Somos Primos

 November 2005 
Editor: Mimi Lozano

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research


Content Areas
United States
- 5
- 27
- 28
Galvez Patriots
- 30
Orange CO, CA
- 34
Los Angeles, CA
- 43
Northwestern US- 67
Southwestern US-
Black -81
Indigenous 95
Texas -111
East Mississippi 
East Coast
- 141
- 156
Spain- 167
- 172
- 178
Family History 
- 186
Miscellaneous- 196


This chalice was rescued by Paul Newfield after Katrina.
For more click.

"The only thing we take with us are the deeds we've left behind." 
Manuel Espinoza Esqueda-  June 6, 1922 - September 12, 2005


  Letters to the Editor : 

Dear Mimi,  an AMAZING fount of information for so many. Muchisimas gracias.

Re: The Four Latino Mayors by John P. Schmal in the June 2005 Issue, I just want to add some information for which I have been searching in my "Higuera Family" album. The following quote is from an excerpt from Ranchos Become Cities by W.W. Robinson, San Pasqual Press, Pasadena, California 1939. "The Alcalde of the pueblo (Los Angeles) in the year 1800 was Joaquin Higuera. His son, Bernardo, was to settle the land called Rancho Rincon de Los Bueyes." I do not know who copied it or when as it is in an album kept by my now deceased Mother, Matilda Higuera Yorba. 

By the way, sadly I do not speak Spanish although my grandparents spoke to me in Spanish and I answered in English. But for some purposes the Spanish seems more suitable!
Marilyn Yorba Lasker

"It is exciting to be reunited with family. Some times in genealogy we look at only names and dates and we never know the good times and hard times our family endured. The important thing is that we are still family even though we are separated by time, language and some times Religion...." Robert Louis Dessommes, December 4, 2000. 

Hi Mimi, in my book you will be remembered as a modern Hispanic-American Hero for all your endeavors on this newsletter. I am still amazed with your attention to detail and the amount of content you provide to all of us.  I am exploring my sefarad/ashkenazi roots and I am grateful for the information you provide monthly.  Thank you for being there.

Are  you planning to convert your information into book form? Libraries around the world need this reference. David Duran Denver, CO

Letter to John Inclan for information shared
Mr. Inclán, I truly admire all the work you have done, the information you provide us these last days is priceless, and I really appreciate that you took time out of your time to clarify me this issue about my ancestor Maria Rafaela GONZÁLEZ.

Luis G. Dessommes Zambrano 
Monterrey, Mexico

May we never forget.  I look forward to the day when our history and contributions are as important and worthy of studying in our history books as those whose are there today.

Minerva Zermeno


Thanks.  I wish at this time I could enjoy the Hispanic Month celebrations.  I am a Rita evacuee from Lake Charles, LA residing with family in Baton Rouge. Please pray for all of the hurricane evacuees.
However, I am still looking for Bellos, Donatos and other family members who relocated to the Vera Cruz, Mexico area during the 1800s and 1900s.
God Bless, Marie

Dear Mimi,
The calendar of events throughout the U.S., (and the world,) is amazing!  How extraordinary you are to compile these and share them.

I'll let my students know about the local activities.  Love, hugs and peace,   Joyce


Dear Mimi: What a fantastic site.  So informative and educational.  Great work.  Barry Kibrick
KLCS-TV "Between the Lines"

   Somos Primos Staff:   
Mimi Lozano, Editor
Luke Holtzman, Assistant
John P. Schmal, 
Johanna de Soto, 
Howard Shorr
Armando Montes
Michael Stevens Perez
Rita, parishioner of 
Monsignor Paul M. Martin
Linda M. Aguirre 
Judge Fredrick Aguirre
Ruben Alvarez Jr.
Dan Arellano 
Tom Ascenio
Joyce Basch
Eva  Booher
Roger Borroel
Jorge Briseno
Jaime Cader
S. Cabral 
Bill Carmena
Ricardo V. Castanon
Gus Chavez
Jorge Chino
Mary DeLuz 
Johanna De Soto
Robert Louis Dessommes
Nicanor Dominguez
David Duran

Martha Durón Jiménez
Edna Yolanda Elizondo 
Luis Elizondo
José Antonio Esquibel 
Elvina Fernandez
Charlie Fourquet Batiz
Mario García
Mickey Garcia 
George Gause
Mery Glez 
Ray Gonzalez 
Robert Gonzalez
Lila Guzman, Ph.D.
Manuel Hernandez
Sergio Hernandez
Lic Carlos Martín Herrera 
    de la Garza 
Granville Hough, Ph.D. 
Maria Ibañez
John Inclan
Barry Kibrick 
David Lewis
Kathy Lui 
Eliud Martinez, Ph.D
Ron Materna 
Armando Montes
Dorinda Moreno
Yolanda Nava
John Navarrette
Paul Newfield
Jesús Nieto
Willis Papillion
Nachito Pena
Roberto Jose Perez Guadarrama
Elvira Prieto
Joseph Puentes
Eddie Ramos Garcia 
Angel Custodio Rebollo Barroso 
Laura Rettig 
Mario Robles del Moral
Jo Russell
Viola Sadler
Debbie Salazar
Benicio Samuel Sanchez Garcia
John P Schmal 
Diane Sears
Pablo Serrano Álvarez.
Howard Shorr 
John A. Stovall 
Ella Smith
Mira Smithwick
Robert Tarin 
Leonardo de la Torre y Berúmen
Marilyn Yorba Lasker
Ernesto Uribe
Ricardo Valverde 
Halimah Van Tuyl, 
Janete Vargas
Connie Vasquez
Theodore Vincent
Douglas Westfall
Franklin K. Wilson,
Elvira Zavala-Patton
Minerva Zermeno
Josefina Zoraida Vázquez, Ph.D.
SHHAR Board:   Bea Armenta Dever, Steven Hernandez,  Mimi Lozano Holtzman, Pat Lozano, Henry Marquez, Yolanda Ochoa Hussey, Michael Perez, Crispin Rendon, Viola Rodriguez Sadler, John P. Schmal


Edward Roybal was a Pioneer
Nation Honors Rosa Parks
Behind Enemy Lines, US Latinos and Latinas and WW II
WW II Memorial Site 
November 11-13: GI National Conference Washington, D.C.
A Brief Report of Celebrating Hispanic Heritage in Asian Waters

Implications of the Mexico DNA Project
Turning Facts into Fiction
Immigrant Stories wanted by PBS
Dinero, Inc. Sharing your stories, celebrating your victories
Hispanic Women Show Higher Earnings

UT Department of Mathematics graduating most Latinos in math in nation
Immigrant Stories wanted by PBS
Creating Tomorrows: Latino Education
HACU Creates one of the Largest Study Abroad Scholarship Programs

Search of Fatherhood
     Global Dialogue on Fatherhood
     Fathers: Fired up and Proactive
     Embracing Our Role as Fathers and Reclaiming Our Children
     Why we Need Fathers: Raising Daughters
     California Shared Parenting Initiative



Edward R. Roybal
United States Representative, Democrat of California

One Hundred Second Congresses, 
January 3, 1963 - January 3, 1993

John P. Schmal

Congressman Edward Roybal was a pioneer. Ed Roybal had the unique and tenacious qualities that most of us wish we had. In some ways, it is not surprising that he was a pioneer because Mr. Roybal belonged to the "Greatest Generation." Like many other men in his age bracket, he had served in World War II and came back with new and grandiose ideas about the way things should be.

Having served his nation in its time of need, Ed Roybal decided it was time to bring about change in his adopted State of California. From the beginning of the Century until 1947, no Mexican American from California had served in the U.S. Congress. Nor had any Mexican American served as Mayor of Los Angeles or as a member of the Los Angeles City Council since the beginning of the Twentieth Century. And only one Hispanic had served in the State Assembly and State Senate (Miguel Estudillo), back during the Second Decade of the Century.

Born in Albuquerque, New Mexico, Edward R. Roybal came to Boyle Heights in 1922 with his parents, when his unemployed father sought new employment. Roybal graduated from Roosevelt High School and attended UCLA before going to World War II. After the war had ended, he returned to Los Angeles and became the Director of Health Education for the Los Angeles County Tuberculosis and Health Association.

In 1947, 30-year-old Roybal attempted to run for the office of Councilperson of the 9th Council District, which included Boyle Heights, Bunker Hill, Civic Center, Chinatown, Little Tokyo, and the Central Avenue District. At this time, Chicanos represented roughly a third of the districts’ population. Three years later, the racial makeup of the district’s 185,033 residents in the Federal Census was: 45% White, 34% Latino and 15% African American. Even Roybal’s hometown, Boyle Heights, was just 43% Hispanic at the time, while 34% of the inhabitants were Caucasians.

In the primary election for the council seat on April 1, 1947, the incumbent Councilman, Parley Parker Christensen, defeated Edward Roybal by 8,948 votes to 3,350 votes (15% of the total ballots cast). As was expected, three-quarters of Roybal’s support had come from his base of support in Boyle Heights.

Soon after this election, a very determined and focused Ed Roybal collaborated with several of his campaign supporters to organize the CPO (Community Political Organization) in September 1947. Later renamed as the CSO (Community Service Organization), this organization became the first broad-based organization within East L.A.’s Chicano community, representing veterans, businessmen and workers. In its first years, the CSO became primarily engaged in registering Mexican Americans to vote. In this pursuit, the CSO succeeded, as its members were able to register 15,000 new voters in the barrios of Boyle Heights, Belvedere and other sections of East Los Angeles.

In 1949, Edward Roybal felt confident that he had built up a strong enough political base to make a second run for the Ninth District seat once again. In the April 5 primary election, Roybal knocked Daniel Sullivan and Julia Sheehan out of the council race by capturing 37% of the total votes cast. This forced a runoff with Councilperson Christensen in the General Election that was held on May 31, 1949. This time, Edward Roybal soundly defeated six-term Councilman Christensen by a vote of 20,472 to 11,956, winning by almost 2-to-1. With this victory, Ed Roybal became the first Mexican American since 1887 to win a seat on the Los Angeles City Council.

Roybal would win reelection four times (1951, 1953, 1957 and 1961), even though his 9th District experienced boundary changes in 1956. During this redistricting, the southern boundary of the District was moved from 41st Street to Slauson Avenue, increasing the number of African Americans in the district from 15% in 1950 to 38% in 1960.

Councilperson Roybal served his district from July 1, 1949 to Dec. 31, 1962, at which time he moved on to the U.S. Congress in 1963. He maintained his support largely through the support of his African-American constituency. By the time Roybal left office, 51% of the 9th District’s registered voters were African American, while 34% were Latino.

On July 31, 1962, Edward Roybal resigned his City Council seat in order to take part in an election for the 30th Congressional District. Roybal had recommended that his fellow Council members hold an election to pick his successor in the 9th District since several Chicanos had expressed an interest in succeeding him. However, the Council passed on Roybal’s suggestion and instead appointed an African-American, Gilbert W. Lindsay, to replace Roybal on January 28, 1963, since the African-American registered voters in the district outnumbered the Latino voters by 51% to 34%. Lindsay would serve in this capacity to Dec. 28, 1990, when he died in office. Not a single Chicano would serve on the City Council until December 1985.

Roybal was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives on November 6, 1962. He was the first Chicano from California to serve in Congress since the 1879 election of Romualdo Pacheco. He would serve as Congressman until 1993. In his first term in Congress, Congressman Roybal served on the Interior and Insular Affairs Committee and the Post Office Committee. During his second term, he was assigned to the Foreign Affairs Committee; two years later, in addition to his previous committee assignments, he served on the Veterans' Affairs Committee.

In 1967, Ed Roybal authored the first bilingual education bill to provide local school districts assistance with special-bilingual teaching programs. In 1968 with the goal of improving educational, housing, and employment opportunities for Spanish-speaking U.S. citizens, he worked to establish a Cabinet Committee on Opportunities for Spanish-speaking people.

In 1971, Congressman Roybal took a seat on the Appropriations Committee, where he would continue to serve until his retirement many years later. In the 93rd Congress, Roybal introduced legislation to provide bilingual proceedings in courts. To support his legislation, he drew upon a report that disclosed widespread discrimination, police misconduct, and the denial of equal protection under the law in the administration of justice toward Mexican-Americans in the Southwest.

As a veteran of one war, Roybal work on behalf of Vietnam-era veterans. In the 95th Congress, Roybal played an important role in the passing of legislation to outlaw age discrimination, and he worked for numerous benefits and opportunities for those with handicaps.

In the 1980's, Roybal was named Chairman of the Treasury-Postal Service-General Government Subcommittee and served on the Labor-Health and Human Services-Education and Related Agencies Subcommittee. He also served on the Select Committee on Aging, of which he became Chairman in the 98th Congress. From these positions, he worked on various legislative proposals; in 1980 he led the campaign for the restoration of funds to programs for the elderly, including a senior citizens' public housing program and a community-based alternative to nursing homes. That same year he voted to strengthen fair housing laws and to establish a Department of Education. In 1982 he was successful in maintaining the Meals on Wheels program and protecting veterans' preference jobs. The following year he voted to pass the Equal Rights Amendment.

During the 97th Congress, Roybal chaired the Congressional Hispanic Caucus, where he led the opposition against the Simpson-Mazzoli immigration bill, which imposed sanctions on U.S. employers who hired illegal immigrants.

In the 100th Congress, Roybal worked for the expansion of rural mental health-care programs, and the establishment of a national mental health education program. In the 101st Congress, Roybal played a key role in helping to pass legislation that reversed a 1989 Supreme Court decision allowing age-based discrimination in employee benefits. In this same Congress, he continued his work on health-care issues; he was instrumental in renewing legislation to provide medical service to people with Alzheimer's disease. He stated that because of the growth of the elderly population of the nation, it was of extreme importance to fund research leading to the prevention and treatment of the disease.

During his three decades of service in the U.S. House of Representatives, Roybal worked to protect the rights of minorities, the elderly, and the physically-challenged. Throughout his career, he received numerous honors and awards, including two honorary doctor of law degrees from Pacific States University and from Claremont Graduate School. In 1973, Yale University honored him with a visiting Chubb Fellowship. In 1976, the County of Los Angeles opened the Edward R. Roybal Clinic in East Los Angeles.

It was ironic that Edward Roybal and Rosa Parks died at the same time. Rosa Parks was also a pioneer, an ordinary person with extraordinary qualities, who became the symbol of a movement. Eight years before Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on that Montgomery bus, Roybal made a decision to pursue a political office that most people were certain he would not get. They were right. Mr. Roybal lost the election, but came back two years later and won (against the same opponent). Through his efforts, Ed Roybal paved the way, slowly and gradually, for a whole generation of Chicano legislators in Sacramento, Los Angeles, and Washington, D.C. In many ways, he became a symbol and a patriarch for all those Chicanos who have served in the State since 1962.

Note: Special thanks to the "Hispanic Americans in Congress" website and to the Pacific Historical Review. A significant portion of this story has been extracted from those two sources.


Alford, Harold. The Proud Peoples. New York: David McKay Co., 1972.

Diaz, Katherine A., "Congressman Edward Roybal: Los Angeles Before the 1960's," Caminos 4:7 (July-August 1983).

Ralph Nader Congress Project. Edward Ross Roybal, Democratic Representative from California. Washington, D.C.: Grossman Publishers, 1972.

Underwood, Katherine. "Pioneering Minority Representation: Edward Roybal and the Los Angeles City Council, 1949-1962." Pacific Historical Review 66:3 (August 1997): 399-425.

Library of Congress, "Hispanic Americans in Congress, 1822-1995: Edward R. Roybal," Online:


Nation Honors Rosa Parks

     Rosa Parks 
February 4, 1913 - October 25, 2005
Photo June 15, 1999
Congressional Gold Medal

In the Capitol Rotunda: An honor guard pays respects  at the casket of Rosa Parks during memorial service.
PhotoChuck Kennedy, KRT

Thousands of people waited in line to pay their respects to Parks, who died Oct. 24th at her home in Detroit.  She was 92.  

In 1996, Rosa Parks received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, awarded to civilians making outstanding contributions to American life. In 1999, she was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal, the nation's highest civilian honor.


Rosa Parks, the black seamstress credited with galvanizing the civil-rights movement 50 years ago by refusing to give up her bus seat to a 
white man, lay in honor Sunday, Oct. 30th in 
the Rotunda of the United States Capitol - the first woman ever to be so celebrated.

It was in Montgomery that her act of defiance 
on Dec.1, 1955, led to a bus boycott and eventually, the demise of the laws of segregtion.



US Latinos and Latinas and WW II
The University of Texas at Austin
Sent by Johanna De Soto

Behind Enemy Lines

By Alan K. Davis

Ladislao “L. C.” Castro during gunnery training
in the United States in 1943. Months later, he would be flying combat missions in a B-24 over Germany.

From their crippled B-24 bomber, Ladislao “L.C.” Castro and the rest of the crew could see the white cliffs of Dover across the English Channel, on March 18, 1944. The fuel gauges read empty. The control cables were severed. And a 4-foot section of the left wing was missing.
The bomber began a slow downward spiral toward occupied France; there was no way to make it back to England.

When the orders came to abandon the bomber, Mr. Castro was the first out. With his leg torn and bleeding, Mr. Castro jumped through a hatch in the rear of the bomber. He watched the ground rush toward him as he fell feet-first. He pulled the ripcord and opened his parachute just above the treetops. Then he was on the ground.

Mr. Castro was in enemy territory with nothing to do but hide. For the next six months he would do just that.  Just over a decade earlier, Mr. Castro was riding around Austin, Texas, on top of his father's tamale cart. In those days, he would never have dreamed of riding in an enormous four-engine bomber, much less jumping out of one from 10,000 feet in the air.

Mr. Castro's memories growing up in depression-era Austin are of happy times in school, first in Catholic school at Our Lady of Guadalupe, then in the Austin public schools. In high school, he decided what he wanted to do with his life: he would be an auto-mechanic.

He spent his free time hanging out with boys in the neighborhood, white and Latino, and playing sports: basketball, tennis and bowling. On weekends he would take road trips with a Lebanese buddy who owned a car. When he was alone, he worked on cars.

Then the war intervened.

“In ’42 I graduated from vocational school in the first of June. And in November the war was getting pretty heavy in England,” Mr. Castro said during a recent interview at his North Austin home. “About November, I volunteered to go into the service, in the Air Force.”

Mr. Castro’s Mexican-immigrant parents, Ladislao and Leonarda (Oseguera) Castro had eight children — two girls and six boys. Four of the boys would fight in the war, spread out around the world from Burma to Belgium.

With his background in auto mechanics, the Army Air Corps—later to become the modern Air Force—assigned the 18-year-old Mr. Castro to training as an aircraft mechanic in the Tactical Air Command, where he would work on troop carriers. But service on the ground for Mr. Castro did not last long. 

“While we were in school, they had a big call that they needed mechanics for the bombers,” he said. “So I volunteered to be a mechanic on a bomber.”

Months of training followed. Mr. Castro became a staff sergeant and joined the crew of the “T-Bar,” a B-24 Liberator, as an assistant engineer and aerial gunner. They deployed to England in October 1943 to take part in the 8th Air Force’s bombing campaign against Germany.

The crew joined the 506th Squadron of 44th Bombardment Group (Heavy), nick-named the “Flying Eightballs.” They began flying combat missions in November. Mr. Castro manned one of the big .50 caliber machine-guns in the waist of the B-24. He became accustomed to the long hours of monotony and physical strain on a typical mission.

“We did all our flying at the (open) side windows standing up,” Mr. Castro said. “We had to stand up six, eight, ten, even twelve hours. That’s a long time just standing there. The wind would be coming in…it got pretty cold.”

Mr. Castro's third mission was one of the coldest. The mission, part of a series of raids intended to knock Germany out of the race to build an atomic bomb, aimed to destroy a plant in Norway that manufactured heavy water. The plant was Germany’s only source of uranium.

When the bombers turned back toward England, they left their targets severely damaged. Several days later German scientists concluded that producing heavy water at the Norway plant was no longer feasible. The facilities would have to be relocated inside Germany, an enormous delay in their research.

Mr. Castro’s crew made it out of Norway—but on the return journey, Mr. Castro’s heated flying suit failed, subjecting him to blasts of frigid wind through the open window of his gunner’s station.

“My hands were real cold… I got frostbite all over my face,” he said. “They said the temperature up there was 45 degrees below zero.”

Mr. Castro would spend two weeks in the hospital while his severely frostbitten face and hands healed. When he recovered, Mr. Castro flew 18 more missions. Extreme cold, attacks by deadly German fighters, and terrifying barrages of anti-aircraft fire became routine.

But four flights away from the end of Mr. Castro’s tour of duty, disaster broke that routine. Mr. Castro’s 21st and final mission, an attack on the southern German city of Friedrichshafen near the Swiss border, ended with Mr. Castro and his ten fellow crewmembers abandoning their bomber within sight of the shores of England.

During the group’s first pass over its target, an aircraft factory, a rookie group of B-17s arrived at the target at the same time as Mr. Castro’s B-24, but at a lower altitude. The mishap prevented Mr. Castro’s group of B-24s from releasing their bombs. The group, then, was forced to make a second pass over the target.

When they returned to the target at the same altitude and speed, the German anti-aircraft gunners had zeroed in on the B-24s: a black cloud of bursting "flak," anti-aircraft fire, erupted in their path. Almost every bomber was hit. One by one, bombers fell out of formation. Some crashed in Germany; others tried desperately to make it just across the border to neutral Switzerland, German fighters working them over with machine-gun and cannon fire all the way. Eight bombers from the 44th Bomb Group never returned to England, half of them from Mr. Castro’s 506th Squadron.

Mr. Castro was the first to notice the stream of fuel spraying from the wing at his position in the waist of the B-24. The crew had been in the air for six hours, and it was another six hours back to England. With the remaining fuel they could just make it, but they could not keep up with their group, either at the same altitude or speed. They dropped out of formation and called for a fighter escort.

“The pilot asked if we wanted to try and make our way back to England,” Mr. Castro said. “We decided we should try.”  Switzerland was close. They could easily land there, but landing there meant internment until the end of the war and at the time there was no end in sight.

The decision was crucial for most of the men, who were completing their 25th mission. After 25 missions, crewmembers would complete their tour of duty and return to the United States. If they could make it back, they would go home.

Castro, top row, third from left, with the crew of the “T-Bar” at the 44th Bomb 
Group's base in Shipdam, England.  For more on Castro's return to the states,  go to . . .

WW II Memorial Site .... 
From:, Janete Vargas

Megan's article "Memorial Day Is Everyday" brought to mind a website operated by a young man named Frank Everads in the Netherlands to honor WWII veterans. I came in contact with Frank through a WWII chat room that my cousin runs on AOL, WWII Vets and Friends. Frank was looking for the stories of WWII veterans to include on his website to honor them and to keep their memory alive. I sent in my dad's story as well as some of my cousins that served during WWII to be included on the site, and most of the veterans that participate in the chat room have sent in theirs as well. 

I would encourage any veteran, or veteran's family member that has their story, to send them to Frank to include on his site in honor of a fast disappearing generation of brave men. Frank C. Everards' website is at

November 11-13:   GI Forum National Conference, Washington, D.C.

National GI Forum Chairwoman Debbie Salazar has arranged with the National Archives in Washington, D.C. to give the veterans and their companions special guest treatment during  the regular business hours of the National Archives.| Veterans Weekend Self-Guided Tours for Hispanic Veterans, 10 am - 4 pm daily.  Veterans and their families will be able to enter through the Special Event entrance on Constitution Ave, and tour at their leisure.

The GI Forum estimates that about 750 Hispanic veterans will take the opportunity to tour the Archives during their visit to Washington, D.C. this year.  

Chairwoman Salazar has facilitated getting the special ticket that are required. They can be printed off the internet. Please contact >

Denver Newspaper Agency
Pressroom Administrative Assistant
4499 Fox Street, Denver, CO  80216 (303) 820-5562
5990 N. Washington Street, Denver, CO 80216 (303) 892-2136


A brief report on Celebrating Hispanic Heritage in Asian Waters
by Robert Gonzalez

Mimi, The celebration all fell into place on Friday to a nice success. I prepared a speech for the Captain..  He used info of the few Hispanics that are here and gave us praise.  I had a local chaplain say an opening prayer. 

I read about the pride WE Hispanics have in our culture and in our work.  I had a friend of mine have her daughter dance some Folkloric dances.  We read about Master Sergeant Benavidez,  a medal of honor recipient. And I read about my uncle. Who served in Nam and gave him a salute.

We then ate Fajitas, chicken mole, rice beans and ox tail soup. Still have people talking about my salsa. 

SK2(SW) Gonzalez, Robert
FISC Deployed Ship's Team LSR                                    
"Lead, follow or Step aside"
DSN: 243-6426 Cell: 090-9311-7249 


Implications of the Mexico DNA Project
Robert Tarin
San Antonio, Texas

I see that my friend Mario García forwarded my message shown below to you. Before you get confused about what the pie chart actually represents, I thought I would explain. As you know, there are several online databases for persons who have had their DNA tested. There are also many surname project websites with DNA results on the internet. What I have been doing in my spare time during the past year is searching various online databases and project websites looking for DNA results of Hispanics and building an MS Access database of Hispanic results. The data I collect is for Hispanics worldwide, whether from Iberia, the Caribbean, Mexico, South/Central America, etc.


The pie chart shown in my original message is the breakdown of the Hispanics in my database categorized into their haplogroup “ancient origins”. This is not just Mexicans, Iberians, or a specific group of Hispanics, but the combined worldwide results. Therefore, you will not see an accurate representation of Native American percentages from Mexico for example. In a pie chart of only those from Mexico, the Native American percentage would still probably not be accurate due to inherent biases of who currently takes DNA tests. For example, many of the Mexican Americans who test are of Iberian paternal ancestry. Not many indigenous Mexicans are getting tested by DNA testing companies. Remember that this pie chart represents the paternal ancestry (Y-DNA) and not the maternal lineage or mitochondrial DNA where most indigenous Mexican ancestry stems.

Again, these figures are from my private database and not necessarily truly representative of the Hispanic worldwide population.

Robert Tarin sent the following: 
For your information, here is a breakdown of those from my database of Mexican origin as compared to those listed in Gary Felix’s Mexico DNA Project website. Percentage differences are going to be influenced by the differences in sample sizes.

Mario Garcia  
Port Lavaca, Texas

One of the big discussion that people like Robert Tarin and I are having thru forums is the rapid development of DNA testing to find our genetic roots. In this case most of "us" Hispanics in the discussion group called DNA Busters have contributed DNA samples to companies that test your DNA. The intent is to be able to find out where we come from....primarily asking where were are our roots in the old world before the Spaniards made the trip to Mexico and other lands in South and Central America? The Mexico Project now headed by Gary Felix thru the auspices of Family Tree DNA, the parent company that does the DNA testing has found very
interesting information, including the information that Robert sent to us and I to you recently.

The question you ask as to why there isn't a higher percentage of Native Americans in the Pie Chart can be summarized by the fact that the Mexico Project test subjects are decendents of Spanish men only and they carry the YDNA only. Since the YDNA is only passed on from male to male thru countless generations, the female genetic material would not be detected.

If you were to take the mitochondrial DNA test for the female descendants of similarly named female contributors then you will most likely see a high percentage of the contributors as being of Native American descent. The point to remember is that the mitochondrial DNA is only passed from female to female and the YDNA is only passed from male to male.

In my personal case where I have taken Y and Mitochondrial DNA from my living family members, the test results have shown that all of my female ancestors have been Native American while all of my male ancestors have checked out as European or Middle Eastern. Interesting no? To me that
signifies the intermarriage between the Spaniards that landed here during and after 1519 and Native American women. We truly seem to be a land of Mestizos.


Turning Facts into Fiction and the Business of Writing the Historical Novel 
By Ernesto Uribe
The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms defines the historical novel as “a novel in which the action takes place during a specific historical period... often one or two generations before, sometimes several centuries, and in which some attempt is made to depict accurately the customs and mentality of the period...” We, the sons and daughters of colonial settlers and Mexican immigrants to South Texas have our own rich history from which to draw for writing historical fiction. We all have the tales, los cuentos of our ancestors as told to us by our grandparents and parents as well as our more formal readings of the history of the communities from where our ancestor came, and those in which we were raised.
My first novel Tlalcoyote is based partly on the adventures of a real person who was born in Revilla (later Guerrero) in Tamaulipas, Mexico in 1799 and lived on the frontier until his death in 1882. During the 83 year span of this person’s life, the area in which he lived went from a Spanish colony to become a part of the Republic of Mexico; experienced most of the Comanche and Lipan Apache incursions; felt the impact of the Texas War for Independence; saw the rise and fall of The Republic of the Rio Grande; endured the U.S. Army occupation during The Mexican-American War; witnessed the Juan Nepomuceno Cortina incursions; and felt the ripples of the American Civil War as Tejanos in Gray fought Tejanos in Blue along the Rio Grande. On top of these major events, there were countless encounters with los rinches ,the Texas Rangers with bandits or perhaps heros, depending on the point of view; there were range wars; large tracts of land were stolen; there were influential and not so influential political bosses doing most of the stealing; and countless family tragedies and stories. These many wonderful and exciting events are there, just waiting to provide the background for writing our historical novels.
The unfortunate fact is that most of us are not aware of our rich history. The history of our people and our area is not easy to find because it is hardly mentioned in the compulsory junior high and high school Texas history textbooks required by state educators. Let’s face it, Texas history was not written by or for Hispanics, and with rare exceptions, most historians from both sides of the border have short-changed us when it comes to the history of our people. Americans have little interest in the “Mexicans” who live in South Texas and Mexican historian lost all interest in the history of what was once Northern Mexico and is now the United States.
Perhaps an interest in the history of our part of the world could be awakened through historical fiction. We already have two wonderful examples of historical novels written in the 1930s and 1940s by Hispanics. It was only good fortune that the works of a very talented and bold Hispanic woman were rescued from oblivion and brought to light by Professor José E. Limón of the University of Texas. These two forgotten and unpublished manuscripts were written by Jovita Gonzalez (1904-1983) and co-authored by Eve Raleigh (1903-78). These novels, Caballero (Texas A&M Press, 1996) and Dew on the Thorn (Arte Publico Press, 1997)  deal with the cultural clash experienced by the established Hispanic families in South Texas when they encountered the U.S. Army of occupation during the period of the U.S.-- Mexico War of 1846-48. Another rare example of an early Hispanic historical novel is El Mesquite. This wonderful story about ranch life in South Texas was written by Elena Zamora O’Shea and was actually published in 1935. 
This writer has one of the few remaining original copies of Elena Zamora O’Shea’s book and although pleased to see El Mesquite re-published by Texas A&M Press in 2000, I was disappointed with the more than sixty pages of academic baggage inserted at the beginning of the book. It is sad that such a wonderful little book had to be trampled in such manner by zealot academics. They should have shown Mrs. O’Shea the respect she deserves and saved their remarks for inclusion as an appendix after her narrative. 
There is evidence that Jovita Gonzalez and Eve Raleigh tired to get their work published but had no success. It appears that romances between Anglo-Saxon U.S. Army officers and young Mexican maidens were not considered appropriate for publication in the 1930s. Perhaps  “historical facts” that dealt with the politics of the period and the mention of abuses such as the open handed stealing of lands belonging to the original Hispanic settlers was considered inflammatory by the powers of the time and editors refused to publish the books.  Jovita’s co-author also seemed to fear repercussions because she used a pseudonym when they submitted the Caballeros manuscript to publishers. Another variable that might have contributed to the non-publication of these early historical novels could have been the mere fact that the books were written by women, and one was a “Mexican” to boot.. On the other hand, Elena Zamora O’Shea’s “cute” and non-controversial novel about ranch life was published by what appears to have been a small printing shop in Dallas.
The marketing of historical fiction is still not easy. And believe it or not, there are still prejudices out there. My novel Tlalcoyote made it up the line at Bantam Books until it hit an ethnic snag, and this is what an editor wrote my agent: “I was impressed with Mr. Uribe’s ability to evoke three different cultures in a single narrative. Since he has an especially strong talent for depicting the Comanche and Mexican cultures, I think this novel could thrive with a publisher that has stronger ties to the hispanic (small h ) market....”
Some years ago the noted author Jean Avel wrote an extremely successful series of historical (pre-historical?) novels. They were The Clan of the Cave Bear, Valley of the Horses, and Mammoth Hunters. What if her publishers had turned down her novels with: “It appears that Ms Avel has an especially strong talent for depicting caveman culture, I think this novel could thrive with a publisher that has stronger ties to the caveman market.”? I guess Bantam Books puts Hispanics a few rungs lower than Neanderthals. 
So, what does it take to get your material published? It takes endless patience, a lot of writing, rewriting, and re-rewriting, and then it takes editing, reediting and re-reediting until your work is as perfect as can be before submitting it to an editor. Two other important variables are persistence and a lot of luck.  Okay, that’s the mechanics, but before you get there, you have to have something to rewrite and reedit, and that’s the story itself.
Almost all of us have that big story in mind that we want to write. So now that you have that word processor with spell check warmed up, it’s just a matter of putting fingers to the keyboard and follow the advise of the running-shoe commercial and, “Just Do It!” 
You will very quickly discover that it’s not that easy. I started writing my first novel, Tlalcoyote in 1993. This story had been knocking around in my head since I first heard it in the 1940s. This was still a time when our people in South Texas told stories on the front porches of their homes and ranch houses, usually at dusk to take advantage of the cool of the evening. In my case, it was at the home of my grandmother Jovita Cuellar Uribe in Laredo. Mind you, this was before air-conditioning and television and storytelling had not become a lost art. The one story I loved to hear, instead of the usual scary ghost stories like La Llorona, was one about a young man from old Guerrero who had been kidnaped by Comanches. I was intrigued that a young vaquero from the ranch country where I grew up had actually been abducted and forced to live among the Indians before they sold him into slavery in Louisiana. I romanticized what life must have been like living among the Comanches and created countless mental images that one day would serve as the basis for my novel. 
It was many years later that while rummaging through my aunt Anita Uribe Benavides’s library in Laredo, I ran across the story of the same abducted vaquero in The Kingdom of Zapata, a book written by Virgil Lott and Mercurio Martinez published in 1958. It was only then that I discovered the young man’s name. He had been Manuel Ramirez Martinez, born in 1799 and kidnaped by Comanches in 1819. The story of his captivity is expressed wonderfully in Spanish by Manuel Ramirez himself in nine verses of ten lines each called Decimas. These Decimas that read like a Greek epic poem, and the four pages provided by Lott and Martinez finally gave me the outline I had been seeking to write my story.
 So how does one come up with a 97,000 word story from a nine verse poem and a few pages of historical information? This is where you must enter the world of fantasy and let the creative juices flow. Here is where you have to fill a blank screen with letters, then words, then lines, paragraphs, chapters and finally a book. If you can do this, you are a storyteller. 
The one thing to always keep in mind while crafting images from this fantasy world is that your story has to be believable. This to me is the most fun and also the most time consuming because you have to get yourself into the period you are writing about. In your mind, you must dress in buckskins or in flowing gowns with the half dozen petticoats, smell the burnt powder in the gunfights, feel the sting of a cat-o-nine tails whip as it rips across your back, and bring these images to life in the eyes of your readers. 
Since we can’t go back in time, the only way to get historical facts is by doing research and getting engrossed in the period into which you want to transport your readers. For this, you must search out the work of the historians. I must have read thirty books on Comanches, Lipan Apaches, and Texas Indians to get the background I needed for the first part of Tlalcoyote. When I moved Rogelio Ramirez, my central character in the book, from Texas into Louisiana for the second half of the book,  I again had to do several months research on slave life in the old south, voodoo, steam riverboats, plantations, and New Orleans in the 1820s. It was my good fortune that I was already familiar with Spanish colonial life, knew horses, cattle, the Rio Grande brush country, and early ranch life in general.
Inspiration can come from many sources and every writer has her/his technique for finding it. I was mesmerized by the Manuel Ramirez Decimas and must have read the poem more than a hundred times while working on Tlalcoyote. I don’t believe in ghosts, but I swear sometimes I could feel Manuel’s presence while writing.
So what is fact and what is fiction?  Tlalcoyote is ninety-nine percent fiction because Manuel Ramirez did not leave a record of his day to day living with the Comanches nor of his experiences in Louisiana. I had to create, to imagine what it might have been like and what might have happened, then color it, and I mean spray-paint it, with action, passion, a little sex, humor, and adventure to make it interesting and exciting to my readers. At the same time I had to make the story ring true. It had to have a factual perspective that would coincide with the history of the period. I accomplished some of this by reading stories of other captives who did tell of their experiences, and by excerpting facts from the many excellent books written by historians. It is the bibliographies created by these historians, God bless them, the fellows who do the real research, that provide the writers of historical novels the canvas on which to paint..
To give an idea of how tough the business of writing can be, during the last six years I have written three novels and two screenplays, and it was not until the middle of 1999 that Mayhaven Publishing in Illinois offered to publish my first book.  I considered myself extremely lucky that Tlalcoyote was finally going to be published sometime during the year 2000. That was until they mailed me an Author/Publisher Agreement that was so lopsided in favor of the publishers and would give them total control of not only this novel but my next three books and I was forced to turn them down. So I was again shot out of the saddle and back to square one.
It was not until mid-2000, that I was finally able to get Tlalcoyote published and it was not until late February of 2001 that I finally held the first copy of my book in my hand, and it was one of the greatest feelings of accomplishment I have ever experienced.
Oddly enough, I have never worried about my writings having potential market appeal or being commercially viable. I write for the pleasure of writing and if it sells, that’s wonderful, if it doesn’t, well, as long as I continue to enjoy the process, the research, the amassing of words into stories that will hopefully some day entertain others, I consider myself well paid.

Immigrant Stories wanted by PBS
Sent by Lila Guzman
The new PBS tv series, Destination America, is requesting immigration stories that will be posted 
September, 2006. Immigrants to the US can submit their story online at:

Dinero, Sharing your stories of risk and success, celebrating your victories 
Sent by From:

• They represent by far the majority share of consumer expenditures ($600 billion) compared with expenditures of only $200 billion for Spanish-dominant consumers. 
• 75% of them either speak English exclusively or are bilingual and speak English well or very well. 

• 46% own their own companies. 
• Their median HH Income is $96,900. 
• Their mean HH Income is $136,000. 
• 59% have graduated from college. 

To order a subscription or complementary copy, go to  Or mail us your address to 

Jorge Chino, Publisher
Dinero Corporation 
P.O. Box 3211 
Oak Brook, IL 60522 

Editorial Offices 
17W240 22nd. Street, Suite 400 
Oakbrook Terrace, Il 60181 
Hispanic Women Show Higher Earnings, October 18, 2005

Earnings are positively correlated with education, though different groups show different average earnings for the same educational level. Hispanic men show higher mean annual earnings than both Hispanic and white women at every educational level. This may be due to differences in experience, tenure, or occupational choices. Hispanic women show higher average earnings than white women in the categories of not high school graduate and those with advanced degrees.

In 2002, there were 283,000 Hispanic women with advanced degrees. This represents 2.9 percent of the U.S. population of Hispanic females. On average, Hispanic women with advanced degrees have higher annual earnings ($58,623) than the group of all women with advanced degrees ($50,756).

UT Department of Mathematics honored for graduating most Latinos in math in the nation  Sent By Viola Sadler  October 12, 2005

AUSTIN, Texas—The University of Texas at Austin Department of Mathematics has been named the 2005 Example of Excelencia for its efforts to boost Latino participation, graduation and pursuit of teaching in mathematics.

The announcement was made in Washington, D.C. at the National Association of Latino Elected and Appointed Officials Educational Fund Summit on the State of Latino Education.

“The development of Latino mathematics students is part of our larger responsibility for training associated with science and technology that any mathematical sciences department should assume,” says Dr. Efraim Armendariz, chair and professor of mathematics at The University of Texas at Austin. “If done conscientiously, all segments of society are incorporated. And that, I think, is what should be a hallmark of excellence.”

The latest data (2003-04) from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) indicate the Department of Mathematics graduated the most Hispanics with a bachelor’s degree in mathematics and statistics in the nation. The department has consistently improved its ranking over the past several years, going from fifth (2001-02) to third (2002-03) among institutions in the nation awarding bachelor’s degrees in mathematics and statistics to Latino students.

“By engaging the country’s fastest-growing community in the pursuit of mathematics—a field vital to national interests—UT Austin’s Department of Mathematics has developed an integrated approach worthy of the attention of higher education officials nationwide,” says Sarita Brown, president and founder of Excelencia in Education.

Over the last decade, Hispanic enrollment in the Department of Mathematics has risen by three percent to 106. Concurrently, graduation rates for Latino students have risen over 60 percent producing 26 Hispanic baccalaureate degree holders in 2004, a growing percentage of whom have been entering the teaching field.

The department’s success is credited to key reforms that have been in place for some time. These include an Emerging Scholars Program in Mathematics that has enhanced academic success in mathematics and science for traditionally under-represented groups, and participation in UTeach, a teacher certification program in UT’s College of Natural Sciences set to address a statewide shortage of mathematics and science teachers.

“Examples of Excelencia,” a new program started by Excelencia in Education with support from Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., highlights academic programs and departments that increase Latino success in higher education.

The new initiative seeks to increase the awareness of working models, programs and departments that boost Latino enrollment, performance and graduation in higher education at a time when the overall college-age population in the U.S. is changing rapidly. By 2025, 22 percent of the U.S. college-age population will be Hispanic, a level already reached in four states: California, Florida, New York and Texas.

For more information contact: Lee Clippard, College of Natural Sciences, 512-232-0675. 
Related Sites: Department of Mathematics, UTeach, College of Natural Sciences 
Office of Public Affairs, P.O. Box Z  Austin, TX 78713  512-471-3151  Fax 512-471-5812

           Creating Tomorrows: Latino Education

                    By Manuel Hernandez

      There has been a lot of talk within the two major political parties in America on how to win over, sustain and/or attract the ever-growing Latino vote for the up and coming Congressional and Presidential elections. Now that one of America’s most important  cities has a Latino mayor, both political parties have realized that the projections are part of the past and a reality of today. The public relations campaign has already begun and will intensify as we get closer to the electoral race. Latino mega stars from sports, entertainment and the media are and will be lured to serve political interests by campaign directors from both ends of the track. The issues are the same: immigration, health, employment, home ownership and education. But the education of Latinos is without a doubt the front runner of all concerns for American Latinos.        

 There has  been so much said about the Latino high school dropout rate but very little actually done on how to systematically and strategically lower it. . In the United States, there is a twenty-seven percent Latino high-school dropout rate (U.S. Department of Education, February 23, 2005, Press Release). Statistics have not improved since 2001 and have made  small progress in the last three decades. As the Latino school population surpasses the expected five million mark, what can be done to enhance academics in Latinos whose interest in school diminishes once they enter or are   laced in American high schools? What will it take for the Department of Education to define a specific national proposal to be implemented in a nationally coordinated effort? As 2005 reaches its peak, there is still no visible concrete vision and/or improved academic results in the education of Latinos.  

       When students develop an interest in education, they stay focused mentally and intellectually. When they are turned off, they lag and fall behind in the marathon. Latinos are unique immigrants. They are unified by language but diversified by cultural influxes and influences. Latinos teens are different and their interests cannot be taken for granted. In the mainstream English classroom, many Latino teens feel a lack of personal involvement, especially when reading stories, poetry, drama and essays that are far away from their day-to-day experiences. The American and British classics provide comfort and understanding for mainstream high school students. However, for Latino teens whose language, culture and education is generally not portrayed in the writings of William Shakespeare or Edgar Allan Poe, Latino/a Literature provides the context and establishes the bridge between the so-called classics and connects students to ideas and themes portrayed in literature.       For Latino teens to demonstrate confidence,
independence and flexibility in the strategic use of reading skills, they must enjoy reading as a lifelong experience rather than strictly analyzing it with a fixed set of rules. How can students interact with their reading when their choices of literature are far away from their everyday reality? Latino/a Literature is filled with everyday language, young adult characters, conflicts and events whereby students are given the opportunity to make language their own. It is like seeing themselves in a mirror and assessing what, where, how and why they are who they are while developing reading and writing skills necessary to enter and succeed in college. Latino education is the present and future of America. Let us create a tomorrow filled with hope, dreams and a better quality of living for all American teens.   

HACU Creates one of the Largest Study Abroad Scholarship Programs writes:

Laureate International Universities and The Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities (HACU) Create One of the Largest Study Abroad Scholarship Programs

More than $8 million in tuition scholarships to encourage Latinos to study abroad; Only 5.4% of all U.S. study abroad students are Latinos

Baltimore, MD--(HISPANIC PR WIRE)--October 11, 2005--Laureate International Universities, a group of accredited institutions owned by Laureate Education, Inc. (NASDAQ:LAUR), the world's leading international provider of higher education, has partnered with the Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities (HACU) to award more than $8 million in tuition scholarships for Latinos and other students to study abroad throughout Europe and Latin America.

Created to address some of the most significant barriers preventing students, particularly Latinos, from studying abroad - lack of financial resources and access to information on program options, this unparalleled program will provide students from HACU's more than 400 U.S. and Puerto Rico member schools the opportunity to study abroad at one of Laureate's 15 universities in various countries.

"Part of the challenge in providing an equal opportunity for U.S. students of all backgrounds is overcoming the impediments to participation in study abroad," said Raph Appadoo, President of Laureate Education, Inc.

According to the Bipartisan Congressional Commission on the Abraham Lincoln Study Abroad Fellowship Program, Hispanic students make up a much smaller percentage of students going abroad than their respective percentage of US post secondary enrollment. The same study indicates that participation of minority and low-income students is limited by economic perceptions and realities and lack of information about opportunities.

The latest U.S. Census data shows that Latino high school graduates are expected to represent 17 percent of total U.S. secondary graduates by 2012; yet, according to the Institute of International Education, of the nearly 175,000 U.S. students who participate in study abroad programs, only 5.4 percent are Latinos. Increasing this participation rate is a challenge that Laureate International Universities and HACU are addressing through the creation of this program.

"Study abroad offers an ideal opportunity for students to extend themselves beyond their familiar surroundings and expand their education outside of the classroom," said Joseph Duffey, Laureate's Senior Vice President for Educational Strategy. "The HACU-Laureate International Scholarship Program offers students an invaluable opportunity to learn and live in a foreign country, providing them with a well-rounded undergraduate experience that will impact their lives and professional pursuits."

Antonio Flores, President and CEO of HACU said, "An educational experience abroad allows students to become more competitive in an increasingly international job market. This is a unique opportunity for the students of our member institutions to attend a leading university abroad and serve as champions of Hispanic success in higher education."

Each Laureate institution brings to the network an established reputation for educational and academic excellence, sensitivity to local culture and tradition, and a dedication to delivering the highest quality education with an international perspective. Students who are accepted into the HACU-Laureate International Scholarship Program will have the opportunity to spend up to one full year at schools in Spain, Mexico, Ecuador, France, Chile, Honduras, Switzerland, Costa Rica, Panama or Peru.

To apply to the HACU-Laureate International Scholarship Program, students from HACU member schools can go online ( or in Spanish), call the special information number (866) 219-3658 or speak with a financial aid or study coordinator at their school.

About Laureate Education, Inc.

Laureate Education Inc. (NASDAQ:LAUR) is focused exclusively on providing a superior university experience to over 170,000 students through the leading global network of accredited campus-based and online universities. Addressing the rapidly growing global demand for higher education, Laureate offers a broad range of career-oriented undergraduate and graduate programs through campus-based universities located in Latin America, Europe, and Asia. Through online universities, Laureate offers the growing population of non-traditional, working-adult students the convenience and flexibility of distance learning to pursue undergraduate, master's and doctorate degree programs in major career fields including engineering, education, business, and healthcare. For more information, please visit our website,

About HACU - The Hispanic Associate of Colleges and Universities

The Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities (HACU) was established in 1986 and today represents more than 400 colleges and universities committed to Hispanic higher education success in the U.S., Puerto Rico, Latin America and Spain. Although HACU member institutions in the U. S. represent less than 10% of all higher education institutions nationwide, together they are home to more than three-fourths of all Hispanic college students. HACU is the only national educational association that represents Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs).
Laureate Educatio, Inc.
Cris Symanoskie
+1(410) 843-6394
The Jeffrey Group
Andrés Rodríguez
+1(305) 860-1000 x224


 "In Search of Fatherhood"   
Following are abstracts from five articles sent by Diane Sears, editor of  "In Search of Fatherhood"   Sears,  has interviewed more than 100 men from diverse geographic locations and backgrounds.  Sears in the Managing Editor of  "In Search of Fatherhood, a quarterly international male parenting journal which is exclusively published in and distributed from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania by BSI International, Inc. BSI International, Inc.  Post Office Box 3885  Philadelphia, PA 19146-0185 215-292-8522,

1) Global Dialogue on Fatherhood 

HILO, HAWAII – 25 SEPTEMBER 2005 - He is a part-time correctional educator under contract with the State of Hawaii Department of Public Safety. He is the President of Akamai University, which offers the most comprehensive and unique Fatherhood and Men’s Studies Program in academia. He is the facilitator of the University Council for Fatherhood and Men’s Studies at Akamai University. He is Douglass Capogrossi, Ph.D. 

“As a parenting teacher for inmates, under contract with a prison facility in the State of Hawaii over the past three years, I have become increasingly aware of the depth and strength of character of many of the men I have served. I am an educator with high expectations, requiring much from my students, academically and morally. In my thinking, overall, the inmate fathers have risen to the challenge, expressing competencies in character, intention and motivation,” Dr. Capogrossi observed.  More information

2) Fathers: Fired up and Proactive!

PHILADELPHIA, PA. -- 11 October 2005 - Fathers. They are fired up and proactive! In Michigan -- Men -- especially Men who are Fathers are working to place the issue of shared/equal parenting on the ballot in 2006. In California -- Men -- especially Men who are Fathers are working to place the issue of shared/equal parenting on the ballot in 2006. This week, a Presidential candidate for the 2008 United States Presidential Election -- Dr. Mark Klein -- is "testing" the "political waters" to determine if America is ready for a Presidential candidate who is running on a "Father's Rights" platform is meeting with Pennsylvania voters.

Fathers. They are fired up and proactive. They are engaging in dialogue about issues relating to parenting from a male perspective and forming strategic alliances that transcend boundaries. They are celebrating and closely examining their parental roles and responsibilities. They are redefining Fatherhood and reshaping legislation and public policy through the courts and the ballot box. 

So, what's going on with Men -- especially Men who are Fathers?

"Men -- especially Men who are Fathers -- are fired up. They understand the significant roles that they play in our families, communities and in our world. They understand that they are the glue that holds our families, our communities and our world together. So, what do Men -- especially Men -- who are Fathers -- want? They want respect. They want and need adequate support services and resources to assist them with meeting the challenges of parenting and they need greater access to these support services and resources. They want greater access to health and medical resources. They want more research and research funding for prostate cancer, colon cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. Men are shouting out loud: 'Hey, I am a man! I'm not a wallet! I love. I cry. I laugh. I hurt. I worry. I am not an emotionless automaton! I am capable of nurturing, loving and mentoring my children -- even if it means that I must do so as a single parent. I want to be treated fairly by the judicial system in divorce, child custody and child support matters. I am a man! Respect me! Respect my humanity!'" stated Diane A. Sears, the author of IN SEARCH OF FATHERHOOD(R) -- TRANSCENDING BOUNDARIES and a member of the University Council for Akamai University's Fatherhood and Men's Studies Program in Hilo, Hawaii.

3) Embracing Our Role As Fathers And Reclaiming Our Children


Baltimore, MD. 16 Oct 2005 - He is the author of a new and passionate book on parenting from a male perspective, The Spirit Of Fatherhood: Embracing Our Role As Fathers And Reclaiming Our Children. He is the Founder of MBRACE Fatherhood  an organization that educates and empowers Fathers through a myriad of products and programs, a member of the African American Male Leadership Institute, a teacher at the Maarifa Elementary/Middle School in Baltimore, Maryland, and a proactive Single Father of two young sons. He is Mr. S. Bruce “Olamina” Stevenson. 

“If there is anything our society desperately needs more of, its fathers—loving, responsible, sober, and engaged fathers; fathers who awake every morning with a mind to be involved in every aspect of their child’s life; fathers who believe that nothing—not a hectic job, not a failed relationship, nor a lack of financial resources—will keep them from embracing their role as primary teacher, example, and provider to their children,” Mr. Stevenson commented in a recent interview which is scheduled for release in the “New Hope Awaits” – Autumn 2005 issue beginning on 31 October 2005. 

4) Why we Need Fathers: Raising Daughters

Fathers play a critical and invaluable role in our families, communities and in our world. Our sons need Fathers in their lives to assist them in their journey from childhood to manhood. And our daughters have an equal need for Fathers in their lives to assist them in their journey from childhood to womanhood. Free-lance journalist, graphic designer and a Contributing Editor to IN SEARCH OF FATHERHOOD(R), Mrs. Janet Mikul Collins explains why it is equally critical that our daughters have their Fathers in their lives. An excerpt of her work appears below.

Raising Daughters By Janet Mikul Collins Courtesy IN SEARCH OF FATHERHOOD(R)

My niece is almost four years old, but she already knows the value of what she has to give. Ask her for a hug, and she’ll have to think about it. Often the answer is no. Sometimes the answer is yes. Most frequently, however, she’ll give you a hug at a time of her own choosing, later in the day and long after you asked.

It’s a good sign. And I’d like to think of her taking the same careful deliberation in deciding whether to say yes to a boy when she is sixteen years old. I want her to be able to look at him like she looks at us, head cocked to the side while she coolly thinks over the request, carefully calculating her worth against what the boy has to offer in return.

Raising girls with a healthy self-esteem and an ingrained sense of her own worth is perhaps one of the most important things we can do for society today. These factors affect all of her choices, and as she goes on to become a mother, her healthy self-image will affect the next generation.

My niece has a good chance of succeeding in life. She has two healthy parents – a strong, hands-on father and a warm, nurturing mother. Her parents respect her as an individual, as they do all her siblings, and nurture each child’s individual gifts.

Lack of self-esteem and a sense of worthlessness are plaguing our young people today despite the strides made in the social fabric of society, resulting in bad choices and unstable lives and homes.

Look at one leading social indicator: abortion. It’s time for the debate to move past the rights and wrongs to the whys. Why, in this age of modern biotechnology, are there unwanted pregnancies at all? Why, in this information age when young people are much more sophisticated than we ever were, can we not raise a generation that is responsible about sex?

Today, safe and effective birth control is available to any woman. A patch can work for a week. A shot can work for a month. Clinics give it out free. Enlightened mothers take their daughters to get a birth control prescription. Condoms are given out in schools. Yet young people are not taking advantage of these efforts.

Abortion is so unnecessary these days. Yet they continue to occur. Why?

It’s time to change the way we raise girls and do a better job of launching upon the world healthy, self-assured, confident women who understand their worth, know what they want out of life, and never settle for less-than. We want to raise girls who EXPECT to be respected and cherished and have a line that cannot be crossed.

Fathers play an important role in this process, and there is plenty they can do to help their daughters on their way.

First, Fathers must understand what stressors their daughters face. Our daughters are being raised in a highly sexually charged era, with pop culture determining everything about their lives. Sex permeates everything, and girls are led to believe that their looks and sexuality is what determines their self worth – not their character or accomplishments. Yet, they’re faced with the unpleasant fact that 90 percent of women, including themselves, cannot fit the ideal of beauty set forth by pop culture. Most women will never be Victoria’s Secret models, yet that is the standard by which girls are taught to judge themselves.

The pressure to try, however, is determined by Madison Avenue, which pushes increasingly revealing clothes on our young people and peer pressure is high to dress as other girls so as to fit in. (If only boys and girls split the material from their pants, they both might have a pair that fits!)

Equally important, television and movies teach girls to behave in a sexually provocative manner. They are not experienced enough to understand the effect of that behavior, and on television there are no consequences for the actresses who behave that way. So girls are increasingly sexually precocious at younger and younger ages.

The pressure to have sex among teens is also present for our young people, and it is unrealistic nowadays to assure that our young people are NOT having sex. Since sex permeates every aspect of their existence, they have to be wondering what all the hoopla is about, despite our best efforts to educate them otherwise.

Fathers may believe it is up to the girl’s mother to sort this stuff out, but there are many things Fathers can do today to bond with their daughters and help them on their way.

Fathers are often the parent who challenges the children to achieve, and they have the ability to encourage, strengthen and impel their daughters to think in terms of achievement as a source of self-esteem. Be available, listen to her, encourage her in all her endeavors. Share your nuggets of wisdom and listen to her truths. Tell her she’ll always be beautiful to you, but don’t spend too much effort on her looks. Rather, praise her for her accomplishments and assure her she can be anything she wants to be in life and you expect great things from her.

I personally believe Title 9 sports is the best thing that has happened to young women in a very long time. Through sports, girls learn a self-confidence and self-mastery that they never had before. Encourage her in sports early, whether individual or team sports, and attend her sporting events as religiously as you would your son’s.

As your daughter heads into her teen years, she may become more interested in spending time with her friends rather than you. Don’t take it personally, but keep the lines of communication open, letting her know you are available anytime she wants to talk. Then BE available.

Second, I believe the worst mistake parents make is telling their young people what NOT to do, instead of concentrating on what TO do. If you make a point of constantly telling her, “Don’t you come home pregnant,” you will have given her the key to the worst thing she can do to rebel.

My father raised my sister and I by himself when we were in our teen years. When my father had the sex discussion with us, it was just before we were about to double-date to the Homecoming. He never told us not to have sex or never to come home pregnant. Instead, he told us what boys are likely to say and do to pressure us into having sex and what those sweet nothings they whisper in our ear actually mean. In other words, he armed us with knowledge with which to make informed discussions about what we’ll accept from boys. Neither of us ever came home pregnant.

Only fathers can have that kind of frank discussion with their daughters and I believe girls should be armed with information about the machinations of boys.

The entire text of this article will appear in the "New Hope Await" -- Autumn 2005 issue of IN SEARCH OF FATHERHOOD(R). To become a Contributing Editor or to subscribe or advertise, contact: 

5) California Shared Parenting Initiative 

BSI International, Inc. has just received the following communication concerning the historic California Shared Parenting Initiative from  From: ballotinitiative

The ballot initiative amends the California Family Code to make equal custody the default custody arrangement at the request of  either parent while still allowing the courts to protect the children. The burden of proof shifts to the objecting parent.

 There will be almost 5 months to gather enough signatures to get this issue on the November 2006 election. There are over 30 coordinators throughout the state. Currently there are 22 of 59 counties represented. Each will have a county coordinator. The county coordinators will be able to answer your questions. In turn, as new people join the list and ask the same questions, please facilitate the process by responding to their questions. Additional answers to frequently asked questions will be 
available at

Send a letter to your representative at or use the AFT
toll-free number (866/327-8670) and the U.S. Capitol switchboard
will connect you to your representative. You also can find your
representative's direct lines at



Los Angeles School District and The Constitution Through History Series
Nuestra Familia Unida Podcast . . Source of Opinions and viewpoints

Los Angeles School District and The Constitution Through History
The Los Angeles School District has an educational channel which frequently has very interesting programs.  Recently I was flipping through channels and hit the beginning of a series of historical monologues.  The first was a Betsy Ross reenactor who spoke of the conflicts of the colonists with English controls and the basis for the American Revolution.

Following her was a woman dressed as a pioneer who spoke the westward movement.  She said since the French had owned everything west of the Mississippi River, after the Louisiana Purchase, the United States encouraged families to travel west and take land.  

She said, so we went all the way to California. I kept waiting to hear mention of the Spanish presence, but there was none.  

I was truly shocked.  The L.A. School District with such a high percentage of Mexican-heritage students had mounted and allowed to be aired an incorrect historical series.  Instead of using the opportunity of giving visibility to the early Spanish/Mexican presence in California, the series totally ignored the early Spanish presence.  Worse than that, they actually allowed the misinformation that the French had owned everything west of the Mississippi River to propagate.

I watched through two other monologues, Nathan Hale and a Gold Rush 49er.  Again, no mention of the Spanish/Mexican presence.  It was as if everything west of the Mississippi was unsettled, open and free lands.  The Spanish historical presence west of the Mississippi was erased.  This is a terrible disservice to present day multi-cultural understanding. 

I was able to get in touch with Jorge Briseno, Director of Classroom Instructional TV, KLCS.  Mr. Briseno said that my description seemed to point to THE CONSTITUTION THROUGH HISTORY, a series of 5 programs which use historical and present day character portrayals to share the important role that our Constitution has played and continues to play in shaping our nation.  

All programs are sixteen to twenty minutes in duration.
1) A New Beginning
2) Voices of America
3) Separate But Equal
4) Freedom and Equality
5) Pioneer Spirit 

Briseno kindly offered to send me a VHS of the series. A Google search revealed that the series was produced by ITV in conjunction with SCETV,  South Carolina ETV.  The SHHAR Board will be viewing the series and will make recommendations to the Los Angeles Unified School District, and publish a report in Somos Primos. 


Nuestra Familia Unida Podcast

For opinions and perspectives, enjoy Nuestra Familia Unida Podcast. .

     The Nuestra Familia Unida Podcast ( has found a permanent home! Please join this effort to gather together Indigenous* History and Genealogy audio files from Seminars, Conferences, Meetings, Speeches, Oral History/Poetry Readings, Book Readings, etc. 
*(as in Latino, Hispanic, Chicano/Mexicano, and all other discriptors identifying the peoples of the America's and Western Hemisphere.) 
     You can join this effort by enrolling in the discussion group for this podcast found at:
     currently we have these audio files available:
          Interviews with: Mimi Lozano, Gary Felix, Rosalinda Ruiz and George Ryskamp.
          Four presentations from the Hispanic Family History Symposium on Sept 24, 2005 in D.C.
          Oral History by Ernesto Uribe and Joseph Puentes
          Poetry by Margarita Vallazza
          "The French Only" refutation by Dr. Granville Hough and Dr. Lila Guzman
     Coming soon: Map making link to David Rumsey's presentation at the "Where 2.0" conference on map making

Contact Joseph Puentes at with any comments or questions




Descripcion del Escudo de Inclan
Sent by John Inclan

Partido. 1º: En azur, un castillo de piedra, de tres torres, y asomada a una ventana, una doncella, con una espada en la mano diestra, y un perro, en actitud de acometer, delante de la puerta, y 2º: En oro, una nave al natural sobre un pino, con frutos y terrasados, y tres flores de lis, de gules, una en jefe y dos flanqueando el pie del árbol. 

Apellido noble de Asturias con solar en el caserio de igual nombre, del concejo de Pravia; ramas familiares de este linaje alzaron casas solariegas en los terminos de Castrillon y Salas; otros se extendieron por España Mexico y Estados Unidos 

En 1305 el caballero Suer Pelaez de Inclan intervino como mediador para resolver el viejo pleito que sobre los derechos a la pesca en el Nalon sostenian la Iglesia de San Salvador de Oviedo y el concejo de Pravia. En 1607 Sancho de Inclan Aragon fundo el vinculo de la casa de Inclan,a la cual pertenecieron Alonso de Inclan Valdes, militar y gobernador de Tenerife en tiempos de Felipe IV y Juan de Inclan, cura de Folgeras, Sancho de Inclan Arango y Leiguarda. Alferez mayor y regidor de Pravia, cargos vinculados en su casa, Fue alcalde mayor de Ronda, de la ciudad de Oviedo regidor de esta ciudad y de la villa de Salas, y caballero profesor de Santiago. Fallecio en 1722. Fernando Inclan Suarez nacio Villamondrid Pravia en 1934. Licenciado en Derecho. Alonso Inclan Valdes. Nacio en el ultimo tercio del s. XVII en las Regeras. Fue gobernador de Buenos Aires en 1705. Alonso de Inclan Valdes. Militar y escritor nacio en Pravia. Fue capitan durante el reinado de Felipe IV y gobernador de Tenerife y Santa Cruz de la Palma 1644. 

Aquesta hermosa doncella a la ventana asomada que en la mano tiene espada y el perro debajo de ella muy enojado que ladra y un pino de otro lado con tres flores que alli estan estas armas son de inclan.  

Check out Escudo y Armas de CARMENA 
From: Bill Carmena

Escudo y Armas de CARMENA Here is a print of the CARMENA coat of arms for you .Joseph Carmena Baton Rouge, Louisiana


Galvez Patriots

Bernardo de Galvez Family

Spain's contributions to the American Revolutionary War. 
Statue of General. Galves(z) in New Orleans

Bernardo de Galvez Family

Ink wash and information shared by Mario Robles del Moral, Secretary Bernardo de Galvez Asociacíon, Spain

Felicitas de Saint Maxent was first married to a D'Estrehan who died in 1773.  The daughter, Adelaide, is from that marriage. 

Matilde, Miguel, and Guadalupe are Don Bernardo's children.  Upon Bernardo's death,  Felicitas married a good friend of Don Bernardo,  militar Benito Pardo de Figueroa, who was serving with Bernardo.  The baby in the last sketch on the right is Benito Pardo de Figueroa y Destrehan, born around 1793. 

Matilde the first daughter of Felicitas and Bernardo was the III Countess of Galvez and the III Marchioness of La Sonora (the noble title from José de Galvez) and she performed as actress and was married with the Marshall Raimundo Capece Minutolo son of the Princes of Canosa from Napoles. Adelaide died in 1802 in Paris and Benito Sr. in Letonia 1812, serving as Ambassador in Russia .

Note in the document above, below the highlighted section on the bottom, you can read that Bernardo was serving in a specific assignment from April 1780 to May 1783.
Sent by John Navarrette


Spain's contributions to the American Revolutionary War
by Granville Hough, Ph.D. 

On 21 June 1779, King Carlos III of Spain declared war on England and thus made official his support of Americans in their struggle for  independence. Clandestine support had already been provided for three  years, but afterwards support was open and direct.

Last year in looking for names of American mariners in Continental Congress records, I found the reports of Arthur Lee, and the 1777/79  manifests of twelve vessels which were loaded out from Cadiz, Spain,  with war supplies headed for Boston and Philadelphia. (Papers of the  Continental Congress, Records Group M0247, Item #83, Roll 110,  "Letters Received from Arthur Lee, 1776-1780,"). This was pre-war for  Spain, but vital to the American effort.

Records such as these have rarely been studied by American historians, as emphasis has been on French support and participation. Few American historians know that:

1. Early French support included fifty/fifty Spanish/French participation, with Spain as a silent partner, so any so-called French  support received before June 1779 should be reanalyzed to determine where the cash came from.

2. Francisco Saavedra de Sangronis was personal representative for  King Carlos III, and henegotiated the de Grass/Saavedra Accord in Jul  1781 which governed Spanish/French conduct of the war in the Western  Hemisphere. (Saavedra (1746-1819), Journal of the Mission to America, "Journal of Don Francisco Saavedra de Sangronis during the commision he had in his charge from 25 June 1780 until June 1783," collated,  edited, introduced, and annotated by Francisco morales Padron,  translated by Aileen Moore Topping. ISBN 0-8130-0877-8, 1988.)

3. Saavedra was personally responsible for arranging the financing for the Chesapeake Bay operations which resulted in Yorktown. (Yorktown  was thus the result of Spanish financing of cooperative efforts of the  French Expeditionary Force, the de Grasse Fleet, and the American forces.)

4. The victory at Yorktown was made secure by the West Indies  strategies of Spain and France.England was forced into a defensive strategy, as Jamaica was the big target for Spain. The French  Expeditionary Force was moved in 1782/83 from North America to  Venezuela to participate in the invasion. Spanish General Bernardo de Gálvez gathered in Haiti a 10,000 man force waiting to invade.

5. For two years, England held on, negotiating for the best possible peace terms. She held four invasion bases in North America  (Charleston, New York, Penobscot Bay, and Detroit); but it was to no  avail. She was out of manpower. The focus in the Western Hemisphere became holding Canada and the West Indies.

It can be accurately said that what put us over the top at Yorktown was Spanish money, as de Grasse told Saavedra plainly that he could not sail there without it.

It can also be accurately stated that what made Yorktown significant and secured it as the last great land battle in America was the British preoccupation with defending the West Indies (particularly Jamaica) against Spanish and French invasion.

So we owe the Spanish people for their contributions to our freedom. It is a debt we should not forget or denigrate because it was not covered in the Franco-file histories we had available in our youth.

Granville W. Hough
Professor Emeritus
California State University, Fullerton

3438 Bahia Blanca West, Unit B
Laguna Woods, CA 92653-2830

Statue of General. Galves in New Orleans. 

HISPANICS,  October is the month to celebrate our Hispanic community and, amidst the immigration and minutemen controversy, what is our place in this country?

Connie Vasquez,

Many times I had felt like an outsider since we, Hispanics, were not even a part of the colonies when our founding fathers created this nation. Also, I had experienced the challenge of what ancestry to accept. Am I Native American or Spanish and in accepting either, am I rejecting one or the other? The beauty of being an American is that here in the USA, it doesn’t really matter who you are or where you came from but what you become with the opportunities that abound.

Two years ago, traveling in California, I was invited to participate in a celebration of our Spanish heritage and I broke bread with a descendent of Gen. Bernardo de Galves. Galveston, TX was named after this Spaniard who also was Governor of Louisiana. It turns out that Galves was so impressed with the new Republic being formed that he, by his own volition, decided to contribute by asking for funds from his subjects. Not from the government, but from the people of the Spanish colonies. They responded with great generosity and he was able to present Gen. Washington with a coffer replete of gold, no strings attached. At the time, this gift was valued at several millions of dollars. So, by virtue of this action, by a Spaniard, we of the Spanish Americas did participate in the forming of this country. He also helped militarily but his contributions have not been so disseminated as the ones of France’s Lafayette but were crucial in the struggle for independence from England. His descendent was inducted as an honorary member of the Daughters of the Revolution, 200 some years after the fact!!

Last year, I discovered a wonderful statue of Gen. Galves in New Orleans. I wonder if they had the same controversy as our Equestrian statue when they decided to place it in the heart of New Orleans by the World Trade Center? Yes, many Spaniards had a horrendous side of cruelty that cannot be denied but also they contributed enormously to world culture. In the new Museum of the American Indian in DC, there is an exhibit that says: With contact there is change. Then they proceed to inform you on changes such as the introduction of Smallpox which ended the lives of millions. What a price our native populations paid for this contact!! But also some there were many other different contributions.

The Aztecs were wonderful warriors and had created a magnificent culture and glorious cities but with the blood and knowledge taken from other tribes. How can one be proud of virgins having their hearts ripped for sacrifices to their Gods? Had they not been so hated, the Spaniards would have not stood a chance of conquering Tenochtitlan!

So the moral of this story is that we have a history both positive and negative. We need to embrace and learn from it, instead of pitting one people against the other. We cannot change history just learn from it!

The daring Conquistadores, left family and country for adventure, for faith, for avarice, God only knows! The world benefited by discovering Tomatoes, Chiles, potatoes, chocolate, vanilla. So, the world was spared from annihilation with potatoes, the Indians have their Curry, the Hungarians cook with Paprika, the Italians have their tomato sauce, the Swiss added milk and sugar and the world enjoys chocolate not only as a currency but as candy and a delicious drink. We no longer worship blood thirsty gods but a merciful Deity. I would say that change is different and not so bad!!



November 12th: 9th Annual  Veteran's Day Celebration
Businessman touts O.C. Latino 100
Olive Street Reunion
Dia de los Muertos, Bower's Museum, October 23rd
El Pan de Muerto tiene su Origen en la época de la conquista
Genealogical Workshops National Archives, Laguna Niguel, Fall 2005
We Won Governor's History Award!!
Walking Tours Offer Glimpse of 100 Year Old Downtown

Latino Advocates for Education, Inc.
P.O. Box 5846
Orange, CA  92863
(714) 225-2499

Contact person: Linda M. Aguirre at above

On Saturday, November 12, 2005 Latino Advocates for Education, Inc. and California State University at
Fullerton will host the 9th Annual Veterans Day Celebration honoring Mexican American veterans of World War II. The patriotic ceremony will commence al 10:00 a.m. in the Pavilion of the Titan Student Union on the Fullerton campus. Admission is free. The public is invited to attend.

"We will honor over 400 Mexican American World War II veterans and over 20 Rosie Riveters. They are featured in our full color book which we have just produced entitled '''Undaunted Courage - Mexican American Patriots of World War IF stated Frederick P. Aguirre, President of Latino Advocates for Education, Inc. "Special recognition will also be given to those super patriotic families who had 3 or more brothers in World War II. We have discovered more than sixty families who had 3 or more brothers serving at the same time during the war. In fact, we have five families with 6 brothers and one family with 8 brothers who served. Such undaunted courage must be documented and honored."

"Over 500,000 Hispanic Americans proudly served our country during World War II. They fought in every major battle from Pearl Harbor to North Africa, from Corregidor to Anzio, from Guadalcanal to Normandy, from the Battle of the Bulge to Okinawa. It is fitting that we honor their sacrifice and patriotism, especially since they served at a time when Latinos were subjected to open discrimination such as segregated public schools."

"Moreover, preliminary research of archival data by Rogelio Rodriguez of our organization shows that Hispanic Americans were awarded 1,352 Bronze Stars, 2,006 Silver Stars, 142 Distinguished Service Crosses, 28 Navy Crosses, 237 Air Medals, 55 Distinguished Flying Crosses and 12 Congressional Medals of Honor. More than 9,170 Hispanic Americans gave their lives in defense of 

our country including 7,980 from the Army, 393 Marines, 696 from the Navy, 13 from the Coast Guard and 88 Merchant Marines; 2,422 were Prisoners of War and 877 Missing in Action. Such statistics highlight the valor and courage which Latinos displayed during World War II."

"Latino Advocates for Education, Inc. does not glorify war or promote militaristic solutions to all of our country's international affairs. Our group recognizes the patriotic contributions of Latinos to our country and it is our intent to inform the public of our proud heritage here in the United States of America."



Businessman touts O.C. Latino 100
By Valeria Godines 
The Orange County Register, October 27, 2005 

A local marketing professional creates list of top Hispanic movers, shakers to boost community.

PROMOTING COMMUNITY: Ruben Alvarez Jr. has started a poll for people to nominate Latinos who are considered the best and brightest.

He couldn't believe it. When Ruben Alvarez Jr. perused Hispanic Business magazine's national list of top 100 influential Latinos, he didn't find a single name from Orange County.

"I was looking at it and all of a sudden there was no one from O.C. and I was dumbfounded. It's probably because we don't self-promote," said the marketing and public relations businessman.

He couldn't believe that Arte Moreno, owner of the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim, wasn't on the list. Or John Garcia, a multimillionaire venture capitalist. Or Peter Villegas, the first Latino chairman of the Orange County Business Council.

So Alvarez set out to create his own list, but it wouldn't be limited to business. It wouldn't be limited to anything. He started an online poll for people to nominate Latinos who are considered the "best, brightest, upcoming, accomplished and influential" for 2005. The list can also include non-Latinos who have done good work in the Latino community. The deadline to submit nominations is Friday. So far, Alvarez has 50 names.

When the list is completed, he plans to promote it in the media, seek advertising for a yearbook and then hold a reception for the 100 people.

The list could grow to 500 over five years, and Alvarez, a Santa Ana businessman, expects the project eventually to include a Web site and cable TV show.

"It is fascinating because it's all walks of life. We have students. We have middle managers, and we have CEOs and politicians and aspiring politicians and community leaders – a sample of those in everyday life in O.C.," Alvarez said.

"We need to broaden our scope because I know the Hispanic Chamber of Commerce has been honoring (people) for the last 15 years, but a doctor or somebody in the biotechnology field won't get recognized."

There are awards for up-and-coming Latinas, scholarships for rising academic stars and honors for political players. And there are people like Fred Flores, president and chief executive of Diverse Staffing Solutions of Fullerton, which ranks third on the list of 100 fastest-growing Hispanic-owned businesses in the July/August issue of Hispanic Business magazine. But those fields are too narrow, Alvarez said.

Hispanic Business research supervisor Mike Caplinger said that geography isn't considered when the publication's top 100 lists are compiled. Nominations are submitted, the research department compiles bios, and then it's whittled down to 100 names.

Richard Sandoval, the publisher and CEO of Hispanic Lifestyle magazine based in Riverside, said recognition on a large scale is important. "There are some very, very good people doing great things. On a daily basis, not just once a year," he said.

Children especially need to see the list, he said. Forty-four percent of children in Orange County schools are Latino. In Santa Ana, the figure is 92 percent. "They need role models. They need to feel as if their time spent in the classroom will pay off. These are our role models. This is how we want to look," Sandoval said.

Garcia, who sold his first company when he was 26, noted that tortilla sales outsold white bread 10 years ago, and that a BMW study from Santa Barbara to San Diego indicated half of dealers' sales were to Latinos.

"Hispanics have not done a great job of networking, and they don't realize just how well their peers have done," he said. "When they do reach out and start networking, they think, 'I had no idea the CEO of the board is Latino.'"

To nominate someone, send an e-mail to  Register staff writer Jan Norman contributed to this report. CONTACT US: (714) 704-3770 or

Olive Street Reunion, September 24th


Dear Mimi:

Our 2nd Annual Olive Street Reunion was a great success again this year. As you know the event took place at Sigler Park in the City of Westminster, California on Saturday September 24th. People from the old neighborhood known as West or the Olive Street Barrio were invited to attend. We had over a hundred and thirty people participate. Some came from great distances to join the crowd. 

All of us shared food, photos, stories, memories, listened to old music and rekindled old friendships. We announced upcoming events and introduced several well know members of the community. 

I would personally like to thank the members of the reunion committee for all their hard work and perseverance in planning such an event. The people who attended are already looking forward to next year’s reunion and we are already working on a bigger and better event. I have included several photos. I hope you like them and can post them on your web page.

Thanks, Ricardo Valverde


We even had raffles and gave away a few prizes! It was a wonderful event. 





Dia de los Muertos, Bower's Museum, October 23rd
Santa Ana, California

Yolanda Ochoa Hussey, Lily Ochoa and Cris Rendon 
Manned the SHHAR Display encouraging family history research

Photos by SHHAR Board member, Viola Rodriquez Sadler

Theresa Dever, daughter 
of SHHAR Board member, Bea Dever


Ofrenda as part of an Altar

Pan de Muertos

El Pan de muerto tiene su origen en la época de la conquista
Sent by Armando Montes

México, 28 Octubre.- El pan de muerto, que es para los mexicanos un verdadero placer, tiene su origen en la época de la Conquista, inspirado por rituales prehispánicos, y hoy en día es uno de los componentes más importantes de las ofrendas dedicadas a los Fieles Difuntos.

Las poblaciones mexicanas especialmente del centro y sur del país han tenido un gusto particular por ese pan de fiesta, pan dedicado a los difuntos que regresan a reencontrarse con sus familias el 31 de octubre, 1 y 2 de noviembre, de acuerdo con la tradición de "Día de Muertos" que se ha heredado de generación a generación desde hace varios siglos.

El gusto por la elaboración de un pan especial para el caso se remonta a la época de los sacrificios humanos y a la llegada de los españoles a la entonces Nueva España (ahora México), en 1519.

Cuentan que era un ritual en el México de antes de la conquista que una princesa fuera ofrecida a los dioses, su corazón aún latiendo se introducía en una olla con amaranto y después quien encabezaba el rito mordía el corazón en señal de agradecimiento a un Dios.

Los españoles rechazaron ese tipo de sacrificios y elaboraban un pan de trigo en forma de corazón bañado en azúcar pintada de rojo, simulando la sangre de la doncella. Así surgió el pan de muerto.

José Luis Curiel Monteagudo, en su libro "Azucarados Afanes, Dulces y Panes", comenta: "Comer muertos es para el mexicano un verdadero placer, se considera la antropofagia de pan y azúcar. El fenómeno se asimila con respeto e ironía, se desafía a la muerte, se burlan de ella comiéndola".

Otros historiadores han revelado que el nacimiento de ese pan se basa en un rito que hacían los primeros pobladores de Mesoamérica a los muertos que enterraban con sus pertenencias.

En el libro "De Nuestras Tradiciones" se narra la elaboración de un pan compuesto por semillas de amaranto molidas y tostadas, mezclado con la sangre de los sacrificios que se ofrecían en honor a Izcoxauhqui, Cuetzaltzin o Huehuetéotl.

También hacían un ídolo de Huitzilopochtli de "alegría", al que después encajaban un pico y, a manera de sacrificio, le sacaban el corazón en forma simbólica, pues el pan de amaranto era el corazón de ídolo. Luego se repartían entre el pueblo algunos pedazos del pan para compartir la divinidad.

Se cree que de allí surgió el pan de muerto, el cual se fue modificando de diversas maneras hasta llegar al actual. El pan de muerto tiene un significado, el círculo que se encuentra en la parte superior del mismo es el cráneo, las canillas son los huesos y el sabor a azahar es por el recuerdo a los ya fallecidos.

Esos panes son clasificados de la siguiente manera: Antropomorfos, son aquellos que representan la figura humana; Zoomorfos, aquellos que tienen figura de animales como aves, conejos,

perros, mariposas, alacranes y peces, entre otros. Son característicos de Tepoztlán, Mixquic e Iguala de Telolapan.

Fitomorfos, son representaciones de vegetales diversos como árboles, flores, enramadas, etcétera; y Mitomorfos, aquellos en que la forma no se identifica como figura humana, vegetal o animal, sino que representan seres fantásticos.

La celebración de los difuntos se convierte así en un banquete mortuorio dominado por alimentos y flores de color amarillo (el color de la muerte para las culturas prehispánicas), como el cempasúchil, los clemoles, las naranjas, las guayabas, los plátanos, la calabaza y el pan característico de la ocasión.

Algunos historiadores han dicho que este pan de hojaldre, con sus cuatro gotitas o canillas, simboliza los huesos del que se ha ido. La parte de arriba, su corazón.

Para otros, el pan lleva las cuatro canillas en forma de cruz, porque con ellas se designan los cuatro rumbos del nahuolli (el universo).

Son, a su vez, los cuatro puntos cardinales, definidos por igual número de divinidades: Quetzalcóatl-Camaxtli, Xipetotec, Tláloc-Huitzilopochtli y Tezcatlipoca, expresiones de la concepción del mundo prehispánico.

El muerto al hoyo y el vivo al bollo, reza uno de los refranes que en relación a estas festividades se han acuñado entre los mexicanos, como aquel otro que afirma que "El muerto y el arrimado apesta a los tres días.

Mala yerba nunca muere... y si muere, no hace falta; De limpios y tragones están llenos los panteones, y Sólo el que carga el cajón, sabe lo que pesa el muerto.

Te asustas de la mortaja y te abrazas al difunto; Cayendo el muerto y soltando llanto; Hay muertos que no hacen ruido y son mayores sus penas; Donde llora el muerto hay dinero, y Nadie muere en la víspera.


Fall 2005 Genealogical Workshops
National Archives, Laguna Niguel, 

Introduction to Genealogical Resources
For beginners and those who want to brush up on their basic skills, this workshop addresses the use of Federal census, passenger arrival, naturalization, and military records as well as basic reference works.
Offered Tuesday, November 1, and Wednesday,November 30 at 9:30 am.

Introduction to Military RecordsThis workshop will explore basic military resources for genealogy relating to American military actions from the Revolutionary War through the conflicts of the late 20th century.  Offered Wednesday, November 9 at 9:30 am.

Naturalization and Immigration Records
This course examines immigration and citizenship records, emphasizing procedural changes from 1790 to the present as well as methods for locating both naturalization records and passenger manifests Offered Tuesday, November 15 at 9:30 am.

Reminder: Reservations Required!

Class sizes are limited. Please call (949) 360-2641, ext. 0 to reserve your place in each class you would like to attend. All workshops cost $7.50, payable at the door. Picture identification is required to enter our facility.

Driving Directions
From 1-5, exit at Oso Parkway and head west. Turn left at La Paz Road. Follow La Paz through the intersection withAvila and make the next right onAllegra, a small side street in the midst of an office park. Go straight and park in any unmarked space.

Schedule of  Workshops

 Nov. 1 Introduction to Genealogical Resources Nov. 9 Introduction to Military Records Nov. 15 Naturalization & Immigration Records Nov. 30 Introduction to Genealogical Resources

All workshops begin at 9:30 a.m.



Santa Ana Historical Preservation Society 
Newsletter Fall 2005

We Won Governor's History Award!!

The Society's history-based coloring book developed for local elementary students has won a coveted Governor's Award by the California Office of Historic Preservation. The award will be formally announced at a special awards ceremony in November.

The Santa Ana History Coloring and Activity Book was created as part of the Society's Living History program for local schools. Project leader Guy Ball noted, "We wanted to have something kids could have fun with and leam about Santa Ana history. We took old postcard images and had a professional artist create images that children could color. Then we worked with two local teachers on age-appropriate captions. While the book was created in English, we added Spanish-language captions to help youngsters who might not totally understand what we were saying about history."
The results were overwhelming. 3,000 initial copies, funded by a grant from the City of Santa Ana federal CDBG program, were quickly snapped up by teachers who lauded the coloring book as a great aid to teaching local history. The Society funded printing some additional copies, but that still wasn't enough. The Floral Park and Wilshire Square Neighborhoods stepped up and each printed 1,000 more copies to distribute to their local schools. While we couldn't afford any additional funding, the Society has posted it on our website for teachers to freely download and print as needed.
"We're thrilled to get the recognition for this project," continued Guy. "We knew it was a valuable resource by the response by the children and their teachers. But this award helps reinforce
that the Society is on the right track in our projects to make learning about history enjoyable -whether it be this coloring book, our downtown walking tours, or our historical cemetery tour. Thanks to our members, our special donors, our volunteers, and the support from the City of Santa Ana, we can continue to do great things like this."


Centinella Adobe by Eva  Booher: Talamentes Adobe in Sonoratown
La Ballona and the Yorba family by Ron Materna 
November 6 :
Museum of Latin American Art, Agustín Lara
November 12: 
San Fernando High School Reunion
Nov. 12-13: William C. Velasquez Institute 20 Anniversary Conference
November 19: 
Indigenous Mexico Lecture / Hispanic Research, LA FHC
November 19:  Both Sides of the Border Reception 
November 19:  Etiwanda Society13th Annual Open Chaffey-Garcia House
Historic Adobes of Los Angeles County
       Rancho San Pedro
Jerry Ortiz, 35, Slain L.A.  Deputy is Laid to Rest

Juan and Felipa Yorba Farias

Centinella Adobe Talk Sep 21 by Eva  Booher

I have been married 62 years to John Booher. We met at Venice High School. We have three daughters two Grandsons and two Great-Grand children. I was born and raised on Rancho land, as was my Mother Marion, Grandfather Juan Farias and Great Grandma Tomasa Talamantes Farias. and her mother Guadalupe, daughter of Luis Felipe Talamantes, so that makes nine generations. 

I don’t speak Spanish, I wish I did. My mother married a non Hispanic and we never spoke Spanish at home, the only sentence I know how to say in Spanish is ‘Como esta su conejos Nana’ How are your Rabbits, Grandma. My Grandma Felipa taught me that one day when we were together in her garden.  

My brother and I are going to get you acquainted with this family that was always very close to the Machados, all the way back to Luis Felipe Talamantes, our Great Great Great-Grandpa, one of the first settlers of Los Angeles. Also, half owners of La Ballona Rancho Land-grant with Agustin Machado and his brother Ignacio.  

In Genealogy, as you may know, you start with your self and work back. Tonight, I am going to start with our first Ancestor Luis Felipe Talamantes and work forward. Ron, will pass out some Pedigree charts that may help you to follow along? Felipe is on the top of the chart and I am the 6th Gen. with Juan my Grandfather.  

Felipe and the Machados were very close friends and some times related through marriage. All generations grew up together on Rancho La Ballona. Luis Felipe Talamantes birth date is listed on the chart as 1771 born in Loreto, Baja? (According to Northrup.) His birth and place is in question? 

His death record states he was 96 years old when he died? He out lived all his children except Tomas. Felipe’s death was 26 December 1856. This is from the Los Angeles Pueblo Church Original records Microfilm #0002545, Now, if that is correct he would have been born in 1760.  

In the Los Angeles Census of 1844 it says he was 72 years old that would be 1772 the date of his birth? Which would make him 84 when he died? He was a retired Soldier between 1783-84 when he went with Juan Jose Dominguez to be Majordomo of the Rancho San Pedro, in 1784-1809 at the death of Juan Jose. From Rancho San Pedro by Robt.Gillingham 1961 

Some of these dates would make him too young to be a Soldier. The death record would be more accurate but would make him too old for other dates. Exact date is unknown.  There is much research to be done on this, many Mission records in Baja, have been destroyed, so we can only use common sense now, until we find the right answer.   

We do know he was here in 1783-4 at the Pueblo in Los Angeles, then went back to Baja, CA to get married 30 December 1792 at San Ignacio Mission. Spanish Mex. Families of Early Ca. 1769-1850 Vol.1 by Northrup. Felipe brought his wife Idlefonza Avila and son Tomas back to the Pueblo of Los Angeles in 1794, it says,‘he was not given land, non the less, he has sown plantings in Pueblo’lands’ acc. to Six Los Angeles Census 1804-1823 He was still Majordomo on the Dominguez Rancho San Pedro at this time until Juan Jose died. 

Felipe and Augustin, in 1819 were given a land permit for the Rancho de Los Quintos. This is often referred to as Santa Barbara land but it was not a good venture for them. Info is from, Ranchos of California Pg.66 #375 Quintos Ventura Co. Machado, Talamantes Grantees 1819.  

So, in 1821  they tried again, this time with Augustin and his brother, Ignacio, Felipe and son Tomas. The four of them applied for and received permission to graze cattle in Gabrielino’s small valley in the area of the future Rancho La Ballona, while still living at the Pueblo Los Angeles. They would not receive the landgrant until 20 years later. In the mean time they ran large herds of cattle and Arab bred horses there. Building houses, planting crops, including Vineyards. This was underneath the cliffs where Loyola sits today, near the Indian Village. These Indians worked the land for them. They were paid 12- 15 dollars a month for their work. All this brought trouble from flooding and houses had to be moved to higher ground many times. 

The Machados and Rancho La Ballona by Sister Mary Wittenburg 1973. Felipe’s son Tomas was born in Baja, but he was Bap.1 May 1794 at Santa Barbara Mission. By Father Lausen, who was a friend of Junipero Serra, the two fathers are  buried side by side at the Carmel Mission at the altar. Microfilm #1321538 San Diego Mission Records #3230. 

The next 3 children of Felipe’s, was Pablo Antonio b.15 Jan 1796, Maria de Los Angeles, 6 March 1798, and Felipe Jr. they were Bap. at San Gabriel Mission. Microfilm # 9442820 Mission Records of Baptism and marriages.   

Another interesting point is, living with Felipe Talamantes and his wife, were two more children. It says, Orphans, Felipa Sais and Delores Barelas, I am not familiar with these names? From So.CA. Quarterly 1972 Vol. LIV #4. 

The fifth child of Felipe, is Jose Nicodemus who was Bap.1805 at Mission San Diego. The Mission  records said, the family were Citizens of the Pueblo de Nuestra Ballona de Los Angeles and Felipe was Majordomo, showing that the Talamantes used the titile Ballona as early as 1805, before Felipe named the land grant. From Microfilm #1320538,San Diego Mission Records. The meaning of this name Ballona has not been identified as yet, There's many idea's tho?  

Felipe Talamantes family was listed in the 1st. Census of Los Angeles District in 1823, at that time 4 of his children, which included Guadalupe 1stwho died young and my Great Great Grandma Guadalupe 2nd.In 1836 Census the growing family of Felipe was living on the Rancho Rincon de los Bueyes located in the Baldwin Hills.  

The Rancho was a natural corral created by a ravine. The name means corner.  It was granted to Higuera’s, they were friends and Felipe joined him on his Land-grant. San Diego Frwy. runs right through the Rincon, boundaries are, Palms, Overland Ave on the east to Rancho Country Club.   

It seems Felipe must have lived there all the time, while Ignacio Machado moved into Canada de Centinella near Centinella Springs. Where the Park is today, Augustin was then left in charge of  La Ballona Rancho where he made his famous White Wine.  

In 1839, the land title they asked for, was granted to Talamantes and Machado families, by Governor Alvarado, being some 14,000 acres. 

Rancho La longer belonging to Spain but under the rule now, of Mexico. From where Ranchos Became Cities by Wm. Robinson. 1939 A month later, there was a big ceremony for the formal petition, with Higurera and Alanis Avila officiating. Times now began to change

Before his death in 1856, Felipe Talamantes divided his one fourth of land to his children and grand children. Tomasa my Great Grandma had the same share, her brother Pedro Regaldo Talamantes got 163 Acres, that land today is Sepulveda Blvd. Before Pedro died 24 July 1870 on the Rancho La Ballona he made a will, when his daughter Arcadia died 21 Jan. 1889 she willed her share to her husband Jose Nicodemo Urquides and he married her sister Ceasaria Talamantes. Nov.1889. Tomas, Felipe’s son, forfeited his fourth interest in Rancho La Ballona in 1854 Microfilm #0002543 Los Angeles Plaza Church Marriage Records.

In 1861, with the onset of the Civil War, National Government kept close watch  at the slope of Baldwin Hills and established Camp Latham with troops stationed near the La Ballona Creek. 

 Now, to the next part of our line. See the chart, Felipe and Idlefonza Talamantes are my Great Great Great-Grand- parents, Guadalupe # two. was my Great Great-Grandma, born in 21 October 1811, she had eight children. She kept her name Talamantes until she died, so did all of her children. Very much like the modern women do today. Nothing new under the sun!  

Name of the Father of a few, were given on their marriage records but  they kept Talamantes name. Unless the Mother would give the priest the name of the father at Bap.he could not put it on the record. That leads to much confusion for researchers.  

Guadalupe’s daughter Tomasa, my Great Grandma, did the same. She did marry twice but the first children by Bermudez all went by Talamantes, except my line, from Jose Domingo Farias. Their father did not live long and must have been raised by Jose Farias, because they used Farias also.  

Tomasa had many children, 9 of them, from Jose Domingo Farias. My line. Andronico, Francisco, Jose Maria, Alonzo, my Godfather, then Dividad, Alvira, Albina, Susana, Jose Manuel and her last child Juan Manuel Farias, my Grandpa, born 18 June 1869, who married Felipa F.Yorba from Orange Co.  

They had 11 children, my Mother was child # 6, Marion Farias Materna. All born on the Rancho. They were born in an Adobe house, which I remember seeing, It was sitting on the land that was Great Grandma Tomasa’s family partition of the La Ballona Rancho, from her Grandpa Felipe Talamantes.   

At this time, it was unavoidable for the land to stay in the hands of these Great ancestors of ours. The first non hispanic to own a fourth of the Rancho was Benj. Wilson. He sold it to a Mr.Young. Five years later, 1868 the land allotments were given out to Benina, Jesus, Laurino, Gregoria, Tomasa my Great-Grandma, Pedro Talamantes and several Machados, 24 people in all. Descendants of Tomasa still had some of her portion until the 1950’s 

Each received, 3 kinds of land, Pasture, irrigation, small beach front strips 2 1/2 miles long. From that time on it was trouble, they had squatters, a hard time keeping their boundary’s, high interest loans, making it difficult for them to hang on to the land.   See map. 

The last ones that I know of, who were still farming the Rancho land, was my Uncle John  and his 1st cousin Mary, daughter of Jose Maria Farias' after WW 2.  They both had the original land-grant papers when they were forced to sell their portions, the last of the Rancho land. This covers about 100 years of Talamantes.  

Oh, how I wish I could have been old enough to save the Talamantes Adobe as you did with this one we are in tonight. How, I would like to hear those Carrita’s or Carts, going up and down Washington Blvd. so I could ask them many questions I have yet to find answers for. 

I found that the name Talamantes originates in Spain, City Talamantes, in the Providence of Zaragosa, Aragon , Spain  

I should give you a brief run down on my ancestor Jose Maria Farias Family. He is mentioned for the first time in California in 1816 Census. He was single when he arrived in 1815, info from So. CA Quarterly from early census. 1972.  He was born 1796. A native of Limino. L.A. Census 1836. On 26 Sept.1818 at Mission San Gabriel he married Cesaria Manriguez, daughter of Luis Gonzaga Manriguez, and Juilana Tomasa Alanis. Jose, was the son of Salvador Farias and Maria del Carmen Villagran, He was from Concepcion de Penco Chile, west of Santiago.Microfilm#00044433 Los Angeles Plaza church records. 

Jose and Cesaria had four children, Francisca, 1819. Jose Manuel 1821, Celedonia, and Jose Jesus Domingo Farias, my great-grandpa. They lived at Rancho Santa Ana Abajo, this Adobe was on my Grandma Yorba’s Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana land. I wonder what he was doing there? Hist, Soc of So. Ca. 1936, 1st Census of LosAngeles. Then, in the Los Angeles Census of 1844 he was living in Los Angeles. Jose Farias died 21 October 1849, From Los Angeles Plaza Church Burial Rec. 

It seems, the origin of this Farias name is from the border of Spain and Portugal. A town called Faria. It is said, leaving there for Chile to the Silver Rush then the Gold Rush of CA.

On my Maternal-side Felipe Yorba Farias, born in Yorba Linda, her Great Grandpa was Jose Antonio Yorba, owner of Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana , in Orange Co. CA. He was a Catalonian Soldier from Spain, he came here during the Portola Exp. Serving in all the Mission with Fra Serra.. 

That is another beautiful story to tell you one day.  

I am proud to say that I am a descendant of these families who settled this great City of Los Angeles. Most of them Soldiers, on Expedition from Spain and Mexico, who risked their lives to settle this area, we call home!   

If you have a computer there is an Anza web site that has translated all the Diaries into English and have published them online. Just go to keyword and type in Anza and up it will come. Portola and Anza’s colonizations had many of our ancestors on them, from 1769- 1776, you will enjoy reading the Priests view on these treks.  It will help you understand just what they went through to get here.

As for me. I was born in Long Beach, Nov. 9, 1927, to Marion Farias and George Materna, my Dad’s parents were from Prague, Czech. He was born in St. Paul, MN. He worked from the time he was 15 at El Segundo Stardard Oil Refinery. So did his father. They came to CA in 1912. My Mom met my Dad at the Skating rink in Playa Del Rey near the lagoon bridge. in 1924. They were married 50 years. They both died in the late 1970’s. 

The first recollection I have of the Rancho was when we moved to Hammoch  St. near Richardo Machado home. It was a Garage Apt. when it rained it flooded out the bottom floor. My Mom would have to put on boots to go down to make some food for us. This would have been during the depression when things were tough for my Parents and many other people.   

We then moved to Avon Way, I was 5 years old, from there, we could see our Grandma’s house across the fields. When it flooded out, we could hear her voice across the water as she waded next door to the neighbors two story home. When I was 13 years old we moved to a new house on 3906 Inglewood Blvd. Off the Rancho in Mar Vista.   
I went to Venice High, got married, then later went to Santa Monica,City College for two years, in my yet older years, I took Computer and Genealogy classes. That was the smartest thing I have done, for now  in my much older years, I have so many things to do and talk about. Making me an up to date old lady! 

I wrote a book on my husband’s family line, 1994, ‘The Booher Family, Talents Traits and Tales, it’s in the Library of Congress, I am proud of that. 

I hope this has given you an insight on the Talamantes family, I am also just getting familiar with them. I started two years ago on this lineage, as I learned, the family grew. I then decided I would try and get some of them together so I could meet them, a Dinner Reunion I thought? 

I received a good response from those I phoned, so I sent out invites. What a pleasant surprise,  I had 65 responses and the room was too small. All worked out well and meeting all my cousins was wonderful. So there are still many out there that come through the Talamantes- Farias line, some still living on the Rancho. I hope to find more in my research.. 

I thank you for your time, and now my brother is going give you some lighter info on this family and maybe a few good laughs?

The Talamentes Adobe in Sonoratown. The last remnant of Sonoratown was the Talamentes adobe. It was on the west side of Broadway, one lot north of Sunset Boulevard. It was owned by Tomás Talamentes, a nephew of José Maria Avila. It was later the property of José Mascarel, a sea captain who arrived in 1844, married an Indian, and owned the Mascarel ranch which is now Hollywood. Mascarel was mayor of Los Angeles in 1865. The adobe was sold that year to a jeweler named Santa Cruz. The photograph appears in Hylen (1981), 69.

Sonoratown in 1885, from an unidentified direction. Sonoratown was an area north of old Sunset Boulevard, east of Buena Vista (now Broadway) and west of North Main, occupied primarily by people of Mexican heritage. The original photograph is reproduced in Grenier (1978), 21.

I am Ron Materna born at Inglewood CA. Went to Venice High School and Graduated from UCLA. I taught and coached at Bell High School, married and had two children. Then we went overseas with the Dept.of Defense teaching on the U.S. Bases, we traveled much of the world.

In childhood the Macahdos were family. We lived close to them all, several of my Farias and Talamantes families married into their line.

Some of my memories of living on the Rancho La Ballona, were the Lima bean fields everywhere, my Grandma Felipa’s house on Braddock Dr. off Inglewood Bl. where the Housing Project now sits. Her arbor with hanging vines of Choyote squash I had never seen before? The Fiesta’s we had at her place, for any little reason. Also the floods that caused so much trouble.

I remember a story that was told, about a drought in the early year’s. When groups of the family walked with a Saint, down to Playa del Rey to pray for rain. Dipping the head of the Saint in the ocean.

It did start to rain, it poured for days, so much so, that they had to take the Saint back to the beach, dipping the feet in the water praying for it to stop! It may be the same Saint that Margaret Cruz has in her Nicho or little Altar at home?

Both sides of my ancestory were from the early CA settlers who had Land-grants given them. Felipa Yorba my Grandma came from Orange Co. she married Juan Farias, my Grandpa’s mother was a Talamantes, he was born in the Adobe and died on the Rancho. They had eleven children, all born in the Adobe.

In later years Juan built a wooden structured house nearer the road on Braddock, Dr. The girls were then dating age and WW- l was on . During flood stage, the place looked like a lake. When the sailors came courting Juan would stand on the porch, they called him El Capitan, it looked like he was manning a boat? The sailors would roll up their pant legs and walk through the water to the house. Aunt Phoebe said, Grandpa would wind up the old Victrola, being too young to date she would have to turn the handle to keep the music going while her sisters danced. Grandpa Juan, played the Fiddle. I never knew him, but from what I have heard, he must have been a fun guy, he was called a ham actor as he was in a Passion play leading an Donkey. Grandma Felipa would tease him about this, saying, which one was which? She had a sense of humor too.

The Richardo Machado family lived very near to my Farias family. The families were close, they wanted to see who would have the most children, Erolinda won, she had 13. The children were friends, Nellie Machado was Aunt Phoebe’s chum, they went to Venice High School together. Richardo would let them take his expensive fancy Cord open air car to school. Here, I should tell you that our Aunt Phoebe is still alive she is 96 years old and lives in Sacramento and the last of Juan and Felipa Farias 11 children.

When all the children were young, with their parents, the families would go to the Lagoon at Playa del Rey together in horse drawn wagons full of kids and lard cans full of homemade hot tamales. When they were called to lunch they would run to see who could get there first. Aunt Phoebe said, the Machado children always won. My Mother Marion was close to Helen, or Blondie as she was called, and Elizabeth and Carmen families. Through the years visiting and playing cards until their death.

Juan Farias and my Grandma met and married in Orange County. She was a Yorba and a Peralta, her Maternal Grandma a Manriguez, the Yorba Grandma a Dominguez. They were owners of the Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana, a 65,000 Acre Spanish Land-grant, one of the few. It was given to my, Great Great Great Grandpa Jose Antonio Yorba a Spanish Catalonian Soldier who came from Spain to serve in the Missions of CA and retired from the Presidio of San Diego. Then moving to his land in Orange Co. which went as far as Cost Mesa by the sea. The Rancho was divided in half, with the Yorbas on the east and the Peralta’s on the west of the Santa Ana River.

So, we have a great Legacy on both sides of our Family. The first School, Chapel and Cemetery was erected by the Yorba’s in Orange Co. The Cemetery is a Historic Landmark. All located in Yorba Linda, CA It is said,’ you could throw a rock in the air and it would come down on one of them or a dog. That is how fast they multiplied. I went to Spain, outside of Barcelona where Jose Antonio Yorba was born. It is a Champagne village very much like Orange County area of Yorba Linda. I went to the church where he was Baptized and saw his name.

After Juan and Felipa Farias were married they came by train to Rancho La Ballona were he was born, they were met by many wagons and men on horses greeting them at the Train Station near Playa Del Rey. They were shouting and shooting off guns in celebration of their marriage. The Fiesta went on for days, it scared my Grandma Felipa so much she would not come out of her room.. Felipa loved her Juan, a young lady raised with a silver spoon in her mouth who had everything, to a farmers wife raising children, cooking for them and workers on the ranch.

Pregnant most of the time.  Mom said, that adults came first, she didn’t know what a breast of a chicken tasted like, until she married. All that was left was wings and necks by the time they were called to the table. It was hard work and a struggle at times on Rancho Ballona, making enough cash to hang on to the land, they were land poor most of the time. Grandma Felipa was a good wife and mother, but not without sadness.

They lost some of their children. First her daughter Eva, died in 1924, then Juan died suddenly, in 1929, leaving 4 children still home, Vera, Joe and Vicente her twin boys, and Inez, the three youngest ones.

Then in 1934 her twin son Vicente, we called "Jerry" was shot while he lay in bed in Grandma’s house, by a ranch worker who was drunk, chasing another through the arbor, one bullet hitting the house and killing her son.Joe. H is twin brother was in bed with him, they were 19 years old. Talented Musicians and identical twins. Then, in 1950 she lost another daughter, who suffered from depression and did not want to live any longer. The eight children left, out lived Felipa, even though she made it to 97 years old.

My Aunts and Uncles were Edward Ignacio Farias born 1894, the eldest, who was the family Patriarch and played the fiddle. He attended Loyola University. He was in world War l in France. Married Josephine Winters after the war, and had two children, Rose and Edward Jr. They went to Hamilton High School. All lived and died on the Rancho land. Elvera was the second child, Vera was short and they called her Chopita, which she hated. She never married but was a Nanny to all of us, we were her babies she would say, and would tell us great old bedtime stories. She made beautiful Crocheted Baby outfits for two generations of Children when we were all born..

Eva was the third child born 1898, she married, lost a baby and died not long afterward, just a young women.

Child #4 was Emmalina born 1900, she married an Irishman George McKinley, they had a child who died at birth. Then adopted a son William at the age of four from Los Angeles. The three of them lived in Taft, CA until retirement from Standard Oil Co. and moved to Leisure World in Seal Beach, CA, back to their roots. Living there until their death. Bill stayed in Bakersfield and died there, his family is still there.

Child # 5 was John William born in 1902 he married a Peralta from Los Angeles. They had one girl she was born on the Rancho. At this point we have a picture of the family on the Rancho with Great Grandma Tomasa Talamantes, who must have been living with them? Uncle John was just a baby. John lived to be 96. Uncle John and family lived next door to Grandma Felipa, he was still farming on La Ballona land after world War ll until the County took over the land for a Housing Project. That is when the Adobe went down some time in the early 1950’s. No more Fiesta’s. During the war we had some big celebrations on the Rancho.

There is a family joke about Uncle John. My Grandpa Juan had a Dairy. It was called the Green Meadow Dairy. It was Uncle John’s job to keep the milk cool and fill the bottles. One night the neighbor ran out of lamp oil and came late at night when all were asleep to borrow some fuel, Grandpa Juan woke up Uncle John and told him to go fill up the man’s lantern. He did and the next morning the neighbor came over early, to tell Juan that John had filled his lantern up with milk. Grandpa Juan delivered milk to Venice. Del Rey, Ocean Park and Culver City, we have a picture of him and his milk wagon. All the older kids had dairy jobs, except my Mom.

She was, Child #6, Marianna Acension Farias, born 1904, named after her Grandma Marianna Peralta. When ever a child was born Grandma would get out the Saints Day book and what ever day it was she would give them that middle name so, Ascencion was Mom’s, it was always a joke in the family. She was called Marion, a fun loving gal with black curly hair, she did not want. Mom, was five feet tall and married a man 6 ft. 2 ‘with blond hair. Dad was born in St. Paul, MN. Mom’s job on the Rancho was to make the tortilla’s, crying, she wanted to be outside with the others, but her Dad said, no you make the best Tortillas and she did! She would flop the biggest yummy torts over her arm and on to the stove. I can still see her doing it. She also made the best tamales you ever tasted.

Every Xmas Eve we would go to Grandma Felipa’s it was her Birthday, Mom would make Tamales for all the family and we would have a big Fiesta. Felipa would sing her favorite song, The Spanish Cavalier, while her Sons, Ed, on fiddle, John on Bass and Joe on Guitar would play for her. We called them ‘the Three Chicharones. They all sang beautiful Spanish songs of old, a special evening for us each year, on the Rancho La Ballona that we all loved, and missed, after Grandma died in 1968, it was the last time we all met together.

Stella, child, #7, born 1907, her name was Estella Concepcion  They teased her about her name. She did not think that was funny. She was a, ‘to each his own person.’ Very passive but cute personality, she loved to tell jokes. She was a Social Butterfly through her life. She could laugh at her self and the silly things she would do. Aunt Stella was married young, her first child was born on the Rancho, a son called Irvin Peters. Her husband Ben died young and left her with two children to raise. Before W.W.2, she met a sailor who took her off to Hawaii to get married there. Then they moved to Sacramento. She had a wonder life with Charles Price, who became a father to her children, by adopting them. Chuck, Stella and Glenna her girl, died in Sacramento. Irvin is still living in Rancho Cucamonga, CA

Now, #8, Phoebe the only one still living, she is 96 years old and in a Rest Home. She still has her mind and has never been sick, she wakes up in the middle of the night and say’s, I wonder why I don’t hurt some where, at this age? Up until two months ago she had never been in a hospital. Her Mother Felipa was never in a hospital and never seriously ill. Aunt Phoebe was named after her mother, Felipa, but known as Phoebe, the English version she said? She is a cute fun loving person, married at 17 to Gene Scott who was ten years older than her, they did not have children. They lived on Madison Ave. in a two story beautiful home in Culver City, near the La Ballon Creek . They held Union Cards as Extra’s at MGM Studios and played in Gone With The Wind and San Francisco. Good old movies! Then before the war, they bought 165 acre mountian ranch above Orville, CA It was sight unseen for Aunt Phoebe, but she moved, with her in-laws and her husband to a place without electricity, no plumbing, no running

water, and with an out house. Somethng like the place where she was born on La Ballona Rancho. We stepped back 150 years when we went there to visit them.

All the Farias family and friends found it to be a favorite vacation place. They had more company than we do in the city. Our children and Grand-children enjoyed it too. We had the pleasure going there for over 40 years. We milked Cows, churned butter, cooked on a wood stove, swam in a swimming hole, fished in their pond, drank water from the spring out of a can. Petted Uncle Gene’s deer herd he had tamed. They came right up to the back porch. Uncle Gene made pets out of all the animals. They moved from there when old age got to them, to Sacramento in a house with a beautiful yard that Aunt Phoebe soon had pretty flowers growing. It was still fun to go visit them there. When Uncle Gene died, Auntie continued to live in the house until she felt she needed help. She went to a Senior home to a little apt.

Child #9 was Inez Susanna born in 1911, the youngest girl. Inez was a fun loving girl, had lots of boyfriends and married a nice man George Dalton. They had no children, that, was very disappointing to her. She

loved to hold our babies and tried to adopt one. Was a kind person, yet life was not good to her. Her life ended in 1950 a terrible shock to Felipa and all her family. She was a favorite Aunt to all of us, the younger generation.

#10 and 11 were the last of the family, they were the twins. Joseph Malcom and Vicente M. Farias born 1913. Joseph after he lost his brother, continued in music, forming a band all the rest of his life. He married and had two children. He was a joy to the family, a good dancer and helped us to get all interested in music. 

One last story, on the Rancho, there was a large old fig tree, each one of the Farias children had their own limb. My Grandma Felipa as she stood in her kitchen window, would say, ‘ there sits all my little black birds. Which she said very fondly.

Thank you for you time.

November 6 : Museum of Latin American Art, Agustín Lara

Sexto Tributo Musical a Agustín Lara, El "Flaco de Oro"
628 Alamitos Ave. Long Beach, CA 90802
Disfrute de temas clásicos como "Granada" y "Maria Bonita" interpretados por artistas como el enor Mauro Calderon, Doris, Frine y Mariachi Monumental de Amercia, entre otros.  Compartiremos anecdotas de Lara y honrarenos a sus mejores intérpretes.

Nov. 12-13: William C. Velasquez Institute 20 Anniversary Conference

Re-Envisioning California: A Progressive Latino Strategy for Civic Participation & Sustainable Development to be held The Millennium Biltmore Hotel, 506 South Grand Ave. L.A. 90071
For more information, please contact:  Celia Brugman at   323-222-2217

William C. Velasquez Institute, 2914 North Main, 1st Floor, Los Angeles, CA 90031

Indigenous Mexico Lecture / Hispanic Research 

Saturday, November 19, 2005

John P. Schmal  

Where:  LDS Family History Center in Westwood
10741 Santa Monica Blvd., Los Angeles, California 90025):

Indigenous Mexico: Past and Present (1:PM)
Hispanic Research Methods (2:30 PM)

Indigenous Mexico: Past and Present
This class involves a lecture and a presentation using twenty overhead transparencies. The class discusses the following aspects of Indigenous Mexico:
1. The Linguistic Divisions of Mexico
2. The Uto-Aztecan Family: its origins, relationships and connections to the Southwestern U.S.
3. The mestizaje and assimilation that took place in during the 1500s and 1600s in many parts of Mexico. Indigenous groups that are now culturally extinct are discussed and named.
4. Census Statistics and Languages spoken in present-day Mexico.

The overhead transparencies include maps, including historical maps of Indigenous Mexico and of individual states. One map illustrates the entire range of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic group. 
Questions are encouraged.

Lecture Two: Hispanic Research Methods
In this class (which is free for all persons who chose to attend), I will show people how to get started tracing their ancestors in Mexico (and other Latin American countries). The purpose of this class is to give is to show the student the availability of records in Mexico by doing relevant searches in the Family History Library catalogue.

In addition to showing people how to use the Family History Catalog, I introduce them to the IGI (International Genealogical Index), a powerful database containing almost 30 million extractions of births, baptism, and marriages from Mexico. For the states of Jalisco and Guanajuato, there are six million entries alone.

The Library is located at 10741 Santa Monica Blvd., right behind the Mormon Temple (which is near Overland and Santa Monica Blvd. in Westwood). Going east on Santa Monica Blvd., you turn north on Manning near the Temple. The Library is in the basement of the visitor's center.

I am the coauthor of "Mexican-American Genealogical Research: Following the Paper Trail to Mexico." This book is a help guide for Mexican Americans who are beginning their research and is one of the few research guides available for exclusively Mexican-American genealogical research. I am also the coauthor of "The Indigenous Roots of a Mexican-American Family." Both books are available through .

In about two months, I will be publishing two volumes of "Mexican-American Naturalization Records: Extracts," detailing the naturalizations of 682 Mexicans who applied for naturalization in the states of Texas, California, Kansas, Arizona and Colorado.

November 19th:
Both Sides of the Border Reception 

Carlotta’s Passion Fine Art announces the opening of Both Sides of the Border: Fine Latin American and Chicano Art.  Sent by Sergio Hernandez

Both Sides of the Border opens with a reception on Saturday, November 19th, from 6:00 p.m. to 9:00 pm. During the opening, MEXIKA will perform exciting traditional and new music using instruments created by Martin Espino. The show runs until Friday evening, December 30th.

Both Sides of the Border focuses on fine original and limited edition
works of art by Latin American and Chicano artists. 

The Latin American artwork includes fine pieces by Raul Anguiano, Jose Luis 
Cuevas, Vanesa Martinelli, David Martinez, Juan Sebastián Barbera, Vladimir
Cora, Jose Esteban Martinez, Eleazar Martinez, Lucia Maya, Jag Sanchez, Francisco Toledo, Victor Uhthoff, Francisco Zuniga, Carlos Merida, Roberto Matta, Wifredo Lam, and Ever Fonseca.

The Chicano fine artists whose works are in the show include Joe Bravo,
Carlos Bueno, Ramon Atilano, Yareli Cobian, Diane Gamboa, Gronk, Sergio Hernandez, Leo Limon, Manuel Martinez, Abe Mendoza, Xavier Montes, Felix Perez, Ramon Ramirez, Frank Romero, Sergio Rebia, The Royal Chicano Air Force, Patssi Valdez, Mark Vallen, Benjamin Venegas, and Antonio Ybanez.

During Both Sides of the Border, Carlotta’s Passion will offer educational presentations and activities. As of press time, the following presentations are

§ Latin American and Chicano art history and cross influences by Sybil Venegas, art historian and professor of Chicano Studies.
§ The influence of Chicano identity on Chicano art, by educator Diane Velarde and fine artist/activist Mark Vallen.
§ The history, symbology, and current styles of Taxco and other 
high quality Mexican jewelry, by Mexican jewelry experts RuthAnne Tarletz de Molina and Eduardo Rocha Soto.

Activities include a Pre-Hispanic style Mexican Collar workshop for
children and an altar blessing, by RuthAnne Tarletz &Eduardo Rocha Soto.
The dates of all presentations and activities will be announced soon.

Carlotta’s Passion Fine Art is located at 2012 Colorado Blvd. in the
Eagle Rock neighborhood of Los Angeles (the cross street is Maywood). Business
hours are Tuesday through Sunday, from 12:00 p.m. ? 9:00 p.m. For more information, additional photos, or to be added to the mailing list, please call 323.259.1563 or email
November 19:  Etiwanda Society13th Annual Chaffey-Garcia Open House

7150 Etiwanda Ave, Rancho Cucamonga 
11 am to 3 pm,  
Special Guest:  George Chaffey, Jr.
Join in celebrating the historic purchase of Captain Joseph Garcia's ranch by William and George Chaffey on Thanksgiving Day, 1881. Tour the House, the second oldest house in Rancho Cucamonga, the site of many innovations, including the first hydroelectrically powered light and the area's first long distance telephone line.  Lots of activities: petting zoo, spinning, quilting, candle making, crafts, storytelling, butter churning, old steam engines, chuck wagon stew, and much more.
.  For more information:  (909 899-8432

Historic Adobes of Los Angeles County 
by John R. Kielbasa © 1997 
Sent by Johanna De Soto

TABLE OF CONTENTS  below lists all the individual adobes and direct links. Family histories and individuals tied to the specific adobe are included. 

Unless otherwise noted, photos are 
© 2001-2004
 I. Northwestern County 
  Andres Pico Adobe 
  Lopez Adobe 
  Rancho Los Encinos 
  Leonis Adobe 
  Reyes Adobe 
  Sepulveda Adobe 
  Adobes of Rancho San Rafael 
  Abobes of Rancho La Liebre 
II. Southern County 
  Avila Adobe 
  Rancho Los Feliz 
  Rancho La Brea 
  Rocha Adobe 
  Rancho La Cienega O' Paso de La Tijera 
  Centinela Adobe 
  Rancho San Pedro: 
           The Dominguez Ranch Adobe 
  Rancho Los Cerritos 
  Rancho Los Alamitos    
III. Eastern County 
  Juan Matias Sanchez Adobe 
  Flores Adobe 
  Blanco Adobe 
  San Gabriel Adobes 
  Hugo Reid Adobe 
  Pio Pico Mansion 
  The Adobes of Rancho La Puente 
  The Adobes of Rancho San Jose 
IV. Miscellaneous Adobes  
V. Replica Adobes     
VI. Glossary     
VII. Bibliography     
VIII. Index 
Rancho San Pedro
The Dominguez Ranch Adobe and the history of the Dominguez Family
Sent by Johanna De Soto

Opening paragraphs of a the history of the ranch with considerable information on the descendants.
At one time Rancho San Pedro comprised of 75,000 acres of what is today prime real estate including virtually all South Bay communities and the entire Palos Verdes Peninsula. It was all owned by one man, Juan Jose Dominguez, an uneducated retired soldier. In 1784, the rancho was the first piece of land granted to a private citizen in Southern California. It is astounding to realize that a substantial portion of the original grant still remained in the hands of Dominguez heirs late into the 20th century. To this day, Dominguez descendants own property, which was the former Rancho San Pedro. 

Don Manuel Dominguez, a grandnephew of Juan Jose Dominguez, built a six-room adobe hacienda on the rancho in 1827. The home survived the test of time and currently stands on the east slope of Dominguez Hill at 18127 Alameda Street in Compton. Now consisting of eight rooms the adobe has been altered somewhat and is used as a museum denoting the illustrious history of Rancho San Pedro and the Dominguez family. 



Jerry Ortiz, 35, Slain L.A.  Deputy is Laid to Rest


Los Angeles Times, California, Orange County Edition, Friday, July 1, 2005 Photo, Wally Skalij

"Another mainstream American dies in the fight for good over evil."  
Granville W. Hough, Ph.D.

Jerry Ortiz, 35, Slain L.A.  Deputy is Laid to Rest

It was the largest funeral to date at the nearly 3-year-old cathedral, with 4,ooo people inside and an additional 2,ooo listening to speakers outside, cathedral spokeswoman Carolina Guevara said. The motorcade escorting Ortiz's body from the cathedral to an East Los Angeles cemetery was so large, with more than 2,000 vehicles, that it took more than 90 minutes for the motorcade to make the five-mile trip. 
Ortiz 35, a 15-year Los Angeles County sheriff's deputy, was shot in the head June 24 at Hawaiian Gardens apartment complex while searching for a suspect wanted on suspicion of attempted murder. Jose Luis Orozco, 27 a known gang member and the man whom Ortiz was looking for, was arrested hours after the shooting and is the main suspect in the deputy's killing. 




Mission Dolores: Mission San Francisco de Asís
Monsignor Paul M. Martin of Mission San Juan Capistrano, a Living Saint
A Bibliography of Early California
The Juana Briones Heritage Foundation
Sequoia Genealogical Society, Tulare City Library Website
1st Annual Diversity Confer., Central Valley Cultural Heritage Institute
Early California Wills, California


Foreword by Douglas Westfall

During the summer of 2003,1 was in San Francisco. Contacting the San Francisco Museum & Historical Society and the Historic Association, I was informed that Brother Guire would be giving his last tour of the Mission 

Cemetery and Gardens — that evening. He was transferring after the first of the year, and this would be the last opportunity to take the tour with him.

With the tour only a few hours away, I took the local trolly (the railway with the electrical wire overhead that trollies behind,) up to Dolores Street and walked down the three blocks to the Mission.

I've been on many tours, given by many so-called experts. Usually I find their grasp of history is limited, a product of the tours being given by docents and volunteers. Our tour guide was however, Br. Guire.He spoke with vision, and painted a wide canvas of the interplay between the Native Americans, the Padres and the Soldiers. This was early San Francisco — the beginnings of a great city, and his story was a story of passion.

Br. Guire continued the tour, for much longer than I believe was normally done. Perhaps being the last tour, made it more important. After the tour was finally over, people stood around and asked questions. Only after all had gone did I approach Br. Guire, introducing myself as a historical publisher.

We talked while he closed up the Mission, and I followed him around, watching him lock doors and return display items to their cases. We left by the back way and walked toward his home. We talked of the people that once lived here and how a Mission grew into a vibrant city. By the time we reached his doorstep, we had agreed on publishing this book. Br. Guire ran inside and brought me a manuscript, one that he had been working on for some time. He said he would follow up with illustrations and we could communicate by the internet.

Over the next six months we corresponded about content, changes, updates, new illustrations and many other elements. All to produce what is here in this book.  Br. Guire wrote with vision, and again he painted a wide canvas of early San Francisco. His story is a story of passion and Brother Guire has written this great book.

Many of the illustrations in this book, have never been published before and few have ever been within the same volume. The cover illustration also has never before been published — but came from a different source entirely.

A good friend of mine, Hank Koerper, lives in the town of Orange, as I do. He teaches anthropology at a local college and happened to be over showing me something he found on the history of baseball.

The cover we were using for this book, had a colored post card for an illustration. This is commonly done and I wasn't impressed with the outcome thus far, but I had little else from which to choose.
Hank told me his mother had a painting of the Mission Dolores, painted by none other than a son of General Mariano Vallejo — Napoleon. He brought me a small photo of the painting and I told him that if we could get the painting in time, I would use it on the cover, probably the back.
At Christmas, Hank drove up to his mother's home and brought back the painting. I sent it out to be scanned and Hank drove the painting back up a few days later.

While Hank was gone the second time, I received the scan back from the service bureau. It was incredible. The richness of the color was superb, the style was that of 1880s California, and the artist was someone who had a place in California history. Only later did I discover that he lived on Dolores Street when he painted this work.

Of course I removed the post card cover and replace it with the illustration of the painting, as it is now. Brother Guire was very happy with the new choice and informed me that Napoleon was his neighbor, if only a century apart.

As I publish, I continue to see the miracles that bring books together. That the cover artist was a neighbor of the author and that painting came through a neighbor of the publisher. And it all started because during the summer of 2003,1 was in San Francisco.

Douglas Westfall, Publisher January, 2004
5½ x 8½ inches >  100 Photographs; 110 pages  ISBN: 1-891030-40-X, $12.00 Softcover


The Memory of A Living Saint, Monsignor Paul M. Martin of Mission San Juan Capistrano
Extract: Memory of 'Living Saint' honored By Ann Pepper,  Orange County Register, Oct. 3. 2005

Longtime pastor of Basilica Church at the San Juan Capistrano Mission died Sunday, October 2, after colon cancer fight.  “Everything he did he did for the glory and love of God and his children,” parishioner Margie Meyers says of Martin.

Neighbors around old San Juan Capistrano remember seeing the big, broad-shouldered priest out running his errands every day.  In the morning, he'd be in the post office or hurrying along a neighborhood street with his stole - his priestly scarf - over his shoulder. Sometimes the white one, sometimes the purple.  The purple one meant he was on his way to a sick call, maybe to give a dying parishioner the last rites.

In the evening, they'd run into him grocery shopping at Shorty's Market where he'd stop to chat with friends or accept an invitation to a Saturday family barbecue.  Monsignor Paul Martin, of whom parishioners speak only in superlatives of humility, gentleness, kindness and selflessness - a living saint, some say - died Sunday after being diagnosed with colon cancer in May. He was 75.

Martin was part of a special time in their old south county town when neighbors were either related or at least grew up together. A time when the San Juan Capistrano Mission Church family extended well beyond blood ties. And the monsignor was the loving and principled father to them all, even as he guided the parish's growth from 820 families to 5,000 families.

"He is probably the most Christ-centered, gentle person I've ever known," said Gaye Birtcher, 59, a supporter of the low-cost medical clinic that Martin helped found in 1981. "And he had a knack for being available when you needed him - even at the most peculiar times, unexpected times."

Renee Bondi, 47, can rattle off numbers of times when Martin just seemed to be there when she needed him.  His was the first face she saw 18 years ago when she awoke in the hospital after the freak accident that left her quadriplegic.   Then, eight years later, and without being called, he showed up minutes after her baby was born - arriving, it seemed to Bondi, like a little wink from God, letting her know that he had been watching over the difficult birth.

"Long before that, when I was in Long Beach Memorial Hospital doing rehabilitation for five months, he would come every Wednesday night - and Wednesday was his day off - to spend a couple of hours with Mike, who was my fiancé then, and me.  

"He would come and sit with us and would allow me to ask the big, deep questions, like: How does the Lord allow this to happen? What do you do with it? What's the meaning of suffering?  "And so I put my trust in Christ. And now, I am so grateful. That's how I can laugh and smile in this wheelchair."

So many parishioners have similar stories, "secret Monsignor Martin stories," says Margie Meyers, who was born in 1958, the same year Martin was ordained. She collected written ones into a scrapbook for the monsignor and recorded dozens of others on a video. Martin cherished every one of them, Meyers said. He saw the video as his retirement party in 2003. He didn't own a VCR.

"Everything he did he did for the glory and love of God and his children," said Meyers, who for months coordinated the scores of volunteers who clamored for a chance to cook for the monsignor - to help in some way.

"If I never meet another inspirational person in my life, he's been enough to last me. He was completely selfless. He made each one of us feel that we ... were his special child." 

Sometimes he did it with humor and a flair for the dramatic, because Martin, who always preferred to be called Father rather than Monsignor, wasn't afraid of looking silly sometimes, said Ron Tiberi, who was a fourth-grader at Mission School when he first met Martin, then an associate priest at the church.

"He wasn't afraid to say it like it is from the pulpit, but he was also not afraid to put on a funny hat or try to try to balance on the surfboard when he was with teens," Tiberi said. "Where somebody else might have worried about how they'd look, he'd do what it took to relate to someone or get the point across."  And yet it was always so hard to give him anything back.

These days, Tiberi, 53, helps his father and brother run Sam's Shoe Store in San Clemente, one of those unapologetically old-fashioned places where they still measure customers' feet to fit their shoes properly.  For years, Tiberi tried to keep Martin in shoes, socks and slippers.  

"The only way I could ever get him to take anything was by telling him he was making me look bad by wearing worn-out shoes," Tiberi said with a laugh, which quickly turned into tears as he remembered his long relationship with the monsignor.  

Not that all Martin's days at the Mission Church, now Mission Basilica, ran smoothly.  He shared a troubled time with the Juaneño Band of Mission Indians, whose lives have been intertwined with the mission since it was founded in 1776 by Father Junipero Serra.

"It had to do with a retirement issue involving my dad, who had been the business administrator at the mission for almost 42 years," said Jerry Nieblas, artifacts coordinator for the mission.

"He was being replaced to bring in some new technology, and the whole issue really escalated in the Native American community. It was a very painful time," said Nieblas, 53, whose family has contributed more than 100 years of service to the mission. "It was painful not only for the Native American community, but for the monsignor.

"But two years after the incident (Martin) held a Mass of healing and reparation ... in the center courtyard here. Hundreds of people came. It was like a married couple that goes through problems and comes out stronger than ever."  Nieblas said he will never forget those days - growing up in old San Juan and taking his place in the community.

"And now, with the monsignor, this chapter is coming to an end, and that's going to be hard. It's going to be a big chunk out of this community's life.  "He truly defined what a Catholic priest is all about." 

A parishioner expresses the loss.
Yesterday was very difficult as the impact hit me I have once again lost a very beloved friend & strong support system. The Basilica bells rang Sunday a.m. for Fr. Martin &I never heard them. Broke my heart I didn't hear the bells ring for this most Blessed soul who has been such a loyal friend. Fr. Martin has done so much for me, my sons, as well as my Dear Mama. He never wanted to be repaid. Only in the last yrs. did he accept Disney Land tickets for special children he had in mind. I'll never forget his wink, extremely strong sincere handshake, smile, nor the time after a silent auction for the parish school (around midnight) when I was quickly bagging auction items. Fr. Martin bid parents Good Night &Thank You. Fr. then looked over his shoulder winked &referred to me as "The Mission Bag lady." This has been a quiet joke between Fr. & myself for 20 yrs. In town Monday there was a very somber mood. Nothing seemed real. Many had tears in their eyes &
very few smiled. We all knew Fr. Martin as our Priest, yet he was such a dear friend to so many. I can't believe my gentle, giving, loving friend is no longer a phone call away. I already truly miss Fr. Martin.     
              Parishioner Rita . . . . 

A Bibliography of Early California and Neighboring Territory Through 1846:
An Era of Exploration, Missions, Presidios, Ranchos, and Indians
Sent by Johanna De Santos

Supplement One, 1990-2001
Compiled by Robert LeRoy Santos, California State University, Stanislaus University Library
Alley-Cass Publications, Turlock, CA 2002

Table of Contents
Introduction   Page ii 
Table of Contents   Page iii 
Chapter One General California Page 1 
Chapter Two Exploration Pages 2 - 4 
Chapter Three Spanish and Mexican Periods Pages 5 - 19 
Chapter Four Missions and Missionaries Pages 20 - 46 
Chapter Five Presidios - Military Pages 47 - 50 
Chapter Six Spanish and Mexican Pueblos, Adobes, and Settlements Pages 51 - 55 
Chapter Seven Ranchos and Agriculture Pages 56 - 57 
Chapter Eight Government Pages 58 - 62 
Chapter Nine Southwest Pages 63 - 94 
Chapter Ten Indians - Non-Mission Topics Pages 95 - 122 
Chapter Eleven American Conquest Pages 123 - 124 
Subject Index   Pages 125 - 140 

The Juana Briones Heritage Foundation 
Sent by Halimah Van Tuyl, President 

A group of historians, architects, educators, neighbors and community leaders that are committed to saving an earthen-walled rare adobe.

Juana's Briones' Life - The Juana Briones Heritage Foundation
Juana Briones was born in 1802 in Villa Branciforte, now Santa Cruz, ... 
Juana Briones owned five properties in her lifetime and in her later years moved to ...

Presidio of San Francisco  Juana Briones (1802-1889). Businesswoman, Healer, Landowner. Doña Juana Briones de Miranda was a Mexican-American pioneer who prospered through numerous ...

Sequoia Genealogical Society, Tulare City Library Website

Congratulations to the Sequoia GS who will be have a website shortly.
Contact: Elvina Fernandez,   559-686-6538
Or Tulare City Librarian: Mary DeLuz  559-685-2342


First Annual Diversity Conference, Central Valley Cultural Heritage Institute
Sent by Dorinda Moreno

The first annual campus-community diversity conference sponsored by the Central Valley Cultural Heritage Institute (CVCHI) will be hosted by Fresno State on Tuesday, October 11, 2005. 

This full-day conference, entitled, “Culture and Community Building: Transformative Practices,” will feature over 30 workshops offered by Fresno State faculty, staff, students and community members. Music and dance performances by Carmen Cristina and others will delight the audience. A Cultural Expo and Cultural Marketplace will add to the wide spectrum of cultural experience.

Featured speakers were: : 
William C. Rhoden, African-American sports writer for the New York Times, jazz critic, and author Lost Tribe Wandering: The Peril and Promise of African American Athletes (co-sponsored through Associated Students). 

Sergio Arau, MTV Award-Winning director, and acclaimed actress Yareli Arizmendi, co-creators of the film A Day Without a Mexican, a politically charged work of wit, irreverence and social commentary (in collaboration with University Lecture Series). 

Pre-conference activities include a 3-day Train the Trainer Seminar that will instruct participants in how to conduct NCBI “Welcoming Diversity” workshops and a one-day “Beyond Diversity” Workshop that is designed to help teachers, parents and administrators consider the implications of racism, exclusion and prejudice on student learning.

CVCHI information call 278-6946 or visit

Book:  Early California Wills, California
California Society, D.A.R., 1952, 952 pgs.    
Sent by Johanna De Soto

Volume 1. Los Angeles County Wills, 1850-1885 
Volume 2. Los Angeles County Wills, 1885-1890 
Volume 3. San Diego County Wills, 1848-1899 
Volume 4. Placer, Shasta, and Yuba County Wills; Shasta County Birth, Marriages, Deaths, Divorces, 1927; Placer County Marriage Licenses, 1852-1856 
Volume 5. Kern County Wills 1876-1899; Kern County Marriage Licenses, 1850-1900 
Volume 6. Santa Clara County Wills, Solano County Wills 

Notice: This data is donated to the Public Domain by TAG, 2005, and may be copied freely by anyone to anywhere. 
Project Name: Cal Wills Volume 1. 
Project Source: Early California wills, California: California Society, D.A.R., 1952, 952 pgs. 
Project Manager: Carol Jackson 

Volunteers: Sharon Yost, Pamela Storm Wolfskill, Rich Wharff, Betty Vickroy, Doug Urbanus, Candice Francisco Toth, Kathy Styles, Dee Sardoch, Margie Newton, Jeanne Moody, Joseph Kral, Carol Jackson,  Brie Jackson, Dale Isaacson, Sandra Harris, Linda Hamid, Patricia Grisotti, Cathy Gowdy, Carolyn Feroben, Ron Filion, Aviva Ernst, Marie Clayton, Jill Crowhurst Chesnik, Judy Bodycote-Thomas, Darleen Berens, Donna Becker, and Madelyn Bechini. 
Early California Wills, Los Angeles County, 1850-1885—pages 1-167 
Explanation of Index—page 168 
Index—pages 169-205 

Project Name: Cal Wills Volume 2. 
Project Source: Early California wills, California: California Society, D.A.R., 1952, 952 pgs. 
Project Manager: Carol Jackson 

Volunteers: Sharon Yost, Pamela Storm Wolfskill, Rich Wharff, Betty Vickroy, Doug Urbanus, Candice Francisco Toth, Kathy Styles, Dee Sardoch, Margie Newton, Jeanne Moody, Joseph Kral, Carol Jackson, Brie Jackson, Dale Isaacson, Sandra Harris, Linda Hamid, Patricia Grisotti, Cathy Gowdy, Ron Filion, Aviva Ernst, Marie Clayton, Jill Crowhurst Chesnik, Judy Bodycote-Thomas, Darleen Berens, Donna Becker, and Madelyn Bechini. 
Early California Wills, Los Angeles County, 1885-1890—pages 1-129 
Explanation of Index—page 130 
Index—pages 131-156 
Project Name: Cal Wills Volume 3. 
Project Source: Early California wills, California: California Society, D.A.R., 1952, 952 pgs. 
Project Manager: 

Introduction—pages 1-2 
Abstract of Wills made from Register's of Action of Probate Proceedings, San Diego County Clerk's Office—pages 3-337 
Indices of Will Books, Nos 1, 11 and 111—County Recorder's Office, Civic Center—pages 338-344 
Abstracts of Auxiliary Wills in Will Books for which no Estate Box has been found—County Clerk's Office—pages 345-359 
Explanation of Index—page 360 
Index—page 361 
Project Name: Cal Wills Volume 4. 
Project Source: Early California wills, California: California Society, D.A.R., 1952, 952 pgs. 
Project Manager: 

Vital Records—Shasta County—Births (1927)—pages 1-6 
Vital Records—Shasta County—Marriages (1927)—pages 7-25 
Vital Records—Shasta County—Deaths (1927)—pages 26-32 
Vital Records—Shasta County—Divorces (1927)—pages 33-35 
Early Wills—Shasta County—pages 36-41 
Early Marriage Records—Placer County—pages 42-45 
Early Wills—Placer County—pages 46-52 
Early Wills—Yuba County—pages 53-58 
Alphabetical Index to Wills—page 59 
Project Name: Cal Wills Volume 5. 
Project Source: Early California wills, California: California Society, D.A.R., 1952, 952 pgs. 
Project Manager: 

Kern County Wills—1876-1879—pages 1-6 
Kern County Wills—1881—page 8 
Kern County Wills—1880-1896—pages 10-36 
Kern County Wills—1897-1899—pages 38-46 
Marriage Licenses—Hall of Records—Kern County—1850-1900—Alphabetically arranged—pages 48-55 
Explanation of Index to Wills—page 56 
Index to Wills—pages 57-63 
Project Name: Cal Wills Volume 6. 
Project Source: Early California wills, California: California Society, D.A.R., 1952, 952 pgs. 
Project Manager: 

Santa Clara County Wills—pages 1-25 
Index to above—pages 26-27 
Solano County Wills—pages 28-48 
Index to above—49 


Hispanic Roots: Conference in Spanish Helps Latinos connect to past
New Church History Library  
Hispanic Culture, 1598-2005

Hispanic Roots: Conference in Spanish Helps Latinos connect to past
Eighth Annual Hispanic Family History Conference, Utah
by Jason Swensen, Church News staff writer, October 22, 2005 
Sent by Analia (Ana) Montalvo Pacheco

Old, yellowing photos, such as this of the Evaristo Leal family in 1957 with children grown, can be priceless keepsakes. Recent participants in the Eighth Annual Family History Conference learned research skills to bring them closer to generations gone by.  
Photo courtesy Leandro Soria

At the beginning of the Eighth Annual Hispanic Family History Conference, keynote speaker George R. Ryskamp asked a few seasoned genealogists how long they had been laboring to discover their own family history.

Decades, a few said.  "Are you finished?" Brother Ryskamp asked, smiling. Nope, they answered, the work goes on. Indeed, seeking one's family history is a lifelong endeavor. "It's work," admitted Brother Ryskamp, "you won't do it in a day. But it's worth it."

Dozens of LDS Latinos gathered Oct. 15 at the Church's Family History Library to learn the ins-and-outs of genealogical research. The conference is evidence of the growing popularity of Hispanics searching their ancestral roots. Interest has grown considerably, he said. Recent seminars he has conducted in other parts of the United States and this seminar have had "the best attendance in years."

Ten years ago, Hispanic research was nearly all academic, but now it has grown in popularity and interest with Internet groups springing up, and a lot of activity going on.

"There is a much stronger response on the Internet, especially in Mexico," said Brother Ryskamp. "The (Mexico) National Archive has one of the best indexes of their collection, nearly 700,000 documents indexed online in considerable detail."  He said other countries also have information that is more accessible than previously.

By design, the conference's many workshops were varied — focusing on the needs of both family history novices and experienced amateur genealogists. The workshops were conducted in Spanish and addressed the unique challenges and opportunities found through family history research in Spain and throughout Latin America.

The free event was held in conjunction with Hispanic Heritage Month and hosted by the Family History Library, the BYU Center for Family History and Genealogy and Legado Latino, the Hispanic chapter of the Utah Genealogical Association.  "The conference was magnificent," said Armando Palomeque, a Church convert from Cordoba, Argentina, who is busy preparing names for temple work. "It was a spiritual event — something very special."

Internet sites such as the Mexico National Archive are available to help Hispanic family history researchers. 

The annual event serves as a reminder of the vast resources at the disposal of LDS Latinos anxious to fulfill their personal duty to redeem the dead, said Carlos Alvarez, president of Legado Latino. Some simply don't know how to begin and where to find help. "Many Latinos just don't know what's available," Brother Alvarez said. The conference is about empowerment, he added.

"When you leave a session you will be able to get started," he said. "You'll know what forms to fill out, how to interview relatives and how to record that information." 

In the eight years that the Family History Library has sponsored the conference, Brother Alvarez has seen a wide range of people participate. He's seen last year's genealogy rookies become this year's family history "vets."

The conference helps soften the "intimidation factor" that may prevent many LDS Latinos — particularly recent converts to the Church — from enjoying the process of effective family history research.

Rumors are also put to rest. For example, some LDS Mexicans believe that personal family history research is futile because their own ancestors' vital records were burned or destroyed during the Mexican Revolution. Not so, said Brother Alvarez, adding that a treasure trove of resources exists for folks of Mexican descent.

"We teach people how to find places that don't seem to exist," he said.  In his keynote comments, Brother Ryskamp spoke of the key steps of family history work.  Take the opportunity to learn to do this work, he said.

Besides annual family conferences, instruction can be found in ward and stake family history libraries. A bit of education then places folks on the path to effective searching and seeking. Genealogy is detective work. Flush out nuggets of information from family, baptismal and confirmation records and land grants, along with notarial, census and military records.

To illustrate the many primary resources that are available for family history study, Brother Ryskamp examined the documented life of Cesario Garcia, a Mexican who lived in Chihuahua City during the early 19th century. In search of Cesario Garcia, researchers were able to collect two dozen documents from six different archives.

Through such resources, this forgotten man from more than a century past "comes to life," he said.
Remember, family history researchers, "No estamos solo." We are not alone. Help is available at family history libraries, on the Internet and in genealogy software specifically designed for Latin American and Spanish family history research, Brother Ryskamp said.  Plus, the heavens are eager to assist.

Brother Ryskamp spoke of the promise found in Doctrine and Covenants 84:88: "I will be on you right hand and on your left, and my Spirit shall be in your hearts, and mine angels round about you, to bear you up."

That pledge is typically associated with missionary work. But remember, Brother Ryskamp said, missionary work is being done on both sides of the veil. Much of the work for those who have passed on is accomplished via family history research. "There are many times when angels are among us," he said.

Following Brother Ryskamp's address, conference-goers spent the day participating in a variety of workshops. Classes focused on preparing names for temple work; getting started in family history; census research; genealogy and the Internet; family history research and youth; using civil records; and tips on investigating national archives in Spain, the United States and the nations of Latin America. 

Participants were also provided a packet with Hispanic family history tips and the Church-produced CD-ROM "Latin American Family History Resources."

New Church History Library  
From: David Lewis 

Deseret Morning News, Saturday, 
October 08, 2005 
Excerpt: LDS Church breaks ground for library 
By Amelia Nielson-Stowell

 . .the groundbreaking marked "a day of history in the history of the church" and added that the state-of-the art facility will be "very interesting and magnificent."  The five-floor, 250,000-square-foot building will be located on the northeast corner of the intersection of North Temple and Main streets. It will house the growing historical collection, which currently includes 3.5 million manuscripts, 210,000 publications, 100,000 photographs and 50,000 audiovisual productions.

"It is very essential that our history be preserved and preserved appropriately, written appropriately and preserved appropriately, so that future generations can benefit from that which takes place today and has taken place in years gone by," said President Thomas S. Monson, first counselor in the First Presidency. "We benefit from what our fathers have done for us, and we have the privilege through sacred records, which will be maintained here to provide a legacy for those who follow."

"We're very thrilled. We've needed this facility," said Richard E. Turley Jr., managing director of the Family and Church History department. "Most people think that paper and film and so forth last forever. They do not. . . . This building is designed specifically for this purpose."

The new building will put emphasis on environmental controls, such as temperature, humidity and lighting, to preserve materials that deteriorate with age. He did not know cost but said it will be substantial.  The 250,000-square-foot LDS Church History Library will sit at northeast corner of North Temple and Main.


Chile Breeder, Fabian García enshrined in National Hall of Fame
Commemorating Lalo Guerrero
Dan Guerrero follows in father's footsteps
Nov. 19, 2005:  El Camino Real International Heritage Center Opens
Check out Cemeteries of New Mexico by Gloria B. Mayfield 
Index of Surnames
Sin Nombre: Hispana and Hispano Artists of the New Deal Era 


Fabian Garcia (1871-1948)

Chile Breeder, 
Fabian García enshrined in National Hall of Fame

Noted Hispanic Chile Researcher Named to Scientific Hall of Fame 
For more information contact: Paul Bosland, 
(505) 646-5171, 
Reporter: Norman Martin, (505) 646-3323, 
LAS CRUCES - The father of the U.S. Mexican food industry has been enshrined in the national Hall of Fame for the American Society for Horticultural Science. Fabian García, a pioneering New Mexico State University chile breeder, was inducted into the hall this summer, some five decades after his death. 

"This award is the cherry on top of an illustrious career," said Paul Bosland, an internationally recognized chile breeder with NMSU's Agricultural Experiment Station and director of the university's Chile Pepper Institute. "The inductees in this group are elite professionals who've been at the top of their profession." 

García was chosen by a panel of eight industry leaders, educators and scholars from across the nation. The 3,000-member society, founded in 1903, is the nation's largest scientific organization dedicated to advancing horticultural research and education. 

During more than 50 years at NMSU, Garcia carried out a series of revolutionary horticultural experiments. In 1899, he began research to develop more standardized chile varieties. Early in the 1900s, he released New Mexico 9, the first variety with a dependable pod size and heat level. 

The new pod variety opened commercial markets for New Mexico chile peppers and established the state's chile pepper food industry, Bosland said. 

"For that work he's known as the 'father of the U.S. Mexican food industry,'" Bosland said. "All New Mexican-type chile peppers grown today, including the Anaheim, owe their genetic base to Fabian Garcia's New Mexico No. 9 variety." 

Now, New Mexico's chile industry boasts varieties aplenty - greens, reds, jalapeños, cayennes and paprikas. As a niche cash crop, New Mexico's chile industry contributes about $400 million annually to the local economy, including $300 million worth of peppers and processed goods and about $100 million that growers pump into local businesses for supplies and inputs, said Rhonda Skaggs, an agricultural economics professor at NMSU. 

Born in Mexico in 1871, Garcia came to the United States in 1873 as a orphan with his grandmother. He became a U.S. citizen in 1889. 

Garcia attended what was then known as the New Mexico College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, now New Mexico State University. He was a member of the university's first graduating class in 1894, and later became the director of the land-grant school's Agricultural Experiment Station. 

"Fabian Garcia was the first Hispanic in the nation to lead a land-grant agricultural research station," said LeRoy Daugherty, associate director of NMSU's Agricultural Experiment Station. "He filled the position with enthusiasm and extraordinary productivity both as a researcher and an administrator. His monumental achievements continue to inspire researchers and students at NMSU today." 

Another of Garcia's research accomplishments was his raised-bed method of growing peppers to reduce chile wilt, a root rot caused by a water mold, he said. Diseased plants wilt and die, leaving brown stalks and leaves, and small, poor quality fruit. 

Garcia's horticultural interests were deep and wide. The famed chile expert was instrumental in establishing New Mexico's massive pecan industry. In the early 1900s he planted many of the Mesilla Valley's first pecan trees. Garcia's four acres of pecans became the state's largest pecan planting. Today, New Mexico has more than 30,000 acres of pecans. 

Then there's Garcia's groundbreaking work on commercial onion production. After obtaining a high-yielding onion variety from Spain, he developed a new strain for New Mexico called Grano. 

The variety was later sent to the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station in Crystal City, Texas, where it aided in creation of today's $50 million Texas sweet onion industry, Daugherty said. 

Garcia's research ranged across a huge number of New Mexico crops, including pears, peaches, grapes and plums, as well as onions, spinach, melons and cauliflower. 

Several of Garcia's manuscripts, Agricultural Experiment Station bulletins, press bulletins and speeches were written and published in both English and Spanish, making him among the first American horticulturists to provide bilingual literature, Daugherty said. 

The "Old Director," as Garcia was called in the twilight of his career, retired in 1945 after falling ill. He died at 77 some three years later at Las Cruces' McBride Hospital. Garcia left his entire estate to the university, in part providing for a dormitory and scholarships for Hispanic youth. 

Before his death, Garcia told a friend, "I want to help poor boys, for I know of their hardships." 

NMSU honored his legacy by naming the 45-acre Fabian Garcia Research Center after him, in addition to a faculty senate meeting hall, a building housing its center for international programs and a dormitory, Garcia Hall. Today, Garcia Hall remains NMSU's largest residence hall. 

Garcia's legacy continues through NMSU's Fabian Garcia Memorial Scholarship and Fabian Garcia Multicultural Scholars Program. 

Garcia's hall of fame plaque at the American Society for Horticultural Science's Alexandria, Va., headquarters reads simply: "Dr. Fabian Garcia, a man of humble origins, but a gentleman of extraordinary achievements."   Contact Information: D'Lyn Ford - - phone (505) 646-6528 - fax (505) 646-3513 

Father's Day June 2004
Left: Raul Nava-Villa son of Ernesto Nava-Villa, son of Pancho Villa
 Right: Lalo Guerrero and son Dan Guerrero

Commemorating Lalo Guerrero 1916-2005
Raymundo Elí Rojas, Editor of Pluma Fronteriz a, Chicano Studies, University of Texas a t El Paso; From:

Designated a national treasure by President Clinton, he was called by many the "Father of Chicano Music." This native of Tucson's Barrio Viejo played or composed canciones rancheras, corridos, rock 'n' roll, mambo, and much, much more. – Raymundo Elí Rojas, Editor of Pluma Fronteriza, Chicano Studies, University of Texas at El Paso.

Here is an article on Lalo Guerrero I did for this week's People"s Weekly World. Hope you like it. The article has the picture I sent out last week with Lalo singing at the rally for a Cesar Chavez holiday Nov. 6 1999 that kicked off the successful campaign to make it a paid state holiday. I couldn't copy the photo off the PWW website( it can be printed go to so I am sending two other shots of the same day of Lalo speaking with arm around Dolores, and then the other with the two dancing swing right there en La Placita in downtown LA across from the mission by Olvera Street! Enjoy! Photos are by la gran companera Nancy Tovar Rosalio 
1916 – 2005 Lalo Guerrero, trovador chicano — presente!
Author: Rosalio Muñoz, People's Weekly World Newspaper, 03/24/05 19:56

“Without tortillas 
there would be no burritos,
Without the corn ones 
there would be no Fritos.”

So crooned Eduardo “Lalo” Guerrero to the tune of “O Sole Mio” (at the same time Elvis Presley used it for “It’s Now or Never”), reflecting the daily Chicano life of mexicano culture meeting gringo corporate realities. Known by all as Lalo, the Chicano trovador (troubadour) extraordinaire sang, composed and played mariachi, swing, bolero, boogie, mambo, cha-cha, rock and norteño music, often in poignant yet comic parodies, from the time of the Great Depression until he passed away March 17 in the Palm Springs suburb of California’s Coachella Valley. 

Guerrero was born Christmas Eve 1916 in the poorest barrio that housed the families of workers in the copper mines, rail yards, foundries and fields around Tucson, Ariz. His father was a boilermaker for the Southern Pacific railroad. One of 24 siblings, he was taught guitar and song by his mother and he worked at it all of his life. 

Growing up in the borderlands, Guerrero became adept at crossing over culturally, but not so much commercially, outside the barrios. He played the circuit of cafes, bars, dance halls and clubs along the rail lines and migrant farmworker routes, adapting his unique repertoire to the changing musical tastes of both sides of the border, decade after decade. In some ways he was a latter-day Chicano Woody Guthrie and an organic musicologist, an early Taj Mahal or Dave Van Ronk who specialized in barrio blues. 

In 1937 he wrote and composed “Cancion Mexicana,” which hit the top of Mexican mariachi charts. Between gigs in 1941 he worked on B-24 bombers for Consolidated Aircraft. In 1949, ever the Chicano, he wrote and composed “Los Chucos Suaves” (the cool guys), which was featured in Luis Valdez’s play and movie “Zoot Suit,” about a notorious 1942 racist attack by servicemen on Mexican American youth wearing the distinctive baggy clothing. The song was written in caló, the “Spanglish” street slang of the zoot-suited pachucos. It celebrated the popularity of the mambo over swing, boogie and jitterbug at the time. In 1955, Guerrero’s parody of Davy Crockett, Pancho Lopez (“The King of Olvera Street”) was so popular on both sides of the border that Walt Disney did not sue — instead he signed Guerrero to record the hit, earning the singer enough royalties to open a nightclub in East Los Angeles. 

In 1966, Guerrero wrote and composed “El Corrido de Delano,” chronicling the emergent United Farm Workers union and its young leader, Cesar Chávez. In 1968, as the Chicano movement exploded, and one of the student walkout demands was for Mexican food in the cafeteria, came the song “There’s No Tortillas.” In the 1970s Guerrero’s “El Chicano” projected demands for worker and immigrant rights and bilingual education. In the ’80s came “There’s No Chicanos on TV” and “Mexican Mammas, Don’t Let Your Babies Grow Up to Be Busboys.” In the ’90s he recorded “Papa’s Dream” with the popular Chicano rock group Los Lobos. (In the 1940s Guerrero’s swing, boogie and mambo band was known as Lalo Guerrero and his Cinco Lobos.) 

Though not a professional philosopher or politician his obra (work) reflected upon the realities of mano de obra barata (cheap labor), or discrimination, exploitation and the collective community culture and struggle to overcome. He played catchy tunes, but his lyrics are etched in the minds of generations of Chicanos. 

For example: 

“Jobs ain’t easy to find                            OR
and they’re harder to hold
especially if you’ve just crossed 
the border looking for gold,”
“I think that I shall never see 
any Chicanos on TV
There are Chicanos in real life, doctors,
lawyers, husbands and wives
But all they show us on TV 
is ‘illegal aliens’ as they flee.”
Lalo Guerrero’s genius came from his close contact with the people; it broadened and deepened with the movimiento chicano/a. Perhaps his most classic work came in 1990 with the nostalgic ballad “Barrio Viejo,” recalling in old age his childhood days in the Tucson barrio that, bit by bit, has been bulldozed away. It ends with Lalo asking to be buried in the soil of that barrio so they could both be “difuntos rodeados de mil recuerdos” (defunct ones surrounded by a thousand memories). Three of his songs will soon be released on “Chavez Ravine,” a CD by guitarist Ry Cooder. 

In 1996 he received the President’s Medal of the Arts from Bill Clinton. In 1980 the Smithsonian Institute named him a National Folk Treasure. 

Lalo the performer touched millions of lives personally. My mother and her siblings and friends were contemporaries of Lalo in the Tucson colonias and barrios. At a family reunion memorializing my mother, two days after Lalo’s death, stories were told of how my uncle, Rodolfo Urias, had Lalo accompany him to serenade his soon-to-be wife, Artemisia. Mom’s lifelong friend Alva Ruiz recalled how she interviewed Lalo in the 1930s as likely the first Chicana Spanish-language radio DJ in Tucson. My cousin Ricardo spoke of how his grandfather, Quiroz, sang in a mexicano band with Lalo. My sister-in-law Rosemary said her dad, Ernesto Durazo, and buddies palled around with Lalo in the ’30s as well. 

Indeed, Papa Lalo was — and is — presente!

Nov. 6 1999, photo on the right: Lalo singing at the rally for a Cesar Chavez holiday,  kicked off a successful campaign to make Cesar Chavez Day,  a paid state holiday.  

Lalo's arm is around Dolores Huerta, co-founder and secretary-treasurer of the United Farm Workers.

             Son Dan Guerrero

 Dan Guerrero is an independent producer of diverse television programming and major live award shows and concert events with special expertise in the U.S. Latino and Latin American markets.  Son, Dan Guerrero began his production career at Guber Peters Television as head writer for the late night talk/variety program, El Show de Paul Rodriguez

The landmark show aired nationally on Univision and internationally throughout Latin America bringing the biggest U.S. and Latin American stars together in a groundbreaking bilingual format. He was named co-producer after the first 13 shows and continued in that capacity for the three year run.



Dan eventually headed Paul Rodriguez Productions with two El Show colleagues where the team produced four “docu-comedy” specials for FOX starring the comic actor: Paul Rodriguez: Behind Bars, Crossing Gang Lines, Back to School and Born to Ride.

 The highly rated programs were a unique mix of documentary footage inter-cut with music and comedy taped at locations from San Quentin prison to the Black Hills of South Dakota and the barrios of East LA and South Central.

Home page:
Complete collection:
California Ethnic and Multicultural Archives


 Grand Opening of El Camino Real International Heritage Center 
  Nov. 19, 2005 


Mimi Lozano, I'd like to invite you and your colleagues to the Grand Opening of El Camino Real International Heritage Center, Socorro, NM, Saturday, November 19, 2005, 11:00 a.m. 

This new State Monument commemorates El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, one of the odlest and most important historic trails in the United States and one of New Mexico's most important cultural treasures. The Center has already won three architectural awards, and the exhibits that are curently under construction promise to delight, educate, and inform. I hope you, your family and friends will be able to join us. The unique exhibit design takes visitors on a journey along a portion of the Camino from Zacatecas, Mexico to Santa Fe, NM through first person stories, art and artifacts.

Please be so kind and forward to me a mailing list of those individuals you would like me to invite. I want to make this celebration as inclusive as possible. Thank you.

Yolanda Nava 
Director, Marketing & Public Relations 
New Mexico State Monuments, Department of Cultural Affairs 

Check out Cemeteries of New Mexico by Gloria B. Mayfield 
From: Johanna De Soto

New Mexico Counties: Bernalillo, Catron, Chaves, Cibola, Colfax, Curry, De Baca, Dona Ana, Eddy, Grant, Guadalupe, Harding, Hidalgo, Lea, Lincoln, Los Alamos, Luna, McKinley, Mora, Otero, Quay, Rio Arriba, Roosevelt, San Juan, San Miguel, Sandoval, Sante Fe, Sierra, Socorro, Taos, Torrance, Union, Valencia

Index of Surnames

80634 individuals, 25368 families from file gnmpd50 09-21-05 complete.ged (21 SEP 2005) 
Author:  Hispanic Genealogy Research Center of New México
P.O. Box 51088, Albuquerque, NM 87181
505 833 4197 

Sin Nombre: Hispana and Hispano Artists of the New Deal Era 
From: Los Amigos of LB

Sin Nombre: Hispana and Hispano Artists of the New Deal Era

Hundreds of New Mexican Hispana and Hispano artists created art during the 1930s and 1940s for New Deal programs under president Franklin D. Roosevelt. Many of these artists had their works shown in major national museums. Yet with few exceptions, the artists' names have been forgotten.

Sin Nombre: Hispana and Hispano Artists of the New Deal Era, opened Sunday, June 6, 1999 at the Museum of International Folk Art, gave long overdue recognition to those artists who contributed to a national artistic legacy. 

"The central goal of Sin Nombre was to recover a portion of American art history and to expose a larger American audience to the significant artistic contributions of Hispana and Hispano artists of early 20th century New Mexico," said Dr. Tey Marianna Nunn, Curator of Contemporary Hispano and Latino collections at the Museum of International Folk Art.

Approximately 200 works were featured in the exhibition, including paintings on canvas and glass, wood sculpture, three-dimensional polychrome sculpture, reliefs, furniture, embroidery, weavings and mixed media.

Artists represented ranged from those who were acclaimed and featured in exhibitions at the Museum of Modern Art in the 1930s to those whose work has been identified as anonymous until now.

One of the artists featured in Sin Nombre was Pedro López Cervántez. Cervántez grew up in Texico, New Mexico, and began drawing as a child. As a teenager he received private lessons in oils. He worked on murals painted for the Public Works of Art Project in 1934, and 10 of his paintings were chosen for the Masters of Popular Painting exhibit at the Museum of Modern Art in 1938. His work also was shown in the Works Progress Administration (WPA) exhibit at the 1939-1940 World's Fair. Despite the national recognition Cervántez received, not one of his paintings hangs in a public museum in New Mexico.

Why have Cervántez and other artists of his era been forgotten? According to Dr. Nunn, settlers from the East Coast perceived Hispanos as "foreign," although they had been in the area for centuries. By extension, their art was labeled "naive," "primitive," "rustic" and "handicraft," reflecting aesthetic and cultural prejudices of the time. " 'Folk art' and 'handicraft' are inadequate terms for the works by the artists included in Sin Nombre, whose art is of the highest caliber," Nunn said.

Sin Nombre opened June 6, 1999 and closed September 5, 2000. The exhibition was accompanied by a number of educational programs, including a lecture series, a film series and a statewide outreach initiative. 

Funding for Sin Nombre was provided by the National Endowment for the Arts, the Rockefeller Foundation, the George Sakier Foundation, McCune Charitable Foundation, the International Folk Art Foundation and the Museum of New Mexico Foundation.

The Museum of International Folk Art, located off the Old Santa Fe Trail at Camino Lejo, is part of the Museum of New Mexico, a division of the New Mexico Office of Cultural Affairs.

Dr. Tey Marianna Nunn, a native Nuevomexicana, is the Curator of Contemporary Hispano and Latino collections at the Museum of International Folk Art in Santa Fe. She received her Ph.D. in Latin American Studies (with a focus on art history and history) from the University of New Mexico. She is the author of Sin Nombre: Hispana and Hispano Artists of the New Deal Era (University of New Mexico Press, 2001). Sin Nombre was awarded the Ralph Emerson Twitchell Award for “significant contribution to history” by the Historical Society of New Mexico. Nunn has curated numerous exhibitions one of them is “Flor y Canto: Reflections from Nuevo México.” She lectures widely on various aspects of contemporary and traditional Hispano and Latino art and cultural identity. Her article, “Goldie Garcia: La reina de rasquache and South Broadway” is included in the award-winning book, Chicana Traditions: Continuity and Change, edited by Norma Cantú and Olga Najera-Ramírez (University of Illinois Press, 2002). 

Nunn was voted Santa Fe Arts Person and Woman of the Year in 2001.

Copyright © 2003 Smithsonian Institution


Black Indigenous Mexico  
The Legacy of Vicente Guerrero: Mexico's First Black Indian President
Gaspar Yanga and his Black Mexican Republic
Seminario-Taller "Representación étnica en el arte y el diseño" 


Black Indigenous Mexico  
Letter received from Theodore "Ted" Vincent,  10/19/2005 

Dear Mimi Lozano:
    What a wonderful web page is your "Black Latino Connection."  I see you have an article by my UCLA friend Alva Moore Stevenson.  Now that I have found you, I seem to recall that she suggested I look you up.   And now I see your fine work and I notice that your page is quite large.   I would like to be in communication with you about how you put huge quantities of historical material on the net,  as, for instance does your friend John Schmall.
     Presently, I have a kind of sizable page on AOL.    I am Theodore "Ted" Vincent, author of "The Legacy of Vicente Guerrero: Mexico's First Black Indian President" (University  Press of  Florida, 2001)   My "Black Indian Mexico" web page is
     Over the past two years I have put together a 70 picture history saga titled "Gaspar Yanga and his  Black Mexican Republic" which is a book crafted to emphasize the cases of positive social and political interaction between African and Indigenous Mexico.  This photo book is in search of a publisher.  Perhaps I will end up simply putting it on the net, a la the contributions of John Schmall.
     I would like for you to see some of what I have to offer.  A number of the photos for the book are in my web site.  (It was put up early in 2000.  The new book has a more Indigenous slant).  Below is the text opening as adjusted for a Book Proposal..
     Looking forward to further contact.

by Theodore G. Vincent 2005
INTRODUCTION  (This is the actual book opening adjusted for this proposal) 
    “Those who read of his work know that ‘The Yanga’ fought for freedom, dignity and respect for his people, and know that his principles pertain to you, my friend... now, in the here and now, when millions of Mexicanos are in need of hope for justice and redemption
   “Now you are Yanga.
   “Those who read of him can be Yanga.
   “Everyone ought to be Yanga.”
    --Guillermo Sánchez de Anda, at close of his 1998 historical novela, “Yanga: Guerrero Negro.”
     Why does Sánchez de Anda call upon all Mexicans to be an African who led a slave revolt of blacks in Veracruz  back in 1570?   That question is explored here in this 242 manuscript page study which also looks at: Why has Yanga gone from cult hero for generations of Mexican leftists, to the subject of web pages on four continents?  Why is he honored with poems, short stories,  a CD, a dance troupe, and a theater troupe that has acted out his story in Mexico, across the United States and in Europe?  Why do young activists of the world wide “hip hop nation” sit and listen to university academicians lecture in Veracruz from the moldy data on the black rebel?.

    Gaspar Yanga was a Prince in Nyanga, Gabon, who was taken in chains to the cane fields of Veracruz.  He organized a revolt on the plantation and later fought off a Spanish army and obtained a treaty that made the Yangans “the first free people in the Americas” declares the banner hung in his city during its annual parade to the founder.  Speaking of that  parade, this book explores what inspired some participants in the late 1980s to put on ‘black face’ to compensate for not looking African.  The practice was ended by paraders more sensitive to race, but not without heated discussion, such as recently occurred regarding the black stereotyped Memín Penguín cartoon.

    This book shows how Yanga the African became a Mexican, all-be-it one with African customs, according to the records.  The Prince of Gabon became Mexican by reason of the term’s ambiguous definition in those early decades of Spanish colonial rule. One way to be Mexican was to fight from the lower orders against the elite who hid themselves away behind hacienda walls and tall mansion doors.  The elite didn’t want to be Mexican.  Indeed, some were born in Spain, while those born here claimed allegiance across the ocean and called themselves “Espanoles,” Spaniards.  Mexicans lived outside the walls, excepting those who worked for or serviced the elite, and could dream of their children of the master’s blood becoming “Espanoles.”  Most people, however, could not so aspire.  Among them, individuals who dared to stand up to the Spaniards were admired.  They were the Mexicano heroes of countless old corridos, those long romantic ballads about macho peasants who fought the crooked sheriff.  Gaspar Yanga took on a whole army, and his song didn’t have to end with the usual sad verse.

     That a Prince from Nyanga has a city in his name in Veracruz is in line with others who get cities in Mexico, and with those who are honored on Mexican money.  Whereas our dollar bills show only white men, the peso bills depicted the following in the year 2000. On the 10, there was the fighter for Indigenous peasant rights, Emiliano Zapata, Indigenous with some African heritage; the 20 had the pure Indigenous president Benito Juárez; the 50 had the intellectual and general, José María Morelos y Pavón - Indigenous African and Spanish; the 100 had the Texcoco poet King Nezahualcóyotl.  A European looking person finally appeared on the 200 peso, and she is the feminist poet nun, Sor. Juana Inez, who was said to have had Jewish ancestry.   Poets!  Women!  People of color!  A heathen and a Jew!  One may ask what is going on.  One answer is that the color and diversity on the money is one side of a centuries long media war.  In colonial times, the other side was the all-European looking portrait business, and now that side is seen daily in the preponderance of blonds on Mexican television.

    Gaspar Yanga, being Mexico’s best known slave revolt leader, invites comparison with the best known in the United States.  At first glance Yanga and Nat Turner have much in common.  Both rebels shared the experience of labor in the fields, sugar for the former, cotton for the latter.  Both represent a large forced migration.  More than 250,000 enslaved Africans were brought to Mexico, while some 500,000  were taken to what is now the United States.   Both black revolutionaries were under the whip and verbally abused.  Both had a numerical advantage over the whites during the first hours of rebellion, and each rebel leader had a nearby geographic refuge, if they could fight their way to it.  Yanga was a little over a dozen miles from one of the tallest and most rugged mountain ranges in the hemisphere..  Turner was roughly a similar distance from the Virginia/North Carolina “great dismal swamp” where there were already many black runaways, as there were already  runaways in the mountains near Yanga.

    The similarities are matched by contrasts, however. [[Editor: I disagreed to Ted concerning the following statement as an inaccurate and prejudicial generalization because many of my ancestors came with wives and families.]] Whites came to settle in Turner’s U.S., whereas whites came to colonial Mexico to get rich and go home. Whites came in families to the U.S., while very few Spanish women came to colonial Mexico.  A huge white mobilization responded to Turner’s 1831 uprising, and he was defeated.  Whereas when Yanga rose in 1570  there were not enough Spaniards and hirelings to surround Yanga’s rebels on the plantations, and they fought their way  to the mountains.   It was 1609 before Yanga was militarily confronted in a massive manner, and the majority of his opponents were Mexican conscripts rather than soldiers from Spain. The enemy ranks were larger than Yanga ‘s whole village of 500, which had children, women and the elderly, including himself “the Ancient One.”  Over many days fierce  of fighting,  the Yangan strategy of retreat and attack in rugged terrain stymied the Spanish, who had hoped, at least, to force the Yangans to disband.  Instead, they held together, while receding deeper into spectacular wilds that are now a Mexican national park.   Rather than let Yanga get away, the Spaniards hoisted the white flag asking negotiation. [[Editor: Yanga and his men were preying on the merchants, stealing their goods. The negotiation included ceasing to attack the merchant caravans.]]  Thus, Yanga obtained a treaty granting freedom, land and political autonomy in return for loyalty to Spain, adherence to the Catholic religion and other concessions, including a promise to return to their masters any future runaways who might seek sanctuary in the black republic.  Over the next two centuries the Spaniards tried legal and illegal tactics to abolish the little free town. [[Editor: Please note, Spain did not break any treaties as the U.S. did repeatedly.  They should be respected for that.]]  But when the Empire fell in 1821, the enclave was still there.  It had 718 people, a church, a mill and a distillery.

    Today in Mexico, Gaspar Yanga has his festival, a tall statue, and a city and county in his name.  Nat Turner apparently doesn’t have even a street name.  Yanga benefits by being in a country where taking on “the man” takes precedence over anti-black prejudice.  The  writers in Mexico who, since the late 19th Century, have applauded Yanga‘s achievement, typically champion the fighting Indigenous  as well.  The Veracruz state politicians who in 1932 voted to change the name of the town of San Lorenzo to that of its founder, Yanga, voted at the same session to replace the Spanish name of San Juan de la Punta, eight miles down the road, to that of the Aztec fighter against the Conquistadores, Cuitlahuac.  Black and brown being in the same struggle is a recurrent theme in Mexico and revolutionary muralists of the past century have memorialized many of these occurrences

    Ironically, the writers, poets, and musicians who publicize the Prince from Africa in the name of Mexico are taking their payback for Yanga’s use of the Indigenous in gaining his freedom. Yanga chose his moment of revolution while the King of Spain faced many distractions.. The moment came during an intensification of a forty year  guerrilla war being waged by the highland Indigenous.  Their charismatic organizer, Chief Maxorro, had welcomed runaway slaves to his fold,  but the Yangans were too far away to join, and they fled, instead, into the nearby Zongolican mountains, where the Zongolican natives had earlier capitalized on Maxorro’s war to demand and receive from the Spaniards a “Republica de los Indios” a grant of local autonomy.  After Yanga fought off the Crown troops in 1609, his peace demands copied the clauses in Indio Republicas, and he obtained the hemisphere’s first Republica de los Negros.  It is unfortunate that Nat Turner had no Indigenous with whom to coalesce.  According to political scientists, outside help is one of the crucial factors for revolutions to succeed. 

     Contrasting time lines for Mexico and the land that became the United States are important to keep in mind.  Native Mexico became involved in race in 1519 when the Spanish Conquistadors landed with two African slaves with them.  The British didn’t land in Jamestown until 1607, and the first enslaved African in 1619, a century after the first in Mexico.  The Mexican time line lengthens the multi-generational story of Yangan civic activism, and of the national leaders supported by the Yangans, such as Morelos and Zapata, and the first “Black Indian” president, Vicente Guerrero.  A grandson of the latter was Vicente Riva Palacio, the prolific  19th Century scholar/novelist who brought Yanga to the public in writings that are still in print, and to which this book owes much..  The Yanga saga interacts with that of other heroes of his region, including Padre Juan Moctezuma of Zongolica, a descendant of the Aztec Emperor; and Catalina de Erauzú, the Basque gun toting duelist muleteer considered in some circles to be the Western World’s most famous lesbian of the 17th Century.

    The story of Gaspar Yanga and his town flows through multiple complex concepts of race.  The Spaniards labeled people white, black, Indio, or  mestizo (Indio white), mulatto (white black), zambo (Indio black), castizo (mestizo and white), and more.  Yangans were labeled black although the community was integrated with natives early on.  And Yanga continues to be a proudly black community, even though those who look African have been a small minority in recent decades.  Race is more socially than genetically defined in present day Mexico.  A basic definition of Indigenous, for instance,  is a person who spoke a Native language at home until age five.  Today, a full third of the nation has some African root, notes Gonzalo Aguirre Beltrán, dean of Afro-Mexican studies.  However, over half don’t know, or are in denial, he explains.  An exception is the number of people of Yanga city and county who claim descendence from Gaspar Yanga.
CHAPTER 1.  YANGA: THE MYSTIQUE    (actual first chapter)
    Lasting recognition rarely comes to “working class heroes,” even those who might “win one” against the oppressors.  Rarer still, is recognition given to leaders of “the peasantry” from any year of the 16th or 17th centuries from anywhere in the Western World.   For instance, no town or county is named after Chief Maxorro who launched the long Indigenous rebellion in the Central plains of Mexico, the rebellion which apparently was a key distraction to the Spaniards to help Yanga and his people to safely flee the cane fields in 1570.  We don’t even know Maxorro’s full name.

     Gaspar Yanga stands out among the Mexican masses that are generally mere anthropological curiosities, or faceless masses under the sombrero in accounts of the nation’s many revolutions.  The enslaved Nyangan lives on because, through circumstance and timing, he has inspired writers who want to score political points.  Accounts of him while he lived come largely from priests eager to show that their church was closer to “the people” than were the agents of the King of Spain.  A priest detailed Yanga's 1609 military showdown, for instance.  During Mexico's 1810-1821 war for independence there was intense freedom fighter work in the area of Yanga’s village, and we know of it largely from a chronicle written by a local priest.

    Secular political use of Yanga was made by his townsfolk, who erected an oblisk engraved with the founder’s exploits. in 1788, a year when inspiration was needed  to thwart those who would dissolve the little republic.   Political points through Yanga were made between 1870 and 1890 by Vicente Riva Palacio, the socialistic scholarly grandson of president Guerrero.  Riva Palacio wanted the nation to remember its black "third root."  Continual reprints of his works on Yanga include the 1997 15th republishing of his "Los 33 Negros," in a run of 20,000 copies.

     Yanga was next given prominance by Enrique Herrera Moreno, a medical doctor who was born on a former slave plantation near Yanga.  In 1892 the then young practitioner published a detailed history of the struggle of the African for freedom.  The chronicle seems a wish list for the revolution that came to Mexico in 1910, and in which Herrera Moreno was an activist at the national level for the cause of free public health care and public education for all.

     In 1963 the 82 year old, self educated, Yangan campesino Leonardo Ferrandón published his memoirs, which highlight the 1885 Yangan agrarian revolt (the first in the state), and the wildly dramatic militancy of Yangan campesinos during the 1910 revolution.  A full third of Ferrandón's work is a telling of the story of Gaspar Yanga.  It is a story the old man felt was going to be forgotten, due to "the apathy of present descendants of the founder."

    Leonardo Ferrandón passed on in 1968, year of a transforming event which sent young radicals in search of new heroes.  The event was the massacre by the Mexican army and police of many hundreds of students at the Politecnico Institute's Tlalteloco square in Mexico City.   The government that perported to represent the social revolution of 1910, had men with guns surround the students and fire at will from ground level and balconies into the large multitude.  Within a year, student scholars were researching Yanga, the warrior who didn’t want to get near a large square, a warrior went who against the military might of the Spanish Empire and won the right to withdraw from the Empire.  He was an alternative to the failed revolution of 1910.  It saw the revolutionaries Emiliano Zapata and Francisco "Pancho" Villa sit side by side in the National Palace.  What good was their triumph, asked the youth of 1968.

    Study of Yanga was encouraged by visiting African Americans, who at home fought for “black power,” and who saw in Yanga a proto-type of their struggle for community power, notes former Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee official Ron Wilkens.  The town of Yanga was again radicalized, and in 1976 the “festival en negritud” was inaugurated and a 14 foot statue to the founder, showing him breaking his chains, machete held aloft for battle, was erected.

    Thirty years after Tlalteloco,  Guillermo Sánchez de Anda, a native of Orizaba, not far from Yanga, published “Yanga: Guerrero Negro,” (“Yanga: Black Warrior”), which tapped into the author’s spiritualist-left-wing circles, and beyond.   Sánchez de Anda explained that his title was short for “Warrior for the Dignity of Oppressed Mexicans,” and it is in  this context that he called upon everyone to “be Yanga.”  Sánchez de Anda, himself carrying the blood of both Native and African Mexico, wrote his book of tribute in reaction to a massive police raid on the city of Yanga in February 1995.  A year earlier the highlands of Chiapas were overrun in the Indigenous "Zapatista" rebellion.   A standoff developed and negotiations began.  Talks stalled early in ‘95, and President Ernesto Zedillo took dramatic action away from the negotiation table  It was the afternoon of February 9,  Yanga was rushed from two sides by "a great quantity of car loads of agents from the PGR," the federal police, assisted by car loads of state police, and assorted car loads of officers in unmarked cars who came in search of Zapatistas.  Amnesty International's investigation of the incident said fifty federal police vehicles took part.  Pistols and rifles in hand, the officers stormed into two houses in a barrio of mostly Indigenous people in the black town.  The houses were occupied by police through the night, while other officers formed a perimeter and scanned, for a possible rescue attempt on those in the homes.  The next morning five men and two women were whisked to helicopters that flew the captives away. 

    The incident was quickly publicized, notably on web sites of the Chiapas guerrillas, and it was the talk of intellectuals in the Veracruz state capital of Xalapa, site of the Universidad Veracruzana, a center for the study of the African heritage in Mexico, and home for many writers about Yanga.  No one could get the names of "the Yanga 7."  Phone calls to city officials in Yanga received a terse explanation that there was said to be a stash of weapons for Zapatistas in the homes raided, but the names of the arrested were not given.  One scholar drove to Yanga and asked about the neighborhood.  The only person willing to talk said that those taken were not natives of the city
    Had President Zedillo acted out of fear that the Zapatistas were plotting a wider revolt?  The pro-government media gave this view.  The opinion of those opposed to the government stance on the Chiapas rebels was summarized by the German on-line newspaper, "Poonal," which said that Zedillo wanted to "release the army," and crackdown against Zapatista sympathizers, and his tactic was "justified by the doubtful 'discovery' of military material in houses in the capital and Yanga."

     The coffee house chatter in Xalapa was about the odd fact that Zedillo sent his swarms of PGR agents only in the capital, in an outlying town of the capital and  in Yanga and  Zongolica (another of the many parallels between those two locales).  On second thought, the choices of Yanga and Zongolica seemed understandable in light of their rowdy history.  Regarding Yanga, four months earlier a number of newspapers had run a statement by the leader of an Afro-Mexican cultural center in the black township of Cuajinicuilapa over on the Pacific coast, in which she declared, "If the Indigenous are organizing, the blacks should organize, too."  No doubt, the PGR expected it to happen, and appeared to conclude that Yanga was the likeliest of the small number of towns around Mexico with a substantial African population to form a link with the mysterious Zapatistas in the jungles of Chiapas.  The Yanga 7 were convicted a year later and sentenced to lengthy prison terms, but then in December of 1996 all charges were dropped and they were released.  Around this time troops that were stationed in the Zongolica were withdrawn.   No Yangan  weapons stash was ever produced by the authorities.  Amnesty International reported that the 7 had been tortured in their homes, and had spent months in solitary confinement. The 7 are, Hermelinda Garciá Zapagua, Rosa Hernández Hernández, Ricardo Hernández López, Hilario Martínez Hernández, Martin Trujillo Barajas, Luis Sánchez Navarrete, and Alvaro Castillo Granados.

    The National Human Rights Commission, Amnesty International and others declared that the 7 had done nothing illegal, but that did not mean the prisoners were non-political.  Or, that their experience had not made them political.  Two weeks into her confinement Rosa Hernández Hernández told a human rights investigator that the police "insisted I was a Zapatista," and for this, "I was wrapped in a wet cloth and given electric shocks all over my body."  Rosa Hernández told the press at her release, "Behind us are two years of imprisonment; they were difficult times, without being able to see our families.  But we continue being Zapatistas, just like everyone else, like any other organization, as any other open struggle."

   Yanga resident Rosa Hernández Hernández wants everyone to be a Zapatiasta, Guillermo Sánchez de Anda wants everyone to be a Yanga.   It would appear that a militant Mexicano might be one this year, and the other the next.  The Zapatistas of Chiapas have included a sizable minority of non-Indigenous from the movement’s first public act, the uprising of 1994, notes anthropologist Araceli Burquete, herself a Nativa from Chiapas.  One well known “mestizo” in the movement is its public relations spokesperson Sub-Comandante Marcos.  Affected Indigenous Zapatistas and affected “black Yangans” represent a play element regarding identity in Mexico.  But the need for seriousness arises now and then.  In Chiapas the radicals work hard to preserve Indigenous language, customs and clothing.  Among Yangans there are those who maintain music forms from Africa, while others work to keep alive a town history which when put to music will be one very long corrido.

     Let us now go to the libretto for that corrido.
   photos for this book that are not on my web page include, 4 from Yanga's homeland in Gabon, 3 of the Zongolican mountains where Yanga lived while a cimarron, 3 of present day Zongolicans engaged in daily work,  a number of photos of Indigenous ruins in the Yanga region and elsewhere in Veracruz - these pics showing how it was unavoidable for  Yanga to be churning up a potent old civilization as he plowed the cane fields.   There are three pics showing the variety of music at the Veracruz Zocalo.   From history files I have 2 Viceroys who dealt with Yanga,  Catalina de Erauzu who ran mules in Yanga's cane frields and is said to be the Western World's most flamboyant lesbian of the 17th Century...and more.  

[[Editor: I wrote to Ted and said that I objected to the Spanish being made the historical  "bad guys". Ted responded expressing an perspective with which I agree. (see below). Men are swept along in the circumstances of their period.  It is unreasonable to judge our ancestors by current social circumstances. Issues of the rights of man have brought about a 21th century conscience, yet slavery is still an accepted practice now in parts of the world. I have found among my ancestors evidence of buying, selling, and among the first in Tejas to give freedom to slaves in the 1600s.]]

Dear Mimi, 

I think Hollywood and jingoistic politicians have given villains a bad name.

My idea of a villain is not an ax murder, but rather someone, who by obligation of position in society, or position in the family, makes important decisions that happen to negatively effect some other people. Below I give you the man I consider the most fascinating villain of my Yanga book, a man without whom the story would not be nearly as interesting. I very much would like your reaction to my treatment of Viceroy Velasco II.

I am willing to adjust my presentation, for my ultimate goal is to show how Mexico has racially blended - which I like to show was through a number of complex and often convoluted expressions of militant opposition to injustice.



To deal with the threat,( from Yanga) Spain had Viceroy Luis de Velasco II, Marquis de Salinas, who came in 1607 from serving a term as Viceroy to Peru to take a second term as Viceroy of Mexico - a term involving a crucial period for Gaspar Yanga and his people.. From Velasco’s reputation in many histories, Yanga couldn’t have asked for a better Viceroy. But in dealing with a tyranical Empire one should be careful what one asks for. Luis de Velasco II felt himself a modernizer. He is know in optometry history as the first person in the New World to wear corrective lenses. He began a sewer system for Mexico City, and to show he was close to the people, he took a shovel and worked the dig on the project’s first day. Velasco’s father was Viceroy 1550-1564, and also being modern in mind, founded Mexico City University. A young Velasco II had fulfilled bureaucratic jobs under father’s reign. Father detested the "spoiled children" of Conquistadores and Indias, who pestered him for jobs. Father found the mestizos and blacks disreputable and "frightening." Indios were children in need of guidance, in the opinion of both Velascos. The latter wrote to King Felipe that "it is not true that the Natives are without reason...The Jesuit educators have had good results with the Indios they have selected to tutoring."

Father Velasco arrived in Mexico in 1550 with instruction to enforce the abolition of slavery of the Indians. In debates in the King’s court, the priest Bartolme de las Casas had gotten slavery in the New World ended. But outcry from slave owners forced reconsideration. In a "compromise," Las Casas won abolition for Indios, on the argument that increased importance of Africans could fulfill the labor needs. The rape of Africa was on. Indios were still being held in servitude in Mexico when Velasco I arrived, but he promptly freeded some 150,000 enslaved Indigenous Mexicans.

Having satisfied his King, Luis de Velasco I then faced irate hacienda and mine owners, who convinced Velasco to institute a form of serfdom for Indios that was little removed from slavery. Chief Maxorro’s rebellion was one consequence. The Republica grant to the Zongolicans in 1556 was, in part, to keep them tranquil while the highlands were a bloody battle ground Velasco Sr died on the job in 1564, allegedly worked to death over the Indigenous rebellion.

Velasco Junior took the reigns for his first term as Mexico Viceruy (1590-1595) with grand plans for the Indios, starting with ending the war of the Chichimecas. Junior send emissaries to the rebel leaders urging a conference for peace. Velasco II had seen the failure of all out war, the "strategic hamlets," the "green zones.". Velasco got warring chiefs to come to Mexico City, where he greeted them personally, showed them around the town, and then made a peace pact, which in addition to granting pardon and giving land, included a clause that from time to time the Spaniards would supply the Indians with a large quantity of beef - at this clause there were murmurs from members of the Viceroy's court, that this was paying tribute to Indios, nullifying the tribute the chiefs agreed to pay to the King. It was bad enough, argued the critics, that "savages" who killed Europeans got peace. Velasco had an answer for his critics. He, more than some others with his post knew the Viceroy’s game was two sided if not three sided, considering the obligation to first serve the King of Spain, second placate the privileged Whites of Mexico, and then, when possible, attend to the uplift of the masses. Velasco paid to have a few thousand loyal to Spain Tlaxcalan Indians given land in strategic spots around the former Chichimeca run region, and he put a clause in the treaty that the rebels accept into their area an inordinate number of priests and friars, these measures achieving the Chichimeca "subjugation," according to one historian.

Peace on the planes brought opportunity for Velasco II’s greatest leap forward for Indios. He explained to King Felipe that the civilizing and educating of the Indigenous that Jesuits took off the streets of the capital, could be done on a grand scale, if Indios were taken out of their traditional mountain habitats and made to live in special communities in the valleys, i.e. on Indian reservations. Support was loud from land speculators eager to grab the Indian mountain land, which was better than that of the grassy planes where the Natives would be placed. Knowing Chichimecas wouldn’t go for this, the first to be displaced were those living in mountains closer to Mexico City. The anger and despair of the Natives chosen was intense. One distraught father killed his wife and children, burned his home, and hung himself. At news of this, Velasco canceled his reservations project. Another innovation he had to cancel involved tribute taxes. He decreed that Indios could pay 1 Real of their 8 Real tax with a chicken. A chicken sold for more than 2 Reals at the market. A tax revolt ensued as word spread that tax collectors were sending the King 1 Real while pocketing the second one. In the interim, not enough taxes came in and Velasco tripled the tribute for Indios and Blacks. This unpopular measure was rescinded by the next Viceroy before Velasco had left Mexico City..

Regarding Africans in Mexico: One of Velasco Junior’s first acts of his second term, was to authorize the hiring of the De Baena cimarrones for militia duty. But almost immediately afterward, he sent an angry letter to the mayor of Veracruz complaining of an out of control slave runaway situation and demanding "within 15 days" a detailed report on the mayor’s efforts to eradicate cimarronage in the port area. For Gaspar Yanga, the hiring of De Baena was a critical factor in the decision to settle down in a village. The 67 or 68 year old Yanga, no doubt, acted upon knowledge of certain facts about his 67 year old adversary. The Zongolicans with whom Yanga had trade relations probably informed Yanga that Velasco’s father had been Viceroy, and had granted them their "Republica de los Indios." and that grant was one of the larger ones. On the other hand, Velasco Jr. began his first term as Mexican Viceroy by awarding a number of Spaniards, legal deeds to pieces of. Zongolica.

The Yangan raids on the lowlands in 1607-1608 frightened whites around the colony. In the capital, rumors flew about blacks organizing for rebellion. Incidents of blacks acting in what might be called an "uppity" manner were widely discussed. A rumor of December 1608 was that blacks were about to crown their own King, for whom a war to massacre all whites would be launched.. The date for the uprising was said to be January 6, 1609. Whites urged their Viceroy to act in advance. A delegation of blacks told him that the rumors were unfounded. Luis de Velasco II was about to pull one of his two sided maneuvers.

The morning of January 6, a crowd of anxious Spaniards gathered in the town square and clamored for protection. Viceroy Velasco appeared, and ordered that a number of blacks be taken from their cells in the town jail, and brought to the city square. There, they were publically whipped, and Velasco declared that the conspiracy had thus been thwarted. His cavalier attitude toward the alleged black conspiracy did not sit well with the more frightened of the city's Spaniards - who worried that this Viceroy might not take threats seriously enough.

Luis de Velasco II already had his response in play. He had quietly prepared an organized military expedition against Gaspar Yanga. Velasco ordered the Spanish army Capitán Pedro González de Herrera to marshall troops in Puebla. There were, depending upon the source, some 100, or, over 200 Spanish soldiers armed with muskets, and others pulling small canons. They were joined by between 300 to 450 enlisted and conscripted mestizos, Indios, blacks and mulattos, plus an assortment of "adventurers." Velasco ordered that no black be permitted to proceed from Puebla toward Veracruz, lest a warning of the impending march be given. The order angered merchants who's mule drivers were thus detained, and the crowds of recruits in the streets upset wealthy Pueblans, but Capitán González was a native of the city and gave assurance that the army would soon move out. The transportation ban did not stop word of the mobilization from reaching the Yangans, and it was said that consternation spread through the village, women wept and men rang their hands and shouted to God that it would be unjust to have to move from their new home.

Yanga and his "council of elders" met and decided not to flee into the wilds, but to stay and fight, even though the Spaniards would outnumber the rebels in any showdown, and the latter's fire power consisted of a few muskets and not much powder, to compliment swords, bows and arrows, spears, knives, hatchets and the Indigenous rock propelling sling shot. A small Spanish scouting party set out on January 26th, and was ambushed by Yangans. One of the Spanish soldiers was captured, and upon discovery that he could read and write, he was taken before Ancient One. A quivering young man was told, "Do not fear, Spaniard, for you have seen my face, and (still stand before me) so you cannot die." Was Yanga borrowing a line from Aztec ritual, in which a commoner who saw the Emperor’s face had to be absolved by the Emperor or die? Yanga then dictated a letter to Capitán González, who was said to have reacted angrily after reading the message, no doubt in reaction to the following words from Yanga.

"We have removed ourselves to this place, because you have, without any right, declared yourselves masters of our freedom. And because we favor a God who's cause is just, we have over a long period fought and won glorious victories over all the Spaniards who have been sent to apprehend us. In that we assault the places and haciendas of the Spaniards, is no more than recompense that we take by force of arms to obtain what is justly denied. You have shown yourself incapable of thinking of methods for peace, being locked in your instructions to find a solution through armed subjugation of us; and considering your cowardice and ignorance of the roads, we send you a messenger, a man we return to you, not wishing to kill him, in that we want you to have a guide to ease your work of finding us."

Proper decorum required that González refrain from tearing up the insulting note. He passed it on to the authorities, who showed it to the Viceroy. The letter contained a lengthy list of conditions under which peace might be obtained, and Yanga stated that these terms were arrived at "by unanimous decision of the council of elders." The Indigenous of Mexico also worked politically through a "council of elders." The similarity of the Yangans' terms to those through which Indian groups in Mexico obtained autonomous "Republica de los Indios" status has startled historians, as they must have startled Viceroy Luis de Velasco II.

Yanga presented the standard request for self-government. He asked that he have a Republic governed by his own people who he declared had selected him to be their Chief, and he wanted that honored. Yanga asked that no Spaniard be permitted to live in the Republica, except a "justicia mayor" (and here Yanga used the term in Indigenous Republicas for an outside legal supervisor). Yanga agreed that he and his people were obliged to pay tribute to the King of Spain, to follow the Catholic religion, and to perform public service to the government of the King. Treaties founding la republicas usually stipulated that past offenses committed against Spanish law were pardoned. The republicas were Hispanicized versions of the self-governing, tribute paying, "ejidos" of the Aztec Empire. Historians MacLachlan and Rodríguez note that while the "la republicas" bought peace, they were economically "separate and not equal" institutions. Yanga no doubt knew the choices. He chose to establish his village in the Zongolica, where freedom came at a price, if the free Nativos of that range were paying then as they pay today for their independence. A 2005 report by the State of Veracruz gives Zongolica the dubious distinction of being the most economically marginalized of all Mexico’s ejidos.

Gaspar Yanga's message to the Spaniards emphasized that he wanted only to live in peace; and that the King of Spain could rest assured that Yanga’s people would follow that path. The African leader’s addition of insults and bragging to González might be considered a ritual of psyching of the enemy before battle.

Luis de Velasco II ordered the troops to march, while comptemplating the alternative course.. Behind the scenes, he had advocated to his superiors in Spain for a peaceful solution. In a June 23, 1608 letter to the head of the Council of the Indies, Velasco outlined the options, and his convoluted wording revealed a heated state of discourse within ruling circles.

"Regarding the pacification of the black runaways, one can sees wide extremes on this difficult issue, with opinions differing on whether the most convenient means are policies of peace or of war, and for each there is much about which I have communicated to the Real Audiencia (court Council in Mexico City),...and the material has experienced contrasting interpretations... The visitor (the priest) and I are in accord with a number of other intelligent persons who proclaim for a peaceful solution, in which we grant them their freedom while putting upon them limitations, this path removing the possibility of a war, which costs a great deal of money, that the slave masters of those who fled do not have to give, nor is there good reason for the finance ministry to give it, and if a war is fought, the end is doubtful, considering the location that they are in, and taking into account the many who will die... the most secure path appears to be pursued through peace."

Was there more to this statement than a display of reasoned politics? Could it have been influenced by a desire to not become like his dad, an overworked Viceroy dying at his post while trying to put down a rebellion of poor people? Velasco's son faced demands of around 400 blacks that they be liberated. Junior had freed the comparative handful of cimarrones with De Baena, but no where in the colonies had a large group of black runaways won freedom, (with one short lived exception in Santo Domingo). To grant land to a sizable group would entice those still in bondage to flee to the sanctuary. Gaspar Yanga had anticipated this worry on the part of the Viceroy. His statement to González offered that, if granted freedom and land, he would return to their masters those slaves who in the future might seek sanctuary.

Trust on this clause would be needed. The wealthy in the colony, and those in Spain who banked on mines and plantations in Mexico, could not fathom a free area to which slaves could flee. They believed the economy was balanced gingerly thanks to slave labor, and that only force could make a person work the most dangerous mine pits, or sweat in the heat of the sugar vats. (improved working conditions were rarely considered in the 17th Century). Velasco experienced the shaky state of business from his Viceroy schedule of petitions, appeals and regulations. He also knew from his father's experience, that a botched abolition of slavery for Indios had resulted in disaster. And he knew that slave owners would stampede the Viceregal palace if he began negotiations with Yanga without first trying seriously to subdue the black rebel militarily. With good fortune, Commander González would be successful enough to preclude a Yangan regrouping and counter-attack, as had suffered father’s troops. Ideally, González might administer a defeat that left only scattered individuals, and even if a Yanga managed to keep a group intact, where could he find another spot in the precipitous Zongolica for his band? He would have to disperse and, Velasco could conjecture, over time, most could be collected by those slave catchers who worked on consignment. At the least, Yanga might be forced to negotiate a settlement.

Yanga’s attitude at this moment, deduced from subsequent events, appears to have shared the Viceroy’s view that a military showdown was needed, after which negotiations could follow, assuming, of course, that proper humiliation of the other had been administered. The African leader had but few muskets, his fighters were more accustomed to using clubs, swords and and daggers than bows and arrows, and his locale didn’t have much in the way of stalks for spears. There were, however, plenty of rocks, and a little training from his Indians in the Aztec slingshot would be helpful, particularily since the plan was to use the thickly bushed canyon side below his village for an ambush. Ideally, the Spaniards would slink away from the canyon in defeat and Yanga would reitterate his desire for a peaceful settlement. But if the ambush failed to deter the enemy, the fall back plan needed for success only that the cimarrones retained enough fighting power to keep the Spaniards from rushing at them while they retreated with their women, children and elders, not in search of another locale in the Zongolica, but to into the freedom of the wasteland that few ever bothered to esplore, much less enter with an army. The Spanish mistakenly considered the area part of the Mixteca,a nation half a hundred miles to the west. There were a scattering of Mixtecans, along with a few Zapotecans, Popólacans.and Mazateopanes. Not enough of any one group to argue over territory. It wasnt that the wasteland had to place to grow crops. There were some. The problem was that the region was a morase of steep mountains and narrow valleys, none leading to anywhere in particular. It was off any beaten track. Today, a quarter of it is under the waters behind the Miguel Aleman hydroelectric dam, one dam project for which there were few villagers to complain about their land being inundated..

Capitán González marched from Puebla to the wild applause of the town folk. parades of soldiers, Viceroys, and Bishops were vital instances of noise and celebration in the repressive world of colonial Mexico. González made the two day march across the mile high plateau of sage brush, corn fields and aguave plants to the great pass on the side of Mt. Orizaba that led down to the sugar belt. While descending the pass, and following his guide onto a side path, González and his company came to a spring frequented by the Yangans. Abandoned utensils made Gonzalez wonder if a panic might have over taken the enemy. The Commander camped for the night at a spot just below a steeply inclined stream bed that González's guide surmised was but a few miles from the rebel village.

Two priests were among the Royal force, and that night Padres Juan Laurencio and Juan Pérez circulated among the troops giving blessings and well wishes. The clerics were along on orders of Luis de Velasco. The two men were the advance guard of Velasco’s plan to propagandize Yangans with an abundance of religion, as the Chichimecas were propagandized after their 1590 treaty.

The Yangan warriors were not in their village that night. They quietly descended to take positions behind trees and boulders on the canyon where the Spaniards were expected to progress one or two abreast along the narrow stream bed. From a battle account we know that the locale was somewhere in the lower canyons of the Zongolica/Rio Blanco area. The typical canyon had foliage quite thick enough to provide cover, yet in places it would be too thick for the Yangan archers, spear throwers, sling shooters, or holders of one of the few muskets to have clear vision of the stream bed. Still, if all went well, the soldiers of the King of Spain would be strung out and subject to a deadly barrage. The Ancient One remained above the fray in his village, declaring that he had full confidence in his commander De La Matoza.

Padre Laurencio wrote a detailed account of the González expedition, and from that and scattered additional reports it is known that the Spanish forces struck camp early the next morning and proceeded cautiously up the canyon. The footing was difficult and military precision gave way to stumbling over stones, and getting soaked from the sloshing waters of the stream. A playful little dog of one of Capitán González's conscripted Mexicans scampered well ahead of the Spanish lines. González watched the animal turn to the bushes, wag its tail, and then bark. The ambush had been exposed. The Spaniards were not yet in the trap. A fierce fight ensued. Padre Laurnecio described it from his vantage point. "Me and my companero were without arms, having confidence in God. We took from our belts the sacred incense which we spread for those who were risking death... They threw at us huge crude rocks and arrows. It was a miracle that our Capitán was not killed... A rock hit me, and then an arrow, although at the time I did not feel wounded, afterward I noticed blood all over my left leg, which took fifteen days before the infection went away. A soldier beside me was hit by an arrow, and finally, there were a great many of our side wounded by the stones, and by the arrows that were tipped with iron, showing that they had an iron forge, which we would later see in their pueblo. We were hurting the enemy as they hurt us, and we finally moved forward after we brought up our rear-guard of friendly Indios with bow and arrow, and with our blunderbusses firing, we obliged the blacks to leave their hillside spots and flee to their village."

González thought of ordering a rapid pursuit, but changed his mind, considering the yards upon yards of dead and moaning bodies from both sides laying ahead of him. After a rest, González ordered the remainder of his troops up the canyon toward Yanga's little town. They proceeded slowly, lest there be another attack. It was turning dark when Capitán González's party entered the village to find it deserted, except for a dying wounded man, and two of the India wives with their children. Laurencio surmised that the village had not been deserted long, for he found candles still burning in the chapel. One of the Indias told him that Yanga had prayed there during the battle. A collection of arrows had been placed about the chapel alter in a strange formation. The priest interpreted this as a sacrilege, and he wrote in his diary, "I thought that although we were beyond the fighting, I could not wait for the fearful retribution which God would surely throw at these cruel barbarians."

The women were asked where the villagers had gone, and they said it was to where no one could catch them because they had the spirit of freedom. They had left much behind. Laurencio recorded collecting swords, axes, a few blunderbusses, along with coins, salt, butter, corn and other items. "Although we had not defeated the enemy we had seriously weakened them," wrote the priest. The little army of the King was also weakened. González gave his soldiers the pleasure of occupying the enemy's homes for the night, the weather had turned rainy and cold. The tired troops feasted on the Yangan's chickens. The next morning a few of the homes were declared headquarters. The buildings would be needed for the expected quick return from the hunt. Laurencio reported 70 other houses were burned. The priest asked the Indian women how many rebels had lived in the houses. The women wouldn't give a total, except "the 24 black women," but mentioned there were both Indian women and men, and a great number of black men.

Early the next morning the pursuit of Yanga was renewed. The trail led up the mountain. "Our exhausting climb was hampered by arrows and stones that rained upon us, and wounded some Spanish soldiers. Blood was spilled on the other side, too. A black capitán was hit by our fire and tumbled off a cliff, he landed without the strength to utter more than the words, 'So you wanted the devil.' I rushed forward,... desiring to give this soul the confession, but when I arrived he had died. Here, Capitán Pedro González Herrera hoisted the white flag of peace... Of Yanga, we could see his second in command above us look at it, pause, and then turn and climb away, to what we found was another ranchero." Why did De la Matoza not accept the offered truce? Did "the Ancient One" declare that their bargaining position was not yet strong enough to negotiate? Had the wasteland become the goal? Or, were they not close enough for it to be an obvious bargaining chip? Capitán González ordered a night's rest before more pursuit, which entailed "climbing like cats" on the trail of spilled rebel blood. It seemed that "Yanga with his people were trying to pass over into the Mixteca, a rugged land where he would hope to once again built a ranch."

A critical moment was at hand. The Spanish knew Yanga intended leave the Zongolica behind and enter a region where one could trudge for hours and not see a soul, and when a village was found it was a Republica de los Indios, for the whole region had hardly handful of Spanish or White Mexicans residents, along with a similar small number of blacks and mestizos. A itinerate priest was the lone outside in the God forsaken region. The resident Indians would probably not welcome the refugee black cimarrones, but then, they would not be happy to see Capitán González and his men, either, and he could not be sure what Yanga might have arranged with these Natives. For all anyone knew, the "Indian men" with the black rebel might have included what the priest from Spain, Laurencio, called Mixtecans.
Yanga and his band apparently had roughly a dozen mountainous miles or more to reach the misnamed "Mixteca." Father Laurencio writes that a routine day of walking passed, during which he busied himself with giving blessings, and other religious duties. The following day a wounded elderly black was found. Laurencio asked him to confess his sins "and he confessed to the God of the savanna." González had him hung from a tree. They came upon an India with a sick child, who said that Yanga let her stay behind, but that a mestiza woman who tried to run to the Spaniards was killed. Later they captured an Indian who was carrying bark that he said Yanga had told him to collect "to make canoes needed to cross a river and walk into the Mixteca."

What Laurencio writes next is not known. The original report was lost in the 1700s and only the above part remains. A few military dispatches and a summation of the story by Laurencio’s Jesuit superior, Bishop Mota y Escobar, fill in succeeding events. Commander González became increasingly concerned that the Yangans might get to "la Mixteca." Were the cimarrones to succeed, their example could cause a flight by slaves throughout the sugar plantations, and elsewhere. Each ridge crossed increased the possibility of Yanga's escape. He had earlier rejected the white flag, perhaps not taking it seriously, even when González had an Indio climb a tall pine to wave it from the top. But subsequent events suggest Yanga believed he had to make enough trouble or he wouldn’t be taken seriously. He may have concluded this from the experience of his Zongolican neighbors. After Velasco Jr. started giving Zongolican land to Spaniards, the subsequent Viceroy gave away even more. The Zongolicans sent petition after petition for redress, including to the King. He declared that enough was enough and personally purchased the land indispute, and told the Zongolicans they could consider it still part of their territory, so long as they worked it for him..

González tried again for negotiations. This time he sent a priest, not Laurencio but the native Mexican prelate, Juan Pérez. Laurencio may have felt unfit for further climbing due to his leg wound, conjectured historian Aguirre Beltrán. Two days passed and no word of Pérez. Were the Yangans already in the wilds? Did they equate freedom with life beyond civilization? On the third day Pérez returned with terms presented by the African leader. According to one account, Yanga added to his previous list of demands, that he would give the Spaniards one year to decide on his terms, after which he would commence to again raid caravans and towns. According to another account, Yanga's opening statement cut to the heart of the problem of giving him freedom: he promised to return any future runaways to their masters. According to yet one more account, there was a face to face meeting between Yanga and González, after which a set of conditions for peace were forwarded to Viceroy Velasco II. At any rate, a few months later, Velasco put his seal on a treaty that with tweeking of a few clauses, granted virtually all of the points presented by Gaspar Yanga in the original message to González, with an added clause that Yangans would fight for Spain in case of attack from abroad. The black community was given the title "Republica." A priest was assigned to visit the mountain village periodically to administer spiritual needs.

The Yangans returned to their burned mountain village, which was the site of the free "ejido" for only a short time, and after two moves it was at the present place of Yanga city. The Spaniards gave the black community the name of a saint, Lorenzo de Martír, and the name carried through the geographic changes. Fittingly enough for a group that had fought the supreme powers, Lorenzo de Martír earned his sainthood when he infuriated the Emperor of Rome by distributing to the poor the wealth of the church which the Emperor Valeriano had demanded. Lorenzo was tortured and burned alive in 260.

The pact between Yanga and Velasco provided humiliation to both sides: For the Spaniards, agreement granted freedom and power to known "robbers," and "murderers." Influential whites in the capital were irate over the agreement with the "savages." It was claimed that Viceroy Velasco was less interested bringing law breakers to justice, than in saving the Crown the expenses of a war. However, Velasco knew Mexico. He knew that if Yanga reached "the Mixteca," he would be unconquerable. Indeed, 126 years later, slaves in the sugar fields next to the free village of the Yangans rose in rebellion, and fled over the ridges of Zongolica and into the very heart of Laurnecio's Mixteca, where they lived unchallenged. A Spanish government agent visited their village of Mazateopan and concluded that a military expedition in the remote region was bound to become an expensive failure. The Mazateopanes signed a treaty with Spain 35 years later, that created Mexico’s second "Republica de los Negros." A clause in their treaty stipulated that the Mazateopanes were to have no contact with the people of San Lorenzo de los Negros. The clause would hardly have been in the treaty had not the San Lorenzans already had contact with their black brothers and sisters. The Mazateopan treaty allowed the option of a move back to civilization, which the community quickly took.

Humiliation for the Yangans, began with their agreement to return future runaways to their masters. The decision of Yanga to save his own people, while turning his back on people of his own beaten down race has been controversial. But the mountain village had filled to overflowing, and the compromise was, attractive enough to both sides to be applied again in Mexico, and in treaties between masters and slaves elsewhere in the Americas. Yanga's appears to have been one of the very few which the masters did not break, another being the treaty at Mazateopan.

There was more compromise by Yanga in the pact. He agreed to relinquish his arms. This was largely ceremonial. The Yangans were but agreeing to rules regarding arms for other free blacks in Mexico. Within a year the weapons were returned, in order that Yangans could be employed in one of Luis de Velasco’s exercises in two sided politics. The arms were given on condition that Yangans fulfill their treaty obligation to work for the Crown. Their designated job was to chase down runaway slaves. The Ancient One may well have questioned if opting for civilization was worth this? One more concession in the treaty granted by the Black Prince was that Yangans would be defined as only those who lived in the village as of September of 1608. Many plantation slaves fled to join Yanga in those last months of that year, and their flight was added incentive for Velasco to mount a serious effort to defeat the black leader. Their masters insisted that their absence from the plantation was too recent for them to be considered legitimate members of a settled community. That those who came after September 1608 had to leave, was evident by the starvation soon suffered by the remaining Yangans, who no longer could raid the lowlands. Despite the humiliations, the black community took enough strength from their new found freedom to, within a few years, negotiate with the Crown for not one, but two moves to better locations. And as we shall see, the Yangans have maintained through centuries the pride displayed in the banner at the festivals in Yanga city, "Carnival of the First Free People of the Americans." In the final analysis one must consider historic the grant of political autonomy within the Spanish Empire to a community led by Africans brought in chains to the New World.

Viceroy Velasco's second term of office ended in 1611, and at his departure he might have felt that on the issue of maroons little had been accomplished. Masters continued to complain of flight by their slaves; Yangans were accused of harboring runaways in their Zongolica retreat, and along the 150 mile Sierra of the East there were sightings of what appears to be organized groups of runaways. King Felipe of Spain apparently had no qualms about the term of Luis de Velasco II, who was brought home to head the most important arm of the Empire's bureaucracy, the Council of the Indies, where Luis could exercise at the highest level his knack for playing both sides against the middle. Velasco’s family trait of resourcefulness carried into the next generation, in one member who became an important Mexican priest, and another who was reputed to be the first deaf person in the New World to use sign language.




 Seminario-Taller "Representación étnica en el arte y el diseño" 
réplicas con:

[[Editor: Although these meetings are past, I've included them to inform of the continuing effort in Mexico to bring about multi-cultural understanding.]]


Representación Étnica En El Arte Y El Diseño : La Imagen De La Sociedad Multicultural II "La Raíz africana de la Sociedad Multicultural en México"

La Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México a través del Programa Universitario México Nación Multicultural y la Escuela Nacional de Artes Plásticas, tiene el agrado de invitar al público en general a las conferencias que se desarrollarán en el marco del Seminario-Taller "Representación Étnica en el Arte y el Diseño: La Imagen de la Sociedad Multicultural II". Dichas conferencias se realizarán en la sala de videoconferencias de la Escuela Nacional de Artes Plásticas, (ENAP), del 24 al 28 de octubre del año en curso y contará con la presencia de prestigiados investigadores, tales como:
Dra. Luz María Martínez Montiel, catedrática de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras de la UNAM; Dra. María Elisa Velásquez, Investigadora de la Dirección de Etnología y Antropología Social del INAH, especializada en temas de africana en México y; el Dr. Carlos serrano, Investigador del Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas de la UNAM, entre otros especialistas en el tema.

Partiendo de la idea de México como una sociedad multicultural, en esta segunda parte del Seminario-Taller se hará énfasis en la presencia de la cultura Africana dentro de las raíces mexicanas así como en el papel que juega, dentro de la imagen popular.

24 de Octubre del 2005 10:00 a.m. - 11:00 a.m.

24 de Octubre del 2005 11:00 a.m. - 1:00 p.m.

25 de Octubre del 2005 11:00 a.m. - 1:00 p.m.

25 de Octubre del 2005 5:00 p.m. - 7:00 p.m.

26 de Octubre del 2005 11:00 a.m. - 1:00 p.m.

27 de Octubre del 2005 11:00 a.m. - 1:00 p.m.

27 de Octubre del 2005 5:00 p.m. - 7:00 p.m.

28 de Octubre del 2005 11:00 a.m. - 1:00 p.m.

28 de Octubre del 2005 1:00 p.m. - 2:00 p.m.CLAUSURA

Programa Universitario México Nación Multicultural UNAM
Av. Río de la Magdalena #100
Col. La Otra Banda. Deleg. Álvaro Obregón
C.P. 01090, México, D.F.
Tels. 56 16 00 20, 56 16 10 45 Ext. 214  Fax: 56 16 10 45



Sequoyah, Inventor of the Cherokee Syllabary
Black Indians and Blood Quantum: 'Lawful' Racism
November 11, 2005
Benefit for indigenous, radios in Southern Mexico
Dawes Commission Index, 1898-1914
Outstanding resource for learning Nahuatl 
Recurring Myth
WWII Comanche code talker
DNA Contributing to Understanding



Sequoya, Sequoia, Sikwayi

Inventor of the Cherokee Syllabary
Manataka American Indian Council


Introduction from website:  This is a story about a poor, crippled, uneducated and ridiculed half-breed Indian who triumphed over insurmountable odds to bring a gift to his people that was so great that it is unrivaled in all human history. 

Sequoyah was born sometime between 1760 and 1776 in Overhills country near the Cherokee village of Tushkeegee on the Tennessee River near old Fort Loudoun in Tennessee.   His mother, Wu-teh, was a member of the Paint Clan and his father, Nathanial Gist (Guess or Guest) was an English fur trader.   Sequoyah was raised in the old ways of the Cherokee and became a trapper and fur trader. 

He was given the name George Gist by his father.  As a result of an early hunting accident, he was given the name Sequoyah which means "pig's foot" in Cherokee.  After being permanently crippled, he developed a talent for craftsmanship, making silver ornaments and blacksmithing.  His handicap became the source of both ridicule and a blessing in his life.   

Sequoyah married a Cherokee woman and had a family.  He and his family moved to Cherokee County, Georgia.   Later, he and other Cherokees enlisted to fight on the side of the United States for General Andrew Jackson in the War of 1812 against the British and Creek Nation.     

Sequoyah never learned to read or write English, but while in Georgia he became captivated by whiteman's ability to communicate by making marks on paper and reading from "talking leaves." He began work on developing a Cherokee writing system in 1809.   During the war, he became convinced he was on the right path.  Unlike white soldiers, he did not write letters home and could not read military orders.

After the war Sequoyah began in earnest to create symbols that would make words.   He and his daughter, Ayoka, played games using the symbols.  He became obsessed with developing a new Cherokee alphabet writing system because he knew it would help his people.  Sequoyah became a recluse in his obsession to perfect the writing system.  He endured constant ridicule by friends and even family members, who said he was insane or practicing witchcraft. 

Sequoyah moved west to Arkansas and continued his work.  Finally, after  twelve years of labor, ridicule and abuse he finally reduced the complex language into 86 symbols, each representing a unique sound of Cherokee speech.  In 1821, after a demonstration of the system to amazed tribal elders, the Cherokee Nation adopted his alphabet, now called a 'syllabary'.  Thousands of Cherokees learned to read and write within a few years. 

In 1824 the Cherokee National Council at New Echota, Georgia, honored him with a silver medal, which he proudly wore for the rest of his life, and later with an annuity of $300, which his widow continued to receive after his death.

By 1825, the Bible and numerous religious hymns and pamphlets, educational materials and legal documents and books of every description were translated into the Cherokee language. 

In 1827, the Cherokee National Council appropriated funds to print the first Indian newspaper published in the United States.

Black Indians and Blood Quantum: 'Lawful' Racism

Presentation by Daniel F. Littlefield, Director, Sequoyah Research Center. Mr. Littlefield's talk is presented as a part of the "Crossings of Breath: Indigenous &Black Relations in North America" conference co-sponsored by the UNM School of Law. For further information about the conference, please visit the conference website at You may also contact Ms. Delia Halona, Native American Studies Program at 277-3917 or

Sent Dorinda Moreno

Source: Mitzi Vigil, Indian Law Program Coordinator, University of New Mexico

School of Law (505) 277-0405


Benefit for indigenous low power radios in Southern Mexico

Colectivo Caracol invites the public to a benefit to a benefit on November 11, 2005 for three indigenous community radio stations in Southern Mexico. The event begins at 8:30 pm at Ruta Maya International Headquarters, 3601 South Congress Ave., with music by DJ E Be Lo, Alteza, and Maneja Beto. The proceeds will go directly to three indigenous community radio stations whose organizers live here in Austin and attend the University of Texas. A five dollar donation is requested.

The Colectivo Caracol, who also produce the program Radio Caracol airing Thursdays on KVRX UT Student Radio, have organized the November 11 benefit to kick off a campaign of news and technical exchange between community radio programs in Mexico and Austin. The three stations broadcast in Spanish and local indigenous languages. They are Radio Antzetik, a Tsotsil language station in Oventik, Chiapas; Radio Ayuuk, a Mixe language station in Guichicovi, Oaxaca; and the newly forming Radio Cieneguilla, which will broadcast in Chatino.

The evening at Ruta Maya begins with DJ E Be Lo, playing a mix of hip-hop, dancehall, cumbia and funk. Then Alteza take the stage with their rhythmic blend of Latin Mexiclectic Americana roots music. The final band, Maneja Beto, produce sounds with no conceptions of borders and a willingness to defy prepackaged genres like Latin, traditional, pop and emo. They also make people dance.

The November 11th radio benefit at Ruta Maya will be a time to dance to great music while supporting three important community projects in Southern Mexico.

Sent by Elvira Prieto
Source: Geoffrey Valdés
For more information 512-326-9668 608-770-3309 (cell)

Dawes Commission Index, 1898-1914
Now on

Commonly called the Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes, the Dawes Commission was appointed by President Grover Cleveland in 1893. In return for abolishing their tribal governments and recognizing state and federal laws, tribe members of the Five Civilized Tribes - the Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw and Seminole - were given a share of common property. This database indexes the original applications for tribal enrollments under the act of June 28, 1898. It also indexes documents such as birth and death affidavits, marriage licenses, and decisions and orders of the Commission.

Source Information: Dawes Commission Index, 1898-1914 [database online]. Orem, UT:, 1997. Original data: United States. National Archives and Records Administration. Applications for Enrollment in the Five Civilized Tribes, 1898-1914. National Archives and Records Administration, Washington: 1992.

Outstanding resource for Learning Nahuatl 
Sent by Jaime Cader
 Ricardo J. Salvador is the webmaster.

Current Materials
Mailing List

Example of information:
There are plenty of Nahuatl dictionaries, but unfortunately the majority of these were written several centuries ago by Catholic missionaries for purposes of evangelization, and therefore are not the most useful in order to understand the modern state of the language. However, I personally do find Rémi Simeón's "Diccionario de la Lengua Náhuatl o Mexicana" (Siglo Veintiuno Editores) very useful, when used cautiously. This dictionary dates to the end of the 19th century and contains a "classic" vocabulary that is updated with syncretic words used at the time the dictionary was assembled (a favorite: "mahomacalli" for a mozque). In addition, the preface consists of a condensed grammar that is particularly useful for beginners since it doesn't assume specialized linguistic knowledge.

An "old workhorse" in this category is the Franciscan Friar Alonso de Molina's "Vocabulario en Lengua Castellana y Mexicana y Mexicana y Castellana," originally published 1555-1571, and now reprinted periodically by Editorial Porrúa Hermanos. An especially useful aspect of this work is that it contains both Nahuatl-Spanish and Spanish-Nahuatl halves.

There is also Francis Karttunen's excellent "An Analytical Dictionary of Nahuatl" (originally published by Univ. Texas Press, with a second edition in 1991 by the Univ. of Oklahoma Press). This is particularly useful because it contains (among other things) rarely acknowledged information regarding vowel pronunciation.

Recurring myth 

From: Jaime Cader

Hello Gilbert,

From what I've read, I knew that Tenochtitlan, the Aztec capital, had a much larger population than any European city at that time. However as I understood, there were areas in the Americas that were sparsely populated. For example, in the San Francisco Bay Area, the groups were not even tribes, -they were triblets. That is the main reason why most Mexicans have American India  physical characteristics and why this isn't as prevalent in the United States. A Salvadoran author,  Miguel Angel Espino wrote that it is a myth that the Americas were Hispanicized, in  reality the Indian population absorbed the Spanish element.

fosbot wrote:  10/01/05 C-SPAN writeup of BookTV author lecture  (bold by Gilbert):

1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus by Charles Mann.

Description: In the year before Christopher Columbus landed in 1492, there were more people in the Americas than in Europe. This is the conclusion reached by Charles Mann in his new book, 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus." In it, the author describes the cultures of the  Aztec and Native American peoples of the Americas as well as the technological innovations of their respective cultures. He refutes the  commonly taught version of the Americas before Columbus, saying it wasn't a sparsely populated wilderness but a cultivated land populated by advanced peoples.

Author Bio: Charles Mann is a correspondent for Science, Wired, and the Atlantic Monthly. He is the co-author of "The Aspirin Wars" and "Noah's Choice: The Future of Endangered Species" among others. Publisher: Alfred A. Knopf 1745 Broadway New York, NY 10019

WWII Comanche code talker 

WWII Comanche code talker 
Last survivor of group that aided the Allies in Europe dies in Oklahoma. 

The Associated Press Friday, July 22, 2005

OKLAHOMA CITY – Charles Chibitty, the last survivor of the Comanche code talkers who used their native language to transmit messages for the Allies in Europe during World War II, has died. He was 83. 

Chibitty, who had been residing at a Tulsa nursing home, died Wednesday, said Cathy Flynn, administrative assistant in the Comanche Nation tribal chairman's office. 

The group of Comanche Indians from the Lawton, Okla., area were selected for special duty in the Army to provide the Allies with a language that the Germans could not decipher. Like the larger group of Navajo Indians who performed a similar service in the Pacific theater, the Comanches were dubbed "code talkers." 

"It's strange, but growing up as a child I was forbidden to speak my native language at school," Chibitty said in 2002. "Later my country asked me to. My language helped win the war and that makes me very proud. Very proud." 

In a 1998 story for The Oklahoman, Chibitty recalled being at Normandy on D-Day, and said someone once asked him what he was afraid of most and if he feared dying. 

"No. That was something we had already accepted," he said. "But we landed in deeper water than anticipated. A lot of boys drowned. That's what I was afraid of." 

In 1999, he received the Knowlton Award, which recognizes outstanding intelligence work, at the Pentagon's Hall of Heroes. 

DNA Contributing to Understanding

Mimi,  This might be important to include in Somos Primos. This is important for genealogy, specifically for those now making use of DNA to further clarify their genealogy. It bears mentioning for those of us with Indian, Black, and Spanish roots. 

This was just published (Received: 31 January 2003; Accepted: 15 June 2004 ) at

The abstract mentions this: 80% recovery rate of ancient mtDNA is somewhat encouraging, and the presence of Amerindian lineages illustrates the point that migrations didn/t always go in one direction. This just made my day, as I had been telling people for years that some Indians had been taken to Spain and they had survived or or their progeny had survived. Most people looked at me and laughed. All those mestizos who got sent to Spain couldn't all have died! I am still trying to find out where in the Philippines my Huastecan ancestors were sent to from San Luis Potosi. 

On an aside, when I worked for the INS I run into some people immigrating to the US from the Philippines who had last names that I clearly recognized as being Aztec. They said their name was Spanish! (although it was more like Cuauthemoc's).

Elvira Zavala-Patton

mtDNA from 17th-18th c. Tenerife, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. (Early View)
Mitochondrial DNA diversity in 17th-18th century remains from Tenerife (Canary Islands)
Nicole Maca-Meyer et al.

Mitochondrial DNA sequences and restriction fragment length polymorphisms were retrieved 
(with >80% efficiency) from a 17th-18th century sample of 213 teeth from Tenerife. The genetic composition of this population reveals an important ethnic heterogeneity. Although the majority of detected haplotypes are of European origin, the high frequency of sub-Saharan African haplotypes (15.63%), compared to that of the present-day population (6.6%), confirms the importance of the Canary Islands in the black slave trade of that epoch. The aboriginal substrate, inferred from the U6b1 haplotypes (8.59%), has also decreased due to European input. Finally, the presence of Amerindian lineages (1.5%) reveals that the Canary Islands have also received genetic flow from America.
Here is a link to Maternal Native American DNA test site

There is also a link to a Mexico project for the male YDNA surname study that I participated in...

Bennett Greenspan FTDNA Houston  713-828-4200 

I was told by the CEO of this Mexico DNA study that when Carbajal chose the group of explorers of the "Frontera" that he specifically did an end run around the church to get the type of rugged frontiersmen he needed.... they were mostly underground Jews.
Shared by Tom Ascenio


Familiar de La Inquisicion
La Familia de Carvajal de Nuevo Leon
Mexico City - Sunday December 8, 1596 
Beyond Origins of New Mexico Families


Existe un tipo de familiar que, afortunadamente, no existe hoy en día. Por lo menos con ese nombre, aunque creemos que los puede haber con otros. Se trata de los llamados “Familiares de la Inquisición”.

La inquisición en España tomó tal envergadura que necesitaba personas para que ejerciesen el puesto de inspectores locales en las poblaciones e hiciesen llegar a las altas esferas las desconfianzas o movimientos sospechosos que percibiesen en la zona que tuvieran asignada. A estas personas se las denominaba “Familiar de la Inquisición” y era un cargo no remunerado, pero que además de la autorización de portar armas, se le eximía de pagar impuestos y otros muchos privilegios .Generalmente eran laicos al servicio del tribunal y que también tenían la misión de proteger al Inquisidor y ejecutar sus ordenes. Según datos de la época, el Inquisidor General Torquemada estaba rodeado por doscientos cincuenta familiares armados, además de cincuenta soldados de caballería.

Conocemos datos sobre un “familiar” que era natural de la provincia de Huelva, se llamaba Santiago López Castilla, y había nacido en Encinasola. Perteneció al Santo Oficio de Sevilla, de donde pasó al Nuevo Reino de Granada, lo que hoy es Colombia, donde fue contador oficial real. Se casó en primeras nupcias con la sevillana Josefa de Espejo y García de Haro y cuando ésta murió, lo hizo con Josefa Salas Mesa, de Santa Marta . 

Angel Custodio Rebollo Barroso



La Familia de Carvajal de Nuevo Leon 

Descendents of Don Gutierre Vasquez de la Cueva and Dona Francisca de Carvajal
Compiled by John D. Inclan

Generation No. 1

1. GUTIERRE1 VASQUEZ-DE-LA-CUEVA was born in Tierra de Sayago, Portugal. He married FRANCISCA DE CARVAJAL. She was born in Tierra de Sayago, Portugal.


2. i. GASPAR2 DE CARVAJAL, b. Tierra de Sayago, Portugal; d. 1550, Benavente, Spain.


iii. MELCHOR VASQUEZ, d. Mirandaela, Portugal.


4. v. LEONOR DE CARVAJAL, b. Medina del Campo, Spain.

Generation No. 2
2. GASPAR2 DE CARVAJAL (GUTIERRE1 VASQUEZ-DE-LA-CUEVA) was born in Tierra de Sayago, Portugal, and died 1550 in Benavente, Spain. He married CATALINA DE LEON in Carvajales de Alba, Portugal, daughter of ANTONIO DE LEON and FRANCISCA NUNEZ. She was born in Mogadouro, Portugal, and died 1550 in Benavente, Spain.


i. DOMINGO3 DE CARVAJAL, b. Carvajales de Alba, Portugal; d. Abt. 1563, Medina del Campo, Spain.

5. ii. CONQUISTADOR ANTONIO DE CARVAJAL, b. Carvajales de Alba, Portugal; d. Chontalpa, Guatemala.

6. iii. CAPTAIN LUIS CARVAJAL-Y-DE-LA-CUEVA, b. 1539, Mogadouro, Traz-os-Montes province, Portugal; d. 1591, In prison, Mexico City, F.D., Mexico.

7. iv. FRANCISCA NUNEZ-DE-CARVAJAL-Y-DE-LA-CUEVA, b. 1540, Benavente, Spain; d. 08 Dec 1596, Mexico City, D. F., New Spain (Mexico).



i. LUIS3 PIMENTEL, d. Killed by indians in Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

4. LEONOR2 DE CARVAJAL (GUTIERRE1 VASQUEZ-DE-LA-CUEVA) was born in Medina del Campo, Spain. She married FERNAN LOPEZ in Benavente, Spain. He was born in Medina del Campo, Spain.


8. i. CATALINA3 LOPEZ, b. Medina del Campo, Spain.

9. ii. LEONOR RODRIGUEZ, d. Burdeos, Portugal.

Generation No. 3
5. CONQUISTADOR ANTONIO3 DE CARVAJAL (GASPAR2, GUTIERRE1 VASQUEZ-DE-LA-CUEVA) was born in Carvajales de Alba, Portugal, and died in Chontalpa, Guatemala. He married (1) MARIA-CATALINA DE SOSA in Mexico City, D.F., Mexico, daughter of ANDRES DE TAPIA and ISABEL DE SOSA. She was born in Mexico City, F.D., Mexico. He married (2) CATALINA DE TAPIA, daughter of BERNALDINO VASQUEZ-DE-TAPIA. 


A.K.A. Catalina de Tapia. Source: Who's Who of the Conquistadors by Hugh Thomas.


Conquistador of New Spain. Source:From the book, Fundadores de Nueva Galicia, Guadalajara Tomo I, by Guillermo Garmendia Leal. Page 49.




Marriage source:From the book, Fundadores de Nueva Galicia - Guadalajara - Tomo I, by Guillermo Garmendia Leal. Page 49.

6. CAPTAIN LUIS3 CARVAJAL-Y-DE-LA-CUEVA (GASPAR2 DE CARVAJAL, GUTIERRE1 VASQUEZ-DE-LA-CUEVA)1 was born 1539 in Mogadouro, Traz-os-Montes province, Portugal, and died 1591 in In prison, Mexico City, F.D., Mexico. He married GUIOMAR NUNEZ-DE-RIVERA 1564 in Seville, Spain, daughter of MIGUEL NUNEZ and BLANCA RODRIGUEZ. She was born in Lisbon, Portugal, and died 1582 in Seville, Spain.

Conquistador. Between 1582 and 1584, he served as Governor of Nuevo Leon. His desire for power was his down fall.

Source: From the book's, 
The Martyr by Martin A. Cohen
Gallant Outcasts - Texas Turmoil 1519-1734 by Ben Cuellar Ximenes.
Northern New Spain, A Research Guide by Thomas C. Barnes, Thomas H. Naylor, and Charles W. Polzer.
Notes for GUIOMAR NUNEZ-DE-RIVERA: A.K.A. Dona Guiomas de Rivera.


i. FRANCISCA4 CARVAJAL-DE-LA-CUEVA-Y-RIVERA, b. Carvajales de Alba, Portugal.

ii. ANDRES NUNEZ, b. 1558, Mogadouro, Portugal.

7. FRANCISCA3 NUNEZ-DE-CARVAJAL-Y-DE-LA-CUEVA (GASPAR2 DE CARVAJAL, GUTIERRE1 VASQUEZ-DE-LA-CUEVA) was born 1540 in Benavente, Spain, and died 08 Dec 1596 in Mexico City, D. F., New Spain (Mexico). She married FRANCISCO RODRIGUEZ-DE-MATOS 1549 in Mogodouro, Portugal. He was born in Balderas, Spain, and died Dec 1584 in Mexico City, D.F., New Spain (Mexico).



By Richard G. Santos

A carnival air has overtaken Mexico's Tenochtitlan, (Mexico City) capital of the Vice Regency of New Spain. It started Friday night as some Native Americans of Aztec descent began to set up concession stands. The vendors could be seen throughout the Plaza Mayor known as El Zocalo in front of the National Palace and Cathedral. A private Auto de Fe was held within the Cathedral yesterday during High Mass. It is customary for government officials, wealthy people with political connections and members of the church to be penanced in private away from public view. This usually includes sexually active priests and nuns, pedophiles, secretly married priests and other members of the Church. As a rule, punishment for members of the Church is to be transferred from the churches or convents where they have committed their offenses. They are also sentenced to recite a certain number of prayers and rosaries. 

The main event of this Auto de Fe by the Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition occurred today, December 8, Second Sunday of Advent. Six men were punished for minor offenses such as being habitual liars and blasphemers. Two of them were punished for having said that sex between consenting adults was not a sin or crime. Their tongues were ripped from their mouths to the cheers of the Native Americans witnessing Europeans being punished. The Aztecs who rightfully have many grudges against the Spaniards, also cheered when some of the men were castrated. The cheers drowned the screams and cries of pain. 

Seven women were found guilty of practicing witchcraft. Two men and one woman were found guilty of bigamy. They were stripped to the waist and given 200 lashes each. Jeronimo Rodriguez (age 50) and Francisco Rodriguez (age 21) were found guilty of not reporting their relatives to the Inquisition for being Crypto Jews who practice their religion in secret. Both have been sentenced to serve on the Manila Galleons as unpaid oarsmen. Treated as slaves, poorly fed and constantly whipped, the life expectancy of oarsmen is seven years. Ana Baez, 28 year old wife of Jorge Alvarez was accused of being a Crypto Jewess. She was physically tortured but never admitted or confessed anything against herself or anyone else. Her personal property and that of her family was confiscated by the Inquisition which is not convinced of her innocence.

Twenty-five men and women were accused, tried, tortured and found guilty of being Crypto Jews. They have converted to Catholicism and accepted baptism. Their property, businesses and estates have been confiscated. They have been sentenced to life in prison and must wear a sanbenito which is a sleeveless poncho-like yellow garment with a large red cross on the chest. They will live at the jail of the Inquisition but during the day will join the many beggars wearing sanbentios seen throughout the city. The bones of two Crypto Jews who had passed away were placed in boxes and carried under straw filled effigies to be burned at the end of the day. Eight Crypto Jews managed to escape so they will also be burned in effigy. Among the escapees are Miguel Rodriguez de Matos, also known as Miguel de Carvajal and his brother Baltazar Rodriguez de Matos, aka de Carvajal. They are nephews of conquistador Luis de Carvajal y de la Cueva, the founder of the Nuevo Reyno de Leon. It has been reported they are now living in Rome where they are protected by the Vatican and have changed their last name to Lumbroso or Lumbrano in honor of their brother Luis Rodriguez de Matos, aka Luis de Carvajal, aka Iosef Lumbroso (the enlightened). 

Burned at the stake were Crypto Jews Manuel Diaz (36 years of age from Fondon, Portugal), Portuguese born Beatriz Enriquez de la Paiva, said to be "over 50 years of age" and the widow of Simon Rodriguez de Paiva who had died in Nuevo Leon, their son 22 year old son Diego Enriquez de Paiva and 35 year old Manuel de Lucena born in Guarda, Portugal. These men and women were given the option of a last minute conversion to Catholicism. Those who chose to become Catholic were strangled with a wire before being set afire. Not all were dead when the flames were ignited.

Last to be burned at the stake, and the main attraction at this Auto de Fe, was the Rodriguez de Matos - Carvajal y de la Cueva family. The head of the family is Francisca Nunez de Carvajal y de la Cueva, widow of Francisco Rodriguez de Matos. She is the sister of Nuevo Leon founder-conquistador Luis de Carvajal y de la Cueva. Her children to be burned are Leonor, wife of fugitive Jorge de Almeida (Nunez-Rodriguez de Rivera-Castellanos-Fonseca-Hernandez), Isabel (widow of Gabriel de Herrera), Catalina (wife of fugitive Antonio Diaz de Casarez) and Luis Rodriguez de Matos, also known as Luis de Carvajal el mozo (the younger). Because he claims to have experienced apparitions by God while in jail, as well as before, during and after torture, Luis has changed his name to Iosef Lumbroso (the enlightened). One of the Inquisitors stated he had never met such a learned religious person and that if Luis had lived in the days of the Old Testament he would have surely been one of the Prophets in the Bible. As reported above, sons Miguel and Baltazar managed to escape arrest and are appearing in effigy. Meanwhile, 16 year old Anica and 22 year old Mariana, who suffered a nervous breakdown and has been declared mentally unstable, will be present to witness the burning of their mother, brother and sisters. Mariana keeps repeating an interesting question. That is, "Which is better? To believe and say you do not believe, or not to believe and say you believe?"

The Native Americans and some mestizos started lining the parade route overnight. The desfile de la verguenza (parade of shame) started at the Palace of the Inquisition some four blocks from El Zocalo. All prisoners had their hands tied in front of them. Tied securely to their hands were a large green candle, a rosary and a prayer book. All prisoners, men and women alike, were stripped to the waist and lashed as they marched toward El Zocalo. Those prisoners whose legs had been broken or dislocated under torture and could not walk, rode burros. They were also topless and being lashed. The women tried their best to cover their nudity but to no avail. 

Two large stages were constructed at the main square where the Aztec Templo Mayor used to stand and now features the Cathedral and National Palace. The largest and most decorative stage was for the Inquisitors and dignitaries. Among the latter was the Bishop of Manila who read the sermon. The personal representatives of the Viceroy and Audiencia de Mexico (the Mexico City based Supreme Court) also attended. The Inquisitors have complained to the King that the highest ranking government officials have been boycotting the Autos de Fe and have not fully cooperated with the Inquisition.

The second stage was in the shape of a half circular pyramid. The people to be punished for lesser sins and crimes occupied the base. Those to be burned alive were at the top of the half moon pyramid. Minor stages serving as punishing areas were placed throughout El Zocalo as prisoners were lashed, tongues ripped, eyes gouged, hands severed and men castrated depending on their crime and punishment. There was also a section for family members not being punished but forced to observe the punishment of their relatives. They were brought to witness the event and learn what can happen to sinners, criminals, non-Catholic Christians and Jews. 

The nine Crypto Jews, all members of the Rodriguez de Matos - Carvajal y de la Cueva family, were taken to the Plaza de San Hipolito towards late afternoon. As one final insult, or perhaps to encourage a last minute conversion, all men and women about to be burned were stripped to a loin cloth as they were tied to the post, surrounded with lumber and covered with oil. They were given one last chance to accept baptism and die as "good Catholics". That meant being strangled with a wire instead of being burned alive. It did not matter what they chose because Grand Inquisitor Alonso de Peralta had already ordered the soldiers and priests to make sure they were all strangled. He did not want any Jew, and especially this family, to die as martyrs to their Faith. He also did not want the Native Americans or any other person to admire their devotion and commitment to the Law of Moses. Therefore, the women were strangled then set on fire. Luis the younger, or Iosef the Enlightened as he chose to call himself, refused all pretenses and was burned alive. Peralta issued a statement saying he had converted but those present know better. Their ashes were collected and scattered in the wilderness surrounding Mexico City "so that no trace or memory would remain of the family and their Faith". Only time will tell how history will deal with Don Luis de Carvajal y de la Cueva, founder of Nuevo Leon, his sister Francisca, her children and especially Luis de Carvajal el mozo (he younger), aka Iosef "The Enlightened". There has been talk of dispersing the colonists brought from Spain and Portugal in 1580 for the founding of the Nuevo Reyno de Leon. Time will tell.


Mariana Rodriguez de Matos, aka Mariana Nunez de Carvajal y de la Cueva, was burned at the stake on March 25, 1601. She had become a sincere and devout Catholic so it was recorded "she died well". Anica Rodriguez de Matos, aka Anica de Leon Carvajal y de la Cueva, was burned at the stake at 69 years of age on April 25, 1649. She was considered a "Jewish sainte" by those who knew her. One of Anica's great grandsons was denied permission to enter a seminary to become a priest due to his Jewish ancestors and especially Anica. Dominican Fray Gaspar Rodriguez de Matos, aka de Carvajal brother of Anica had been penanced in 1590 and lived the rest of his life as a cloistered low ranking Dominican Friar. The in-laws of the Rodriguez de Matos - Carvajal y de la Cueva family survived. None of the descendants thereafter and today carry Carvajal or Carvajal y de la Cueva as their last name. The flames of ignorance and intolerance killed the name at the stake. The 1580 Nuevo Reyno de Leon in time gave birth to Nuevo Leon, Coahuila, Tamaulipas and colonial Texas.

(Ramo de la Inquisicion, Archivo General de la Nacion de Mexico; Mexico City)

This (or a slightly abridged version) will be my December 8, 2004 column in the Zavala County Sentinel


i. DOMINICAN FRAY GASPAR4 DE CARVAJAL, b. 1556, Benavente, Spain; d. Abt. 1600, Oaxaca, New Spain (Mexico).

A Dominican priest, serving in Mexico City. Source: The Martyr by Martin A. Cohen.

ii. ISABEL RODRIGUEZ-DE-ANDRADA, b. 1560, Benavente, Spain; d. 08 Dec 1596, Mexico City, D. F., New Spain (Mexico); m. GABRIEL DE HERRERA1, 1578, Astorga, Spain; d. 1578.

Om March 13th, 1589, in the City of Mexico (Mexico City), she was arrested by the Inquisition.
Source: The Martyr by Martin A. Cohen.

A merchant, he had studied for the priesthood at the University of Salamanca.

iii. BALTASAR RODRIGUEZ, b. 1563, Benavente, Spain; d. Pisa, Italy; m. ANA.

He used the alias name of Francisco Ramirez.

iv. CAPTAIN LUIS DE CARVAJAL, THE YOUNGER, b. 1566, Benavente, Spain; d. 08 Dec 1596, Mexico City, D. F., New Spain (Mexico); m. JUSTA MENDEZ-ENRIQUEZ; b. Abt. 1572, Seville, Spain.

A.K.A. Luis Rodriguez de Matos, Luis Rodriguez Cavajal, and Josef Lumbroso.
He meet Justa Mendez, but never married her. 

v. CATALINA DE LEON-Y-LA-CUEVA, b. Abt. 1567, Benavente, Spain; d. Aft. 1594, New Spain (Mexico); m. ANTONIO DIAZ-DE-CACERES1, Mar 1585/86, Panuco, Vera Cruz, New Spain (Mexico)1; b. Abt. 1541, Santa Comba Dao, Portugal; d. Aft. 1593, New Spain (Mexico).

In Lisbon, he served as a page for the Count of Vimioso.
Source: The Martyr by Martin A. Cohen.

vi. LEONOR DE CARVAJAL-Y-ANDRADA, b. 1568, Benavente, Spain; d. 08 Dec 1596, Mexico City, D. F., New Spain (Mexico); m. JORGE DE ALMEIDA, Mar 1585/86, Panuco, Vera Cruz, New Spain (Mexico)1; b. 1555, Bisseo, Portugal; d. Aft. 1595.

vii. MARIANA NUNEZ-DE-CARVAJAL, b. 1572, Benavente, Spain; d. 25 Mar 1601, Mexico City, D. F., New Spain (Mexico); m. (1) JORGE DE LEON; m. (2) HECTOR DE FONSECA; d. New Spain (Mexico).

At 14 years of age, she was engaged to her mother's cousin, Jorge de Leon.
The marriage was destine not to take place.
Her 2nd engagemet was to Hector de Fonseca.
Source: The Martyr by Martin A. Cohen. 

viii. MIGUEL DE CARVAJAL, b. 1577, Medina del Campo, Spain; d. Pisa, Italy.

He used the alias name of Diego Jimenez.

ix. ANICA DE CARVAJAL, b. 1579, Medina del Campo, Spain; d. 25 Apr 1649, Mexico City, D.F., New Spain (Mexico); m. CRISTOBAL MIGUEL, Abt. 16011.

She is known as Dona Ana de Leon. She died of breast cancer.

8. CATALINA3 LOPEZ (LEONOR2 DE CARVAJAL, GUTIERRE1 VASQUEZ-DE-LA-CUEVA) was born in Medina del Campo, Spain. She married FULANO DE LEON in Benavente, Spain. 


i. LUIS4 LOPEZ, d. Benavente, Spain.

ii. MARIA DE LEON-Y-LOPEZ, m. FERNAN LOPEZ, Benavente, Spain.

9. LEONOR3 RODRIGUEZ (LEONOR2 DE CARVAJAL, GUTIERRE1 VASQUEZ-DE-LA-CUEVA) died in Burdeos, Portugal. She married NAME UNKNOWN. He died 1596.



Endnotes: 1. The Martyr by Martin A. Cohen.

Beyond Origins of New Mexico Families

A website maintained by José Antonio Esquibel

Home Page ½ Jewish-converso Lineage of Don Juan de Oñate Lineage from doña Magdalena de Mendoza y Salazar (continued from # 8.2 in The Jewish-converso Lineage of Don Juan de Oñate)

9. Doña Magdalena de Mendoza y Salazar (daughter of don Ruy Díaz de Mendoza and doña Catalina de Salazar, md. don Vicente de Zaldívar y Oñate, son of don Ruy Díaz de Zaldívar and doña María Pérez de Oñate (sister of don Cristóbal de Oñate who md. doña Catalina de Salazar). Source: A

10. Doña Magdalena de Zaldívar y Mendoza, md. don Juan Guerra de Resa, Teniente Aelantado de Neuvo México, native if Cain, Nueva Galicia, son of don Juan de Resa. Source: B

11. Don Vicente de Zaldívar y Resa, md. 1625, Nuevo León, with doña María de Sosa Farias, daughter of don Alonso de Farias and doña Ana de Sosa Albornoz y Navarro. Source: C (For another lineage from this couple to the present click here)

12. Doña Margarita de Sosa Zaldívar, md. in Nuevo León with don Diego de Ayala, son of don José de Treviño y Quintanilla and doña Leonor de Ayala Valverde. Sources: (for another line of descent to the present, see footnote #20 in Papers of Merits and Services of 17th Century New Mexico Citizens). Source: D

13. Doña María de Sosa Ayala, md. 2 July 1679, Monterrey, Nuevo León, with don Juan de la Garza Montemayor, 1658 - d. 10 July 1714, Monterrey, Nuevo León, son of don Juan de la Garza y González Hidalgo and doña Margarita de Montemayor y Rodríguez Castaño de Sosa. Source: E

14. Doña Josefa de la Garza y Sosa Ayala, md. 12 December 1707, Monterrey, Nuevo León, with don Tomás Sánchez de la Barrera, bt. 23 April 1680, Monterrey, Nuevo León, son of don Tomas Sánchez de la Barrera y Durán Uzcanga and doña María Barrera Navarro y Treviño Ayala. Source: F

15. Don Tomás Tadeo Sánchez de la Barrera (founder of San Agustín de Laredo, Nuevo Santander, now Laredo, TX), bt. 4 June 1709, Monterrey, Nuevo León; md. June 1729, Salinas Victoia, Nuevo León, with doña Catarina de Eribe (Iribe Vergara Tovar y de la Cadena —she was a descendant of don Antonio de la Cadena y Maluenda, brother of doña Catalina de la Cadena y Maluenda, see no. 7 above), daughter of don Felipe de Eribe González and doña María de Treviño Díaz. Source: G

16. Doña Alejandra Sánchez de la Barrera y Eribe, bt. 3 March 1742. Lampazos de Naranjo, Nuevo León; md. 1765, Hacienda de Dolores, Nuevo Santander, with don José Fernando de Vidaurre y Vásquez Borrego, 1740, son of don Juan Antonio de Vidaurre and doña Manuela Vásquez Borrego y Imperial. Source: H

17. Doña María de Jesús Vidaurre Sánchez de la Barrera, bt. 17 April 1781, Mier, Nuevo Santander; 1798 with don Vitorino Dovalina, son of don Manuel Sánchez de Dovalina y Villanueva and doña Francisca Pisaña. Source: I

18. Don José Lázaro Valentín Dovalina Vidaurre, b. 13 April 1814, bt. 17 April 1814, Laredo, Nuevo Santander; md. with doña Barbara González de la Garza, bt. 4 December 1822, Laredo, Tamaulipas, México, daughter of José Bentura González Zaldívar y Hinojos and doña María del Refugio de la Garza Martínez de Sotomayor. Source: J

19. Cesareo Dovalina González, bt. 9 June 1857, Laredo, Texas; md. 12 January 1892, Laredo, Texas, with Gregoria Suárez Martínez, 1873, daughter of José Froilán Juárez de la Cruz and Vitoriana Martínez Sánchez Anda. Source: K

20. Elvira Dovalina Suárez, b. 26 September 1888, Laredo, Texas - d. 3 January 1919, Laredo, Texas; md. 15 December 1912, Laredo, Texas, with Margarito Wise Ramírez, b. 18 May 1885, Laredo, Texas, son of Jorge Wise and Blasa Ramírez Sánchez Anda. Source: L

21. José Alfredo Wise Dovalina, b. 26 February 1917, Laredo, Texas - d. 13 January 1959, Laredo, Texas; md. 13 October 1935, Laredo, Texas, with María Enriqueta Canales Hernández, b. 8 April 1919, Realitos, Duval County, Texas, daughter of Manuel Canales Mendoza y Díaz de León (a descendant of doña Catalina de Salazar and don Ruy Díaz de Mendoza, see no. 8 above) and María Enriqueta Hernández Martínez. Source: M

22. Sylvia Enriqueta Wise Canales, b. October 1936, Benavides, Duval County, Texas; md. 17 February 1957, Laredo, Texas, with Antonio Rudolfo Esquibel, b. September 1934, Las Vegas, New Mexico, son of Juan Isidro Esquibel and Inéz Andrada Ébel. Source: N

23. José Antonio Esquibel


A. José Ignacio Dávila Garibi, La sociedad de Zacatecas en los albores de regimen colonial, Biblioteca Historia Mexicana de Obras Ineditas, no. 13, México, 1939: 42 and arboles genealógicos nos. 1 &2; Rodolfo González de la Garza, Apellidos de Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, Coahuila y Téxas, Nuevo Laredo, 1980: 261-262; Donald Chipman, "The Oñate-Moctezuma-Zaldívar Families of Northern New Spain," in New Mexico Historical Review, Vol. 54, No. 4, 1977: 304-305; Guillermo Porras Muñoz, El Gobierno de la Ciudad de México en el siglo xvi, Editorial Poria, México: 423; Marriage investigation records of the Diocese of Guadalajara, LDS microfilm #0168604 (21 Enero 1653, Monterrey, Nuevo León).

B. Marriage investigation records of the Diocese of Guadalajara, LDS microfilm #0168604 (21 Enero 1653, Monterrey, Nuevo León).
C. Marriage investigation records of the Diocese of Guadalajara, LDS microfilm #0168604 (21 Enero 1653, Monterrey, Nuevo León).
D. Marriage investigation records of the Diocese of Guadalajara, LDS microfilm #0168604 (21 Enero 1653, Monterrey, Nuevo León).
E. Marriage investigation records of the Diocese of Guadalajara, LDS microfilm #0168604 (21 Enero 1653, Monterrey, Nuevo León); and Marriages, Monterrey, Nuevo León (Sagrario Metropolitano Catedral), 1667-1753, LDS microfilm #0605179.

F. Marriages, Monterrey, Nuevo León (Sagrario Metropolitano Catedral), 1667-1753, LDS microfilm #0605179; Baptisms, Monterrey, Nuevo León, (Sagrario Metropolitano Catedral), 1680-1731, LDS microfilm #0605179; Marriage investigation records of the Diocese of Guadalajara, LDS microfilm #0168604 (14 Julio 1707, Monterrey, Nuevo León).

G. Marriage investigation records of the Diocese of Guadalajara, LDS microfilm #0168371 (11 Abril 1729); Baptisms, Monterrey, Nuevo León, (Sagrario Metropolitano Catedral), 1680-1731, LDS microfilm #0605179; Las will and testament of Felipe de Erive, photocopy in possession of José Antonio Esquibel.

H. Baptisms, Lampazos de Naranjo, Nuevo León, 1700-1804, LDS microfilm #0605568; transcription of the "Impedimente" documents regarding the union of María Alexandra Sánchez de la Barrera and José Fernando de Vidaurre dated 25 Junio 1765, 27 Junio 1765, 28 Junio 1765, 30 Junio 1765, 9 Agosto 1765, and 16 Septiembre 1765. Dispensation for marriage due to an impediment of affinity was granted 26 Octubre 1765, Guadalajara.

I. Baptisms, Mier, Tamaulipas, 1767-1880, LDS microfilm # 1162854; Baptisms, Laredo, Texas, San Agustín Church (6 August 1801, 25 July 1803, 5 October 1805, and 31 August 1807), LDS microfilm #0944273.
J. Baptisms, Laredo, Texas, San Agustín Church , LDS microfilm #0944273.
K. Baptisms, Laredo, Texas, San Agustín Church, LDS microfilm #0944273; Marriages, Laredo, Texas, San Agustín Church, LDS microfilm #0944273; family records.
L. Baptisms, Laredo, Texas, San Agustín Church, LDS microfilm #0944273; Marriages, Laredo, Texas, San Agustín Church, LDS microfilm #0944273; family records.
M. Baptisms, Laredo, Texas, San Agustín Church, LDS microfilm #0944273; Marriages, Laredo, Texas, San Agustín Church, LDS microfilm #0944273; family records.
N. Family records.

Home Page ½ Jewish-converso Lineage of Don Juan de Oñate

Brief History of the Ha-Levi Family
Lineage 1: Abraham Ha-Levi to Doña Catalina de Salazar
Lineage 3: Doña Mariana de Zaldívar y Sosa to the Present
Lineage 4: Doña Margarita de Zaldívar y Sosa to the Present (I)
Lineage 5: Doña Margarita de Zaldívar y Sosa to the Present (II)
Lineage 6: Doña Margarita de Zaldívar y Sosa to the Present (III)


The Texas Revolution of 1836
Texas Tejano Revolutionary Veterans Memorial Service
El Palacio de el Obsipo de Galveston-Houston
LULAC Archives at the University of Texas in Austin 
Nov 21st, Seventh Annual HCHS/HCHC Book Festival in Hidalgo 

A Tejano Son of Texas Screening 
San Antonio Founders Day 
Tejano Roots by Dan Arellano 
KIPP Academy to break ground for high school

Last Will and testament of Captain Joseph de Urrutia 
Don Ygnacio Gonzales de Ynclan Petitions for Ownership of Solar
San Antonio Confederate Cemetery Association is reorganizing 
Garcias get paid for Dr. Hector Garcia's office
National Hispanic Caucus Presents Texas State Senator Gonzalo Barrientos Leadership Award 
November 10-12: Bracero History Conference El Paso 
Dallas Historical Society


The Texan Revolution of 1836: a concise historical perspective based on original sources second revised/ expanded edition. One of the best works ever written on this war, the title says it all! Twenty-for pics, drawings, maps, photos, charts, 238 pp., only $14.99 each.  Note: in stock!

This work on the Texan Revolt of 1836, will focus and document in chronological sequence, the fundamental events of this conflict As in all historical narratives, reliance will be placed on official governmental papers, reports, diaries, noted personal observations, intelligent opinions and a well-selected bibliography.

A major portion of this work will also rely on the Mexican perspective of the revolution. This much needed material will remove the mists that have always clouded the major events of this period in both Texan and Mexican history. No more can historians and scholars say, among other things, that no one will ever know what actually happened at the Alamo on that early morning of March 6, 1836. Nor can they state emphatically that Fannin's surrender of his command was on terms, only to be executed in violation thereof.

The official personal narratives of the Mexican participants will no doubt illuminate certain dark passages of the Texan War. This pertinent knowledge might upset or disturb some, but it only confirms the suspicions that have always lingered since the war.

Therefore, this account will not take into any consideration, myths, half-truths or intentional deceptions on this segment of Americana. If the reader is at all familiar with Texas history, the abundance of false tales is well known. If the saga of the revolt was quickly submerged in myth, it was only because reality was harder to accept.

What I desire is that the reader will receive the realization that historical truth, when revealed, is much better than ill-founded beliefs. It provides that past mistakes can and should be corrected and that future mistakes can be avoided if historical fact is taken to heart.

However, I do not intend to demean myth, to a certain point, taken in small measure, it is good for any nation. It's good for a national espirit de corps, but when it comes to the scrutiny of history, no one needs it If I have succeeded in the furtherance of historical truth to the reader, then I have done my duty to those living in the present, as well as those who make history.

Roger Borroel, September 21,1988

La Villita publications now offers to the public the latest research on the Texan revolution of 1836. Because of popular and scholar demand, the following texts have been reprinted and fine tuned for the professional historian, researcher and the Texas Alamo buff. All texts have the latest translations, which have never been translated into English before!

There's something for everyone here- the De La Pena reader; the Alamo researcher; the Mexican army historian/buff, and many other worthy subjects on this short, but brutal war for the control of Texas in 1836. Not only do these works open up new perspectives on this conflict, they are also a treasure trove of "new" knowledge never before printed for the public. After reading these unique works, you will know for sure what happened during the Texas war of 1836!

Roger Borroel is the author, translator and editor of these amazing texts. He is a Vietnam combat veteran of the 101st airborne division, and a graduate of Purdue University, Indian. Note: except for the Texan revolution of 1836 (5 1/2" x 8"), all works are, 8 1/2" x 11" format, all works are in paperbound style.  US postage is $.2 for the first book, add .25 cents for each additional book.
Make check or money order out to Mr. Roger Borroel and mail to 5520 Homerlee Ave.
East Chicago, In. 46312

A Victim of Despotism, written by de la Pena to the Mexican president in 1839. This rare work consists not only the translation of the 16 page pamphlet, but a complete copy of the pamphlet itself is included for researchers of this unique man. The value of this wok lies in the fact that is supportive evidence for the diary De La Pera wrote while on the campaign trail in Texas. 38pp., 15 pics, $6.99 each.  Note: four(4) copies left 7/11/05

The Concordance of Lt. Col. Lose Enrique de la Pena's diary and appendixes- a comparative critical analysis, a comparison of sentences and sentence fragments from the papers of de la Pena, his appendixes from the diary and victim of Despotism. This text also has chart of the Mexican army made by de la Pena in July, 1836. 17 pp 1 chart, $5.99 each. Note: two copies left as of 7/11/05

After the battle of th Alamo: documents published y general Juan Jose Andrade on the evacuation of San Antonio De Bejar, Texas, May 1836.
Various letters form this gentleman to Filisola on his troops conditions at San Antonio after Santa Anna left to chase Houston across he heart of Texas. He also gives data on the Mexican wounded after the battle of the Alamo, the state of his supplies, and his letters to general Urrea who was in the field with Santa Anna and Filisola. An excellent gem on the events at San Antonio after the main part of the army moved East in search of Houston. This is the man who knocked down the walls of the Alamo compound, and wrote out the official list of dead and wounded at the Alamo. Three pics, 22 pp, $6.99 each.  Note: in Stock!

Mexican documents of the Texian revolt, 1836. Various letters form the pen of Santa Anna, Filisola, disposition of Ignacio Salinas for the Filisola trial, six photos, 23 pp, $ 6.99 each. Plus data on the naval actions that took place during the war, never before translated into English.  Note: in stock!

The J. Sanchez Garza introduction to the rebellion of Texas: The diary of Lt. Col. Jose Enrique de la Pena. When the journal of de la Pea was finally printed in 1955 by Mr. Garza, he wrote over a 50 page introduction to it! A good portion of it was on section v of the introduction. However the other sections, de la Pena's biography, literary career, military career, the manuscripts themselves are translated in full in this very valuable work. As a bonus, there is "the roll call of the Zapadores battalion" with a sketch of the Alamo! 34 pp., 3 pics, $6.99 each. Please be advised that the section on the manuscripts is analysis made on them by Mr. Sanchez Garza. Note: in stock!

Mexican accounts of the battle of the alamo: a collection & critical analysis. "hailed as a superb collection of Mexican eyewitness accounts of the Batle of the Alamo this work is an important addition to the libraries of historians and Alamo buffs alike. - The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Col. CII, No. 2, October, 1998, pp. 243-244.   Need I say more? There are two sections to this ext., one for the reliable Mexican accounts and the other form unreliable. Many pics, photos, diagrams, etc., 147 pp., as well as some color photos. This is the one you have if one wants to believe in the truth and not in fables! $17.99  Note: in stock!

The itineraries of the Zapadores and San Luis Battalions during the Texas war of 1836. The activities of these two units who took part in the storming of the Alamo! This book is volume I, and the editor hopes to get the other battalion logbooks so as to translate them also. Yes, there are the march 6th entry for the death struggle at the Alamo. Included are copies of some of the actual pages of the San Lusis logbook w/translation, some color photos, list of the Mexican officers captured at San Jacinto, and more… 66 pp, an excellent work for lovers of Texas history. $16.99 each.  Note: in stock!

The diary of Lt. Col. Nicolas de la Portilla, March 18th to April 23rd, 1836. Not for the first time, the complete entries covering de la Potilla's service at Goliad. He writes about his feelings about being in command when Fannin's men were executed. Of course, the details on how the executions were carried out are noted also by him, and the aftermath. Three pics, copy of some portions of the diary, 21 pp., $6.99 each.  Note: in stock!

El Palacio de el obsipo de Galveston-Houston en la Isla de Galveston.
Sent by John Inclan


LULAC  Archives at the University of Texas in Austin  
Source by Jesús Nieto    North Education 81 (619) 594-6125 

Greetings to all LULAC,
It gives me great pleasure to inform you that on Monday August 29, 2005, I, on behalf of the Torivio and Juanita Chavez family from Sonora Texas, personally donated a historical photo of LULAC to the Benson Library LULAC archive at the University of Texas in Austin. The donation is the original photo of the LULAC Special Convention held in San Antonio Texas on November 11, 1934. While the LULAC archive stores various photos of the organization, our donated photo is a one of a kind in the collection and as such provides an additional historical visual of the organization. The size of the black/white photo is 31" x 6" and was taken in front of the old San Pedro Library in San Antonio. There are over one hundred individuals in the photos, many, I am sure, are relatives of current LULAC members. This photo like others will be viewed by LULAC descendants for generation to come.

The photo has been in our family for seventy one years and has a very special meaning because our grandfather Severo Chavez was a member of LULAC at the time and is in the photo. Our father, Torivio Chavez, followed our grandfather's involvement and membership in LULAC for many years.  My cousin Pete Garza from Lubbock Texas continues to be a member of LULAC.

I am sure my grandfather Severo, or for that matter my father Torivio, ever thought that their image and names be would archived at this prestigious library and university. Sadly, they probably didn't even know at the time that the university existed. Thanks to the persistent advocacy of LULAC and other organizations like it, our community now knows about of its existence and is an active member of the higher education community in Texas and throughout the country.

The Benson Library will soon place the photo in its collection which can be viewed via the internet. An announcement regarding the photo will be forthcoming from the Benson Library.

Wouldn't it be great if someone would give a major donation to research and identify all of the individuals who took part in this historic photo? It would certainly strengthen the historical role of the San Antonio LULAC chapter and overall foundation of LULAC nationally. It is vital and  important for us to document our history. Please share/donate historical materials and photos to the LULAC archive. A special thank you to Pamela Mann from the Benson Library for assisting me in this endeavor.

Please share this information with your membership. Gracias.
Gus Chavez, Retired, Former Director, Office of Education Opportunity and Ethnic Affairs
San Diego State University

November 21, Valley authors at Seventh Annual HCHS/HCHC Book Festival in Hidalgo, Texas  

Sent by George Gause

Hidalgo County Historical Society and Hidalgo County Historical Commission will hosted the seventh annual HCHS/HCHC Book Festival and open house on Sunday, November 21, 2005. The event will be held from 2 - 5 p.m. at the 1886 County Courthouse and Texas State Bank Lobby at the corner of Bridge and Flora Streets in Hidalgo, Texas.  

This year’s theme is "Music and Memories." Music will be provided by Mario Alemán, guitarist. Some of the authors sharing their memories will be John Mora from Austin who wrote Through My Eyes - A Retrospective, a book about growing up in Donna, Texas; Mona Sizer from Harlingen whose book Border Bandits – Real to Reel is hot off the press, and Jan Seale who will give a slide presentation of photos of Valley flora and fauna from Valley Ark, which is due off the press just before Christmas.  

Twelve-year-old Kirsten Rawson is the youngest author. She and her grandmother Kathleen Carrizal-Frye recently self-published Dia de los Muertos, after three years of avid study of Mexican Day of the Dead traditions.

Glenn Harding and Becky Lee, authors of Rails to the Rio, are from Raymondville. Their book studies the development of several Valley towns as the railroad came to the South Texas 100 years ago. Harding is an avid collector of books on South Texas history.

John Hawthorne from Brownsville will round out the group of eight authors. He will have tee-shirts inspired by his two volumes of Brownsville Ghost Stories, as well as his books.

Books on the history, genealogy, cooking, folklore, literature, plants and wildlife of the Rio Grande Valley will be available for sale. This includes books on South Texas and Northern Mexico, in both English and Spanish. Refreshments will be served. For more information contact Virginia Haynie Gause at 686-3914 or email

A Tejano Son of Texas Screened at the Witte Museum 

San Antonio, Texas) October 7, 2005 – Texas, a San Antonio-based research, publishing, and communications firm, will held a screening of its lauded “A Tejano Son of Texas” Documentary from 6:00-9:00pm on Tuesday, Oct. 11 at the prestigious Witte Museum (3801 Broadway).

Written, directed and produced by Texas, the film tells the life story of legendary Texas Tejano pioneer Jose Policarpio “Polly” Rodriguez. Set in the mid 1830s in the northern Mexican frontier of Coahuila y Texas. The land was still full of revolution and uncertainty and hostile Indians still threatened the sparse settlements. 

Through the course of his life, Polly Rodriguez became a Surveyor, U.S. Army Scout &Guide, Texas Ranger, Rancher, Justice of the Peace and Minister. He serves as a shining, positive and uplifting example of the accomplishments of Tejanos and of their lasting impact on the founding of the Great State of Texas. 

“We are very pleased to have teamed with a partner as celebrated as the Witte Museum,” says Texas President and Founder Rudi R. Rodriguez. “Being allowed to tell Polly’s story at the Witte adds even more circumstance and validity to his life and to our mission of educating the public about the lives and legacies of our Tejano forefathers.”

The event was an official Tejano Heritage Month.  For more information, contact either Texas at (210) 673-3584.  Texas can be found at

Sent by Nachito Pena
and also 


San Antonio Founders Day, 
October 22, 2005, 11 am to 5:30 p.m.
Viva La Convivencia
Celebrate Our Heritage

Morning Program in McAllister Auditorium, S.A.C.
The Youth Orchestras of San Antonio
The Children's Chorus of San Antonio
Afternoon Program in "Family Friendly" San Pedro Springs Park
All events free and open to the public
Go to


Tejano Roots by Dan Arellano 

"Tejano Roots."  A book about the "Battle of Medina." The untold story of Tejanos who can finally claim their rightful place in the history of our country.

Dear Dan,  I wish to tell you that the book you have written is very impressively researched. You have gleaned admirably from a sizeable amount of historical writings. Consequently, you have covered a great many topics knowledgeably--military and cultural history, biography and autobiography, the Chicano movement, U.S. Southwest history, Mexican and Texas history--and what is really important about this is that you have been engaged in the historian's task that to me is the most commendable of all: the reinterpretation of the past and the rewriting of history. In order to do that you have found slanted and neglected areas in the writing of history and called your readers' attention to them. You have provided correctives and filled in gaps that heretofore did not recognize Tejano contributions to Texas history. 

Eliud Martinez, Ph.D. 
Novelist, Professor Emeritus, Comparative Literature and Creative Writing
University Of California, Riverside, California

KIPP Academy to break ground for high school
Sent by Willis Papillion writes:

Oct. 5, 2005, Today marks the high point of a big week for Houston-based KIPP Academy charter schools.  The Knowledge Is Power Program will break ground on its first permanent high school building in southwest Houston. KIPP Houston High School opened in 2004 with its first class of freshmen in temporary buildings.

KIPP, which opened its first school in 1994, operates 47 campuses nationwide. The charter schools serve primarily disadvantaged students in urban areas and have raised standardized test scores with an approach that uses longer instructional days, Saturday classes and tough discipline.

KIPP will be featured in a national PBS special scheduled to air at 9 p.m. today on KUHT, Channel 8. The two-hour program is titled Making Schools Work.

KIPP opened a new charter school catering to Hurricane Katrina evacuees living within the Houston Independent School District. The school, New Orleans West College Prep, is located in the vacant Douglass Elementary School building in the Third Ward and serves students in kindergarten through eighth grade.  More than 150 parents have enrolled children in the new KIPP school so far. There is room for as many as 600 students.

Sent by John Inclan

Last Will and testament of Captain Joseph de Uruttia
July 4th, 1740


In the Name of God Almighty, and of the Virgin Mary, Our Lady, Amen.

Be it known to all whom this testamentary document may concern that I Don Joseph de Urrutia, captain of this royal presidio of San Antonio de Bejar, with tenure for life, being sick in body but sound in mind and will, and in my normal judgement and memory, believing as I do, firmly and truly, in the high and sovereign mystery of the Most Holy Trinity: Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, three distinct persons and only one true God, and all the other tenets and beliefs of our Holy Roman Catholic Mother Church, do hereby make public declaration that I have lived, am now living, and expect to die in that faith; and that fearing death, to which all living beings are subject, and desiring to save my soul, I do hereby grant this my testament in the following form and anner:

First, I bequeath and commend my soul to God, Our Lord,who created and redeemed it with the infinite price of His most precious blood, and I beseech His Most Holy Majesty to take it to Glory, for which it was created; and my body, I bequeath to the earth from which it was made, that it may return thereto.

Item, I command that, when by the will of God, I shall be taken from this present life to eternity, my body be buried in the chapel which is used as a church by this villa and presidio, that the priest attend my funeral wearing his surplice, with a raised cross and the additional ceremonial befitting the office which I now hold, that a mass be sung and its vigil observed on the day of my burial, if the hour is adequate, and, if not, on the day after my funeral, andthat the alms be paid from the best secured part of my estate.

Item, I command that my body be shrouded in the habit of our Seraphic Father Saint Francis and that the alms for same be paid from my estate, and I now make this request by the love of God.

Item, I command that on the nine days following my obsequies, nine masses be said for my soul with the tolling of the bell in this said church, and that the alms be paid from my estate.

Item, I command that one peso from my estate be given, once only to each of the following compulsory bequests: the Holy Church of Jerusalem, the ransom of captives, the Brotherhood of the Most Holy Sacrament, and orphan girls.

Item, I declare that whereas I have long-term accounts with Don Juan de Angulo, a resident and merchant of Mexico City, who has supplied this my company during the time that I have held the office of captain of same, I order my executors to determine from the memoranda which he has remitted to me whether I have been charged more than the cost of the goods which he has sent me and to liquidate and adjust said accounts with said Don Juan de Angulo, being guided altogether by the just prices for which those goods sold regularly in that city at the time they were sent to me. My executors shall collect whatever amount said Don Juan de Angula may owe me after he has been paid the amounts I have designated for him.

Item, I command my executors to collect and receive all the property within my house such as account books and other papers that may be verified as belonging to me. 

Item, I declare that I was married according to the precepts of our Holy Mother Church to Dona Antonia Ramon, a resident of Rio Grande del Norte, now deceased, and from said marriage I had our legitimate daughter Dona Antonia de Urrutia.

Item, I declare that my said wife, Dona Antonia Ramon, did not bring into my possession any property or dowry; I declare this in order that it may be recorded.

Item, I declare that I did not give any property whatever nor dowry to my said daughter, Dona Antonia Ramon de Urrutia; I declare this in order that it may be recorded.

Item, I declare that I was married a second time, according to the precepts of Our Holy Mother Church, to Dona Rosa Flores de Valdez, a resident of the villa of Saltillo, and that the children of our marriage are:Dona Rosa de Urrutia, Don Joseph Miguel de Urrutia, Dona Cathalina de Urrutia, Dona Juana de Urrutia, Don Thoribio de Urrutia, Don Joachin de Urrutia, Don Pedro de Urrutia, Don Ignacio de Urrutia, and Dona Juana Gertrudis de Urrutia, who I declare to be my children by my said wife.

Item, I declare that the said Dona Rosa Flores de Valdez, my wife, did not bring into my possession any dowry or property whatever; I declare this in order that it may be recorded.

Item, I declare that to none of my sons and daughters who have married have I given any property or dowry; I declare this in order that it may be recorded. Item, I declare that to my son-in-law Don Ignacio de Ynclan, the husband of my daughter Dona Juana de Urrutia, I have assigned five hundred pesos and food for him and his wife for his services during each of the six years that he has been my cashier. I order my executors to audit the accounts of said Don Ygnacio; to charge to his account whatever he may have bought either from my store or from Mexico City; and that the amount in excess of the assigned salary of five hundred pesos for each of the six years during which he has worked for me, be added to the property that I may leave after my death to be divided equally among all the other heirs, share and share alike; and my executors shall exercise the necessary and conscientious care to comply with my will by so doing. 

And I appoint as my testamentary executors Don Joseph de Plaza and Don Pedro Godoy, (my sons-in-law), residents of the real and mines of San Pedro de Boca de Leones, to both of whom and to each one severally I give the necessary power in order that from the best secured part of my estate they may sell enough with which to comply with and pay the legacies and bequests of this my testament. I charge them to do so conscientiously; and I command that whatever they may do by virtue of same shall be as valid as if I had done it.

And when this my testament shall have been complied with and the bequests and legacies contained herein shall have been paid, I institute and name as my legitimate and universal heirs to the residue of all the property, rights, and actions which now belong to me, or which may belong to me in the future, Dona Rosa de Urrutia, Don Joseph Miguel de Urrutia, Dona Cathalina de Urrutia, Dona Juana de Urrutia, Don Thoribio de Urrutia, Don Joachin de Urrutia, Don Pedro de Urrutia, Don Ygnacio de Urrutia, Dona Gertrudis de Urrutia, and Dona Antonia de Urrutia, my legitimate children by legitimate marriage, in order that they may have and inherit same equally with the blessing of God and my blessing, and whatever part of my property each one may have squandered shall be included herein and partitioned. 

I revoke, annul and declare to be worthless and of no effect any will or wills, memorandum or codicil whatever which I may have made prior to this, in writing, by word of mouth, or in any other form; and I wish that only this, which I am now granting shall be valid as my Last Will and Testament, in the best manner and form according to law. 

Captain Don Joseph de Urrutia thus granted and signed it before me, the present notary and the following witnesses who were present:

Lieutenant Don Matheo Perez Signed
Joseph de Urrutia
Alferez Don Juan Galban (Rubic)
Don Joseph Bueno de Roxas
Don Fermin de Ybiricu
Antonio Lopez

I certify, Done in my presence Francisco Joseph de Arocha
(Rubic) Notary Public and Secretary
Contributed by Helen Harrell
The Canary Islands Descendants Newsletter

Grant of Solar to Don Ygnacio Gonzales de Ynclan 


Bexar County Court House – San Antonio, Texas
Bexar County Spanish Archives
Spanish Land Grant # 704
Grant of a Solar to Don Ygnacio Gonzales de Ynclan

In the City of San Fernando of the Government of Texas and the New Phillippines, June 10, 1739, before the members of the Cabildo of Justice and government of this said city, was presented this petition for consideration of its contents:

I, Ignacio Gonzalez de Inclan, resident of this Royal Presidio de San Antonio de Bexar, appear before Your Excellencies in the best form and manner according by law and which will most benefit me and declare:

That I occupying a solar (with the permission of the governors of this province, by virtue of which I have built a house of stone without anyone offering any contradiction or encumbrance whatever.)

This solar is bound on the East by North Street; on the South by the said Presidio of San Antonio with a street in between; on the West by a track of unsettled land and on the North by the house of Pedro Regalado.

Wherefore, I humbly beseech Your Excellencies to grant me this said solar and order that I be granted possession of according to and in the manner which His Majesty, (whom God preserve), has ordered in his Royal Laws, Where I shall receive justice and mercy.

I swear that my petition was not prompted by malice but was made through necessity.

I furthermore humbly beseech Your Excellencies kindly to accept my petition written on this common paper because no sealed official paper is used in this province, I bind myself to pay the fees due to the royal crown. Dated as above.

Ygnacio Gonzales de Ynclan,


After the contents of the above petition had been examined by the said members of the Cabildo they accepted it as having been properly presented, and they declared:

That because it is desirable that stone houses be constructed, the said members of the Cabildo ordered the High constable, Vicente Alvarez Travieso to proceed accompanied by the present notary public and grant the petitioner the possession which he seeks, in the same manner and form as set forth in his petition.

The petitioner is granted this possession with the understanding that the said solar does not have any water because there is none except that which is in the San Antonio River which is the source of supply for this City.

When this act of possession takes place the High constable will summon the adjoining property owners in case that they may have a better right to this land.

On the day that this possession is granted the High constable will record it so that it will be valid at all times. Thus the said members of the Cabildo of Justice and Government executed, ordered and signed before me the present notary public and the Cabildo. To all of which I certify.

Antonio Santos, Juan Leal
[Rubric] [Rubric] 
Juan Delgado Antonio Rodriguez Mederos, 
[Rubric] [Rubric] 

In the city of San Fernando of the Government of Texas and the New Phillipines, June 11, 1739, Vicente Alvarez Travieso, High constable of this City, in compliance with what had been ordered by the members of the Cabildo of Justice and Government of this said City went, accompanied by me, the present notary public to the aforesaid place.

Having summoned to this act of possession the adjacent property owners and in the presence of the witness who will be mentioned below, the High constable surveyed the land to all of the four winds with a cord of 50 standard vares on the solar that the petitioner seeks and gave him 50 vares on each side.

The High constable took Ygnacio Gonzalez de Ynclan by the hand and walking with him over the solar he declared in a loud and intelligible voice that: In the name of His Majesty (whom God Preserve) and by order of the members of the Cabildo I place you in possession of this solar composed of 50 varas on each side.

I grant this possession to you and your heirs with all its rights of ingress and egress, uses, customs, rights and easements.

This solar is bound on the East by the street known as North street; on the South by the street that extends from the said solar and the presidio; on the West by a solar that is public and uncultivated and on the North by the solar of Pedro Regalado.

The petitioner acquired this solar under the conditions set forth in the preceding writ and with the understanding that there is no water in the city.

The witnesses to this act of possession were Mateo de Carabaxal [Cabajal], Alberto Lopez and Francisco de Estrada all residents of this said city. In order that this deed may be valid at all times the High constable signed it before me, the present notary public and the Cabildo. To which I certify.

Vicente Alverez Travieso Before me:
[Rubric] Francisco Joseph de Arocha,
Notary public and of the Cabildo. 

San Antonio Confederate Cemetery Association is reorganizing 

THE CCA is reorganizing! A meeting was held on Sunday, September 25th to begin the reorganization of the CONFEDERATE CEMETERY ASSOCIATION. An updated draft copy of the Bylaws has been prepared. Everyone who is interested in preserving history and a Historical Treasure is invited to attend a meeting on TUESDAY, OCTOBER 18, 2005 AT 6:30 P.M. AT LUBY'S, 911 N. MAIN AVENUE. The Bylaws will be approved and officers elected at that time. 

If you would like a copy of the new Bylaws and membership application please email me off list with a subject line of "San Antonio CCA" . You will hit a spam trap when you first mail me but I'll pick up your request.  John A. Stovall   More information: 

Garcias get paid for Dr. Hector Garcia's office
By Sara Lee Fernandez
Tuesday August 2,2005
Sent by Mira Smithwick

Dr. Hector P. Garcia's Window on Monday received the balance of the money owed to her by the foundation created to honor her husband, preventing foreclosure on his clinic. 
The $12,000 balance of a $20,000 promissory note Wanda Fusillo Garcia financed in 2000 to the National Archives & Historical Foundation of the American GI Forum was wired to her trust fund by the 2 p.m. deadline, said Cecilia Akers, one of Dr. Garcia's daughters.
"she is very happy that this chapter in her life is closed," said Akers, who like her mother lives in San Antonio. 

With the promissory note paid, the foundation is now free to make major changes to the clinic.

The clinic is the proposed site for a museum and a Mexican American civil rights education center. Out of Dr. Garcia's determination to see veterans get what they earned for their service to the country, he created the American GI Forum. The organization began in 1948 in a classroom at Lamar Elementary School; later meetings and planning sessions were moved to the medical clinic. And it is where activists planned the strategy for the landmark 1968 case Cisneros et. Al. V. CCISD, which set the stage for court ordered school intergration in Corpus Christi from 1976 to 1982.

Akers said she would like to see the two Corpus Christi chapters of the American GI Form and the Archives work together restore the building and make it into a museum.

"I think that if they unite and pool their resources we can see my father's dream to completion," Akers said


National Hispanic Caucus of State Legislators Presents Texas State Senator Gonzalo Barrientos Leadership Award 

Sala de Prensa de HISPANIC PR WIRE (866-477-9473)  (

National Hispanic Caucus of State Legislators Presents Texas State Senator Gonzalo Barrientos Leadership Award

NOTA: La version en español de este comunicado estará en en cuanto este disponible.

Washington, DC--(HISPANIC PR WIRE)--October 20,2005--Texas State Senator Gonzalo Barrientos will receive the John S. Martinez Excellence in Leadership Award from the National Hispanic Caucus of State Legislators (NHCSL). This is the inaugural launch of NHCSL’s Excellence in Leadership Award named in honor of the late John S. Martinez, former State Representative of Connecticut and NHCSL President in 2001-2002. The award will be presented annually to a Hispanic legislator who embodies passion, dedication and great achievement throughout his/her political career. Senator Barrientos is the first recipient of this award. Senator Barrientos will receive the award at the NHCSL Third National Summit that will be held November 10-13 in Tampa, Florida. 

“On behalf of the National Hispanic Caucus of State Legislators, it is our esteemed privilege to award the John S. Martinez Excellence in Leadership Award to Senator Barrientos who has demonstrated a passion, commitment and dedication to serving his constituency,” said NHCSL President, Assemblyman Felix Ortiz (NY). “Senator Barrientos personifies the meaning of this leadership award and is well-deserving of it.” 

Senator Barrientos was nominated for the award by Texas State Senator Leticia Van de Putte, R.Ph., who currently serves as President-Elect of the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) and chairs the Texas Senate Democratic Caucus. Barrientos preceded Van de Putte as the Democratic leader in the Texas State Senate. 

Van de Putte, who completed her Presidency of the National Hispanic Caucus of State Legislators (NHCSL) earlier this year, said “I could not be happier that NHCSL has recognized what we in Texas have long known -- that Gonzalo Barrientos is a leader of national caliber. He took those who joined him in the Senate under his wing and shared with us the tools to be successful public servants. He has paved the way for future generations of Hispanics to lead more effectively, and I am proud to have had him as a colleague and friend.”

“It humbles me to be awarded this honor, and I thank NHCSL for it,” Senator Barrientos said. “Public service is a high calling and I am profoundly thankful for the people in my district for believing in me. The support of my colleagues in Texas and across the country is a very special reward as well – adelante,” he said.

Senator Barrientos, the most senior Hispanic in the Texas Senate, has served in the Senate for 20 years and in the House for 10 years prior. Among his accomplishments is the passage of more than two dozen pieces of legislation designed to decrease the school dropout rate. Additionally, he has sponsored significant legislation to eliminate abuse of the elderly and protect the rights and benefits of state employees, and law enforcement initiatives. He has championed various pieces of legislation that protect the rights and benefits of workers and state employees, has been a tireless advocate for the rights of elderly citizens, and has been instrumental in ensuring the representation of minority students at institutions of higher education. Senator Barrientos recently announced that at the end of his current term ending in January 2007, he will not seek re-election. 

The NHCSL is the premier national association of Hispanic state legislators working to design and implement policies and procedures that will improve the quality of life for Hispanics throughout the country. NHCSL was founded in 1989 as a nonpartisan, nonprofit 501(c)3 with the mission to be the most effective voice for the more than 300 Hispanic legislators. For more information visit    CONTACT:  Maria Ibañez, (202) 434-8070

November 10-12: Bracero History Conference El Paso 

Smithsonian Institution and The University of Texas at El Paso
"Envisioning Bracero History" Conference, El Paso, Texas
Nov. 10 - 12, 2005

The Smithsonian Institution and the University of Texas at El Paso invite the public, Museum professionals, and students and faculty in History, American Studies, Latino Studies, Ethnic Studies and other related disciplines to attend a free conference, "Envisioning Bracero History" in El Paso, Texas November 10-12, 2005.

"Envisioning Bracero History," a collaborative conference of the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History and the University of Texas at El Paso's History Department , will be held in El Paso, Texas from November 10 to 12, 2005. This conference is part of the Smithsonian's ongoing effort to collect, preserve, and share the history of the bracero program. Envisioning Bracero History will bring together scholars from both sides of the border to explore the rich cultural history and the myriad narratives of the U.S.-Mexican borderlands.

The project will use the history of the Bracero Program to explore ongoing issues of race relations &citizenship, work & agriculture, family & gender, the border, immigration & transnationalism, politics & identity. We will share the information collected through a public website, and the Smithsonian hopes to begin work soon on a traveling exhibition.

The "Envisioning Bracero History" Conference Panel Program main themes will address


The event will begin with a Town Hall meeting on Thursday evening, November 10.
On Friday, November 11 there will be two panels. That evening, there will be a reception at the El Paso Art Museum which will feature a graduate student poster session focusing on braceros and borderlands history and culture.
On Saturday, November 12, 2005 a panel of oral and public historians will discuss practitioners' perspectives on collecting braceros' oral histories. During the afternoon Smithsonian representatives will conduct oral histories with former braceros.

Conference attendance is free but registration is required.

For more information please call 915.747.5238 or to register for the conference please go to Please submit the online registration form by Nov. 4, 2005.

Dallas Historical Society Fall Tours

November 5 – Let’s follow Lee Harvey Oswald around Dallas for a day. Learn and think about what happened that fateful November day in 1963. It changed Dallas and the world. Lots of seats left.

November 12 – East/South Dallas –SOLD OUT – Sorry 

November 19 – The Skyscrapers of Downtown Dallas; how Dallas developed into a great city and some of the downtown neighborhoods that are still ever-changing. Mike Hazel is a great source to give us information about why and how Dallas developed into what we see today.

December 3 – The Legend of Bonnie and Clyde – Ride along and relax as your mind travels back to the depression years of 1930’s Dallas. The hard times, the fast cars and learn about the brutality of the Texas Prison system in those days and the lives of two young people who made very wrong choices.

Reservations are required, please contact: 
Franklin K. Wilson, COO
Dallas Historical Society
PO Box 150038, Dallas, TX 75315-0038
214.421.4500 x105


Paul Newfield finds family treasure, silver chalice
Ingenio Mayor Visits Baton Rouge 
Sister Snare's All Star Kazoo Band
La Nueva Orleans 
Fearing a Nuevo Orleans, Aftermath of Katrina
As Locals Struggle, Migrants Find Work in New Orleans 

Historic New Orleans Collection
Original St. Bernard Parish Louisiana Official Website
Foundation for Historical Louisiana  
Current St. Bernard  Parish, Louisiana Report
Encyclopedia Louisiana Index
Louisiana: 1810-1820


Rescuing the chalice   

Rescuing the chalice  was no easy task.  Paul Newfield was trying to fulfill his aunt's request to find the chalice amidst the rubble, water, and mud that pervaded everything. Acting alone, he forced his way through a side window, sloshed around hoping to find anything that suggested the box his aunt had described.  Fortunately, the plastic held the box together, but as soon as Paul opened the box, it fell apart. 

Plastic bag held the containing box together, which collapsed upon opening.

Front door markings of my aunt's house.

A neighbor across the street from my aunt's house with protective gear for dealing with the smelly mess; she was just trying to retrieve some of her possessions.

Ingenio Mayor of Gran Canaria, Spain 
visited Baton Rouge, Louisiana

On Tuesday, August 9th, 2005 the mayor of Ingenio, Gran Canaria, Spain, Mr. Domingo González and his wife Luisa González visited Baton Rouge during his trip to St. Bernard Parish to initiate a student exchange program. A reception was held at the State Archives Building where Mayor Gonzalez met members of the Baton Rouge group. President Catherine Prokop later accompanied the couple to the offices of Mayor Holden and Councilman Darryl Ourso. The new State Capitol, LSU campus, Rural Life Museum, and a private tour of  Magnolia Mound Plantation completed the sites visited by our guests. 
Baton Rouge Mayor-President Melvin "Kip" Holden (on right) names Ingenio Mayor-President Domingo González Romero an Honorary Mayor-President. 

Group photo showing attendees of the reception.  Left to Right:  *William Carmena, Glynn Hernandez, Jean Nauman, Bob Nauman, *Paul Newfield, Luisa Muñoz González, Catherine Prokop, William Hyland, Mayor Domingo González Romero, Vilora Bergeron, Janelle Hickey, Dennis Bergeron, John Hickey, Joan Alėman Landry, and Linda Landry. (Photo by Joan Alėman Landry) 

*Paul Newfield and *Bill Carmena are regular contributors to Somos Primos.   Paul story of the chalice is included in this issue. Bill sent this information which took place just before Hurricane Katrina.  More photos of this historic meeting, go to


Sister Snare's Kazoo Band

Shared by Paul Newfield

I believe this photo was taken 
at one of the Catholic Schools 
in New Orleans.
 Time period, 
probably early 1950's.

La Nueva Orleans 

Latino immigrants, many of them here illegally, will rebuild the Gulf Coast -- and stay there.
By Gregory Rodriguez, Los Angeles Times (September 25, 2005)
Gregory Rodriguez is a contributing editor to The Los Angeles Times and Irvine Senior fellow at the New America Foundation.
Sent by Howard Shorr

NO MATTER WHAT ALL the politicians and activists want, African Americans and impoverished white Cajuns will not be first in line to rebuild the Katrina-ravaged Gulf Coast and New Orleans. Latino immigrants, many of them undocumented, will. And when they're done, they're going to stay, making New Orleans look like Los Angeles. It's the federal government that will have made the transformation possible, further exposing the hollowness of the immigration debate.

President Bush has promised that Washington will pick up the greater part of the cost for "one of the largest reconstruction efforts the world has ever seen." To that end, he suspended provisions of the Davis-Bacon Act that would have required government contractors to pay prevailing wages in Louisiana and devastated parts of Mississippi, Alabama and Florida. And the Department of Homeland Security has temporarily suspended sanctioning employers who hire workers who cannot document their citizenship. The idea is to benefit Americans who may have lost everything in the hurricane, but the main effect will be to let contractors hire illegal immigrants.

Mexican and Central American laborers are already arriving in southeastern Louisiana. One construction firm based in Metairie, La., sent a foreman to Houston to round up 150 workers willing to do cleanup work for $15 an hour, more than twice their wages in Texas. The men — most of whom are undocumented, according to news accounts — live outside New Orleans in mobile homes without running water and electricity. The foreman expects them to stay "until there's no more work" but "there's going to be a lot of construction jobs for a really long time."

Because they are young and lack roots in the United States, many recent migrants are ideal for the explosion of construction jobs to come. Those living in the U.S. will relocate to the Gulf Coast, while others will come from south of the border. Most will not intend to stay where their new jobs are, but the longer the jobs last, the more likely they will settle permanently. One recent poll of New Orleans evacuees living in Houston emergency shelters found that fewer than half intend to return home. In part, their places will be taken by the migrant workers. Former President Clinton recently hinted as much on NBC's "Meet the Press" when he said New Orleans will be resettled with a different population.

It is not the first time that hurricanes and other natural disasters have triggered population movements. In 1998, Hurricane Mitch slammed into Central America, sending waves of migrants northward. The 2001 earthquakes in El Salvador produced similar shifts. The effects of Hurricane Andrew may better foretell New Orleans' future. The 1992 storm displaced 250,000 residents in southeastern Florida. The construction boom that followed attracted large numbers of Latin American immigrants, who rebuilt towns such as Homestead, whose Latino population has increased by 50% since then.

At the same time, U.S. construction firms have become increasingly reliant on Latino immigrant labor. In 1990, only 3.3% of construction workers were Mexican immigrants. Ten years later, the number was 8.5%. In 2004, 17% of Latino immigrants worked in the business, a higher percentage than in any other industry. Nor is this an exclusively Southwest phenomenon. Even before Katrina, more and more Latin American immigrant workers were locating in the South, with North Carolina and Arkansas incurring the greatest percentage gains between 1990 and 2000. This helps explain why 40% of the workers who rebuilt the Pentagon after the 9/11 attack were Latino.

Reliance on immigrant labor to complete huge projects is part of U.S. history. In the early 19th century, mostly Irish immigrant laborers, who worked for as little as 37 1/2 cents an hour, built the Erie Canal, one of the greatest engineering feats of its day. Later that century, Italian immigrants, sometimes making just $1.50 a day, were the backbone of the workforce that constructed the New York subway system. In 1890, 90% of New York City's public works employees, and 99% of Chicago's street workers, were Italian.

After Congress authorized construction of the transcontinental railroad in 1862, one of the most ambitious projects in U.S. history, Charles Crocker, head of construction for Central Pacific railroad, recognized that the Civil War was creating a labor shortage. So he turned to Chinese immigrants to do the job. By 1867, 12,000 of Central Pacific's 13,500 workers were Chinese immigrants, who were paid between $26 and $35 for a six-day workweek of 12 hours a day. At the turn of the 20th century, Mexican immigrant laborers did most of the railroad construction in Southern California, Arizona, New Mexico and Nevada.

Mexican workers were also essential in turning the Southwest into a fertile region, which by 1929 produced 40% of the United States' fruits and vegetables. They cleared the mesquite brush of south Texas to make room for the expansion of agriculture, then played a primary role in the success of cotton farming in the state. A generation earlier, German immigrants from Russia and Norwegians had busted the prairie sod to turn the grasslands of North Dakota into arable fields. 

The major difference between then and now is that neither the American public nor the government will admit their dependence on a labor force that is heavily undocumented. When Mexican President Vicente Fox offered to provide Mexican labor to help rebuild New Orleans — "If there is anything Mexicans are good at, it is construction," he said — the federal government ignored him. At the same time, some of the undocumented Mexicans who have cleaned up and begun to rebuild Biloxi, Miss., are wondering whether they deserve at least a temporary visa so they can live in the U.S. legally.

Last week, the White House said it will push its plan to allow illegal immigrants already in the U.S. to become legal guest workers. Good. Hurricane Katrina exposed the nation's black-white divide. Post-Katrina reconstruction will soon spotlight the hypocrisy of refusing to grant legal status to those who will rebuild the Gulf Coast and New Orleans. 

Introduction of article "Fearing a Nuevo Orleans, Aftermath of Katrina"
Ruben Navarrette Jr. Syndicated Columnist, Orange Co. Register, October 23, 2005

SAN DIEGO:  If you thought the destruction caused by Hurricane Katrina was ugly, then you should take a look at what's happening now. It's not pretty.The Rev. Jesse Jackson and New Orleans Mayor Ray Na-gin are up in arms because what has historically been a mostly black city may be on its way to becoming a largely brown city. Latino immigrants are coming to New Orleans from as far away as California to repair homes, clear debris, rebuild roads and do other jobs. According to one published report, they're making about $15 per hour, and they've been so warmly received by contractors that many of them say they plan to stay, save money and buy homes in the Big Easy.

Before Katrina, New Orleans was about 3 percent Latino. Now, demographers say that figure could multiply by a factor of four or five.

That's a bolt of bad news for black leaders nostalgic for a city and a culture that for all practical purposes no longer exists. Ironically, a lot of what's being said by these folks resembles what white nativists say in the immigration debate.
Nagin told reporters that his new worry is how he is going to "ensure that New Orleans is not overrun by Mexican workers." 

The thing is, many of the city's former residents (especially many of its black residents) say that they have no desire to go back.

That's because living conditions in New Orleans are still far from ideal. One reason: the trash. State officials say that 22 million tons of garbage are littering the streets, including rotten food. The city has taken on what residents say is the appearance and smell of a landfill. 

As Locals Struggle, Migrants Find Work in New Orleans 

As locals struggle, migrants find work in New Orleans

Eliza Barclay, Special to The San Francisco Chronicle

Wednesday, October 12, 2005

New Orleans -- Two weeks ago, Geremias Lopez was picking grapes near Bakersfield, but when he saw an advertisement on Univision, the nation's largest Spanish-language television network, for work on the Gulf Coast, he and a friend called the 1-800 number flashing on the screen and were soon aboard a Greyhound bus headed east. 
Lopez and the 80-some other Mexican and Honduran immigrants in his crew are now earning $100 a day covering torn and mangled roofs with blue tarps until the roofs can be re-shingled and restored to some semblance of what they looked like before Hurricane Katrina struck six weeks ago. 

For New Orleans residents, most of whom have yet to return, life remains very hard, and very uncertain. But for Lopez and his migrant workmates, it's a noticeable improvement over their minimum-wage jobs as California fruit pickers or as poultry processors in Arkansas. 

They and Latino immigrants from all over the United States have been flocking to the region, often working for out-of-state companies which received the initial round of cleanup contracts. 

Recognizing the demand for migrant labor, and to help speed reconstruction in the areas devastated by Hurricane Katrina, the Department of Homeland Security temporarily suspended rules mandating employers to prove that workers they hire are citizens or have a legal right to work in the United States. 

In addition, President Bush suspended application in the Katrina-affected region of the 1931 Davis-Bacon Act, under which employers must pay prevailing wage rates on federally financed construction projects -- in order, Bush said, to "permit the employment of thousands of additional individuals." 

The Louisiana Department of Labor says it has received requests from contractors to certify 500 illegal migrants. Agency officials estimate that the actual number of illegal migrants already working for contractors is far higher, because many employers are not bothering with the paperwork. 

This is adding to the unhappiness of local contractors trying to re-establish their own businesses and hire local workers, after being evacuated or otherwise losing their ability to operate for weeks. 

"The local people can't participate in their own recovery," said Jack Donahue, whose Mandeville, La.-based firm Donahue Favret Contractors Inc. specializes in such construction tasks as sheetrock and flooring removal and mold remediation. 

Part of the problem, Donahue said, is that local construction workers scattered during the evacuation and are just beginning to come back. Many are returning to destroyed or severely damaged homes and have discovered that the hotels in the region are full of out-of-state workers, including migrants. "There's no room for local people in the hotels," Donahue said. 

Lopez, originally from the Mexican state of Chiapas, sleeps on the floor of a dank motel room with four other migrants in Gretna, La., just across the Mississippi River from New Orleans. The motel, which lost its sign, was flooded in the storm, forcing the removal of all of the furniture, including beds. But it is packed with migrant workers. 

Jose Morillo, a Honduran who came west from Arkansas, is one of the motel's residents. His first job involved removing foul-smelling refrigerators full of rotting food in Slidell, La., two weeks after the hurricane hit. "Roofing is much better than cleaning," he said. "It's also much better to be in a hotel instead of the outdoor camps where we were getting bit by mosquitoes." 

Of the 80-some roofers in Lopez and Morillo's motel, few are legal residents or possess temporary work visas, according to Morillo. Rarely was their immigration status an issue in their hiring. 

"We're here doing this work for the same reason we have jobs back home: We're willing to do the dirty work, and we'll work 10 or more hours a day seven days a week," said Morillo. But Morillo and Lopez may be among the luckier ones, according to immigrant rights activists in the region. 

"Many of the ... contractors are just unscrupulous, promising all unskilled workers, not just the Latinos, a place to live, food and a per diem rate to work," said Victoria Cintra of the Mississippi Immigrants Rights Alliance (MIRA). But not all outside contractors are hiring illegal migrants. 

Mario Vargas leads a team of asbestos removers from Phoenix, employed by PDG Environmental Inc., based in Pittsburgh. His 10 employees here, all of Mexican descent, have lived in the United States for an average of 10 years and are legal residents. 

"We'll be here until January for sure," Vargas said. "We've been hired to perform a particular task of removing asbestos at a mall, but then we'll all go back to Phoenix. Still, there's tons of work for us here if we want it." 

But even as local contractors like Donahue scramble to get rebuilding work, other companies who have contracts have run up against a labor shortage, particularly of workers with specialized skills. 

Hispanic Connection Inc., a Baton Rouge-based agency that recruits Latino laborers from abroad through the H2B temporary visa program, has been flooded with requests for laborers since the two hurricanes hit, said director Maria Edwards. 

"I've received applications from firms that wanted to hire 30 people but were only able to find one," Edwards said. "They even posted in the shelters where evacuees are housed." H2B paperwork usually takes four months so applicants will not be receiving workers until January, she added. 

Some local social service agencies say the situation is likely to continue for some time because many local residents may never return, deciding instead to relocate and start new lives in new cities. For those who do want to return, few of their old jobs exist. 

"There is a big disconnect between the available jobs and the jobless people," said Valerie Keller, who runs the Arcadia Outreach Center in Lafayette, La., which currently has an estimated 27,000 evacuees from both Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. "Everyone throws money at the response, or the food, clothing and shelter, but what is more difficult to provide is the recovery services like matching the jobs with people who need them." 

But Morillo says he has found his match. "I cleaned up the beaches in Pensacola (Fla.) after Hurricane Ivan, so I know that there's always lots of work after a disaster," he said. "It's good money, and I can support my family here and back home in Honduras." 

Some observers have predicted that after migrants spend months in the region with a steady stream of work, and earning a relatively good wage, they'll be tempted to stay, changing the area's demographics. 

"If New Orleans reaches a critical mass of migrants, it could become a destination point for new migrants," said Mark Rosenblum, a fellow at the Migration Policy Institute and a professor of political science at the University of New Orleans. 

However, Rosenblum thought it unlikely because New Orleans has historically had few Latino migrants, so there are few existing social networks to which Hispanic migrants tend to gravitate. 

None of the migrant roofers interviewed by the Chronicle brought their families with them to New Orleans because they said the work here would dry up eventually. Lopez, the Bakersfield grape picker, said he didn't plan to stay in New Orleans long, much less the United States. "I have a wife in Chiapas, and we're building a house, so I'll go back there eventually," he said. "But for now this work is better than grape picking." 

The Historic New Orleans Collection
Sent by Bill Carmena

Original St. Bernard Parish Louisiana Official Website  To keep up to date on the present conditions in Louisiana 
Sent by Bill Carmena
Foundation for Historical Louisiana
Sent by Lila Guzman,

For Current Report:  Canarian descendants in St. Bernard parish, Louisiana
Prepared by  William De Marginy Hyland, Sergio Ramos Lopez and  Chad J. Leblanc
Contact Bill Carmena
Encyclopedia Louisiana Index
Sent by Bill Carmena
History is not, of course, a cookbook offering pretested recipes. It teaches by analogy, not by maxims. It can illuminate the consequences of actions in comparable situations, yet each generation must discover for itself what situations are in fact comparable.” - Henry Kissinger 

Among the resources available: 
New Orleans Public Library
Documents, maps, French Quarter
1805 New Orleans Directory
Map of the Territory of Orleans in 1805.
Index to the  Notarial Archives of Louisiana for 1803
Map of the County of Natchitoches in 1805. 
Counties of the Territory of Orleans in 1805 defined.
People, Places, Timeline, Past Issues
For more history including an amazing collection of photos and links to dozens of informative sites,  visit this website.

LOUISIANA: 1810-1820: Louisiana Census Records. Volume I: Avoyelles and St. Landry Parishes, 1810 and 1820 (Ardoin)  Item #502-151 Retail: $15.95 SAVE $4.00 AncestorStuff Price: $11.95

LOUISIANA: 1810-1820: Louisiana Census Records. Volume II: Iberville, Natchitoches, Pointe Coupee, and Rapides Parishes, 1810 and 1820. (Ardoin) Item #502-152 Retail: $25.00 SAVE $7.05 AncestorStuff Price: $17.95

Published by, Inc., 488 Landers Loop, Dover, AR 72837 contact


Library of Congress
Upcoming events at the National Archives Oct. 21-28 
November 5: Inti-Illimani, Acclaimed Chilean Group to Perform at the    Sent by Janete Vargas
Library of Congress Online Catalog  URL:

The Library of Congress has one of the world's premier collections of U.S. and foreign genealogical and local historical publications. The Library's genealogy collection began as early as 1815 with the purchase of Thomas Jefferson's library.

Location:  101 Independence Ave. SE
Thomas Jefferson Building, LJ G42,  Washington, D.C. 20540-4660
Contact Information  Map showing location
Monday, Wednesday, Thursday: 8:30am - 9:30pm
Tuesday, Friday, Saturday: 8:30am - 5:00pm
Closed Sundays & Federal Holidays

Ask a Librarian
Want to ask the reference staff a question about the local history and genealogy collections?

Search the Library's Catalog  The Library of Congress >> Especially for Researchers >> Research Centers  Contact Us:    Ask a Librarian  

Tours and Research Orientations Learn about using the Library. Before You Begin Reading room policies and preparing for your research. The Collections What genealogical materials are available on site Internet Subscription Services Genealogy databases available at the Library of Congress. Searching Tips For locating genealogical materials in the Library's online catalog. Acquiring Published Genealogies How to submit materials to the Library as a gift, for purchase, and for copyright. Bibliographies and Guides Compiled by reference librarians. American Memory Digitized materials on U.S. history from the Library of Congress collections. Includes first-person accounts of 19th-century California, the Upper Midwest from 1820 to 1910, the Chesapeake Bay area from 1600 to 1925, and other resources for genealogy research. Other Internet Sources Other library catalogs and Web resources devoted to genealogy and local history.

Upcoming events at the National Archives Oct. 21-28 

[[Although these events are passed, I included the schedule to demonstrate the variety of subjects which are presented weekly at the National Archives in Washington, D.C..]]  

Friday, October 21 at 7:00pm in the McGowan Theater, Destination America with David Grubin

The Charles Guggenheim Center for the Documentary Film at the National Archives and the National Archives experience present a special evening with David Grubin. From the time the US government began keeping official records in 1820, more than 70 million people have immigrated to the United States. The migration began as a trickle, and the trickle became a flood – the largest migration to a single country in human history. The new PBS documentary series Destination America is organized around some of the driving forces that have compelled individuals to immigrate to America for centuries and have remained constant throughout history – economic opportunity, religious freedom and artistic expression. In addition, the series looks at the particular forces that drive women to come to America in search of opportunity and the basic human rights they had been denied in their homelands. Our special guest, Producer David Grubin, will present clips from the series and discuss the project’s creation

Thursday, October 27 at 7:00pm in the McGowan Theater: Operation Pedro Pan

From 1960 to 1962, in a program partially financed by the U.S. government, 14,048 Cuban minors arrived in Miami, sent to America by parents terrified that the new communist government would ship their children to Soviet work camps. Operation Pedro Pan was the largest recorded exodus of unaccompanied minors in the Western Hemisphere. Tonight, Elly Choval, Founder and Chairperson, Operation Pedro Pan, Inc., will moderate a panel discussion between three former Pedro Pan refugees: US Ambassador Eduardo Aguirre (Spain &Andorra), The Reverend Dr. Luis León, fourteenth Rector of St. John's Church in Washington, DC, and Maria de los Angeles Torres, Political Science professor at DePaul University in Chicago. The film, The Lost Apple (28 minutes), which was produced by the United States Information Agency to document the mission and legacy of Operation Pedro Pan, will be screened. Reservations Required. 

Friday, October 28 at noon in the McGowan Theater: From the Vaults: Coming to America

Today we present three short documentaries from the holdings of the National Archives produced by the Office of War Information, Overseas Branch:

The Town (1944) An exploration of the European cultural roots of an American small town - Madison, Indiana. Despite their diversity of backgrounds, each citizen of Madison has a profound respect for the ways of his neighbor. (13 minutes.)

Steel Town (1944) Coming from a variety of European backgrounds, steel workers in Youngstown, OH are portrayed as they contribute to America's war effort. (17 minutes.) 

The Cummington Story (1945) The true story of a group of immigrants settling in a small New England town. The film touchingly shows how cultural assimilation is possible in America - although difficult at times. Music by Aaron Copland. (22 minutes.) 

The National Archives is located between 7th and 9th Sts. on Constitution Ave. NW. The nearest Metro stop is Archives/Navy Memorial, which is serviced by the Yellow and Green lines. Please use the Special Events Entrance off the corner of 7th and Constitution for all public programs. 

All events listed in the calendar are free; reservations are not required unless noted. For reservations, e-mail or call 202-501-5000. For more information on public programs at the National Archives, please visit

November 5:  Inti-Illimani, Acclaimed Chilean Group to Perform 
at LaGuardia Performing Arts Center 

Long Island City, NY—Inti-Illimani, a Chilean world beat ensemble, which captures the rich musical cultures of Latin America, will be performing at the LaGuardia Performing Arts Center on November 5. 

The concert kicks off the second season of the center’s Performance Planet series of multicultural music events that celebrates the borough’s rich cultural diversity. Last year’s series spotlighted a troupe from Spain as well as artists with cultural roots in Cameroon, Iran, and China. 

The 39-year-old group, which is recognized as the musical ambassador to South America and its ancient cultures, fuses Andean folkloric music (Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Argentina) with a nueva cancion (new song) aesthetic. The eight-member ensemble creates lilting melodies and driving rhythms with more than 30 wind, string, and percussion instruments that belong to the European, American Indian, African, and Mestizo cultures. 

“Few Latin American acts can rival this Chilean group in terms of the sheer beauty of sound,” said a Los Angeles Times music critic. “Much like a Zen affirmation, Inti-Illimani’s music floats within your soul, filling it with calmness and hope.” 

The event, which begins at 8 p.m., will be held in the Mainstage Theatre at 47th Avenue and Van Dam Street, Long Island City (#7 Train to 33rd Street, Queens). For information on the center’s other cultural events, visit 

Tickets purchased before October 31 are $20; between November 1 to the 4th are $25; day of the performance are $30. LaGuardia Students and their families: $10 advance and $15 day of. To purchase tickets, please call the box office at (718) 482-5151. 

Inti-Illimani (Inti is the Ayamaran Indian word for “sun”; Illimani is a mountain in La Paz, Bolivia) began in 1967 when seven college students attending Santiago Technical University decided to form a band dedicated to creating a 20th century fusion of Andean folkloric music. 

By 1971 the group was enjoying enormous success in Chile. But their good fortunes were reversed in 1973 when Chilean President Salvador Allende was deposed by Augusto Pinochet. The group, which was touring Europe at the time of the coup, went into exile.

For the next 14 years the band members lived in Italy, and, despite the banishment, continued to tour internationally. Gaining a reputation in its native Chile and throughout the world as the ambassador of freedom of human expression, Inti-Illimani, in1988, appeared on the Amnesty International tour with Peter Gabriel, Bruce Springsteen, Sting, and Wynton Marsalis.

Inti-Illimani will be performing at the college as part of its 2005 international tour that will include concert engagements in South America, Italy, the U.S., Canada, Australia, Germany, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. 

Sent by Ella Smith
Community Arts Liason, LaGuardia Performing Arts Center, 



Tejanas' October Trip to Mexico
Familias Endogámicas en Saltillo y Los Altos de Jalisco: 
un Análisis Compárativo, 1570-1830
An Expedition to the Guaycura Nation in the Californias
Testamento de Don Jose Lorenzo de la Garza
La Consumación de la Independencia en el Nuevo Santander 
Partidas y Certificaciones de Matrimonio, Zacatecas, 1761-1770
From the Spanish Archives at the Bexar County Courthouse
La Sociedad Genealogica del Norte de Mexico 
     Hola a los del Grupo
     Hola Participantes del Grupo de Genealogia
     Nuevo director del INEHRM 
     Instituto Estatal de Documentacion de Coahuila
     Convocatoria: Comité Mexicano de Ciencias Históricas 


Dr. Alberto Jaime,  Mickey Garcia and Dr. Jaime's son, a medical student.

Tejanas' October Trip to Mexico 

In October, 2004 I traveled to Mexico with my friend Josie. I actually started my trip on a Thursday with my husband, Lee. We visited with my cousin, Pura Averill and her husband, Frank in Laredo. We stayed at their ranch close to Laredo. What a wonderful time we had. On Sunday, Josie and I took off on the bus in Laredo. Our first stop was in Monterrey. Our favorite place to stay is at the old Monterrey Hotel. This is right across from the archives which is very convenient. We were picked up at the bus station by our good friend Araceli and her husband Gustavo. Araceli is very active in the genealogy club in Monterrey. She has done a lot of research in Lampazos, Nuevo Leon and Candela, Coahuila. We also met with my cousin, Dr. Alberto Jaime [he is working on the Fierro family] and our friend, Daniel Zambrano Villareal. Daniel has done a lot of research on the Zambrano family and has published a book.. A wonderful time was had by all....we are all interested in genealogy!

The next day we were due in Saltillo, Coahuila for a Narro presentation. The Narro family was presenting their family archives to the university. We had been invited by Martha Duron and her husband, Carlos Narro. We traveled by bus. If you have never traveled in Mexico by bus you must do so. It is now a very nice way to travel. We registered at our hotel close to the Alteño where the ceremony was being held. Jesse Rodriguez had traveled from San Antonio. Ricardo Elizondo from San Jose, California. We visited with Elsa del Valle, the sub-director of the Municipal Archives of Saltillo. We stayed an extra day and visited with Miguel Angel Muñoz at the state archives. The next day the journey into Aguascalientes started. We were joined by Martha Duron and her husband Carlos. They live in Aguascalientes. We were invited to stay at their home. We chose to stay at the Hotel Calinda, right in the center of everything! Martha met us the next day and took us to have breakfast at an authentic Aguascalientes restaurant. Very good food. One of the most important things that I wanted to do was to visit a town by the name of Calvillo, Aguascalientes. Martha had told me that she would accompany us. We hired a cab. This is the way to travel sometimes. Mary Lou Montagna taught me this trick. You do have to be careful in acquiring a cab. Usually the hotel where you are staying will obtain one for you. In our case Martha knew the people.

We traveled to Calvillo, this was the town where some of my ancestors were born and raised. We first went to the church and ordered some certificates. Only someone doing genealogy can grasp the feeling one gets when you realize that in the 1700's your people were alive and working in the small town. What a thrill! We then went looking for history books of the area. We tried to find the historian of the town. We were told he lived on the next block from where we were. We would travel to the next block and we were two blocks away. Enough said! We finally went to a little soda stand and asked the girl for the person we were trying to find. Guess what! It was her grandfather! He was away but we could purchase the history books from her. We finally were able to obtain a few copies. We then went back to the church to pick up the certificates. I noticed a map on the wall which was the original map in the history book that I had just purchased. It was in a simple frame with the name valle de Huejucar. While we were waiting for the certificates a priest came by and Josie heard him talking about some Gregorian mass. She inquired and ended up paying for masses for her late husband and late father. The Gregorian masses are beautiful. Supposedly they are getting very scarce.

We then returned back to Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes. On Saturday morning we left, again in a cab for Guadalajara. This was quite an adventure. The cabdriver turned out to be one of the best. He asked what we were doing. He seemed very interested in what we were saying. As we were going along the highway we noticed a sign that read San Toribio de Romo. Until the Wednesday before I had never heard of this person. It turns out that he was a Jesuit priest who was killed during the cristero movement. And, he was the nephew of Carlos Narro, Martha Duron’s husband! Well, we went into the town and visited the church and decided to have lunch. We invited our driver to join us. If anyone is doing research on the Romo family this is the place to go since the majority of the population is related to the Romo’s. Our driver asked if we knew anything about San Juan de los Lagos. We said we had but had never been. He said we could stop by the place if we had time. Did we have time!! Well, this was Saturday morning so the place was full of visitors. There were many vendors and people on their knees going to the altar of the church. We stood in line with the crowds and I was very surprised to see a very small relic. Somehow I thought it was huge but no, very small. You are given rosaries for a donation. We continued on our way. We saw the town of Jalostotitlán but did not have time to go into the town. Next time! . We then went on our way to Guadalajara. We tipped our driver very well for a job well done!

We had made arrangements to stay at the Hotel Mendoza in Guadalajara. This is right across from the Degollado Theater. This hotel is built out of a monastery. There is a chapel where masses are held. A wedding was held on Saturday night. Very nice chapel. If you go to the roof of the hotel you can see the round dome of the old monastery. On Sunday morning we got up and started getting ready for the day. While putting on my makeup in the bathroom I heard the most beautiful choral group singing. I figured this was from the chapel next door. I told Josie to come and hear the music. She walked in and looked at me and said, "what music?". Well, I was dumbfounded because the music was still going on. Well, what could I say? When we went downstairs for breakfast I asked about the choral group next door. I was told there was no group singing. Well, I did hear singing and it was beautiful!! Maybe someone had a loud radio??? We spent the day wandering around and taking pictures, trying to learn about the history of the area. One thing we did learn; we need more days to work here. Oh well, another day.

On Monday morning we had our bags packed and ready to go to the airport. We decided we needed to find some books. Well, we picked out the right cab! The man was very well versed in the history and knew where to go to buy history books. He was fast and knew his way around. We were able to purchase history books and even met a historian and author. We then had to return to the hotel to catch the cab for the airport. A whirlwind tour and a wonderful trip was had by the two of us!

What an experience to walk the areas where you know your ancestors once lived. It somehow brings them closer to you. We are ready for the next adventure, which will be soon we hope.

Mickey Garcia

Familias Endogámicas en Saltillo y Los Altos de Jalisco: 
un Análisis Compárativo, 1570-1830

Authored by Martha Durón Jiménez. The research and work was Martha's thesis for a Master's degree (Maestria) in history and can be ordered from Jesse Rodriguez.

An Expedition to the Guaycura Nation in the Californias
Sent by Johanna De Soto

Short Orientation to the book: Chapter 1

On March 3, 1719, what the Jesuit missionary Clemente Guillén was to call, "An Expedition to the Guaycura Nation in the Californias," left the Royal Presidio of Loreto for the unknown south, and the land of the Guaycuras. We are going to go on another and more cerebral expedition to the Guaycura nation to try to rediscover something of its history and geography in this largely forgotten part of Baja California Sur, Mexico, which stretches from present-day Ciudad Constitución south towards La Paz, and at whose heart were the missions of Nuestra Señora de Los Dolores and San Luis Gonzaga.

At first glance such a project can hardly seem promising. One modern historian claimed that the mission of San Luis Gonzaga was the least mentioned of all the Jesuit missions in contemporary records, or by the old historians of the Order,1 and described the country through which the Padre Guillén passed on a second expedition to La Paz as, "this broken and well-nigh impassable country, the worst in lower California."2 

Even in Jesuit mission times it had a reputation as being both a rugged and sterile place, scarcely yielding its missionaries a crust of bread, and its Guaycura were seen as both primitive and intractable. Its missions were the first to disappear, and its history fell into oblivion. Even today traffic on the trans-peninsular highway speeds by to the west, but few strangers venture onto its dusty and rocky roads. The ancient heartland of the Guaycuras is all but forgotten. 

Yet all this should not lead us to imagine that it does not have a history worth recovering. It has, indeed, a rich history that has been appearing piecemeal during the 20th century as important documents have been published, and it is a history that even has some notable features. Modern American California, for example, owes the Guaycura nation a special debt, for the suppression of its missions and the exile of its people were due, in part, to free up resources to found the new California missions in the north. Further, its missionaries have left us a portrait of the lives of the Guaycuras that allows us to see something of how ancient Americans must have lived. Our task, then, is to recover this history and assemble it into a whole, to begin to ask about its wider significance, and if we are lucky, to occasionally catch a glimpse of the magic that has drawn travelers to Baja California for generations. The land of the Guaycuras is, in fact, a microcosm of human history from its hunter-gatherers onward, and it turns out to be a surprisingly well-documented one so we are afforded the double pleasure of discovering a small piece of history, and reflecting on what larger lessons it has to teach us.

A video, An Expedition to the Guaycura Nation in the Californias, is a visual companion to the book, providing vivid glimpses of the caves, missions and ranchos of the Guaycura nation. See back matter.  This site has maps, information from diaries concerning the explorations, and much more, such as how to purchase the book. 

Sent by John Inclan

Testamento de Don Jose Lorenzo de la Garza

Natural y vecino de esta ciudad de Monterrey e hijo legitimo de don Pedro Jose de la Garza y de dona Ana Agustina de la Garza, ya difuntos y naturals tambien, de la ciudad de Monterrey.

Casado en primeras nupcias con dona Maria del Refugio de la Garza, hija legitima de don Juan Jose de la Garza y de dona Margarita de la Garza, vecinos que fueron de esta ciudad.

Hijos: Maria Rosalia, Maria Josefa, Maria Manuela, Maria Francisca, Maria de los Angeles, Maria Ana Josefa, Jose Maria y Maria de la Concepcion de la Garza.

Segundas nupcias con dona Maria Antonia de Elizondo, Hija legitima de don Jose Alejandro Elizondo y de dona Maria Josefa Cavazos, vecinos de esta ciudad.

Hijos: Maria Gertrudis, Jose Manuel, Jose Lorenzo, Maria Catalina y Maria de Jesus de la Garza. Su hija Maria Rosalia caso con don Jose Vitoriano Martinez. Maria Josefa caso con don Pedro Jose Martinez. Maria Francisca con don Jose Miguel de la Garza.

Albaceas: en primer lugar su esposa dona Maria Antonio de Elizondo, en segundo a su hijo Jose Maria y en tercero a mi hijo politico don Pedro Jose Martinez.

Herederos: Sus hijos de uno y otro matrimonio y los que tuviere despues de haber hecho su testamento

Ante don Jose Valera, admimistrador de la Real Renta de Alcabalas de esta provincia, vocal de la Junta Gobernadora de ella y alcalde ordinario de primer voto.
Testigos: don Francisco Farias, don Bernardo de Izurrieta y don Marcos de Ayala, de esta vecindad.

Monterrey a 9, de abril de 1812


La Consumación de la Independencia
 en el Nuevo Santander 
(hoy Tamaulipas, México)

Enviado por Licenciado Carlos Martín Herrera de la Garza 
Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas


Con motivo del mes de la Patria y en ocasión del 184 Aniversario de la Consumación de la Independencia de México, adjunto el texto relativo a la consumación de la independencia en el Nuevo Santander, escrito por Toribio de la Torre, historiador del siglo XIX; fragmento de su obra "Historia General de Tamaulipas", 2ª ed., Ciudad Victoria, Tam., Univesidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas-Instituto de Investigaciones Históricas, 1986, pp. 103-105. 

A consecuencia de la proclamación del Plan de Iguala, un selecto grupo de vecinos y autoridades de la villa de Aguayo, decidieron unirse al movimiento que anunciaba decididamente la emancipación de Nueva España con respecto a la metrópoli. Constituidos en una conspiración, sus actividades fueron conocidas por el gobierno local radicado en San Carlos. No obstante, quedó sin efecto la represión por haber coincidido con ellos el encargado de ejecutarla. Posteriormente, cuando el propio gobernador Echeagaray decide llevarla a cabo, el proceso había madu­rado y era del conocimiento público la enorme propagación del proyecto de Iturbide por lo que, decididos los conspiradores, se enfrentaron al gobernador y lo depusieron consumándose así en el Nuevo Santander el fin del periodo colonial.
(1820). Los acontecimientos de la península mudaron enteramente la política de la República. La reunión de las tropas que se hizo en la isla de León para destinarse a la reconquista de las colonias de Amé­rica, proclamó la Constitución de 1812; y como era de esperarse, los mexicanos debían aprovechar la coyuntura, sacando así partido de las discordias de sus enemigos, para afianzar su independencia que fue jurada solemnemente en la villa de Iguala en 24 de febrero de 1821 por el coronel don Agustín de Iturbide.
(Abril de 1821). Todos estos sucesos, como queda dicho, no se les oscurecían a los mexicanos que desde el grito de Dolores estaban sin intermisión apellidando independencia por la que se habían sa­crificado miles de ciudadanos en la desventajosa lucha de diez años, en que casi siempre fueron vencidos o deshechos por la inferioridad de sus armas; pero que no por esto dejaban de tener en todos los departamentos un crecido apostolado que se lanzaba a menudo en el torrente con riesgo de la vida que sacrificaba gustoso. El capitán Don Antonio Fernández de Córdova, [era] partidario decidido de la inde­pendencia en el corifeo en esta capital, como vértice de los pueblos del departamento; este patriota tenía acuerdos nocturnos en la casa de don José Honorato de la Garza al que concurrían don Francisco Guerra, don Eleno de Vargas, don Pedro José, Francisco y Miguel de la Garza y otros individuos de la archicofradía que se vio a dos dedos de su ruina por la debilidad de uno de sus miembros.
Don Miguel de la Garza después del acuerdo secreto que se tuvo en la junta, se separó de ella y fue a casa de un español (don Manuel de la Torre) a revelarle un secreto que había jurado a sus compañeros guardar aprecio de la vida y con mucha más religiosidad que un iniciado en la última prueba de los misterios de Isis: le pone al tanto de las oraciones de sus compañeros, e inmediatamente le ayuda a reunir los individuos para que fallasen un negocio que diferirlo era proporcionar el triunfo a los independientes; y así, este mismo vocal que pocas horas pronunció en una junta el grito de independencia, le veremos ahora en otra ¡y por su hechura! sentenciar su completa ruina y exterminio, enviando un correo con pliegos al gobernador don José M. Echeagaray que se hallaba en San Carlos, donde se le pedía tropa, haciéndole además un minucioso denuncio de la conjuración y los individuos comprendidos en ella.
El gobernador con vista del informe envía sin pérdida de momento a su secretario el teniente don Juan Guerra con extensas facultades para hacer prisioneros a todos los individuos que resultaran cómpli­ces en la conjuración según sus diligencias; pero Guerra se mostró en esta vez tan moderado y prudente como compasivo. Antes de llegar a evacuar su comisión envió con un confidente al señor Fernández una carta en que le instruía del denuncio dado a Echeagaray, el objeto de su venida, las disposiciones que iba a tomar, y por último, le sugería aun hasta las contestaciones que debían dar que desempeñaron todos con uniformidad. Así calmó la tempestad que amenazaba las cabezas de los independientes, que hubieran corrido gran peligro con otro comisionado que no hubiese sido Guerra.
(Julio). Los pasados rumores determinaron al gobierno trasladar­se a esta ciudad [Ciudad Victoria] que no sin fundado motivo reco­noció como foco de la revolución en la provincia, a pesar de los disimulados informes que le fueron dados por el secretario Guerra, sin más objeto que la compasión de unos conciudadanos a quienes veía prontos a sacrificar; pero ¡qué distante estaba el gobernador de penetrar los futuros arcanos!, porque ¿cómo podría esperar, contan­do con los recursos del gobierno virreinal, que depondría con humil­dad su empleo, y en manos de unos hombres a quienes expresamente vino a acechar sus procedimientos para hacerles probar el rigor de su autoridad? Así fue; y esos mismos hombres que se veían con tanto desprecio dispusieron en poco tiempo del destino de la provincia.
Este era el estado que guardaba la revolución en el departamento cuando el general don Zenón Fernández secundó en Río Verde el Plan de Iguala proclamado por Iturbide, el cual enviaba con un expreso al gobernador Echeagaray en unión del acta e invitación para que se pronunciara; pero próximo a su destino fue encontrado por el señor Vargas, que impuesto de su procedencia le hizo varias preguntas acerca de los acontecimientos de la guarnición de Río Verde, a las que contestaba en bien pocas palabras; pero en fin, sea por la franqueza con el trato del señor Vargas o por la familiaridad que usó en el camino, que a veces es un poder irresistible, ya no tuvo embarazo en ponerlo al tanto de las ocurrencias, así como el objeto de su misión para lo que le exhibió los pliegos del general como una prueba de su inspirada confianza. Mas el señor Vargas aconsejó al mozo que a quien menos convenía darlos era al gobernador y sólo al señor Fernández si quería que surtiera el efecto que deseaba el general, asegurando además que él los conduciría, lo que fue admitido por el mozo. De facto, los pliegos se presentaron al señor Fernández que sin pérdida de tiempo reunió a sus compañeros que mutuamente apro­vecharon el manto de la noche para que no fuesen burlados sus esfuerzos por el gobierno, aventurando así la vida; reúnen 70 u 80 vecinos, les arman como pueden y esconden dentro de una casa inmediata a la de gobierno, haciéndolo todo con el mayor sigilo para hacer su declaración el nuevo día en que convocaron una junta de vecinos que sirvió de pretexto para obligar a comparecer a S.E.
En efecto, hecha que fue la convocación de los vecinos la junta se presidió por el alcalde don José Antonio Fernández que luego envió una comisión invitando al gobernador que pasase a la junta que deseaba tratar asuntos de mucha consideración: un instante después, Echeagaray se halló en la junta, pero lleno de sorpresa. El alcalde tomó la palabra y leyó en seguida el acta y comunicación del general Fernández, manifestando además la buena disposición del vecindario para secundarle en todas sus partes, suplicando igualmente al gober­nador aceptase la resolución de la junta si no quería ser despojado de la investidura del gobierno, añadiendo que si admitía tal proposición no habría por parte de los vecinos la menor innovación en su persona o empleo. Esta declaración dejó estupefacto al gobernador y sólo respondió “ser asunto de meditar despacio por pender del gobierno de México, a quien era responsable, así como de la tranquilidad de la provincia”; pero ¡respuesta inútil! Otra era la aclaración que se pi­dió y el mal no tuvo ya remedio. Sin embargo, el gobernador pidió permiso, ya que se le exigía una respuesta más explícita y satisfactoria, para ir y “remjtirlo a consulta con su consejo o confidentes”. Propo­sición que le conceden; pero con tiempo perentorio y determinado. El gobernador reunió el consejo, al mismo tiempo que alistó unos quince hombres para hacer respetar su autoridad e infundir temor a la junta, mandando además al teniente del piquete que lo más breve posible hiciera venir los soldados de la remonta para engrosar las filas de su desahuciada autoridad. El tiempo se pasaba; no se dio contes­tación a la junta que le esperó con alterada impaciencia, y consentir alejarse era perder los momentos. Ahora veamos al gobernador.
Confiado en que con su autoridad bastaría a disipar la borrasco­sa tempestad, mandó subir al terrado de la casa los quince hombres; poniendo además en el zaguán un espía para observar los movimien­tos de los individuos de la junta que a cada paso se veía ya como una densa y electrizada nube que su explosión amenazaba descargar sobre su cabeza; para esto advierte los soldados con preparación hostil, y tal hecho fue ya la señal de su descaro; abre la puerta del depósi­to de los armados vecinos, y les manda formar al frente de la plaza. El espía del gobierno que advierte el principio de un aparato tan impotente o amenazante, no duda ser una realidad y marcha con prontitud a dar tan inesperada nueva al señor Echeagaray que en el seno de su confiada autoridad le infundió serios temores; pero en vano. Ya la junta estaba apoyada por la fuerza de que carecía el gobierno, le conocía demasiado, y era otro el tono de sus peticiones; porque si dio el primer paso con una disimulada condescendencia, fue por conseguir con decoro lo que pudo haber disfrutado por medio de la violencia.
Se envió una segunda comisión al señor Echeagaray que conoció ya su posición y presentó a la junta a hacer absoluta y voluntaria renunciación del gobierno, sin otra excusa que “cedía a las circuns­tancias y que se respetase a su persona”, súplica que se obsequia más allá de sus deseos, pues se le dispensó toda clase de respetos y consideraciones. Así terminó el último gobernador que tuvo Tamau­lipas del agonizante sistema colonial bajo el que estuvo sesenta y dos años, para entrar en una nueva marcha política en unión de los demás departamentos (que fueron parte integrable del antiguo virreinato llamado Nueva España por los conquistadores), que sacrificaron millares de sus hijos para recobrar la sagrada libertad que les fue arrebatada a sus ilustres abuelos en el aciago siglo XVI.
El primer cuidado de la junta fue nombrar un sucesor al señor Echeagaray para la dirección del nuevo gobierno y la elección recayó en el señor Fernández de Córdova que sólo admitió por obsequiar los deseos de sus conciudadanos; luego invitó para el encargo al teniente coronel don Felipe de la Garza que residía en Soto la Marina, que lo admitió sin más leve repulsa; ,pero bien pronto recibió el señor Fernández el castigo de su temeridad, porque los primeros actos del nuevo jefe del estado, fueron dirigidos a perseguido con un ceño excesivo y detestable que siempre le afeará la posteridad. He aquí el departamento entregado a dos facciones desde su más tierna infancia, y que con el tiempo le ha causado desagradables pesadumbres por la rivalidad de las dos familias que nunca pudieron reconciliarse. [...]



Partidas y Certificaciones de Matrimonio,
 Zacatecas, 1761-1770

Por Leonardo de la Torre y Berúmen


TELLO DE OROZCO Manuel DE, español, originario de la ciudad de Zacatecas y vecino ha 13 años de la villa de Jerez, viudo ha 3 años. Casado y velado por el Bachiller don Juan Antonio Manuel de Zúñiga en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 29 de octubre de 1761 con Juliana de Soria, española, originaria de la villa de Jerez, e hija legítima de Sebastián de Soria y de Leocadia Rojas. Padrinos: José Soria y Leocadia Rojas. Testigos: don Luis de Zúñiga y don Enrique de Medrano. Foja. 10 vuelta.

TENORIO Miguel Damasio, español, originario de la ciudad de Zacatecas y vecino ha 4 años de la villa de Jerez, e hijo legítimo de José Tenorio y de [...] de Angón. Casado y velado por el Bachiller don José Jacinto de Llanos y Valdés en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 5 de septiembre de 1764 con María Antonia de Nava, española, originaria y vecina de la villa de Jerez, e hija legítima de Pedro de Nava y de Quiteria de Silva. Padrinos: Estebán Valdés y Zaragoza Cabral. Testigos: Miguel Cipriano de Miranda y Antonio de la Torre. Foja: 55 vuelta.

TERRAZAS José Telesforo, español, hijo legítimo de Bernardo Terrazas y de Juana Manuela de la Torre. Casado y velado por el Bachiller don José Manuel Dontiveros en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 3 de junio de 1769 con María de la Luz de Acevedo, española, hija legítima de Luis de Acevedo y de María Antonia Ultreras. Padrinos: Salvador Beltrán y María Josefa Ortiz. Fojas: 92 vuelta.

TORO Diego Antonio DEL, mestizo, originario de San Luis Potosí y residente ha 2 años en la villa de Jerez, e hijo natural de María Manuela del Toro. Casado por el Bachiller don Antonio Ruíz de Olaechea en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 25 de diciembre de 1763 con María Rosalía de Aguirre, mulata libre, originaria y vecina de la villa de Jerez, e hija legítima de Juan de Aguirre y de Josefa Martínez. Padrinos: Nicolás de Ortega y María Rita de Medrano. Testigos: Antonio de la Torre y Agustín de Castro. Foja: 41.

TORRE Anselmo DE LA, español, hijo natural de Gregoria de la Torre. Casado y velado por el Bachiller don José Manuel Dontiveros en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 16 de enero de 1769 con María Quiteria, española, hija legítima de Cristóbal López y de María de Haro. Padrinos: José de Nava y Teresa Ortiz. Testigos: Francisco Castro y Antonio de la Torre. Foja: 90.

TORRE Antonio DE LA, español, hijo natural de Simona de la Torre. Casado y velado por el Bachiller don Manuel Reyes en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 26 de febrero de 1770 con Seusiona de Chávez, española, hija legítima de Nicolás de Chávez y de Paula Teresa de Avila. Padrinos: Antonio de Aldrete y Juana. Foja: 97.

TORRE Antonio Juan DE LA, español, originario y vecino de la villa de Jerez, e hijo legítimo de Pedro de la Torre y de María Gertrudis de Avila. Casado por el Bachiller Antonio Manuel de Zúñiga en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 15 de abril de 1761 con Antonia Gertrudis Félix, española, originaria de la villa de Jerez, hijo legítimo de Domingo Pérez y de María de San Pedro. Padrinos: Alejandro Escobar y Dolores Escobar. Testigos: Nicolás Flores y Francisco de Castro. Foja: 4.

TORRE Antonio Leonisio DE LA, español, originario y vecino de la villa de Jerez, e hijo natural de Basilia de la Torre. Casado y velado por el Bachiller don Bartolomé Antonio Regil en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 10 de junio de 1764 con María Félix, española, originaria y vecina de la villa de Jerez, e hija legítima de Bartolomé Félix y de Juana María. Padrinos: Nicolás de Olague y María Andrea de la Torre. Testigos: Francisco de Castro y Antonio de la Torre. Foja: 52. 

TORRE Bonifacio DE LA, originario de Los Sauces, e hijo legítimo de Juan de la Torre y de Ana María Gutiérrez. Casado y velado por el Bachiller don José Manuel de Figueroa en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 27 de abril de 1766 con María Manuela de Medina, española, originaria de la feligresía de Jerez, e hija legítima de Cayetano Medina, difunto y de Isabel Usquiano. Padrinos: Pedro de la Torre y Rosalía Reveles. Testigos: Francisco Castro y Antonio de la Torre. Foja: 74. 

TORRE don Pantaleón DE LA, hijo de don Isidro de la Torre y de doña Casilda Salcedo. Velado con doña Isabel Peredo, conjuntas personas, hija legítima de don Andrés de Peredo y de doña Timotea de Escobedo. Padrinos: don Salvador de la Torre y doña Rafaela de Peredo. Dispensa de vanas, no habiendo resultado impedimento se tomaron las manos por palabras de presente que hacen verdadero el matrimonio, el día 20 de diciembre del año de 1769 en la casa de la esposa, siendo el ministro de este casamiento el Bachiller don Manuel Dontiveros en aquella sazón Cura Substituto por ausencia del señor don Antonio Ruíz de Olaechea Cura propietario, de que fueron testigos don Antonio Salinas, Pioquinto Juárez, presentes y vecinos. Velados en Jerez el 24 de mayo de 1770 por el Bachiller don Eduardo de Zúñiga y Fajardo. Foja: 98 vuelta. 

TORRE José DE LA, español, casado y velado por el Bachiller don José Valdés en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 28 de septiembre de 1761 con Dominga Pinedo, española, viuda. Padrinos: Alejo Torres y Bernardina. Testigos: Nicolás Flores y Francisco de Castro. Foja: 9-9 vuelta.

TORRE José DE LA, español, vecino de la villa de Jerez. Casado y velado por el Bachiller don Ignacio García en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 4 de mayo de 1763 con Juana Gertrudis Godoy. Padrinos: Antonio Montañez y María Francisca Salinas. Testigos: Antonio de la Torre y Juan Méndez. Foja: 27 vuelta.

TORRE José de la Luz DE LA TORRE, mulato, hijo legítimo de Tomás de la Torre y de María Flores. Casado y velado por el Bachiller don José Manuel Dontiveros en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 18 de junio de 1769 con María Josefa de la Luz, mestiza, hija legítima de Gregorio Ortiz y de Antonia de Casas. Padrinos: Francisco de Acevedo y Antonia de Acevedo. Testigos: Antonio de la Torre y Juan José Salazar. Foja: 93. 

TORRE Miguel Rafael DE LA, español, originario y vecino de La Estancia de Tepetongo, e hijo legítimo de José Teodoro de la Torre y de Rosalía Tadea de Avila. Casado y velado por el Bachiller don Bartolomé Antonio Regil en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 17 de mayo de 1764 con María Tadea Berumen, española, originaria y vecina del puesto de La Estancia, e hija legítima de Lamberto Berumen y de Juana María Flores. Padrinos: Antonio Lozano y Inés de Trejo. Testigos: Antonio de la Torre y Francisco de Castro. Foja: 49. 

TORRE Raymundo DE LA, español, vecino de la villa de Jerez. Casado y velado por el Bachiller don Antonio Ruíz de Olaechea en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 31 de enero de 1763 con Antonia Gertrudis Orozco, española, originaria y vecina de la villa de Jerez. Padrinos: Matías Márquez y Antonia de Reza. Foja: 23 vuelta. 

TORRE SALVADOR DE LA, español, vecino del puesto nominado Lo de Juanes. Casado y velado por el Bachiller don José Manuel de Figueroa en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 7 de febrero de 1763 con María Antonia Rosalía de Olague, española, vecina del puesto de Los Charquillos, jurisdicción de Jerez. Testigos: Pioquinto Juárez y Cayetano Martínez. Foja: 24 vuelta. 

TORRE Toribio DE LA, casado y velado el 28 de mayo de 1770 con Antonia, indios. Foja: 99. 

TORRES Antonio Julián DE, español, hijo legítimo de Pedro Torres y de Guadalupe Carrillo. Casado y velado por el Bachiller don Jerónimo Cortés en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 29 de noviembre de 1769 con María Dolores Ortiz, español, hijo legítimo de Silvestre Ortiz y de Teresa Dorado. Padrinos: Francisco Fernández y Antonia de Avila. Foja: 96 vuelta. 

TORRES Juan Antonio, español. Casado por el Bachiller don José Manuel de Figueroa y velado por el Bachiller don Salvador de Silva en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 20 de noviembre de 1763 con Josefa Torres. Padrinos: Miguel Ángel y Juana Gertrudis Pinedo. Testigos: Antonio de la Torre y Juan José Fajardo. Foja: 39 vuelta.

TORRES Pioquinto, indio casado el 16 de mayo de 1764 con Dorotea de Chávez, mulata libre. Foja: 49.

TOVAR Bernardo, español, originario y vecino del puesto de Los Terrasgeros, jurisdicción de Jerez, e hijo legítimo de Nicolás Tovar y de Nicolasa Mejía. Casado y velado por el Bachiller don Ignacio García del Castillo en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 1 de marzo de 1764 con María Francisca, española, originaria y vecina de la villa de Jerez, e hija legítima de Simón Campos y de Petra Félix. Padrinos: Francisco Escobar y Antonia Rodarte. Testigos: Antonio de la Torre y Marcelo Francisco Ángel de Castro. Foja: 45. 

TOVAR Manuel, español, vecino del Ojo de Agua del Terrasquero, jurisdicción de Jerez. Casado y velado por el Bachiller don José Manuel de Figueroa en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 15 de febrero de 1763 con María Rufina, vecina de Casablanca. Testigos: Antonio Pineda y Pío Juárez. Foja: 25 vuelta -26. 

TRINIDAD Antonio DE LA, casado el 29 de abril de 1761 con Petra Paula, indios de Susticacán. Foja: 5.

TRINIDAD Juan Pío DE LA, coyote casado el 26 de octubre de 1763 con Juana Petra Barajas, india. Foja: 37.

TRINIDAD Paulín DE LA, casado el 1 de julio de 1763 con Inés Perfecta. Foja: 29 vuelta - 30.

URITE José Antonio DE, español, originario y vecino de la villa de Jerez, e hijo legítimo de Juan Antonio de Urite y de María de la Encarnación. Casado y velado por el Bachiller don José Manuel de Figueroa en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 27 de enero de 1765 con Ana María Muñoz, española, originaria y vecina de la villa de Jerez, expuesta a la casa de Juan Carrillo, difunto y de Teresa Muñoz. Padrinos: José de Acevedo y Rita de Acevedo. Testigos: Francisco de Castro y Antonio de la Torre. Foja: 63. 

VALDES BONIFACIO, español, originario y vecino de la villa de Jerez, e hijo legítimo de Felipe Valdés y de Antonia de Minjares. Casado y velado por el Bachiller don Bartolomé Antonio de Regil en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 17 de febrero de 1765 con Ana Gertrudis del Muro, española, originaria y vecina del Arroyo Seco, e hija legítima de don Juan del Muro y de doña Rafaela de Escobedo. Padrinos: Nicolás del Muro y María Gertrudis Valdés. Testigos: Marcel Francisco Ángel de Castro y Antonio de la Torre. Foja: 61 vuelta. 

VALDES Tomás, casado el 26 de septiembre de 1765 con María Dominga, indios. Foja. 67-67 vuelta.

VANEGAS José Antonio, español, originario y vecino de la villa de Jerez. Casado y velado por el Bachiller don Bartolomé José González Hidalgo en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 8 de noviembre de 1764 con María Marcela, coyota, originaria y vecina de la villa de Jerez. Padrinos: José Tomás y María Pascuala. Testigos: Francisco de Castro y Antonio de la Torre. Foja: 58 vuelta. 

VÁZQUEZ Aniceto, español, hijo legítimo de Juan Francisco Vázquez y de Guadalupe de Avila. Casado y velado por el Bachiller don Manuel Reyes en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 13 de febrero de 1770 con María Gerbasia del Río, español, hija legítima de Andrés del Río y de Rita Félix. Padrinos: Javier de Medina y María de Orozco. Foja: 96 vuelta. 

VAZQUEZ Ascencio, casado el 28 de diciembre de 1765 con Simona de la Cruz, indios de Susticacán. Foja: 69 vuelta.

VAZQUEZ Benito, casado el 19 de febrero de 1764 con Ursula Francisca, indios. Foja: 43 vuelta.

VAZQUEZ José, casado el 16 de marzo de 1764 con Luisa Florencia, indios de Susticacán. Foja: 47.

VAZQUEZ Juan Antonio, casado el 4 de marzo de 1764 con Anastasia, indios. Foja: 45 vuelta.

VAZQUEZ Juan José, español, originario y vecino de La Gavia, e hijo legítimo de Felipe de Santiago Vázquez y de Juana de Puga. Casado por el Bachiller don Antonio Ruíz de Olaechea y velado por el Bachiller don José Valdés en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 2 de diciembre de 1764 con María Josefa Olague, española, originaria y vecina de la villa de Jerez, e hija legítima de Nicolás de Olague y de Juana del Muro. Padrinos: Juan Vázquez y Justa de García. Testigos: Francisco de Castro y Juan Bautista. Foja: 60. 

VAZQUEZ Julián, casado el 15 de mayo de 1763 con Petra Sebastiana, indios de Susticacán. Foja: 28.

VAZQUEZ Nicolás Antonio, indio, originario y vecino de Jimulquillo, expuesto a la casa de Mateo Bartolo Vázquez y de Antonia Gertrudis. Casado y velado por el Bachiller don Ignacio García del Castillo en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 24 de junio de 1764 con Ana de Santiago, española, originaria y vecina de Jimulquillo, viuda de Mateo de la Cruz. Padrinos: José Julián Delgado y Brígida de la Torre. Testigos: Francisco de Castro y Antonio de la Torre. Foja: 53 vuelta. 

VILLAGOMEZ Carlos, español, originario y vecino de la villa de Jerez, e hijo legítimo de José Villagómez y de María de Barrios. Casado y velado por el Bachiller don Bartolomé Antonio Regil en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 8 de noviembre de 1764 con María de la Luz de Ledesma, española, originaria y vecina de la villa de Jerez, e hija legítima de José de Ledesma y de Femia de Arteaga. Padrinos: Juan Valdés y Dominga de Vega. Testigos: Antonio de la Torre y Cipriano de Miranda. Foja: 58.

VILLEGAS Tomás, casado el 17 de octubre de 1764 con Juana Marcela, indios. Foja. 56 vuelta. writes:
From the Spanish Archives at the Bexar County Courthouse,

San Antonio, Texas -Wills and Estates - #82
Last Will and Testament of Juana de Ocon y Trillo, July 2, 1816

In the name of the Omnipotent God, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, three separate Persons but one true God, the Creator of heaven and earth. 

I, Juana de Ocon y Trillo, am a native of the City of Bexar and inhabitant of this vale of tears, an exile from Heaven, my beloved land, for which I sigh and weep, a captive in this world.

I am in my sound mind, memory and understanding, and I believe as a Christian Catholic, all the articles and mysteries which my mother, the Holy Church, believes, holds and teaches.

In this faith and belief I desire and it is my wish to die and consecrate to it the last breath of my life.

I hereby make, publish and declare my last will and testament in the following form, which I ardently hope and desire will be pleasing in the eyes of the almighty.

First, I declare that I realize I am wholly incapable of giving unto my Creator and Redeemer the thanks he merits in return for the many blessings which His infinite goodness has showered upon this unworthy creature, so I most earnestly pray, beseech and supplicate the nine choirs of the angels and blessed souls of Heaven, who, in the name of this wretched sinner (who desires to be thankful) to glorify His kindness, exalt His unbound mercy, praise His being and recite gentle benedictions for our Lord of infinite kindness who lavishes only tenderness and goodness on the most hardened sinners like myself.

I desire and it is my last will that the final words which I speak shall be the most blessed name, Jesus and Most Holy Mary - I desire that the last nourishment which I shall take before my pilgrimage into eternity will be that of the August Sacrament of the Altar.

With all my faith I adore Jesus Christ, my Redeemer and the Son of God, the living and radiant offspring of the womb of the most pure Virgin Mary, whom I appoint as my Intercessor, together with her husband, Saint Joseph.

I beseech my guardian angel to receive these, my tears so sadly shed, and the few merits which I possess and merge them with the grief’s which the most afflicted woman, our tormented mother of my Jesus, suffered on Mount Calvary. These will be enshrined with utmost reverence in the sacred heart of our Most Holy Mary, and thus in this pure shrine she will take them before the Eternal Father and will serve as a reminder of the passion and death of His most precious Son, Jesus Christ, whom He sent into this world to suffer untold hardships in order to carry into Heaven on His shoulders, the stray lamb which is my soul.

Second, I commend my soul to God who created and redeemed it, and I desire that my body be shrouded and buried in this parish at the discretion of my legitimate son, Juan Jose. The expenses of my funeral ceremonies will be deducted (by my executors, who are my legitimate daughter and son, Anastacia and Jose Maria, 

Who must not fail in the least to comply with the provisions of this my will in all the clauses which I have declared or may set forth) from the most liquid of my property according to the laws which empower all testators to favor any person at will by one-third and one-fifth.

Therefore I direct that my daughter-in-law, Concepcion de la Santa, be preferred to the extent of one-fifth of my estate and on her death the said property will descend to my granddaughter, Petra.

Third. I also leave half the property which was left to me by my late husband, Macario Zambrano, as shown by his will and documents which are stored in my trunk.

Forth. I leave one day of irrigation water in the Lower Labor and also a house and the solares, which my son, Juan Manuel, bought for 300 pesos, I direct the 300 pesos to be devoted to the following purposes: 50 pesos for masses for the repose of the soul of my mother (original translation states mother-in-law), Juana de Urrutia; another 50 pesos for masses for the benefit of the soul of Alcantar Inclan; 50 pesos to be given to the heirs of the said Alcantar; and the remaining 150 pesos must be distributed in equal shares for the repose of the souls of my father, Don Pedro, my husband, Don Macario, and for the repose of my soul. 

Fifth. I declare that I do not owe even one-half real to anyone, except the debt of my soul to my Creator.

Sixth. I also direct that the money expended by my grown children must not be claimed by the younger ones, but they may divide whatever residue exists, in a brotherly fashion.

Seventh. I also declare that I owe my Daughter, Josefa, a few cart-loads of stone; I do not remember the exact amount but she as a Christian will say how many they are and she will be paid for them whenever she desires.

Eight. To Comply with and execute the terms of this, my last will and testament and to pay the debts, offerings, and bequest as directed in this will, I nominate and appoint my said children executors, to whom jointly and severally in solidim, I give, for the performance of their duties, all the power and authority necessary and required by law, which I am able to confer, so that they, my executors, within the terms of three months and no longer, after the day of my death, may enter into possession of my property, apply to the court to make the proper inventory and carry out the provisions of my will until the settlement of my estate.

They will pay, from the most valuable and most liquid of my assets, the expenses for my funeral, burial, debts, compulsory church offerings, and bequests.

Of the residue of my estate, they will make individual schedules of the division and partition and distribute to each one of my sons and daughters who are Anastacia Zambrano, Josefa, Jose Maria, Jose Dario, Juan Manuel, Juan Jose, and Juan Francisco, all living, and the late Don Pedro, who left two daughters named Petra and Caciana, who will inherit his share and receive their awards in the partition which will descent to them.

Wherefore I confer on my said executors this power and authority and whatever they do by virtue therof shall be as valid as if I myself had acted; I charge their consciences with all these burdens. 

Thus I have executed and signed this will before the Alcalde, Francisco Castillo, and the witnesses who were Antonio Muniz, Vorjas Guadiana and Torivio Duran, in this Valley of Santa Rosa, July 2, 1816.

And because I do not know how to write I requested my son, Juan Jose, to sign for me.

Jose Francisco del Castillo Thoribio Duran

Antonio Muniz At the request of my mother, 
Juana de Ocon y Trillo,
Francisco de Borja Guadiana I sign:
Juan Jose Zambrano
This will was written in Valle de Santa Rosa, 
Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico 1816

La Sociedad Genealogica del Norte de Mexico  
Expands its services by including articles on their online webpage:

Answer queries, and spotlights websites such as the Elizondo website: and
sent by Luis Elizondo

Genealogia de Mexico - La Sociedad Genealogica del Norte de Mexico Articulos 
Hola a los del Grupo.

Reciben un cariñoso saludo desde esta Sultana del Norte de Mexico y desde este Monte del Rey.  Felicidades por tu viaje a España , te deseo lo mejor y que te diviertas muchisimo. 
Cuando regreses te voy a pedir algunos datos de mis dudas.  Si tienes raices en el Noreste de Mexico pronto nos enlazaremos pues yo tambien tengo Martinez , cuando regreses nos escribimos.

En Ramos Arizpe esta el Archivo de Documentacion de Coahuila Mexico comunicate con el Maestro Miguel Angel Muñoz Borrego su correo es: muñ su telefono es el 488-16-67 , anteponle la lada de Mexico y de Saltillo. El es un experto en Genealogia y le encanta todo esto y trabaja en ese Archivo , si tiene alguna informacion de tus antepasados seguro que te ayudara. voy a preguntar por la pagina que ya tienen de Coahuila en el Internet y despues te la mando, 

Suerte diviertete, feliz viaje y que DIOS LOS BENDIGA.
Edna Yolanda Elizondo Gonzalez
Hola Participantes del Grupo de Genealogia.

Su amigo B. Samuel Sanchez a encontrado un Articulo llamado (Cuotas de Recuperacion del AGNMexico 23Sep2005) en Genealogia de Mexico - La Sociedad Genealogica del Norte de Mexico que le ha parecido muy interesante y ha querido compartirlo con usted

B. Samuel Sanchez ha incluido el siguiente mensaje:  Espero que esta lista de precios del AGN de Mexico les sea útil. Para poder leerlo solo tiene que seguir el siguiente enlace:

Este mensaje fue enviado por B. Samuel Sanchez (
 Nuevo director del INEHRM 
éplicas con:  Pablo Serrano Álvarez.

Amigos y Colegas:

El día de ayer fui designado Director General Interino del INEHRM, por parte de las autoridades de la secretaría de Gobernación a las que pertenece. El programa de trabajo que se llevará a cabo durante la gestión, permitirá consolidar los programas de becas y premios, foros académicos, proyectos de investigación, publicaciones, diplomados y cursos, acervo bibliográfico-fotográfico y de divulgación. Ahora el INEHRM se insertará en el fomento y difusión de los estudios históricos relacionados con la independencia, la reforma liberal, la revolución y el proceso de transición 
política de finales del siglo XX, por lo que todos sus programas se verán ampliados y refortalecidos, en beneficio del gremio de los historiadores y los cientistas sociales.
Estoy a sus órdenes, muchas gracias.  Pablo Serrano Álvarez.
Instituto Estatal de Documentacion de Coahuila 

Queridos amigos, Hace unos instantes me comunique a Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila al Instituto de Acceso a la Informacion ya que habian anexado al IED Coahuila a ese instituto.

Sin embargo me han confirmado que ya estan separado y funcionando independientemente y me dieron un telefono.  Para quienes desean comunicarse con Miguel Angel Muñoz Borrego (quien es miembro de este grupo de correo) el telefono es: 01844-488-35-90.

Tambien me han informado que hay nuevo Responsable del Archivo Historico de Coahuila (nombre con el cual ahora trabajan) y es la Profra Angelica Diaz Jimenez.

Benicio Samuel Sanchez Garcia

ESPADAÑA PRESS,  Exploring Colonial Mexico   
Réplicas con:,

For our September 2005 page we look at some early colonial murals, as seen in two great painted Augustinian monasteries in Hidalgo, north of Mexico City. Our first stop is at Actopan where we focus on the complex mural of the Eremitic Life and its hidden message. We also return to nearby Ixmiquilpan, where we explore in more detail the famous Battle frescoes along the nave of the church. Please go to our home page and follow the links.
Convocatoria: Premio 2004 del Comité Mexicano de Ciencias Históricas 
réplicas con:,

Convocatoria para el Premio 2004 del CMCH.

El Comité Mexicano de Ciencias Históricas convoca a directores de centros de investigación y facultades, editores de revistas e investigadores en general a proponer artículos o reseñas de historia de México en los periodos:
a) Prehispánico
b) Novohispano
c) Siglo XIX
d) Siglo XX
e) Historiografía, Teoría de la historia y Filosofía de la historia

Que hayan sido publicados por investigadores nacionales o extranjeros residentes en México durante el año 2004 en revistas mexicanas de reconocido prestigio. Los editores de revistas deberán enviar 5 ejemplares de las publicaciones que dirigen. Los autores enviarán 5 fotocopias o sobretiros de sus trabajos. Los materiales deberán enviarse a: Jurado del Premio al mejor artículo 2004 CMCH

Dra. Josefina Zoraida Vázquez
Centro de Estudios Históricos
El Colegio de México
Camino al Ajusco 20
Pedregal de Santa Teresa
10740, México, D. F

Fecha límite: 30 de noviembre de 2005.
Las bases para los premios pueden consultarse en la página web del CMCH:
Haz tu Árbol Genealógico... El árbol más hermoso de la Creación
Benicio Samuel Sanchez Garcia
Presidente La Sociedad Genealogica del Norte de Mexico



Hurricane Wilma Passed through parts of Cuba, October 24, 2005
Raíces de la Perla
Puertorriqueños: Somos Un Solo Pueblo
Puerto Rican Genealogy For Sale

Borinqueneers Defending America


Huge waves hit Havana's harbor as Hurricane Wilma passed through parts of Cuba 
 on Monday, October 24, 2005  (Alejandro Ernesto / EPA) 
Photos and text sent by Dorinda Moreno

Hurricane Wilma sent massive waves crashing against buildings on Havana's seafront boulevard.
(Daniel LeClair / Reuters) October 24, 2005

 Huge waves crash against a lighthouse in Havana.
(Daniel LeClair / Reuters) October 24, 2005

Huge waves triggered by Hurricane Wilma battered Havana, Cuba.  (Ismael Francisco AFP/Getty Images) October 24,  2005

Surges from Hurricane Wilma flooded streets in parts of Havana. (Adalberto Roque AFP/Getty Images) October 24, 2005

Cuban search and rescue teams ride on barges through flooded streets in Havana.  (Reuters) October 24, 2005

A group of people is rescued by firefighters from a flooded street in Havana, Cuba.
(Alejandro Ernesto / EPA) October 24, 2005

Cuban rescue workers help residents evacuate
 after Hurricane Wilma flooded parts of Havana.
(Randy Rodriguez / AP) October 24, 2005

People eat at a flooded cafe in La Havana, Cuba.
(EPA) October 24, 2005

Welcome to the first installment of a series chronicling the names and addresses of the people registered in the historic and vibrant streets and avenues of the capital city of the Cuban Republic. The names and addresses noted below are found in the Directorio de la ciudad de la Habana y estramuros. printed in 1840 under the section titled "Recapitulacion de las calles de la ciudad, intramuros, con designacion de las casas y sus duehos respectivos, o sus encargados, en esta fecha". The following provides the house numbers and names of owners of the dwelling. Those shown as living oh the property are noted as "en la misma".
We hope you find this section interesting and worthwhile. The streets of any city are as important as the arter-ies to a human heart. These thoroughfares hold the many stories of the people who made their homes and raised their families on these streets, adding a new chapter with every year that passed. If you find an ances-tor, besides knowing he/she was alive in this time period, this will also help you narrow your search for the church in which your ancestors may have been baptized or married. Even in 1840, Havana was a big city boasting a couple of dozen churches.
Good luck with your searches! Please do let us know of your success stories and your feedback on this continuing section!
Officers 2004-2005
President: Eddie Ramos Garcia 
Vice President-Projects: Mariela Fernandez
Vice President : Marie Zaret
Treasurer: Kevin Brown
Secretary: Martha Ibanez Zervoudakis
Membership: Annette Piedra Baquedano
Webmaster: Olivia Grand Brown
Cuban Genealogy Club of Miami, FL Inc. 
5521 SW 163 Avenue
Southwest Ranches, FL 33331-1443
$25.00 - Membership dues to June 30, 2005
Mail To:Cuban Genealogy Club of Miami FL
Attn. Martha Ibanez Zervoudakis
5521 SW 163 Avenue
Southwest Ranches, FL 33331-1443


Puertorriqueños: Somos Un Solo Pueblo
por Manuel Hernández 

La victoria de Fernando Ferrer a la candidatura de la alcaldía nuyorquina ha levantado un nuevo debate en la Isla. Unos han aprovechado la histórica elección para festejar y otros para como es su costumbre acusar y lanzar ataques politicos de un lado y de otro. Lo cierto es que los Latinos han sobrepasado a los Afro-Americanos como la minoría mas grande en los Estados Unidos. De acuerdo al Censo 2000, hay 35.8 millones de Hispanos residentes en los Estados Unidos Continentales. De esa cantidad, hay un 10% de origen puertorriqueño residente en los Estados Unidos. La población de la Isla alcanza los 3.8 millones. Mientras que la población Isleña aumenta paulatinamente, los números de los Boricuas en los Estados Unidos aumenta a pasos agigantados. De continuar con ese crecimiento, podríamos tener unos números similares entre ambas poblaciónes boricuas para el 2010. Ambas poblaciones tienen intereses en comun y sangre boricua que corre por sus venas pero por circunstancias históricas hemos estado alejados unos de otros a través del ultimo siglo. 

En hora buena, un hijo de la llamada Diaspora puertorriqueña ha logrado avanzar hasta lograr  la candidatura de la alcaldía de mayor impacto en toda la nación Americana.
Todos somos puertorriqueños y tenemos intereses en común que están marcados por el hecho de que somos boricuas nacidos y/o criados en la Isla o boricuas de padres o abuelos nacidos y/o criados en los Estados Unidos. Dos comunidades que forman parte de un solo pueblo. Si comparamos a ese pueblo con el cuerpo humano, sabemos que el cuerpo no se compone de una sola parte, sino de muchas. Lo cierto es que aunque son muchas las partes, el cuerpo es solo uno. Por circunstancias históricas, casi la mitad de ese cuerpo se fue a vivir al Norte. Sin embargo, siguen siendo puertorriqueños y a su vez parte del cuerpo boricua que permaneció en La Isla. 

Las experiencias de ambos pueblos han sido diversas y únicas y las luchas de justicia y bienestar social han sido hasta cierto punto distantes y a la vez diferentes. A pesar de las diferencias de esas experiencias micro-puertorriqueñas, es necesario que comenzemos a vernos como un gran macro de casi 8 millones. La interrelación tendría como beneficio el hecho que podamos influir positivamente en los diferentes frentes educativos, económicos, sociales, culturales y politicos como una gran comunidad que tiene metas y objetivos en comun que sirvan a los mejores intereses de ese gran macro-puertorriqueño.

Una utopía quizas, una realidad practica si. Aprendamos de las lecciones de otros pueblos. Los judíos han aprendido el valor de la unidad. No importa donde nacen, viven y donde esten, son judíos ante cualquier cosa. Han aprendido que en la unidad de pensamiento y propósito radica la felicidad de su pueblo. Hace ya un tiempo escuchamos las declaraciones del Presidente mejicano Vicente Fox donde hizo un llamado a la unidad social, cultural y económica entre mejicanos y "chicanos" residentes en los Estados Unidos. Las lecciones se aprendan por observación, practica y experiencia propia. Los puertorriqueños hemos aprendido por experiencias pasadas que la desunión nos ha llevado a la dejadez, indiferencia y estancamiento de nuestros mejores intereses y valores como pueblo. La recien  lección de unidad y colaboración entre Chayanne y Marc Anthony nos debe llamar mucho la atención.  Hasta cuando vamos a seguir enajenados de nuestros hermanos boricuas de los Estados Unidos. Vamos alegrarnos todos por Fernando Ferrer y declarar y proclamar que en noviembre tendremos un alcalde boricua en la ciudad mas importante del mundo

Nuestara Herencia Volume 8.3
Summer/Fall 2005

Puerto Rican Genealogy For Sale
by Charlie Fourquet Batiz

Over the years, Puerto Rican original source materials, containing genealogical information of our ancestors, have been threatened by floods, hurricanes, humidity, termite damage and sometimes neglect and indifference. More recently, original documents holding the undiscovered histories of our families are being sold to the highest bidder on the internet.

I've been researching my own family's history for over 15 years so I can appreciate the time and effort we spend on this very personal and always inspiring endeavor. I've also done this long enough to know that as we go farther back in our history it becomes increasingly difficult to find sources that are vital for us to continue our research.

A few months ago, a concerned member alerted me that he was able to purchase some la 19th century documents from a penal institution, on the internet. These documents were in fact, Spanish records of prisoners.   I found that there were an alarming number of original Puerto Rican historical and genealogical documents being sold freely on eBay and some private websites. 

After seeing some of the documents myself and confirming that they were originals, I also found that there was no regard to their content or condition and I was shocked that they where so improperly handled. Most of these documents are over 100 years old and require special care. In some cases, the paper was very fragile and/or were riddled with worm holes. There was no mention of care or preservation, prompting me to think that the sellers were not very interested in the value of the documents, but what value they offered.

While researching this further, I discovered the there were several types of records being sold online, including:
o Original slave records (1871), containing birth information in Africa, parents names and in many
   cases, names of children
o Original government documents (1832) received from the church, of baptism information, used to
    confirm birth, containing birth and parentage info, many including grand-parents names
o Original "rap sheets" of prisoners in Puerto Rican jails. Penal system documents with prisoner
    descriptions, crimes, etc.

As I examined them, I also found that they may have come from bound registries that were torn apart to sell as separate pages, destroying priceless handwritten books, in order to sell individually for more money. Some of these pages still show the holes where string binders once kept the volume together. Others show a clean razor cut in an obvious effort to detach the page from its binding.

Recently, I was informed that many of these documents are only being sold for the stamp or Spanish seal marked, applied or embossed, on the document. This means that the buyer could very well remove the stamp or cut around the seal and discard the document itself, destroying a crucial piece of someone's family history!

Is It Legal?
In Dick Eastman's Online Genealogy Newsletter article of March 2005, "Public Documents Should Not be For Sale"<2), he explains that in the state of Maine, it is illegal to sell local, county and state documents m, punishable with up to a year in jail and a $2000 fine. He also quotes Maine's Secretary of State, Mathew Dunlap, as stating that "public documents be-long to the public, not private individuals". At least Maine's got it right.

EBay cannot stop anyone from selling what they have unless it is illegal. In an email to eBay's "Community Watch" department, I alerted them that there were original documents being sold on their site that should have been in archives in Puerto Rico. I explained that these documents are clearly part of a collection that should be in the General Archives of Puerto Rico and that the Archives has protection policies against the sale of these public documents. Their investigation department responded that if we were to see an item on eBay that we believed was stolen, our best course is to contact law enforcement immediately and work through the authorities. They explained, "...under eBay's privacy rules, our attorneys will provide important records about pending and past listings with an official re-quest from law enforcement officials. EBay will be pleased to cooperate in the investigation." If we find that these documents had indeed been taken from an archive, we will definitely consider this course of action.

That's not to say that all these people came across these documents by illegal means. I have found that some vendors may have had these books fall on their laps through inheritance or by accident. For instance, one seller claims to have found a registry book while cleaning out his father's house after his death, and I know of another who said that someone was "throwing them out" and he took them because they could have some value. Others have purchased these documents with the expectation of turning a profit. I guess anything can have value, but these documents are price-less. Each page is invaluable, as there is no other record that has its unique and specific content.
These archive materials are all we have of who our ancestors were and how they lived, of those whom were very poor and those whom were well off, ancestors who descended from slaves and those who traveled thousands of miles to settle on our little island.

My biggest fear is that the sellers of our history think they may have found a niche in the market for these types of documents. As the perceived demand for these kinds of documents increases so will the continued tearing apart of books to sell. When their supply is gone, will these people be driven to raid the archival repositories? Imagine someone visit-ing a church in San Juan and tearing a page out of a church baptism registry with the intention of selling it on eBay. It's unthinkable!
I have yet to understand the demand for such documents by people who are not historians or genealogists. I can only imagine these documents hanging up in some cheap frame like some novelty item, above some supposed Puerto Rican souvenir featuring "green" coquis with "Made in China" labels on the bottom.

In the meantime, another handwritten historical reference is torn apart in the name of commerce. So what can we do to protect these priceless sources of information?

What HGSNY is doing . . . 
Preserving our family history is an important mandate of HGSNY and part of our mission statement. This article is the first step HGSNY is taking to inform our members, national and local archivists, historical and genealogical organizations and other interested parties of what is going on.
In letters written to our contacts in several Puerto Rican organizations, public and private, I have asked for help and advice on this issue.

On the frontline, we have El Archive General de Puerto Rico, a department of El Institute de
Cultura Puertorriquena.m The General Archives of Puerto Rico was formed in 1955 with the purpose of collecting, safeguarding, 'preserving and making available historical documents of Puerto Rico to the public.

As of the publishing of this article, we are working with El Archive, in San Juan, and have provided them with copies of the documents sold online. I have also written to our sister society, Sociedad Puertorriquena de Genealogia's Comite de Restauracion y Conservacion, in San Juan and PREB's Luis Negron, for some guidance.

Sr. Luis Negron, of the very popular "Puerto Rico En Breve" (, the online his-torical and genealogical website, responded in an email that he would support the society in this endeavor and has made some important suggestions on how we could proceed.

Some of our ongoing work relating to this situation include:
o Verifying where these documents came from and what books they were torn from, working
    closely with the archives in Puerto Rico to have them identified.
o Contacting the local government offices of Arecibo, Moca and Aguadilla, where many of these
    documents are from.
o Continue our effective letter writing campaign, reporting what is happening and asking agencies in
    Puerto Rico to investigate.
o Reach out to existing buyers and sellers encouraging them to donate these documents and return
    them to their rightful place in the Puerto Rico archives.
o Investigate how much of these documents have already been microfilmed by the Family History
o Once a legal standing is established, notifying Ebay of these online sales and officially requesting
    that it terminate the activity.

We hope that as an organization, we can call attention to this problem and do our part in pre-serving our precious history.

What Can You Do?
Members of the Puerto Rican community must communicate how they feel to government agencies in Puerto Rico. Write letters, send emails, make calls, etc. If you have connections that could be helpful, please contact them. Or tell us and we'll contact them. We urge society members to make their voices heard.

You can also go online, on Ebay, do a search of "Puerto Rico documents", "history" or "slaves", and keep a watch of what is being sold.

The Future:
Selling public records of any community, under the guise of memorabilia, is an affront to the people of that community, similar to the raiding of ancient pyramids by scavengers seeking profit, whether they were acquired by accident or through illegal means. It is the responsibility of every Puerto Rican and Puerto Rican descendant, to protect our history as we preserve our cultural inheritance, no matter what part of the world we reside in. These documents should be housed in local or national archives for historians and genealogists from present to future to use to help piece together the narrative of our people's history.

In a world where anything and everything can be for sale, it's up to us to determine if the history of our past survives and is preserved for future generations. No one knows how many of these historical documents have already fallen in the hands of so-called collectors scattered around the country, but we could work to-wards conserving what is left, remaining vigilant, al-ways looking out for those fragmented parts of our past and try to put them back together, one page at a time.

2. _genealogy/2005/03/public_document.html
3.  http://www.maine.goy/sQs/news/2005/Historical.html

Borinqueneers Defending America
Puerto Rican contributions in battlefield combat

By John P. Schmal  Web Published 2.7.2005

In times of crisis, many ethnic groups will stand up to defend their land and their people from aggression and occupation. This sense of duty and patriotism is a quality that has been exhibited most impressively by the inhabitants of a small Caribbean island, Puerto Rico (also know by its Native American name, Borínquen). Drawing from three primary cultural and genetic backgrounds – Spanish, Native American and African – the Puerto Rican people have shown great fortitude and courage in battlefield combat.

The destiny of the Puerto Rican people became inexorably linked to that of the American people in April 1898 when the United States declared war on Spain. On July 25th of that year, 3,400 American troops commanded by General Nelson A. Miles landed at Guanica in Puerto Rico, not far from where Cristóbal Colón (Christopher Columbus) had landed in 1493. With the raising of the American flag in San Juan on October 18, 1898, Puerto Rico, in effect, became a territory of the United States.

From the beginning, the Puerto Rican people felt a need to participate in their own defense and, almost immediately, they were given that opportunity. On March 2, 1899, the Puerto Rico Regiment of Volunteer Infantry was organized. One battalion was stationed in San Juan while a second one stood guard at Henry Barracks. The United States Congress approved an act on May 27, 1908, providing for the creation of the Puerto Rico Regiment of Infantry. This action effectively attached the Puerto Rico Regiment to the Regular United States Army.

On March 2, 1917, as the United States prepared to go to war against Germany, the Jones Act granted citizenship to the people of Puerto Rico. Soon after America’s declaration of war on April 6, 1917, Antonio R. Barcelo, the first President of the Puerto Rican Senate, asked President Woodrow Wilson to apply the military draft to the new American citizens in Puerto Rico. As a result, 18,000 Puerto Ricans enlisted or were drafted into the army during World War I.

Segregated from the rest of the American armed forces, the Puerto Rican Regiment was prepared for war service in the spring of 1917. Most of the Puerto Rican serviceman spent the war guarding key installations in Puerto Rico and the Panama Canal Zone. The 295th and 296th Infantry Regiments of Puerto Rico were created during this period. However, a number of Puerto Ricans living on the mainland enlisted in the military, several of them serving with the racially segregated 396th Infantry Regiment – also known as the Harlem Hell Fighters – who earned the grudging respect of their German adversaries while fighting along the Western Front in France.

On June 4, 1920, almost two years after the end of World War I (November 1918), the Puerto Rican Volunteer Infantry was officially re-designated as the Puerto Rican 65th Infantry Regiment. However, years later, many of the soldiers of the 65th Regiment would proudly refer to themselves as “the Borinqueneers” to honor the indigenous Taínos who had called the island Borínquen.

However, the 65th Regiment would not see action for more than two decades. With the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor (December 7, 1941) and the looming threat of Fascism in Europe, many young Puerto Ricans came to believe that they would have to defend their land and their people against a powerful and determined enemy. Soon after war had been declared, elements of the 65th Regiment began to occupy defensive positions in Puerto Rico. By this time, the regiment's personnel amounted to 131 officers and 2,991 enlisted men.

During America's involvement in World War II (1941-1945), at least 350,000 Puerto Ricans were registered for military service. From 1940 to 1946, 65,000 of these Puerto Ricans were called to arms and served in the American military. An estimated 23,000 of these men had volunteered for service. During 1942, the 65th Infantry Regiment was deployed along the Puerto Rican coast, guarding vital installations from a possible German invasion. In 1943, the 65th was shipped to Panama where the unit provided security for the Canal Zone until December 1943.

Then, in 1944, as the Allies prepared for the invasion of German-occupied France, the 65th Regiment was given extensive combat and amphibious training so that they could be used in the campaign against Germany and Italy in the European Theater of Operations. During the winter of 1944, the 65th Infantry saw combat along the Italian-French border region. By March 1945, the 65th was crossing the Rhine River into Germany with other Allied forces. Even after Germany’s unconditional surrender on May 8, 1945, the 65th Regiment remained in Germany as part of the Army of Occupation. Finally in October 1945, the Regiment embarked from Calais, France, on its return home, arriving as heroes in Puerto Rico on 9 November 1945.

Although its service in World War II had been limited, the soldiers of the 65th Regiment won a Distinguished Service Cross, two Silver Stars and 90 Purple Hearts while on the front lines. The 65th was awarded battle participation credits for the Naples-Foggia, Rome-Arno, Central Europe, and Rhineland campaigns.

While the 65th Infantry served in Europe, the 295th and 296th Infantry Regiments of the Puerto Rican National Guard participated in the Pacific Theater. Puerto Rican women were also given an opportunity to take part in the war effort against the Nazis and Japanese. An estimated 200 Puerto Rican women served in the Women's Army Corps (WACS), where some were used as linguists in the field of cryptology, communication, and interpretation.

The Korean War (1950-1953) provided the Puerto Rican people with a new opportunity to show their patriotism and combat skill. On August 26, 1950, the 65th Regiment embarked for the Korean Peninsula to take its position as part of the 3rd Division. The experience of the 65th Regiment during the Korean War has been discussed at length at the following URL:

During the Korean War, 43,343 Puerto Ricans served in the 65th Infantry Regiment and played a role in nine major campaigns, losing 582 men in battlefield action. Pfc. Fernando Luis Garcia, a native of Utuado, became the first Puerto Rican recipient of the Congressional Medal of Honor when, on September 5, 1952, he sacrificed his life for his fellow soldiers, jumping on a hand grenade and absorbing the blast.

Because of their courageous efforts in Korea, the 65th Infantry received a Presidential Unit Citation, a Meritorious Unit Commendation, two Republic of Korea Unit Citations and the Greek Gold Medal for Bravery. Individual members of the unit received four Distinguished Service crosses and 124 Silver Stars. Of his experience as commander of the 65th Infantry Regiment, General William W. Harris wrote: "No ethnic group has greater pride in itself and its heritage than the Puerto Rican people. Nor have I encountered any that can be more dedicated and zealous in support of the democratic principles for which the United States stands. Many Puerto Ricans have fought to the death to uphold them."

Altogether, an estimated 61,000 Puerto Ricans served during the Korean War. This included 18,000 Puerto Ricans who had enlisted in the Continental U.S. According to statistics compiled by the Office of the Governor of Puerto Rico shortly after the war, one of every 42 casualties suffered by U.S. forces was Puerto Rican. The island suffered one casualty for every 660 of its inhabitants as compared to one casualty for every 1,125 inhabitants of the continental United States. By the end of the Korean War, Puerto Ricans had been integrated throughout the Army.

During the extended Vietnam Conflict 1963-1973, an estimated 48,000 Puerto Ricans served in the military. During this conflict, three Puerto Ricans were awarded the Medal of Honor in recognition of their heroism. On November 20, 1967, Pfc. Carlos James Lozada, a native of Caguas, serving as a machine gunner with the 2nd Battalion, 502nd Infantry, distinguished himself in combat near Dak To. Private Lozada was mortally wounded while providing machine gun cover for his battalion.

On November 8, 1966, Captain Euripides Rubio, a native of Ponce, was serving with the 1st Battalion, 28th Infantry, when he assumed command of a rifle company that was under attack from a numerically superior enemy force. Disregarding his own multiple wounds, Captain Rubio distributed ammunition and aided in the evacuation of his men. Under fire from the enemy, Rubio succeeded in strategically placing a smoke grenade (used by bomber pilots to locate enemy positions) behind enemy lines. As a result, American pilots were able to locate and bomb the enemy positions.

On June 28, 1968, Specialist Fourth Class, Hector Santiago-Colon, a native of Salinas, was serving with the 5th Battalion, 7th Cavalry. Specialists Santiago-Colon distinguished himself at the cost of his own life while serving as a gunner in a mortar platoon.

In the Persian Gulf War of 1991, thousands of Puerto Ricans took part in the campaign to liberate Kuwait. Two Puerto Ricans, Capt. Manuel Rivera and Marine Cpl. Ismael Cotto, were killed in action. The service of Puerto Ricans has continued up to the present day. In the Afghanistan and Iraqi campaigns of recent years, at least twelve Puerto Ricans have died while serving their country. Since 1898, Puerto Rico has contributed more than 200,000 of its sons and daughters as combatants in the armed forces of the United States. In that time, 6,200 have been wounded, and 1,225 have died while serving their country.

Department of Defense. "Hispanics in America's Defense" (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Printing Office, 1990).

Harris, William Warner. "Puerto Rico's Fighting 65th Infantry: From San Juan to Chorwau." San Rafael, California, 1980.

[Internet Websites]
Puerto Rican Hispanic Genealogical Society, "Military Information." 1996-2002.

"Puerto Rico: 65th Infantry Regiment":

El Boricua, "The Borinqueneers: Puerto Rico's 65th Infantry Regiment, U.S. Army":

"Puerto Rico’s 65 Infantry Regiment, U.S. Army":

John Schmal is the coauthor of the recently published "The Dominguez Family: A Mexican-American Journey" (Heritage Books, 2004).


Spanish and Portuguese Possessions
Sailors on the Nina, the Pinta and the Santa Maria
Mini-bios by Angel Custodio Rebollo Barroso
     Alonso Caballero
Bernardo Calmette
     Juan de la Barrera
Julián de Alderete
Chivos Espanoles en Red
Adelantadas, Virreinas y Aventureras 
Los Canarios a Venezuela

Spanish and Portuguese Possessions
Sent by Johanna De Soto

After Columbus showed that you could get somewhere by sailing across the Atlantic (1492-1493) and Vasco da Gama sailed around the Cape of Good Hope all the way to India (1497-1498), it was clear that European sailing technology was ready to go anywhere in the world. In 1493, Spain and Portugal got Pope Alexander VI to literally divide the world between them, a settlement adjusted slightly in the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494. 

[[Editor: Lots of good information, but watch out for the tendency to demean the Spanish and Portuguese, such as in the following: ]]

This basically gave the Western Hemisphere to Spain and the Eastern to Portugal. For the next century, this is pretty much how things operated, and both Spanish and Portuguese denied that other European powers had the right to have ships in "their" waters. The English, French, Dutch, etc. ran of the risk of being treated like pirates, even when they weren't.  

[[The Queen of England came up with a new term, privateers, to cover the activity of the sailors that robbed the Spanish ships involved in trade.  Francis Drake was given the title of Sir for his success in plundering Spanish ships. ]] 

On the Nina
Vincente Yanex Pinzon
Juan Nino
Sancho Ruiz de Gama
Diego Lorenzo
Bartolome Garcia
Alonso Morales
Juan Arraez
Ruy Garcia
Rodrigo Mohge
Bartolome Roldan
Pedro Sanchez de Montilla
Juan Romero
Pedro de Villa
Garcia Alonso
Andres de Huelva
Francisco de Huelva
Francisco Nino
Pedro de Trana
Miguel de Soria

On the Pinta
Martin Alonso Pinzon
Cristobal Quintero
Francisco Martin Pinzon
Cristobal Garcia Sarmiento
Juan Reynal
Garcia Fernandez
Juan Quintero de Algruta
Anton Calabres
Francisco Garcia Vallejo
Alvaro Perez
Gil o Guiterre Perez
Diego Martin Pinzon
Sancho de Rama
Gomez Rascon
Juan Rodriguez Bermejo
Juan Vacano
Juan Verde de Triana
Pedro de Acros
Juan Arias
Fernando Medel
Francisco Medel
Alonso de Palos
Juan Quadrado
Pedro Fegero

On the Santa Maria

Juan de la Cosa
Pero Alonso Nino
Diego de Arana
Rodrigo de Escobedo
Pedro Gutierrez
Pedro Sanchez de Segovia
Luis de Torres
Juan Sanchez
Domingo de Lequitio
Antonio de Cuellar
Domingo Vizcaino
Juan de Medina
Diego Perez
Bartolome Bibes o Vives
Alonso Clavijo
Gonzalo Franco
Juan Martinez de Acoque
Juan de Moguer
Juan de la Placa
Juan Ruiz de la Pena
Bartolome Torres
Juan de Xeres
Rodrigo de Xeres
Pedro Yzquierdo de Lepe
Cristobal Claro
Diego Bermudez
Alonso Chocero
Rodrigo Gallengo
Diego Leal
Pedro de Lepe
Jacome el Rico
Marin de Urtubia
Andres de Yebenes
Pedro de Terreros
Pedro de Salcedo

  Mini-bios by Angel Custodio Rebollo Barroso


Se llamaba Alonso Caballero, aunque hay historiadores que lo nombran como Alonso Hernández Caballero. Nació en Huelva y era hijo de Fernando Alonso y Catalina Pérez. Era maestre de la nao Santa Maria la Blanca en 1514.

El 25 de mayo de 1519, en unión de su hermano Diego y cuatro personas mas solicitan a Zuazo una licencia para ir a la Costa de las Perlas para buscar esclavos, que según parece era el principal negocio al que se dedicaba.

En 1519 abandonó Santo Domingo con rumbo a Cuba y vendió un barco a Francisco de Salcedo, que llevó a éste a sus refuerzos a Nueva España. Posteriormente Narváez le nombró maestre de la nao San Cristóbal, pero Velázquez le puso al mando de dos barcos que se prepararon y aprovisionaron muy bien y con mucho interés pero que cayeron rápidamente en manos de Hernán Cortés, quien después le nombró su “almirante” y le puso al mando de los barcos de Pánfilo de Narváez.

Regresó a Sanlucar de Barrameda, donde se quedó como mercader, comerciando en negocios de perlas con un hermano suyo que se había quedado en Santo Domingo.

Hay una referencia a él en 1523, donde se dice que es vecino de Sevilla y autoriza a García de Lerma, de Burgos, para que cobre 946.000 maravedíes, que valía cierto oro que había traído de América y que fue embargado, por orden del Rey,  para destinarlo a la guerra de Francia. Falleció tres años después de muerte natural.                                             


Bernardo Calmette

 En la expedición de Magallanes figuraban dos clérigos, Bernardo Calmette, que iba como Capellán de la San Antonio y Pedro de Valderrama que figura en la Trinidad. Quien ha despertado nuestra curiosidad ha sido Bernardo Calmette, que según se dice era natural de Laytora (Francia) hijo de Esteban Calmette y Catalina Alayuana.

En la nao San Antonio estaba de Capitán Juan de Cartagena, pero pronto fue encarcelado por Magallanes y traspasado el mando a Gaspar de Quesada, y en la noche del 1 de abril de 1520, en el puerto de San Julián se amotinaron en la San Antonio, motín que solucionó Magallanes decapitando y descuartizando a Quesada. Cartagena y Calmette fueron abandonados en tierra el 11 de agosto, sin que se supiera mas de ellos. La tripulación alegó que Magallanes quiso conocer unos secretos de confesión a lo que el clérigo no consintió.

Pero sobre Bernardo Calmette hay una extraña circunstancia que es lo que ha llamado nuestra atención, porque en una lista de pasajeros se llama Bernardo Calmette al clérigo destinado a la San Antonio y en otras se le llama Pedro, o Pero, Sánchez de Reina.

En primer lugar, como dice el historiador chileno Toribio Medina, dos capellanes para un barco de unas 50 personas no es normal y aparte que en las listas que nombra a uno no lo hacen con el otro, por lo que se cree que Bernardo Calmette y Pedro Sánchez de  Reina eran una sola persona.                                                   



Se llamaba Juan de la Barrera y era de Moguer. En 1518 se marchó a América y al principio se dedicó al trafico de esclavos africanos, asociado con Rodrigo de Gibraleón y Diego de Almonte, aprovechando los conocimientos que sobre la trata de esclavos había adquirido en los mercados que había en Sevilla, Gibraleón, en Castilla y Lagos, en Portugal y las visitas que hizo con su tío a Guinea y Gambia. 

Como tenía capital que había heredado de un tío suyo compró una granja de perlas en Cuba y en ella empleaba a muchos esclavos y esclavas, generalmente negros. Tuvo otro socio, Juan Martínez de Huelva, también de pesquería de perlas. 

Los negocios le fueron muy bien y regresó a España en 1529 en posesión de una gran fortuna, y se estableció en Sevilla convirtiéndose, al poco tiempo, en uno de los principales comerciante de esclavos, dedicándose siempre mas a los africanos que a los indios.

Tenía un hijo llamado Alonso de la Barrera que, junto con un hijo de Rodrigo de Gibraleón, continuaron con el fructífero negocio de las perlas, y para 1540 su pesquería tenía mas de 50 indios. En 1544 dirigía la “Ranchería de Perlas” de Cabo de la Vela, siempre con muy buenos resultados.

Juan de la Barrera era un hombre inquieto y de espíritu comercial que en 1542 compró varios almacenes en Sevilla y ocho años mas tarde, fundó una empresa para explotar unas minas de alumbre en Aragón y para 1550 creó una nueva factoría en México. 

Fue “almojarife mayor” de Sevilla.

Era propietario de dos fincas olivareras, una en Almensilla, cerca de San Juan de Aznalfarache, en Sevilla y la otra en Beas, en la provincia de Huelva, donde también poseía una bodega. Daba muchos donativos a la Iglesia Católica, entre ellas hizo algunos a la Iglesia Mayor de San Pedro, en Huelva fundando también  un convento en Sevilla.

Además de Alonso de la Barrera, de quien hemos hablado anteriormente, tuvo otros hijos; Isabel de la Barrera, Leonor de Sevilla y Hernando Sánchez de la Barrera. Que también triunfaron con los negocios. Hernando fue miembro de élite de las explotaciones de Río de la Hacha.

En 1552 se retiró a vivir a su finca en Villalba del Alcor, en Huelva.


Julián de Alderete era un antiguo camarero del Obispo Rodríguez de Fonseca, que llegó a Santo Domingo  logró que  incluyeran  en la flota de Rodrigo de Bastidas sus barcos con varios conquistadores y de algunos de estos nos ocupamos hoy.

Uno de ellos fue Pedro Alonso Roldán, natural de Moguer, que iba como capitán y piloto de un barco en el que también viajaba su hijo Rodrigo Simón. Participó en muchas batallas y estaba casado con Inés Álvarez Liximano.

Rodrigo era hijo de este matrimonio y en el barco trajo armas y un caballo que había comprado en La Española. Por su comportamiento en las batallas fue premiado con una encomienda, que posteriormente le fue confiscada. También estuvo en las campañas de Panuco y Nueva Galicia y por ello recibió otra encomienda..Por ultimo fue a Nuevo México con Coronado.

Otro de los componentes de la expedición de Alderete, fue Pedro Franco, de Palos, hijo de Juan Franco y Elvira Gil, que fue testigo en el litigio de las “ casas del marqués” en 1550 y dijo que la primera vez que fue a México, el “marqués” tenía casas y aposentos grandes, algunas casas de recreo con huertas y que se decía que todas procedían de las antiguas propiedades de Montezuma. Después lucho en campañas para pacificar México y Michoacán.

En esta expedición iba también Fray Pedro Melgarejo de Urrea, franciscano de Sevilla, con “unas bulas papales para absolver las deudas a cuenta de las guerras en que estuvieran implicados”. Regresó rico a Castilla.

Como era amigo personal de Cortés, éste le confió 10.000 pesos para que los entregara a su padre, Martín Cortés, pero estos pesos nunca llegaron a su destino.

No volvió a América y en 1534 se convirtió en obispo de Dulcigno, en la Albania veneciana.



Archivos Españoles en Red
Ministerio de Cultura
Recommended by Sergio Hernandez 
[[ I could not get into the links myself, but looks like a great site.]]

Adelantadas, virreinas y aventureras 
Publicado por Juan Francisco Maura (Original de - University of Vermont) 
Book recommended by B. Samuel Sanchez
President of La Sociedad Genealogica del Norte de Mexico Articulos

Adelantadas, virreinas y aventureras en los primeros años de la conquista de América
Fecha de envío: (17/1/2002) 

Abstract: (Español): La ausencia del elemento femenino en el contexto general de la conquista de América obedece a la idea generalizada de brutalidad y pillaje que se ha querido atribuir al colonizador español. Sin embargo, como veremos en el presente estudio, la mujer española ocupó puestos mucho más importantes de lo que tradicionalmente se ha venido creyendo en la sociedad hispanoamericana.

En el Semanario: Descifrado en la Calle (El Semanario del Poder) aparece una Columna que habla sobre los Emprendedores ( en Venezuela )
Sent by Roberto Jose Perez Guadarrama

En el Semanario, Año 1, No. 59, Caracas, Jueves 20 al 27 de Octubre de 2005.

Los Canarios a Venezuela
Pedro Benítez, Francisco de Miranda, José Antonio Páez, Andrés Bello y Rómulo Betancourt fueron, entre otros destacados personajes de nuestra historia, descendientes de un grupo humano que fue fundamental en la formación de nuestra nación. Tradicionalmente los canarios constituyeron la principal mano de obra inmigrante que en grupos familiares llegó luego de culminada la conquista; por lo general eran pequeños agricultores, y a ellos se debió la extensión del cultivo del café por las montañas de San Antonio de los Altos, Baruta y el Hatillo desde fines del siglo XVIII. También se destacaron como modestos comerciantes, artesanos, zapateros, albañiles y carpinteros que contribuyeron al desarrollo de la economía del país. Conocidos por la historiografía como "blancos de orilla" por el orden social que ocupaban, llegaron a ser parte integral del pueblo Venezolano. 



My Friend Ana Gutierrez, daughter & grand-daughter of a Priest 
Canary Island Settlers of Louisiana
Mundo Guanche
Milagro Lloréns Casini 
Endangered Archives Programme


My Friend Ana Gutierrez
 by Jaime Cader

I met my friend Ana Gutierrez several years ago in San Francisco, California. She is the person who generously introduced me to her friend, Arturo Campos, the Salvadoran artist of whom I wrote an article about for the April 2004 issue of Somos Primos.

Gutierrez was born in Santa Ana, El Salvador and is the daughter of Jose Adolfo Gutierrez Perdomo and Ana Gloria Olavarrieta, -both also from Santa Ana. Gutierrez came to the United States in 1993.

What is interesting about Gutierrez's family history is that two of her ancestors were Roman Catholic priests. As many of you may know, most Roman Catholic priest are not supposed to have wives or children, but in Gutierrez's case, the situations are reasonable to understand. 

Her paternal great grandfather was Jose Adolfo Perdomo Herrera. He was a medical doctor, was married, and had children. Some time after the death of his wife, he decided to become a priest, so he completed his studies to become one. Gutierrez is not sure if he was born in Santa Ana or in Chalchuapa, but in any case these two cities are in close proximity to each other. 

Gutierrez's maternal great grandfather on the other hand, was Fr. Olavarietta, a Capuchin priest.
Gutierrez is not sure of his first name, however she believes that it may have been Ezekiel, as her
maternal grandfather's name was Jose Ezekiel Olavarrieta Quinteros. The story that was passed down to Gutierrez is that this great grandfather was exiled from Antigua, Guatemala, apparently during a President Ubico's regime. After arriving in Santa Ana, he discontinued his work as a priest.

In a letter that I received from Gutierrez that is dated November 13, 2002, she said,"Una vez llego un señor venezolano a El Salvador y resulta que su papa era hermano de este Sr. Olavarrieta, y el dijo que eran varios hermanos que habian llegado de Las Islas Canarias, o Tenerife, no recuerdo, pero yo estaba adolescente..." Thus it appears that her priest ancestor was originally from the Canary Islands.

In addition, her maternal grandfather Jose Ezekiel Olavarrieta Quinteros who is mentioned previously, had also studied medicine, ran a clinic and was an artist of crafts. This grandfather "hacia muchas caridades" according to Gutierrez.

An anecdote that Gutierrez once related took place one day at her job in San Francisco, when she met an elderly woman from Santa Ana. Gutierrez asked her if she remembered a Fr. Perdomo and the woman said that she did remember him. Guitierrez informed her that he was her great grandfather, however she did not explain to her how this came about. During the elderly woman's next visit to Gutierrez's workplace, she avoided speaking to Gutierrez...

Since meeting Gutierrez, she has made a few moves from San Francisco to reside in Modesto and finally to San Jose (also in California), where she is presently living as she cares for a physically challenged individual. She has also made some trips back to El Salvador and continues to learn English.

It is hoped that someone reading this write-up will recognize the names of some of the families that were referred to and will provide us with more information.

Canary Island Settlers of Louisiana
Sent by Bill Carmena

This site is dedicated to Acadian-Cajun Genealogy and Canary Island Migration to Louisiana.
The Canary Islands are a collection of 7 islands about 100 miles west of the coast of Morocco.  Spaniards conquered the area and migrated to the island in the 15th and 16th century.  By the 18th century, the islands were controlled by nobles.  


Mundo Guanche 
Publicado el Número 3 de Mundo 
Sent by artist Mery Glez   
Los antiguos habitantes de Canarias contaban con numerosos espacios de aprovechamiento comunal. Aquí hacemos una pequeña reseña de los que están mejor documentados.

Casas regias Según los cronistas, los canarios contaban con casas regias o reales, donde el Guanarteme compartía con sus súbditos grandes fiestas y banquetes.

Al respecto, la versión Ovetense (1478-1512: 127v.) de la conquista grancanaria cuenta:
“Tenían los dichos Guadartemes casas de rrecreación y pasatiempos, donde se juntaban onbres y mujeres a cantar y a bailar, y acabados sus cantos y bailes, ordenaban sus banquetes y comidas de mucha carne asada y cosida” (Morales Padrón 1993: 161).

El conquistador toledano Antonio Cedeño (ca. 1490: 15v.-16) relata:
“La maior casa que se halló fue la de Guanartheme […] se halló aforrada en tablones de tea mui ajustados, que no se conocían las junturas, ensima estaban pintados de blanco con tierra i de colorado con almagra i de negro con carbón molido, unos ajedresados, i tarjetas redondas a modo de quesos por el techo” (Morales Padrón 1993: 375).

Tagorores El tagoror era el sitio de reunión del mencey (menzy, ‘principal’) y del consejo de ancianos nobles. Solía estar a la entrada (o en las cercanías) de la vivienda de este responsable de la jefatura. Era un terreno circular, de ahí su nombre (tagrurt, ‘recinto circular’), circunscrito por piedras que hacían el papel de asientos, destacando entre ellas una más elevada destinada al de rango superior.

Sobre el tagoror, el dominico Alonso de Espinosa (1594: 34v.) precisa:
“Tagoror, que era el lugar do hacía su consulta y recibía los pareceres de los de su consejo. Este lugar estaba delante de la puerta de su casa, en alguna llanura y en circuito del ala redonda puestos a poco trecho unas piedras en que se asentaba el rey y sus vasallos al sol de Dios” (Alejandro Cioranescu 1980: 54).

Tenerife es la isla donde más referencias se han encontrado de este tipo de construcciones, con unas 80 repartidas por todo el territorio.

Plazas Las plazas están poco documentadas en Canarias, no obstante tenemos algunas evidencias de su existencia, siendo tan sólo la de Gáldar, en Gran Canaria, la única con datos fiables.

El capellán conquistador Pedro Gómez Escudero (ca. 1484: 46v.) recoge:
“[…] una plaza o circo sercada en forma circular i bien grande, que caben siete mil hombres. Es de altura de dos a tres tapias de alto de piedras grandes en mucha manera sin varro; tiene dos puertas, una enfrente de otra. En esta plaça dicen hacían justicia de los delinquentes […]” (Morales Padrón 1993: 388).


Sent by John Inclan

"En el tomo I de su monumental obra historica "Cuba: Economia y Sociedad" el erudito historiador cubano Doctor Levi Marrero Artiles, al encontrar el autografo y multitud de referencias de un Vasco Porcallo en Mexico, asumio que este era el mismo que Vasco Porcallo de Figueroa, el Conquistador y Pobaldor de Cuba, sin darse cuenta de que el Vasco Porcallo de Mexico, honomino y contemporaneo del de Cuba era distinto de nuestro. Este autografo no menciona que fuera "de Figueroa", y este otro Vasco Porcallo fallece en Mexico el 8 de diciembre de 1539 y es sepultado con el habito de San Francisco en el convento del Santo en la ciudad de Mexico. Habia sido Conquistador de Mexico y de Guatemala, y era casado con la dama espanola llamada Dona Leonor de Zuniga, hija de Luis de Serna, vecino de Valladolid, y fallecio unos meses antes que su marido dejando dos hijos legitimos de matrimonio que eran menores: Lorenzo de Ulloa Porcallo que queda en Mexico y que en 1604 deja sucesion legitima, y Maria de la Cerda, que regreso a casa de su abuelo en Valladolid, donde se caso con Gonzalo Fernandez de Villafane, y fallece sin sucesion en 1572.

Lo anterior viene relatado en el Capitulo IV de la "Historia de Remedios" de Martinez Escobar, y tambien con gran riqueza de datos en el estudio publicado por Don Jose Miguel de Mayoralgo y Lodo, Conde de los Acevedos, brillante historiador y genealogista dedicado a esclarecer la indentidad de Vasco Porcallo de Mendoza, el de Mexico, hijo de Baltasar de Mendoza y Leonor de la Cerda, primo segundo del Vasco Porcallo de Figueroa, el de Cuba, ambos bisnietos de Gonzalo Porcallo y de Maria Gutierrez de Valverde. Este estudio fue publicado en el Bolitin de la Real Academia de las Letras y de las Artes de Extremadura, en el numero de enero-junio de 1992, paginas 99 a 111, y agradezco aqui a su autor el envio de copia del texto oportunamente." 

Milagro Lloréns Casini 
Publicado por
(Original de - 09 Octubre 2005 11:52:pm 
Este mensaje fue enviado por Benicio Samuel Sanchez (

Mi nombre es Milagro Lloréns Casani. Me dedico profesionalmente al estudio de la genealogía desde hace más de treinta años. Comprobarán que he publicado gran cantidad de libros, en los que incluyo hechos históricos acaecidos en la vida de los distintos personajes, pues considero imprescindible que cada uno de ellos sea situado en un momento concreto de la historia universal. Algunos de estos personajes han sido importantísimos en la formación de lo que hoy conocemos como Europa. 

En cada uno de mis libros, intento llegar hasta el momento actual con la mayor parte de datos posibles, pero aun estoy muy lejos de incluir todos los que yo desearía. 

Con motivo de los trabajos personalizados que me encomiendan, y en mi labor investigadora, me he visto en la necesidad de recabar información en numerosos países, en los que he hecho muchísimos amigos que aprovecho para saludar desde aquí. 

Agradezco, también, a todas las personas que tan amablemente me envían correcciones y actualizaciones de dichos datos. 


VI Siglos de Genealogia, Descendientes de Don Juan de Silva, I conde de Cifuentes
IX Siglos de Genealogia, Descendientes de Hugo I, Señor de Liechtenstein
Genealogia: Grandezas y Titulos del Reino
Descendientes de Don Alonso Enriquez, I Almirante de Castilla
Descendientes de Federico I; Barbarroja, Emperador de Alemania
Descendientes de Hugo; El Grande; Duque de Franconia

XV Siglos de Genealogia Descendientes de Cerdico, Rey de Wessex
Descendientes de Pedro I ;El Cruel; Rey de Castilla
Descendientes de Eurico, Rey de los visigodos, Tomos deI al VIII
Descendientes de los Califas Omeyas de Damasco y Cordoba.

Sebastian del Toro, ascendiente de los heroes de la Independencia de Venezuela.
Genealogia de familias venezolanas.

Ascendencia española de S.M. la Reina Doña Sofi
Ascendencia catalana de S.M. el Rey Don Juan Carlos I
Ascendencia normanda de< S.A.R. Don Felipe de Borbon y Grecia,Principe de Asturias
Ascendencia asturiana de S.A.R. Carlos de Windsor, Principe de Gales
Ascendencia magyar de S.A.R. Doña Elena de Borbon y Grecia, Duquesa de Lugo
Ascendencia europea de Simon Bolivar y Palacios; El Libertador.
Ascendencia aragonesa de S.M. Isabel II, Reina de la Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte.
Ascendencia rusa de S.A.R. Doña Cristina de Borbon y Grecia, Duquesa de Palma de Mallorca.
Ascendencia mozarabe toledana de S.M. Simeon II de Sajonia-Coburgo, Zar de los bulgaros.

Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar; El Cid; ascendiente de Nicolas II, ultimo Zar de Rusia.
Ascendencia franca y sajona de Ernesto Che Guevara.
Ascendientes de Leka, Rey de Albania.
Ascendencia europea de George Walker Bush, Presidente de los Estados Unidos.
Genealogia de Doña MAxima Zorreguieta Cerruti, princesa de los Paises Bajos.
HEROES o TRAIDORES Teruel, la verdad se abre camino. 

Endangered Archives Programme

Sent by Nicanor Dominguez  distributed

Estimados amigos: La Biblioteca Britanica (British Library) ofrece financiamiento para la preservacion y copia de documentos de archivos en peligro de destruccion y/o perdida y/o deterioro. La informacion aparece en el portal de la biblioteca en castellano

Sin embargo, las solicitudes deben hacerse en ingles. El proceso tiene dos etapas, y la primera, de solicitudes preliminares (preliminary applications) tiene como fecha limite el 11 de noviembre proximo (es decir, en 5 semanas).  Espero que sea de interes y utilidad para ustedes, o para alguien que ustedes conozcan.  

The Endangered Archives Programme is funded by the Lisbet Rausing Charitable Fund, in pursuit of its general aim to support fundamental research into important issues in the humanities and social science. The focus of the Programme is on the preservation and copying of important but vulnerable archives throughout the world.

The Programme is now accepting applications for the next round of funding. Detailed information on the timetable, criteria, eligibility and procedures for applying for a grant is available on the Programme's website. The deadline for receipt of preliminary applications is 11 November 2005. 

The aim is to safeguard archival material relating to societies usually at an early stage of development, ie, its normal focus is on the period of a society's history before 'modernisation' or 'industrialisation' had generated institutional and record-keeping structures for the systematic preservation of historical records, very broadly defined. The relevant time period will therefore vary according to the society with which we deal. The Programme is completely open as to theme and regional interest, although applications concerned with non-western societies are particularly welcomed.

The Programme's objectives are achieved principally by making a number of grants to individual researchers to locate relevant collections, to arrange their transfer to suitable local archival home where possible, and to deliver copies to the British Library and a local institution for the benefit of researchers worldwide. Pilot projects are particularly welcomed, to investigate the survival of archival collections on a particular subject, in a discrete region, or in a specific format, and the feasibility of their recovery.

For the purposes of the Programme, archives will be interpreted widely to embrace not only rare printed sources (books, serials, newspapers, ephemera, etc) and manuscripts in any language, but also visual materials (drawings, paintings, prints, posters, photographs, etc), audio or video recordings, digital data, and even other objects and artefacts - but normally only where they are found in association with a documentary archive. In all cases, the validity of archival materials for inclusion in the Programme will be assessed by their relevance as source materials for the pre-industrial stage of a society's history.

The Programme does not offer grants to support the normal running activities of an archive, although the Programme may offer support for such items as costs directly related to the acceptance of relocated material.

The Programme is administered by the British Library and applications are considered in an annual competition by an international panel of historians and archivists.

The first award of grants for 20 projects totaling approximately £600,000 was made in May 2005. For further details of these awards please visit the Programme's website. 




The Pilgrims' 1621 Thanksgiving 
History Lesson
América nació en Nicaragua 
Queen Isabel


The Pilgrims' 1621 Thanksgiving 

The tradition of the Pilgrims' first Thanksgiving is steeped in myth and legend.  Few people realize that the Pilgrims did not celebrate Thanksgiving the next year, or any year thereafter, though some of their descendants later made a "Forefather's Day" that usually occurred on December 21 or 22. Several Presidents, including George Washington, made one-time Thanksgiving holidays.  In 1827, Mrs. Sarah Josepha Hale began lobbying several Presidents for the instatement of Thanksgiving as a national holiday, but her lobbying was unsuccessful until 1863 when Abraham Lincoln finally made it a national holiday with his 1863 Thanksgiving Proclamation. 

Today, our Thanksgiving is the fourth Thursday of November.  This was set by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1939 (approved by Congress in 1941), who changed it from Abraham Lincoln's designation as the last Thursday in November (which could occasionally end up being the fifth Thursday and hence too close to Christmas for businesses).  But the Pilgrims' first Thanksgiving began at some unknown date between September 21 and November 9, most likely in very early October.  The date of Thanksgiving was probably set by Lincoln to somewhat correlate with the anchoring of the Mayflower at Cape Cod, which occurred on November 21, 1620 (by our modern Gregorian calendar--it was November 11 to the Pilgrims who used the Julian calendar).   

There are only two contemporary accounts of the 1621 Thanksgiving:  First is Edward Winslow's account, which he wrote in a letter dated December 12, 1621.  The complete letter was first published in 1622, and is chapter 6 of Mourt's Relation: A Journal of the Pilgrims at Plymouth. 

Our corn [i.e. wheat] did prove well, and God be praised, we had a good increase of Indian corn, and our barley indifferent good, but our peas not worth the gathering, for we feared they were too late sown.  They came up very well, and blossomed, but the sun parched them in the blossom.  Our harvest being gotten in, our governor sent four men on fowling, that so we might after a special manner rejoice together after we had gathered the fruit of our labors.  They four in one day killed as much fowl as, with a little help beside, served the company almost a week.  At which time, amongst other recreations, we exercised our arms, many of the Indians coming amongst us, and among the rest their greatest king Massasoit, with some ninety men, whom for three days we entertained and feasted, and they went out and killed five deer, which they brought to the plantation and bestowed on our governor, and upon the captain and others.  And although it be not always so plentiful as it was at this time with us, yet by the goodness of God, we are so far from want that we often wish you partakers of our plenty. 

The second description was written about twenty years after the fact by William Bradford in his History Of Plymouth Plantation.  Bradford's History was rediscovered in 1854 after having been taken by British looters during the Revolutionary War.  Its discovery prompted a greater American interest in the history of the Pilgrims, which eventually led to Lincoln's decision to make Thanksgiving a holiday.  It is also in this account that the Thanksgiving turkey tradition is founded. 

They began now to gather in the small harvest they had, and to fit up their houses and dwellings against winter, being all well recovered in health and strength and had all things in good plenty.  For as some were thus employed in affairs abroad, others were exercising in fishing, about cod and bass and other fish, of which they took good store, of which every family had their portion.  All the summer there was no want; and now began to come in store of fowl, as winter approached, of which this place did abound when they came first (but afterward decreased by degrees).  And besides waterfowl there was great store of wild turkeys, of which they took many, besides venison, etc.  Besides they had about a peck of meal a week to a person, or now since harvest, Indian corn to that proportion.  Which made many afterwards write so largely of their plenty here to their friends in England, which were not feigned but true reports. 

The following is a fairly complete list of the foods available to the Pilgrims during the three-day Thanksgiving harvest celebration. As can be seen in the above two quotations, the only foods specifically mentioned by the Pilgrims are: "corn" (wheat, by the Pilgrims usage of the word), Indian corn, barley, peas (if any where spared), "fowl" (Bradford says "waterfowl"), five deer, fish (namely bass and cod), and wild turkey.   

The Plymonth Plantation Museum has a nice recipe page that includes a number of modernized recipes to closely simulate the actual foods likely eaten by the Pilgrims during this harvest festival. 

Foods Available to the Pilgrims for their 1621 Thanksgiving 

FISH:  cod, bass, herring, shad, bluefish, and lots of eel. 

SEAFOOD:  clams, lobsters, mussels, and very small quantities of oysters 

BIRDS:  wild turkey, goose, duck, crane, swan, partridge, and other miscellaneous waterfowl; they were also known to have occasionally eaten eagles (which "tasted like mutton" according to Winslow in 1623.) 

OTHER MEAT:  venison (deer), possibly some salt pork or chicken. 

GRAIN:  wheat flour, Indian corn and corn meal; barley (mainly for beer-making). 

FRUITS:  raspberries, strawberries, grapes, plums, cherries, blueberries, gooseberries (these would have been dried, as none would have been in season). 

VEGETABLES:  small quantity of peas, squashes (including pumpkins), beans 

NUTS:  walnuts, chestnuts, acorns, hickory nuts, ground nuts 

HERBS and SEASONINGS: onions, leeks, strawberry leaves, currants, sorrel, yarrow, carvel, brooklime, liverwort, watercress, and flax; from England they brought seeds and probably planted radishes, lettuce, carrots, onions, and cabbage.  Olive oil in small quantities may have been brought over, though the Pilgrims had to sell most of their oil and butter before sailing, in order to stay on budget. 

OTHER:  maple syrup, honey; small quantities of butter, Holland cheese; and eggs. 

Some perhaps startling omissions from the authentic Thanksgiving menu 

Ham.  (The Pilgrims most likely did not have pigs with them). 

Sweet Potatoes-Potatoes-Yams.  (These had not yet been introduced to New England). 

Corn on the cob. (Indian corn was only good for making cornmeal, not eating on the cob). 

Popcorn.  (Contrary to popular folklore, popcorn was not introduced at the 1621 Thanksgiving.  Indian corn could only be half-popped, and this wouldn't have tasted very good.) 

Cranberry sauce.  (Cranberries were available, but sugar was not.) 

Pumpkin Pie:  (They probably made a pumpkin pudding of sorts, sweetened by honey or syrup, which would be like the filling of a pumpkin pie, but there would be no crust or whipped topping.) 

Mayflower Web Pages.  Caleb Johnson © 1999 


History Lesson

Have a history teacher explain this----- if they can.

Abraham Lincoln was elected to Congress in 1846.
John F. Kennedy was elected to Congress in 1946.

Abraham Lincoln was elected President in 1860.
John F. Kennedy was elected President in 1960.

Both were particularly concerned with civil rights.
Both wives lost their children while living in the White House.

Both Presidents were shot on a Friday. 
Both Presidents were shot in the head.

Now it gets really weird.

Lincoln 's secretary was named Kennedy. 
Kennedy's Secretary was named Lincoln.

Both were assassinated by Southerners. 
Both were succeeded by Southerners named Johnson.

Andrew Johnson, who succeeded Lincoln, was born in 1808.
Lyndon Johnson, who succeeded Kennedy, was born in 1908.

John Wilkes Booth, who assassinated Lincoln, was born in 1839.
Lee Harvey Oswald, who assassinated Kennedy, was born in 1939.

Both assassins were known by their three names.
Both names are composed of fifteen letters.
John Wilkes Booth, who assassinated Lincoln, was born in 1839.
Lee Harvey Oswald, who assassinated Kennedy, was born in 1939.
Now hang on to your seat.

Lincoln was shot at the theater named 'Ford.'
Kennedy was shot in a car called ' Lincoln' made by 'Ford.'

Lincoln was shot in a theater and his assassin ran and hid in a
Kennedy was shot from a warehouse and his assassin ran and hid in a theater.

Booth and Oswald were assassinated before their trials.

And here's the kicker...

A week before Lincoln was shot, he was in Monroe, Maryland
A week before Kennedy was shot, he was with Marilyn Monroe.

Creepy huh? Send this to as many people as you can, cause: Hey, this is one history lesson people don't mind reading 
 Sent by Ray Gonzalez

América nació en Nicaragua 

José Steinsleger Miércoles 12 de octubre de 2005
Sent by Ricardo V. Castanon

¿Cómo nos llamamos? 
Con la conquista fuimos de "las Indias", y luego "Nuevo Mundo".

España nos bautizó de hispanos y Francia de latinos para diferenciarnos del norte anglosajón. El neofranquismo habla de "Iberoamérica", Cuba agrega "y del Caribe" al gentilicio "América Latina", y con énfasis mercadotécnico Washington se refiere a "las Américas". 

En consecuencia, faltan los nombres de muchos pueblos y culturas: las originarias de América (mal llamadas "indias"), las de Africa (mal llamadas "negras"), y las de origen lusitano, semita, eslavo, balcánico y asiático que del estrecho de Bering al de Magallanes se mezclan y habitan en un continente donde Estados Unidos, país que no tiene nombre, se apropió del nuestro: América. 

Nombre justo, conciso y original, la voz "América" podría hallar vigorosa justificación en las investigaciones de Jean Marcou, geógrafo francés, quien sostiene que si bien el nombre se inspiró de modo confuso en el apodo Amerigo de quien llamábase Alberico Vespucci, la voz de marras tendría origen maya-quiché: Amerrique o Amerique, en francés suavizado (Sobre el origen del nombre America, Sociedad Geográfica de París, 1875, puntilloso y fascinante estudio, que a continuación reseñamos). 

Amerrique era el nombre indígena dado a las montañas existentes entre Juigalpa y La Libertad, departamento nicaragüense de Chontales. El geólogo y naturalista Thomas Belt, autor de The Naturalistic in Nicaragua (1874), observó que la sierra o cordillera de Amerrique forma la línea divisoria de las aguas, entre el lago de Nicaragua y el río Bluefields. 

De 1868 a 1871 Belt fue ingeniero de la compañía Minera de Chontales, en las minas de oro de Santo Domingo, San Benito y San Antonio. Anteriormente, las minas habían sido explotadas por los indígenas y los españoles. Ávidos de oro, los tripulantes del cuarto y último viaje de Colón (1502-03) fueron los primeros en divulgar con persistencia la voz amerrique. 

El piloto mayor Vespucci, entre ellos. Un año después, Vespucci dejó de llamarse Alberico y adoptó el de Amerigo, nombre desconocido en Europa pero dado por sus marineros a propósito de Amerrique o Amerique. Es decir, que en lugar de tener el honor de dar su nombre al "Nuevo Mundo", de éste salió el nombre que lo hizo célebre. 

La segunda parte de esta historia tuvo lugar en abril de 1507, en Saint Dié, pequeña población de Lorena. Allí fue traducida del francés al latín la carta de relación Quatuor Navigationes de Vespucci a Francesco de Médicis, impresa con el nombre de Cosmographiae Introductio, única partida auténtica de bautismo del Nuevo Mundo. 

Según Alexander Humboldt la obra de 52 páginas fue "... preparada con el mayor descuido por un librero muy oscuro, quien fue a comer pasas a Lorena e inventó el nombre América". Humboldt se refiere al dibujante de mapas Martin Waltzemüller, pero desconocía que el canónigo Jean Basin, insigne poeta, recibió la orden de la traducción latina a causa de "la elegancia, característica de su estilo", según Gualterio Lud, canónico impresor. 

La modestia del poeta Basin, autor del nombre latino Americus dado por primera vez a Vespucci en traducción muy libre (y del nombre America, dado también por primera vez al Nuevo Mundo), no dice una sola palabra de su presencia. En cambio, Waltzemüller se dió audazmente por autor de la obra, bajo el nombre cacofónico de Martin Ilacomylus. 

Cuando el canónico Lud tuvo en sus manos el primer ejemplar de la edición, suspendió con indignación la tirada, de la que no se conoce más de un ejemplar que hoy cuesta más de un millón de dólares. Waltzemüller fue despedido y se fugó con las planchas. Sin embargo, dos años después reimprimió la obra en Estrasburgo, cometiendo el primer acto de falsificación y piratería después de la invención de la imprenta. 

Por otro lado, Cosmographiae Introductio no hace mención alguna a Cristóbal Colón, cuya existencia ignora. En tanto, Vespucci fue acusado de colocar su nombre en las cartas, pretendiendo arrebatar a Colón la gloria del "descubrimiento". Sin embargo, no fueron los sabios quienes impusieron al vulgo el nombre América. 

En todos los puertos de mar era sabido que Vespucci no era el descubridor del "Nuevo Mundo". La resistencia de los sabios a la adopción del nombre "América", adoptado por el vulgo, duró tres siglos. En los actos oficiales, en el Consejo de Indias, en las Historias de las Indias de Oviedo, de Gomara, de Las Casas, no se emplea el nombre de Vespucci. 

Al recibir la Cosmographiae Introductio, Vespucci debe haberse sentido por extremo lisonjeado. "Si hubiese querido -dice Marcou- pudo desconocer esa 'gloria peligrosa', pues no ocurrió su muerte hasta el 22 de febrero de 1512: pudo al menos escribir a sus amigos de Florencia, declarándoles que nunca había tenido la pretensión de suplantar a Colón, ni a los otros primeros 'descubridores' y exploradores del Nuevo Mundo. No sucedió esto..." 

En maya quiché Amerrique significa "país del viento", "país donde el viento sopla siempre". 

Queen Isabel
Sent by John Inclan
ISABEL Queen, was more than the daughter of King Juan II of Castile and his second wife, Dona Isabel, of Portugal. Under the pink and white of her skin pulsed the blood of crusaders and conquerors, the blood of Alfred the Great, of William the Conqueror, of the iron Plantagenet Henry II and the fiery Eleanor of Aquitaine, of Edward I and Edward III of England, of Philip the Bold of France, of Alfonso the Wise of Castile. She was descended on both sides from Louis IX of France and his cousin Fernando III of Castile, both kings, both crusaders and both canonized saints. She derived Lancastrian blood through both parents from John of Gaunt, brother of the Black Prince. Yet her arrival in a chaotic world on the twenty-second of April, 1451, caused hardly a stir even in the little town of Madrigal. Her father, who was at Segovia, announced the event by proclamation: "I, the King. ..make known to you that by the grace of Our Lord this Thursday just past, the Queen, Dona Isabel, my dear and well-beloved wife, was delivered of a daughter; the which I tell you that you may give thanks to God." The infanta was baptized a few days later in the Church of Saint Nicholas, with no especial pomp or display. When the voices of her sponsors rumbled among the arches and arabesques of the old church, renouncing Satan and all his works on her behalf, there was no prophet on hand to cry out that one of the most remarkable women in all history had been born.



Supongo que lo sabreis, pero existe una teoría según la cual Colón era catalano-parlante, originario de la isla de Ibiza y perteneciente a la familia Colom catalana. La teoría nació del hecho de la toponimía de los lugares a los que llegó primero Colón y que coincide con poblaciones y lugares de la Isla de Ibiza. Para más información visitad el siguiente enlace
Un cordial saludo,  José Ramón Soler Fuensanta  

Reply-by John Inclan

Crisobal Colòn never declared himself a Genoese. Evidence is that he was not a Genoese patriot, never went back to Genoa. He fought against Genoa when battles occurred.

He never wrote in any form of Italian --  not to his brothers or to Genoese persons or institutions, writings are in Spanish when addressing persons or Genoese institutions, wrote his parents in Spanish, wrote to his brothers in Spanish. And brothers, parents, wrote to each other in Spanish.He wrote in Spanish in his own private notes, years prior to 1492. Signed his own name as Colòn and never did he use the name Chrisopher Columbus. 

When Cristobal Colòn spoke the Latin language -he did so with a Hispanic accent/with Hispanicizms. His name Colòn is present only in the country of Spain now and hundreds of years before Colòn was born and up to the time he was born. His parents were merchants from Spain.

His brothers also used the name Colòn, always wrote and spoke Spanish." 

From the Encyclopeadia Britanica     © 1996-2000  
Spain first arrived in the Americas in 1492, headed by the Spanish Admiral Cristobal Colòn. Cristobal Colòn was born in the year 1451 in Genoa of Spanish parents.  His parents were merchants from Spain who went to Genoa during the time Spain occupied what is now the present country of Italy, for 400 years, from the 1300s continuously through the 1700s.

NOTE: (When USA Army personnel, etc. are born in Germany, Italy, etc they continue to be USA citizens - American, and not of the country that they were born in. The same goes for non-military persons.)

Colon descendants are also Hispanos. The Spanish Admirals' name is found in only ancient Spain and no other  regions.

One of Cristobal Colòns' descendants, Cristobal Colòn de Carvajal chose New Mexico for a personal visit October 1991. As the 20th, direct descendant of the Spanish Admiral of the Oceans, he holds the titles of Duque de Veragua, Duque de la Vega and Marques de Jamaica, which was bestowed by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella upon the Spanish Admiral Cristobal Colòn and his descendants.   



"The Tigger Movie"
A Few Search Engine Tips
Product Review: PAF Insight  
Public Libraries with LDS Family History Library Film Circulation
Announcing the New Legacy Family Tree 6.0 
Books Online at BYU (FYI)

"The Tigger Movie"

From: Janete Vargas

"The Tigger Movie" Disney movie. It is an animated story of Tigger trying to find his family tree and along the way all the other animals show him how they remember their ancestors. Its cute. It keeps kids attention.  There are some fun family tree charts that you can download for free from
the movie's website.

A Few SEARCH ENGINE TIPS  by Mike Jarvis   [[Editor: GREAT!!]]

First - The use of quotation marks.
When using a combination of words in the search box, the search engine results will include every web page where these words occur anywhere on that page regardless of whether these words are immediately next to each other. Using the search term of [family history ] will result in 109,000,000 hits while ["family history"] within quotations will result in 5,400,000 hits. This is because in the second instance it is only finding pages were the words are actually next to or immediately touching each other. Try this with a family name. For example my grandmother is named Flora MacDonald. If I search [Flora McDonald ] in Google it returns 251,000 hits. Putting ["Flora MacDonald"] in quotations
results in 29,600 hits. This is far too many hits and primarily relate to a prominent woman in Scottish and American history. This is not my grandmother. However, knowing that my grandmothers middle name was Hermosa, it makes sense to put ["Flora Hermosa MacDonald"] in the search box and I get two hits related specifically to my grandmother. Success!

Second - The use of the minus sign. This is my second favorite search tip. Using any combination of words in a search box with the minus sign directly next to a word that you DO NOT want to find is also helpful. Using the search term ["Flora MacDonald" -Scotland -Scottish -"North Carolina" -NC ] will eliminate any pages from my search that includes the words next to the minus sign. So I will get only those pages that have my grandmother's name and do not have Scotland or North Carolina on the site. This effectively reduces the number of sites by more than half, from 29,600 to 12,800 hits. Using quotation marks and the minus sign in combination greatly improves your search results.

Third - The use of the plus sign. The plus sign has the effect of instructing the search engine to give special emphasis to any word where the plus sign is against it. My grandmother's father was Alexander MacDonald. However, not the Alexander MacDonald who was prime minister of Canada. Using the search term [Flora MacDonald -Scotland -Scottish -"North Carolina"
-NC +"Alexander MacDonald" -Canada ] gives me 1 hit that directs me to a site about my grandmother. Here we have combined quotation marks with the minus sign and the plus sign

Fourth - The site search. Let's say that I would like to find Alexander MacDonald, however, I only want to search a particular domain. I would simply use the search phrase ["Alexander MacDonald" ]. Rather than thousands of hits I get 204. Similarly, you could put a minus sign in front of so that it searches all domains except Rootsweb.

Fifth - The intitle search term. Suppose that you would like to find every site on the Web with the word genealogy in the title. The search box would need the term [intitle:genealogy ], which would result in 943,000 hits. Similarly, use the term [intitle:genealogy ] and you eliminate 3000

Sent by Jo Russell  Membership is FREE
Sent by Bill Carmena

Join 4 million members in one easy step!
Military Discounts
Pay & Benefits Directory
GI Bill Access
  Veteran Job Board
  Military Mentor Network
  VA Loans
  Buddy Finder
  40,000 Unit Homepages
  Benefits Alerts
  Free Email
  And more...all FREE

From: Kathy Lui

Went back today to the FHC to re-use and evaluate this product. 
1. IS IT WORTH $30?  Heck yeah. Actually, Double Heck Yeah. It doesn't "do much," but that which it does, it does VERY WELL.

2. IS IT EASY TO USE? Yes. It's actually easier to use than its press release, thank goodness.

a) I compared the data from two different PAF databases (original and changes), merged them together (INSIGHT calls this updatingand sync-ing) and saved them in my original database. In my case both were 3,000+ records, and I crunched through them in less than 2 hours total. Again, INSIGHT takes the 2 databases and "lays them" side by side in a temporary holding file matching them in descending percentage order ( i.e., all the 99%'s first, then 98% etc.) Once I'm finished it takes that holding file and overwrites my original database for those updated records.

b) I used the update-IGI function to see if there were add'l ordinances that needed to be done. Ok, this feature is seductively cool. I work in records of 1,000+ at a time. Get this: when you perform the update IGI function, it automatically logs you into (yes, you have to be a registered user) then it will take everyone in your database whose ordinance field is blank or submitted and go looking for them in IGI. It will automatically bring down the matched records (and it starts out narrow and then expands if you change the options). At a single click of the "search" button!! And get this---it processes through EVERY database for every if your person was born in Germany but died in Michigan, it will check both IGI databases. 

Yes, you can tweak it to only look for individual ordinances, or just sealing to spouse, etc etc.

Once the matches are found, it brings them up in (picture a...) excel spreadsheet looking list in a split screen format. The upper half is the spread sheet looking thing, the bottom is similar to 2 individual PAF record screens....You will be able to see the differences in IGI and "update" from the IGI info you like best. You can continue to update for as many records as there are changes. In my example, Jane Ellenor Griffiths had had her work done 12 times. All 12 instances showed up, and I was able to update the info in my original database as I saw fit. 

c) If you do not care about ordinances or you have not registered with an LDS membership number, you can still use this feature to find lost relatives/info. It will pull the same information, without the LDS data. Also, if you have turned OFF the LDS ordinance button within PAF, it will not pull the LDS data from IGI either. 

d) TRIM DATABASE FUNCTION. Back in the old old PAF days, it was pretty simple to 'cleanly cut off a branch' of your family and gedcom it to someone. We lost that ease-of-use function with PAF 3.0. The trim database function brings that back and it is pretty easy to break off a branch and trim it back to the salient parts. 

Is this a function I would use all the time? Well, probably not, however, I can think of 3 instances in the last week where it would have been real handy. In all cases, I was trying to send a gedcom to someone where I needed to include SOME collateral line info, but not everything under the sun. PAF limits you to an all or nothing choice---whereas INSIGHT would allow me to include selective lines, even skipping a generation or two (ah, the blessing of getting rid of all those 'LIVING Smiths') It's kinda sadistically tricky that you can either do this in a linear fashion (using RIN methods) or visually (literally viewing a pedigree chart and whacking them off) 

a) Having crunched through 3,345 names (x 2), my annoyance at the lack of an Auto-merge/update option for a 99% match is past the ceiling.

b) I understand WHY the differences in the 2 files are split out (1 screen for individual info, 1 screen for parent/sibling, 1 screen for spouse/children, 1 screen for notes, 1 screen for sources.) I still would prefer an option that lets me see ALL the data changes at once. 

c) It is true that if there isn't a little "check mark" in the box the highlighted data will not move over. That is NOT true for sources and notes. They merge everytime you click update. That's kinda annoying, only because the only difference between !SOURCE: and SOURCE: is an exclamation point. It's different, so now I have 2 virtually identical source notes for each person's record. Yeh. Times 3,345 

d) NO, I cannot compare a .PAF file to a .GED file. I have to create a new .PAF file, import that .GED file into it, then compare and sync the two. The good news is that I can use that TRIM function to get rid of any extraneous data in that .gedpaf file, whereas if I just import a .GED file straight into my PAF database, I can wind up with stuff I don't want or need. 

In closing, It's worth the $30. From a technical-programming standpoint, it's truly impressive, and from a user standpoint, it's near idiot proof (yay for me!)

Public Libraries with LDS Family History Library Film Circulation
Janete Vargas

African American Museum 
701 Arch Street
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19106 

Alexander Mitchell Public Library 
519 Kline Street
Aberdeen, South Dakota 57401-4495 
605-626-7097   605-626-3506

Allen County Public Library 
900 Webster, FW IN 4
PO Box 2270
Ft Wayne, Indiana 46801-2270 
219-421-1226  219-422-9688

American Jewish Historical Society 
15 West 16th Street
New York, NY 10011 
212-294-6162  212-294-6161

Arlington Heights Memorial Library 
500 N Dunton Avenue
Arlington Heights IL 60004-5966 
847-870-3643 847-506-2636

Auckland City Libraries 5-03 
Heritage Floor
PO Box 4138 AK1
New Zealand 
011-64-09-3077770   011-64-09-3077741

Baker Block Museum 
PO Box 186
Baker, Florida 32531 
850-537-5714   850-537-4474

Berkshire Athenaeum 
Pittsfield Public Library
1 Wendell Ave
Pittsfield MA 01201 
413-499-9486   413-499-9489

Bellaire Public Library
330 32nd Street
Bellaire, Ohio 43906 
740-676-9421   740-676-7940

Bibliotheque Municipale De Montreal 
1210 Sherbrooke East
Montreal Quebec H2L 1L9
514-872-1616   514-872-7643

Birmingham Public Library 
Southern History Dept
2100 Park Place
Birmingham, Alabama 35203 
205-226-3665   205-226-3663

Black Heritage Center 
Langston University
PO Box 1600
Highway 33
Langston, Oklahoma 73050 

Briggs Lawrence County Public Library 
321 S Fourth St
Ironton, Ohio 45638 
740-532-1124  740-532-4548

Buffalo Co Historical Society
407 South Second St
PO Box 394
Alma, Wisconsin 54610 
608-685-6290   608-685-6290

California State Library/Sutro 
480 Winston Drive
San Francisco, California 94132 
415-557-0421   415-557-9325

Caribbean Genealogy Service 
6501 Red Hook Plaza 201
St. Thomas Virgin Islands 00802-1306 

Centraal Bureau voor Genealogie 
Postbus 11755
2502 at Den Haag Nederland 
00-31-70-315.05.44   00-31-70-347.83.94

Central Coast Family History Society Inc 
PO Box 4090
East Gosford NSW 2250 
4324 5i b4 

Cherokee Regional Library 
305 South Duke St
Lafayette, Georgia 30728 
706-638-4912   706-638-3979

Clay County Genealogical Society 
PO Box 94
Louisville, Illinois 62858-0094 

Clinton Public Library 
Root Cellar
306 8th Ave South
Clinton, Iowa 52732 
563-242-8441   563-242-8162

Cultural Center of Macao 
Praceta de Miramar no.87-U
edf. “San On”
R/C Macao 

Dallas Public Library 
1515 Young St
Dallas, Texas 75201 
214-670-1406   214-670-7839

Danish Immigrant Museum 
2212 Washington St
Elk Horn, Iowa 51531 
712-764-7001   712-764-7002

DAR Library 
1776 D Street NW
Washington DC 20006-5303 
202-879-3313   202-879-3227

Denver Public Library 
10 W 14th Ave Pkwy
Denver, Colordado 80204 

Dublin City Public Libraries 
138-142 Pearse St
Dublin 2
011-353-1-6744995   011-353-1-674-4881

Eastern OK District Library System Muskogee Public Library 
814 W Okmulgee
Muskogee, Oklahoma 74401-6840 
918-683-2846 x233   918-683-0436

Edward U. Demmer Memorial Library 
PO Box 760
Three Lakes, Wisconsin 54562 
715-546-3391    715-546-2930

Elsie Quirk Public Library 
100 Wet Dearborn Street
Englewood, Florida 34223 
941-861-1210    941-474-3840

Elting Memorial Library / Haviland- Heidgerd Historical Collection 
93 Main Street
New Paltz, New York 12561 
845-255-5030    845-255-5818

Forks Branch
North Olympic Library System 
171 South Forks Ave
Forks, Washington 98331 
360-374-6424    360-374-6499

Genealogical Society of Victoria 
179 Queen St. 
Melbourne Victoria, AUSTRALIA 
61 3 9670-7033    +61 3-9670-4490

Godfrey Memorial Library 
134 Newfield St
Middletown, Connecticut 06457 
860-346-4375   860-347-9874

Greenville County Library System 
300 College Street
Greenville, South Carolina
864-242-5000    864-232-9656

Greater Victoria Library 
735 Broughton Street
Victoria BC V8W 3H2, CANADA 
250-382-7241   250-382-7125  

Harvard-Yenching Library 
Harvard University 
2 Divinity Avenue
Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 
617-495-3327   617-496-6008

Heraldry& Genealogy Society of Canberra Inc. 
PO Box 63
Hughes ACT 2605
011-6282-9356   011-6282-4865

Heritage Library Foundation 
Suite 300 The Courtyard Building
Hilton Head Island, South Carolina 29928-4640 
843-686-6560    843-341-6493

Hopkins Co. Genealogical Society Research Library 
P.O. Box 624
Sulphur Springs, Texas 75483 
903-885-8523   903-439-1081

Huntington Memorial Library 
62 Chestnut St
Oneonta, New York 13820 
607-432-1980    607-432-5623

Iberia Parish Library 
445 E Main 
New Iberia, Louisiana 70560-3710 
337-373-0079    337-373-0157

Indian River County Main Library 
1600 21st St
Vero Beach, Florida 32960 
561-770-5060    561-770-5066

Ironwood Carnegie Library 
235 E Aurora St
Ironwood MI 49938 
906-932-4789    906-932-2447

Jacksonville Public Library 
122 N. Ocean St.
Jacksonville, FL 32202 
904-630-2409    904-630-2443

Kathryn Linnemann Branch Library 
Local History/Genealogy Librarian 
2323 Elm St. 
St. Charles, MO 63301 
636-723-0232   636-947-0692

Kiama FHC,   PO Box 75
Kiama 2533 NSW,  02-4233-1122 

Knox County Public Library 
500 West Church Ave
Knoxville, Tennessee, 37902-2505 
865-215-8808  865-875-8810

Liberal Memorial Library 
519 N Kansas
Liberal, Kansas 67901-3345 
620-626-0180  620-626-0182

Los Angeles Public Library, 
630 W 5th St
Los Angeles, California, 90071-2097 
213-228-7413     213-228-7419

Macau Central Library or Historical Archives
Avenida Conselheiro Ferreira de Almeida 89 A-B   853-558049  853-318756

Mayerthorpe Public Library 
Box 810
Mayerthorpe, Alberta T0E 1N0

McLean County Genealogical Society 
200 N Main St
Bloomington, Illinois 61701 

Mid-Continent Public Library 
Interlibrary Loan Department
15616 E 24 Highway
Independence MO 64050 
816-521-7231   816-521-7265

Middle Georgia Regional Library 
Washington Memorial Library
1180 Washington Ave
Macon, Georgia 31201-1790 

Minocqua Public Library 
415 Menominee St
PO Box 1087
Minocqua Wisconsin 54548 
715-356-4437   715-358-2873

Moruya & District Historical Society 
PO Box 259
New South Wales 2537 
02-4473-8541 or 9696 

National Library of China 
39 Bai Shi Qiao Road?
Bei Jing China PRC 

National Underground Railroad Freedom Center 
50 East Freedom Way
Cincinnati, Ohio 45202 
513-333-7500  877-648-4838?

Newberry Public Library 
60 W Walton
Chicago, Illinois 60610-3380 
312-255-3600  312-255-3712

New England Historic Genealogical Society 
101 Newbury Street
Boston, Massachusetts, 02116-3007 
617-536-5740 x216   617-536-7307

New York Genealogical and Biographical Society 
122 E. 58th Street
New York, New York 10022 
212-755-8532   212-754-4218

Northeast Pennsylvania Gen Soc 
PO Box 1776
Shavertown, Pennsylvania 18708-0776 

Osterhout Free Library 
71 S Franklin St
Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania 18701-1287 
570-823-0156   570-823-5477

Palos Verdes Library District 
701 Silver Spur Rd
Rolling Hills Estates, California 90274 
310-377-9584 x236   310-541-6807

Peabody Essex Museum, Phillips Library - 
161 Essex Street
Salem MA 01970 
978-745-1876   978-745-8303

Portsmouth Public Library 
Local History
1220 Gallia Street
Portsmouth, Ohio 45662 
740-354-5688   740-353-1249

Preble County District Library
450 South Barron Street
Eaton, Ohio 45320 
937-456-4250   937-456-6092

Provincetown Public Library 
330 Commercial St
Provincetown, Massachusetts 02657 

Ruth E Lloyd Information Center (RELIC) - Bull Run Regional Library 
Prince William Public Library System
8051 Ashton Avenue
Manassas, Virginia 20109-2892 
703-792-4540   703-792-4520

Richardson Sloane Library 
1019 Mound Street Suite 301
Davenport, Iowa 52803-3923 
563-383-0007   563-383-0008

Sedgewick Historical Society & Archives
Box 538 Sedgewick
Alberta Canada T0B 4C0 
780-384-3741   780-384-3545

Sheridan County Library 
100 W Laurel Ave
Plentywood, Montana 59254 
406-765-2317   406-765-2129

Shreve Memorial Library 
Genealogy Dept1212 Captain Shreve DriveShreveport, Louisiana 71105 
318-219-3468  318-68-9464

Society of Australian Genealogists 
Richmond Villa 
120 Kent Street
Sydney NSW 2000   AUSTRALIA 
02-9247-3953   02-9241-4872

South Australian Genealogy & Heraldry Society 
GPO Box 592
Adelaide, South Australia 

Southern Prairie Library System 
421 N Hudson
Altus, Oklahoma 73521 
580-477-2890    580-477-3626

St Louis County Library 
1640 S Lindbergh Blvd
St Louis MO 63131-3598 
314-994-3300    314-997-7602

St. Tammany Parish Public Library 
Covington Branch 
310 W 21st Ave 
Covington, Louisiana 70433 
985-893-6280 x10    985-871-1224 

Toronto Reference Library 
789 Yonge St
Toronto Ontario M4W 2G8, CANADA 
416-393-7194    416-393-7004

Trails Regional Library 
Box 498 
Warrensburg MO 64093 

Trenton Public Library 
120 Academy St
Trenton, New Jersey 08608 
609-392-7188 x23    609-396-7655

Twin Towns Family History Group, Inc. 
PO Box 266 
Tweed Heads NSW 2485,   Australia 

Universidad IberoAmericana 
Av. Centro Universitario 2501
Playas de Tijuana, Apdo. Postal 185
22200 Tijuana, B.C. 
011-630-15-77 al 81   011-630-15-91

Van Buren District Library 
200 N Phelps St
Decatur MI 49045 
269-423-4771   269-423-8373

Wallace State College 
PO Box 2000
Hanceville, Alabama 35077-2000 
256-352-8265    256-352-8228

Waseca County Historical Society 
Second Avenue and Fourth Street NE
PO Box 393
Waseca, Minnesota 56093-0314 

Washington County Public Library 
Local History & Genealogy Dept
418 Washington St
Marietta, Ohio 45750-1922 
740-376-2172    740-376-2175

Wisconsin Historical Society 
Worcestershire Library & History Centre 
The Trinity
Worcester WR5 2PW, ENGLAND 

Yarmouth County Museum 
22 Collins Street
Yarmouth Nova Scotia B5A 3C8,  CANADA 
902-742-5539   902-749-1120

Zimmerman Library 
University of New Mexico, Interlibrary Loan
Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 
505-277-5617    505-277-6019

Surname Navigator
Para los que no conencn este navegador de genealogia
Sent by S. Cabral
LDS Mormons All Databases
Google genealogy
Google News Genealogy
Google Press
Rootsweb All Databases
Geneanet Interment Cemetery Transcriptions
Author profile usenet (name/email)
MSN Member Directory
Gencircles, Global Tree
Genealogy Locator 

Announcing the New Legacy Family Tree 6.0 

Deluxe new features for Legacy Family Tree 6.0. 

Research Guidance - Researching your ancestry is easier than ever with Legacy's new built-in, 24/7 personal research assistant. Just choose your goal and Legacy automatically creates a To-Do list of expert suggestions and research tips. (See the What's New Video below for a list of countries.)

Publishing Center - Combine your favorite reports into an heirloom book. Add a Title Page, Preface, Dedication, Copyright Notice, and Abbreviations page, and Legacy will automatically generate the Table of Contents, Index, and Bibliography. 

Legacy Home - The new Legacy Home tab brings you genealogical news and Legacy tips (updated every day!), reminds you of upcoming birthdays and anniversaries, provides quick links for support questions, and has a built-in web browser --  now you'll never need to leave Legacy to surf the Internet.

Timelines - Legacy now lets you see your ancestors' lives in history. Timelines can be merged with the ancestor's chronology giving you a sense of how they were affected by history.

DNA - Record and print the results from your ancestors' DNA tests.. . . and much more!

View FREE 'What's New in Legacy 6.0' video at

The Deluxe edition now has 92 features not found in the Standard Edition. It's time to unlock the real power of Legacy. Read the complete list at

To place your order, please visit
Millennia Corporation . . . changing the world of genealogy!
(800) 753-3453 (toll-free in US) or (623)875-4928
Sales:  Support: (425) 788-0932; mailto:Support@MillenniaCorp.Com

Books Online at BYU (FYI) 
From:  Janete Vargas

Books Online at BYU 
The following is an article about online books that I just received. The message is incredibly cool! You can go to the Brigham Young University website **** and do searches of over 5000 books which the Family History Library has put online.*
... the LDS Family History Library has announced that it has begun the process of digitizing and making available on the Internet all of the Family History books in their collection. These are primarily books in the " 929.273 Series" that are currently housed on the first floor of the Family History Library (previously housed on the fourth floor of the Joseph Smith Memorial Building). At the present time (September 2005), about 5000 books have been digitized and are available, and they have announced that they are adding about 100 titles a week to the on-line collection. Copyright issues are playing a role in determining the order in which they progress through this task; books out of copyright are being done first. 

As these Family History books are digitized and placed on-line, an entry is being placed in the Family History Library on-line catalog with a hyperlink to the digitized image. By going to the FHL On-Line Catalog, you can search for a specific name, find a book that has been indexed using the name, and view it on-line, flipping through the pages as separate "pdf" images, much the same as if you were on the first floor of the Family History Library. Of course, the indexing that is available through the FHL Catalog is only as good as the human indexers made it; typically they only include the "top" 4 to 6 names that appear in each book in their indexing efforts. But there is even better news! 

The digitized images of these Family History books are actually being stored on the electronic servers at Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah. By going directly to the BYU web site to view the images, there are several additional possibilities that provide genealogists functionality that they have never had before. You are now able to do full-text searches on each book, and on every digitized book in the collection. Now you can locate the small two-paragraph entry on Grandpa Ebnezer McGarrah that is buried in one of the Family History books that you would have otherwise never thought to look at before. This can open up a huge new possibility for extending lines, getting past brick walls, and uncovering new relatives! 

How to Find The Digitized Images?
Go to the web site of the Harold B. Lee Library at BYU at and on their home page, follow the links "Find Other Materials/Electronic/On Line Collections at BYU". Click on the "Text Collections" tab and select the "Family History Archive" from the list of collections that are displayed. You would then normally want to use the "Search All" feature with the "Search Full Text" box checked, although the "Advanced Search" will allow very high-powered searches that will allow certain phrases to be searched for and other words to be used to exclude potential hits. As you make selections from the "hits" that are displayed, you will need to use the "Click Here to View Item" button near the top of the screen to display the actual image of the page. You can page through the entire document using the index displayed on the left side of the screen. Each page may be printed after being viewed. 

One interesting sidelight is, when you are at the first web page for the Family History Archive (the page that lets you begin a search), click on the "Browse the Collection" button. This will display every Family History book that has been digitized and is available in the collection. You can scroll through this list much the same as if you were walking up and down the stacks at the library. At the top of the first page of the search results, it displays the number of hits, which (in this case) is the number of books in the collection. If you keep track of this number, you can get a pretty good idea of how fast they are adding titles to the collection as you revisit the web site from time to time. I think you will want to visit this site often as the collection grows!" 


Birthday Calculator 
"About Geese"

Birthday Calculator

This is pretty cool. After you've finished reading the info, click again, and see what the moon looked like the night  you were born. This is neat !!

"About Geese"   Sent by Laura Rettig 

When you look to the sky this fall and see the geese migrating South, remember the following:

When you see geese flying in a "V" formation, you might be interested in knowing what scientists have discovered about why they fly that way.

FACT: As each bird flaps its wings it creates an uplift for the bird immediately following. By flying in a "V" formation, the whole flock adds at least 71 percent greater flying range than if each bird flew on its own.
TRUTH: People who share a common direction and sense of community can get where they are going quicker and easier because they are traveling on the trust of one another.

FACT: Whenever a goose falls out of formation, it suddenly feels the drag and resistance of trying to go it alone and quickly gets back into formation to take advantage of the lifting power of the bird immediately in front.
TRUTH: There is strength and power and safety in numbers when traveling in the same direction with whom we share a common goal.

FACT: When the lead goose gets tired, he rotates back in the wing and another goose flies point.
TRUTH: It pays to take turns doing hard jobs.

FACT: The geese honk from behind to encourage those up front to keep up their speed.
TRUTH: We all need to be remembered with active support and praise.

FACT: When a goose gets sick or is wounded and falls out, two geese fall out of formation and follow him down to help and protect him. They stay with him until the crisis resolves, and then they launch out on their own or with another formation to catch up with their group.
TRUTH: We must stand by each other in times of need.

We Are Fortunate That There Are More Geese In Life Than Turkeys. Let's Remember To Uphold Each Other In Friendship And Give Each Other A Big "Honk" More Often!!!




                12/30/2009 04:49 PM