Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
United States-- 3
Surname Bautista --17
Galvez Patriots --18
Orange County, CA -- 23
Los Angeles, CA -- 30
California -- 36
Northwestern US -- 46
Southwestern US -- 54
Black -- 72
Indigenous -- 78
Sephardic -- 82
Texas -- 85
East of Mississippi -- 93
East Coast -- 102
Mexico -- 103
Spain -- 154
History -- 164
Family History -- 165
Somos Primos Home
SEPTEMBER 11, 2001
Through God we shall do valiantly,
|Letters to the Editor:
first cousin Orlando is correct. Francisco Lozano is my ancestor,
his parents were Juan Lozano married to Rita de la Garza. This is
particularly touching information. It was an article about Dr. Clotilde
"Cleo" Garcia that gave me hope that I could succeed in
doing my own family history. Her example started me on the
trek. In addition, I take pride in knowing that Dr. "Cleo" was the sister
of Dr. Hector Garcia, founder of the American GI Forum.
That they were distant relatives is the wonder and joy of family history
Mimi Lozano, Editor
John P. Schmal,
Johanna de Soto,
Michael Stevens Perez
Laura Arechabala Shane
Salena Ball Ashton
Johanna De Soto
JV Martinez, Ph.D.
Robert Andres Olivares
Guillermo Padilla Origel
Joe M. Pérez
Custodio Rebollo Barroso
Refugio Rochin, Ph.D.
Luis Larios Vendrell
"Hispanics and the Formation of the American People"
Marcelino Ramirez Bautista
Been there, done that
Hispanics cheer 'DREAM'
Change of Heart
AOL clicks with Hispanics
National Latino museum considered
Sí TV aims to reach Hispanics
Visiones: Latino Art & Culture
Careers in Government
SACNAS, Chicano/Indigenous in Science
Hispanic Alliance, Career Enhancement
a.m. to Noon
G. McGowan Theater -
including Prof. Ryskamp and special guests:
to 1:15 p.m.
– First Workshop Session: patrons pay $15 to attend
any and all workshops offered this session, and patrons will receive the
notes for all workshops this session. Workshops will be held in the
Presidential Conference Rooms on the Main Level.
Marian Smith, INS Historian, "Hispanic Immigrant Records, 1893-2004." A broad overview of INS records with emphasis on Hispanic immigrants. Records discussed include arrival manifests, visas, border crossing cards, imported laborer documentation, A-Files, naturalizations, and more.
Mimi Lozano, plus
examples of family pedigrees by John Inclan,
to 2:30 p.m. - Lunch
(patrons are on their own)
2:30 to 3:30 p.m. – Second Workshop Session: patrons pay $15 to attend any and all workshops offered this session, and patrons will receive the notes for all workshops this session. Workshops will be held in the Presidential Conference Rooms on the Main Level.
NARA archivist, "Using Census Records for your Genealogical
CGRS, CGL, "Civil War Research in the National Archives."
3:30 to 4:30 p.m. – Third Workshop Session: patrons pay $15 to attend any and all workshops offered this session, and patrons will receive the notes for all workshops this session. Workshops will be held in the Presidential Conference Rooms on the Main Level.
NARA archivist, "From the State Department: Using Passport and Visa
Applications in Your Genealogical Research."
Yolanda Ochoa and Stephen Hussey, "Family History Research via the Internet".
10:30 to 11:30 a.m. – Fourth Workshop Session: patrons pay $15 to attend any and all workshops offered this session. Patrons will receive the notes for all workshops this session, and workshops will be held in the Presidential Conference Rooms on the Main Level.
Claire Bettag, CGRS, CGL, "Records of Spanish Colonial Louisiana."
Marie Melchiori, CGRS, CGL, "Mexican American Claims Commission 1825– 1938"
Marian Smith, INS Historian, "Hispanic Immigrant Records, 1893-2004."
Mimi Lozano, plus
examples of family pedigrees by John Inclan,
11:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. – Fifth Workshop Session: patrons pay $15 to attend any and all workshops offered this session, and patrons will receive the notes for all workshops this session. Workshops will be held in the Presidential Conference Rooms on the Main Level.
Claire Prechtel Kluskens, J.D., & NARA archivist, "Mexican border crossing (immigration) records."
Mimi Lozano, "Celebrating Hispanic Heritage Month, Tools for Community and Classroom Use."
Yolanda Ochoa and Steve Hussey,
"Resources available online for Hispanic research."
– Lunch (patrons are on their own)
1:30 – 3:30 – Panel discussion and book signing, Jefferson Room: Books in Print about the Hispanic American Experience
Caroline Castillo Crimm, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Latin American History, Sam Houston State University, author of De Leon, a Tejano Family History (University of Texas Press, 2004)
Carlos B. Vega, professor of Spanish at Montclair State University, and author of The Truth Must Be Told: How Spain And Hispanics Helped Build The United States (McFarland and Company, 2001) and "America’s Charters of Freedom in Spanish and English" (Declaration, Constitution, Bill of Rights, and Gettysburg Address) published by Villamel Publishing Company)
Dr. Barbara Mujica, professor at Georgetown University's Spanish department, is the author of several books/anthologies of Spanish and Spanish American literature, including: Milenio: Mil años de literatura española (2001), Antología de la literatura española: Siglos XVIII y XIX (1999), and Premio Nóbel: Once grandes escritores del mundo hispánico (1997)
Arthur R. Cresce, Jr.
- Chief of the Ethnic and Hispanic Branch in the Population Division of
the U.S. Census Bureau, "Identification of Hispanic Ethnicity in
Census 2000: Analysis of Data Quality for the Question on Hispanic
Origin," by Arthur R. Cresce, Audrey Dianne Schmidley and Roberto
R. Ramirez. Issued July 2004, working paper #75.
Hispanic/Latino historical and genealogical societies, cultural groups
and museums are encouraged to send brochures, posters, and/or
flyers for distribution at the conference.
The proud warriors of Baker Company wanted to do something to pay tribute To our fallen comrades. So since we are part of the only Marine Infantry Battalion left in Iraq the one way that we could think of doing that is By taking a picture of Baker Company saying the way we feel. It would be awesome if you could find a way to share this with our fellow countrymen. I was wondering if there was any way to get this into your papers to let the world know that "WE HAVE NOT FORGOTTEN" and are proud to serve our country."
Semper Fi, 1stSgt Dave Jobe
The above photo was forwarded from one of the last U.S. Marine companies in Iraq. They would like to have it passed to as many people as possible, to let the folks back home know that they remember why they're there and that they remember those who've been lost.
|My father Marcelino Ramirez Bautista was born in the city of Zacatecas, Mexico on June 2, 1906. In 1916 after his mother, Petra Ramirez passed on, his father Tiburcio Bautista decided to travel to United States looking for work, bringing his younger son with him and leaving the older children with relatives in Zacatecas. In New Mexico, his father found work and with the help of some neighbors he attended school, however, his father lost his job and decided to go back to Zacatecas. As a young man, Marcelino fell in love with a beautiful young girl, Anastacia Nunez Robles and married on June 7, 1930 in Zacatecas. My father worked in the mines at that time, and heard of the opportunity to come to United States as a Bracero. The couple had six children by that time: Victoria, Enrique, Andrea Petra, Modesta, Maria Guadalupe and Esther.|
During WWII my father was one of the first workers to be hired for the
"Labor Worker Program", and worked for the railroad. I remember him talking about the places where he worked, such as Ohio, Missouri, Kansas etc., I remember photos he sent to my mother posing with co-workers wearing overalls on the side of
their train, but sadly these photos were misplaced and probably do not exist now.
However, my father knew that it was a good opportunity in United states, emigrated as soon as he could, and worked for Sully Miller Construction Company until he retired. With the help of his sister Maria, who was already living in Los Angeles, he sent for us to come to U.S. By that time two of my sisters were already married and so they stayed behind. We came to United States with my dad, and after many years my dad helped his daughters' and families to immigrate to United States.
My father passed on May 12, 1989 in California, he was such an inspiration in my life. My dad was a man that wanted a better life for his children and grandchildren. He was generous, kind, positive, funny, and above all he loved his family.
Although men fought bravely and women helped during WWII let's not forget Mexican-born who served on United States working as Braceros. A 1942 U.S. Mexican pact allowing for temporary employment of Mexican workers on railroads and farmland. These men left their families behind in Mexico on an off, not only to be able to provide better for their families but to help United States when needed. My father was one of them, He also served during WWII but in United States homeland, working as a bracero.
Been there, done that.
Today I feel like I have not made the best use of my life. Today I found out that my cousin dropped out of high school because he didn’t feel like he was smart enough to be there. I remember growing up I always had trouble in school, I felt like a failure and I hated waking up. Eventually I grew tired of being a fat and awkward kid who seem to fail at everything so I decided it would be easier to die.
The summer before I was to be in Eleventh grade there I was in my bed listening to my parents in the background as my body began to die from the poison I swallowed. My heart was slowing down and all I had to do was close my eyes but I couldn’t. Before I knew it I was being slapped by the doctor so I wouldn’t fall asleep and never wake up. I spent the next few days with a tube up and my nose and down my throat being fed charcoal. Life didn’t get better once I got out it was for me just another failure in my life and I hated life. I couldn’t even kill myself so I figured someone would have to do it for me and I fell into gangs and drugs to become numb to life and hopefully to be released from the pain of opening my eyes. Before I knew it I became a target and I thought for sure I would finally find peace.
Instead of death what I was given was a wake up call, I found myself kneeling on the ground with a gun to that back of my head and my mid flooded with flashbacks of times when I was supposed to leave this world. I was nine again and staring down the barrel of a shotgun, I was sixteen and being slammed into a wall by a white officer with no explanation and I closed my eyes. A week later I would once again find myself being arrested and I thought for sure my life was spiraling even further down. It was under the threat of incarceration that I finally in my fourth high school buckled down and realized that all the work I have been hiding from wasn't hard at all. Yet there I was a senior and I didn’t even my ninth grade credits.
For once I did really well and I began to regret all the time I wasted, the free education I just tossed aside so I can sit idle in a cloud of smoke with a forty ounce in my hand. As I look back on the violence that I have seen I shutter, every night I pop Prozac so I can feel comfortable. I am a high school graduate whom made it out of a desire not to go to jail and I hope that my younger cousins can avoid my path. I a filled with guilt even three years after I watched a young man died in my arms. I am filled with guilt that I couldn’t have been a better role model. I hope that my life, that this story can help young men see that there is no glory on the streets for the strength we need comes from knowledge.
Source: Change of Heart by Adam Goodheart
AARP, May/June 2004
The good news is that in the 50 years since the Supreme Court ruled in
favor of school desegregation in the case of Brown v. Board of
Education, there has been some dramatic changes in Americans attitudes
toward race and equality. Today, most American - 55 percent - think that
the state of race relations is either very or somewhat good, according
to a landmark telephone survey of 2,002 people conducted last November
and December by the Gallup Organization for AARP and the Leadership
Conference on Civil Rights (LCCR). Yet disheartening divisions between
the races persist.
Between 1850 to 1930 the
foreign-born population of the United States
AOL Hopes to click with Hispanics
Orange County Register, 8-13-04
American Online, the nation's biggest Internet service provider, is reaching across the digital divide to lure first-time computer users with bilingual service and a low-cost PC. The computer system will be available this month at Office Depot stores for $299.99 with a 12-month commitment to AOL's top-speed dial-up service at $23.90 per month. The subscription charges bring the total cost to $586.79, which is still less than many low-end systems with monitors and printers.
AOL's offer is aimed at the 27% of U.S. households without computers and specifically at Hispanics, who lag the general population in home Internet access but are rapidly catching up. The new PC, which features a simplified user interface, makes it easy to toggle between English and Spanish, he said.
National Latino museum considered
Idea wins some approval in House committee talk
L.A. Daily News, Thursday, July 22, 2004
By Lisa Friedman
WASHINGTON -- A key House committee chairman on Thursday endorsed the idea of a national Latino museum in the nation's capital, the first step on a long road to establishing a major new cultural center focused on Hispanic Americans. "It's a tremendous idea, and it's good for the country," said House Administration Chairman Bob Ney, R-Ohio.
The National Museum of the American Latino concept also picked up cautious support from Smithsonian Institute Secretary Lawrence M. Small. He predicted building a new facility would cost hundreds of millions of dollars -- money the Smithsonian doesn't have -- but said he would welcome a commission studying the establishment of a Latino museum.
"We can get big projects done. The challenge is getting the money to do them," Small said. "We're very serious about our commitment to seeing that the Smithsonian represents the cultural mosaic that has made the United States so vibrantly unique."
The hearing Thursday by the House Administration Committee was the first public examination of plans by Rep. Xavier Becerra, D-Los Angeles, to create a museum dedicated to honoring the nation's 38 million Hispanic Americans. Latinos are the largest ethnic group in Los Angeles County, comprising 45 percent of the county's population in 2000. "For many years, many Americans -- Latino and otherwise -- believed that the mosaic portrayed in Washington's museums was missing a few tiles," Becerra told the panel.
Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, R-Fla., who is co-sponsoring the legislation with Becerra, said a Latino museum would "recognize the past contributions of the Hispanic community and encourage new ones from our youth. "We may come from many different places, but we're united in the common cause of making this the best country in the world," Ros-Lehtinen said.
Becerra's legislation would authorize $3.2 million for the creation of a bipartisan 23-member commission charged with planning for the establishment, funding and maintenance of the new museum. The panel would examine the cost and possible locations of the new museum, as well as the availability of Latino artifacts. It would issue its report to Congress and the president 18 months after the bill becomes law.
Sen. Orrin Hatch, R-Utah, and Sen. Barbara Boxer, D-San Francisco, have introduced similar legislation in the Senate. Small said operating the museum after it is built will cost "tens of millions" of dollars annually. Lisa Friedman, (202) 662-8731 email@example.com
Extract: Sí TV aims to reach an underserved demographic: Latinos who prefer English programs. by Justino Aguila, The Orange County Register, July 18, 2004
"Life in the City: Urban Jungle," above, puts nine "suburban preppies" in East Los Angeles and watches what happens.
Jeff Valdez, a one-time standup comic who saw past the state and became a TV producer, came up with the idea of launching a channel for Latinos who didn't really identify with Mexican soap operas and other offerings on Univision or Telemundo. It was the beginning of a long, often, frustrating, journey that led to Sí TV.
Those behind Sí TV believe there's a two hold mission: to serve Latinos who speak English, but also so introduce the culture to those who may not be familiar with it. "We want them to see we're American like their friends and co-workers, but happen to be from a different cultural background," Perez said.
Extract: Visiones: Latino Art & Culture [PBS Previews]
Sent by George Gause firstname.lastname@example.org
A groundbreaking six-part television series airing on PBS Sundays, September 5-October 10, 2004.
VISIONES: LATINO ART AND CULTURE is the first PBS series to focus exclusively on Latino artistic expression in the United States. Through storytelling and vivid imagery, the series leads the viewer to understand the origins of Latino art and culture. It also depicts the struggles and victories of the artists as part of their artistic interpretation. Additionally, it examines the nation's diverse Latino communities and how they were able to keep their artistic expressions alive while creating new and unique visions that contribute to art in America. It is about awareness, about acknowledging the pivotal role Latino artistic expression has played and continues to play in shaping the U.S. cultural landscape," comments series executive producer and director Hector Galan. Hector Galan has produced documentaries for PBS for more than 20 years, including the award- winning four-hour public television series CHICANO! HISTORY OF THE MEXICAN-AMERICAN CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT (1996).
The six episodes cover topics and artists such as the Latino Mural Movement of the 1960s, Nuyorican spoken word, Miriam Colon and the Puerto Rican Traveling Theater Company (PRTT) of New York, the Santero art tradition of New Mexico, Luis Valdez and the legendary Teatro Campesino, performance
artists, Latino hip hop dance and culture, the variety of music styles in Miami, Latino poetry, dancer Rudy Perez, the first Mexican-American Prima Ballerina Evelyn Cisneros and much, much more.
Check out Visiones on the PBS Fall 2004 Preview Website http://www.pbs.org/previews/visiones/
Careers in Government:
An article in the May issue of Hispanic magazine indicates a governmental outreach to Hispanics.
The government is expecting that 1/3 of all their employees will be retiring by 2008.
Careers in Government: www.careersingovernment.com
Federal Jobs Net: http://federaljobs.net
Student Jobs: www.StudentJobs.gov
Office of personnel Management: www.opm.gov
U.S. Secret Service: www.secretservice.gov
U.S. Army (Spanish) www.goarmy.com/spanish/spanish.htm
U.S. Navy (Spanish): www.elnavy.com
U.S. State Department Careers: www.careers.state.gov
Society for Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science
Sent by Dr. Refugio Rochin, Excecutive Director of SACNAS
Former and first director of the Smithsonian Center for Latino Initiatives
The mission of SACNAS (Society for Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science) is to encourage Chicano/Latino and Native American students to pursue graduate education and obtain the advanced degrees necessary for science research, leadership, and teaching careers at all levels.
For 30 years, SACNAS has provided strong national leadership in improving and expanding opportunities for minorities in the scientific workforce and academia; mentoring college students within science, mathematics and engineering; as well as, supporting quality pre-college science education. SACNAS’ annual National Conference and K-12 Teacher Workshops, summer research opportunities, E-mentoring Program, and online internship/job placement resources are tools that help a diverse community of undergraduate and graduate students, professors, administrators, and K-12 educators achieve expertise within their disciplines.
[[ Editor's note: Below are the names included in the Biography Project. Each includes a photo and mini-bio. They are excellent for the classroom and actually for all of us. It gives me great pride to see our primos who have excelled. The first one I linked too was Cecilio Barrera. I knew he would be a Tejano, one of my distant unknown cousins. . and he was. You'll also see the name of JV Martinez who has been very supportive of SHHAR and Somos Primos. ]]
|Dr. Renato Aguilera,
Dr. John F. Alderete, Microbiologist
Dr. Vernon Avila, Biologist
Dr. Cecilio Barrera, Microbiologist
Dr. Manuel Berriozábal, Mathematician
Dr. David R. Burgess, Biologist
Dr. Carlos Castillo-Chavez, Mathematical Biologist
Dr. George Castro, Engineer & Associate Dean
Dr. Carlos Catalano, Pharmacist/Biochemist
Dr. Inés Cifuentes, Seismologist
Dr. John Cortinas, Meteorologist
Dr. Eugene Cota-Robles, Microbiologist
Dr. Ermelinda DeLaViña, Mathematician
Dr. Wilfred Foster Denectlaw, Zoologist
Dr. Joan Esnayra, Geneticist
Dr. J.D. Garcia, Physicist
Dr. Frank A. Gomez, Chemist
Dr. Leo Gómez, Radiation Biologist
Dr. Elma González, Cell Biologist
Dr. Frank González, Oceanographer
Dr. Carlos Gutierrez, Physicist
Dr. Scottie Henderson, Invertebrate Biologist
Dr. Jani Ingram, Chemist
Dr. Nancy Jackson, Chemist
Dr. Robin Kimmerer, Plant Ecologist
Dr. Marigold Linton, Cognitive Psychologist
Dr. Vicente LLamas, Physicist
Dr. Ramon E. Lopez, Physicist
Dr. Emir Jose Macari, Civil Engineer
|Dr. Karen Magnus,
Dr. Theresa Maldonado, Electrical Engineer
Dr. Ernest D. Márquez, Microbiologist
Dr. Leticia Márquez-Magaña, Molecular Biologist
Dr. Cleopatria Martinez, Mathematician
Dr. J.V. Martinez, Physicist
Dr. Lee Anne Martinez, Ecologist
Dr. Robert Megginson, Mathematician
Dr. Luz Miranda-Martinez, Physicist
Dr. Miguel Mora, Wildlife Toxicologist
Dr. Donna Nelson, Chemist
Dr. Elvia Niebla, Soil Scientist
Dr. Alfonso Ortega, Mechanical Engineer
Dr. Sonia Ortega, Prog Dir & Marine Biologist
Dr. Clifton Poodry, Biologist
Dr. Eppie David Rael, Molecular Biologist
Dr. Eloy Rodriguez, Natural Products Chemist
Dr. Michael Rodriguez, Medicinal Chemist
Dr. Javier Rojo, Statistician
Dr. Joaquin Ruiz, Geochemist
Dr. Frank Talamantes, Endocrinologist
Dr. Richard A. Tapia, Mathematician
Dr. William Vélez, Mathematician
Dr. Eugene Vigil, Plant Biologist
Dr. Lydia Villa-Komaroff, Biologist
Dr. Luis P. Villarreal, Virologist
Dr. Jerry Yakel, Neuroscientist
Dr. Maria Elena Zavala, Plant Biologist
Dr. Martha Zuniga, Biologist
|Hispanic Alliance for Career Enhancement
If you are looking for direct contact with company management and recruiters, you will not want to miss HACE's unique recruitment and networking events.
HACE is a 22 year-old non-profit organization "dedicated to incubating and nurturing Latinos through every stage of the career continuum from high school through college, and on to the professional years." Overall, our mission is to increase the number of successful Hispanic professionals.
We invite you to learn more about HACE by visiting our web page (www.hace-usa.org) and by reading what the Wall Street Journal, Money Magazine, HR Magazine and other national media is saying about us (www.hace-usa.org/news.htm). Events are held all over the country. Go to the calendar.
Managing Director, National Accounts
Hispanic Alliance for Career Enhancement (HACE)
25 E Washington Street, Suite 1500
Chicago, Illinois 60602
312.435.0498 x 14
Apellido castellano con ilustres y antiguas casas solares en la provincia de Toledo y Madrid, afincado en Andalucía desde los primeros tiempos de la Reconquista y que se halló presente en América en los primeros de la gesta del descubrimiento.
Por el ingreso en la Orden Militar de Santiago de don Diego Arnalte y Marañón Vacas, Cadenas y Bautista, natural de Toledo, en 1661, y de don Diego Felipe Remírez Mejía, Bautista de Heredia y Fernández de la Cuadra, de Esquivias, Toledo, en 1670, se acreditó la nobleza de sangre de este apellido, en las fechas expresadas.
En los Colegios que se indica, pertenecientes a la Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, probaron su "limpieza de sangre" para ser admitidos como colegiales:
Don Juan Bautista, natural de Toledo, Colegio de San Antonio, 1572; don Juan Bautista, natural de Ronda, Málaga, en 1572, Colegio de San Antonio; don Félix Bautista y López, Igaral y Moral, natural de Ugena,Toledo, Teología, 1771, y don Luis Bautista Bavia y López, Mercader y Téllez, natural de Madrid y procedente de Toledo, Colegio de San Felipe, 1582.
Sus armas son: EN ORO, UN LEON RAMPANTE DE GULES; CORTADO TAMBIEN DE ORO, CON CINCO BANDAS DE AZUR.
Otros, ponen en oro una banda de gules,resaltada de un carnero de plata.
Don Francisco y don Juan Bautista Veintín, obtuvieron la devolución del impuesto denominado "Blanca de la Carne" en la ciudad de Sevilla, en 1615 y 1588, respectivamente, lo que llevaba implícito el reconocimiento de su nobleza de sangre. En esta misma ciudad, ingresó en el Colegio de Santa María, después de acreditar su "limpieza de sangre", don Nicolás Bautista Rodríguez, en 1818.
Ante las autoridades militares españolas, justificaron su calidad con el objeto de contraer matrimonio, doña Isabel Bautista y González, natural de Puebla de Alfarnate,Málaga, que pretendía desposarse en 1830 con don Agustín Muñoz del Rosal, y doña Eugenia Antonia Bautista de Tebar, natural de Puebla Nueva, que deseaba casarse en 1842 con el Teniente de Infantería don Miguel Pociello y Mañas.
Entre los conquistadores de México, figuran:
Don Juan Bautista, natural de Palamós, Gerona, que llega a la Nueva España en 1525, participando en la toma de Zapotecas, de donde fue Corregidor posteriormente, poseedor de la Encomienda de Ocotepeque en los Mixes; don Marcos Bautista, natural de Sevilla, que pasa en 1538; don Juan Bautista, que llega con Grijalva, concurriendo en la toma de Colima, Michoacán, Jalisco y otros lugares, natural de Génova, que en 1550 aparece como Alcalde Mayor de la provincia de Oaxaca, y don Juan Bautista, de, de la misma naturaleza, que arriba con Juan de Burgos, conquistador de Colima y Pánuco, mencionado en 1547 como vecino de México, casado y con hijos.
Don Juan Gabriel Bautista, obtuvo el nombramiento de
Escribano de la Real Hacienda de la provincia de Yucatán, en 10 de
julio de 1797
from BLASONES Y APELLIDOS, 828-page book by Fernando Muñoz
In its second edition, the book can be ordered from email@example.com or at
P.O. Box 11232, El Paso, Texas 79995 or by contacting Armando Montes AMontes@Mail.com
|Passing on Past at Presidio||California's Donations to Spain's 1779-1783 War with England|
Donning period garb for the afternoon were, from left, docents Michael Hardwick and 11-year-old Torrey Rasmussen. They showed visitors Seneca Solis, 14, and Phoenix Solis, 10, an antique rifle, which Mr. Hardwick later fired.
Passing on past at Presidio
Santa Barbara News Press, July 26, 2004
Families that wandered along to El Presidio de Santa Barbara on Sunday stepped back in time.
Docents with the Santa Barbara Trust for Historic Preservation taught visitors at the free family day how to make tortillas and mix adobe mud with their feet.
Chapter X of the book
The author hopes that all those in the DAR who are working on the donative will reconsider service in the Spanish Army or Navy and conclude it was even more patriotic than donations, and just as patriotic as serving in the Spanish Army and Navy with Gálvez in Louisiana and West Florida (where their descendants have been accepted into the DAR since 1925.)"
|Mission San Juan Capistrano
Jesus Aguilar, Bell Ringer 1934
Federación de Michoacanos
Porfirio Soto Morones
Carlos López Dzur
Educator: Dr. Vicki Ruiz
Dia de la Familia, Sunday, Sept 12
O.C. Archives Seminar, Sept 25
Los Angeles Times Archives
Photo by Michael Goulding
Don Jesus AGUILAR
SAN JUAN CAPISTRANO, Nov. 30. - Don Jesus Aguilar, faithful bell toller and one of the two chanters at the San Juan Capistrano Mission since the late '60s, died this morning in the home of his birth, the Hacienda Aguilar, the oldest adobe house in the Mission City.
He was 81 years of age and was one of the oldest residents of the countryside. His father, Don Blas Aguilar, served as alcalde of San Juan Capistrano in 1847 and his grandfather, Don Rosario Aguilar, an early settler, was the alcalde in 1843.
After a "velorio" at the Hacienda Aguilar tonight, requiem mass will be conducted at 9 a.m. tomorrow by Father Arthur J. Hutchinson, padre of the mission, in Father Junipero Serra's church, of which he was an early member. Friends of Don Jesus Aguilar will carry the casket up the long hill to the old mission cemetery, where the body will be laid to rest.
He leaves his widow, Dona Balbineda Ruiz de Aguilar, who was born in the barracks of the mission in 1854. His sister, Dora Lorenza Manriguez, also born in the Hacienda Aguilar, is the oldest living resident in the vicinity. There are five children living here. They are Don Jua. . Aguilar, guide at the mission, who retains a private museum of heirlooms and antiques at the old home; Don Francisco and Don Blas Aguilar and Mrs. Florencia Ruiz and Mrs. Francisca Sepulveda.
Gerardo Briceno, left, Alfonso Alvarez and Alex Cortez
want to document forced repatriations of the Depression era.
Three Chapman University graduates, Alex D. Cortez, Alfonso Alvarez and Gerardo Briceño are interviewing survivors of the Mexican Repatriation of the 1930s. All three are sons of Mexican immigrants. For a year and a half, Cortez, Alvarez, and Briceño have traversed the country, from California to Michigan, and headed south to Mexico to recorded these stories.
"In a sense, part of our mission is to correct history because an injustice in the history is in essence an injustice to us as a community," says Alvarez, 36, a Santa Ana native. They are motivated by a sense of urgency because many survivors are in their 70s and 80s.
In one decade, thousands of families lost property, businesses and bank accounts. Children and the elderly died of dehydration on the train rides to the Mexican border. Once in Mexico, many died of malaria and dysentery. Others died as they tried to make their way back to the United States.
The survivors interviewed say they don't
want monetary compensations. All they want is an apology. Link to
an article on Michigan
de Michoacanos en el Condado de Orange y Santa
Durante la semana, que se desarrollará del 9 al 12 de septiembre, se llevarán a cabo eventos que promueven la riqueza cultural, artística y turística de Michoacan y permiten la convivencia de los Michoacanos de este lado de la frontera.
Roberto Laurean, presidente de la Federación de Michoacanos en el Condado de Orange y Santa Ana afirmó que en el Condado de Orange resident 250 mil michoacanos y que la Federacion de Michoacanos en el Condado de Orange y Santa Anga agrupa a 22 clubes.
Para mayores informes sobre la Semana Cultural Michoacana, llamar 714-920-5004
Excelsior del Condado de Orange, por Patricia Prieto, 714-796-4302 firstname.lastname@example.org
Migration of Porfirio Soto Morones
My mother Julia Thompson Arechabala was born in Mexico D.F. on January 30, 1901. She had a twin brother Roberto. Her father was an Army officer in Mexico after having attended Military Academy. He was killed in action April 27,1913. November of the same year my grandmother Theresa Carrillo died leaving my mother and Roberrto orphans. When I wrote to National Archives in Mexico, i was informed that the academy had closed doors during the revolution. My mother was orphaned at the age of 12 years. Her grandmother Julia Thompson took Roberto away. My mother thinks that they probably returned to Spain and My mother never saw her twin brother again. She tried working taking in ironing but she coud not do it. Some one told her that a woman was coming to Los Angeles and needed a nanny for her daughter and was expecting a baby which she was going to deliver in USA They came through Sonora and Arizona. I have the immigration papers.
Once in Los Angeles the lady mistreated my mother and my mother went to the authorities. The authorities saw what was happening and deported the lady back to Mexico. My mother was placed in a home with a school principal, so my mother started school in USA at age 14. She met and married my father Porfirio Soto Morones. They lived in Los Angeles for a few years then they moved to Garden Grove and that is where we were all born and raised.
My father was born in Durango, Mexico. All his family worked for Southern Pacific Railway in Mexico. One by one they migrated to USA. They traveled through many states working for Southern Pacific and eventually they came to Los Angeles and stayed here. My Morones grandmother was French her name was Ruperta Soto. My Morones grandfather was pure Azteca Indian.
My parents were naturalized American citizens
Here they are: My father was born in Durango, Mexico
My grandfather's name was Antonio de la Cerda Morones
My mother entered through Nogales, Sonora on December 2,1915 by Southern Pacific train.
Her last residence was in Hermosillo, Sonora
Her mother's name was Florentina Carrillo (not Teresa)
Also I do not have pictures of the Arechabala.s because the woman my mother came with burned everything my mother brought with her. She did this when mother went to the authorities, actually the woman beat my mom up. My mother was 5' 1".
Also My mother had two sisters Sarah 5 yrs Aurora 3 yrs. She was suppose to take care of them which was impossible and she put them up for adoption. Two separate families but the men were brothers. When my brothers were old enough to drive they took her to search for her sisters, but until 1962 some one in Hermosillo remembered the families that adopted the two little girls and my mother took it from there. Sarah lived in Phoenix, Ariz and Aurora in San Leandro, California. We had a family reunion at Prentis Park in 1962 with both families and three sisters
Carlos López Dzur es un narrador, poeta y filósofo, nacido el 1 de septiembre de 1955 y residente en Orange County, California, desde hace más de 20 años. Caribeño, con visión hostosiana y bolivariana, es candidato doctoral en la Universidad de California, Irvine. Cursó sus estudios de B.A. en Literatura Comparada e Historia Latinoamericana en la Universidad de Puerto Rico; obtuvo dos M. A. 'Summa Cum Laude' en Montana State y San Diego State University. También hizo estudios graduados en Filosofía Contemporánea, siendo discípulo de los filósofos Dr. Alfred Stern y la Dra. Martha Nussbaum.
Su libro, El Hombre Extendido, fue laureado en el Certamen Literario Chicano de la Universidad de California, Irvine, en 1986. Anteriormente, fue premiado su libro de ensayos y poemas Cuaderno de Amor a Haití por el Liceo Iberoamericano de Cultura de Los Angeles; posteriormente, López Dzur ganó varios premios en las categorías de ensayo investigativo sobre temas cubanos y de poesía por textos de su libro inédito, Tantralia, reconocido por la Casa de la Cultura de Long Beach en 1996 y 1998. Fundó y dirigió en San Diego la revista multicultural «Sequoyah», junto a los profesores César A. González, Dr. Juan Manuel Bernal Becerra y la Dra. Ivon Gordon-Vailakis.
Su primer libro fue Sarna de la ira parda (Editorial QeAser, 1980), cuentos; al que siguieron La casa (1988), poemas y dos ediciones de El Hombre Extendido. Publicó las novelas Simposio de Tlacuilos (Editorial Nuevo Espacio, New Jersey, 2000) y Las máscaras del tabú (Great Unpublished, South Carolina, 2001). Sus libros más importantes están inéditos en papel, pero se han compartido extensamente en su website y en innumerables revistas electrónicas, incluyendo Desde El Límite, Tertulia de Mizar (Puerto Rico), El Perro Andaluz, Adamar (España), Bar de las Virtudes, Argos (México), Poetas 2000, Letralia, Mondo de Kronhela (Argentina) y otras. Entre ellos, están Libro de Anarquistas, Tantralia, Heideggerianas, Libro de la guerra, Cuentos y leyendas histórico-eróticas, El ladrón bajo el abrigo, Manual de filosofía para incrédulos y las novelas Rocío la Tartamuda, Para matar a los dioses, Diario de Simón Güeldres y otros.
Sobre su obra ha dicho el crítico y poeta Joserramón Meléndes: «Lo qe aya qe decir de Carlos A. López se dirá de su prosa. Sus cuentos retoman la altura de la mejor tradisión puertorriqueña qu conocimos asta Luis Rafael Sánchez». El antropólogo mexicano Luis F. Cariño Preciado, al reseñar su poemario La Casa (California), anotó: «Cuando uno viaja por las letra de López Dzur quisiera oirlas pronunciadas por él y de inmediato comentarlas. El manejo que hace del lenguaje es tan nuevo... nos tiene acostumbrados a un nuevo manejo del idioma, a una novedosa forma del lenguaje, gracias a la cual nos transporta a originales interpretaciones del todo y sus partes. Leer sus textos es someterse a una ráfaga de ideas y pasajes mentales contrarios a sí mismos y entre sí, pero consecuentes en la esencia». El 4 de abril del 2000, el laureado poeta puertorriqueño Vicente Rodríguez Nietszche comentó sobre la poesía de López Dzur: «Tus poemas están escritos con verdad y sustancia vitales que podemos llamar poesías».
Carlos Lopez Dzur email@example.com
Fragmentos #17 al 21 de Los Parásitos / Carlos López Dzur
«Anduvieron de acá para allá cubiertos de pieles de ovejas y de cabras, pobres,
angustiados, maltratados, de los cuales el mundo no era digno; errando por los desiertos, por los montes, por las cuevas y por las cavernas de la Tierra»: Hebreos: 11-37-38
Ustedes son peores.
Tienen el corazón vacío.
Vestidos están de crímenes
hasta la médula, pero se reúnen
a invocar los nombres que ellos conocieron,
sin la culpa que a ustedes acusa,
desde las lágrimas
de puercos, brutos gadarenos
tan hambrientos, pobres, maltratados,
cubiertos de pieles de ovejas y cabras,
fugitivos de acá para allá,
y de los que no fueron dignos.
¿Para qué hablan entonces?
¿Para qué su Estado y su Sacerdocio?
¿Para qué su democracia y su humanismo cívico?
Al que todo lo sufre, lo entrega, lo vive, lo declara,
exilaron y burlaron y huyeron del honesto testimonio
que se dolió hasta la sangre, con sus vidas.
Jamás danzarán sus pies con furia de galaxia.
Ni brotarán canciones de sus labios.
Ni se llagarán en estigmas de amor, misterio y llama.
Ni con ellos, amándoles,
ustedes podrán recibir lo prometido.
Los predicadores de la razón oscura,
aquellos pavlovianos y sicologistas,
levadura de leviratos,
¿qué saben de Tu Pan?
Por eso, por tan ciegos,
no te descubren en cada aminoácido.
Ni te aplauden en cada ameba.
Ni te celebran en cada carbono del genoma.
Y, tú, Pan de Dolores, ¡cómo los compadeces!
A quienes más odias, los pervives
para que coman de tí
pan de tu gloria,
belleza de tus manos,
sexo de tus deseos.
Del libro inédito: Manual de filosofía para incrédulos de CARLOS LOPEZ DZUR
Outstanding Individual in the Community
Dr. Vicki Ruiz,
Professor, history and Chicano/Latino studies Historical perspective
Source: Karen Morris
Professor, history and Chicano/Latino studies Historical perspective Vicki Ruiz integrates storytelling, conventional research to shed new light on American history For Vicki Ruiz, history begins with storytelling – stories learned from her mother and grandmother around the kitchen table, stories gleaned from books in her neighborhood bookmobile, stories gathered personally from
eyewitnesses to 20th-century American history.
Ruiz writes these stories, recounting, for example, the lives of the Mexican cannery women in Southern California. And she tells these stories, enthusiastically launching into a series of oral narratives. There’s the tale of the pioneering California woman whose Spanish land grant – Rancho
Rodeo de las Aguas – was transformed by enterprising developers into Beverly Hills. There’s the saga of Los Tomboys, 1947 Orange County Latina “league-of-their-own” softball champs. And there’s the account of Gonzalo Mendez, a Westminster, Calif. parent, whose legal challenge led to the desegregation of the state’s public schools eight years before the U.S. Supreme Court’s Brown v. Topeka Board of Education.
Professor of history and Chicano/Latino studies and director of UCI’s Humanities Out There (HOT) outreach program, Ruiz integrates oral history and conventional archival sources to personalize her work, connect past and contemporary issues and, above all, make history accessible. Her efforts
have earned her a presidential nomination to the National Council on the Humanities and Latina magazine’s “Woman of the Year” award in 2000. She currently serves as president of the prestigious Berkshire Conference of Women Historians. At the forefront of a new generation of historians who
view history in broad cultural and social contexts, she sees, in the words of artist and poet William Blake, “a world in a grain of sand.”
“Vicki Ruiz essentially created her field – the study of Mexican-American women in the U.S. Southwest and on the Pacific Coast – and won acceptance for it among American scholars,” says Kenneth Pomeranz, chair of UCI’s history department. “More broadly, she stands as a major contributor to labor history, women’s history, immigration history and the history of the American West. Her work has been pathbreaking in the new topics it raised for study and in the new light it cast upon the larger fields of U.S. and Mexican history.”
Ruiz’s doctoral dissertation and first book. Cannery Women, Cannery Lives: Mexican Women, Unionization and the California Food Processing Industry, 1930-1950, launched her career. Since then, her impressive professional experiences have included serving as director of the Institute of Oral
History at the University of Texas, El Paso, professor of history at UC Davis and chair of Chicano studies at Arizona State University. She also held an endowed chair and chaired the history department at Claremont Graduate University.
Dia de la Familia, Sunday, September 12
Sigler Park, 7200 Plaza St. 1:00 to 5:00 p.m.
Folkloric Dancers, Band, Food, Entertainment, Music
City of Westminster, Community Services & Recreation Department
8200 Westminster Blvd., 714-895-2860
Archives Seminar: Researching O.C.'s Past, September 25th
Saturday, September 25, 2004, 9:00 a.m. - 12:00 p.m. Workshops
Old Courthouse, 211 West Santa Ana Blvd.
Learn how to use the Archives materials: County and Historical Building Records. Information on County-owned historical sites. Seminar sponsored by the Orange County Historical Commission
No cost, limited seating- pre-registration required, by September 10th, 2004
OCHC 211 West Santa Ana Blvd. Santa Ana, CA92701
Phone: 714-973-6609 fax: 714-834-2280 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Eugene A. Obregon Congressional Medal of Honor Monument
|Annual Walk to Los
Festival de Libro Latino y La Familia
Fin de Semana y Otros Cuentos
MALDEF Graduates 100 Parents
L.A. History Project
Save the date: Oct 9th
Monterey Park Conference
|Korean War Medal of Honor Recipient
Pfc. Eugene Arnold Obregon
Private first class Eugene Obregon was 19, a small, quick kid from East L.A. Pfc. Bert Johnson, also 19, was a tall, rangy boy from Grand Prairie, Texas. Texans and Chicanos aren't supposed to get along, but "Obie" Obregon and "Bobo" Johnson had made it together from boot camp to the same machinegun squad in Korea. They were like brothers, as other Marines would later recall.
That afternoon of September 26, 1950, as the leading elements of the First Marine Division fought their way down a wide, war-torn boulevard toward Changkok Palace, in the South Korean capital of Seoul, these two young Leathernecks were about to lend a new meaning to their Corps' motto: Semper Fidelis -- Always Faithful.
``Suddenly the silence was shattered by fire from a camouflaged North Korean machinegun,'' Fred Davidson. a fellow Marine, later wrote. ``Bert went down.''
Young Johnson had taken hits in his side, both legs and the right elbow. His skull was fractured by a fifth bullet hitting his helmet.
Seeing his buddy fall, Obregon shouted. ``Stay put, Bobo. I'm coming for you!'' Johnson yelled back: ``Don't try it, Obie! Keep your cover!'' But Obregon was already on his way.
Armed only with a pistol, firing as he ran, Obregon reached Johnson and dragged him to a curb, where he began bandaging his wounds. And at that moment a platoon-sized force of North Koreans attacked.
Quickly seizing Johnson's carbine, Obregon placed himself as a shield in front of his buddy and continued firing until the enemy fell back, leaving 22 dead behind.
This time, the determined North Koreans brought up a machinegun to support their attack. But refusing to give way, Obregon continued firing, protecting his friend, until two machinegun bullets struck him in the face.
Obie's death had not been in vain. With time to reorganize, the Marines attacked, killing the remaining North Koreans. Despite his wounds, Bert Johnson survived, rotated home, and lived for 44 more years. ``And never did a day go by,'' recalled Johnson's friends, ``when Bobo didn't think of Gene Obregon, and the price he'd paid to give Bert back his life...''
In addition to the Medal of Honor, Private First Class Obregon was posthumously awarded the Purple Heart Medal, Presidential Unit Citation, and Korean Service Medal with three Bronze Stars.
Annual Walk to Los Angeles, 1781-2004
City of Los Angeles 223rd Birthday and
Walk starts: 6: a.m. at the San Gabriel Mission, 428 S. Mission Drive, San Gabriel, Ca
Post Walk Celebration: 10 am to 2 pm, El Pueblo Historical Monument (Kiosko)
125 Paseo de la Plaza, Los Angeles, Ca
Sponsored by: City of Los Angeles, El Pueblo Historical Monument,
Council District 14, City of San Gabriel, Los Pobladores 200, Department
of Water and Poer and Los Angeles County 5th District Supervisor,
Michael D. Antonvich. Information, 213-485-8225 http://www.cityofla.org/ELP
Calif., August 25, 2004 - The Latino Book & Family Festival, the
largest Latino consumer expo in the United States, continues its eighth
year of promoting literacy, culture, and education via popular
educational Festivals for the Latino family with the 8th Annual Los
Angeles Festival to be held at California State University, Los Angeles,
5151 State University Dr. Los Angeles, September 11-12.
Larios Vendrell, author of Fin
de Semana y Otros Cuentos shares the information that one of
the short stores from this collection is being published in English. Fin
De Semana was published in Majorca, Spain in 2002. It can be pruchased
from Rio Hondo Collee Bookstore, 562-699-8676
(LOS ANGELES, CALIF.) Over 200 community members and family celebrated the accomplishment of over 100 parent leaders who presented school improvement projects at a National Parent School Partnership program graduation ceremony at MALDEF's downtown Los Angeles headquarters on Saturday, July 24.
As a prerequisite for graduation, parents must take on a civic project to improve their schools and neighborhood. In Pasadena, parents held a forum to shed light on the issue of gentrification and its effect on the Pasadena school district. The group is also forming a districtwide parent leadership network with the goal of having at least one Latino parent in a school committee in every Pasadena public school.
In the Boyle Heights area of Los Angeles, a parent center was established. Parents in Koreatown are advocating for a canopy for the outdoor eating area to protect children from the elements. In the Lincoln Height area, MALDEF parents are creating social events to engage parents to attend meetings and increase their participation in the local PTA. And in South Los Angeles, parents are working with a local elementary school principal to develop a pocket-sized guide of school programs and contact persons for parents to know where to get help if their children need it.
MALDEF's National Parent School Partnership Program operates throughout the nation and is supported by foundations, corporations and individuals. To find out how you can support the leadership training of parents and community advocates, please contact Javier Angulo, Associate Director of Development, at (213) 629-2512 or via email at email@example.com.
L.A. History Project
Hi, my name is Stacey Ramsower and I am the Festival Coordinator for this year's L.A. History Project, sponsored by EdgeFest. LAHP is a two day, free event that showcases new works by local theatre artists that focus on the diverse history of Los Angeles. One of the pieces in this year's festival that I thought you might be interested in is a play by Wayne Peter Liebman entitled "Sun Maiden". It is the story of the San Gabriel mission and the Gabrielino uprising led by an Indian woman. The festival will take place October 9 and 10 and, again, it is free and open to the public. There will also be time for talk-backs after each performance. I hope this is something you and your readers/members will find interesting. I have attached the press release with further information.
Please contact me if you need:
Stacey Ramsower firstname.lastname@example.org
"Buscando Nuestras Raices" Conference
Saturday October 9th, 8 am to 5 pm
No cost for attending the conference
City of Santa Clara, History, Part 1
BATTLE OF SANTA CLARA
CA Spanish Genealogy Obituaries
| El Monte Cemetery,
Real Founder of San Diego
Real Estate Transfers
To Have But Not To Hold
Click to Southwest for more on
De Anza's Cartas
Mass had been celebrated in the Santa Monica beach area somewhat regularly since 1877, two years after the town was developed by Senator John P. Jones. However, the first recorded Mass to be celebrated in what is now Santa Monica was offered on May 4, 1770, by Padre Junipero Serra. The first presidente of California's Franciscan missions camped there on the feast of Saint Monica on his way to Monterey. According to legend, Spanish soldiers with Serra's party discovered two springs on the site which they likened to "the tears of Saint Monica," mother of the once wayward Saint Augustine. (The fourth century saint lived to see her son's conversion.) Serra apparently named the region in honor of her feast day.
For a history of St. Monica Catholic Church, go to http://www.stmonica.net/history/historyb.htm
Sent by Johanna De Soto who felt this was important information all families of La Ballona.
City of Santa Clara, City History, Part 1
Sent by Johanna De Soto
1846-1848: Prelude To Statehood
During the summer of 1846, the diverse elements working for change in California began to coalesce. In March, Colonel John C. Frémont and his men had arrived in the Santa Clara Valley after roaming throughout the middle of California. After clashing with General Castro near San Juan Bautista, Frémont moved north where he joined forces with Americans led by William Ide. On June 1st the rebels took General Vallejo and others prisoner in Sonoma. They designed a flag with a grizzly bear and a red star, raised it and declared a California Republic. One month later word was received of a declaration of war between Mexico and the United States. Upon the capture of Monterey by Commander Sloat on July 7th, the Bear Flag Rebellion ended as the "Bear Flaggers" joined with the American Military, becoming the California Battalion. Descriptions of California appearing in eastern newspapers had encouraged Americans to come and settle, and during 1846 immigrants had been arriving overland in greater numbers. The "Great Migration" of 1846 consisted of entire families, a completely different type of American immigrant than had arrived before. Stopping at Sutter's Fort upon completion of their journey, these newly arrived American immigrants were informed by Frémont and the Californian that they could shelter during the rainy season at a number of mostly unoccupied missions. Among those named was Santa Clara.
At Mission Santa Clara the immigrants would find a place ill-prepared to receive them. The years of being impacted by politics, stealing, and neglect since secularization, had impoverished what was once reputed to be the wealthiest mission in California. When visiting in 1848, Edwin Bryant described the picture of neglect he saw stating, "The rich lands surrounding the mission are entirely neglected... The picture of decay and ruin presented by a country so fertile and scenery so enchanting is a most melancholy spectacle to the passing traveler."
From mid-October through November 1846, an estimated 175 adults and children, including William Campbell and his family, arrived at Mission Santa Clara. Although upon their arrival they found a site in disrepair, due to the advent of the War the new arrivals decided to stay on at the compound. The immigrants sought shelter, living under what they would later describe as "deplorable conditions, sharing a large warehouse building with little light [the mission granary]. It was raining and the roof leaked. Food was in short supply." By the end of the year conflict arose. With few of the immigrants understanding Spanish or the customs and manners of the Californios, many offers of assistance were refused. Rumors transmitted as facts, prompted the organization of a militia at Santa Clara. One of the immigrants, Joseph Aram, established his headquarters at the mission with a force of thirty-one men assuming leadership when the mission militia elected officers. Ignoring the pleas of the Californios, Captain Aram and his men proceeded to cut down several of the willow trees (planted by Father Catalá) along the Alameda to use in barricading the mission. The lack of understanding between the two cultures culminated with the Battle of Santa Clara on January 2, 1847; the only campaign in the Northern District of California between the Californios and the United States forces during the Mexican-American war.
This "battle" which took place on the open plain about two miles from the mission, was a result of several rancheros rebelling against Americans taking their livestock and property. It was actually a 2 hour skirmish not a battle; no one was killed, and the only casualty was the American military forces' cannon, which continually bogged down in the knee-deep mud. A peaceful treaty was arranged on January 7, 1847. However, the American immigrants who viewed it from the tops of the mission buildings interpreted it as a tremendous defeat of the "enemy." Joseph Aram's militia company was disbanded on March 1st, and for the American immigrants, the winter spent at Mission Santa Clara was over. However, during 1847, problems would continue at Santa Clara due to a continuing influx of American immigrants; the non-Indian population of California almost doubled between 1845 and 1848. By Spring, immigrants were not only occupying the adobe buildings paying rent but many were simply "squatting" refusing to vacate the premises. In June Governor Mason ordered the unauthorized occupants to leave. However he proposed that the immigrants be allowed to stay until harvest time or longer if they paid rent, and Father Real, the last Franciscan priest of Mission Santa Clara, assented to that request.
William Campbell had enlisted as a private in "Captain" C. M. Weber's company of California riflemen, participating in the Battle of Santa Clara. In February he returned home to the Mission and among other enterprises took up the profession of surveyor. In October 1847, Father Real hired him to survey lots near the mission complex, on mission land, and draw up a town plat--this would become the Town of Santa Clara. It has been said at various times that this survey and its lots were later declared invalid, but the recordation of the first official survey in 1866 states differently: "this  map... correctly represents the blocks, streets, and squares of the said town as surveyed in the year 1847; and...the land embraced with in the said survey of 1847 has been occupied and used for town purposes ever since."
Hostilities between the United States and Mexico ceased in early 1848, and the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo on February 2nd, ceded Texas, New Mexico and California to the United States. No longer a Mexican Province, California was now an American possession, and Mission Santa Clara, an embryonic American town.
Places to See
1. Mission Santa Clara, church and compound; located at the end of Palm Drive, Santa Clara University.
2. Mission Corral Plaque (where both side's horses were corralled after the Battle of Santa Clara); located in front of the Mission Library.
(Intro) (I) (II) (III) (IV) (V) (VI) (VII) (VIII)
1500 Warburton Ave Santa Clara, CA 95050 tel:(408) 615-2200 fax:(408) 241-6771
OF SANTA CLARA
Current Project underway. Dr. Sally M. Miller, professor Emeritus at the University of Pacific is seeking material of California immigrants of any background, diaries, letters in translation and any other pertinent items. She is compiling the history of all immigrant groups in California - from Basques to Serbs and every other ethnic group. Send directly to Pupshse@aol.com or call 209-946-2318
California Spanish Genealogy Obituaries
Source: Michelle Nunez and Eva Booher
[[Editor's note: This is a wonderful growing resource for California families. You click on the letter of your interest and then scroll down to the surname of your interest. The website has stories such as the obituary below.]]
Collection of information obituaries published in the Los Angeles Times
Extracted by Karla Everett
For more information : http://www.sfgenealogy.com/spanish/
El Monte Cemetery, Los Angeles County
Forwarded by Alex King email@example.com
Source: Iris Jones Master List 8 , Master List 7
FYI - DO YOU HAVE ANCESTORS OR FAMILY HERE?
On Tue, 3 Aug 2004 20:55:46 -0700, "Sue Silver" wrote:
Greetings: Recent news has been noted regarding the El Monte Cemetery, also known as the Savannah Pioneer Cemetery and Savannah Memorial Park, in the City of Rosemead, Los Angeles County.
The El Monte Cemetery Association is apparently experiencing financial difficulty and is contemplating selling the cemetery to developers. If this were to occur, it has been stated that the 3,000 graves in the cemetery will have to be disinterred and relocated elsewhere.
If you have family ancestors or loved ones who were interred in this cemetery, you are encouraged to contact the El Monte Cemetery Association. I have posted a page covering what I've learned about the present situation and other information I have found about the cemetery at the following link: http://www.usgennet.org/usa/ca/state/El_Monte_Cemetery_Rpt.htm
If you have any questions about the information on the web page, please contact me off list.
Thank you, Sue Silver, State Coordinator, California Saving Graves
California Researcher writes:
Thanks for this message and the great link to more information.
I am not sure if I have anyone in this cemetery or not, but I swear over the years I've been under the impression that we have relatives (Machado??) buried in THE Rosemead Cemetery. If anyone comes up with a list of the people, please share the information. I tried the search they offered, but couldn't bring up anyone as I did not have first names, etc.
This is so sad, but it is NOT the first time I've heard about them doing such a thing. For instance about 20 years ago they "removed" the people in the Reno cemetery in order to build more housing for the University. In San Francisco, a development replaced one 20-30 years ago--a dear friend spent day after day watching the excavations and told us some really weird tales of things he saw because they opened each and every coffin. Many great causes that I must get letters written for and about.
Thanks again. Hope all is well with everyone.
Best wishes from the Sierra, Cindy LoBuglio firstname.lastname@example.org
This is a conversation between Michael W. Gates and Dennis Sharp.
July 10th, 2001. Interview between Michael Gates and Dennis Sharp. Sharp is the assistant archivist with the San Diego Historical Society at Balboa Park. Michael Gates is with the SDSU Foundation, a division of S.E.R.G., researching an article, the working title of which is "Will the real founder of San Diego please stand up?"
REAL ESTATE TRANSFERS
Los Angeles Times, extracted by Karla Everett EverettKA@bak.rr.com
- Dec 13, 1881
Petra Abila de Serrano to Miguel Yorba, Godofredo Yorba, Francisco J. Yorba and Francisco Yorba, heirs of Isabel Serrano de Yorba, lot 8, Ro. Canada de los Alisos, $100.
Refugio Cota de Martinez to O. W. Childs, interest in tract W side San Pedro street, $25.
Wm. H. Workman and Marie E., his wife, to Sarah Jane Rulo, lots 1, 3 and 5, blk 1, Boyle Heights, $1.
- July 16, 1882
Maria de la Cruz Ybarra to Arcadia B de Baker, all interest in Jose Maria Ybarra tract, fronting 222 feet e side Buena Vista street, city, $250.
- Jul 21, 1882
Francisco Jose Leonardo, Maria de la Cruz, Francisca, Manuela and Desiderio Ybarra and Timotea Ybarra de Olivera to Refugio Ybarra, all interest in Ybarra tract, fronting 222 feet on w side Buena Vista street, adjoining Mrs. Baker, $1.
Refugio Ybarra to Arcadia B de Baker, above property, $200.
- July 28, 1882
Thos McLain to Rafael Bassye, 10 ¼ acres and 20 acres in Rancho San Francisquito, $2400.
- Aug 10, 1882
Remi Nadeau to Henry T Gage, 28.40 acres at the Jaboueria, San Antonio Ro, and certain waters, less certain rights and road. $2500.
G W Morgan and A H Judson to Wm and Asa Hunter, 266.56 acres in Ro San Rafael, 1500.
Arcadia B de Baker to E J Baker, above lot, $1.
- Oct 12, 1882
Guardianship of Guadalupe Luisa, Maria Fredervinda, Domitilla, Marcos Antonio Aguberto and Francisco Antonio Martin Chavez, order confirming sale of their undivided 4-5 in Chavez tract, city, to Jose Julian Chavez for $5005.
D McDonald to Arcadia B de Baker, lot fronting 50 ft e side Buena Vista street, in above locality, $500.
Arcadia B de Baker to Duncan McDonald, lot of 50 ft front, Buena Vista street, in above locality, $500.
Luisa Machado de Chavez to Samuel Frick, lots 2, 3, 6 and 7, blk 8, and lots 2, 3, 4, and 6 blk 9, Chavez tract, city, less certain reservations, $1.
Dolores R de Dunne to Joseph Coujet and Roch Sarrail, lot on w side San Pedro street and one adjoining it fronting on e side of extension of Los Angeles street, $600 (or $6,000?)
James Irvine to C W Wilcox, northeasterly ½ of lot 33 of subdivision of part San Joaquin and Santiago de Santa Ana Ranchos, 40 acres, less roads, $2000.
S P R R Co and Lloyd Tevis and D O Mills, trustees, to Jose Maria Acuna, lot 2 of nw ¼ of sec 29, % 6 s, R 8 w, 28.19 acres, $70.48.
Albert L. Jeffrey to Geo Brum and Ed Beauchamp, five tracts, aggregating 80 ½ acres in Ro Azusa de Duarte, and water right, subject to easements, $136.
- Nov 11, 1882
Francisca Allen and Petra P Allen to Thomas B Hayes, lots 3, 7 and 11, blk 18, range 3, Wilmington, $300
A. H. Dunlap to M. F. Tyler, 28.2 acres in Ro Paso de Bartolo Viejo, $1.
A. H. Dunlap and M. F. Tyler to John J. Lane, 8 tracts, 28.2, 8.11 and 19.83 acres, in Ro Paso de Bartolo Viejo, $4,803.
Louise Naud to Los Angeles Electric Co., part of lot 1, blk 4, Sanchez tract, $750.
- Mar 14, 1883
Teofila Ortiz to Raquel E de Valle, lot e side Buena Vista st, gift.
- Jan 11, 1885
Mason C Oden to Anton Sylva, 20 acres in Ro San Pedro, $500.
M L Wicks to Wm E Darracott, E 10.52 acres of lot 38, Watt's subdivision of part of Ro San Rafael, $845.60.
Sacramento Lopez de Cummings and George Cummings to Joseph Hyans, lot in block K, in lot 9, block 60, Hancock's survey, $1.
- Jun 3, 1892
Petra Doyle to J G Wright, lots 2 and 3, block I, South Los Angeles (21-78,) $325.
B F Maxson to E W Maxson, lots 5 and 6, block B, Rancho San Francisquito (31-50,) $3,750.
Juan Francisco Bernal (Jr.), born at Villa de Sinaloa in 1763 and Maria Petronia (called "Petra" by Font) Gutiérrez (born also at Villa de Sinaloa) were married at Mission Dolores on May 17, 1782. Newlywed Juan Francisco Bernal, son and son-in-law of Anza "Soldier Recruits," himself became a soldier at the San Francisco Presidio. Juan Francisco and Maria Petronia (who appears to have been his second wife) had three sons and a daughter. One son, Apolinario, in the new family tradition a soldier, was killed in 1813 by Indians in the San Ramon Valley. Their youngest child, José Cornelio Cipriano Bernal, born September 7, 1796, was also to become a soldier and married, at Mission Santa Clara, Maria Carmen Sibrian (also sometimes spelled Cibrian, born April 15, 1804 at Santa Clara) in June of 1819. This family too, because of his career, made their home at the Presidio of San Francisco.
It must have been obvious to all Californios, and especially those of ambition like José Cornelio Bernal, that the key to success in Alta California lay in the acquisition of land. The Nation of Mexico, established in 1822, was by 1830 deeply in debt. As the crisis widened the frontier provinces, including Texas, New Mexico and California, experienced increasing governmental neglect and virtual fiscal abandonment. This condition presented an opportunity for "ordinary" families to climb another rung on the social ladder, for the Governor of Alta California, who had little hard cash to pay for civic services, had an alternative economic power - the power to bestow land.
[[Go to the site for a historical account of the acquisition of land and the loss of land by the Bernal family. The transition resulting from political and social changes. is clear and concise. Lots of links.]]
If you are a descendant of the Bernals, or one of the other land grant families of California, I'd like to talk to you about your family's oral history - the stories passed down to you from your parents and/or grandparents. Go to the welcome page and send me e-mail on how I can contact you. Thanks!
I'm an MA candidate in history at San Francisco State University. Send me comments via e-mail at: email@example.com
Santa Rosa's Carrillo Adobe needs your help NOW.
Please help in three ways:
The Sonoma County Historical Society states:
1. Send this information along immediately to anyone you think has an interest in history, historical preservation, or California, Native American, Hispanic history.
2. Get more information about the meeting, the adobe, and the proposed project, and who to contact. See the letter below. Please go to the Sonoma County Historical Society website:
http://www.sonomacountyhistory.org For those who hesitate to write a letter, go to this site for copies of letters which have been written to the city council.
3. Contact the Santa Rosa City Council and let your thoughts be known. The Sonoma County Historical Society opposes the rezoning.
firstname.lastname@example.org Mayor Sharon Wright
email@example.com Jane Bender
firstname.lastname@example.org Mike Martini
email@example.com Janet Condron
firstname.lastname@example.org Noreen Evans
email@example.com Steve Rabinowitsh
firstname.lastname@example.org Bob Blanchard
Sonoma County Third District Supervisor Tim Smith
Tim Smith - email@example.com Also:
Department of Community Development, City of Santa Rosa
P.O. Box 1678, Santa Rosa, CA 95402
To contact City Manager's Office at (707) 543-3010. You can also send a FAX to (707) 543-3030.
The President of the Sonoma County Historical Society provided the following information:
The Sonoma County Historical Society would like to urge all Sonoma County residents who care about preserving this irreplaceable piece of our history to take part in this discussion.
If our opportunity to speak now is allowed to slip away, so may well be our history.
Chicano vs. Latino
KCNC-TV-Denver Becomes a First
Oregon - California Trails Assn.
37th annual Basque Festival
Utah, Ideal Genetic Laboratory
"The Chicanos feel like they are in the middle. They don't know
which way to go - with the white kids or the Mexican kids," Nidian Calzada
says. "They are trying to figure out who they are."
This unease caused a rift between Chicano ROTC students and Mexican roqueros, rockers, early in the 2003-04 school year. It eventually erupted into a fight. Administrators invited the leaders of the groups to a meeting to discuss the situation, says Darlene LeDoux, assistant superintendent on special assignment as principal at North.
"We brought them together to talk about the differences and found out it was language," she says. "They didn't understand each other. They thought they were talking about each other." LeDoux chose some of the students to attend an off-campus conflict resolution center. The next time tensions flared, those students were able to defuse the situation.
Through mariachi music and family customs, Nidian Calzada stays in touch with her native Mexico.
Calzada, with her permanently tanned look and high cheekbones, is soft-spoken. Those who talk to her sometimes have to lean in to hear her accented sentences. She's a lead singer in the school's mariachi band and won the "El Grito" contest, the traditional cry that commemorates Sept. 16, 1810, when priest Miguel Hidalgo called on Mexicans to battle the Spanish. She also earned a 4.0 GPA, performs in the bilingual Shakespeare Club and is the soccer team's goalie.
Each day, a rift largely unseen by Anglos is played out in schools, on
job sites and among extended families as longtime Coloradans of Latino
descent learn to cope with an influx of immigrants who mirror their
looks but who arrive with different ideals and a strong bond to a mother
country many Coloradans lost generations ago.
"Those of us here for a long time lost the language," says
Polly Baca, a former state legislator. "There is tension between
old families and new families. We have to be just as concerned about
(immigrants) as we are about our own families. Those kids who get beyond
it and make it are the ones who will make a difference."
"The Mexicano doesn't understand the Chicano for what he is, and
the Chicano sees the Mexican and doesn't understand why they are the way
they are," says del Castillo, who is also co-chairman of the
Collaborative School Committee at North. "Nobody has peeled back
the onion to see they are the same."
Dina Rodriguez looks in the mirror at her daughter, Danette, preparing
to go to the North High School prom with her boyfriend.
Photos by Cyrus McCrimmon
Calzada, whose father won’t allow her to date, went to the prom
with her friend’s brother.
Five-year-old cousin Lilybeth Yanelly talks with Nidian at her graduation
A third-generation Coloradan, the 17-year-old is the quintessential
all-American girl with a 4.0 grade-point average at North High School.
She plays basketball and softball and is on the student council. Her
boyfriend, John Sigala, plays football and baseball and also will attend
Still, she feels left out somehow. She isn't confident about her Spanish skills, even though she understands it when others speak.
Danette Rodriguez, who will attend the University of Colorado at Boulder
in the fall and won more than $13,000 in scholarships, senses it from
Anglos on the college campus and immigrants in the high school. She is
neither one nor the other.
| Nidian Calzada
also graduated from North
High this spring with a 4.0 GPAs. But other parts of their lives played
Calzada is the second of six children, all born in California except for
her. She was born in Mexico. As a child, she had to pretend to be her
older sister when crossing the border.
The family returned to Mexico to live when she was 10.
KCNC-TV-Denver Becomes the First U.S. NAHJ Parity Project Broadcast Partner
Colorado's News Channel - CBS 4, KCNC-TV--Denver, a CBS owned and operated station, announced that it is the first TV station in the United States to partner with the National Association of Hispanic Journalists' (NAHJ) Parity Project, a program to help increase diversity in television news coverage and newsrooms and to develop future minority broadcast journalists.
The NAHJ Parity Project aims to increase the number of Latinos in U.S. newsrooms and improve overall media coverage of the Latino community. Recent census figures show that 32 percent of Denver's more than 500,000 residents are Latino. According to a recently released Radio-Television News Directors Association (RTNDA) survey, the percentage of minorities working in local television and radio news last year returned to previous levels above 20 percent.
"We are excited to partner with NAHJ on this ground breaking project," Walt DeHaven, CBS 4 General Manager said. "As the first broadcast station in the country to take on this role, we hope to foster the growth of future
minority journalists as well as increase diversity in the kind of news coverage you see on TV each day."
NAHJ President Juan Gonzalez hails KCNC-TV's partnership in the Parity Project. "The new RTNDA study shows that Latinos make up about 6.6% of the overall newsroom staff at local English-language TV news outlets, which is an increase from the year before. That's a positive sign. Yet census figures show that Latinos make up 13% of the overall U.S. population. KCNC-TV is taking a bold step forward by joining the Parity Project. This partnership will give NAHJ the opportunity to help KCNC develop stronger ties to Denver's Latino community and will, in the long term, help bring more Latinos into newsrooms across the country."
CBS 4 and NAHJ will co-sponsor community forums with many of Colorado's Latino social and civic leaders to learn about local issues and opportunities affecting their communities. Community representatives will
also work with the CBS 4 staff to offer recommendations on what it can do to improve coverage of Latinos.
"We are very excited to be working with NAHJ on this important initiative." Angie Kucharski, CBS 4 Station Manager, Vice President-News and NAHJ member said. "The Parity Project gives us an opportunity to better connect with our minority communities by offering forums and creating a pipeline of future minority journalists."
CBS 4 also partners locally with KCEC-TV, Channel 50, which provides news to Denver's estimated 197,000 Hispanic households to share production facilities, photographers, reporters and breaking news stories. KCEC is
part of the Univision Television network, which reaches an estimated 80 percent of the market, making it the largest and most-watched television network (English or Spanish-language) among Latino households in the country.
NAHJ's Parity Project is sponsored by the Robert R. McCormick Tribune Foundation and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. This is the second news operation NAHJ has partnered with in Denver, having first
launched the Parity Project at the Scripps-owned Rocky Mountain News in April 2003. Since the launch of the Parity Project at the Rocky Mountain News, the percentage of Latinos on the news staff has doubled and there has
been a dramatic increase in the number of other journalists of color at the paper.
|Oregon - California Trails Association
Sent by Johanna De Soto
. . . To the World Wide Web camp of the Utah Crossroads Chapter, Oregon-California Trails Association. Our organization is dedicated to preserving, studying and marking the long-distance historic trails within our own state and others in the West. We are fascinated by the people that preceded us here and the ways and means by which they arrived. Our members are prolific in preparing both scholarly and popular works as well as educational materials about these subjects and myriad others.
If you share an interest in the pioneers, traders, trappers, settlers and travelers and the old trails, tracks and emigrant roads that brought them this way, you're a kindred spirit. We invite you to spend some time getting acquainted with us. If you've been here before, welcome back and be sure to take a good look around - we're always fixing up the place.
As long as you're here, drop by our Discussion Forum and Guest Book, and leave a note. It's the perfect place to make a comment or chew the fat with other trail fans. You can start a fresh conversation or respond to one that's already going. Use the Forum button from the bottom of any page.
Explore the many sections of our site. There are dozens of interesting pages inside. If you can cast your imagination back to the early days when dirt trails carried brave pioneers to the West, we are confident you'll enjoy what you find here.
Four Western states are working together to digitize materials from their archives, historical societies, libraries and museums. Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska and Wyoming share in "common border, common heritage and common customs." to learn more about the project and see what has already been made available, go to: http://www.cdpheritage.org/westerntrails/
You sill sense that there is more focus on history than genealogy here, but if you have Western roots and want more than just names and dates, take time to explore. Migration patterns are explained and charted, covering reasons why families relocated - from Mormon history to relief from tuberculosis.
Don't confine your research to present-day boundaries and overlook the treasure nearby.
Western Trails received funding through a grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Services, which is a Federal agency. The Colorado Digitization Program Program seems to a prime mover.
Source: UGA News, May-June 2004, Vol. 33, No. 3
37th annual Basque Festival
Siobhan McAndrew (more stories by author)
Chorizos and Guinness — two great reasons to
head downtown this and next weekend.
The 37th annual Basque Festival is Saturday and Sunday at Wingfield Park; next weekend, Reno’s Celtic Festival brings out the pipes. Both festivals are part of Artown, the July arts festival with more than 200 events produced by 60 cultural organizations and businesses.
"Basque culture is a big part of Nevada history--so learning about it is a good thing," said Javier Navarte, president of the Reno Zazpiak Bat Basque Club. "If you come to the festival this weekend, you are going to see some wonderful dancing, hear some great music and be able to visit booths that will highlight Basque food and crafts."
The highlights of the Basque festival this year include performances by Luhartz, a three-person group that plays the Trikitixa (accordion), guitar and percussion, Navarte said. The group will perform at 1:30 p.m. Saturday at the amphitheater. Exhibitions of Basque sports including wood-chopping and stone-lifting will also take place.
The Reno Basque club has more than 300 members, many of whom have dedicated a lot of time to make this year’s festival a success. "It’s a good time with lively music, dancing and good food," he said.
By Accident, Utah Is Proving an Ideal Genetic Laboratory
by Kirk Johnson, July 31, 2004
Sent by Cindy LoBuglio firstname.lastname@example.org
SALT LAKE CITY- Utah is justly famous for its big families, with cousins piled on cousins, uncles from here to Tuesday, and roots stretching back to the Mormon pioneer days. And what once appeared to be a regional quirk is increasingly viewed by scientists as something more: a near-perfect laboratory, arrived at by complete accident, for the study of human kinship.
Mormon genes are hot: Utah DNA is being used for an international study that seeks to identify chromosomes linked to diseases like asthma and diabetes. Other researchers are studying how the genes for left-handedness or longevity or even the ability to taste bitter foods have moved through the Utah gene pool over time. A nonprofit foundation here is compiling a giant genetic database that will try to pinpoint - after a quick swab of a person's cheek for a DNA sample - where the person's ancestors came from.
"Utah's contribution to genetics has been enormous," said Dr. Mark S. Guyer, a division director at the National Human Genome Research Institute in Maryland.
To a scientist, the single greatest attraction of Utah - and its biggest distinction in a nation of rootless
wanderers - is stability. For more than 150 years, largely because of the Mormon church, the state has been a magnet to people who mostly stayed put. A relatively small founding population was fruitful and multiplied - aided in the 19th century by polygamy, adding a unique wrinkle to the genetic trail. With its emphasis on family records and genealogy, the Mormon church, officially the Church of
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, then created a treasure trove of details about those people.
The rest was left to science. In the 1970's, researchers at the University of Utah began melding church records with every measure of public health and mortality they could find, creating a vast database - now containing 1.6 million people - that scientists can use to cross-index family trees with cancer clusters and disease patterns and death rates.
In the 1980's, an in-depth study of the genetic makeup of 50 big Mormon families was begun. Those families, containing more than 650 people, have since been revisited again and again for study. Their identities are closely held secrets, say scientists at the university's department of human genetics, but the raw data of the group's cellular structure has been shared all over the world.
"We know probably more about the definitions of the DNA segments in those individuals than in any others, anywhere," said Dr. Jean Weissenbach, the director of the French National Sequencing Center, which used samples from the Utah families in its work on the multinational effort to define and delineate DNA, called the Human Genome Project, which was completed last year
But there is also something else involved - call it marital fidelity. On average across the United States, about 5 percent to 10 percent of people who have DNA tested for various reasons are not really the sons or daughters of the person they had thought of as dad, scientists say.
In Utah, or at least in the families at the heart of the various genetics studies over the years, the rate of
"non-paternity," as it is called, is less than 1 percent, private industry researchers and University of Utah scientists say.
"They stick to their knitting," said Mark Skolnick, the chief scientist at Myriad Genetic Inc., which is one of the biggest companies in the state's emerging genetics corridor, clustered around the University of Utah, where Dr. Skolnick was a professor and a pioneer in the discovery of the gene marker for breast cancer.
People like Norm Jones also help explain how Utah is different. A missionary who serves at the Mormon church's Family History Library across the street from the downtown temple, Mr. Jones, 69, is a living embodiment of what the culture of genealogy can produce.
He can trace his roots to the 1840's in Salt Lake City, through an extended web of intermarried families in the many decades since. He can print out his family pedigree with the tap of a few computer keys. He knows which of his ancestors walked across the Plains to Utah, and which could
afford a wagon.
Quite often, Mr. Jones said, he wanders up to help a library patron and finds that they have a common ancestor. "After a while, you're related to everybody," he said.
There are certainly other places where genes and genealogy have merged. Researchers in Iceland, where many family histories go back a thousand years or more, have created detailed genetic family trees. Other groups, like the Amish and Mennonites in the United States and Canadians from Quebec have also been studied for their genetic distinctiveness.
What Utah offers, researchers say, is partly the power of numbers. The life and health histories of 1.6 million Utahns, living and dead, have been incorporated into the Utah Population Database run by the Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah. Iceland, by contrast, which is probably Utah's nearest competitor as a geneticist's paradise, has only about 280,000 people. Iceland's population, because of its isolation, is also much more inbred than Utah's, where the gene pool has been
regularly infused with new blood as converts to the church came here over the decades. About 70 percent of Utah's population is Mormon.
Mormons themselves say that the church's emphasis on the importance of family created a natural bridge to the more scientific definitions of kinship. Researchers say there is also a strong community sense that makes people want to contribute, even if it does not help them or their families.
"Among Christian religions, we probably stand out as the one probably most interested in family ties; we are a record-keeping and record-gathering people," said Jay W. Butler, the associate international legal counsel in the church's office of general counsel. "All of that contributes to the uniqueness of Utah as a fertile ground for the research of families."
The Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation, the nonprofit group here that compiling a global genetic database to assist Utahns and others in finding their roots, is housed in a nondescript building a few miles from the sleek new research centers at the University of Utah. The scientists creating the database were hired by a billionaire medical equipment entrepreneur, James LeVoy Sorenson. The chief scientist at the foundation, Scott R. Woodward, said the goal was to have a DNA sample of 100,000 people within the next few years, focused primarily on Western Europe - the place from which most Utahns are descended. About 40,000 samples are already available, he said.
When the database is completed, Dr. Woodward said, a person should be able to walk into the office, provide a DNA sample, and get a report back saying what place - perhaps down to the town or county, if not a region - his or her genes are most likely from. "Genealogy was the starting place," Dr. Woodward said. "Genetics has now made the tools to go back and verify the genealogy."
De Anza Cartas, Part 2
Letter by Phil Valdez, Jr.
Anza Expedition Roll Call
Cartography, Northern New Spain
How do you define Hispanic?
Southwest Electronic Text Center
Southwest, Univ of Arizona Lib
|In carta number three we had previously mentioned that the Anza colonizing expedition departed Mission San Gabriel on February the 21st 1776. On their way north the Anza route took the colonists through the Santa Barbara channel, where they camped by La Laguna, the future city of San Barbara, and continued northward to camp in places such as Laguna Graciosa, which is now within Vandenberg Air Force Base, Mission San Luis Obispo, where Father Font speaks fondly of the mission neophytes, when he mentions that the Indian girls behaved like little Spaniards, and Mission San Antonio, where they joyfully celebrate their arrival before continuing to Monterey.||
|Anza’s carta number four was written at Misión del Carmelo, as Anza calls Mission San Carlos Borromeo. The carta was dated March 13, 1776, three days after his arrival at the Presidio of Monterey, where Anza says "that on the 10th of this month [March] with all felicity I arrived (llegue) at the Presidio of Monterey, in seventeen journeys without having any bad weather other than an incidental rain shower on the same (mismo) day I arrived". El día 10 del actual llegue con toda felicidad al||
Presidio de Monterrei en diez y siette
jornadas sin haber tenido mas contra tiempo que una lluvia acaecida el
mismo dia que llegue. Here, the Rivera y Moncada diary does
not remain silent, when the Captain Commander, tells of what in his
view is most important to him. He confirms the pressure he is under,
in regards to the founding of San Francisco. He writes in his
diary on March 30, 1776, ya tarde llegaron
teniente coronel don Juan Bautista de Anza que
con eficacia me insta sobre el establecimiento del fuerte de San
Francisco. Deverdad que me ha apuesto en aprieto
por el grave empeño de aquel asunto y no ser inferior en el que
actualmente me hallo empleado entendiendo en la pacificación de estos
Rivera writes, "late... eight soldiers arrived from Monterey. They carried letters from Lt. Colonel
|Don Juan Bautista
de Anza, which with efficacy, he petitions over the establishing of
the Fort of San Francisco. Truly he has put me in a bind,
because of the great obligation of that matter, which is not inferior,
to the one I find myself in, of pacifying the Indians". Anza
continues, "immediately after ending our journey, (que lo ejecute),
I gave the order and on the following day some new soldiers and their
families began to surround us. However, because of that order they now understood that they would not be able to continue to
their principal and ultimate destination, [San Francisco] as soon as
they would have liked. This [delay] has given them great sorrow and
disgust. I thought best to let Your Honor know that the end result is to proceed, at the
proper time, which would be in the best service [interest] to the
King, and also complies with that which is possible, as far as the
orders and charges of His Excellency. To which end is the possession
of the Presidio of San Francisco in which I will also participate.
This will enable me to see it, and inform your Excellency that it is
now occupied, (not with every one) with the major part of the
expedition [ella]". Here the reader must remember that in carta
number three Anza says "that at Misión San Gabriel, he is
leaving twelve soldiers and their families behind in charge of
Sergeant Grijalva". Immediatamente que lo ejecute di la
providencia de que al siguiente día se
| nueva tropa y familias, pero como de esta providencia,
y se están entendidos que no pasan tan pronto como desean, á su
principal y ultimo destino, se les á originado gran pesar y disgusto.
Me ha parecido participarlo á Vuestra Merced con el fin de que se les
complazca haciendo al propio tiempo el major sevicio al Rey, y
también cumpliendo en la parte que se pueda los estrechos ordenes y
encargo de sus Excelencia á fin de tomar posesión del Puerto de San
Francisco, en lo que yo también me regocijare, y mucho más pudiendo
decir á mi vista á sus Excelencia, queda ya ocupado (quando no con
toda) con la major parte de ella.
Anza says "because in this way it can be verified, (without discussing at present the missions that need to accompany it). Therefore, I ask your Honor in both my name and that of the (pre dicha) aforementioned expedition, being certain that with it, we will all have the relief that we long for, by seeing that the major part of our Superior orders, are being put into effect, which I offer Your Honor. (Because of what I have stated I have extended the time which is left before returning to Mexico). After my return of the first reconnaissance, that I am making of the stated port, I will proceed within five days and return if it’s convenient and conduct to its destination our mentioned
should be established there as agreed with Your Honor. (I have no
doubt) that my so called influence will not be necessary. Surely with
the zeal and activity of Lt. José Joaquín Moraga, I am certain that
he is ready for this [endeavor] and other major activities. The
individuals who are to accompany him have their own desire (propio
ardor) as well". Porque así se verifique (sin tratar en lo
present de las misiones que le deben acompañar) se lo suplico á
Vuestra Merced, en mi nombre, y de la pre dicha expedición estando
cierto de que en ello, todos trendremos el consuelo que apetecemos, en
ves en la mayor parte efectuadas las ordenes de nuestros Superioridad
para lo que ofrezco á Vuestra Merced, (sin embargo de lo que le
consta por mi dicho lo estrechado del tiempo que me queda para
regresarme á México) el que después que me vuelva del primer
reconociemiento que voy á hacer del mencionado Puerto, á que saldré
dentro de cinco días bolveré si lo tiene por combeniente, ha
conducer a su destino nuestra mencionada tropa, que allí deve
establecerse, en lo que combiendo Vuestra Merced, (como no dudo)
no será necesaria mi tal influencia, pues el celo, y actividad del
Teniente José Joaquín Moraga, me consta que es presto á este, y
mayors intentos, y los individuos que le han de acompañar, poseén el
"our horses have arrived in reasonable [shape] and in making our
calculations, Don José Joaquín Moraga and I [believe] that the
harnessed mules which we have conducted, will be sufficient to carry
the provisions to the Port of San Francisco, not including those that
will remain here. We agree
that there are sufficient [mules]."
Nuestra caballerías han llegado mui razonables aquí, y haciendo nuestros cálculos Don José Joaquín Moraga y yo, de que las mulas aparejadas que
conducido, habrá las suficientes para que también lo haga de
víveres al Puerto de San Francisco, no obstante el atajo que ahí
quedo, combenimos en que hay las suficientes.
Anza explains, "the expedition carries, just in case, (por si) one crow bar, three axes, and the same amount of shovels, with the addition of the same and a little bit more, it will be sufficient to commence their buildings, with regard that it’s always best to build the flat roofs (terrado) first. [Therefore], I would like to
|ask Your Honor to
send the provision/help of a carpenter".
La expedición trahe por si una barra y tres hachas y
tantas palas, con lo que ó poco más que se agregué tienen lo suficiente par ir comenzando sus fabricas. y respecto á que siempre será lo major que se hagan quanto antes de terrado, me parece decir a Vuestra Merced que mande la providencia de que el carpintero.
El Gran Capitan, closes carta number four in his customary manner by saying ……
|Our Lord keep your Honor many years, Carmel Mission, March 13,1776, Your most devoted and certain servant kisses the hand of Your Honor.|
Senor Anza inserts a postscript and says, "I have certain information that the Father Ministers, destined for the Mission of San Francisco, have the spirit to leave on the first ships. If from now, until you arrive, we do not proceed, at least the forces should be in place, which I believe is what I going to put into effect, thus enabling me to prevent this charge (lance), which could end in bad results. And I do not doubt that is how some religious feel because of their anxiety in waiting for their destination for so long".
|Arrow upper hand corner, San Luis Obispo Arrow lower hand corner, Mission San Gabriel|
|Anza's carta number five was written at Misión del Carmelo on March 13, 1776 as well. He writes, "in virtue of the requests of Your Honor, I sent the number of men that you have asked for on [February] the 8th. Even though, we could not execute the requests (los que) that Your Honor expressed, it was because we could not go. For the same reason, I have permitted Gerardo Peña, to be replaced by Casimiro Vartia, who is married". Here the expedition roster lists a Casimiro Varela, I have not been able to locate a Vartia. He continues, "the first one drives the horse-herd and does the will of Your Honor and [reason] why he is so well informed, in which view Your Honor can determine of them, that which he thinks best".||
|En virtud de los encargos de Vuestra Merced, le remito el numero de hombres que me pidió con fecha de 8 del pasado le remiti ese, y aunque no lo ejecutan los que Vuestra Merced me esspressa, es por motivo de que lo ai para que no puedan hir. Por la misma he licenciado á Gerardo Peña entrando en su lugar Casimiro Vartia casado. El primero conduce las caballerías en que hacia el arbitrio de Vuestra Merced, de que va||inteligenciado;
en cuya vista podrá Vuestra Merced determiner de ellas lo que mejor
Anza says, "Lt. José Joaquín Moraga has informed me of the [conversation] with Your Honor, after the chase of the deserters, and having turned them in to the Sergeant Commander at San Gabriel. They were (the four loiters that he left there in prison as well as the one he imprisoned after his return from San
|Diego). I sentenced them to work in the building of the Presidio and Mission of San Francisco for a period of time and without salary. In the meantime, His Excellency the Viceroy will render something else, as I will inform him of this matter". El Teniente Don José Joaquín Moraga, me ha dado parte de lo que ejecuto con Vuestra Merced, de la seguida que hizo de los desertores como de haber los entregados al Sargento|
San Gabriel, a los que, (estos es á los cuarto haraganes que ahí
dejo en prisión, y al que mando poner después de que se regresarsé
de San Diego), condeno á que pasen á la frabrica del Fuerté y
Misión de San Francisco, á ración, y sin sueldo, entre tanto
dispone otra cosa el Excelentísimo Señor Virrey, a quien daré de
este particular. Anza explains,
"over this matter [el] Moraga has written, that he has not
received any judicial order. However, he assures me that the verbiage
of all, [the deserters] attest in expressing the above mentioned
desertion. Therefore, I will proceed to tell Your Honor how I feel. If
the case is argued to be true! it’s because he has sold some [items]
repeatedly, and has hinted about the robbery to Corporal Carrillo as
well. Some portion[s] of chocolate and aguardiante who the muleteer
José Ignacio Amarillas was in charge of, is known, and referred to
found them missing due to the
|robbery. In the
punishing him for his infidelity, I took part in asking the soldier and the rest of the deserters, [about the case] and after having settled it by consent (en ello), when the time came to follow through, the stated Amarillas repented. With that view point and having made the spirit to [arrest] them, the five consented and were apprehended by the same official". Sobre el, no ha practicado ninguna providencia judicial, y por escrito dicho Teniente Moraga, pero me asegura que las vervales de todos, contestan en esspressar que la mencionada deserción dimano de lo que siento decir a Vuestra Merced, si el casso se averigua ciertto y es el que habiendo vendido reptidas veces y por su sugestión al robo, y al Cabo Carrillo, porción de chocolate y aguardiente, el arriero José Ignacio Amarillas, á cuio cargo
conociendo este, que se hallaba de echar menos su robo, como de catigarle yo su infidencia, tome el partido de combidar al soldado y de mas desertores y habiendo combenido en ello, al tiempo de ejecutarlo se arrepintió el pre dicho Amarillas. En cuia vista, y de tener hecho el animo para efectuarlo la consumaron los cinco que aprendió el mismo Oficial.
El Gran Capitan, closes carta number five by saying, "I inform Your Honor of all that has been referred to me, so that during your visit, you take or cause to take the declarations which will benefit the process of the soldiers, or the justification of one of them". Digo a Vuestra Merced, todo lo referido para que en su visita, thome ó mande thomar las declaraciones que combengan para el processo de los soldados, ó justificación de uno de ellos.
|Carta number six was written at Misión del Carmelo as well, and Anza says, "even though we remember what we agreed upon at the Presidio of San Diego, we hope to see you at the Mission of San Gabriel by the 25th of the this month to finally discuss those matters which have been entrusted to us by His Excellency the Viceroy. Towards the effect of the opposition of the contingency, if it is not possible to confirm our meeting, it appears to me to advise Your Honor, of the following matters, of which it will serve you to respond".||
|Sin embargo de
que según lo que accordamos en el Presidio de San Diego, espero nos
veamos en la misión de San Gabriel para el 25, proximo ocurrente á
fin de que nos acordemos sobre los asuntos que nos estan encomendados
por el Exceltísimo Señor Virrey, a efecto de obviar todo contingente,
por si no se pudiere verificar nuestra visita me ha parecido imponer
á Vuestra Merced, en los particulares siguientes, á gue de todos
modos se servirá contestarme .
Anza informs Rivera, "in virtue of the Superior Orders of His Excellency of January 2 and May the 24th of last year, and that of which [we] both also agreed in the matter of exploring the Port of San Francisco, and the immediate environs better suited for the establishment of the Fort and the Missions which should accompany it. By which inspection I found that the interior of the
|mentioned Port has not been explored, and in the widest part of its mouth (where I planted a cross) there is sufficient land for the establishment of the Fort, [Presidio] and benefits from a number of permanent springs close by, so we all thought. And at two leagues there is an abundance of green and dry wood from where an adequate supply for building the stockade and barracks can be found. Likewise, the best pastures of all this land are in the said interior of the Port. To the indicated principal site one can also conduct for about five or six leagues, morillos of pine tree by mule for the formal buildings from the Cañada de San Andres (where I have been), the trip can be accomplished in three days by a good road, which is free of [without] sand dunes, which have been in transit [encountered] until today". En virtue de las Superiores Ordenes de su excellencia de los de Enero y veinticuarto de||Maio del año próximo anterior, y de lo que también conbenimos entre ambos sobre este asumpto passé al essamen del Puerto de San Francisco, y parajes inmediatos mas proporcionados para el estableciemiento de su Fuerte, y las dos Misiones, que le deben acompañar. En cuia inspección halle que en lo mas interior del mencionado Puerto que no se había reconocido, y en lo mas estrecho de su boca (donde de deje plantada una cruz) hai proporción suficiente para la ubicación del Fuerte, pues logra de varias aguas muy inmediatas y permanantes según á todos nos pareció, y á hasta dos leguas con abundancia de leña verde y seca, de la que se puede sacar la palizada pressisa para estacadas, y barracas, como también mejores pastos que los de todos esos terrenos, todo en dicho interior del Puerto, á cuio sitio principal indicado también se puede conducer de cinco a seis leguas de la|
|cañada de San Andres, (donde estuve) morillage de pino en mulas para fabricas mas formales. Cuio viage se podrá efectuar en tres días por buen camino, y libre de los medanos que han transitado hasta hora. Anza continues, "in virtue of this and the principal objective of the expenses, which have been made and continue to be made for the occupation of the referred port, they [the colonists] aspire for its founding, so it can be guarded by the soldiers who are destined to go there. It’s my opinion that it should be occupied at the same place where I planted the cross and have advised Lt. Don José Joachín Moraga so. It is not lacking (as we judged) the right amount of drinking water in such a circumstance. I will separate my sentiments so that it will be established by a lagoon of running water, which is one league from this first site in the interior of the Port, [Mountain Lake] or by the Dolores spring which is also in the interior and known by the same officer. It being two leagues distance from the first site". En virtud de esto y de que el principal objecto de los gastos que se han hecho, y hacen para la ocupación del referido Puerto, aspiran a que se verifique en el propio, para que pueda ser guardado de la tropa||que se le
destina, es mi dictamen que quede de luego a luego ocupado en el mismo
lugar en gue dejo clavada la cruz, y ha visto el tiente Don José
Joaquín Moraga, no faltando (como juzgamos) el agua precisa para
beber en cuia circumstancia separaré mi dictamen para que se ubique
en una Laguna de Agua corriente que esta á una legua de este primer
sitio, en lo interior del Puerto, ó en el ojo de agua de los Dolores,
también interior, y sabido por el mismo Oficial, distante del primer
sitio dos leguas.
Anza continues, "in the last mentioned [statement] I surmise that water will not be lacking. As some of the crops that require watering could suffer, and farther in about half a league, there is a wide valley of good moisture. All these places run towards the coast of the estuary which direction is to the south and when all is not confirmed the fort should sit in the middle of both missions and at the least distance possible. I also gave orders so that in it, they establish the first mission, and the second in the Cañada de San Andres. Likewise, if the first is lacking in the precise requirements, it should be situated at the site of San Pedro Regalado. Even though, I did not see it, [the site] I am assured that it fits the purpose, being immediate to the fort, and near the coast which is one
distinguished features that His Excellency recommends".
El ultimo mencionado en la suposición de no faltarle las aguas que tiene, puede sufrir alguna siembra de riego, y más interior á media legua, hay una hancha cañada de buena humedad, todos estos lugares van corriendo a la costa del estero que gira a sur y para que cuando no del todo se verifigue que el fuerte quede en medio de las misiones, y lo menos distante que pueda ser, también doy mi dictamen para que en él se funde la primera, y la segunda en la cañada de San Andrés, como igualmente si le faltan á la primer las porporciones precisas, que sea en el sitio de San Pedro Regalado, el que aunque no lo vi, me aseguran ser para casso el mas inmediatto al fuerte, y cerca de la costa que es una de las particularidades que recomienda su Excelencia. Anza writes, "I put your superior orders in effect, and did not deviate from the spirit of them in any substantial, [way] because the necessity did not obliged me to. In view of what I have seen of the land, I provide Your Honor with a report as ordered by His Excellency, and as I have stated at the beginning, which will serve Your Honor to give me a response, so I can lay it against (acusso) those
could benefit me".
Dice Anza, arreglado sus superiors órdenes, y sin separar me del espiritu de ellas en lo mas sustancial, si la necesidad no me ha precidado, en vista de lo que observado sobre el terreno, produzco á Vuestra Merced mi anterior dictamen como me ordena dicho Señor
Excelentísimo de que como digo al principio, se sevirá Vuestra Merced, darme el correspondiente acusso para los effectos que me combengan.
Here Rivera y Moncada’s dairy dated April 13, 1776 says, Pase la noche sin observer minima novedad, y siguiendo camino mas agravado de mi dolar, casi arrepentido de no haber me quedado en San Luis, como a las 4 de la tarde encontre al sargento Gongora que me dijo iba para San Diego con carta para mi, del teniente coronel don Juan Bautista de Anza. Me la daba y le dije la guardara; no venia en estado de leer por el dolor y la cabeza aturdada. "I passed the night with minimum news and following the road, being aggravated by my pain, I almost repented not having stayed in San Luis [Mission San Luis Obispo]. At about 4 in the in the afternoon I met Sergeant Gongora who
|informed me that
he was going to San Diego with a letter for me from Lt. Colonel Don
Juan Bautista de Anza. As he was handing it to me I told him to save
it, as I did not feel like reading it, due to my leg pain,
giddy feeling (giddy-head), and perhaps a degree of temperature
Clearly from the previous six cartas there is no doubt that Anza’s ultimate desire is to establish the Presidio of San Francisco, its two missions, and take care of his troops. While Moncada, in refusing to read his letters, continues to perpetuate the idea that he does not care. Here, I have addressed the Captain Governor, as Moncada, as does His Excellency Bucareli. He does, however, mention that he does not feel like reading them due to his pain. Further, his diary states that his pain is so bad that he is being helped in getting on and off his horse. Nonetheless, he concurs that the founding of San Francisco and its two missions is just as important as his task of pacifying the Indians (no ser inferior). However, Moncada is beginning to recognize that he could be in deep trouble when he writes, "Deverdad que me a puesto en aprieto," meaning, Anza has put the
|squeeze on me,
and if all that was not enough, Anza than tells him, "I will
inform His Excellency of all these matters". No doubt Anza is not
only feeling superior in rank, but autocratic, and cavalier as well,
as he rambles with remarks such as, "I can stop at any place I
want to" and continues with "I did not deviate from your
orders because I did not have to", [otherwise I would have] and
lastly "I will inform His Excellency of all these matters".
Anza, in his frustration is beginning to practice the theory of my way
or the highway. Not a good thing for theses two giants of early
California. Should the reader finds the English section of the article
a little cumbersome, it’s because I have translated verbatim, and
choose to be as close to the original text as possible. Other than the
use of brackets to enhance the word flow, it’s about as close as one
can get. As mentioned previously, articles such as this, require the
work of many, therefore, I would like to acknowledge Jose Pantoja,
Eddie Grijalva, Vladimir Guerrero, Ph.D and Greg Bernal Smestad, Ph.D
for their sound contributions.
Look for more to come with cartas 7, 8, and 9.
response to a letter of interest concerning Juan Bautista de Anza
s, Phil Valdez Jr. writes:
Thank you for your e-mail. From your statements and requests I gather you are a novice and wish to learn more about the Juan Bautista de Anza expeditions.
First and foremost there were two, the 1774 exploratory and the 1775/1776 colonizing expeditions. The exploratory left Tubac, Sonora in what is now Arizona in January 1774 with 34 soldiers which included Juan Bautista Valdez, the courier, who on the return trip carried the diaries of the journey to His Excellency, Viceroy Bucareli, in Mexico City. The expedition returned to Tubac in May of that same year. Herbert Eugene Bolton, California’s immanent historian says this of my Gran Papa. "Juan Bautista Valdez was the first man in record history to make the round trip, on horse back, from Mission San Gabriel to Mexico City".
The colonizing expedition left the Real Presidio de San Miguel de Horcasitas in late September of 1775, and arrived in Monterey (Monterrey) on March 10, 1776. These poblanos were recruited in the alcaldias of Culiacan, Sinaola, Alamos, and El Fuerte. This group, unlike the exploratory expedition who returned, left to augment the Presidio of Monterey and establish the Presidio de San Francisco and Mission Dolores. This is "the story of families who went to Alta California to settle as opposed to conquering". In other words they went to stay. There are debates as to the reasons why, but stay they did. Because of the lack of help from Madrid and Mexico City our ancestors took on the name of Californios.
Web de Anza, on the Internet, has the diaries of both Anza and Father Font, the meticulous chronicler, of the colonizing expedition. You will find them in both English and Spanish and are supplemented with the diaries of Lt. Moraga, second in command of the colonizing expedition, Costanso, the engineer with Portola’s first entrada of 1769, and Father Garces, better known as the wandering Padre.
Some historians have claimed that Anza was a pathfinder, however, nothing could be further from the truth. You see we now know that he was following the trail of others. For example:
Phil Valdez Jr., MBA., CHA
Sergeant Juan Pablo Grijajva (34)
and his wife, Maria Dolores Valencia
Maria Josepha (9)
Maria del Carmen (4)
Corporal Domingo Alviso
and his wife, Maria Angela Trejo
Francisco Javier (10)
Maria Loreto (5)
Corporal Jose Valerio Mesa (42)
and his wife, Maria Leonor Barboa
Jose Joaquin (12)
Jose Ignacio (9)
Ignacia Dolores (6)
Maria Manuela (7)
Joseph Antonio (3)
Corporal Gabriel Peralta (45)
Juan Antonio Amezquita (37)
and his wife, Juana Maria de Guana
Manuel Domingo (23)
and his wife Rosalia Zamora
Maria Josepha (20)
Maria Dolores (10)
Maria Getrudis (3)
Maria de los Reyes (baby)
Justo Roberto Altamirano (31)
with his wife, Maria Loreta Delfina
Jose Ramon Bojorques (39)
and his wife: Francisca Romero
Maria Antonia (15)
Maria Gertrudis (l2)
Maria Micaela (l3)
and her husband,
Jose Anastacio Higuera
Ignacio Linares (31)
and his wife, Maria Gertrudis Rivas
Maria Gertrudis (7)
Juan Jose Ramon (5)
Maria Juliana (4)
and his wife, Maria Josefa Espinosa
Juan Salvio Pacheco
and his wife, Maria del Carmen del Valle
Igrnacio Gertrudis (15)
Bartolome Ignacio (10)
Maria Barbara (10)
Jose Antonio Garcia
and his wife Maria Josefa de Acuna
Pablo Pinto (44)
and his wife, Francisca Javier Ruelas
Juan Maria (17)
Juana Santos & husband Casimiro Varela
Antonio Quitero Aceves (36)
and his wife, Maria Feliciana Cortes
Maria Petra (13)
Jose Cipriano (11)
Maria Gertrudis (6)
Juan Gregorio (5)
Jose Antonio (2)
Ignacio Maria Gutierrez
and his wife, Ana Maria de Osuna
Maria Petronia (10)
Maria de los Santos (7)
Diego Pascual (baby)
who was born on the Gila, en route
Ignacio de Soto (27)
and his wife, Maria Barbara Espinosa
Maria Antonia (2)
Jose Antonio (1)
Jose Manuel Valencia (27)
and his wife, Maria de la Luz Munos
Maria Gertrudis (15)
Francisco Maria (8)
Ignacio Maria (3)
Luis Joaquin Alvarez (36)
and his wife, Maria Nicolasa Ortiz
Jose Antonio Sanchez (25)
and his wife, Maria de los Dolores Morales
Maria Josefa (7)
Jose Antonio (2)
Ignacio Cardenas (adopted)
Manuel Ramirez Arellano (34)
and his wife, Maria Agueda de Haro
Joaquin Isidro de Castro (44)
and his wife, Maria Martina Botiller
Ignacio Clemente (20)
Maria Josefa (18)
Maria Encarnacion (12)
Maria del Carruen (10)
Jose Mariano (9)
Jose Joaquin (6)
Francisco Maria (2)
Felipe Santiago Tapia (31)
and his wife, Juana Maria Filomena Hernandes
Maria Rosa (15)
Maria Antonia (13)
Maria Manuela (10)
Maria Ysidora (4)
Juan Francisco Bernal (39)
and his wife, Maria Josefa de Soto, sister of
Jose Joaquin (13)
Juan Francisco (12)
Jose Dionisio (10)
Jose Apolonario (9)
Ana Maria (5)
Maria Teresa de Jesus (3)
Juan Atansio Vasquez
and his wife, Maria Gertrudis Castelo
Jose Tiburcio (20)
Jose Antonio (10)
Juan Agustin Valenzuela (26)
and his wife, Petra Ignacia de Ochoa
Santiago de la Cruz Pico (43)
and his wife, Maria Jacinta Vastida
Jose Dolores (12)
Jose Maria (11)
Jose Miguel (7)
Francisco Javier (6)
Maria Antonia Tomasa
Jose Vicente Felix (35)
Manuela Pincuelar, Wife, died in childbirth.
Only person to die on the Expedition.
Jose de Jesus
Jose Antonio Capistrano
Sebastian Antonio Lopez
and his wife, Felipa Neri (or Felipa Zermana)
Jose Antonio Sotelo
and his wife,
Gertrudis Peralta (or Manuela Gertrudis Buelna)
Pedro Antonio Bojorques (22)
and his wife, Maria Francisca de Lara
Maria Agustina (4)
Don Juan Bautista de Anza
Fray Pedro Font
Fray Francisco Garces
Ensign Don Jose Joaquin Moraga
Sergeant Juan Pablo Grijalva
Don Mariano Vidal, Commissary
Jose Manuel Gonzales
and his wife,
Maria Micaela Bojorques
Nicolas Galindo (33)
and his wife,
Maria Teresa Pinto
Juan Venancio (1)
Nicolas Antonio Berreyesa (15)
accompanied by his sister,
Isabel (unmarried) (22)
Maria Feliciana Arballo
widow of Jose Gutierrez
Maria Tomasa Gutierrez (6)
Maria Estaquia Gutierrez (4)
Don Francisco Munos
Pedro Perez de la Funte
Father Font says "According to this list
there were 193 persons. I do not know if it be
complete or lacks some names since I was not
permitted to be informed".
STATISTICS OF 193 persons:
ADULT MALE -- 39 persons
ADULT FEMALE -- 34 persons
BOYS -- 70 persons
GIRLS -- 50 persons
TOTAL -- 193 persons
Note: The ages of 78 children in above list show 44 were under 10 years old.
|As Catholic missions and military presidios advanced the frontier of Spanish dominion in North America, Spanish military officers, missionaries, and cartographers developed a spatial vision of the provinces that would become northwestern Mexico. The following maps dating from the eighteenth century show major topographic features like rivers and mountain ranges as well as the communities that were forged by Indians and Spaniards on the northern frontier of the Spanish American Empire.|
|Table of Contents with links to each map.
New Mexico Maps 1729/1792
San Miguel Horcasitas Map
Tubac Map Fronteras Photograph #1
Fronteras Photograph #2
Valle de Térapa Photograph
Rio Chico Photograph
Altar Photograph #1
Altar Photograph #2
Nueva Vizcaya Map
Baja California Map
Arrowsmith Map of Mexico (ca. 1840)
Disturnell Map of Mexico (ca. 1850)
Debray Map of Mexico (ca. 1880)
How do you define Hispanic?
How do you define Hispanic? That is the question Nationwide, one of the country's largest insurance and financial service corporations, presented to artists around the nation at today's launching of its Hispanic Heritage Month Art Contest. Under the theme 'We Are One But Made Of Many' the contest encourages artists to capture and express their ideas of the diversity encountered in the Hispanic culture.
This year's first-place winner will receive $800, second place $500, and third place $400. Winners' paintings are currently being displayed in Nationwide's headquarters and will be utilized in the future for a calendar. Entries for this year's Hispanic Heritage Month Art Contest will be accepted through October 1, 2004 at One Nationwide Plaza, 1-28-25, Columbus, Ohio 43215-2220. Attention: Hispanic Heritage Month Art Contest.
Participating artists should be legal residents of the U.S. and at least 18 years of age as of July 17, 2004. See official rules by visiting http://www.nationwide.com .
The University of Arizona, Library's Southwest Electronic Text Center Projects
Significant changes in publishing have occurred as a result of electronic publishing technology and its blending with networked information. Since the summer of 1996, librarians have complemented other electronic publishing projects by creating electronic texts from print materials.
In some cases, the electronic texts were part of larger World Wide Web exhibits. In others, they represent an electronic version of rare, out-of-print works related to the Southwest.
Other text centers: http://www.library.arizona.edu/swetc/other.html
Books of the Southwest, The University of Arizona Library
Rudo Ensayo: A Description of Sonora and Arizona in 1764
[[ Editor's note: The entire text can be accessed. What I liked best was the ability to click immediately to the source of the information.]]
About the Translators…
Table of Contents (As in the original volume)
Letter from Nentvig to Zeballos (July 16, 1764)
1. A Description of Sonora
1.1. Its Name, Location, and Boundaries
1.2. Its Latitude and Longitude
2. On the Rivers and Brooks of Sonora
2.1. The Yaqui River and Its Tributaries
2.2. Of Other Rivers and Creeks
2.3. The Gila and the San Pedro Rivers
2.4. The Colorado River
3. Mountains, Climate, and Fertility of the Soil
3.1. Mountain Ranges
3.2. Fertility of the Soil
3.3. The Climate
3.4. Pertaining to Cattle and Their BreedingIn Spanish, cattle (ganado) is a generic word applicable to all animals and subdivided into large (mayor), such as bovines, horses, mules and donkeys, and small (menor), such as sheep, goats, and hogs.
3.5. Wild Beasts Found in the Province
3.6. Insects and Disgusting Creatures
3.7. The Birds
4. Native Flora
4.2. Medicinal Products
5. Indian Tribes of Sonora
5.1. Their Language, Nature, Intellectual Capacity, and Distinctive Traits
5.2. Their History, Idolatry, and Sorcery
5.3. Superstitions, Omens, and Credulities
5.4. Rites, Customs, and Ceremonies
5.5. War Practices, Ceremonies, and Rituals
5.6. Treatment of Wounds
6. Tribes of Sonora
6.1. Opatas, Eudebes, and Jovas
6.2. Pimas Altos and Bajos
6.3. The Seris and Their Confederates
6.4. The Apaches, Ancient Scourge of Sonora
7. The Jesuit Missions
7.1. San Francisco de Borja Rectorship
7.2. The Rectorship of Santos Mártires del Japón
7.3. The Rectorate of San Francisco Javier
7.4. The Rectorate of Pimería Alta (Nuestra Señora de los Dolores)
7.5. Depopulated Indian Settlements
8. The Missions and Government
8.1. The Missions: Their Churches, Furnishings, Worship, and Teachings
8.2. Ecclesiastical and Civil Governments
9.2. Mining Camps and Settlements of Spaniards
9.3. The Royal Presidios and Intermediate Villages
9.4. Curacies: Their Vast Size and Places of Worship
10. How to Punish the Enemy and Prevent the Ruin of Sonora
Bibliography and References
Index to Fauna
Nentvig's Map of Sonora and Areas North, 1762. Retouched by A.F. Pradeau. Reproduced by courtesy of the British Museum.
African American Soldier in Louisiana
|Historia de Estevanico|
We are pleased to announce the publication of our brand new web page http://www.afromexico.org
This site’s intention is to become an informative tool based on discussion about the different aspects that characterize the African heritage in Mexico.
The core of this project consists in the realization of a series of video documentaries that explore
different aspects of the african-mexican people. So far the first two documentaries of the series have
been finished and published which are, “LA RAIZ OLVIDADA” ( The Forgotten Root) and “DE FLORIDA A COAHUILA”. (From Florida to Coahuila)
Presently we are working on our third documentary “CORRERIAS EN EL MONTE”,(Incursions into the Mountains) and we are seeking financial support in order to finish the work in progress. We are raising these funds in the form of co-production, sale of rights of distribution and support from organizations with the objective of promoting projects of cultural character. Another way to support us is by buying our documentaries which are available in a subtitled version in English from our distributor in the US, “Latin American Video Archives” http://www.lavavideo.org.
In Mexico the rol of Africans in the development of the nation is not oficially recognized, and one of the main goals of our project is to fight for that recognition. We hope that you have a chance to take a look at our site, and if you can provide us with feedback that will be most helpful for us. Please feel free to forward this mail to anyone you consider might be interested in our project. This would allow us to meet our goals in a timely manner, goals which help, to some extent, to the development of a culture of tolerance and the vision of diversity as the main asset of human kind.
By: Isiah Edwards, 29 August 2003
African American Soldiers have a long history of military service in the Louisiana Territory and the State of Louisiana. Not only did they struggle to enter the armed forces, but when finally accepted by three governments (France, Spain and the United States), they had to work under segregated and unequal conditions and prove their abilities. This internal battle continued through the late seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, up into the first half of the twentieth century.
In 1729, after the massacre of Fort Rosalie in Natchez, the French government established a small unit of slave soldiers (Slaves were promised freedom) to fight the American Indians. Under Governor Jean Baptist Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville, a company of 104 slaves and freemen would be organized to fight the Chickawaw an ally of the Natchez. These slave soldiers were praised for their "deeds of surprising Valor." The French Government recognized the first Black Militia unit.
When the Spanish Government took over territorial control of Louisiana, the Spanish government recognized the Black Militia unit that was in place. During the American Revolution, Bernard de Galvez, the Spanish Governor of Louisiana and Commander of the Fixed Regiment, mobilized a force of 670 men of which 80 were freemen organized into two companies. These companies helped in capturing Baton Rough, Mobile and pensacola. In praising his troops for their performance Galvez sited, "no less deserving of eulogy are the companies of Negro and Free Mulattoes," who "conducted themselves with as much valor and generosity as the whites."
One of the most significant battles in American history occurred at the Chalmette Plantation - Battle of New Orleans. It was the last time the United States and Great Britain fought as enemies.
After the Louisiana Purchase, on June 21, 1804, Governor Claiborne
presented a Stand of Colors to the (Black Militia) Battalion.
HISTORIA DE ESTEVANICO
Angel Custodio email@example.com Click for another article by Custodio.
A continuación te transcribo el guión/texto de la charla que di el pasado dia 3 de junio en el Colegio Montessori de Huelva, con motivo de su XIV Semana Cultural, para que la conozcas.
Anécdotas de los encuentros con América
No se conoce la fecha del nacimiento de este esclavo, que vino al mundo en la aldea de Azemmour, en la costa atlántica de Marruecos, aunque se calcula que nació alrededor de 1501.
Su madre murió a los pocos meses de nacer él, haciéndose cargo de la familia el padre que hacía trabajos de carpintería y herrería en el pueblo.
Pertenecían a la tribu de los Hausa y su familia tenía fama en la tribu por su altura, ya que eran mas altos que el resto de sus vecinos.
En 1513, los portugueses invaden el pueblo de Azemmour, saqueando lo poco que hay de valor y sometiendo a los nativos a la esclavitud, hambre y miseria.
Unos portugueses que tenían comercio de esclavos entre África y Europa, capturan a Estevanico, ya que consideraban que tendría un buen precio de venta por su altura y su constitución atlética.
Desde Azemmour el mercader de esclavos lo lleva para Lagos, en el Algarve portugués, donde había un importante comercio humano, en un edificio que aún se conserva.
Cuando el barco del mercader iba hacia Portugal, al pasar cerca de la costa de Huelva, era costumbre que estos barcos recalasen algunos días en Gibraleón, ya al mismo tiempo que reponían fuerzas de la travesía, como el Duque de Bejar tenía negocio de esclavos, era aprovechada la parada para la venta de algunos de ellos entre los que acudían al pueblo onubense. Esto ocurría alrededor de 1526.
Al llegar a Gibraleón nos encontramos con Pablo Dorantes, hombre de confianza del Duque de Bejar y que al parecer era una de las personas que llevaban la administración de los bienes del Duque y por ello de las compra-ventas de esclavos.
Con Pablo Dorantes y su esposa Isabel de Carranza vivía en Gibraleón su hijo Andrés Dorantes, que había decidido alistarse como Capitán en la expedición de Pánfilo de Narváez , por lo que el Capitán Andrés Dorantes que pidió a su padre le proporcionase un criado para su aventura, tomo a Estevanico como esclavo personal y ambos formaron parte de la expedición que partió de Sanlucar de Barrameda.
Pánfilo de Narváez había obtenido permiso del Rey Carlos V para en su nombre conquistar la zona que actualmente comprenden Texas, Arizona, Florida y el norte de México y como premio seria nombrado gobernador de la región.
Durante aquella época el aire estaba lleno de historias de aventuras y de leyendas sobre las cantidades de oro y plata que llegaban de América, por lo que el 17 de junio de 1527 navegaron desde España hasta Santo Domingo, cinco naves sobrecargadas que convirtió aquel viaje en una historia de pesadilla, porque además de los componentes de la expedición, llevaban en los barcos, caballos, cerdos, cabras y ovejas, todos hacinados de tal forma que nada mas llegar a la orilla en Santo Domingo, ciento cuarenta de los seiscientos que iban abandonaron.
El viaje continuó siendo un desastre porque cuando llegaron a Cuba, dos barcos que Pánfilo de Narváez había enviado a la Isla de Trinidad con sesenta hombres y veinte caballos, fueron sorprendidos por un huracán y desaparecieron, por lo que tuvieron que refugiarse en Cuba todo el invierno hasta febrero de 1528 en que partieron para Florida uniendo un nuevo barco que Pánfilo de Narváez había comprado en Cuba y llegando por fin a la costa de Florida el 12 de abril de 1528, después de haber perdido en la travesía a varios hombres y animales.
El 1 de mayo de 1528, 260 hombres a pié, cuarenta jinetes, cinco frailes y varios criados y esclavos marcharon desde la Bahía de Tampa hacia el norte. Pánfilo de Narváez no atendió los consejos de los militares que iban en la expedición, que le pedían que formasen allí mismo una población y después de planificar detenidamente marchar para cumplir su cometido.
Fueron dos semanas espantosas, cuando llegaron exhaustos al río Withlacoochee el 15 de mayo de 1528, todos, personas y caballos, picados por insectos voladores, moscas, abejas y todo tipo de mosquitos y quemados por el sol, además de mal alimentados.
Cuando estaban en el río fueron rodeados por indios en actitud amenazante, pero después de una corta lucha, los indios se rindieron y llevaron a los españoles a su aldea, donde le explicaron a Narváez que había una ciudad con mucha riqueza el norte, ofreciéndose los indios como guías
Esta fue la primera expedición que exploró por tierra el sur de los Estados Unidos.
Cuando llegaron a otro río, el que los indios denominaban Suwannee, adelantó a un jinete a caballo para cruzarlo y ver su profundidad, pero tanto el jinete como el animal, fueron arrastrados por la corriente y se ahogaron. Esto sucedió el 17 de junio de 1528.
A finales de junio llegaron a la ciudad que habían dicho los indios, Apalachen, que era un caserío de cuarenta chozas cubiertas con paja, con mucho fango y muy sucia.
Los exploradores ocuparon la ciudad que solo estaba habitada por mujeres horrorizadas y niños, ya que los hombres había huido.
Narváez había perdido una fortuna en la expedición y no había recuperado nada de valor. Sus hombres estaban muertos de hambre y mucho enfermos.
Recuperaron fuerzas con los alimentos que les quitaron a los indios; maíz, calabazas, raíces, y pescados secos.
Al segundo día, los Apalaches que habían huido a las montañas atacaron a los españoles y los hicieron huir, aunque antes incendiaron las chozas. Llegaron al mar y decidieron construir algún barco ó cosa parecida para salir de aquel infierno, pero se encontraron que en la expedición solo había un hombre que había sido carpintero y no tenían herramientas ni material, pero con madera de pino y calafateando con las fibras de resina del palmeto de pino, ademas de aprovechar sus ropas para construir las velas, se hicieron a la mar. Aparte de ello, el alimento escaseaba cada vez mas, se habian comido ya los pocos caballas que les quedaban y la mayoría de los hombres estaban lesionados o enfermos con fiebre y disentería.
Terminaron las barcazas y en septiembre marcharon río abajo los 242 hombres que quedaban, sin ningún caballo, porque el que último se lo habían comido el día antes de partir.
Los primeros días de navegación fueron muy bien, pero cada vez que se acercaban a las orillas del río para conseguir agua dulce o alimentos, eran atacados por los indios o por las tormentas, por lo que Pánfilo de Narváez decidió que los barcos se dispersaran para conseguir salvarse el que pudiera.
Cuando llegaron el 6 de noviembre de 1528 a la isla de Galveston y Bahía de Lavaca, el barco de Pánfilo de Narváez se había perdido en el mar y al recontarse vieron, con horror, que solo quedaban cuarenta y ocho hombres.
De estos 48, el primer día del año 1529, habían muerto muchos por hambre y enfermedad y por los ataques de los indios y solo quedaban Estevanico, el esclavo negro, y 15 españoles. Cuando trece de ellos intentaron moverse por la costa para intentar escapar, mataron a otros tres y los que quedaron fueron visitando las aldeas durante cuatro años largos, siempre como esclavos de los indios y para obtener alguna comida, hasta que llegaron a una en la que el Jefe estaba muy enfermo y al llegar y ponerle uno de los españoles la mano encima con agua fría, el Jefe indio sanó y los tomaron por hechiceros, con lo que estuvieron viviendo de aldea en aldea, actuando de chamanes.
En esto tuvo especial acierto Estevanico, que iba adornado como en su tribu, con abalorios y colgantes que sonaban como cascabeles y bailaba en plan ritual ante los enfermos. A ello le unimos que por su atractivo físico y por ir muchas veces materialmente desnudo, era muy codiciado por las indias que gustaban de estar con él.
Así estuvieron durante siete años, vagando por unas tierras inhóspitas, siempre intentando escapar y quedando al final vivos tan solo cuatro; tres capitanes, Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Alonso del Castillo Maldonado, Andrés Dorantes Carranza y Estevanico.
Quedó un cuarteto de personas valerosas, inteligentes y resueltas, que atravesaron a pié, lo que es hoy el Estado de Texas y llegaron después de ocho años a zona civilizada.
De los cuatro que quedaron, Estevanico era hombre grande y de gran alcance, con una mente rápida. Aprendió fácilmente los dialectos usados por los indios, ya que tenían cierta similitud con los utilizados en África y aunque comenzó la expedición como esclavo, se convirtió en el hombre clave de la cruzada y que salvó a los otros tres del triste fin que tuvieron el resto de los expedicionarios, si bien el líder del cuarteto siempre fue Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, al que todos obedecían, ya que no olvidaban que había llegado a la expedición como Tesorero Real.
Los cantes y bailes de Estevanico y la confianza que daba a los indios con sus conjuros y rezos, hizo que en muchas ocasiones salvasen el pellejo.
Después de muchas penalidades, y con las fuerzas justas llegaron a un puesto avanzado en el pequeño pueblo de San Miguel de Culiacán en mayo de 1536, donde fueron recibidos como auténticos héroes ya que todos los habían dado por muertos, por el Gobernador de Nueva Galicia, Nuño de Guzmán,
Después de unos días de comer y reponer fuerzas, fueron llamados por el Virrey de México que quería conocer la aventura en su totalidad.
Llegaron a México en julio de 1536 y el virrey Antonio de Mendoza pidió a Dorantes que él y su esclavo Estevanico, acompañasen a la expedición que organizada por el franciscano Fray Marcos de Niza partiría para las míticas siete ciudades de Cibolá, a lo que Dorantes no quiso aceptar, pero cedió o vendió a Estevanico al virrey.
Al parecer Dorantes y Cabeza de Vaca esperaban que le concedieran licencia real para colonizar Texas y Nuevo México, quedando muy desilusionados con ello.
En febrero de 1539, salió la expedición de Fray Marcos de Niza,. Iba por delante de la expedición Estevanico, que enviaba con corredores cruces que indicaban que hacia descubrimientos, pero de poca importancia, por lo que las cruces eran pequeñas.
De pronto descubrió Hawikuh, un pueblo de la tribu Zuni y envió un corredor con una cruz muy grande.
Cuando llegó a la aldea, Estevanico fue recibido por los Zunis con desconfianza, por lo que le ordenaron que esperase en las afueras mientras los ancianos discutían sobre dar la autorización o no.
A la siguiente mañana, los Zunis atacaron y mataron a Estevanico.
Andrés Dorantes embarcó en el puerto de Veracruz para volver a España, pero, pero el barco que lo traía era viejo y tuvo que volver a puerto, lo que él consideró un mal presagio y desistió de retornar a Gibraleón.
Se casó con Maria de la Torre, viuda de Francisco Valdés y a la muerte de ésta se volvió a casar con la viuda de Antonio Gómez de la Corona. Tuvo 14 hijos en Nueva España y murió en 1550.
Alonso del Castillo, después de su aventura decidió continuar en el Nuevo Mundo, aunque hizo una breve visita a España y volvió como funcionario de Hacienda a Guatemala. Se casó y murió al final de la década de 1540.
Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, volvió a España y en 1540 regresó a América como segundo Adelantado del Río de la Plata, aunque allí las cosas no le fueron muy bien, fue acusado de maltrato y estuvo encarcelado dos años y posteriormente enviado de nuevo a España, donde aun cuando lo encontraron culpable, fue perdonado por el rey.
Fue nombrado juez del Tribunal Supremo de Sevilla, siendo Prior de un Convento de la misma ciudad y murió en 1564.
| Lt. Col. Leonard
Indigenous Council Formed
Sarah Winnemucca Statue
Cindy LaMarr, American Indian Educator
Juan José Fustero, last Tataviam
Link to articles in
Sierra Army Depot honor Native Son
Lassen County Times, May 4, 2004
Susanville, California, Vol 26, No. 26
Sent by Cindy LoBuglio firstname.lastname@example.org
April 27, the Sierra Army Depot named a new headquarters building after Lt. Col. Leonard Lowry. Lt. Col. retired in 1967 after spending 27 years as a soldier and leader and served in three wards: World War II, Korea and Vietnam. Lowry, the most decorated and highest ranking Native American to serve in World War II, was buried by special Lassen County Resolution in the Susanville Pioneer Cemetery, following his death, August 17, 1999.
Lowry was awarded five Purple Heart medals while suffering 22 entrance and exit wounds in combat. he also earned the Distinguished Service Cross and two Silver Stars in addition to the Legion of Merit and World War II Victory medals, among other honors.
He served with the famous Second American Infantry Indian Head Division during the Korean War and his men told radio personality Lowell Thomas Lowry ws "bravest man they had ever seen in action."
Indigenous Council Formed
In June, Representatives of 61 indigenous ethnic cultures formed a new council to advise Mexico's government. The new commission is partly an outgrowth of the 1994 Zapatista rebellion in the southern state of Chiapas, through the Zapatistas have rejected President Vicente Fox's initiatives. The new council is supposed to advise the National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples, which oversees government policies directed toward the roughly 10 million Indian people in Mexico. Fox's Indian-affairs official Xochitl Galvez, said Mexico's Indian people still face great difficulties. Galvez said few Indian communities have access to phone lines or other infrastructure.
Sarah Winnemucca Statue
Nevada Women's History Project
Source: Nataqua News, Vol 8, Issue 2, May 2004
Sent by Cindy LoBuglio email@example.com
Her original Paiute name was Thocmetony. She was the daughter of the Chief of the Paiutes, Winnemucca, and granddaughter of Chief Truckee in Nevada. The Paiute creation story tells how dark and light-skinned people were all one family in the beginning, which is the basis for their belief in the brotherhood of mankind.
The first book ever written by a Native American woman was Sarah's autobiography, "Life Among the Piutes: Their Wrongs and Claims." This is the story of her life and customs of the Northern Paiutes, as well as her struggle for justice for her people. Sarah spent most of her adult life seeking that justice through lectures and pleading with authority. She went to Washington D.C.. to meet the president and testify in congress about the conditions of her people.
Sarah also started a school for Native Americans and taught children both in their native language as well as English to enable them to function in both worlds. Serving as an interpreter and negotiator for the U.S. Army, she pleaded for her people to be returned to their ancestral lands. A small portion of their original land was eventually returned to them through her tireless efforts.
Sarah deserves to be honored as a representative of Native American, not only in Nevada but thought the entire country. The Nevada Women's History Project intends to add the highest honor yet to the many Sarah has received . . her statue in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C..
For more information Nevada Women's History Project,
Extract: Cindy LaMarr awarded American Indian Educator of the Year
Lassen County Times, May 18, 2004
Sent by Cindy LoBuglio, firstname.lastname@example.org
LaMarr, who is Pit River and Paiute, serves as National Indian Education Association president and the conference brochure said, ". . . she is working on national educational and budgetary Issues as the President of the National Indian Education Association, the largest Indian education organization in the country dedicated to education advocacy.
LaMarr is the first California Indian and the first California resident to hold this position in its 35-year-history. She was named the Educator of the Year at the 27th Annual California Conference on American Indian Education.
On April 30th in a special signing ceremony at the White House, President George W. Bush signed an Executive Order of American Indian and Alaska Native Education. The purpose of the order is to "assist American Indian and Alaska Native students in meeting the challenging student academic standards of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 in a manner that is consistent with tribal traditions, languages and cultures."
Possibly the last full-blooded
Tataviam Indian — a topic of some dispute — Fustero died on June 30,
Santa Clarita Valley History in Pictures: http://www.scvhistory.com/scvhistory/sg102900b.htm
Tataviam Indians: http://www.scvhistory.com/scvhistory/tataviam.htm
All aspects of the history, people, and geography of the Newhall, California area. Outstanding site. You'll need to glean all the information.
Sunday, October 29, 2000
Objects can talk. In fact, they talk volumes if one knows how to listen.
The home of Art Brewer of Agua Dulce is full of such objects — artifacts made by the Tataviam Indians hundreds of years ago. An amateur archeologist, Brewer has been collecting these artifacts for more than 30 years.
"I don't dig for them myself," he said. "I've been living in this community for decades. People know me and know how much I care about preserving this area's history, and they bring these things to me.
"They know I will take good care of them."
Brewer's collection includes stone artifacts such as manos and metates (used to grind hard seeds), mortars and pestles (to pound acorns), arrowheads, spear points and small beads. He also has small clay objects that puzzle experts for two reasons: No one knows what they were used for and, according to archeological data, the Tataviam didn't even make pottery. Another curious piece in Brewer's collection is a stone ax, also found locally.
Brewer was visited by Dr. John Johnson, curator of anthropology at the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, who was very excited about the ax.
"There were only three axes like this ever found in California," Johnson said, "including this. It is very interesting."
Johnson said the ax is known as a "grooved ax" and is not native to California. Its origin is southern Arizona, and it was made by an Indian tribe there, the Hohokam.
"This clearly shows extensive trade," Johnson said.
"I think that Vasquez Rocks was an extremely important hub of interstate trade," Brewer said. "The artifacts found suggest that many groups of people came here periodically to trade. It is hard to go anywhere in California without passing through Vasquez Rocks."
Then there is The Bowl.
Found on Agua Dulce resident Mark Meyer's property in 1994, the wooden bowl "might be the most significant artifact ever found in the Southwest," said archeologist Dr. Charles Rozaire.
The 9 1/2-inch by 9-inch bowl is made of oak gall — an abnormal swelling on a tree caused by insects or disease — and it shows traces of several mendings. It had remnants of basketry on the top and bottom, and was coated with asphaltum inside, indicating that it might have been used to carry water.
Meyer donated the bowl to the Vasquez Rocks Nature Center, but for lack of an appropriate storage facility it was given to the Santa Clarita Valley Historical Society on a long-term loan in 1995.
"The deal was, the VRNC would get it back as soon as our interpretive center was built," Brewer said. "But unfortunately this seems to be in jeopardy."
Earlier this year Meyer reportedly took the bowl back, and his intentions are not known. Meyer did not return a phone message.
Brewer's biggest fear is that "because of improper storage, its condition might deteriorate irreparably.
"We (the Vasquez Rocks Nature Center Associates) would like to get it back and take good care of it," he said. "It is an important piece of history and should be on display for everybody to appreciate it."
Brewer is president of the VRNCA, a non-profit organization formed in 1991 to build a Nature Interpretive Center at Vasquez Rocks, which was listed on the National Register of Historical Places in 1973 for its archeological and historical importance.
"We collected signatures from 3,500 local residents and got a professional rendering by architect Dave Baumont for a small interpretive museum at Vasquez Rocks," Brewer said. "Then we presented the plans to (Supervisor) Mike Antonovich, who thought it was a worthwhile effort."
The VRNCA held fund-raisers to get the word out about the project, and in 1998 the County of Los Angeles allocated $1.2 million from Prop. A funds to build an interpretive museum at the park.
"No specific site has been picked yet," said Mike Sharp, head ranger at Vasquez Rocks County Park.
VRNCA's mission is to educate the public about local history and nature, provide recreational opportunities and preserve the Native American sites at the park. The group intends for the Vasquez Rocks Interpretive Nature Center to be dedicated solely to local history — mainly to preserve and educate about the town's early inhabitants, the Tataviam.
Under the tentative plans, the museum will host alternating displays of artifacts, research facilities, a re-created archeological excavation site for children to learn about "digs," and a small life-like Tataviam village setting where visitors can learn about food preparation, see how tools and clothing were made, and discover other cultural features of the tribe.
"Preserving history should be the most important thing in the world," said Brewer. "'Without the past, there is no future,' my professor used say, and all I'm trying to do now is make sure our local history is properly preserved."
350 years of Jewish life in
America, Important Exhibition
More Than 10,000 Jews Fought For The Confederacy
American Sephardi Federation
In the spring of 2005 the Center for Jewish History will mount a major exhibit focusing on 350 years of Jewish life in America. All of the partner institutions will participate in this project, using this important anniversary to show how the development of Jewish communities in America affected Jews around the world. some of these influences were quite. Jews immigrated to American and sent back letters full of information about life in their new home. This stimulated further migration and helped Jews around the globe learn about American and its people. Jewish newspapers, wherever they were published news and stories about the immigration and the development of Jewish life in American. Jewish organizations founded in the United States i.e., the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, B'nai B'rith, the American Jewish Committee, the Jewish Joint Distribution Committee and ORT - all played a role in shaping Jewish life all over the word.
Do you have any family mementos, letters, artifacts, or photographs that might help illustrate this truly international story? Can you share stories about how your family came to American and what they knew about the place as they made their decision about where and when to immigrate?
With this exhibition, the American Sephardi Federation with Sephardic House and its members and friends have a unique opportunity to educate the larger Jewish community and non-Jewish community alike about our Sephardic culture and history. Moreover, we have an opportunity to play a significant role in Celebrate 350 along with our illustrious partners at the Center for Jewish History, the American Jewish Historical society, the Leo Beck Institute, Yeshiva University Museum, and YIVO.
I hope that you will search your minds and your closets to help make the Sephardic contribution to this project a significant one. Please call me if you have any questions or would like to make a contribution.
|American Sephardi Federation with
Constantly updated websites: programs, events, projects, and a gift shop with unique Sepharic items
Online catalogue and archival records http://www.asfonline.org/portal/librarycatalogues.asp
Humanities Texas Teacher Awards
State Hispanic Genealogical Confer
United LatinoArtists, Sept 18th Parade
Texas Latinas foil PGA plans
Guadalupe "Lupita" Castillo Ramirez
|So Why So I Care?
The Tamale Queen
HOGAR 2004 Journal
Battle of Medina
Humanities Texas Teacher Awards
Humanities Texas would like to alert you to our Outstanding Teaching of the Humanities Award and the Linden Heck Howell Outstanding Teaching of Texas History Award. The deadline for submitting nominations for either awards program has been extended to September 15, 2004.
The nomination form is available here: http://www.humanitiestexas.org/awards/t_awards.htm
For more information:
Eric Lupfer, Ph.D.
Senior Program Officer
3809-A S. 2nd St.
Austin, TX 78704-7058
Sent by J.D. Villarreal email@example.com
Texas State Hispanic Genealogical Conference
The 25th Annual Texas State Hispanic Genealogical and Historical Conference, “Racing through History – Tracing the Lives and Travels of our Ancestors”, will be held September 17-19, 2004. This conference sounds like a party as well as an educational experience. The professionals will present a variety of outstanding topics on Hispanic research topics. This event will take place at the Holiday Inn Hotel, 2705 E. Houston Highway, Victoria, Texas.
Michael A. Salinas, will present “Hispanic Genealogy on the Internet”. This will be an exciting hands-on computer genealogy class. Space is limited to 20 per session. There will be three 45-minutes sessions. Come prepared with a specific area or topic that you are interested in. These 3 programs will be held at the University of Houston-Victoria. Maps provided at registration. Call 361/572-2787 M-F from 8a.m. - 5p.m. or email firstname.lastname@example.org to reserve a space. Cost: Free!
You can visit with experts in a variety of specialized areas of Hispanic Genealogy research or learn about new products available to researchers in one-o! n-one roundtable discussions from 3:00 – 5:30p.m. Take this opportunity to discuss your genealogy problem or the services, activities, and opportunities that may benefit you and your research. Stop by the Rio Grande Room to learn more! Cost: Free!
For more details, visit http://home.earthlink.net/~hogardedallas/id10.html Registration questions may be sent by email to email@example.com.
Texas United Latino Artists, T.U.L.A, Sept 18th Parade
The target Date for the Parade is Sept. 18th, A Saturday. We leave the American Statesman parking lot around 5 PM arrive at the Front steps of the Texas State Capitol around 6 or 6:30 PM. We will have Speakers, Poetry, Danzistas, and Music for 3 to 4 hours. Then we have the After Parade Party. . Food. Drink. And Dance.
All of the events will be filmed and videotaped. The
primary purpose is to create an instructional film documentary. T.U.L.A is
proposing that we celebrate Mexican Independence Day at all United States
Capitols and a Joint one in Washington D.C. in 2008. The Capitol Ground
Floor Rotunda has also been reserved if any one wishes to exhibit their art
We need to have another meeting, Please respond if you wish to attend.
Another Latina that lead the the way was Guadalupe "Lupita" Castillo Ramirez
Lupita C. Ramirez passed away Monday, August 9, 2004 in San Antonio, Texas at Brooke Army Medical Center. She was a loving wife, mother grandmother and great grandmother who was devoted to her loving husband of 58 years and doted on her grandchildren. Lupita was born in Houston, Texas to Pedro and Porfiria Castillo; over-came being orphaned at age 16, and was raised by her maternal aunts in Kingsville and Laredo, Texas.
Lupita founded the "Villa San Agustin de Laredo Genealogical Society" in 1986 and promoted genealogical research into the origins of the Mexican-American and Hispanic population of Laredo, Texas, Webb County and the surrounding area. Lupita established a home library, which included family histories from the U.S., Mexico, the Caribbean, South and Central America, Italy, Spain and Portugal. She was well known and respected in genealogical circles and heritage preservation groups. Lupita was recognized in 1992 by the "Spanish-American Genealogical Association" and was presented the Luciano Guajardo Historical Award by the "Webb County Heritage Foundation" in 1997. She was also a member of the "Webb County Historical Commission" where she conducted extensive research on the first telephone exchange in Laredo. She was currently researching the history of the Plaza Theater. Her hobbies included reading, communicating worldwide with friends through her computer and traveling. Lupita visited Spain, France, Mexico and all of the Caribbean Islands on five cruises. Lupita worked for South Western Bell for 38 years and was a member of the "Pioneers of America," a community service organization of retired employees. She received a GED at age 62 and an Associates of Arts degree from Laredo Junior College at age 64.
So Why So I Care?
Baltazar Acevedo bacevedo@UTB.edu
Buenos Dias Mis Amigas y Amigos, All of a sudden the demographic shift is accelerated and presto, the Hispanic population is now the majority population in Texas. Sounds far-fetched? Not according to Dr.Steve Murdock, the Texas State Demographer and professor at UT-San Antonio. In a recent press statement, Dr. Murdock made the following observations:
"...that Anglos are likely to be the minority in Texas by spring about two years earlier than originally expected. The Anglo population is growing more slowly because the flood of newcomers that Texas saw in the 1990s has slowed to a trickle. Meanwhile, births, primarily for Hispanics, kept a fast pace from 2000 to 2002. The more rapid shift in Texas' racial and ethnic diversity means that the state must find ways to improve education, access to health care and job training to remain competitive economically." (Fort Worth Star-Telegram, June 26, 2004) Murdock goes to make these other observations: "Undocumented immigrants are not specifically accounted for, but some of them are part of the Census 2000 head counts that serve as a starting point for the estimates. If the official counts could estimate undocumented immigrants, he said, Anglos would probably already be in the minority in Texas."
So why should we care? Apparently Mexican Americans are taking back the Texas that was lost to Mexico in the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo. Not so fast. We now must care, not as in 1848 when caring was not part of the military or divine doctrine equation. This demographic shift will have major implications for our schools, educational financing, trained professional, health resources, our tax base [do we want workers making $5.50 an hour as the backbone of our social security trust?], affordable housing and so on and so. It is important that we all care because this population will form the foundation for the future workforce that will support the baby-boomers in retirement [me and some of you], the tax base to support the infrastructure, work to hold our technology backbone in place and pay for the future Wal-Marts that are bursting forth at every street corner in Texas.
Now comes the downside and upside. I have attached a recent article [in Word] which describes the educational attainment gaps between Whites and Hispanic in this United States. The full report is found at the following website: http://www.educationalpolicy.org Please review the challenges in this report and then evaluate your personal academic, interpersonal and professional assets as well as those of your colleagues, community and institution and prepare an action plan to make a difference. I am fortunate to personally know many of you and I am secure in knowing that you are now and will be responding to these challenges to collectively make a difference here and now. Our children are counting on us as we did on our familias who helped us become who we are.
Peace and Health. Baltazar
Baltazar Arispe y Acevedo, Jr., Ph.D.
Cross Border Institute for Regional Development UT-Brownsville/Texas
Southmost College 500 E. St. Charles
Brownsville, Texas 78520
Direct Office Telephone: 956-983-7581
Direct Business Cell: 956-551-3337
The Tamale Queen, Goya Pina
Sent by Johanna de Soto [[Go the site for the photos and lots of recipes.]]
I grew up on a remote ranch in West Texas. Not far down the road from where I grew up lived a family that worked on the ranch. The Mom was named Goya, and she was the best cook in the world. She is pictured at left in a photograph made in 1963. Goya taught me how to make tamales. It is her recipe that I have described on this site.
Goya and her family lived in a very small cinder block house. The house had a tiny kitchen that barely had room for a stove. Some of my fondest memories are walking over to Goya's house. As you got near her house you could always smell something wonderful cooking in that tiny kitchen. She was almost always making flower tortillas.
These are not the kind that you buy in the store today, but the kind made from scratch, and cooked quickly on a hot griddle. I can remember when I would walk up she would always greet me with a smile and a warm hello. She would throw me a flour tortilla right off the griddle. She would toss it just like a Frisbee. Never since have I ever been able to find a tortilla that tasted as good as those she would throw me off that griddle.
Goya would also make hot tamales. I will always remember how good her tamales tasted. Luckily, she taught me how to make tamales, and it is her special recipe that is presented on this site. I hope to ad more of Goya's recipes as time goes on.
[[ Sorry, I could not identify the writer of the essay and the web mistress of the site.]]
HOGAR de Dallas 2004 Journal's Table of Contents
Arturo Garza, AGarza0972@aol.com
This year's journal contains 314 pages of genealogical information--a total of about 330 pages including the Introduction, Forwards, and Sections separating pages. HOGAR members who pay their dues will receive their journals next month or at the September Victoria conference. Nonmembers will be able to obtain their copy for a $25. donation. http://home.earthlink.net/~hogardedallas
HOGAR JOURNAL, VOLUME VII, 2004-2005
HOGAR 2004-2005 Board Members
HOGAR General Information
Expression of Appreciation from HOGAR Journal Committee
Nicolás Ayala, Recipient of the Second Annual HOGAR Scholarship, his Ancestors and his Essay
I. FAMILY LINES & STORIES
Abuela Josefa Castaño And Family Photos by Janet Paulos Khashab
Eleven-Generation Ancestral Report of my Grandmother Josefa Castaño by Janet Paulos Khashab
Añoranzas de un Pasado Inolvidable by Raúl Mitre Valle
History of León, Cerralvo, Agualeguas, and General Treviño (El Puntiagudo) by Lionel Garza
Biography of Captain Louis Juchereau de St. Denis by John D. Inclán
Antiguos Pobladores de la Nueva España, Nuevo Reyno de León, and Nuevo Santander, The
Guerra Cañamar History by Ben Figueroa
The Longhorn Cattle by Lionel Garza
The Spanish Surname Tenorio by Lydia Tenorio Zermeño Chavarría
Dig for those Roots & Plant that Family Tree, "Limpieza de Sangre," by Mona Hernández
La Genealogía by Mickey Margot García
What is a Kissing Cousin? by Roberto Vela II and Irma Saldívar Vela
The Vela Surname and Vela Descendants by Lionel Garza
II HISTORY & HERITAGE
Descendants of Joseph Bartholomé Seguín by John D. Inclán
Ancestors of Juan de los Santos García by Dorina Alaniz Thomas
Genealogical Descendancy Report of Domingo González and María Jacinta de Hinojosa
by J. M. Benavides
Genealogical Descendancy Report of Antón García & Ana Sepúlveda by Esther Arredondo Herold
Flores Pérez Ancestry by Dorina Alaniz Thomas
Genealogical Descendancy Report of Diego Castaño y Mendosa and Gertrudis de la Garza
by Janet Paulos Khashab
Descendants of Jean Juchereau, Sieur de More by John D. Inclán
Ancestors of Joseph Eugenio Elizondo by Dorina Alaniz Thomas
Genealogical Descendancy Report of Joseph de Farías and Inés de Aguirre by J. M. Benavides
Descendants of Antonio Rivers AKA Antonio del Río: by Ruby Rivers Reed
Ancestors of Nicolasa de Villarreal: by Dorina Alaniz Thomas
Descendants of José Manuel de Goseascochea: by John D. Inclán
Genealogical Descendancy Report of María Ignacia de Urrutia and Simón de Arocha
by J. M. Benavides
Ancestors of Felipe de la Serna: by Dorina Alaniz Thomas
Algunos descendientes de Fernán Blas Pérez: by Araceli Guadalupe Cerda Chavana
Queries: Six Queries
1. Joseph Cayetano Treviño and María Luisa Gutiérrez de Lara from José G. Treviño
2. Manuel Ramírez and Bernardina Marquina from Lupita Ramírez
3. José Jesús Baez and Manuela Guajardo from J. M. Benavides
4. Antonio del Río aka Antonio Rivers from Ruby Rivers Reed
5. Tomás Campos, Julia Ramírez, & Cecil Tenorio and Pedigree Chart from Lydia Campos Tenorio
6. José Miguel Guajardo and María Gertrudis Flores & José Ignacio Guajardo and María
Francisca Flores from J. M. Benavides
Recipes by Gloria H. Benavides
Census of Candela, Coahuila-1815 by Mickey Margot García
Translation of Consanguinity Dispensation of Francisco Xavier de la Garza, by Lionel Garza
Confederates in the Civil War---Laredo's Defenders submitted by J. M. Benavides
Clayton Library, Members Meeting
Sent by Dick Warren firstname.lastname@example.org
[[ Editor's note: Although this meeting is past, this is for those that do not known about the Clayton Library.]]
The next Members Meeting of the Clayton Library Friends is August 14, 2004. The meeting begins promptly at 10 a.m. at the Bayland Community Center, 6400 Bissonnet, Houston, Texas.
"Everything you wanted to know about the Texas State Archives but were afraid to ask". Tony Black, Texas State Archives, Military Research Expert, & Author, will discuss CLF Texas Records microfilm and Using other records in the Texas State Archives.
Mr. Black has a B. A. in History from the University of Texas, El Paso and a M. A. in Medieval History from the University of Texas, Austin. He has taught U. S. history at the college level for many years. Currently, he spends his workdays on the records of Governor George W. Bush and "appraises state agency records for their archival and historical value". He has worked with the records for the Texas Adjutant General's office, the Comptroller of Public Accounts, the Secretary of State and the Department of Human Services.
Dick Warren, Clayton Library Friends
Battle of Medina
note: Although August 18th has passed I am sending this along in
preparation for next year. There are websites underneath that you may
want to read and see if your Tejano ancestors were involved in the
Battle of Medina.]]
First Republic of Texas
|Thrown Out||Understanding the French and
Canary Islanders Heritage Society of Louisiana.
by Tom Schram
Metro Times Detroit, 7/28/04
Sent by JV Martinez email@example.com
[[ Editor's note: This is the complete text. Go to Orange County and read more on this subject.]]
The Depression-era deportation of thousands of Mexicans still resonates in Detroit and beyond
Seventy-five summers ago, Detroit was home to a vibrant, thriving and industrious Mexican community. Life revolved around family, Our Lady of Guadalupe Catholic Church and days of hard labor in the auto plants.
Five years later, everything had changed. The church near Roosevelt and West Kirby, which was built by the Mexicans themselves, was in a steady decline as the southwest Detroit community comprising from 15,000 to 30,000 people of Mexican descent reeled from a devastating blow.
The reason for the demise of the Mexican community in Detroit and in cities across the nation was a little-reported, guileful, organized government campaign. The effort deprived thousands of Mexicans — most of whom were in the United States legally, many of whom were actually American citizens — of their basic civil liberties. They were sent packing back to Mexico as the United States confronted the economic horrors of the Great Depression. It was called the Repatriation. Those who were its victims became collectively known as los repatriados.
Mexicans had been coming to Michigan in numbers since at least the 1880s, mainly to work in the sugar beet fields, most notably those of the Michigan Sugar Co., which had plantations and processing plants in Clinton, Gratiot, Lapeer, Saginaw and Tuscola counties. But by 1920, the lingering end of the decade-long Mexican Revolution and the labor shortage in Detroit-area auto plants combined to turn the trickle into a flood.
Jorge Chinea is nearing 50 and just starting to gray. Late last year he was appointed an associate professor of history and the director of the Center for Chicano-Boricua Studies at Wayne State University. He is renovating a house in Clinton Township where he lives with his family — his wife, his two sons, a daughter and a small Pomeranian named Paquito, who he laughingly refers to as his “fourth child.”
The house has a huge back lawn. A vegetable garden boasts a healthy assortment of tomatoes, peppers and squash. A tree-lined undeveloped lot next door gives him isolation. In measured distances it is hundreds of miles from the environment of his youth. In cultural and aesthetic distances, it is light years away.
Chinea grew up in a barrio near San Juan, Puerto Rico, moved to a Hispanic slum in New York City at 13 and fought his way into American academia through a gantlet of crime, youth gangs and drugs. His suburban home is now his sanctuary, with his bright, energetic family surrounding him. Even Paquito is friendly to the point of distraction.
Chinea says the rush of Mexicans to Detroit was well-orchestrated.
“A lot of them were recruited by local companies,” he says. “Ford Motor Company sent people to the border. They posted signs in the communities telling people that you could make so much money, that you could have housing, that you could eat three meals a day, that this was the way to go.
“You had a lot of deprivation in Mexico, a lot of instability; you had chaos. There were women who left simply because their husbands had died in the war and they had no means of supporting their families. So the enticement of a job in Michigan sounded great on paper. Companies used contractors known as coyotes. They would round up people and transport them illegally to the jobs in Michigan.”
And so they came, streams of Mexicans. For reasons that will be explained, it is not possible to know or even estimate closely the numbers. But they rushed to the opportunity, not only to the auto plants of Detroit, but to the cotton fields of the South and Southwest, to the farms of the Midwest, to the meat packing houses of Chicago and to wherever there was a railroad line waiting to be laid.
They had no idea what would befall them.
When the Depression hit in October of 1929, critics predicted the end of capitalism. Job opportunities ranged from scarce to nonexistent. A nationalistic swell of anti-Mexican sentiment grew into hysteria. Both those on the right and in organized labor, led by the American Federation of Labor, called for the preservation of jobs for “real Americans.”
The Herbert Hoover administration reacted by having the Immigration and Naturalization Service launch a campaign to deport the Mexicans, sending them back to their ravaged homeland, often without choice. So began the Repatriation.
As California State University professors Francisco E. Balderrama and Raymond Rodriguez reported in their book, Decade of Betrayal (1995, University of New Mexico Press), “As the deportation system was then structured … deportation proceedings were made to order for wholesale violations of basic human rights. Mass raids and arrests were conducted without the benefit of warrants. Individuals were often held incommunicado … Deportees languished in jail until the next deportation train was formed.”
Distinctions between legal and illegal, citizen and non-citizen, Mexican and Mexican-American were blurred.
“Los repatriados is a name that means the repatriated, but in a way it is a misnomer because the people who were victimized by this campaign to remove Mexicans from the United States in the 1930s were not always simply asked to leave,” Chinea says. “A lot of them were just deported. There were people who were born in America [and therefore U.S. citizens] who were never given the choice as to whether they wanted to leave or not.”
It was a time of terror for all Hispanics, according to Decade of Betrayal: “All Mexicans, whether legal or illegal, looked alike to immigration officials. In street sweeps throughout the nation’s major cities, people who ‘looked Mexican’ found themselves at risk of being picked up and taken into custody. To act first and ask questions later seemed to be the policy of the Immigration Service. Arrests were often made without warrants or even probable cause.”
Immigration laws did exist, as did a deportation-appeal process, but the language barrier often skewed the proceedings in favor of the government. And since immigration authorities served as prosecutors, judges and juries, appeals rarely went anywhere. The niceties of due process were often set aside. As detailed in Decade of Betrayal, appeals were largely moot.
“In reality, it was not difficult to convince Nationals that returning home voluntarily was the best choice available to them. The reason was quite simple: If individuals asked for a formal hearing and were denied entry, they were automatically barred from ever being eligible to reenter the United States. On the other hand, if they agreed to voluntary deportation, no arrest warrant was issued and no legal record or judicial transcript of the incident was kept. The deportees were free to reenter the U.S. legally at some future date.”
By all accounts, there were some Mexicans who wanted to go back. But Chinea says that it makes little sense that very many would have returned absent the INS’ deception and pressure.
“People were afraid of being deported and so they felt pressured,” he says. “Under those conditions, people were basically deceived into thinking that the government of Mexico and the government of the United States had concocted this master plan to help them. Mexico was in a recession after having gone through the Revolution from 1910 to 1920, the last thing you want to do is in the late 1920s is to go back to Mexico.”
The roughshod treatment of the Mexicans and the abuses of their rights by the INS did create a certain hue and cry among activists and civil libertarians. In response, the government created the Wickersham Commission, chaired by distinguished jurist Reuben Oppenheimer. In its 1932 report, the commission concluded: “The apprehension and examination of supposed aliens are often characterized by methods unconstitutional, tyrannic and oppressive.”
William N. Doak, Hoover’s labor secretary and point man in the repatriation campaign, denied all charges of abuse and misconduct. Nothing really changed.
The story of the Repatriation is more than a story of government abuse and a system that fostered the elimination of civil liberties. It is mostly a story about los repadriatos themselves, their families and how what happened 75 years ago wrenched a community in ways that still resound today.
Elena Herrada’s grandfather was one of los repadriados. A hyperactive woman of 47, Herrada grew up in an ethnic hodgepodge of an East Side Detroit neighborhood, moving to Sterling Heights as a teen. A self-described poor student in high school, she caught the education bug when a Latino studies professor cornered her on a visit with friends to Wayne State. She began a life of activism and is now the head of a small union local that represents cafeteria workers in Detroit-area auto plants. She has worked on many social justice issues in the Latino community. She is frustrated by the fact that although she can speak Spanish fluently, she can neither read nor write it.
“You know what they say about Chicanos,” she jokes. “We’re illiterate in two languages. That’s kind of the way it is because we didn’t have any way of learning.”
The Repatriation has become an obsession. Working with other activists, she has created a video on the subject, started a Web site — http://www.losrepatriados.org/ — and helped organize a weeklong conference on the subject that was held in Mexico in June. A mother of four daughters, her clean, well-kept house sits in the shadow of Tiger Stadium in southwest Detroit. In the back yard, a gurgling pond brings surprising touches of wildlife to the urban setting.
On a sparkling June day, Herrada sits on her front porch and talks about the Repatriation, Mexican-American culture and community in Detroit, and how they are connected.
“My grandfather came to Detroit in 1920 after the revolution,” she says. “A million people died in the revolution and probably another million came to the United States. There was nothing left there. It was devastated. Can you imagine traveling all that way, having nothing, not knowing how to read or write? Imagine how brave those people were.”
Herrada encountered a remarkable cultural phenomenon when her studies of the Repatriation led her to confront her grandfather.
“I took the book to my grandfather and I said, ‘This is what the scholars said happened. And I know you went to Mexico during the Depression. But is this what really happened?’ And my grandfather for a long time wouldn’t tell me that they had been forced to leave. And I still don’t know, because he died before I got the real story from him.”
It is this Mexican culture of silence, of forgetting, that has kept the story of the Repatriation from being widely disseminated.
Herrada speaks of a line from author John Philip Santos’ family memoir, Places Left Unfinished at the Time of Creation.
“He said, ‘Forgetting is to Mexicans what remembering is to Jews.’ That just resonates. Everyone knows about the Holocaust, many people know about the Japanese internments. In the Mexican community, those who returned did not talk about it. They did not tell their own families. In the beginning I couldn’t understand why people would not talk about it. And as I did more interviews and as I talked to more and more people and their descendants, it got to the point that I’m amazed that anyone talks about it at all. We’re very lucky to get their stories. It isn’t their fault. They didn’t understand it. They didn’t want to revisit it. They wanted to disappear it in their minds.”
In her attempt to recruit los repatriados for her conference in Mexico, Herrada ran up against the problem again. Only one would make the trip.
“They refused to go with us back to Mexico,” she says. “None of the people who got deported would go. Only one. The memories were way too bitter for them. They don’t know why we’re doing this or why we’re talking about it. They think we’re just revisiting wounds that are better left unopened.”
Chinea has also observed this phenomenon.
“The people that we interview said they have never told their children, because it would be demeaning for a father to have to admit he was thrown out,” he says. “In Latino culture, the men have to take care of their families. When you can’t do that, when you’re thrown out, it’s very demeaning. People wouldn’t talk about it.”
This cultural tendency toward silence extends not only to family, but to society and citizenship. According to Herrada, Mexicans have a tradition of keeping to themselves. This explains why no one knows how many Mexicans were living in Detroit in 1929. It explains why estimates of the number of Mexicans deported nationwide during the Repatriation vary from 300,000 to 1 million. No one knows. No one ever will know.
“We came from people who would not deal with the government at any level that they didn’t have to,” Herrada says. “This is why we don’t vote; this is why we don’t answer the census; this is why we don’t participate in anything government-related if we don’t have to. It’s just like a tradition that’s been passed down. We come from a tradition of non-participation. I joke that we don’t even RSVP. We never can know who’s coming to our events.”
One number we do know from the INS’s own reports is that from 1930 to 1939, Mexicans constituted 46.3 of all those deported from the United States. During that time, they comprised less than 1 percent of the population.
“Across the country 60 percent of those who were deported were U.S.-born,” Herrada says. “And nobody was illegal. There wasn’t a question of legality crossing the border then. People were invited to work here. They didn’t have to sneak across the border to get here.
“Wayne County was very involved in the Repatriation. They would just come to the houses and say, ‘You have to go.’ Mexicans were demonized by the press and by Congress and the general public. It was a horrendous thing to do. To target a community, to round them up, to tell them they had to leave.”
Racism was definitely in play. Chinea says social Darwinism, Manifest Destiny and the eugenics movement all fueled the deportation hysteria.
“We also had a nativistic movement in the United States that’s been there throughout our history where we always favor native-born over foreign-born. The labor movement was advancing the notion of nativism because they didn’t want foreign workers to be hired.”
“For me, I was lonely for Mexicans growing up,” says Herrada, the pain still evident. “And when I did come around this Mexican community, I never wanted to leave it again. There’s great comfort in community. And that’s what the Mexicans lost.”
Much, if not most of the Mexican community eventually came back to Detroit. Again, there are no hard numbers, but the anecdotal evidence is strong. The Depression over, Detroit became the nation’s “Arsenal of Democracy” and the plants fired up again, this time making materiel and vehicles to fuel the World War II effort. Mexican labor was once more needed.
But great damage had been done. For the Mexicans, nothing would ever be the same.
“One of the effects of the Repatriation was that people came back and got extremely dissimilated,” Herrada says. “Many married non-Mexicans, moved away from the community, didn’t speak Spanish and didn’t have any connection with the community of Mexicans, which to me is the biggest loss. It’s like being banished. This was never articulated and when the people came back, they wouldn’t even tell their children why it wasn’t OK to be Mexican. So you had a whole generation of people who grew up being ashamed without knowing why. The fact that there is a Mexican community here is in itself an act of resistance. The need for association, for affiliation is greater than the fear. That’s how I feel.
“A lot of people think that Mexicans are backward because we’re less assimilated than other groups who started here around the same time. And we’re less educated and less successful financially. That’s a result of having been kicked back for a generation.”
Chinea agrees but says that there has not been enough research done to know the magnitude of the blow the Repatriation struck.
“Probably in that time frame, the Repatriation did a lot of damage to the Mexican communities,” he says. “It stunted them, just as they were growing. And so they had to restart again in the ’40s. This needs to be more quantified.”
For her part, Herrada has established Fronteras Nortenas, a nonprofit company that will seek grant money to keep open a Mexican museum in Detroit and to foster community education and oral history. Its goal, she says is “reclaiming our intellectual, historical and spiritual history.”
A lawsuit for compensation for los repatriados has been started in California. Chinea says speed is of the essence.
“There needs to be some kind of compensation,” he says. “I don’t know what form it would take. There needs to be some action taken now, because as time goes on, those records get shredded. The human record is also going away.”
Herrada says that the families by and large don’t want money “because money can’t replace what they’ve lost. Certainly the people who had this happen to them don’t want it to happen to anyone else. They understand what we’re doing. We’re not going for vengeance or even an apology. The great author Betita Martinez said, ‘I don’t want to participate in the oppression Olympics.’”
Government recognition of the atrocity would help, Herrada says. But what los repatriados really want, she says, is to make it unhappen. What she thinks about, she says, is why it happened. She grows quiet, diverting her eyes as she ponders the answer.
“I guess it happened because it could happen, for one thing,” she says. “The world was arranged in a different way then. It was kind of a mob behavior and mentality — retaining the jobs for ‘real Americans.’ And there were all these immigrants who weren’t ‘real Americans,’ who didn’t speak English, who looked different. They weren’t worthy of being here in difficult times. And they had no way to support themselves.
“I’ve been looking for this: Who stood up against this? And I haven’t found out yet.
“Nobody stopped it,” she whispers. “Nobody stopped it.”
More articles by Tom Schram on the subject:
A painful period: http://www.metrotimes.com/editorial/story.asp?id=6551
Two who never came back: http://www.metrotimes.com/editoial/story.asp?id=6551
Forget about civil rights: http://www.metrotimes.com/editorial/story.asp?id=6550
Deportee documentary http://www.metrotimes.com/editorial/story.asp?id=6552
Filmmaker Alex Cortez has seen the stories of the Repatriation as no one else has. In compiling dozens of interviews for a documentary on los repatriados, he has spoken face to face with more deported members of the Mexican community than anyone else.
Cortez says he has conducted about 60 interviews and wants to emerge with a feature-length film that he hopes will eventually end up on public television. One thing he is sure about. He is not getting rich from his work on the project.
“There’s no money, no wages. But it’s a story that needs to be told. There are stories here that haven’t been told at all. I’m hoping that this will open up more doors. The Native Americans have their Trail of Tears. This is another one.”
France ceded Louisiana to Spain and Great Britain in 1766 following the French and Indian War. Spain acquired that part of Louisiana lying west of the Mississippi River and the Island of Orleans, an area east of the Mississippi including New Orleans.
Early in the 1770's Spanish officials learned that the British were planning to invade and occupy the Province of Louisiana, using the province as a base from which to attack Mexico and deprive Spain of the vast deposits of Mexican silver and gold. The British attempted to realize their plans almost fifty years later during the Battle of New Orleans. Consequently, Spanish administrators started developing Louisiana as a barrier between Mexico and the British colonies east of the Mississippi River.
Reacting to successful British colonization efforts along the Gulf Coast in British West Florida, Spain settled thousands of immigrants from Malaga and the Canaries, as well as Acadian refugees, in Louisiana. The settlers came to Louisiana to increase production of food, populate the province and defend it against the projected British invasion.
The first Isleños arrived in Louisiana during 1778 and continued to arrive in the province until 1783. They were settled in four locations, strategically placed around New Orleans to guard approaches to the city. Galveztown, situated just below Baton Rouge, was the first settlement. The others were Valenzuela, located along Bayou Lafourche; Barataria, located along Bayou des Familles in Jefferson Parish; and La Concepcion, later San Bernardo, located in St. Bernard Parish along Bayou Terre-aux-Boeufs.
A fifth settlement for Bayougoulas was planned, but never completed.Isleños fought against the British during the American Revolution through their service in the Galvez Expedition. Militiamen from the four Isleño settlements, including San Bernardo, participated in the three major military campaigns (Baton Rouge, Mobile and Pensacola) of the expedition, which resulted in the expulsion of the British presence from what is now the United States Gulf Coast.
My G/G/Ggrandfather Josef Morales came from Aguimes on the isle of Gran Canaria on the Spanish Friggate "San Ignatio de Loyola", landed in New Orleans in January of 1779 and was a militiaman with the Regiment of Louisiana at the fort at Galveztown.My G/G/ Grandfather Roumaldo Carmena, a Corporal in the detachment at Galvez, arrived in 1791 and married Josef's daughter Josefa Morales in 1796. . Enjoy. Bill Carmena JCarm1724@aol.com
For more information on the
participation of the Islenos a brief historical overview of The Los
Islenos Heritage and Cultural Society: http://www.canaryislands-usa.com/cifec/losislenos.html
Canary Islanders Heritage Society of Louisiana.
Sent by Bill Carmena JCarm1724@aol.com
Beautiful new website and a very accessible resource of State Land Office Online Documents.
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|St. Cloud High School Teaches Dance Techniques and Diversity|
Nancy Barber firstname.lastname@example.org
2000 Bulldog Lane
St. Cloud, Florida 34769
[[ Editor's note: I met Nancy Barber and her mother in D.C. in May. I was impressed by her description and philosophy of incorporating various cultural aspects to high school dance classes. With a high percentage of Latino students in Florida, South American dances are an expected part of the program, but Nancy's curriculum is quite diverse, and quite unique. They are in constant demand and have performed all over the state.
There is no other high school dance program in the state designed and structured to included basic living skills, such as dining etiquette. Considering the immigrants need to assimilate socially, I thought it interesting enough to share with readers. ]]
Nancy has Hispanic lines through her mother, a descendent of Spanish colonists in St. Augustine.
Class description reads: Dance Techniques is a social dance class that encompasses Ballroom, Latin, Country and Swing dances. A little dance history is also studied, along with basic dining etiquette. Students have the option to attend after-school ballroom dances and group or private lessons with professional dancers in the Central Florida area.
In addition, there is also an opportunity to perform at various venues during the year. We have an alumni in Brigham Young University with a Ballroom dance scholarship, a sophomore who auditioned for a received a callback from CBS for Star Search, and a senior with an invitation to dance in Europe this summer.
Search for Aztlan,
the Ancestral Homeland of the Mexican, Maps
"La Señora Elmy" from Yucatan
LAZOS, Mensaje Radiofonico del Presidente Vicente Fox
Luz Montejano de Mexico
Links to Mexican Municipios by state
Exiles to be offered nationality back
Participa en Escritores de Jalisco,
Genealogía de la Familia Garcia Sancho y sus Alianzas Tapatías
NARA Mexican Border Crossing Records Information
Returning from California to Sinaloa
Founding Families of Jimenez, Coahuila
Descendants of Don Juan Canales
Teachers . . . these prints are excellent for schools. Artist and historian, Eddie Martinez has created visuals which are both historically accurate and easy to grasp and absorb the information.
To see more of his work go to his homepage: : http://www.artworkstudio.net/events/tem.html
Contact by email: email@example.com
by Jaime Cader
I met Mrs. Elmy Bermejo approximately 32 years ago after first meeting her daughters who had participated in folkloric dance productions at a church in San Francisco, California. I also danced in those programs and eventually danced with Elmy’s oldest daughter at several cultural events.
Bermejo’s complete name is Elmy Magaña de Bermejo, and she along with her husband Tomas are fluent speakers of the Yucatecan Maya language. Together they have five children and three grandchildren.
Bermejo was born in the village of Akil (near the city of Tekax) in the state of Yucatan, Mexico in 1934. Although her first language was Spanish, her father had a store in the village where most of the customers spoke the Yucatecan Maya language. Being the eldest of five children, Bermejo began to assist her father in the store when she was nine years old. In order to do a better job, she learned the language spoken by their clientele.
The Bermejos came to reside in the United States in 1962. In 1965 they opened up Tommy’s Mexican Restaurant which they still have today. It is located on Geary Blvd., which is a main street in San Francisco. Aside from the general Mexican cuisine that Americans are familiar with, a few Yucatecan dishes are also served there. Paintings of Mayan temples and other Mayan styled artwork adorn the walls. Many of the employees speak the Mayan language of Yucatan (From here on I will simply refer to this language as Maya, as does Alfred M. Tozzer in his book "A Maya Grammar").
Bermejo taught me some Maya words and phrases. I will use an English manner of spelling for the sentences since the way the letter "j" is pronounced in English is closer to the Maya pronunciation.
"Cosh a janá?" means –Are we going to eat? "Cosh ó cot?" means -Are we going to dance? (In Spanish it would be "Vamos a bailar?" "Cosh" is equivalent to the Spanish "vamos.")
"Conesh!" means –Let’s go!
"Cosh taná? –Are we going home? "Otoch" is the word for house.
Bermejo also told me that the word for dog is "pek." "Yaá peko" means many dogs, "yaá" being the word for many.
I asked Bermejo if she was able to understand any of the Mayan languages spoken in Guatemala. Her answer was that she once heard Guatemalan Mayan Indians speaking their language on television and that she was able to understand some of the things said.
Bermejo said that Maya is now being taught in "academias" (academies) and that it can be heard on the radio in Merida and in the villages. There are presently Mayan names for restaurants, hotels and other businesses. Bermejo expressed that she would like to learn even more about the Maya language since she wants to increase her vocabulary.
Elmy Bermejo commented that before people were ashamed to speak Maya and that now the children are forgetting the language. However there are persons that are promoting Maya. "It is a language, it is not a dialect," she said.
This author feels privileged to have known Bermejo for many years. It is always a pleasure to speak to her when I dine at her family’s restaurant. "Es una señora simpática y agradable" as I would say in Spanish.
In reference to Elmy’s marriage, the book "Living Happily Ever After (Couples Tell About Lasting Love)" has a section on Elmy and her husband Tomas who have been married for 51 years. That book was put together by Laurie Wagner, Stephanie Rausser, and David Collier in 1996.
Gordon, G.B. (with his introduction): "The Book of Chilam Balam of Chumayel" 1993. (This book shows photographs of the original pages of a Maya manuscript written with Roman letters.)
Luxton, Richard N. (his translation and annotation): "The Book of Chumayel –The Counsel Book of the Yucatec Maya 1539-1638" 1995. (This is a translation of the first book listed in this bibliography.)
Tozzer, Alfred M.: "A Maya
Grammar," republished 1977.
Mensaje Radiofonico del Presidente Vicente Fox
El Instituto de los Mexicanos en el Exterior (IME) reproduce a continuación, el mensaje que el Presidente Vicente Fox Quesada dirigió a la comunidad mexicana en Estados Unidos el lunes 16 de agosto.
|El audio de este mensaje se encuentra disponible en la siguiente dirección electrónica:
To be put onto the online newsletter mailing list, contact: firstname.lastname@example.org and request to be added to email@example.com
Luz Montejano de México, a partir del día martes 7 de septiembre de 17:00 a 18:00 p.m., tiempo de la Cd. de México, estará todos los martes trasmitiendo vía Radio Internet a través del reproductor de www.viastereo.com su programa "GENEALOGÍA PARA TODOS", buscando a nuestros ancestros, en ESPAÑOL. Contará en ese mismo horario con el Chat de MSM Messenger con la dirección firstname.lastname@example.org
Este programa tendrá como objeto principal el compartir y difundir la genealogía, sobre todo en mi país MÉXICO, por lo cual se tratará de platicar sobre archivos históricos mexicanos, recomendar libros que nos pueden auxiliar, entrevistar a todo aquel que nos aporte conocimiento genealógico, histórico e incluso archivístico y por supuesto este programa intentará ser una vía mas para compartir con otros nuestras dudas, pero también nuestras experiencias.
¡Los invito a disfrutar y a participar conmigo para hacer de este programa "GENEALOGÍA PARA TODOS" de un buen rato genealógico!
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Exiles to be offered nationality back
Wire services El Universal
Viernes 23 de julio de 2004 Nuestro mundo, página 3
Sent by George Gause email@example.com
Mexican-born citizens of other nations can once again regain their Mexican nationality though not citizenship under a decree published Thursday in the official gazette.
The measure could help hundreds of thousands of Mexican born people living in the United States maintain rights to property and inheritance in their homeland.
Congress last year approved the constitutional amendment, which also had to be approved by 16 of the country's 31 states. It takes effect with publication in the gazette, the Diario Oficial.
The amendment is meant to correct what many saw as an error in an earlier reform. It eliminates the five-year time limit under which people could seek restoration of nationality.
Sixty-seven thousand people took advantage of that measure before it expired in March 2003.
According to U.S. census data, some 1.6 million people born in Mexico now have American citizenship, effectively renouncing their Mexican citizenship under Mexican law. Several million other Mexican-born people also live in the United States.
The measure does not restore Mexican citizenship, which carries voting rights and some other privileges, as well as a duty for men to register for military service.
But Mexico does allow people to share the more general term "nationality" with other countries. Mexican nationals do not face the same restrictions on property ownership, residence and inheritance faced by nationals of other countries.
The original bill in 1998 was part of an increasing movement in Mexico to embrace people who have migrated abroad a community whose remittances and tourist visits are now crucial to the economy.
© 2004 Copyright El Universal-El Universal Online
en Escritores de Jalisco, un grupo de MSN ¡Estás invitado!
Descripción: Escritores de Jalisco, en todos los géneros y de todas las épocas, pero principalmente los de actualidad: obra, crítica, opiniones, tendencias, publicaciones, eventos y más.
¡Leerla! Visita Escritores de Jalisco para darnos tu opinión.
Asegúrate de agregar este
vínculo a los Favoritos de tu explorador, lo que te facilitará
encontrarlo más tarde. Participa en el grupo y podrás: Exponer un
mensaje en el Panel de mensajes. http://groups.msn.com/escritoresdejalisco/messageboard
NARA Mexican Border Crossing Records Information
Can be accessed at National Archives website
One on the site, click : NARA | Genealogy | Mexican Border Crossing Records
Prepared by Guillermo Padilla Origel
II.-Don Jacinto García López, hijosdalgo, bautizado el 31 de diciembre de 1611, en la villa de Enciso, y se casó el 21 de septiembre de 1638 con María de Grandes, y fue su hijo:
III.-Don Juan Francisco García y Grandes, bautizado el 11 de noviembre de 1645, en la villa de Enciso, y se casó el 19 de octubre de 1664 con Doña Ana María Martínez de Sancho, y fue su hijo:
IV.-Don Juan García Sancho y Martínez, bautizado el 27 de enero de 1666, en la villa de Enciso, y se casó en la villa de Villanueva el 28 de agosto de 1694, con Doña Ana María Jiménez de Murilla, y fue su hijo:
V.-Don Marcelino García Sancho y Jiménez de Murilla, bautizado el 12 de mayo de 1711 en la villa de Enciso, y se casó el 1 de septiembre de 1733, con Doña Josefa García de Saldívar, y fue su hijo:
VI.-Don Joseph Ventura García Sancho y García de
Saldívar, bautizado el 16 de enero de 1733 en la villa de Enciso y
se casó en la villa de Lumbreras, el 1 de mayo de 1764 con Doña María
Águeda Moreno , y fueron sus hijos entre otros:
RAMA RADICADA EN ESPAÑA
1.-Don Joseph Ventura García Sancho y Moreno de Tejada, bautizado en la villa de Lumbreras, el 14 de julio de 1770, diputado del solar de Tejada, pasó a Nueva Galicia con su hermano Manuel y casó en Guadalajara, el 19 de julio de 1806 en la parroquia del sagrario con Doña Micaela Sánchez Leñero, en 1829, y obtuvo en Madrid el certificado de Blasón y Genealogía en Madrid, fue su hijo entre otros:
a.-Don Joseph María García Sancho y Sánchez Leñero, casó con Doña Trinidad Ibarrondo y después pasaron a radicar a España, fue su hijo:
b.-Don Joseph Ventura García Sancho e Ibarrondo, nació en la ciudad de México en 1837; luego alcalde de la ciudad de Madrid, donde casó ahí mismo el2 de junio de 1861con Doña María del Pilar de Zavala y Guzmán, (octava marquesa de Aguilar de Campoó) y fue su hija entre otros:c.-Doña María del Pilar García Sancho y Zavala, bautizada en 1863, en Madrid, (novena marquesa de Aguilar de Campoó) y se casó en 1886, con Don Leopoldo Travesedo y Fernández Casasiego; y fue su hijo entre otros:
d.-Don Juan Bautista Travesedo y García Sancho, nacido el 21 de junio de 1890, que se casó con Doña María del Carmen Martínez de las Rivas y Richardson, y fue su hija entre otros:
e.-Doña María del Pilar Travesedo y Martínez de las Rivas, casada con Don Joseph de las Mosevas y Olozaga, radicados en España.
RAMA RADICADA EN MÉXICO
2.-Don Manuel Ángel García Sancho y Moreno de Tejada, se casó en Guadalajara de la Nueva Galicia el 25 de enero de 1790, con su deuda : Doña María Josefa Moreno de Tejada y fueron sus hijos entre otros:
a.-Don José de Jesús , presbítero, Doña Mariana, Don Joaquín, Doña Margarita, Doña Susana, Doña Isabel, Fray Teófilo, (profesor del seminario en Guadalajara), García Sancho y Moreno de Tejada, sin sucesión.
b.-Don Juan García Sancho y Moreno de Tejada, se casó con Doña Antonia Zumelzu, y fueron sus hijos, entre otros:
Don Carlos, casado con Guadalupe Villagordoa; Josefa, casada con Roque Mercado; Francisco, casado con Emilia Chacón y Doña Isabel, casada con Gonzalo Ancira.
c.-Doña María de los Dolores García Sancho y Moreno de Tejada, nació el 28 de abril de 1818, en Guadalajara con Don José Palomar y Rueda, (fundador de varias industrias y benefactor), hijo legítimo de Don Abdón Zenén Palomar y Sancho y de Doña Lugarda Rueda, casados en la Magdalena, Jal., el 7 de noviembre de 1806; Don José y Doña María de Los Dolores, tuvieron 13 hijos de los cuales sobrevivieron 8 que citamos a continuación :
aa.-María Dolores Palomar y García Sancho, se casa en 1855, con Don Silviano González de Castañeda y Zavala, y fueron sus hijos a su vez:
Joseph González de Castañeda, casado con Doña Laura Cañedo, sin descendencia.
Ramón González de Castañeda, casado con Gabriela Castaños y García Granados, y fueron sus hijos:
Ramón María, Joseph, María, Dolores, González de Castañeda y Castaños.
Luis González de Castañeda y Castaños, casado con Ernestina Galindo Ochoa, y fueron sus hijos : Ramón y Luis González de Castañeda y Galindo.
María Guadalupe González de Castañeda y Castaños, casada con Ramón Camba, y fueron sus hijos: Ramón, Guadalupe, casada con Jorge Cortés Cuesta; Cecilia, Margarita Camba y González de Castañeda.
Soledad González de Castañeda y Castaños, casada con Enrique Ladrón de Guevara, y fueron sus hijos: Gabriela, casada con Enrique Ursuñuela; Enrique, casado con Rosalía Lomas; Concepción, Agustín y Cristina Ladrón de Guevara y González de Castañeda, casada con Jorge Oltling Colignón.
bb.-Doña Josefa Palomar y García Sancho, casada con Agustín L. Gómez, y fueron sus hijos:
Luis Gómez Palomar, casado con María Gutiérrez
Concepción Gómez Palomar, soltera
Francisco Gómez Palomar, casado con Margarita Madrigal, y fueron sus hijos: Francisco, Isabel, Manuel y María Luisa Gómez Madrigal.
Agustín Gómez Palomar, casado con Isaura Orendain
María Teresa Gómez Palomar, casada con José Guadalupe López de Lara, y fueron sus hijos: Luis y José López Gómez, este último casado con Amparo Guevara y fueron sus hijos a su vez: Ana Rosa, Amparo, José y Jaime López Guevara.
José Vicente Gómez Palomar, soltero
Antonio Gómez Palomar, casado en primeras nupcias con Mercedes Robledo, y fueron sus hijos: Antonio Gómez Robledo, casado con Catarina Verduzco, y fue su hija Sofía Gómez Verduzco; Antonio Gómez Palomar, se casó en segundas nupcias con Dolores Orozco, sin sucesión.
Javier e Ignacio Gómez Robledo, sin sucesión.
cc.-Don Agustín Palomar y García Sancho, se casó el 1 de mayo de 1869 en el sagrario de Guadalajara, con Doña Concepción Corcuera y Luna, hija de Don Manuel Corcuera y Vizcarra y Doña Nicolasa Luna, y fueron sus hijos:
Dolores Palomar Corcuera, casada con Guillermo B. Carroll
Catalina Palomar Corcuera, casada con Manuel Verea y Bosque
Ana Palomar y Corcuera, casada con Francisco Martínez Negrete
Isabel Palomar y Corcuera, casada con Lorenzo Villaseñor
dd.-Concepción Palomar García Sancho, se casó con Don Manuel Corcuera y Luna, y fueron sus hijos:
José Corcuera Palomar, casado con Teresa Cuesta
Pedro Corcuera Palomar, casado con María Guadalupe Mier y Cuevas
Enrique Corcuera Palomar, casado con Guadalupe García Pimentel
Elena Corcuera Palomar, casada con Ramón Alcázar Ibanguergoitia
Concepción Corcuera Palomar, casada con Carlos Verea Vallarta
ee.-María del Carmen Palomar y García Sancho, se casa con Don Manuel García Granados, y fueron sus hijos:
Manuel, José, casado con María Ordóñez, Carmen, casada con Luis Vieyra, Senén, y Alfonso García Granados y Palomar, este último casado con Raquel Symonds.
ff.-Don Miguel Evaristo Palomar y García Sancho, casado el 31 de julio de 1875 en el sagrario de Guadalajara, con Doña Dolores Vizcarra y Portillo, hermana de Don Carlos de Jesús Vizcarra y Portillo, ascendiente de Doña Eugenia Irma Vizcarra A. De Jiménez, madre del investigador y genealogista Don Claudio Jiménez Vizcarra, y Doña Dolores fue hija legítima de Don José María Vizcarra y Arzubialde, viudo de Doña Ignacia Abad y Arreola , y a su vez Don José María, hijo legítimo del primer Marqués de Pánuco : Don Francisco Javier de Vizcarra , dueño de la hacienda "La Sauceda", ( viudo de de Doña Josefa Pesquera y Castillo) y de su segunda esposa Doña Mariana de Arzubialde y Porres Baranda, casado Don José María en segundas nupcias, con Doña María Guadalupe Portillo, y fueron sus hijos de Don Miguel y de Doña Dolores:
1.-Don José Federico Elias Palomar y Vizcarra , nacido en 1876, casado con Margarita Escudero y López Portillo, y a su vez fueron sus hijos:
Doña María del Carmen, Manuel Palomar Escudero, solteros; María de los Ángeles, casada con Juan Zurbarán, sin descendencia, Elena Palomar y Escudero, casada con José Gabino Oseguera, con sus hijos María Elena y y José Oseguera Palomar y
Don Guillermo Palomar Escudero, casado con Lourdes Aspe, y fue su unigénita: Berta Lourdes Palomar Aspe, casada con Guillermo Reynoso Córdova, y a su vez fue su hijo : Guillermo Reynoso Palomar, y se casa en 1977, con María Teresa Patricia Márquez Lozano y de ahí fueron tres hijos: Erick Andrés, (investigador nacido en México D.F. , y radicado en Toluca y sus hermanos María Fernanda y Rodrigo Guillermo Reynoso Márquez.
2.-Doñas Luisa y Virginia Palomar Vizcarra, solteras
3.-Don Miguel Palomar Vizcarra, casado con Dolores Silva González
4.-Doña Enriqueta Palomar y Vizcarra, casada con Manuel de la Mora y Castillo Negrete
gg.-Don Senén Palomar y García Sancho, se casó con Doña Ana Vizcarra y Portillo el 23 de junio de 1882 en Guadalajara , y fueron sus hijos:
1.-Don Senén Palomar y Vizcarra, casado con Luz Vizcarra y García Teruel (V marquesa de Pánuco) y fue su hija Margarita Palomar y Vizcarra, muerta a los 17 años de hemofilia.
2.-Don Enrique Palomar y Vizcarra, se casa en primeras nupcias con Doña Joaquina Fernández del Valle y Corro, y en segundas con Doña Clementina Martínez.
3.-Doña Margarita Palomar y Vizcarra, casada con Don Fernando Ricci
4.-Doña María Palomar Vizcarra, casada con Don Luis Camarena Morfín
5.-Don Javier Palomar y Vizcarra
hh.-Don Luis Gonzaga Palomar y García Sancho, casado con Doña Concepción Álvarez del Castillo, y fueron sus hijos:
1.-Doña Ana Rosa, religiosa, Luis, Concepción, Ángeles y María Guadalupe Palomar y Álvarez del Castillo, esta última casada con Don Javier Verea y Vallarta.
From California to Sinaloa
Sent by Peter Carr
Found it on the net:
MEMPHIS DAILY APPEAL [ATLANTA, GA], June 25, 1863, p.1, c.5 Correspondence Houston News.]
Monterey, May 3d.-- . . .There are nearly five hundred Southern families in Mazatlan who have fled from California to escape their being constantly insulted and persecuted by the cowardly Yankee caravan which have overrun that State.
Many of these families intended to settle on certain lands in lower California, but as no water can be obtained in that dry region, where it sometimes does not rain for three and even four years, and there are no houses built to protect them from the burning sun, they have decided to make their present abode in Sinaloa. The Mexicans in that State are kind-hearted and hospitable. The climate is healthy. The wealth of the country consists in agriculture, grazing and minerals. I am assured that cotton is an indigenous plant of Sinoloa of which there are three classes, viz, a fine long staple (small seed), an unknown colored and the common cotton. The plant requires to be sown only every four years.
Tobacco and indigo are raised in all parts, and sugar cane yields a fair return. Corn, coffee, beans, rice, plantains, oranges, pineapples, etc., are quite abundant. The mineral wealth is really great. Silver mines are almost all in a virgin state. In Callaean (the capital) there is a mint which from 1846 to 1855 coined in silver and gold the sum of ten millions. Mazatlan is the only port, and although it is not very good, its location commands the trade of an extensive back country.. . . Pickwick.
Jimenez was founded in 1859 by a group of Tejano expatriots from San Antonio de Bexar, and also families from the surrounding villas near Piedras Negras and Zaragoza, Coahuila.
The leader of this group was captain don Manuel Leal, a veteran of Seguin's Tejano patriots, who had fought along with the Anglo Texans against Mexico. Manuel Leal fought in the battle and seige of Bexar, and later at San Jacinto.
When Seguin left Texas for Mexico and fought against the Texans on the side of the Mexican Army under Gen. Adrian Woll, Manuel Leal was again alongside Juan Seguin, with the "Defensores de Bexar" brigade.
Jimenez was also the site of the first armed uprising against the dictatorship of Porfirio Diaz on Sept. 26, 1906. The leader of these "Revoltosos" was my wife's grt-grt-grandfather Juan Jose Arredondo, a native of Morelos, Coahuila.
I am slowly but surely getting more info posted as I find it, hopefully some of this info will be helpful to others, as with the Leal name alone, would fill gaps in people with Isleño roots...Manuel Leal was a grt-grandson of Juan Leal Goraz, his father was Miguel Leal and his mother was Ma. Antonia Casanova, of the Perez-Casanova clan, more Canary Islanders. His wife was Casimira Casillas.
When I began this research I came upon records which dealt with the allotting of land grants for the original settlers of Jimenez, and since then I have found and confirmed a lot of the names that appear in those archives of Jimenez, with the baptism, wills & inventories, census records of Bexar County, and such fine sources such as "With the Makers of San Antonio" , as well as the Memoirs of Juan Seguin and Adrian Woll.
Thank you for your time.
Horacio González De Hoyos
- Digital Imaging Technologies
Digital Imaging Dept. Branch-Smith Inc. 817.882.4184
Compiled by John D. Inclan
Part 1 of a 2-Part
1. JUAN3 CANALES (JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1650 in Nuevo Reino de Leon, Mexico. He married (1) GERTRUDIS DE MONTEMAYOR. He married (2) MARIA DE CHARLES. She died December 27, 1698.
Notes for JUAN CANALES: Source:Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza, page 232.
Child of JUAN CANALES and GERTRUDIS DE MONTEMAYOR is:
Child of JUAN CANALES and MARIA DE CHARLES is:
Generation No. 2
2. CAPTAIN BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR (JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1676 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and died in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married MARIA BAEZ-DE-BENAVIDES-Y-DE-LOS-REYES, daughter of BERNARDO BAEZ-DE-BENAVIDES-Y-MARTINEZ and FRANCISCA DE-LOS-REYES-PONCE. She was born 1680 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
Children of BLAS CANALES-MONTEMAYOR and MARIA BAEZ-DE-BENAVIDES-Y-DE-LOS-REYES are:
Generation No. 3
3. MICHAELA5 CANALES-BENAVIDES (BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and died January 29, 1774 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. She married NICOLAS SALINAS-MORONES June 11, 1732 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, son of ANTONIO MORONES-SALINAS and FRANCISCA PEREZ-DE-DUENA. He was born in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
Children of MICHAELA CANALES-BENAVIDES and NICOLAS SALINAS-MORONES are:
4. GERTRUDIS5 CANALES-BENAVIDES (BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) died December 22, 1784 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico. She married PEDRO-JOSEPH-DE-JESUS FLORES.
Children of GERTRUDIS CANALES-BENAVIDES and PEDRO-JOSEPH-DE-JESUS FLORES are:
5. JOSE-SALVADOR5 CANALES-BENAVIDES (BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1702 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and died December 04, 1768. He married MARIA-JOSEFA GONZALEZ-HIDALGO-CANTU May 21, 1728 in Cadereyta Jimenez, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of MARCOS GONZALEZ-HIDALGO-TREVINO and TOMASA DE-LEON-CANTU. She was born 1703 in Cadereyta Jimenez, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and died December 09, 1775.
Notes for JOSE-SALVADOR CANALES-BENAVIDES: He signed his last will and testament on December, 9, 1736. Source:Testamentos Coloniales de Monterrey by Lilia E. Villanueva de Cavazos. Page 103.
Children of JOSE-SALVADOR CANALES-BENAVIDES and MARIA-JOSEFA GONZALEZ-HIDALGO-CANTU are:
6. JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS (BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born Abt. 1710 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and died December 07, 1780 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married MARIA-ROSA-CATARINA ANZALDUA-SAUCEDO 1735 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon,Mexico, daughter of SEBASTIAN ANZALDUA-DUENAS and MARIANA SAUCEDO-PEREZ. She was born Abt. 1715 in Saltillo, Coahulia, Mexico.
Children of JOSE-BLAS CANALES-BENAVIDAS and MARIA-ROSA-CATARINA ANZALDUA-SAUCEDO are:
7. JOSE-CAYETANO-LUCAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDES (BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1724, and died May 20, 1801 in Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico. He married (1) ANA JOSEPHA LIZARRARAS-Y-CUELLAR-MARTINEZ January 26, 1755 in Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico, daughter of TOMAS CUELLAR-GARCIA and MARIA-INEZ MARTINEZ-DE-LA-GARZA. She was born 1734, and died February 08, 1760 in Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico. He married (2) MARIA-ANA-DOMINGA GUERRA-GUERRA April 01, 1761 in Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico. She was born 1739.
Notes for JOSE-CAYETANO-LUCAS CANALES-BENAVIDES:
He is listed with his wife, Dona Josefa Cuellar, on the 1753 & 1757 census, Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico. He, his wife, Dona Maria Dominga Guerra, and family are listed on the 1780 census, Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico. Source:Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza, page 195.
Children of JOSE-CAYETANO-LUCAS CANALES-BENAVIDES and ANA LIZARRARAS-Y-CUELLAR-MARTINEZ are:
Children of JOSE-CAYETANO-LUCAS CANALES-BENAVIDES and MARIA-ANA-DOMINGA GUERRA-GUERRA are:
8. MARIA RITA5 CANALES-BENAVIDES (BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1730, and died in Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico. She married BARTOLOME JACINTO CUELLAR-MARTINEZ April 14, 1760 in Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico, son of BARTOLOME CUELLAR-GARCIA and MARIA-GREGORIA MARTINEZ-DE-LA-GARZA. He was born 1737, and died in Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico.
CANALES-BENAVIDES: She is listed living with her
brother on the 1753 census, Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico.
Children of MARIA CANALES-BENAVIDES and BARTOLOME CUELLAR-MARTINEZ are:
Generation No. 4
9. MARIA-ANA-LUCIA6 SALINAS-CANALES (MICHAELA5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1754. She married JOSE-ALBINO GONZALEZ-GARCIA August 23, 1772 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, son of DIEGO GONZALEZ-TREVINO and ANA GARCIA. He was born 1752, and died February 14, 1793 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.
Children of MARIA-ANA-LUCIA SALINAS-CANALES and JOSE-ALBINO GONZALEZ-GARCIA are:
10. PEDRO-JOSEPH6 SALINAS-CANALES (MICHAELA5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1744 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married (1) MARIA-GERTRUDIS LOPEZ-DE-JAEN-LONGORIA May 15, 1765 in Nuestra Sra de Santa Anna, Camargo, Tamaulipas, Mexico, daughter of MIGUEL LOPEZ-DE-JAEN-HINOJOSA and MARIA-GERTRUDIS LONGORIA-CHAPA. She was born 1747, and died January 08, 1766 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married (2) MARIA-INEZ BENAVIDES-VELA January 30, 1779 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of JOSE-ANTONIO BENAVIDES-CERVERA and MARIA-FRANCISCA-JAVIERA VELA-CAMACHO. She was born in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.
Marriage Notes for PEDRO-JOSEPH SALINAS-CANALES and MARIA-INEZ BENAVIDES-VELA: Marriage source: Index to the Marriage investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara by Raul J. Guerra, Jr., Nadine M. Vasquez, Baldomero Vela, Jr. Page 234.
Child of PEDRO-JOSEPH SALINAS-CANALES and MARIA-INEZ BENAVIDES-VELA is:
11. JOSE-SALVADOR6 SALINAS-CANALES (MICHAELA5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and died June 04, 1805 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married (1) MARIA-JOSEFA DE CHAPA. She died 1781. He married (2) MARIA-PETRA DE LEON-GARCIA February 12, 1781 in San Carlos, Vallecillo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of MATEO DE LEON-RODRIGUEZ and MARIA-ROSALIA GARCIA-DAVILA. She was born 1760.
Children of JOSE-SALVADOR SALINAS-CANALES and MARIA-JOSEFA DE CHAPA are:
Children of JOSE-SALVADOR SALINAS-CANALES and MARIA-PETRA DE LEON-GARCIA are:
12. JOSE-SEBASTIAN6 FLORES-CANALES (GERTRUDIS5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico. He married MARIA-JULIANA DE-LA-BARRERA-GARCIA May 26, 1784 in Mier, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of JOSE-SANTIAGO DE-LA-BARRERA-GARCIA and MARIA-SALOME GARCIA. She was born 1761 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.
Children of JOSE-SEBASTIAN FLORES-CANALES and MARIA-JULIANA DE-LA-BARRERA-GARCIA are:
13. ALFEREZ REAL JOSE-JOAQUIN6 CANALES-GONZALEZ-HIDALGO (JOSE-SALVADOR5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1730 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and died January 24, 1811 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married (1) ISABEL-MARIA SANCHEZ-NAVARRO 1755. She was born 1740. He married (2) MARIA-JOSEFA TREVINO-TREVINO July 25, 1764 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of JOSE-DOMINGO DE TREVINO and MARIA-MARGARITA TREVINO-DE-LA-GARZA. She was born September 24, 1748 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and died April 17, 1816.
Notes for ALFEREZ REAL
Marriage Notes for JOSE-JOAQUIN CANALES-GONZALEZ-HIDALGO and MARIA-JOSEFA TREVINO-TREVINO:
Marriage source: From the Book, Index to the Marriage Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara by Raul J. Guerra, Jr., Nadine M. Vasquez, Baldomero Vela, Jr. 1751-1779 Page 115.
Child of JOSE-JOAQUIN CANALES-GONZALEZ-HIDALGO and ISABEL-MARIA SANCHEZ-NAVARRO is:
Children of JOSE-JOAQUIN CANALES-GONZALEZ-HIDALGO and MARIA-JOSEFA TREVINO-TREVINO are:
14. JOSEPH-IGNACIO-HERMAN6 CANALES-GONZALEZ (JOSE-SALVADOR5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born November 03, 1731 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married MARIA-GERTRUDIS FLORES-Y-VALDEZ February 10, 1772 in San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Villaldama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of IGNACIO FLORES-DE-VALDEZ and MARIA-IGNACIA DE AGUIRRE. She was born 1750 in Boca de Leones, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
Children of JOSEPH-IGNACIO-HERMAN CANALES-GONZALEZ and MARIA-GERTRUDIS FLORES-Y-VALDEZ are:
15. JOSE-JUAN-ANTONIO6 CANALES-GONZALEZ (JOSE-SALVADOR5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1743 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and died April 21, 1792 in Mier, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married MARIA-DE-LOS-SANTOS GARCIA-DE-LA-BARRERA September 18, 1771 in Mier, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of JOSE-GASPAR GARCIA and MARIA-GERTRUDIS DE-LA-BARRERA. She was born 1752.
Children of JOSE-JUAN-ANTONIO CANALES-GONZALEZ and MARIA-DE-LOS-SANTOS GARCIA-DE-LA-BARRERA are:
16. JOSEPH TOMAS6 CANALES-GONZALEZ (JOSE-SALVADOR5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born December 28, 1745 in Sagrario Metro, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and died Bef. 1802 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married MARIA LUISA DE GUAJARDO August 15, 1777 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
Child of JOSEPH CANALES-GONZALEZ and MARIA DE GUAJARDO is:
17. PETRA IGNACIA6 CANALES-ANZALDUA (JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) She married NICOLAS FELON July 30, 1767 in San Jose, Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
Children of PETRA CANALES-ANZALDUA and NICOLAS FELON are:
18. MARIA-BERNARDA6 CANALES-ANZALDUA (JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) She married PEDRO-JOSE SALINAS-BENAVIDES February 08, 1768 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, son of JOSEPH-ANTONIO SALINAS-GARCIA and ANASTACIA-JAVIERA BENAVIDES-GONZALEZ.
Notes for MARIA-BERNARDA CANALES-ANZALDUA: Source:Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza, page 131.
Children of MARIA-BERNARDA CANALES-ANZALDUA and PEDRO-JOSE SALINAS-BENAVIDES are:
19. JOSE-ANTONIO-BLAS6 CANALES-ANZALDUA (JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1735, and died in Agualeguas, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married ANA-JOSEFA DE-LA-GARZA-GUERRA March 29, 1755 in San Gregorio, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of JUAN-JOSE DE-LA-GARZA and FRANCISCA GUERRA-CANAMAR-DE-LA-GARZA. She was born 1737, and died December 1824 in Lampazos de Naranjo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
Children of JOSE-ANTONIO-BLAS CANALES-ANZALDUA and ANA-JOSEFA DE-LA-GARZA-GUERRA are:
20. JOSE-VICENTE6 CANALES-ANZALDUA (JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1748 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, and died September 14, 1816. He married MARIA-GERTRUDIS GUERRA-VELA August 26, 1770 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of JUAN SOLIS and JOSEFA VELA. She was born 1750 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.
Notes for JOSE-VICENTE
Children of JOSE-VICENTE CANALES-ANZALDUA and MARIA-GERTRUDIS GUERRA-VELA are:
21. JOSE-RAMON6 CANALES-ANZALDUA (JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1753 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, and died March 19, 1811 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico. He married MARIA-LEONOR GARCIA-SALINAS September 14, 1781 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, daughter of DIEGO GARCIA-VELA and MARIA-GERTRUDIS SALINAS-LONGORIA. She was born 1754 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, and died in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.
Notes for JOSE-RAMON CANALES-ANZALDUA: Source:Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza, page 144.
Children of JOSE-RAMON CANALES-ANZALDUA and MARIA-LEONOR GARCIA-SALINAS are:
22. JOSE-CHASIANDO6 CANALES-ANZALDUA (JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1763. He married MARIA-GUADALUPE VILLARREAL-BENAVIDES August 26, 1783 in San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Villaldama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of JUAN-ANTONIO DE VILLARREAL and MARIA-APOLINARIA BENAVIDES-GARCIA. She was born 1765.
Children of JOSE-CHASIANDO CANALES-ANZALDUA and MARIA-GUADALUPE VILLARREAL-BENAVIDES are:
23. JOSEPH-NICOLAS-LUCAS6 CANALES-CUELLAR (JOSE-CAYETANO-LUCAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born October 19, 1755 in Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico, and died January 09, 1804 in Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico. He married (1) MARIA-DE-JESUS SANCHEZ-DIAZ November 06, 1776 in Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico, daughter of JUAN-BAUTISTA SANCHEZ-DE-LA-GARZA and JUANA-MARIA DIAZ-TREVINO. (Note:Juan Bautista is the brother of Captain Tomas Sanchez de la Barrera, the founder of Laredo Texas). She was born 1758, and died February 01, 1798 in Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico. He married (2) MARIA-CATARINA GARCIA-SALINAS November 13, 1798 in Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico, daughter of JUAN-JOSE GARCIA and ANA-JOSEFA SALINAS-OLIVARES. She was born 1755.
Notes for JOSEPH-NICOLAS-LUCAS CANALES-CUELLAR: He and his family are listed on the 1757, 1780, & the 1791 census, Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico. On the 1780 census for Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico, he is listed living on his Mother-in-Law's Ranch.
Marriage Notes for JOSEPH-NICOLAS-LUCAS CANALES-CUELLAR and MARIA-DE-JESUS SANCHEZ-DIAZ: Marriage Source:From the book, Mil Familias III by Rodolgo Gonzalez de la Garza. Page 212.
Children of JOSEPH-NICOLAS-LUCAS CANALES-CUELLAR and MARIA-DE-JESUS SANCHEZ-DIAZ are:
24. MARIA-FRANCISCA6 CANALES-GUERRA (JOSE-CAYETANO-LUCAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1771 in Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico. She married JOSE-MARIA LAUREL-FERNANDEZ-SAENZ October 29, 1787 in San Gregorio, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, son of JUAN-JOSE FERNANDEZ-LAUREL-VILLARREAL and JUANA SAENZ-SALAZAR. He was born February 21, 1765 in San Pedro, Villaldama, Nuevo Leon Mexico.
Children of MARIA-FRANCISCA CANALES-GUERRA and JOSE-MARIA LAUREL-FERNANDEZ-SAENZ are:
25. MARIA-TRINIDAD6 CUELLAR-CANALES (MARIA RITA5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1765 in Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico. She married JOSE-ANTONIO DE-LA-GARZA-HERNANDEZ June 07, 1786 in Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico.
Children of MARIA-TRINIDAD CUELLAR-CANALES and JOSE-ANTONIO DE-LA-GARZA-HERNANDEZ are:
26. MARIA MANUELA6 CUELLAR-CANALES (MARIA RITA5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1773. She married JOSE ESTEBAN VELA-DE-LA-SERNA April 28, 1794 in Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico, son of JOSE VELA and MARIA DE-LA-SERNA. He was born 1773.
Children of MARIA CUELLAR-CANALES and JOSE VELA-DE-LA-SERNA are:
Generation No. 5
27. JOSE VENTURA7 GONZALEZ-SALINAS (MARIA-ANA-LUCIA6 SALINAS-CANALES, MICHAELA5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1774. He married MARIA LUISA YZAGUIRRE-VELA February 1798 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, daughter of JUAN-PANTALEON IZAGUIRRE-HERNANDEZ and MARIA-GERTRUDIS VELA-GARCIA. She was born October 31, 1772 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, and died February 23, 1856 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.
Children of JOSE GONZALEZ-SALINAS and MARIA YZAGUIRRE-VELA are:
28. JOSE-RAFAEL7 GONZALEZ-SALINAS (MARIA-ANA-LUCIA6 SALINAS-CANALES, MICHAELA5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born March 22, 1783. He married MARIA-CATARINA VELA November 09, 1803 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.
Children of JOSE-RAFAEL GONZALEZ-SALINAS and MARIA-CATARINA VELA are:
29. JOSE-FRANCISCO7 SALINAS-DE-LEON (JOSE-SALVADOR6 SALINAS-CANALES, MICHAELA5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born April 06, 1783 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married MARIA-GREGORIA LOPEZ-SALINAS December 10, 1815 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of JOSE-ANTONIO LOPEZ-DE-JAEN and MARIA-GERTRUDIS SALINAS-GARCIA. She was born May 19, 1799 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
Child of JOSE-FRANCISCO SALINAS-DE-LEON and MARIA-GREGORIA LOPEZ-SALINAS is:
30. NICOLASA7 FLORES-DE-LA-BARRERA (JOSE-SEBASTIAN6 FLORES-CANALES, GERTRUDIS5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) She married AGAPITO IBANES-FLORES April 14, 1806.
Child of NICOLASA FLORES-DE-LA-BARRERA and AGAPITO IBANES-FLORES is:
31. JOSE-ANTONIO-NEPOMUSENO7 CANALES-TREVINO (JOSE-JOAQUIN6 CANALES-GONZALEZ-HIDALGO, JOSE-SALVADOR5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born April 25, 1774 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married MARIA-JOSEFA ROSILLO-CANALES October 15, 1797 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of JUAN RONCLES-Y-ROSILLO and MARIA-JOSEFA DE MIER-NORIEGA. She was born 1779 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
Children of JOSE-ANTONIO-NEPOMUSENO CANALES-TREVINO and MARIA-JOSEFA ROSILLO-CANALES are:
32. JOSEPH-MARIANO-DIONISIO7 CANALES-FLORES (JOSEPH-IGNACIO-HERMAN6 CANALES-GONZALEZ, JOSE-SALVADOR5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born April 10, 1774 in San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Villaldama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married MARIA-JOSEFA-CELEDONIA DE SOBREVILLA December 11, 1794 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of JUAN-NEPOMUCENO-EUGENIO DE SOBREVILLA-CANTU and MARIA-JOSEFA-DE-LOS-NIEVEZ GALINDO-VILLARREAL. She was born March 11, 1774 in San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Villaldama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
Children of JOSEPH-MARIANO-DIONISIO CANALES-FLORES and MARIA-JOSEFA-CELEDONIA DE SOBREVILLA are:
33. FRANCISCO-XAVIER-YGNACIO-CAMILO7 CANALES-FLORES (JOSEPH-IGNACIO-HERMAN6 CANALES-GONZALEZ, JOSE-SALVADOR5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born July 23, 1784 in San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Villaldama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married MARIA DOLORES TREVINO.
Child of FRANCISCO-XAVIER-YGNACIO-CAMILO CANALES-FLORES and MARIA TREVINO is:
34. JOSE-ANTONIO-TIBURCIO7 CANALES-GARCIA (JOSE-JUAN-ANTONIO6 CANALES-GONZALEZ, JOSE-SALVADOR5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born April 04, 1773 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and died February 01, 1839 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married SEGUNDA GUERRA-CANAMAR-TREVINO. She was born March 03, 1783.
Children of JOSE-ANTONIO-TIBURCIO CANALES-GARCIA and SEGUNDA GUERRA-CANAMAR-TREVINO are:
35. ESTEBAN7 CANALES-GARCIA (JOSE-JUAN-ANTONIO6 CANALES-GONZALEZ, JOSE-SALVADOR5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born December 23, 1774. He married MARIA-LEONOR GONZALEZ-HINOJOSA February 1796, daughter of JUAN-ANTONIO GONZALEZ-GARCIA and MARIA-ANASTACIA-LUCIA HINOJOSA-SANCHEZ. She was born October 15, 1782.
Children of ESTEBAN CANALES-GARCIA and MARIA-LEONOR GONZALEZ-HINOJOSA are:
36. MARIA-LEONOR7 CANALES-GARCIA (JOSE-JUAN-ANTONIO6 CANALES-GONZALEZ, JOSE-SALVADOR5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born February 28, 1778 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, and died March 11, 1850 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico. She married JOSE-ALEJANDRO VIDAURRI-SANCHEZ August 10, 1795 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, son of JOSE-FERNANDO VIDAURRI-VASQUEZ-BORREGO and MARIA-ALEXANDRA SANCHEZ-DE-LA-BARRERA. (Note:Maria Alexandra is the aunt to Captain Tomas Sanchez de la Barrera, founder of Laredo, Texas). He was born 1766 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, and died February 10, 1847.
Children of MARIA-LEONOR CANALES-GARCIA and JOSE-ALEJANDRO VIDAURRI-SANCHEZ are:
37. MARIA-DOROTEA7 CANALES-GARCIA (JOSE-JUAN-ANTONIO6 CANALES-GONZALEZ, JOSE-SALVADOR5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born February 09, 1782 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico. She married JOSE-IGNACIO DE-LA-PENA-GARCIA January 18, 1804 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, son of JOSEPH-ANTONIO DE-LA-PENA-LOPEZ and MARIA-PETRA GARCIA-DE-LA-BARRERA. He was born January 31, 1782 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.
Children of MARIA-DOROTEA CANALES-GARCIA and JOSE-IGNACIO DE-LA-PENA-GARCIA are:
38. JOSE-MANUEL7 SALINAS-CANALES (MARIA-BERNARDA6 CANALES-ANZALDUA, JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born February 04, 1774. He married MARIA-GERTRUDIS GONZALEZ-HIGALGO-GONZALEZ January 27, 1796 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of ANDRES GONZALEZ-DE-OCHOA and JUANA GONZALEZ-HIDALGO-BENAVIDES.
Child of JOSE-MANUEL SALINAS-CANALES and MARIA-GERTRUDIS GONZALEZ-HIGALGO-GONZALEZ is:
39. JOSE-CRISTOBAL7 SALINAS-CANALES (MARIA-BERNARDA6 CANALES-ANZALDUA, JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born January 07, 1776. He married (1) IGNACIA GONZALEZ-SALINAS. He married (2) IGNACIA GONZALEZ-GONZALEZ June 08, 1801 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
Child of JOSE-CRISTOBAL SALINAS-CANALES and IGNACIA GONZALEZ-SALINAS is:
Children of JOSE-CRISTOBAL SALINAS-CANALES and IGNACIA GONZALEZ-GONZALEZ are:
40. JUAN-FRANCISCO-JAVIER7 CANALES-DE-LA-GARZA (JOSE-ANTONIO-BLAS6 CANALES-ANZALDUA, JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1756 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, and died April 20, 1792 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico. He married (1) MANUELA YZAGUIRRE. He married (2) MARIA-GERTRUDIS SALINAS-GARCIA January 1772 in Mier, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of JOAQUIN SALINAS and MARIA-DE-LOS-SANTOS GARCIA. She was born 1754.
Child of JUAN-FRANCISCO-JAVIER CANALES-DE-LA-GARZA and MANUELA YZAGUIRRE is:
Children of JUAN-FRANCISCO-JAVIER CANALES-DE-LA-GARZA and MARIA-GERTRUDIS SALINAS-GARCIA are:
41. MARIA-TERESA7 CANALES-DE-LA-GARZA (JOSE-ANTONIO-BLAS6 CANALES-ANZALDUA, JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1764. She married JOSE-ANTONIO DE-LA-BARRERA-GARCIA November 20, 1782 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, son of JOSE-SANTIAGO DE-LA-BARRERA-GARCIA and MARIA-SALOME GARCIA. He was born 1762 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.
Children of MARIA-TERESA CANALES-DE-LA-GARZA and JOSE-ANTONIO DE-LA-BARRERA-GARCIA are:
42. MARIA-MARGARITA7 CANALES-DE-LA-GARZA (JOSE-ANTONIO-BLAS6 CANALES-ANZALDUA, JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born June 27, 1764 in San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Villaldama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. She married JOSE-MANUEL SALINAS-GARCIA August 31, 1783 in San Gregorio, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, son of JOAQUIN SALINAS and MARIA-DE-LOS-SANTOS GARCIA. He was born in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.
Child of MARIA-MARGARITA CANALES-DE-LA-GARZA and JOSE-MANUEL SALINAS-GARCIA is:
43. FRANCISCA-JAVIERA7 CANALES-DE-LA-GARZA (JOSE-ANTONIO-BLAS6 CANALES-ANZALDUA, JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1765. She married JOSE-FRANCISCO DE-LA-PENA-LOPEZ August 31, 1783 in San Gregorio, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, son of JOSEPH-ANTONIO DE-LA-PENA-GUAJARDO and MARIA-ANA-APOLONIA LOPEZ-DE-JAEN-HINOJOSA.
Children of FRANCISCA-JAVIERA CANALES-DE-LA-GARZA and JOSE-FRANCISCO DE-LA-PENA-LOPEZ are:
44. MARIA-JAVIERA7 CANALES-DE-LA-GARZA (JOSE-ANTONIO-BLAS6 CANALES-ANZALDUA, JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born July 26, 1767 in San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Villaldama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. She married ALEJANDRO DE-LA-GARZA-FERNANDEZ September 22, 1803 in Nuestra Sra del Refugio, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.
Child of MARIA-JAVIERA CANALES-DE-LA-GARZA and ALEJANDRO DE-LA-GARZA-FERNANDEZ is:
45. JOSE CASIANO BENITO7 CANALES-DE-LA-GARZA (JOSE-ANTONIO-BLAS6 CANALES-ANZALDUA, JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born April 09, 1776. He married MARIA DE AFRICA YGLECIAS-GUAJARDO November 19, 1800 in Lampazos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
Children of JOSE CANALES-DE-LA-GARZA and MARIA YGLECIAS-GUAJARDO are:
46. MARIA-GUADALUPE7 CANALES-DE-LA-GARZA (JOSE-ANTONIO-BLAS6 CANALES-ANZALDUA, JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born December 30, 1777 in San Gregorio, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and died in Agualeguas, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. She married JOSE-ANTONIO-MARIA RIVAS-VILLARREAL.
Children of MARIA-GUADALUPE CANALES-DE-LA-GARZA and JOSE-ANTONIO-MARIA RIVAS-VILLARREAL are:
47. ANTONIO7 CANALES-DE-LA-GARZA (JOSE-ANTONIO-BLAS6 CANALES-ANZALDUA, JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1780, and died in Laredo, Webb County, Texas. He married CAYETANA SALINAS-DE-LA-PENA. She was born 1782, and died in Laredo, Webb County, Texas.
Children of ANTONIO CANALES-DE-LA-GARZA and CAYETANA SALINAS-DE-LA-PENA are:
48. CALIXTA-CELESTINA-DE-JESUS7 CANALES-GUERRA (JOSE-VICENTE6 CANALES-ANZALDUA, JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) She married MARCOS HINOJOSA April 25, 1796 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He was born in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.
Child of CALIXTA-CELESTINA-DE-JESUS CANALES-GUERRA and MARCOS HINOJOSA is:
49. JOSE-DE-JESUS7 CANALES-GUERRA (JOSE-VICENTE6 CANALES-ANZALDUA, JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1783 in Canaleno, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married MARIA-GREGORIA CANALES-GARCIA February 19, 1810 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, daughter of JOSE-RAMON CANALES-ANZALDUA and MARIA-LEONOR GARCIA-SALINAS. She was born September 15, 1790 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, and died January 12, 1858 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.
Notes for MARIA-GREGORIA
Children of JOSE-DE-JESUS CANALES-GUERRA and MARIA-GREGORIA CANALES-GARCIA are:
50. MARIA-LUISA7 CANALES-GARCIA (JOSE-RAMON6 CANALES-ANZALDUA, JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born August 25, 1782 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico. She married JUAN PEREZ.
Child of MARIA-LUISA CANALES-GARCIA and JUAN PEREZ is:
51. JOSE-JOAQUIN7 CANALES-GARCIA (JOSE-RAMON6 CANALES-ANZALDUA, JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born March 28, 1784 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico. He married MARIA-LEONOR RODRIGUEZ-HINOJOSA May 25, 1814 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, daughter of JOSE-NARCISCO RODRIGUEZ and MARIA-JUANA HINOJOSA. She was born in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.
Notes for JOSE-JOAQUIN
Children of JOSE-JOAQUIN CANALES-GARCIA and MARIA-LEONOR RODRIGUEZ-HINOJOSA are:
52. JOSE-RAFAEL-PINCIANO7 CANALES-GARCIA (JOSE-RAMON6 CANALES-ANZALDUA, JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born November 30, 1785 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico. He married JUSTA ZAMORANO-DE-LA-BARRERA February 05, 1810, daughter of JOSE-VICTOR ZAMORANO and ANTONIA-JULIANA DE-LA-BARRERA. She was born 1793.
Children of JOSE-RAFAEL-PINCIANO CANALES-GARCIA and JUSTA ZAMORANO-DE-LA-BARRERA are:
53. MARIA-GREGORIA7 CANALES-GARCIA (JOSE-RAMON6 CANALES-ANZALDUA, JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born September 15, 1790 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, and died January 12, 1858 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico. She married JOSE-DE-JESUS CANALES-GUERRA February 19, 1810 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, son of JOSE-VICENTE CANALES-ANZALDUA and MARIA-GERTRUDIS GUERRA-VELA. He was born 1783 in Canaleno, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
54. MARIA-DE-JESUS7 CANALES-GARCIA (JOSE-RAMON6 CANALES-ANZALDUA, JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born December 12, 1793 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, and died November 26, 1863 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico. She married JOSE-FRANCISCO HINOJOSA-GARCIA, son of FRANCISCO-ANTONIO HINOJOSA-ANZALDUA and MARIA-CANDELARIA GARCIA-HINOJOSA. He was born Abt. 1782.
Notes for MARIA-DE-JESUS CANALES-GARCIA: In the book, Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza, she is listed as a descendent of Don Alonso de Estrada, Duke of Aragon. Page 19.
Children of MARIA-DE-JESUS CANALES-GARCIA and JOSE-FRANCISCO HINOJOSA-GARCIA are:
55. JOSE-DOMINGO-DEL-REFUGIO7 CANALES-SANCHEZ (JOSEPH-NICOLAS-LUCAS6 CANALES-CUELLAR, JOSE-CAYETANO-LUCAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born February 29, 1772 in Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico. He married MARIA-VICTORIANA JUAREZ-MARTINEZ July 30, 1806 in Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico, daughter of FRANCISCO JUAREZ and MARIA-ROSALIA MARTINEZ. She was born 1782 in Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico.
Children of JOSE-DOMINGO-DEL-REFUGIO CANALES-SANCHEZ and MARIA-VICTORIANA JUAREZ-MARTINEZ are:
56. MARIA-CONCEPCION7 CANALES-SANCHEZ (JOSEPH-NICOLAS-LUCAS6 CANALES-CUELLAR, JOSE-CAYETANO-LUCAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born Aft. 1780. She married JOSE-MARIA LIENDO-SALCEDO, son of THOMAS LIENDO and MARIA-JOSEFA SALCEDO-COBOS. He was born February 11, 1788 in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.
Children of MARIA-CONCEPCION CANALES-SANCHEZ and JOSE-MARIA LIENDO-SALCEDO are:
57. MARIA-PETRA7 CANALES-SANCHEZ (JOSEPH-NICOLAS-LUCAS6 CANALES-CUELLAR, JOSE-CAYETANO-LUCAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born Aft. 1780, and died in Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico. She married JOSE-CRISTOBAL RAMIREZ-DE-LA-SERNA July 10, 1800 in Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico, son of JOSE-SANTIAGO RAMIREZ-HINOJOSA and MARIA-GERTRUDIS-APOLINARIA DE-LA-SERNA-MARTINEZ. He was born 1781 in Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico, and died in Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico.
Notes for MARIA-PETRA
Children of MARIA-PETRA CANALES-SANCHEZ and JOSE-CRISTOBAL RAMIREZ-DE-LA-SERNA are:
58. MARIA-VERONICA7 CANALES-SANCHEZ (JOSEPH-NICOLAS-LUCAS6 CANALES-CUELLAR, JOSE-CAYETANO-LUCAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born Aft. 1780. She married (1) JOSE-CIRILIO TREVINO-BENAVIDES January 13, 1809 in Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico. She married (2) JOSE-ANTONIO CHAPA-TREVINO March 09, 1822 in Camargo, Tamaulipus, Mexico, son of JOSE-MIGUEL CHAPA-GARCIA and ROSA-MARIA TREVINO-CAVAZOS. He was born April 24, 1774 in Camargo, Tamaulipas,Mexico, and died October 02, 1872 in Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.
Children of MARIA-VERONICA CANALES-SANCHEZ and JOSE-ANTONIO CHAPA-TREVINO are:
59. MARIA-PETRA7 LAUREL-FERNANDEZ-CANALES (MARIA-FRANCISCA6 CANALES-GUERRA, JOSE-CAYETANO-LUCAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born February 20, 1796 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. She married JOSE-LUIS VELA.
Child of MARIA-PETRA LAUREL-FERNANDEZ-CANALES and JOSE-LUIS VELA is:
60. MARIA-DE-SAN-JUANA7 DE-LA-GARZA-CUELLAR (MARIA-TRINIDAD6 CUELLAR-CANALES, MARIA RITA5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born April 07, 1791 in Mier, Tamaulipus, Mexico. She married NARCISCO MARTINEZ April 29, 1825.
Child of MARIA-DE-SAN-JUANA DE-LA-GARZA-CUELLAR and NARCISCO MARTINEZ is:
61. PEDRO-JOSE-RAMON7 DE-LA-GARZA-CUELLAR (MARIA-TRINIDAD6 CUELLAR-CANALES, MARIA RITA5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born May 09, 1795 in Mier, Tamaulipus, Mexico. He married MARIA PLACIDA MARTINEZ.
Children of PEDRO-JOSE-RAMON DE-LA-GARZA-CUELLAR and MARIA MARTINEZ are:
62. FRANCISCO JAVIER7 VELA-CUELLAR (MARIA MANUELA6 CUELLAR-CANALES, MARIA RITA5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) He married MARIA JOSEFA BENAVIDES November 20, 1827.
Children of FRANCISCO VELA-CUELLAR and MARIA BENAVIDES are:
63. MARIA JULIANA DEL REFUGIO7 VELA-CUELLAR (MARIA MANUELA6 CUELLAR-CANALES, MARIA RITA5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) She married APOLINARIO TREVINO February 04, 1828.
Child of MARIA VELA-CUELLAR and APOLINARIO TREVINO is:
1. Brøderbund Family Archive
#110, Vol. 1, Ed. 4, Social Security Death Index: U.S., Social Security
Death Index, Surnames from A through L, Date of Import: Feb 22, 2003,
Internal Ref. #126.96.36.199700.71
|Departure, Canary Islands for Cuba||Working with Latinos/Hispanics in the U.S.A. in San Juan, Puerto Rico|
Departure from Canary Islands for Cuba
Sent by Paul Newfield firstname.lastname@example.org
Here is a little factoid that I found interesting. It relates to the motivation behind some young men leaving the Canary Islands for Cuba in c.1909. It shows how events in one place can influence actions and decisions on other side of the world.
In that period of pre-World War I colonial expansionism, Spain had for many centuries owned its North African outposts at Melilla and Ceuta. In July 1909, Spain became engaged in serious military operations in North Africa. Fresh troops would be needed to fight in these conflicts (and yet it was only about 10 years after Spain's disasterous loss of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines to the United States).
From Francisco Tarajano Perez's book, *Memorias de Aguimes - 1* (Aguimes, Gran Canaria: Ayuntamiento de Aguimes, 1999; 277 pages): (p.134) "El 26 de julio de 1909 llega al Ayuntamiento una orden del Gobierno Civil de que no se consientan mitimes ni manifestaciones publicas contra la guerra de Melilla. Los mozos de Aguimes protestaron con la emigracion a Cuba de un buen numero de ellos. No quisieron 'servir al rey' en una torpe guerra."
Working with Latinos/Hispanics in the U.S.A. in San Juan, Puerto Rico
Sent by Paul Newfield
The University of Puerto Rico (UPR), Mayagüez Campus, is sponsoring the 1st “Working with Latinos/Hispanics in the U.S.A.” Conference, October 27-29, 2004, in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The objective of the activity is to share information regarding Latinos/Hispanics in the United States. Latinos and Hispanic-Americans are staged to become the largest minority in the U.S. As a corollary, the impact of Latinos/Hispanics presence will be felt all over the nation. It is necessary for professionals who will serve a Latino/Hispanic clientele to be educated and sensitize on these issues.
We understand that professionals who serve a diverse clientele could improve their services by learning valuable information on the following topics, as they pertain to Latino/Hispanic reality in the U.S.:
• Health/Nutrition -- including ways in which Latinos/Hispanics people use traditional healers/ “curanderos” in relation to health care workers and naturopathy instead of modern medicine.
• Cultural differences among Latinos/Hispanics ethnic groups. Analysis of differences between new immigrants and those citizens who have been in the U.S. for a long time are also welcome.
• Migrant patterns (streams) for agricultural workers; their diversity; work related and ethical issues.
• Family structure and dynamics.
• Youth – focusing on drug-use and teen pregnancy prevention
• Community dynamics focusing on leadership
• Diversity – focusing on how to deal with oneself and with the diversity that Latinos/Hispanics represent in the U.S.
• Language: the challenge of translating educational material – keeping the integrity of meaning; is it possible to speak about a “mainstream” Spanish within Latinos/Hispanics groups in the U.S.? How do media corporations like Disney and Univision treat the delivery of Spanish, either in translating or in the delivery of programs targeted to Latinos/Hispanics audiences in the U.S.?
• Recruitment of volunteers and/or employees who will serve Latino/Hispanic clientele (skills and criteria for recruitment).
De La Garza de Lepe
Spain's Day in Court
Gibraltar Celebrates British Capture 300 yrs ago
|Custodio Rebollo Barroso
Custodio is a columnist for the Spanish newspaper, El Correo Odiel Informacion, published in Andalucia, S.L. . His column appears twice a week under the title of "De Salida"
In this article, Custodio suggests an organization to facilitate contact between researchers in the United States and Spain be formed. Sounds like a good idea. If any would like to help with this effort, please let me, Mimi
Este articulo se publicará el 2 de agosto proximo. Si le encuentras algún fallo me lo dices.
DE LA GARZA DE LEPE
Todo nació por un articulo publicado en Odiel Información. relacionado con el fundador de Laredo, el capitán Tomás Sánchez de la Barreda y Garza, que era descendiente de Francisco Sánchez de la Barreda hijo de José Sánchez Ortega y Juana Márquez de la Barrera, nacido en Lepe en 1603, que llegó a Nueva España como soldado de Felipe III en la Compañía del Gobernador Martín de Zavala
Este articulo fue publicado en Internet en el Boletín de la Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research, de los Estados Unidos y desde entonces he recibido un buen número de correos electrónicos de personas que tienen el apellido “ de la Garza” y que se encuentran en diferentes países, especialmente en los Estados Unidos y en México, agradeciendo los datos facilitados e incluso pidiendo ampliación de algunos.
También recibí llamadas de onubenses que me daban pistas sobre el fundador de Corpus Christi, que era un De la Garza, también descendiente de Lepe y que fue origen, hace unos años, de un hermanamiento entre ambos Ayuntamientos.
Contacté con el Archivo Municipal de Lepe telefónicamente y les prometí una visita en fecha próxima, aunque me adelantaron lo poco que me pueden facilitar y ya lo que me queda es visitar el Archivo Parroquial de Lepe, para averiguar si tienen algo, aunque en esas fechas eran escasos los datos que se guardaban.
He puesto en contacto a los diferentes de la Garza que me han consultado y pienso que sería muy bueno, si aún no existe, crear una Asociación para recoger datos de los portadores de dicho apellido e intercambiarlos entre ellos. Esta Asociación se podría ofrecer a la SHHAR para, si consideran oportuno acoplarla a su boletín en Internet, “Somos Primos”
Spain's Day in Court
Archaeology, Nov/Dec 1999, pg.18
The 1763 treaty ending the French and Indian Wars has proved to be a pivotal legal document in an ownership battle between Spain and the salvage firm Sea Hunt, Inc., over two centuries-old Spanish frigates recently discovered off the Virginia coast.
A federal judge in Virginia's Eastern District Court ruled in April that Spain was the rightful owner of the Juno, a frigate that sank in 1802 while carrying more than 400 passengers and Spanish gold coins. This victory may be the initial salvo in a long-term legal and diplomatic offensive by Spain to protect its cultural heritage. "Spain is actively considering further steps to protect historic vessels," said Jim Goold, a lawyer for the country.
The judge also ruled that Spain holds no
claim to the frigate La Galga, which sank in 1750, citing
the 1763 Treaty of Paris which ceded to Britain "all that Spain
possesses on the continent of North America, to the East or South East of
the river Mississippi." Spain plans to appeal the La
Galga decision, arguing that the 1763 treaty did not include the
transfer of sunken ships and that a previous, signed in 1667 by Great
Britain and Spain, declared neither side would take ownership of its
opponent's sunken vessels. Britain has filed a brief supporting
Gibraltar Celebrates its captured by the British 300 years ago
|Gibraltar: Thousands in
Gibraltar linked hands to create a human chain around the tiny British
colony at the tip of the Iberian peninsula, celebrating the 300th
anniversary of the territory's capture by Britain.
The human chain was an unmistakable political statement to the colony's neighbors in Spain, which lost the deep sea harbor and strategic naval base August 4, 1704, and has yearned to recover it since. About 12,000 people - a third of colony's population turned out to create the chain. Many were red T-shirts adorned with British flags.
Sent by Eddie Grijalva email@example.com
And Elsa Herbeck firstname.lastname@example.org
Estoy interesado en contactar a Personas, Instituciones, Historiadores, Cronistas de Ciudades, Comunicadores Sociales,...para ensamblar y compartir la Base de Dato sobre las Personas que han tenido, tienen y tendrán el Apellido: Guadarrama.
Este Apellido tienes sus Orígenes en España, de hecho en España hay un Pueblo y una Sierra ( Cadena de Montañas ) con este Nombre: Guadarrama
En Venezuela y Costa Rica también tienen Pueblos con este Nombre: Guadarrama
México tiene el mayor numero de Personas con el Apellido: Guadarrama, seguido por USA ( Descendientes Mexicanos ), Venezuela, España,...
En Venezuela tengo un amplio registro de los Guadarrama Venezolanos y de algunos Guadarrama del resto del Mundo.
En Venezuela las Personas con el Apellido Guadarrama de primer Apellido, se encuentran en los Estados: Falcón ( Cardon, Punto Fijo, Judibana,... ), Distrito Federal , Zulia ( Maracaibo, Coquivacoa ), Miranda ( Sta. Teresa del Tuy, Guatire, Higuerote, Guarenas, Tacarigua, San Antonio de los Altos ), Lara ( Moran, Ayacucho ), Carabobo ( Valencia ), Bolívar ( Puerto Ordaz ) y Aragua ( Maracay, La Victoria )
Esta información de este Capitulo o Entrega se mejorara con los registros Eclesiásticos anteriores al año 1836 hasta la fecha en que haya llegado el primer o los primeros Guadarrama a Venezuela.
Muy interesante es la información encontrada en la Bibliografía consultada, donde se expresa que 2 Hermanos de Apellidos: Pérez Guadarrama y Rodríguez Guadarrama se establecieron en 1752 en Paraguana, donde adquirieron algunas Propiedades.
El Apellido Guadarrama es poco frecuente en Venezuela y en el resto del Mundo. Los Países que tienen habitantes con este Apellido son: México, USA, Venezuela, España, Argentina, Puerto Rico, Filipina, Chile, Francia y Canadá. ( El orden en que estan colocados estos Países indica donde hay mayor números de Personas con Apellido Guadarrama " primer Apellido ", según las Guía Telefónica-Paginas Blancas de estos Países ).
En España de donde proviene el Apellido, los Guadarrama que encontré no son muy numerosos ( 253 Personas ), ni estan en todas las Ciudades o Pueblos de España. Según la Guía Telefónica-Paginas Blancas hay Guadarrama ( primer Apellido ), en las siguientes Ciudades: Tenerife ( 78 Personas ), Madrid ( 71 Personas ), Valladolid ( 49 Personas ), Barcelona ( 15 Personas ), Pontevedra ( 5 Personas ), Ávila ( 5 Personas ), Zaragoza ( 3 Personas ), Ourense ( 3 Personas ) Alicante ( 2 Personas ), Granada ( 2 Personas), Málaga ( 2 Personas ), Segovia ( 2 Personas ), Sevilla ( 2 Personas ), Vizcaya ( 2 Personas ), Las Palmas ( 2 Personas ), Baleares ( 2 Personas ), Córdoba ( 1 Persona ), Guipúzcoa ( 1 Persona ), León ( 1 Persona ), Murcia ( 1 Persona ), Salamanca ( 1 Persona ), Valencia ( 1 Persona ), Zamora ( 1 Persona ) y Girona ( 1 Persona ).
Bueno espero que sea de su interés y utilidad la información de este primera Entrega.
Roberto José Pérez Guadarrama
Urb. Trigal Norte, Avenida Del Antártico,
Conj. Red. Valle Escondido, Casa # 10,
Valencia, Edo. Carabobo, Venezuela 2001
Los invito a entrar a esta paginas web:
Women in the Azores
A Filipino researcher states
Cristobal de Alfaro, Costa Rica
Huge database of Canary Islanders
Flags of the Canary Islands
Fundacao Biblioteca Nacional
Genealogia de Familias Chilenas
Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer
Women in the Azores and the Immigrant Communities by Rosa Maria Nevis Simas
This is a four volume book. Each volume features the Portuguese women in the Azores and in the USA and contains articles written by Portuguese Women and scholars from the Azores, Canada, Massachusetts and California. Each volume can be purchased for $50. For further information, go to http://www.uac.pt/mulher
Source: Portuguese Ancestry Vol SIV, #1 Apr 2004,
Editor: Rosemarie Capodicci email@example.com
A Filipino researcher stated:
I "harvested" a lot of names of my deceased relative, their date of birth, death dates and marriages, but as I got closer to 1849, I could not connect any of those names to any earlier.
One day, as I sat in a beauty parlor waiting for my turn to get my regular monthly trim, I chanced upon a local magazine. There, I found an article saying that in 1849, the then-Spanish governor-general in the Philippines issued a decree ordering all Filipinos to choose from a list of surnames he had provided. Before this decree, the natives arbitrarily chose Catholic saints' names for their surnames.
I went back to the library a few days later. As I continued my search, I noticed a kind of evolution of surnames. The surnames I'd been looking for, such Ona and Ozaeta, actually evolved from Ona Santos, Ozaeta Santos, (Santa Ona and Saint Ozaeta) which initially were both de los Santos. There was no doubt in my mind because spouses' first names, children's birth dates and parents' other data matched the other information I had.
A floodgate of information was opened, and I was to extract more names of my ancestors back to the 1700s. . . . . .Maria Carolina Paat, Philippines Ilagan Mission
Source: Church News, week ending June 12, 2004
I would to know about where was born CRISTOBAL DE ALFARO, "Conquistador y Encomendero" of Costa Rica at XVI Century.
Best regards, Joaquín A. Fernández
firstname.lastname@example.org Costa Rica
[[Editor's note: Out of curiosity I decided to do a quick google search and found some interesting information. Never ceases to amaze me . . how much is available through the internet. ]]
FERNANDO ALFARO, EL VIEJO, Y CRISTOBAL DE ALFARO, naturales de Alcaraz y
vecinos de Las Peñas de San Pedro obtuvieron Ejecutoria de Hidalguía
ante la Chancillería de Granada el 29 de mayo de 1524 [ Ejecutoria
GeneaNet Genealogical Database Network
Huge database of Canary Islands names.
Sent by Bill Carmena JCarm1724@aol.com
To navigate in this database, search: by person, first name surname, public name or alias.
Web Master: Wade Falcon (337) 232-3174 810 S. College Dr., Lafayette, La.
Flags of the Canary Islands
The web master plans to collect all the information available about the flags of the Canarian archipelago at any level, regional, insular or local, both official and unofficial, and both current and historical. Web master: email@example.com
Fundacao Biblioteca Nacional (Portuguese)
Biblioteca Vistual, Miguel D. Cervantes
Paul Newfield says. . "worth exploring" firstname.lastname@example.org
Genealogia de Familias Chilenas Genealogy of Chilean people
Author and Webmaster Tomás Pino Aldunate por Familias Chilenas
Sent by Johanna De Soto . . this is a treasure, a goldmine!!
¿ Tu buscas a ?
Introducción a la Genealogía de la Nacionalidad Chilena
Por que escribir la familia, y no una familia, es por una razón
simple, no es una familia que posee bajo nuestras leyes cuatro apellidos,
si no más bien una red de familias, cual semejanza de una araña fue
tejiendo sus redes en el transcurso de los siglos, desde su llegada a
este continente llamado América, no olvidando sus orígenes en el viejo
Desde el descubrimiento de América por Cristóbal Colon en 1492,
este continente fue recibiendo enormes oleadas de emigrantes europeos,
aunque durante los primeros 50 años fueron escasas las familias que se
radicaron en él, debido a que los que llegaron fueron básicamente
soldados, cuyo objetivo era la conquista de este nuevo mundo.
Se recuerda que en los primeros 16 años de la conquista de América,
el único lugar poblado fue Santo Domingo, por 1512 se pobló Cuba, la
cual seguida muy de cerca fue Panamá en el año de nuestro señor de
Entre los años 1493 y 1517 se gestan en nuestro continente las
primeras formas de gobierno, trabajo y tributación.
La relación entre los conquistadores y los naturales del continente,
no siempre estuvo marcada por la paz, si no que tuvo alzas y caídas, en
un comienzo fue la esclavitud de los indios, para después de consultas
a los teólogos de la corona, estos debían ser "vasallos libres",
esto último desencadenó como solución en las mentes de los codiciosos
españoles la búsqueda de una institución que les permitiera generar
una importante mano de obra, y poder asegurar la explotación de las
grandes extensiones de tierras y recursos mineros, de esta necesidad
surgió la "encomienda".
El gran "regulador", fue Carlos V, quién creó el "derecho
de indias", que involucraba a los adelantados, encomenderos, curas,
protectores de indios, a la par que organizaba los territorios en
virreinatos, gobernaciones, corregimientos y audiencias en el nuevo
mundo, estas audiencias no-solo eran tribunales de segundo orden, si no
además órganos de gobierno.
La Conquista de Chile.
Durante 1536, llegó a Chile la expedición de don Diego de Almagro, si bien esta no tuvo resultados, preparó por esos avatares del destino, la expedición de don Pedro de Valdivia la que si los tuvo, ya que definitivamente permitió la radicación de colonos europeos en nuestro país.
Este Capitán español, llegó al valle de Santiago un glorioso año de 1540, probablemente en el mes de Diciembre, en ese mes fundó la ciudad de Santiago.
Aproximadamente, después de 1655, según algunos autores, luego de los alzamientos indígenas, podemos hablar de una aristocracia chilena, la cual se basaba en la posesión de la tierra. Era una aristocracia terrateniente como así mismo un "conjunto de patricios urbanos".
Tal vez el principal factor que explica nuestra nacionalidad sea la guerra permanente, originada por el espíritu indómito del pueblo mapuche, debido a esto nuestro ejército pasó a ser una institución gravitante en el gobierno de esta nación, así mismo como un ente catalizador continuo de sangre nueva venida de España.
Metodología de lectura.
Este trabajo fue desarrollado en orden descendente, es decir desde el
primer ancestro hasta los actuales descendientes. Se numeró el orden de
descendencia, así mismo como se subrayó el ancestro directo, a objeto
de distinguirlo del resto de sus colaterales.
La Composición de nuestra población.
A mediados del siglo XVI la población indígena alcanzaba a las
500.000 almas y la española llegaba a las 10.000 donde "el
mestizaje fue mayor se produjo de una alta tasa de hijos ilegítimos con
bastantes excepciones, estableciéndose en estamentos que regían la
sociedad española, peninsulares nobles contraían matrimonio con indias
de alcurnia, en tanto que los "simples pecheros" lo hacían
con naturales de baja extracción o convivían con estas.
Esta situación originó que de los 77 compañeros de Pedro de Valdivia, que dejaran descendencia conocida se conocen 226 mestizos, con solo un matrimonio con india y siete bodas con mestizas.
Con el pasar de los siglos cada vez fue menor el número de los
indios que se mezclaron con los españoles, estos se mezclaron con
mestizas, por tanto la población se fue "blanqueando" y no a
En el siglo XVIII, llegan a nuestro país los vascos, y en menor grado catalanes y aragoneses, forman una clase social de comerciantes y funcionarios, que se orientaron a la vida urbana y social, lo que contrastaba con los castellanos, que tenían una fuerte orientación a la guerra y la agricultura, únicos afanes que nutrieron a los viejos conquistadores.
Algunas familias llegadas en este periodo fueron los Aldunate, Vial o
Viel, De la Lastra, Eyzaguirre, Larraín, Carrera, Freire, Bulnes,
Arechavala y otros.
Los negros, llegaron con los españoles y su población variaba al
siglo XVIII entre el 3% y el 10% del total de la población existente.
Aunque en su casi totalidad se mezclaron con la población nativa.
Los hijos fuera del matrimonio se dividían en naturales, aquellos concebidos fuera del matrimonio pero de un hombre y mujer solteros, y los adulterinos, aquellos vástagos concebidos por alguien que ya estaba casado.
Los primeros incluso formaron parte de la familia y fueron reconocidos como herederos, los segundos ocultados y no heredaban. Además no faltaron los hijos sacrílegos, concebidos por sacerdotes, poco creyentes de las normas de nuestra iglesia.
La bastardía no quitaba la "hidalguía", se ejemplifica con la dinastía de Trastamara en Castilla.
Otro de los factores que han forjado nuestra identidad a sido las
continuas calamidades que han azotado nuestro país, el historiador
Mellafe cuenta 283 desastres entre 1520 y 1906, sin tomar en cuenta las
guerras, revoluciones, incendios. Hay un terremoto cada 7 años, una
sequía y una epidemia cada cuatro.
Los Apellidos y su uso.
Los apellidos y sus reglas surgen en el siglo XVIII, vienen junto a la Revolución Francesa, junto al siglo de las luces y la racionalidad.
Antes de esa época era común en toda la península ibérica así mismo como en Portugal que los hijos de alguna familia adoptaran el apellido de la madre, padre, abuelos, ya sea paterno o materno o algún antepasado anterior, basándose en la gloria y poder de este, donde las reglas de caballería y los romances andaban de la mano.
Por tanto hay muchos portadores de un apellido que no pertenecen al núcleo familiar por parentesco.
Se agregaba el problema de la grafía, es decir como se "escribía el apellido", así mismo como la "castellanización" de los mismos, lo cual no es exclusivo de nuestro país o América, si no de Europa, cada país modificó a su arbitrio y a la calidad de sus escribanos, los apellidos provenientes de fuera de sus fronteras.
Los apellidos compuestos han cambiado y su objeto a sido simplificarlos o acortarlos, esto ocurrió en forma masiva, después de 1800 en nuestro país, su ejemplificación es "Del Pino" como "Pino" y "Martínez de Aldunate" como "Aldunate".
Una culpa importante de estos cambios la tienen los escribanos, los interesados o los sacerdotes que manejaban estos apellidos en las ocasiones solemnes.
Títulos y apelativos eran usados con gran parsimonia en todos los documentos que suscribían, como así mismo a su condición social y alcurnia, todo lo último fue borrado de raíz por "Bernardo O´Higgins", quien como director supremo de esta nación además abolió los títulos nobiliarios y los escudos de armas, además de la costumbre social imperante en aquella época que ya por entonces tendía a la simplicidad y a la pujanza del individuo contra los derechos heredados sin ningún valor.
Los Mapuches tenían diversas formas de utilizar y heredar el nombre, no existía diferencia entre el nombre y el apellido. Con la estabilización del cacicazgo los nombres comienzan a heredarse y transformarse en apellidos, ya que expresaban el poder del que lo ostentaba.
Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer
Zia Northwest is proud to present a seminal work in the field of Spanish-American poetic choreography.* http://www.zianorthwest.com
Sent by Joel Aragon email@example.com
360-668-4108 PH 360-668-3390 FAX
With English interpretations and readings by Dr. John A. Aragón
Musical accompanist Moisés Rodríguez
Spanish readings by Eliseo Casillas
Blending and arranging of the music and interpretative readings together
in a way that expresses the heart and mind of the poet.)
Sent by Orlando Lozano firstname.lastname@example.org
This is worth remembering, because it is true. It's familiar territory, but those of you that graduated from school after the early 60's were probably never taught this. Our courts have seen to that!
Did you know that 52 of the 55 signers of "The Declaration of Independence" were orthodox, deeply committed, Christians? That they all believed in the Bible as the divine truth, the God of scripture, and His personal intervention. It is the same Congress that formed the American Bible Society, immediately after creating the Declaration of Independence, the Continental Congress voted to purchase and import 20,000 copies of Scripture for the people of this nation.
Patrick Henry, who is called the firebrand of the American Revolution, is still remembered for his words, "Give me liberty or give me death"; but in current textbooks, the context of these words is omitted. Here is what he actually said: "An appeal to arms and the God of hosts is all that is left us. But we shall not fight our battle alone. There is a just God that presides over the destinies of nations. The battle, sir, is not to the strong alone. Is life so dear or peace so sweet as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it Almighty God. I know not what course others may take, but as for me, give me liberty, or give me death."
These sentences have been erased from our textbooks. Was Patrick Henry a Christian? The following year, 1776, he wrote this: "It cannot be emphasized too strongly or too often that this great Nation was founded not by religionists, but by Christians; not on religions, but on the Gospel of Jesus Christ. For that reason alone, people of other faiths have been afforded freedom of worship here."
Consider these words that Thomas Jefferson wrote in the front of his well-worn Bible: "I am a real Christian, that is to say, a disciple of the doctrines of Jesus. I have little doubt that our whole country will soon be rallied to the unity of our creator." He was also the chairman of the American Bible Society, which he considered his highest and most important role.
On July 4, 1821, President Adams said, "The highest glory of the American Revolution was this: "It connected in one indissoluble bond the principles of civil government with the principles of Christianity."
Calvin Coolidge, our 30th President of the United States reaffirmed this truth when he wrote, "The foundations of our society and our government rest so much on the teachings of the Bible that it would be difficult to support them if faith in these teachings would cease to be practically universal in our country."
In 1782, the United States Congress voted this resolution: "The Congress of the United States recommends and approves the Holy Bible for use in all schools."
William Holmes McGuffey is the author of the McGuffey Reader, which was used for over 100 years in our public schools with over 125 million copies sold until it was stopped in 1963. President Lincoln called him the "Schoolmaster of the Nation."
Listen to these words of Mr. McGuffey: "The Christian religion is the religion of our country. From it are derived our nation, on the character of God, on the great moral Governor of the universe. On its doctrines are founded the peculiarities of our free Institutions. From no source has the author drawn more conspicuously than from the sacred Scriptures. From all these extracts from the Bible, I make no apology."
Of the first 108 universities founded in America, 106 were distinctly Christian, including the first, Harvard University, chartered in 1636. In the original Harvard Student Handbook, rule number 1 was that students seeking entrance must know Latin and Greek so that they could study the Scriptures: "Let every student be plainly instructed and earnestly pressed to consider well, the main end of his life and studies, is, to know God and Jesus Christ, which is eternal life, John 17:3; and therefore to lay Jesus Christ as the only foundation for our children to follow the moral principles of the Ten Commandments."
James Madison, the primary author of the Constitution of the United States, said this: "We have staked the whole future of all our political constitutions upon the capacity of each of ourselves to govern ourselves according to the moral principles of the Ten Commandments."
Research Process at a Glance
Mexican Genealogical Research
LDS Research support
Facts & Genes,Family Tree DNA
Geographic Name Service
By Salena Ball Ashton
By glancing at this article, I hope you’ll get an idea of how the process works and how simple it really is. The basics of family history are:
1. Collect the information that others have already gathered.
The Research Process is simple. This is the cycle your research will
take, whether you are just beginning or if you are a professional
researcher. Here is the process with more detail:
1. See what has already been done. This is called Preliminary Search.
Family Sources- It doesn’t matter if your fifth
generation professional genealogist or the first
and only one who cares, the work is about the family. And what better place is there to turn for
information about the family than the family?
i. Previous Research
Internet- Many people put their genealogy on the Internet, and it is also the second place we
should turn to when searching for information. It is second only to family sources.
i. www.familysearch.org -- This is a free genealogy website. This program consists of six databases:
€Ancestral File- Women are usually listed with their maiden name. This database shows individuals linked together as families.
€International Genealogical Index- Women are usually listed with their maiden name. This database shows individuals and families linked together.
€Pedigree Resource File- Submitted by other researchers. Sometimes they will have included their sources and contact information.
€U.S. Social Security Death Index- For those people who had Social Security Numbers, and are dead, they might show up in this database. Don’t be surprised to see
people born in the 1860s in here. Some of them lived through the 1930s to receive a
Social Security Number. Women are listed by their married name.
€Vital Records Index- Just what it sounds like, an index to the vital records. Vital records are birth, death, and marriage records.
€Family History Web Sites- When you type in a name or a location, often the database will find related websites. This is how I found the Bible entries of my Gorman and
Sandusky ancestors. Otherwise, I would have never known they were on the Internet.
€Family History Library Catalog- This will tell you whether or not there are compiled genealogies of your family, microfilmed records of the church in a small village, etc.
ii.www.ancestry.com -- This is another database full of names, though it is not free. They also have message boards where you can post queries and find distant cousins who are searching the same families.
iii. www.rootsweb.com -- Another wonderful database of names that is FREE. It also has wonderful databases on county, state, and country information that is so vital to research. They also have message boards where you can post queries and find distant cousins who are searching the same families.
iv. www.somosprimos.com -- Dedicated to the Hispanic genealogist. Adding to and accessing the database is free, as are all the articles and consultation services.
v. www.cyndislist.com -- This is a genealogical website directory. There are tens of thousands of genealogy sites listed here. Some are general, some are ‘how to’s’, and some are extremely specific. You will never exhaust this website. Not using this website is like trying to play baseball without a bat.
Other Resources to Consider-
i. Libraries and Archives, on various judicial levels: city, county, state, and national libraries and archives. Some libraries, even small ones, have genealogy sections.ii. How to Books. See Amazon.com for an excellent selection, then go to ebay to find that item cheaper.iii. Manuscript Collections—ask your librarian.iv. PERSI—as your libraria
Now that you have found all that has already been done, you are ready to evaluate the
i. Ask yourself: Does this make sense?ii. Do the dates, names, and places make sense?iii. Is there any conflicting information?
Enter this information into your PAF or other genealogy software program, or if
you’re not using software, enter the information into your notes and family group sheets.
Organize what you have. I guarantee that if you don’t organize your work, you
will not be as effective in your research.
3. What information do I want to learn?
€ The answer to this question will be determined on how well you evaluated your preliminary research in step two. If there is no marriage date—search for the marriage date. If there are three variations of a surname (not including spelling) search for that.
€How important is the information you want to learn about? If it is necessary to continue the research, then by all means, please research it!! However, if it’s something not so important like "who was grandma’s first boyfriend?" you may want to reconsider how cost-effective it will be to find that out.
€Once you’ve decided what you want to research, now you have to research it! This is called Original Research. Here, you go into the documents, the dusty books, the microfilmed records, and ship passenger lists.
€Vital Records (Birth, Marriage, and Death)
€Church Records (Baptism, Confirmation, Marriage, and Burials)
€Other original records.
4. Evaluation of original research.
€Just as you did in step two, now you need to evaluate the information you have found. Did you answer your questions from step three?
€What additional information did you find?
€Do you have more questions now than when you first began? Good. That will be your lead into your next search.
5. Start over.
€ Once we’ve answered our original questions from step three, we can either stop or continue to research. With new information, sometimes we’ll have to look at different people, different locations, or other things that we had not previously researched. Instead of jumping straight into more census records or church records, you would be wise to first do preliminary research—to see if someone else has already done the work!
MEXICAN GENEALOGICAL RESEARCH OUTLINE
by John P. Schmal
1. STARTING OUT -- SOURCES OF INFORMATION
A. Collect information from family members. Questions to ask:
1. Dates of birth, marriage, places where ancestors lived.
2. Where did our ancestors live in 1920 (for the 1920 census).
3. Did our ancestors become citizens? (Naturalization records)
4. Did we have non-citizen immigrant ancestors living in U.S. in 1940?(Alien Registration forms)
5. Do we have passports or visas for our ancestors? (Use to get additional info from the INS.)
B. Naturalization records
C. Birth, marriage, death certificates (civil or church).
D. Obituaries or cemetery records
2. CREATE A PEDIGREE CHART TO UNDERSTAND CHRONOLOGY
AND FAMILIAL RELATIONSHIPS.
3. LOCATION ANALYSIS
(Once you have found out what municipio, city, or estado your family came from):
A. Locate your ancestral town on a large-scale map.
1. Which municipio is the town in?
2. What church did they attend? (Church records and civil records may be in different locations).
3. Is the town near the boundary of another jurisdiction (municipio, estado)?
4. If your ancestral town was a small hacienda, locate the geographic coordinates in a Gazeteer of
Mexico, then go to a large-scale map and note the municipio in which it lies.
4. DETERMINE THE AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS
A. Search for the town or municipio in the Family History Catalog.
1. Civil records (Municipio).
2. Church records.
3. Other (census, padrones, military, family histories).
B. Search the International Genealogical Index (IGI).
C. Write to the Catholic Archdiocese office for records.
D. Write to the State Civil Registers for records.
"Mexican-American Genealogical Research: Following the Paper Trail" has several chapters that assist readers with many of these categories of research. Are you trying to learn more about your ancestors that came from Mexico? Trying to figure out how to find key information so you can trace your Mexican roots? Do you know the name of the hacienda or villa or city they came from? You can purchase "Mexican-American Genealogical Research: Following the Paper Trail to Mexico" by going to the Heritage Books website:
The book includes a whole chapter on border crossing records: non-resident alien identification cards, temporary permits, manifests, etc., as used in previous years.
Heraldry: HispanicOnline - Hispanic Heritage Plaza 2002
Sent by Bill Carmena JCarm1724@aol.com
Family History Research supports program needs online volunteers
& Genes from Family Tree DNA
August 25, 2004 Volume 3, Issue 5
Welcome to this issue of Facts & Genes, the only publication devoted to Genetic Genealogy.
Facts & Genes provides valuable information about utilizing Genetic Genealogy testing for your genealogy, and keeps you informed about the latest advancements in the field.
Last month, I asked in the newsletter about the oldest participant, and would like to thank all those who responded. It was quite amazing to find so many participants in their 90's and a few in their 100's, which is evidence of the willingness of the senior population to explore new technologies. The oldest participant reported was 103 when they took a DNA test, as part of the International Dalton Surname Project. The next oldest participant was 102, and a member of the Faux Surname Project.
If you have older relatives, especially if they are the last male in a branch, you may want to get their sample stored now, while you still have an opportunity. If you are sponsoring the test, and working within a budget, consider the 12 Marker test, which can always be upgraded at a later date.
Sent by Tom Ascencio Tom Asnsio@aol.com
The Geographic Name Information Service (GNIS) is located at
Sent by George Gause email@example.com
According to the website, GNIS, developed by the USGS in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names, [it] contains information on almost 2 million physical and cultural geographic features in the United States and its territories. It is our Nation’s official repository of domestic geographic names information. Included are maps and aerial photographs.
Many of these websites give full in-depth descriptions of their record sets. Many provide the data online, instructions on how to locate the records and the forms needed to request the information. The use of federal records and federal websites is practically unlimited.
SOURCE: NCGS News [North Carolina Genealogical Society newsletter], Summer, 2004, page 7-7 [unnumbered].
FirstGov website http://www.firstgov.gov
Sent by George Gause firstname.lastname@example.org
FirstGov website The ultimate website to access all other federal websites is http://www.firstgov.gov This is an internet site to really get excited about!!! From this site, you can access all other federal government websites including NARA (National Archives and Records Administration), a Civil War Soldiers database, information about the Federal Census, Naturalization records or Federal Land Patent records, Folk Life and Culture, Presidential History, National, State, and County Data and Statistics, GNIS [covered in a separate / forthcoming message], etc. etc. etc. SOURCE: NCGS News [North Carolina Genealogical Society newsletter], Summer, 2004, page 6 [unnumbered].
Extract: First Americans' arrival figured at 18,000 years ago.
by Nicholas Wade, New York Time, via OCR, Jul 25, 2003
That's the latest genetic estimate for New World's original residents,
once thought older.
The new estimate undermines earlier estimates by UCI researchers that colonization occurred as far back as 30,000 years ago, but reinforces archaeological findings and a linguistic theory that most American languages belong to one family, Amerind.
The evidence fits, for example, with the discovery of a campsite in Chile put at 15,000 years old, and the presence of big-game hunters in North American, 13,6000 years ago. the few sites with possibly older traces had not gained wide scientific acceptance.
By studying the DNA of living Siberian and American Indian populations geneticists had previously been able to see traces of at least two early migrations from Siberia.
Will Rogers, who died in a plane crash with Wylie Post in 1935, was probably the greatest political sage this country has ever known.
Sent by Sergio Hernandez email@example.com
Enjoy the following:
1. Never slap a man who's chewing tobacco.
2. Never kick a cow chip on a hot day.
3. There are 2 theories to arguing with a woman...neither works.
4. Never miss a good chance to shut up.
5. Always drink upstream from the herd.
6. If you find yourself in a hole, stop digging.
7. The quickest way to double your money is to fold it and put it back in your pocket.
8. There are three kinds of men: The ones that learn by reading. The few who learn by observation. The rest of them have to pee on the electric fence and find out for themselves.
9. Good judgment comes from experience, and a lot of that comes from bad .
10. If you're riding' ahead of the herd, take a look back every now and then to make sure it's still there.
11. Lettin' the cat outta the bag is a whole lot easier'n puttin' it back.
12. After eating an entire bull, a mountain lion felt so good he started roaring.
He kept it up until a hunter came along and shot him. The moral: When you're full of bull, keep your mouth shut.
ABOUT GROWING OLDER...
1. Eventually you will reach a point when you stop lying about your age and start bragging about it.
2. The older we get, the fewer things seem worth waiting in line for.
3. Some people try to turn back their odometers. Not me, I want people to know "why" I look this way. I've traveled a long way and some of the roads weren't paved.
4. When you are dissatisfied and would like to go back to youth, think of Algebra.
5.You know you are getting old when everything either dries up or leaks.
6.I don't know how I got over the hill without getting to the top.
7.One of the many things no one tells you about aging is that it is such a nice change from being young.
8. One must wait until evening to see how splendid the day has been.
9. Being young is beautiful, but being old is comfortable.
10.Long ago when men cursed and beat the ground with sticks, it was called witchcraft. Today it's called golf.
And finally ~ If you don't learn to laugh at trouble, you won't have anything to laugh at when you are old.
12/30/2009 04:49 PM