this, we’ll go to the devil."

San Antonio has always been a magnet for my relatives. My uncle Jesse lived here until he died in the 1980’s and my sister Yolanda also lived here for a time. But, during my journey I found a whole new group of Lozano’s that I never knew existed. While searching the internet for Lozano family history, I uncovered the Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research (Shhar). The non-profit, all volunteer, organization was co-founded by Mimi Lozano in 1986. Its purpose is to help Hispanics/Latinos research their family history. She served as the editor and publisher of "Somos Primos" the group's quarterly newsletter which in January 2000 went on-line as monthly publication dedicated to Hispanic Heritage. When I contacted Mimi she told me she was born in San Antonio and that she was a cousin. Mimi is an inspiration to all Lozano’s. I have found her to be an extremely giving person who devotes countless hours to her volunteer work promoting appreciation for our Hispanic culture.

Her parents were Catalino Lozano and Aurora Chapa. This branch of the Lozano family had already been in San Antonio for several generations. On her maternal side, the Chapas had arrived in Texas during the Mexican revolution to escape persecution when the political party that their father supported was in disfavor. Alberto Chapa was a Superintendent of Schools when he had to leave Mexico. Mimi’s mother and father met each other in San Antonio and were married on 1931. Catalino was a taxi driver and he also ran a dry cleaning and tailoring business. The young couple, like most young couples, did not take into consideration what the cost of raising a family in the midst of the worst depression that the U.S. had ever seen was going to be.  It was going on right at this time. 

Twelve million people were unemployed. In addition, Texas and the Southwest were in the middle of a drought (Dust Bowl) that destroyed millions of acres of crops and destroyed the lives of thousands of people who lived off agriculture. The stock market crashed. People were living off charity. Families were homeless and millions of people had to stand in bread and soup lines at churches and with other charitable organizations, just to survive. Many people took to the roads to try to get to any place that might offer some kind of relief for their suffering. They hopped on freight trains, hitch hiked or walked. People where living in shanty towns, made of scrap metal and cardboard boxes on vacant lots. Families were under extreme stress at this time. People took the law into their own hands when they saw that the government was helpless in solving their problems. No one could afford a divorce. When the stress got to be too much for couples to bear, some just ran off. Mimi was the second daughter born to Catalino and Aurora. Times were hard.

Mimi’s parents made a decision to join Aurora's parents in California. California had a better economy and a better climate, the grass was greener. Mimi’s father had a friend that was escaping the break-up of his marriage. He was going to kidnap his two children and planned to head for the greener grass of California too. A plan was devised by the friends that Mimi’s mom and her children would go with the man in his car. This was a no cost way for Mimi’s father to get his family out to California. Aurora could fake being the man’s wife if anybody got suspicious. Mimi’s mother could also help care for all the children in the car.  Catalino father planned to join them later by any means of transportation that he could find. Mimi was just eight months old at the time. The man's children were picked up from their school, all they had were what they were wearing. It was a miserable journey. They had little to eat and everyone was crowded in the cramped car.  The newspapers and radio were covering the story of of the two children had disappeared. 

When the car finally reached California, Aurora, Tania, a toddler and Mimi, an infant went to stay with Mimi’s maternal grandparents who lived in Los Angeles. When Catalino was finally able to follow his family to California he found that things were not as good as he had anticipated. He was not able to make enough money at the jobs he found in California to support the family the way that he wanted to. After a while he got discouraged with this new life. He found that the grass is not always greener somewhere else. Catalino wanted to return to San Antonio to be around his extended family.  Aurora wanted to stay in Los Angles where most of her sisters and brothers were living. When things got too bleak, Catalino decided to steal the playbook from his friend and kidnapped his oldest daughter, Tania and headed back to Texas. Mimi’s mother was helpless, she did not have the resources to follow. After a few months, Catalino returned to Los Angeles. The young couple found and lived in an abandon home.  The resourceful and very capable Catalino found abandoned cars, fixed them up and sold them. When food was scarce, the family would eat with the grandparents or in at a free soup kitchen. Eventually they were able to meet their basic needs, living behind a dry cleaning store for a while. 

By the time Mimi was four, the marriage was on the rocks again. Catalino began drinking heavily. Aurora decided to leave.  With the help of one of her sisters, she hoped to disappear into the city population of Oakland, California. However, Catalino was a determined man. He wouldn’t give up. He traced the family to Oakland and once again they reconciled. Supporting herself and the children was too much for Aurora.

Through another ten years of fighting and many disagreements, Aurora decided to start  saving money so that when Mimi and Tania were older, if needed, she could more successfully leave Catalino. The war years provided the opportunity. During part of World War II Catalino worked at a parachute plant.  It required him to live away from the house during the work week.  Without Catalino knowing, Aurora many evening joined her teenage sister, Alba in working at a restaurant drive-in.  Those restaurants were very popular at that time. 

Just before Thanksgiving in 1947 after a serious drunken episode, Aurora and her teenage daughters, with the help of neighbors fled and went into hiding in northern California to the small town of Manteca. 

Mimi and Tania were both in High School. Aurora was a young 35 year old woman. Many factors affected her decision to leave left her two teenage daughters in Manteca and  find work in Los Angeles. The girls lived in a three room converted shanty house. They had to discipline themselves to cook, clean, work, and go to school with no parental support. Even though Aurora mother sent them some money, and the house was paid for,  they were essentially on their own in most ways. Even as Mimi worked two jobs, she still kept up with her school work.  Although Mimi's plans were to attend a junior college, her SAT was so high, the Vice-principal encouraged her to go on to the university.  Her Spanish teacher, Miss Puchinelli, helped Mimi to apply for a tuition scholarship to U.C.L.A. which she received. Finding a position walking distance to U.C.L.A. Mimi cleaned house and cooked for a family, but eventually was able to stay with her mother in Los Angeles,  commuting.  She decided to major in Recreation Administration. She continued on to get her Masters degree.

Mimi went on to become a good wife and mother and raised two lovely children of her own. She made her mark developing a career that focused on Theatre Arts, and creating educational resources for teachers. She quickly became recognized as a positive political activist in the Hispanic community. As a result she was named to the U.S. Senate’s Task Force on Hispanic Affairs. This led her to frequent trips to Washington D.C. where she advocated a more positive portrayal of the contributions that Hispanics played in U.S. history. I think her life is an inspirational story of how one person overcame such a rough childhood but persevered though it all to achieve many great things in life. Mimi’s story is a true American success story of battling all odds and still making a great mark on the history of the Lozano family and the Nation. She was recently named California’s 68th Assembly District’s Woman of the Year.

I arrived at the San Antonio airport to pick up my wife, Kathy. It was a beautiful moment when Kathy walked down that airline terminal and into my arms. It meant so much to me that she would come to join me on part of my journey. It couldn’t get any better that the city that she joined me in was San Antonio.

The first thing we wanted to do was to see the Alamo. It is restored to look just like it did when father Francisco Lozano held mass in the Mission in the late 1700s. By the time of the battle, it was already abandoned and in disrepair. Today, only the chapel and the long barracks remain to give us a symbol of Texas Independence. It is a both a reverent and festive place to go. Within the walls of the chapel that is known as the "Shrine of Texas Liberty," it is dark and quiet like the original mission churches would be. Outside, there is music being played in the plaza and many people laughing and socializing. There we saw the Cenotaph, a huge monument dedicated to the men who gave their lives for Texas liberty.

It is only a short walk to the downtown business area and the Paseo del Rio or River walk, a 2 mile stretch of riverside walkways, shops and outdoor cafés. After walking around downtown, we had to go to the best place to experience the Mexican flavor of San Antonio, the historic Market Square. Market Square is several miles away from the Alamo. We sat down to an authentic Mexican meal of enchiladas, beans and rice. We then had a margarita while we enjoyed the Market Square’s favorite sport—people-watching. There are many shops to investigate in the largest Mexican marketplace outside of Mexico. As it got later in the day, we decided to go to Six Flags Fiesta Texas. It was fun and relaxing to see why Fiesta received the award for "Best Theme Park Shows in the Country." Kathy and I had a blast going on rides, eating and just hanging out. The whole city of San Antonio celebrates another kind of "Fiesta" in the spring each year in the downtown area. Every year, more than a million people crowd the sidewalks of San Antonio watching a procession of floats and musical acts. Throughout downtown are food booths, dancing, drinking and partying. It’s a great time and Kathy and I never will forget the good times we had in San Antonio going to the rodeo, Sea World, the Zoo and visiting the Missions.

With Kathy as my new passenger, Dudley took the back seat. Dudley was very happy to have Kathy along. I think he was getting a little bored with my conversation. We headed west down Interstate 10 towards El Paso. Along the way, we saw Fort Stockton. It is a frontier military fort. The Butterfield Overland Mail Trail came through this same area in the mid nineteenth century. Mail was delivered between St. Louis and El Paso and then to San Francisco along this trail. They used stagecoaches and horses to make the 2,800 mile trip. There were good springs near Stockton for watering the horses. The Calvary post was established to protect the crossroads of the San Antonio-El Paso Trail and the Comanche War Trail. Legend has it that the citizens drew lots to decide who would kill an unpopular Sheriff. He was killed in his office and the killer was never caught.

We proceeded to El Paso. As we approached the city, we were struck by the beauty of the Franklin Mountains. West Texas has the state’s tallest mountains east of the Rockies. At the Hueco Tanks State Park, we saw pictographs of prehistoric peoples in the caves and rock overhangs, as well as some of the most beautiful scenery in west Texas. The home of the University of Texas-El Paso, this largest city on the Texas-Mexico border is intertwined with its sister city, Ciudad Juarez. The combined population of the two cities is about two million people. El Paso has always been a corridor for explorers going north or west. In 1541, Francisco Coronado passed through this area in his search for the "Seven Cities of Gold." In 1598, Juan de Onate passed through here in his quest to settle New Mexico. We wanted to see what the Mexican side of the border was like, so we crossed the river and went to the Old City Market on Avenida 16 de Septiembre. It was fun as shopkeepers followed us trying to make a deal. One guy was really funny. He followed us all around the market saying, "Señor, please come look at my junk. I have the best junk in town. Give me a chance. I’ll make you a good deal." I wondered if he knew that "junk" in English is not that great of a word to use for your merchandise. We bought some gifts and then re-crossed the border back into the United States. On the University of El Paso campus is the Centennial Museum. There is an impressive collection of Archeology and Anthropology items to see. The campus is also very beautiful with its Bhutanese-style architecture. Many national sporting events take place at the Sun Bowl stadium. While in El Paso, you should see the El Paso History Museum on the Avenue of the Americas. There are exhibits about everything from the Conquistadors to the U.S. Calvary. The El Paso Museum of Art and the Natural History Museums are also very good places to visit. There are many scenic places to see and you should make it a point to take the Mission tour and go see the Sierra de Cristo Rey scenic overlook. After having a good time in El Paso, we said good bye to Texas. It is such a big state that it cannot be adequately described without writing a whole book about it. Suffice to say that I love Texas and I know that I will be back many more times.





El apellido Oramas
Sent by Paul Newfield III

Si el estudio genealógico de una familia, sea cual fuere su clase social, enriquece la historia de la sociedad a la que pertenece, cuanto más el estudio genealógico de una gran mayoría de las familias que, procedentes de un tronco común y con un apellido concreto, han llevado dicho apellido a lo largo de varios siglos.

      Tal es el caso del estudio que se presenta en estas páginas respecto al apellido ORAMAS, originario de la Islas Canarias desde finales del siglo XIV y que hoy se halla repartido por las diversas islas de dicho archipiélago y por otros países, especialmente en América, adonde lo llevaron los emigrantes canarios en épocas pasadas.

     El objetivo de este trabajo no es otro que poner en manos de los amantes de la Genealogía, y en especial de las personas que llevan el apellido ORAMAS, un estudio lo más profundo y detallado posible del devenir genealógico del mismo, a fin de que cada cual pueda conocer sus raíces y valorar su ascendencia.

     Para llevar a cabo tan difícil tarea hemos acudido a muy diversas fuentes. La principal de todas ellas son los archivos de las parroquias de las dos diócesis de Canarias. Consultamos, igualmente, distintos archivos particulares y los de diversas instituciones del archipiélago. Apartado especial lo constituye la información oral facilitada por los actuales poseedores de dicho apellido, tanto en Canarias como en América, así como la de numerosos estudiosos de la genealogía que han proporcionado también datos valiosos.

      A pesar de las diversas fuentes consultadas, el principal problema que hubo fue el de la escasez de datos para seguir la evolución genealógica de determinadas ramas del apellido, especialmente en los siglos XVI y XVII, ya que los libros sacramentales de esa época consignan datos muy escuetos, especialmente los de matrimonio, y con bastantes lagunas. A lo que hay que unir el mal estado de bastantes documentos, lo que dificultó grandemente la obtención de datos.

     Determinadas costumbres antiguas también contribuyeron a dificultar la tarea del genealogista, como que en ciertas zonas cada hijo se ponía el apellido que quería, ya el del padre, ya el de la madre; el figurar sólo con el nombre, sin apellidos, especialmente si eran mujeres; aparecer en unos documentos con unos apellidos y en otros con otros. Estas circunstancias se agravaron aún más con los Oramas residentes en América, dada la dificultad para localizarlos y la imposibilidad de realizar la investigación in situ debido a la dispersión del mismo y tener que recurrir únicamente a la información escrita a través del correo o de internet

Aunque la información en este enlace esta enfocada a nombres y apellidos Cordobeses; contiene información muy interesante sobre la evolución de nombres y apellidos usados en España desde la Edad Media hasta el presente.
Sent by Paul Newfield III


Spanish Sons of the American Revolution
Soldados from the Royal Presidio of Santa Barbara
Members of Los Pobladores participated in the Santa Barbara parade 
History Lessons Learned in Searching for Spanish Soldiers and Sailors
Need a DAR look-up article
Chile Patriots During the American Revolution

Soldados from the Royal Presidio of Santa Barbara opened the 2006 Fiesta in Santa Barbara at Fiesta Pequeña with a musket salute.  The event was staged on the steps of Old Mission Santa Barbara, much as it would have been done in colonial times.  Soldados fired authentic flintlock muskets of the period.  From left to right in the photo is the drummer (tambor), Russell C. Ruiz.  Jim Elwell Marinez as Lt. Ortega is commanding.  Musketeers from left to right are Michael Hardwick, David Martinez, and Ben Valenzuela. Jack Romero carries the Soldados de Cuera Standard and Michael Aberele carries the battalion colors.  Sent by Michael Hardwick

Members of Los Pobladores participated in the Santa Barbara parade 
Photo sent by Bob Smith


History Lessons Learned in Searching for Spanish Soldiers and Sailors
by Granville Hough, Ph.D.
Presentation October 12, 2003 
Bernardo de Galvez Celebration
Long Beach Performing Arts Center

In 1996 I learned that the National Society, Sons of the American Revolution, had turned down a California applicant who could not prove his soldier ancestor had donated one or two pesos to defray the costs of the war with Britain from 1779 into 1783. This seemed a
strange denial as the applicant’s ancestor had risked his life as a soldier, so why worry about a donation? When I told my SAR chapter I could develop a rationale for accepting Spanish SOLDIERS as patriots, it said go ahead.

I knew Louisiana soldiers serving under Governor Bernardo de Gálvez had been accepted as Patriots since 1925, and that French soldiers and sailors who served in America had been accepted since 1903.

It seemed to me then, and now, that descendants of Spanish soldiers should be recognized as Compatriots, whether descendants of King Carlos III, or recent immigrants who are just now getting their California driving licenses.

So I developed the rationale, sent it to state and national SAR officers and looked for applicants to test it. We found two descendants of California soldiers, with clear lineages, and got our first California descendants admitted in 1998.

I had no intent of publishing anything, but concluded it might be useful to publish the rationale, then to list names of California soldiers, visiting sailors, and other men who were of the right age to have made donations.

My daughter joined me in the research, and we did the first book on California, mostly rationale for acceptance, then the second book giving the names of nearly everyone in California under Spanish jurisdiction during the war period.

It was interesting research, and no one had ever done such a listing of Spanish soldiers and sailors. We then did Arizona and Northern Sonora, then New Mexico. We were able to get our first descendant of a New Mexico soldier accepted in 1999. We moved on to
Texas where a couple of people had already been accepted, but we did a more complete listing, including all the territory now under Texas jurisdiction.

Starting from San Francisco and working across the frontier, we had studied more than 25 Presidios, more than 10 flying companies of mounted infantry units, and militia units of the larger towns. When we worked on Louisiana, we encountered our first organized Spanish
Regiment, the Regimento de Infanterie de Luisiana. (We do have a representation of the colors of that regiment as they were when Colonel Bernardo de Gálvez personally led it at Manchak, Baton Rouge, Mobile, and Pensacola.)

Then we went on through the West Indies in our seventh volume with numerous Spanish and colonial regiments, then finally back to Northern Mexico for our eighth volume on backup regiments and other units for the Presidios. We have four more volumes in progress.

Along the way, we were questioned on the work we were doing, mainly based on the way people were taught American History. The question was: “How can we accept descendants of Spanish soldiers? Spain has always been our enemy.” And that is exactly the way many influential American historians have depicted it. That is not the way  George Washington saw it. And that is not the way Spanish soldiers and sailors saw it at the time. They, just like Americans, fought the British where they found them. They celebrated all victories over the British, no matter who won them.

But there are anti-Spanish statements from American historians after the Spanish- American War which are still quoted. One (Perkins) said that John Adams and John Jay in negotiating for peace with Britain had no reason to consider Spanish interests as Spain had been of no help to the American colonies and had wished them ill.

He apparently ignored Spanish aid and the DeGrass/Saavedra Accord which laid out French and Spanish operations in the Western Hemisphere from July 1781 until the end of the war. He was not aware that a Chesapeake Bay Campaign (Yorktown) was the first
item of that accord and that its success was due to five elements, two of them Spanish: Washington’s Army, Rochambeau’s French Army, DeGrass’ French Fleet, Spanish financing, and Spanish covering for the French fleet in the West Indies.

{Nor did this eminent American historian make any suggestions as to what SECURED Yorktown, or that the British were stretched to their limits in 1782 and 1783 just to hold on in the West Indies. They could not take advantage of their re-invasion bases at New York, Charleston, Detroit, and Penobscot Bay. Bernardo de Gálvez was waiting to invade Jamaica during that time with 10,000 troops at Guarico in Haiti. In Feb 1783, he was joined in Venezuela by nearly all of Rochambeaus’s American Expeditionary Force which had fought at Yorktown, 10,000 French troops. French General d'Estaing was lining up 20,000 more French and Spanish troops at Cadiz in Spain awaiting orders to sail. And 
Bernardo de Gálvez was already designated as the overall commander of the invading forces. The British had to negotiate or lose everything in the West Indies. That IMMINENT THREAT IN THE WEST INDIES is what SECURED Yorktown and made it into the victory we celebrate. }

I will point out two other false beliefs which have harmed our relationships with our neighbors:

One is that the War with Mexico began when Mexican troops attacked American troops on Texas soil near the Rio Grande. I defy any historian to show evidence that Texas ever extended south of the Nueces River. The Mexican War started when pro-slavery President
James K. Polk in May 1848 sent American troops into Mexican territory south of the Nueces River and Mexicans defended their land. It is clear we started the Mexican War under false pretenses. It was not the last time our nation would ever do this.

Another false belief is that the Spanish American War was started when saboteurs blew up the battleship Maine on 17 Feb 1898. I defy any historian to show that there were any saboteurs near the Maine that night, whether Spanish, Cuban, or some other. Most likely, the Maine blew up from instantaneous combustion of overheated coal in confined ship storage. Admiral Rickover’s study group decided the remaining photographic evidence was insufficient for that or any other conclusion. It seems quite clear to most historians that we entered the Spanish-American War under false pretenses. Again, it was not the last 
time our nation would ever do this.

These three falacies have biased American history and textbooks for generations. They constantly come up in one form or another, in editorials, from talking heads, and even from reviewers of SAR applications.

But the study of service records of Spanish soldiers shows interesting and remote places where they served, each with some relationship to the war with Britain. Now that the National Society, Sons of the American Revolution, has recognized the global aspects of the Revolutionary War and removed all geographic restrictions on patriotic service, it gives us an opportunity to publish the names of all the soldiers we already know who served in the Western Hemisphere.

We are also beginning to recognize that Spanish soldiers who fought for freedom for the United States did not forget what they had learned. Within a generation, nearly all the countries we know in the Western Hemisphere had become free nations. The little American Revolution of 13 English colonies had become the Great American Revolution of the Western Hemisphere.  Oct2003.doc

Need a DAR Lookup? Do you think you might have an ancestor who served in the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783)? Would you like to know whether your ancestor is listed with the National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution (NSDAR) in the "Patriot Index"? A helpful group of organized DAR VIS Volunteers monitor the RootsWeb DAR Message Board every day and welcome lookup requests.

Include your  Revolutionary War-era ancestor's first and last name, spouse's name (if known), dates of birth, death, and state of residence. When posting your  lookup request. You need not be interested in joining the NSDAR to request a lookup.


Readers are reminded that surnames A-B are in the Aug, 2006, Somos Primos, and that surnames C-I are in the August issue. References and full names of the Spanish Army units are also in those issues. Information on the lists or on the Sons of the American Revolution may be obtained from Granville W. Hough, email:

José Agustín Jara. Lt, Milicias de Cab del Principe, Legajo 7267:XII:515.
Martin Juaregui. Lt Col, Milicias de Cab del Principe, Legajo 7267:XII:496.
Carlos Jiminez. Sgt, Milicias Disciplinadas Dragones de Acari y Chala, 1796, Legajo 7286:I:31.
Juan Jiminez. Sgt, Sgt, Milicias Discip Dragones de Arica, 1800, Leg 7288:II:59.
Ramón Jiminez y Navia. Ayudante Mayor, Bn de Inf de Chile, 1800, Leg 7267:I:3.

Pedro Lagos. Lt, Dragones de la Frontera de Chile, 1800, Leg 7267:III:114.
Pedro José Lambarri. Lt, Dragones de la Reina, 1800, Leg 7276:XV:24.
Juan María Lanzdagarta y Landeta. Lt Col, Dragones de la Reina, 1800, Legajo 7276:XV:12.
Miguel Lara. Sgt, Inf de Valdivia, 1800, Leg 7268:II:83.
Enrique Larenas. Lt, Inf de Chile, 1800, Leg 7267:I:23.
José Antonio Larrain. Cadet, Bn Inf de Chile, 1797, Leg 7267:XI:494.
Martín Larrain. Capt, Milicias de Cab de la Princesa, 1797, Leg 7267:XVII:649.
Pablo Larrañaga. Lt, Milicias de Cab de la Princesa, 1797, Leg 7267:XVII:658.
Enrique Lassale Dinocamps. SubLt, Inf de Chile, 1900, Leg 7267:I:27.
José Leales. Sgt, Inf de Chile, 1800, Leg 7267:I:37.
Felipe Leaño. Lt, Milicias Discip Dragones de Acari & Chala, 1796: Leg 7286:I:11.
José Manuel Lecaroz. Alférez, Milicias Cab del Principe, 1797, Leg 7267:XII:525.
José Leiva. Alférez, Milicias Discip Dragones de Acari y Chala, 1796, Leg 7286:I:25.
Juan Francisco Leon de la Barra. Alférez, Milicias de Cab del Principe, 1796, Leg 7267:XX:878.
Francisco Liendo. Capt, Milicias Discip de Dragones de Arica, 1800, Leg
Francisco Lira. Sgt, Milicias Dragones de Acari y Chala, 1796, Leg
Francisco Lojarzal. Portaguión, Dragones de la Reina, 1800, Leg 7276:XV:42.
José Miguel Lopez. Lt, Asamblea de Cab del Reino de Chile, 1800, Leg
Manuel Perfecto Lopez. Lt, Dragones de la Frontera de Chile, 1791, Leg
Nicolás Lopez. Capt, Milicias Provinciales Discip de Inf de Castro,
Chiloe, 1800, Leg 7288:IX:22.
Baltazar Lopez de la Huerta. Lt, Milicias Discip de Dragones de Arica,
1800, Leg 7288:II:30.
Esteban Lorca. Lt, 2nd Ayudante Mayor, Bn de Valdivia, 1793, Leg 7266:I:50.
Manuel Lorca. Cadet, Inf de Valdivia, 1800, Leg 7267:II:90.
Alfonso de Luna. Capt, Inf de Chile, 1791, Leg 7266:III:453.
Juan de Luna. SubLt. Bn Inf de Chile, 1800, Leg 7267:I:30.
José Mariano Llano. Portaguión, Dragones de la Reina, 1800, Leg 7276:XV:44.

Juan Ventura Machin. Alférez, Milicia Discip Dragones de Arica, 1800,Leg 7288:II:36.
Miguel José Malo. Capt, Dragones de la Reina, 1800, Leg 7276:XV:12.
José María Manrique Malacara. Alférez, Dragones de la Reina, 1800, Leg 7276:XV:38.
Francisco Mansilla. Lt, Comp Vet de la dotación de Chiloe, 1800, Leg 7288:XI:5.
Ignacio Mansilla. SubLt, Milicias Prov. Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800, Leg 7288:IX:67
Juan Miguel Mansilla. SubLt, Comp sueltas Inf, Partido Calbuco, Chiloe, 1800, Leg 7288:V:9.
Mateo Mansilla. SubLt de Grenadiers, Milicias Provin Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800, Leg 7288:IX:58.
Pedro Mansilla. Capt de Dragones, Comp of veterans of the dotación de Chiloe, 1794, Leg 7285:II:1.
Fernando Manzanilla. Alférez, Milicias Discip Dragones de Acari & Chala, 1796, Leg 7286:I:18.
Ignacio Marin. Sgt, Milicias Discip Dragones de Arica, 1800, Leg 7288:II:57.
Ignacio Marmolejo. Alférez, Dragones de la Reina, 1796, Leg 7273:I:26.
Luis Marquez. Sgt, Milicias Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800, Leg 7288:IX:105.
Diego Antonio Martinez. Alférez, Milicias de Cab del Principe, 1797, Leg 7267:XII:521.
Dionisio Martinez. Lt, Inf de Valdivia, 1800, Leg 7267:II:72.
José Martinez. Sgt, Dragones de la Frontera de Chile, 1800, Leg 7267:IV:136.
José Antonio Martinez. Sgt, Inf de Valdivia, 1800, Leg 7267:II:84.
Juan de Mata Martinez. Sgt, Bn Inf de Chile, 1800, 7267:I:38.
Luis Martinez. Lt, Asamblea de Cab del Reino de Chile, 1800, Leg 7267:V:155.
Manuel de Mata. SubLt, Comp Vet de la Dotación de Chiloe, 1800, Leg 7288:XI:8.
Francisco de la Mata Linares. Brigadier, Gobernador Intendente de la Provincia de la Concepción, 1793, Leg 7266:I:141.
Pedro Mateluna. Capt, Milicias Cab de la Princesa, 1797, Leg 7267:XVII:646.
Buenaventura Matute. Col, Asamblea de Cab del Reino de Chile, 1800, Leg 7267:V:150.
Juan Roman Mazuelos. Lt, Milicias Discip Dragones de Arica, 1800, Leg 7288:II:17.
Ignacio Mejo de Unzaga. Lt, Dragones de la Reina, 1796:Leg 7273:I:23.
Luis Goonzaga Mella. Lt, Milicias Prov. Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800, Leg 7288:IX:33.
Antonio Mena. Cadet, Inf de Valdivia, 1789, Leg 7266:V:666.
Francisca Mena. Capt, Inf de Valdivia, 1794, Leg 7267:XXIV:972.
Manuel de Mena. Cadet, Inf Valdivia, 1800, Leg 7267:II:88.
Miguel de Mendibur. Lt, Dragones de la Reina, 1796, Leg 7273:I:18.
Francisco Jacinto Merceguer. Cadet, Comp Vet de la Dotación de Chiloe, 1798, Leg 7286:XV:15.
Francisco Miranda. SubLt, Milicias Prov Discip de la Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800, Leg 7288:IX:68.
Mariano Miranda. Lt, Milicias Prov lDiscip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800, Leg 7288:IX:47.
Miguel Miranda. Sgt, Milicias Prov Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800, Leg 7288:IX:98.
Nicolás Miranda. Sgt, Milicias Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800, Leg 7288:IX:89.
Rafael Miranda. Sgt, Milicias Prov. Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800, Leg 7288:IX:95.
Miguel Mireles. Alférez, Milicias Prov Discip de Dragones de Arica, 1800, Leg 7288:II:45.
Lucas de Molina. Col, Inf de Valdivia, Leg 7267:XIII:529.
Lucas Ambrosia de Molina. SubLt, Inf de Valdivia, 1800, Leg 7267:II:80.
Lucas José Molina. Cadet, Inf de Valdivia, 1799, Leg 7267:VII:260.
Lucas Remigio Molina. Cadet, Inf de Valdivia, 1789, Leg 7266:V:663.
Manuel Montenegro. Capt, Bn de Inf de Chile, 1800, Leg 7267:I:11.
Basilio Montero. Sgt Dragones de la Reina, 1800, Leg 7276:XV:10.
Manuel Montoya. Capt, Comp Vet de la dotación de Chiloe, 1800, Leg 7288:XI:2
Tomas Moreno Chocano. Capt, Milicias Discip Dragones de Arica, 1800, Leg 7288:II:5.
Juan José Morro. Sgt, Dragones de Chile, 1787, Leg 7266:VI:772.
Nicolás Mujica. Alférez, Milicias de Cab de Principe, 1797, Leg 7267:XII:505.
Domingo Muñoz. Capt, Milicias Prov Discip Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800, Leg 7288:IX:16.
José Ventura Muñoz. Capt, Asamblea Cab del Reino de Chile, 1796, Leg 7267:XX:828.
Nicolás Muñoz. Sgt, Milicias Prov Discip Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800, Leg 7288:IX:85.
JoséMurrieta. Ayddante Mayor, Milicias Discip Dragones de Arica, 1800, Leg 7288:II:15.

Luis Navarro. Alférez, Milicias Dicip Dragones de Acari y Chala, 1796, Leg 7286:I:22.
Pablo Navarro. Lt, Milicias Discip de Dragones de Acari y Chala, 1796, Leg 7286:I:13.
Tomás Navarro. Alférez, Portaguión, Milicias Discip Dragones de Acari y Chala, 1796, Leg 7286:I:21.
Juan Navarro Gonzalez. Alférez, Milicias Discip Dragones de Acari y Chala, 1796, Leg 7286:I:20.
Francisco Navarro y La Helguera. Col, Milicias Discip Dragones de Arica, 1800, Leg 7288:II:1.
Tomás Navarro y La Helguera. Capt de Granaderos, Milicia Discip Dragones de Arica, 1800, Leg 7288:II:6.
Juan Navarro Rospillosi. Lt, Milicias Discip Dragones de Acari y Chala, 1796, Leg 7286:I:9.
Teodoro Negron. SubLt, Inf de Valdivia, 1800, Leg 7267:II:77.
José Antonio de Niera. Lt, Milicias Discip Dragones de Acari y Chala, 1796, Leg 7286:I:16.
Juan de Neira y Carvajal. Capt, Milicias Discip de Gragones de Acari y Chala, 1796, Leg 7286:I:6.
Juan Pedro de Noya. Sgt, Asamblea Cab del Reino de Chile, 1792, Leg 7266:II:215.
Félix Nuez. No rank listed, Dragones de la Reina, 1800, Leg 7276:XV:4.

Gervasio Oblitas. Capt, Milicias Discip Dragones de Acari y Chala, 1796, Leg 7286:I:3.
Lorenzo Olivares. Sgt, Inf de Valdivia, 1800, Leg 7267:II:82.
Hipólito Oller. Ayudante Mayor, Inf de Valdivia, 1800, Leg 7267:II:61.
José Oller. Surgeon, Inf de Chile,1800, Leg 7267:I:7.
Antonio Oporto. Sgt, Dragones de la Frontera de Chile, 1800, Leg 7267:IV:131.
Carlos Oresqui. Capt, Comp Vet de la dotación de Chiloe, 1800, Leg 7288:XI:1.
Carlos Manuel Oresqui. Cadet, Comp. Vet de la Dotación de Chiloe, 1798, Leg 7286:XV:17.
Francisco Orrantia. Alférez, Dragones de la Reina, 1800. Leg 7276:XV:39.
Manuel Osuna. Cadet, Inf de Valdivia, 1796, Leg 7267:XIX:763.
Antonio de Ovalle. Lt, Milicias Cab del Principe, 1797, Leg 7267:XII:517.
Miguel Ovando. Sgt de Granaderos, Milicias Prov Discip Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800, Leg 7288:IX:101.
José Antonio Oyarzo. Sgt, Comp Sueltas Inf del partido de Calbúco, Chiloe, 1800, Leg 7288:V:12.
Feliciano Oyarzun. Lt, Milicias Prov Discip Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800, Leg 7288:IX:38.
Ignacio Oyarzun. Capt, Milicias Prov Discip Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800, Leg 7288:IX:19.
Laureano Oyarzun. SubLt, Mil Prov Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800, Leg 7288:IX:54.

Jacinto Pacheco. SubLt de bandera, Mil Prov Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800, Leg 7288:IX:6.
Diego Padilla. Cadet, Dragones de la Frontera de Chile, 1800, Leg 7267:IV:139
Alfonso Palacios. Lt Col, Dragones de Reina de Chile, 1794, Leg 7267:XXV:1010.
Felipe Palacios. Capt, Mil de Cab de Chile, 1797, Leg 7267:XII:509.
Manuel Palacios. Cadet, Bn Inf de Chile, 1800, Leg 7267:I:55.
José Pardo. Capt, Bn Inf de Valdivia, 1800, Leg 7267:II:68.
Andrés Paredes. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800, Leg 7288:IX:86.
Ignacio Paredes. Capt, Comp Sueltas de Inf del Partido de Carelmapu, Chiloe, 1800, Leg 7288:XIII:2.
Juan Paredes. SubLt, Comp Sueltas de Mil Discip de Cab del partido de Carelmapu, Chiloe, 1800, Leg 7288:XIV:2.
Manuel Parga. Sgt, Bn Inf de Valdivia, 1789, Leg 7266:V:655.
Juan Pedregal. Cadet, Bn Inf de Chile, 1797, Leg 7267:XI:493.
Nicolás Peña Ilillo. Lt, Bn de Inf de Chile, 1800, Leg 7267:I:25.
Antonio Pereira. Sgt, Asamblea Cab del Reino de Chile, 1800, Leg 7267:V:167.
Felipe Perez. Sgt, Esquadrón Mil Discip Cab de Castro Chiloe, 1800, Leg 7288:X:9
Fernando Perez. SubLt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800, Leg 7288:IX:71.
Julián Perez. Capt de Granaderos, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800, Leg 7288:IX:21.
Lázaro Perez. Lt de Granaderos, Bn de Inf de Chile, 1800, Leg 7267:I:17.
Mateo Perez. Sgt, Asamblea de Cap del Reino de Chile, 1798, Leg 7267:X:370.
Pablo Perez. Capt, Mil Prov Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800, Leg 7288:IX:25.
Vicente Perez. Sgt, Mil Discip Dragones de Acari y Chala, 1796, Leg 7286:I:28.
Mariano Perez Oriundo. Cadet, Dragones de la Frontera de Chile, 1789, Leg 7266:V:705.
Alfonso Perez de Palacio, Capt, graduate Lt Col, Dragones de Chile, 1792, Leg 7266:II:159.
Joaquín Perez Uriondo. Cadet, Bn Inf de Chile, 1800, Leg 7267:I:42.
Pedro del Pino. SubLt, Inf de Chile, 1800, Leg 7267:I:28.
Rafael del Pino. Cadet, Inf de Chile, 1800, Legajo 7267:I:53.
Julián Pinuer. Lt, Bn Inf de Valdivia, 1800, Leg 7267:XI:39.
Miguel Polo. Surgeon, Dragones de la Frontera de Chile, 1799, Leg 7267:IX:343.
Juan Polloni. Cadet, Dragones de Frontera de Chile, 1790, Leg 7266:IV:571.
Justo Polloni. Lt, Bn de Inf de Chile, 1790, Leg 7266:IV:571.
Estanislao Pontales. Alférez, Cab de Principe, 1797, Leg 7267:XII:524.
Felipe Portocarrero. Capt, Mil Discip Dragones de Arica, 1800, Leg 7288:II:11.
José Lino Portocarrero. Sgt Major, Mil Discip Dragones de Arica, 1800, Leg 7288:II:4.
Pedro Juan Pozo. Sgt, Bn Inf de Chile, 1789, Leg 7266:V:606.
Pedro Prado. Capt, Mil de Cab de la Princesa, 1797, Leg 7267:IVII:648.
José María Prieto. Capt, Dragones de la Frontera de Chile, 1791, Leg 7266:III:337.
José Puelma. Lt, Mil de Cab de la Princesa, 1797, Leg 7267:XVII:655.
José de Puga. Ayudante Mayor, Cab del Principe, 1800, Leg 7276:XII:41.

Miguel Quesada. Lt, Asamblea Cab del Reino de Chile, 1800, Leg 7267:V:159
Pedro Quijada. Brigadier, Bn Inf de Chile, 1797, Leg 7287:XIII:6.

Francisco de Paula Ramirez. Cadet, Mil de Cab del Principe, 1797, Leg 7267:XII:527.
Gregorio Ramirez. Sgt, Mil Dragones de Acari y Chala, 1796, Leg 7286:I:27.
Juan Ramirez. Sgt, Inf de Chile, 1794, Leg 7267:XXIII:942.
José Ramos. Lt, Asamblea de Cap del Reino de Chile, 1791, Leg 7266:III:378.
José Antonio Ramos. Sgt, Asamblea Cab del Reino de Chile, 1800, Leg
Manuel Rebolledo. Sgt, Bn de Inf de Chile, 1793, Leg 7266:I:106.
Mariano Reinoso. Alférez, Cab del Principe, 1800, Leg 7276:XII:35.
Dionisio Rementeria. Lt, Inf de Valdivia, 1800, Leg 7267:II:75.
Juan Esteban Reyes. Cadet, Dragones de la Frontera de Chile, 1800, Leg 7267:IV:143.
Lorenzo Reyes. Cadet, Bn Inf de Chile, 1800, Leg 7267:I:56.
Manuel Reyes. Sgt, Comp Sueltas Mil Discip de Inf del Partido de Chacao, Chiloe, 1800, Leg 7288:XII:4.
Juan de Dios Ribera. Cadet, Dragones de la Frontera de Chile, 1800, Leg 7269:IV:148.
Francisco del Rio. Alférez, Dragones de la Frontera de Chile, 1800, Leg  7267:IV:129.
Gaspar del Rio. Lt, Gragones de la Frontera de Chile, 1797, Leg 7267:XIV:586.
Juan Miguel del Rio. Cadet, Bn Inf de Chile, 1800, Leg 7267:I:54.
Manel del Rio. Lt, Dragones de la Frontera de Chile, 1800, Leg 7267:IV:116.
Manuel del Rio, Lt, Inf de Chile, 1800, Leg 7267:I:22.
Pedro Nolasco del Rio. Col, Dragones de la Frontera de Chile, 1800, Leg 7267:IV:104.
Justo Rios. Alférez, Mil de Cab del Principe, 1797, Legajo 7267:XII:520.
Manuel Rios, Alférez, Dragones de la Frontera de Chile, 1789, Leg 7266:V:687.
Juan de Dios Rioseco. Cadet, Inf de Chile, 1798, Leg 7267:X:428.
Fermin Rivera. Lt, Dragones de la Frontera de Chile, 1791, Leg 7266:III:339.
Mariono Rivera. Sgt, Mil Discip Dragones de Arica, 1800, Legajo 7288:II:60.
Tadeo Rivera. Capt, Dragones del Reino de Chile, 1794, Legajo 7267:XXV:1012.
Bartolomé de Roa. Capt, Bn Inf de Chile, 1800, Leg 7267:I:9.
José Venancio de la Roa. Lt, Cab del Principe, 1800, Leg 7276:XII:17.
Mateo de Roa. Capt, Bn de Inf de Chile, 1800, Leg 7267:I:10.
Dionisio Rocuan. Surgeon, Dragones de la Frontera de Chile, 1790, Leg
José Ignacio de Rocha. Chaplain, Ban Inf Valdivia, 1800, Leg 7267:II:63.
José Rodriguez. Lt, Bn Inf de Chile, 1796, Leg 7267:XVIII:667.
Manuel Rodriguez. Lt, Dragones de la Frontera de Chile, 1797, Leg 7267:XIV:583.
Francisco Rojas. Lt, Asamblea de Cab del Reino de Chile, 1800, Leg 7267:V:161.
Hermenegildo Roman. Lt, Mil Discip Dragones de Acari y Chala, 1796, Leg 7286:I:10.
Mariano Roman. Lt, Mil Discip de Dragones de Acari y Chala, 1796, Leg 7286:I:15.
Toribio Roman. Capt, Mil Discip Dragones de Acari y Chala, 1796, Leg 7286:I:4.
Dionisio Romero. Lt, Asamblea de Cab del Reino de Chile, 1800, Leg 7267:V:162.
Pedro José Romero. Sgt, Asamblea Cab del Reino de Chile, 1800, Leg 7267:V:172.
José Antonio Rosales. Capt, Cab del Principe, 1800, Leg 7276:XII:10.
Bartolomé Julio Rospillosi. Capt Comandante, Mil Discip Dragones de Arica, 1800, Leg 7288:II:3.
Miguel Rospillosi y Salamanca. Sgt, 1st Cl of Granaderos, Mil Discip Dragones de Arica, 1800, Leg 7288:II:56.

To be continued with Ru – Z names.



Sept 15-Oct 15 Sept : SHHAR to mount Orange County Register Hispanic
      Heritage Month Display
      Sept 27th:
Libreria Martinez Story Going Nationwide
Sept 2: Leo Limón Poster signing at Libreria Martinez Lakewood 
Sept 14: OC 3nd Annual Biggest Hispanic Professionals Mixer
Sept 19: National Latina Business Women, OC Chapter Heritage Event
Sept 30: Orange County Children's Book Festival 
Emigdio Vasquez and 124 Years of Progress
Satisfaction with mission accomplished, Grijalva Park Expands
Costa Mesa mom helps parents keep kids from gangs
It takes a Village
Oct 6: Save the Date: The Spice of Life! Boy Scouts


OC REGISTER, SHHAR/SomosPrimos, Wells Fargo, 
            & Stay Connected OC are celebrating together
            with a 

Hispanic Heritage Month Display at the Orange County Register
625 N. Grand Ave, Santa Ana 

Display will be available for public viewing, Sept 15-Oct 15 
Reception, Wednesday, Sept 27th

Ron Gonzales, Team captain at the Register and editor of Excelsior is collaborating with community organizations to mount a display in the lobby of the Register.  The display will be in place throughout the month.  Teachers and youth leaders are encouraged to bring their children to view the display.  Groups are invited to schedule a tour. 

In addition to SHHAR members displays, Amigas de la Cultura, LULAC and the Orange County Mexican American Historical Society, and the National Latina Business Women Association have been invited to participate.  A special display of the Latino OC 100 will also be in place.  Some members of the OC 100 will be highlighted. 

Currently on the planning committee are Arturo Castro, Viola Rodriguez Sadler, Tammy Boyce, Viola Myre, Orange County Chamber of Commerce, Ruben Alvarez and Marcial Fernandez, of OC Latino 100.  [Ruben has just been named as one of the Hottest 25 People of Orange County in OC METRO Magazine.  OC METRO Magazine holds a signature business event each year. Their most popular Cover Story includes the Hottest 25 people.]  

Artist Henry Godines will be honored at the reception.  His oil, Pied Piper of Saipan, Guy Gabaldon will be on display.  Please go to for information on obtaining a copy of the lithograph.

If you have a family display and would like to participate, or would like to schedule a tour for your youth group, please contact: Mimi Lozano 714-894-8161

Congratulations to Rueben.   On August 24th 
Libreria Martinez Story is Going Nationwide Set your TiVo, DVR or VCR for Thursday, August 24th between 7:00 AM and 9:00 AM because Dave Price - The Early Show weatherman and feature reporter - will profile Rueben Martinez and the genesis of Libreria Martinez. The Early Show airs nationwide on CBS (Channel 2, in Southern California). 

Producer, Erika Josephson and Mr. Price were in town from New York last week to film the piece. As you can imagine, Mr. Martinez gave the talented CBS News crew plenty to work with for the upcoming segment. His passion and enthusiasm had them jumping out of their seats, energized and looking for more. You do not want to miss this exciting and important segment, which allows Mr. Martinez to share his story and mission of the Libreria Martinez bookstores with the rest of the nation. 

What: Rueben Martinez profile by Dave Price 
Where: CBS (Channel 2) The Early Show 
When: Thursday, August 24, 2006: Between 7:00 AM and 9:00 AM 

Special thanks to CBS News, Dave Price, Erika Josephson, Max Stacy and crew. For more information about The Early Show click on the following link.


Please Join us at our Lynwood Location for the following event: Leo Limón Poster, Book Signing and Reception 

Saturday, September 2nd
7:00 PM to 8:30 PM 

Recently back from the Chicano Visions opening reception at the de Young Museum in San Francisco, Leo Limón, will be signing museum quality prints of his 1983 classic "Dando Gracias" and the Cheech Marin book "Chicano Visions: American Painters on the Verge". 

Leo Limón was born and still resides in East Los Angeles. Called the "Alley River Cat Artist" by former Los Angeles Mayor Richard Riordan, he is known for the cat faces he paints on the cement walls channeling the Los Angeles River. Limón's work on paper deals mostly with the indigenous ideals of "corazón" and uses many Aztec symbols. 

Limón considers himself a cultural worker and an arts ambassador for East Los Angeles and the Chicano community. While he was in high school, Limón was influenced by and involved with Los Four, especially Carlos Almaraz. During his time with Self-Help Graphics, a community-based visual arts center, Limón helped to develop the annual celebration of Día de Los Muertos and the Atelier Printmaking Program. In addition, Limón helped to establish the Aztlan Cultural Arts Foundation, Inc., to pursue his commitment to youth in his community. He has also worked with the MeChicano Art Center and the Centro de Arte Público. 

"Chicano Visions" 
Have a wonderful rest of the Summer and we hope to see you in the stores. Saludos

Orange County’s 3nd Annual Biggest Hispanic Professionals Mixer
Thursday, September 14, 2006
5:30 – 8:30 p.m.   $10.00 per person
Bowers Museum: 2002 N. Main St., Santa Ana, CA 92706
Networking, Complimentary Beverages, Raffle Prizes, Heavy Appetizers, Complimentary Parking, and the Chocolate Fountain!
Join over 500 professionals and community leaders from the county’s most influential Hispanic serving non-profit & professional organizations. Over 25 local organizations are expected to participate.  Sponsorship opportunities still available. Contact Rebecca at 714-507-6166 or e-mail


Orange County Children's Book Festival

A FREE, FUN EVENT! Orange County Children's Book Festival, Saturday, September 30, 2006 from 9:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. on the campus of Orange Coast College, 2701 Fairview Road, Costa Mesa (near Orange County Fairgrounds). There will be Wild Animals, Sports Stars, Entertainment, Hands-On Fun, Storytelling, Authors, Illustrators, Food and Drinks. Fun for the whole family! For more information contact  or (714)838-4528.

Sent by Adrienne Chavez Jennings-McMillan, an attorney, who writes:
I am a member of MANA and Las Comadres in Orange County. I volunteer with the Orange County Children's Book Festival, supporting literacy and literature. We are try to encourage attendance by the Hispanic community. Last year 15,000 children and their parents attended, but had a low turnout from the Hispanic community. Will you please post the information. 

City pauses for 'Progress'   

Staff members and others honored artist Emigdio Vasquez and the 25th anniversary of a mural he did for Anaheim, '124 Years of Progress.'

The Orange County Register, Anaheim, July 2, 2006

Sent by Ricardo Valverde

Emigdio Vasquez works on 
oil called "La Division del Norte."

In 1981, Emigdio Vasquez saw Anaheim as a city rich with history.  He saw the importance of George Hansen, considered the "Father of Anaheim"; Ah Foo, a Chinese- American handyman with a colorful personality; and Jean Pacifico and Martina Ontiveros, the original landowners of the site where Anaheim was founded.

So when the city commissioned him to paint a mural depicting Anaheim's achievements, he included these notables along with several other people, as well as landmarks and scenes.

The mural, which hangs at City Hall, celebrated its 25th anniversary last week.  Dozens of friends, family and city staff members honored the muralist and his artwork at the Anaheim Museum.

"This is the most significant mural I've done. I did it for the city of Anaheim," Vasquez, 67, said. Called "124 Years of Progress," the 6-by-12 mural took about three months to complete with the help of three student artists.

Silvia Mendoza was 19 when she signed on to the project.  "He inspired me a lot. He was my role model," Mendoza said. "I got most of my training from him."

A man with deep knowledge of his art subjects, Vasquez followed his heart rather than the money. "He didn't go with the flow of things. He painted what was important to him," Mendoza said.

Born in Jerome, Ariz., Vasquez and his family moved to Orange when he was 2. He lived in Anaheim for a few years and now lives in Orange. 

Specializing in social realism, he is considered a pioneer in the Chicano art movement. Much of his art illustrates the struggles of the working class. He has been an artist in residence at the Bowers Museum of Cultural Art, taught art and painting classes, and created art for the California Arts Council.

"He's very humble and doesn't speak much, but he's highly respected in the art world," said Abram Moya Jr., an artist and Vasquez's friend for 25 years.

Vasquez has made seven other murals for the city, but this one is the largest mural that is not drawn or painted onto a wall. "It's an education that's eye-catching," said Jacqueline Terrell, who was a member of the board that approved the mural in 1981.

The city will continue displaying the mural on the second floor of City Hall. 

Vasquez doesn't plan on painting any more murals because of their physical demands, but he won't stop creating art. "Being an artist is not a cakewalk, but I just love it," he said.

Satisfaction with mission accomplished

Eddie Grijalva shares his feelings about the Grijalva plaque.  Eddie was very instrumental in getting the city and county to recognize the Grijalva presence in Santa Ana. He has persisted and given Orange County Hispanics a model of what can be done, by gathering information and seeking out historians interested in inclusion of all early residents.

Eddie writes: After 20 years of researching my heritage, I never dreamed of the awards I would receive for all of my hard work. I've covered miles and miles of traveling looking for information, running out of money, staying in cheap motels; plus losing a lot of sleep when I would come up to a brick wall, not finding the string of what I was hoping to find concerning my history, my heritage. 

This Marker is one of 3 that gives my ancestors' recognition in the history of Orange County. To me they are trophy's for my hard work in researching my heritage. A passage in the bible states, "YOU REAP WHAT YOU SOW". I look back now, and think, if I would not have taken interest in my heritage, I know that none of this history of Orange County would come to new life. It would have remained the same. The historians before me omitted Grijalva in writing our Orange County History. To them Juan Pablo Grijalva was just a side note, nothing important.

I gave light to the Grijalva historical presence. Juan Pablo Grijalva will not be forgotten. I can really say with no regrets, I feel just fine about myself. 

Sincerely, Eddie Grijalva


Costa Mesa mom helps parents keep kids from gangs
YVETTE CABRERA, Register columnist Tuesday, August 15, 2006
Sent by Ricardo Valverde

It's a quiet day at the Save Our Youth (SOY) center in Costa Mesa, so there are just a couple dozen teens hanging out, but Carmen Barrios makes sure to check every corner – from the weight room to the basketball courts to the music room – to make sure her charges aren't up to trouble.

If there's one thing this Costa Mesa mother has learned from life, it's that you have to be vigilant about watching over teenagers. She spent many a night and pre-dawn hours walking the streets of Costa Mesa tracking down her own two sons, who were recruited into gangs.

Through counseling and hard work, Barrios and her husband, Jorge, were able to pull their sons, now 33 and 29, out of gangs and onto the right road, but she never forgot the struggle.

Which is why every day of the week, you'll find Barrios at SOY, a nonprofit she helped co-found in 1993 to give at-risk youth an outlet and alternative to gangs and violence. Jorge volunteers at SOY, mentoring the students and serving as caretaker for the facilities.

"Our boys grew up … but I thought it doesn't matter. What I learned in that time, I may not have been able to use it with my sons. Why can't I use it with the new generation of boys?" Barrios tells me in Spanish.

I met Barrios recently as I researched an intervention/prevention program that the Costa Mesa Police Department has launched to eliminate Costa Mesa gangs, which are predominantly Latino.

Gang counselors, police officials and community activists have told me that the gang violence in Costa Mesa pales in comparison to that in cities like Los Angeles, and police statistics bear that out.

In a four-month period, Costa Mesa gang crimes included one homicide, two robberies, nine assaults with a deadly weapon and 324 vandalisms.

As Costa Mesa police Lt. Clay Epperson put it, "Compton had more gang violence in one weekend than we've had all year."

Yet everyone agrees, left alone, the gang violence can only escalate. Just two weeks ago, a 23-year-old man was shot and killed in Barrios' neighborhood in what police are calling a gang-related homicide.

In an interview, SOY's executive director, Trevor Murphy, emphasized the importance of parental involvement in keeping youth out of trouble, so I sat down with Barrios, who has worked extensively with Latino parents in Costa Mesa.

Barrios' philosophy has always been "Wherever we're needed, we'll go." So every morning, she heads to work as a housecleaner, returns home, showers and then beelines it to SOY, where she is program assistant. Every Wednesday, she runs a mothers support group. If there's a shooting, she walks neighborhoods talking to residents.

"For me, it's about being here for the kids, hearing what they have to say," says Barrios. "They come to you and tell you about a problem they're having at home, or something they can't bring up with their parents."

The question this naturally raises is: "Where are their parents?"

When SOY was first created, Barrios says parents would show up to the center and watch their kids and volunteer. Today, there's little of that, she says. The mothers group she runs fluctuates at about four women in it.

"Now, a lot of parents don't even know the families of their son's friends, or whom their daughter is dating. There's no communication, nothing," says Barrios, a Mexican immigrant born and raised in Baja California and a 20-year Costa Mesa resident.

She knows many parents work full time, sometimes two or three jobs, so she understands the obstacles they face. Still, she tells them to track their children, ask questions and notice changes in behavior.

"I'd like it if parents got to know the environment that their kids are in, what they're dealing with on the street – it's something that eludes us and we're not aware," says Barrios.

So that parents understand symptoms of drug use, she encourages parents to seek advice from the police department.

"I've spoken to parents and told them, 'If you want to know something, go to the police and tell them you're worried about this,' " says Barrios. "The gang unit can't do this by themselves; the parents have to collaborate, too."

Today, SOY's youth go on to colleges in the University of California system or local schools like Orange Coast Community College, and for Barrios this is proof of how far SOY has come.

But she also knows there are many parents out there she's yet to reach, so she stays on at SOY and reminds them that keeping kids out of gangs is not impossible.

"I tell them, 'Don't feel bad, I went through the same thing, it's not the end of the world,' " says Barrios. "I tell them there is hope, that there is something you can learn and do."

CONTACT US: Cabrera's opinions on local news appear every Tuesday and Thursday. She is a former metro reporter who has covered issues including immigration and higher education. Contact her at 714-796-3649 or


“It takes a Village” 

Nellie Kaniski circulates an informative newsletter identifying happenings in Orange County. Nellie is an active MANA and very involved also in the annual Adelante Mujeres. She knows the community and the community knows her, a special lady.]]

Dear Readers:

We could close our eyes, cover our ears while shouting, “La la la laaa” so as not to hear and acknowledge the painful and disruptive happenings in our Orange County—no matter; you cannot read the daily news without tripping over some tragic and painful stories that befall us… Yes, US! This is our community; we all live under the same sky, breathe the same air and are all subject to the same laws. 

We have heard that “It takes a village” to raise our children and that we need to be actively involved in our children’s day-to-day and night activities…. Besides their immediate family, kids are influenced by TV programs, video games, literature and friends--this is not to say that all these impact their thinking and behavior negatively; this is just a reminder be vigilant, so that those outside influences are consistent with your values. 

And if we are indeed a village watching out for the well being and development of our youth, are we making an attempt to get to know the youth that dresses funny and look weird, in an effort to get to know them? In our busyness and fast-lane living, few of us have the time to give our children quality time. Therefore, we salute the staff of agencies whose mission is to provide direction, education and support for children in need. Next week, we will start featuring programs that offer support to our youth. Please contact me if you wish to share services that your agency provides for youth here in Orange County. 

Save the Date.
The Spice of Life!
Salsa Ball Dinner  Dance
Friday - Oct 6, 5:30-11:30
Irvine Marriott Hotel

For more information or corporate sponsorships, please contact: Oscar Santoyo 
714-546-8558/ext 125



Sept 4: City of Los Angeles 225 Birthday Celebration, Join the Walk
      Los Pobaldores Walk to Los Angeles 
      225 Years, 1781-2006 Celebrating the Founding of  Los Angeles 
Sept 6-10: National Latino Congreso
Sept 10th: Centinella Adobe Fiesta 
Sept 11-12: Highways Free Performance Workshop, click for information
Sept 29: Alta California:
Peoples in Motion, Identities in Formation, 1769-1850
Parish history of Rancho San Pedro, now know as the South Bay
The School of Arts and Enterprise Seeks Artistic Contributions
Gene Autry's Legacy and an Indian Museum Merge (and Collide)
Oct 7: Los Cerritos Neighborhood Festival
Oct 21: Save the Date. . .   Monterey Park Family History Conference



Celebrating Los Angeles’ 225th Birthday
Monday, September 4, 2006, 7: AM

The Disney Company will sponsor Los Angeles’ 225th Birthday by embarking on an 8.6-mile trek from San Gabriel Mission to El Pueblo Plaza in Downtown Los Angeles. All Angelinos are invited to join Mayor Villaraigosa, Council member José Huizar, and other city and county officials for this historic birthday celebration filled with festivities that will include live music, food, artisan booths, and more.

For more information, see:
See the flyer for this event at:
Members of the Steering Committee at: h

For more information, contact:
El Pueblo Historical Monument
125 Paseo de la Plaza
Los Angeles, CA 90012
Call (213) 485-8372 or (213) 485-9769
Fax: (213) 485-8238 or (213) 628-3565
Email us at:
You can register online at


225 YEARS (1781-2006)


By John P. Schmal

On Monday, September 4, 2006, at 7:a.m. Los Pobladores (the sons and daughters of the founders of Los Angeles) will reconstruct the 9-mile journey from San Gabriel to Downtown Los Angeles that took place 225 years ago. They will be accompanied by Mayor Villaraigosa, Councilmember José Huizar and many friends and acquaintances from around the Southland. All are welcome to participate. (for information, go to:  Call 213-485-8372 or 213-485-9769, email .)

September 4 will soon be here and we will mark the 225th anniversary of the founding of Los Angeles in 1781. Today, Los Angeles stands out as one of the most important cultural and economic metropolitan areas in the entire world. But what do most Angelinos know about the founding of Los Angeles? Who were the founders? Where were they from?

Many Angelinos know very little about this event. Most of us have heard that El Pueblo de Los Angeles was founded as a Spanish town. It was, indeed, founded under the guidance and management of the Spanish colonial administration. But the lifeblood of the new town was supplied mainly by Mexican citizens of the extensive Spanish Empire, most of them born and bred in the northwestern Mexican states of Sonora and Sinaloa. They were humble, poor folk who were accompanied by soldiers who escorted them on their 960-mile journey to Los Angeles.

More than a century ago, J. M. Guinn, the author of "Historical and Biographical Record of Los Angeles and Vicinity" (Chicago: Chapman Publishing Co., 1901), wrote:

"Few of the great cities of the land have had such humble founders as Los Angeles. Of the eleven pobladores who built their huts of poles and tule thatch around the plaza vieja … not one could read or write. Not one could boast of an unmixed ancestry… the conquering race that possesses the land they colonized has forgotten them. No street or landmark in the city bears the name of any one of them."

But Gertrude Van Aken, who wrote "El Pueblo Under The Spanish Flag" (Los Angeles: Office of the Superintendent, Los Angeles city Schools, 1946), recognized the hardships that these almost-anonymous pioneers and saluted their efforts:

"These first settlers were very brave. They had traveled over many miles of desert to start the pueblo. They had many, many hardships… They were the pioneers who cleared the fields and used the water from the river to make things grow…. The jobs were done without many of the things that people now have to make their work easy… They had no railroads, airplanes, automobiles, telephones, postal service, newspapers, books, magazines, motion pictures, and radios to help them."

Most people living in Los Angeles today have probably never heard of the Expedition of 1781. However, if this expedition had not taken place or fulfilled its objectives, Los Angeles would not be 225 years old this year. This expedition of almost a thousand miles founded a small pueblo on the outskirts of the mighty Spanish Empire. The small pueblo, now known as Los Angeles, would eventually form the nucleus of a thriving multi-ethnic, multicultural urban center with a population of almost 10 million people.

In 1774, King Carlos III of Spain had authorized the settlement of the California communities we call San Gabriel, Los Angeles, and Santa Barbara. He believed that the establishment of pueblos, missions and presidios in these areas would serve as a bulwark against the looming threat of the Russian and British empires, both of which were moving closer to California. A few years later, in December 1779, Viceroy Bucareli and Commandant General de la Croix approved a proposal by California Governor Felipe de Neve to establish settlements at the sites of present-day Los Angeles and Santa Barbara. Soon after, Fernando Rivera y Moncada, the Lieutenant Governor of California, was appointed to oversee the recruitment of the proposed settlements.

In December 1779, Governor de Neve sent an expedition under the command of Captain Rivera into Sinaloa and Sonora to recruit 59 soldiers and 24 families of pobladores (settlers). Of the fifty-nine recruits, thirty-four soldiers were to go to California, while the other twenty-five would fill the places of those soldiers taken from the presidios in Mexico.

Most of the soldiers selected to accompany the settlers on their northward march belonged to a unique breed of Spanish soldiers called los soldados de cuera (the leather-jacket soldiers). Recruited from the poorest classes of Sinaloa and Sonora, these young men were prepared to serve and perhaps die in the service of the Spanish Empire. However, although they served under the flag of Spain, most of them were, in fact, natives of Mexico and of modest, mixed-race origins.

These young soldiers – and the pobladores (settlers) they accompanied – were prepared to take their families with them to this strange, untamed land, uncertain of the challenges that lay ahead. However, with the challenges and uncertainty came great opportunities and we are certain that they were well aware of this.

The instructions required that the soldier recruits and the settlers should be "healthy, robust, and without known vice or defect." Both the soldiers and settlers were to be married men – with families – and should possess "greater strength and endurance for the hardships of frontier service." Included among the settlers would be a mason, a carpenter, and a blacksmith.

All recruits were required to bind themselves to ten years’ service. It was also hoped that the unmarried female relatives of the pobladores would be encouraged to marry bachelor soldiers already in California. Upon completion of his task, Rivera would assemble the whole company of recruits at Álamos in Sonora. From Álamos the recruits and their families would move on by sea or land. In addition to recruiting soldiers and settlers, Rivera had to purchase equipment and supplies, as well as 961 horses, mules, and donkeys. The animals would be sent north by way of the Gila and Colorado Rivers.

Although he started his search in February 1780, Rivera did not enlist his first settler until May. It was difficult to enlist people for a ten-year commitment to a remote and desolate outpost surrounded by thousands of potentially hostile Indians. Most people realized that getting to California from Sonora and Sinaloa was a long, arduous and dangerous journey for harsh desert terrain and dangerous Indian territory.

By August 1, 1780, Rivera had recruited only 45 soldiers and seven settlers from Sinaloa and Culiacán. But, by August 25, he was able to recruit eleven farm families (numbering 44 people in all) and 59 soldiers. By November, Captain Rivera had recruited all of the soldiers he needed, but was still short on settlers.

Rivera’s entire expedition of settlers, soldiers, and livestock were assembled at Álamos in January. At this point, he decided to split the expedition into two groups. First, he assigned seventeen of his soldiers under the command of Alferez Ramon Laso de la Vega to accompany the eleven settlers’ families in their march up the Baja Peninsula. This party, under the overall command of Lieutenant José de Zuñiga, left Álamos on February 2, 1781, started northward, and eventually crossed the Gulf of California from Guaymas to Loreto, Baja California. An outbreak of smallpox among the settlers delayed the journey for awhile. Not until August would most of Zuñiga’s party make it to the San Gabriel Mission.

Meanwhile, Captain Rivera on the mainland, accompanied by 42 soldiers and 961 horses and mules, rode north toward the Colorado River. Rivera and his troops arrived in July at the junction of the Gila and Colorado Rivers. At that point, Rivera sent the troops and their families ahead to the San Gabriel Mission. With several men still under his command, Rivera camped on the eastern (Arizona) bank of the Colorado on the night of July 17, 1781 in order to rest and feed his livestock before crossing the Colorado Desert.

However, Rivera’s large herd of cattle and horses caused a great deal of damage to the Indians’ mesquite trees and melon patches. Enraged, the Yuma Indians attacked and massacred Rivera and several of his soldiers. At the same time, the Indians also attacked two nearby pueblos, killing a total of 46 people.

Fortunately, the thirty-five soldiers and thirty families of the Sonora escort had already arrived safely at the San Gabriel Mission on July 14, 1781. This massacre caused a great deal of trepidation to the Spanish frontier zone. As a result the inland route from Sonora to California was virtually closed for several years.

Rivera was 57 when he was slain. He had been a California soldier for 40 years. His widow was left destitute. She was never able to collect any part of Rivera's last five years of pay, held up as it was by disputes with missionaries and higher civil authorities.

Having traveled more than 960 miles from their starting point in Sonora, the settlers and soldiers lived at the San Gabriel Mission for several weeks as they made preparations to start their new lives in Los Angeles. At that point, the settlers were only nine miles from their destination (Los Angeles).

The Pueblo of Los Angeles was officially founded on September 4, 1781, when, it is believed, a procession of settlers and soldiers made their way to a location along the Los Angeles River. Of the fourteen pobladores that had been enlisted one thousand miles away in Álamos, Sonora, only eleven of them – with their families – actually took part in the founding of the Pueblo of Los Angeles.

A list of the first settlers of the Pueblo of Los Angeles, as indicated by the official padrón (census) taken on November 19, 1781, is shown below. This listing – which groups together people of the same surname – can also be found on the Pobladores’ plaque on the south side of Pueblo Plaza in Downtown Los Angeles. This information was originally recorded by the Spanish administrators who oversaw this venture and can be accessed in the Provincial State Papers in the Bancroft Library (Provincial State Papers, Missions and Colonization, Tome (book) 1, pp. 101-102). The people below have been grouped by surname, with their sex and age given. Each of the parents in each household is also given a racial classification:

Lara -
José Fernanco de, Español, Hombre, 50
María Antonio, India, Mujer, 23
María Juan, Niña, 6
José Julian, Niño, 4
María Faustina, Niña, 2

Navarro -
José Antonio, Mestizo, Hombre, 42
María Regina, Mulata, Mujer, 47
José Eduardo, Niño, 10
José Clemente, Niño, 9
Mariana, Niña, 4

Rosas -
Basilio, Indio, Hombre, 67
María Manuela, Mulata, Mujer, 43
José Maxímo, Niño, 15
José Carlos, Niño, 12
María Josefa, Niña, 8
Antonio Rosalino, Niño, 7 
José Marcelino, Niño, 4
José Esteban, Niño, 2

Mesa -
Antonio, Negro, Hombre, 38
María Ana, Mulata, Mujer, 27
María Paula, Niña, 10
Antonio María, Niño, 8

Villavicencio -
Antonio Clemente, Español, Hombre, 30
María Seferina, India, Mujer, 26
María Antonia, Niña, 8

Vanegas -
José, Indio, Hombre, 28
María Bonifacia, India, Mujer, 20
Cosme Damien, Niño, 1

Rosas -
Alejandro, Indio, Hombre, 19
Juana María, India, Mujer, 20

Rodríguez - 
Pablo, Indio, Hombre, 25
María Rosalía, India, 26
María Antonia, Niña, 1

Camero -
Manuel, Mulato, Hombre, 30
María Tomasa, Mulata, Mujer, 24

Quintero -
Luis, Negro, Hombre, 55
María Petra, Mulata, Mujer, 40
María Gertrudis, Niña, 16
María Concepcíon, Niña, 9
María Tomasa, Niña, 7
María Rafaela, Niña, 6
José Clemente, Niño, 3

Moreno -
José, Mulato, Hombre, 22
María Guadalupe, Mulata, Mujer, 19



The Spanish racial classifications used to describe the settlers were used throughout the Spanish Empire. Español usually indicated a person of Spanish descent, while the term indio/india simply implied the male and female genders for Indian. A mestizo usually indicated a person of half Spanish and half Indian blood, while a mulato or mulata indicated a person of mixed African and Spanish origins.

The application of these racial labels on subjects of the Spanish Crown was usually based entirely on sight and subject to the perception and prejudices of the administrator. In fact, most racial classifications in this part of the Spanish Empire were usually based on the degree of darkness or lightness and not on actual lineage. But one thing is clear: the first citizens of the Pueblo of Los Angeles were Mexican: they were African-Mexican, Indian-Mexican, Spanish-Mexican, and Mestizo-Mexican. The expedition that brought these people to Los Angeles was organized and arranged by the Spanish authorities. But the people who broke the ground in Los Angeles were, in fact, Mexican people.

None of the Pobladores ever became famous on an individual basis. Beloved and revered by their respective families, these settlers carried on with their mission, living life one day at a time and contributing their efforts to the formative years of the young pueblo. If they had been able to see the future, it is not likely that they would predicted the evolution of Los Angeles into one of the largest metropolitan regions in the world. But these settlers did, in fact, become the nucleus of what would someday become one of the largest urban areas in the country.

The new pueblo was six miles square with a plaza near its center. Each family was given a small piece of land, in addition to receiving two mares, two cows, one calf, two sheep, two goats, two mules, and two oxen, as well as implements with which to work the land. They had five years to pay for these items. All of the settlers also had access to an anvil, a forge, six crowbars, six iron spades, tools for carpentry and cast work, some carts, and wagons.

After the initial settlement of the pueblo, there was a great deal of work yet to be done. For that reason it is possible that some of the soldiers – many of whom were destined for service at the proposed Santa Barbara Presidio – had new responsibilities. According to the historian, Meredith Stevens, "The soldiers remained there to help the settlers get established. They built pole and mud huts with earthen roofs, and made corrals of willow poles laced with rawhide. They dug wells, cleared land for planting and set up an irrigation system fed from the river by zanja madre (mother ditch). After eight months of exhausting labor, in April 1782, the little village was crudely completed and most of the soldiers were sent north to build the new presidio at Santa Barbara."

The primary purpose for building the zanja madre was agricultural. From this main ditch, smaller ditches branched off to be used for irrigation of crops in different sectors. However, the smaller ditches were also used for drinking water and laundering. People in town went to the nearest ditch to fill their ollas (clay water jugs). A man called a zanjero was paid to watch the ditch and make sure that the cattle, sheep, and horses were kept out of the open ditches.

In the years to follow, the small pueblo grew steadily over the decades. The Sinaloans and Sonorans who had contributed so greatly to the establishment and the life of the pueblo continued to play an important role in the growth of Los Angeles. Many of the Sinaloan and Sonoran soldiers serving at the Santa Barbara and San Buenaventura Missions retired to a quiet life at the Pueblo, tilling small plots of land and watching their grandchildren come of age.

At the following website, one can see the names of the inhabitants of Los Angeles in 1790:

Scanning this list of names, one can easily see that Sinaloans and Sonorans were, by and large, the life-blood of the young pueblo. The passing of two centuries has greatly diminished the influence of Sinaloa and Sonora on the city’s direction, but the Angelinos of today can still appreciate the efforts of these pioneers and the fact that Sinaloa and Sonora represent the ancestral homeland of L.A.’s founders.

Doyce B. Nunis, Jr., "The Founding Documents of Los Angeles: A Bilingual Edition." Los Angeles: Historical Society of Southern California, 2004.

Marion Parks, "Instructions for the Recruital of Soldiers and Settlers for California – Expedition of 1781," Southern California Quarterly, Vol. XV, Part II (1931), pp. 189-203.

Regina Phelan, "The Land Known as Alta California." Spokane: Prosperity Press, 1997.

Meredith Stevens, "The House of Olivas." Ventura, California: Chadron Press.

Thomas Workman Temple II, "Soldiers and Settlers of the Expedition of 1781," Southern California Quarterly, Vol. XV, Part 1 (November 1931).

Jennifer Vo and John P. Schmal, "A Mexican-American Family of California: In the Service of Three Flags." Westminster, Maryland: Heritage Books, 2004. 
Copyright © 2006, by John P. Schmal.



WHAT: National Latino Congreso
WHEN: September 6-10, 2006
WHERE: Sheraton Los Angeles Downtown  711 South Hope Street  Los Angeles, Ca. 90017

ITEM OF INTEREST: How to Participate...Register online  Form a local "Congreso Commitee"... Encourage others to attend... Link us to your website...Add your name to our endorser list... Sponsor or organize a delegation at the Congreso...Sponsor or organize a workshop at the Congreso...Fundraise! Help pay for local delegates.  Contact # 1-800-WVCI-ORG{928-4674 Sent by Juan Ramos

Sept 10th: Centinella Adobe Fiesta 

Once owned by the Ancestors of Machado - Avila descendants, it is located at 7634 Midfield Ave, Inglewood, CA off the San Diego Frwy, off Florence Bl. West.  There will be food and dancing. 11 to three.  Sent by Eva Booher

Sept 29:  Alta California:
Peoples in Motion, Identities in Formation, 1769-1850

Friday, September 29, 2006
8:30 Registration & Coffee
9:30 Welcome Robert C. Ritchie (The Huntington)
Remarks Steven W. Hackel (Oregon State University)

Session 1 Franciscan Identity in the Eighteenth-Century Borderlands
Moderator: Bill Deverell (University of Southern California and
Huntington-USC Institute on California and the West) 

José Refugio de la Torre Curiel (University of Guadalajara)
"Robust Wine and Sour Vinegar: Conflicting Personalities among Franciscan
Missionaries in Late-Colonial Sonora"

Steven W. Hackel
"Junípero Serra: Agent of the Inquisition"

Robert M. Senkewicz and Rose Marie Beebe (Santa Clara University)
"What They Brought: The Alta California Franciscans before 1769"

12:30 Lunch

1:30 Session 2 After the Village: Indian Identity in Alta California 

Moderator: Janet Fireman (Editor, California History) 
John Johnson (Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History)
"Genetics and the Castas of Colonial California"
Lisbeth Haas (University of California, Santa Cruz)
"Indigenous Translations of Catholicism and Interpretations of History"
James Sandos (University of Redlands)
"Identity through Music: Indian Choristers at Mission San Gabriel, 1771-1791"

Saturday, September 30, 2006
9:00 Registration & Coffee
9:30 Session 3 Borderland Identities of Soldiers and Settlers

Moderator: Richard White (Stanford University) 
Louise Pubols (Museum of the American West, Autry National Center)
"Becoming Californio: Jokes, Broadsides, and a Slap in the Face" 
Ramon A. Gutiérrez (University of California, San Diego)
"Creating Identities in Spanish California and New Mexico"
Andrés Reséndez (University of California, Davis)
"Montezuma and his Children: Echoes between the American Southwest and Old

12:30 Lunch

1:30 Session 4 The Spanish Borderlands: Comparing National Perspectives

Moderator: Walter Brem (Emeritus, Bancroft Library)
Albert L. Hurtado (University of Oklahoma)
"Herbert E. Bolton and California's Fantasy Heritage" 
David J. Weber (Southern Methodist University)
"A New Borderlands Historiography: Constructing and Negotiating the 
Boundaries of Identity"
Sylvia L. Hilton (Universidad Complutense, Madrid) 
"On the Margins of Empire and Memory: The Borderlands of North 
America in Spanish Historiography"

This conference is funded by
Mr. & Mrs. Mitchell J. Milias and The Huntington-USC Institute on California and the West

Conference registration and meals by reservation only. No confirmation will be sent.
Conference registration fee 25.00  (Graduate students free)
Buffet lunch (September 29) 16.50  Buffet lunch (September 30) 16.50
Vegetarian (circle one) Yes No  Total ______

Please return form and check payable to "The Huntington" by September 22, 2006.
Mail to Susi Krasnoo, The Huntington, 1151 Oxford Road, San Marino CA 91108.
Sent by Mary Ayers M3Ayers

Parish history of Rancho San Pedro, now know as the South Bay
Sent by Johanna De Soto


The first inhabitants of this area were Native Americans. They lived in small villages of less than 100 people each, and subsisted on a diet of fish, small game and acorns. A common term for the natives of this area is the Gabrielenos, derived from the Spanish Mission San Gabriel. A more fitting name is the Tongva, a Native American word. 

The first European settlers to the greater Los Angeles area were the Spanish. In order to establish a Spanish presence in Alta, or southern, California and reward service to the crown, massive land grants were awarded in the 1780s. One of these was given to a soldier named Juan Jose Dominguez. In 1784 he was granted over 75,000 acres, designated the Rancho San Pedro. This is the area we now know as the South Bay, and included the modern day city of Redondo Beach. His nephew, Jose Cristobal Dominguez, eventually retained title to the grant. Cristobal and his wife, Maria de Los Reyes, had nine children. Their eldest son and the executor of the will, known as Manuel, subsequently became the principal figure in the Rancho. 

After the death of Manuel Dominguez and his wife, Maria Engracia, their land holdings were split between six daughters. Three of the sisters, Susana, Guadalupe, and Maria de Los Reyes Dominguez, inherited portions of the estate, each including individual sections collectively known as the Ocean Tract. In 1889 this coastal tract was sold to the Redondo Beach Improvement Company, founded by Robert Thompson and John Ainsworth. They promoted, developed, and sold land that eventually became the nucleus of the city of Redondo Beach, incorporated in 1892. The name of the city is Spanish for "round," which refers to the half-round street pattern of the original townsite. 

One of Manuel Dominguez's heirs, daughter Susana, held the first organized Catholic services in Redondo Beach. Maria Susana Delfina Dominguez was born June 5, 1844, and married Dr. Gregorio del Amo y Gonzalez on February 15, 1890. After living in Los Angeles for a short time, they moved to 618 Esplanade, Redondo Beach, where they lived until 1906. It was in this home that a group of Catholics met in the parlor for prayers and Sunday Mass. A visiting priest from St. Vibiana's in Los Angeles would arrive to say Mass. 

Dominquez Memorial Chapel 

As the faithful grew in numbers, it became apparent that the parlor could not continue to serve as the church. The Dominguez children donated the land and the finances for the construction of a church to be built in memory of their parents. A committee was formed to plan the new church. The patron St. James was chosen. 

The architects for the Dominguez Memorial Chapel were Messrs. Edelman and Riccard of Los Angeles, and the contractors were Hartnoll and Cole of Redondo Beach. The chapel was built on an 80 x 100 foot lot and was approached from the west with stairs mounting to heavy oak doors.  There were eighteen pews to seat the parishioners. Inside to the right was a staircase leading to the organ gallery, which could accommodate a full choir. Two bell turrets highlighted the western exterior; one of the bells, dated 1892, is currently hanging outside the western side of St. James Church. It was cast by W. T. Garratt & Co., San Francisco, and weighs 500 pounds. Prominently placed in the chapel were statutes, made in Spain, of the Blessed Virgin Mary and St. Joseph. 

Windows on the north and south side of the church memorialized the six Dominguez daughters. A stained glass window in memory of their parents, Manuel and Maria Engracia Dominguez, was positioned in the rear of the chapel. A 22' high ceiling, which added to the beauty, was made of oak. 

Attending the dedication were the Carsons (George and Maria Victoria, a daughter of Manuel Dominguez), the del Amos, the Watsons (James and Dolores, another daughter of Manuel), Bishop Mora, Father Joachim Adam, president of St. Vincent's College, and the parishioners of the parish, which stretched from Santa Monica to the Palos Verde Peninsula. 

The Bishop granted the petition for a resident pastor by sending Father Forthiar, the first pastor of St. James. He served the needs of the people until 1906, when Father Ferrer was assigned. By 1910, the congregation had grown and additional seats were installed in the chapel and a new pastor, Father O'Callaghan, arrived. But it was apparent that a new, larger church was needed, so planning and fund raising began. The population of the city had increased to almost 3,000 citizens, with fifty families registered in the parish. During the building program, Father O'Callaghan was transferred and it fell to Right Reverend Msgr. Nicholas Conneally to complete the new church. 

For the continuation of the Parish history Please go to:

The School of Arts and Enterprise Seeks Artistic Contributions

SHHAR Board member Steven Hernandez requests support: 

The Spanish Department of The School of Arts and Enterprise is planning an exhibit for Hispanic Heritage Month. There is a spacious art gallery which can accommodate quite a number of paintings and other exhibits. We are planning and supervising a month long exposition of Hispanic heritage, diversity, cultures, accomplishments in the arts, sciences, politics, etc, of Hispanics throughout our people's long reaching history. I have already obtained some great posters from the Consulates of Spanish-speaking countries (Spain and Latin America)--I got some really nice ones from the Consulates of Spain, Argentina, Peru, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador, and am still trying to get stuff from Mexico--and am currently preparing other types of exhibits for the event, such as information on Illustrious and Meritorious Hispanics, and artwork.

Are there any SHHAR primos out there, that live in Southern California, and would be willing to donate examples of Hispanic art or information, such as Hispanic-written or themed books, to a School Hispanic Heritage Month event? 

The School of Arts and Enterprise (The SAE) is a state-certified, public, charter high school with an accelerated, college preparatory, curriculum. 
Our academic model focuses on arts and enterprise education through a cutting edge project-based approach to instruction. The SAE opened in September of 2003 with a freshman class of 130 students. Currently The SAE has 260 students in 9th and 10th grades (2004-2005 school year). Applications are currently being accepted.

A State of California Charter High School established in Partnership with: 
Arts Colony of Downtown Pomona 
California Dept. of Education 
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona 
California State University, Los Angeles 
National Council of La Raza 
Pomona Valley YMCA 
Tessier Family Trust 
Western University of Health Science

The School of Arts and Enterprise is located in downtown Pomona, in eastern Los Angeles County. Our website is
295 N Garey Ave
Pomona, CA 91767
(909) 622-0699
Steven Hernandez

Gene Autry's Legacy and an Indian Museum Merge (and Collide)
New York Times, By Edward Wyatt, June 28, 2006

LOS ANGELES, June 22 - When one of the country's premier collections of American Indian artifacts joined forces three years ago with the collectibles of the Singing Cowboy, Gene Autry, the move was officially billed as a merger of equals.  This being Hollywood, however, the storyline was reduced to something simpler: the cowboys were once again battling the Indians. Guess which side won.

Instead of celebrating the 100th anniversary of its founding next year, the Southwest Museum of the American Indian will lock its doors here on June 30. Over the next three years, the 240,000 objects in its collection, many of which have not been out of storage for decades, will be cleaned, cataloged and prepared for a move to a proposed new building next to Autry's Museum of the American West, in Griffith Park.

That is where the Autry National Center, as the merged museum complexes are now known, will celebrate another 100th anniversary next year: the Gene Autry Centennial, a birthday exhibition that, according to the museum, will explore "the Singing Cowboy's influence on myth and history in the American West."

For many residents of the neighborhoods surrounding the Southwest Museum, the museum's plans to move its collection smack of a bait-and-switch. From the time the merger was first discussed in 2001, both sides stressed that the Southwest Museum - whose identity is embedded in the landmark white adobe building that towers over the Arroyo Seco northeast of downtown - would remain separate and apart from the Autry. 

"I grew up visiting the museum," said Ed P. Reyes, a Los Angeles city councilman whose district contains part of the Southwest Museum's grounds. "I don't want us to lose a cultural landmark that has had a tremendous impact on our community in terms of education and culture. I was always under the impression that they were not going to close it down." 
Autry officials say there is no alternative. "We looked for a way to resurrect this campus as a museum," John L. Gray, the president and chief executive of the Autry National Center, said of the Southwest's location. "We couldn't figure out a way to make it work."

The dispute illustrates a continuing issue in the museum world. When cash-poor but collection-rich institutions are forced into partnerships with their opposites, often no one is left happy.

The Autry museum, opened in 1988 by the Autry family, was backed by a large fortune but had a collection that tended toward movie memorabilia and less distinguished Western paintings. 

The Southwest, by contrast, suffered from a small endowment and declines in membership and visitors. But since its founding by Charles Lummis, an explorer and collector, it had built an extensive collection of Indian artifacts, including 13,500 Indian baskets, perhaps the largest such holding in existence, as well as thousands of objects, ranging from the sacred - including human remains - to the mundane. 

Most of that collection is now being put into storage as the Southwest strives to deal with long-festering problems. Severe damage from the 1994 Northridge earthquake, which caused the partial separation of the Southwest's tower from the main building, has never been repaired. Heavy rains last year resulted in extensive leaks, with water pouring into some of the museum's cramped storage spaces and damaging some displays. Insect infestations have threatened some artifacts, Southwest curators say. 

To remedy the problems, all of the building's exhibition space must be given over to storage and restoration work, Autry officials say. They expect the work to take three years.

Mr. Gray stressed that the historic Southwest site, built by Mr. Lummis in 1914, was not being abandoned. A small, rotating exhibition featuring artifacts from the museum's collection is likely to be put in place once the conservation work is finished. But he said that the location must add other uses, both educational and commercial, to remain viable.

During the restoration, the building's gift shop and a lobby display about the project will be open on weekends. No artifacts from the collection will be on display, although tours of the conservation work will be available to museum members, and the museum's scholarly library will remain open by appointment.

Some neighborhood leaders say that plans to transfer the collection are unacceptable. "It needs some work, but everything is in place for the museum to be successful where it is," said Nicole Possert, co-chairwoman of the Friends of the Southwest Museum coalition, which characterizes itself as an IMBY group - one that wants new development "in my back yard." 

"Look at the Disney Concert Hall," Ms. Possert said. "It changed how people viewed downtown and the communities near it. We're open to expansion of the Southwest Museum, as long as it is creatively done and looks good. We would trade that off in return for being able to have a real destination here."

Not everyone is opposed to the Autry's plans to move. Kathleen Whitaker, a former chief curator at the Southwest Museum who is now director of the Indian Arts Research Center at the School of American Research in Santa Fe, N.M., applauds the Autry's efforts. 

"For those of us who grew up in Los Angeles, it's very disappointing that this very historic institution has suffered so much," Dr. Whitaker said. "But the Autry has in essence rescued a collection of national importance. The people in the neighborhood and the city of Los Angeles haven't offered any real viable support for keeping the museum open."

To build the new museum that it hopes will house the Southwest collection, the Autry National Center must get city approval to expand.

Councilman José Huizar, whose district includes the Southwest's main building, noted that the city had made accommodations to serve the Southwest Museum at its current site. For example, the city built a stop on the Gold Line light-rail service at the museum, partly because the hilltop site lacks enough parking. "You don't abandon a site like this just because of parking issues," Mr. Huizar said. 

The city has organized a series of public hearings on the museum's future. While Mayor Antonio R. Villaraigosa said during his election campaign last year that he wanted the Southwest to stay where it is, more recently he has not sided either way. The mayor's press office did not return four phone calls seeking comment on the issue. 

Mr. Gray, a former banker who, with his cropped hair, rimless glasses and white shirt, could have played an Old West banker in one of Autry's cowboy films, admits that while he is a museum executive, he is not a curator or an expert on American Indian cultures. "I'm a total dilettante," he said. "But when we came in, the museum didn't have enough money to pay its bills. It didn't have security guards. It didn't have conservators. It never had the public support that the collection warranted."

For more info:

WHAT: Los Cerritos Neighborhood Festival
WHEN: Saturday, October 7  12:30 to 4:30 P.M.
WHERE: Rancho Los Cerritos Historic Site  4600 Virginia Road  Long Beach, CA 90807

ITEM OF INTEREST: ..Rancho Art Exhibition...Tram Tour of Los Cerritos...Research the History of your Home...Share your Historic Photographs and Artifacts. Games...Food...Entertainment




San Diego River Dam, 1813
Once there was a River by Victor Walsh
Call for photos: History of Mexicans/Chicanos in San Diego
Sept: 21-24th Conference of California Historical Societies
Futbol Club Barcelona to Visit
Some Early Southern California Burials online, Long Beach 
Sirbiente Translates to Mayordomo
San Mateo County databases online 
Huntington Early California Population Project
Historia de la Ciudad de Tijuana
Spanish emigration to Hawaii and to California in the early 1900s
A documentary Showing 
Stolen Cross Found
A Mexican Genealogy Group Met In Brentwood
Oct 13-14 Reyes Adobe Celebration, Aguora Hills


San Diego River

The padres were the first to build dams and aqueducts to supply their mission along the San Diego River.  1813 The first dam to cross the San Diego River is located in present day Mission Trails Regional Park.  San Diego’s Old Town relied mostly on wells dug in Mission Valley, the floodplain of the San Diego River.  For more on the history of the San Diego River and the demands on its water supply, go to

Once There was a River

By Victor Walsh

Friday, July 28, 2006  
Once there was a river. It flowed down into the rich bottomlands and past a series of steep, indented bluffs bordering a tiny pueblo towards the bay. Sandbars and islands, cut by the river's channels, dotted its broad-flowing areas. Willows, cottonwoods and poplars grew along its winding banks. Coastal sage scrub covered the higher ground. Marshes teemed with wildlife, especially birds and waterfowl.

This river, the San Diego River, was the source of life to all cultures that existed in the Old Town area from pre-history through much of the 19th century. When the Spaniards arrived in 1769, the Kumeyaay Indian village of Cosoy reportedly existed on a low bluff protected by trees where the river emptied into an estuary.

Part of the river, several Mexican Era adobes, and possibly a portion of Cosoy lie buried beneath the Caltrans site at Juan and Taylor Streets. Assemblyman Juan Vargas, D-San Diego, this year introduced AB 2081 to include the soon-to-be vacated CalTrans property as part of Old Town San Diego State Historic Park.

Why is the CalTrans acquisition so important? Why should San Diegans care? Because this heavily urbanized park is the city's historic birthplace. It is historic ground, and the idea of setting aside a portion of a park to recreate its historic landscape as used by our forebears is novel, indeed eventful. Nothing like it exists, even remotely, in San Diego.

Acquiring this site is essential to telling the story of early San Diego. The river played an indispensable role in Old San Diego's development; without it there would have been no settlement. The early settlers, many retired Spanish soldiers from the hilltop presidio, planted their huertas or garden lots near the river and built their adobe homes on elevated ground west of the plaza.

After the CalTrans office complex is demolished, State Parks plans to use the property and adjoining park land around the McCoy House to create cultural landscapes as used by the native Kumeyaay and Mexican and early American settlers. The long-range vision is to cover the McCoy House parking lot and intervening paved streets (Calhoun and Wallace). A section of the historic riverbed and bluffs could be recreated with native vegetation, including stands of native willow. The cost would be minimal.

Wake-up Call By Rudecinda Lo Buglio, Janesville, Calif.

Tuesday, Aug. 1, 2006 | Victor Walsh's story, "Once there was a River," is a wake-up call for everyone interested in preservation of the past to act now -- we must not wait to see if Assemblyman Vargas is going to retract his decision to withdraw his bill. We have to make it happen.

The plan outlined by Mr. Walsh is an excellent one, and the fact that it would give everyone the opportunity to take part in observing and/or re-enacting life when the Portola-Serra Party arrived in San Diego in July 1769 is outstanding. Most young people are more interested in the past than you realize, especially if they can see it for themselves to round out what they've read about in their school books.

Although born in Southern California, I am a transplant to Northeastern California, where one of the must-dos for fourth graders is to travel to Sacramento over Donner Pass (where they stop to see the museum associated with the 49ers) and then on to the Sutter's Fort in Sacramento. They even enter a "lottery" to see which of the schools will be allowed to stay over and actually experience life as they lived it in the 1850s.

Every California fourth grader studies the California Missions and life in California -- what an opportunity to travel to visit and perhaps experience life as it was lived in the 1700s during the establishment of the first of the 21 California Missions too -- long before the 49ers of the next century arrived.

Please write Assemblyman Vargas and your state senator to urge that this bill be reintroduced to protect a monument to the past.

CalTrans website:

A recreation of Cosoy could include metates, grinding stones, a pit for firing clay pots, stacks of dry bunch grass, a shell midden, an 'e-waa -- the traditional brush-covered hut made from willow saplings -- and perhaps some baskets, tools like fish hooks, awls and nets, and trade items such as salt and acorns. The village garden would have sage, greens, and cacti planted in it. Along the banks of the river, there would be examples of native plants gathered by the Kumeyaay, such as lemonade berry, wild lilac, and juncus.

The cultural landscape of the Mexican Era -- the huerta of a retired soldier -- could feature a vegetable and herb garden, a pear or fig orchard, a cactus fence or adobe wall, a hand-dug well, and maybe a corral and a bed of Castilian roses. Flowers, especially roses, often adorned the "altar rooms" of Catholic families living in Old Town into the early 20th century.

At least three historic buildings should be reconstructed, as funding becomes available. They are Josefa Carrillo and Henry Fitch's two-story adobe store and home on the CalTrans site, and Guadalupe Machado and Albert B. Smith's wood-frame house and adobe near the reconstructed McCoy House. Erected in the 1830s, Fitch's store did a brisk business trading cowhides, tallow, and aguardiente (brandy) for textiles and apparels shipped in from New England, China, and Mexico. The Machado-Smith houses, which were built circa 1855-1866, stood on a beautiful sloped garden lot overlooking the river.

Many of the paved walkways, subtropical gardens, and other 20th century landscape trappings in the park will be removed in the near future. This does not mean that State Parks plans to create a barren, treeless landscape in Old Town, as some may think. Californio and American families like the Carrillos and Fitches, the Machados and Smiths planted orchards and vegetable gardens. Their adobe and wood-frame homes had grape arbors and gardens of flowering Castilian roses, jasmine, geraniums, and cups of gold vine. Their world, although not idyllic and often grim, was alive with color and smell -- a fecundity and mysticism that is missing from ours.

The Vargas bill has so far generated widespread local support. It has been unanimously endorsed by the Old Town Community Planning Group, Historic Old Town Community Foundation, Old Town Chamber of Commerce, Old Town School Program, Save Our Heritage Organisation, Friends of the Whaley House, Friends of the Old Adobe Chapel, and Old Town Business Improvement District. City Councilman Kevin Faulconer, who represents Old Town, strongly supports the acquisition.

On May 30, the State Assembly unanimously passed the bill by a 79-0 vote. The assembly bill, however, did not provide any funding for the State to acquire the property. According to a committee report, CalTrans wants $13 million.

The bill is presently before the Senate Subcommittee on Natural Resources and Water. Senator Christine Kehoe, D-San Diego, another strong supporter of the acquisition, is a member of this committee and the most likely sponsor of the bill in the State Senate.

Until a month ago, the question of appropriations appeared to be the barb on which the bill could be snagged. But then something unusual happened: on June 26 Vargas withdrew his bill, possibly because he was defeated for reelection in the June primary. The state legislature reconvenes on Aug. 7. If he does not retract his decision, the bill will have to be reintroduced in the assembly during the 2007-2008 session, which is an unlikely scenario.

If the bill becomes inactive during the next session, CalTrans will be free to sell its property to the highest bidder -- in this case a private contractor. Rumor has it that there are at least two developers interested in the property. San Diegans do not need yet another office complex or hotel, especially on historic ground that should be rightfully set aside as a "living reminder" to their heritage. Too much has already been lost in this city due to unbridled growth and development.

This setback unfortunately comes at a time of promise for the park. The San Diego Coast District of State Parks was recently awarded $1.8 million by the California Cultural and Historical Endowment to restore the historic Casa de Bandini/Cosmopolitan Hotel. Rehabilitation of three other historic adobes, including the Casa de Estudillo, a national landmark, is likely with the possibility of deferred maintenance money from State Parks.

The CalTrans acquisition, however, is the most critical component of Old Town's redirection as a historic park. Without it, a rare opportunity to salvage a part of our heritage, where a river once flowed, will be lost forever.

Victor Walsh is a state historian with the San Diego Coast District of California State Parks. Send a letter to the editor here. 

Reader Feedback

Comments so far on this story: George E. Gray wrote on July 29, 2006 11:43 PM:"I was the California Division of Highways, District XI Deputy District Engineer for Administration under Jake Dekema when the Old Town State Park was formed and at that time the MCCoy house parking area wzs part of the Division's property. My thought at that time was that eventually the present Caltrans property should be part of the park. And I strongly support that action. At the least Caltrans should be prevented from selling the property to any non-state organization."

Mike Volberg wrote on July 29, 2006 4:02 PM: "We have few occasions where we can save a piece of our past. Buildings can be constructed any time; yet we have a diminishing occasion where we can acquire a piece of the past and restore it to its historical origin. This expansion to the park would be an enormous asset to the preserved history of San Diego. Old Town State Park is a wonderful historical park. We should not loose this opportunity to uncover and display another fascinating era of our cultural history. "

Lyn Fleming wrote on July 28, 2006 10:02 PM:" What a marvelous opportunity to allow generations yet to come to learn about generations that were."

Karen Scanlon wrote on July 28, 2006 5:04 PM:" Walsh's memorable piece reminds me of a point Jesus makes, recorded in Matthew 26:11. "For you have the poor with you always, but Me you do not have always." Jesus made mention of Mary's annointing Him with expensive oil when others thought it too extravagant. This Old Town situation is a bit like this. Office buildings and busy spaces we will always have, but heritage you do not always have, and won't if we don't do something now. Gosh, let's save history for its own sake. "

Gisela Koestner wrote on July 28, 2006 4:57 PM:"I guess this is America, you sell to the highest bidder, even if it is a State entity - CalTrans - that is doing the selling. I hope the funding will come through to buy this property and to create the historical bridge to the earliest occupants of that land. I still think it was terrible that State Parks decided to focus on the American era and disregard the cultures that lived there before. "

Melvin & Ellen Sweet wrote on July 28, 2006 4:51 PM:"The old Caltrans building site should be restored to Old Town San Diego SHP. This is a once-in-a lifetime opportunity. We don't need more commercial development in the historic area. Victor Walsh's ideas of making the SD River and the Native American story an essential part of the interpretation are long overdue. We wholeheartedly support this effort!"

Gary and Deanna Turton wrote on July 28, 2006 3:58 PM:"Wonderfully informative article. As docents at Old Town SD State Historic Park, we would heartily concur with Mr. Walsh's position. It is also high time we include the Native American heritage in the story of our history in San Diego! Furthermore, more development in the location of the old Caltrans building would also be detrimental to honoring the history of the entire OT community."

Allen Hazard wrote on July 28, 2006 1:11 PM:"Great article, Old Town San Diego and the nearby Presidio Park IS the "Plymouth of the West" and the old Cal Trans site richly deserves to become part of the State Parks and NOT another development project. Very few residents truly understand the relationship of the SD River and the development of both the Native American population and the later European settlements. I truly hope that Cal Trans does not sell out to the higher bidder - this is too important of a historical site. Great article Mr. Walsh!"

Donald H. Harrison wrote on July 28, 2006 11:28 AM:"Congratulations to Victor Walsh for stating the case clearly and compellingly for presenting our Native American heritage at the Old Town San Diego State Park by utilizing the area now occupied by the CalTrans building. San Diego’s history developed in the way it did thanks to its unique blend of people and cultures. Especially important are the contributions of our city’s very first residents—and the State of California will do us all a tremendous service by helping to tell that story. "

J. Gregoire. wrote on July 28, 2006 8:02 AM:"I definitely agree. It's high time that we tried to restore our history in San Diego."


Hi Everyone, 

I just wanted to share the good news that I was offered a book contract to publish a photographic history of "Mexicans in San Diego." The book will cover from Mexican origins in San Diego, Mexican American/WWII generation, Chicano Movement in San Diego, and contemporary issues. If you/your family are interestd in contributing some photographs from your personal collections, family albums, organization photos, etc., please contact me at: Here are some other topics I am addressing: 

Mexican immigration/deportations 1930s in San Diego 
Laborers in fish canneries, agriculture, military, defense/wartime and service industries 
Labor organizing in San Diego 
Family life (early 20th century to present) - family photos 
Social clubs and social organizations 
Military involvement (WWI-Korean War) 
Chicano Movement 

This is heavily geared towards historical periods, so if you have old family photos, that would be great. Since this is about San Diego County, I welcome all photographs from areas outside of San Diego city as well (Spring Valley, Lemon Grove, Escondido, South Bay, etc.). Please pass this along to anyone you know who may be interested in contributing photos. With everyone's contributions, we can make this a great historical record of San Diego's Mexican/Chicano communities of San Diego, which have long been overlooked. Thanks for your help! 

Feel free to contact me for more information. In Solidarity, Rudy Guevara 
Sent by Dorinda Moreno

WHAT: The Conference of California Historical Societies:  Fall 2006 Symposium

WHEN: September 21-24, 2006

WHERE: Park Plaza Hotel  150 Hegenberger Rd,  Oakland, Ca  94621  800-635-5301

ITEM OF INTEREST: Permanent, Rotating, and Seasonal Museum Exhibits  CCHS, University of the Pacific, Stockton, Ca 95211  Phone# 209-946-2169, E-mail:



Futbol Club Barcelona to Visit
El Presidio de Santa Barbara State Historic Park

Saturday, August 5th, 2006 - 10:30am
El Presidio de Santa Barbara - 123 E. Canon Perdido Street

One of Europe's best professional soccer teams, Futbol Club Barcelona, will be stopping by El Presidio de Santa Barbara State Historic Park on Saturday, August 5th at 10:30am as part of their current tour of Mexico and the United States. Members of the soccer club will have a chance to make adobe bricks for the ongoing reconstruction of El Presidio de Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara's 18th century birthplace and the fourth and final military fortress constructed by the Spanish along the coast of Alta California. FC Barcelona will briefly tour the historic site and be greeted by the fort's uniformed soldiers, Los Soldados de Cuera.

FC Barcelona, popularly known as Barça, is a soccer club based in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. Since being founded in 1899 by a group of Swiss, British and Catalan footballers, the club has become a Catalan institution, popularizing the motto "El Barça és més que un club" (Barça is more than a club). FC Barcelona is currently the soccer champions of both Spain and Europe and is considered by many to be the best soccer club in the world.

FC Barcelona's trip to North America begins on Tuesday, August 1st and will last thirteen days. Exhibition matches are scheduled against Club Tigres in Monterrey, Mexico; CD Guadalajara in Los Angeles; Club America in Houston and the tour ends with a match in New York against the New York Red Bulls. The players will also visit Houston Child Cancer Hospital and the NASA Space Center.

The club recently made headlines when it announced that UNICEF, the United Nations agency whose goal it is to guarantee children's rights, and Futbol Club Barcelona, through their Fundació, reached an agreement to work together for the benefit of orphaned children in vulnerable situations, in particular those that are affected by the HIV/AIDS virus. The signatures and the official presentation of this agreement will take place on August 11 at the United Nations headquarters in New York at the end of the clubs U.S tour.

Santa Barbara Trust for Historic Preservation
123 E. Canon Perdido Street, Santa Barbara, CA, 93101
Office Hours: Monday - Friday, 9:00am to 4:30pm - Park Hours: Daily, 10:30am to 4:30pm
Mail: P.O. Box 388, Santa Barbara, CA 93102
Phone: 805.965.0093
Fax: 805.568.1999

This email was sent to you as a benefit of your membership or affiliation with the Santa Barbara Trust for Historic Preservation

Sent by Michael Hardwick


Some Early Southern California Burials online, Long Beach 
Sent by Lorraine Hernandez

In 1974, Questing Heirs Genealogy Society published Some Early Southern California Burials. It proved so popular that a second 
printing was published in 1978, but for several years it has been out-of-print. In keeping with our mission to collect, preserve and publish data relating to genealogy, it has been converted in its entirety to PDF format, and is now available as a free download at

The book covers burials in the Wilmington, Sunnyside and Long Beach Municipal Cemeteries to 1920, in alphabetical order. A few later burials are listed in the same family plot.

An Abstract of Records from the Funeral Register of the B. W. Coon Co. 
Funeral Home, Long Beach, California (covering 1922-1926) is also available as a free download.

About Questing Heirs Genealogical Society: founded in 1969 for the purpose of 
collecting, preserving and publishing data relating to genealogy.
Questing Heirs Genealogical Society, Inc. PO Box 15102, Long Beach, CA 90815-0102
Source: Loran Bures

Sirbiente Translates to Mayordomo

Mary Triplett Ayers and Sheila Ruiz Harrell

I received this request for help translating the word, sirbiente from Sheila:

Hi Mary,

I've found the following entries by Temple, and I'm just wondering what the translation of this might be..."servant" just doesn't seem right. But??

From San Fernando Bats:

2902) Yten otra parva. como de 7 as. natl. dela misma Ra. 
arriba espresada, hija de Agustin viudo de Julia, y de 
Madre Gentila; le puse THEODORA- fue su Madrina Theodora 
Lopez casada con Raymundo Olivas, Sirbiente de esta Misn.

2904) Yten un Parvulo, como de 4 as. natl. dela misma Ra. hijo 
de Agustin Viudo de Julia, y de Madre Gentila; le puse
FRANCISCO- Fu‚ su padrino Francisco Lopez, c.c. Maria 
Antonia Felis, Sirbiente de esta Mision- quienes advert¡, etc. 


If these are really servants...what were their duties? The Raymundo Olivas listed in the first entry was the son of Juan Matias Olivas and Juana Ontiveros. Thanks, Sheila 

The modern spelling of sirbiente, of course, is sirviente and it means servant. 
I looked in the Diccionario de la Lengua Española published by the Real Academia Española. Synonyms given were servidor and criado. Then, in an on line Diccionario de Sinónomos y Antónimos, I found the following: criado, servidor, mayordomo, mozo, chico, lacayo, asistente, pinche, botones, paje, fámulo, recadero, y mucamo. The one that caught my eye was

I went through more baptismal records for Mission San Fernando and found:

  1. Francisco Lopez, sirbiente
    Francisco Lopez,

Santiago Rubio, mayordomo 
Santiago Rubio,

These entries were signed by Blas Ordaz.  I believe this shows that Fr. Blas Orday used sirbiente and mayordomo interchangeably.  Fr. Muñoz labeled one padrino as sirviente and five as mayordomo. I have read entries that name people as sirbiente and thought, oh, that means servant.  I thank Sheila for asking me to find out more about the meaning.

San Mateo County databases online 
Sent by Cath Trindle

The San Mateo County Genealogical Society has updated its website  
and the following databases have been posted online hosted by SFGenealogy:

San Mateo County Death Records 
[The James Crowe Mortuary Book- a full transcription] 
Laying &Tinney Mortuary Files Index [Records available in SMCGS Library] 
San Mateo County Obituaries Index [Records Available in SMCGS Library] Professional Ledgers Index [Early Doctors, Dentists, etc.]

Database Documenting Early Californians Now Available Online
For the first time ever, scholars and the general public alike will be able to access a database that delves into the historical records documenting the lives of some 110,000 Californians between 1769 and 1850 .

Sent by Christopher Bentley, Johanna De Soto,  Granville Hough, Cindy LoBuglio, Jose M. Pena, Ignacio Pena,  Bob Smith, Janete Vargas,

The Early California Population Project
By Larry Gordon, Times Staff Writer, August 8, 2006

Reclaiming a neglected part of California's past, historians Monday unveiled an immense data bank that for the first time chronicles the lives and deaths of more than 100,000 Indians in the Spanish missions of the 18th and 19th centuries.

In an eight-year effort, researchers at the Huntington Library in San Marino used handwritten records of baptisms, marriages and deaths at 21 Catholic missions and two other sites from between 1769 and 1850 and created a cross-referenced computerized repository that is now open to public access.

The Early California Population Project, its creators hope, will help bring the state's Spanish colonial and Mexican eras from out of the long shadows cast by the 13 English colonies on the East Coast.

"What we are trying to do here is to say these people have a history, and it's not a history that can be caricatured," said the project's general editor, historian Steven W. Hackel. "It's a history that emerges from a deep native past and a deep Spanish past and shows how the two came together for better or worse." 

Huntington officials say scholars and amateur genealogists will be able to track, among other things, how many descendants of a Miwok Indian survived into the era of U.S. statehood, how many people died in an earthquake or a measles epidemic, how frequent intermarriage was between Spanish soldiers and Indian women, or how many Indians worked in farming or became skilled artisans.

The database does not offer judgments on the long debates about whether the Franciscans forced Indians into the missions and treated them brutally or whether Father Junipero Serra, founder of the California mission system, deserves to be, as he is now, just one step from sainthood in the Roman Catholic Church.

However, it does document the Franciscans' obsessions with converting Indians to Catholicism and its bans on polygamy and illegitimacy. And, death by death, it shows an extraordinarily high mortality rate as Indians became exposed to European diseases such as measles, influenza and smallpox. 

"People who think the missions were places of cultural genocide and terrible population decline can look at this database, and they'll see that people came into the missions and died soon after," said Hackel, a history professor at Oregon State University. "People who want to see something else in the missions can look here too. It also shows tremendous Indian persistence and attempts to maintain their own communities within the missions."

The public can gain access to the database through an Internet link at . Conducting searches on the site can be complicated at first because of the many choices involved. 

The project, which cost $650,000, used records mainly taken from microfilm of the originals. They overwhelmingly concern Indians in the coastal regions from the San Diego to Marin County areas, perhaps as many as half of the Indians within the current state borders. Some Spanish soldiers and Mexican settlers are included through the turbulent times of Mexico's independence from Spain in 1821 and California U.S. statehood in 1850.

There are some gaps in the documents as the missions declined, the Franciscans were stripped of their authority and Indians revolted. After the San Diego mission was burned down in an insurrection in 1775, the priests re-created the logs from memory, Hackel said.

Still, the Franciscans remained good record-keepers. They assigned numbers to each baptism and carefully noted parents and godparents, village of origin, ethnic background and trades. As a result, many people can be traced with astonishing specifics through life and, with computer links, their progeny.

For example, a 2-day-old Indian boy, given the name Francisco, was baptized Aug. 11, 1786, at Mission San Diego, the project shows. The information links to his marriage at 18 to a woman named Maria Loreta, also 18 (a spinster by that era's customs) and her death five years later with no children.

Francisco married again the next year to Antonina, who died childless 10 months later. He married a third time, to Thomasa (she was 13 and he was 26) and had a baby girl, Ynes, who died at 6 months. Francisco died April 4, 1817, apparently held in high regard by the Franciscans because he was given a deathbed communion, not just an anointing.

Thomasa married twice more and had 10 more children, two of whom are recorded as dying in infancy.

The causes of deaths in that clan were not given, but other records reveal risks of Western life beyond disease. Some people died from bear and snake attacks and others drowned in wells. The 1812 San Juan Capistrano earthquake killed 39, all buried in the ruins of the mission church. 

"It tells us one heck of a lot about the people of California before 1850," said Robert C. Ritchie, the Huntington's director of research. "It has an enormous amount of detail that sits below the big story we know: the dying of so many native people along the coast."

Although surveys of smaller groups of missions were done in the past, none pulled together populations from across what was known as Alta California, scholars say. Plus, no other project on this topic was designed for the average person, not just experts, to navigate.

"The goal is democratic and open access to records that previously were, if not inaccessible, very, very hard to get," said Hackel, whose 2005 book, "Children of Coyote, Missionaries of Saint Francis," examined Indian-Spanish relations in that period.

The raw records can be difficult to read, interpret and put into context, he added.

The project involved eye-straining work that took the equivalent of between two and four full-time employees since 1999. Their job was to take hundreds of thousands of bits of information from the microfilm of sometimes damaged and illegible mission books and put them into easy-to-read computer formats.

Anne Marie Reid, the inputting team leader, recalled feeling ill sometimes after long days staring at dark microfilm in Spanish and Latin and entering names and dates into computer logs. 

But she said she also gained a feeling of fellowship with the Indians and priests as she recognized their names in various references. "You come to know these people," she said recently in her small workroom with consoles and screens.

In all, statistics were gleaned on an estimated 120,000 people, including some with incomplete records and some mentioned just once as a parent. Included are about 101,000 baptisms, 28,000 marriages and 71,000 burials at all 21 missions and from the Los Angeles Plaza Church and the Santa Barbara Presidio.

Partly because of the size, the project experienced some delays this summer because of software glitches. 

The Huntington has a few original and very valuable mission records, including a page in Serra's very legible hand about three baptisms on Dec. 1, 1783, at Mission San Luis Obispo. Missions and other Catholic archives hold most of the surviving books but usually allow scholars to see only microfilm copies, some made 50 years ago. 

Among the institutions lending microfilm for the project were the Santa Barbara Mission Archive-Library, the archdioceses of San Francisco and Los Angeles, and Santa Clara University. John R. Johnson, curator of anthropology for the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, and Randall Milliken, a Davis-based anthropologist and mission expert, helped with planning. 

The largest financial support for the project came from the National Endowment for the Humanities ($294,000), the California State Library ($163,000) and the John Randolph Haynes and Dora Haynes Foundation ($110,000).

The Dan Murphy Foundation and the Giles W. and Elise G. Mead Foundation were among other donors.

Anthony Morales, tribal chair and chief of the Gabrieleno/Tongva Band of Mission Indians of San Gabriel, said he thought the project would "really catch the interest of all kinds of people like educators and researchers and just average folks who are interested in their families."

Some people, he said, will search for evidence of brutality in the mission system such as forced conversions and labor, while others will look for a more positive picture, such as "what did happen after my great-great-grandmother got converted and baptized."

Robert Senkewicz, a Santa Clara University historian who is an expert on early California, said the accessibility of the database is its "great virtue."

"It will make genealogists feel like they died and went to heaven," he said. 

Welcome to the site of The Huntington's Early California Population Project
Sent by
Lorraine Frain

The Early California Population Project (ECPP) provides public access to all the information contained in California's historic mission registers, records that are of unique and vital importance to the study of California, the American Southwest, and colonial America.

Within the baptism, marriage, and burial records of each of the California missions sits an extraordinary wealth of unique information on the Indians, soldiers, and settlers of Alta California from 1769 - 1850.

What will users be able to do with the information stored in this database?

Community historians can study in greater detail the individuals and families who settled California’s first presidios and pueblos

Anthropologists and ethnohistorians can examine the settlement patterns of Indians in Alta California and their movement to the missions


Historical demographers can bring greater detail to their attempts to understand the pace and magnitude of Indian population decline in Alta California


Scholars of religion can study the practice and administration of Catholicism in the California missions and the lives of California’s Franciscans


Social historians can study the structure and growth of the missions and the secular communities of Spanish and Mexican California


Genealogists can more easily trace and identify the people who lived in California from 1769 to 1850


Historians of colonial America can more easily incorporate regions and peoples beyond the eastern seaboard into the narrative of our country’s early history, and

Scholars can attain an increased awareness of the tremendous diversity that has long characterized the people of the Golden State and the American Southwest


8/8/2In a message dated 006 2:33:22 PM Pacific Standard Time, Casa San Miguel writes:

From: Johanna De Soto

Huntington Library Database Tells the Stories of 100,000 Mission Indians
The computerized repository is available to the public. By Larry Gordon Times Staff Writer
August 8, 2006

Reclaiming a neglected part of California's past, historians Monday unveiled an immense data bank that for the first time chronicles the lives and deaths of more than 100,000 Indians in the Spanish missions of the 18th and 19th centuries.

In an eight-year effort, researchers at the Huntington Library in San Marino used handwritten records of baptisms, marriages and deaths at 21 Catholic missions and two other sites from between 1769 and 1850 and created a cross-referenced computerized repository that is now open to public access.

The Early California Population Project, its creators hope, will help bring the state's Spanish colonial and Mexican eras from out of the long shadows cast by the 13 English colonies on the East Coast.

"What we are trying to do here is to say these people have a history, and it's not a history that can be caricatured," said the project's general editor, historian Steven W. Hackel. "It's a history that emerges from a deep native past and a deep Spanish past and shows how the two came together for better or worse." 

Huntington officials say scholars and amateur genealogists will be able to track, among other things, how many descendants of a Miwok Indian survived into the era of U.S. statehood, how many people died in an earthquake or a measles epidemic, how frequent intermarriage was between Spanish soldiers and Indian women, or how many Indians worked in farming or became skilled artisans.

The database does not offer judgments on the long debates about whether the Franciscans forced Indians into the missions and treated them brutally or whether Father Junipero Serra, founder of the California mission system, deserves to be, as he is now, just one step from sainthood in the Roman Catholic Church.

However, it does document the Franciscans' obsessions with converting Indians to Catholicism and its bans on polygamy and illegitimacy. And, death by death, it shows an extraordinarily high mortality rate as Indians became exposed to European diseases such as measles, influenza and smallpox. 

"People who think the missions were places of cultural genocide and terrible population decline can look at this database, and they'll see that people came into the missions and died soon after," said Hackel, a history professor at Oregon State University. "People who want to see something else in the missions can look here too. It also shows tremendous Indian persistence and attempts to maintain their own communities within the missions."

The public can gain access to the database through an Internet link at . Conducting searches on the site can be complicated at first because of the many choices involved. 

The project, which cost $650,000, used records mainly taken from microfilm of the originals. They overwhelmingly concern Indians in the coastal regions from the San Diego to Marin County areas, perhaps as many as half of the Indians within the current state borders. Some Spanish soldiers and Mexican settlers are included through the turbulent times of Mexico's independence from Spain in 1821 and California U.S. statehood in 1850.

There are some gaps in the documents as the missions declined, the Franciscans were stripped of their authority and Indians revolted. After the San Diego mission was burned down in an insurrection in 1775, the priests re-created the logs from memory, Hackel said.

Still, the Franciscans remained good record-keepers. They assigned numbers to each baptism and carefully noted parents and godparents, village of origin, ethnic background and trades. As a result, many people can be traced with astonishing specifics through life and, with computer links, their progeny.

For example, a 2-day-old Indian boy, given the name Francisco, was baptized Aug. 11, 1786, at Mission San Diego, the project shows. The information links to his marriage at 18 to a woman named Maria Loreta, also 18 (a spinster by that era's customs) and her death five years later with no children.

Francisco married again the next year to Antonina, who died childless 10 months later. He married a third time, to Thomasa (she was 13 and he was 26) and had a baby girl, Ynes, who died at 6 months. Francisco died April 4, 1817, apparently held in high regard by the Franciscans because he was given a deathbed communion, not just an anointing.

Thomasa married twice more and had 10 more children, two of whom are recorded as dying in infancy.

The causes of deaths in that clan were not given, but other records reveal risks of Western life beyond disease. Some people died from bear and snake attacks and others drowned in wells. The 1812 San Juan Capistrano earthquake killed 39, all buried in the ruins of the mission church. 

"It tells us one heck of a lot about the people of California before 1850," said Robert C. Ritchie, the Huntington's director of research. "It has an enormous amount of detail that sits below the big story we know: the dying of so many native people along the coast."

Although surveys of smaller groups of missions were done in the past, none pulled together populations from across what was known as Alta California, scholars say. Plus, no other project on this topic was designed for the average person, not just experts, to navigate.

"The goal is democratic and open access to records that previously were, if not inaccessible, very, very hard to get," said Hackel, whose 2005 book, "Children of Coyote, Missionaries of Saint Francis," examined Indian-Spanish relations in that period.

The raw records can be difficult to read, interpret and put into context, he added.

The project involved eye-straining work that took the equivalent of between two and four full-time employees since 1999. Their job was to take hundreds of thousands of bits of information from the microfilm of sometimes damaged and illegible mission books and put them into easy-to-read computer formats.

Anne Marie Reid, the inputting team leader, recalled feeling ill sometimes after long days staring at dark microfilm in Spanish and Latin and entering names and dates into computer logs. 

But she said she also gained a feeling of fellowship with the Indians and priests as she recognized their names in various references. "You come to know these people," she said recently in her small workroom with consoles and screens.

In all, statistics were gleaned on an estimated 120,000 people, including some with incomplete records and some mentioned just once as a parent. Included are about 101,000 baptisms, 28,000 marriages and 71,000 burials at all 21 missions and from the Los Angeles Plaza Church and the Santa Barbara Presidio.

Partly because of the size, the project experienced some delays this summer because of software glitches. 

The Huntington has a few original and very valuable mission records, including a page in Serra's very legible hand about three baptisms on Dec. 1, 1783, at Mission San Luis Obispo. Missions and other Catholic archives hold most of the surviving books but usually allow scholars to see only microfilm copies, some made 50 years ago. 

Among the institutions lending microfilm for the project were the Santa Barbara Mission Archive-Library, the archdioceses of San Francisco and Los Angeles, and Santa Clara University. John R. Johnson, curator of anthropology for the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, and Randall Milliken, a Davis-based anthropologist and mission expert, helped with planning. 

The largest financial support for the project came from the National Endowment for the Humanities ($294,000), the California State Library ($163,000) and the John Randolph Haynes and Dora Haynes Foundation ($110,000).

The Dan Murphy Foundation and the Giles W. and Elise G. Mead Foundation were among other donors.

Anthony Morales, tribal chair and chief of the Gabrieleno/Tongva Band of Mission Indians of San Gabriel, said he thought the project would "really catch the interest of all kinds of people like educators and researchers and just average folks who are interested in their families."

Some people, he said, will search for evidence of brutality in the mission system such as forced conversions and labor, while others will look for a more positive picture, such as "what did happen after my great-great-grandmother got converted and baptized."

Robert Senkewicz, a Santa Clara University historian who is an expert on early California, said the accessibility of the database is its "great virtue."  "It will make genealogists feel like they died and went to heaven," he said. 

[[Editor: This is the introduction to a very informative article. Many Early California families have historical connections to the early families of Tijauna.  Below is a graph of baptisms, 1890-1897. Highly recommend to go to the full article.]]  

Por Jorge Martínez Zepeda
Sent by Johanna De Soto

Del rancho Tijuana a la formación del pueblo. Una aproximación a sus pioneros

     La historia de Tijuana tiene sus raíces en la época prehispánica cuando la región fue ocupada por indígenas que sobrevivieron hasta la primer mitad del siglo XIX. La vida de estos primeros habitantes se vio transformada por la llegada de los españoles durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII. Aquí pretendemos hacer una síntesis del proceso que se dio en la ocupación de la tierra a partir del siglo XIX con la formación del rancho de Tijuana y el surgimiento de otros ranchos que incrementaron su población. Por otra parte se identifican cuales fueron las primeras familias que se asentaron en el valle de Tijuana y se enfatizan las noticias relacionadas con sus actores que originaron la formación del pueblo de Tijuana en 1889.

     Tijuana estaba habitada por algunas familias indígenas diseminadas a lo largo del valle, mismas que fueron atendidas espiritualmente por los religiosos franciscanos de la misión de San Diego, fundada en 1769 por fray Junípero Serra. En este lugar se fundó también un presidio para atender las necesidades de vigilancia y defensa. La ranchería de la Tía Juana colindaba con la misión de San Miguel, fundada en 1787. Esta misión fue administrada por el padre Félix Caballero durante varios años y llegó a tener una población de 300 habitantes indígenas “rodeada de numerosa y bárbara gentilidad, dispersa en varias tribus que, reunidas, puede ascender al numero de mil almas”. 2

  La lista de personas que externaron su opinión sobre la ubicación del pueblo de Tijuana fueron: Rodrigo Fuentes; Santiago García, Francisco Aldama; Tomás García; Casimiro Aldecoa; Dolores Zapata; Primitivo Angulo; Jacobo Moreno; Pedro y José Álvarez; Lorenzo Camacho; Avelino Salazar; Marcelino Ramos; Jesús Pedrojo; Jerónimo Llanos; Marcelina M. de Gómez; Vargas y Padilla; Jorge Ibs y Co.; Virgilio Bruschi; Apolinar Muro; William Lane; Jesús Chacón, Señora Mejía; Josefa Duarte; Rafael Vega; Castillo; Cayetano Esquivel; Juan Osuna; Estudillo Hermanos; Ponciano Osuna; Alejandro Savín; Trinidad Machado; Francisco Palacios; Manuel Lucero y señora; Jesús Cota; Guadalupe Rodríguez; Clemente Angulo; Leandro Machado; Francisco Boronoa; Julio Argüello. 47


Fuente: Archivo Parroquial de Ensenada, Libro Numero 1, Actas de Bautizos 1890-1897. Copia en el Acervo Documental del IIH UABC.


1/60 Josefa
[hija natural]
Manuel Lucero y Adelaida Hernández 31 23 octubre 1890  
2/61 María Manuela Ignacio Argüello y Martina Navarro 19 septiembre 1890  
3/62 Mauricia Ricardo Grijalva y Francisca Smith 32 28 septiembre 1890  
4/63 Sara Jesús [ilegible] y Josefa León 27 agosto 1890  
5/64 Juan Benito Concepción Jácome y Jesús Acevedo 33   28 octubre 1890
6/51 María
[hija natural]
Juana Macaria   28 marzo 1890 un mes de nacida
7/67 Liberata Primitivo Piatti y Josefina Cano 34

10 octubre 1890

8/68 Francisco
[hijo natural]
Marta Romero 35   21 mayo 1891 de un mes de nacido
9/69 Teresa 36 Andrés Avilés y Teresa Mancilla   21 mayo 1891 de dos meses de nacida
10/70 Rodolfo Joaquín Moreno y Adelaida Jiménez   21 mayo 1891
11/71 Teofilo
[hijo natural]
Ramón Zumaya   21 mayo 1891 de dos meses
12/88 María Paula
[hija natural]
Filomeno Serrano y María Concepción Manrique   8 agosto 1891 de un mes de nacida
13/89 José Tranquilino Dolores Zapata y María Norberta Aldama   8 agosto 1891
14/90 María Aurelia Inocente Pallorena y Adelina Cosío   9 agosto 1891 de un mes cinco días de nacida
15/91 Bonifacio Rafael Vega y María Josefa Acevedo   9 agosto 1891 de tres meses de nacido
16/92 María Francisca Beatriz [hija natural] José María Carrillo y Marcelina Camacho   11 agosto 1891 de cinco meses
17/93 María Feliciana Martín Elizalde [1841-] y María Bárbara Morales [1856-] 37   11 agosto 1891 de un año nueve meses
18/94 María Saturnina Felipe Rodríguez y María Josefa Cuevas   15 agosto 1891 de un mes quince días
19/151 Fernando? Ignacio Lucero y Concepción Argüello 21 noviembre 1891 17 enero 1892
20/152 Sara Martina Julio Argüello y María Lucero 12 noviembre 1891 17 enero 1892
21/153 Andrés Rafael [hijo natural] Trinidad Acevedo 30 noviembre 1891 20 enero 1892
22/154 Lino Aniceto Concepción Aldama y María Jesús Acevedo 23 septiembre 1891 20 enero 1892
23/155 Delfina
[hija natural]
Regina Martínez y Rodolfo Martínez 4 diciembre 1891 23 enero 1892
24/156 38 Gertrudis José de Jesús Rodríguez y Genoveva Peralta 17 diciembre 1891  
25/206 Roberto Ignacio Guadalupe Rodríguez y Amparo Mejía   31 julio 1892 de un mes de nacido
26/218 Sara Felicísima Ricardo Grijalva y Francisca Smith 6 agosto 1892  
27/219 Agustín Francisco Donaciano Ames y Delfina Machado 28 mayo 1892  
28/220 Maximiano Santiago José Antonio Ames y Rebeca Águeda Machado 2 julio 1892  
29/249 Luis Francisco Bohorgues y Juana Camacho  

14 noviembre 1892

30/250 Bárbara 39 Martín Elizalde y Bárbara Morales 40   3 diciembre 1892 en Cueros de Venado
31/ Bautista 41 Juan Cañedo y Basilia Rodríguez 8 junio 1891 17 junio 1893 en Cueros de Venado
32/ Carmen Medando Juan Cañedo y Basilia Rodríguez 8 junio 1891 17 junio 1893 en Cueros de Venado
33/ José P. Lucero 42   25 diciembre 1892  
34/754 Pedro Lamberto Guadalupe Manuel Lucero y Adela Hernández 11 septiembre 1896 3 julio 1897
35/755 Irene? Ignacio Mejía y Marina Navarro 25 [ilegible]1893 3 julio 1897
36/756 Ignacio Ignacio Mejía y Marina Navarro 43 3 julio 1896 19 enero 1897
37/601 Carmen
[hija natural]
Jacob Moreno y Refugio Romero 23 abril 1893 2 noviembre 1896
38/602 Eulalia Jesús Azebel y Victoria Estudillo 3 junio 1896  
39/603 Giorgio Enrique Leandro Machado y Dolores Cuevas 19 junio 1893  
40/[p. 117] María Francisca Antonio Manso y Francisca L. Ríos 9 septiembre 1892 11 junio 1893 Padre Luciano Osuna



Spanish emigration to Hawaii and to California in the early 1900s

On August 23, 2006 the Contra Costa County Historical Society enjoyed the DVD documentary showing in Antioch of . "Spanish emigration to Hawaii and to California in the early 1900s." 
This documentary was just released. It was produced by Eve Ma, former college history teacher and community activist for multicultural arts.  The subject matter of the documentary presents information on the East Contra Costa County Spanish community of the early 1900s.
Anne Santucci the author of "Memories of Spain" which includes approximately 125 pages concerning Spanish emigration to Hawaii and to California was in attendance. The documentary featured two individuals from East Contra Costa County: Rose Giannini Pierce and Dolores Jimenez.  It also features Frank Perez of Fremont, California, and the previously mentioned author Anne Santucci from the Sacramento area. 


A documentary Showing 

Report by Jaime Cader
Jaime is in the "Spanish Threads Clip

August 23 many members of East Contra Costa County's Spanish community attended a documentary showing that was held at the Antioch Kabob House, located near A and 18th Streets by the Wells Fargo Bank in Antioch, California.
This film about Spanish immigration to Hawaii and later to California in the early 1900s, presents the interviews of four individuals, one of the persons being Francisco Perez who was 98 years old at the time he was videotaped.  He is presently 100 years old.  Perez was five years old when he emigrated from Spain to Hawaii with his family.  As a young adult he came to live in California as did most of the Spaniards in Hawaii.
About a century ago, Oakley was referred to as "Spanish town" because so many Spaniards had settled in the thriving farming community and planted crops there because of its fertile land, plentiful water resources and climate.
The late Rose Pierce vividly recalled this era of Oakley's past in a recently released documentary titled "Weaving with Spanish Threads: Story of the Spanish Immigrants to Hawaii and California in the Early 1900s." The beloved Brentwood philanthropist was born in Oakley in 1922 and remembered the close-knit Spanish population and how they would visit with each other and watch Spanish films in Oakley and Brentwood.
"They had streets and streets of Spanish people because they worked in the fields and, of course, the farms are out in this community," Pierce said in an earlier interview before the documentary was produced.
As the host of this documentary, Antioch resident Jaime Cader said the film should be educational to third-generation Spanish people living in the area.  "I think that some of the families have a general idea, but I think the documentary will give them a more complete picture," Cader said.
About 8,000 Spaniards came to Hawaii as labor for the sugar cane and pineapple fields there in the early 1900s. They were offered a free trip, housing, jobs, medical care and education for the children upon signing an employment contract.
A few years later, many of those people ultimately settled in Oakley, Vacaville and portions of Yolo and Placer counties.
"I'm the second generation, and we are almost all gone," said 83-year-old Anne Aguilar Santucci who was featured in the film.  Santucci wrote a book titled "Memories of Spain" about Spanish immigration to Hawaii and California. She now lives in Citrus Heights and remains focused on chronicling the history of her parents who were both Spanish.
Lodi resident Dolores Jimenez was also interviewed in the documentary. Her parents and grandparents went to Hawaii and fled Spain because of its poor conditions.
Jimenez said they eventually landed in the Oakley area where they worked in the orchards, fields, canneries and fruit packing operations. In the film, she recounts how Spanish immigrants owned modest homes in Oakley's downtown, worked hard and even butchered their own meats.
"People worked in the fields all the time because that is the only thing they knew," Jimenez said in the film. "We all worked. That was the only way of life. There were no handouts."
Jimenez estimates that two-thirds of Oakley's population was Spanish back then. The film showcases the East County community and compares it with the landscape of Spain.
The recently released film was produced by former college history professor and community activist Eve Ma of El Cerrito. A showing of the film will take place on Wednesday at noon in the Antioch Kabob House, 1635 A St.
"It is also part of the overall immigrant experience. Obviously 90 percent of us are part of that experience," Ma said. "Usually, when you think of Spaniards, you think of the Conquistadors and the padres. It is interesting to know that there were other Spaniards."
Paula King covers Oakley. Reach her at 925-779-7189 or

The restaurant was packed with the people that attended.  Among those present was Pete Lopez, a former mayor of Antioch.  Other Spanish families represented were the San Martin, Domingo (related to the Gill family), Cano, Pastor, Sanchez, De Vera, and Aguas families. 

         Eva Ma, center back.

Future showings of documentary are expected in the near future.  We are planning on showing the film to the Club Iberico de España in Woodland, California for their Christmas dinner in December.
To see a video clip of the documentary, please click at the link below.  When you get to the home page, click at the link for "Other Productions."  Then scroll down a bit and click where it says "Spanish Threads Clip."
Also click at the following link to read the article written by Paula King for more information:


Stolen Cross Found

The 8-foot cross that was stolen more than two years ago from the San Gabriel Mission was recovered April 12, after a tipster noticed it displayed upside down with Christmas lights draped across on a Pasadena patio.  35-year-old Theodore Heinzman was arrested and booked for investigation of felony possession of stolen property, according to the LA County Sheriff's web site.  The cross, originally placed atop the mission in 1955, toppled to the ground during the Whittier Narrows earthquake of 1987 where it remained against the wall in the courtyard of the mission gardens, was discovered mission Dec. 30, 2004.


Nueva Galicia Genealogical Society Meeting
Photo by Jaime Cader

In attendance: Alicia Carrillo, Lucy Avelar, Kitty & Rich Cortez, Jaime Cader, Helyn Sparkman, Maria Cortez, Anna Arellano Smith, José Muñoz, and Robert Hernandez. 

A Mexican Genealogy Group Met In Brentwood

                                             by Jaime Cader
No, this is not the Brentwood in Southern California that got publicity during the O.J Simpson trial.  This is Brentwood in East Contra Costa County in the greater San Francisco Bay Area.  In this growing town, on July 29 the Nueva Galicia Genealogical Society, a Mexican genealogical group affiliated with Nuestros Ranchos ( held its meeting. 
Although I have been working on genealogy for many years, I learned a great deal at that meeting.  Much interaction took place as different members gave their suggestions for doing research.  The members were also quite friendly.
As a Salvadoran-American I felt very honored to be at that meeting to give a presentation.  In a sense however, I too consider myself to be Mexican because my Indigenous ancestors came from Mexico during the pre-Colombian period.  Also, Mexican Indians that accompanied the Spanish conquistadors stayed in El Salvador.
It is a good idea that NGGS is planning on having a tour for its next project. For information, contact Jaime Cader,

Reyes Adobe Days, October 13, 14, and 15 

Agoura Hills, CA) Reyes Adobe Days is a citywide festival for all ages Friday - Sunday, October 13 - 15, 2006 that will feature cultural events, entertainment, parade, concert, and carnival throughout the City of Agoura Hills. The 3-day weekend kicks off Friday, October 13 at 11:30 a.m. with a senior luncheon fiesta, evening concert headlining Foreigner at the Canyon Club and a family fun carnival at Whizin's center, which will continue through the weekend. Saturday, October 14, events include a 10:00 a.m. morning parade with a special guest grand marshal leading to the Reyes Adobe Historical Site for A Day at the Adobe, a free event until 4 pm with California music and dance, children's games, pony rides, many cultural demonstrations -- blacksmithing, rancho cooking, adobe brick making, and tours of the early-1800's period home and barn. Sunday, October 15, events begin at 8:00 a.m. with the certified RAD 8K Race &Family Fun Run followed by a 9:00 a.m. community pancake breakfast. Also beginning at 9:00 a.m. will be a Gymkhana at Old Agoura Equestrian Arena with contests, prizes and BBQ. For more information and complete listing of events and times, please call the Agoura Hills Recreation Center at (818) 597-7361 or visit

Angora Hills is located in Southern California, tucked between the rolling hills and wineries just outside of Temecula.

Reyes Adobe Historical Site
5464 Reyes Adobe Road
Agoura Hills, CA 91303

If you are interested in your family history come and share what you have and meet some really great people.   Tina Reyes


14 de oct:  Novena Conferencia Anual de Historia Familiar Hispana
13 de oct: Investigación avanzadas Genealógica, España y Latino
The Roots of Human Family Tree Shallow
Oct 7th: Clark County Nevada Genealogical Society Seminar
KODAK Document Imaging and the Genealogical Society of Utah 
Center receives funding for Basque Genealogy Center


Novena Conferencia Anual de Historia Familiar Hispana

Sábado 14 de octubre de 2006

Horario de clases
No Cost for attending the Conference

9:30am Regístrese en el vestíbulo de la Biblioteca de Historia Familiar

1) Introducción del José Sanchez
2) Genealogía en Centro América Lynn Turner
3) Cómo ayudar al principiante a empezar Leandro Soria su historia familiar
4) Diccionarios geográficos en Latinoamérica Ruth Schirmacher 
5) Archivos diocesanos George Ryskamp

1) Personal Ancestral File – principiantes José Sanchez
2) Genealogía Mexicana en el Internet Lynn Turner
3) Cómo usar el Centro de Historia Familiar Mike Provard
4) Registros parroquiales Peggy Ryskamp
Investigación en archivos nacionales de George Ryskamp
   España y Latinoamérica desde los Estados Unidos

12:00noon Almuerzo (por su propia cuenta)

1) Cómo preparar nombres para TempleReady José Sanchez
2) Genealogía en Argentina Leandro Soria 
3) Cómo usar el catálogo de la Biblioteca Irene Jiménez de Historia Familiar (FHLC)
4) Cómo usar el registro civil Candela Romero 
5) Archivos municipales George Ryskamp

1) Proyectos para la creación de índices FCH/Leandro Soria 
2) Genealogía en España Peggy and George Ryskamp 
3) Cómo superar obstáculos en la búsqueda Jennifer Kerns de su antepasados 
4) Censos y similares Liz Miller 
5) Cómo leer la escritura antigua (Paleografía) Ruth Schirmacher

3:00pm Consultas de investigación genealógica Piso B1
1) Primer Piso, Sala de computadoras, Manos en obra
2) Primer Piso, Sala de clases, Genealogía por paises 
3) 2º Piso, Sala de clases, Capacitación para especialistas de historia familiar 
4) Piso Subterráneo 1, Salón de clases, Investigación básica 
5) Piso Subterráneo 2, Salón de clases, Investigación intermedia y avanzada

Un curso de jornada completa sobre metodologías avanzadas de la investigación genealógica en España y Latinoamérica – 13 de octubre de 2006

El viernes 13 de octubre de 2006, el día antes de la conferencia anual de historia familiar hispana, George R. Ryskamp, profesor de historia y director del Centro de Historia Familiar y Genealogía en Brigham Young University, ofrecerá un curso de jornada completa sobre metodologías avanzadas de la investigación genealógica en España y Latinoamérica. Se tratarán registros y técnicas más allá de los comunes. Se enfocarán las presentaciones en cuatro temas:

1. Conceptos de pruebas, desde las directas a las circunstanciales, y su aplicación en el mundo de la genealogía hispánica

2. Los protocolos notariales como fuente principal de parentescos así como fuente para conocer mejor a los antepasados, sus vidas y experiencias.

3. El uso de padrones (censos) y registros similares cuando hay falta de registros parroquiales

4. El encuentro y uso de registros menos conocidos.

El curso se hará en dos partes, de 9:00 a 12:00 horas y de 14:00 a 17:00 horas, en el aula de clases en el piso B-1 de la Biblioteca de Historia Familiar en Salt Lake City. El curso se ofrece gratuitamente. 

Information sent by Karen Jepson
All classes will be at the Family History Library.  For more information, your are welcomed to call Ruth Schirmacher (801-240-1530) or Dr. Ryskamp (801-422-8047).

Self-help for FamilySearch ComputerProducts

Self-help for FamilySearch computer products is available We encourage you to use this important tool in your calling and hope that you will help your members become familiar with self-help.

To access self-help, go to and click on the Product Support link on the home page. Product Support provides several ways to find answers to questions. You may ask your question by typing it, or you may browse through the information about each product. The information is presented in several ways. It is organized by Frequently Asked Questions,Topics, and Common Solutions. There are also links to information about how to contact local people who may be able to help you and instructions on how to use the built-in online support that comes with each product.

If you do not find the information you need, Product Support provides you the option to send an email to Family HistorySupport. We will be happy to answer your email. If it is more convenient, please call us. To find the toll free number for your area, click here:

In our next memo we will discuss how you can get help with research questions.


Oct 7th: Clark County Nevada Genealogical Society Seminar
Hi Mimi,

I want to give you a heads up on an article that appeared in the Las Vegas Review Journal, July 2, 2006, page 14A by Matt Crenson (The Associated Press) titled: “Roots of Human Family Tree Shallow;” subtitle: “Everyone on Earth shares common ancestor, statisticians say….

Opening paragraph states: “whoever it was probably lived a few thousand years ago, somewhere in East Asia --- Taiwan, Malaysia and Siberia all are likely locations. He --- or she --- did nothing more remarkable than be born, live, have children and die.”

Also, on page 17A an article by Matt Crenson (The associated Press): “Royal leaves adorn every family tree, experts say..; subtitle Odds are everyone has descendants who are famous.

I’d send you my paper but I need it for some genealogy meetings I attend here in Vegas. Here is information on a seminar in October sponsored by Clark County Nevada Genealogical Society:

The CCNGS Fall Family History Seminar will be held on October 7, 2006 at the Henderson Convention Center, located at 200 S. Water Street (check  for directions) Speaker will be Christine ROSE (CG) (CGL) (FASG)

1) Court Records: The System and Its Records
2) “Solving” the Problem Onsite in 25 Hours or Less!
3) Using Little Known and Neglected Sources: A Potpourri
4) Avoid the Crooked Path! Genealogical Problem Solving

THE REGISTRATION FEE IS $40.00 (Postmarked by 16 September 2006 or $45 at door /with no optional lunch). OPTIONAL BOX LUNCH AVAILABLE: $5 must be paid with pre-registration) Includes 6" sandwich, chips &cookie.  

Sam Espino-Giordano

KODAK Document Imaging and the Genealogical Society of Utah 
the Granite Mountain Records Vault

"Kodak has been extremely helpful in assisting us in the implementation of this remastering program. We needed a simple, cost-effective way of remastering 300-400 rolls a day. Kodak's experts provided great suggestions when we began and have since continued to help us fine tune the process."

The Genealogical Society of Utah houses over 2.3 million rolls of microfilm in the Granite Mountain Records Vault. Some of this original microfilm dates back to the 1930s. In 1997, the Society made its first discovery of a roll of microfilm that they believed was experiencing the "vinegar syndrome," a debilitating and potentially fatal affliction for cellulose acetate-based films.

Objective: Transfer vinegar syndrome-affected microfilm--and eventually all acetate-based microfilm-- to more stable, state-of-the-art, polyester-based microfilm from Kodak.

Solution: Transfer to Kodak Direct Duplicating Intermediate Microfilm 2470, a polyester-based film with an anticipated life of 500 years under proper storage conditions, assisted by technical advice from document imaging experts at Kodak.

Although it sounds like the title of a bad science fiction movie, "vinegar syndrome" poses a serious threat to older microfilm collections. Starting in the 1930s, microfilm was manufactured on a cellulose acetate base. Structurally, one problem with acetate film is that the acetyl groups that make up the cellulose acetate chain can detach in the presence of moisture, heat and acids. They combine with water to form acetic acid -- the compound that gives vinegar its familiar odor. Once in this condition, acetate microfilm becomes brittle, curls, shrinks and buckles. Images degrade and can be lost. Once the Genealogical Society of Utah got a whiff of vinegar, they knew they had to act quickly. 

The Society began acquiring microfilm in 1938, nearly 30 years before the vault was built. During that time span, the acetate masters were stored in a variety of conditions. Thanks to their micrographics experts, the Society was familiar with the vinegar syndrome and knew they must act before the problem got any worse. 

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints--doing business as the Genealogical Society of Utah--stores birth, death, census, probate, land, tax, marriage and many other kinds of valuable records related to genealogy and tracing family histories. Wayne Crosby, the Manager of the Granite Mountain Records Vault (GMRV) in Salt Lake City, Utah, oversees an operation housing and safeguarding approximately 3.5 billion images on microfilm. Kodak Direct Duplicating

"The Genealogical Society of Utah contacts archives around the world and offers to film their paper records," says Crosby. "We provide record custodians with a microfilm copy at no cost, as well as off-site storage by keeping the master at GMRV. In return, custodians grant us permission to provide access to their records. Researchers can order a microfilm copy through a network of nearly 4,000 family history centers worldwide. The GMRV duplicates approximately 900 to 1,000 rolls of microfilm each day to be used by researchers.

The 65,111 square-foot Granite Mountain facility keeps film in a 30% humidity and 65°F temperature-controlled environment to help assure the greatest longevity. Ongoing and rigorous quality assurance testing is done to identify and correct any problems that may occur with microfilm. And in 1997, through the use of monitoring strips and other planned checks, the first instances of vinegar syndrome were discovered.

"After discussion, we determined our most prudent course of action would be to begin a process of updating and transferring all of our older films to polyester-based microfilm," notes Crosby. "We knew it would be a huge undertaking, and Kodak was very helpful to us in determining effective ways and means to accomplish this goal."

Technical Assistance From Kodak 

"We visited Granite Mountain several times and helped the Society evaluate their collections to determine the best setting specifications and film to use," says Bob Breslawski, a Technical Associate with Kodak. "We worked with their in-house technical staff to classify films in terms of density and uniformity, and then select the appropriate printer exposure and print film type to achieve optimum results. They have a great range of film conditions, in terms of image quality and physical standards, because it's come from so many sources." Kodak and Society personnel have worked together to set background and D-min density targets tailored to the various conditions of different collections. "The technical expertise and dedication of Society QC and production personnel helps them achieve the highest level of quality possible, contributing immensely to the value of their collection," adds Breslawski. "This preservation effort is a major, positive contribution to human history."

Once films that were considered in jeopardy were transferred, the Society began the immense task of updating their entire archive of acetate film. "We began by going chronologically through our collections and thus far have completed 450,000 rolls," Crosby says. "We remaster 80,000 acetate rolls per year and will continue for another ten to twelve years. We believe our remaining acetate film has a life expectancy of 80 years, and since we're now working on film from the 60s, none of our masters are in danger of being lost anytime soon."

The process has been aided by the use of printers developed by the National Archive, specifically for use with acetate films. Although slower, these printers handle the film in a more gentle fashion, important when acetate film has become brittle.

Unique Advantages of Kodak Microfilm: Most of the updating is being done on Kodak Direct Duplicating Intermediate Microfilm 2470, a micro-grained, polyester-based film with an anticipated life span of more than 500 years (under proper storage conditions). "The Kodak 2470 Film offers unique advantages for a project like this, based on the varying conditions of the Society's films," says Breslawski. "2470 Film -- because of its low contrast and design as an intermediate direct duplicating film to create print film masters -- is ideal for optical optimization of most of their collections. This is a unique product, offering characteristics and flexibility not offered by any other film or manufacturer."

Crosby adds, "The 2470 Film is a very good product. Our archived films have a wide range of densities and contrasts. The 2470 Film does an excellent job of capturing the light and dark areas, and I believe gives us superior results."

In many instances, based on a specific film, the goal is simply to minimize image loss and maintain as much image quality as possible. In a few cases, Kodak Direct Duplicating Microfilm 2468 is utilized when an increase in contrast is desired.

As the updating continues, Crosby expresses appreciation for the efforts of Kodak and their micrographics experts. "About four years ago, we worked with folks from Kodak to change our print mastering program. The results were, for example, a new D-min target range that gives us greater probability of consistently capturing every image. They offered heavy technical consulting and training in areas like quality control, duplicating methods, setting specifications and so on. Kodak has been extremely helpful in assisting us in the implementation of this remastering program. We needed a simple, cost effective way of remastering 300-400 rolls a day. Kodak's experts provided great suggestions when we began and have since continued to help us fine tune the process."

Center receives funding for Basque Genealogy Center

The center for Basque Studies received funding from the Nevada State Legislature to organize and launch the Basque Family History in the USA project, with Dr. Gloria Totoricaguena as the Principal Investigator.  The CBS has formed a network of professionals to aid in conducting genealogical research in the USA from census data, military records, Social Security Index, and port of entry immigration records.  The $250,000 allotment is allocated for the 2005-2007 biennium.  The goal of the project is to create a database from existing records on Basques in the U.S. from 1790 through the 1930's.  The database will not be ready for any public inquiry until the end of 2007.




The Municipal Origins of la Villa de San Felipe el Real de Chihuahua,
          1718-1725 by Jaime Pacheco and LeRoy Anthony Reaza
Hispanic poet, Trinidad Sanchez, Jr. who took on social issues, dies at 63
Jalapeño Blues (Why Am I So Brown?)
Research trip to El Paso yields many Treasures
Oct 14: TX Rangers & Mexican Revolution: Bloodiest Decade, 1910-1920
Oct 14:  Living History Rendezvous
Report on the Heritage Discovery Center
Hispanic Heritage Project New Book Arrivals
Vaquero Heritage Foundation
Genealogy information, Tucson and Tubac Presidios 

Somos Primos sends Warm congratulations to 
Jaime Pacheco and LeRoy Anthony Reaza 
Winners of the Eleanor B. Adams Prize

The Municipal Origins of la Villa de San Felipe el Real de Chihuahua, 1718-1725, 
The Cabildo's Struggle for Jurisdictional Autonomy by Jaime Pacheco and LeRoy Anthony Reaza

Introduction to the study:
Fifty-eight years before the summer of 1776 when American colonists assembled to sign the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia, another localized and little-known event occurred on the opposite side of the continent in the kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya. The renaming of San Francisco de Cuellar heralded the beginning of an autonomous, rudimentary form of municipal democracy. The decree also initiated six years of turbulent and chaotic governance involving assorted political rivalries, questionable family allegiances, and opposing ideologies. Administrative disagreements set the stage for a confrontation that would pit the municipal Cabildo or Ayuntamiento's (town council) authority over, and control of, the local government against the legal and jurisdictional responsibilities of the governor. Their political contest led to the governor's forceful and surprisingly bloodless removal of the corregidor (royal magistrate) from his position of leadership on the Cabildo. This article analyzes the jurisdictional disputes and complex litigation, and the expulsion of the corregidor that resulted from creation of the villa (chartered municipality usually possessing a cabildo). Explored in the process are the legal decisions rendered by the viceroy and the Audiencias of Guadalajara and Mexico. In the end, the officials of San Pelipe el Real were obligated to accept only a partial victory. The viceroy's final ruing greatly limited the governor's authority over the villa, while it placed the municipality's jurisdiction under his control.

                New Mexico Review, Vol 80, Number 1, Winter 2005, pages, 29-53


Hispanic poet, Trinidad Sanchez, Jr. took on social issues, dies at 63
Information gathered and sent by Dorinda Moreno  

Trinidad Sánchez, Jr. is renowned Chicano performer, poet and author of several books of poetry including the best seller Why Am I So Brown?, the venerated Poems by Father and Son, and Compartiendo De La Nada, which addressed politics in Central America. In more than twenty years of teaching and performing he has been featured over 1000 times in various schools and poetry venues. In January 2005, after years of literary performance and activism in Denver and Albuquerque, he and his wife, Regina, returned to live in San Antonio Texas. 

Described by the late Ricardo Sánchez as singing “the shaman song of meaning and justice,” Trinidad has been recognized for his activism on behalf of those in the penal system and his commitment to peace and the struggle against racism and other forms of oppression. He was awarded the Martin Luther King “Keep the Dream Alive” Award for serving as an inspiration to students. For promoting the mission of the public school system, he was awarded the Champion of Education award by the San Antonio Independent School District. He has worked as a trainer/counselor with developmentally delayed adults in a group home for Mission Road Development Center, San Antonio, Texas. 
SOURCE--  Associated Press

SAN ANTONIO - Trinidad Sanchez Jr., a poet and activist who inspired audiences with his writings on culture and social issues, has died. He was 63.

Sanchez, who was known as "Trino," died Sunday at a San Antonio hospital. He had been hospitalized since mid-July after suffering two strokes.

Colleagues and fans remember the Mexican-American poet for his trademark black beret and his passion for influencing aspiring Hispanic writers.

"Everyone adored him," said Naomi Shihab Nye, a San Antonio writer and friend of Sanchez. "He was one of the most-loved literary community members. He was a prince."

A native of Pontiac, Mich., Sanchez's writing topics ranged from race to children killed by handguns in Detroit in the late 1980s and spicy Mexican-American food.

He was a Jesuit brother for 27 years and worked in prison ministry for five years after leaving the order.

His poetry was published in several anthologies, including "Why Am I So Brown?" which is now in its sixth reprint. The English Department at St. Mary's University uses two of his books as teaching tools.

Sanchez's other well-known writings include "Jalapeno Blues" and "Authentic Chicano Food is Hot!" He co-authored "Poems by Father and Son" with his father, Trinidad V. Sanchez, who also was a poet.

Sanchez moved to San Antonio in 1992 and married his longtime friend Regina Chavez, 47, in November 1993.

Chavez, who goes by Regina Chavez y Sanchez, said she followed an indigenous custom of cutting her long hair and placing it with her husband, who was cremated.

"I thought he was going to be OK, but then on Sunday everything went wrong," she said.

The family has no medical insurance and Sanchez's medical expenses have reached $600,000, prompting supporters to organize fundraisers in San Antonio and throughout the nation to help cover the costs, his wife said.  Mailing address 2803 Fredricksburg Road #1215 San Antonio,Texas 78201. Home phone# 210-733-5167. 

Chicano classic of Hispanic literature.
Jalapeño Blues (Why Am I So Brown?)
by Nephtali de Leon

Otro mas, otro mas
Chicano Teddy Bear
Tigre with his words
taking bites of society's trips
trine was a trip
read poetry on Saturday
ate tripas on Sunday
Trine always wrote 
On public bathroom walls
Let us stop this madness!
Let us stop this madness! 
Like a poet he spoke
To the ears of the walls
And only in the inner corridors
That callejon he so loved
The callejon con salida
The one where every sign reads 
(along with, rides to prison)
si se puede, si se puede
must have been Trine's song, cause in between
he'd write grafitti on your soul
saying maybe asking maybe just kinda stating
to the halls of Moctezuma
and the United Nations Christmas party
why am I so brown, why am I so brown
kinda of asking from the right side of town
the side con los trackes and the murals on the walls
the side where you could still find canela teacups
and capirotada made by an abuela 
--y aunque este chimuela
... pos ya ni la amuela...
but Trine just went on  tripping 
through the neighborhoods
of our internet 
cause he knew where he was at...
Icon of our times, Trine's Chicano rhymes
Jalapeño blues with Denver and San Anto sauce
Were more than for a precious cause
Corazon de Raza, Cosmic like the sun
Bronze colored poet speaking to each one
from the eagle heights of lowriders cruising
steady and slow, bopping to carhopping tunes
funny happy loving Chicano dude
never had interludes of who am I
his heart was wrapped in a  tortilla
his guacamole readings
were better than atole...!
We're blessed to have such excess
Of Titans living in our world
Join that crowd my friend
Trine Sanchez, Jr., Little John
Mythic beyond Robin Hood Neighborhoods
You were the real kind of magnitude
Elegant chicano attitude
Rider, pathmaker on a giant quest
like a spiritual request of Raza , beautiful brown Raza
Dancing, doing deeds worthy of a mighty race
In your poems in your songs, oh bard, oh magic wordmaker of songs
Bato wizard of your town the words you writ down
Were the dawn, out of the cradle we walked,,,
And Trine was there to kind of talk and read to us
Never really knowing he was the super magician
Who helped paint our world and helped us to see
What's really coming down in our town
By just kinda of asking, Why am I so Brown?

Poetas de Mi Pueblo
        Copyright, by Nephtali 

Recientemente fallecidos, guerreros Tigres 
y guerreros Aguilas -- y las ciudades consagradas por ver su terrenal despido...
Ricardo Sanchez, El Paso, Texas
Reymundo "Tigre" Perez, Laredo, Texas
Jose Antonio Burciaga, San Francisco, California, Heriberto Teran, Boulder, 
Colorado, Jose Luis Montalvo, San Antonio, Texas, Abelardo Delgado, Denver Colorado
Hay un silencio en el poema triste
ese poema de la voz desesperada
aquella lluvia de cometas meteoros
cascada cosmica de luz y estrellas
toros de luz bramando al infinito
guerreros aguilas guerreros tigres
¡ttenaz en lucha por un pueblo libre!
yo nunca vi que su fulgor fallara
si dudas en el alma las tuvieron
alla en algun  entierro sin memoria
sus penas confundian con nueva gloria
si algun flechazo humano recivian
cantando en la batalla revivian...
¡ay cantores! que rico suena el toque
de aquel clarin de sus eternas flores...
qu?indeble se oyen las pequenas rimas
caravanas de cultura sin protesta
asimilan la invasion y hacen comedia
de ser hispanizados -- despojados --
de antigua tradicion y sangre de indio
hay un silencio en el poema triste
en el temblor sonoro de aquellos cantos bellos era un corrido, un corazon y un sello
estampa de mi barrio en sus cantares...
estan presentes mis queridos companeros
¡ssu Canto al Pueblo aun existe!
Yo Camine las Calles con Titanes
              Nueva York Copyright by Nephtali
yo camine las calles con titanes modernos dioses que caminan con los ojos oscuros 
y bien iluminados
asi conversan con hormigas ladrillos y ventanas llevan en sus tenis de ule
la boca de los tiempos antigua inspiracion
en su horizonte claro
y yo diria
que las mil torres,
cruzes heladas
      que suspiran en el aire,
ningun metamorfosis
de cementerios muertos --
dioses esteriles sin vida,
       ni las mil edades de mentiras
       humanidad que busca su desgracia
       creyendo encontrar la luz eterna
       de seres encontrados en si mismos...
vamos companeros  juntos
a la playa viva
porque cargar la cruz de las edades?
vamos a ver por los ojos de vidrio
de ventanas puras
que es el existir sin falsedades
ni valores mediocres
          de materias ricas,
          pobre miseria
          de aquellos que contienen
          sus seres en objetos sin valores
yo conversare con la pluma
     de un pajaro desnudo --
      yo busco en la orilla de tu palma
      la flor de tu sentido,
      el dulce palpitar absurdo y delicado
      del sueno abierto y limpio
Yo he caminado las calles
      con titanes
      de ojos de luz
      y una camisa abierta.      (ends)

Research trip to El Paso yields many Treasures

Hi Mimi,
I am back in Anaheim. The trip to Las Cruces/El Paso was fruitful. I met the people at New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, Special Collections. They have two projects going on--one is the Archives in Durango and the other is the Archives in Sombrerete. The latter is still in the filming stage, but I was able to get a CD on what they have available. The staff was super attentive.

On Monday afternoon I met Dr. Louis R. Sadler, with whom I had had email correspondence. He lectured a handful of us on the Plan de San Diego. He's a wealth of knowledge on the goings on along the border during the Mexican revolution. It was a joy to talk to him. More of the group had indicated they would attend his last-minute talk, but about ten minutes before our scheduled time, it started to pour, so most decided to stay at the main library. His book is called: "Texas Ranger and the Mexican Revolution--the Bloodiest Decade 1910-1920." Oh yes, Charles sent him a little book on Charles's Sadlers which included photos and copies of census records, etc. I don't think we have the connection, yet. Although it is promising because Dr. Sadler is a "southern" Sadler same as Charles's ancestors.

While Ricardo Elizondo was viewing and copying a reel on the Durango archives, he, by chance, happened on a file on one of my people--a Lascano. It was a 144-page document, but I only copied about the first fourth of the file. Very interesting--it was in the criminal justice branch of the archives and my 'tio' Antonio Lascano was being charged with being 'revoltoso' which means troublemaker. It was fun to read some of the things he was accused of, and to read the statements of the witnesses.

Over in El Paso, they were having the worst flood of the Rio Grande that anyone could remember, and we were not sure if the roads would be opened or closed. Some people in Juarez lost their homes, some in El Paso were evacuated, but did not suffer complete losses. Anyway, over at the Univ of Texas, El Paso, they had lost power the night before we were scheduled to be there, but by Wednesday most things were normal at the University.

I probably went overboard in buying books. You know how I love to get those history books. Being with Ricardo didn't help me to limit myself on the number of books I purchased. He purchased about three or four times the number of books I did. We went to the official University Printing press office, and they gave us 30% discount on their books. I even purchased some books for Charles. I was happy to find something for him. I always bring Chuck a tee shirt, but never know what to bring Charles.

Last night, I met the most beautiful gentleman. He is 97-year old Dn Jose Cisneros, a native of Chihuahua, but a resident of El Paso for many, many years. I think Somos Primos had an article on him back in 2002 or 2003? He is an artist who specialized in illustrating the costumes of the men (many military) during the era of New Spain. The majority are on horseback because he also confesses a fascination with horses. He autographed my book, and then had one-on-one chats with those of us who went to talk with him. When I confessed that I had no ancestral claims to Chihuahua, but primarily to Nuevo Leon & Coahuila, he proceeded to inform me that he had done work for a museum in McAllen and also for that University down there (Pan American in Edinburgh). He is losing his eyesight and no longer draws. UTEP has a collection of 400 of his illustrations, and they are hung in the Special Collections area--beautiful, detailed work that show the research he did on the period.

Ricardo showed me a draft of a book that he and Martha Duron are working on. It will be a book on the Elizondos and he is hoping to use some of the Cisneros illustrations. There are several books out with his illustrations already and the UTEP press has a big book on him, and the illustrations. Ricardo stated that Martha hopes the book will be out in less than a year, but Ricardo thinks it will be longer. I gave him all of my Elizondo work. Charles helped me put together a 130-page register report on my Elizondo kin along with citations for marriages and a couple of wills and included an index.

Meantime, the weather is not too cooperative. The lectures at UTEP were OK. One was instructive on the holdings in their Special Collections, the other was on doing Oral History. She covered not only how to conduct an interview, but also the best technical tools, etc. That gave me the idea that this would be a good topic for presentation at the El Monte conference. What do you think?

I came home earlier than planned primarily because I did not find any primary records at UTEP for my research, and I kept an eye on the weather. Charles was getting a little worried for me, too. Glad to be home safe and sound.

The group was very amicable considering some of the mishaps. One night it rained so hard in El Paso that some of the rooms at the first hotel leaked and we all moved to another hotel.  Thanks to Mickey Garcia, she quickly bargained with the Marriott, and got us group rates and senior rates, etc. A tour to Ciudad Juarez had been planned, but was not going to happen because of the flood.

Yvonne Thompson from El Paso was so accommodating and had made many of the arrangements for us. She was our gracious guide to the tour of the missions. Well, I probably went on too long here, but thought you might be interested.

I am now looking forward to go to Texas. I will be visiting with my sister before the conference in Corpus and with my daughter after the conference. I am looking forward to consulting the Bexar Archives in University of Texas, Austin. Adan Benavides has put out this great guide which I consulted over at UTEP.

Well, my family is getting hungry, so we had better see about what's for supper. I had so much Mexican food in Las Cruces/El Paso that I think I will settle for a salad or a bland cheese sandwich or such.

Talk to you later, love, Viola 


Oct 14: "The Texas Rangers and the Mexican Revolution: The Bloodiest Decade, 1910-1920,"

The New Mexico State University Bookstore will host a signing for a new book by NMSU emeritus history professors Charles H. Harris III and Louis R. Sadler from 11:30 a.m. to 1:30 p.m. Thursday, Oct. 14.

In "The Texas Rangers and the Mexican Revolution: The Bloodiest Decade, 1910-1920," Harris and Sadler discuss the role of Mexican President Venustiano Carranza in the decade's border violence.

The authors suggest the notorious "Plan de San Diego," which is usually portrayed by historians as a plot hatched in south Texas, was created by Carranza to end
the support of border residents to his rival Pancho Villa. The plan called for the execution of all Anglo males 16 and older and the establishment of a Hispanic republic. It was designed to cause a race war between Hispanics and Anglos.

"The Texas Rangers and the Mexican Revolution" is the first Ranger history to utilize Mexican government archives and numerous declassified FBI records on the Mexican Revolution.

Those who plan to attend can print parking permits from
For more information call Frankie Miller, University Bookstore, 505-646-7660.


Louis R. Sadler, professor emeritus of history, can talk about U.S.-Mexico history. He may be reached at his office at 505-646-4601, at home at 505-522-1270 or by e-mail at

Oct 14, 200  Living History Rendezvous in Arizona

The Arizona Historical Society Museum at Papago Park(AHS) invites you to become part of the Living History Rendezvous, Saturday, October 14, 2006 from 10am to 4pm at the museum.

The Living History Rendezvous is a gathering of Arizona’s best living history interpreters from all corners of the state. Living Historians set up camp around the museum grounds, tell their stories, and describe their role in Arizona’s history. We welcome other museums, historical societies, groups, and individuals who want to participate by having informational tables or would like to offer demonstrations of skills and crafts related to Arizona’s history.

There will be a Children’s Activity Pavilion, where youngsters make crafts that reflect on Arizona history.

This is an excellent opportunity for teachers to see what AHS and other museums have to offer. Visitors and teachers can meet historians, take home lesson plans and classroom activities, and MORE! 

If you are interested in becoming a living history interpreter or refining your current character, AHS offers free workshops throughout the day. Topics include: discussions on collecting, making, or designing clothing to fit your historic character and a roundtable discussion on script writing and development.

Please see the enclosed attachments for further information and registration. If you have any questions, please contact me at: phone – 480.929.0292 ext. 160 or email – Information updates on the Living History Rendezvous will be posted on our website at
Looking forward to hearing from you.

Sincerely, Emily Spargo-Guerrero
Education Programs Coordinator
Arizona Historical Society Museum at Papago Park
1300 N. College Avenue
Tempe, Arizona 85281
Phone: 480.929.0292 ext. 160
Sent by Monica Herrera Smith

Hispanic Heritage Project New Book Arrivals

Pérez de Rivas, Andrés, Paginas para la historia de Sinaloa y Sonora, Triunfos de nuestra santa fe entre las gentes más bárbaras y fieras del Nuevo Orbe, Mexico, Layac, 1944, 3 vols. Like new condition. $94.00

Corbalá Acuña, Manuel Santiago, Alamos de Sonora, Mexico, Corbalá Acuna, 1968. Good condition. $82.50

Ortega Noriega, Sergio, Un Ensayo de Historia Regional. El noroeste de México 1530-1880. Mexico, UNAM, 1993. New with a creased corner. $15.00

Quiñones Hernández, Luis Carlos, Composición demográfica de Nombre de Dios, Durango. Siglo XVII, Mexico, IIH de UJED, 2002.

New $17.50

Stagg, Albert, The First Bishop of Sonora. Antonio de los Reyes, O.F.M. United States UofA, 1976. Copy signed by author Good condition $24.90

Polzer, Charles, Rules and Precepts of the Jesuit Missions of Northwestern New Spain. United States, UofA, 1976. Like new condition. $25.00

Gutierrez Casillar S. J. Jose, Santaren Conquistador Pacifico. Mexico, Jus 1964. Fair condition with wear on corner and edges. $7.50

Pacheco Rojas, Jose de la Cruz, Seminario. Los Jesuitas en el Norte de Nueva España. Sus contribuciones a la Educación y El Sistema Misional. Mexico, IIH UJED, 2004. New $9.50

Mirafuentes Galván, José Luis, Movimientos de resistencia y Rebeliones indígenas en el Norte de México 1680-1821. Guía documental III. Mexico, UNAM, 2004. New $72.00

1400 OAK HILL DRIVE, #811
ESCONDIDO, CA 92027-1158


Vaquero Heritage Foundation
Sent by Ricardo Valverde

Genealogy information, Tucson and Tubac Presidios 

Hi Mimi, There is a wealth of information about the Spanish Colonial and Mexican Period of the Greater Southwest at this web site managed by the National Park Service at Tumacacori National Historic Park. It is called Mission 2000:

Also, I now serve as a board member of the Tucson Presidio Trust for Historic Preservation. You may be interested to check out:

Thank you for all the wonderful work that you do with Somos Primos. 
Love, Monica Herrera Smith


Native Sons of Liberty
Obituary: Louise Bennett 1919-2007
Is It Cultural Cleansing, Post-Katrina Tragedies, or Both?

Native Sons of Liberty By Henry Louis Gates, Jr.
OP-ED CONTRIBUTOR, NY Times, Oak Bluffs, Mass. August 6, 2006

ON June 11, 1823, a man named John Redman walked into the courtroom of Judge Charles Lobb in Hardy County, Virginia, to apply for a pension, claiming to be a veteran of the Revolutionary War. Redman, more than 60 years old, testified that he had been in the First Virginia Regiment of Light Dragoons from Christmas 1778 through 1782, serving initially as a waiter to Lt. Vincent Howell.

The Light Dragoons fought mainly on horseback, using sabers, pistols, and light carbines. They marched from Winchester, Va., to Georgia, where, in the fall of 1779, they laid siege to Savannah. The following year, they fought in Charleston, S.C., narrowly escaping capture in a rout by the British. Redman's regiment fought the Creek Indians and the British early in 1782, ultimately triumphing over them in June at Sharon, Ga., near Savannah. After the war, Redman settled in Hardy County, where he and his wife kept a farm.

Four decades later, a neighbor and fellow veteran named John Jenkins affirmed Redman's court testimony. A few weeks later, Redman was granted his Certificate of Pension, receiving the tidy sum of $8 a month until his death in 1836.
Yet standing before Judge Lobb in his courtroom that morning in 1823, John Redman had every reason to be nervous, for his appeal was anything but ordinary. Redman was the rarest of breeds: not just a patriot, but a black patriot - both a free Negro in a nation of slaves and a black man who had fought in a white man's war.

In 1790, only 1.7 percent of Virginia's population consisted of free people of color; in the 13 former colonies and the territories of Kentucky, Maine and Vermont, the combined figure was even smaller. Historians estimate that only 5,000 black men served in the Continental Army, whereas tens of thousands fled slavery to join the British.
The story of John Redman is illuminating because it opens a window on an aspect of the Revolutionary War that remains too little known: the contributions and sacrifices of a band of black patriots. But it is particularly fascinating to me because, as I learned just recently, John Redman was my ancestor.

I have been obsessed with my family tree since I was a boy. My grandfather, Edward Gates, died in 1960, when I was 10. After his burial at Rose Hill Cemetery in Cumberland, Md. - Gateses have been buried there since 1888 - my father showed me my grandfather's scrapbooks. There, buried in those yellowing pages of newsprint, was an obituary, the obituary, to my astonishment, of our matriarch, a midwife and former slave named Jane Gates. "An estimable colored woman," the obituary said.

I wanted to know how I got here from there, from the mysterious and shadowy preserve of slavery in the depths of the black past, to my life as a 10-year-old Negro boy living blissfully in a stable, loving family in Piedmont, W.Va., circa 1960, in the middle of the civil rights movement.

I peppered my father with questions about the names and dates of my ancestors, both black and white, and dutifully recorded the details in a notebook. I wanted to see my white ancestors' coat of arms. Eventually, I even allowed myself to dream of discovering which tribe we had come from in Africa.

More recently, in part to find my own roots, I started work on a documentary series on genetics and black genealogy. I especially wanted to find my white patriarch, the father of Jane Gates's children. The genealogical research into my family tree uncovered, to my great wonder, three of my fourth great-grandfathers on my mother's side: Isaac Clifford, Joe Bruce and John Redman.

All were black and born in the middle of the 18th century; two gained freedom by the beginning of the Revolutionary War. All three lived in the vicinity of Williamsport, a tiny town in the Potomac Valley in the Allegheny Mountains, in what is now West Virginia.
I am descended from these men through my maternal grandmother, Marguerite Howard, whom we affectionately called "Big Mom." When Jane Ailes, a genealogist, revealed these discoveries to me, I could scarcely keep my composure. In searching for a white ancestor, I had found - improbably - a black patriot instead.

Frankly, it had never occurred to me that I, or anyone in the many branches of my family - Gateses, Colemans, Howards, Bruces, Cliffords, and Redmans - had even the remotest relationship to the American Revolution, or to anyone who had fought in it. If anyone had told me a year ago that this summer I would be inducted into the Sons of the American Revolution as the descendant of a black patriot - 183 years almost to the day after John Redman proved his claim - I would have laughed. I had long supposed that slavery had robbed my ancestors of the privilege of fighting for the birth of this country.
Like most African-Americans of my generation, I had heard of the Daughters of the American Revolution, unfortunately, because of their refusal in 1939 to allow the great contralto, Marian Anderson, the right to perform at Constitution Hall. Anderson responded to the group's racism with sonorous defiance, holding her Easter Sunday concert on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial instead.

In part to make amends for their treatment of Anderson, the Daughters of the American Revolution have begun counting the number of black patriots; so far they have documented about 3,000. Harvard's Du Bois Institute and the Sons of the American Revolution are now researching the 80,000 pension and bounty land warrant applications of Revolutionary War veterans to compare these names to census records from 1790 to 1840.

Already, in just a few weeks, we have discovered almost a dozen African-Americans who served in the war and whose racial identity had been lost or undetected. With this systematic approach, we hope to expand substantially our knowledge of African-Americans who served in the Continental Army and, eventually, to reach a definitive number.
Once the research is completed, we will advertise for descendants of these individuals and encourage them to join the Sons or Daughters of the American Revolution, thus increasing the organizations' black memberships beyond the meager few dozen or so the two groups have now. (If all of my aunts, uncles and cousins who are also descended from John Redman join, we will quadruple the number of black members in both organizations!)

We want to establish the exact number of descendants of African-Americans who served in the Continental Army, great American patriots, defenders of liberty to which they themselves were not entitled.

OF course, it is perfectly irrelevant, in one sense, what one's ancestors did two centuries ago; but re-imagining our past, as Americans, can sometimes help us to re-imagine our future. In doing so, it may help to understand that the founding of this Republic was not only red, white and blue, it was also indelibly black.

Henry Louis Gates Jr., a professor at Harvard University, was an executive producer of the PBS series "African American Lives."

Sent by Ted Vincent and Granville Hough, Ph.D.

OBITUARY: The Honourable Dr Louise Bennett Coverley O.M.
7 September 1919 - 27 July 2006
Sent by Dorinda Moreno

Miss Lou passed away at the Scarborough Grace Hospital, Toronto, Canada
on 27 July 2006, having collapsed at her home earlier that morning.

Her death marks the passing of a legend. Never mind historical icons such as Alexander Bustamante and Norman Manley, Louise Bennett was the mother, father and soul restorer of the Jamaican nation. No one had done more to assist the Jamaican people in understanding themselves and their uniqueness as a people crafted from the ravages of slavery and colonialism than Miss Lou. The Honourable Marcus Mosiah Garvey focused
upon the African identity of Jamaican and other African heritage people in the diaspora and the need for us to reconnect with Africa and reclaim our heritage in the Motherland. Miss Lou devoted a lifetime to helping the nation to understand who it is, where it came from, how where it came from shaped who it is and how, in the process, ways of
communicating were forged which were unique to Jamaica and the way the nation experienced and related to its world and to the world outside itself.

Louise Bennett was a child prodigy where the Jamaican language was concerned. Amazingly, while not yet a teenager, she determined that the language she and those around her spoke was the language that should be validated and used as a medium for expressing oneself in writing. She had experienced that language as the one in which ordinary people gave meaning to their lives, expressing their needs and wants, their joys and their sorrows, their aspirations and their regrets. Yet, the medium of teaching and instruction in school was not the language of the Jamaican people but a foreign language which the majority of the nation could neither speak nor write.

By the age of 14, she had written her first poem in Jamaican English, popularly called 'dialect' at the time. Her creative abilities were apparent even then and in her 20s she won a scholarship to attend the prestigious Royal Academy of Dramatic Arts (RADA) in London, graduating as a dramatist, actress and performer. She brought the art of dramatic expression to her exploration, interpretation and use of the Jamaican language, validating it as a language long before it was accredited as such in the 1960s, largely through the work of people like Frederic Cassidy and Robert Le Page.

The bibliography in the seminal writings of both these academics, especially Jamaica Talk (Cassidy: 1961) and Dictionary of Jamaican English (Cassidy &Le Page: 1967) include references to Louise Bennett's work dating back to 1942 when the Gleaner published her Dialect Verses, one of her earliest published works.

Miss Lou worked with repertory companies in various parts of England where West Indian ex-servicemen and students from the islands as well as the Windrush generation of migrants would have settled.

She did more than most to develop an awareness and understanding of Jamaican folklore, of the sayings, proverbs and philosophies, the values and principles of the ordinary working people. Using the medium of poetry, drama and story telling in what was predominantly an oral tradition, Miss Lou put the Jamaican people in touch with themselves, with their wisdom, their irony and their quirkiness. Above all, she put them in touch with their inner selves and their connectedness to Africa by pointing up the fact that the entire society and its culture is riddled with African retentions. Those retentions could still be seen today in rites of passage, in religious practices, in music, in the
vocabulary and forms of speech in the Jamaican language, in percussion, in food, in superstitions. Miss Lou brought it all alive through drama, poetry, prose, chants, dance and song, and through her radio and television shows that were hugely popular with people of all ages in Jamaican society, shows such as Laugh with Louise, Miss Lou's Views, The Lou and Ranny Show and the television show 'Ring Ding'.

When, in the 1960s and 1970s, children started to arrive in Britain in increasing numbers from Jamaica to join parents and entered British schools, a major issue in the assessment of their 'intelligence' and their ability to cope with the schooling system was their language.  Because they were not seen as having a language in its own right that  was different from English, they were deemed to be speaking and writing broken English as a variant of 'standard' English and therefore judged as being poorly equipped to get on in the English schooling system. Louise Bennett's work was invaluable in that it provided the ammunition both to counteract those damaging and erroneous assessments and to give
Jamaican speakers a sense of self and a confidence in the language that they spoke. It also helped to demonstrate that those Jamaican children and their parents were speaking an entirely different language and that they were being put at an educational disadvantage and subjected to damaging stereotyping if that were not recognized.

Miss Lou became ambassador at large for the Jamaican people, representing their country and its cultural heritage across the world and giving permission to those of us involved in song writing, music making, performance poetry, theatre and teaching, to claim the language and be assertive in our use and projection of it. As such, she inspired and created space for other early pioneers such as Andrew Salkey, Kamau Brathwaite, and latterly Benjamin Zephaniah and the world renowned Linton Kwesi Johnson.

Miss Lou married Eric Winston Coverley in 1954 and was widowed in 2002.

She was awarded the Order of Jamaica in 1974, the Order of Merit in 2001, the Institute of Jamaica.s Musgrave Silver and Gold Medals for distinguished eminence in the field of Arts and Culture and the Norman Manley Award for Excellence in the field of Arts. She held the Honorary Degree Of Doctor of Letters from the University of the West  Indies and from York University in Toronto.

We in education and social and cultural life in Britain and Jamaicans athome and in the second Diaspora worldwide owe her an enormous debt and give thanks for her long life and pioneering life's work.  Professor Gus John

Jose Torres Tama/Essay "is It Cultural Cleansing, Post-Katrina Tragedies, or Both?" 

Dear arts community, In my continuing efforts to keep you informed about some of the difficulties that New Orleans is experiencing, below is my latest commentary about the disappearance of a historic school in my Marigny neighborhood. The essay below is part of a series of commentaries that I have written since the storm called “New Orleans in Exile: Life in a Post-Katrina Village.” I am composing a book of this collection of writings and the hard living in the “Big Easy” after the storm. Some of these commentaries have been recorded for NPR’s “Latino USA” and for WWNO radio in New Orleans. 

Thank you,

Jose Torres Tama &ArteFuturo Productions 
2453 Dauphine Street, New Orleans, LA 70117 

"Is It Cultural Cleansing, Post-Katrina Tragedies, or Both When the Couvent School Legacy Vanishes?"

Since 1987, I have lived in the Fabourg Marigny of New Orleans, the first “suburb” that was founded by free people of color in the early 1800’s. Expanding downriver and east from the French Quarter, it has the unique historical distinction of being a neighborhood where free women of color owned property during the days of slavery, even when white women had not been accorded such privileges by their male counterparts. One of these women was Marie Couvent, a former slave from West Africa, and in 1837, her will and testament declared that her inherited lands at the corner of Dauphine Street and Touro be used to establish a free Catholic school for the “colored orphans of the Fabourg.” 

In 1848, a school was finally founded at this site, and the most recent facility that was 
carrying out Madame Couvent’s wishes was Bishop Perry Middle School. It was offering a 
gratis education to some of the brightest African American boys from the Lower Ninth, 
Gentilly, and East New Orleans, whose parents might not have been able to afford such 
schooling otherwise. 

But a few weeks ago on the Friday afternoon of July 21, 2006, the school closed its doors. Without anyone to protest its post-Katrina ill-fated destiny, and without any press conferences, or community gatherings to bring attention to its significance, another institution of African heritage has vanished before our weary eyes.

To offer further perspective on the profound nature of this loss, imagine having the first 
ever free Catholic school for the education of black children, erected during slavery when it was outlawed to educate colored people of any age in the South of these United States, become extinct without a single utterance from your mayor. For greater irony, imagine that mayor being of similar ethnicity and expected to, perhaps, be present and shed a tear or two, as the chain link fence was locked permanently and its sacred grounds never to hear the sound of students’ laughter during recess.

How can this be happening with Mr. “chocolate city” sugar Ray all awash in his re-elected skin color, who obviously used race to engage the support of African American voters? Was this just a political minstrel show? Because I am finding it difficult to laugh! Is this school not part of his “chocolate” vision? It was certainly offering bountiful opportunities to the children of his constituency. What are we to conclude when a legacy of this magnitude is eradicated on his watch while he remains silent and invisible? 

The Couvent School represented a resistance to the extreme racial prejudices of pre-Civil 
war New Orleans back in 1848, and even now in the devastated environment of the public school system, Bishop Perry was a priceless jewel because “free” and “Catholic” are normally not associated terms.

Currently, the property is in the hands of the Catholic Archdiocese, and it is difficult to have any trust in this body. Only a few months ago their unholy and rather abhorrent decision to close St. Augustine Church, which was established in 1842 by free people of color and slaves in the historic Fabourg Treme, engaged the black community in a high profile cultural struggle. At a time, when we could all use more Christ-like compassion, the Archdiocese justified their decision to close this treasured spiritual center for financial reasons. 

Apparently, Saint Augustine was not producing enough services such as communions, 
weddings, and funerals to satisfy the church’s coffers, yet its parishioner base had slowly 
been increasing after the storm. Faith in a greater spirit beyond the physical damages we 
have suffered is important to our hope of rising again. The community did win a reprieve, a stay of execution for the next year and half, but Saint Augustine’s reopening did not come without a substantial lengthy battle. Even Jesse Jackson and Al Sharpton came to town and vocalized their support for this symbolic holy edifice. 

We are left to speculate that the silence of Bishop Perry’s closing is a welcoming sound to the Archdiocese, and its desires to have the disappearance of this school go unnoticed. In the process, we are bearing witness to a social nightmare of proportions that begin to resemble cultural cleansing, or is it just another tragedy of the “new” New Orleans after Katrina, or both? 

I continue to mourn for this city as we approach the ominous anniversary of a natural 
disaster that has spawned an even greater man-made calamity, one that is washing away the heroic efforts of people like Marie Couvent, who envisioned a free education for children who were denied this basic right.


Sept 11-12: Highways, Free Performance Workshop
Indigenous Mexico Statistics: The 2005 Conteo
Comparison of Mexico's Indigenous-speaking populations
Five Civilized Tribes


As part of their Latino New Works Festival, Highways is hosting a creative residency with writer and performance provocateur, Guillermo Gómez-Peña and his experimental theatre ensemble, La Pocha Nostra. A free two-day intensive workshop will be offered as part of the residency, taking place Monday and Tuesday, September 11-12, 2006 (1-8PM) at Highways Performance Space in Santa Monica.

The workshop,
Rituals, will be designed to explore the boundaries and relationships between contemporary performance practices and human rights by asking, "What can performance do for human rights, and human rights for performance?"

Rituals and strategies to decolonize the body
, is an intensive two-day Performance Laboratory exploring creative methodologies around issues of art, activism and human rights. The Performance Laboratory will use the influential methodologies and ideas behind Guillermo Gómez-Peña's extraordinary body of work as a stimulus for new approaches to politically engaged performance based strategies. It will provide an opportunity for artists working in live art and experimental performance to explore new models of relationships between art, activism and human rights.

La Pocha Nostra will offer participants a focused framework for their continuing artistic development by encouraging an awareness of the issues impacting their practice, enhancing the range of approaches and skills available to them, and inspiring different ways of working.

Who is it for?
The Performance Laboratory is particularly aimed at artists who are at an early to mid-career stage of their artistic development, and those from culturally diverse backgrounds. Participants must have a declared interest in issues of art, activism and human rights, and direct experience of working with live art and experimental performance practices. The Performance Laboratory is for a maximum of 20 participants who will be selected on an open application basis. Participants must be able to commit themselves to the full two-days.

The Application Process:
To apply to take part in the Performance Laboratory, please send a short statement about the nature of your practice, why you would like to participate in the laboratory, what you think you can bring to the laboratory, and how you think the laboratory will contribute to your practice. Please include your full contact details including your postal address, landline and mobile numbers and email address.

Your statement should be emailed to: 
Or posted to: Leo Garcia
Highways Performance Space
1651 18th St.
Santa Monica, CA 90404



By John P. Schmal

The results of the 2005 Mexican Conteo (Count) have been published and a comparison with the 2000 Mexican Censo (Censo) indicates a decline in the overall number of Mexican citizens who speak indigenous languages. The overall number of indigenous speakers has dropped from 6,044,547 to 6,011,202 persons five years of age and older. This represented a drop in the national percentage of indigenous speakers from 7.2% to 6.7%.

It is important to point out that the criteria in this count represents people who speak indigenous languages and that the number of Mexicans who consider themselves to be indigenous – through culture, tradition, spirit, genetics and other factors – is probably much greater in some parts of the country. Additionally, any children up to the age of four living in indigenous households are not tallied as being indigenous speakers.

Náhuatl remains the most widely spoken language in Mexico with 1,376,026 persons five years of age and older using that tongue. Náhuatl speakers, in fact, represented 22.89% of the indigenous speakers in the entire Republic in the 20005 Conteo. Some of the other prominent languages are:

2. Maya (759,000 speakers – 12.63% of all indigenous speakers)
3. Mixtec Languages (423,216 – 7.04%)
4. Zapotec Languages (410,901 – 6.84%)
5. Tzeltal (371,730 – 6.18%)
6. Tzotzil (329,937 – 5.49%)
7. Otomí (239,850 – 3.99%)

The Náhuatl, Maya, Mixtec and Zapotec languages are found in considerable numbers in many states far from their traditional homelands, in large part because of migration to the north and urban areas.

The states with the largest number of indigenous speakers are, in terms of absolute numbers and percentages, are:

1. Oaxaca (1,091,502 indigenous speakers – 35.3% of the state population)
2. Yucatán (538,355 speakers – 33.5% of the state population)
3. Chiapas (957,255 speakers – 26.1% of the state population)
4. Quintana Roo (170,982 speakers – 19.3% of the state population)
5. Hidalgo (320,029 – 15.5% of the state population)
6. Guerrero (383,427 – 14.2% of the state population)
7. Campeche (89,084 – 13.3% of the state population)
8. Puebla (548,723 – 11.7% of the state population)
9. San Luis Potosí (234,815 – 11.1% of the state population)
10. Veracruz (605,135 – 9.5% of the state population).

With the exception of the Chiapas dialects, many of the most populous indigenous languages have declined in absolute numbers, possibly due to immigration to the United States and other countries. It is also possible that many indigenous migrants who move from Oaxaca, Puebla, Guerrero, or Campeche to large urban areas in Mexico City or the North may have children who, in the absence of a nurturing mother culture, may tend to assimilate and perhaps stop speaking their mother tongue as they socialize and work with their non-indigenous friends, associates, and neighbors.

We continue to see large numbers of Zapotec and Mixtec speakers dominating the indigenous landscape in many western and northern states, in large part because of decades of migration from Oaxaca to other parts of the country. A long distance from their traditional lands, the Mixtecs represent significant percentages of the indigenous-speaking people in several states, including Baja California (38.2% of indigenous speakers), Baja California Sur (21.5%), Distrito Federal (10.4%), Sinaloa (10.2%) and Estado de México (6.8%).

Similarly, the Zapotecs make up significant portions of the indigenous-speaking populations of several states, including Baja California (9.6%), Baja California Sur (8.7%), Distrito Federal (8.4%), Colima (6.5%) and Sinaloa (5.6%). Nevertheless, both the Zapotec and Mixtec languages saw significant overall population drops between 2000 and 2005 and large-scale immigration to the United States is certainly a compelling factor in that trend.

In the states of the Yucatán Peninsula, the Yucatec Maya dialect continues to dominate. For example, in the State of Yucatán, there are 527,107 Maya speakers, who represent 97.9% of the total indigenous-speaking population of the state.

While many languages have declined in absolute numbers, several of the most important Mayan tongues in Chiapas actually increased between the 2000 Censo and the 2005 Conteo. The five most widely spoken languages of Chiapas have all increased in absolute numbers:

1. Tzeltal (362,658 indigenous speakers – 37.9% of the state’s indigenous population)
2. Tzotzil (320,921 indigenous speakers – 33.5%)
3. Chol (161,794 speakers – 16.9%)
4. Zoque (43,936 speakers – 4.6%)
5. Tojolabal (42,798 – 4.5%)

This increase may be related to the high visibility and sense of pride that many Chiapas Indians have begun to feel towards their indigenous heritage, and, in fact, people who did not previously speak Tzotzil or Tzeltal fluently, may be learning the language to take part in the Cultural Renaissance now occurring.

The Náhuatl language continues to dominate many of the Mexican states. In Veracruz, for example, the 318,626 Náhuatl speakers make up 52.7% of the State’s indigenous speakers. The other widely spoken languages in Veracruz are the Totonac (19.2%), Huasteco (8.4%), Popoluca (5.3%), and Otomí (2.8%).

The Tarahumara Indians, one of the few surviving remnants of Chihuahua’s indigenous heritage, continue to represent 77.3% of Chihuahua’s people who speak Indian languages. But indigenous speakers only represent 3.4% of the total state population five years of age and older.

In Sonora, the two surviving traditional languages still dominate the indigenous-speaking population: the Mayo number 24,470 people (47.3%) and the Yaqui number 13,552 people (14.7%). But, here again, the indigenous speakers represent only 2.5% of Sonora’s entire population five years of age and older.

Mexico’s total population increased from 97,483,412 in the 2000 Censo to 103,263,388 in the 2005 Conteo. Interestingly, women outnumber men by 51.34% by 48.66%, a telling reminder that many breadwinners may have left the country to find gainful employment elsewhere.

Below is a graphic interpretation, illustrating the contrast in the indigenous speaking populations of Mexico’s states between the 2000 Censo and the 2005 Conteo:




2000 Censo – Population of Persons Five Years of Age and More Who Speak an Indigenous Language

2000 Census – Percentage

2005 Conteo – Population of Persons Five Years of Age and More Who Speak an Indigenous Language

2005 Conteo – Percentage






Baja California





Baja California,Sur










Coahuila de Zaragoza




















Distrito Federal



































Michoacán de Ocampo















Nuevo León















Querétaro Arteaga





Quintana Roo





San Luis Potosí






























Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave















Mexican Republic





Below is a second illustration indicating the evolution of Mexico’s indigenous 
languages in terms of their total numbers within the Mexican Republic.

THE EVOLUTION OF MEXICO’S INDIGENOUS LANGUAGES FROM 1970 TO 2005 -- Copyright © 2006, by John P. Schmal.

Primary Languages





2005 - % of all Indigenous Languages Spoken













Mixtec Languages






Zapoteco Languages
















































Chinanteca Languages


















































































































Other Languages






Total Indigenous Speakers in Mexico






Source: Instituto Nacional de Estadística Geografía e Informática (INEGI). 
Conteos de Población y Vivienda, 2005.


Was Grandma a Real Indian Princess?

Turn family stories into proved American Indian lineages: Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole



Back to Babylon
Sept 10: Symposium: Hidden Jewish Heritage: Exploring a Path to Return
Jo Roybal Izay
Appendix, A-C:  Remnants of Crypto-Jews Among Hispanic Americans


Thursday November 2 - Sunday November 5, 2006

A central component of the Back to Babylon program with be the exhibition Revisited: Art and Artifacts from Iraq-Jewish Private Collections, on display in the American Sephardi Federation Leon Levy Gallery at the Center for Jewish History, located in the heart of Manhattan, beginning on November 2, 2006. The American Sephrdi Federation curatorial and design team will showcase a selection of ritual objects, memorabilia, photographs and documents depicting the Iraqi Jewish heritage as preserved and perpetuated in the Diaspora. We invite you and other Iraqi-Jewish families from the New York area and beyond to contact us to suggest particular articles in your possession that can be included in the exhibit.

Do you have synagogue artifacts (Torah cases, rimonim, siddurim, etc.), or samples of objects devoted to home rituals, silver, jewelry or other significant possessions that you would like to have included in the exhibition? Can you send a story to go with your memorabilia?

Sept 10th Symposium

 Hidden Jewish Heritage: Exploring a Path to Return

Denver, CO (August 5, 2006) - Over the past thirty years, there has been a growing movement of Hispanos discovering the Jewish Heritage. These Hispanos have come to realize that they are descendants of Jews from Spain and Portugal that settled in the American Southwest and whom had to hide their Jewish identity due to the Spanish Inquisition. As this information has been revealed there has been a desire from these
descendants of Hidden Jews to reconnect to their Jewish roots and to truly understand what it means to be Jewish. To facilitate this process, B'nai Sephardim of Colorado is hosting a symposium to help foster the return of Hispanos to their Jewish heritage. The symposium (Hidden Jewish Heritage: Exploring a Path to Return) will be held on Sunday, September 10, 2006 at the Radisson Denver Southeast from 8:00 AM to 5:00 PM. Admission is free and the Symposium is open to the public. From the historical, genealogical, and personal perspectives, this symposium will cover the gamete of issues of interest to those with Hidden Jewish ancestry.

The event is sponsored by B'nai Sephardim of Colorado. B'nai Sephardim of Colorado is committed to bringing together the descendants of Hidden Jews through education, community outreach, and advocacy.

For more information on the Hidden Jewish Heritage Symposium or B'nai Sephardim of Colorado, please call (970) 980-1524 or visit our website

Michael Fajardo
B'nai Sephardim of Colorado
phone: 970.980.1524

Sent by Jane Reifer

Remnants of Crypto-Jews Among Hispanic Americans By: Gloria Golden ©2005

Jo Roybal Izay

Jewish families fled Spain and scattered worldwide. My ancestors fled Spain, went to Portugal, then to the Canaries, and made their way to the New World. Hoping to find a better life away from the dangers of an Inquisition, they landed in New Mexico and remained prisoners of nomadic Indians for over two hundred years. Land grants were issued to the colonizers, and they took advantage of them.

Colonization of New Mexico began in 1598. Most of them were converses. In those days that meant nothing. It left the people free to worship as they saw fit. Those who lived in the lowlands had limited religious direction-very limited. Spain's main concern was to Christianize the heathen Indians. All New Mexicans shared the same traditions and with the passing of time, they forgot the reasons why. Survival was their only concern. Neither Spain nor New Spain (Mexico) gave the colonizers protection, provisions, munitions, doctors, dentists, schools- nothing. These forgotten people were left to fend for themselves. As I look back, I can see why. Being born Jewish was not a big surprise for me as it has been to many New Mexicans. I knew it all along. My grandfather made sure that we knew about our roots. We worshiped the God of Israel, Adonai. The Sephardic Jews were expecting their Messiah to be born in New Mexico, but alas, it didn't happen and eventually they all came to accept Jesus as the Messiah.

Perhaps having been isolated in the wilderness of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in northern New Mexico had a lot to do with our way of life, which was totally different from people living in the lowlands. My ancestors founded the village where I was born in 1785. The place is more beautiful than anyone can imagine. It's like a kingdom in the wilderness. Alas, for my ancestors, it was a miserable kingdom.

Owning land meant little in those early days. Pueblo Indians and Spanish families formed an alliance and protected each other from the ravishing raids that left them unable to make progress in their new surroundings. They would build their homes only to have them burned to the ground. Generation after generation found people regressing not only in traditions, but in language as well. Poverty, disease, and misery took over.

Many Jews brought bags of gold that they had mined in Zacatecas, New Spain, hoping to build great cities and universities in New Mexico. They so wanted to rebuild the lives they had in Spain. According to legend, the gold remained buried in the vast wilderness where the people remained trapped. Their hopes and dreams vanished. They were hopeless and helpless. They were forgotten by the outside world. The poor souls were known only to those living among them, and lived and died with no one to record their suffering.

Men, women, and children toiled the land only to have the nomads raid, steal and burn, kidnap and kill as soon as everything was done. Men traveled in groups to Taos or Santa Fe to trade. Sometimes they would make it back to their homes intact; other times they were found dead. Their suffering subsided when New Mexico became a territory of the United States in 1846.

In 1850, the infamous Archbishop Lamy took over the diocese. The first thing he did was to excommunicate Spanish priests and raise havoc with the Penitentes, a religious sect. Jews feared a gringo inquisition and joined the Catholic Church in droves. Others, like my ancestors who felt they had to live a separated life, joined the Presbyterian Church in order to read their Bibles openly and without prejudice. In reality, they went underground because there was a lack of Presbyterian ministers and it was perfect for them.

It has been somewhat of a shock to me to find that there is an interest in New Mexico's Sephardic roots. There are those who will argue that we are "wannabes." To those I say, I am perfectly happy with who I am and don't want to be like other Jews. I am proud of my heritage and maintain many of the Sephardic traditions. I neither envy nor do I care to emulate anyone. I speak Ladino, standard Spanish, and English.

The most important thing to me is that my ancestors helped pave the way to the greatest state of the Union, New Mexico, and the Land of Enchantment. I value everything that I am and all that I learned from my grandfather who made sure that we knew who we were. Our New Mexico traditions are unlike those in other parts of the world. They may not resemble traditions in other parts of the world, and that's all right. We are who we are and love who we are. Shalom.



September as designated Tejano Heritage Month
Oct 14: Tejano Leadership in the history of Texas, Symposium
Quintanilla relatives seek justice for their ancestors
Book: Genealogical Survey of Early Families of Villa del Carmen en Medina
Census, Corpus Christi Library 
Dr. Jean Stuntz' Speech for the Los Béxareños 
Early residents in San Antonio 
Spanish land grants and the recovery of oil and gas royalties
Contact website for filing land claims 
Sept 9: Stand Up Rally for Better Schools
Laredo Martin High School & OLD High School yearbooks " La Pitahaya" 
Ancestors of Guillermo David Guerra Treviño
The Descendants of Don Pedro Mariano de Ocon y Trillo
Alex Loya, Chapter 12: American Roots of the Spaniard Texians

Click for “The Tejano Battle of Medina”  August 18, 1813





September has been designated Tejano Heritage Month

(San Antonio, Texas) August 29, 2006 – Texas, a San Antonio-based research, publishing, and communications firm, in conjunction with the Alamo Legacy & Missions Association (ALMA), a San Antonio-based, non-profit organization that provides living history reenactments to educate youth and adults about Texas history, are proud to announce that the month of September has been designated Tejano Heritage Month by the State of Texas, Bexar County and City of San Antonio.

Created to bring awareness and education about the true contributions and lives of Tejano pioneers, the events of Tejano Heritage Month will vary from historic commemorations to educational, governmental, community and religious activities. The message and mission is to educate, elevate and celebrate the lives and legacies of Tejanos.

Founded by Rudi R. Rodriguez, Texas has been producing, publishing, promoting, and marketing Tejano printed matter, electronic media, educational materials as well as creating a traveling exhibit that has been displayed at elementary, junior high and high schools, colleges and universities, and historical societies, museums and libraries across the state. 

“The last two years have proven that what we are creating with Tejano Heritage Month is something that the public wants,” Rodriguez says. “We are at a time in history where everyone, especially in the Hispanic population, wants to know what their heritage is and where their roots originate. Tejano heritage is something that has long been ignored and we have felt that it is something that needs to be recognized, appreciated and embraced. That is the purpose of Tejano Heritage Month; it is a chance to celebrate what our Tejano forefathers accomplished at the dawn of our great state and what we, as present-day Tejanos, continue to accomplish.”

This year’s Tejano Heritage Month festivities include the 3rd Annual Texas Tejano Breakfast to be held on the grounds of the State Capitol in Austin; in San Antonio, the Breakfast will once again be held on the grounds of Palo Alto College; the 2nd Annual Tejano Vigil will again be held inside the Alamo; a brand new, epic Tejano history exhibit will be displayed on the campus of UTSA; a Tejano Symposium will again be held at Alamo Hall; the premiere of a series of Tejano portraits commissioned by Texas (which will hang inside the Alamo Shrine); the debut of our Senior Oral History Project will take place at the main branch of the San Antonio Public Library and much more! There will also be an exciting and educational program of awards for elementary, middle and high school students. 

Texas and ALMA are also proud to have partnered this year with Wells Fargo Bank, H-E-B Groceries, Inc., the Greater Austin Hispanic Chamber of Commerce, Capitol Visitors Center, the San Antonio Express-News, the City of San Antonio Office of Cultural Affairs and Office of Community Initiatives, the Witte Museum, the Alamo and San Antonio Public Library. With their assistance and support, we are guaranteed that this will be the biggest Tejano Heritage Month celebration to date. Viva Tejano Texas!

More information about Texas can be found at or by calling Rudi R. Rodriguez  210.673.3584.

Veramendi House

Oct 14: Symposium at San Marcos, Tejano Leadership in the history of Texas
Sent by Larry Kirkpatrick

October 2006 will mark the 200th anniversary of Juan N. Seguín’s birth. Seguín was the leading Tejano (Mexican Texan) military figure of the Texas Revolution and a member of one San Antonio’s most prominent families. He went on to serve in the Senate of the Republic, as mayor of San Antonio, an officer in the Mexican military, and a figure in Bexar County politics in the 1850s.

In recognition of the anniversary the History Department at Texas State University will host a one-day symposium highlighting the role of Tejanos in the history of Texas from Mexican independence in 1821 to Texas annexation in 1845. The goal for the symposium is to introduce to the public a select group of Tejanos, most of whose efforts have been relegated to obscurity, who had a major impact on the development of Texas during the critical years when it passed from a Mexican frontier province to the 28th state in the Union.

The symposium will make important contributions to the advancement of Texas historical studies. It will bring to light new perspectives on the founding events of modern Texas in light of recent scholarship, and contribute to expanding an understanding of our state’s multicultural roots. It will advance the goal of expanding knowledge about the significant role of Mexican Texans in the state's history. The resulting publication will contribute to the dissemination of historical information regarding Tejanos and Texas history to a wide audience.

Carlos de la Garza: Mr. Alonzo Salazar, Houston
Fr.Refugio de la Garza: Rev Robert Wright, Ph.D., Oblate School of Theology, San Antonio 
Plácido Benavides: Dr. Stephen Hardin, The Victoria College
Juan Martín Veramendi:  Mr. David McDonald, San Antonio

The symposium is hosted by the Texas State Department of History and Latino Presence Committee, with major sponsorship from the Texas State University Equity and Access Committee. Additional funding from the Seguin Family Historical Society.
This event is free and open to the public. Registration for the buffet luncheon ($10.), with keynote speaker Carolina Castillo Crimm is due by October 2, 2006.

Dr. J. F. de la Teja, Chairman
Department of History, Texas State University-San Marcos
601 University Drive   San Marcos, TX 78666
512-245-2142  512-245-3043 (fax)

Quintanilla relatives seek justice for their ancestors

To members of the press and news media:  Attached is a very interesting special interest story that I believe would be of interest to the general public. It’s a story about the Quintanilla Family descendant’s pursuit for justice in an oil and gas contract the Quintanilla relatives signed with then Sun oil back in 1936, and has to date, never received any compensation from said contract.  The other interesting part of the story is that during genealogy research by a Q family descendant at Rose Hill Memorial Cemetery, he discovers that the mater of the Quintanilla family (Leonarda Longoria Quintanilla) actually, his grandmother, does not have a tomb stone placed at her grave. 

As a result, several family members get together and purchase the head stone and decide to have a memorial service to dedicate the head stone and also honor her memory 55 years later.

I took the liberty in writing the story as I would write it if I was a news reporter, (which I’m not).   However feel free to re-write it as you see fit.

The actual memorial ceremony to dedicate the head stone is currently planned for 26 August 06.  The memorial service will be held at Rose Hill Memorial Cemetery in Corpus Christi Texas and will begin at 3:00 pm.  A family reception will follow at La Bahia Restaurant located at 224 N Mesquite St. Should any members of the press or news media would like to cover this interesting story, please feel free to contact me for further details.

In addition, if any members of the press or news media would like to ascertain the facts surrounding this story or if you want to personally interview those named in the article, their names and phone numbers are provided below.

Best Regards, 
David Reyes Jr
(361) 946-3672  - cell  (361) 961-2801- work #
Earnest Garcia  esq  or Mellissa Butler - Rosenthal Watson Law Firm 1– 800-563-5199

Quintanilla Family story: Leonarda L. Quintanilla   

Several Quintanilla relatives gathered at Rose Hill memorial cemetery yesterday to pay their respects to Leonarda Longoria Quintanilla, the mater of the Quintanilla family who died in Corpus Christi on January 29, 1951.   During a recent genealogy research conducted by Quintanilla family descendant Manuel Quintanilla, discovered that Leonarda’s grave site did not have a head stone.  Immediately after knowing of the problem, several Quintanilla relatives got together and purchased the head stone and had the memorial service to honor her memory. 

“After 55 years, my grandmother finally has a head stone,” says Hortencia Quintanilla Reyes. According to Mrs. Reyes, her family was very poor and could not afford a head stone at the time.

Leonarda Longoria Quintanilla was born in 1849 in Matamoros Mexico and lived most of her life in Corpus Christi.  She married Manuel E. Quintanilla on August 18, 1875 and had five sons and one daughter; Manuel, Elugio, Lazaro, Nicolas Quintanilla, Manuel Cavasos and Leonarda Quintanilla Nesmith. 

One of her sons, Elugio Quintanilla, was the grandfather of Abraham Quintanilla Jr and great grandfather of Tejano legend and Grammy award winner Selena Quintanilla Perez. 

Leonarda was 101 yeas old when she died.

Like other South Texas families seeking justice for their ancestors, the Quintanilla family is seeking land and oil royalties on an oil and gas lease contract the family signed in 1936 with then Sun Oil Company.

According to Quintanilla Family spokesman David Reyes Jr, the Quintanilla family has never received any compensation from the oil and gas lease.  “It’s a seventy year old mystery that we want to get answers to once and for all” said Reyes. The Quintanilla family is currently being represented by law firms from Austin and Harlingen. 

Mr. Reyes stated that the Quintanilla family is a very large family of approximately 700 - 1000 relatives from as far off as Michigan, Chicago, California, Indiana, Florida, and Mexico and from all over Texas.

 The Quintanilla family is planning a family reunion for later this year and is expecting relatives from all over to attend. Additional information about the Quintanilla family pursuit of justice for their ancestors is available on the family’s web site at

Book: Genealogical and Historical Survey of Early Families of Villa del Carmen en Medina

Los Bexarenos Genealogy Society is offering a new book, A Brief Genealogical and Historical Survey of Early Families of Villa del Carmen en Medina, by Federico Martinez, 2006.  Paperbound, 244 pages for sale for $30.00 each plus $3.00 postage.

The book is 8½ by 11, soft cover, tape binding.  The book contains numerous extractions and translations of documents relating to the  historical background and families who settled in Villa del Carmen of south Bexar County, Texas. The book contains family sheets and descendants of the first settlers and their families. Many photographs are included.  Cattle brands of many early residents are reproduced.  Names of the families covered
include: Martinez, Casillas, Castillo, Espinosa, Gallardo, Gamboa, Gil, Herrera, Huron, Reyes, Ruiz, Sorola, Tejeda, Terrazas, Toudouze, Uranga,Uriegas, Valdez and Villagrande.

Los Bexarenos Genealogical Society
P. O Box 1935, San Antonio, Texas 78297
Sent by Larry Kirkpatrick


Census, Corpus Christi Library
Sent by John Inclan 


Dr. Jean Stuntz' Speech for the Los Béxareños August meeting is available on the Nuestra Familia Unida podcast project:

Please listen to this very informative speech on her book, Hers, His, and Theirs: Community Property Law in Spain and Early Texas (Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2005), the history of San Antonio, and some of the myths concerning Hispanic contribution to US history.

. . .While you are in the "Mujer" section of the podcast listen to Dr. Frances Karttunen's "Rethinking Malinche" presentation that will definitely give you some realistic ideas of the situation in which Doña Marina found herself.

Also navigate around the site and listen to other audio related to Latin American History. If you can think of individuals that hold knowledge of our history I would ask that you forward them my invitation to participate in the podcast.

The audio should play if you just click on the URL on the webpage, but If anyone has any problems listening to or downloading the audio please try right clicking on the URL on the site and saving to your Desktop. Once it's downloaded then right click again and choose "open with" and then choose whatever Audio program you are using on your computer: 
iTunes, Windows Media Player, QuickTime, RealAudioPlayer, MusicMatch, etc. or you can email me for more help:

Thanks, Joseph Puentes

ps: consider joining the planning committee for the NFU podcast project:

Early residents in San Antonio

Tejano Struggle for Representation:
Recommended sites by John Schmal 

Spanish land grants and the recovery of oil and gas royalties

Here is another way to reach the website to view the two video clips that shows information about Spanish land grants and the recovery of oil and gas royalties.

For more information, go to:
Sent by Mira Palacio Smithwick

Contact website for filing land claims 
Here is the website for the attorney filing claims on behalf of the progeny of original land grantees: this is especially good information for FAMILY LAWYERS who we should hire to represent US! Please pass this information on to our family attorneys!

Gloria's Web Pages: Sent by Gloria Candelaria

Stand up Rally for Better Schools
Saltillo Plaza, 401 Comal St. Austin, 78702

Artists speak out through Hip Hop, Spoken Word, Theater and Video on 1/3 of all students dropping out of school. A Free Event for All Youth from All Schools In Austin!!!

Saturday, September 9th
Time: 4:30-7:30 p.m.
Austin Voices for Education and Youth
3710 Cedar Street, Suite 229, Box 21
Austin, Texas-78705  Phone: (512) 450-1880

Site Laredo Martin High School & the OLD High School yearbooks " La Pitahaya" 

Click on the below link and you will find all the yearbooks for the Old High School and MHS from 1916 thru 2006. When the link opens select the year you want and then wait for it to download and then just scroll to view it.
Shared by Temo Rocha

Ancestors of Guillermo David GUERRA TREVIÑO
Sent by Arturo Ynclan

Table of Contents
Surname List - A list of all surnames on this site 
Index of Names - A list of all names on this site 

Surname List


To contact us by mail: Guillermo Guerra Jr.
Articles presented on this site are copyright 1996 by Guillermo Guerra unless indicated

Juana de Urrutia was the Step Great-Great-Grandmother to Juan Seguin

The Descendants of Don Pedro Mariano de Ocon y Trillo

Compiled by John Inclan 

Generation No. 1

1. PEDRO-MARIANO1 DE OCON-Y-TRILLO was born Bet. 1690 - 1710 in Malaga, Castile, Spain, and died 06 Mar 1777 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas. He married (1) MARIA-JOSEFA FLORES-DE-ABREGO-Y-VALDEZ 19 Jun 1728 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas. She died 1745 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas. He married (2) JUANA-DE-DIOS DE URRUTIA1 01 May 1746 in San Fernando, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas, daughter of JOSEPH DE URRUTIA and ROSA FLORES-DE-VALDEZ. She was born 25 Jul 1709 in Santiago Aspotol, Monclova, Coahuila, Mexico, and died Aft. 19 Jul 1745 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas1.

i. CACIANA2 DE OCON-Y-TRILLO, b. San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas.
Notes for CACIANA DE OCON-Y-TRILLO: She is listed on her sister's, Juana last will and testament.
Source:Wills and Inventories of Bexar County, Texas - San Antonio Genealogical and Historical Society
ii. PETRA DE OCON-Y-TRILLO, b. San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas.
Notes for PETRA DE OCON-Y-TRILLO: She is listed on her sister's, Juana last will and testament.
Source:Wills and Inventories of Bexar County, Texas - San Antonio Genealogical and Historical Society
iii. BERNARDO ANTONIO OCON-Y-TRILLO, b. Abt. 1729, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas.
2. iv. LUISA-MARIA-MAGDALENA DE OCON-Y-TRILLO, b. 20 Aug 1732, San Fernando, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas.

3. v. JUANA2 DE OCON-Y-TRILLO, b. 1737, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas; d. 27 Feb 1817, Presidio del Santisimo Sacramento del Valle de Santa Rosa, Coahuila, Mexico.

Generation No. 2

2. LUISA-MARIA-MAGDALENA2 DE OCON-Y-TRILLO (PEDRO-MARIANO1) was born 20 Aug 1732 in San Fernando, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas. She married JOSEPH-BARTHOLOME SEGUIN-XIMENEZ Abt. 1750 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas, son of JOSEPH-ANTONIO SEGUIN and GERONIMA XIMENEZ-FLORES-DE-ABREGO. He was born 01 Sep 1729 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico, and died 11 Jan 1791 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas.

4. i. JOSE-SANTIAGO3 SEGUIN-OCON, b. 08 Jun 1754, San Fernando, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas.

3. JUANA2 DE OCON-Y-TRILLO (PEDRO-MARIANO1) was born 1737 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas, and died 27 Feb 1817 in Presidio del Santisimo Sacramento del Valle de Santa Rosa, Coahuila, Mexico. She married JOSEPH-MACARINO ZAMBRANO-GOMEZ 05 Mar 1753 in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico, son of JOSE-BENITO ZAMBRANO and JUANA GOMEZ. He was born 06 Aug 1730 in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico, and died 1791 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas.


Generation No. 3

4. JOSE-SANTIAGO3 SEGUIN-OCON (LUISA-MARIA-MAGDALENA2 DE OCON-Y-TRILLO, PEDRO-MARIANO1) was born 08 Jun 1754 in San Fernando, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas. He married MARIA-GUADALUPE DE-LA-FUENTES-FERNANDEZ-Y-RAMOS 28 Jul 1778 in San Fernando, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas, daughter of TORIBIO DE-LA-FUENTES-FERNANDEZ and JUANA-GERTRUDIS RAMOS-DE-ARRIOLA. She was born 20 Apr 1760 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico, and died in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas.

10. iii. LIEUTENANT COLONEL JUAN-JOSE-MARIA-ERASMO-DE-JESUS SEGUIN, b. 02 Jun 1782, San Fernando, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas; d. 30 Oct 1857, Ranch Casa Blanca, Guadalupe County, Texas.

5. MARIA-JOSEFA3 ZAMBRANO-OCON (JUANA2 DE OCON-Y-TRILLO, PEDRO-MARIANO1) was born Abt. 1761 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas, and died 03 Nov 1825 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas. She married JOSE-FRANCISCO MONTES-DE-OCA 28 Nov 1775 in San Fernando, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas, son of JUAN-JOSEPH-FRANCISCO MONTES-DE-OCA and MARCELA DE-LA-PENA-CASTRO. He was born 23 Apr 1751 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas, and died 28 Oct 1824 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas.

6. PEDRO-JOSE3 ZAMBRANO (JUANA2 DE OCON-Y-TRILLO, PEDRO-MARIANO1) was born 28 Jul 1763 in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico, and died 09 Nov 1801 in Bexar County, Texas. He married MARIA-DE-LA-CONCEPCION DE-LA-SANTA. She was born in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.


7. FATHER JOSE DARIO3 ZAMBRANO (JUANA2 DE OCON-Y-TRILLO, PEDRO-MARIANO1) was born 07 Dec 1768 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas, and died 02 Mar 1826 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas. He met JUANA-ISIDORA LEAL-AROCHA, daughter of JOSE-JOAQUIN LEAL-DELGADO and ANA-MARIA-GERTRUDIS DE AROCHA. She was born 23 May 1792 in San Fernando, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas.


8. LIEUTENANT COLONEL JUAN-JOSEPH-MANUEL-VICENTE3 ZAMBRANO (JUANA2 DE OCON-Y-TRILLO, PEDRO-MARIANO1) was born 04 Apr 1772 in San Fernando de Bexar, Texas, and died 07 Nov 1824 in Mier,Tamaulipas, Mexico. He met MARIA-GUADALUPE DE-LA-GARZA. 

9. JUAN-JOSE3 ZAMBRANO-OCON (JUANA2 DE OCON-Y-TRILLO, PEDRO-MARIANO1) was born 08 Apr 1780 in San Fernando, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas, and died 07 Feb 1832 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas. He married MONICA GONZALEZ-DE-URRUTIA. 


Generation No. 4

10. LIEUTENANT COLONEL JUAN-JOSE-MARIA-ERASMO-DE-JESUS4 SEGUIN (JOSE-SANTIAGO3 SEGUIN-OCON, LUISA-MARIA-MAGDALENA2 DE OCON-Y-TRILLO, PEDRO-MARIANO1) was born 02 Jun 1782 in San Fernando, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas, and died 30 Oct 1857 in Ranch Casa Blanca, Guadalupe County, Texas. He married MARIA-JOSEFA-AGUSTINA BERCERRA-SANCHEZ Aft. 1800, daughter of MIGUEL BERCERRA and BARBARA SANCHEZ-NAVARRO. She was born 1794 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas, and died 24 Sep 1849 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas.


iii. LIEUTENANT COLONEL JUAN-NEPOMUCENO SEGUIN-BERCERRA, b. 27 Oct 1806, San Fernando, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas; d. 27 Aug 1889, Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, Mexico; 

The Continuous Presence of Italians and Spaniards in Texas as Early as 1520, Including the Participation and Consequence of Texas and Louisiana in the American Revolution by Alex Loya

The entire text of the book can be found at:

Chapter 12 


Why did the Spaniard Texians, very evidently, from the start, even before Stephen F. Austin moved into Texas with his 300 Anglo-American families, have the sense of destiny of actually becoming part of the United States? I believe there are at least a few discernible and identifiable reasons. First, part of the answer is given to us by Menchaca in the other point that he stressed, which is ignored, buried, forgotten and even frowned upon when acknowledged, that the governing board of the new First Republic of Texas was composed of descendants of the first families from the Canary Islands who settled in San Antonio in 1730. Canary Islanders, known as Isleños, had also settled in Louisiana around the same period, and much of the population of Louisiana was composed, and is composed of criollos, that is, of full-blooded Spaniards born in Louisiana. The point, stressed by Menchaca, is that there were ethnic and kinship ties between the criollos of Texas, including the descendants of Canary Islanders, and the criollos (not to be confused with creoles) of Louisiana, including the Canary Islanders. In other words, it was a matter of identity. The Spaniards born in Texas identified themselves more with the Spaniards born in Louisiana than with the Mexicans of Central and Southern Mexico.

That the original Texans identified more with the people and destiny of Louisiana than with the people of Mexico to the south is evident in that although the oldest and best university in the Americas was located in Mexico City, invariably, original Texan families of means would send their children to be educated in New Orleans. The question is, again, why? Why would they send their children to be educated in New Orleans when the University of Mexico was the very first and best university to be established in the New World? Why? The answer is found in their ethnic identity and human nature, evidently, they identified more with the people of New Orleans than with the people of Mexico and, accordingly, they sent their children to school where they felt more comfortable. Do people ever do any such thing?

But this evident sense of destiny that the original Texans had to ultimately enjoy the freedom enjoyed by citizens of the United States was founded not only in their ethnic kinship with the people of Louisiana, but also in their mutual political ties which ran very deep. Although LaSalle had claimed the Louisiana Territory for France in 1682, the fact is that the very first white men to have settled in Louisiana at the mouth of the Mississippi River were Spaniards who were the survivors of DeSoto’s expedition of 1542. After LaSalle claimed Louisiana for France, other than New Orleans, which was founded in 1718 by men who were given French wives 10 years later in 1728, French settlements in Louisiana were very sparse, Louisiana remained to a large extent an uninhabited wilderness. The most significant colonization of Louisiana came after the French ceded the land back to Spain in 1763, it was during the Spanish Period that most of the Louisiana pioneers arrived, including not only the Canary Islanders known as Isleños, but the famous Cajuns, who were Acadians from French Canada. Consequently, most of the Louisiana pioneers, like the original Tejanos, whether Canary Islanders, Spaniards, Frenchmen, Cajuns, Germans, etc. colonized Louisiana as Spanish subjects.

“Galvez was somewhat worried because there was such a mass integration so he required them to take the oath of allegience to Spain” (J. Ben Meyer Sr., Plaquemines The Empire Parish, p.15)

Because of this, a little realized fact is that, like Texas, Louisiana was a Spanish speaking territory. This fact is clearly observed in that in colonial days even the Frenchmen of Louisiana had Spanish given names, such as Antonio LeBlanc, a cattle buyer from Louisiana during the American Revolution, or Pablo LeBlanc or Antonio Dubois. That their given names were Spanish during the Spanish Colonial Period of Louisiana simply shows us that the language they communicated in was Spanish, although they certainly were French/Spanish bilingual. This, of course, was another major link between Colonial Texas and Colonial Louisiana, they spoke the same language.

Although it is commonly asserted that Spain ceded the Louisiana Territory back to France in 1800 and then Napoleon sold it to the United States in 1803, the fact of the matter is that the Treaty of San Ildefonso of 1800 in which Spain ceded the land back to France was only a draft. That draft began to be ratified March of 1801 and it was not fully ratified but until December of 1802.

People in Louisiana, however, had no idea that Spain had ceded the land back to France until March of 1803 when Laussat arrived to New Orleans as the new French Prefect. The following month, April of 1803, Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States, but nobody knew this, not even Laussat. March of 1803 to November 30, 1803 was a transitional period, and although the people of Louisiana knew by now that Spain was going to cede the land to France, Laussat was not yet in a position to deal as a French diplomat from Louisiana.

In fact, by August of 1803 the people of Louisiana began to doubt that Spain was actually going to cede the land to France since no French soldiers had arrived. When the ceremony finally came on November 30, 1803 in which Spain formally ceded Louisiana to France, as the Spanish flag was lowered and the French flag was raised at the Plaza de las Armas, now known as Jackson Square in New Orleans, the announcement was made, to the astonishment of the crowd, that Louisiana had actually been sold to the United States. Twenty days later, on December 20, 1803, the French flag was lowered and the American flag was raised. For all practical purposes, Louisiana had been a part of New Spain only 20 days before it became part of the United States, and in the eyes of the Louisianans, the Texans, and the whole world, the people of Louisiana had passed from being citizens of Spain to being citizens of the United States in one day, French rule in Louisiana at this time had been non existent.

For this reason many Americans felt the new border of the United States should be the Rio Grande, and, surprise to many, so did the original Texans like Antonio Menchaca. Those few original Texans who disagreed left Texas and moved to Mexico when this destiny was realized. Those who, like Menchaca, saw it as Texas’ ultimate destiny stayed and were made American citizens. McKeehan put it this way,

“Opinions by some vocal factions in the USA that the Louisiana Purchase extended to the Rio Grande River had not diminished since the territory became temporarily part of New Spain, France and then the USA in 1803. The objectives of the resilient Texas frontier peoples remained the same as their Anglo-American counterparts to the east-economic and political freedom with local governmental control” (Wallace L. McKeehan, Sons of Dewitt Colony, Texas, Events in Texas 1811 historical essay).

But the bond that united the people of Texas with the people of the United States went beyond the ethnic, language and political ties that the people of Texas and Louisiana shared. As the events recorded in chapter 3 of this book describe the people of Texas and the rest of Northern New Spain had been very much invested in the Americans’ struggle for independence from Britain. With money, cattle, horses, militia, soldiers and prayers and their direct participation in the defeat of the British all over the South and up the Mississippi River, the pioneers of Texas had, naturally and evidently, been bonded with the American cause and the American nation. They had come to feel that they were a part of the United States from the beginning since they, together with Louisiana, had played such an essential role in its birth.

King Juan Carlos I of Spain expressed this natural bonding and identification with the United States that the Spaniards of Northern New Spain evidently experienced when, in a speech delivered on June 3, 1976 at the inauguration of Bernardo de Galvez’ statue in Washington D.C., he related what Bernardo de Galvez himself had felt:

“…Years later Bernardo de Galvez… married a criolla from New Orleans, a city he loved as if it were his own. Galvez always felt himself to be just another American.”

That is why it is so absolutely important that this history not remain hidden! That is one reason why it is such a tragedy that thus far it has!

When in World War II the Germans sent the infamous Zimmerman Telegram to Mexico urging Mexico to join in the war against the United States, which thankfully and wisely they didn’t, the carrot before the horse offered the Mexican government was that they could recover all the land the United States had stolen from Mexico in the Mexican War. To this day, people around the world, including many Americans, think the United States bullied a weaker nation and stole all that land from Mexico. Nothing could be further from the truth! The fact of the matter is that the people who actually pioneered Texas had been emotionally, spiritually and in many other ways invested in the United States ever since their participation in the American Revolution starting in 1779. And one thing we need to remember is that this Texan investment in the birth process of the United States occurred before Mexico was ever conceived as an independent nation. For this reason, ever since the Spaniard Texians had fully participated in the American Revolution, as later Bernardo Gutierrez so eloquently put it, the Spaniard Texians had begun to feel a bond of brotherhood with the American people, and that bond only strengthened in the battle fields in the years that followed until Texas actually became part of the United States, and the Spaniard Texians saw what they felt was their destiny fulfilled.

In other words, the legitimacy of Texas as an American State, as well as the rest of the Southwest, the legitimacy of the Continental United States to exist as one nation under God, runs as deep as the ethnic and language ties that united the people of Texas and Louisiana, the political ties that existed under Spain, and the brotherhood that developed under fire starting with the participation of Texas and Lousiana, and the rest of Northern New Spain, in the American Revolution. The participation of Texas in the American Revolution with its consequent effect in the hearts of the original pioneers of Texas lends true legitimacy to the annexation of Texas by the United States. It made it a matter of destiny from the perspective of the original Texans because, like I just said, they had actually been fully invested in the birth of the United States before Mexico ever birthed its independence from Spain. And they had been fully invested in the birth of the United States while they were geographically located in the most distant and most isolated frontier of New Spain, it was only natural for them to bond with the United States.

When the pioneers of Texas participated in the American Revolution, they evidently learned and began to yearn for some freedoms hitherto unknown to them and which have gone largely ignored by historians. Through their participation in the American Revolution the Spaniard Texans had learned of the freedom to elect their representatives in government, and they had learned of the freedom to worship God according to one’s conscience and the freedom to read the Holy Writ. This truth is so neglected, that I almost missed it when doing my research! I actually read right through an absolutely essential and crucial statement because it was mentioned so “in passing” and not at all noticed by the writer himself. It was not until later, when I was thinking about what I had read, that I noticed the following statement:

“Young Carbajal (A Texas Revolution Patriot, signer of the Goliad Declaration of Independence) next appears in the Austin Papers in his own letter to Stephen F. Austin, dated Bethany, Virginia, March 8, 1830, requesting Austin’s help in selling Spanish bibles in Texas…” (Harbert Davenport, General Jose Maria Jesus Carbajal, historical essay, Sons of Dewitt Colony).

The statement was so, like I said, in passing that I read right over it. As I thought about it, however, I realized how absolutely crucial this statement is to American and Texas history and to the legitimacy of the sense of destiny the original Texans had that one day they would enjoy the freedoms Americans enjoyed!

The Mexican Constitution of 1824 established Mexico as a secular republic in which the official religion of Mexico, the only religion recognized by the secular government of Mexico, was Roman Catholicism. No other religion would be tolerated in Mexico. Of course, Roman Catholicism at that time, and until relatively recent times, forbade its adherents to read the Bible, and the Mass was held in Latin. The original Texans had, evidently, because of their participation in the American Revolution, discovered that the Bible, the Word of God, could be made available to the common people. Although they were mostly Roman Catholic, their participation in the American Revolution had birthed in them a longing to worship God freely, and a desire to read the Word of God, since Freedom of Religion was one of the basic ideals for which the Americans had fought.

This desire to worship God, read the Bible and practice religion according to ones own conscience and not according to prescribed laws, as Mexico required, is exemplified by the marriage of Maria Antonia Benavides, Ysidro Benavides’ daughter, to the Reverend W.M. Sheely, a Methodist preacher.

This, in my book, is all the legitimacy Texas needed to be free, and to be American.

When one studies works such as Robert H. Thonhoff’s “The Texas Connection to the American Revolution”, and one begins to learn just how intense business became between Texas and Louisiana during the American Revolution, a few things begin to surface that are extremely important that, like all of this history, have remained hitherto unnoticed.

As I thought and pondered about all the business activity going on between Texas and Louisiana, it became evident to me, as I read behind the lines, that during the time of the American Revolution the attention of the Spaniards of Texas was wholly occupied with the events in Louisiana and the American Revolution. When Bernardo de Galvez arrived in Louisiana just in time for the events of the American Revolution, it was not a coinicidence that he had previously had extensive experience fighting the Apaches in Chihuahua and West Texas, he was a man truly born “for such a time as this”. Galvez was not just aware of the vast herds of cattle available in Texas that could feed an army, but he was also aware of the fact that San Antonio, the seat of authority in Texas, had been established and settled by Spaniards from the Canary Islands. It is not a coincidence that even before war erupted Galvez sent De Mezieres and Francisco Garcia to Texas to ascertain and to authorize the transportation of thousands of head of cattle to feed his army in preparation for the war to come, while at the same time he encouraged the immigration of Spaniards from the Canary Islands to Louisiana and required other Europeans who lived or who came to Louisiana to take the oath of allegience to Spain.

Whether he wrote about this or not, it seems evident to me that the strategic intent in bringing Canary Islanders to Louisiana went beyond just increasing the Spanish presence there, and it included increasing the sense of kinship between these two territories of Northern New Spain. This intent would be totally consistent with Spain’s historical “system” of hispanization wherever they established a colony or conquered a people. Bernardo de Galvez’ initiative to bring Canary Islanders to Louisiana, the same group of people who founded San Antonio, was evidently intended to begin to make the people of the two areas feel as one people.
Whether Galvez intentionally did so or not, bringing Canary Islanders to Louisiana and opening commerce between Texas and Louisiana had a tremendous effect on the people who inhabited Texas, Louisiana and the Southwest.

The Spaniards of Texas and the rest of Northern New Spain had been hitherto extremely isolated from the rest of the Spanish possessions in the New World. As I mentioned before, caravans bringing supplies from Mexico would arrive in the El Paso area only every 3 to 8 years. Besides this, when the Spanish government had adopted the policy executed by Don Juan de Frias of excluding mestizos from the colonization of Northern New Spain, this decision had the effect of further alienating the people who populated Northern New Spain, including Texas, from the population of Mexico. Ever since the first Spaniards had settled in Texas in the beginning and at the end of the 16th century, they had been tremendously isolated, they had been, as it were, lonely.

When Galvez encouraged the immigration of Canary Islanders and Spaniards to Louisiana, when he encouraged the immigration of other Europeans requiring them to take the oath of allegience to Spain, making them adopted Spaniards, as many Italians, Greeks, Frenchmen and others who came to Texas as Spanish subjects, and when he opened the lines of communication and commerce between Texas and Louisiana, the people of Texas all of a sudden found that they were not alone in the furthest frontier with only tumbleweeds and sand blowing in the wind. Suddenly they had, as it were, a sweetheart! Suddenly they had people with whom they had things and background in common with whom to communicate and do commerce back and forth with. Suddenly they had a sweetheart with whom they could go frolicking by the stream, skipping rocks and chasing fireflies! And the sweetness of their bond was deepened and united them with the 13 British Colonies in their joint sruggle to be free.

Certainly, if one thing is clear by the intense commerce and correspondance between Louisiana and Texas at the time just prior and during the American Revolution, it is that the Spaniard Texians' attention was focused on Louisiana and the American Revolution, their minds, their concerns, their heart was in Louisiana and the 13 Colonies struggling to breath free and not with Mexico.

The coals of this, as it were, "romance" were still smoldering when in 1811-1813 Texas attempted to gain its own independence, hence Gutierrez’ appeal to their kinship with the Americans and to the memory of the American Revolution. For this reason also the governing board of the First Republic of Texas was composed of Spaniards, Canary Islanders, who were all adherents of the American government, hence Menchaca’s insistence that the Spaniard Texians were Americans even then.

Bernardo de Galvez had brought the colonists of Louisiana from Spain and under Spain, he had introduced a foundation of people, the Canary Islanders, who had a common origin with the founders of the seat of authority of Texas. Furthermore, Bernardo de Galvez had opened the lines of communication and commerce between Texas and Louisiana; he had encouraged the unification of Texas and Louisiana politically, linguistically and in terms of citizenship and loyalty. Bernardo de Galvez, with all of this, had a deep commitment, more than for the victory of Spain in its war with England during the American Revolution, for the success of the 13 British Colonies in their struggle to become an independent nation, and he communicated this commitment and affection, which he called "a particular affection" to the people he led both in Louisiana and Texas.

These things Galvez did, and these things are the things that caused the Spaniard Texians to identify with the United States and feel destined to be Americans. Because of this, Bernardo de Galvez is single handedly responsible for creating the circumstances which created the sentiment in the people of Texas which caused them to identify with Louisiana and the United States. He created and communicated the sentiment itself.

In summary, the original Tejanos couldn’t but feel they were part of the United States from before Mexico was ever conceived because of ethnic, language, political, religious and historical ties (including their participation in the American Revolution) to the people of Louisiana and the people of the United States, and Bernardo de Galvez was the man responsible for creating these ties. Bernardo de Galvez, then, is the unsung hero, the unrecognized original foundation layer of the Texas Revolution, and he alone is, therefore, responsible, at a raw foundation level, for the independence of Texas and the eventual inclusion of Texas and the Southwest into the United States.

In the participation of Texas and Louisiana in the American Revolution as led by Bernardo de Galvez, the American Revolution and the Texas Revolution became one extended struggle, one extended period of gestation, for the birth of the Continental United States as it was always meant to be from sea to shining sea.



East Baton Rouge Genealogical Records
Spanish Louisiana 
Book: Tlalcoyote, Historical Fiction by Ernesto Uribe
When in Chicagoland...visit Paseo Boricua
Book: "Latinos in Milwaukee" Latino Historical Society of Wisconsin 
Save the date: Dec 16: Finding Your Hispanic Roots, Newberry Library
Sent by Bill Carmena

Welcome to the East Baton Rouge Parish Clerk of Court's Office!

We in East Baton Rouge Parish have one of the more outstanding repositories of records in this part of the United States. This is due to the good fortune our records have enjoyed over many years. They were not ravaged by war, civil anarchy, massive fires and storms. Our office has moved boldly to save our older records from neglect, deterioration and even disappearance. Much can yet be done to improve the public's access to our records and this will happen as our funds allow. In the meantime, we invite you to utilize our records in your genealogical research and we hope that you experience the satisfaction that comes with success in such research.

The researcher who is visiting from another state should be aware that, in all parishes in Louisiana except Orleans, the functions of a county clerk and a court clerk are combined in one office with several departments.

The Clerk of Court's Office is the repository for many records dating back to 1782. We house unpublished but public records of ordinary citizens of the Parish since the creation of the Parish in 1810. This includes almost everyone who ever lived, died, owned property, sued or was sued in the Parish of East Baton Rouge.

The Genealogy Section receives inquiries into old records quite often. In many cases, these inquiries involve records which this Office does not have. It is the function of the Genealogy Section to recognize the type and location of the information being sought and to refer the inquiry to the proper office or agency. Referral of inquiries is often made to the Louisiana State Archives, the Office of Vital Records, the Archives of the Archdiocese of New Orleans, the Archives of the Diocese of Baton Rouge and the Clerk's Offices of many other parishes and counties outside Louisiana. This Office receives many requests for birth and death certificates. Statewide registration of births and deaths in Louisiana began in 1920. Such records which are over 50 years old are stored at the Louisiana State Archives. Those records which are less than 50 years old are available at the Office of Vital Records in New Orleans. A Satellite Office is located in the East Baton Rouge Parish Health Unit Building at 353 N. 12 th St, Baton Rouge, La 70802 or contact them at (225) 342-1930.

Our office contains recorded documents, indexed, from 1811 to the present and filed documents, indexed, from 1808 to the present. Additionally, the researcher will find the 19-volume Spanish West Florida Records , compiled and translated under the supervision of Stanley Clisby Arthur and covering the period 1782-1810. T

he Spanish West Florida Records are the records of the Commandant of the Post of Baton Rouge, the jurisdiction of which included the present-day parishes of East Baton Rouge, West Baton Rouge, East and West Feliciana, St. Helena and Livingston. Also the American State Papers (1789-1834) dealing with early land grants and land patents from the Federal Government; Marriage Licenses (1840-Present); Parish Judge's Books (1811-1846) dealing primarily with land transactions, however Parish Judges often acted as Notaries for certain acts; Sheriff's Sales (1813-1868) contain land seizures and any acts recorded by the Sheriff; Notarial Books (1812-1867) include any transaction by a Notary; Civil , Criminal, and Probate Records (1811-Present).

The following is a list of various records that are also available for research:
Conveyance Books (1846-Present) 
Mortgage Judgment Books (1811-1846) 
Mortgage Books (1846-Present) 
Donation Books (1827-1984) 
Military Discharge Records (1923-1979) 
Cattle Brand Books (1950, 1955, 1960) 
Doctor's Certificates (1882-1988) 
Register of Nurses (1935-1948) 
Railroad Conditional Sales (1954-1976) 
Bearing Trees (1872) 
Petition- Oath of Witnesses (Naturalizations) (1904-1906) 
Certificates of Engineers & Architects (1908-1958) 
Abstracts of U.S. Land Entries & Selections (1830-1895) 
Tax Assessment Rolls (1871-1977) 
Original Township Maps (1872) 
Kaiser and Swensson Map (1895) 
Magnolia Cemetery Plots Map (1915) 
Revised Plan Map Records (1811-1940) 
Plantations Along the Mississippi (1858) 

Anyone interested in Genealogy research please feel free to contact the Genealogy Section of the Clerk of Court's Office @ (225)389-7837, or send your request by mail to: East Baton Rouge Parish Clerk of Court 



Spanish Louisiana recommended sites

Sent by Bill Carmena

This is great in locating where in the Canary Islands your family came from .

A great resource on what happened in Louisiana history, and other outstanding sites.

Tlalcoyote, Historical Fiction by Ernesto Uribe

Ernesto Uribe, a Laredo native, is the author of Tlalcoyote, a novel based on true facts about the adventures of young Rogelio Ramirez, who was captured by Comanches near El Ramireño (now Old Falcon) in South Texas.   Once on the web-Site, read the customer reviews, and if you click on the book cover it will give you an excerpt and the back cover with a picture of Ernesto Uribe, the author.

Book Description
A spell-binding story of gut-level survival and adaptation to violent cultural change, Tlalcoyote is set in Texas and Louisiana in the early 1820s. This well-researched novel takes you from Spanish Colonial Texas to the terror and bravery of a captive's life in a Comanche camp, on into the earthy passions of slave voodoo rites on a Louisiana plantation, and finally to the colorful streets of 19th-century New Orleans with all the violence and exoticism of the period. Engagingly human, sensual, and humorous, the adventures of young Rogelio Ramirez--the Tlalcoyote of the title--are ones you will long remember. 

About the Author
Ernesto Uribe grew up on horseback, popping cattle out of the brush on a South Texas ranch where his family has raised beef since 1755. Educated in the public schools of Laredo, he went on to Texas A&M College on a track scholarship and holds a master's degree from that institution. Joining the United States Information Agency as a foreign-service officer in 1962, he filled posts primarily in Latin America until leaving the senior ranks of the service to write fiction full-time.”

Sent by Elsa Pena Herbeck

When in Chicagoland...visit Paseo Boricua

Most tourists are drawn to places such as the Magnificent Mile or to marvel at some of the country’s oldest skyscrapers in the downtown area. Continue south of downtown and you’ll find the hub of Chicago’s Puerto Rican community, and a neighborhood that is not to be missed by those on a cultural excursion through the second city. Paseo Boricua, a section of Division Street between Western Avenue and Mozart, is marked on either side by two giant 45-ton steel Puerto Rican flag sculptures. The flags were installed in 1995 as an homage to the area’s cultural ties. And since that time the neighborhood has begun to undergo a modern-day renaissance. It boasts some of the city’s most elaborate outdoor murals, in addition to dozens of shops, churches, offices and authentic dining spots, as well as a Puerto Rican culture center. Clemente Park, named for baseball hero Roberto Clemente, also calls Paseo Boricua home.

Although the area is largely residential, the paseo welcomes visitors, especially to its three big annual special events. Summer is a perfect time to experience the neighborhood as it hosts the Desfile del Pueblo or the Annual Puerto Rican People’s Day Parade, in June.


Book: "Latinos in Milwaukee" Latino Historical Society of Wisconsin 

MILWAUKEE, WI - - - Due to sudden clampdowns on a rising tide of immigrants escaping poverty in their homeland, Milwaukee's industrial giants are forced to look elsewhere for workers to keep their businesses running. 

No, this isn't an upcoming chapter in the current battle over immigration; this was the situation that took place throughout the country in the early 1920s, as the US government imposed strict restrictions on what were viewed as "troublesome" immigrants from Eastern Europe. It is in this climate that the first large group of Spanish-speaking immigrants-a small group of young men from Michoacan, Mexico-arrived in Milwaukee, recruited by local tanneries and foundries. 

Despite harsh conditions and an unfriendly reception, they stayed, bringing their families and adding a new element to the city's rich ethnic mix. In the decades since, the Hispanic community has grown into a cultural and economic force that now numbers nearly 100,000 people whose backgrounds span nearly every Latin American country. 

The remarkable story of Hispanic immigration and assimilation in one Midwestern city is the focus of a new book being published this summer: Latinos in Milwaukee. Part of Arcadia Publishing's renowned Images of America series, this photographic history is the result of hundreds of hours of interviews, archival research, and community contributions of photos and memorabilia, spearheaded by the recently formed Latino Historical Society of Wisconsin. 

Prepared by Dr. Joseph Rodriguez, Associate Professor of History at UW-Milwaukee, and Dr. Walter Sava, Executive Director of the Latino Historical Society of Wisconsin, this book delves into topics such as politics, education, cultural activities, commerce, and religion. 

"The timeliness of this project reflects the influences of several elements," said Prof. Rodriguez. "The explosive growth of the Latino community in metro Milwaukee area now represents nearly 13-14% of the area's population, but very little information about its origins and development has been documented. In addition, many of the primeros - the first immigrants - are leaving us. It's imperative that we capture their stories before it's too late." 

Several events are being planned to celebrate the release of this one-of-a-kind book, including special displays at Mexican Fiesta (August 25-27) and Fiesta Boricua (September 2), and an exhibit and book signing at the Latino Arts Gallery in the United Community Center on Friday, September 15. 

A great addition to any collection of Wisconsin history, Latinos in Milwaukee retails for $19.99 and is available at the United Community Center (which will donate a portion of proceeds from sales to the LHSW) at 1028 S. 9th Street in Milwaukee; call 414/384-3100 or visit to order. It is also available through Arcadia Publishing and other retail outlets including and Barnes and Noble. 

About the Latino Historical Society of Wisconsin: Remembering, collecting, and sharing the stories of the struggles, hopes, and dreams of the state's Hispanic population is the goal of the newly formed Latino Historical Society of Wisconsin. Formed in June of 2006, the LHSW is presently based in the United Community Center/Latino Arts, Inc., and plans to use their auditorium and gallery for future displays and events. Membership in the LHSW is also available for $15 per year. For more information about the LHSW, call Dr. Walter Sava at 414/384-3100.

For more information contact:414/389-4725
Ellen N. Burmeister, Media/Marketing Coordinator  
Latino Arts, Inc.
1028 South 9th Street 
Milwaukee, WI 53204

Save the date: December 16: Finding Your Hispanic Roots, The Newberry Library

[[Editor: George Ryskamp has lead and opened doors for Hispanic research for all of us. If you live in Chicago, don't miss this opportunity.]]

An accredited genealogist, probate lawyer, and historian, George Ryskamp is the leading expert on the abundant resources for researching families with Hispanic heritage. Come learn his research methods for locating and using government and church records of individuals and families, some dating back to the sixteenth-century. Historian Linda Matthew’s exhibit tour of The Aztecs and the Making of Colonial Mexico will explain the importance of genealogy to indigenous people who sought to maintain their social standing in New Spain following the conquest. Gabriel Argulo, a former Newberry staff member, is currently a graduate student at the University of Wisconsin. He will lead a hands-on workshop introducing the Library’s resources for researching Mexican and Mexican-American family history.

Where: The Newberry Library, 60 W. Walton Chicago, IL 60610
When: Saturday, 16 December, 11 a.m.
Call Jack Simpson (312) 255-3700 for more information, 
or visit our website at


César Chávez Statue in Rhode Island
Amigos de O'Malley
Sept 20-23: Hispanic Chamber of Commerce  27th National Convention

César Chávez

http://www.providen ceenespanol. com/news. php?nid=445
Roberto Taboada 
RTaboada@Providence EnEspanol. com
Providence en Español
Sent by Dorinda Moreno

La imagen de César Estrada Chávez está a punto de convertirse 
en una inmortal figura de bronce.


     Por ahora es un modelo de plastilina del cual se hará un molde, y luego una imagen final de tamaño humano, confirmó Julio Aragón, Presidente de la Asociación Mexicana de Rhode Island a su regreso de Morelia, Michoacán, México.

José Luis Padilla Retana (izquierda), y Julio Aragón (derecha), posan frente al modelo de la estatua de César Chávez.

     Aragón pasó tres días en Morelia, visitando al escultor José Luis Padilla Retana, y viendo los detalles finales de la obra en honor al activista chicano.

     A sus pies, la imagen llevará el mensaje “si se puede”.

     Bajo sus brazos, dos libros y la silueta de un racimo de uvas, en alusión a su batalla contra el uso de los pesticidas en los campos de cultivo.

     Su semblante y los libros también tienen un significado: César Chávez no sólo fue un activista, también un hombre que creyó firmemente en la importancia de la educación (en especial por que se le colocará frente a la escuela Nathanael Green, en el Parque Davis, en la ciudad de Providence).

    Con el pago de 12.500 dólares que se hiciera esta semana, el monumento tardaría de 6 a 7 semanas en completarse y llegar a Rhode Island.

     Aragón dijo que falta menos del 50 por ciento de los fondos necesarios para lograr que el monumento al activista sea una realidad.

     “Estoy muy contento de haber pasado 72 horas en Morelia y conocido más de las obras de Padilla Retana, que ha hecho un fabuloso trabajo”, dijo sobre el avance logrado hasta el momento Aragón.

Hispanics form a Amigos de O'Malley group. An International Festival was held in Baltimore. Coloquio dedicated to Hispanic cultural areas of interest. Read it all at:

The site includes links to: Famous Hispanics in the World and History    Los Toros   Flamenco   Club Andalucía   King Juan Carlos I of Spain Center   Instituto Cervantes
Sent by

September 20-23, 2006 – Philadelphia, PA. 

Largest Gathering of Hispanic Businesses in the Country 
Hispanic Chamber of Commerce  27th Annual National Convention & Business Expo, 
Information on how to register for this year's 27th Annual USHCC National Convention & Business Expo, go to and click on the Convention Page button on the upper left hand corner. 

Contracts! Last year in Milwaukee, 2000 appointments were made for over 800 small business owners. Please sign up today, for more information on business matchmaking, go to .

We hope you take advantage of this great opportunity to network and grow your business by participating in all of the activities being offered during this year's Convention. By doing so, you will be helping to make this year's Convention in Philadelphia, site of the largest and most successful Convention in the history of the USHCC. 

Saludos y Hagamos Negocios
Michael L. Barrera
President & CEO
U.S. Hispanic Chamber of Commerce




Was Venustiano Carranza Iranian?
S: Don Elías Amador Garay, Escritor Zacatecano
S: Don Francisco Goitia García, el gran pintor Zacatecano
El antiQuario Magazine

S: Comité Mexicano De Ciencias Históricas
S: Libro: Sagrada Mitra de Guadalajara Antiguo Obispado,
S: Elizondo Reunion 
Religion in Mexico
S: Libros Genealogicos en el Instituto Mora 
The Descendents of Don Juan Barbarigo Masaga
The Descendents of General Jose Santiago Vidaurri Valdez

By Ted Vincent

Venustiano Carranza Garza (1859-1920) was a top political leader in Mexico from 1913 to 1919, and was president during much of that seven year period of revolutionary turmoil. He is remembered for guiding the passage of the Constitution of 1917 that provided rights to the poor - rights the nation still strives to enforce. On the left is the young Carranza, on the right the president. The facial features of the 10 to 12 year old Venustiano imply a mix of origins that are hidden behind the flowing beard worn by the adult Carranza. 

The youthful Carranza’s photo first impressed this researcher a few years ago while I was compiling "The Legacy of Vicente Guerrero: Mexico’s First Black Indian President." Was Carranza another of such presidents? The occupation of Venustiano’s father, Jesus Carranza Neira, was mule driver. The arriero profession in Mexico was declared predominantly Afro-Mexican by Salvador Ortiz Vilades in his study "La Arriera en Mexico." Sharing this conclusion was British embassador to Mexico, Henry Ward in his 1827 observations; and the naturalist Alexander von Humboldt in his earlier travels in Mexico. The observers note that whites in Mexico considered work with the unruly mules a labor only for the underclasses, and Indigenous being prohibited by law from riding animals this opened doors for blacks. The census provides additional evidence of a possible African root for Carranza. The Monclova and Cuatro Cienagas region, where the Carranza family went back generations, was designated in the 1793 count as having a near quarter of its population with African heritage. "Blacks" and "Mulattos" came to the area to escape Spain’s race and ethnic discrimination laws, which broke down on this North frontier where settlers had to rally together against the unconquered Comanche "barbarian Indians."

Sources of an Indigenous heritage for Venustiano Carranza include those Comanches who crossed over to the settler side in his region. If not Comanche, the area had members of another Native Nation with an impact upon Mexican history as dramatic as that of the Comanches. During the near two centuries that Monclova was the furthest north "civilized" community in the state of Coahuila, the Viceroys’ sent "civilized" Tlaxcalan Natives to Monclova. (Members of this nation had fought against the Aztecs for Cortez, and were later added to other settlements on the frontier). In Carranza’s region Tlaxcalans were expected to provide an example of adaptation to European life which the Comanches might copy. Over the centuries Tlaxcalans merged with the other "settlers." Venustiano Carranza could have been Tlaxcalan, perhaps through his father the arriero. Tlaxcalans on the Monclovan frontier could work occupations for which they were banned in Central Mexico, mule driving, for instance. 

The non-Caucasian qualities of the photo of the young Carranza seemed, to this researcher, to be a touch more African than Indigenous. Out of curiosity it was decided to test the public with the photo. In the Fall of 2000 a copy was taken to the busy corner of Bancroft and Telegraph at the University of California at Berkeley. The intent was to show it to 100 passers by, who would be asked, "For a sociological experiment, could you estimate this youngster’s origins?" The survey was halted at 50. The answers were not making sense. Thirty five said Middle Easterner, in one form or another, with Iranian the most common, followed by Palestinian, Lebanese and Pakistani. Two chose Israeli. Among others, three said Mexican , two said African-American, one said "black and Jewish," another said Serbian, one picked Polynesian, and no one recognized President Venustiano Carranza.

The search into Carranza’s roots was tabled for lack of evidence and a shortage of inspiration to look further. However, news coverage of the recent Lebanese vs. Israel war reawakened interest in the president and his baffling photo. So many faces in the news, particularly those from Lebanon, reminded me of young Venustiano Carranza. Perhaps the president was Lebanese? Many thousands of Lebanese immigrated to Mexico beginning in the middle 1860s. However, such a tie for Carranza was ruled out in that he was born in 1859 to a large established family in his Monclova/Cuatro Cienagas region. The time-line suggested another possible root. The leader of the first settler party to those towns was Luis Carvajal, a figure well known in Mexican history for his tragic run-in with the Inquisition because of his Jewish heritage.. From Palestine, across North Africa to the Iberian Peninsula, Sephardic Jews were an important part of the population for centuries. The respondents at Bancroft and Telegraph may have labeled Carranza an Iranian, Palestinian, etc., on the assumption that his Middle Eastern features signaled Moslem. Then again, two did say Israeli.

In addition to Jewish leaders, the historical records of the settlement of Carranza’s region suggest that a sizable majority were of Sephardic Hebrew faith. Officially, they had stopped being Jewish. They were Spanish and Portuguese "Conversos" from Judaism, who had converted to Catholicism, typically to escape the Inquisition. 

In 1568 Luis Carvajal, whose family fled persecution in Spain for Portugal, where he was raised Converso, led a small group to found the future cities of Monclova, Monterrey and Saltillo - three sites previously explored by the Converso Alberto del Canto.. Carvajal gathered his settlers from Panuco, a coastal Spanish outpost said to be populated by Conversos and others who wanted in on the conquest of Mexico without having to adhere to the letter of Spanish law. Monclova, where Carranza had his family roots, was thus settled by "renegades who acknowledged neither God nor king." This comment from colonial archives was uncovered by researcher Robert S. Weddle in his study of Luis Carvajal’s world, which Weddle said included many from Panuco who engaged in the illegal traffic of capturing Indigenous and selling them into slavery.

In 1578 Carvajal returned to Spain to describe to King Felipe the great promise of the Northern territories. He was granted a newly created Governorship with the right to pass the position on to his posterity. Carvajal was also granted permission to bring to Mexico a hundred families that could leave without having to prove they were neither New Converts, Jewish, Moorish nor Gypsies - groups prohibited passage by Spanish law. Spain had ample members of these groups who were eager to escape the Inquisistors who had unleashed witch hunts to torture and burn alive suspected heretics. The hundred families that came to reinforce Monclova, Monterrey and Saltillo thus added to the racial/ethnic origin possibilities for President Venustiano Carranza.

The success of Governor Carvajal’s region created jealousy among powerful people in Mexico City. Charges of Jewish practices under the Governor were lodged, and Inquisition investigations documented the Sephardic presence among the settlers. Court records show at least 21 residents from the area were brought before the Inquisition over a period of 1589-1601. For the crime of practices of Judaism, four members of the Governor’s extended family were burned at the stake, and three other residents of his region suffered death in the flames for their Judaism. Luis Carvajal’s ties saved him from execution. He died in prison. Most of the rounded-up Sephardics managed to save their lives by renouncing their Judaism with sufficient sincerity to be released after a time in the torturers’ dungeon. It appears that many returned North A Carvajal was governor in the region 1735-1740, a Cueva (his mother’s last name) was governor later in that century, and Carvajal’s still live in the area.

Over the 1600s and 1700s the Monclovans were essentially descendants of the founders. Few newcomers came to a town that was at the end of the line for "civilization" The efforts at further settlements met the fate of those attempted at Cuatro Cienagas, which were overrun by Comanches until the late 1700s, when Venustiano’s ancestor helped found the present town. The Carranzas had come to Monclova circa 1740. Venustiano’s grandparents include the Neiras and Garzas, important old families in the area. A Neira was governor of Coahuila in the 1680s, and two Garzas were governors in the 1720s. Marcos Alonzo Garza may have been in one of Luis Carvajal’s hundred families of 1578. Marcos Alonzo was born in Spain "about 1561," and his son Pedro de la Garza was born near Monterrey in 1589.

Circumstantial evidence of possible Jewish roots for Carranza, Garza and Neira comes from the involvement of these three lines over the past century in occupations traditionally emphasized in Jewish culture, traditions which could be continued while the religious aspects were lost to history. The three have had impressive representation among the prominent people of Coahuila in education and intellectual pursuits, as noted in the "Diccionario Enciclopedico de Coahuila." 
In conclusion: President of Mexico Venustiano Carranza, one of the prominent figures in the nation’s 1910 social revolution, can be considered a quintessential Mexicano. A person of wide possible origins. In his case, they might include Spanish, Portuguese, Indigenous,. African, Sephardic Jewish, Moorish, and/or Gypsy.

On heritage and physical appearance: Firoozeh Dumas notes in her book, "Funny in Farsi, A Memoir of Growing Up Iranian in America," that as a youth in Newport Beach she was called a Mexican by the people who were "blond and sailed."  Firoozeh writes, "People would ask me things like, 'Could you please tell Lupe that she doesn't have to clean our house next week, since we are going on vacation."

Young Carranza photo is in his biography by Enrique Krause, "Puente Entre Siglos: Venustiano Carranza." The adult photo is from the internet. Of sources not mentioned above, important material comes from Martin A. Cohen, editor, "The Jewish Experience in Latin America," Vicente Riva Palacio, "Mexico a traves de los Siglos," the Church of the Latter Day Saints " Genealogical Index,"and the Inquisition listings in Seymour B. Liebman "A Guide to Jewish References in the Mexican Colonial Era." 

[[Editor: Ted conducted a sociological study in Berkeley, asking 50 bypassers what they considered to be the origin of the young Carranza. He said the results were quite varied and unexpected, he writes: ]]

ps. The results of the survey on the young Carranza: Perhaps some of you who work in the public, as I have in recent years giving adult school classes, have made my mistake of speaking Spanish to someone who appeared Latino, but who replied, "I am not Mexican. I am..." (Iranian, or Lebanese, or Palestinian, or Egyptian, etc.).

Ted Vincent’s "Black Indian Mexico" web page is:


Don Elías Amador Garay, 
Escritor Zacatecano

Personajes de la historia / ZACATECAS Y SUS HOMBRES ILUSTRES

Por: José León Robles De La Torre

Sent by Mercy Bautista Olvera

Don Elías Amador Garay, escritor zacatecano, autor, entre otras muchas obras del Bosquejo Histórico de Zacatecas, en dos tomos.

Don Elías Amador, que usaba sólo el segundo apellido de su padre. Nació el 16 de marzo de 1848 en la Hacienda de Pozo Hondo, perteneciente a Villa de Cos, Zacs., siendo hijo de don Juan Lozano Amador y de su esposa doña Margarita Garay Yáñez. 

Uno de sus biógrafos, el Lic. Alfonso Toro, dice que la fecha de nacimiento de don Elías, se la proporcionaron sus familiares, pero cree que dicho señor nació antes”. 

Varios historiadores zacatecanos hablan de don Elías Amador como don Salvador Vidal García, el Profr. Roberto Ramos Dávila, el Profr. Emilio Rodríguez Flores, don Rafael Carrasco Puente y el Lic. Alfonso Toro, del que tomó algunos párrafos. 
“Desde la edad de seis hasta la de once años, concurrió don Elías a estudiar las primeras letras en la Escuela Oficial del lugar de su nacimiento, pero con grandes interrupciones, debido a los trastornos políticos de la época, por lo que puede decirse que su primera educación la hizo al lado de su padre. La influencia de éste sobre las ideas políticas y religiosas de don Elías fue decisiva, y así militó siempre en las filas del liberalismo avanzado, siendo un verdadero jacobino”. 
“No tuvo más instrucción que la que tuviera de esta persona y difícil manera, y por sus lecturas; pues jamás se matriculó en ningún establecimiento de enseñanza secundaria o superior, ni pretendió obtener título profesional cual alguno, P. 97”. 
“...Después pasó a vivir a Zacatecas; y, cuando el Gobierno del Estado, por el año de 1884, decidió fundar la Biblioteca Pública, uniendo las bibliotecas del Instituto Literario de García y la que se había comprado al general González Ortega, fue el señor Amador el nombrado para organizar y dirigir el nuevo establecimiento, logrando instalarlo, y comenzando a catalogar los veinte mil volúmenes con que aproximadamente contaba dicha biblioteca”. 

“Durante su estancia en Zacatecas, que fue bien larga, desempeñó un gran número de empleos públicos, como fueron: los de administrador de las obras del mercado, director del periódico oficial, jefe de la Sección de Estadística, secretario particular del gobernador general don Jesús Aréchiga; archivero general del Estado; director del hospicio de niños de Guadalupe. Síndico segundo de la asamblea municipal de Zacatecas en 1890, regidor sexto de la misma en 1891 y en 1896, diputado suplente a la legislatura del Estado por el Partido de Pinos en 1897, y regidor de la asamblea municipal de Guadalupe en el mismo año, 1897-1998. 

“...Desde el año de 1915 en que se fundó la Academia de la Historia, perteneció a ella como socio de número, y asimismo fue miembro de la Sociedad de Historia de Kansas City; del “Instituto Bibliográfico Mexicano” y obtuvo diplomas honoríficos en las exposiciones universales de Chicago (1895) y París (1900). Falleció el 11 de junio de 1917, (lo anterior es un fragmento del capítulo respectivo de mi obra Zacatecas y sus Hombres Ilustres, Fundaciones y Genealogías, 1546-2006 que con 708 cuartillas se encuentra inédita a la fecha.

Don Francisco Goitia García
Autorretrato del gran pintor zacatecano

Por: José León Robles De La Torre
Sent by Mercy Bautista Olvera

Don Francisco Goitia García, uno de los grandes pintores zacatecanos, nació en el rancho de Patillos de la Hacienda de Bañón, Zacs. El día cuatro de octubre de 1882, hijo de don Francisco Goitia Cabral y María García (fuera de matrimonio, pues él estaba casado con doña Elena Arellano). Sus abuelos paternos fueron don Francisco Bollain y Goitia y su segunda esposa doña María Cabral Dávila. 
Yo comencé a recopilar datos sobre este gran pintor zacatecano desde 1955 y en la Revista Impacto del siete de mayo de ese año dice: “Goitia, el genio humilde de México. Temen que les robe el paisaje y no me dejan pintar, declaró, azuzan contra mi los perros y me echan del pueblo, pero ese paisaje es justamente el que yo necesito. Por eso pido garantías, quiero acabar mi cuadro. 

“Al escuchar la extraña petición, el alto funcionario tuvo un sobresalto. Miró a su interlocutor con cierta penetración en busca de un signo de desvarío. Pero la expresión de aquél hombre era, a la vez, tan humilde y señorial, su voz tan delicada y al mismo tiempo decidida, que no pudo dudar. 

“Llamó a una secretaria y al instante dictó un oficio que más o menos decía esto: El portador es uno de los más distinguidos pintores mexicanos. En la actualidad está pintando una serie de cuadros cuyo tema es el paisaje de nuestra tierra. Suplicamos a las autoridades que le den toda clase de facilidades y garantías para el desempeño de su misión”. 

Premio Nacional de Pintura. En la Revista de Revistas de fecha primero de mayo de 1959, el periodista Jaime Pericás escribió: 

“Un arado, una bola de cristal, una petaca con un escorpión dentro y un esqueleto bailarín fueron las armas que esgrimió el laureado Francisco Goitia antes de tomar los pinceles. El venerable viejo de Xochimilco”, pueblo que en 1957 le confiriera el título de “Hijo Predilecto”. 

“... En Barcelona, España estudia bajo la tutela de Francisco Galli, quien fracasa en su intento de moldearlo al “estilo europeo”. No obstante, lo anima y Goitia instala su primera exposición a base de una veintena de trabajos en tinta y acuarela, cosechando resonante éxito. Enterado el Gobierno de México, le envía una pensión que lo hará vivir desahogado dos años. 

“Goitia sufre las inclemencias del Invierno parisiense en 1909. trabaja en un cafetín. Después pinta retratos a gente de la clase media. Por las mañanas visita cuanto museo, exposición y sitios de interés se ponen a su alcance... 

“Ganador de la Primera Bienal Interamericana de Pintura y Grabado, con su notable Tata Jesucristo. Distribuyó así los 25 mil pesos que le reportó la distinción: Nueve mil pesos para cubrir parte del adeudo con el Instituto de Bellas Artes; nueve mil pesos para pagar una operación en los pulmones, a la que fue sometido hace cinco años; y los restantes siete mil pesos los entregó a su ayudante, como pago de los desvelos que le causó”. 

El 26 de mayo de 1960 falleció en Xochimilco a los 78 años de edad, dejando a México un gran legado pictórico y un museo que lleva su nombre en Zacatecas, donde se albergan varias de sus pinturas...”.



Hello, We publish a bilingual magazine on Mexican art, antiques and folk art called El antiQuario Magazine. While doing research, I came across your website. You have done a tremendous job on reporting and documenting Mexico's past. I would like to contact someone from your organization about possibly working together on future projects. I think we have similar interests. Please visit our website:

I look forward to hearing from someone in your organization.

Thank you, Susanna Kirchberg de Alvarado
Publisher/English Editor
El antiQuario Magazine-- Art, Antiques and Folk Art of Mexico

BOLETIN 303 (agosto 2006) 
Presidenta: Dra. Josefina Zoraida Vázquez.
Secretaria: Dra. Verónica Zárate Toscano.
Tesorero: Dr. Manuel Ramos

Agradeceremos el envío oportuno de toda información de las actividades a la dirección: Editora: Araceli Leal:

Su información deberá contener: nombre de la institución, nombre de la actividad, fecha, horario, dirección completa, teléfono y/o correo electrónico de la institución o sede. 


Sagrada Mitra de Guadalajara Antiguo Obispado de la Nueva Galicia Expediente de la Serie de Matrimonios. Extractos Siglos XVII - XVIII.
Autor: María de la Luz Montejano Hilton.
Especificaciones: Tamaño carta, 800 paginas, contiene índice
onomástico, peso: 2 kilos.
Borderlands Book Store, Inc.
P.O. Box 28497
San Antonio, Texas 78228


Este libro te puede ayudar:

Trata particularmente sobre el Obispado de Guadalajara, también conocido como Mitra de Guadalajara en el hoy Estado de Jalisco. Antiguamente se le conoció como el Obispado de la Nueva Galicia que comprendió en alguna época entre otros lugares los hoy Estados de
Jalisco, Nayarit, Aguascalientes, Zacatecas, Coahuila y Nuevo León en México y Texas en E.U.A. En este acervo se encuentran muy variados documentos, menciono aquí solo algunos como ejemplo: solicitudes para ingresar a las ordenes sacerdotales ya sean menores o mayores, litigios sobre la sucesión o nombramiento de capellanes y patronos de una capellanía, concursos de oposición para obtener un beneficio o curato, testamentos con legados o fundaciones de capellanías y obras pías, juicios o demandas inquisitoriales, cofradías y expedientes matrimoniales; estos últimos expedientes, objeto de este libro se
encuentran catalogados desde hace muchos años simplemente como "Matrimonios."

Los rollos microfilmados catalogados como Matrimonios son mas de 700 que abarcan los siglos XVII a XIX, este libro contiene 2975 expedientes extractados y con índice onomástico, sacados únicamente de 45 rollos de los mas de 700 ya mencionados, estos tienen las fechas mas antiguas del ramo de Matrimonios, siglos XVII y XVIII, pero aun hay rollos de microfilmación que no se trabajaron por causas ajenas a mi voluntad y es necesario en el futuro, se den a conocer, ya que también muchos de ellos a pesar de estar catalogados con fechas posteriores, en su contenido tienen documentos del siglo XVII o XVIII. Estos expedientes fueron extractados en lo esencial, respetando el estilo y lenguaje de redacción de los mismos, por lo que al lector le extrañará el lenguaje repetitivo, pero es un lenguaje y formula totalmente de época que sin embargo se puede disfrutar, como en lo particular lo disfruté al extractarlo.

El contenido de estos rollos es muy variado dentro de la serie de matrimonios, ya que algunas veces se encuentran expedientes de solicitudes para el ingreso a ordenes sacerdotales o de tipo administrativo, que no tienen que ver con el tema, pero se
microfilmaron así; los siguientes si son relacionados con el matrimonio, como los expedientes sobre demandas de reuniones matrimoniales, es decir, cuando dos cónyuges no hacen vida maritable y por denuncia de un tercero o de uno de los cónyuges llega a oídos del Obispo, curiosamente este tipo de demandas algunas veces terminaban con
la solicitud de la anulación del matrimonio o el divorcio; también se encuentran las demandas de nulidad de matrimonio; demandas de divorcio; exhortos para amonestar a los pretendientes; matrimonios secretos; revalidación de matrimonios; demandas de promesa de casamiento; siendo de mayor volumen las informaciones matrimoniales que se remitían al Obispado por razón de algún impedimento y que solo el Obispo podía dispensar o dar la licencia para que se pudiera efectuar el matrimonio, tales casos eran cuando los pretendientes tenían alguno de los impedimentos dirimentes mas comunes, como de consanguinidad, de afinidad, de crimen, de publica honestidad, de voto simple de castidad, de religión, de cognación espiritual, de cultus disparitas, es decir, cuando los pretendientes tenían diferentes religiones o simplemente las solicitudes de dispensa de banas o amonestaciones, de ultramarinos, de vaguedad, etc.

El material anterior, como se podrá apreciar, contiene grandes riquezas en información genealógica e histórica. En México, por desgracia, a diferencia de otros países, todavía no van de la mano los genealogistas y los historiadores, pocos ejemplos se pueden dar al
respecto, es por eso, que me es de especial interés proporcionar algo de este valioso material, darlo a conocer y así, poder demostrar que la genealogía y la historia deben ir de la mano, con esto pretendo tal vez de manera ambiciosa, que cese el desprecio que hay por parte de algunos investigadores hacia la genealogía, disciplina, que en definitiva, es auxiliar de la historia.

Para demostrar lo anterior, de los mencionados archivos de los Obispados se pueden sacar datos que para la historia de la fundación y población de un pueblo o ciudad son de gran interés. Como primer ejemplo doy a conocer este caso que se extrajo de un documento que esta en el archivo del Obispado de Guadalajara, el expediente en cuestión es una simple solicitud de dispensa consanguínea para contraer matrimonio; este se originó en la Parroquia de Monterrey en el hoy estado de Nuevo León, con la información matrimonial que se levantó de los pretendientes el día 21 de enero de 1653. Los interesados Diego
de Ayala y doña Margarita de Sosa y Saldívar, por tener el impedimento de consanguinidad de segundo con cuarto grado, tuvieron que justificar porque se querían casar siendo parientes y solicitar la dispensa al Obispo de la Nueva Galicia con sede en la Ciudad de Guadalajara. Muchos investigadores se preguntarán: -¿por qué este expediente puede ser importante para la historia de Monterrey?- Si lo único que se podría demostrar en el es que hubo endogamia en esa región; con esta conclusión, tienden a desechar automáticamente estas fuentes, pero con la información matrimonial de Diego de Ayala
el lector se dará cuenta que muchas veces el genealogista buscando los enlaces familiares, encontrará en algunas ocasiones datos que pueden ser de gran interés para nuestra historia. En la mencionada información Diego de Ayala declaró ser vecino de la Ciudad de Monterrey, labrador y encomendero del Reino de León, hijo legítimo del Capitán Joseph de Treviño y de Leonor de Ayala y quiere repetir matrimonio con doña Margarita de Sosa y Saldívar, hija legitima del Capitán don Vicente de Saldívar y Reza y de doña María de Sosa, vecinos de la misma ciudad; posteriormente el pretendiente Diego de Ayala según el extracto de su declaración dijo:

"Que el Capitán Joseph de Treviño, mi padre, estando en la mayor pujanza de su caudal que fue mucho, sin ser llevado de otros intereses, entro a la población y pacificación de este Reino por el año de 1603, como consta del testimonio que de su entrada y vecindad se le dio, y para su población trajo la cantidad de ganados mayores y menores, caballada, bueyes, carretas, esclavos y aperos para fundar Haciendas de Labor, y con todo ello; A Leonor de Ayala su mujer, mi madre, y a mi abuela Beatriz de Quintanilla, madre del dicho mi padre, y a sus hermanas y sobrinos y sobrinas que todos se avecindaron en esta
ciudad y reino y casaron en el. De cuyo tronco hemos venido a ser tantos que es muy difícil tomar estado sino es unos con otros."

La declaración anterior, nos da un testimonio realmente interesante de como entro la familia Treviño a poblar esta zona de nuestro país y nos marca incluso el año de su llegada en 1603; es común, que en los libros de historia sobre Monterrey se encuentren como protagonistas de ella a los miembros de esta familia. Muchos historiadores no han podido comprobar realmente de donde venían, quienes llegaron y cual fue la posible ruta que siguieron, incluso, muchos han teorizado sobre si es o no el bautizo del Capitán Joseph de Treviño el que esta asentado en el libro sacramental de bautizos de la Parroquia del Sagrario Metropolitano de la Catedral de la Ciudad de México, sin poder
asegurarlo por falta del documento que permita su afirmación. Como se podrá ver en la información anterior, desde el momento en que el pretendiente Diego de Ayala menciona a su abuela dona Beatriz de Quintanilla como madre del Capitán Joseph de Treviño, nos da la oportunidad de confirmar de manera rotunda y sin temor a equivocarnos, que el bautizo asentado en la Ciudad de México el día 22 de marzo de 1565 de Joseph, hijo de Diego de Treviño y doña Beatriz de Quintanilla, es definitivamente, el del Capitán Joseph de Treviño, uno de los primeros pobladores de la Ciudad de Monterrey, esto para sorpresa de muchos, nos indica que el Capitán Treviño no fue peninsular como algunos pensaban, sino nacido en la Ciudad de México. Mas datos históricos se pueden sacar de este expediente por las declaraciones de los testigos que comparecieron para justificar las razones que dio el pretendiente, esta vez, tomaremos lo dicho por el Capitán Pablo Sánchez quien en 1653 fecha de la información declaro tener 83 años de edad y ser también vecino de la Ciudad de Monterrey, su declaración del extracto dice:

"Que conoció al Capitán Joseph de Treviño y María de Treviño y fueron hermanos legítimos, y el dicho Cap. Joseph de Treviño casado con Leonor de Ayala, tuvieron por su hijo a Diego de Ayala, y la dicha María de Treviño, su hermana, del matrimonio que repitió con el Cap. Juan de Farias, vecinos que fueron de este reino y de las Minas del Mazapil, donde los conoció este testigo, entre otros, tuvieron por su hijo legitimo al Alférez Alonso de Farias, de donde viene a ser Diego de Ayala y el Alférez Alonso de Farias, primos hermanos, y que el dicho Alférez Alonso de Farias, casado con Doña Ana de Sosa, tuvo por su hija a Doña María de Sosa, madre de la contrayente, y viene a ser sobrina en tercer grado del dicho Diego de Ayala. Y sabe que el Cap. Don Vicente de Saldívar y Reza, fue hijo legitimo de Juan Guerra de Reza y de Doña Magdalena de Mendoza, hija legitima del General Vicente de Saldívar y de Doña Magdalena de Mendoza, vecinos que fueron de la Ciudad de Zacatecas, y que doña Ana de Sosa, casada con el Alférez Alonso de Farias, fue hija del Cap. Alonso de Sosa y de Doña Beatriz Navarro, vecinos que fueron del Nuevo México."

La información que antecede, no solo nos confirma que doña María de Treviño nacida y bautizada en la Ciudad de México el día 3 de abril de 1558, fue hermana del Capitán Joseph de Treviño, sino que también se caso dos veces y que seguramente antes de poblar la Ciudad de Monterrey junto con su hermano, era vecina de Mazapil en el hoy Estado de Zacatecas con su segundo esposo el Cap. Juan de Farias; también este documento nos muestra como se movilizaron algunas familias a diferentes regiones de nuestro país, siendo que todos los personajes mencionados anteriormente tienen mucho que ver con la historia no solo de la Ciudad de Monterrey sino también de la región de Zacatecas, Coahuila y Nuevo México.

La investigación genealógica puede, y de hecho, en algunas ocasiones modifica la historia, ya sea familiar o de alguna localidad, sobre todo al descubrir orígenes mestizos en sus personajes. Por eso, debemos recordar que con la llegada de los Conquistadores Españoles a México, también llegaron las famosas "castas," nombre con que se "etiquetó" a todas las personas nacidas de padres de diversas razas como negros y blancos, indios y negros, etc., estas castas fueron conocidas como mestizos, mulatos, coyotes, castizos, moriscos, chino y hasta la nombrada casta de español, por dar algunos ejemplos. Con la llegada de estas, también se dio la oportunidad de "limpiar el mestizaje" de las castas mas comunes que existieron en el siglo XVI, como son:

"Mestizos," nacidos de la unión de una persona de raza blanca o de casta nombrada español con otra persona de raza indígena o casta nombrada india.

"Castizos," nacidos de la unión de una persona de casta mestiza con una persona de raza blanca o de casta español.

"Español," casta nombrada indistintamente para indicar que una persona era de raza blanca o que era nacida de la unión de una persona "castiza" con una persona de "raza blanca o de casta español."

Esta ultima casta nos muestra como los hijos de esta unión retomaban la casta de "español," formula relativamente sencilla que provocó aparentemente en la descendencia la desaparición o limpieza de cualquier rastro de mestizaje. Para ilustrar lo anterior, se escogió intencionalmente el caso de la Familia Ochoa Garibay establecida en la región del actual Estado de Michoacán desde el siglo XVI, por ser considerado el Capitán Diego de Ochoa Garibay su genearca o cabeza de familia, conquistador y uno de los fundadores de la hoy Ciudad de Zamora en el mismo estado. Aunque no es tema de este trabajo el archivo del Obispado de Michoacán, se da el caso por ser el mejor ejemplo para corregir un poco la historia local y familiar de este genearca que ha sido objeto de muchas teorías erróneas que incluso han traspasado nuestras fronteras... Para finalizar, solo me resta decir que los ejemplos anteriores, son prueba contundente de que la investigación
genealógica va a la par con la historia y que el trabajo realizado aquí, seguramente ayudará tanto a genealogistas como a historiadores.

go to

Here's an interesting link about religion in Mexico:
Sent by Paul Newfield III


And this is a story about tracing one's roots in Jalisco:
Sent by John P. Schmal

The Descendents of Don Juan Barbarigo Masaga
Compiled by John D. Inclan

Generation No. 1

1. JUAN1 BARBARIGO-MASAGA was born in Venice, Italy. He married CATALINA POSCOLO. She was born in Vence, Italy.

i. ALESSIO2 ROBLES, d. 26 Dec 1703, Hacienda de Santa Efigenia, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. (1) FRANCISCA DE AVILA, Mexico City, Mexico; m. (2) MARIA DE ROBLES; b. Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico; d. 08 Aug 1695, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico; m. (3) JUANA DE RENTERIA, 03 May 1700, San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Villadama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
2. ii. CAPTAIN FRANCISCO BARBARIGO, b. Abt. 1650, Venice, Italy; d. 03 May 1705, Boca de Leones, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

Generation No. 2

2. CAPTAIN FRANCISCO2 BARBARIGO (JUAN1 BARBARIGO-MASAGA) was born Abt. 1650 in Venice, Italy, and died 03 May 1705 in Boca de Leones, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married (1) JOSEFA DE AVILA. She was born in Mexico City, F.D., Mexico?, and died in Mexico City, F.D., Mexico?. He married (2) MARIA DE ROBLES Abt. 1686, daughter of GREGORIO DE ROBLES-Y-SILVA and FRANCISCA SANCHEZ-NAVARRO. She was born in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico, and died 08 Aug 1695 in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. He married (3) JUANA PEREZ-DE-OROPEZA 12 Jun 1701 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of MANUEL PEREZ-DE-OROPEZA and MARIA-CLARA DE RENTERIA. She was born Abt. 1671.
LDS microfilm #605,179. 

i. FRAY FRAY ANTONIO3 BARBARIGO, b. 22 Jan 1671, Santa Vera Cruz, Mexico City, D. F., Mexico; d. Mexico City, D.F., Mexico.
3. ii. MIGUEL BARBARIGO, b. Abt. 1672, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.


iv. JUAN3 BARBARIGO-OROPEZA, b. 1702, Boca de Leones, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; d. Bef. 1730, Boca de Leones ?; m. ANTONIA VILLARREAL-TREVINO, 08 Jan 1723, Boca de Leones, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

Generation No. 3

3. MIGUEL3 BARBARIGO (FRANCISCO2, JUAN1 BARBARIGO-MASAGA) was born Abt. 1672 in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. He married ISABEL DE-LA-FUENTE Abt. 1698 in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. She was born in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.

iii. MARIA DE BARBARIGO, b. 07 Sep 1699, Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.
iv. MARIA-MICAELA BARBARIGO-DE-LA-FUENTE, b. 19 Oct 1702, Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.

Generation No. 4


i. JOSEPH-MIGUEL-ANTONIO5 GARCIA-BARBARIGO, b. 15 Aug 1726, Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.
ii. MARIA-DEL-CARMEN GARCIA-BARBARIGO, b. 29 Jul 1737, Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.

The Descendents of General Jose Santiago Vidaurri Valdez
Compiled by John D. Inclan

Generation No. 1

1. GENERAL JOSE-SANTIAGO2 VIDAURRI-VALDEZ (PEDRO1 VIDAURRI) was born 25 Jul 1808 in Lampazos de Naranjo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and died 08 Jul 1867 in Mexico City, D. F., Mexico. He married JUANA-MARIA VIDAURRI-BORREGO 03 Jul 1831 in San Juan Bautista, Lampazos de Naranjo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of JOSE-MARIA-MARGIL VIDAURRI-BORREGO and MARIA-JOSEFA VASQUEZ-DE-BORREGO-SANCHEZ. She was born 1804, and died 1865.
Jose Santiago VIDAURRI was born on Jul 25 1808 in Lampazos, Nuevo Leon. He died on Jul 8 1867 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Jose Santiago Vidaurri was Governor of Nuevo Leon from 1855 to 1864. He fought against the dictatorship of Santa Ana but also became a political enemy of Benito Juarez, who declared him an enemy of the state. He was captured by Porfirio Diaz in Monterrey on the morning of July 8, 1867, and executed by a firing squad on that same day. He was shot in the back, facing away from the firing squad, because he was considered a traitor. His last words were "...let my blood be the last that is spilled and let Mexico be happy". He was first buried in Mexico City; his body was later exhumed and buried in Monterrey and, finally, exhumed again and reburied in the family estate in Lampazos. Parents: Pedro VIDAURRI and Teodora VALDEZ. He was married to Juana Maria VIDAURRI in July 1831.

i. INDALECIO3 VIDAURRI-VIDAURRI, b. 01 May 1831, San Juan Bautista, Lampazos de Naranjo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
2. ii. MARIA-PRUDENCIA VIDAURRI-VIDAURRI, b. 20 Jun 1833, San Juan Bautista, Lampazos de Naranjo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

Generation No. 2

2. MARIA-PRUDENCIA3 VIDAURRI-VIDAURRI (JOSE-SANTIAGO2 VIDAURRI-VALDEZ, PEDRO1 VIDAURRI) was born 20 Jun 1833 in San Juan Bautista, Lampazos de Naranjo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. She married JOSEPH-PATRICIO MILMO 23 Apr 1857 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, son of DERMOTT MILMO and MARIA-SARA O'DOWD. He was born 29 Sep 1826 in Ireland, and died 16 Feb.

i. JOSE-PATRICIO4 MILMO-VIDAURRI, b. 12 Mar 1862, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
ii. MARIA-PRUDENCIA MILMO-VIDAURRI, b. 06 Nov 1865, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
iii. JOSE-FRANCISCO MILMO-VIDAURRI, b. 04 Nov 1867, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
iv. MARIA-PRUDENCIA MILMO-VIDAURRI, b. 13 Apr 1872, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; d. 02 Mar 1958, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. PRINCE ALBRECHT-WOJCIECH RADZWILL, 01 Jun 1896, New York City, New York; b. 23 Oct 1868, Polonechka, Minsk, Byelrussia; d. 10 Apr 1927, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
3. v. JOSE-PATRICIO-DANIEL MILMO-VIDAURRI, b. 13 Feb 1874, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
vi. MARIA-MARGARITA-LEONARDA MILMO-VIDAURRI, b. 10 Jun 1876, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

Generation No. 3

3. JOSE-PATRICIO-DANIEL4 MILMO-VIDAURRI (MARIA-PRUDENCIA3 VIDAURRI-VIDAURRI, JOSE-SANTIAGO2 VIDAURRI-VALDEZ, PEDRO1 VIDAURRI) was born 13 Feb 1874 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married LAURA HICKMAN-MORALES. She was born 1875 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas.

4. i. LAURA5 MILMO-HICKMAN, b. 1906.

Generation No. 4


i. EMILIO6 AZCARRAGA II, b. 06 Sep 1930, Mexico City, D. F., Mexico; d. 06 Apr 1997.



Don’t forget the four million American citizens living in Puerto Rico, 
Calidoscopio Cubano 


Don’t forget the four million American citizens living in Puerto Rico, 
August 4, 2006

La Prensa San Diego (since 1976) is a weekly, bilingual (English/Spanish) newspaper of general circulation in San Diego, California. Electronic version of La Prensa which is posted on the Web every Friday afternoon.

Introduction to Commentary  on Puerto Rico by Lawrence A. Hunter, Ph.D. Dr. Hunter is a Senior Fellow at the Institute for Policy Innovation and former staff director of the Congressional Joint Economic Committee.

Congress is struggling over what to do about illegal aliens coming to the United States from Mexico and Central America yet a huge problem within the Hispanic branch of our own American family is overlooked.  Four million American citizens of Hispanic origin struggle in Puerto Rico under circumstances that can only be described as totally un-American.

People born in Puerto Rico are American citizens with U.S. passports who have all the rights of citizenship, including dying for their country in the American military — all the rights that is except the right of electing voting Members of Congress or voting for the President. Few “mainlanders” recognize that the U.S. has a colony, which they can visit without a passport and whose residents may freely come to the mainland to visit, work or live permanently without presenting a passport, obtaining a visa or a green card or going through customs when they arrive.

Between 1950 and the mid 1970s, Puerto Rico was considered by many to be a showpiece of economic growth and educational advancement. Since then, however, Puerto Rico’s economy has been stagnant, its standard of living has lagged, and the educational system has virtually deteriorated.

Unemployment persists at 11 percent, and labor force participation (60%) is less than two-thirds the rate in the States, much lower than any OECD country, including Mexico (82%).  Nearly half of Puerto Rico’s residents still live below the U.S. poverty line, and the gap in income relative to the mainland continues to widen.

The Institute for Policy Innovation described this situation in a report three years ago  (“Leave No State of Territory Behind”). The Brookings Institution is publishing a book with virtually the same findings. The Brookings book and the IPI report constitute a consensus among economists.

Puerto Rico’s lack of prosperity derives from flawed tax policy and a bloated welfare state stimulated and perpetuated not only by the government of Puerto Rico itself but also by very smart tax lawyers who designed fatally flawed tax policy for the United States government, which benefited large multinational firms with territorial tax credits but barely benefited the people of Puerto Rico.

While the strategy did attract multinationals to Puerto Rico and demonstrated for the relatively few people hired how productive the Puerto Rican people can be, the strategy ultimately backfired.

It was immensely costly to the Federal Treasury — on the order of $2.67 in tax benefits received for every dollar of labor compensation paid — and not only distorted Puerto Rico’s local politics, by making the tax incentive dependent upon Puerto Rico’s continued territorial status, but it also distorted the structure of production and employment in Puerto Rico.

Large multinational companies got large tax credits, often in reward for income attributed to Puerto Rico, but actually produced by activities in the States.  Very few Puerto Rico residents got resulting jobs or small-business opportunities.

As a result, four million people born in Puerto Rico now live in the States where they can find a job and vote.

Special tax breaks also exacerbated a willful blindness in Washington of the urgent need to resolve the status debate. Is Puerto Rico to become a state, remain a territory or gain independence as a sovereign nation?
Sent by Johanna De Soto

Calidoscopio Cubano
Sent by Bill Carmena

Calidoscopio Cubano (Cuban Kaleidoscope) is the result of an innovative July 2003 workshop with 15 Cuban children from the Playa and Marianao neighborhoods of Havana. For one week, 10 American photography and art teachers introduced young people to creative art projects, including image emulsion transfers, mask making, handmade journals and photography.

The program was part of Cuba-Foto, an ongoing cultural exchange between Cuban and American photographers. The workshop was designed to involve and encourage the innate talents of children to express their culture and environment through the photography and art.

The people-to-people contact of Calidoscopio Cubano promotes a relationship that bonds artists and children. To support the workshop, Kodak contributed Kodak Tri-X black-and-white film and photographic paper. The students used reloadable 35mm point-and-shoot cameras.



S: Aroche, Huelva
St. Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556) 
Gocamino, barefoot pilgrims
S:  El Museo y Parque Arqueológico Cueva Pintada 


 Es Aroche un pueblo actualmente de la provincia de Huelva, aunque en la época del encuentro con América pertenecía al Arzobispado de Sevilla. Está situado al norte de la provincia y su distancia hacía la capital y por lo tanto al mar es de unos 70/80 kilómetros. Por lo general sus habitantes estaban y están dedicados a la agricultura y a la ganadería.

De los hombres y mujeres de Aroche que fueron en los primeros momentos al Nuevo Mundo, tenemos los siguientes datos

Martín  de la Vera , hijo de Juan Bázquez y Barbola Bázquez, vecino de Aroche, que fue a la Florida el 18 de febrero de 1538.

El 27 de febrero de 1538, marchó también  a la Florida , Hernán Vázquez, hijo de Antonia Martín y Pedro Domínguez.

Mas de veinte años después, el 26 de diciembre de 1559, fue a Nueva España, Catalina Gómez, soltera, vecina de Aroche, hija de Luís Gómez y Elvira Domínguez. La misma fue autorizada a marchar de nuevo el 30 de marzo de 1565.

En abril de 1565, Pedro Martín, natural y vecino de Aroche, soltero, hijo de Juan Martín Caballero y Ana Díaz, quien emprendió viaje a Puerto Rico, como criado del Licenciado Catano.

Otro que también hizo el viaje acompañando como criado, a los Agustinos, Fray Jerónimo de Escobar y Fray Jerónimo de Ávila, fue Diego Maestre, soltero, natural de Aroche, hijo de Diego Maestre y de Leonor Esteban y que el 24 de septiembre de 1577 fue a Popayán.

También fueron familias completas, como la formada por Alonso Márquez Maestre, natural de Aroche, hijo de Juan Maestre y Beatriz Gómez, que iba acompañado de su mujer Elvira Gómez, hija de Bartolomé Martín y Catalina Díaz, y su hijo menor Juan, que el 2 de junio de 1578 fueron a Nueva España.

Hay dos hermanos, Andrés Díaz, y Pedro Carrera, naturales de Aroche, solteros e hijos de Juan Carrera y de María Gandulla, que fueron a Nueva España el 9 de junio de 1578.

El 11 de julio de 1578, partieron para Nueva España, Juan López, soltero, hijo de Sebastián Alonso y Maria Domínguez, y Hernán Miguel, también soltero y natural de Aroche, hijo de Juan Hernández y Leonor Pérez.

                                                            Ängel Custodio Rebollo.

St. Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556) 
Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam by Friar Jack Wintz, O.F.M.

From Valiant warrior to saint 
Ignatius’s spiritual search begins 
Ignatius turns to higher studies 
The society is approved; Ignatius is first superior 
The legacy of St. Ignatius 

Just a few days from now—on July 31—the universal Church and the worldwide Jesuit community will celebrate the 450th anniversary of the death of St. Ignatius of Loyola, the founder of the Society of Jesus, popularly known as the Jesuits. I’m happy to add my Franciscan voice to the praises being sung this year in honor of one of the great saints of Church history.

Earlier this year (May 19-22, 2006), 40 pilgrims and I traveled through Spain. During those four days, we visited the shrines of four great Spanish saints in this order: St. Teresa of Avila, St. John of the Cross, St. Ignatius of Loyola and St. Francis Xavier. We at St. Anthony Messenger are planning to run a story on this pilgrimage for our December 2006 issue. Its working title is “Four Great Spanish Saints.” In the next few months, I also plan to use these columns to reflect, one by one, on each of these saints and on what we might learn from their places of birth, shrines and legacies. Because the 450th anniversary of the death of St. Ignatius is almost upon us, we will start with him.

From valiant warrior to saint: Born of noble parents in 1491 at the family Castle of Loyola in the Basque region of northern Spain, Ignatius was the youngest of 13 children. The young Ignatius had dreams of being a valiant soldier in the service of the Duke of Nagara. During the battle of Pamplona in 1521, however, his leg was shattered by a cannonball.

This stained glass on display in the Loyola Castle depicts Ignatius after being struck by a cannonball. (Photo by Jack Wintz, O.F.M.) 
After the battle, he was brought back to the ancestral castle for what would be a long recovery. Confined to his sickbed, he asked for books to read. All they could offer him were religious works instead of tales of romance. Disappointed at first, he soon found himself becoming profoundly inspired by a life of Christ, as well as by the lives of the saints. He found the biographies of saints like Francis of Assisi and Dominic, for example, very compelling. Their inspiring lives moved Ignatius so deeply that he decided that he, too, wanted to do great things for God.

In touring the Castle of Loyola on May 21, our pilgrimage group saw the room where Ignatius was born and the chamber where he recovered from his injuries as well as many other parts of his spacious home. The entire castle today is enclosed in an immense building that includes the 17th century Basilica of St. Ignatius which draws thousand of visitors each month. The whole structure is referred to as the Sanctuary of Loyola.

Visitors to the Loyola Castle in Spain can view this painting of the castle hanging on one of its walls. (Photo by Jack Wintz, O.F.M.) 
Ignatius’s spiritual search begins 

After recovering sufficiently from his injuries, Ignatius set his heart on making a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. But he decided to make some shorter spiritual journeys first. One was to the famous Shrine of Our Lady at Montserrat, near Barcelona. He then spent several months in personal prayer (1522-23), living the life of a poor pilgrim at a small nearby town called Manresa. He experienced the deepening of his spiritual life and began writing what was the basis of his famous Spiritual Exercises, which would eventually be published in 1548. The Exercises were written as practical guides (tools for spiritual discernment) to help both himself and, in time, other spiritual seekers discern how the Holy Spirit was leading them to fuller life in God.

He visited Rome in 1523 and received the pope’s permission to make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. September 4-23 of 1523, he was deeply moved in visiting the many places made holy by Jesus' living presence. Yet because of dangers from the Turks, he had to cut his stay short, which disappointed him deeply. He also came to realize on his return to Italy that, if he wanted to make his own special contribution to the Church of his day, he would need to work on his own formal education. This would be especially true if he were ever to consider becoming a priest.

Ignatius turns to higher studies: With determination, and indeed a bit of humility, Ignatius, who was now over 30 years of age, found himself sitting in Latin class beside small boys learning their lessons. His academic journey would soon take him to the university towns of Alcala and Salamanca in Spain and ultimately to Paris. In Paris he would continue working on his Spiritual Exercises. This not only helped him discern God’s ongoing plans for himself, but also served as a good tool to lead a new roommate, Francisco Javier—and ultimately many others—to a greater spiritual understanding of their own Christian calls. The world would later come to know his roommate as St. Francis Xavier, a great Jesuit saint and missionary to the Far East.

In time, Ignatius gathered Francis and five other fellow students around him at Paris, and they decided to form the Company of Jesus. They made their vows on August 15, 1534, on the feast of the Assumption of Our Lady in Paris in the crypt of the Chapel of St. Denis. The formal title, Society of Jesus, was not adopted till 1537, when Ignatius and seven of this band were ordained to the priesthood in Venice. The group had originally vowed to make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem to work for the conversion of the Muslims but, again, because of the threat of war from the Turks, they ended up going instead to Rome and offering their services to the Holy Father.

The Society is approved; Ignatius is first superior: Pope Paul III approved the Society in 1540, and the group professed their final vows in 1541. Ignatius was elected superior general. He began the difficult task of writing the constitutions for his order and of deciding what work should be assigned to the growing number of men desiring to enter the Society of Jesus. Jesuits would soon be sent out to missionary locations and to serve in Jesuit schools. Soon Jesuit Colleges and seminaries were being established all over Europe.

Ignatius was to spend the rest of his remaining years in Rome performing the administrative tasks of the first superior of the Jesuits. By the time he died in Rome on July 31, 1556, the Jesuits had come a long way in fulfilling goals Ignatius had set for his order, namely, the reform of the Church, good Christian education and widespread missionary activity. Ignatius had indeed accomplished great things ad majorem Dei gloriam, that is, “for the greater glory of God.”

Ignatius was canonized in 1622 and was proclaimed patron of retreats and spiritual exercises by Pope Pius XI. Visitors from around the world continue to venerate his remains enshrined in the popular Jesuit church in Rome known as the Gesu.

The legacy of St. Ignatius: As we have seen, Ignatius was a warrior who was wounded in battle and went on to become a saint. In what ways has this saint left his mark on the world? Certainly we can refer to many great institutions of learning established by the Jesuit Order. We can also point to his <I class=bodytext>Spiritual Exercises or 30-day retreats. These four-week programs are still a popular and highly valued method of spiritual discernment in many retreat centers around the world.

Finally, I can say that my own life has been influenced by the familiar motto of St. Ignatius and that of the Jesuits: “for the greater glory of God.” In the 1940’s, I was taught in a Catholic grade school in the little town of Batesville, Indiana. The sisters who taught at the school, who happened to be Franciscans, had their students recite at frequent intervals throughout the day: “All for the honor and glory of God.” Those words are still imprinted on my memory—a legacy, no doubt, of Ignatius of Loyola!

Send your feedback to
Sent by Bill Carmena

Gocamino, barefoot pilgrims

[[Editor: Very interesting site with many photos of the trail and comments.]]
Sent by Paul Newfield III

Dear friends, I wish to ask, do you have some information about 
barefoot pilgrims? From the green islands of Patagonia. Machi

Hi Machi,

I've have heard of, and seen, barefoot Camino pilgrims, but I do not know much about them. During the Holy Week processions in Seville, those marching are segregated into "Nazarenes", who march, with their coned hoods straight up, before the"Pasos" (floats carrying the life-size images) carrying large candles and the accoutrements of those who lead processions and keep every marcher where s/he should be; after the "Pasos come the "Penitents", with their cone-hoods fallen, and carrying from one to several wooden crosses on their shoulders. With one or two exceptions, the Penitents march barefooted, despite the fact that the processions traverse several miles, take many hours, and the Penitents inevitably have to walk over the hot wax dripped from the large and heavy candles of the hundreds, or thousands (as in the case of the Macarena or Triana processions), of Nazarenes who go before them.

In the Romeria ("pilgrimage") of the Rocio, which is undertaken by thousands and thousands of "romeros" from all parts of Andalucia to the "Hermita" of the Virgen del Rocio (Virgin of the Dew), by necessity many romeros go barefoot at least part of the way, since one crosses small rivers, marshes, etc., over and over and wearing something on one's feet would be counter-productive. The "Hermita" itself is besides a lovely marsh where beautiful white horses can be wading and frolicking in the water.

I've often urged my friends who visit Sevilla to take the half-day trip to the Hermita. Except during the days of the Romeria, it is beautifully peaceful, quiet and unimaginably lovely. (There's a whole story about the image of the Virgen del Rocio which I can post later, if you wish).  Outside the pilgrimage to Santiago the Romeria to Rocio is the grandest pilgrimage in Spain. (Have you ever wondered why so many women in Spain are called Rocio, when not called Pilar?)  Well,... This is all I know of barefoot pilgrims.
Rosina (from New York City) 

El Museo y Parque Arqueológico Cueva Pintada


Inauguración : 26 de julio de 2006


El Museo y Parque Arqueológico Cueva Pintada constituye una audaz propuesta museística en torno a uno de los yacimientos arqueológicos más representativos de la isla de Gran Canaria. En ella, conservación, investigación y difusión se aúnan para ofrecer a la sociedad un espacio en el que la presentación del pasado prehispánico procure el disfrute emocional e intelectual de todos los visitantes.

Descubierta hace más de un siglo, la Cueva Pintada constituye el ejemplo más genuino de las representaciones artísticas de la cultura aborigen de Gran Canaria. Se trata de  una cueva artificial excavada en la toba volcánica y cuyas paredes aparecen decoradas con frisos de motivos geométricos. No menos espectacular es el poblado que se ha descubierto a su alrededor tras más de veinte años de excavaciones arqueológicas, y en el se puede contemplar los restos de casas en cuyo interior se conservan los ajuares que dan testimonio de las actividades que se desarrollaban en ellas.

El carácter insular e irrepetible de la cultura prehispánica queda perfectamente reflejado en este yacimiento que ha permitido recuperan las formas de vida prehispánica. Pero al mismo tiempo, este enclave ocupa un papel esencial a la hora de adentrarse en esa etapa final que se abre a partir del siglo XIV, momento en el que llegan las primeras expediciones europeas a la isla y que culminan con la conquista e incorporación de ésta a la Corona de Castilla.

En el centro destaca, sin lugar a dudas, la novedosa propuesta que se ha realizado en cuanto a la presentación de los contenidos, apoyada en una exhaustiva investigación y en la que ha participado un vasto equipo de especialistas de muy diversas disciplinas. Variados recursos expositivos buscan conmover e interesar al visitante tras hacerle vivir una experiencia que será difícil de olvidar.

Próxima ya su apertura al público, el Museo y Parque Arqueológico Cueva Pintada abandona con paso firme la dilatada etapa de proyecto para acercarse, al fin, a la realidad que siempre aspiró a ser: un museo de sitio entendido como zona arqueológica musealizada. De forma paralela, un amplio programa de investigación, así como de acciones didácticas y de difusión otorgarán a la nueva institución un papel predominante en el panorama científico y cultural de la isla.

Will anyone be going to Gran Canaria this year? My friend Alfonso Falcon wants you to meet an Irish journalist . Contact  him at He is with the Gran Canaria Government Tourist Bureau . Thanks . Bill Carmena


S: Juan Bermudez
S:  Publicaciones Genealógicas en Nicaragua


Creo que hace algún tiempo escribí algo sobre Juan Bermúdez, el palermo que ha pasado a la historia, porque cuando se apartó de la ruta que debía seguir, descubrió un nuevo archipiélago y lo denominó como Islas Bermudas.

Aunque en algunas relaciones de tripulantes del primer viaje lo incluyen, según parece no fue en ese primer viaje, pero si realizó muchos a partir de 1495, que fue en la expedición de Juan Aguado. En 1498, fue en la de Pedro Fernández Coronel; en 1503, estuvo llevando víveres a La Española en la carabela Trinidad y en 1505 y 1507, fue con el mismo cometido en las carabelas La Garza y Santa Maria de Regla.

En todos estos viajes tuvo el cargo de maestre, pero ya en 1512 recibió el encargo de comprar dos carabelas en Portugal y fue con ellas a las Indias como piloto.

El 14 de octubre de 1513 lo encontramos llevando mercaderías a Puerto Rico, como maestre de la Santa Maria de la Antigua.

Es curioso con la facilidad que Juan Bermúdez iba y venía al Nuevo Mundo, se montaba en  su barco, como el que tomaba un autobús, con los problemas que traían estos viajes, porque aparte de las calamidades que pasaban la falta de higiene y las comidas, producían muchas enfermedades, algunas de difícil curación.

Después del recorrido que hizo en 1519 en la carabela Santa Maria de la Rabida , no he podido localizar su destino final, porque el problema es que han existido varios Juan Bermúdez haciendo la carrera de Indias y a veces hay confusión entre ellos.

                                          Angel Custodio Rebollo.

                             Publicado en Odiel Información, de Huelva en Agosto 2006

Publicaciones genealógicas en Nicaragua

Por José Mejía Lacayo

Varias personas me han pedido información sobre libros publicados de genealogías de familias nicaragüenses. En algunos casos muy especiales he hecho el favor de comprar algún ejemplar en mis viajes a Managua por encargo de un amigo, pero es un favor que no puedo hacer extensivo a todos los lectores.

Para llenar esta necesidad, me he puesto en contacto con varios autores para solicitarles información sobre dónde y cómo se pueden comprar sus libros. Con esa información, más algunos comentarios que he preparado para ayudar a visualizar el contenido de cada libro, escribo este mensaje que espero les sea de utilidad.

Antes que nada recomiendo que compren la Revista de la Academia de Geografía e Historia de Nicaragua, Tomo LXII, mayo de 2006 donde FRANCISCO SÁENZ publica un ensayo bibliográfico titulado “Libros de Familias e Investigaciones Genealógicas en Nicaragua.” Francisco da una breve revisión bibliográfica de las fuentes de 32 apellidos nicaragüenses que les será muy útil para saber qué comprar y dónde buscar los apellidos que les interesan. Los apellidos analizados en su contenido y descritos son: Abaunza, Alonso, Arellano Argüello, Avilés, Barrios, Benard, Bolaños, Cardenal, Chamorro, Cuadra, Darío, de la Cerda, de la Rocha, Estrada, Galarza, Guzmán, Lacayo, Mántica, Matuz, Mejía, Montiel, Morazán, Pallais, Rodríguez, Romero, Sacasa, Solís, Tijerino, Urtecho, Vilchez y Cabrera, y Zavala.
Entre las fuentes citadas están la Revista Conservadora del Pensamiento Centroamericano (RCPC) que se publicó hasta los años 1970s y hoy sólo es posible conseguir en las bibliotecas. Varias bibliotecas en los Estados Unidos tienen, al menos en parte, esta colección. Algunos números están a la venta en Willis Monie Books en New York. Ustedes puede visitar y hacer una búsqueda (Search en inglés) del título (Title) Revista Conservadora. Tienen 16 números disponibles; con suerte, ustedes encuentran el número que buscan.

La Biblioteca del Banco Central “Dr. Roberto Íncer Barquero” tiene la colección completa de la RCPC. Pueden visitar la página Web de la biblioteca en la dirección
También se puede visita la Biblioteca del Instituto de Historia de Nicaragua y Centroamérica donde hay una colección completa de la RCPC. Pueden visitar el sitio Web en Pueden enviar correos a la biblioteca a <> El IHNCA está localizado dentro del campus de la Universidad Centroamericana en Managua.

El Boletín Nicaragüense de Bibliografía y Documentación (BNBD) se puede conseguir y algunos números todavía están a la venta en la biblioteca del Banco Central, situada en el Km. 7 carretera Sur. Managua, Teléfono: (505) 265-0500 Ext. 408 ó 447, Fax: (505) 2650123, correo electrónico <>

La Revista de la Academia de Geografía e Historia de Nicaragua se puede comprar en las librerías Rigoberto López Pérez e Hispamer en Managua. La Librería Rigoberto López Pérez está en el Centro Comercial Managua, Managua, Nicaragua, teléfono: (505) 277-2240 correo electrónico <>. Pueden contactar Hispamer por correo Web visitando La dirección postal es Aparatado Postal: A-221 -- Managua, Nicaragua, y el correo electrónico <>.

NORMAN CALDERA publicó “La descendencia del General Don José Antonio Lacayo de Briones y Palacios en Nicaragua y el mundo” que fue pionero en Nicaragua por ser la primera publicación independiente de su tipo y se ha convertido en un libro clásico por las grandes ramificaciones de la familia Lacayo en Nicaragua.

El libro comienza clarificando quién fue el primer Lacayo que llegó a Nicaragua, porque hubo cinco José Antonio Lacayo y la gente se confunde. Siguen los Agradecimientos y la Metodología más una Introducción para los lectores que sólo hablan inglés. La primera sección del libro comienza con la Historia de la Familia Lacayo en España y en América. La segunda sección contiene el listado de unas 10,000 personas que pertenecen a la familia Lacayo. La tercera y última sección son las Notas Finales.

Norman tiene además en preparación las genealogías de las familias Argüello, Arellano, Arana, Alonso, Alaniz, Amador, Aguilar, Adam, Abaunza, Ahlers, Benard, Bolaños, Belli, Barrios, Barreto, Bermúdez (de la Cerda), de la Cerda, Caldera, Cardenal, Cuadra, César, Callejas, Chamorro, Castellón, Cárdenas, Castillo, Cervantes, Cortés, Choissel-Praslin, Deshon, Debayle, Dubón, Gasteazoro, Gurdián, Geyer, Herdocia, Hüper, Hurtado, Icaza, Jerez, Kühl, Lacayo, Lugo, Mayorga, Martínez (Téfel), Marenco, Mantica, Machado, Moncada, Marín (León), Montealegre, Mansell, Montalván, Mierisch, Muñoz, Morales (Granada), Morales (Masaya), Ortiz, Orozco (León), Oyanguren, Pasos, Pallais, Pellas, Portocarrero, Peñalba, Robelo, Rivas (Managua), Solórzano, Saborío, Saravia, Salazar, Sacasa, Sarria, Sálomon, Tefel, Terán, Tellería, Urcuyo, Urtecho, Vivas (Nandaime), Vivas (Masaya), Vigil, Venerio, Ximenez, Zelaya, Zavala, Zeledón, y en proceso de completar: Guerra, Irías, Navas, Blandón, Monterrey, Montiel, Sandino, Vega y Vargas.
El libro de Norman se puede comprar en Estudio Caldera, del Aguerri 1 al lago 1 y 1/2 abajo, Managua; Tel.: (505) 222-7424.  Para comprar el libro pueden escribir a  <> 

ESTEBAN DUQUE ESTRADA publicó "Nicaragua, Historia y Familias, 1821-1853" que está agotado, pero su autor está preparando una segunda edición que saldrá a finales de 2006. Su segundo libro, "Cubanos en Centroamérica” (Siglo XIX) si está disponible en las librerías. "Cubanos en Centroamérica” cubre las biografías de sesenta y dos cubanos que se radicaron temporal o permanentemente en los países centroamericanos - Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica y Panamá – en el siglo XIX motivados principalmente por las guerras y conflictos políticos que existían en Cuba relacionados con la gesta por la independencia de la isla. El énfasis del trabajo es el impacto que los inmigrantes y sus descendientes causaron en las sociedades de los países que los acogieron y lo que lograron en los diferentes campos en que les tocó actuar: económico, político, social, profesional, cultural, deportivo, etc. También se destaca la ejecutoria de los que escogieron regresar a su país de origen. El libro cubre a los que echaron raíces y sus descendientes, a los que regresaron a Cuba y hasta a los que llegaron a apoyar al filibustero William Walter en su fallido intento de apoderarse de Nicaragua y del resto de Centroamérica.

“Cubanos en Centroamérica” se puede conseguir en la Librería Universal en Miami (Ediciones Universal, 3090 SW 8 Street, Miami, FL 33135. USA -; <;> en las librerías EXEDARA y El Hombre de la Mancha, y en la galería Weil-Art en Panamá; y en las librerías HISPAMER y "Rigoberto López Pérez" en Managua. También lo pueden pedir directamente a <>
La Librería Rigoberto López Pérez está en el Centro Comercial Managua, Managua, Nicaragua, teléfono: (505) 277-2240 correo electrónico <>

FRANCISCO ERNESTO MARTÍNEZ MORALES de Masaya trabajó por más de cuatro años consecutivos para escribir la “Genealogía de mis padres” obra monumental que realizó entrevistando a 412 personas, investigando en 19 centros de documentación y visitando 15 ciudades y pueblos de la región de Masaya, Granada y Carazo.

La obra está dividida en 24 capítulos que se pueden obtener como fascículos separados que a veces agrupan varios capítulos. Las familias están agrupadas en dos partes La descendencia de doña Elvia Urania Morales Ortega que incluyen las familias Cortés de León y Masaya; Ortega y Robleto, y Morales, de Masaya; Arancibia y Membreño de Nindirí, Tapia de Nindirí; Cabezas de Masaya y Rivas en Nicaragua y Costa Rica; descendencia de don Diego de Irigoyen; Briceño de Masaya y Carazo; Ortega, Alfaro y Urroz de Masaya, Gutiérrez de Masaya y Nindirí; Flores y Solórzano de Masaya.
La segunda parte es la descendencia de Francisco José Martínez Ramírez que incluye las familias Vega, Vivas, Martínez, Miranda y Amador de Masaya; Blandino, Dávila y Taleno de Masaya; Ramírez de Masaya y Masatepe; Vivas y Vega de Masaya; Palacios de Masaya y del Valle de la Laguna; Ramírez y Cuestas de Masaya; Vivadea y Palacios de Masaya; Taleno de Masaya; Martínez de Masaya y Nindirí. Hay una tercera parte iconográfica que incluye retratos de antepasados y parientes del autor. Cada fascículo incluye un anexo de 26 páginas que describe en detalle las fuentes de información que utilizó el autor.

El libro de Francisco Martínez o los fascículos separados se pueden comprar en su casa de habitación en Masaya situada en la Avenida Los Leones, de Iglesia San Jerónimo 2 1/2 c. al norte que es la residencia de sus padres. Su teléfono es el (505) 522-4980 donde pueden llamarlo temprano en las mañanas o en la noche porque en la casa todos trabajan fuera.
El libro de Francisco es impreso según la demanda, es decir, no mantiene muchos ejemplares en existencia, y puede tardar unas dos semanas o más en imprimirlo. Deben consultarle antes para comprobar si tiene las familias que buscan. La dirección electrónica de Francisco es <>


Nuestra Famila Unida seeks Latin American History researchers
Who was the first president of the United States
The Henry Patrick & the San Antonio Urrutia Family connection
Mexican American Records at the Allen County Library

The podcast project needs your help. Please contact those around you that are knowledgeable about Latin American History and ask if they would be willing to create an Audio file for the project. Here is my contact info:  The planning committee for the project is located here:

This month we have added many new Audio Contributions. In the "Mujer" section Dr. Jean Stuntz discusses her book: "
Hers, His, and Theirs: Community Property Law in Spain and Early Texas." In the "Coyote" Section you can hear "Black-Brown Relations in NC" from the State of Things NPR radio show. There is also a great podcast in the History section: "St. Patrick's Battalion of the Mexican-American War" along with several others on Bullfighting and Columbus. There are also many new entries for the "En La Historia" podcast in Spanish in the History Section. In the "Oral History" Section there is new material by Frank Sifuentes. Soon I'll be adding new links in the Archaeology Section of the podcast. information about the podcast:

Who was the first president of the United States

There were two Presidents of Congress before the Articles of Confederation was signed but the signing of the Articles actually named and established the United States of America and established a President. (They left out John Hancock who succeeded Thomas Mifflin) 

One might reason that this is not well known because it shows that our founding fathers had a "States Rights" government in mind which was overthrown by Lincoln and his so called "Civil War".
Sent by Bill Carmena

The Henry Patrick & the San Antonio Urrutia Family connection
"Give me liberty or Give me death" 

The Descendents of Patrick Henry
Compiled by John D. Inclan

Generation No. 1

1. PATRICK2 HENRY (JOHN1) was born 29 May 1736 in Studley, Hanover County, Virginia, and died 06 Jun 1799 in Red Hill, Charlotte County, Virginia. He married (1) SARAH SHELTON 1754. She died Feb 1776 in Scotchtown, Virgina. He married (2) DOROTHEA DANDRIDGE 25 Oct 1777, daughter of NATHANIEL-WEST DANDRIDGE and DOROTHEA SPOTSWOOD. She was born 25 Sep 1755, and died 14 Feb 1831.
Granddaughter of the former Governor of Virginia, Alexander Spotswood. She is also a 2nd cousin to Martha Dandridge Curtis Washington, wife of President George Washington.

i. MARTHA (PATSEY)3 HENRY, b. 1755, Pine Slash, Hanover County, Virginia; d. 1818; m. JOHN FONTAINE.
ii. JOHN HENRY, b. 1757; d. 1791.
iii. WILLIAM HENRY, b. 1763; d. 1798.
iv. ANNE HENRY, b. 19 Jul 1767; d. 22 May 1799.
v. ELIZABETH HENRY, b. 23 Apr 1769; d. 14 Sep 1842.
vi. EDWARD HENRY, b. 1771; d. 28 Oct 1794.

vii. DOROTHEA3 HENRY, b. 20 Oct 1778, Williamsburg, Virginia; d. 17 Jun 1854.
viii. SARAH HENRY, b. 04 Jan 1780; d. 10 Dec 1856.
ix. MARTHA HENRY, b. 03 Nov 1781; d. May 1801.
x. PATRICK HENRY II, b. 15 Aug 1783; d. 22 Sep 1804.
xi. FAYETTE HENRY, b. 09 Oct 1785, Richmond, Virginia; d. 16 Mar 1813.
xii. ALEXANDER HENRY, b. 02 Jun 1788; d. 06 Jan 1854.
2. xiii. NATHANIEL-WEST HENRY, b. 07 Apr 1790; d. 06 Sep 1851.

Generation No. 2

2. NATHANIEL-WEST3 HENRY (PATRICK2, JOHN1) was born 07 Apr 1790, and died 06 Sep 1851. He married VIRGINA WOODSON 1812. She was born 1796, and died 22 Oct 1838.

i. MARTHA-CATHERINE4 HENRY, b. Abt. 1814; d. 1900; m. CHARLES T. WARD.
iii. MARY HENRY, b. 1816; m. JAMES GARRETT.
iv. LUCY-ANN HENRY, b. 1817; d. 1888; m. JOHN CARDWELL.
3. v. WILLIAM-ROBERTSON HENRY, b. Abt. 1821, Pittsylvania County, Virginia; d. 15 Mar 1862, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas.
vi. DOROTHEA-VIRGINA HENRY, b. Abt. 1823; d. 1905.

Generation No. 3

3. WILLIAM-ROBERTSON4 HENRY (NATHANIEL-WEST3, PATRICK2, JOHN1) was born Abt. 1821 in Pittsylvania County, Virginia, and died 15 Mar 1862 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas. He married CONSOLACION URRUTIA-SANDOVAL 11 Dec 1850 in San Fernando, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas, daughter of  JUAN-FRANCISCO-ANTONIO- VITORIANO DE URRUTIA and MARIA-ANTONIA SANDOVAL. She was born 1832 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas.

William R. Henry, was a notorious filibusterer, adventurer, and Texas Ranger. He was born on or about 1821 in Pittsylvania County, Virginia. He was the grandson of the American patriot and statesman, Patrick Henry. Patrick Henry was a lawyer, patriot, and orator, was a living symbol of the American struggle for liberty and self-government. From the day in 1760 when he appeared in Williamsburg to take his attorney's examination before Robert Carter Nicholas, Edmund Pendleton, John and Peyton Randolph, and George Wythe, Patrick Henry's story is inseparable from the stream of Virginia history. 

William, while still a young man, ran away from home and lying about his age he joined the US Army. It was during a tour of duty that he found himself in Florida fighting in the "Second Seminole War" (1835-1842), usually referred to as the Seminole War proper. It was the fiercest war waged by the U.S. government against American Indians. The United States spent more than $20 million fighting the Seminoles. This war left more than 1,500 soldiers and uncounted American civilians dead. And the obvious duplicity of the U.S. government's tactics marred Indian-white relations throughout the country for future generations. In 1844, and a veteran of the Seminole War, he came to Texas. While in Texas he would serve his country during the Mexican War (1846-48), joining his old Florida regiment, the Second Dragoons. He saw action in Vera Cruz, Puebla, and Cerro Gordo, Mexico. After the war, he returned to Texas and settled in San Antonio, Texas. On December 11, 1850, he married Consolación Urrutia. Urrutia was the daughter of Don Juan Francisco Antonio Vitoriano Urrutia and Dona Maria Antonia Sandoval. This family were descendents of the earliest settlers of San Antonio, and her ancestry included that of the Canary Islanders that had settled this area. A daughter of this union, Consolación, married Antonio Mateo Bruni. Bruni's aquired property in Webb County, Texas and become one of its' largest landowners. 

In the 1850's, Henry took part in and often led some of the most controversial skirmishes along the Texas-Mexican border. As a Texas Ranger he participated in several operations, sometimes with the rank of captain. In July 1855 he attempted to organize an army of volunteers to intervene in Mexico's political affairs and help establish a government that would not threaten Texas interests. In letters to the governor of Nuevo León, Don Santiago Vidaurri, and one of the most powerful men of Northern Mexico, Henry volunteered his services to help Vidaurri, who Henry and others presumed wanted to secede from Mexico and establish a Republic of the Sierra Madre. Vidaurri declined his offer. Henry was a principal instigator of the Callahan Expedition of 1855, which led to the burning of Piedras Negras and subsequently to years of bitter exchanges between the United States and Mexico over Mexico's demand for restitution for the destruction. Between 1856 to 1858, Henry served as sheriff of San Antonio. In 1857 Henry, a staunch supporter of filibusterer William Walker, urged "all my frontier comrades to join me in Galveston" to embark for Nicaragua. As a member of Capt. William G. Tobin's Texas Ranger volunteers he found himself in the Cortina war of 1859. This conflict is named after Juan Nepomuceno Cortina. (1824-1894), the Mexican folk hero. Cortina was born on May 16, 1824, in Camargo, Tamaulipas, Mexico. He was the son of Don Trinidad Cortina and Dona Estéfana Goseascoeches (Cavazos). His aristocratic mother, descendent of the Conquistadors of Nuevo Leon, was one of the heirs of a large land grant in the lower Rio Grande valley that included the area that surrounded Brownsville, Texas. While Cortina was a young man the family had moved to their property on the northern side of the Rio Grande River. (You can find them listed on the 1857 USA census, Cameron County, Texas, #22). 

During the Mexican War Cortina had served as part of an irregular cavalry during the battles of Resaca de la Palma and Palo Alto, and was commanded by General Mariano Arista of the Tamaulipas Brigade (based at Matamoros). After the war he returned to his home on the northern bank of the river (USA), where he was twice indicted by a Cameron County grand jury for stealing cattle. Although Cortina frequently appeared in public, his political influence among the Hispanics prevented him from being arrested. He champion civil rights for the injustice and violence that was being inflicted to the Hispanic community of the lower Rio Grande valley. It was this atmospere that eventually lead to border skirmished that resulted in a great loss of lives. Records show that during this conflict, Henry provided some heroic drama to an otherwise dismal performance on the part of the Texas Rangers. The death of Juan Cortinas brought closure to this era.
"Henry was supremely confident and fearless, but his boldness often bordered on folly. William (Bigfoot) Wallace said that Henry "had rather exalted notions, and was difficult to control. He was brave, and possessed merit, but had the credit of interfering with his superior officers. He was not always in the wrong." Henry's schemes were often grandiose, reflecting that fervor so common at the time in Texas that the United States, and especially Texas, indeed had a hemispheric manifest destiny. On March 15, 1862, Henry quarreled with a man named William Adams over who was going to command the local company of Confederate troops. In a gunfight in front of the old Plaza House on the north side of Main Plaza in San Antonio, Henry was shot dead. An inquest held soon after determined that Adams, having been repeatedly provoked, had acted in self defense". -Manuel Guerra

She is a descendent of Captain Joseph de Urrutia, Commander of the Royal Presidio San Antonio de Bexar, and Dona Rosa Flores de Valdez.

5. ii. VIRGINIA MARTHA HENRY-URRUTIA, b. 01 Jul 1855; d. 1923.
6. iii. JOSEPH-WILLIAM HENRY-URRUTIA, b. 19 Jul 1857, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas.
7. iv. CONSOLACION HENRY-URRUTIA, b. 31 Dec 1858, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas; d. 23 Apr 1936, Laredo, Webb County, Texas.

Generation No. 4

4. NATHANIEL-WILLIAM-JOHN-ANTONIO5 HENRY (WILLIAM-ROBERTSON4, NATHANIEL-WEST3, PATRICK2, JOHN1) was born 29 Mar 1853. He married MICAELA CHAVEZ-ALPANDO 18 Jan 1879 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas, daughter of JOSE-NOVERTO-DOROTEO CHAVEZ-FRAGOSO and JOSEFA VILLA-ALPANDO. She was born 23 Mar 1855 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas.


5. VIRGINIA MARTHA5 HENRY-URRUTIA (WILLIAM-ROBERTSON4 HENRY, NATHANIEL-WEST3, PATRICK2, JOHN1) was born 01 Jul 1855, and died 1923. She married FELIX DODIER 24 Jan 1872 in Bexar County, Texas. He was born Abt. 1840, and died Abt. 1898.

x. SANTIAGO DODIER, b. 25 Jul 1873, Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas; d. 13 Aug 1942, Cuernavaca, Mexico; m. DAMIANA VARA; b. Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas.
xi. JOSE DODIER, b. 19 Mar 1894.

6. JOSEPH-WILLIAM5 HENRY-URRUTIA (WILLIAM-ROBERTSON4 HENRY, NATHANIEL-WEST3, PATRICK2, JOHN1) was born 19 Jul 1857 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas. He married MARIA-ANTONIA GALINDO-CHAVEZ 24 Dec 1880, daughter of MARIANO GALINDO and CANDIDA CHAVEZ-FRAGOSO. She was born 1859 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas.
She is a descendent of the Conquistador Francisco Vasquez de Coronado and Dona Beatriz de Estrada de la Caballeria, the daughter of Don Alonso de Estrada, Governor and Royal Treasurer of New Spain (Mexico) 
This same line connect to the Duran y Chavez family of New Mexico, USA.
Source:With the Makers of San Antonio by Frederick C. Chabot
Origins of New Mexico Familes by Fray Angelico Chavez, Revised edition.
The Genealogy of Don Alonso de Estrada, reputed natural born son of Ferdinand II (the Catholic), King of Aragon, and Dona Luisa de Estrada, daughter of the Spanish Ambassador to England.

ii. VIRGINA HENRY-GALINDO, m. AURELIO GONZALEZ; b. Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
iii. WILLIAM HENRY-GALINDO, m. BLANCHE DECHAVANNE; b. 03 Feb 18851; d. Sep 1979, Laredo, Webb County, Texas1.
vii. TERESA HENRY-GALINDO, m. CHARLES ALEXANDER; d. Laredo, Webb County, Texas.
Source:Webb County Family Histories Volume I, Page 32 &33.

7. CONSOLACION5 HENRY-URRUTIA (WILLIAM-ROBERTSON4 HENRY, NATHANIEL-WEST3, PATRICK2, JOHN1) was born 31 Dec 1858 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas, and died 23 Apr 1936 in Laredo, Webb County, Texas. She married ANTONIO-MATEO BRUNI 05 Mar 1879 in San Fernando, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas, son of MATEO BRUNI and DOMINICA BOGALES. He was born 19 Sep 1856 in Bozzi, Emilia-Romagna, Italy, and died 18 Aug 1931 in Laredo, Webb County, Texas.
He is listed on the 1877,1878, and 1891 City Directory - San Antonio, Texas.
Successful businessman, he purchased a large portion of the orginal Vasquez-de-Borrego land grant.
This land is still owned by his heirs. He was one of the largest land owners of Webb County, Texas.
Source:El Rancho in South Texas, Continuity and Change from 1750, by Joe S. Graham
Texas History Online.

i. FREDERICK6 BRUNI-HENRY, b. 06 Jan 1880, Laredo, Webb County, Texas; d. 1901, Laredo, Webb County, Texas.
ii. HERMINIA MARIA BRUNI-HENRY, b. Jun 1881, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas; d. 07 Jan 1882, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas.
From the mortuary report found in the San Antonio Newspaper. 
I have listed the dates as reported.
iii. MATEO-ANGEL BRUNI-HENRY, b. 16 Oct 1881, Laredo, Webb County, Texas.
iv. ANTONIO BRUNI-HENRY, b. 17 Aug 1883, Laredo, Webb County, Texas; d. 1940, Laredo, Webb County, Texas; m. MAGDALENA MARTIN; b. 20 Jan 1879; d. 25 Jul 1939, Laredo, Webb County, Texas.
He and his family are listed on the 1910 USA census, Laredo, Webb County, Texas. ED 148 Sheet #1.
v. MARIA-MICHAELA BRUNI-HENRY, b. 11 Mar 1885, Laredo, Webb County, Texas; d. 13 May 1968, Laredo, Webb County, Texas; m. THOMAS-AQUINAS-LEANDRO LEYENDECKER-BENAVIDES, 01 Nov 1906, San Agustin, Laredo, Webb County, Texas; b. 27 Feb 1875, Laredo, Webb County, Texas; d. 15 Jul 1963, Laredo, Webb County, Texas.
He is listed on the 1910 USA census, Laredo, Webb County, Texas.
vi. LUIS L. BRUNI-HENRY, b. Apr 1886, Laredo, Webb County, Texas; d. 12 Feb 1947, Laredo, Webb County, Texas; m. ANN RIESER, 23 Jun 1908, La Salle County, Texas; b. 24 Feb 1885; d. 21 Aug 1959, Laredo, Webb County, Texas.
vii. LEOPOLDO BRUNI-HENRY, b. 20 Jun 1887, Laredo, Webb County, Texas; d. 1940, Laredo, Webb County, Texas; m. CUCA RODRIGUEZ; b. 20 May 1887, Laredo, Webb County, Texas.
viii. HERMINIA BRUNI-HENRY, b. 18 Feb 1889, Laredo, Webb County, Texas; d. 18 Sep 1973, Laredo, Webb County, Texas; m. JOSEPH-CLAUDE MARTIN-GARCIA; b. 30 Oct 1889, Laredo, Webb County, Texas; d. 19 Dec 1957, Laredo, Webb County, Texas.
ix. ADELA BRUNI-HENRY, b. 15 Jun 1893, Laredo, Webb County, Texas; d. 1950, Laredo, Webb County, Texas.
x. HERLINDA BRUNI-HENRY, b. 08 Jun 1899, Laredo, Webb County, Texas; d. 26 Feb 1951, Laredo, Webb County, Texas; m. RAMIRO RAMIREZ-SAENZ, 27 Aug 1917, San Agustin Church, Laredo, Webb County, Texas; b. 04 Dec 1897, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; d. 30 Aug 1954, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

Endnotes: 1. Brøderbund Family Archive #110, Vol. 1, Ed. 4, Social Security Death Index: U.S., Social Security Death Index, Surnames from A through L, Date of Import: Nov 11, 2002, Internal Ref. #

Mexican American Records at the Allen County Library 
by Timothy Dougherty
Genealogy Gems:  News from the Fort Wayne Library, No. 29, July 31, 2006

Mira Smithwick writes: I found the information on the Mexican War very informative.

116,000 American men served in the Mexican-American War between 1846 and 1848, and its records are an often over-looked research source. If you are curious about your ancestor's place in the war, why not pay the Genealogy Department a visit?

A good starting point is the Index to Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers Who Served During the Mexican War (Microcopy #M-616). This is an alphabetical index listing the unit with which the individual served.

The Compiled Service Records that go with the index can also be found at ACPL for a few states. These are Mississippi (M-863), Pennsylvania (M-1028), Tennessee (M-638) and Texas (M-278), and for individuals who served in Mormon Organizations (M-351). Records for other states may be obtained from the National Archives. The records include rank,
unit, date and place of mustering in and out, payment information and general "remarks." "Remarks" include things such as injury, sickness, or, as in the case of one private, "absent on detached service to Pueblo since 16 Sept. 1846."

Though soldiers from all states served in the war, Vermont, Maine, Connecticut and Rhode Island did not provide Volunteer units. Alabama, Arkansas, California, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Michigan,
Mississippi, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and Virginia, as well as the District of Columbia furnished units. Texas and Illinois provided the most regiments.

Regular Army enlistments are not included with the Compiled Service Records. These will be found in Registers of Enlistments in the United States Army, 1798-1914, M-233. Listed here are soldiers in units not provided by specific states. Birthplace, occupation and additional service information are included.

The department also has the Mexican War Index to Pension Files, 1887-1926 (T-317), as well as the actual Selected Pension Application Files for Members of the Mormon Battalion, Mexican War, 1846-48 (T-1196). Any of the other pension records may be acquired from the National Archives. The pensions themselves contain fascinating genealogical information, such as family records, war-time depositions, and medical reports. Widows' pensions often include maiden names and may contain marriage certificates.

Also featured is an impressive collection on microfiche, the
Mexican-American War Unit Histories and Personal Narratives. This
includes general, personal and unit-specific histories dealing with
various aspects of the war.

Orders of General Zachary Taylor to the Army of Occupation in the
Mexican War, 1845-1847, M-29, rounds out the microform holdings. As
the title suggests, these three reels contain the general and specific
orders issued by General Taylor during the conflict.

GENEALOGY DEPARTMENT QUERIES: The Historical Genealogy Department hopes you find this newsletter interesting.  Thank you for subscribing.  We cannot, however, answer
personal research emails written to the e-zine address.  The department houses a Research Center that makes photocopies and conducts research for a fee.

If you have a general question about our collection, or are interested in the Research Center, please telephone the library and speak to a librarian who will be glad to answer your general questions or send you a research center form.  Our telephone number is 260-421-1225.  If you'd like to email a general information question about the department, please email: Genealogy@ACPL.Info.

PUBLISHING NOTE: This electronic newsletter is published by the Allen County Public Library's Historical Genealogy Department, and is intended to enlighten readers about genealogical research methods as well as inform them about the vast resources of the Allen County Public


New Software available at Family History Centers
Fan Story 
National Poetry Month: Jean Gonzales 
Preservation Hints  
Self-help for FamilySearch ComputerProducts
Eastman's Online Genealogy Newsletter Podcasts
Preservation Tip of the Month


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Fan Story 

As part of Writer's Digest's commitment to bring our e-newsletter  subscribers useful information on new products, services,  and educational programs, we want to share the following  message from one of our marketing partners. Premier Membership offers:
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National Poetry Month: Jean Gonzales 

15 May 2006 
Dear Jean,
On behalf of the International Library of Poetry and the National Poetry Month Committee, we would like to congratulate you for receiving the distinguished honor as a 2006 Poetry Ambassador. We would like to thank you for all your efforts during this past month to promote and share your love of poetry with your friends, your family, and your community.

Your name has now been submitted and you are now officially registered on the 2006 National Poetry Month Poetry Ambassador Online Directory. This directory includes the names of other poets just like you, whose dedication to the art of poetry makes them honored members of this elite assembly. * One Poetry Plaza * Owings Mills, MD 21117

Preservation Hints  

If you have some old paper files that you haven't worked with in a while, pull them out and examine them. What condition are they in? Are important records in sheet protectors? Carefully remove any staples or clips that may rust, and remove rubber bands that may 
melt. Look for signs of deterioration and evidence of pests. Are the storage conditions prolonging the files' longevity or hastening their demise? Look for information on preservation in the Learning Center by searching the Library  for the term "preservation," locate information online or in reputable publications, or seek professional advice. The steps you take now to preserve these records will increase the odds that you'll be able to 
refer to them down the road.
Full article, go to

One way to keep print from the back of the page coming through is to save the image as a JPEG and in your photo-editing software take the saturation all the way down. It should work unless the print on back is very heavy. It also helps eliminate discoloration and water stains if they're not too heavy. Don't use this method if your document is in color. Adjusting the contrast can also help in some instances.  Laura Beam

Self-help for FamilySearch ComputerProducts
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Self-help for FamilySearch computer products is available We encourage you to use this important tool in your calling and hope that you will help your members become familiar with self-help.

To access self-help, go to and click on the Product Support link on the home page. Product Support provides several ways to find answers to questions. You may ask your question by typing it, or you may browse through the information about each product. The information is presented in several ways. It is organized by Frequently Asked Questions,Topics, and Common Solutions. There are also links to information about how to contact local people who may be able to help you and instructions on how to use the built-in online support that comes with each product.

If you do not find the information you need, Product Support provides you the option to send an email to Family HistorySupport. We will be happy to answer your email. If it is more convenient, please call us. To find the toll free number for your area, click here:

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Some of the titles that sounded interesting:
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Preservation Tip of the Month
ACPL's Preservation Technician Becky Schipper offers advice on
conserving your documents: Textiles: If you are storing wool or silk, it is suggested that you line the storage box and interleaf the textiles between the folds with unbuffered  acid-free tissue. If the material is linen, cotton, or jute buffered  acid-free tissue should be used.

Source: Electronic newsletter published by the Allen County Public Library's Historical Genealogy Department, and is intended to enlighten readers about genealogical research methods as well as inform them about the vast resources of the Allen County Public 


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