Somos Primos

 April 2005 
Editor: Mimi Lozano

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research

Content Areas

United States
. . . 3
. . . 26
Galvez Patriots
. . . 29
Orange County, CA
  . 32
Los Angeles, CA
. . . 38
. . . 45
Northwestern US
. . . 63
Southwestern US
. . . 66
. . . 76
. . . 81
. . . 91
. . . 98 
East of Mississippi
. .109 
East Coast
. . .114
. . .126
. . .142
. . .146
. . . 151 
. . . 158
Family History
. . . 167
. . . 171
Miscellaneous   . . 173 
Meeting  May 21st


Sarah Winnemucca,
Paiute educator of Nevada. 

"What is worse than being blind, is having sight without vision."   
Helen Keller

To view photos of the Paiute educator of Nevada, Sarah Winnemucca, go to:
For photos about the statue being placed inside of the Capitol, click. 

  Letters to the Editor : 

Dear Ms. Lozano,
As you know, I am a Los Angeles-based writer doing research on local history and folklore. A short time ago I contacted you in the hopes of overcoming some "brick walls" 
I had encountered in researching Early California families, specifically the Felizes, Verdugos and Sanchezes who figure prominently in this city's Spanish-Mexican heritage.
Although I am not a SHHAR member, nor descended from any of California's Hispanic families, you eagerly responded, placing me in touch with Cindy LoBuglio and Johanna DeSoto. Both have been immensely helpful in sharing information, as well as suggesting new sources and areas for research that I never knew existed. Among other things, Johanna was able to locate an important, obscure article on the Feliz Ranch, and Cindy was able to point me toward collections of relevant documents and an old book with a citation that is proving equally important to my study. My "detective work" is now moving forward again.
To me, this is a lesson in how vital networking is to this sort of research. It is great to be able to turn to people who are not only knowledgeable, but enthusiastic about helping others. I hope I may be able to return the favor some day.
Again, thank you., Michael Imlay
Professional Writer/Consultant
PR/MarCom, Editorial and Features for New and Traditional Media
Mimi:  this is getting better and better and probably by now a full time job.  You and your staff are to be highly complimented on a “Job well Done”.  Keep up the good work.
Saludos, Dennis

OBRIANTLEG: Just wanted to let you know how much I enjoy and look forward to Somos Primos. The links are invaluable, the articles interesting.  Thank you so much.

Good Morning My Friend, 
How are you?  Many, many thanks for the latest edition of Somos Primos!  I love what you are doing!  Don't stop!  Keep it going!  
 Best regards,  Diane Sears  3/2/2005 

Dear Mimi:
I have had a recent change of address and do not want to lose your monthly letters.  The information that you provide is priceless and I
use it all the time. 

My old address was
please correct that to:

Thank you for all this wonderful newletter.
Kern Sandoval
Internet Networking is a wonderful resource for all of us.  If we share what we know, others will be encouraged to do the same. To be included on the new SHHAR networking database, contact Cris Rendon at:

For a chronology of the assistance that Michael Imlay was given by Cindy LoBuglio and Johanna de Soto, please click. 

   Somos Primos Staff:   
Mimi Lozano, Editor
John P. Schmal, 
Johanna De Soto, 
Howard Shorr
Armando Montes
Michael Stevens Perez

Richard Amador Flores 
Sam Anthony
John Arvizu, OD
Eliud Bonilla 
Eva Booher
Cynthia Buchanan
Jaime Cader
Joe Carmena
Johanna De Soto
Richard Duran
Edna Yolanda Elizondo Gonzalez

Karla Everett
Ron Filon
Ed Flores
Mara L. García, PhD
George Gause  
Gloria Golden
Ray Gonzalez 
José Angel Gutiérrez 
Jean Gonzalez
Michael Hardwick 
Lorraine Hernandez
Manuel Hernández
Sergio Hernandez
Win Holtzman 
John Inclan
Larry Kirkpatrick
Cindy LoBuglio
Tracey Long
Carlos López Dzur 
Alex Loya 
Rafael Ojeda 
Robert Andres Olivares
Daniel A. Olivas 
Mercy Bautista Olvera 
Paul "Skip" Newfield III 
Addy Perez-Mau
Eliza Lujan Perez
Roberto J. Perez Guadarrama 
Michael Perez   
Marvin Perkins
Elvira Prieto
Angel Custodio Rebollo
Frances Rios
Julie Roa
Mario Robles del Moral
Dr. Ronald J. Roman
Rubén Sálaz Márquez
D.A. Sears
Howard Shorr 
Bill Smith
Alva Moore Stevenson 
Sylvia Leal Carvajal Sutton
Leonardo de la Torre y Berumen 
Val Valdez Gibbons
Janete Vargas
JD Villarreal 

SHHAR Board: 
Laura Arechabala Shane, Bea Armenta Dever, Steven Hernandez,  Mimi Lozano Holtzman, Pat Lozano, Henry Marquez, Yolanda Ochoa Hussey, Michael Perez, Crispin Rendon, Viola Rodriguez Sadler, John P. Schmal



LOC, American Folklife Center          A Call for Submissions of Fiction 
Hispanic Religious Thought in US Chocolate Crosses  
                           Other than Mexicans
Hispanics under-represented 
Aztec Eagles                                       New Archivist of NARA
May 12th, "Hispanics in Civil Rights
     Movement (Education)". 
What is institutional racism?
2005 Public Policy Fellowship            
Book: How to Handle Gringos   
Jose Angel Gutierrez, PhD, JD  
"The Wall"   
Latino High School Education  
Stories, Latino/Hispanics in the

Mexican Pride/ Death, US Service  
Hispanic Group Behind Gonzales
US-Spain Council Program 
Latinos More Likely To Die on job
U.S. Department of Labor   
OTM, Other than Mexican
Tunnels Found at Mexican Border


Library of Congress, American Folklife Center

he Veterans History Project collects and preserves the extraordinary wartime stories of ordinary people. made possible by the generous support of the United States Congress
(Founding Corporate Sponsor), and the Disabled American Veterans (DAV) Charitable Service Trust.

Vivid as if they happened yesterday, these heartfelt accounts make us laugh, cry and remember. The stories are not a formal history of war, but a treasure trove of individual feeling and personal recollections. Through stories, we can form a personal connection with the storyteller and begin to truly know and understand the human experience 

Our primary focus is on first-hand accounts of
U.S. Veterans from the following 20th Century wars:

  • World War I (1914-1920)
  • World War II (1939-1946)
  • Korean War (1950-1955)
  • Vietnam War (1961-1975)
  • Persian Gulf War (1990-1995)
  • Afghanistan and Iraq conflicts (2001-present)

In addition, those U.S. citizen civilians who were actively involved in supporting war efforts (such as war industry workers, USO workers, flight instructors, medical volunteers, etc.) are also invited to share their valuable stories.

The Project greatly values and appreciates veterans' stories from additional combat arenas and those received will be processed as resources allow.

The Veterans History Project relies on volunteers to interview, record, compile and donate materials. All are encouraged to participate: veterans, civilians, adults, young people, men, women, scholars, students, amateurs, and experts. In turn, participants can rely on the Library of Congress to preserve, catalog, and share these collections now and in the future.

Veterans History Project
Phone:(202) 707-4916
Message Line:1-888-371-5848
FAX:(202) 252-2046
Web Site:

Mail inquiries or materials to:
The Veterans History Project
American Folklife Center
Library of Congress
101 Independence Ave., SE
Washington DC 20540-4615

Call for Submissions of Fiction  . . .  DEADLINE: September 1, 2005.

I am sending you this call for submissions to fiction writer.  Many of you know me but for those who wish to know more, please visit my Web page (see below).  Additionally, Stanford Magazine just published a profile on my writing which you can view here:

Saludos, Daniel  
Daniel A. Olivas
24638 Canyonwood Dr.,  West Hills, CA 91307    (w) 213-897-2705
I am editing an anthology of short fiction by Latinos/as in which the City of Los Angeles plays an integral role.  I am interested in provocative stories on virtually any subject by both established and new writers.  Stories may range from social realism to cuentos de fantasma and anything in between.  Los Angeles may be a major "character" or merely lurking in the background.  I'd like to see characters who represent diverse backgrounds in terms of ethnicity, profession, age, sexual orientation, etc.

Preferred length: 500 to 5,000 words.  Stories may be previously published (please indicate where).  Chapters from novels will be considered if they can stand alone.  Award-winning publisher is interested but wants to see final manuscript.

Please e-mail your story, using standard submission formatting, as a Word document to  In the e-mail, please include your contact information, list of previous publications (if any), and the ethnicity(ies) with which you identify.  Feel free to visit my Web page at:

Recovering Hispanic Religious Thought in the United States
The conference will be held at the University of Houston on May 13, 2005. Deadline for submission of abstracts: March 1, 2005. For more information, email Carolina Villarroel, Project Coordinator at  or call 713-743-3129
Chocolate Crosses are not to everyone's taste

Source: The Associated Press                                                                                                     By: Matt Sedensky

A mass produced chocolate cross was being sold this Easter by Russell Stover Candies Inc. in about 5,000 stores nationwide, which experts say is apparently a first for a major U.S. company.

Pangburn, which Kansas City, Mo.-based Russell Stover bought in 1999, has long had a hold in that market. The milk-chocolate cross is about 6 inches high, adorned with a floral banquet and filled with caramel made of goat's milk, popular in Mexico and Latin America. Its packaging features Spanish more prominently then English. 

However, not all Christians are happy about it. Chomping on a chocolate cross can be offensive to some, said Joseph McAleer, a spokesman for the Roman Catholic Diocese in Bridgeport, Conn.

"The cross should be venerated, not eaten, nor tossed casually in an Easter basket beside the jelly beans and marshmallow Peeps," he said. "It's insulting."

Nonetheless, privately held Russell Stover Candies, the third-largest U.S. chocolate manufacturer, said it is targeting what they consider some of the most devout Christians-Hispanic Americans. 

A study by the Center for Women in Government & Civil Society of the State University of New York/Albany shows that Hispanics remain under-represented in top state positions appointed by governors.  Only the governors of Florida and Illinois - Republican Jeb Bush and Democrat Rod Blagojevich - appointed Hispanics in proportion equal to their percentage of the state's population, 17 percent and 12 percent, respectively.  Full report:


Drama / Comedy / Action by Cynthia Buchanan

Cynthia Buchanan, Executive Producer
Tel/Fax - (830) 876-3034
Cell phone: (830) 876-8034


One Family's Struggle 
to Find Its Place in America 
Donna S. Morales and John P. Schmal

Narrated by family member. Donna Morales, this is the touching and dramatic story of one Mexican-American family's struggle to find its part of the American dream. Ms. Morales explains, "My family left Mexico in 1909 just 
as the country began its slow descent into a bloody ten-year revolution. Coming to Kansas City in 1918, my family's services in the 
railroad and meat packing industries of Kansas City were very much desired by the Kansas business community. However, from a social standpoint, my family was not eagerly nor warmly welcomed to Kansas during the early decades of the twentieth century."

"For the first decades of our stay in Kansas, we endured discrimination, humiliation, and segregation at the hands of our own countrymen. We could not eat at certain restaurants, could not attend certain church services, were not allowed in some movie theaters and could not send our children to certain schools. However, with great faith in God and in America, we endured and we triumphed."

When the tyranny of Nazi Germany threatened the world, the Dominguez family stepped forward to make its contribution to America's war effort. While many family members worked in the defense industry, two Dominguez brothers went to war. Like other Mexican-American families, this family was prepared to make sacrifices for the land that they loved. Five weeks before the surrender of Nazi Germany, 18-year-old Louie Dominguez died while fighting on German soil against an enemy that was nearly defeated. At the moment that Louie gave his life for his country, his older brother and role model Erminio languished in a German POW camp 200 miles away in Bavaria.

Through their sacrifices and efforts, the Dominguez family and other Mexican-American families of Kansas have become an integral part of Kansas City's diverse ethnic fabric. The story of the Dominguez family is the story of many Mexican-American families who came to America and triumphed over many obstacles to find their rightful place in American society. 

Published by HeritageBooks, Inc.
Publishing Division
1540 Pointer Ridge Place # E
Bowie, Maryland 20716
ISBN 0-7884-2527-7

New Archivist of the United States National Archives

On March 7, Allen Weinstein was ceremonially sworn in as ninth Archivist of the United States by Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg. Weinstein's wife, Adrienne Dominguez, holds the Bible--the same one used by Harry S. Truman when he was sworn in as President in 1945

In February 2005, historian Allen Weinstein was confirmed by the U.S. Senate and began his service as the 9th Archivist of the United States leading the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). From 1985 to 2003, he served as President of The Center for Democracy, a non-profit foundation that he created in 1985 to promote and strengthen the democratic process, based in Washington, DC. His international awards include the United Nations Peace Medal (1986) for "efforts to promote peace, dialogue and free elections in several critical parts of the world"; The Council of Europe's Silver Medal (twice, in 1990 and 1996), presented by its Parliamentary Assembly, for "outstanding assistance and guidance over many years"; and awards from the presidents of Nicaragua and Romania for assistance in their countries’ democratization processes. His other awards and fellowships have included two Senior Fulbright Lectureships, an American Council of Learned Societies Fellowship, the Commonwealth Fund Lectureship at the University of London, and a Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars Fellowship. In 1987 he delivered the Bicentennial Fourth of July Oration at Boston's Faneuil Hall. He became Senior Advisor on Democratic Institutions at IFES (International Foundation for Election Systems) in September 2003. 

For more on Allen Weinstein, please go to:

On Thursday, May 12, 2005 the National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC will host a nationally recognized panel of experts who will present "Hispanics and the Civil Rights Movement (Education)".

Moderated by California Superior Court Judge Frederick P. Aguirre, who will present his article on the 1945 California desegregation case: "Mendez v Westminster School District: How it influenced Brown v Board of Education", the distinguished panel includes: U.S. District Court Judge (Retired) James DeAnda, co-counsel in the 1954 U.S. Supreme Court case of Hernandez v State of Texas and lead counsel in several landmark cases regarding public education in Texas; California Supreme Court Justice (Retired) Cruz Reynoso, former Vice-Chair of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights and presently a Professor at the University of California, Davis School of Law; and Professor Norma V. Cantu of the University of Texas at Austin School of Law who was the former Assistant Secretary of Education for Civil Rights for eight years and former regional counsel of the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund.

The panelists will discuss the quest by Hispanics to receive equal access to and equal treatment in our public schools.  Most Americans are intimately aware of the efforts by African Americans to desegregate our public schools.  But the general public does not know that most Mexican Americans and other Hispanics were forced to attend segregated public schools in the first half of the 20th century and were systematically denied equal access to publicly funded educational services.

The panel discussion, the first in a series of monthly events at NARA focusing on "Hispanics and the Formation of the American People", will be held at 5:30 pm to 7:30 pm in NARA's William G. McGowan Theatre, 700 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC.

Three documentary films on the Latino experience in public education will also be presented as a part of this session.  The films are: "The Lemon Grove Incident" - a film by Paul Espinosa regarding the 1934 California case of Alvarez v Lemon Grove School District which re-integrated a school in that San Diego county hamlet; "Mendez v Westminster: Para Todos Los Ninos (For All the Children)" - a Grammy winning film by Sandra Membrila Robie and KOCE-TV concerning the 1945 California case that re-integrated four school districts in Orange County; and "Justice for My People: The Dr. Hector P. Garcia Story" - a production of KEDT-TV regarding Dr. Garcia's bold leadership in post World War II to achieve equal rights in education for Hispanic children in Texas and the Southwest.  The films will be shown on Wednesday, May 11, 2005 from Noon to 9:00 pm and on Thursday, May 12, 2005 from Noon to 5:00 pm.

For more information and reservations contact Sam Anthony, Director of Lecture Programs, (202) 208-7345,

What is institutional racism?

"The collective failure of an organization to provide an appropriate and professional service to people because of their color, culture or ethnic origin which can be seen or detected in processes; attitudes and behavior which amount to discrimination through unwitting prejudice, ignorance, thoughtlessness and racist stereotyping which disadvantages minority ethnic people." From the Macpherson report.  Sent by Michael Perez

2005 Public Policy
Summer Fellowship Program for Latino Issues Forum
Deadline for being considered, must be received by April 15th

Sent by

Dear Mimi, Latino Issues Forum is proud to announce its 2005 Public Policy Summer Fellowship Program. This program seeks three students interested in working with a leading policy and advocacy institute in shaping a better vision for California. Students will gain valuable hands-on experience shaping public policy and will be instructed on policy analysis, advocacy, and various aspects of California policy. Students in public policy, urban planning, public health, transportation, housing, environmental sciences, natural resources business administration or public administration are encouraged to apply. 

About the Program
The Fellowship Program is a three-month full time summer fellowship (June-August 2005) where participants assist program staff in research, legislative/policy analysis, coordination of advocacy campaigns, and participate in the organization's educational seminars and conferences. This will involve working with public, private and community organizations. Fellows will receive a $1,900 monthly stipend and a maximum of $100 per month in Commuter Checks for public transportation. Application are now being accepted and are due no later than April 15, 2005. Download an application and description for further information. 

Latino Issues Forum | 160 Pine Street | 7th Floor | San Francisco | CA | 94111

A tongue-in-cheek guide by one of the four acknowledged leaders of the Chicano Movement. 
Dr. José Angel Gutiérrez
  gives sage advice on how to "handle" obstacles and people impeding political action.  Professor's Gutiérrez primary goal is the conversion of Latino demographic power into educational, economic and political power. 

In an incisive introduction, Gutiérrez analyzes the types of power and evaluates Chicano and Latino access to power at various levels in U.S. society. In very plain, down-to-earth language and examples, Gutiérrez takes pains to make his broad knowledge and experience available to everyone, but especially to those who want to be activists for themselves and their communities. For him the empowerment of a minority or working-class person can transfer into greater empowerment of the whole community.

This manual penned by the founder of the only successful Hispanic political party, La Raza Unida, brings together an impressive breadth of models to either follow or avoid.  Quite often, Gutiérrez's voice is not only the seasoned voice of reason, but also that of humor, wry wit and satire.  If nothing else, A Chicano Manual on How to Handle Gringos is a wonderful survey of the Chicano and Latino community on the move in all spheres of life in the United States on the very eve of its demographic and cultural ascendancy.

Pluma Fronteriza praises A Gringo Manual on How to Handle Mexicans as "a classic in Chicano politics."

Title: A Chicano Manual on How to Handle Gringos
José Angel Gutiérrez Publication Date: April 03, 2003
240 Price: $12.95
5 ½ x 8 ½ Format: Trade Paperback ISBN: 1-55885-396-0
FOR  MORE  INFORMATION: Contact: Mónica M. Parle  (713)743-2999

Arte Público Press is the nation’s largest and most established publisher of contemporary and recovered literature by U.S. Hispanic authors. Its imprint for children and young adults, Piñata Books, is dedicated to the realistic and authentic portrayal of the themes, languages, characters, and customs of Hispanic culture in the United States. Books published under the imprint are designed to serve as a bridge from the home culture to that of the school, as well as to support family literacy and elementary school education. Based at the University of Houston, Arte Público Press, Piñata Books and the Recovering the U.S. Hispanic Literary Heritage project provide the most widely recognized and extensive showcase for Hispanic literary arts and creativity. For more information, please visit our website at


Dr. Jose Angel Gutierrez is a 1962 graduate of Crystal City High School in Crystal City, Texas. He has also earned degrees from Texas A&M University at Kingsville (B.A.-‘66), St. Mary’s University in San Antonio, Texas (M.A.-‘68), University of Texas at Austin (Ph.D.-‘76), and University of Houston, Bates College of Law, Houston, Texas (J.D.-‘88). 

He has done other postdoctoral work at Stanford University, Colegio de Mexico, University of Washington, University of Texas-Austin and Centro de Estudios Economicos y Sociales Del Tercer Mundo in Mexico City, Mexico. He is a Professor of Political Science at University of Texas-Arlington.

His book publications include El Politico: The Mexican American Elected Official (El Paso: Mictla Publications, 1972); A Gringo Manual on How to Handle Mexicans (Piedras Negras, Coahuila, Mexico: Imprenta Velasco Burkhardt, 1974); A War of Words (co-authored) (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1985); The Making of a Chicano Militant: Lessons from Cristal (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1998); My Struggle for the Land: Autobiography of Reies Lopez Tijerina, (translated and condensed, (Houston: Arte Publico Press, 2000); a revised and expanded edition of A Gringo Manual on How to Handle Mexicans (Houston: Arte Publico Press, 2001); A Chicano Manual on How to Handle Gringos, (Houston: Arte Publico Press, 2003) and the most recent, Chicanas in Charge: Texas Women in the Public Arena. (Co-authored) (Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press, forthcoming 2005) and autobiography for a youth market, Chicano Leader: Jose Angel Gutierrez (Houston: Arte Publico Press, 2005). He also has written several articles and book chapters over the years, the most recent being "Chicano Music, Evolution and Politics to 1950," in The Roots of Texas Music, Eds. Lawrence Clayton and Joe Specht, (College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 2003); "The Texas Courts," in Texas Politics: Individuals Making A Difference, 2ed. (Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 2005 and 1st. ed. 2002); "Binacionalismo en el siglo XXI: Chicanos y mexicanos en los Estados Unidos," (Fondo Editorial Huaxacac, Oaxaca, Oaxaca, Mexico, 2000); "Experiences of Chicana County Judges in Texas Politics: In Their Own Words," Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies, 20:1, Spring 1999; and, "Los dos Mexicos," Extensiones: Revista Interdisciplinaria de la Universidad Intercontinental, Mexico D.F., Mexico 4:1 y 2. 1997.

He was a Visiting Scholar at Our Lady of the Lake University (San Antonio, Texas) during Spring 2004 and was at work on three manuscripts: The Only Ones: Chicano Political Leadership in Texas, 1950-2004 which is based on 185 oral history ethnographic interviews he conducted between 1996 and 2004. See 77 of these digitized ethnographic interviews at ; Albert Pena, Jr.: Dean of Chicano Politics in the Southwest; and, Chicana Student Leader: Severita Lara. He also is collecting the writings of Albert Pena, Jr., for a possible edited volume on the writings and speeches of this political figure.

During the mid 1960s through the Chicano Movement and to the present time, Dr. Gutierrez was lead organizer, founder and co-founder of several organizations such as the Mexican American Youth Organization (MAYO), Mexican American Unity Council (MAUC), Ciudadanos Unidos, Obreros Unidos Independientes, La Raza Unida Party, Winter Garden Project, Becas Para Aztlan, Oregon Council for Hispanic Advancement, Northwest Voter Registration and Education Project, and Grupo de Apoyo para Inmigrantes Latino Americanos (GAILA). He has been the subject of many articles and film documentaries, the most recent being "In Search of Aztlan;" the PBS three-part video series, "CHICANO! The Mexican American Struggle for Civil Rights;" and, "Schools: The History of American Education." He is cited for his scholarship and noted in many history and political science books for his activism. Last November 2003 he debated Pat Buchanan and Jared Taylor, two well-known white nationalists on Scarborough Country (MSNBC); August 15, 2002 he debated Bill O’Reilly on national television (Fox News) over immigration; and; previously appeared on the Jerry Springer show debating racism with representatives of the Ku Klux Klan and Nation of Islam.

He has received many honors including: "100 Outstanding Latino Texans of the 20th Century" by Latino Monthly, January 2000; "Distinguished Texas Hispanic" by Texas Hispanic Magazine, October 1996; and has received the Distinguished Faculty Award from the Texas Association of Chicanos in Higher Education in June 1995 (re-nominated in 2003); and, also the National Council of La Raza’s Chicano Hero Award in 1994.

Dr. Gutierrez founded the Center for Mexican American Studies (CMAS) at the University of Texas at Arlington in 1994 and served as its Director until December 1996 at which time he became the Special Advisor to the President of the university until December 1998. He is a Professor of Political Science at that institution. And, he is President of the Legal Center of Jose Angel Gutierrez, P.C. in Dallas, Texas. He is a member in good standing of various Bar associations and licensed to practice law in various jurisdictions, including the Texas Supreme Court, U.S. Court of Claims, Federal Courts in Texas (Northern and Southern districts) and Tucson, Arizona. Dr. Gutierrez also heads the Greater Dallas Foundation, a civil rights litigation unit.

Dr. Gutierrez has been elected and appointed to public office since 1970. He has served as an elected Trustee and President of the Crystal City Independent School District (1970-1973), Urban Renewal Commissioner for Crystal City, Texas (1970-1972), County Judge for Zavala County, Texas (1974-1978, re-elected 1978-1981), Commissioner for the Oregon Commission on International Trade (1983-1985), Administrative Law Judge for the City of Dallas (1990-1992), member of the Ethics Commission for the City of Dallas (1999-2000), and State Treasurer for the Mexican American Democrats (2000-2001).

Dr. Gutierrez is a frequent speaker at conferences, symposia, and teacher training programs. In January 2005 he presented at the Texas Association of Chicanos in Higher Education (Austin) and was the dinner keynote presenter at the American Society of Newspaper Editors Diversity Leadership Institute; Fall 2003 he presented at Malcolm X College in Chicago, Illinois and at the James Edward Olmos Latino Book and Family Festival in Houston and Dallas, Texas; Texas A & M University (College Station); Chicago Principals and Administrators Association Conference (February); National Association of Hispanic and Latino Studies Conference (Houston); Iberian Studies Institute, University of New Mexico (Albuquerque); Southwestern Social Science Association (San Antonio); and, Chicana/o Activist Reunion held May 10, 2003, (MGM Grand Hotel, Las Vegas). In June 2003 he presented at the National Association of Hispanic Federal Aviation Employees and began organizing a series of community based dialogue sessions on issues under the banner of La Raza Unida Issues Summit. See During the academic year 2002-2003, he conducted 7 half-day teacher training seminars for the Dallas Independent School District; in the Fall 2003 he presented 2 half-day teacher training seminars for Southern Methodist University, and in 1984-85 he was a team trainer for the City of Portland Police Department in Oregon.

Dr. Gutierrez resides in Arlington, Texas. He is married to the former Gloria Garza of Mission and they have seven children. Gutiérrez is a professor of Political Science at the University of Texas at Arlington. He also practices law in Dallas, Texas.

Click here to go to Dr.Gutierrez' project on the Tejano Voices 



by Rubén Sálaz Márquez

[[ Last month we invited readers to read "The Wall" and write a different ending and or make comments.  The following are the comments by some World History students at Marina High School, in Orange County, California, March 14, 2005.  The students read the short story and dramatized it.  Following the dramatic activities, they wrote their comments.  The short story deal with identify issues for Spanish language heritage individuals, go to and click on The Wall, listed on the left. ]]

"The guards came and took the four men. The men were blindfolded and were led into a secret building where they were beat and tortured for months. When the men were finally freed, they were sent back to there homes. One man died the very night he got home. The other man only lasted a week."  - Sarah O’Brien

"As the guards took the four men from the cell, a man stood in front of them and says: you broke the law in Mexico, now you all will die."  - Ian Thorpe

"When all of them were on the ground all exhausted and bloody, the doors opened. There were two soldiers coming in. When the soldiers saw the four men on the ground, they called for doctors to come in. The doctors saved them and cleaned their cuts. The four men were put back into prison and they understood that the race they came from doesn’t make them better. They understood that they’re all the same. It is only humans who separate the countries and the people who don’t like us or speak another language. If a Mexican gets a cut, he/she will start bleeding, so if a white person gets a cut, he/she will start bleeding too as so an Asian and an Egyptian, cause we’re all the same, it’s just that some people don’t understand that." - Cindy Falcon

"As the 2 guards enter the courtyard, the 4 men pull themselves to their feet. They have to use all their strength to keep on their feet. As they all feel the final urge to fight, one of them breaks free, running at the guards, while the others follow. Before they could move a few feet, the guards pull the trigger. The sound of bullets while hitting the men echo through the air. The men all drop to the ground at the same time. The guards slowly walk up to the four men, firing another round in each of them. The four men lay lifeless on the stone floor. A few men walk up and pull the bodies away." 
- Richard Nickel

"The two guards walked in the prison cell. Get up the guards said in loud scared voices. The four men stood up as requested. The guard led them through a narrow dark hallway. Only lit by the dim light of a few torches on the way. The prisoners were scared to the point of where they feel their hearts drop. Ten minutes later they finally walk out of the maze like prison. The guard put some dark black cloth like bags on their head. The crowd had gathered by this time, as the executioners got ready to shoot. But then they heard a sound. The crowd stopped the executers from killing. The four men walk free."   - Jennifer Hough

" I think the story should start from the very beginning. They shouldn’t fight but they should try to work together to dig a tunnel or something. Then they should fight to see whose race is better to make a thrill for the reader. Then the guards walk in and see all they have done to get out. Then they start to beat each other up when the guards run at them, while the prisoners are still fighting each other. Then the guards break it up and then execute them.  - Robert Fuller

"I think to end the story I would not have shot the men because they didn’t do anything wrong. The men who shot them were just told too. I think that they should have kicked them or something. They should of just fought it out to see if they would die or not."   - Maddie Walling


Latino High School Education: A Nation’s Priority 
by Manuel Hernández , English Teacher
Antonio Valero de Bernabe Junior High School , Fajardo, Puerto Rico

Datos Biobibliográficos

Manuel Hernández nació en Sleepy Hollow, Nueva York, en 1963, de padres puertorriqueños. Realizó estudios en la Universidad de Puerto Rico, Río Piedras, y en el Herbert H. Lehman College, en el Bronx de Nueva York.

Ha coordinado simposios; ha producido y conducido entrevistas televisivas, y moderado paneles sobre la literatura escrita por autores puertorriqueños en los Estados Unidos, México y Puerto Rico. Asimismo ha participado en numerosas presentaciones, talleres y seminarios dedicados a cómo integrar a la enseñanza del inglés la literatura puertorriqueña producida en Estados Unidos y Puerto Rico.


            There has been a lot of talk about the “President's New High School Initiative, Other Proposed Programs Tackle Issues Important to Hispanics”. According to the U.S. Department of Education’s February 23rd Press Release, the President's budget focuses on high dropout rate, teacher quality and college aid. There is no doubt that the November 2nd elections defined Latinos as the vote that defined the new administration’s priorities in education. The initiative proposes to increase funding to make sure that every high school student reaches high standards, including Latino teens.

             The issue of Latino education is key to the Bush administration. Statistics have confirmed that Latino teens are likely to receive a quality education than most other Americans. The “New High School Initiative” is a proclamation to enable high school students to prepare to graduate with the skills they need to succeed. The national Latino high school dropout rate has not improved in the last thirty years, 27 percent in 2001 (February 23rd Press Release).  Despite the fact, Latinos have recently made some major gains, disparities still exist in academic performance between Latinos and non- Latino White students.

            Now that we all know that the Latino high school education is a priority, where do we go from here? Carlsen and Sherill (1988) have collected reading autobiographies from teachers and have shared excerpts in a book titled, Voices of Readers, an interesting collection of testimonies about reading habits. Generally, most respondents stated their love for reading occurred in spite of what was done in schools. Some developed their appreciation of literature in school, but it usually did not occur until very late in high school or even in college. It seems that schools have accomplished just the opposite of what they intend to do: they have turned students off from reading. If we are to motivate Latino teens to develop interest in reading, an alternative may be the integration of Latino/a Literature in the English classroom.

            Latino/a literature exposes students to issues such as language, education, family, values, sex, self-esteem, self-acceptance, conflicts in identity, varied approaches to race, domestic violence and the preservation of culture and art which provoke students to make their own reactions and responses to literature. Latino/a literature in the English classroom is an alternative to the teaching of literature and a tool that will prepare students for reading and writing in high school and beyond.  

            In the English classroom, students feel a lack of personal involvement, especially with isolated writing assignments. Latino/a Literature is filled with contemporary issues, common events, characters and situations and establishes the bridge between reading and writing which connects students to ideas and themes. Recently arrivals will see themselves in a mirror and assess what, where, how and why they are, who they are while they develop reading and writing skills necessary to enter and succeed in college. How can students interact with their writing when their choices of literature are far away from their every day reality? Latino teens need a jump off point before they are introduced to the American and British classics. It is time to take advantage of the initiative by proposing specific strategies to make sure that every high school student reaches high standards, including Latino teens.

Finding and Sharing Stories of Latino/Hispanics serving in the Military
Dear Mimi, here are some websites that hopefully will encourage other to share websites of  Latino/Hispanic Military heroes or info on our men and women that have served in our Armed Forces.

I have quite a few article on General Elwood "Pete" Quesada". to email to you later on.
For the Record he was appointed by Pres. Ike to be the first Secretary of our FAA
Please see

Another great General is General Robert who was a test pilot of the "Flying Wing"  and

Two other Air Force Pilots are: Colonel Donald S. Lopez, the current assistant to the National Aeronautical Space Museum, the counterpart of Chuck Yeager. He also wrote a  book called,"A Fighter Pilot's Heaven". The other one is our Korea War Aces Pilots: Capt Pete Fernandez that you can see a photo in the Korea 50 Fact Sheets.
Please see: .
This site also include the Puerto Rico 65th Infantry and the Arizona 158th RCT.   

See all 39 Latinos Congressional Medal of Honor including the most recent recipient: 

I hope these examples will encourage all of us to Showcase our contribution to our Nation, How else will our children know how many Latinos have given their service and lives to our Nation, the United States of America.  

Rafael Ojeda 1-253-576-9547

Mexican Pride and Death in U.S. Service

By JAMES C. McKINLEY Jr. New York Times, March 22, 2005
Sent by Howard Shorr

EGOLLADO, Mexico - The shrine set up on a broken television in the corner would be familiar to many American military families. The somber Stars and Stripes is folded neatly in a triangle, encased in wood and glass. A couple of medals lie in boxes, inert as rocks, collecting dust. 

A stern young man in his dress United States Army uniform peers at visitors from a small photograph. His dog tags hang beside the photo. A photo of the same young man with his even younger wife, caught in a swirl of laughter, is nearby. These are the relics of a life cut short, in the name of honor, liberty and country. The question is whose?

What seems odd is that the mementos are not in a living room in upstate New York or rural Virginia, but in an impoverished house with concrete floors in a dusty town deep in the hills of central Mexico. The soldier, Pfc. Jesús Fonseca, 19, was not an American citizen, but one of at least 22 Mexican citizens who have died fighting for the United States in two years of war. 

As of January, about 41,000 permanent resident aliens were in the United States armed forces - 3,639 of them from Mexico. The Mexicans are the largest group among the 63 immigrants who have been killed in action in Iraq, the Pentagon says. 

It is a fact that points to Mexico's ambivalent yet deeply intertwined relationship with the United States, the country Mexico fought its last war against, and lost. That defeat, in 1848, is not forgotten here. 

Yet so many Mexicans have migrated to the United States seeking jobs in recent years that they and their children are willing to fight and die for it, even if they are frequently motivated more by economic necessity than patriotism.

For many, armed service is seen as a fast track to citizenship. During wartime, foreigners with residency permits need only to serve honorably for their citizenship to be all but guaranteed, immigration officials said. Of course, they must survive as well.

Indeed, in a cruel twist, soldiers like Private Fonseca, who in the horrible minutes of Jan. 17 took a sniper's bullet in the stomach while patrolling in Ramadi, are accorded citizenship only after death. 

"He lost his life for another flag," said his cousin Noé Beltrán, echoing the views of many in this town. "Personally, I think it should have been for Mexico."

Like Private Fonseca, most Mexicans in the armed forces straddle two worlds. Some join the Army or the Marines for the usual reasons: poverty, a desire for adventure, love for their adopted country, the prospect of a subsidized education and, of course, the adolescent urge to prove themselves as something more than pimply youths.

Fernando Suárez del Solar, a United States citizen who began a family in Mexico with a Tijuana woman, said a Marine Corps recruiter started working on his son, Jesús, when the boy was only 14 and still living in Tijuana. 

Jesús Suárez del Solar, who was eligible for a residency permit but not citizenship, wanted to be a Tijuana police officer and fight drug traffickers. A recruiter convinced him that after a stint in the Marines he could easily be hired by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration, his father said. 

The family moved to Lomita, Calif., and after four years of high school, during which he received weekly calls from the recruiter, Jesús signed up. Part of his motivation was to become a United States citizen, his father said. 

"When he got out of boot camp, he called me and said, 'Papa, now I'm a marine, but I made a mistake,' " Fernando Suárez del Solar said. "I don't want any of my cousins to go into the Army. There is a lot of discrimination here."

Jesús, a lance corporal, 20, was killed by fragments from an American cluster bomb on March 27, 2003, near Nasiriya, in the initial offensive to occupy Iraq. He left a wife and infant son in Escondido, Calif. 

"The recruitment system really goes after the Hispanic community," Mr. Suárez del Solar said. "A lot of Hispanics are born in Mexico but live in the United States and don't have citizenship. They see a good option in the Army to get papers, to get citizenship more quickly, and one thing the recruiters say often is that military service will make it easier for them to become accepted in society."

For others citizenship is less important than economic opportunity. 

Sergio Díaz Sr. said his son Sergio Jr. had few prospects when he graduated from Narbonne High School in Lomita. He was a lanky young man who played basketball well and liked to tinker with his family's old Mustang. The father, a legal immigrant, made a meager living doing odd jobs and fixing cars. They lived in a trailer park. "There weren't many other options, so he enlisted," Sergio Díaz Sr. said. 

The boy told relatives that someday he hoped to have a well-paid job in the States, as a full-fledged citizen. Then, he said, he wanted to buy his mother her own house in Mexico, so she would no longer have to live on her sister's charity.That dream ended last Thanksgiving, when a roadside bomb exploded near Ramadi and the shrapnel ripped through Specialist Sergio Díaz Varela's 21-year-old body. 

He was buried in the cemetery in Tlaquepaque, a suburb of Guadalajara, on Dec. 12. His mother, María Guadalupe Varela, did not want the American flag draped over the coffin, but relented under pressure from family members. She blames United States Army recruiters for her son's death, Mr. Díaz Sr. said.

Two hundred people turned out to bury the young soldier, including the local mayor and the American consul. He was eulogized as a hero, though some at the burial struggled to connect his sacrifice to Mexico, where many people oppose the Iraq war or are indifferent to it. 

"He is considered a hero because he died for peace and liberty, which are values that in some way we share with the United States," said Juan Ramón Cruz Mejía, the manager of the cemetery, who knows the family. 

"Many people from here migrate over there, and they must have some sympathy for the United States to offer their lives. These things are also important for us, especially liberty and democracy.

"Private Fonseca, too, had deep roots in Mexico. He returned every summer, like a migratory bird. The lure of citizenship was not important, his parents said. His father said his son had earned good marks in high school and could easily have gone to college but had chosen a military career instead. His goal was to become an intelligence officer, family members said. 

"Citizenship was not important to him," the father said. "I'm proud of my son, because even though he did not accomplish everything he wanted, it was still one of his dreams to belong to the Army."Having gone to the United States as a toddler, Jesús Fonseca also felt as much a part of the community in Marietta, Ga., where his family had settled, as he did part of Degollado, his parents said. But it was here that he met his wife, Marlene Zaragoza, 18, on the last of his long summer sojourns home. Theirs was a whirlwind romance that began when he saw her on the village soccer field. To everyone's surprise, he appeared again in November 2003, fresh from basic training, and asked for her hand. They were wed in December, just before he was shipping off to his first posting in Korea. They talked of settling in Colorado after the war, once his citizenship papers were in hand."He was an easy person to love," she said. "So open. He treated everything just as it was, without hypocrisy." Private Fonseca's grandmother, Amada Ayala García, fought back tears when she was asked whether she supported the war that had taken her grandson's life. "I don't know about politics," she said. "I can only say that it's a sad thing to see so many dead."When they buried Private Fonseca on Feb. 2, an officer from the United States Army gingerly handed the flag that had covered his coffin to his teenage wife. Then a group of mariachis, including his father-in-law, belted
 out the classic "México Lindo y Querido" as they lowered the casket. "Beloved and beautiful Mexico, if I die far from you, just say that I'm sleeping and bring me back to you," they sang.

Hispanic Group Puts Weight Behind Gonzales
National Council of La Raza Supports Gonzales While Other Groups Oppose Him  
By Darryl Fears, Washington Post,  March 9, 2005
Sent by Howard Shorr
The National Council of La Raza, the nation's largest Hispanic civil rights organization, embraced Attorney General Alberto R. Gonzales at an awards ceremony last night, breaking with other civil rights organizations that have denounced Gonzales for his role in producing the administration memo that allowed harsh treatment of detainees overseas.
Although La Raza supported Gonzales's appointment as attorney general, last night's ceremony marked a first, highly public step in the group's effort to alter its image as a left-leaning organization, said Janet Murguia, its president and chief executive.
Gonzales's appearance at the ceremony was his first before a large Hispanic civil rights group since he was confirmed last month by the Senate. La Raza hopes the warm reception will show the Bush administration that it seeks to move to the center politically and gain more access to the White House.  President Bush declined to attend all of La Raza's annual conferences during his first term, citing the group's criticism of his policies.
 "We want to make sure that people understand that we are reaching out to this administration," Murguia said. "We think it is a unique opportunity when a president is in his second term . . . to get things done.
"I know there are some folks who've said maybe NCLR is leaning left in the past or choosing sides," said Murguia, who served as deputy director for legislative affairs for the Clinton White House and as a liaison between the Gore-Lieberman presidential campaign and constituent groups in 2000. "I want to make a clear point: We are reaching out to all sides, we're going to build coalitions, build bridges and put our people first."
La Raza is not the only Hispanic civil rights organization employing that strategy. Another leading Hispanic rights organization, the League of United Latin American Citizens, strongly supports Gonzales.
"You have to understand that we've had a long-standing relationship with the attorney general," said Brent Wilkes, LULAC's national executive director. "He's been an individual who's been very involved in the community, with the United Way, Big Brothers/Big Sisters. He's constantly talking to LULAC. We've had an open-door policy."
At the dinner, Gonzales was greeted with light applause. In his five-minute speech, he reached out to La Raza, saying, "I . . . have this organization to thank for support of my nomination for attorney general." He added that he and La Raza have not always agreed in the past but that both share a commitment to Latinos.
Last night's ceremony also highlighted the group's split with Latino organizations that are unhappy with Gonzales. Eugenio Arene, executive director of the Council of Latino Agencies, a Washington-based organization that represents Salvadorans, Nicaraguans and Guatemalans, and is affiliated with La Raza, said the move ignored the plight of Central Americans.
"Many of us came from Central America because of political violence and torture," he said. "We are really concerned about a Latino organization . . . taking a position to support someone with what I call manos manchados, his hands are stained. He's not clean."
The Los Angeles-based Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund also did not support Gonzales's confirmation. The Puerto Rican Legal Defense and Education Fund remained neutral, said Angelo Falcon, president of the Institute for Puerto Rican Policy and senior policy executive for the fund.
"Lately there seems to be a much more centrist kind of approach to the issue of civil rights by Latino organizations," Falcon said. "In Washington, the issue tends to be access. Their job is to advocate on behalf of Latinos, and a lot of that depends on access to agencies. But at what expense do you take that posture? What do you give up in terms of your principles?"
Gonzales has testified that as White House counsel he disagreed with portions of a 2002 Justice Department memo that narrowly defined what constituted torture, but could not recall whether he conveyed those objections to other government lawyers at the time. He said he did not quarrel with its general findings. The memo  --  which was used to formulate permissive government rules on interrogations  --  was repudiated by the Justice Department after it was revealed publicly in 2004 and has since been rewritten, reaching much different conclusions.
Cecilia Muñoz, vice president for policy at La Raza, said that Gonzales's body of work with Latino organizations, rather than his contribution to the memo, motivates her organization's position.
"Many people were not aware of Judge Gonzales's long history with our affiliates in Texas, and moving then-Governor Bush to the right posture, from our perspective on key civil rights issues, like anti-English only requirements, like anti-immigrant ballot initiatives, bilingual education and affirmative action," Muñoz said. "There's a list of issues where Judge Gonzales and Governor Bush did the right thing."
Wade Henderson, executive director of the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights, of which La Raza is a member, said he  understands the group's position, though his organization strongly opposed Gonzales's nomination.
"Our strength is the diversity of our membership and our unity of purpose," Henderson said. "Unity of purpose doesn't mean we are in lock step on every issue. Janet Murguia is a strong leader who reflects deep commitment to our values." 

US-Spain Council Upcoming Program 


The Young Leaders Program will have a program from April 3rd to April 9th 2005. The program will be in Madrid and Seville. All applications must be presented to the US-Spain Council by March 31st, 2005. Applications are available on the website or can be requested by calling 202-333-4281 or by email at

The U.S.-Spain Council, and the Consejo España - EEUU launched the U.S.-Spain Young Leaders Program in 2001 to bring young American leaders to Spain in order to familiarize them with the social, cultural, economic, and political realities of contemporary Spain, and in so doing foster stronger understanding between Spain and the United States. The Council and Consejo are presently running the program. 

The present program will bring one group of 10 young American leaders to Spain. Visits are seven days in duration inclusive of travel. The theme for this year’s visit, which will take place April 3rd - April 9th, is “The New Spain.” Spain is a modern state, which has experienced significant advances in the fields of telecommunications, new media, energy and financial services. At the same time, Spain, like other countries in Europe, is faced with rising immigration, almost zero population growth, and like other countries in Europe is faced with many new challenges The Young Leaders program is intended to ensure that Americans have a better appreciation of these ongoing developments in Spain and of the depth and richness of the US/Spain relationship. 

The program will have three main components: 1) A daylong set of general briefings and discussions with government officials, journalists, and academic representatives on Spanish politics, society and business in Madrid. 2) A two-day discussion on the theme of the program with professional counterparts. 3) A two-day trip to Valencia will be focused on the program’s theme. This will include meetings with regional officials, business leaders, and other concerned parties. 

Candidates must be between 30 and 45 years of age at the time of travel, citizens of the United States, and have an outstanding record of achievement in their profession. The application deadline is March 3rd 2005. All expenses are paid by the Consejo and council for this program including travel, hotel and food.

HOW TO APPLY: Interested applicants should send a completed application form (see attached), their resume, one letter of recommendation, and a brief, one-page essay describing what you would hope to learn from this program about the “New Spain” and why you would be a good addition to the U.S.-Spain Young Leaders Program. Please send to: 

Judith Watson and Christine Bognar
US-Spain Council, Suite 100-A 
2715 M Street, NW 
Washington, DC 20007 

The council encourages applicants to send their questions via email instead of calling. 
mail to:   202-333-4281

Rafael Ojeda 1-253-576-9547

Latino Workers More Likely To Die On The Job                                  
Sent by: Howard Shorr

Latino workers are more likely to die on the job than any other ethnic group in the United States, according to a report from the Boston area's Daily News Tribune. 

While the overall number of workplace deaths is decreasing, according to the U.S. Labor Department's National Census of Occupational Injuries, deaths among Latino workers are increasing "at alarming rates," the newspaper reported this week. 

Latinos comprise the majority of the United States' foreign-born workers — workers who disproportionately hold jobs with higher risks of injury and death. 

"(These workplace deaths) are not freak accidents," Carlos Eduardo Siqueira, a professor with the University of Massachusetts-Lowell's Department of Work Environment, told the newspaper. "In most cases, workers die because of unsafe working conditions, poor training or lack of proper equipment." 

Considered a cheap source of labor, undocumented workers often are targeted for the highest-risk jobs. 

The federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration investigates workplace injuries; yet, in part because of under-reporting among immigrant workers, the true number of workplace injuries is potentially much higher than current data suggest. 

"When (undocumented immigrants) work for (these companies), they pay them under the table; but when they get injured, they (say) they don't know them," Francyslene Miranda, a safety and health coordinator for the Brazilian Immigrant Center in Allston, Mass., told the Tribune. 

"Many times, workers are afraid of retaliation and don't report their employers. They don't know that even if they're undocumented, they (still) have rights." 

Dig Deeper 
Learn more about the Southern Poverty Law Center's Immigrant Justice Project, which works to end the widespread exploitation of immigrant workers.

U.S. Department of Labor 
By Liz Mineo, Daily News Tribune, March 7, 2005
Sent by Howard Shorr

On a bright October day, Roberto Fernandes was working as a roofer in Lawrence when a metal ladder he was unloading struck a power line that sent 7,620 volts through his body, killing him. 

Last November, Josias Peres was fixing a minivan in a Marlborough auto shop when the car lunged forward and pinned him against a wall smashing his head and chest. He died, too. 

In November 2002, Wiltemy Dutra was smoothing a slope in the side yard of a Wayland home when the tractor he was driving hit a soft patch of dirt on an incline and rolled over, crushing him to death. 

The common bond the dead men all share is that they were immigrants, a huge pool of labor often tapped because it is cheap, plentiful and readily available. As immigrants join the U.S. work force in high numbers, they are also joining the ranks of those who die on the job, and they are dying at alarming rates. 

Hispanics or Latinos, the bulk of foreign-born workers in the nation, are more likely to die on the job than any other racial or ethnic group. What makes this more dramatic is that while the overall number of those who are killed on the job is falling, deaths among Hispanics or Latinos are on the rise, according to labor experts. 

Among the contributing factors for the deadly trend are language barriers, lack of training, experience and knowledge of laws. Illegal immigrants, who are often targeted for cheap work, are also vulnerable to exploitation because they lack legal papers and fear deportation. Because of all this, immigrants, both legal and illegal, end up being disproportionately employed in high-risk jobs. 

Despite those factors, most deaths on the job don't have to happen, said Carlos Eduardo Siqueira, a professor at UMass-Lowell's Department of Work Environment, who leads a project in Lowell aimed at identifying workplace hazards affecting Brazilian immigrant workers in Massachusetts. 

"Most of those deaths could have been prevented," said Siqueira. "They are not freak accidents. In most cases, workers die because of unsafe working conditions, poor training or lack of proper equipment. In many cases, it was a matter of who was going to die, not what the worker did wrong." 

Work injuries and deaths are investigated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the federal agency responsible for making sure workplaces are safe. 

This week, OSHA began investigating an accident in Hudson in which worker Luis Costa was seriously injured by 12 sheets of falling plywood. The wood fell four stories through an elevator shaft onto his head while he was working at a Main Street condominium complex. 

Among the hundreds of cases OSHA has investigated in the state in previous years are the deaths of a window washer who fell seven stories from a downtown Boston office building; that of a laborer who died when he was caught in a ribbon blender at a fish processing plant in New Bedford; and that of a laborer who was smashed by a falling stack of pallets loaded with concrete blocks in a Holbrook concrete factory. 

The situation in Massachusetts reflects what happens across the nation. The state's occupational health surveillance program reports that from 1991 to 1999, Hispanics had the highest rate of fatal injury among all workers in Massachusetts. 

During the same period, of the 633 workers who died at work, 110 were immigrants. Of them, 32 were Hispanics. Brazilian deaths started to appear on the radar after 1999, said officials at the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's Occupational Health Surveillance Program. Between 2000 and 2002, there were seven Brazilians who died at work. Numbers for 2003 and 2004 have yet to be released. 

Francyslene Miranda, safety and health coordinator at Allston's Brazilian Immigrant Center, is busy these days helping injured workers obtain workers compensation benefits. 

Last year, Miranda dealt with more than 100 cases. Among them were workers who fell from roofs, carpenters who lost their fingers, and restaurant employees who were burned on the job. Few have received help from their employers and that is a common phenomenon, said Miranda. Employers often don't pay for the hospital expenses or even take them to the hospital. Many employers also threaten workers with reporting them to immigration officers. 

"When they work for them, they pay them under the table, but when they get injured, they (say) they don't know them," said Miranda. "Many times, workers are afraid of retaliation and they don't report their employers. They don't know that even if they're undocumented they have rights." 

That is one of the reasons the data on work injuries is not accurate. Most go unreported not only because workers are afraid of retaliation, but also because they haven't heard of OSHA or workers compensation laws. 

Such was the case of Edmundo Almeida, 38, a Brazilian native who broke his left knee when he fell from the steps while working at a Hudson construction company. When he went to the Brazilian Immigrant Center, he found out he had rights. 

When the accident took place, his boss told him that because it happened after work hours it was not his responsibility even though it happened on the job site. Almeida's co-workers took him to the hospital, where he had to undergo surgery. One and a half years after the accident, he is still in pain and hasn't been able to work. 

"It was a bad experience," said Almeida, who was a hairdresser in Brazil before moving to Marlborough. "I can't carry heavy things, I can't walk like before, but at least I'm alive." 

OTM, Other than Mexican

[[ Editor: I am including this article NOT to take a political stand on the issue of border security, but rather because a system is in place  that allows illegals to enter, and process them, if they are Other than Mexican. ]]

WASHINGTON – (CSM, 3/22/05) Concern is growing at the top levels of government about the US-Mexican border becoming  a back door for terrorists entering the United States. While AlQaeda infiltration across the nation's southern border has been a constant concern since 9/11, US officials cite recent intelligence giving the most definitive evidence yet that terrorists are planning to use it as an entry point - if they haven't already. As a result, a number of Republican and Democratic lawmakers - mainly from border states - are pushing to tighten check points and other ways of monitoring the porous1,400-mile boundary. 

One of the biggest concerns is that terrorists may exploit the current crossing procedures to make their way into the US. One way they might do this -and members of Congress say evidence is mounting that terrorists are trying this- is by paying smuggling networks, especially organized gangs. 

The other is through a loophole in the system to separate the large number of illegal Mexican migrants, who are automatically turned back at the borders, from citizens of other countries who are allowed in, pending immigration hearings. These others are referred to as "other than Mexicans," or OTMs, by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). They come from other Latin American countries as well as other parts of the world, many of them designated by the government as countries of "special interest." In 2004, some 44,000 OTMs were allowed into the US.

It's not clear how many terrorists or people having connections to terror groups may have entered the US as OTMs. But FBI Director Robert Mueller, in a House Appropriations Committee hearing March 9, said he was aware that individuals from countries with known Al Qaeda ties had entered the US underfalse identities.

Furthermore, in a Feb. 16 Senate hearing, Mr. Mueller cited the case of Mahmoud Youssef Kourani, who paid to be smuggled across the US-Mexico border in2001. He pleaded guilty on March 1 to providing material support to Hizbullahand was sentenced to no more than five years in prison. 

The most recent sign, though, that terrorists may be thinking of entering the US from the south camefrom the mastermind of many of the terror attacks in Iraq, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi. Last week, US officials revealed that Mr. Zarqawi may be planning to broaden his campaign to include strikes in the US - and suggested it would be easy to infiltrate the US through the southern border.

Of the 44,000 OTMs who entered the US last year, it is not known how many were detained and how many remain free. Members of Congress are continuing to lean on government officials, asking for clear assessments of numbers as well as policies intended to thwart the entry of those who would harm the US. 

The DHS supplied numbers of OTMs registered, by country of origin, who had been released on their own recognizance for fiscal years 2002, 2003, and 2004. The totals were 5,775, 9,139, and 30,756 respectively. Some countries, such as those known to export gang members, showed dramatic increases in numbers entering the US. 

The DHS document, for instance, shows 1,463 OTMs entering the US from El Salvador in 2002. That number increased to 7,963 in 2004. Some 2,539 OTMs entered the US from Honduras in 2002, and that number increased to 12,549 in 2004. Representative Ortiz, though, disputes many of the DHS numbers. He says he regularly hears reports of much higher figures from border patrol officials from his district in Texas, which includes the border-crossing area of Brownsville.

"In the Brownsville sector alone, border patrol officials reported they caught 23,178 OTMs crossing through August 2004," Mr. Ortiz says. "Of those, 16,616 were released." Ortiz also points out that another loophole is entering Mexico through Brazil, where a visa is not required to travel to Mexico.

Tunnels Found at Mexican Border
Source: Win4sports

MEXICALI, Mexico, 3/23/05, NYTimes - At Mexican Border, Tunnels, Vile River, Rusty Fence. When United States Customs officials discovered the latest tunnel under the border here last month, they were stunned. With a cement floor and an intercom system, the passage ran nearly 200 yards from a house on one side of a rusty metal fence, under two streets and an apartment complex, to emerge in an unassuming tract home in California. Though more elaborate, the tunnel is not unlike the 13 others found during the 1990's, built by drug cartels. But everything in the world after Sept. 11, 2001, has taken on a different hue. Today such tunnels are where the failures of drug policy, border control and immigration reform meet ever pressing issues of national security. American officials fear the tunnels could be used just as easily to smuggle terrorists and explosives as cocaine or illegal immigrants. Investigators say they doubt that the builders of the elaborate tunnel here would have spent an estimated $1 million just to smuggle migrant workers. It is more likely, they said, that the tunnel was built to smuggle lucrative drugs like cocaine and heroin, but another line of investigation is that its builders might have intended to sell passage to terrorists.



Ponce de Leon
Heraldica Hispana website
From Acosta To Zapatero: 
Hispanic Names have deep roots



Edición 22 de marzo de 2005 de Odiel Información. Huelva



Al parecer este linaje procede de los Ponces, una familia patricia romana que es conocida desde el año 325 antes de Cristo. Aunque en algunos casos se empieza la genealogía de los Ponce de León por el Conde de Tolosa de Francia, en el siglo IX, porque un descendiente del conde llamado Ponce, vino a España con motivo de la boda de su tío Ramón con la infanta Dª Elvira,  hija del rey Alonso Enríquez. Otro de sus descendientes se casó con una hija de Alonso rey de León y fueron los que añadieron a su patronímico Ponce el apellido de León.

Varios han sido los Ponce de León que han destacado aunque en muy diferentes facetas, como Fray Basilio, escritor español del siglo XVII, o Hernán, capitán español que a las ordenes de Bartolomé Hurtado recorrió las costas de Nicaragua y Costa Rica en 1516, asociándose luego con Hernando de Soto en negocios en la conquista de Perú, pero no fue leal a Soto y hubo de huir, ignorando donde  murió.  Otro fue, Pedro Ponce de León, monje benedictino que nació en Valladolid en 1520 y fue célebre por haber sido el primero que inventó un sistema para enseñar a leer, escribir y hablar a los sordomudos, que mas tarde perfeccionó el Abate L`Epée. También tenemos a Rodrigo Ponce de León, guerrero español nacido en Cádiz en 1443 y que se distinguió en su lucha contra la invasión árabe. En 1482, por un atrevido golpe de mano, se apoderó de la ciudad de Alhama y tomo parte en la conquista y sitio de Málaga y Granada. Murió en 1492.

Pero quizás el que es mas conocido es Juan Ponce de León, que nació en Tierra de Campos hacia 1460. En 1502 salió de Sevilla con la expedición de Ovando a La Española y una vez allí conquistó Puerto Rico, donde logró una considerable hacienda.

En 1513, teniéndose por viejo, oyó hablar a los indígenas de unas aguas de devolvían la juventud, dirigiéndose a las Lucayas y descubriendo La Florida, pero no el agua deseada. Vino a España, donde obtuvo el titulo de Adelantado de la Florida, a la que quiso conquistar en 1521, pero fracasó en el empeño y recibió tan importantes heridas que, al llegar a Cuba, falleció.

                                                                    Angel Custodio Rebollo

Recommended website for coats of arms information:
Sent by John Inclan

From Acosta To Zapatero: Hispanic Names have deep roots
by Maurilio E. Vigil
New Mexico Magazine, September 1988, pg. 48-51

One of the most fascinating but long-ignored branches of linguistics concerns the origin and evolution of names. The study of surnames reveals not only the source of one's ancestors but also the historical development of a people.  

In the case of Spanish surnames, the names reveal vestiges of Spanish civilization left from the Roman conquest, such as the Latin language, as well as subsequent influences of conquerors such as the Germanic peoples (Vandals, Visigoths) and later the Arabs or Moors.

The 16th century was the greatest epoch in Spanish history. Exploration and colonization during that century spread Spanish civilization worldwide. The greatest remnants of the Hispanic heritage are the 18 countries in Latin America where Hispanic culture and language survive. Hispanic culture and language also have been pervasive in the United States. This influence began when the United States acquired the Southwest with its large Hispanic population and has continued with migration to the United States from Latin America.

Spanish surnames probably first appeared during the Roman domination of the Iberian peninsula (approximately a.d. 222 to 409). Third-century documents identify persons such as Juan Escudero (John the Squire), Pedro Hidalgo (Peter the Noble) and even a four-part name in the Roman tradition, Juan Escudero Bastardo de Hinojosa (John the Illegitimate, squire from the town of Hinojosa).

The use of surnames among the Spanish continued through the Germanic (5th century) and the Moorish (8th century) invasions and dominance of the Iberian peninsula.

The origins of Spanish surnames are diverse, influenced by the many dialects spoken in Spain and by other characterizations. Some names have religious origins, such as the saint names of Roman Catholic apostles; others stem from historical and mythological characters. Still other names can be traced to flora, such as Rosas (roses); fauna, such as Leon (lion); occupations, such as Barbero (barber); personal characteristics, such as Delgado (slim), or honors and titles, such as Escudero (the squire). Most Spanish surnames, however, have patronymic, toponymic or personal origins.

Patronymic names, those taken from the name of the father, are the most prevalent. The name Martinez, meaning "the son of Martin," is an example of the patronymic. Martin means "warlike man" and comes from Mars, the Roman god of war. Another example is Diaz, the son of Dias, meaning "days." Often, these surnames can be distinguished by their endings, usually az, ez, iz, oz or uz.

The second form of surnames, toponymic, is attributed to some geographic feature or location. Often these names come from places of residence, whether a district, province, city, town or village. Other names represent rivers, mountains and valleys or similar geographic features. Garcia is the most widespread surname in the Hispanic world and comes from Garcia, a village in Spain. It is derived from the Basque word artza, meaning "principe de vista" (crown prince). Many toponymic surnames identify one or more villages in Spain.

The third category of Spanish surnames is personal, referring to a descriptive personal characteristic of one sort or another. These names can be divided into various types.

One group of surnames represents a physical characteristic of the bearer. Alarcon, for instance, means "the tall one." It derives from the Latin phrase largus, or "large."

A second type of personal surname identifies the occupation of the individual, or at least the individual to whom the name was first applied. Among these are Herrera and Ferrer, which like their Anglo counterpart—Smith—apply to the occupation of metalworker or blacksmith.

A third type of personal surnames relates to attitudes or behavioral traits of those to whom the name was first applied. The name Alegre, for example, stems from the Latin alecer, meaning "happy, spirited and sprightly."

A fourth category derives from miscellaneous characteristics. Casados refers to the idea of eternally married. Nieto, a name from the Latin nepas, means "grandson."

The common surname Baca could fall in either the personal or toponymic categories, depending on which of two stories about its origins is true. The name is an abbreviated version of Cabeza de Vaca, meaning head of cow. One legend has it that the name was given to an Andalusian cattle herder. But there's another story that a man was christened Cabeza de Vaca after he used a cow's head to mark an escape path for Spanish soldiers fleeing from Moorish invaders.

Another type of Spanish surname is attributed to religious origins, reflecting the strong influence of the Catholic Church in Spain. Santana, for example, is a combination and contraction of Santa Ana, the name of a town in Spain. The name Santillanes results from the combination and contraction of the Latin name of Sancta Juliana.

Many Spanish surnames come from the conquerors of Spain at some time in history. Besides Latin names, Germanic words also led to surnames: Aleman (German), Rangel (from ragin-walt, meaning "mighty ruler") and Roybal (from the word hrode-bold, meaning famous and bold one). Arabic words led to names such as Aland (from al-garida, a piercing Moorish war cry) and Anaya (from ainahaya, meaning "stagnant water").

Some Spanish surnames are more numerous than others. There also is variation in the frequency of surnames found in different parts of the Hispanic world. 

The 10 most common surnames in Spain are, in order of frequency, (1) Garcia, (2) Fernandez, (3) Gonzaies, (4) Martinez, (5) Lopez, (6) Perez, (7) Rodriguez, (8) Sanchez, (9) Gomez and (10) Martin.

By way of comparison, the 10 most common names in Albuquerque, from a recent Albuquerque metropolitan telephone directory, are (1) Garcia, (2) Martinez, (3) Chavez, (4) Sanchez, (5) Gonzales, (6) Montoya, (7) Romero, (8) Baca, (9) Gallegos and (10) Trujillo.

So what's in a name? While our Spanish surnames no longer describe us as they once did our ancestors, they represent a gift from the past, a gift handed down over generations and through centuries to remind us about who we are and where we came from. Our surnames also will be a gift to our posterity. In this way our surnames provide one way to achieve a bit of immortality. A

Maurilio E. Vigil is a professor of political science at New Mexico Highlands University in Las Vegas. He is the author of several books, including The Hispanics of New Mexico and Los Patrones: Profiles of Hispanic Leaders in New Mexico. His most recent book published by the University Press of America is Hispanics in American Politics.  Click to Dr. Vigil's discovery of possible Sephardic roots.


Galvez Patriots

Bernardo de Galvez Family Tree
Bernardo de Galvez Forum, Spain
Lyrics honoring Galvez
Light to Thousands & Valedictus 


Members of the Bernardo De Galvez Forum, Spain

In October 2003, SHHAR provided the leadership for an outstanding event that took place in Long Beach, California.  Information can be found in the November 2003 issues of Somos Primos.  

In collaboration with the 3-day event that the SHHAR committee was planning in Long Beach, Enrique Arturo Diemecke, music director of the Long Beach symphony orchestra, suggested that a national competition be held for two arias to be composed honoring Bernardo de Galvez.  

 I was asked to find poems written about Galvez that could form the foundation for the lyrics.

With the assistance of the reference librarians at The Historic New Orleans Collection, Williams Research Center, New Orleans, Louisiana in New Orleans, I was able to locate a 25-page poem, Tribute to Don Bernardo de Galvez, and a sonnet honoring the  Spanish Governor of Louisiana.  The ballad was edited and translated by Ralph Lee Woodward, Jr., published 1979 and based on an original manuscript.  Dr. Woodward was a professor in the Theater department at the University of New Orleans who produced a dramatized documentary on Galvez in the 1970s.

The winners of the competition were Robert Maggio and Ana Lara.  Below are lyrics for their arias.
Secretary of the The Bernardo de Galvez Forum in Malaga, Spain, Mario Robles del Moral, writes that they are considering holding a concert in Spain and including the arias.  
We are SO pleased!!  Mimi

Light to Thousands: The Ballad of Galvez 
by Robert Maggio
Luz para miles: La balada de Galvez
Musica de Roberto Maggio
English/Spanish Translation: Idurre Alonso
Oh final Dawn of an icy November!
   If you are the Cradle of the Sun, how do your rise today
   On the Mournful Sunset of one who to the New World
   Gave light to thousands?
You rightly dissolve in dew drops,
For you see in your arms a Sun that set
   Before the rising of one which your brightness follows.
Weep, weep, weep, even though your tears
     take from the flowers
   Their beautiful rose shades and hues;
Weep, weep, weep, weep.

Was it not he at the front of the troops?
Was not he the strong, invincible Wall of courage?
Was he not the Hero?
Was not he the vigorous noble Cedar?
Was not he the Tower, the Beautiful City of refuge,
Who has made the countryside in the grey of Winter produce
    fruits as in April?

Rejoice, rejoice, rejoice, rejoice,
   for under his guidance peace and abundance will be secure;
Rejoice, rejoice, rejoice, rejoice,
   Already he dries the tears of suffering people,
We shall rejoice, We shall-, We shall-
   but how I have let myself
   Be carried away?
   I was singing his praises as if he were alive;
   I thought of him as alive upon describing him.
It was he who knew how
   To move the very stones to build
   Walls to give shelter.
How many gave assistance because of his example
   because of hearing from his gentle lips
   Those thanks with which he responded.

0 ultima aurora del Noviembre helado!
   Si eres cuna del sol, ^como te eriges hoy
   Funestro Ocaso del que al Nuevo Mundo
   Las claridades dispensaba a miles?
Con razón te liquidas en aljofar,
   Pues miras en tus brazos a un Sol muerto,
   Antes que nazca el que a tus luces sigue.
Llora, llora, llora, aunque anegues las flores
   de bellos rosicleres y matices;
llora, llora, llora, llora.

¿No estaba él al frente de las tropas?
¿No era él el fuerte, una pared invencible de valentia?
¿No era él el heroe?
¿No era él el vigoroso y noble cedro?
¿No era él la torre, la Bella Ciudad de refugio,
Quien hizo que en el gris Inviemo el campo produjese frutos como en Abril?

Alegría, alegría, alegría, alegría,
   Bajo su guia la paz y la abundancia estan aseguradas;
Alegría, alegría, alegría, alegría,
   Él ya seca las lagrimas de la gente que sufre,
Debemos alegramos, debemos, debemos
   Pero ¿como he dejado
   Llevarme asi?
   Estaba cantando alabanzas como si estuviese vivo;
   Pensé en el como si estuviese vivo cuando lo describía.
Era él quien sabía como
   Mover la grandes piedras para construir
   Paredes que daban refugio.
Cuantos ayudaron siguiendo su ejempio
   Porque oyeron de sus amables labios
   Los agradecimientos con las que respondió.
Valedictus, by Ana Lara
Spanish/English Translation: Nancy Fox
Valedictus, by Ana Lara  Spanish
What, what, what, did our Bemardo finally fall?
Did our Viceroy die?
More telling than the voices of the confused People,
Their Tender sighs, their sad faces.

0 final dawn of an icy November
If you are the Cradle of the Sun, How do you rise today
On the Mournful Sunset of one who to the New World
Gave light to thousands?

You rightly dissolve in dew drops
For you see in your arms a Sun that set
Before the rising of one which your brightness follows

Weep, weep, even though your tears take from the flowers
Their beautiful rose shades and hues
Weep, weep, weep.

Could there be a chest as rigid as armor
From an anvil oblivious to the hammer,
That doesn't feel the blows of an event
So painful, so accursed and sad?

¿Que, que, que al fin ya fallecio nuestro Bemardo?
¿Murio nuestro Virrey? Asi lo dicen
Mas que las voces el confuso Pueblo,
Sus Tiemos ayes, sus semblantes  tristes.

¡0 ultima Aurora del Noviembre helado!
Si eres Cuna del Sol, ?Como hoy te eriges
Funestro Ocaso de el que al Nuevo Mundo
Las claridades dispensaba a miles?

Con razón te liquidas en aljofar,
Pues miras en tus brazos a un Sol muerto,
Antes que nazca el que a tus luces sigue.

Llora, llora, aunque anegues de las flores
Los bellos rosicleres y matices;
Llora, llora, llora.

¿Habra pecho tan duro que blasone
De yunque a los martillos insensible,
No sintiendo los golpes de un suceso
Tan doloroso, tan infausto y triste?
Bernardo de Gálvez 
Sent by: Paul Newfield
NSSAR - Spain's Involvement
Sent by: Paul Newfield



Orange County 

Family History: A Gift of Heritage, April 23rd, 2005
Spring Piano Recital, Featuring Students of Frances Rios 
100 Years of Yesterdays, new edition of County history
SHHAR quarterly, a few photos
Addy Perez-Mau, Business Woman of the Year 
Amigos de la Colina Receive Award 
Relampago 30th Year Reunion, Dancers to Reunite
National Archives Genealogical Workshops




Five sessions throughout the day, seven classes offered during each session.  
Syllabus may be purchased for $10. and a box lunch $7.25.
Registration is not required, but pre-registrants will be given first seating privileges.
Forms may be obtained at the Orange Family History Center, 674 S. Yorba


SPRING PIANO RECITAL, Featuring Students of Frances Rios, 
April 17, 2005 at 4PM, The Bowers Kidseum
1802 North Main Street, Santa Ana, CA



By Doris Walker-Smith, OCHC Commissioner

A unique anthology about Orange County's people, places and periods of history, with chapters written by more than 40 local historians, has been updated and published in a new second edition by the Orange County Historical Commission.

Federation of Orange County Historical Organizations Newsletter 

The first edition of 100 Years of Yesterdays, which celebrated the centennial of the County's formation in 1889, has become a collector's item. This second edition, just released, includes individual histories of each of the cities and unincorporated communities up to the present. Additional expanded sections discuss Orange County's formation, naming and progression through various eras: natives, mission, rancho, pastoral, boom and war times. There are also chapters on the agriculture, railroad and oil industries.

The 346-page volume is illustrated throughout with vintage photographs. Its name was inspired by the Spanish phrase: "Mariana, flor de sus ayeres" - "Tomorrow, the flower of its yesterdays." Each community and city chapter was written by an acknowledged historian of that locale. Phil Brigandi, who wrote about his hometown — Orange - in both editions, now serves as Orange County's official archivist. As he describes this long-awaited second edition: "The new 100 Years of Yesterdays is unique because it is the story of the county told by the people who know it best - more than 40 local historians, representing decades of research and experience. Many of them liave written one or more books about their area. This edition is a truly amazing compilation that will not disappoint any readers, whether they are reading for pleasure or 

Brigandi also served on the book's editorial board. This edition is dedicated to Esther Ridgway Cramer, La Habra historian, author and 30-year appointee to the Orange County Historical Commission, which is composed of appointees from the five supervisory districts.

The new edition of 100 Years of Yesterdays can be purchased at the Old County Courthouse in Santa Ana — headquarters of the Historical Commission, or at the County's other historical facilities: Heritage Hill Historical Park in Lake Forest or Historic George Key Ranch in Placentia.

For additional purchase information, call 714/973-6609 or log on to  where a mail-in order form accompanies the article about the book. The cost per copy is $20, tax and mailing included, with checks made payable to: Orange County Historical Commission.

A few of the participants at the SHHAR Quarterly Meeting on March 19th

Laura Shane, Yolanda Ochoa, Adela Lopez, Frances Rios

Oscar Carrillo, Viola Sadler, Ignacio M. Pena

Note: In the Genealogy wing of the Huntington Beach Library Public, 
two new books.
History of Leon County, Texas, 976.41
Louisiana Colonials:  Soldiers and Vagabonds,  976.3

“Relampago 30th Year Reunion, Dancers to Reunite”

Relampago del Cielo is celebrating it’s 30th Year Anniversary and is seeking dancers who performed in the Adult Performing Company from 1975 to 2000.  Rosie Peña, one of the founders and first Artistic Director of the organization, has been invited to return as Artistic Creator of a reunion concert to be held in the Fall of 2005.  Twenty dancers have already been found and are currently rehearsing for the Fall concert. “Relampago del Cielo, Inc., is Orange County’s oldest cultural organization dedicated to preserving the rich Hispanic culture through the teaching and presenting of the varied and powerful dances of Mexico.   If you were once a member of the Adult Performing Company and would like to be recognized or volunteer for upcoming events, please contact Rosie Peña at 714-542-6262.

Congratulations to Designer/President 
Addy Perez-Mau 
2005 Orange County Small Businesswoman of the Year

"We have captured the hearts of business and community leaders, 
celebrities, authors and the media."

Adelaida "Addy" grew up harvesting crops in the San Joaquin Valley of Central California. Her family was involved with the UFW and walked along with Cesar Chavez during the strikes. 
"SI Se Puede" were powerful words that played a key role in making dreams turn into reality. When people said she couldn't she said "WATCH ME".  Addy received her BA at 21 and was the first in her family to attend and graduate from a university. She later obtained a Business Management Certificate and a Master's Degree. Between 1983-1985, as a student majoring in Communications she worked for radio bilingue and produced various on air programs. These programs promoted university educational opportunities and services such as grants and scholarships. During this time she also worked for the college paper as an artist. Addy designed drawings for the newspaper as well as university outreach activities that promoted higher education.

Between 1984-1987, Addy was a founding member of the Central California Hispanic Chamber of Commerce. She worked hard at recruiting new members and assisting college students interested in meeting and networking with established business owners.

In 1988, Addy was appointed the Executive Director for the Bakersfield Hispanic Chamber of Commerce. In 1989 the chapter was recognized as the "Western Region Chamber of the Year" for rapid growth and accomplishments. Membership soared from 20 to 147 members! She also served as Vice President, Membership Chair and attended the CA Hispanic Chamber mtgs.

Between 1992-2003, Addy worked as a corporate recruiter in Engineering and Technology and managed university relations for Lockheed Martin and later EDS. In addition to benefiting her employers she also received special satisfaction in being able to encourage, inspire, and assist minority students with their career pursuits. It was important to ensure the "door of opportunity" for scholarships, internships, and advocacy was open to everyone.

In 2003, after being laid off from her corporate staffing position Addy decided to stay home with her children; Sophia age 2 and James age 1. Addy found her passion in designing jewelry with Swarovski crystal and established her own business. She is the President and Designer of Heaven Sent Jewelry.   For more information, please call
(714) 619-4816 or email .


The Amigos de la Colina, a volunteer decent organization that supports Heritage Hill Historical Park, was awarded the prestigious 2004 Governors Historic Preservation Award in a ceremony conducted at the state capitol in November 2004. Instituted by Governor George Dukmejjian in 1986, the Governors Historic Preservation Award is the only state sponsored recognition for organizations that demonstrate notable achievements in the historic preservation of California. The awards recognize a broad array of preservation activities including building restorations, archaeology, historical interpretation and preservation planning. To date, 150 awards have been given to community groups, public agencies and private organizations. The Amigos de la Colina was one of fifty groups nominated for the year 2004. This amazing decent organization provides informative historical tours of Heritage Hill Historical Park to the public and participates in seasonal special events held at the park. They also conduct interactive tours of the park's four restored buildings to third and fourth grade students of local schools. The dedication of the members of the Amigos de la Colina to Heritage Hill Historical Park is commendable and we wish them a hearty "Congratulations" for their recent award recognition.

Federation of Orange County Historical Organizations Newsletter 

Genealogical Workshops at the National Archives, Laguna Niguel

Spring 2005,
All workshops begin at 9:30 am.

Introduction to Genealogical Resources: For beginners and those who want to brush up on their basic skills, this workshop addresses the use of Federal census, passenger arrival, naturalization, and military records as well as basic reference works.  Tuesday, April 26 and Wednesday, May 25. 

Introduction to Military Records: This workshop will explore basic military resources for genealogy relating to American military actions from the Revolutionary War through the conflicts of the late 20th century. Thursday, April 21.

Preserving Your Family's History: Participants in this workshop will learn basic methods for organizing genealogical records and preserving photographs, historical documents, and other treasured heirlooms.  Wednesday, May 18.

Naturalization and Immigration Records: This course examines immigration and citizenship records, emphasizing procedural changes from 1790 to the present as well as methods for locating both naturalization records and passenger manifests. Thursday, April 14, & Tuesday, May 3.

Reminder: Reservations Required!   Class sizes are limited. Please call (949) 360-2641, ext. 0 to reserve your place in each class you would like to attend. All workshops cost $7.50, payable at the door. Picture identification is required to enter our facility.

Driving Directions: From 1-5, exit at Oso Parkway and head west. Turn left at La Paz Road. Follow La Paz through the intersection withAvila and make the next right on Allegra, a small side street in the midst of an office park. Go straight and park in any unmarked space.

Schedule of Genealogical Workshops: Apr. 14 Naturalization & Immigration Records Apr. 21 Introduction to Military Records Apr. 26 Introduction to Genealogical Resources May 3 Naturalization & Immigration Records May 18 Preserving Your Family's History May 2 5 Introduction to Genealogical Resources. 


Visions From a Different Perspective 
Cristian Villavicencio, Olympic competitor
Ethnographic Fieldwork, Afro-Mexico, April 15

Southern California's 36th Annual Genealogy Jamboree 
Evergreen Cemetery, Setting the Pace of Life
Executive Chef Robert Andres Olivares
The First Los Angeles City and County Directory 1872
TAG, Transcriber Alpha Group

To contact Sergio Hernandez,



Cristian Villavicencio

Los Ángeles, California. (Maraton.US). --Ante una multitud de miles de fanáticos y espectadores de todas las nacionalidades, la ciudad de Los Ángeles festejó este domingo su XX Maratón con gran entusiasmo gozando de un estado del tiempo espectacular.

Pero para la fanaticada nicaragüense nada estuvo mejor que la proeza alcanzada por su compatriota el joven corredor Cristian Villavicencio, procedente de San Marcos, del departamento de Carazo.

Villavicencio de 32 años recorrió las 26.2 millas en tan solo 2 horas, 25 minutos y 3 segundos, superando su propio record del año pasado en 22 minutos, lo cual lo colocó en la posición número 11 de entre más de 25 mil participantes. Asimismo, entre su categoría de 30 a 34 años su posición fue 4to lugar.

Villavicencio de 32 años recorrió las 26.2 millas en tan solo 2 horas, 25 minutos y 3 segundos, superando su propio record del año pasado en 22 minutos, lo cual lo colocó en la posición número 11 de entre más de 25 mil participantes. Asimismo, entre su categoría de 30 a 34 años su posición fue 4to lugar.Otro detalle muy importante, es que el Nicaragüense, fue el primer latino en llegar a la meta y el segundo corredor del continente americano, solo superado por el canadiense Bruce Raymer con registro 2:22:04. Los otros corredores que superaron al nica fueron el ganador del primer lugar, Mark Saina de Kenya, Africa con 2:09:35, otros siete africanos y el japonés Motofumi Amano que llegó 9no. con 2:24:07 ( 56 segundos antes que el pinolero Villavicencio).

Villavicencio, en una corta entrevista televisiva con cobertura nacional, agradeció al apoyo recibido por la Cámara De Comercio Nicaragüense Americana de California, Grupo TACA y Callejas Insurance. Y exhortó a las empresas y entidades del gobierno de su país, a que promuevan con mayor entusiasmo este deporte que beneficia los valores y mantiene a la juventud fuera de los vicios y las drogas.

Por su parte el Sr. Tito Lagos-Bassett, Presidente de la Cámara De Comercio Nicaragüense Americana de California, al ser entrevistado al inicio de la competencia, nos había informado del entusiasmo y optimismo que reinaba entre los nicaragüenses ya que estaban seguros que esta vez, Villavicencio podría superar la actuación del año anterior. "El es un joven muy disciplinado, profesional y con unas cualidades atléticas excepcionales, reúne las condiciones para darnos una buena sorpresa. Si lo hace, creo que merecerá ser recibo en Nicaragua como un héroe", finalizó Lagos.

Galería de Fotos:


Talking Diaspora: Doing Ethnographic Fieldwork on Afro-Mexico
by Bobby Vaughn, Notre Dame de Namur University, Friday, April 15, 12 noon
UCLA, Bunche Center Library, 135 Haines Hall 
Sent by Alva Moore Stevenson

Bobby Vaughn is an anthropologist whose research is concerned with ethnic identity and its relationship to nationalist definitions of what it means to be Afro-Mexican. He is the co-author of Afromexico: El pulso de la poblacion negra en Mexico and the author of articles that have appeared in Diálogo, Review of Black Political Economy, and the anthology Neither Enemies nor Friends: Latinos, Blacks, Afro-Latinos. Discussion with Dr. Vaughn to follow from 1-2:00 p.m. 
For more information contact extension 54932

Southern California's 36th Annual Genealogy Jamboree 
May 13-14, 2005, at the Burbank Hilton and Convention Center

The schedule includes presentations from beginner to advanced levels, from royal ancestry lines to tips to finding the more modest kings and queens of your own family line. Learn new research
techniques and tips from the pros.

Elaine Alexander        U.S. Ports of Arrival and Their Record
Jana Sloan Broglin      See Ya In The Funnies
Tom Kemp                 Future of Remote Digital Research
Leland Meitzler           Your Ancestors Didn't Die in the Courthouse Fire
Andy Pomeroy            The Legacy You Leave
Gary Boyd Roberts     The Best Genealogical Sources In Print
Douglas Richardson    Crossing the Atlantic: Finding Your Ancestors' European Origins
Jon Shupe                   Publishing & Preserving Your Work Digitally
Tom Underhill             Getting the Perfect Interview
Marston Watson          Internet Genealogy: Friend or Foe
                                   Get Rid of the Quill: Put it in your Computer  And many more!

Take a break from the presentations and visit the exhibitors who will bring us the latest in books, computer programs, reference materials and services for genealogists and family history researchers. You'll have lots of room to roam through the exhibit area, so be sure to save time to visit our
exhibitors. Everything is on one level, so you won't have to worry about elevators, escalators or stairs.

Leo Myers and Pam Wiedenbeck, Co-Chairs, Jamboree Committee
Southern California Genealogical Society
417 Irving Drive
Burbank, California 91504-2408
phone: 818-843-7247

Abstract:  Evergreen Cemetery, Setting the Pace of Life
By Hector Becerra, Los Angeles Times Staff Writer (March 15, 2005)
Sent by Howard Shorr
Joggers go to the track around L.A.'s Evergreen Cemetery for fitness and camaraderie. Maria Ruiz is drawing on both in a race against illness. The two women on the jogging track in Boyle Heights covered their noses. "Ah, they're burning the dead," Maria Ruiz, 58, said in Spanish, her Nikes crunching in the early morning darkness. "Oof, the smell," said her jogging partner, Elena Ramsey, 55, who pulled the corners of her shawl and hood from underneath her headphones to cover her face.

At 4:30 a.m., as a police helicopter's searchlight twirled overhead, the smoke was a relatively minor inconvenience along the track that wraps around a 128-year-old graveyard. On this day, Ruiz chose to leave her broken broomstick, which she usually 
carries for protection, inside her 1982 Plymouth station wagon. But she clutched her rosary, which she kisses, in her left hand. "I'm not afraid of the dead. The dead can no longer hurt me," Ruiz said. "It's the living I'm afraid of."

Fitness centers are rare in the working-class Latino neighborhood of Boyle Heights, so the community long ago created a health club out of the street. For longer than most anyone can remember, people have used the 1.5-mile sidewalk around Evergreen Cemetery for exercise. A year ago, the city recognized how the sidewalk had become a center of Boyle Heights life by installing decorative streetlamps and a rubber surface along it, and formally naming it the Evergreen Jogging Track.

There are plenty of young joggers here, with lean-as-jackrabbit bodies, fixed gazes and take-no-prisoner strides. But a large number are older women, many of them immigrants, like Ruiz and Ramsey. They are busy most of the day, working and looking after their children, their grandchildren or other people's children.

Ruiz began her daily workouts five years ago after learning she was diabetic and had high cholesterol. She hit the cemetery before dawn despite protests from her husband, who worried she'd be mugged. She started tentatively, mixing a slow-motion jog with long periods of walking. Soon, her pace picked up and she was striding past people along the route. 

Ruiz and Ramsey are the first to say that trekking around the cemetery in the darkness of morning can be an adventure. Sometimes the crematorium belches. Strange men have "flashed" women from behind their cars. Gang members occasionally glare. Still, the joggers prefer the graveyard to city parks, where there are plenty of trees and 
knolls for vagos - good-for-nothings - to hide behind at dusk and dawn.

Those who join Ruiz and Ramsey along the route are as likely to wear blue-collar attire - utility shirts, work boots, slippers and uniforms - as trendy sportswear, making it hard to distinguish those who are exercising from those who are using the sidewalk to get to work or school. Ruiz wears hooded sweatshirts and sneakers, usually with polyester pants. Ramsey favors bulky knit sweaters or jackets and shawls.

Ruiz met Ramsey a year and a half ago. Ramsey had confided that she was afraid of walking in the dark, so they decided to exercise together. Ruiz said her mother taught her a valuable lesson about walking when she was a girl growing up in Mexico. "She always said, 'Mija, never walk with your hands empty,' " Ruiz recalled. " 'Always have your rosary with you, and at the very least, grab a stick.' "

Evergreen Cemetery is one of the oldest in Los Angeles, opening in 1877 in what was then a rural outpost east of the original Los Angeles pueblo. The sidewalk along the cemetery has been attracting joggers and walkers since at least the 1940s. Around that time, Nadine Diaz's paternal grandparents used to walk around the graveyard for exercise.

When Diaz's own parents were dating in the 1960s, they took evening strolls around Evergreen Cemetery, past old monuments bearing the names of the city fathers who built Los Angeles: Van Nuys, Lankershim, Hollenbeck and Workman.

Later, when Diaz was a baby, her grandparents would push her in a stroller past the eucalyptus and palm trees, beside the ashen shapes of tombstones, granite angels, obelisks and mausoleums.

In the 1980s, Diaz began caring for her grandfather, Antonio Diaz. The walks around the cemetery became part of their routine together. Back then, he frequently complained to the City Council about the cracked and tree-buckled sidewalks around the graveyard, but nothing was ever done.

"We would walk together, he with his cane in his old age," she said. "He still tried to walk, up until he was totally blind and he couldn't do it anymore." Antonio Diaz died in 1988, but his granddaughter continued to jog around Evergreen Cemetery. She and a group of community residents finally persuaded the city to fix the pavement, add lighting and formally dedicate the area as a jogging track. 

"I almost cried," said Diaz, 42. "I thought about my grandfather, and I only wished this had been done years ago." Ruiz and Ramsey were also excited about the improvements, especially the green street lamps that made it easier to see. They arrived in the chilly air every morning, feeling each stride was making them healthier.

Executive Chef Robert Andres Olivares
Catering division Tangerine Restaurant

Well, I began cooking when I was nine years old. I would make simple things for the family and then moved on to family functions. When I was 14 I went to work as a dishwasher at Mama Lucia's a small little Italian restaurant. I would watch the cooks plate the food when I wasn't busy and then at the end of the night I would watch them take apart the entire kitchen.

At 16 I moved from there to Mc Donald's and then Little Caesar's and it was my first chance to see a line set up.

It was around this time I saw a report on the news about Los Angeles Mission College and their Culinary department and I knew then I had to enroll. Once I enrolled I began working at Bristol Farms, and This little sports bar and I learned about preparation and the fine art of the short order with class. For once I felt at home in school, I was learning about something I loved. I moved up the food chain slowly but surely doing events at the school, working the line, and preparing entrees with my friend Jason. Every day we would compete to see who could have their food sell out first.

It wasn't long before I began working at Oakmount Country Club with Chef Vega for special events as well as Mike Catering.

I had a short stay at the Getty Center in Los Angeles and then moved to Jackson Hole Wyoming to work in a resort. I don't know what you have heard but it is beautiful out there but coming from Cali the Altitude was to much for me and I moved out of the lodge and into town. There my ride Richard dropped me and my bags off at a corner and I spent the next week sleeping in a hostel which is French for hotel basement. I ate some days and didn't others, I was making arrangements to stay in a shelter when I found a job. My last twenty dollars in my pocket and I moved in to a room above the Cornucopia. I thought I knew it all but being a head Chef is touch. I spent some time there before winter came and this California boy came to were winter is three weeks of rain.

I went with a friend to a trailer to watch her kid while she applied for Romanos Macaroni Grill , I spent five years there before we parted ways. I went to the California School Of Culinary Arts because they promised me the world and delivered nothing. I competed two terms, made perfect attendance and the deans list but to no avail. I went on with personal catering when I could making money ever chance I got. I went to work for the movie studios during the week and the Vintage Cafe on the weekends but work got slow and I had to go back to catering. I went with my wife as a tag along while she met some people she was supposed to work with at this Oscar event and that's when things just seemed to happen. Our food took over an hour and I began to talk to the manager, two days later I catered for the Pre Oscar weekend at Beauty by Andre from the kitchen of the Tangerine two days after that I was asked to be the Executive Chef and form Tangerine catering. I am currently seeking out the best and most creative people I can find, I am working on my own line of food products for commercial sale and doing what I love, Cooking what more could I ask for.

The First Los Angeles City and County Directory 1872
Sent by Ron Filon
Reproduced in Facsimile with introduction and commentaries, by Ward Ritchie, 1963 (only the facsimile has been transcribed). [[Editor: Not only are the street addresses given, but also the occupation. Interesting.]]  Project Manager: Rich Wharff 

Volunteers: Donna Becker, Darleen Berens, Judy Bodycote-Thomas, Marie Clayton, Aviva Ernst, Carolyn Feroben, Ron Filion, Cathy Gowdy, Linda Hamid, Sandra Harris, Dale Isaacson, Brie Jackson, Carol Jackson, Joseph Kral, Sharon Kreyer, Jeanne Moody, Marjorie Newton, Jennifer Norman, Dee Sardoch, Kathy Styles, Carole Thomas, Candice Francisco Toth, Doug Urbanus, Betty Vickroy, Sharon Yost, Rich Wharff. 

Notice: This data is donated to the Public Domain by TAG, 2005, and may be copied freely by anyone to anywhere. 
Table of Contents 
Los Angeles City 
Anaheim Precinct 
El Monte Precinct 
Gallatin Precinct 
San Gabriel Mission Precinct 
San Jose Precinct 
Santa Anna Precinct 
Wilmington Precinct 

Los Angeles City 
Los Angeles County 
Los Angeles Official Directory 
I. O. O. F. 
F. & A. M. 
U. O. R. M. 
Board of Public Works 
Fire Department 
First Congregational Church 
Police Department 
St. Anthanasius' Protestant and Episcopal Church 
United States Officers 

TAG, Transcriber Alpha Group
Okay, the name of the group is not that great. :-) But, the purpose is! We are an informal group of transcribers who are dedicated to getting free, California genealogical data up on the internet. We won't be tackling large projects like a census, but documents that are a little more manageable. 

How it works: someone in the group decides a resource would be great to have on the internet. Unless the idea is rejected for copyright violations, etc., it goes onto the list of Potential Projects. Although it would be nice to create databases that cover the state, it is not a requirement. Also, everyone agrees the data goes into the public domain and can be copied by anyone to anywhere. 

We also have a closed mailing list to coordinate projects, share ideas, etc.  

If you think this is a great idea and are willing to transcribe some data at least once a week, please email me at  emailE=('ron'+'@'+'') document.write( '' + emailE + '' ) 

Sincerely, Ron Filion 





Photos, Anza Bicentennial Ride, Santa Barbara 1976
February 24, 2005, Anza Trail Sign dedicated at Rincon, Santa Barbara
The First Annual Gregorian Chant Festival for World Peace 
Pena Vaca Berryessa Reunion 
John Arvizu, OD
Memories sway school board against naming school for Cesar Chavez 
San Francisco History Index
Immigrant Experience to Premiere at the Museum of Man
Culver City  
Curse of the Felizes
Heirs of Senora Benancia de Dominguez Bring Suit to Recover Land 



Sent by Michael Hardwick

Anza Bicentennial Ride, Santa Barbara 1976

February 24, 1776, nearly 300 Spanish soldiers, settlers, including 125 children and their escorts traveled from Mexico1600 miles by horseback and foot to settle the Presidio of San Francisco.  

Fathers Virgil Cordano & Kieran McCarty officiating at East Beach in Santa Barbara.

It was on Feb. 24, 1776 when an expedition of 300 Spanish settlers under the leadership of Juan Bautista de Anza camped at what is now Rincon Beach County Park en route to the founding of San Francisco. This historical event was commemorated on Feb. 24, 2005--exactly 229 years later--with the dedication of a sign marking the campsite, the expedition’s 75th of the journey. This campsite was near what was then the Chumash village of La Rinconada

On that long ago day the travelers started out from the Santa Clara River and walked 27 miles along the ocean shoreline. Father Font reported in his diary that "the people of the expedition who had never seen the sea found many things to marvel at."  (The next campsite, #76. with its sign dedicated in 2000, is located on Patterson Ave next to the bikeway to Goleta Beach.)

George and Vie Obern were an important part of the event. Vie Obern, is Executive Secretary of the Santa Barbara County Trails Council and was mistress of ceremonies for dedication.

George Obern was in the original 
1976 Anza Trek, and is still trekking. 
Vie is in the photo to the left. 

Soldados Jim Martinez and Michael Hardwick fire musket salute in honor of the dedication.

This sign dedication ceremony, under blue skies after many rainy days, was attended by 50 people including several government officials, The ceremony was opened by Los Soldados del Real Presidio de Santa Barbara in authentic uniform led by Jim Martinez with Mike Hardwick, and George "Bud" Decker carrying the flag of King Carlos III. They fired their muskets as a salute. 

Ernestine Desoto McGovern,
 a local Chumash descendent

Father Virgil Cordano, OFM  
Old Mission, Santa Barbara
still participating after 29 years

Father Virgil Cordano from Santa Barbara’s Old Mission gave a moving benediction. Luis Moreno sang the complete Alabado just as it was sung daily by Father Font and the original members of the expedition. Ernestine de Soto, a Chumash descendant, gave a message spoken in her native Chumash language. A member of Los Descendientes and Presidio soldado descendant John Bolton, representing the descendants of the Spanish families, rode in on his white mule "Ruthie." Native Sons of the Golden West, Santa Barbara Parlor 116, were led by president Timothy Podell to unveil the Anza campsite sign covered with the Millennium Flag in recognition of this Millennium Trail--the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail. Thanks are due to the Native Sons and the National Park Service who each contributed half of the cost of the sign. Salud Carbajal, Santa Barbara County District 1 Supervisor, gave warm welcoming remarks. Also greeting us was Terri Maus, the Director of the County Park Department which installed the sign. The County Park Commission in October had authorized the placement of the sign.
 Representatives of the neighboring city of Carpinteria also attended. Ralph Fertig, president of the Santa Barbara Bicycle Coalition, rode his bicycle 25 miles from Santa Barbara for the occasion. The county and city are planning a new 3-mile trail along the Carpinteria bluffs as part of the Anza National Historical Trail and the California Coastal Trail, both Millennium trails..

Jarrell Jackman, (in the foreground) Executive Director of the Santa Barbara Trust for Historic Preservation, spoke about the importance of the Anza Expedition bringing families to California and founding the city of San Francisco. Representatives of the neighboring city of Carpinteria also attended. Ralph Fertig, president of the Santa Barbara Bicycle Coalition, rode his bicycle 25 miles from Santa Barbara for the occasion. The county and city are planning a new 3-mile trail along the Carpinteria bluffs as part of the Anza National Historical Trail and the California Coastal Trail, both Millennium trails..

Also participating in his Soldado uniform was Arthur Najera, president of the Santa Barbara County Trails Council, which sponsored the event. In 1976 he rode his horse in the bicentennial re-enactment along with Jim Blakley (above on Ruthy, he mule)  After the ceremony, lemonade and apple pie were served by the Native Daughters of the Golden West.

The Anza campsite sign reads as follows:


Near Chumash village of La Rinconada
Nearly 300 Spanish soldiers, and settlers (including 135 children), and their escorts traveled from Mexico 1,600 miles by horseback and foot to settle the Presidio of San Francisco

Historic marker sponsored by National Park Service
Native Sons of the Golden West, Santa Barbara Parlor #116
Amigos de Anza, Santa Barbara County Park Department 
Santa Barbara County Trails Council.

The First Annual Gregorian Chant Festival for World Peace, San Francisco

Sent by Jaime Cader

On Easter Sunday, March 27, the First Annual Gregorian Chant Festival for World Peace took place in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park.  The event started at 11 AM on Kennedy Drive, one and a half blocks west of Stanyon Street, in front of the glass Conservatory of Flowers and inside the Romanesque archway on the Green.  The program was supposed to have continued until 5 PM, however, it ended earlier when it started raining at 3 PM.  It had been forecasted to rain on that day, as such, fewer people than expected attended the concert.

This gathering was sponsored by the Franciscan Brothers of the Immaculate Heart of Mary and it was organized by Paul Bernardino, a veteran political activist since 1969.  Bernardino was professed as a Franciscan brother six years ago when that order's provincial headquarters was located in New Orleans.  Bernardino is Mexican-American and his grandfather fought alongside the Zapatistas in Mexico.

Bernardino said that he believes in the work, tradition and spirit of St. Francis of Assisi who taught through his prayer "Lord, make me an instrument of your peace."

The First Annual Gregorian Chant Festival for World Peace continues what has been done in Assisi, Italy since the days of St. Francis in the 13th century by his friars, hermits, and nuns, said Bernardino.

At the festival, all of the songs from the Early and Medieval liturgical chant of the Old Latin Rite were sung in Latin with organ affects, occasional bells and incense.  The Kyrie was sung in Greek.

Admission was free for this event and everyone was welcome. The individuals sponsoring that event had asked the the community to be there for an unforgettable sublime musical experience to envision and to promote world peace, -to heal the deep wounds and causes of war, social injustice, racial division and hate in this war torn and materialistic world.  Gregorian chant was the music and World Peace was the message.

Pena Vaca Berryessa Reunion  

Pena Vaca Adobe, Vacaville CA, 29 May, 2005, 11 am to 3 pm.
More information, contact: Richard Lyon,
4202 Boatwright Cove, Austin TX 78725

John Arvizu, OD

The Arvizu family has been in California since the 1700s and is descended from the early Spanish/Mexican settlers of California.

I was born in Los Angeles and raised in Baldwin Park, California.  I enjoy studying about early Spanish California history and its influence on the California life style. 

My clinical interests are in general optometry, contact lenses and refractive surgery, such as LASIK. I am Board licensed in diagnostic and therapeutic drugs. I also provide emergency eye care for the general physician staff in Gilroy.

My education began in Baldwin Park, California. After high school, I went on to Mt. San Antonio Junior College, the University of California at Los Angeles and then to UC Berkeley where I received my Bachelor of Science degree from UC Berkeley in 1970. I became a Fellow of the American Academy of Optometry in 1974. I began my professional career by founding the Optometry Department at the Alviso Family Health Center in 1970. Private practice beckoned in 1974, and I left to join Kaiser Permanente in 1989. I served on the California State Board of Optometry from 1980 to 1986 after being appointed by the Governor of California. I acted as its president. I was elected to the Gilroy Unified School Board in 1977 and served as its president three times and then retired from the Board in 1996. 

Memories of strife sway school board against naming school for Cesar Chavez
Refusing to bow to political pressure, board votes against labor leader's name for new high school in Watsonville. By David L. Beck, Mercury News
The San Jose Mercury News, August 16, 2002
Sent by Howard Shorr

When it finally came to a vote, all the political pressure and popular petitions that organizers could muster, all the sign-waving and speeches couldn't persuade a Watsonville school board to name its new high school after Cesar Chavez.

The school board, haunted by memories of labor strife in the 1970s, when Chavez and his United Farm Workers tried to organize the Pajaro Valley, said they were moved by a desire for unity in a community they saw as once again being torn apart over the name Chavez and what it symbolizes.

The Pajaro Valley Unified School District trustees voted 5-2 late Wednesday night against the name Cesar E. Chavez High School. Then they voted 6-1, the lone Latino on the board dissenting, in favor of Pajaro Valley High School.

Luis Alejo, a young lawyer, graduate student and Watsonville native, called the vote a ``slap in the face'' to the Latino community.

Pressure on the board was intense. The state's highest-ranking elected Latino, Lt. Gov. Cruz Bustamante, wrote a letter supporting Cesar E. Chavez High and had his staff working the phones. Rep. Sam Farr, D-Salinas, and Watsonville council members weighed in on the side of Chavez High. Activists organized a student-based Coalition for Cesar E. Chavez High School and rallied local small-business support.

Supporters predicted their vote could have far-reaching consequences in Watsonville, a city of 47,000, an estimated 75 percent of whom are Latinos. Despite their numbers, the Latino population has only recently begun to dominate local politics, winning a majority on the city council for the first time in 1998. And they still have barely a presence on the school board.

``We're not going to support candidates who didn't support the voice of these students,'' said Alejo, who helped organize the pro-Chavez forces.

Emotional testimony

The vote followed more than two hours of enthusiastic, emotional but mostly well-mannered public testimony -- most in favor of the name Chavez.  It was standing-room-only in the district's board room, official capacity 125. Students held a giant painted face of Chavez. Others waved signs bearing the familiar photographed visage -- the faint smile, the bags under the eyes, the shock of black-and-gray hair -- and words such as ``It's Time''' and ``Do the Right Thing,'' ``Justice Now'' and ``Listen to the Student Voice.''

Not all the speakers were for Chavez, and not all the signs were, either. A stone-faced man in jeans and white cowboy hat carried one that said, ``Los Piscadores de Fresa Apollamos Pajaro Valley High School'' -- strawberry pickers for PVHS.

The issue divided the community -- almost literally, according to school board member Dan Hankemeier, who represents the south end of the sprawling Pajaro Valley Unified School District. 
``I'll tell you,'' he said Wednesday morning, ``the most vocal group probably is the people for Cesar Chavez.'' But ``I'm sure there's as many people out there for one side as there is for the other side.''

Chavez's name has not been without honors in his own state. There are Chavez streets, parks and elementary schools. His birthday is a state holiday. San Jose, where the Central Valley native began his career as a labor organizer, has named its downtown park after him.

Delano, where he founded the National Farm Workers Association in 1962, is naming its own new high school, scheduled to open in 2003, after Chavez. It will be the first Chavez High in the state.

Watsonville's new high school, on the west side of Highway 1 at Harkins Slough Road, will open in fall 2004 at the earliest.  Students spoke admiringly of Chavez Wednesday night. ``Because he's a great inspiration to all youth,'' said Inez Rodriguez, a Watsonville High senior who spoke at the meeting and waved a pro-Chavez sign out on Green Valley Drive before it.

Others described Chavez as a man of peace, a man whose efforts to organize field workers brought not only pensions and medical care to those who toiled beneath the broiling California sun, but such simple amenities as cold water.

``You look at what's taking place around us right now,'' said Bustamante on Wednesday morning. ``The fighting around the world, crime on the street, kids in gangs . . . the TV, the radio, they're surrounded by violence.  ``And so here is a group of people who want to name a school after a man who taught non-violence? Seems like that would be a very good thing to do.''

Nonetheless, history weighs heavily on many people in the Pajaro Valley, where a teacher strike and the United Farm Workers' organizing efforts in the 1970s ``tore the community apart horribly at the time,'' according to board member Sharon Gray.

Strikes in the frozen food industry followed. ``This used to be the Valley of the Jolly Green Giant,'' she said, recalling a famous advertising campaign. But Green Giant and many of the other packers moved to Mexico -- at least partly, she said, to avoid labor strife in Watsonville.

``For somebody who came maybe to the community maybe five years ago or so,'' the Chavez name is ``not likely to be considered a big deal. But old-timers,'' some of whose ancestors came to the valley in the mid-19th century, ``it's very, very traumatic for them.

``And of course many of these are businesses and entities that have been very supportive of our schools. It's very, very divisive.''  Unity was the theme that brought together the majority of the board members.

``The naming of a new high school should be a joyous occasion,'' said Gray just before the vote. ``And yet it has been for the past month one of increasing acrimony. And I know that is not what the followers of Cesar Chavez, a wonderful man, had in mind.

``We've got a long time'' before the school opens, she said. ``Time to come together. Time to heal. Time to honor a great leader'' in some other way.  When the board's vice president, Sandra Nichols, managed to amend a motion in favor of PV High to force a vote for or against Chavez High, only she and Roberto Garcia, the lone Latino member, voted for Chavez. In the following vote, in favor of PV High, Nichols switched.

``Pajaro Valley is one of my two favorite names,'' she had said all along.  Then board President Carol Roberts spoke about ``civics in action,'' telling the children who had spoken that they were ``brilliant.''

``It doesn't matter what the name of your school is,'' she said. ``What matters is in your heart.'' 
And at that, the crowd that had quietly watched the end of their hopes erupted.

A man cried out an expletive and the crowd began chanting ``Cha-VEZ, Cha-VEZ.'' Roberts ordered the room cleared.

Outside, Alejo was furious. He recalled the years of work that had gone into getting the new high school, whose very existence was controversial and whose site had to be approved by the California Coastal Commission. When they needed us, he said, we were here giving support, going to the meetings, writing the letters, signing the petitions.

``The Latino community was OK with that,'' he said. ``It took us 10 years to get this high school to this point. . . . We were the most active."  ``A lot of these young people, you'll see them in a few years. They're going to be running for school board.''

Contact David L. Beck at or at (831) 423-0960.

San Francisco History Index
Sent by Johanna de Soto

[[Editor: This is an outstanding website.  Any investigations into San Francisco families, should check this out very carefully.  The listing below are just a few articles.]]

San Francisco History and Escapes from Alcatraz - lots of great source materials collected by Ron Filion - a fine example of someone adding the available information about San Francisco history online. 

The Museum of the City of San Francisco - curated by Gladys Hansen - lots of source materials but does not seem very interested in working with other websites. 

San Francisco Genealogy - by Pamela Storm Wolfskill - a great geneology resource! 

Shaping San Francisco - brings a unique perspective of history from the perspective of labor, ecology, African Amercians and women 

San Francisco Memories - lots of great photos! 

Pier 70 San Francisco - nice job documenting the history of this part of the city 
America Hurrah! - by Wagon Master Bill Roddy - a nice contribution to SF history online 

SF Gate: Bay Area 2000 - KRON's documentaries - a little unfocused, but has a fun history quiz 
Reflections on Black History - by Thomas C. Fleming - a great collection of essays from the perspective of a black person living here in the first half of the 20th century. 

Encyclopedia of San Francisco - from the San Francisco Museum & Historical Society - an interesting project in the beginning stages 

Immigrant Experience to Premiere at the Museum of Man
La Prensa, San Diego,  3-11-05
Sent by Ed Flores,

"Generaciones: Three Generations of Mexican Women Immigrants," a new documentary which recounts the lives of women from four Mexican immigrant families, will premiere to the public at the San Diego Museum of Man, starting at 3 p.m., Saturday, March 19. It will be screened regularly through May 31 in tandem with an art exhibit related to the film.

According to Pilmmaker Joyce Axelrod, the film was developed to enhance under-standing of the immigrant experience, celebrating the "similarities and differences among generations."

Made in partnership the Barrio Logan College Institute, a nonprofit organization located in San Diego dedicated to providing Mexican American students with educational support, the film was co-directed by Viviana Lombrozo, a noted artist and sculptor, and Axelrod, an award winning filmmaker and teacher. It was funded with a $5,000 grant from the California Council for the Humanities California Story Fund.

"The Museum is honored to be a venue for this important community project," said Javier Guerrero, the Museum of Man's Director of Curatorial Programs. "The filmmakers have captured an accurate and poignant depiction of the Mexican American expe-rience."

Axelrod and Lombrozo spent months interviewing and documenting the women-including grandmothers born in Mexico, mothers who were die first generation to emigrate, and daughters born in California. Some families were also issued video cameras with which to document certain aspects of their own lives.

"The purpose of our project was to depict the lives of socio-economically disadvantaged Mexican women and show their journey to California, their challenges in integrating into a new community, their trials in maintaining their culture of origin while adapting to a new one, and the changing of immigrant women and in the rest of society as a result of these struggles," Axelrod explains.

The project also includes "Generaciones," an exhibit of photographs, mementos and art projects created by the families, which will be on di-play through May 31. Lombrozo worked closely with the families to create art that interprets the individual ways that the families maintain-their traditions and family ties. For example, one family enjoys cooking and sharing traditional foods, and their project visually depicts their family culi-nary history. Another family will fabricate a display related to "Escarmuza Charra," the Mexican tradition of competitive horse-back riding in which women play a key role.

Located beneath the land-mark California Tower in Balboa Park, the Museum of Man - an educational, non-profit corporation founded in 1915 - is San Diego's only museum devoted to anthropology. It is open daily from 10 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.

Sent by Eva Booher EVA
A chronology of events in which is included, the story of Palms and Playa Del Rey together with Rancho La Ballona and Rancho Rincon de los Bueyes By ROBINSON, W. W. published in 1939

The title to all land in California becomes vested in the King of Spain.

The Culver City area was off the main highway of travel during the period of first white occupation of California which began in 1769. 

It lay in the valley formed by La Ballona Creek flowing toward Playa del Rey, a year-round river draining the whole of the west Los Angeles region and fed directly from the chain of cienegas and lakes that stretched from the Hollywood mountains to the Baldwin Hills.  This valley was a place of rich silt, the higher ground being the present Culver City, the lower ground being the extensive marshes that stretch far back of the lagoon at La Ballona's mouth.  Sycamores, willows and tules lined the river. 

On old maps the cliffs of Ballona's easterly boundary are labeled "Guacho," sometimes "Huacho," an Indian term meaning high place, according to Cristobal Machado of Culver City, whose memory of La Ballona Valley goes back to Indian days.  It was against these cliffs that the Indians built their brush-and-mud huts.  From them the brown-skinned men went forth to gather clams and shell fish at the beach beyond the lagoon, to hunt small game in the marshes and to find edible berries, seeds and insects in the river growth and on hillside shrubs. 

Los Angeles is founded and, while the pueblo is still young, its citizens discover that the Culver City valley is good pasture ground for cattle.

Within the decade after the eleven families from Sonora and Sinaloa started building Los Angeles' first houses, the names of Machado, Higuera, Talamantes and Lopez were established in the community. 

Members of these families were to become the first white settlers along Ballona Creek, the first white occupants of the valley land that stretches from Culver City to the sea. 

One of the soldier-guard who came from Sonora to Los Angeles in 1781 was 25-year-old Jose' Manuel Machado.  He brought with him a 17-year-old wife, Maria.  It was this Machado whose sons Augustin and Ygnacio were to settle Rancho La Ballona. 

A few years after the founding of the Pueblo, Felipe Talamantes and his brother Tomas became Los Angeles citizens.  Later they shared with the young Machado men in their ranch venture. 

The alcalde of the pueblo in the year 1800 was Joaquin Higuera.  His son, Bernardo, was to settle the land that adjoined the Rancho La Ballona on the northeast — Rancho Rincon de los Bueyes. 

Meanwhile the people of the pueblo, with vague ideas about the boundaries of their own four square leagues of land, needed more good pasturage for their cattle.  The Rincon and the Ballona, lying to the southwest, could qualify and in addition were so far from San Gabriel and San Fernando as to be unclaimed by the Missions. 

At a very early period, then, cattle owners from the pueblo were visiting the Culver City valley. 

Example of  Internet Networking between Michael Imlay and Cindy  LoBuglio

Info Request 
Date: 3/6/2005 7:47:03 PM Pacific Standard Time

Dear Mimi:

I am a freelance writer based in the Echo Park/Silverlake area of Los Angeles. I was doing research today at the SoCal Genealogical Society and got to talking with one of the board members, who strongly encouraged me to contact you.

I have always had a deep interest in California and L.A. history. When I moved to this area a few years ago, I became fascinated by the story of the "Feliz Curse" on the lands that have become Griffith Park. I'm not so much interested in the curse and related ghost stories, per se, as I am in tracing the interesting origins of the story.

Most historians believe Maj. Horace Bell, a late 1800s writer, made the whole thing up. However, the more research I have done, the more convinced I am that he was working from an original Feliz-Sanchez family story that he embellished for dramatic effect.

I am looking for any descendents of early Los Angeles families who may have some knowlege of the story, or information about the people in it. I am hoping that somewhere, someone has some "family memories" that will help these people "come alive." (ie., "Oh yes, I remember my grandmother talking about that person... She said he/she...") My research is progressing, but I'd like this to be a living history -- not some statiscal compilation.

I believe the entire tale has fascinating things to say about this region's history. Once one learns the real-life people of the tale, it becomes a story of a noble family that eventually found itself disposessed and living on the fringes of Los Angeles by the early 1900s. It really chronicles L.A.'s journey from Spanish Colonial outpost to post-Industrial city.

I have identified the Dona Petranilla of the story as Maria Refugia Petronila Feliz-Ortega, born at Rancho Refugio and baptized at Mission Santa Inez in 1843. She married Estaben de los Angeles Sanchez-Lopez at the L.A. Plaza Church in 1857. She died in the home of her son, Juan B. Sanchez, of a heart ailment in the late 1800s.

The other protagonist of the tale is Don Jose Antonio Feliz, son of Juan Anastacio Feliz and Maria I. Verdugo. Don Antonio died, unmarried and without heirs, of smallpox in 1863. He was buried from the Plaza Church, presumably in its graveyard, now gone. From thence his ranch passed to Don Antonio Coronel and eventually to Griffith, who donated it to the city as a park.

Any descendents of the above-mentioned Spanish-Mexican families may be of help. 

I'm hoping that my research may lead to a series of articles or a book that will be useful to readers intrigued by Los Angeles history and folklore.

Thank you for any advice/info you can share!


Michael Imlay
Professional Writer/Consultant
PR/MarCom, Editorial and Features for New and Traditional Media
(323) 953-1688

Cc: ; 
Sent: Sunday, March 06, 2005 8:26 PM
Subject: Re: Info Request

Dear Michael, 

I am forwarding your email to two of the best California researchers that I know, Cindy LoBuglio and Johanna De Soto. They will be able to steer you in the right direction. It surely sounds like a great project to track down the origin, and get to the roots of the tale. . .

Cindy >, Johanna >Casa San Miguel

I also suggest that you look at the California section in the previous issues of Somos Primos. There are 62 issues online now.

You can do a surname or keyword search from this site:

Best wishes, Mimi 

From: Rudecinda LoBuglio [] 
Sent: Friday, March 11, 2005 9:01 PM
Subject: Re: Info Request

Dear Mr. Imlay:

I'm sorry I didn't write this before now, but I have the horrible bug going around the State of California, and I'm behind with my life.

However, I wouldn't be able to suggest this if I had written much sooner. A friend just gave me a book called Ghost Notes: Haunted Happenings throughout the Golden State.
It was written by Randall A. Reinstedt, who has written other books about hauntings, etc., including one titled Treasures of California Missions, as well as Tales and Treasures of California's Ranchos, amongst many others. His Web site is: and I thought you might write him as he seems to have collected material up and down the State of California, although he seems to have written more about the Monterey area than anywhere else.

I also wrote a friend, Karla Everett, who has done research on the Feliz family, and took the liberty of sending a copy of your letter in case she could help you.

Lastly, until I connect with something more positive, I would like to suggest that you post a query about the research you are doing on the Los Californianos' Web site at: Click on "Queries" 
and scroll down to the bottom of the page, where you can submit a query in the boxes provided.

I will contact you again if I find anything worthwhile--I know the information you seek is out there somewhere.

Best wishes to all, Cindy 

To: 'Rudecinda LoBuglio' ; 
Sent: Friday, March 11, 2005 9:39 PM
Subject: RE: Info Request

Cindy (and Mimi):

I had that bug 2 weeks ago. It's miserable, and I hope you're feeling better.

Thank you for the leads. I will definitely try to contact Mr. Reinstedt.

I have already been in touch with Karla, who has been most helpful. Over the past several months, she was able to share a wealth of information and show me some of the basics of genealogical research. However, we have hit a brick wall in trying to locate a present-day descendent. I'm hoping someone from the Sanchez or Hossman families may be lurking out there somewhere.

I pretty much have the ghost info down pat. And I have a lot of very interesting genealogical evidence. Now what I'm trying to do is find someone with a family memory of one or more of the characters in the story. They may not even know the story itself, or that they are descended from the people involved. I'm just hoping if I throw names like Antonio Feliz, Petra or Estaben Sanchez, or Juan B. Sanchez or Mary Hossman out there, someone will go, "Hey, that's my great-great grandmother/grandfather!" Then maybe I can get some family stories about what that person was like apart from the legend.

I will definitely post to Los Californianos.

Once again, I appreciate the help. If you do ever bump into a connection, I'll be here standing by...

Best regards,


Michael Imlay
Professional Writer/Consultant
PR/MarCom, Editorial and Features for New and Traditional Media


Subj: Re: Info Request 
Date: 3/13/2005 11:04:50 PM Pacific Standard Time 

Dear Michael:

My step-daughters just sent me a very old book that belonged to their Mother, Los Angeles: City of Dreams by
Harry Carr (New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, Incorporated, 1935). He suggests that possibly the "curse" goes back much further than Bell even suggested. 

Are you aware that José Vicente Feliz, his wife, and children were members of the Anza Expedition of 1775-76,
and that his wife, María Ygnacia Manuela Pinuelas died in childbirth enroute to Alta California? She is reportedly the only death in the Expedition, and was the Mother of the first child born on/during the Expedition. (While the child arrived safely, he died several months later and is buried at Mission San Gabriel). I admit this doesn't add much to the descendants you are searching for, but I wanted to let you know before I forget about it. `

I am not sure how deeply you want to delve into the actual land grant, but if you decide you want to read more about it, besides contemporary literature, the Federal Land Commission Hearings are on microfilm and can be borrowed from the Government through your local Library. There is a set of all the hearings at the Government facility at Laguna Niguel down the Coast. (Sometimes the information from the Land Commission Hearings can be obtained in the Law Library of the City, or from larger Libraries--some are available in the State Library, because most of the hearings were read into the Congressional Hearings. We are not as fortunate as New Mexico where there are whole books of their hearings published for the use of their representatives, etc.)

According to Ranchos of California : a list of Spanish Concessions 1775-1822 and Mexican Grants 1822-1846 by Robert G. Cowan (Fresno: Academy Library Guild, 1956),
it was . . . "1 1/2 leagues granted to Vincente [sic] Félix in 1802. Juan Diego was claimant for 6647 acres, patented Apr. 18, 1871." 

I was positive I would find some answers in my favorite,
Ranchos become Cities by W. W. Robinson and his wife,
Irene B. Robinson (Pasadena: San Pasqual Press, 1939), but he did not write about the Rancho Los Felis, however in the "Appendix" he reports that the Los Felis consisted of 6647.46 acres, and was patented to Maria Ygnacio [sic] Verdugo. Nor was there any additional information in Robinson's Land in California, which was used in the classroom at UC Berkeley and UCLA--I do not know which class though.

I am unable to identify Juan Diego listed above as the claimant, but he should be identified as to his surname in the record of the hearing before the Land Commission of the will, who got what and why, with names, dates, and places, etc. I will continue to look until I find it, but in the meantime you have enough to keep you busy. One last thing though is that at the Santa Monica Family History Center, they have the Adam Virkus papers (or anyway they used to), and they are filed by family name and in many cases they citations of book/page/etc. for civil records, and I feel quite sure there has to be a number of Felis/Felix pages. 

Happy hunting, Cindy 

Date: 3/14/2005 9:33:11 AM Pacific Standard Time

Very, very interesting. I will definitely try to locate a copy of Carr's book and read what he says about the story.

While I haven't read Robinson on the land issues, I did find a passage in one of his general histories of the city where he dismisses the curse as an exercise in Los Angeles "myth-making" that became typical as the city grew. He believes Bell made it all up, and states that Dona Petronila (the girl Bell credits with uttering the curse) had no need to inherit any Feliz lands, since her grandmother, Maria Verdugo, continued to care for her after her uncle's death.

He clearly got that wrong. Maria Verdugo died a few years BEFORE her son Antonio Feliz died in 1863. Still, my research suggests Petronila probably was not included in Don Antonio's "will" because she had already married Estaben de los Angeles Sanchez of the La Cienga Ranching family. I'm still trying to discern whether the two of them lived on the Feliz Ranch, however, because census info indicates she was in the Feliz household -- without her husband -- in 1860. Perhaps they had a separate adobe on the ranch, or he was away on business when the census-taker arrived.

In any event, I tend to agree with Carr that the tale of the curse is much older than Bell's account.

Tracing the land grant's history is also on my task list, so I really appreciate the references you have provided.

One of my problems has been figuring out how the land passed from Vicente Feliz to Juan Feliz (husband of Maria Verdugo and father of Jose Antonio Feliz). According to Northrup's works, Juan appears to be a cousin. How did he get the land when there would seem to have been many more direct relations to Vicente?

Questions, questions, questions...

I can't tell you how helpful all this information is. If I can return the favor in any way, please let me know.



Curse of the Felizes
Sent by Johanna De Soto

Does this man look cursed to you? Antonio F. Coronel is pictured here as a prosperous old don with a doting young wife, Dona Mariana Williamson Coronel. 
Photo: UCLA Department of Special Collections 

Note: This article below originally appeared in the Glendale News-Press on Oct. 31, 1993. 
Rancho Los Feliz was 8,000 acres of the prettiest and richest land in all California. It had fertile pastures, dramatic hillsides and mighty oaks.  It all belonged to the Felizes, descendants of Jose Vicente Feliz, military escort to the first 44 Spanish subjects to settle Los Angeles. 

The curse dates from the day in 1863 that the reigning Feliz, Don Antonio, died of smallpox.  
It was also the day the Felizes lost their beloved rancho. 

A Dying Don Leaves a Lasting Legend: Don Antonio, a bachelor, lived with his sister and housekeeper, Soledad, and his niece, Petranilla. As smallpox gripped Don Antonio, 19-year-old Petranilla was sent away to protect her from the deadly and contageous disease. Soledad stayed. 

On his deathbed, Don Antonio was visited by an influential aquaintance, Don Antonio Coronel, and a lawyer, Don Innocante. The two visitors drew up a will. Innocante read it aloud. One version of the story says Feliz pronounced the will "all right." Another version claims a stick was fastened to the back of the dying man's head, forcing him to nod his ascent. 

Coronel was willed the rancho. Soledad got some furniture. Petranilla got nothing. A judge upheld the will's legality. Soledad, apparently a docile soul, accepted her token inheritence. But Petranilla, who returned to find Coronel in control of the place she called home, would not accept her fate quietly.  Coronel used his persuasive powers (he was a successful local politician) to gracefully explain his sudden windfall. But Petranilla would not be placated. 

The Curse Is Unleashed  According to Major Horace Bell, a turn-of-the-century teller of tales about Southern California, this is when Petranilla unleashed the Feliz curse:  Your falsity shall be your ruin! The substance of the Feliz family shall be your curse! The lawyer that assisted you in your infamy, and the judge, shall fall beneath the same curse! The one shall die an untimely death, the other in blood and violence! You, señor, shall know misery in your age and although you die rich, your substance shall go to vile persons! A blight shall fall upon the face of this terrestial paradise, the cattle shall no longer fatten but sicken on its pastures, the fields shall not longer respond to the toil of the tiller, the grand oaks shall wither and die! The wrath of heaven and the vengeance of hell shall fall upon this place.

According to Bell's account, Coronel, "for reasons best known to himself," soon ceded the entire peoperty to his lawyer. The lawyer was shot and killed while celebrating the sale of the land's water rights. 

A Troubled Ranch The rancho was sold to Leon "Lucky" Baldwin. Baldwin, according to Bell, spared no expense to make it the most profitable and luxurious rancho in all of California. But Baldwin was not so lucky with this property. According to Bell, The cattle sickened and died in the fields. The dairy business was a disastrous failure. Fire destroyed the ripening grain and . . . grasshoppers devoured the green crops. The vineyard was stricken with a strange blight and perished.

Baldwin sold the rancho to pay off its mortgage. The buyer was Griffith J. Griffith. Misfortune continued to pile up. A huge storm in March 1884 brought lightning down upon the oaks. Waves of water cascaded down the hills onto the flatland. Ranch hands claimed they saw the ghost of Antonio Feliz riding the waves, later reappearing to dance the El Jarabe over the ruin that had been wrought. 
Griffith ordered the dead oaks cut and sold for lumber. Workers claimed a spirit calling itself Antonio Feliz sometimes appeared at a promintory in the park known as Bee Rock. Ostriches, which were being raised on the rancho, inexplicably stampeded at night. 

Griffith, the story goes, would only visit the property at midday. He eventually donated the land to the city as a park. Perhaps that placated Antonio Feliz' restless soul. He apparently hasn't been seen around the park in this century. His last, and perhaps most memorable appearance was in 1898. It was the night that the city fathers gathered at the old Feliz adobe to celebrate the city's acceptance of the former rancho as a park. 

Bell wrote that at midnight a gaunt figure with a fleshless face appeared at the head of the oaken banquet table and announced: "Senores, I am Antonio Feliz, come to invite you to dine with me in hell. In your great honor I have brought an escort of sub-demons." 

Engaging Folklore, Dubious History  For decades afterward, whenever anything went wrong in the park, someone, usually a journalist, would bring up the curse. As with all such tales, the curse underwent occasional revision. For example, Ed Curl, Sierra Club hike leader and founder of the Griffith Park Quarterly, added his own twist, placing Petranilla atop Bee Rock rather than her uncle. 
Some local historians have little use for the curse. W.W. Robinson, an influential local historian who published numerous works from the 1930s to the 1960s, dismissed the curse as "the creation of Los Angeles' most-eminent myth-maker, Horace Bell." 

Dr. Tom Andrews, Executive Director of the Historical Society of Southern California, said that sometimes historians have a hard time accepting folklore since "history struggles to be an exact science."  Folklore like the Curse of the Felizes isn't really history, Andrews said, but it isn't something that should be merely discarded, either. "Folklore is that gray area between black and white," he said. "It is an area that a historian pays some attention to because it sheds some light on the culture of the time." 

As folklore, stories like the curse contain a particular kind of truth, said Steve Taylor, associate professor of English at Glendale Community College. "Myths express values," he said. Taylor instructes his students to look at the values inherent in particular myths. If those values still have relevance, the myth lives on. 

Writer's note: This article, one of an occasional series, is part of the Griffith Park History Project, an attempt to chronicle the park's long and remarkable life. 

What memories do you have of Griffith Park? Suggestions? Questions? Criticisms? 
Please call me at Glendale College 240-1000, Ext. 5352 (I have voice mail, so you can leave a message at any time.) 

Write to me, Mike Eberts, Griffith Park History Project, Glendale Community College, 1500 N. Verdugo Road, Glendale, CA 91208. 
E-mail me at
Return to the Griffith Park History Home Page

Another writer on the topic is Michael Imlay, Professional Writer/Consultant
PR/MarCom, Editorial and Features for New and Traditional Media (323) 953-1688
E-mail:   Website:


Los Angeles Times, Jun 23, 1916:
REVIVES OLD TIMES: Dominguez Estate 
Source Karla Everett

Heirs of Senora Benancia de Dominguez Bring Suit to Recover Land Held Many Years by Catholic Diocese and Others for Plaza Church.

The heirs of Senora Benancia Sotelo de Dominguez are seeking to recover fifty feet of land adjoining the Plaza Church on the south, in a suit filed yesterday through Attorney Frank A. McDonald for A. L. Abrahams, administrator of the Dominguez estate. Senora Dominguez died June 15, 1865.
She had large real estate holding in this city, and, it is alleged, made a verbal lease of the fifty feet in question, to be used as a burial ground until a permanent burial ground was obtained by the church.

It is alleged that the church did acquire a burial ground in 1875, but it is claimed failed to turn back the fifty feet, under the terms of the verbal lease. The defendants named in the suit are the Roman Catholic bishop of Los Angeles and Monterey, the Brunswig Drug Company, L. N. Brunswig, E.
Castellano and others who allege an interest in the land.  


Northwestern United States

Instituto de Estudios Vallejianos
Saints at War Project  
Program brings language, cultures to life
Links to activities, newsletter, links, miscelanous
Honoring the poet César Vallejo

Música, bailes folclóricos,  pintores, escultura y literatura latinoamericana en una misma noche

El jueves 31 de marzo de 2005
3222-3224  WSC   (Wilkinson Center de BYU)
6.30 en punto  El evento es para mayores de 8 años  La entrada es gratis

Spanish & Portuguese Depart., Kennedy Center e International  Services de Brigham Young University

Coordinadoras Generales del Festival: Sonia Quiroga de Thomas y Gloria Stallings.
Presidenta del Instituto de Estudios Vallejianos: Dra. Mara L. García

STANDS:  Pintores: Anderson González(Venezuela), Ernesto Apomayta-Chambi (Perú), Gloria Stallings (Colombia), José Riveros (Chile), Elena Beatriz Lazary (Argentina),  Basco Riveros (Chile).  Escultura: Erasmo Fuentes (México). Escritor y Editorialista: Dr. Arturo de Hoyos (México)

Mara L. García, PhD
Associate Professor of Spanish  American Literature
Department of Spanish & Portuguese, Brigham Young University
3150 Joseph F. Smith Building   Provo, Utah 84 602
E-mail    Sent by

Saints at War Project  

Sent by Lorraine Hernandez
The current objectives of the Saints at War Project are to compile the stories of past veterans as provided by their descendants.  The goal of the Project for the next two years will be to learn of these stories and to publish them in both documentary and book form to an audience eager to learn of such service.  The release of the film and book are planned to coincide with the opening of a special exhibit at BYU to commemorate the 65th Anniversary of Pearl Harbor and U.S.
involvement in World War II in the fall of 2006.

The reality is that very little is understood of Latter-day Saint service in the Civil War, the Spanish-American War and World War I, in particular.  There is an urgent need for such information.  If anyone would like more information on how to participate in the Saints at War
Project, please call 801-422-2820 or email Bob Freeman at  The Project maintains a website which provides key information as well.  Those wishing to view the site can go to:

The public are encouraged to view this devotional and to participate in this ongoing research.  Anyone who is interested in participating with the Project is encouraged to call 801-422-2820 for a free information packet.  The Saints at War Project has also established a website for those interested at



Program brings language, cultures to life

Carla Roccapriore Reno Gazette-Journal 
Sent by Cindy LoBuglio

Javier Preciado


Javier Preciado, an Amity aide language instructor from Colombia, helps teach Spanish class Friday at McQueen High School. Some Washoe County schools have Amity aide instructors who come from other countries to assist in foreign language classes by teaching students about the cultures of other countries, including music and dance. 
Students sitting on the floor in front of Javier Preciado respond as he teaches them Spanish.
“Perro,” he says. The students start barking like dogs.  “Gato.” They meow like cats.  
“Oveja.” They bah like sheep.

In Dona Dougherty’s first-year Spanish class at McQueen High School, students respond well to “kindergarten day” each Friday, with the help of Preciado, an Amity aide from Colombia who conducts class then. Pre-school and kindergarten children learn language by visuals and sitting on the floor for story-time, and it works for high school students as well, Dougherty said. 

Those who want to hold oversized stuffed animals while Preciado reads a children’s book in Spanish must say so in Spanish: “Quiero la tortuga” for “I want the turtle” or “Quiero el conejo” for “I want the rabbit.” “That’s how we learn to speak so they re-create it,” Dougherty said. “The job of a teacher is to make language understandable. We do that with signs, visuals and acting out,” Dougherty said. “The more they hear and understand language, the more they acquire it. The students’ job is to be active learners.”

Preciado, 24, is a native of Aquitania, a city in the providence of Boyaca in Colombia. He is one of two Amity aides this year in Washoe County high schools.  He assists Dougherty and McQueen teacher Herb Kernecker in Spanish and French classes by teaching students about the Colombian culture, which includes music and dance. Students in one class have made homemade books in Spanish.

Tiffany Bettencourt, spokeswoman for the Amity Institute in San Diego, said between 120 and 200 aides come to the United States each year.  Schools pay $1,495 for an aide for an entire school year. The aide, a college student or recent graduate, stays with a host family. Funds are typically budgeted or obtained through grants or fund-raising.

Preciado teaches English and French in Colombia but said he is enjoying his stay in Reno. “I love teaching, and my stay here has been a great dream and great experience,” Preciado said.

McQueen students said they’re benefiting from Preciado as well as the structure of the class, which has occasional written work and quizzes but no textbook. “Most of our learning takes place on kindergarten day,” said sophomore Mike Vitulli, 16.  Freshman Natalie Ball, 14, agreed.  “It teaches us how to ask for things and say what we want,” she said.

Southwestern United States

Moyza Ranch News
From Tecolotlan, Mexico to Sacramento, California  
2005 National Latino Writers Conference, May 19 – 21, 2005
Arizona Fathers and Families Coalition, Inc.
New Mexico State University Library News
The Descendants of the Conquistadors

The U.S. Civil War as fought in the Southwest


Moyza Ranch News
The Tucson/Region - Arizona Daily Star Feb. 16, 2005
Following information on the Moyza family sent by:
Ray Gonzalez   

More information on Eufemiano Duran Moyza, listed in the 1860 census, age 8 in Los Nieto, Ca, area of Los Angeles, his first wife was Dolores Robles ( Bonilla ), son of Mirjilido Moyza and Ramona Duran, his father Mirjilido was killed by Indians in California.
His wife died giving child birth to his son, Ramon Moyza, and they came to Az. by covered wagon, met my grandmothers sister Angelita Mejia they married, daugther of Manuel Mejia and Jesusita Miranda, all from Sonora, Mex. Atil, Caborca.
Between Eufemiano and his son Ramon, they got a land grant, then purchased more land to an amount of 4,000 acres, the ranch was sold in 1958 to the widow of the late Jack Warner, owner of Warner Bros. Movie Studios, then again sold to John Croll from Ill., then it was subdivided into
what is now called ( Moyza Valley ), all my uncles have then died as my father who was a WW II Vet. died at the Vet. Hospital there in Tucson, Az. My father was Rafael Mejia Gonzalez, son of Desideria Mejia and Miguel Gonzalez of Atil Sonora,  ( Enclosed )  Arizona Ranches.  

Extract from: Our Common Ground, Ranch Lands in Pima County
Subareas: Upper Santa Cruz Valley
IV-3. Ranching in the Upper Santa Cruz Valley

Despite Apache raiding of outlying ranches, a wealthy Sonoran, Joaquin Astiazaran petitioned the Mexican government in 1838 for a grant of 31 and 7/8ths sitios in the "wastelands of Sopori," stretching from Tubac to San Xavier. He apparently never occupied the land, but his heirs were able to sell their rights of the unconfirmed land grant to American interests following the Gadsden Purchase of 1854. These interests, the Arizona Land and Mining Company and the Sopori Land and Mining Company, each purchased portions of the Mexican claims as well as the interests of American squatters who had occupied the land.

During the late 1850s, pioneers such as Charles Poston and Fredrick Ronstadt developed Sopori as a cattle ranch, cultivated the land, and worked a gold mine. In 1861, it is reported that several hundred Apaches swept through the Santa Cruz Valley and Sopori Ranch, killing the foreman driving off the livestock, and forcing the company to close down operations.

In 1866, the Sopori Land and Mining Company purchased all rights to the land and began the long struggle to confirm their title. There were conflicting claims from the who continued to live on the ranch, and the Penningtons had also lived on the ranch. In 1881, this confirmation was recommended for denial by Surveyor General John Wasson, "on the grounds that the original title papers are forged, ante-dated, and otherwise invalid." This recommendation was forwarded to Congress by the Secretary of the Interior, and the land claim of 142,000 acres was rejected by the Court of Private Land Claims in 1895. The US Supreme Court refused to hear an appeal.

Following this rejection, there are records transferring some Sopori lands to the Elias Family and the Sopori Land land Cattle Company beginning in 1902.

Other Early Ranches - During the late 1800s, there were other attempts to begin ranching and lumber operations in the middle Santa Cruz valley despite the Apache threat. Some of these ranches that were at least initially successful include Rhodes Ranch, Moyza Ranch, Reventon Ranch, and Bustamate Ranch among others. Farther south, Pete Kitchen established El Portero, known as the only safe location between Sonora and Tucson, and a began freighting business using the Camino Real, which he named as the "Pete Kitchen Road - Tucson, Tubac, Tumacacori, To Hell." Ranches supplied the growing cattle market in Tucson and the booming nearby mining districts in the foothills of the Sierrita and the Santa Rita mountains.

The Fredrick Ronstadt families are relatives of Linda Ronstadt.

From Tecolotlan, Mexico to Sacramento
Richard Amador Flores
Richard Amador Flores. I live in Santa Rosa and Sacramento, California, and are engaged in two family research projects. There are 3,965 individuals in my data base, spanning 16 generations. Email
My genealogy research is limited to the general areas of Tecolotalan, Cocula, and Guadalajara. Each in Jalisco, Mexico during the time frame of 1800 to 1930. The main family surnames are Flores, Amador, Cueva. There are many other surnames that married into the family but not core to the current phase of my research. Family migration spans many generations back and forth between Mexico and California. The last phase arrived pre 1920 via ship and arrived at San Pedro and lived in Lompoc, Santa Barbara County. Half of the 1900 Amador clan stayed in Santa Barbara and the second half continued north to San Francisco. The Flores family migrated to Sacramento. The common bond of these families is the Amador ancestry and holds its family reunion under the Amador banner every second year, alternating between Santa Barbara, San Francisco and Sacramento Counties, California. Average attendance at these reunions is 250 individuals. Many relatives continue to live in each of the locations noted.
Following the migration of families from Paseo del Norte that settles Mesilla Valley, Dona Ana County, New Mexico, 1842. Establishment of the Dona Ana Colony, from farming to working in the mines at Organ, New Mexico. Following statehood of New Mexico in 1912, large groups of families migrated by train from Las Cruces to California. Some families stayed in the greater Los Angeles area, many continued north to Sacramento and Lincoln, California. Surnames from New Mexico are Melendrez, Melendres, Padilla, Serna, Lujan, Torres, and Parra. Many relatives continue to live in each of the locations noted.
Richard A. Flores
Sacramento/Santa Rosa/San Francisco

2005 National Latino Writers Conference
May 19 – 21, 2005

National Hispanic Cultural Center
Jean Gonzalez

Nationally recognized authors, agents and editors will conduct workshops and participate in panel discussions on fiction, poetry, screenwriting, playwriting and memoir. All those who attend will have the opportunity to have three individual appointments with agents, authors and editors. $250 for three days, including banquet. $100 non-refundable deposit due at registration. For cancellations made before March 30th, 2005, your tuition will be refunded less the nonrefundable deposit. No refunds made on or after April 15, 2005.

Sent by   D.A. Sears, Editor, In Search of Fatherhood Forum

PHOENIX, AZ –  2 March 2005 –  A strategic alliance between Arizona Fathers and Families Coalition, Inc. (“AZFFC”), a non-profit organization based in Phoenix, Arizona which provides comprehensive services to fathers and families and BSI International, Inc. (“BSI”), the exclusive publisher and distributor of an international quarterly male parenting journal – <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">In Search Of Fatherhood® Forum For and About the Fathers of the World has resulted in the creation of a “Practitioners’ Roundtable” that takes the Conversation on Fatherhood to the next level.  

 “In November 2004, AZFFC launched its National Consultant Services to, among other things, include access to speakers on Fatherhood issues as a tool to educate everyone on key issues that impact Fathers and as a result also impact our families and our communities.   We decided not to stop there, but to take the Conversation on Fatherhood to the next level by forming a strategic alliance with BSI International, Inc., the publisher of In Search Of Fatherhood® Forum For and About the Fathers of the World which has resulted in the creation of a ‘Practitioners’ Roundtable’.  Men and Fathers from all Walks of Life and Practitioners from varying disciplines and philosophies will participate together in an ‘uncut’ and ‘uncensored’ forum on Fatherhood and Men’s Issues,” explained James Rodriguez, M.S.W. who is the President and Chief Executive Officer of AZFFC.

 “We are thrilled that in ‘2005:  Year Of The FatherTM’,  Mr. Rodriguez and AZFFC has selected our publication as the venue for the ‘Practitioners’ Roundtable.’  The ‘Practitioners Roundtable’ will make its debut in our Spring 2005 issue and will become available for distribution beginning on 30 April 2005.  There is a place at the Table of Fatherhood for every one.  Every voice needs to be heard.  Every idea needs to be explored,” added D.A. Sears, Managing Editor of In Search Of Fatherhood® Forum For and About the Fathers of the World. http://

For more information, please contact: 
James Rodriguez, M.S.W.,
President and Chief Executive Officer      

New Mexico State University Library News

Abe and Viola Peña Endowment to build farm and ranch collections with web access, government docs. $21,000 IMLS grant educates a new librarian. New computer cluster is gift from students to students.  Rocky Mountain Online Archives grant will process archives "Many Voices."  Library's Spring 2005 newsletter online


The Descendants of the Conquistadors, 2nd ed. ©
by Dr. Ronald J. Roman

The Descendants of the Conquistadors, 2nd ed. consists of  26 volumes totaling over 60,000 pages.  Each volume is dedicated to one of the 26 conquistadors who came to New Mexico in 1598 and 1600 with Governor Juan Onate and who left descendants to help settle this land. This 2nd edition has been developed from a data base 45 percent larger than the 1st edition and  in addition corrects errors in the 1st edition.  These volumes are contained on one CD in ADOBE "pdf" format.  Each volume consists of 3 parts: Genealogical Report, Kinship Report and
Family Tree.

The "Genealogical Report" starts with the individual conquistador and lists his spouse and date of marriage, his children, their spouses  and dates of marriage, and their spouses parents if known, and continues to the mid to late 1800s.  Typically, 15 -18 generations are included.

The "Kinship Report" is an alphabetized list of all the known children and descendant grandchildren, for each of the conquistadors.  Also included is the children's spouses with the date of birth of that person if known.

The "Family Tree" is a graphical presentation of the descendants of each conquistador.

Each section is searchable by name, date or place with ADOBE Acrobat's "Edit/find" command.  Citations for each "Genealogic Report" of each volume are listed at the end of the section.

Got the site to view excerpts from The Descendants of the Conquistadors, 2nd ed.
Questions?    Email:

Below is a list of the 26 individuals with a summary of the data on each.


Vol. Number NAME Appox. Number of names Number of citations Number of Pages 
Genealogy Report Kinship Report Family Tree Total
1 ARECHULETA, Asencio de 8,890 9,475 563 179 786 1,528
2 BLANDIN, Diego 4,840 5,698 336 98 426 860
3 CADIMO, Francisco 2,790 1,613 105 57 289 451
4 CARVAJAL, Juan de Victoria 13,840 4,194 265 278 1,303 1,846
5 GARCIA HOLGADO, Avaro 11,190 12,968 768 225 909 1,902
6 GOMEZ DURAN Y CHAVES, Pedro 12,190 16,013 947 245 1,132 2,324
7 GRIEGO, Juan 11,990 14,833 881 241 1,114 2,236
8 HERRERA, Juan de 3,740 4,061 238 76 334 648
9 HINOJOS, Hernando de 14,690 18,940 1,150 295 1,452 2,897
10 LOPEZ HOLGUIN, Juan 22,990 27,767 1,736 461 1,585 3,782
11 MARQUEZ, Geronimo 22,590 31,209 1,935 453 1,778 4,166
12 MARTIN BARBA, Alonzo 3,290 3,626 218 67 615 900
13 MARTIN SERRANO, Hernan 7,040 7,848 480 142 2,037 2,659
14 MONTOYA, Bartolome de 15,540 25,003 1,538 382 1,435 3,355
15 PEDRAZA, Juan de 5,840 6,809 398 118 1,171 1,687
16 PEREZ DE  BUSTILLO, Juan 21,690 29,007 1,770 435 503 2,708
17 ROBELDO, Pedro 10,540 12,510 763 212 1,293 2,268
18 RODRIGUEZ DE SALAZAR, Sebastian 6,590 7,444 456 133 1,881 2,470
19 ROMERO, Bartolome 10,090 11,659 704 203 1,191 2,098
20 RUIZ CACEREA, Juan 10,240 12,402 737 206 2,927 3,870
21 SANCHEZ MONROY, Pedro 11,140 13,525 825 224 3,151 4,200
22 VACA, Cristobal 19,140 25,420 1,528 384 363 2,275
23 VALENCIA(VALDIVIA), Blas de 3,340 3,647 211 68 1,001 1,280
24 VARELA, Alonso 9,090 11,989 708 183 2,447 3,338
25 VARELA, Pedro 10,190 12,157 742 205 1,786 2,733
26 VASQUEZ, Francisco 19,340 27,277 1,682 388 400 2,470


The Civil War in the West

Battle of Glorieta Pass, NM The Battle of Glorieta was a Union victory. The battle lasted for three days because the Confederates were able to control the pass. The Union army was victorious on the third day. Lieutenant-Colonel Chaves led Chivington's group over rugged terrain behind the Confederates in the pass. Discovering the enemy's supply train poorly guarded, the Colorado Volunteers burned the supplies and killed 1,100 mules. 

The Battle of Picacho Pass On April 15, 1862, the western-most "battle" of the American Civil War was fought on the flanks of Picacho Peak, a rocky volcanic spire situated 50 miles northwest of a small Sonoran town named Tucson. 

Brazos Santiago, Texas. May 12-13, 1865: This was the last battle in the Civil War. Native, African, and Hispanic Americans were all involved in the fighting. Many combatants reported that firing came from the Mexican shore and that some Imperial Mexican forces crossed the Rio Grande but did not take part in the battle. 
California in the Civil War The State of California is credited with providing 15,725 volunteers to the Union Armies during the Civil War. 

The California Cavalry The equipping, arming, clothing and transportation of the California Column, in their March from Southern California, to Fort Yuma, thence to Tucson and onward to Mesilla, New Mexico. 

The California Column From January to August, 1862, volunteers were gathered at Fort Yuma, 2,350 rank and file, and marched from Yuma to the Rio Grande and into Texas, a distance of over 1,000 miles, establishing and manning depots, forts and other points, under the harshest of conditions. 

The Civil War Archives Regimental Index for all the states. 
The Civil War Homepage A very extensive, well organized, listing of links all about the Civil War. Includes music, maps, images of wartime, flags, biographies, documents, bibliographies, diaries, rosters, and much more! 

Civil War in New Mexico Many people do not know that the Civil War was fought as far west as New Mexico, but in fact there was a vigorous campaign conducted there. Confederate forces, led by Lt. Col John R. Baylor succeeded in capturing the major city of Albuquerque and the capital city of Santa Fe. The Confederates attempted to reshape the destiny of this region, briefly establishing a new territory capital at Mesilla, but their reign lasted only one year. 

Civil War in New Mexico Letters from the Front, and Other Writings 
Civil War in New Mexico Soldiers and Weapons. A Photo Archive. 

Civil War Soldier The 1864 daily diary of Corporal Bushnell, Co. K, 2nd Infantry, California Volunteer. Stationed at the Presidio, San Francisco, traveled to Fort Goodwin, Arizona Territory, over much of the old Butterfield Trail. Diary covers from 1864-1866. This realistic look at military life on the frontier, in an era when half the enlisted men were illiterate, William Bushnell brings an educated humor to an otherwise bleak existence. His poetry and prose accounts, certainly the exception to an enlisted soldier's view of his daily life, show a sensitivity and optimism in what must have been unbearable conditions. 

Confederate Invasion of Arizona All of the area south of the 34th parallel, the Colorado River to the west, the Rio Grande River to the east, constituted the new Confederate Territory of Arizona, the capitol being designated as Mesilla. 

Confederate Territory of Arizona The story of the Confederate Territory of Arizona can be said to have begun in 1854, when representatives of the United States and Mexico signed the Gadsden Purchase Treaty, by which the U.S. acquired disputed territories west of the Rio Grande and south of the Gila River, territories that comprise almost half of present-day Arizona and part of present-day New Mexico as well. 

Confederates on the Colorado The Confederate Arizona Campaign, Spring 1862. A tiny Confederate force (consisting of less than 100 men), liberated what is now the state of Arizona from the rule of the United States, carried the Confederate flag to the banks of the Colorado River (the farthest west penetration of the Confederate army), delayed by more than a month the invasion of Arizona by a 2,000-man Union army from California, and fought and won the westernmost battle of the War Between the States (Picacho Pass, April 15, 1862). 

Fort Craig, New Mexico Fort Craig, one of the largest forts in the West, played a crucial role in the Civil War. The Battle of Valverde occurred along the Rio Grande River in February, 1862. 

Glorieta Pass, New Mexico March 26-28, 1862: Glorieta Pass, the turning point of the war in the New Mexico Territory, was a strategic location, situated at the southern tip of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, southeast of Santa Fe, and on the Santa Fe Trail. 
The Gray and the Red Fighting the Apache in Confederate Arizona. During the first year of the War Between the States, the Confederate States Army was the primary defense of the white population of what is now the States of Arizona and New Mexico against the depredations of the dreaded Apache Indians. The Confederates fought, and lost, the first battles of the Apache Indian War. The Union troops who conquered the Confederate Territory of Arizona would continue the struggle, and it would finally be ended in the 1880s by the United States Army. 

Index of Civil War Information Available on the Internet Look here first! At last count this site had over 7000 links to Civil War information. 

Marching Up The Gila River Excerpts from Union Sergeant George Hand's Diary of Military Service in the Southwest, 1861 - 1864. Mr. Hand's diary reveals the abundance of wildlife this desert riparian area used to support. 

Myths and Fallacies of the Fight at Picacho Pass This article attempts to bring out the incorrect stories of the fight at Picacho Pass and presents the known facts, so that one may come to a sensible understanding of what happened 138 years ago in the deserts of Arizona. 

New Mexico in the Civil War Civil War battles occurred in New Mexico that were little noted in the "States" (New Mexico was then a Territory). In the view of many historians, however, these battles were important in preserving the Union because they ended the attempt by the Confederacy to capture the West (New Mexico, Arizona, California, Colorado), its people, and its vast resources. 

Old Butch, Mascot, Indian Fighter, Marcher During the Battle at Apache Pass, Old Butch was wounded, losing a toe. Now for sure he was a true veteran, having marched about 750 miles from Yuma to Apache Pass and now had his first combat under his collar. 

Oregon and the Civil War Oregon became involved in the Civil War even before it was a State. 

Researching People of the Civil War Era Good information and lots of links to sites helpful in researching a Civil War ancestor. 

San Diego and the Civil War When the last gun was fired at Fort Sumter, S. C., April 13, 1861, two-thirds of the United States Army was garrisoning the frontier posts scattered over the country west of the Mississippi River. One-fourth was on the Pacific slope, including in San Diego. 

The Sand Creek Massacre On November 29, 1864, Col. John Chivington, who advocated Indian extermination, arrived near the Black Kettle's camp at Sand Creek, Colorado, having marched there from Fort Lyon. In spite of the American flag and a white flag flying over the camp, the troops attacked, killing and mutilating about 200 of the Indians, two-thirds of whom were women and children. 

Soldier's Vocabulary Find the meanings of "bummer" and "housewife." 
Texas in the Civil War Dedicated to Texans who served the Confederacy. 

Valverde, New Mexico February, 1862: Sibley's New Mexico Campaign 
Westernmost Campaign of the Civil War: New Mexico Territory, 1861-1862 Many hardships were endured by men on both sides of the Civil War in New Mexico. Sibley's campaign covered 2000 miles and his men originally equiped as cavalry walked more than half the route. The Colorado Volunteers on their march from Colorado City to Ft. Union set the standard for endurance by troops anywhere. Starvation, thirst, cold, heat and disease killed more men on both sides than did bullets. The battles of Val Verde and Glorieta though tiny by eastern standards were as viciously and brutally contested as Gettysburg. 

Joseph Patterson Wier Elected captain of Company A, Twelfth Texas Cavalry, Confederate Army, Wier participated in several battles. On May 18, 1864, at the battle of Yellow Bayou, Wier led his regiment in a charge upon the Union army, where he was killed. Joseph Wier was the great-grandfather of Bob Wier, keeper of the Overland-Trails mailing list and the USA GPS Waypoint server 

See Also Links To: The Military in the West, Military Roads in the West 
Other Links 

Other Hispanics served in Confederate units such as the Benavides Regiments, commanded by Colonel Santos Benavides and the 10th Texas Cavalry, commanded by Major Leonides M. Martin. 

According to the historian Jerry Don Thompson, significant numbers of Hispanics also served in the 55th Alabama Infantry, Manigault's Battalion of South Carolina Artillery, 6th Missouri Infantry, the Chalmetle Regiment of Louisiana Infantry, and the Second Texas Mounted Rifles. Other Confederate unites which contained large numbers of Hispanics included Vigil's Independent Companies - Cavalry, the Louisiana Zouaves 1st Florida Cavalry, the Spanish Legion of the European Brigade, the Spanish Guard (part of the Home Guard of Mobile, Alabama), and four independent New Mexico militia companies known by their commanders names (Gonzales, Martinez, Tafolla, and Perea). Also see 1st Florida Cavalry, Confederate Army and Captain Joseph De La Garza Confederate Army from San Antonio. 

The conflict in Texas deeply divided the Mexican-Texans. An estimated 2,550 fought in the ranks of the Confederacy, while 950, including some Mexican nationals, fought for the Union. 

In many ways, by 1863, the Civil War in South Texas had become a civil war within a civil war. It was now Texan against Texan, Mexican-Texan against Mexican-Texan. After the hasty retreat of the bulk of the Confederate forces from the lower Rio Grande Valley, the only sizable Rebel force remaining to defend the area around Laredo, Texas was commanded by Colonel Santos Benavides. This unit was better known as the "Benavides Regiment." 

Santos Benavides was born on November 1, 1823 in Laredo, Texas. As a young man he first tasted the sting of battle during Mexico's Federalist-Centralist wars which ravaged the Rio Grande Valley from 1838 to 1840. In 1856 he became Major of Loredo and at the time of the Civil War, he had become a leading politician and financial figure in the area. He rose quickly in the Confederate ranks from Captain to Colonel. Commanding his own regiment, he was the highest ranking Mexican-American in the Confederate Army. although Generals Hamilton Lee, Slaughter, and Magruder recommended promotion for Benavides to Brigadier General, Colonel John "Rip" Ford was against such a decision, feeling it would diminish his role in the Rio Grande exploits.

In March of 1864, Confederate brigadier General Hamilton P. Lee asked Colonel benavides to ride to Brownsville to save the 100 man post which was under siege from elements of the Union's XIII Corps. Included in this group was the 2nd Texas Union Calvary, a Brownsville unit newly formed of Unionist Mexican-Texans. the 33rd Calvary commanded by Colonel Benavides rose to the occasion, and drove the Union forces back. A month after General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant at Appamatox, the Civil War ended for Santos Benavides, his two courageous brothers, and the Mexican-Texans of the Lone Star State. "Tejanos" (As the Mexican Americans from Texas are called) had been among the first to take up arms for the Confederacy and were among the last to surrender.

1st Florida Cavalry: One of a number of Florida units containing men of Spanish ancestry which fought for the Confederacy.




Black exodus : the great migration from the American South 
Instituto Mexicano de la Africanía Americana (IMAA)
Mundo AfroLatino and FinalCall
Milestone for Those of Mixed Race, 2000 Census
Genesis Newsletter Now Current 

Black exodus : the great migration from the American South 
Edited by Alferdteen Harrison
Source:  library catalog

 Notes Includes bibiliographical references.  Includes index

."What were the causes that motivated [about 5 million] black southerners to immigrate to the North? What was the impact upon the land they left and upon the communities they chose for their new homes? Perhaps no pattern of migration has changed America's socioeconomic structure more than this mass exodus of African-Americans in the first half of the twentieth century. Because of this exodus, the South lost not only a huge percentage of its inhabitants to northern cities like Chicago, New York, Detroit, and Philadelphia, but also its supply of cheap labor. Fleeing from racial injustice and poverty, southern blacks took their culture north with them and transformed northern urban centers with their churches, social institutions, and ways of life. [In this book] eight noted scholars consider the causes that stimulated the migration and examine the extensive far-reaching results. They consider also the roles assumed by black southerners who elected to remain in the South and the leverage their presence exerted for social change"--Book jacket. 
Call Number: 973 W2haL FHL US/CAN Book Available 
Publication Jackson, Mississippi : University Press of Mississippi, c1991 
Physical xviii, 107 p. 
ISBN/ISSN 087805491X (alk paper) 

Instituto Mexicano de la Africanía Americana (IMAA)
Sent by  Alva Moore Stevenson

Aprovecho el foro para informarles que Álvaro Ochoa Serrano (historiador de afro-Michoacán), Rolando Antonio Pérez Fernández (la música afromestiza y el origen kimbundu del verbo chingar)  y Rafael Rebollar (produjo documentales sobre afro-México) además de Quince Duncan (ensayista,
novelista, cuentista, orador y más), Laurence Prescott (Zapata Olivella en México),  Pedro Pérez Sarduy (poeta, novelista cubano-cubano No Longer Invisible, Las criadas de la Habana), Blas Jiménez (poeta dominicano Acá otro español), Cristina Rodríguez Cabral (poeta, ensayista uruguaya Memoria y resistencia) Antonio Tillis (crítico literario USA <Zapata Olivella>), Domingo Eduardos (economista Angoleño), Ian I. Smart y otros nos acompañarán en Veracruz este verano para el Instituto Mexicano de la Africanía Americana del 13 de junio al 8 de julio en donde intercambiaremos notas a través de disciplinas, países, e idiomas.  Parece que Luz María Martínez Montiel (La presencia africana en México), Marvin A. Lewis y Adriana Naveda (que estudia las haciendas azucareras de Córdoba), vendrán también. Les extiendo la más cordial invitación a prender candela con nosotros en el puerto jarocho. 
(para el costo a estudiantes ver: )

Un fuerte abrazo, 
Marco Polo Hernández Cuevas, PhD
Assistant Professor of Spanish
Department of Modern Languages & Literatures
Emporia State University
1200 Commercia St.
Emporia, KS 66801 USA
Tel: (620) 341-5521
Fax: (620) 341-5681

carlos guillermo wilson

Mundo AfroLatino: News:

Milestone for Those of Mixed Race
By Solomon Moore, Times Staff Writer 
Los Angeles Times, March 16, 2000 

For the first time, a person can check two or more ethnicities on the census form. It can be an           emotional moment for those whose identities were forged in less inclusive times. 

Fifty-eight years ago, in a space allotted for race but not for ambiguity, a maternity ward nurse 
wrote: "White."  Perhaps she thought the birth certificate would limit confusion as Abdullah Ismail grew up, maybe even provide him with more opportunities. Ismail's father was a Panamanian Egyptian, his mother a Belorussian Jew.  Ever after, no matter how incongruous it seemed, Ismail darkened the box next to "white" when asked for his race. 

Now, for the first time, he is about to tell the whole truth. The U.S. Census Bureau, responding to greater acceptance of racially mixed Americans, is inviting  residents to "mark one or more" of 15 ethnic categories on census forms now being mailed out across the country, offering many possible combinations of racial identity. Abdullah Ismail will check four. 

For him and thousands of interracial people of the World War II generation, the 2000 census 
provides the first chance to ask a question many have postponed for decades: "What am I?" 
It comes at a time when young multiracial Americans have Web sites, support groups and            magazines celebrating their mixed backgrounds. Some were part of the lobbying effort to persuade the federal government to make its unprecedented change this year. 

But multiracial people in their 50s and older have lived without that kind of acceptance. Their 
identities were forged in a harsher time, before the U.S. Supreme Court struck down            anti-miscegenation laws 30 years ago. Stark racial lines left few opportunities to publicly claim         overlapping ethnicities. Law and propriety dictated that people with diverse backgrounds adopt a  single minority identity to the exclusion of any other. Interracial people were often compared to dogs, called "half-breeds," "mutts" and "mongrels." 

A man like Ken Catbagan, whose mother was white and father was Filipino, did not fit anywhere. 
So he approximated.  "I was told I was really 'Oriental,' " said Catbagan, a 62-year-old Realtor in the West Adams district of Los Angeles. "I never really felt like I was Oriental. I wasn't Japanese or Chinese. I was Filipino--and half-German besides." 
The subject is so painful for him that only this year did he have his first substantive discussion about 
 race, with a Cal State Northridge professor researching people of mixed descent. During their talk, Catbagan revisited the racial fault lines that split his family apart. The conversation ended after 
Catbagan broke down in tears. "I don't think I ever called myself biracial," Catbagan said. "I just took my father's identity." 

Similar reevaluation is taking place in classrooms, living rooms and chat rooms across the nation as 
people who long regarded themselves as "white" or "just Latino" or "only African American" are no 
longer sure that's all they are. 
Because census data affect everything from congressional redistricting to civil rights enforcement, 
groups including the National Assn. for the Advancement of Colored People and the Asian American Legal Defense Fund opposed the decision to allow respondents to claim more than one racial identity for fear that their numbers--and political power--would be diluted. 

Federal agencies have not yet decided how they will tabulate data from the new categories. But 
census officials downplay the potential impact, estimating that only 1% of Americans will claim two or more racial or ethnic identities. 

Some sociologists believe that the numbers are less important than the philosophical implications. 
"The shake-up comes in the way we structure and view the world," said Kenneth Chew, a 
demography professor at UC Irvine. "Just having the option is going to make everybody think another five seconds about who they are." 

After the 2000 census, racial identity could become more like religion or political orientation, with 
ethnic affiliations being chosen rather than inherited, Chew said. In the eyes of the government, 50-year-old Reginald Daniel was black. This year, he says, he will be something else. 

"Both my parents were African American," Daniel said. "But I took a different turn. I identify 
multiracially."  Daniel, a UC Santa Barbara professor, says he has no direct knowledge of any white ancestors and claims no official tribal membership. Still, he will check African American, Native American and white in this year's census. 

"Practically all African Americans--practically the whole planet--have multiracial backgrounds," he 
said. Roderick Harrison, a senior fellow at the Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies in 
Washington, D.C., said people like Daniel make an unassailable biological and genetic argument that there is only a single human race.  But Daniel and others misunderstand the intent of the census' race question, said Harrison, who helped create the new categories while working for the Census Bureau in the '90s. "From a social and  historical point of view, we do have these [different people who] have gone through exclusion and oppression that our nation is still trying to rectify. 

"This isn't an academic exercise," he added. "The question was intended for those who have            serious commitments to multiracial identity."  

Mixed Marriages Double in 20 Years. Studies show that mixed marriages have doubled since 1980 and, according to a recent report  from the Public Policy Institute of California, interracial births in 1997 composed the third largest ethnic category of newborns in the state, after Latinos and whites. Preliminary census data also show that people who identify themselves as multiracial are more likely to be young. 

"This is a social movement being led by youths," said Matt Kelley, the 21-year-old publisher of 
Mavin, a quarterly devoted to "the interracial experience." "We're part of the first widespread 
interracial baby boom."  As the interracial population grows, so does the strength of what Kelley calls "the multiracial community." 

"The political and social networks we have were only recently established," said Kelley, a            half-white, half-Korean student at Wesleyan University in Middletown, Conn. "These kinds of support networks probably weren't available for older interracial Americans."   Which is why census officials expect the vast majority of older mixed-race people to check only one box. 

Mary I. Suzuki, a 68-year-old woman whose father was Filipino and whose mother was white,        said she will remain a Filipino. After being attacked by the Ku Klux Klan in Omaha and shoved into a ghetto by Chicago's housing covenants, Suzuki's family moved to the Philippines in 1931. Life was easier there, but Suzuki still has painful memories of Filipino children who mocked interracial kids--many of whom were fathered by American soldiers. 

"There's a rhyme in Tagalog: 'You're a white milkfish, your mother is cheap and your father has a 
bald head,' " she said. "When they said that, I wished I could go hide in the tall grass behind the 
school."  Suzuki's parents separated after World War II, and the family returned to the United States without her father. Her mother landed good teaching jobs, only to lose them after her employers learned her children were half-Filipino, Suzuki said. 

Finding housing was tougher than keeping a job. One year during America's postwar boom, the 
family lived in a strawberry patch in Stockton. Their only shelter was an abandoned boxcar. 
Suzuki's mother moved to Davis, Calif., when the children were old enough to live on their own. 
"She asked us not to visit," Suzuki said. "That would have meant her job." 

When she was young, she said, she could not afford to think about being half-white: One was 
either entirely white or not white at all. Maria P.P. Root, a Seattle-based psychologist who has edited several books on multiracial identity, said Suzuki's view is the legacy of the "one-drop" concept, which holds that "whiteness" cannot be tainted by any other ancestry. Mixed ancestry could sometimes confer a higher status within a particular minority group--Louisiana's Creoles, for example--but racially mixed people usually "identified with whatever race had the lower social status." 

That's what Ken Catbagan did. His German American mother already had three children--all blond 
and fair-skinned--when she married Catbagan's father. Ken was the youngest, the darkest and the 
loneliest of the children. 'I Don't Have a Place of Being or Beginning'  When he was a boy, Catbagan's mother took him to see his oldest half brother, a career Navy man who had never lived with Catbagan. "I recall there was something wrong," he said. "He and my mother had an argument. I knew he didn't accept my dad or me. It bothered me. I took it as a racial thing." 

When the brother died recently, his other siblings--who seldom call--told Catbagan a full year after 
the funeral, he said. Catbagan has to think hard when asked his brother's name.  "I was closer to the Filipino side of the family," he said. "I could get a mirror image with them."   Catbagan's father was a strong assimilationist and rarely talked about his Filipino origins, so even  that ethnicity seemed a poor fit. 

"I do regret that I don't really have a place of being or beginning," Catbagan said. But after 22 years in Los Angeles, he says most of the old slights have faded into memory and he seldom feels out of place in a city so aswirl with diversity. He has also noticed that his daughter--a  blond beauty with green eyes whose mother is white--is unfazed by her heritage. 

Even if it's mostly symbolic, Catbagan said he appreciates the 2000 census' mixed-race option. 
The pressure to fit into one category has diminished, he said. Cathy Tashiro, a UC Berkeley researcher, said Catbagan's experience proves that race is "situational," determined by sociological factors such as wealth, religion, educational attainment and culture. 

Race has real effects, she said, but no objective reality. To illustrate the mutability of race, Tashiro has conducted interviews with interracial people over time to gauge how their racial identities change according to their environment. "I ask them stuff like: What kind of situations make you feel more black? Or when do you feel more white?" she said. 

With his wavy black hair and tan skin, Abdullah Ismail could be a Middle Easterner or a Latino,  black or white. When he fills out his census form, he will be all of these. Ismail said he was an Arab until he was 5. His family lived in an Islamic mission in Manhattan. He spoke Arabic and Spanish and ate fresh bread sold by Yemenite bakers on his block. When his family moved to a hardscrabble housing project across town, they lived among Irish immigrants, African Americans and Puerto Ricans. Ismail identified with the Latinos in his building. When he was a teen, his friends were black. He wore an afro and briefly became a member of the Nation of Islam. 

While serving in the racially charged U.S. Army of the 1960s, however, Ismail became            disillusioned with black nationalism and told everyone he was white. "I was put off by them," he said of "black militant" soldiers. "They could be real nasty if you weren't as black as them." 

These days, Ismail said he is getting back to his Panamanian roots, speaking Spanish to patients at 
the Long Beach hospital where he works as a respiratory therapist. But he's not limiting himself. 
"When I try to nail down whether I'm Arab American or this or that, it just seems so superfluous," 
he said. "I mean, in this day and age, who isn't mixed?" 

Genesis Newsletter Now Current 

Friends,  We are very happy to report that the newsletter on the Genesis website is once again current, with some exciting changes.  The monthly newsletter format has been replaced by one with continual updates.  This way you can go to the site more frequently for the latest Genesis news. This also gives a greater opportunity to highlight accomplishments of those in your areas as well as to help promote your events.  So please send us any news, events, stories, photos etc. for consideration to be included in the new Genesis Newsletter.  And please spread the word to all that the site is and will continue to be current.
Thanks, Marvin Perkins
Co-Chair, Genesis Public Affairs
Southern California Genesis Mission Leader



Sarah Winnemucca
Tribe helping to clear pinyon land
The Puerto Ricans at Carlisle Indian School 
The Ohlone Way
In Search of the Lost Gabrielinos


Nevada Historical Society Collection

Nevada statue unveiled in D.C.
Doug Abrahms Reno Gazette-Journal, 3/9/05 
Sent by Cindy LoBuglio

WASHINGTON — A bronze statue of Paiute Indian
Sarah Winnemucca was placed between likenesses of former Presidents Dwight Eisenhower and Andrew Jackson in an uplifting ceremony Wednesday at the U.S. Capitol.

The honor for a woman who tried to bridge the gap between white settlers and Paiutes in the late 1800s was five years in the making.  Finally, she was recognized as the great person that she was,” said Louise Tannheimer, a grandniece of Winnemucca from Portola, Calif. “She’s just home.”

Tannheimer said Winnemucca considered Washington her home as well as Nevada because she spent time in the nation’s capital seeking help for her tribe. A second Winnemucca statue also will be placed in the state Capitol in Carson City.
“She was the first female Native American to write a book. She set up Nevada’s first school for Native American children,” said Senate Minority Leader Harry Reid, D-Nev. “And she was one of the first individuals to navigate between her own culture and the settlers.”

Several hundred people attended the unveiling in the U.S. Capitol’s Rotunda, which houses a dozen life-sized statues of famous Americans and 8-foot-by-12-foot paintings of Revolutionary War scenes and other scenes from American history. 

Among them were Washington’s top lawmakers, including Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist, R-Tenn., and House Speaker Dennis Hastert, R-Ill.

Also in attendance were Nevada Gov. Kenny Guinn and his wife, Dema, who helped raise money for the project.

A large group of Nevada Indians also attended, including Ralph Burns, a Lake Pyramid Paiute who gave a blessing in the tribe’s language.

“I think it’s about time that Native Americans are recognized for the things they’ve done,” said Ben Aleck, a member of the Pyramid Lake Paiutes. “(The ceremony) also shows that native people are alive and well in the modern world.”

Nevada politicians had a little trouble unveiling the statue. When they pulled on the ropes, the curtain failed to drop. Sculptor Benjamin Victor yanked it off by hand.

“One of the lasting images you take away from Benjamin Victor’s work is how Sarah Winnemucca seems to be always moving even though she is a bronze statue,” Guinn said. “It is a tribute to a Native American and a native Nevadan.”

Each state is represented in the National Statuary Hall in the U.S. Capitol by two sculptures. The 5-foot-tall bronze Winnemucca joins a statue of Patrick McCarran, Nevada’s long-term senator between 1933 and 1954.

The Nevada Women’s History Project scheduled a conference in Washington this week to coincide with the statue unveiling, said Carrie Townley Porter, who proposed the Winnemucca project five years ago.

“As a Nevada historian, I think this is the greatest contribution I can make,” she said.

Winnemucca was praised by politicians both for her work in seeking support for the Paiutes from the U.S. government and for teaching Indian children in a school near Lovelock.

“Sarah Winnemucca is known for her tireless dedication to fighting for justice, peace, and equality for all,” said U.S. Rep. Jim Gibbons, R-Reno. 

“Her courage, strength, and achievements represent the best of our history and culture as Nevadans, and I am proud her legacy will be represented in our nation’s Capitol,” Gibbons said.

Introduction to Biography, complete text at
Woman's Resource Center N University of Nevada, Reno

Sarah Winnemucca's birth coincided with the beginning of an era of dramatic historical changes for her people, changes in which she would play an important and often thankless role. She worked throughout her life to communicate between her people and the white people, to defend Paiute rights, and to create understanding.  

"I was born somewhere near 1844, but am not sure of the precise time. I was a very small child when the first white people came into our country. They came like a lion, yes, like a roaring lion, and have continued so ever since, and I have never forgotten their first coming. My people were scattered at that time over nearly all the territory now known as Nevada. My grandfather was chief of the entire Piute nation, and was camped near Humboldt Lake, with a small portion of his tribe, when a party travelling eastward from California was seen coming. When the news was brought to my grandfather, he asked what they looked like? When told that they had hair on their faces, and were white, he jumped up and clasped his hands together and cried aloud--"My white brothers--my long-looked for white brothers have come at last!" (Sarah Winnemucca, Life Among the Piutes).

"And by-and-by the dark children grew into a large nation; we believe it is the one we belong to, and that the nation that sprung from the white children will sometime send someone to meet us and heal all the old trouble."

Quote fournd:


Tribe helping to clear pinyon land
by Steve Timko Reno Gazatte-Journal, 3/11/05
Sent by Cindy LoBuglio ?

As many as 4.4 million Nevada pinyons are infected by bark beetles, an increase of nearly 50 percent between 2003 and 2004, federal estimates show. 

Now, as many as 725,000 acres are at increased risk from fire until the pinyons’ dead needles and smaller branches dry up and fall off, the estimates compiled by the U.S. Forest Service show.

“As the tree needles drop off the fire danger goes down significantly,” said Gail Durham, a Nevada Division of Forestry official who helped conduct aerial surveys.

The numbers are particularly severe on U.S. Forest Service lands, where the increase is 10 times greater, the figures released show.

The most common explanation for the bark-beetle attack has been the drought. The pinyons have a natural defense against Ips confusus, which bores through the tough outer bark to mate and deposit eggs to feed on the tree’s softer inner bark. 

When the beetles try to bore into the tree, it secretes pitch that keeps them out.

With the drought, the trees either don’t have enough water to secrete pitch, or the tree kills itself using all available water for pitch instead of nourishment.

The surge is at least partly attributed to crews surveying more Forest Service land last year than in previous years, Durham said. 

The figures cover Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, state and private land.

The preliminary report shows decreases in activity of the bark beetle known as Ips confusus in California, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona.

For Nevada, the estimated number of infected trees went from 391,000 in 2002 to 3.1 million in 2003 and then to 4.4 million last year, Forest Health Protection figures show.

After this winter’s heavy snows, Forest Health Protection entomologist Brytten Steed thinks Nevada’s numbers have peaked.

“I think we’re going to see a strong drop,” Steed said.

John Christopherson, an NDF resource management officer, said that might not be the case.

“It really depends on the number of insects,” Christopherson said. “When trees are attacked by hundreds and hundreds of beetles, even the healthy ones are overcome.”

The surveys this summer will tell whether the winter’s snowfalls have helped the trees fight off the bark beetles, Christopherson said.

The three areas in Nevada hardest hit by the pinyon ips are the Wilson Range near the Utah line, the Paradise Range near Gabbs and the Pine Nut Mountains in Douglas County, Christopherson said.

The Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California is clearing 50 acres of pinyon land in the Pine Nut Mountains to show tribe members what they can do to help on their land, said Darrel Cruz, an environmental specialist with the tribe.

The tribe saw the problem three years ago, and Cruz spent two years getting permission to do the work on land owned by the tribe and on land administered by the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Cruz got permission and his eight-member crew tried to start in December, when the insects are dormant in the trees. Deep snow hampered their efforts.

On Friday, though, the crew was out on tribal-owned property 8 miles south of Gardnerville, just off U.S. 395. They cut down infected pinyons, cut them up and dragged them to a dirt road using a four-wheel all-terrain vehicle.

The branches and narrower tree trunks were fed into a wood chipper. Wood chips, pine needles and twigs shot out the other side into the back of a truck.

That truck is then taken to a new Head Start building on tribal land and put on exposed soil as a cover, Cruz said. Larger pieces of wood are taken to tribal elders for firewood.

No chemicals are used to control the beetles, he added.

By thinning the dead trees, the healthier trees will have a chance to survive and thrive, Cruz said.

“It’s just like people,” Cruz said. “If you put too many people in one area, they compete for food. As a result, they become weakened, just like the trees are.”

Removing the trees also reduces a chance for the more dangerous crown fires, when flames spread from tree to tree, instead of spreading by the dry brush and grass, Cruz said.

There’s funding only for this 50 acres, Cruz said. Once it’s finished, tribe members will be asked to look at it and see what they can do on land they own, Cruz said. Tribe members own about 66,000 acres of land in the Pine Nut Mountains, he said.


Abstract:  The Puerto Ricans at Carlisle Indian School 
by Sonia M. Rosa 
Journal of Caribbean Amerindian History and Anthropology
Go to the website for more details.

Sent by Eliud Bonilla, Adjunct Professor, George Mason University who writes:

"The Carlisle Indian School was a social-educational experiment where they tried to apply the established acculturation techniques to the Puerto Ricans. Today we still struggle with the same issues so the lessons learned are still valid and pertinent." 

Introduction to the website

In the last two years of the nineteenth century and opening years of the twentieth, victorious in the Spanish American War, the U.S. government approved a series of grants and actions aimed at “Americanizing” the residents of their newest possession, Puerto Rico.  In the process, at least 60 Puerto Rican children were sent to be re-educated at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School, where the motto was, "Kill the Indian, save the man."  Founded in 1878 by Captain Richard Henry Pratt, the purpose of the Carlisle School was to create a new mainstream identity for Indians, to change them into something "acceptable" for the society of the times.
It all began after the Indian Wars, when Captain Pratt was put in charge of a group of Indian prisoners who had been virtually exiled to Florida. There, Pratt engaged in reform practices still followed today in our prison system. He made certain that the Indians at Ft. Marion lived regimented lives--they had to work, learn to read and write in English, learn a trade, follow a strict military discipline, and even wear uniforms. After several years, and by an act of Congress, the Indian prisoners of war were pardoned. But some of them had no place to go and decided to stay with Pratt. Pratt developed a plan to "better" them and other Indians. [1] 

First Pratt took his group of ex-convicts to Hampton Institute in Virginia, an institution for the children of ex-slaves. After intense lobbying, Pratt convinced the U.S. government to give him the run-down facilities of Carlisle Barracks, located in Carlisle, PA. Congress funded his project. The money allocated for it came from the "civilization fund." While preparing the school, Pratt simultaneously engaged in a strong recruitment effort. His candidates for the Indian School were the elite children of the conquered tribes. He traveled to talk in person to chiefs. He held long meetings to convince them that the survival of their tribes lay in the ability of a new generation to learn the American way. He stressed the need to learn to read and write English in order to maintain truthful communication with the white man. His strategy was old as humanity, where the conqueror takes the children of the conquered, educates the new generation, and creates future leaders loyal to the new government. [2] 

An important question remains: Were those kids who were sent to the Carlisle Industrial Indian School Taíno Indians?  . . .  The latest DNA research performed by Dr. Juan Carlos Martínez-Cruzado proves the existence of that invisible nation among the Puerto Ricans today. In scientific testing that has been conducted during the last three years across the island, Taíno mitochondrial DNA is being found in an astonishing percentage of the Puerto Rican people. [51] 

Sonia Migdalia Rosa holds a Masters degree in Spanish Literature from the University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez with a specialty in Puerto Rican Literature. Her dissertation was titled: Acercamiento a los mitos y leyendas taínos en Puerto Rico y el Caribe. (Approaching Taíno myths and legends in Puerto Rico and the Caribbean). Her book titled Los Mitos Taínos: Espejo de los mitos de América, (The Taíno Myths" Mirror of the American myths) will be available soon. Sonia resides in northern Virginia where she greatly enjoys being an educator, writer, and independent researcher. First draft submitted: 30 October 2003
Revised version: 17 November 2003
Editorial proofing & revision: 27 December 2003
Published: 28 December 2003

The Ohlone Way
I just read the article about the Oakland church in the March issue of Somos Primos.  I sometimes work in Oakland.

The Catholic church in San Leandro that is mentioned in that article has a priest that identifies as an Ohlone Indian.  His name is Michael Galvan and his brother Andrew Galvan is a curator at Mission Dolores (Mission San Francisco de Asis) in San Francisco.  Andrew is a kind of Native American activist.  I saw him speak at a conference about Native Americans in Contra Costa County (where I live).

You can read a little about Michael Galvan in the book "The Ohlone Way" by Malcolm Margolin.
Sent by Jaime Cader

In Search of the Lost Gabrielinos
By Joe Mozingo,  Los Angeles Times, 7/15/99
Descendants of L.A. Basin's indigenous tribe, in a quest for federal recognition, pore through mission records and seek to rebuild a vanished culture. It is a daunting task.
Sent by Bill Smith

Victoria Duarte pores over old Spanish records in the San Gabriel Mission rectory, tracking bloodlines into prehistory. Hidden in the padres' scrawl are the names of some of the last full-blooded Gabrielino Indians, who lived in Southern California. One is Duarte's ancestor, Prospero, who came to the mission as a child in 1804. He was one of about 5,000 indigenous Californians living in villages reaching from wind-swept San Nicolas Island to the San Gabriel foothills, and from Topanga Canyon to Laguna Beach.

Unlike the Navajo and Apache, theirs was a loose-knit culture with many clans, each having its own chief. But they shared religious practices, language and legends, wove intricate baskets and plied the ocean in swift canoes.

Anthropologists have grouped them under the labels Gabrielino and Fernandeno, derived from the Spanish missions that lent their names to the Indians' homelands some 230 years ago.

In the mission courtyard at San Gabriel, more than 6,000 Gabrielino skeletons are buried beneath grapevines frayed and thick with age. Inside, Duarte grumbles at the padres' poor penmanship. But the 87-year-old widow knows it is here, in this cramped office, where she can help unearth the story of a people who were once thought extinct. With records of births, baptisms, marriages and deaths, she connects modern Californians to their Native American ancestors.

Now, due in part to Duarte's work, the Gabrielinos are slowly staging a comeback. The tribal council in San Gabriel is pushing for federal recognition, and some members are busy trying to reconstruct a culture that vanished with the vaqueros and ranchlands of last century.

"What depresses me is not so much what was lost," said Mark Acuna, who is reviving the tribe's dances, language and folklore. "What bothers me is the failure of people to recognize that we were, and now are, here."

In an era when more people are embracing their American Indian heritage, the Gabrielinos are fighting to assert pride for an ethnicity many thought was gone or never existed.

At stake is also something more tangible: federal recognition, bringing eligibility for housing and education benefits, small business loans, health care and gaming rights.

Complicating the effort are divisions among Gabrielino descendants, and lack of documentation on a culture destroyed by successive waves of conquerors.

By the end of the 19th century, the Gabrielinos melded into the local Mexican barrios, leaving their last customs to crumble with the adobe ruins in the mustard weeds.

"When you get down to it, we have a very small amount of information that is really rock solid about the Gabrielino," said Mark Raab, a Cal State Northridge archeologist who studies the tribe.

The Fernandenos are facing much the same obstacles in the San Fernando Valley. They had shared the Gabrielino culture until the two missions--in San Gabriel and in Mission Hills, near San Fernando--divided the groups into separate communities, as they largely remain today.

In recent years, the Fernandenos have pursued their history and genealogy, as Acuna and Duarte are doing, and lately began working with an anthropologist.

Duarte has been researching for almost two decades. Spry and quick-witted, the former hairdresser with bouffant black hair drives her scraped white Chevy Cavalier around the area, looking for scraps of history. She's fascinated with events that brought together far-flung families from Europe, Mexico and Southern California so long ago.

Sometimes, she lies awake until 3 a.m. at her condo in Duarte--her family's namesake city--going over lineages in her head.

"I didn't even know I was Indian until the government started offering us money," she said with a raspy laugh. "When they started talking about money, of course we got interested."

That was the 1930s, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs was offering small payments to American Indian descendants for the land that was taken from them. Money went to those who could show they were descended from Indian ancestors. A friend and mission historian learned that Duarte's grandmother's grandfather was Native American, given the name Prospero by the Franciscans.

No one knows why Prospero came to the mission. He was 7 years old, and his parents, Menanqunar and Cuclir, had not been baptized. They were listed on the registry as gentiles and lived in a village called Comicrabit, reportedly near the pueblo of Los Angeles.

Nearby, the Los Angeles River ran free. Willows, cottonwoods and tule reeds lined the braided banks, giving Prospero's people ample materials for shelters, sweat-huts and baskets. The tribe hunted small game with bows and arrows and ate almost anything that gave fuel--grasshoppers, shellfish, snails and snakes. In fall, many harvested acorns in the mountains.

Perhaps Prospero was lured by the clothes, food and blankets the padres used to gain converts, called neofitos. Maybe nature wasn't yielding enough food; the herds of cattle and the grass brought by the Spanish were vastly changing the native landscape.

"Not one word of Spanish did they understand," wrote rancher Hugo Reid in 1852, whose wife, Victoria, came from Prospero's village. "Not one word of the Indian tongue did the priest know. They had no more idea they were worshiping God than an unborn child has of astronomy."

No one knows if the Indians, as a whole, had a name for their own culture, but a few who came to the San Gabriel Mission seemed to call themselves Tongva.

Prospero took the last name Dominguez. He married a Spanish soldier's daughter, Maria Rafaela Alvarez, from Santa Barbara. They had many children, including Maria Ignacia Dominguez, Duarte's great-grandmother, born in 1838.

Prospero built a home by a creek and a hollow of sycamores just north of the mission near the old grist mill in present-day San Marino, according to Mexican land grant records. He raised livestock, tilled the land and planted a garden, some fruit trees and a vineyard on 23 acres that would later be deeded to him by the Mexican government--one of eight small grants given to the Indians of San Gabriel in the 1840s.

But as the government dismantled the mission system, most of the Gabrielinos were set adrift. Wealthy Spanish landowners got the bulk of the land, and many Native Americans became laborers or domestics or moved north. Of those neofitos who did get land, most were swindled out of it soon after. 

The arrival of the Americans in the late 1840s sped up the downward spiral. Many Gabrielino women became prostitutes or concubines for white settlers. The men were sometimes paid in alcohol, then arrested for public drunkenness and auctioned off as indentured servants at a corral in the pueblo of Los Angeles. With increasing urbanization, the villages and language gradually disappeared.

Prospero's family managed to keep the land for more than two decades. His daughter Maria married a Spaniard and, in 1860, bore a baby named Felipa Bermudez--Duarte's grandmother. Five years later, the property was sold to an American.

"Each mission had a few people like Prospero, that were survivors," said John Johnson, curator of anthropology at the Santa Barbara Natural History Museum. "They seemed to make it through everything."

Duarte grew up around World War I on a small ranch in a clapboard house surrounded by a fence of nopal cactus and fragrant orange groves. It was a short carriage ride to the store in Monrovia and a quick hike up the hill to a spring, tangled in blackberries.

Like many young women who grew up there and then, her fondest memories of youth are dancing the Charleston at the old Johnson's hall in San Gabriel, or fiestas over at the Verdugo ranch.

Duarte considered herself Spanish and Portuguese. She knew of some American Indian descendants in the area. But she never thought she was one. Her parents split up when she was young, and Duarte's mother was estranged from her own mother. Duarte knew little about her grandmother and nothing of Prospero.

Then, around 1930, her half sister Eleanor, who shared the same mother and knew she was part Indian from the other side of the family, came out to the ranch and said the Bureau of Indian Affairs was giving money to people who could prove their ancestry.

Duarte initially applied for the money, thinking that she would get it because she was related to Eleanor. She was rejected.

She visited a friend, Thomas Workman Temple II, who had a ranch near La Puente, and asked him if he could do the research. Temple--member of a famous pioneer family--was a well-regarded mission historian.

Using mission records, he traced Duarte's family back to its Gabrielino roots. She got a Bureau of Indian Affairs number, 13522, and a check she spent so quickly she can't remember what she bought.

Her new knowledge didn't really change her lifestyle. She married a Mexican man named Alfonso Cordova, who drove trucks in the orange groves. "He was a good, good man," she said. Duarte worked various jobs and lived her life with him in Arcadia. She never had children.

Meanwhile, other Gabrielino descendants were seeking their Indian roots. Duarte's friend Fred "Sparky" Morales, whose mother was full-blooded Gabrielino, gradually emerged as an informal representative for the Indian descendants in the 1940s and '50s. The Morales roots, traced by Temple, went straight through the neighborhood to an Indian village near the mission. There were no official tribal meetings back then, just socializing between families in San Gabriel, where the descendants had lived since the mission
days, they said. They gathered for chuck-steak barbecues, fiestas, drinking and guitar playing in the backyards under the walnut trees. Most say the tribes are essentially big extended families.

In the 1970s, as Indian activism surged, the Gabrielinos began to research their culture and organize. Duarte began her genealogical work. Morales was officially elected chief and remained until he died of a stroke in 1995. His son Anthony, now 50, took the mantle after Sparky's death.

"I always knew I was Gabrielino," said Anthony Morales. "But it wasn't cool to be Indian before. You were an outcast and wanted to hide that identity."

The Fernandenos, meanwhile, some of whom lived in a community around Mission San Fernando, were going through the same struggle to define themselves. Confusion often arises because both Indian groups were basically indistinguishable in prehistoric times. And sometimes, the mission designation did not indicate from where one's ancestors came. Tribes from all over Southern California were mixed together at the missions.
Today, the Gabrielino-Tongva Tribal Council, the biggest of several tribal splinters, meets regularly near the San Gabriel mission. They protest construction on sacred sites and some members get jobs monitoring the handling of their ancestors' remains at sensitive construction projects, and hey are preparing for the 2000 census.

"We need to properly identify ourselves or we'll go unnoticed again," said Anthony Morales. "We are not extinct."

Morales is a quiet, easygoing man who often wears flannels, a baseball hat and faded high-tops. The union pipe-fitter sets up fire sprinkler systems for a living, and said his co-workers were shocked when he first told them he was an Indian chief.

Perhaps, he said, they didn't expect to find the chief of an ancient people working among them.

But the tribe remains working-class and glitz-free, with $9,900 in the bank and only a jug of plain-brand fruit punch at the meetings. There may be more than 1,000 people who participate in the business of the Gabrielino-Tongva Tribal Council, though only about 350 have formally enrolled, said Sharon Cotrell, a Cal State Long Beach graduate student compiling research in the tribe's push for federal recognition. Gaining federal recognition is a long, laborious affair, requiring exhaustive research. Many tribes become so discouraged by their prospects that they give up. Morales' group was the first Gabrielino group to file a petition, in 1994.

The Gabrielino effort is hindered by squabbling among different groups. Many compete to appear more legitimate while vying to get the monitoring jobs, and there are always accusations that some are faking their "Indianness." But the biggest potential obstacle for the Gabrielino could be to prove that they have always been an intact tribe, with a distinct culture, leadership and bylaws, through modern history--a federal requirement.

"The whole idea is that we want to recognize Indian nations," said Steve Austin, a researcher for the Bureau of Indian Affairs. "It means we're recognizing a government-to-government relationship."

Morales concedes that today's Gabrielino culture--the dancing, language and religious rituals--is a re-creation, culled from mission records, anthropologists' studies and accounts from early California settlers. "To us that's as close as it's going to get," he said. "It's just as authentic."

But some of the few modern anthropologists who have studied Southern California Indians say using such secondary accounts can be tainted by the original sources' bias: from the Franciscan padres, who saw Indian worship as the work of the devil, to 20th century anthropologists swept up in a movement to romanticize the Indians as a perfect, complex society living in harmony with the Earth.

To many members, being Indian doesn't have to do so much with the prehistoric rituals, but with living in a place where one's ancestors existed for hundreds, perhaps thousands of years, long before the incursion of millions.

"What really gets me is when I go down to the beach, and I look out to the ocean and envision my ancestors on the water," Morales said. "I see them going across to trade with the island Gabrielinos on Catalina and San Nicolas. What a vision that is."

Duarte's not as nostalgic, though she is consumed by local history. Her biggest fear now is that she will die without finding a home for her work--"someone who doesn't bother doing the dishes or making the bed because she's always looking for Indians," she said. Below a goldfish bowl and old photos in her condo are file cabinets full of census records, marriage books, Temple's work and copied mission registries. "I need to pass this on to someone," she said, or another chapter will be lost.



Dr. Maurillo Vigil
A Story of Discovery by Lisa Hadassa Veirs 
Boletín de la Red de Juderías  de España 


Interview remarks 


Dr. Maurillo Vigil

Remnants of Crypto-Jews 
Among Hispanic Americans 
Gloria Golden 

It was understood in the family, always just said that, "You are Hispanic," that "Your ancestors were from Spain." The name was a significant thing to my father and me. something that he always said. "You have to protect your name. You always have to honor your name. It is something that always follows you wherever you go, for good or bad." It was always stressed, "Take pride in your name and your heritage." That heritage also includes your Catholic heritage. He was religious. He was a Catholic and a Penitente. My original family surname was actually Montes Vigil.

We discovered that the first Vigil came here in 1611. Our ancestor was Juan Montes Vigil. We made a definitive connection with Juan Montes Vigil. Prior to my research, my| family had very little knowledge of these ancestors. These| are things I discovered from genealogical research in Sevilla's | Archives of the Indies, where they have all the records of all the people who came from Spain to the New World. All of this area was called the Indies, Indias in Spain, at that time. They refer to contrataciones or contracts there. These people entered into a contract with the monarch to gain permission to come to the New World. I found our ancestor's name there. That's where I found Juan Montes.

All of these people had to prove that they were sin mancha, without any taint (without traces of Jewish blood) and that they were very strong Catholics. They had to show it very definitively. A person had to go through a lot of examination. For some reason, Juan Monies' parents had died, and he had to be sponsored by his uncle who happened to be the equivalent of a city councilor in the community. He had to testify that he (Juan Montes Vigil) came from a family of strong Catholics, with a strong military tradition of serving The Crown. The authorities were very explicit that there could not be a Jewish connection. This may have been a formality, but it was a formality they did follow strictly. If it's a formality, why did they need people to testify on their behalf? Montes Vigil had all kinds of people testify as to his character. Juan Montes Vigil was not wealthy. He had to find a sponsor, and a man by the name of Jacinto de Olmos sponsored him. Vigil was classified as a criado (servant). Juan was originally from San Martin de Siero but was living in Madrid at the time of his application to come to the New World. All records for all pasajeros (passengers), as we said above, are in the Archivo de Las Indias (in Sevilla). They are in a building that's completely separated, and it's only for that purpose. Most American historians who want to do genealogy go there.

I would say that in some cases, the rituals practiced could Sephardic. There were Spanish Jews (Sephardim) who came to the New World and went underground because of the inquisition, but they maintained some of their customs. In New Mexico, there was not a lot of social interaction between Ashkenazi Jewish merchants and the Hispano population. Therefore, there wasn't much influence from the Ashkenazi Jews upon the conversos. It depended when they came. The first Jews, coming as merchants, might have interacted cause they may have been the only Jews in the community. In order to survive, they would have to socialize with the Hispanic community. In some cases their children might have intermarried with Hispanic families, depending how orthodox they were.

Later on, as more Jews came in the 1800s, they came in Igroups or families. There was a Jewish community already 'here, and they interacted with that community socially and religiously These were people who were of a different class, Tnore affluent. They were merchants. Chances are, if they E interacted with anyone outside the Jewish community, it was with what we call here in New Mexico—Anglos. They were business people. In other words, in my view, Sephardic Jewish influences may have affected Hispano customs and culture, despite suppression by the Inquisition. We know that Sephardim secretly practiced their rituals, even though they were formally forbidden. They were passed on to their descendants without explanation. Later, other Hispanos could have emulated, picked up the same customs. The later Jewish merchants (Ashkenazim) who came to the Southwest generally kept customs in their own community—socially and religiously. Although they sold goods to the Hispanos, they did not intermarry as often so that their influence Hispanic culture was not as direct.

When killing goats, my family cut the jugular, an hung the animal to drain the blood. My parents believed in circumcision, but I'm not sure they did it. We would light candles for the dead. Mom would light small candles in a| glass too. The picture of a saint would be on the glass. Candles were lit in the bedroom. I did it myself.

We would sweep away from the door. My wife does! A lot of the Jewish people who came to New Mexico, European merchants (Jewish or not), were mostly Ellis Island people. They went down to St. Louis. St. Louis was the main point embarkation for New Mexico merchants. Earlier, before railroad, French Canadians came down the Mississippi from Canada. We have a lot of French Canadian influence in New Mexico. These were people that came in as fur traders and trappers with a "Kit Carson" type background.

My family came from Pecos, which is between here and Santa Fe. There was an inclination to marry people within the community. It was a small village. I was told that we spoke a different Spanish in New Mexico. We were told this by people from Latin American countries. We're also told this by people from Mexico. "The Spanish you speak here is different." We know that. It could have had a Ladino influence. We call it an archaic form of Spanish, the Spanish most commonly spoken in Spain in the seventeenth and eighteenth century. A lot of the people who came from Spain to New Spain didn't spend a lot of time in Mexico. They came up to the frontier and had little contact with the evolving language in Mexico. Juan Montes, Jr. was born in New Spain. He had a son Francisco Monies who was the first Vigil who came to Santa Fe around 1690.

Even when the family moved to Las Vegas, my father would
go back to the Pecos chapter of the Penitentes every weekend, especially during the Lenten period. He wanted to make sure there were enough people to participate in the ceremonies. They would spend all day Sunday there. They would call each other brothers, hermanos. There were several hundred chapters of the Penitentes. Each chapter had its own morada. It's a Spanish word. House of Worship is a common term used for all the moradas. The Penitentes were widespread in New Mexico and in southern Colorado. There are basic similarities and some differences. In the 1920s there was an effort on their part to organize into a formal hierarchical organization. Archbishop Lamy, who came to New Mexico approximately in 1850, was very critical of the Penitentes and disavowed them. He attacked their practices, flagellation and torture people would undergo in their worship rituals. He said this was against the Catholic religion. The Penitentes then went underground.

Lamy wanted to change everything and caused resentment. There was much friction between him and the native clergy. He ended up excommunicating some of the most prominent priests. The Spanish priests pretty much tolerated the Penitentes. The morada was usually outside the village. They would call themselves, for example, the Morada of San Jose, meaning the chapter of San Jose. Although the name of the chapel itself was also morada, my father belonged to the Morada of Pecos. Father knew of a morada outside of town in Sheridan. I asked him why he didn't go to that one. He would go instead to Pecos because he didn't like that one. He felt at home in his chapter. His relatives were part of that chapter. When he died, we took him back there. They performed a velorio (wake) and rosary for him as part of the burial ceremony.

In those days, there were very few avenues of education, so the church was a source of education. The church offered a good means of education. Studying for the priesthood and entering the military were means of getting an education. There was not much of a public education system. Thus, the

church's influence was also transmitted through the educational process. There was a concern about the Masons when Lamy came in. There were other kinds of secret organizations, not all religious. Here in Las Vegas, we had the Society of St. Joseph. To commemorate their hundred-year celebration, they asked me to write an article for the newspapers to publicize their celebration and lent me their minutes. While reading these minutes (they had the minutes from the time the organization was founded, around 1873), I recall that in the minutes, the founding principles (the bylaws), it said to guard against influences of groups such as the secret Masons. That was one of the purposes of founding this religious organization. This San Jose Society was contrary to the Penitentes who were shunned by the church. The society was embraced by the church.

The church was kind of saying, "We want an alternative to the Penitentes," guarding against subversive influences of groups like the Masons who they feared would have an influence in trying to convert some of the Hispanic population. It was a Hispanic organization. The St. Joseph Society was encouraged and embraced by the bishop. The bishops said, "We encourage you because, one, you are not going to do the bad things that the Penitentes do. Secondly, we do need this kind of organization." I remember mentioning the Masons, the secretive organizations, and the influences they might have on the population. That's kind of related to what you are talking about, the church telling people not to practice Jewish customs. The higher-up clergy, priests and bishops, may have suspected that there were some customs practiced by the church, or some influences that the Masons were trying to prevail upon the Hispanic population. They viewed the Society of St. Joseph as being helpful to prevent that.

I did not avoid church. We were very active in the church. My mother lit candles for special occasions, not necessarily Friday night. She had her favorite statues of saints, and she would light candles to them for different purposes. Each saint had a different purpose, like St. Jude for troubled times of special needs. There are Esters in my family.

The Penitentes conducted services. Certain hymns canticos, would be sung by the hermanos (Penitentes) during the wake. These hymns would also be sung during Holy Week, during the culmination of Lent. They would have meetings of the morada every first Sunday of the month. They would have rituals performed, take care of business, prayers, and initiation of new members. They would have ceremonies. If a member was sick, there was a member known as an enfermero (nurse). That person was responsible for going over and taking care of the sick person, literally being a nursemaid to him. Then there was another person responsible for making sure the family was taken care of. This man would go out and see if there was enough food at home. If a member was ill and wasn't working, they would collect money and make sure the chores were done, getting firewood, etc.

When a person died, the ritual was that the brotherhood would take over. They would arrange everything, wake and burial, in the traditional village. They would conduct a rosary and prayers as part of the wake. They would continue to take care of the family after burial for a reasonable period of time, to get them over the mourning. Part of the obligation of hermanos (Penitentes), although it is rare today, was to have an all-night wake. Burial is usually within twenty-four hours. The bereaved would sit in his house for a few days. People would visit and bring food. There was a one-year mourning period. The grave is sometimes marked with stones. Stones are used as markers, as borders, to show where the person is buried.

There are a lot of things done in the Catholic Church, in New Mexico today, that are not done in any other part of the country, probably a reflection of other religions. Still, today, in some families, for a son to choose priesthood is truly an honor. It's stronger here than in other parts of country. It's a tradition, some kind of blessing to the family.

If I discovered that I had Jewish ancestry, it wouldn't make a difference. It would just add to my identity. While I may practice some customs that may have Jewish origins, I am not aware of them. I was raised as a Catholic, by strong Catholics, and that is still my church. But, being an objective person, I can see the value and influence of other religions in our lives.


Dear Mimi, 
I have just begun researching my family history, and have arrived at the possibility that I am of Sephardic descent, as are many of your readers. I came across this story on one of the Sephardic web sites, and thought it might be of interest to your readers. I didn't know exactly where to direct it, so I am sending it to you. I hope that's okay. 

Thank you so much for the great work you are doing, in providing so much wonderful history and information. It is so needed. 

Your Truly, Richard Duran,

By Lisa Hadassa Veirs 

When my maternal grandmother died in her sleep at 80 more than twenty years ago, she took with her a secret that for years I have been trying to solve. Who were her parents? Her grandparents? What was her lineage? We were very close, and went everywhere together when I was a girl. The most important thing she taught me about was God. The only thing she did not share with me, or any of her seven children was about her life in North Carolina where she was born. Whenever we would ask she would always say, "My life was very bad then and I don't want to talk about it." If you pressed her she became angry. 

We are an African American family. My grandmother was very fair almost white with light color eyes and straight hair. I never talked about it but I always assumed that one of her parents was white, the other black. Growing up in the south around the 1900s one could definitely understand the hardship she endured. Her first husband, the grandfather I never knew was black and a very handsome man. 

He died leaving her to raise seven children on her own. She remarried some time later, to a man who had admired her for a long time. (Nana was very beautiful.) He helped her raise her children, and he is the one I called grandfather. 

In the latter part of the 1990s I started doing some research. I thought things would be different now that we had computers and the internet, but I was wrong. The only information I had was that her maiden name was Boone, and she was 16 when she left North Carolina on her own. She made her way to Philadelphia, PA where she worked cleaning rich people's houses during the day and put herself through school at night to earn her high school diploma. Later she went to Bible college. I often wondered what happened to her to make her leave the place where she was born without her family, but without more information all I could do was wonder. It wasn't long after that I gave up.

About a year ago I was blessed to meet Dev, the owner of the website French Sephardim Online, and we became good friends. She shared with me how she had discovered her Sephardic Jewish roots. It was fascinating, and I always enjoyed hearing people discover their family history even though I could not. One night I received an email from her. She asked me to read an article and tell her what I thought. The article was entitled, A Spot of Identity by S Levin. M.D. ( I was fascinated! The article details one family's discovery of their Portuguese Jewish lineage from a birth mark. This birthmark is known as the semetic stain and Mongolian spot, but I only knew it as the latter. What fascinated me was that I was born with this mark! 

After I was married in 1981 I immediately became pregnant. Of course as any first time mother would I read all the latest books about babies. One medical book that I had described a birth mark that some babies of color are born with called the Mongolian spot. It was described as a blue-greenish mark at the lower back, right above the buttocks. I asked my mother about it and she said that both my brother and I were born with this mark. I wasn't sure that my baby would have it since my husband is white, but sure enough when the nurse was instructing me on how to properly bathe my new daughter, there was the mark, just like the book said! 

My husband and I are the parents of six children all together and everyone of them had this birthmark. The mark begins to fade when they reach the age of 7 and by nine it is completely gone. My youngest, Joseph who is 8, has just begun to lose his. I told my friend this, and was shocked to learn that she had this mark too, although in a different location and color, it was clearly the same. What did this mean? 

Well my friend had no doubts - I was of Sephardic Jewish descent! I was intrigued, but not 100% convinced. Then I learned that many Jews during different times of ancient Israel's history escaped conquerors such as the Babylonians, Assyrians, and the Romans by going into Africa. Some of these people migrated to western Africa, where a few hundred years later their descendants were kidnapped and forced to endure slavery in the United States. 

I kept this to myself, not wanting to be ridiculed by anyone for this idea, and still not quite sure of what it all meant. I did begin to remember certain things that Nana did - the mezuzah she kept on the entrance to her bedroom, and the way she prepared her meat. I began to believe that this could possibly be true. That it is true was certain, but I was looking at the wrong continent!

Just a few days ago I scanned a photo of my grandmother and emailed it to my friend Dev. She immediately saw a resemblance between my grandmother and pictures of a people she called Melungeon. She asked me where she was born and what her maiden name was. I told her and that was the clincher. She is Melungeon! Of course I had never heard of this word before, but became knowledgeable over the next few days. Melungeon is Portuguese for "white person" and in Turkish, "cursed soul". The Melungeon were known to have descended from Sephardic Jews who were forced to leave Spain and Portugal because of religious persecution. Some of these people settled in the southeastern United States before the main force of northern European settlers came over. North Carolina is one of the places they settled, and the name Boone was a common surname for Portuguese Jews who settled in the area. They endured harsh persecution, and had their land confiscated. Many of these people intermarried with Cherokee and later northern European settlers to hide who they were. Since they were not considered black or white they were not included on any censuses, and if they were they were counted as "free people of color". Because they tried to hide who they were it is very difficult to trace them.

Not knowing your ancestry causes one to feel lost. There is nothing to pass on and share with your children. I feel that a lost part of me has now been found, and I am proud to say that I am descended from a brave and noble people who underwent terrible persecution but by their faith and their actions ensured that their children, and their children's children would survive.

Lisa Hadassa Veirs 

Sobre la Historia de los Sefarditas.  

Edna Yolanda Elizondo Gonzalez
Les reenvie el boletin que me llego de la Red de Juderias  de España. alli viene una pagina de esta agrupacion  la pagina es    chequen esta pagina esta muy interesante, vean la historia de estos Sefarditas,  de los cuales descendemos. 

Boletín de la Red de Juderías 
de España

Sent by Edna Yolanda Elizondo

This newsletter includes a variety of topics on the subject of Jewish life in Spain, such as:

Presentación en Turespaña

Viernes 28 de enero de 2005, a las 11.30h.

Pabellón 7, Stand de Cataluña, de la Feria internacional de Turismo de Madrid.
La convocatoria fue todo un éxito, unas cincuenta personas nos acompañaron, entre los cuales contamos con el Director General de Turismo de la Generalitat de Cataluña, el delegado de turismo cultural y de ciudad de Turespaña, los concejales de Córdoba, Segovia y Ávila y nuestra secretaría, además de los compañeros Antonio, Belén y Rafael. También estuvieron presentes Besalú y Girona. El acto se inició con unas palabras del vicepresidente Enrique Ribes, Alcalde de Hervás, y se concluyó con un aperitivo sefardí servido por Bau Bar de Girona y la escuela de hostelería de Cambrils, responsable de la intendencia gastronómica del stand.. 

Nuevo folleto en Tudela

Tudela y su pasado judío

Esta ciudad navarra cuenta desde octubre de 2004 con un nuevo elemento de difusión del patrimonio, el folleto Tudela y su pasado judío. Editado por el Ayuntamiento, con planos de las dos juderías y textos de Manuel Motilva, esta publicación traza un recorrido histórico y cultural por la Tudela judía. En sus 18 páginas, el visitante puede conocer un itinerario a la vez que a los personajes más destacados que nacieron en la población. Celebramos esta iniciativa que viene a mejorar la calidad de su oferta de turismo cultural.




About The "Tejano Voices" Collection
Al Día, Most Awarded of Any Spanish Language Newspaper in Texas
The Handbook of Texas Online 
2005 Olive Garvey Fellowships of up to $10,000  
Mujeres Por La Raza Unida / The Women of La Raza Unida
The Cypress Rangers in the Civil War

Liberating Truth From Myth: Author of Sleuthing The Alamo
Presence of Italians & Spaniards in Texas As Early As 1520
Country Roads: TEXAS 1835-1836  
Cemeteries of Texas, South Texas
San Juan Bautista: The bells toll no more,  tower lies in heap


Dr. José Angel Gutiérrez

About The "Tejano Voices" Collection

The University of  Texas at Arlington Center 
Mexican American Studies 
Oral History Project

The Tejano Voices Project focuses on seventy-seven oral history interviews with Tejano and Tejana leaders from across the state conducted by Dr. José Angel Gutiérrez, associate professor of political science at the University of Texas at Arlington. These interviews were conducted in 1992-1999, and emphasize the personal stories and struggles of the interviewees, many of whom are the first individuals of Mexican descent in their communities elected or appointed to government office. 

The interviews were videotaped, transcribed, bound, and placed in the UTA Libraries' Special Collections Division, where they are made accessible to students, scholars, and the general public. 

All of the interviewees have signed deeds of gift/interview agreements, transferring all of their proprietary and copyrights for the interviews to the university. The interviews are unique, and reflect the history of the Tejano community as it pressed for an end to racial segregation in the state and access to political power in the post-WWII period.

Scholars agree that Tejanos and Tejanas in 20th century Texas have been under-documented and generally ignored in textbooks and general studies about Texas history and politics. This project makes available the personal recollections of seventy-seven Tejano and Tejana leaders from across the state, revealing their sometimes sad, other times poignant and triumphant, stories of struggle against racism, discrimination, and exclusion. 

These interviews are, in a word, inspirational. Take for example Alicia Chacón, the first Tejana elected county judge of a major urban county, El Paso, in 1990. Her interview traces her political career from the early 1970s, when she began attending Democratic local, regional and national conventions, to her election as county judge ten years ago. 

Or the story of Alberto Luera of Laredo who, in 1971, chaired the Mexican American Youth Organization (MAYO) and founded Centro Aztlán, a social agency, two years later to help the indigent. 

Or consider Severita Lara's interview, where she recalls leading the 1969 student walk-out of Crystal City schools. This act of courage helped to foster a shift in power in the town from an Anglo-controlled school board to a board with Tejano for the first time. The political battle in Crystal --or as Tejanos call it "Cristal"--was a turning point Mexican American activism in the state. 

Indeed, these interviews full of such stories. The project includes fifty-six interviews with men and twenty-one with women. The interviewees are from around the state, giving broad coverage to regional and local issues in communities like Houston, Laredo, Dallas, Eagle Pass, Corpus Christi, San Antonio, Brownsville, and Robstown, to mention a few. 

The interviewer for the project was Dr. Gutiérrez, the founding director of UTA's Center for Mexican American Studies (CMAS) and a scholar of the Tejano experience in the state during the 20th century. Dr. Gutiérrez maintained an objectivity during the interview process and in his selection of interviewees. Working with a professional transcriber, he also audited and edited the transcripts for accuracy and precision.

The interviews have been heavily used by both college and high school students as well as a handful of scholars. As the social and ethnic composition of Texas continues its shift toward people of color, these interviews, documenting as they do the integration of Tejanos into the political process and social fabric of the state, will become even more important and in demand. To understand Texas, one must understand all of its people. The widespread availability of these seventy-seven oral history interviews helps students and others from across the state do just that for the largest minority group in Texas.

Al Día, Most Awarded of Any Spanish Language Newspaper in Texas, 
Wins Twelve NAHP Hispanic Print Awards

Dallas, TX—(HISPANIC PR WIRE)--March 24, 2005--Al Día, less than two years since launch, is the most awarded Spanish-language newspaper in Texas. Al Día, won in twelve individual categories at the National Association of Hispanic Publications 2005 Print Awards, the largest Hispanic Media Awards in the USA.  The prestigious group of judges, including two past presidents of the National Association of Hispanic Journalists and one Pulitzer Prize winner, made their selections from over 800 entries.

“It is an honor to be in the company of Spanish-language dailies including La Opinión, El Nuevo Herald, and El Diario-La Prensa, as award recipients. Winning these prestigious awards is a great credit to our staff who produces a quality, innovative, and essential daily to serve the rapidly growing Hispanic population, and highlights Belo’s commitment to serve the community.”  said Gilbert Bailón, publisher and editor of Al Día.  

First Place
Outstanding Business Article 
"Sazón Hispana en DFW", Angel González, Photographer Sharón Steinmann
Outstanding Entertainment Article:  "Jorge Ramos", Lorena Flores
Outstanding Cultural Photo Essay:
 "Day of the Virgin de Guadalupe", Photographer Sharón Steinmann

Second Place
Outstanding Multiple Article Series:
"Fronteras, 10 Años de Operativos (Part 1 and II)", Ernesto Londoño
Outstanding Political Article "Escasean Latinos en Puestos de Dallas", Angel González
Outstanding Design Newspaper Format - "Ataque a Madrid"
Outstanding International Photo "A Migrant's Resolve", Photographer Sharón Steinmann
Outranking Cultural Photo "Fiestas Patrias", Photographer Sharón Steinmann

Al Día, published Monday through Saturday, with a circulation of 40,000, has the largest ABC-audited daily circulation, in Dallas-Ft. Worth. It is the only Spanish-language daily in the market with the capability to deliver to every doorstep via the strong distribution network of The Dallas Morning News, and has thousands of premium distribution points via colorful racks, and inside leading retailers. 

The Dallas Morning News is published by Belo Corp., one of the nation’s largest media companies with a diversified group of market-leading television, newspaper, cable and interactive media assets.  A Fortune 1000 company with approximately 7,800 employees and $1.4 billion in annual revenues, Belo operates news and information franchises in some of America’s most dynamic markets and regions, including Texas, the Northwest, the Southwest, Rhode Island, and the Mid-Atlantic region.  Belo owns 19 television stations (six in the top 16 markets) reaching 13.7 percent of U.S. television households; owns or operates six cable news channels; and manages one television station through a local marketing agreement.  Belo publishes four daily newspapers: The Dallas Morning News, The Providence Journal, The Press-Enterprise (Riverside, CA) and the Denton Record-Chronicle (Denton, TX).  

Additional information, including earnings releases, is available online at
CONTACT:  Amy Hinojosa, (469) 977-3609
Distributed on : 03-24-2005, Note from Hispanic PR Wire:

The Handbook of Texas Online
Sent by Johanna De Soto

The Handbook of Texas Online is a multidisciplinary encyclopedia of Texas history, geography, and culture sponsored by the Texas State Historical Association and the General Libraries at UT Austin. Please see the introduction for further details. Search the Handbook of Texas Online Enter one or more words to find all articles containing any of the words. Keyword search at this site.


2005 Olive Garvey Fellowships of up to $10,000  
DEADLINE: May 1, 2005
Sent by Elvira Prieto This is a forwarded message. Please contact the original sender for more information about the fellowship competition.

Dear Professor Sullivan,

I am very pleased to invite your assistance in the 2005 Olive W. Garvey Fellowships, which have now been expanded to include separate categories for both college students and junior faculty members.

Since 1972, this internationally acclaimed program has awarded fellowships to outstanding college students around the world through a competitive essay contest on the meaning and significance of
economic and personal liberty.  Garvey Fellows have since become some of the finest of scholars, business leaders, journalists, etc., applying and advancing public knowledge and appreciation around the world for the ideas of individual liberty and personal responsibility.

The Garvey Fellows program awards cash fellowships to the authors of the top three essays, with all entries reviewed by a panel of three distinguished scholars.  This year's topic is:

"The great aim of the struggle for liberty has been equality before the law."
- F. A. HAYEK, Nobel Laureate in Economic Science

For your review, I am adding below further information on this year's program. We would greatly appreciate your assistance in encouraging students and junior faculty members to participate by submitting entry essays by the deadline of May 1, 2005.

Please advise me with any questions. Thank you for your assistance.

Best regards, David
David J. Theroux
Founder and President, The Independent Institute
100 Swan Way, Oakland, CA 94621
(510) 632-1366 Phone  (510) 568-6040 Fax

STUDENT DIVISION: College students up to the age of 35:
      First Prize: $2,500
      Second Prize: $1,500
      Third prize: $1,000

FACULTY DIVISION: Junior faculty members up to the age of 35 and not yet tenured:
      First Prize: $10,000
      Second Prize: $5,000
      Third Prize: $1,500

      Student Division: Any student 35 years or younger enrolled
      at a recognized college or university anywhere in the world.

      Junior Faculty Division: Untenured college or university
      teachers, Assistant Professor or higher, 35 years or younger.

LENGTH (double-spaced typescript):
      Student essays must not exceed 3,000 words.
      Teacher essays must be 5,000 to 8,000 words long.

Mujeres Por La Raza Unida / The Women of La Raza Unida
A Tribute to Women's Involvement in Texas Politics
An exhibition currently on display at the Nettie Lee Benson Latin American Collection
March 23 through June 30, 2005

This exhibit presents the breadth of contributions that Mexican American women made to Texas politics and to the struggle for equal rights for Mexican Americans. It was inspired by the Women of Raza Unida Oral History Project, developed in conjunction with a graduate seminar directed by Dr. Emilio Zamora in the School of Information.  The course was entitled "Memory, History and Oral Narratives: Mexican Americans in Politics in Texas History."  The exhibit includes archival materials from the Raza Unida Party Collection, Nettie Lee Benson Latin American Collection, as well as items and memorabilia from party members and quotations taken from oral history interviews.

Sponsored by the Center for Mexican American Studies and the Nettie Lee Benson Latin American Collection.  Guest curators: Linda Ho and Brenda Sendejo, graduate students, Center for Mexican American Studies and Department of Anthropology, UT Austin.
Elvira Prieto, Academic Advisor
Center for Mexican American Studies, University of Texas at Austin
1 University Station F9200, Austin, TX  78712  WMB 5.102
Phone: (512) 471-2134  Fax: (512) 471-9639

The Cypress Rangers in the Civil War
James Henry Davis 

Confederate States of America. Army. Texas Cavalry Regiment, 9th 

Notes Bibliography: p. 139-143.Includes index."This book is not a moral judgment about the Civil War, states rights, slavery or secession. It is a local history focusing on 85 young men and what happened to them as they took part in the struggle of the century"--Pref. Most of the members of this regiment were from Cass County, Marian, Morris and Titus counties of Texas."For better organization, letters of the alphabet were assigned to different units. The captain of each company drew lots to see which letter he would get. Captain Duncan drew the letter F, so the Cypress Rangers became Company F of Sims' Regiment. Sims' Regiment was called the Fourth Texas Cavalry for a short period, until its designation was changed to the Ninth Texas Cavalry for the duration of the war"--p. 26. 

Subjects Texas - Military history - Civil War, 1861-1865 - Regimental histories
United States - History - Civil War, 1861-1865 - Regimental histories 
Copies: Call Number Location Availability  973 M2dj FHL US/CAN Book Available 
Publication Hughes Springs, Texas : Heritage Oak Press, c1991 Physical 157 p. : ill., port. 

Liberating Truth From Myth: Author of Sleuthing The Alamo
March Event at Trinity University 
Sent by Larry Kirkpatrick

SAN ANTONIO - James E. Crisp, a Texas-born historian who drew the wrath of many for supporting a Mexican officer's account of Davy Crockett's death at the Alamo, will share his detective work into the history of Texas independence during a presentation at Trinity. Dr. Crisp will speak on "Sleuthing the Alamo: Davy Crockett's Last Stand and Other Mysteries of the Texas Revolution" at 7 p.m. on Tuesday, March 8, in the Chapman Auditorium. The event is free and open to all.

Dr. Crisp, an associate professor from North Carolina State University, has spent more than a dozen years trying to glean the truth from the myths surrounding the Texas revolution from Mexico. His efforts are the subject of his latest book, also titled Sleuthing the Alamo. In the book, Dr. Crisp writes about one of his most controversial findings: he uncovered evidence to support the authenticity of a diary by Jose Enrique De La Peña, a Mexican officer during the conflict. The diary became infamous for a short passage that stated American hero Davy Crockett didn't die during the 
Alamo battle and instead was executed after the fighting had ended. Although many declared the diary a forgery, Dr. Crisp went to original sources and stumbled upon a rare document to show the validity of De La Peña's papers.

During his presentation, Dr. Crisp will recount how his research added fuel to the volatile subject of Crockett's death and how he received hate mail for it. He will also examine anti-Mexican attitudes that pervaded much of Texas history during the 20th century, and he will tell of his discovery of 
the secret slashing of the most famous historical painting in Texas - a painting he says changed the story of the Alamo.

For more information contact the history department at (210) 999-7621.


Presence of Italians & Spaniards in Texas As Early As 1520

Dear Sirs,

My name is Alex Loya and I am in the process of finishing my book "History of the Loya (Including the Essential Role of Texas and Louisiana in the War for Independence of the United States)". I have a question for you, let me just give you a little bit of background for you to have a context for my question: The Loya clan started in Tuscany, Italy from where they were expelled due to their pre-Reformation evangelical beliefs.  They fled to French Navarre which was a place of refuge for heretics and later became a Calvinist kingdom.  After the King of Spain invaded Navarre he took away half of it from the French and set up a new border between France and Spain right through the territory where the Loya had been established in Navarre in the French Pyrenees Atlantiques.

The Loya that remained in the French side of Navarre preserved their Protestant religion and migrated with or as a result of the Samuel de Champlain colonizing efforts to New York State and Vermont around Lake de Champlain, and Quebec, as French-Italian Huguenots.  The Loya who came under Spanish rule were forced to convert to Roman Catholicism and later migrated with the Spaniards as vicci Italians, or Spanish Italians (viccis were towns in Spain settled by Italian immigrant clans)to the area of South Texas, apparently through Brazos Santiago, and were established in the oldest towns of Texas including possibly the oldest town in the U.S., Penitas, TX., which until the 1990's had a steady population of 150.  According to local tradition, and the historical marker, although that area of South Texas remained greatly unpopulated except by wild Indian tribes until the 1750's with the Escandon establishments, the settlement of Penitas has been continuously inhabited by descendants of the first Spaniard settlers since its founding around 1520.

Here is my question, what would it take to get you people from this historical society to fund an archeological dig in the town of Penitas, TX. to establish the presence of Spaniards in Texas as early as 1520?  There are no ruins in Penitas, except for a very old grave in the cemetery which has no marker, no date, no name, nobody knows who is buried there but has been there since before anyone can remember.  

This grave is consistent with the historical tradition that the first Spaniards in Penitas built stone houses with white washed plaster.  I believe the grave possibly dates to that early period because it is consistent with the tradition, it is built mainly of uncut stone, apparently, and the stones are fitted together with no apparent cement or such material to hold them together (judging from pictures), which would reflect a very old age. The problem is, there are no other ruins in Penitas that anyone knows of.  

It seems to me that it would be a worthwhile investment on your part, given your purpose, goal, vision and reason of being, to fund a serious archeological dig in Penitas, Texas, to find the stone dwellings of the first Spaniards and establish the presence of Spaniards in Texas as early as 1520.  Would you please email me back and let me know what you think of this suggestion?  Thank you.

Alex Loya
Penitas, Texas


Dear Alex:  ". . . to find the stone dwellings of the first Spaniards and establish the presence of Spaniards in Texas as early as 1520"  is certainly a worthwhile goal.  Unfortunately, we are not in a position to help you. We are not a funded organization.  We do not even have dues anymore.  We are run entirely by volunteers with no structure, no office.  It is a networking feat which however has attracted the attention of many through our message carried to the public through Somos Primos,  and our many projects. 

Your family history is fascinating and you've done an outstanding job of gathering it. What I have seen happening is individual leading efforts similar to what you are suggesting.  Unfortunately, since our history has not been promoted, getting the attention of national grants has been very difficult.

I suggest that you contact local historical societies and  become associated with a  group with an office.  Go to political figures, family members, and Hispanic organizations who can help you obtain needed funding.  Another tactic is to find a Ph.D. candidate that has not decided on a topic.

Wish I had an easy solution for you.  I suggest you read previous issues of Somos Primos and look at the kinds of projects spearheaded by one individual. If you would like me to promote your book when it is available, please do not hesitate to contact me.

Best of luck,  Mimi Lozano  3/3/2004

Forwarded Message: Spanish Presence in the U.S. 
Date: 3/2/2004 10:52:39 PM Pacific Standard Time
From: To:


Mimi, Just a note to let you know my book "
The Continous Presence Of Italians And Spaniards In Texas As Early As 1520" is now published.  It is 241 pages long and I am selling it for $25.  Although I developed it from a chapter of my book "History of the Loya"  and therefore it is a glimpse into Colonial Texas as seen through the eyes of one family, I wrote it with the intent of reaching and elucidating the history of all original Texans, those of us whose ancestors were there since the Spanish Colonial Period of Texas, so it should be of interest to many of the people associated with you, including the Spaniards from Louisiana whom I mention in the chapter "Texas Patriots of the American Revolution". At any rate, you had offered to promote my book, so I would like to take you up on that offer. I look forward to hearing from you. 

Alex Loya


Country Roads: TEXAS 1835-1836
Dr. J. H. Barnard's Journal From December 1835, Including the Fannin Massacre - Goliad   
The Fall of the Alamo, By Dr. John Sutherland   With Santa Anna in Texas, A Personal Narrative of the Revolution, Jose Enrique De La Pena


Dr. Barnard's Journal is one of the few personal accounts of the Fannin Massacre. His story begins in Chicago. The doctors were spared to treat the wounded Mexican officers. He was ordered to San Antonio after the massacre, along with Dr. Shankleford.  The book is out of print.

The Fall of the Alamo
By Dr. John Sutherland
Written in 1860 and now published for the first time an authentic account of that tragic event in the history of Texas compiled from facts known to the author and supported by evidence of others who were witnesses to the siege and fall of the Alamo together with a sketch of the life of the author by his grand-daughter -- Annie B. Sutherland.

With Santa Anna in Texas
By Jose Enrique De La Pena

A personal narrative of the revolution of Texas from the Mexican point of view. De La Pena was sympathetic to the Texian's cause. He points out the mistakes made by Santa Anna. The stories of the heroes of the Mexican army are detailed. The march from southern Mexico to Texas left many dead on the road. There were heroes on both sides.  The book may be purchased at the Alamo.

Background Part I

        1821 – Under the leadership of Agùstin de Itùrbide, Mexico declares independence from Spain.  Itùrbide had been an officer is the Spanish army.  He is now the emperor of Mexico.  Immigration into northern Mexico is almost non-existent at this time.  The new government decides to open the province of "Tejas" to settlement.  The reasoning behind this decision was to provide a Mexican presence in the north as a barrier to control the ever-expanding United States.  The other reasons why there were no settlements north of San Antonio was the Comanches and the vast distance from the governing cities.  North Tejas’ panhalde ended less than 100 miles from present day Denver.  Mexico encompassed the entire west including the Great Salt Lake and San Francisco Bay. The first impresario, Stephen F. Austin would bring in settlers to kill the Indians and settlement would be controlled.  The Mexican plan never materialized because the settlers did not go north but settled in the fertile Trinity, Colorado and Brazos river valleys.  Additionally the settlement was not controlled.  In a matter of five years the Tejas Mexican population outnumbered the lower states five to one.  There were many sensitive issues at hand by 1824. 

The anglos had taken over two previously Latin territories, Florida and Louisiana .  Would they stop at the Louisiana border?  The U.S. Congress authorized a commission to lay out a trail from St.Louis to Mexican Santa Fe in 1825.   Many of the "Texians" had slaves.  Mexico had abolished slavery in 1829 and could not enforce the law in the north.  The settlers were mostly Protestants and were reluctant to adopt the Catholic religion, Mexican language, customs and laws.

Background Part II         1830 - During a period of political unrest in the Capitol, Mexico closed its borders to foreign immigration. (April 6, 1830) It also combined the state of Tejas with Coahuila. The Texas territory capital was moved from San Antonio to Saltillo, six hundred miles south of Tejas.   Although Itùrbide was ambitious, he was no match for another officer with higher political goals. Within a few years, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Perez de Lebron had overthrown Itùrbide.  He officially became president in 1833.  He declared himself dictator and claimed that Mexico was not ready for a democratic government.  He abolished the Constitution of 1824.  The immigrants were governed by the laws of the Constitution of 1824.  They had taken the oath of citizenship under the laws of that Constitution, and the rules had changed.  Under the new centralized control, there were no more sovereign states and the Texians were committing acts of treason.  The new dictator created chaos in Tejas, Saltillo and the entire country.  As many of the garrisons were called back to Mexico, the Texians took over a Mexican fort at Galveston.  On October 2, 1835, a garrison from San Antonio went to Gonzales to take a small cannon from the settlers.  The canon was given to the citizens of Gonzales to defend against Indians.  Having no ammunition for the gun, the blacksmith cut chain and any metal scraps small enough to be rammed into the cannon.  Under the command of Colonels John H. Moore and J. W. E. Wallace, the cannon was fired at the force of 100 soldiers.  The Mexicans retreated after a short fight.  One Mexican was killed and the Texians lost none.  This was the first shot fired to begin the Texas revolution.

Background Part III          November 3, 1835 -- The Texian delegates of the Consultation Convention drafted the "declaration of causes" at San Felipe de Austin, to explain their reasons for taking up arms against Mexico.


"Whereas, General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, and other military chieftains, have, by force of arms overthrown the federal institutions of Mexico, and dissolved the social compact which existed between Texas and the other members of the Mexican confederacy; now the good people of Texas, availing themselves of their natural rights, Solemnly Declare:"

"That they have taken up arms in defense of their rights and liberties, which were threatened by the encroachments of military despots, and in defense of the republican principles of the federal constitution of Mexico, 1824."

"That Texas is no longer morally or civilly bound by the compact of union; yet, stimulated by the generosity and sympathy common to free people, they offer their support and assistance to such members of the Mexican confederacy as will take up arms against military despotism."

"That they hold it to be their right during the disorganization of the federal system, and the reign of despotism, to withdraw from the union, and to establish an independent government."

This document was created in justification of the Texan actions which were to follow. The Declaration of Causes was to convince the Federalists that the Texans only desired to preserve the Mexican Constitution of 1824 and to justify the Texan actions to the rest of the world.

Webmaster:  Gerald L. "jb" Barker

Cemeteries of Texas, South Texas:
Sent by George Gause     





    Zapata   [NO listings]

    Webb   [NO listings]

    Duval  [NO listings]

    Jim Wells  [NO listings]

     Kleberg  [NO listings]
     Kenedy  [NO listings]
     Jim Hogg  [NO listings]


San Juan Bautista: 
The bells toll no more, Landmark church tower lies in heap

San Antonio Express-News (TX) January 15, 2005 
Author: Jesse Bogan; Express-News Border Bureau 
Sent by Larry Kirkpatrick

Thick stone walls have been crumbling here for 300 years, but this time, after a heavy rain, the town's church tower, one of its tallest structures, rumbled to the ground. The collapse one morning last July hurt no one but sent heaps of limestone blocks, mud mortar and two heavy bells slamming onto historic ground.

The old Iglesia San Juan Bautista, now a national monument, has ties to the founding of the Alamo. Its tower once was a place to peer down on streets that have been strolled by Spanish soldiers, Indians, missionaries - even Robert E. Lee, a U.S. Army officer who passed through town during the Mexican-American War.

The bells, one of which weighs as a much a small pickup, called the faithful to Mass and tolled every night at 11 p.m. as a reminder that it was time to turn down the volume on ranchero music and for kids to go home.

Now the bells sit in a shed near hanging saddles and a pile of gourds. "When they rang, you could hear them three or four miles away," said Jesus Saucedo Ornelas, the mayor, who was sporting a curled gray mustache and sipping Tecate beer on a recent afternoon.

The town can hear ringing today only figuratively, in fund-raisers to restore the tower and mount the bells once more. Guerrero, originally called Presidio de San Juan Bautista del Rio Grande del Norte, was for generations the main jumping-off point for Spanish expeditions north of the Rio Grande five miles away. It straddled the Camino Real, the Royal Road that was the region's major north-south artery for trade and religion.

With time, however, Guerrero weathered and hardened into a fossil - 2,000 people live here today - as the nearby Mexican towns of Nuevo Laredo and Piedras Negras became the area's main border crossings.

Missionaries left here in 1718 to found what would later be known as the Alamo. Mexican Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna and his troops later passed through on their way to San Antonio on their ultimately unsuccessful campaign to destroy the Texas rebellion in 1836.

Historian Robert Weddle considers San Antonio Guerrero's "most noteworthy offspring." "While the child has prospered, however, the parent has faded into oblivion," Weddle wrote in his 1968 book, "San Juan Bautista, Gateway to Spanish Texas."

Aware of the destruction of the church tower, Weddle, 83, said by telephone from his home in Bonham that he remembers deeply worn steps leading up to the bells. He said he hopes the tower is rebuilt in its original style.

"It's important to maintain that heritage as much as possible both from a historical and architectural standpoint," Weddle said. The church was built for the presidio's Spanish soldiers and their families. Construction started in 1701 and took about 60 years, said Enrique Cervera Rodriguez, the town historian. The tower was added later - exactly when is a mystery, he said.

The year 1851, believed to be the town's 150th anniversary, is scratched into the bigger bell. "Since it fell, the community has come closer to the church," said Zulema Guevara, 17, helping corral a bunch of well-behaved kids during a recent celebration of the Feast of the Three Kings in the church courtyard. "Everyone is coming together to help so that it's built back the way it was as fast as possible."

Townspeople donated goats and horses for a raffle. They've held rodeos. Over the holidays they held a dance for $30 per couple that was headlined by the band Los Montaneses del Alamo. It was a night not to be missed. People came in heels, big hats and warm coats, just a block from the tower rubble behind a wire fence.

Antonio Castillon Saucedo, president of a fund-raising committee, said the dance brought in $5,000, but much more is needed. He said an insurance payment is stalled in bureaucracy. Insurance should cover the restoration because it's a national monument, said Francisco Martinez, an architect in Saltillo with the National Institute of Anthropology and History who is in charge of the restoration. The restoration will cost about $70,000, he said.

"This type of work requires artistic skill," he said, adding that construction could begin as soon as February. Castillon said any extra money would be used for other projects, like fixing a leaky roof and decorating the church interior, which is lit by bare fluorescent bulbs and has little adornment.




Ruby and John Zuniga Newberry Library's Genealogy Offerings
The Melungeon Mystery


After 70 years, they couldn't live without each other
Ruby and John Zuniga

By KARA COWIE The Kansas City Star
Posted on Tue, Mar. 08, 2005
Sent by Mercy Bautista Olvera

When John Zuniga realized his wife of 70 years was dying last week, he asked to hold her hand and, as tears welled in his eyes, whispered to his family: “She's going. I gotta go. I gotta go.”

Ruby Zuniga, the woman he had called “My dear” for nearly all of his life, died the next day of complications related to Alzheimer's disease. John Zuniga, still holding her hand, succumbed to pneumonia two hours later.

“Their hands never left each other,” said their granddaughter, Annalisa Zapien-Pina of Lee's Summit.

They took their final breaths Thursday lying side by side in their Roeland Park home, a fitting end to what family members say was an inspiring love story.

“It's the way they wanted to go,” Zapien-Pina said. “We kept them home, and they left together. I think it's just a great tribute to their love.”

The couple lived at home with round-the-clock care from family members. Although John Zuniga, 89, suffered emphysema, family members said he still helped wife Ruby, 85, as she struggled with Alzheimer's.

“They had lived together for so many years,” their daughter, Hope Zapien of Kansas City, added. “They couldn't live without each other.”

Today, their life together will be remembered in a joint funeral at St. Agnes Church in Roeland Park.

“It will be very moving, and it will be very beautiful,” Zapien-Pina said. “It will be the culmination of a great love story.”

In an interview with The Kansas City Star in December, near their 70th wedding anniversary, John and Ruby Zuniga had spoken tenderly of a romance that began in the Armourdale community of Kansas City, Kan., and led to six children, 22 grandchildren, 44 great-grandchildren and nine great-great-grandchildren.

The Depression was raging when they met, and Ruby's family was poor, they had said. Because they didn't have running water of their own, Ruby often borrowed it from neighbors. One day she saw John across the street, leaning against a fence post.

“I thought he was cute,” she had said.

From then on, Ruby was on a mission and borrowed water from John's family often. Finally John noticed her, and the rest is history, he said.

Soon Ruby, only 14, and John, nearly 19, were married by a judge in a small ceremony on a blustery December morning. Instead of embarking on a honeymoon, they enjoyed a breakfast prepared by Ruby's aunt and set out to make a family.

They didn't have to wait long. Their first child came when Ruby was 15.

In the next 70 years, John, a waiter, and Ruby, a nurse, traveled the world, purchased a home in what is now Roeland Park and, on their 50th wedding anniversary, renewed their vows. The entire family marched down the aisle at St. Agnes Church with them and later danced at a reception. The day was everything they had hoped it would be, they said.

For their 65th anniversary, their family took them on a Caribbean cruise. And then came their 70th anniversary. Just three months ago, more than 50 of their closest friends and five generations of family celebrated their journey together.

At the time, Ruby had said: “It's a very exciting thing. You think, ‘Oh, my God, we've come this far and look how much ground we have covered.'”

“It made us feel so good; I guess we're lucky.”

Their luck seemed to change in recent weeks, when John developed a cold that grew into pneumonia. As his health deteriorated, so did Ruby's. Ruby quit eating and said to her granddaughter: “Well, I guess I'm going, too.”

When family members tried to persuade her to take care of herself and live — spring flowers are coming soon, they said — she replied: “I've been with John Zuniga for 70 years. There's no life without John Zuniga.”

“He was her reason for living,” Zapien-Pina said.
To reach Kara Cowie, call (816) 234-7737 or send e-mail to

Newberry Library's Genealogy Offerings
The Newberry Library ~ 60 W. Walton St. ~ Chicago, Illinois 60610-7324 ~ 312-255-3700 ~ http://     Sent by 

The Newberry Library boasts one of the largest genealogy collections in the nation, and it consistently provides both novice and experienced genealogists with numerous resources and services to assist in their research. The Newberry’s genealogy and local history collections include over 17,000 family genealogies, national, regional and local histories, federal census records, birth, death and marriage records, military records, and complete runs of related periodicals.
The Newberry Library is conveniently located three blocks west of Michigan Avenue and three blocks north of Chicago Avenue.  Discounted parking is available at three locations: 100 W. Chestnut, 100 E. Walton, and 1035 N. Clark ($8/eight hours with validation).  Travel info and directions are available online at

Following is text for our next two genealogy events, newly revised “Sources and Strategies with Sandra Luebking" [previously “A Day with the Szucs: Lou and Juliana Share Strategies for Genealogical Success”] and "Lecture and Book Signing with Grace Dumelle, author of Finding Your Chicago Ancestors" along with Newberry’s Summer 2005 Genealogy Adult Education Seminars, all focusing on genealogical excellence.  

Seventh Annual Workshop in Memory of Barbara Stenger Burditt
“Sources and Strategies with Sandra Luebking”
Saturday, April 9, 2005 Program from 9:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.

Sandra Luebking is known as a knowledgeable, dynamic and versatile speaker.  She is the co-editor of the major reference work for American genealogy, The Source (published by Ancestry in 1997) and the award-winning The Archives: A Guide to the National Archives Field Branches.  Ms. Luebking is a regular lecturer at Samford University’s Institute of Genealogy and Historical Research in Birmingham, Alabama and at the Genealogical Institute of Mid-America in Springfield, Illinois.  Her four lectures are entitled “Surname Smart Search!” “The Great Courthouse Caper,” “Land and Taxes,” and “Circumventing Blocked Lines.”
A vast selection of genealogical guides and reference works will be available for purchase in Newberry’s A.C. McClurg Bookstore.
~ Plus, bring your old photos for expert restoration advice from Eric Basir of Fotografix ~
Admission to all four lectures, a detailed syllabus, and a box lunch is $75; $50 for current members of the Friends of Genealogy and new Friends of the Newberry Library at the Author ($100) level and above.  Reservations are required; call 312-255-3574.

Lecture and book signing with Grace Dumelle, author of Finding Your Chicago Ancestors
Thursday, June 16, 2005Lecture from 6:00 p.m. to 7:30 p.m.  (doors open at 5:30 p.m.)

Grace Dumelle is the proprietor of Heartland Historical Research Service and a member of the Newberry Library’s Local and Family History Department.  In her book, she explains how to navigate the complicated historical records of Chicago and Cook County to find your ancestors.  She covers basic genealogy sources such as the U.S. census, but also delves into more obscure records such as deeds, coroner’s reports and school records.  Join us in celebrating the publication of Finding Your Chicago Ancestors.  Admission is $10, or free to current members of the Friends of Genealogy and new Friends of the Newberry Library at the Author ($100) level and above. For more information, call 312-255-3700. 

The Melungeon Mystery

Orange County California 65 Newsletter - January 2004- page 3

The story of the Melungeons, sometimes called the "Lost Tribe of Appalachia" is a fascinating one. Melungeons are people of mixed ethnicity who claim varying degrees of Portuguese. Turkish, Moorish, Arabic, Jewish, American Indian, and African decent. The term typically refers to people from eastern Kentucky, southwestern Virginia, eastern Tennessee and southern West Virginia, according to the Melungeon Heritage Association. There is more information at their website

Most families in Appalachia have some Melungeon roo
ts, although many aren't aware of them—or try to keep them a secret. The physical evidence may be the most telling. Melungeon traits include dark hair and skin with light colored eyes; stark contrasts in skin and hair color within a single family; American Indian features; and a particular type of bump or ridge at the back of the head (usually just above the neck).

The Melungeon's origins are still be debated. Some researchers believe they descended from the lost colony of Roanoke, and ended up marrying into American Indian families. Others say the Melungeons descended from the legendary Welsh explorer Madoc, who supposedly explored the southern Appalachian region in the 1100's. Still others theorize that the Melungeons are merely a tri-racial mix of Caucasian Europeans, escaped African-American slaves and American Indians.

The origin of the word Melungeon is a mystery, too. Some researchers believe the word stems from the French word melange, which means "mixture". Yet the word, as it is pronounced today (muh-luhn-juhn) exists in old Spanish folk songs and usually translates as a disparaging term for a poor person or someone from a socially lower class.

In early censuses. Melungeons were listed as FPCs (Free Persons of Color), blacks or mulattos. If you suspect a Melungeon connection, start with your immediate family and work backward, collecting birth certificates and other documents that might hold clues to your family's heritage. There are a number of Intertet resources. Visit the Melungeon Health Education and Support Network Web site or enter "Melungeon" in a google search.

West Virginia University Library Appalachian Collection at  has an outstanding collection on the 13 state Appalachian region, and much of it is indexed and annotated in the Appalachian Bibliography.

Appalachian-Life —discuss history, culture, genealogy and anything pertaining mountain life at <>

Subscribe to this list if you're researching family rumors of mixed ancestry, such as Native American, Portuguese. Turkish and Black butch, in Applalachia. <>

Source Material: 'Trail to your roots' an article written_by Susan Wenner Jackson, Family Tree Magazine. December 2003, page 54-56.





Joe Carmena, Korea 1954
Nation's Oldest City, St. Augustine, Can't Afford Its Past
Godfrey Memorial Library
Cesar Chavez Public Charter High School for Public Policy

Rio Grande City JROTC to participate in D.C. parade 
Mexican Immigrants in Maryland: The Pilgrims of Palomas  


 Joe Carmena requested information from MacCoinneach's Custom Heraldry and Genealogy Items Coats of Arms Built Printed Framed and learned that there were  3 different Coats of Arms for Carmena, in Cantabria, in Catalunya, and somewhere in the rest of Spain?

Joe is a frequent submitter to Somos Primos.  To find other information pertaining to the Carmena surname submitted by Joe, do a keyword search on
for the issues in which Joe has sent information.  


Nation's Oldest City, St. Augustine, Can't Afford Its Past
By Todd Lewan, AP
Sent by Michael Hardwick

ST. AUGUSTINE, Fla. (March 12) - Here, in the nation's oldest city, history has become a burden.

Everything found on digs in St. Augustine, from pig bones to pottery shards to soldiers' brass buttons are cleaned, examined, sorted, dated and catalogued.

It's not that locals don't appreciate their hometown's long, colorful past. To the contrary, many are fiercely proud that their city, founded by Spanish conquistadors in 1565, is the oldest, continuously occupied settlement of European origin in North America.

Richard Bowers, for one, bristles whenever he hears people chatter on about the Pilgrims being America's earliest settlers. "Listen," the Flagler College professor sniffs, "by the time the Pilgrims arrived, St. Augustine was ready for urban renewal."

This city possesses one of the oldest and largest collections of historical structures in the country - no fewer than 1,200 are listed in the National Register of Historic Places - and a large number of colonial-era buildings than would rival those of Williamsburg, Va.

"Oldest, oldest, oldest, first, first, first - there are an awfully lot of oldests and a lot of firsts in St. Augustine," says Susan R. Parker, a historian with the Florida state Division of Historical Resources. "Wherever you step, history is under your feet."

Which, as it happens, is precisely the rub: This place has SO much history, SO many surviving structures of historical significance, not to mention undiscovered buried artifacts, that experts say it could take tens of millions of dollars for the city to acquire and preserve them all.

Raising that kind of bullion might be doable - in a New York City, say, or a Chicago. But this is St. Augustine, population 14,000, where money for preservation must come from a relatively meager property tax base - 6,590 parcels of land, according to the St. Johns County tax appraiser's office.

It certainly doesn't help that 38 percent of all land in St. Augustine is off the tax rolls.

The Old City, for example, a 22-block district on the edge of Matanzas Bay, is a random miscellany of "501C3s" - IRS code for tax-exempt institutions, which include a cathedral, four churches, a Franciscan monastery, a convent, the 1808 City Gate (complete with causeway over what formerly was a moat), Flagler College, the Florida School for the Deaf and the Blind, the headquarters for the Florida National Guard and a national cemetery.

Here, too, is the country's oldest fort, the Castillo de San Marcos (begun in 1672, finished in 1695), which was built by Spain to fight off pirates, hostile natives, the French, the British and, later, South Carolinian forces.

Florida used to ante up millions of dollars each year to preserve St. Augustine's treasures, but now that the state has a huge hole in its budget, that's history, too.

In a different age, perhaps, the state's disinterest might not alarm preservationists. Today, however, there is this troubling fact: on average, one historic structure is now demolished each month in St. Augustine.

To the north, the city of Jacksonville is bursting its seams, extruding Home Depots, Best Buys and Burger Kings, setting off a development tsunami that is washing over St. Augustine and driving up land prices. The problem is exacerbated by the growth of Flagler College, and the resulting increased demand for student housing and parking lots. Finally, aging Baby Boomers are flocking here, looking to retire in a low-key, authentically historical setting.

There is an added complication: St. Augustine is a place where anyone can buy a historical house, completely remodel the interior, and live in it - or, if one chooses, tear it down.

Homes built before 1821 do have a bit of protection. According to St. Augustine's demolition ordinance, the city can order new homeowners to wait one year before touching anything. In theory, that gives the city the opportunity to buy and preserve the structure.

But in practice, officials say, the city doesn't have the money to buy colonial buildings, some of which are valued at several million dollars. And once an owner has waited a year, there's nothing the city can do to stop a demolition.

Several years back, a group of prominent citizens, including Ronnie J. Hughes, publisher of the local newspaper, The St. Augustine Record, started a foundation to raise seed money to help the citizenry buy and restore historic structures.

Unlike in Williamsburg, however, no great benefactor has come forward; and the state of Florida has shown no interest, either. (In Colonial Williamsburg, John D. Rockefeller Jr. bought many historic structures, including 70 colonial buildings, between 1926 and 1928.)

This makes Hughes nervous. With development pressure building in St. Johns County, Hughes figures the city has 10, maybe 15 years to acquire the most important, threatened properties and keep them from being transformed by a carnival of neon and cinderblock.

"And the clock is ticking."

Susan Parker, with a squint and a smile, halts before the house at 46 St. George Street. On this morning, she's taking a visitor through the Old City, showing off the city's "crown jewels."

In 1821, she says, there were 300 buildings in the city. A century later, just 36 of those structures had survived, including this one, the Arrivas House, built for a Spaniard named Don Ramundo de Arrivas in 1748.

Parker is saying, "This one was all set to be demolished. Destroyed forever. Can you imagine that? Well, thank goodness it didn't happen. In the early '60s, the state of Florida stepped in and rescued this one from the brink."

Her eyes skip over the facade. For a house that's 256 years old, it doesn't look a day over 30: the coquina walls appear sturdy, its wraparound porches on the second story, which hang over the street like dark, Spanish eyebrows, seem solid in repose.

Parker, moving on now, passes the entrances of some whitewashed, Spanish colonial reconstructions. They've been fashioned into trinket and T-shirt shops, craft stores, a pub, a gallery, a boutique that sells glass figurines.

"It's sort of a pity," she says. "This street ought to be a little less about selling stuff and more about heritage."

To maintain the old structures, she says, the city has four sources of revenue: museum admissions, museum store sales, grants and gifts, and income from renting commercial property. The city is the biggest landlord on St. George Street.

"We'd like to see more historically oriented shops," Parker says. "You know, antique stores, bookstores, maybe a nautical shop." For now, though, the bottom line has the upper hand: T-shirt and key chain merchants may be tacky, but they pay the rent on time.

Atop the Castillo de San Marcos, on the broad gun deck, Parker recalls a time when this fort was the northernmost outpost of Spain's New World empire.

"The king of Spain kept a garrison here - 300 soldiers - to offer cover and protection for the silver fleets that rode the Gulf Stream all the way home. See, straight out there? From that point, the Stream veers east and goes ZZZZIIIPPP! toward Europe."

The south side of the fort had what may be the first flush toilets in the New World - a couple of latrines washed out twice a day by the tide.

The Spanish, she says, weren't the only ones to leave something behind in St. Augustine. Prince Achille Murat, the short, portly nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte who married George Washington's grandniece, boarded at a coquina dwelling here in 1824 (The Murat House has been preserved.); William Dean Howells, the American writer, wintered here at a Colonial Revival home in 1916. (It, too, has been restored.)

In the early 1960s, Martin Luther King Jr. staged civil rights sit-ins in St. Augustine. In 1964, he attempted to eat at the whites-only Monson Hotel and was arrested. Parker slows her gait, then stops. "That," she says, pointing across Avenida Menendez, to a construction site across the road, "is where the hotel once stood."

In a block-long, rectangular lot, workers are putting the finishing touches on the Hilton Garden Inn Monson Bayfront Resort. It's a series of two-story wooden structures, painted in pastel colors, quite in keeping with the colonial style of the Old City.

The problem, Parker says, is that the Hilton added a new, underground garage on the site. In doing so, it removed tons of soil that contained Spanish and Indian artifacts, some four centuries old, and afterward poured a concrete foundation, entombing what little was left.

Some artifacts were recovered by volunteers who worked, intermittently, for three years before the garage was built. They found a 1750 square-bottomed bottle, probably used to hold ale; an 1850 rubber statuette of the Virgin Mary cradling a baby Jesus; bowls, plates, tumblers and goblets from the 17th century.

However, Carl Halbirt, the city's staff archaeologist, estimates that 90 percent of the archaeological treasures beneath the Monson property perished.

Bill Adams, director of this city's Historical Preservation and Heritage Tourism department, opens a Ziploc bag and spills 302 years of American history out on to a 17th century table.

This nugget is a cast-iron grapeshot, about the size of a golf ball. Adams says, "We moved a 1915 house, the Peck House, that was sitting on a British siege line dug in 1702 across the street from the fort. And this was lying right there, plain as day."

He picks up another plastic bag, shakes out a brass button. It came off the waistcoat of a Spanish soldier - in 1720. He selects another Ziploc and pours out a U.S.-pattern dragoon sword hanger, from the Second Seminole War in 1833.

"All this came from just one small area, off the surface," he says. "Imagine what we'll find when we start digging." He reaches for another bag. "Want to see something really valuable?"

He holds up a shiny, square object. "Look at this. A chinstrap buckle from a U.S. soldier's cap. This is 180 years old. The whole colonial city is full of this stuff." He composes himself. "This is tangible evidence of who we are as a people. This proves it - it's not just words in a textbook."

Unfortunately, these treasures - and thousands more like them - are sitting in boxes and dusty drawers, waiting to be analyzed, cataloged, curated.

St. Augustine has enough money for one staff archaeologist, Halbirt; and he is so busy trying to salvage artifacts from sites that are to become parking lots, hotels or student dorms, he's got no time for historical analysis.

The result, Adams says, is treasure without context.

Between 1959 and 1997, when the state funded preservation in St. Augustine, a veritable think tank of historians handled the analysis. That stopped, though, when the legislature turned off the cash.

It still steams Hamilton Upchurch, a local lawyer and preservationist who, from 1977 to 1985, was a member of the Florida Legislature. In his estimation, $10 million is needed to get a serious preservation campaign off the ground, although, "to be truly effective on a Williamsburg scale, you're looking at $80 million to $100 million, easy."

Adams, the city's preservation director, says if restoration money doesn't arrive soon, all Americans will be the losers.

"Ultimately, the attrition of time will wear away at these national treasures," he says, "and they'll gradually disappear, like footprints in the sand."


Godfrey Memorial Library . . .WOW!! CHECK THIS OUT!!

134 Newfield Street, Middletown, CT 06457-2534
Phone: 860-346-4375  FAX: 860-347-9874 Open: Mon.: 9-8; Tues.-Fri.: 9-4

Cesar Chavez Public Charter High School for Public Policy
Received by: Irasema Salcido
Sponsored by: Jeff Bezos, 
For more Information, please contact: Irasema Salcido
Cesar Chavez Public Charter High School for Public Policy
1346 Florida Avenue NW
Washington, DC 20009
PH: 202-387-6980  FAX: 202-387-7808

Irasema Salcido, mother of five and a school administrator, felt it was unfair that the poorest students also received the poorest education. She became determined to teach students how to defy the odds and achieve greatness in their lives — just as she had. 

How it Began — A Dream to Succeed
Irasema grew up in Mexico, the daughter of migrant farm workers. When she was 14 years old, she came to the United States and didn't speak a word of English. Work in the fields on weekends to help her family survive, Irasema knew what she wanted for her life. "I had a dream — I wanted to be someone." Determined to succeed, Irasema obtained a Masters degree in Education from Harvard University. 

Irasema then became a high school administrator in Washington DC. She was frustrated that many students were graduating without knowing how to read, write or multiply. In 1997, pregnant with her fifth child, Irasema decided to take a huge risk — she opened her own school. She named it after Cesar Chavez because she wanted to send the message to the students that even if they came from humble beginnings, they could do great things and make a difference in people's lives. 

The first year was difficult on both the students and teachers. Although there were only 60 students enrolled, most of the students didn't know the basics and Irasema had to recruit 60 personal tutors. Even so, at the end of the first year, Irasema made the difficult decision to hold back 75 per cent of the freshman class. "They came back the next year... different, understanding the value of education," says Irasema. "Those are the students that are right now my best students. They are the ones getting A's and B's." 

The Solution — Empower the Students
Many of the students at the Chavez Charter School come from situations where their home lives seem out of control; they have lost hope. Their neighborhoods are filled with poverty, drugs and violence. Through courses that teach her students about public policy and require them to take action on issues they care about, Irasema shows these students that they have the power to take control and make an impact on their community. 

Students have testified in front of the city council asking for more money to provide services for homeless in the city. Another group went to Congress to testify on violence in schools. Students have gone to the White House to shadow staff — including the President of the United States — for a day. "It is empowering for them. We want students to experience that they can make a change even now." 

Irasema demands a lot of her students. They have to go to school six days a week, stay in the evenings for tutoring and attend summer school. "It's important for the schools to offer [students] a place that is safe haven... where [students] can be and develop and try hard and see that they can achieve, that they have potential, that they have skills, that they have people that believe in them," says Irasema. 

"I honestly believe when they leave us, they will remember they can change what is going on in their community. The results are priceless because their lives are changed forever." 

Rio Grande City JROTC to participate in D.C. parade 
The JROTC practice marching recently at Rio Grande City High School. 
Travis M. Whitehead 
The Monitor, March 24, 2005
Sent by JD Villarreal

"Left, left, left-right, right-left!" The sergeant shouted orders as members of the 12th Cavalry Memorial Unit marched. The unit, part of the Rio Grande City High School JROTC Rattler Battalion, will participate April 9 in the National Cherry Blossom Festival Parade in Washington, D.C.

Thirty cadets, four horses, one mule and a wagon will represent their school and community at the event. They also will spend more than two days exploring the monuments of the nation’s capitol. The group plans to arrive April 6 in Washington, D.C., have coffee with Sen. Kay Bailey Hutchison the
next morning, then visit the Vietnam War Memorial, Arlington National Cemetery, the White House and other sites.

"I look forward to visiting the Lincoln Memorial," said Cadet Sgt. Major Heriberto Garza, 18. "The Lincoln Memorial’s on the penny and the $5 bill. I feel pride for being selected to represent the community."

The school established the unit in 1998 as a replica of the U.S. Army’s 12th Cavalry, which served at Fort Ringgold from 1921 to 1941. That unit currently is stationed at Fort Hood. The high schoolers participate in the organization as a living history of the unit’s years along the border.
"The cadets wear the same hat, the saber, the tie that they used to wear back then," said Master Sgt. Marco Peña, Army instructor for the high school program.

Peña began thinking up new activities for the students last year.  "We had just finished the San Antonio parade, the Battle of Flowers," Peña recalled. "I said, ‘We need to take the kids to other parades,’ because the parades were becoming routine." The students also led the Parade of Oranges in Mission last year.  Peña was searching the Internet when he stumbled onto the cherry blossom parade.

"When I told Major Rutledge about it, he laughed and walked into his office, Peña recalled. "He came back five minutes later and said, ‘Are you serious?’ I said, ‘Yes, let’s take the kids on an educational trip.’"  Major David Rutledge, senior Army instructor, said he initially was hesitant
to the idea of taking a group of high school students out of state. The group had not gone any farther than San Antonio, he said. However, after he thought about it, he became more receptive to the idea.

"It makes sense, because they’re going to a major event and we’re taking students to the seat of our national government," he said. "It’s a great opportunity to educate the kids about different activities and sites of the nation’s capital. Part of the program here is to study congressional law, the Bill of Rights and the Declaration of Independence."

The school sent in its application to march in the parade, and the students felt honored to be chosen. Rutledge said he and Peña hope to get passes for the students to go into the Supreme Court and the Pentagon; he hopes to include as many sites as possible while they are in Washington. For some students, it will be one of the greatest things they’ve ever experienced.

"I haven’t ever flown," said Cadet Lt. Col. Dhilendy Garcia, 17. "I am scared of heights, but I feel very excited, not only about the trip for national recognition, but also the education trip, learning about the nation’s history and how our government works. I look forward to touring the White House."
Travis M. Whitehead covers Starr County, Mission, law enforcement and general assignments for The Monitor. You can reach him at (956) 683-4452. 

Mexican Immigrants in Maryland: The Pilgrims of Palomas  
By Chris Guy, BaltimoreSun Staff, February 27, 2005
Sent by Howard Shorr

Far from the packing houses of Maryland's Eastern Shore, Trinidad Tovar Tovar despairs. Normally she would be preparing for her annual journey to the Chesapeake Bay, where she and hundreds of other Mexicans pick crabmeat to earn money for families back home. But this year, visa restrictions threaten their jobs.

PALOMAS, Mexico - Powdery gray dust clouds rise around her ankles with each footstep, then hang and drift on the breeze as Trinidad Tovar Tovar bustles about the bare dirt yard outside the concrete and cinderblock house she shares with her three grown sons and their families. Nearby, a listless menagerie of chickens, goats, a burro and two scrawny dogs waits for a handout.

The parched high desert of this remote village in the Sierra Madre Oriental mountains could hardly be more different from the marshy waterfront of Maryland's Eastern Shore, where Tovar Tovar, 46, has for more than a decade made an annual journey to make a living picking crabs.

She prefers the desert. But she desperately needs to get back to Maryland this spring to earn money for the year to come - and probably won't be allowed to go.

To enter the United States, she needs a temporary visa from a program known for its citation in the law, H2B. Tovar Tovar - and hundreds of other Mexicans who have jobs waiting in Maryland's seafood industry - can't get visas this year because businesses in other parts of the country appear to have used up the nation's quota of 66,000 workers.

"My hands are ready to go back to that place, ready for that work," Tovar Tovar says.

Usually at this time of year, she and about 80 other women from this town of 600 would be getting ready to leave their homes and families for the long trip north.

It is an arduous three- or four-day bus ride: 2,000 miles without a shower or hotel, sleeping sitting up, stopping only for gasoline and food.

The destination is a Dorchester County crab packing plant. The women, sometimes working 10-hour shifts, can - in a flash of busy hands and flying shell - pry out as much as 40 pounds a day of the fluffy white meat, the Chesapeake Bay's most prized bounty.

By night they sleep in dormitory-style bunk beds in clapboard houses in Cambridge and Hooper's Island, where they may pay $50 a week to share space with anywhere from a handful to two dozen other workers.

The women have returned year after year for this hard work because they can earn $8,000 and more - nearly all of the annual income for their families - during their May-to-October sojourn on the Shore.

The money pays for food in winter months. It paid for the materials for Tovar Tovar's house. She would like to earn enough to install a toilet.

But unless Congress approves emergency legislation in the next few weeks to increase the number of visas allowed, Tovar Tovar and others won't be making the trip to Maryland this year.

'A hard-working area' 

Situated in a valley that is almost 4,000 feet above sea level, Palomas sits squarely in the shadow of two unnamed mountains, indistinguishable from an endless expanse of brittle, rocky terrain.

Hooper's Island, where Tovar Tovar still hopes to spend another crab season, is barely more than a low-lying clump of dry land that seems always to be looking eye-to-eye with the ever-encroaching bay. The Mexican crab pickers joke that the island's mosquitoes and humidity are so thick they can blot out the sun.

The two small towns are bookends. They circumscribe the 2,000-mile pipeline that links poor Latin American workers such as Tovar Tovar with seafood processors, landscapers, logging companies and others who say they need cheap labor, the willing employees who'll take dirty and difficult jobs that most Americans won't.

Jay Newcomb, who runs the A. E. Phillips Seafood plant in Fishing Creek, Md., says workers from Palomas have a reputation as diligent. He remembers Tovar Tovar, for instance, even though she switched to a rival processor years ago.

"That's a hard-working area that they come from," Newcomb says. "They have harvested beans, tobacco, tomatoes - you name it. They'll do whatever they have to do just to survive."

But jobs in their home region are nearly nonexistent today, residents say. As Mexican agriculture has declined in recent years, the only option for many families is to take in piecework, cutting and shaping dried corn leaves that are used to wrap tamales for baking.

Like picking crabs, it is repetitive, tedious work. But a day's labor nets as little as 100 pesos, about $9. Experienced crab pickers say they can earn as much as $80 a day cleaning crab meat.

Palomas, nearly a three-hour drive from the state capital of San Luis Potosi, is an isolated village where only one main street is paved and the local priest comes every third Sunday to celebrate Mass.

Few here who have found work through the H2B program since it began in 1990 have heard or understand the details of the current visa issue. One rumor has it that the processors just don't want them any more.

They know full well, however, the impact it could have on their families and their town. And they are worried.

As each day passes, the crab pickers wonder when they will get word about the jobs they have come to expect.

Some have tried calling their American employers - not an easy task in a town where the only phones are public and require prepaid plastic cards. Even if they get through on an international call, seafood processors tell them their hands are tied unless Congress acts.

"As anyone can see, without jobs in America, we could never have built a new house," says Tovar Tovar, who is a widow. "If we get sick, there is no money for medicine. I worry that my little grandson will get sick. I worry because the life here is hard."

With little prompting, she invites guests into the cool of the house her youngest son finished last year. It matches many modest dwellings in Palomas.

Doors and windows are left open. Even in mid-February, daytime temperatures here, just a notch below the Tropic of Cancer, are in the 80s. Nights are cool, and there will be no moisture until the rainy season in May and June.

The family built the six rooms over three years, using wages Tovar Tovar earned in Dorchester County. Throughout Palomas there are partially built houses, constructed piecemeal as families, who can't get credit, buy materials a little at a time.

Tovar Tovar's three sons, 27, 26 and 21, brought in some of the money, working for a landscaper in Virginia.

Reaping the benefits 

By the standards of Palomas, the family lives well. Like many of their neighbors, they have electricity, television and a stereo - all paid for with wages earned in the States.

Swept and scrubbed daily, the immaculate house is painted a bright aqua green inside. Bedrooms are separated by curtains hung in doorways, and stackable plastic patio chairs are always ready for mealtime or to accommodate guests.

The kitchen, which includes a built-in, wood-fired oven to cook traditional corn tortillas, has a propane gas range, a refrigerator, a microwave. Someone has put "SpongeBob Squarepants" stickers on the white refrigerator door.

Unlike most of their neighbors, the family has an indoor shower, but water for cooking, doing dishes or washing clothes is dipped by the bucket from a cistern outside. The family's burro, which literally pulls its own weight hauling loads of sticks and corn leaves in a big-wheeled cart, drinks from the well. There's a crude outhouse in one corner of the property, behind a stand of 6-foot cactus plants.

Staples for breakfast, lunch and supper for pretty much everyone are beans, rice and tortillas. Once a week, Tovar Tovar walks down to the tiny grocery store on the corner to buy a chicken. It is all the meat they can afford, she says, especially when much of the money she saved last year has been spent.

If she needs any reminder of how things used to be, she can glance out back at the 50-year-old hut her elderly in-laws use as a kitchen. Tovar Tovar lived for many years in the tiny, drafty building - with her six children.

Nearby is another shack where the old people sleep. Both structures are made entirely of tree limbs, sticks and mud. The family helps out the couple, 74-year-old Aniceto Martinez Tovar and Maria Melquiades Herrera, 82, with food and money from the work in the United States.

"I have mixed feelings about crabmeat," Tovar Tovar says. "I had a job and money, but I had to leave my children. Now, they are grown and I am strong."

For her neighbor Silvestre Tovar Tovar, who is no relation, an American job at an Alabama farm offered good pay, but he has been disabled since he fell off a truck five years ago. The farmer took him to the hospital, Silvestre says, but never sent the money he promised for continuing medical expenses.

His wife, Ramona, and two of their daughters, 22-year-old Rosa and 19-year-old Enedina, have picked crabs in Fishing Creek. Next year, they hope, there will also be a job for 17-year-old Marcia.

The workers say they are vulnerable to disreputable job brokers and often must pay a stiff price to get visas and to have jobs lined up with employers.

In Palomas, overseas jobs usually start with Gloria Solis Vargas. From a home office in Ciudad del Maiz, a regional commercial center of 20,000 people about 15 miles from Palomas, Solis places as many as 800 workers from several Mexican states with a Virginia-based company called Del Al Associates.

Last year, Solis Vargas says, she sent workers to jobs in Alabama, Virginia, North Carolina and Mississippi, as well as Maryland.

The matriarch of a prominent ranching family, Solis Vargas, 48, moves with ease among her clients in Palomas. She is greeted warmly, invited into their homes. Her fee of $35 per H2B placement has not changed in years, workers say, and her partners at Del Al have held their fee to $81.

Still, all told, each worker must pay about $650 in fees, bus costs and other expenses to get to jobs in the United States.

"The girls who started in this program didn't know there was such a place," Solis Vargas says. "I'm proud of what our workers have done. But now we don't know what will happen. If the visa issue isn't resolved, it will ruin people, ruin the economy here."

'We need to go back' 

These days, while waiting to hear about their visas, families all over town are working on tamale wrappers.

Within a few hours, workers say, their hands and arms begin to burn because of a chemical applied to the corn leaves to make them supple and easy to fold.

Workers endure painful cuts picking crabs, too - but that job pays much more. That is why, they say, they are willing to trek to an unfamiliar land, leaving children, friends and family for six months at a time.

"Here, there was nothing. There is still nothing," Tovar Tovar says. "We worked on a farm and picked tomatoes here, but even that job is gone now."

In her house, tucked under a clear plastic table cloth on a long flat table, is a U.S. dollar bill.

No, it's not the first greenback she ever earned, she says. She just keeps it there as a reminder of what she needs to do.

"We want to work to have money to put a toilet in," Tovar Tovar says. "My sons want to build me my own house. ... We need to go back and work so we can do more here."



Picture reproduction from Palenque, Mexico
Bautismos administrados en la Iglesia parroquia de Jerez, Zacatecas
Jerez Revista de Ocasion, historia y genealogia Articulo de Ocasion
Rescate documental relativo a la Parroquia de Jerez, Zac.
Zacatecas y sus Hombres Ilustres, Jose Leon Robles de la Torre 
Lic. Francisco Garcia Salinas/Zacatecas Governor/1829-1834 
Irish-Mexican Connections
Real de San Carlos de Vallecillo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico  



Picture reproduction from Palenque, Mexico
Found in the resources available on
Dedicated to Spanish history and culture, includes:
Archivo General de Indias. Culturas precolombinas ruinas mayas de Palenque.
Sent by Mario Robles del Moral



Bautismos administrados en la 
Iglesia parroquia de Jerez, Zacatecas

Siglo XVII. Año de 1653.

Por Leonardo de la Torre y Berumen
Investigador y Genealogista

Teléfono: 01 (494)945 83 05.
Telefono y fax: 01 (494)945 22 74.
Correo electrónico:
Página personal:
Jerez. Revista de ocasión:



CRISTÓBAL bautizado a la edad de año y medio en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 29 de enero de 1653. Hijo de (...) Bautista y de Petrona, su mujer, cristianos naturales de Huasamota. Padrino: Francisco Gallegos.

CRUZ Cristina DE LA, india de Ordóñez, quien a los 15 días de nacida fue bautizada en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 8 de febrero de 1653. Hija de Juan Tomás y de Beatriz de la Cruz, indios, sirvientes de Juan Ordóñez. Padrinos: Juan Estebán y Juana Beatriz, indios, sirvientes de Juan Ordóñez.

DIEGO, indio de Benitez. No se supo cuando nació por haber parido la madre fuera de casa, parece ser de dos meses. Bautizado el 12 de enero de 1653. Hijo de Juan José y de Magdalena Juana, indios sirvientes de Alonso Jiménez Benitez. Padrinos: Alonso Jiménez Benitez y Margarita González.

FRANCISCO, a los 20 días de nacido en Huasamota fue bautizado en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 29 de enero de 1653. Hijo de (...) Bautista y de Petrona, su mujer, cristianos naturales de Huasamota. Padrino: Francisco Gallegos.

JOSEFA, mulata del rancho de Francisco de Orellana. Bautizada el 20 de febrero de 1653. Hija de Gabriel, mulato y de María, mulata.

LLAMAS DE SAN DIEGO Sebastiana DE, nacida el 10 de enero de 1653 en el pueblo de San Miguel y bautizada en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 2 de febrero de 1653. Hija de Lorenzo de Llamas, mestizo y de Inés de San Diego, su mujer, vecinos del pueblo de San Miguel. Padrinos: Jerónimo de Ortega y Angelina Petrona.

MARIA, india de El Huejote. Hija de la iglesia nacida en la estancia de Juan de Avila el 29 de enero de 1653 y bautizada en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 10 de febrero de 1653. Padrinos: Antonio Núñez y Lucia de Avila, españoles, vecinos de Jerez..

NICOLAS, mestizo de Francisco Gallegos, nacido a mediados del mes de agosto de 1652 y bautizado el 2 de febrero de 1653. Le hecho el agua Bartolomé Cubillos. Padrinos: Leonor Gallegos.

TREJO CALDERA Catalina DE, bautizada en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 21 de enero de 1653, a los 20 días de nacida en La Boca de Jomulco. hija de Jerónimo de Trejo y de Isabel Caldera, su mujer. Padrinos: Juan Maldonado de la Banda y Francisca Cid, su mujer.

TREJO CALDERA María DE, bautizada en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el 21 de enero de 1653, a los 20 días de nacida en La Boca de Jomulco. hija de Jerónimo de Trejo y de Isabel Caldera, su mujer. Padrinos: Juan Ordóñez y Mariana Cid.

Jerez Revista de Ocasion, Cultura historia y genealogia Articulo de Ocasion

Hi Mimi, Leonardo de la Torre Berumen has a new website, related to Jerez, Zacatecas, Mexico. This would be great for your Spanish readers. I know Leonardo de la Torre Berumen has written issues for Somos Primos.  Mercy Bautista Olvera
Congratulations to Leonardo de la Torre y Berúmen and Bernardo del Hoyo Calzada for an informative, beautiful e-magazine with a focus on the history of Jerez García Salinas, Zacatecas. If you have family roots there, I strongly encourage you to go to the site.

Jerez Revista de Ocasion, Cultura historia y genealogia Articulo de Ocasion
La poblacion de Ciudad Garcia 1882
Año 2.  No. 2      Jerez de García Salinas, Zac.  Marzo 2005                 
Feria de Primavera 2005

Director General: Leonardo de la Torre y Berúmen.
Coordinación General: Bernardo del Hoyo Calzada.

De introducción a introducciones  . .  
Jerez: un sin fin de historias  . .  
Con fe y devoción  . . 
Relatos de mi pueblo  . . 
Rescate documental   . . 
Palabra y poesía  . . 
De mi Jerez y su gente  . . 
Viejas historias..., de vivos y muertos  . .    
Feria de Primavera, 2005. Corte Real   . . 
Miscelaneas bibliograficas  . .

Rescate documental relativo a la Parroquia de Jerez, Zac.

Recopilación: Leonardo de la Torre y Berúmen.

En previsión de algunas objeciones que se me pudieran hacer sobre la razón que me asiste para asegurar que el documento que transcribo es el nombramiento del PRIMER CURA DE LA PARROQUIA DE JEREZ, presento como razones de peso las siguientes:

a) - En el libro de Gobierno número 7 del archivo existente en la Notaria de la Parroquia de Jerez a foja 76, se encuentra un dato referente a la fundación inicial de la ciudad que con fecha 29 de enero de 1918, el entonces Cura don Francisco J. Reveles en oficio dirigido al Gobierno Eclesiástico de Zacatecas en el que pide para su parroquia se hagan las gestiones necesarias ante la Santa Sede, para obtener el Patronato de Santo Domingo de Guzmán y San Ildefonso, Arzobispo de Toledo, y dice: "El Sábado 22 de enero de 1536, llegaron a ésta los expedicionarios españoles y dieron principio a la fundación de la ciudad, celebrándose la primera misa el Domingo siguiente 23, día de San Ildefonso Arzobispo de Toledo a quien tomaron por Patrón de la ciudad". Consta desde luego, que en dicho informe solo se hace mención del segundo, pero no del primero de los mencionados santos.

Don Ángel de J. Ibarra que fuera por muchos años Notario de la Parroquia de Jerez y en tiempos del finado señor cura Reveles, escribió unos datos sobre la fundación de la ciudad que por haber conocidos importantes documentos antiguos de ese archivo, y que a la fecha ya no existen, dice: "El día 22 de enero de 1536 llegaron por la tarde, procedentes de Compostela, ahora perteneciente al Estado de Nayarit, los expedicionarios españoles, que formaban parte de la gente del conquistador don Diego de Ibarra, al hermoso valle donde ahora se encuentra la ciudad de Jerez.- A los expedicionarios acompañaban cinco frailes de dominicos cuyos nombres han escapado desgraciadamente a mi memoria lo mismo que él Jefe de la expedición....."

El ya desaparecido escritor don José J. Hernández con fecha 23 de julio de 1947, me proporcionó algo similar y dice: "En busca de datos históricos para mi pueblo (se refiere a Valparaiso, Zac.), de Jerez he encontrándolo siguiente: "El 21 de enero de 1536, por el rumbo sur y viniendo de Compostela ( antigua capital de la Nueva Galicia, hoy Guadalajara), llegó a este valle (se refiere a Jerez), un jefe de la gente de Diego de Ibarra, acompañado de tres sacerdotes Misioneros etc..."

El señor Cura que fuera de Jerez, don José A. Macias Cabrera fallecido ahí hace algunos años, consiguió unos datos escritos (que no cuide preguntar su origen ) de no se quien, ni donde, que coinciden en todo con los anteriores, menos en lo concerniente a algo que se refiere al conquistador don Diego de Ibarra. En esos se agregaba que la primera Misa fue celebrada por el M. R. P. Fray José María Gamboa. Todo lo dicho concuerda como vemos en lo esencial de la fecha y arribo de la gente y para dicho debo de hacer constar, que por lo que a don José J. Hernández y don Angel de J. Ibarra se refiere, jamás se conocieron y por lo tanto, se descarta la posibilidad de que pudieran mutuamente haberse comunicado los datos de la fundación de Jerez.

Por muchos años sostuve yo también esta supuesta información como verídica en su totalidad pero a medida que he investigado detenidamente consultando cuantos autores antiguos y modernos han tratado de la Historia de Jalisco y Zacatecas, he llegado a la conclusión de que se imponen algunas rectificaciones, no de las fechas, que esas quedan perfectamente cimentadas pero si, de algunos otros detalles a los que me voy a referir detenidamente.

b) - El P. Antonio Tello, Cronista de la Antigua Galicia (Jalisco) nos dice que" "pasó Chirinos (don Pedro Peralmíndez ) por Tololotlán, Acatic, Comanja, Bufa de Zacatecas, Jerez y Tlaltenango " en 1529. Pero el señor García Cubas y don Elías Amador ponen la entrada de este aventurero español en 1531, fecha que me pareceser la más acertada. Por lo que hace presumir QUE Chirinos de Zacatecas siguió al poniente para torcer al sur y entrar al valle de Jerez por Boca del Tesorero y siguiendo por la falda de la Cordillera siguió con dirección a Malpaso y continuo hasta el llano de Tuitlán ( Villanueva actualmente: Tuitlán, en lengua nahuatl, tierra de piedras" ) pues dice el P. Tello que llegó "muy cerca del abandonado caserío que los indios le dijeron ser Chicomostoc". Posteriormente he podido comprobar que del hoy valle de Villanueva continuaron al poniente para bajar por Tepetongo y seguir hasta Tlaltenango etc.

c) La segunda entrada de los blancos al valle de Jerez debió ser como se asienta, cinco años después pero lo que no puede ser ni se comprueba, es, que la gente fuera ni estuviera al mando de don Diego de Ibarra por la sencilla razón, de que no consta que este señor encabezara expedición alguna en la Nueva Galicia, menos que pisara estas regiones puesto apenas llegó a estar en la primitiva Guadalajara que se fundó muy inmediata a lo que hoy es la ciudad de Nochistlán. 

d) En la primitiva Guadalajara si encontramos a Miguel de Ibarra, sobrino (como don Francisco, conquistador del Norte de Zacatecas y parte del Estado de Durango) De don Diego de Ibarraque "actuaba como Alcalde de Guadalajara en 1536" (Elías Amador-) Tomo I, pág. 97). El documento parroquial sólo dice: "llegaron a este lugar los expedicionarios españoles" pero no dice quien pudo ser el que los capitaneaba, o de quien dependían.

e) Mayor es el equivoco que sufre don José J. Hernández cuando asienta: "....llegó a este valle (de Jerez) un jefe de la gente de Diego de Ibarra acompañado de tres sacerdotes misioneros". El error de este señor consiste en dar a don Diego por expedicionario, pues por lo que tengo conocido en la materia, no consta que lo fuera; propicio sí, y favoreció grandemente de su peculio personal a sus sobrinos, don Miguel y don Francisco para que llevaran a cabo sus aventuras por tierras de Jalisco y Zacatecas (el primero).

Escribiendo actualmente un trabajo histórico sobre Jalpa y su Municipio, en el material seleccionado a dicho objeto encuentro que el Capitán Miguel Ibarra, así como sus compañeros don Francisco Verdugo y don Francisco de Barrios, si anduvieron no solo por Jalpa y sus aledaños sino que llegaron adelante y por lo tanto, es de creer que tal pudo ser gente de don Miguel la que llegó hasta pisar la tierra de la hermosa ciudad de Jerez,; pero como digo: a mi me parece ser más probable ésto. 

f) Fue el V. P. Fray Juan de Padilla el primer religioso franciscano que a tierras del cañón de Juchipila, misionando por Jalpa y llegando hasta Zacatecas y por lo general, Miguel de Ibarra. ¿No sería este religioso el que pisó tierra de Jerez y celebró la primera Misa? 

Al Padre Padilla se asocian en la evangelización del sur de Zacatecas y llegan hasta el centro del hoy Estado, los VV.PP. Fray Juan de Badiano, Fray Antonio de Segovia y Fray Miguel de Bolonia, pero como estos dos fueron muy posteriores, me inclino a creer que el designado por Dios fuera el primero de los citados. Cabe decir, que en todas las crónicas franciscanas - que no son pocas las que tengo y conozco no consta ni se menciona a ningún religioso que llevara el nombre de José Ma. Gamboa.

g) El primer religioso de la orden de Santo Domingo de Guzmán que vino a México, bien lo sabemos que lo fue el P. Fray Bartolomé Las Casas pero este santo varón jamás salió de las tierras chiapanecas. Cierto que los religiosos de esta orden llegaron a México en 1526, pero el P. Daniel Olmedo, S. J. en su magnifica obra de la historia de la Iglesia en el Tomo II, págs. 77 y 78, nos dice lo siguiente: "...Los RR. PP. Dominicos llegaron al país el 2 de julio de 1526, pero con tan mala suerte que ese mismo año cinco de ellos murieron y cuatro se regresaron a España. Renovado y reforzado el personal poco después, formaron estos cuatro Provincias: De Santiado de México (1536), la de San Vicente de Chiapas y Guatemala (1551), la de San Hipolito de Oaxaca (1595) y muchos años después la de Puebla (1656). También dieron 19 obispos a la Nueva España entre los que sobresalieron Yanés (?) (1452-1542). Las Casas y mucho más tarde Alcalde (1701-1792)". Los religiosos dominicos llevaron a cabo su apostólica actividad en el sur de nuestra Patria pero por estar regiones en nada tuvieron parte ya que toda la gloria de la civilización cristiana les corresponde única y exclusivamente a los religiosos franciscanos. 

h) La devoción Mariana que a la Virgen del Rosario se le tuvo en la primitiva Capilla de San Miguel de los Naturales, cuya imagen subsiste todavía, cabe preguntarnos a nosotros mismos. ¿Quién dejó esa devoción entre los indios y que duró por tantos años hasta llegar a darse al gran Patriarca Santo Domingo por Patrono después de San Ildefonso? En esto no pudieron tener influencia alguna los hijos del llagado Serafín de Asís. ¿Quién fue entonces? Yo la encuentro en lo siguiente:

1)- Por el año de 1560 o 62, llega al valle de Jerez el Beato Gregorio López que santifica con su planta de un émulo de San Antonio Abad, el solitario yermo de Atemaxac (bosque de Palmeras) y se establece en lo que hoy es la Ermita de Guadalupe donde finca su diminuta capilla. Aquí permanece una temporada y después, se cambia a la Encarnación, cerca de Villanueva pero regresa de nuevo a su lugar de origen de donde por causas desconocidas, se remonta a los altos riscos del punto llamado "La Cañada", frente a la alta montaña de Los Cardos. Aquí permanece también no se sabe cuanto para después retirarse a la entonces solitaria cañada de La Ermita de los Correa. 

Por el año de 1562 o 63, (no es muy segura la fecha) llega al valle de Jerez el M. R. P. Fray Domingo de Salazar, religioso dominico que después llegó a ser Obispo de Manila. ¿Qué hacía por estos lugares el Padre Salazar? Ninguna Crónica de las conocidas lo dice, pero lo seguro es que no anduvo de valde y en Jerez tuvo tiempo de actuar con los indios del entonces pa poblado luga, a los que inculcó su devoción mariana y esta se arraigó de tal manera con ellos, que perduró a través de los años y como recuerdo de su apostolado queda la imagen de Nuestra Señora del Rosario. ¿La trajo el venerable religioso? ¿La adquirieron después? Nadie lo sabe. De la permanencia por estos lugares del Padre Salazar hace mención el escritor don Fernando Ocaranza en su obra titulada "El Beato Gregorio López" por razón de que habiendo llegado indudablemente a sus oídos, noticia del anacoreta dicho, quiso conocerlo y habiéndose puesto al habla con él, lo convenció a que le siguiera con rumbo a México ofreciendo recibirle en su Orden. Es el único religioso dominico de que se tiene memoria cierta que anduvo por estos lugares y, claro esta, que misionó con fruto ya que sus recuerdos perduran todavía a través de tantos años. ¿Con qué objeto vino? Nadie lo sabe ni lo puede explicar pues todo cuanto digo, son meras deducciones que hago pero que me parecen apegadas a lo que fue la realidad. 

2)- Por lo que a la fundación de Jerez, se refiere, tengo para mi que la de 1536 es tan solo el inicio de que se quería que fuera pero que no podía hacer ya que quienes lo intentaron solo iban de paso y por lo tanto, seguro que encantados del lugar y de la bondad de su clima, quedaron de volver. ¿Volvieron? No lo sabemos pero probablemente que más de alguno sí pudo hacerlo. 

El lugar no pudo quedar abandonado puesto que si los indios ya le habitaban de tiempo atrás, claro está que encariñados con su valle de Amaya (lugar de higueras silvestres) siguieron allí. Que posteriormente fueron ocupando el lugar algunos hispanos, lo probamos con el hecho de que en 1562 ya vivía en su "cortijo" donde hoy es la ex hacienda de La Labor, el español don Pedro Carrillo y su yerno, don Martín Moreno y claro está, que de acuerdo con la época tuvieron que tener esclavos para su servicio.

De suponerse es y con sólido fundamento, que para 1560 ya Jerez contaba con vecinos españoles de los recién llegados de la Nueva Galicia con intenciones de colonizar las fértiles tierras del antiguo Valle de Amaya y, con seguridad que algunos de los regresados debieron ser de los expedicionarios que en 1536 llegaron allí el 22 de enero por la tarde; que decidieron fundar una ciudad pero que por razones del servicio tuvieron que seguir adelante pero llevando ya el designio de regresar al lugar en cuanto las circunstancias lo permitieran.

Cuando la Audiencia de Guadalajara da por fundada ya la Villa de Xerez, lo es oficialmente y cuando seguro así lo solicitaron los moradores hispanos que ya residían allí. Así pues, podemos decir que la FUNDACION DE OFICIO entre 1560 a 1570. ¿Y la parroquia en que tiempo se erigió?

El señor García Cubas dice que la Audiencia de Guadalajara por 1580 informaba al Rey de España de la fundación de la Parroquia; y a confirmar lo dicho está con una nota que conservo del señor Cura D. Carlos Uriel Argüelles, actual Cura de la Parroquia de Jerez, quien en 20 de julio de 1954 dice: "encontré en el archivo parroquial un documento correspondiente al año de 1582, en el cual se dice por la Audiencia de Guadalajara al Rey de España: "...ha poco hemos fundados la Parroquia de Jerez" (Archivo Particular del autor de este escrito).

Si el documento tomado de la obra del Escritor tapatío, Lic. Dávila Garibi esta expedido en 1575, concuerda justamente con lo que la Audiencia de la Nueva Galicia decía al rey de España cinco años después. Por conclusión:


Sobre las formalidades que ahora se observan para la erección canónica no solo de una parroquia, sino de una Vicaria, en esos tiempos no las había y sobre este particularidad la clave de lo dicho nos la da el Lic. Dávila Garibi y cuyo párrafo transcribo del folleto titulado APUNTES DE LA PARROQUIA DE TABASCO en su página 46 y que en sustancia dice: "Acerca de las pocas o ningunas formalidades que en ese tiempo había para la erección de Parroquias o Ayudas de Parroquia (que ahora llamamos Vicarias), es necesario "advertir que los obispos neogallegos del Siglo XVI (y por consiguiente del XVII) no usaron el vocablo "parroquia"para designar a las diversas feligresías foráneas que formaban parte de la Diócesis. Unas veces empelaban el nombre de "doctrinas", otras, el de "beneficios", otras en fin, del mineral o real de minas en que estaba asentada la cabecera de la feligresía. Expendían sin embargo, nombramientos de curas" (HISTORIA DE LA IGLESIA DE GUADALAJARA, Por José Ignacio Dávila Garibi, Tomo I, pág. 461). Y estas anormalidades siguieron su secuela ya que las encontramos todavía a mitad del Siglo XVIII". 

Con todo gusto cumplo los deseos del estimado señor Cura de mi antigua Parroquia, Jerez, de la Diócesis de Zacatecas.

Huanusco, Zac., 27 de agosto de 1965.

Juan N. Carlos R.


Personajes de la historia/ Zacatecas y sus Hombres Ilustres

Jose Leon Robles de la Torre: 
Writer, Historian, Journalist, Poet
El Siglo de Torreon Newspaper  
Sent by Mercy Bautista Olvera

Por: José León Robles de la TorreLic. José María García Rojas, Cuarto Gobernador de Zacatecas, del 30 de junio de 1825 al 1º. de agosto de 1829. Foto oficial de la Galería de Gobernadores que existe en Palacio de Gobierno.

15 de marzo de 2005 De mi libro en preparación: Zacatecas y sus Hombres Ilustres, Filigranas, Fundaciones y Genealogías. Capítulo de los Gobernadores. Datos del Tomo II de la obra Bosquejo Histórico de Zacatecas de don Elías Amador, editado en 1912, lo siguiente: 

El Coronel don Manuel Orive y Novales fue el último intendente de la Provincia de Zacatecas, estando en el poder hasta el 18 de octubre de 1823, fecha en que la diputación provincial declaró el “Estado Libre y Federado de Zacatecas” nombrándose un nuevo cuerpo legislativo que nombró el primer gobernador interino y provisional al Coronel don Juan Peredo que tomó posesión el mismo 18 de octubre de 1823, con un sueldo anual de tres mil pesos. Tenía también el mando militar y era originario de Aguascalientes. 

Poco duró en el cargo, ya que el 18 de marzo de 1824, presentó su renuncia ante el Congreso Local, en virtud de encontrarse quebrantado de su salud y ese mal lo llevó a la tumba el dos de agosto siguiente. 

2º.- Don José María Hoyos, fue nombrado por la Junta Auxiliar como Gobernador Provisional del Nuevo Estado Federado de Zacatecas, y el mismo día 18 de marzo de 1824, tomó posesión del cargo, mientras se convocaba a los Municipios a que presentaran una terna para elegir al nuevo Gobernador. 

3º.- Se concedieron diez días, al cabo de los cuales hubo algunas propuestas y el día 28 de ese mes, mediante un escrutinio realizado, resultó electo el Lic. José María Bracho, quien no aceptó el cargo por encontrarse delicado de salud, siguiendo en el cargo el mismo Lic. Hoyos hasta el 31 de marzo de ese año de 1824, procediendo luego el Congreso a una votación, quedando como tercer Gobernador Provisional don Pedro José López de Nava, tomando posesión del cargo el mismo 31 de marzo. De inmediato se convocaron a elecciones, resultando confirmatorio el mismo señor López de Nava, quien protestó el 26 de abril de 1824 y duró en el poder hasta el 30 de junio de 1825. 

4º.- Lic. don José María García Rojas, después de realizadas las elecciones convocadas para el cargo de Gobernador Constitucional del Estado de Zacatecas, resultó electo para el cuatrienio siguiente el señor García Rojas, quien tomó oficialmente el cargo de Gobernador el día 30 de junio de 1825, quedando como Teniente de Gobernador el Lic. Manuel González Cosío. En el año de 1828, ocupó, interinamente, el cargo de Gobernador por cuatro meses el Lic. Domingo Velázquez, regresando, luego, García Rojas a su cargo, hasta el término de su mandato el 1º. de agosto de 1829. 

La Provincia de Zacatecas perteneció al Reino de la Nueva Galicia, hasta 1823, en que se fundó el Estado Libre y Federado de Zacatecas. Quedó dividido en Partidos y Municipios el 17 de marzo de 1825, como sigue: 

Partido de Zacatecas: Ocho municipios (no se mencionan en este artículo por razones de espacio). 

Partido de Fresnillo: Tres municipios; partido de Sombrerete: Cuatro municipios. 

Partido de Jerez: Cuatro municipios; Partido de Pinos: cinco municipios; Partido de Villanueva: Cinco municipios; Partido de Tlaltenango: Siete municipios; Partido de Nieves: Cuatro municipios; Partido de Juchipila: Cuatro municipios; Partido de Nochistlán: Cuatro municipios; Partido de Mazapil: Cuatro municipios; Partido de Ojocaliente: Tres municipios y Partido de Aguascalientes: Seis municipios. 

En todos los partidos se incluye como Municipio la cabecera del mismo.

El siglo de Torreon, Mexico

Lic. Francisco Garcia Salinas
Zacatecas Governor/1829-1834  

Sent by Mercy Bautista Oliveras

Foto oficial de la Galería de Gobernadores que está en el Palacio de Gobierno de Zacatecas.

22 de marzo de 2005 El Lic. don Francisco García Salinas, “Tata Pachito”, como se le llama, fue Gobernador de Zacatecas del primero de agosto de 1829 y duró en el cargo hasta 1834. Nació en la Hacienda de la Labor de Santa Gertrudis, hoy Rancho de la Gavia, cercano y perteneciente a Jerez de García Salinas, en su honor, el 30 de noviembre (aunque algunos escritores dicen que el día 20) de 1786. 

Su padre fue don Víctor García, hombre dedicado a la agricultura y labores del campo, de una intachable conducta y sólida honradez, y con su ejemplo y consejos vivió sus primeros años, el que después llegaría a ser paladín de las libertades en el Estado, su madre fue doña Blasa Salinas, ejemplar y virtuosa, no sólo complementaba, sino que aumentaba la buena crianza del pequeño hijo... (La biografía completa de este personaje se encuentra en mi libro, inédito, de Jerez, Susticacán y Monte Escobedo). 

Para afianzar los cimientos morales y culturales, dos monjes religiosos del Convento de Guadalupe, Zacs., que eran sus tíos, lo llevaron a su lado para enseñarle gramática española y latina, y buenos modales respaldados con su vida ejemplar. 

Algún tiempo después el joven García Salinas, sintió deseos de ingresar al seminario, y sus tíos lo mandaron al Conciliar de Guadalajara, Jal., donde complementó sus estudios de Latín, de Filosofía y Teología Escolástica, pero no deseando abrazar la carrera sacerdotal, regresó a Zacatecas, una vez concluidos sus estudios. 

Ingresó a la política, empezando por ser Síndico del Ayuntamiento de Zacatecas en 1810. Fue electo Diputado Federal para el Congreso Constituyente de 1823. Fue miembro de las Asambleas Legislativas Nacionales en 1824. En 1825, fue electo Senador de la República representando a Zacatecas. 

Contrajo matrimonio con la señorita doña Loreto Elías y procrearon cuatro hijos: Francisco, Luis, Ma. Guadalupe y Gabriel García Elías. Doña Loreto falleció el cinco de agosto de 1825. Poco tiempo después contrajo segundas nupcias con doña María Mercedes Dávila, con la que procreó tres hijos: José de Jesús, Juliana y Francisco García Dávila. 

Fue electo Gobernador de Zacatecas y tomó posesión el primero de enero de 1829 y duró en el cargo hasta terminar su periodo de cuatro años, el 31 de diciembre de 1834. 

Durante su mandato como Gobernador, compró varias haciendas: Santa Teresa en Monte Escobedo; la Hacienda de la Quemada; la del Cuidado; la de Santa Fe; la Laborcita y Sain Bajo, todas las rentó para obtener ingresos para el Estado. El detalle en mi libro de Hombres Ilustres de Zacatecas. Sus autoridades: Alcaldes Mayores, Corregidores, Intendentes y Gobernadores, así como los obispos de Zacatecas, periodistas, poetas, escritores, etc. 

En mayo de 1830 fundó telares en Aguascalientes (cabecera de Partido, y en Jerez. En 1832, el primero de diciembre, fundó la Biblioteca Pública del Estado. En 1830, en diciembre 28, creó Las Fuerzas del Estado con 45 jefes, 472 oficiales efectivos, 104 oficiales supernumerarios, nueve mil 908 soldados efectivos y siete mil 41 supernumerarios, cuatro mil 217 fusiles, 810 carabinas, cuatro mil 33 sables y tres mil 470 lanzas. 

Muchas obras más hizo en el Estado. Pero la muerte lo sorprendió muy joven el dos de diciembre de 1841 a la edad de 55 años y doce días.

[[ Editor: Just a sampling of the kinds of information on the above site. Wonderful links on the subject.]]


An informal organization based in the San Francisco Bay Area that sponsors cultural activities related to Ireland and Mexico. The IMA led a study tour of the U.S.-Mexico border, marched in the St. Patrick's and Cinco de Mayo parades, and co-sponsored a panel discussion on the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.  
For more information, contact:
Patrick Goggins  (415) 381-4037
P.O. Box 794
Mill Valley, CA 94942.

ANNUAL COMMEMORATION OF THE BATTALION  An Annual Commemoration of the San Patricio Battalion takes place every Sept. 12 in Clifden, Co. Galway, Ireland. For more details, access the Clifden-Connemara Homepage or email Ralph Lavelle.

THE IRISH SOLDIERS OF MEXICO by Michael Hogan (Guadalajara, Mexico: Fondo Editorial Universitario, 1997)  Reviewed by James Fogarty

Every since the end of the U.S.-Mexican War (1846-48) U.S. historians have taken pains to dismiss the Irish soldiers of the San Patricio Battalion as a bizarre group of malcontents and ne'er-do-wells who deserted from the U.S. Army, lured by drink, pretty senoritas and/or promises of generous rewards from Mexican officials.

Thanks to the scholarly research of Michael Hogan in his new book, The Irish Soldiers of Mexico, there is a much more balanced and objective analysis of the San Patricio phenomenon. Hogan, a history professor at the American School in Guadalajara, Mexico, puts to rest the above stereotypes and proves conclusively that the San Patricios were, in fact, one of the most disciplined, courageous and effective units in the war.

Hogan also debunks the myth that the battalion was made up exclusively of deserters from the U.S. Army and points out that the known deserters represented only about a third of the total membership, while the majority were in fact European or Mexican citizens, and not citizens of the United States.

Hogan shows that labeling the group as American deserters is a tactic that has been manipulated by biased historians who "ignore the fact that at least 46 known members were not deserters and that many were Irish residents of Mexico prior to the invasion of Mexico by U.S. forces.

Hogan's book also refutes the theory that the battalion was neither Irish nor Catholic by listing those members that were not born in Ireland, or who did not have Irish surnames. He points out that although the battalion was not Irish/Catholic in composition, it did have a significant number of both categories. Furthermore, it "carried a banner on which was inscribed Erin go Braugh (sic), with an image of St. Patrick, and had Irishmen in leadership positions."

Hogan also indicates that declaring oneself to be Irish and Catholic in the U.S. army at that time was akin to declaring oneself Jewish in Nazi Germany, a point graphically made by the Mexican-Jewish artist, Luis Camnitzer.

Although the battalion was not exclusively Irish, Hogan documents the fact that of the 120 known members, 40 were born in Ireland and 18 others, born in the U.S., Canada, or Great Britain, had Irish surnames. Hogan also shows that the San Patricios felt comfortable using the rituals and symbolism of Catholicism as expressed in Mexico, and were willing to fight to the death for what was obviously the losing side.

Religion was another major issue in the conflict which has been ignored or glossed over by many historians. Hogan writes about how the invading U.S. Army deliberately bombarded Catholic cathedrals, churches and convents in Mexico; and U.S. soldiers often brutally interrupted Masses, processions and other religious services.

Pursuing this theme, Hogan quotes a Mexican newspaper which condemned the "savage outrages" to which the condemned San Patricios were subjected to by U.S. Army officials: "Mexicans, these are the men that call us barbarians and tell us that they have come to civilize us. These men who have sacked our homes, taken our daughters, camped in our holy burial places, covered themselves in blasphemous uproar with the ornaments of our altars--and have gotten drunk from our sacred chalices."

As for the formation of the battalion, Hogan suggests that the decision to join the Mexican side was probably due more to impulse and emotion like many of Ireland's rebellions, including the Easter Uprising of 1916. "Nevertheless," he concludes that the courage of the San Patricios, their sense of loyalty to their new cause and their continuous allegiance to Mexico even after whippings, brandings and imprisonment, forged an indelible seal of honor on their sacrifice."

Finally, Hogan reminds us of the affinity that existed, and continues to exist,between the Irish and the Mexicans due to a shared historical experience of struggle to preserve their unique identities, despite repeated and sometimes brutal attempts by their more powerful neighbors to destroy that identity.

A group based in Olympia, Washington called the "Batallon de San Patricio" has raised money to build a kiosk in the town square of San Patricio Melaque, Jalisco, Mexico. This year they are raising funds for a high school in San Patricio.  Each year the "San Patricios" visit the town on St. Patrick's Day. For more information, contact Dan Leahy, 1415 6th St. SW, Olympia, Washington. (360) 352-7086. fax (360) 709-9450.



Real de San Carlos de Vallecillo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico
Census taken on March 21, 1816

Ruins of the Old Municipal Courthouse
Photograph by John Inclan

Census list head of household and number
of family members per household


Don Francisco Lazarte - 9
Don Andres Mendiola - 6
Captain Vicente Vedia y Pinto - 9


Don Francisco Borjas Garcia - 11
Don Manuel Villarreal - 7
Dona Patricia Flores Fiel de la   
       venta de Tabaco - 1


Dona Cecilia Tamez - 5
Dona Luisa Tamez - 6
Dona Maximina Tamez - 4
Dona Rosalia Tamez - 4
Dona Josefa Villarreal - 6
Dona Tomasa de los Santos - 7
Dona Gertrudis Reyes - 4
Dona Ana Maria Trevino - 3
Dona Cecilia Flores - 2
Dona Guadalupe Gallegos - 6
Dona Maria Gertrudis Lizalde - 4
Dona Francisca Recendes - 3
Dona Maria Josefa Sandoval - 2
Dona Jacinta Flores - 6
Dona Manuela Cameros - 4
Bona Benedicta Vasquez - 3
Dona Juana Josefa Alcorta - 3
Dona Maria Ignacia - 1
Dona Juana Longoria - 2
Dona Juana Reyes - 3
Dona Carmen Garza con Reyes Munoz 5
Don Pedro Villarreal - 7
Don Juan Maria Mendiola - 3
Don Manuel Tamez - 5
Don Jose Antonio Castro - 3
Don Eusevio Acevedo - 6
Don Marcelo Vasquez - 8
Don Victoriano Villarreal - 5


Don Simon Arredondo - 9
Don Bentura Elizondo - 5
Don Francisco Serda - 4
Don Juan Guzman - 2
Don Gabriel Briseno - 2
Don Marcos Balderrama - 9
Don Ignacio Montero - 2
Don Ramon Reyna - 8
Don Antonio Moya - 4
Don Francisco Gamez - 5
Don Felix Molina - 1
Don Manuel Vargas 5
Don Juan Jose Vargas 5
Don Jose Antonio Gonzalez - 6
Don Miguel Saldana - 3
Don Catarino Saldana - 3
Don Gregorio Briseno - 4
Don Rafael Franco - 4
Don Grabiel Gallegos - 9
Don Marcos Balderrama - 9
Don Ignacio Montero - 2
Don Margil Vargas - 6
Don Miguel Gonzalez 4
Don Juan Calzada - 3
Don Manuel Montero - 3
Don Jose Antonio Flores - 5

Page 2

Operadores de Minas

Don Joaquin Flores - 3
Don Jeronimo Longoria - 3
Don Luciano Munoz - 3
Don Gabriel Longoria - 1
Don Marcel Garcia - 4
Don Jesus Garcia - 7
Don Alejandro Ramon - 3
Don Juan de Leon - 5
Don Ignacio Galindo - 1
Don Jose Ladron de Guevara - 8

Sirvientes y Vaqueros Pastores

Don Alejandro Garcia - 2 
Don Jose Antonio Reyna - 4
Don Justo Cisneros - 8
Don Ignacio Torres - 4
Don Juan Rocha - 2
Don Nasario - 2
Don Manuel Trevino - 2
Don IIario Duran - 4
Don Rafael de los Santos - 4
Don Pedro Botello - 5
Don Pedro Lerma 3
Don Nepomuseno Ramos - 2
Don Juan Arambula - 3

Sirvientes Ocupacion de Labradores

Don Juan Luna – 8
Don Hermenegildo Esquivel – 10
Don Jacinto Barrera – 5
Don Jose Angel Saosa – 2
Don Gegorio Castillo – 1

Rio Sabinas a 4 Leguas de este Real


Don Manuel Mendiola encargado 
de Justa - 7
Dona Josefa Mendiola - 5
Dona Ignacia Sanchez - 7
Dona Maria Micaela Molina - 3
Dona Rosalinda Saenz - 3


Operadores de Minas

Don Cesareo Santos - 5
Don Jesus Aguirre - 6
Don Gil Garza - 6
Don Jose Maria Tabores - 7
Don Francisco Alcorta - 7
Don Jose Maria Alcorta - 7
Don Jose Dionicio Lopez - 6
Don Jose Maria Mendez - 7
Don Jose Antonio Rocha - 2
Don Luis Perez - 2
Don IIario Alcorta -1

Don Gregorio Garza - 3
Don Jose Maria Garza - 3
Don Juan Alcorta - 5
Don Esteban Sarate - 6
Don Basilio Sarate - 4
Don Jose Antonio Alvarado - 6
Don Jose Antonio Arabula - 4
Don Rafael Franco - 2
Don Jose Maria Reyna - 4
Don Borjas Valle - 8
Don Catarino Baldazo - 6
Don Jose Torres - 6
Don Toribio Balderrama - 4


Don Domingo Valle - 5
Don Tomas Reyna - 1
Don Juan Manuel Garcia - 1
Don Cesareo Luna - 7
Dona Maria Cleta (viuda) - 5

Dona IIaria Serna - 3
Don Jose Maria Mendiola - 3
Don Pedro Serna - 7
Don Jose Maria Laurel - 8

Page 3

Don Antonio Lopez - 2
Don Alejo Santos - 4
Don Vicotiano Sandoval - 7
Son Salvador Galvan 8
Don Luis Domingo - 3
Don Antonio Serna - 1
Don Teodoro Serna - 4
Don Blas Maria Serna - 4


Don Clemente Serna - 5
Don Prudencio Serna - 4
Don Pedro Leyton - 7
Don Joaquin Serna - 3
Don Encarnacion Sanchez - 7
Sirvientes Ocupacion de Labradores
Don Florentino Alvarado - 9 
Don Miguel Molina - 5
Don Ignacio Rodriguez - 7
Don Juan Cazares - 5


Sirvientes Ocupacion de Labradores
Don Antonio Ceja – 4
Don Albino Rosales – 2
Rancho del Colorado a 8 leguas 
de este Real

Don Francisco Sanchez encargado
de Justicia - 7
Don Pedro Sanchez - 4
Don Esteban Serna - 11
Don Victor Sanchez - 5
Don Maximo Ruiz - 6
Don Jose Maria Sanchez - 6
Don Francisco Benavides - 3

Don Julio Bermudes - 5
Don Antonio Barrientos - 9
Don Reyes Vega - 8
Don Felipe Quintanilla - 5
Don Juan Santos - 6
Don Laureano Vega 3
Don Jose Maria Flores 7
Don Enrique Flores - 10
Don Manuel Camacho - 2
Don Jose Antonio Garcia - 3


Dona Josefa Sauceda - 3
Dona Gabriela Villarreal - 6
Dona Rosalie Conde - 3

Hacienda El Alamo a 9 Leguas 

Don Francisco Soberon Presbitero - 5
Don Eugeno de Leon encargado
de Justicia - 2
Don Victor Soberon - 4
Don Jose Maria de Leon - 3
Don Marcelo Serna - 4
Don Jose Alejo Cadena - 4
Don Manuel de Leon - 3



Don Pantalion Rendon - 3
Don Pedro Villarreal - 9
Don Miguel Villarreal - 4
Don Antonio Villarreal - 9
Don Juan Antonio Ruiz - 4
Don Manuel Escamilla - 7
Don Atanacio Laurel - 9
Don Blas de Ayala - 6
Don Pedro de Ayala - 4

Page 4

Continued. . . 
Don Juan Villarreal - 7
Don Juan de Leon - 3
Don Juan Felipe Flores - 7
Don Apolinario Flores - 3
Don Mauricio Serna - 7
Don Juan Sosa - 5
Don Jose Maria Urrutia - 5
Don Tomas Serna - 6
Don Julian Hernandez - 7
Don Jacinto Perez - 4
Don Ponceano Perez - 6
Don Bonifacio Hernandez - 6
Don Tomas Hernandez - 3
Don Victor Ramirez - 4
Don Sebastian Garcia - 9
Don Tomas Garcia - 2
Don Jose Maria Cano - 2
Don Ramon Garcia - 4
Don Felix Hernandez - 5

Don Jose Maria Villarreal - 6
Don Justo Vasquez - 4
Don Enrique Recio - 3
Don Juan Jose Charles - 6
Don Salvador Ramos - 7
Don Agapito Villarreal - 2
Don Esteban Garcia - 6 
Don Justo Robles - 2
Don Antonio Botello - 4
Don Esteban Gomez - 5
Don Eusevio Vasquez - 3
Don Vicente vela - 9
Don Juan de Leon - 2
Don Francisco Guerrero - 7
Dona Maria Guadalupe (viuda) - 4
Don Juan Perez - 2
Dona Ma Francisca Rosales (viuda) - 4
Don Leonardo Cabrera - 2
Don Eugenio de Ayala - 3

Don Juan Jose Vasquez – 1
Don Eleuterio Vasquez – 1
Don Antonio Perez – 1
Don Rumualdo Sanchez – 1
Don Rafael Cortazar – 1

Sirvientes Ocupacion de Labradores

Don Vicente Criado – 6
Don Miguel Cortezs – 1
Don Ramon del Toro 1
Don Agustin Lerma – 1
Don Jose Maria Reyna – 2

TOTAL 1,057

Real de Sa Carlos de Vallecillo

21 de Marzo 1816

Juan Lasarte

Joaquin Arredondo y Miono.

Source: San Carlos de Vallecillo Real de Minas by Mario Trevino Villarreal




13 monografías sobre San Sebastián del Pepino / por Carlos López Dzur 
Cooking with Freddie, Puerto Rico
19th Century Passengers From Canary Islands to Puerto Rico
Caribbean Studies Initiative Conference held at the University of Texas


13 monografías sobre San Sebastián del Pepino / por Carlos López Dzur

Historical chronology starting in 1752 to 1950, key figures, and facts. For example:

Aquí una página modificada de mi website que incluye la Introducción a un libro en preparación:

Todo pepiniano tiene un pedacito privado —y público— de la historia de su pueblo, es decir, de lo sido en esta geografía y sociedad —como posibilidad existentiva— en que se precisa el destino propio, el destino en común y la historia del mundo. De modo que cada uno de ellos, en cuanto compueblanos, son parte de la historia que me interesa y del libro o los libros posibles que otros y, aún yo, habremos de escribir. La historia total de San Sebastián de las Vegas del Pepino es tan monstruosamente gigantesca como pepinianos, o puertorriqueños de otras vecindades, haya disponibles para aportar su pedacito de relato, su pieza para el rompecabeza general y colectivo, el Gran Relato, con páginas de historicidad y destino en común, Geschick. 

1752: Se funda la aldea de Pepino, con el Capitán Poblador Cristóbal González de la Cruz, presidiendo sobre los vecinos.
* Explotación de bosques. 
*Contrabando.1776: Pepino cuenta con 150 haciendas; se siembran 103 cuerdas de caña. Hay 923 cabezas de ganado y 293 caballos. 

1868: El Grito de Lares es una secuela de la Revolución liberal en Cádiz, España, contra la reina Isabel II, encabezada por Juan Prim y otros republicanos. En Pepino, la milicia, comprometida con el movimiento, al mando de Eusebio Ibarra y Manuel Cebollero Aguiar, no proveyeron el apoyo esperado y, como resultado, el Grito fracasó con saldo de varias muertes pepinianas. Frente a la Plaza, cayeron abatidos los patriotas Venancio Román, Casto Santiago y Manuel de León. 

1873: Se proclama la República española. El día 22 de marzo de 1873 queda abolida la esclavitud en Puerto Rico. Un paro general, en aplauso a la Emancipacón, detiene toda labor productiva y enoja a propietarios de la localidad. El Cura Claudio González se une al menosprecio de los manumitidos. 

1898: Guerra de los EE.UU. contra España.* 20 y 21 de abril: Declaración de Guerra
* 25 de abril, España reconoce la formalidad de la declaración. 

1901: El dólar pasa a ser la moneda oficial y se retira el peso provincial (1 peso = 0.60 centavos).* Andrés A. Cabrero Echeandía, Emilio y Severiano Cabrero, junto a Manuel Rodríguez Cabrero, una nueva generación que se forja como la clase más acaudalada del Pepino, a principios de siglo, después de la muerte de Manuel Joaquín Cabrero Echeandía. Sin embargo, pese a sus grandes capitales son el nuevo-liberalismo. Andrés A. Cabrero fue presidente del Comité Local del Partido Unionista. 

1925: Primera edición del Boceto histórico del Pepino de Andrés Méndez Liciaga. 

1942: Primera escuela superior pública por iniciativa del legislador José Padró Quiles.1944: El poeta nacionalista pepiniano César G. Torres es puesto en prisión por negarse a participar en la Segunda Guerra Mundial. 

Cooking with Freddie, Puerto Rico
Sent by Janete Vargas

19th Century Passengers From Canary Islands to Puerto Rico
Information given: Paternal Surname Maternal Surname Name Age Marital Status Origin Sailing Date Ship Comment
Sent by Bill Carmena 

Caribbean Studies Initiative Conference held at the University of Texas at Austin in March 24-25th
This bilingual colloquium alternates presentations by historians of the Hispanic Caribbean and its Diaspora with responses by literary and cultural scholars.  The goal:  to foster a dialogue on how “postmodern” literary agendas and methods have influenced or transformed the standards of historiographical practice and documentation in Caribbean Studies.
Sponsored by the University of Texas Lozano Long Institute of Latin American Studies, the Department of Spanish and Portuguese, and the Center for African and Afro-American Studies
Co-organizers: Prof. Jossianna Arroyo (, Prof. César A. Salgado (, UT Dept. of Spanish and Portuguese
Among the speakers and organizaers:
Prof. Nicolas Shumway, Director, LLILAS
Prof. Leo Bernucci, Chair, Dept. of Spanish and Portuguese
Profs. Jossianna Arroyo and César A. Salgado, co-organizers
Presentation by Prof. Mario R. Cancel, University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez:
   "Renegados:  (Re)generación de las historiografía puertorriqueña."
    Respondant:  Prof. César A. Salgado, UT Dept. of Spanish and Portuguese
Panel on Dominican Historiography
Presentation by Prof. Pedro San Miguel, University of Puerto Rico at Río Piedras:
   "Crónica de un embrujo:  la historiografía dominicana en primera persona."
    Respondant:  Prof. Yolanda Martínez-San Miguel, University of Pennsylvania
Panel on Critical Cuban Historiography
Presentation by Prof. Rafael Rojas, CIDE, Mexico:
   "Tumbas sin sosiego. Muertos y sobrevivientes de la guerra civil cubana"
    Respondant: Prof. José Quiroga, Emory University “Cuba a destiempo”
Panel on Afro-Caribbean Diaspora Studies
Presentation by Prof. Frank Guridy, UT Austin:  "'The Road to Harlem' and Back to Havana:  
    Nicolas Guillén, Langston Hughes, and Afro-Diasporic Networks"
    Respondant:  Prof. Jossianna Arroyo, UT Dept. of Spanish and Portuguese
Final Comments by Prof. Jorge Duany, University of Puerto Rico at Río Piedras
    Round Table of Panelists
    Prof. Jorge Duany, Chair
Affiliated Presentation
Prof. Laura Muñoz Mata, Instituto de Investigaciones Dr. José María Luis Mora, Mexico, D.F.
   "Islas que se repiten:  Imágenes del Caribe en el National Geographic"
Mario R. Cancel, Professor of History at the University of Puerto Rico in Mayagüez, is the author of Antifiguraciones:  bocetos puertorriqueños (2003) andSegundo Ruiz Belvis (1994).  He is also the co-editor of several important collections of Puerto Rican poetry and historiographical articles.
Frank A. Guridy, Professor of History and the Center for African and African American Studies at the University of Texas at Austin. He has published several articles on the African Diasporas, race and social space, comparative racisms and racial in Latin America and the Caribbean. Currently he is finishing a book based on what he has defined as the process of “race making” in the Caribbean and the United States based on his dissertation entitled “Racial Knowledge in Cuba: The Production of a Social Fact, 1912-1944.”

Pedro San Miguel, Professor of History at the University of Puerto Rico in Río Piedras, is the author of Los devaríos de Ti Noel (2004), El pasado relegado : estudios sobre la historia agraria dominicana (1999), and La isla imaginada:  Historia, identidad y utopía en La Española (1997) .  Prof. San Miguel is a prominent specialist in Dominican history and an important voice in current discussions about Pan-Caribbean theory and methodolody.
Yolanda Martínez San Miguel, Professor of Latin American and Caribbean Literatures and Cultures, Department of Spanish and Portuguese, University of Pennsylvania, is author of Caribe Two Ways:  Cultura de la emigración en el Caribe insular hispánico (2004), an award winning book about the culture(s) of intra- and extra-Caribbean migration.
Rafael Rojas, Professor and researcher at the CIDE in México.  Prof. Rojas is a historian and essayist.  He is the author of Isla sin fin:  Contribución a la crítica del nacionalismo cubano (1997) and José Martí:  La invención de Cuba (2000).  He is also editor of the journal Encuentro de la Cultura Cubana.
José Quiroga, Emory University, Professor of Latin American and Caribbean Literatures, Department of Spanish and Portuguese, is author of Tropics of Desire:  Interventions from Queer America (2000).  Prof. Quiroga is editor of a scholarly series on Latin American cultural studies at Palgrave Press.
Jorge Duany, Professor of Anthropology at the University of Puerto Rico at Río Piedras, is the author of The Puerto Rican Nation on the Move:  Identities on the Island and in the United States (U of North Carolina Press, 2002), Cubans in Puerto Rico : ethnic economy and cultural identity (1997), El Barrio Gandul : economia subterranea y migracion indocumentada en Puerto Rico (1995),  and many other books about intra- and extra-Caribbean migration.
Laura Muñoz Mata is professor/researcher at the José María Mora Research Institute in Mexico City.  She is the author of Geopolítica, seguridad nacional y política exterior:  México y el Caribe en el siglo XIX (2001) and many articles and reviews about Mexico’s historical relation to the Caribbean.

Elvira Prieto
Academic Advisor
Center for Mexican American Studies
University of Texas at Austin
1 University Station F9200
Austin, TX  78712
WMB 5.102
Phone: (512) 471-2134
Fax: (512) 471-9639


Ponce de Leon
Los Que  No Volvieron
Palos de la Frontera a La Fontanilla
Decepciones en la investigación
Si usted se llama García
Ministerio de Cultura de España 

Edición 22 de marzo de 2005 de Odiel Información. Huelva



Al parecer este linaje procede de los Ponces, una familia patricia romana que es conocida desde el año 325 antes de Cristo. Aunque en algunos casos se empieza la genealogía de los Ponce de León por el Conde de Tolosa de Francia, en el siglo IX, porque un descendiente del conde llamado Ponce, vino a España con motivo de la boda de su tío Ramón con la infanta Dª Elvira,  hija del rey Alonso Enríquez. Otro de sus descendientes se casó con una hija de Alonso rey de León y fueron los que añadieron a su patronímico Ponce el apellido de León.

Varios han sido los Ponce de León que han destacado aunque en muy diferentes facetas, como Fray Basilio, escritor español del siglo XVII, o Hernán, capitán español que a las ordenes de Bartolomé Hurtado recorrió las costas de Nicaragua y Costa Rica en 1516, asociándose luego con Hernando de Soto en negocios en la conquista de Perú, pero no fue leal a Soto y hubo de huir, ignorando donde  murió.  Otro fue, Pedro Ponce de León, monje benedictino que nació en Valladolid en 1520 y fue célebre por haber sido el primero que inventó un sistema para enseñar a leer, escribir y hablar a los sordomudos, que mas tarde perfeccionó el Abate L`Epée. También tenemos a Rodrigo Ponce de León, guerrero español nacido en Cádiz en 1443 y que se distinguió en su lucha contra la invasión árabe. En 1482, por un atrevido golpe de mano, se apoderó de la ciudad de Alhama y tomo parte en la conquista y sitio de Málaga y Granada. Murió en 1492.

Pero quizás el que es mas conocido es Juan Ponce de León, que nació en Tierra de Campos hacia 1460. En 1502 salió de Sevilla con la expedición de Ovando a La Española y una vez allí conquistó Puerto Rico, donde logró una considerable hacienda.

En 1513, teniéndose por viejo, oyó hablar a los indígenas de unas aguas de devolvían la juventud, dirigiéndose a las Lucayas y descubriendo La Florida, pero no el agua deseada. Vino a España, donde obtuvo el titulo de Adelantado de la Florida, a la que quiso conquistar en 1521, pero fracasó en el empeño y recibió tan importantes heridas que, al llegar a Cuba, falleció.

                                                                    Custodio Rebollo

Odiel Información. Huelva   
Edición 18 de marzo de 2005


Muchos fueron los naturales de nuestro entorno que emprendieron la aventura de América, incluidos los que acompañaron a Cristóbal Colon desde el primer viaje, pero también fueron muchos los que, por una u otra causa no volvieron.

En los expedientes de bienes de difuntos encontramos de todo, desde los que dejan los mucho o poco que poseían a sus familiares mas allegados, como los que lo dejan a su esclavo o su criado desde que pisaron tierra. Pero todos, en el mayor porcentaje de los casos dejaron parte de sus bienes a la iglesia católica, siempre con la petición de salvación de su alma. Los templos de muchos pueblos se mantuvieron y remozaron gracias a estas donaciones.  

Tal es el caso de Diego de Lepe Jaime, de Lepe, que después de relatar las deudas y lo que le adeudaban, declaraba a su madre Isabel Márquez heredera universal, con la condición de apartar 800 ducados para el establecimiento de misas por su alma, la de sus padres y las de sus parientes mas próximos.

Otro es el de Bartolomé Sánchez de Palos, que dejo para su sobrina 2000 pesos y para su hermano Antón Sánchez, 1000 pesos mas unas partidas de vino embotijado. Al Guardián del Convento de La Rábida se le entregarían 500 pesos de plata para la adquisición de una lámpara que ardiera perpetuamente delante del Santísimo Sacramento.

En los expedientes se detallan en muchos las pertenencias de libros religiosos que les servirían de consuelo espiritual, como el mercader Juan Fernando Colorado que llevaba en su viaje a La Habana un librito religioso de carey y plata o el también mercader Andrés Ruiz que llevaba un devocionario titulado “Cemptus Mundi”. Habría quien incluso lo llevara como un adorno, ya que muchos no sabían leer.  

También hubo algunos que como Bartolomé López, después de dejar mandas para todas las personas que les habían sido fieles y ayudado en sus primeros momentos, perdonado deudas a personas pobres y disponer su entierro, como no tenía herederos forzosos, dejaba por beneficiaria universal del remanente de sus bienes a la iglesia,  para la salvación de su alma con misas, dotes para casar huérfanas y ayudas a los necesitados.

Saliendo de Palos de la Frontera se llega a La Fontanilla,  
brocal romano y fuente donde se abastecian los palermos para sus barcos 
en la época del descubrimiento 
y se dice que de aquí se surtieron de agua las carabelas antes de partir el 3 de agosto de 1492.

The Foundation can be contacted at: Christopher Columbus Fellowship Foundation 
110 Genesee Street, Suite 390 
Auburn, New York 13021 
Phone: (315) 258-0090 
Fax: (315) 258-0093 

Publicado en Odiel Información de Huelva
El 8 de marzo de 2005

Decepciones en la investigación.

La labor de investigación en genealogía histórica, tiene a veces la recompensa de localizar, ¡al fin¡, lo que estabas buscando, pero en la mayoría de los casos te encuentras que lo que tu creías estaba ya al alcance de tu mano, se ve frenado y de forma brusca, pues te encuentras sin posibilidad de seguir y tienes que empezar de nuevo.

El problema se origina siempre por cambios de apellidos, pues no importa que toda la familia, tanto del padre como de la madre se llamen Sánchez y García, porque a uno de los hijos le denominan con un apellido distinto como puede ser Marquez y, ya viene el lío. ¿Por donde buscas ¿ ¿ como podrías continuar ¿. En fin la decepción y a empezar de nuevo.

Desde hace algún tiempo he buscado, en lo posible, sobre el apellido “De la Garza” y veamos por ejemplo el texto del detalle de unos pasajeros a Indias: * Francisco Sánchez, natural de Sevilla, hijo de Diego García y de Isabel García, con su mujer, Isabel Márquez, hija de Marcos Alonso y Constanza La Garza, y sus hijos Luisa, Isabel, Constanza, Melchor, Sebastián y Francisco, al Perú, como criados del licenciado Navia*

En primer lugar, el titular se llama Francisco Sánchez y sus padres son Diego García e Isabel García. Por otra parte, la esposa se llama Isabel Márquez, y sus padres son Marcos Alonso y Constanza La Garza.

Cuando esto te ocurre después de días u horas, en las que piensas que has encontrado un filón y cuando crees que descubres la veta de oro, ¡zás¡, la mina solo tiene tierra. Si en ese momento te encuentras cansado, este golpe te zarandea y, aunque sea de momento, pierdes el interés porque te ves impotente para conseguir el fin propuesto. Otras veces se produce una reacción contraria y te incentiva para buscar con mas fuerza.

Pues eso es lo que me ocurre a mí; desde hace tiempo estoy investigando a esta familia y encuentro problemas como este de no coincidir los apellidos, pero también me topo con archivos que ha desaparecido durante la desamortización de Mendizábal o tampoco es posible localizar nada en los archivos parroquiales, porque gran parte de ellos fueron destruidos durante la guerra civil.

¡¡ Pues contra viento y marea, pienso seguir ¡¡

                                   Angel Custodio Rebollo  

Publicado en Odiel Información de Huelva  
Edición 15 de marzo de 2005  


Si usted se llama García, sabrá que tiene un antiquísimo apellido, pues se dice que ya resonaba en tiempo de los godos, en cuya lengua significa “príncipe de vista agraciada”, lo que indica que se lo ponían como nombre a esclarecidos varones. Llevaron el nombre de García monarcas aragoneses, navarros y leoneses. Los principales ascendientes del linaje García fueron tres hermanos que resistieron hasta el último momento la invasión árabe en la ciudad de León y que huyeron por tres sitios distintos. Los tres fundaron nuevas familias y fueron hombres ricos e ilustres extendiéndose por todos los reinos de España.

Con el apelativo García encontramos importantes personajes en la Historia de España, en todos los estamentos sociales y también muchos religiosos, siendo unos de los apellidos mas desarrollados  en nuestro País.

Pero García es mas, es el nombre de un municipio en el Estado de Nuevo León, en México, cuya toponímia es en honor de Joaquín García, un nativo del pueblo, que fue dos veces Gobernador de la región.

La historia de este municipio se remonta al año 1583 cuando el capitán Manuel de Mederos que acompañaba a Luis Carvajal y de la Cueva en sus primeras expediciones y de las que hemos comentado en otros artículos, ya que muchos eran onubenses. Carvajal quiso premiar a su capitán y le otorgó mercedes y tierras y éste fundo en ella una hacienda que se llamó de San Juan Bautista de Pesquería Grande.

En julio de 1604, Manuel de Mederos se asocia con Diego de Huelva y José de Treviño para sembrar maíz y trigo en el denominado cerro del Topo.

El 22 de abril de 1613, Manuel de Mederos dona a su ahijada Andrea Rodríguez tierras en el sitio de Santa Catarina y posteriormente vendió otras tierras a José de Treviño.

Actualmente García es un municipio de unos 29.000 habitantes, de ellos unos 22.000 son católicos y el resto de otras religiones.

Hay en otros lugares de América Latina municipios que se llaman García, incluso en España, pero este de México nos llama la atención porque fueron desde Huelva los componentes de la expedición de Luis de Carvajal quienes primero se asentaron en aquella zona.

                                                         Angel Custodio Rebollo 


Ministerio de Cultura de España
Sent by Bill Carmena

Wonderful resource, current, historical, addresses, contact agencies, etc.
Links with information to the following:
Cine y Audiovisual 
  Música, Danza y Teatro 
  Patrimonio Histórico 
Agenda Cultural 
Centros de Documentación 
Cooperación Cultural 
Cultura en Internet 
Propiedad Intelectual 





Our ancestors, we love and honor them
Canary Islands Descendants 274th Anniversary March 12-13, 2005 
Brazilian Said to Be 125, May Be Oldest Woman
The Latin American Collection: A Finding Aid
Kaleidoscope Center for Cultural Fluency
LOC's Handbook of Latin American Studies Online Home Page
Colonial Latin American Historical Review
                                          Genealogy Workshop In The Azores

"Our ancestors, we love and honor them. They stepped up to be counted, whether by joining a revolution that they felt was right and just, or sailing across an unknown sea to escape persecution and to make a better life. They made history and all along there was always a tremendous love for family. They were magnificent. What we have inherited from them - is who we are."

                                                                       Sylvia Leal Carvajal Sutton
                                                                       San Antonio, Texas
Canary Islands Descendants 274th Anniversary Celebration Banquet and Reenactment March 12-13, 2005 

Photos and more information, go to Paul Casanova Garcia's homepage:

Genealogy Workshop In The Azores

According to Joao Ventura of Terceira the Centro de Conhecimento dos Acores and Direccao Regional da Cultura will be holding a genealogy workshop in July on the Island of Terceira. People will be taught how to do genealogical research using the records available in the Islands! How exciting! If you are planning a trip to the Azores in the Summer you may want to coordinate your visit with the workshop.

You may email: for more information on times and dates. 


Brazilian Said to Be 125, May Be Oldest Woman, Sent by Win Holtzman

      SAO PAULO, Brazil (3/3/05, AP) -      Maria Olivia da Silva, who recently celebrated her 125th birthday,      "is definitely the oldest living woman in Brazil and possibly in the      entire world." She was born Feb. 28, 1880 in the city of Itapetininga,  Sao Paulo state.   According to the Guinness World Records Web  site, the world's oldest woman is 113-year-old Hendrikje Van  Andel-Schipper, who was born June 29, 1890. Da Silva is "mentally sound and rational," was married twice and has outlived all but three of her 14 children - four of them adopted. "Her memory is impressive and she loves to talk."  Da Silva lives with her 58-year-old  adopted son, Aparecido H. Silva.   

The Latin American Collection: A Finding Aid

Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Equador, Guiana, Paraguay, Peru, Colombia, Uruguay, Venezuela
Sent by Janete Vargas
Includes links to: 
Finding Aid Contents || South of the Border Exhibit || Exhibit Catalogue || Victor Oppenheim 
Selected Exhibit Images || Rare Book and Texana Collections || UNT Libraries Home || UNT Home

Categories:  Antiquities, Description and Travel, History, Maps 
Example under History
Pazos Kanki, Vicente, 1779-1851?
Letters on the United Provinces of South America, Addressed to the Hon. Henry Clay, Speaker of the House of Representatives in the U. States. 
Trans. Platt H. Crosby, Esq. New York: Printed by J. Seymour, 49 John-street; London: By J. Miller, Bow-street, Covent Garden, 1819.
980 P29l RBG

University of Virginia and the Kaleidoscope Center for Cultural Fluency cordially invites you to "Voices of the Caribbean and Latin America: Bridging the Experiences of Caribbean and Latin American People in the U.S."

Tuesday, March 29th at 7:00PM
Kaleidoscope room, 3rd floor Newcomb 

Speaker, professor George Mentore will shed light on the historical relationship between the Caribbean and Latin America. A panel discussion regarding the struggles of living as a person of Caribbean or Latin American descent in the U.S. will follow. Food and beverage provided.

Julie Roa
Amigos For Colombia

Library of Congress
Handbook of Latin American Studies Online Home Page

Is available in English, Spanish, or Portuguese
Sent by Janete Vargas 

The Handbook is a bibliography on Latin America consisting of works selected and annotated by scholars. Edited by the Hispanic Division of the Library of Congress, the multidisciplinary Handbook alternates annually between the social sciences and the humanities. Each year, more than 130 academics from around the world choose over 5,000 works for inclusion in the Handbook. Continuously published since 1936, the Handbook offers Latin Americanists an essential guide to available resources. More information on the history of the Handbook can be found in a paper written for the Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials (SALALM) annual meeting in 1996. 

With the introduction of HLAS Online, the Handbook becomes available in three formats: the original print volumes, now published by the University of Texas Press; the CD-ROM produced and updated by the Fundación Histórica TAVERA (Madrid, Spain); and this Internet version. Updated weekly, HLAS Online provides rapid, comprehensive access to future, current, and retrospective volumes of the Handbook. 

Sent by  Paul "Skip" Newfield III 

The "Colonial Latin American Historical Review" (CLAHR) would like to announce the publication of its most recent issue, Vol. 12, no.2(Spring/Primavera 2003).

Below are titles and introductory paragraphs of the 12:2 articles. For more information, please visit our website at , where we have included a complete listing of all articles published in CLAHR, as well as submission and author's style guides. A subscription form is also
available should you be interested in subscribing to CLAHR.

"Vitivinicultura en Chile Trasandino: Mendoza, 1561-1776," by Pablo Lacoste 

Mendoza es actualmente la principal provincia vitivinícola del Cono Sur. En una superficie de 140,000 hectáreas de viñas, se concentra la mayor producción de la región; esta cifra supera holgadamente tanto al resto de Argentina (60,000 hectáreas) como a la totalidad de la producción de Chile (100,000 hectáreas). Esta situación es relevante, dado que Argentina es el primer país productor vitivinícola de América Latina y el número cinco del mundo, mientras que Chile ocupa el quinto lugar como exportador mundial de vinos. Esta industria no es reciente, sino que su tradición se remonta a mediados del siglo XVI.

"Journeys to Dark Lands: Francisca de los Ángeles' Bilocations to the Remote Provinces of Eighteenth-Century New Spain," by Sarah E. Owens 

Tucked away on the shelves of a Franciscan archive in Celaya, Mexico, lie spiritual letters that span a period of forty-three years (1693-1739), all written by a lay woman called Francisca de los Ángeles (1674-1744). These forgotten documents tell the story of a remarkable woman who claimed the ability to physically travel as far away as the province of New Mexico while never leaving her hometown of Santiago de Querétaro, Mexico. In many ways, her story is reminiscent of the famous Spanish nun, Sor María de Ágreda (1602-1665), who, seventy-five years earlier, had also traveled to New Mexico to help Franciscan missionaries without ever leaving the walls of her convent in Ágreda, Spain. During her own "journeys," Francisca de los Ángeles came across Indians who had met or heard of her Franciscan predecessor. Like the nun from Ágreda, Francisca supposedly shared the gift of bilocation (the ability to be in two places at the same time), but, unlike her Spanish foremother's life and writings, those of Francisca have sparked little contemporary research.

"Celebrating St. Peter Martyr: The Inquisitional Brotherhood in Colonial Brazil,"
Transcribed and edited by James E. Wadsworth 

Probably the least understood aspect of the Portuguese Inquisition-and the Spanish and Italian, for that matter-are the men who ran it and the institutions in which they participated. Much has been written regarding the repressive side of the Inquisition and, consequently, the institutional mechanisms and procedures of repression are fairly well understood. It is, of course, well known that the officials of the Inquisition participated in all the various activities of oppression, from denunciations and investigations to the confiscation of property and imprisonment. But their activity was not limited to repression. Officials of the Inquisition also participated in institutions tied to the Inquisition, such as the brotherhood of St. Peter Martyr (Irmandade de São Pedro Mártir), which
mediated their relationships with each other, with society, and with the Inquisition itself. Entrance into the brotherhood was not a mere formality. It represented a considerable outlay in time and financial
commitment. It was also tied to the commitment assumed with the oath of office. Indeed, the regulations of the familiares (lay officials) required their participation in the services of the brotherhood.

Mailing Address:
Joseph P. Sánchez,Ph.D., Editor
Spanish Colonial Research Center
Colonial Latin American Historical Review
Zimmerman Library, MSC05 3020
1 University of New Mexico
Albuquerque NM 87131-0001
Tel.: (505)277-1370  Fax: (505)277-4603
E-mail:  Website:
Latin American, Caribbean & Latino Resources  Paul "Skip" Newfield III



Esto fue tomado del Libro: 
Geografía Humana, escrito por Ramiro Jesús Díaz 
Año: 2003
Imprenta: Impresos Arturo Coro . Estado Falcón
Telf. 252 5086  
Páginas 195 – 196 – 197


Roberto Jose Perez Guadarrama
Urb.Trigal Norte, Ave. Del Antártico,
Conj. Resd. Valle Escondido, Casa # 10,
Valencia, Edo. Carabobo, Venezuela
Telf.: 58-0241-8432029
Telf. Cel: 58-04143403359


Su nombre se origina por la abundancia del Guano, variedad de cardón que se caracteriza por su aspecto lanoso Dito, característico de nombres colectivos (apuntes lexicológicos y topónimos indígenas de Paraguaná, de Juan de la Cruz Estévez). 
El fundo Guanadito, que consistía en una fundación de casa, corrales, estanques, huertas y un rebaño de cabras, perteneció a Don Diego Antonio García de Quevedo, quien en su testamento, firmado en Buena Vista el6 de octubre de 1.832, otorgó esta propiedad a su yerno, Benedicto Ocando, esposo de su hija Doña Rosa García de Quevedo y Aldama. 

Posteriormente se construyeron en el lugar, las casas La Tranquilidad de Carlos Ocando García, Santa Rosa, de Don Tito Ocando, El Silencio, de Don Trinidad Millano, Las Carmelitas y El Hatillo, de Vicente Ocando y San Roque, de Rómulo Reyes. 
Luego se establecieron las familias Laguna, Rivero, Romero, Lugo, Jordán, Sánchez y Enrich, entre otras.

     Casa Santa Rosa Rogeuo Laguna  


Primeras Familias 

Familia Ocando

- Benedicto Ocando, se caso con Doña Rosa García de Quevedo y Aldama, hija de Don Diego Antonio García de Quevedo y Doña María Josefa Aldama, de esta unión descienden Federico, Benigno y Carlos Ocando García de Quevedo. 
- Del matrimonio de Carlos Ocando García con Lorenza García de Quevedo, nació Napoleón Ocando García. 
- Federico Ocando García, casó con Celestina García de Quevedo. (Descrito en la familia Ocando García de La Vela). 
- Benedicto Ocando, al enviudar, se casó con Juana Millano. De esta unión se desconocen sus descendientes directos. 
- Del matrimonio de Don Tito Ocando con Amelia Ocando nacen Pérciles, Rosa, Isaías y Edelmira Ocando. 
- Perciles Ocando con Baldomera Laguna tuvo a Rogelio, María, Nieves y Marcos. 
- Rosa Ocando se casó con Juan Sánchez. 
- De Isaías y Edelmira no conocemos con precisión sobre sus descendientes directos. 

Famila Millano-Ocando
- Don Trinidad Millano de su vínculo con Vicenta Ocando, nacieron Begoña y Josefa Millano Ocando. 
- Begoña Millano Ocando de su matrimonio con Vicente Ocando, nació Begoña "Chita" Ocando Millano, quien se casó con José María Romero, de donde descienden Moisés y Eddy José Romero Ocando. 

Begoña Millano Ocando 

José María Romero

- De la unión de Josefa Millano acando, con Valentín Guadarrama, nace Asisclo José Guadarrama Millano, quien se casó con Carmen Elena García, cuyos descendientes son Gladis, Alfredo, Iván y Betty Guadarrama García.





Why Mexico celebrates St Patrick’s Day!
News Flashes!!!  San Patricio PBS Broadcasts 
                                       "History and Film" were Subject of Webb Lectures
How Much is that Worth today? 

WWII Registry & Memorial

Civil War Soldiers & Sailors New Websites
Foreword from EPIC of the Greater Southwest


Why Mexico celebrates St Patrick’s Day!

The San Patricios: An Historical Perspective by Brian McGinn
Sent by John Inclan

[[ Editor: In attempting to get permission to publish the McGinn's perspective, 
I stumbled upon the following  viewer responses in San Jose California.]] 


As you may know, the San Patricios has been broadcast in Ireland by RTE and in Mexico by Televisa. The American Program Service in Boston has sold broadcast rights to the following stations: 
WYBE, Philadelphia, PA 
KRLN, San Antonio, TX. 
KEDT, Corpus Christi, TX 
KTEH, San Jose, CA 
Maryland Public Television 
KVCR, San Bernardino 
WLIW, Plainview, N.Y. 
KWSU, Pullman, WA 
WNED, Buffalo, NY 
KTSC, Pueblo, CO 
KMNE, Albuquerque, N.M. 


"Thanks for showing such a fascinating program. I'm am Irishman living in the U.S.A. and I feel both culturally and spiritually much mor akin to Mexicans than to Americans. Tonight's program showed that this is a more comon attitude for us Irish than maybe I'd realized. What an antidote to the nausea-inducing garbage of the Oscars! Keep up the good work." 
-- Paul Murray, Sunnyvale, CA 

"We saw the documentary on KTEH. I am Mexican-American and my fiance Irish-American. We were surprised about this bit of history on the San Patricios, and moved by it. Many thanks! 
-- William A. Campos 

I really enjoyed watching your program on the San Patricios. I was pleased to see that your station (KTEH) carried the program. It was an enlightening learning experience. I think you for your time. 
-- Joseph Diaz-Calderon 

"An excellent account of a little known historical event--in keeping with our collective denial of the entire USA-Mexico war." 
-- Bill Elias 

If you are interested in a broadcast in your area, please call or write the program director of your local PBS station. Ask them to contact the APS in Boston or San Patricio Productions @ (760) 630-7398 Thanks! We welcome your comments and suggestions:
E-mail Mark

At a recent screening of The San Patricios documentary at George Mason University in Fairfax, Va, historian BRIAN MCGINN gave the following analysis of the San Patricio Battalion. The program was sponsored by the Conradh na Gaelige (Gaelic League), based in Washington D.C. 

The first question that arises in connection with the San Patricio documentary is why it took 150 years for the story of the San Patricios to be told in such a compelling manner? First, from the viewpoint of the U.S. military, the less said about such subjects, the better. Desertions reflect poorly on political leadership and military command; defections even more so. And this is still true, since many Americans are still unaware of the U.S. defectors who fought with the NVA/VC during the Vietnam War.

In general, Irish-Americans have also been uncomfortable with the story of the San Patricios. They could argue, and convincingly, that the overwhelming majority of the 4,811 Irish-born soldiers who served in the U.S. army during the Mexican-American War did not desert. Even if all the San Patricios soldiers were Irish--and they were not--Irish-born deserters would represent less than four per cent of Irish soldiers. During the 19th century,when the Irish place in U.S. society was far from secure, when Irish immigrants faced the hostility of violent nativists and the Know-Nothing Movement, dwelling on the San Patricios was seen as giving ammunition to the enemy. And those instincts were correct--the Know Nothings in fact used the San Patricios in their propaganda as proof of the unreliability of Irish Catholic immigrants. Most of the leading generals of the Civil War--Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee among them--had served as junior officers in the Mexican-American War.

It is interesting to note that never again would U.S. military commanders make the mistake of sending Irish Catholic soldiers to face death under bigoted officers or without chaplains of their own faith. The well-known blood-sacrifices of the Irish during the Civil War--at Antietam, Fredericksburg and Gettysburg--to a large extent put to rest the question of Irish loyalty to the Union. But it ushered in an era of historical myth-making in which the Irish became superpatriots, steadfastly loyal to the Republic and always fighting on the "right" side. Carried to its extreme, we have the claim that Irish Catholics were loyal patriots to a man and that Irishmen in fact composed half the forces of George Washington during the American Revolution. This school of Irish-American history, of which the leading exponent was Michael J. O'Brien of the American Irish Historical Institute, tolerated no exceptions to its message.

So most Irish-American scholarship on the San Patricios, until recently, was devoted to proving that a) the unit was not really Irish, b) if it was Irish, it was not Catholic, and c) in case a and b were proven correct, it was an ineffectual band of drunks who had repudiated their Irish heritage.

After watching the film, we know better. Although men of Irish birth may not have made up an absolute majority of the San Patricios at all times, Irish Catholics did form its largest ethnic component--ranging by various estimates from 40 per cent to 60 per cent. And the ethos of the unit was undeniably Irish.

Curiously, people in Ireland have no trouble in accepting and indeed embracing the San Patricios as national Irish heroes. I happened to be visiting Ireland last year shortly after the documentary was shown on RTE on September 18--the anniversary of the San Patricio executions at San Angel. And the sense of excitement and pride among those who had seen The San Patricios was very palpable. But perhaps Irish people have a more realistic view of their own military history.

They know that Irish soldiers could be found fighting on both sides of almost every major conflict from the 17th through the mid-20th century. In Europe, in the armies of France, Spain, Austria, Russia--and Britain. In the New World, on both sides of the American Revolution--we have eyewitness accounts of the Maguire brothers, who had been fighting on opposite sides, meeting after the battle of Saratoga. And they know that Lord Edward Fitzgerald, one of the heroes of the 1798 Rising, served in the British uniform in South Carolina during the Revolution. They know that opposing the 144,000 Irishmen in the Union Army were some 30,000 in Confederate ranks, and that the Irish Brigade's charge up Marye's Heights at Fredericksburg was halted by the fire of Robert McMilllan's regiment of Irish rebels. They also know that desertion and defection are part and parcel of every war. And that bodies of Irish soldiers have changed sides since at least 1586, when a regiment of Irish Catholics rounded up after the Desmond Rebellion and shipped to the Netherlands to fight for the Protestant Dutch, promptly deserted to their Spanish Catholic opponents. They recall that during World War I, Roger Casement toured German POW camps and recruited some 50 Irish prisoners--captured as members of British units--to form the nucleus of an Irish Brigade fighting on the German side. So the fact that 200 or more Irishmen deserted and changed sides during the U.S., war with Mexico should not surprise us. Indeed, in the political and religious climate of the time, we could legitimately ask why the number was so small.

Which brings up a final point: the vast majority of Irish soldiers who have fought in foreign armies have served with noted courage and loyalty. Witness the 202 Medals of Honor awarded to Irish-born U.S. soldiers between 1861 and 1914. Against that background, we should take note when Irishmen as a body make a conscious decision to risk their lives by switching sides in the midst of a conflict. And we should treat with healthy skepticism simplistic explanations that they were simply a misguided bunch of naive and reckless adventurers, motivated by opportunism and too much alcohol.

Finally, we should welcome this film, and the school of "warts and all" history it exemplifies, as evidence of the maturity and self-assurance of Irish America, of its openness to an honest reexamination of its own past and the many varieties of Irish experience in the Americas.

Brian McGinn

"History and Film" were Subject of Webb Lectures

Source: Fronteras

Historians are sometimes appalled at how popular films like The Alamo, JFK, or Troy depict the past. However, there is no denying that most Americans "learn" more history from film than from school. The 40th Walter Prescott Webb Memorial Lectures addressed the subject of how and why the film version of history is important--and offers such great possibilities. They are were free to the public and were held on Thursday, March 10th.

For more information, contact Webb Lectures Chair Dr. Joyce Goldberg at


Economic History Services 
Sent by JD Villarreal

NOTE: Please also see What is the Relative Value?, which presents five different ways (including the CPI) that can be used to compare the worth of a United States Dollar for the years 1789 - 2003.

Comparing the purchasing power of money in the United States (or colonies) from 1665 to 2003.

To determine the value of an amount of money in one year compared to another, enter the values in the appropriate places below. For example, you may want to know: How much money would you need today to have the same "purchasing power" of $500 in year 1970 If you entered these values in the correct places, you will find that the answer is $2,290.12

You can make this computation among all the years between 1665 and 2003.

1. How much money today has the same "purchasing power" as $ in the year ? 

If you are only interested in comparing the value of an amount of money in one past year in the prices of another year, you can use this sentence. 

2. How much money in the year has the same "purchasing power" as $ in the year ? 

Source note for "How Much Is That Worth Today?"
Copyright (c) 2004 by EH.NET. All rights reserved. This work may be copied for non-profit educational uses if proper credit is given to the author. For other permission, please contact the EH.NET Administrator (; Telephone: 513-529-2229). 

Citation: John J. McCusker, "Comparing the Purchasing Power of Money in the United States (or Colonies) from 1665 to 2003." Economic History Services, 2004, URL : Please read our Note on Data Revisions 

WWII Registry & Memorial
Orange County California GS Newsletter -March 2004

This new memorial, authorized by President Clinton will honor the 16 million who served in the armed forces of the U.S. during World War II, the more than ^ 400,000 who died, and the millions who supported the war effort from home. Symbolic of the defining event of the 20+h Century, the memorial will be a monument to the spirit, sacrifice, and commitment of the American people to the common defense of the nation and to the broader causes of peace and freedom from tyranny throughout the world. It will inspire future generations of Americans, deepening their appreciation of what the World War II generation accomplished in securing freedom and democracy. Above all, the memorial will stand as an important symbol of American national unity, a timeless reminder of the moral strength and awesome power that can flow when a free people are at once united and bonded together in a common and just cause.

The American Battle Monuments Commission (ABMC) is an independent, executive branch agency that administers, operates and maintains 24 permanent U.S. military cemeteries and 25 memorial structures in 15 countries around the world. The commission is also responsible for the establishment of other memorials in the U.S. as directed by Congress.

The memorial will be located at the east end of the Reflecting Pool, between the Washington and Lincoln monuments in Washington D.C. The monument is to be completed in March and dedicated May 29, 2004.

There are 4 distinct databases as part of this memorial:

1. Individuals buried in American Battle Monuments Commission (ABMC) at overseas military cemeteries.
2. Those memorialized on "ABMC" Tablets of the Missing.
3. Those listed on official War and Navy Department Killed in Service rosters held by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA).
4.Those individuals honored by public enrollment in the Registry of Remembrances.
Visit this WW II to locate a family member who served or register one you'd like remembered.

Orange County California 65 Newsletter - January 2005- page 6

Civil War Soldiers and Sailors New Website

Volunteers for the National Park Service's Civil War Soldiers and Sailors System Web site (CWSS; http://www.itd.nps.Qov/cwss ) have completed the Name Index Project to post 6.3 million soldier records from 44 US states and territories.

Next up for indexing are naval personnel records, but that'll take awhile, according to the CWSS site: "Given that the records sources for the Navy are not as well organized as the Army records, nor are they microfilmed, the target dote for this is still to be determined." About 18,000 African American sailors are already cataloged on CWSS, thanks to Department of Defense funding and work by Howard University.

The soldier data came from the General Index Cards in the National Archives and Records Administration's Compiled Military Service Records. CWSS also has Civil War information such as regimental histories and links to descriptions of nearly 400 significant battles. Reprinted with permission from Family Tree Magazine Email Update, copyright 2004 F+W Publications Inc. To subscribe to this free weekly e-mail newsletter, 90 to

War of 1812 Records and Resources

By Nancy Hendrickson- Freelance Writer

For many Americans, the War of 1812 remains an enigma, and for no small reason. Unlike the Revolutionary War before and the Civil War following, it wasn't about independence or freedom. Instead, "Mr. Madison's War" was all about special interests.

New England remained staunchly neutral-after all. it was making a fortune supplying England in its war with Napoleon. The Manifest Destiny crowd, however, saw it as a way of grabbing Florida and Canada. Congress said it was about freedom of the high seas. Regardless of what individual Americans might have thought (and there was plenty of decent), the war began in 1812 and lasted until 1814.

Was your ancestor one of the many who served in the Army, Navy. or Marines during this conflict? If so, you might be interested in these sites. Veterans of the War of 1812 You'll find veterans listed in the 1903 membership roll of the Pennsylvania Society of the War of 1812. This site is full of history, many links to other sites. 

There are graphic
links for the war, black and white drawings of Andersonville Prison. It is worth some time to check it out.

The Ohio Historical Society War of 1812 Roster of Ohio Soldiers—This fully searchable database contains names of 1,759 officers and 24,521 enlisted men. There are links to the Archives of the Ohio Historical Society. www.ohiohistory.orQ/resource/ database/rosters.html

Database of Illinois War of 1812 Veterans— Follow the directions on the site to obtain copies of the original records, archives/warl812.html

The Library of Virginia Index to the War of 1812 Pay Rolls and Muster Rolls—Search a database of approximately 40.000 names. There is a new link, however this link will take you to the University of Virginia site in fifteen seconds. warl812

National Archives Overview of War of 1812 Records—Read about the National Archives' records created before and after the War of 1812, and learn how to obtain them. prologue/winter_1991_war_of_1812.html After reading the narrative article, then you might want to go to and then type in "War of 1812" and look at the microfilm available to search at the archives.

Officers of the Navy and Marine Corps in the War of 1812 - Access lists of all commissioned and warrant officers of the Navy and the Marine Corps. l/wars/warl812/18151 list.htm

National Archives Information About Impressed Seaman. 1793-1814—
This site outlines availability of records and microfilm roll numbers for impressed seamen. military/impressed_seamen_1793_to_1814.h+ml

Source: Family Tree Magazine, Article Archives Nancy Hendrickson is a contributing editor for Family Tree Magazine. She is also a family historian, and freelance writer.


Foreword from
EPIC of the Greater Southwest

By Rubén Sálaz Márquez, Ph.D.

[[ Editor: Questioning history started when I started doing my own family history.  My understanding of history evolved and it was decidedly a different history than what I had been taught. I appreciate EPIC for creating a text which focuses on questioning, on seeking out data which provokes questions, and reevaluates historical incidences with a different perspective. If we want to create a generation of socially valuable Hispanics historians, we should start by reviewing the historical accounts of past events with skepticisms. ]]  

HISTORY is the most dangerous field of study in American society. There are many reasons for this observation and all have profound implications that should be explored in a genuinely mature fashion. The American psyche has a penchant for fantasy, which has given rise to industries like movies and television, and this is certainly for the good as far as "Entertainment" is concerned. But entertaining fantasies have been woven into the fabric of American Historiography, which isn't a positive effect when it comes to a sense of reality. While fantasy is very human, it shouldn't be the basis for writing History because the historical record and interpretation of present realities will be distorted. Correcting a fantasy historical record is where trouble erupts. Let us submit "King Arthur and the Knights of the Roundtable" as an example. Neither King Arthur nor his Knights ever existed. All stories from the "Arthurian cycle" are creations grounded in pure fantasy. Many writers will not broach this heavy truth because they don't wish to be targeted as spoilers, whistle blowers, or revisionists. So most people believe in King Arthur as a real person and learn next to nothing about historical personalities like Charlemagne, one of the few towering medieval kings, or El Cid, the most famous knight of the Middle Ages.

The popular mind doesn't concern itself much with fact or fancy until the matter is closer to home discussing issues like "American heroes." Were Daniel Boone, Zebulon M. Pike, John C, Fremont, Kit Carson, Davy Crockett, etc., "heroic frontiersmen/explorers/pathfinders"? How much of their histories is fact, how much fantasy? And since the written record of the Southwest began in 1540, what of the Hispanic personalities who came before our 19th century Southwest heroes? Can the American historical record do justice to such a diverse history? How do realities like presentism (to interpret historical facts by imposing contemporary ethics and/or sensitivities on people and events of the past) or analysis impinge on American historiography? If someone writes documented history that proves to be "unpopular" should he be labeled a revisionist? Should the "revisionist" refer to his accusers as the "Sweep-It-Under-the Rug" school? While mature minds could be expected to see through mere propaganda that wouldn't necessarily be the case with high school students studying History. According to an article titled "Remaking History" in U.S. News &• World Report (November 25, 2002, page 46), if a book is accepted for use in Texas schools it will generally be approved in the rest of the USA. How does the adoption process work? A "line by line" scrutiny of the text, use of acceptable terms like "enslaved person" instead of "slave," and/or deletion of information like that there were "some 50,000 prostitutes" working in the Old West. "Traditionalists" want to glorify Democracy and "free enterprise" while "Progressives" refuse to exclude women and minorities. "Textbook wars" don't emphasize the fact that American students score lower in History than in any other discipline, "including Math." It would appear that a textbook is created for it's

"best seller" potential, not its veracity. [See Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American  History Textbook Got Wrong by James W. Loewen.j

Upon reading this volume it will be obvious that published works are of necessity "major players" in Epic of the Greater Southwest because what has (or perhaps hasn't) been done must be addressed or confronted. For example. Dr. David J. Weber writes in his book of essays titled Myth And The History Of The Hispanic Southwest (Chapter 5) that the history of the Southwest from 1821 to 1850 is "...notably unbalanced, ethnocentric, and incomplete."

Consider the often cited work The Cattle On A Thousand Hills: 1850-1880 by Robert G. Cleland. The title states "1850-1880" as if the "cattle" industry had nothing to do with Californios who, in fact, put those hundreds of thousands of cattle on those "thousand hills" before "1850" when California became a State in the Union. Take another example: The Decline Of The Californios by Leonard Pitt. Did the people of Hispanic California suffer a mere "decline" or did they go from riches to rags at the hands of newly arrived (American) "California pioneers"? While studying Southwest History are we actually digesting someone's "interpretation" or "personal analysis" instead of History? If so, this is little more than propaganda shrouded as "History" (which I herein refer to somewhat facetiously as propagandis-tory). Besides being plagued with misleading strategies like presentism and "interpretation," there is also the Orwellian specter of "double speak," to say something in such a way that people will not understand but the writer can assert that's what he said. For example, if American beliefs concerning the Iraqi War of 2003 conflict with actual facts, you can phrase it by saying "Americans may be avoiding having an experience of cognitive dissonance."

What is it in the American psyche that demands conformity to whatever popularity asserts? What caused MSNBC and NBC to fire Peter Arnett (March, 2003) for reporting Iraqi perspectives during the Iraqi War? This behavior is nothing new. In 1975 Texas scholar Carmen Perry was targeted with fury when she translated a manuscript that contradicted the popularly held belief (i.e., the movie version) of how Davy Crockett died. Observations like these, addressed in the Discussion Notes sections, will not be popular in some quarters and might be combated with typical charges of revisionist, or worse, but they should be discussed openly if any study of Southwest history is to be complete. Whether considered polemical or not, these issues must be addressed, if for no other reason than to be able to refute them.

The intent of Epic is to lay an introductory historical foundation for what is herein referred to as The Greater Southwest: New Mexico, Texas, California, Arizona, Oklahoma, Colorado, Utah, Nevada. The work is intended for the person who wants to investigate History, regardless of academic background. No effort has been made to overwhelm the reader with erudition or staggering bibliography. Highly utilitarian scholarly forms like ibid (ibidem: in the same place), op.cit. {opere citato: in the work cited), passim (in various parts of the book; here and there), etc., have not be employed in this work.

While the Southwest is the oldest section of the present USA and there exist mind boggling amounts of historical information in the Spanish as well as English languages, the reader is provided with basic references that aren't treated as an end in themselves. Documentation is cited as an avenue for further study, which is highly encouraged. It is also paramount that differing perspectives be discussed in a mature, tolerant manner in order to enrich all participants, whether speaking or listening. While everyone maintains [hat one does not have to agree with a particular point of view, the reality of the situation is that individuals who question accepted precepts are often targeted for retribution, overt or covert. That's what makes the study of History dangerous. The historical facts and/or ideas presented in Epic might seem controversial but it should be considered important to understand these perspectives which might not have been studied in the past. Such is the way to personal growth and maturity. 


Dating Old Letters                 Websites to help Organize 
Rules of thumb written
Record Access: FYI  
Genealogy stories wanted  
National Archives Announcement  
World War I Draft Registration

Dating Old Letters

Source: Heritage Newsletter, January 2005

If you have undated letters and want to determine when they were written, the answer may be on the envelope. Prior to 1847, stamps were not used on letters carried by the U.S. Postal Office. After that, first class postage rates per ounce, by date, are as follows:

July 1, 1882                                                   Nov 3, 1917                                                    July 1, 1919                                                     July 6, 1932                                                    August 1, 1958                                               Jan 7, 1968                                                    May 16, 1971                                            March 2, 1974                                              Dec 31, 1975                                                 May 29, 1979                                                     March 22, 1981                                            Nov 1, 1981                                                 April 3, 1988                                        February 3, 1991                                            June 1, 1995                                                   Jan 10, 1999                                                 July 1, 2001                                                   July 1, 2002 2 cents                                                               3 cents                                                                2 cents                                                                 3 cents                                                               4 cents                                                               6 cents                                                              10 cents                                                             10 cents                                                             13 cents                                                              15 cents                                                            18 cents                                                           20 cents                                                            25 cents                                                            29 cents                                                             32 cents                                                           33 cents                                                           34 cents                                                           37 cents

Websites to help Organize 

Organization of materials can be easily organized, quickly organized, cheaply organized, and can be cross-referenced to other aspects of your files, allowing you much more time to devote your energy to the research itself and time to analyze your information more effectively. 
Check out these websites. 
Sent by Lorraine Hernandez
If you use Ancestral Quest, click here for the lesson.

Legacy Family Tree, click here for the lesson.

If you use MyTrees Online, click here for the lesson.

If you use Personal Ancestral File, click here for the lesson.

Other genealogy training resources,  free online courses at Genealogy Research Associates, Inc. 

The following notes are rules of thumb written by John Schmal ....
Sent by Janete Vargas

Record Access: FYI  
From:  via
Members of genealogical organizations and family historians across the country are concerned and frustrated as access to public records are being denied.

I copied the information below from information posted by Dick Eastman on March 01, 2005. I encourage you to visit the  website and read the full article  "So Why Lock Up the Birth Records?

"It seems that every week we hear of one more situation in which some politician or bureaucrat is trying to restrict access to public domain vital records. Everybody is trying to lock out everyone, including genealogists. Our right to access to public domain birth, marriage, and death information is being threatened constantly under the guise of "preventing identity theft."

"Balderdash! "(That's as strong a word as I will use in this family-oriented publication.)"

A new survey of 4,000 consumers, about 500 of whom were identity theft victims, was recently conducted by Javelin Research and the Better Business Bureau for CheckFree, Visa, and Wells Fargo Bank. This study is based on cold, hard facts, not the rhetoric or conjecture of someone who 
makes pronouncements not grounded in reality.

According to the people who were victims of identity theft, here are the eight most common sources:
1.    Lost or stolen wallet: 29%
2.    Fraud that occurs during an in-store or telephone transaction: 12.9%
3.    Corrupt employees: 9%
4.    Stolen mail: 8%
5.    Spyware on the computer: 5%
6.    Sifting through garbage: 2.6%
7.    Computer viruses: 2.2%
8.    "Phishing" through fraudulent e-mail: 1.7%

Take a close look at the above. Please note the rating for "obtained a record from the vital records department." Do you see it? I don't.

The full report is quite lengthy. Here are a few other random facts extracted from the Better Business Bureau's announcement:
*    Among cases where the perpetrator's identity is known, half of all identity fraud is committed by a friend, family member, relative, neighbor or in-home employee - someone known by the victim.
*    A wide variety of metrics confirm that identity fraud problems are NOT worsening. In fact, the total number of victims is declining. The number of identity fraud victims dropped from 10.1 million in 2003 to 9.3 million in 2004.
*    The median value of identity fraud crimes remained unchanged at $750; however most identity fraud victims incurred no out-of-pocket costs.

You can read the full report on the Better Business Bureau's web site.

Another article of note in Eastman's current issue is: Public Documents should not be For Sale
The Secretary of State's office is putting out the warning that the State of Maine law makes it illegal for people to sell local, county and state documents -- such as old maps, minutes of town meetings and copies of municipal ordinances. Secretary of State Matthew Dunlap says public documents belong to the public, not private individuals.

LDS-FamilySearch-Website genealogy stories wanted  

From:  via
Dear fellow genealogist, I am currently working on a manuscript with my sister for Spring Creek Books and collecting inspiring family history stories to include in the book. 

We're currently naming the book "Climbing Family Trees- Whispers in the leaves".  It's designed to be an inspiring book that includes a collection of true stories by people who have searched their family roots and discovered much more than names and dates.  Their experiences testify that searching for our ancestors' records is much more than a passing hobby, and that there is something very spiritual about it that compels us to continue our quest.   Some experiences could be called miraculous or coincidental, but the researcher feels a special unseen hand guiding his efforts.

I wondered if you might have a story or two that you would like to share in this book format.   Of course, I can't guarantee that your story would be included in the final manuscript due to the Editor's discretion, but I would definitely include your name in the book if it does.

You may have already written down some of your special experiences in your journal and find this an opportunity to finally the take the time to record those memories for your posterity.  If you would rather tell me your stories I would be happy to write them for you.    

Thank you for considering this project.  If you have any questions at all or would like to discuss your stories with me please feel free to  e-mail me at: All stories need to be submitted by March 1st, 2005.

Please feel free to share this letter with others who may be interested. 
Thanks again!
Tracey Long RN, MS, BSN, CDE  (Genealogy affeciando!)
P.O. Box 80282
Las Vegas, NV 89180-0282

Announcement from the National Archives

All of the most frequently requested records in the National Archives con be ordered online. The National Archives and Records Administration has made all of their form requests available online at:

The site requires that you register as a user and that you pay with a credit card. Using Order Online, you can order:
*copies of passenger arrival records
*copies of specific pages from the Federal census
*copies of Eastern Cherokee applications
*copies of Federal land entry files
*Federal military pension files for the Revolutionary War through the Civil War
*military service records for the Revolutionary War through the Spanish American War.

The archives will continue to accept paper forms. Paper forms can be ordered by email to   or by calling the toll free number, 1-86-NARA-NARA (1-866-272- 6272).

Published articles in periodicals that cover records in a given area etc. This site aids you in learning how to find them and narrow down the search using keywords.  What to look for and how to narrow your search. 

World War I Draft Registration Cards is digitizing and indexing them has announced that more than 24 million WWI draft registration cards are being made available through their subscription Web site. (Remember, any LDS Family History Center with an Internet connection is eligible for a free Ancestry membership.)

There weren't 24 million doughboys fighting in World War I? No, but ANY eligible citizen or resident alien had to register— and give his full name, age, home address, date of birth, citizenship status, birthplace, occupation, marital status, number of children under age 12, any exemptions, height, build, eye & hair colors, whether bald, or disabled, and furnish a .signature.

The first 100,000 or so have been posted. They are fully indexed, but you see the actual image of the card. When it is completed you will be able to search by name, state, county, and birth date. If your ancestor was born between 1873 and 1900, you should look into this resource. 25% of the existing population registered between 1917 and 1918.




Ancient Earth Drawings Found in Peru  Nazca Lines.
Ancient Earth Drawings Found in Peru 
AP PRESS, Feb 28, 2005
Sent by John Inclan

LIMA, Peru - Archaeologists have discovered a group of giant figures scraped into the hills of Peru's southern coastal desert that are believed to predate the country's famed Nazca lines. 
About 50 figures were etched into the earth over an area roughly 90 square miles near the city of Palpa, 220 miles southeast of Lima, El Comercio newspaper reported. 

The drawings — which include human figures as well as animals such as birds, monkeys, and felines — are believed to be created by members of the Paracas culture sometime between 600 and 100 B.C., Johny Islas, the director of the Andean Institute of Archaeological Studies, told the newspaper.  One prominent figure appears to represent a deity commonly depicted on textiles and ceramics from the period, Islas said. 

The recently discovered designs predate the country's famous Nazca lines, which have mystified scientists and were added to the United Nation's Cultural Heritage list in 1994. 

The Nazca lines — which also include pictographs of various animals — cover a 35-mile stretch of desert some 250 miles south of Lima and are one of Peru's top tourist attractions. The Nazca culture flourished between 50 B.C. and 600 A.D., Islas said.  The lines, thousands of them in all, were made by clearing darker rocks on the desert surface to expose lighter soil underneath. 


RELATED LINK .  photo examples of some Nazca Lines.

The Nazca Lines are an engima. No one know who had built them or indeed why. Since their discovery, the Nazca Lines have inspired fantastic explanations from ancient gods, a landing strip for returning aliens, a celestial calendar, used for rituals probably related to astronomy, to confirm the ayllus or clans who made up the population and to determine through ritual their economic functions held up by reciprocity and redistribution or, a map of underground water supplies.
There are also huge geoglyphs in Egypt, Malta, United States (Mississippi and California), Chile, Bolivia and in other countries. But the Nazca geoglyphs, because of their numbers, characteristics, dimensions and cultural continuity as they were made and remade through out the whole prehispanic period, form the most impressive as well as enigmatic archeological group.

The Nazca Lines are located in the Pampa region of Peru, the desolate plain of the Peruvian coast which comprises the Pampas of San Jose (Jumana), Socos, El Ingenio and others in the province of Nasca, which is 400 Km. South of Lima, covers an area of approximately 450 km2, of sandy desert as well as the slopes of the contours of the Andes. They cover nearly 400 square miles of desert. Etched in the surface of the desert pampa sand about 300 hundred figures made of straight lines, geometric shapes most clearly visible from the air. They were supposedly built by an ancient civilization called the Nazca.

The Nazca plain is virtually unique for its ability to preserve the markings upon it, due to the combination of the climate (one of the driest on Earth, with only twenty minutes of rainfall per year) and the flat, stony ground which minimises the effect of the wind at ground level. With no dust or sand to cover the plain, and little rain or wind to erode it, lines drawn here tend to stay drawn. These factors, combined with the existence of a lighter-coloured subsoil beneath the desert crust, provide a vast writing pad that is ideally suited to the artist who wants to leave his mark for eternity.




                             April Fools' Day Celebrations Around The World                             
Sent by Val Valdez Gibbons

April Fools' Day Celebrations Around The World Celebrated on April 1, April Fools' Day is one of a kind as it is one of the most light-hearted days of the year and one which is celebrated with much hype and hoopla in almost all parts of the world in their own unique ways.
In Scotland, for instance, April Fools' Day is celebrated for two days. Here, it's more commonly called 'Gowkie Day' or 'Hunt the Gowk'. On this day, a simpleton is made the victim of a prank played by his/ her friends and is ultimately declared an 'April Gowk', meaning a 'cuckoo'. The second day or the 'Taily Day', as it's popularly called, is a very interesting one scoring high on fun. On this day, pranksters stick 'Kick Me' signs or its likes at the back of their April Fools' Day targets and watch the fun unfold.
In England, this April Fools' Day custom of prank-playing and mischief-making is carried out only during the daytime. Here, an April Fool is commonly called a 'noodle'. In the Cornwall region of England, however, he/ she is called a 'gowk' or a 'guckaw'. Now if you're in England and you succeed in making a fool of someone on April Fools' Day, don't forget to yell--'Fool, fool, the guckaw' ! But just in case you act the fool yourself, you stand every chance of hearing someone taunt--"The gowk and the titlene sit on a tree. You're a gowk as well as me !"
Then again in England's Cheshire, an April Fool is called an 'April Gawby' or a 'Gob'; and in the Lake District they are called an 'April Noddy'. Here, on April Fools' Day, people are traditionally heard yelling "April Noddy's past and gone…You're a fool and I'm none" at the close of the day. In Devon, April Fools' Day celebrations are quite similar to that in Scotland, and the day is known as 'Tail-Pipe Day'.
The April Fools' Day tomfoolery trickles to Mexico too, but here it's observed on a different date and in a different flavor. 'El Dia de los Inocentes' (December 28) is celebrated as April Fools' Day by the Mexicans. Originally, December 28 was a day set aside by the Christians to mourn the butchery of innocent children by King Herod. But eventually the observances acquired a light and less grim tone and came to involve pranks and hoaxes. Spain too, celebrates April Fools' Day on December 28 with jokes and tricks. The day here is called 'Dia de los Santos Inocentes' or 'The Feast of the Holy Innocents'.
April Fools' Day is known as 'Poisson d'Avril' in France. The victim of a joke on April Fools' Day is labeled as 'Poisson d'Avril' (meaning an April fish) here. Hence the name. Celebrations in France range from simple harmless jokes to just about anything under the sky. Depends on how prankish you can get…so just watch out !
Italy enjoys its share of pranks and jokes too on April Fools' Day. And the Italian name for April Fools' Day is Pesce d'Aprile. In Portugal, however, April Fools' Day is celebrated on the Sunday and Monday just before the Lenten season. The Portuguese just love to smear their friends with flour on April Fools' Day.
In Japan, the people get so leery on April Fools' Day that they don't even believe a true story thinking that it could be a hoax. Now that's being a greater fool, don't you think ?
The Americans celebrate April Fools' Day with huge enthusiasm. From playing small tricks on friends, family and strangers to creating massive hoaxes to fool the masses on April Fools' Day--the celebrations in America ride the crest of unending fun and excitement. One very common trick is to look down at your friend's shoe and point out that his/ her shoelaces are untied. Once he/ she looks down to check, you've your mission accomplished and there's a ready-made April Fool standing right in front of you ! But then, it's always more fun to innovate your own avant-garde plans of making fools on April Fools' Day rather than doing the old tricks over and over again. And you'll know you're heading for maximum thrill when your targeted 'April fool' will have no clue as to how or when he/ she will be tricked. The hallmark of a successful April Fools' Day rests in that. So be the hotshot trickster this April Fools' Day with newer plans and naughtier pranks right up your sleeve to have your folks befooled to the fullest !
And here's hoping that your April Fools' Day is full of wonderfool fun !




                12/30/2009 04:49 PM