Somos Primos

September 2004, 
Editor: Mimi Lozano

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research


Content Areas

United States
-- 3
Surname Bautista
Galvez Patriots
Orange County, CA
-- 23
Los Angeles, CA
-- 30
-- 36
Northwestern US
-- 46
Southwestern US
-- 54 
-- 72
-- 78
-- 82
-- 85
East of Mississippi
-- 93
East Coast
  -- 102
-- 103
-- 154   
-- 164   
Family History
-- 165 
Somos Primos Home
Community Calendars


SEPTEMBER 11, 2001  
Freedom means choosing your burden.
H. Menuhin, American pianist (1920-1981)

Through God we shall do valiantly, 
for he it is that shall tread down our enemies.  
Psalms 108:13

Letters to the Editor:

Dear Mimi,
Margaret Wellman Jaenke, President/Curator for the Hamilton Museum and Ranch Foundation in the city of Anza, California has ask me if its possible to link the Anza Letters article to their Museum's web site.   

The small town of Anza is named after the Gran Capitan and from my conversation with Margaret, she is excited, the board is excited, and the people of Anza are excited and want to put it on their web site or link it. 

Margaret was instrumental in opening the doors for me to get into the Cary Ranch where the monument is located. She was very pleased with the pictures. Quote" the pictures make it seem like if I am right there".    Again thanks for all you have done y hasta pronto.

                  Phil Valdez  7/13/2004 

(Editor: We immediately made the addition of the Museum's contact information in the July issue. Phil received a query and as answered it in detail for everyone's benefit.  Please go to De Anza.)

The item DATOS SOBRE LA FAMILIA DE LA  GARZA  by Angel Custodio Rebollo  in the July Somos Primos, is very exciting. Years ago, when I was still a beginner, the names Marcos Alonso and Constanza de la GARZA were given to me, but I didn't know where the information had been found. It troubled me that I do not have a source for the names of this very important couple in my notes.  Since I do share my research, it has troubled me that I was responsible for passing on what may be misinformation,  so having this verification is really, really important.

Irma Cantu,  7/21/2004

Dear Mimi,
I was reading one of your monthly magazine. I don't recall if it was June or May, but you had an article on Dr. Clotilde Garcia, I thought you might like to know that her gr gr grandfather, 8 generation back, was the brother of my gr gr grandfather, 8 generations back. Clotilde ancestor was Nicolas, son of Lucas Garcia and mine was Tomas. This is on my mother's line. He married Maria de la Garza, daughter of Lazaro de la Garza, who had a son named Juan, his daughter married Francisco Lozano. You have that on your lines, I'm sure. Small world????  
                     As always Orlando Lozano

Editor's note: My first cousin Orlando is correct.  Francisco Lozano is my ancestor, his parents were Juan Lozano married to Rita de la Garza.  This is particularly touching information. It was an article about Dr. Clotilde "Cleo" Garcia that gave me  hope that I could succeed in doing my own family history.  Her example started me on the trek.  In addition,  I take pride in knowing that Dr. "Cleo" was the sister of  Dr. Hector Garcia, founder of the American GI Forum. That they were distant relatives is the wonder and joy of family history research.    Mimi

Somos Primos Staff: 
Mimi Lozano, Editor
John P. Schmal, 
Johanna de Soto, 
Howard Shorr
Armando Montes
Michael Stevens Perez

Baltazar Acevedo
Sam Anthony
Joel Aragon
Laura Arechabala Shane
Tom Ascencio 
Salena Ball Ashton
Nancy Barber  
Mercy Bautista-Olvera 
Eva Booher
Irma Cantu
Rosemarie Capodicci  
Bill Carmena 
Peter Carr  


Johanna De Soto
Nelson Diaz  
Karla Everett
Joaquín A. Fernández
Lisa Friedman   
George Gause
Horacio González De Hoyos 
Tom Green
Eddie Grijalva
J. Guthrie 
Michael Hardwick
Lorraine Hernandez
Sergio Hernandez
Elsa Herbeck
Anthony Hoskins 
Granville Hough, Ph.D.  
John Inclan
1stSgt Dave Jobe
 Iris Jones 
Alex King   
 John P. Schmal
Cindy LoBuglio


Carlos Lopez Dzur
Orlando Lozano
Eddie Martinez
JV Martinez, Ph.D.
George Muriel
Paul Newfield 
Michelle Nunez
Yolanda Ochoa
Robert Andres Olivares
Guillermo Padilla Origel  
Patricia Prieto
Joe M. Pérez 
Stacey Ramsower
Custodio Rebollo Barroso
Refugio Rochin, Ph.D.
Blas Roldán
Howard Shorr
Phil Valdez
Luis Larios Vendrell
J.D. Villarreal  
Dick Warren
Sophia Wilson  


SHHAR Board:     714-894-8161                       For information:  
Laura Arechabala Shane 
Bea Armenta Dever
Steven Hernandez
Mimi Lozano Holtzman
Pat Lozano 
Henry Marquez 
Yolanda Ochoa Hussey 
Michael S. Perez 
Crispin Rendon
Viola Rodriguez Sadler 
John P. Schmal



"Hispanics and the Formation of the American People" 
Baker Company
Marcelino Ramirez Bautista
Been there, done that
Hispanics cheer 'DREAM' 
Change of Heart
AOL clicks with Hispanics
National Latino museum considered
Sí TV aims to reach Hispanics
Visiones: Latino Art & Culture
Careers in Government
SACNAS, Chicano/Indigenous in Science
Hispanic Alliance, Career  Enhancement

"Hispanics and the Formation of the American People" 

National Archives and Records Administration
October 1-2, 2004
700 Pennsylvania Ave. NW
 Washington, DC 20408-0001

The National Archives were established in 1934, 70 years ago.  This is the first time that a conference for Hispanic research 
will be held at the DC Archives.  
Be part of this historic event.

Please Enter 

Constitution Avenue, between 7th and 9th Streets,

Schedule for Friday, October 1st



10:30 a.m. to NoonWilliam G. McGowan Theater - 
Keynote address and panel discussion

Welcome and introductions: Sam Anthony, Director of Lecture Programs at NARA, and Mimi Lozano, Editor, Somos Primos E-magazine, and President, Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research.

Keynote address: George R. Ryskamp, Associate Professor of History at Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah; Accredited Genealogist specializing in Spanish language research and United States probate and legal systems; author of Finding Your Hispanic Roots, Tracing your Hispanic Heritage, and A Student’s Guide to Mexican American Genealogy.

Panel discussion, including Prof. Ryskamp and special guests:

Arthur Cresce, Chief of the Ethnic & Hispanic Branch, Population Division, U.S. Census Bureau. 

Carlos B. Vega, Professor of Spanish at Montclair State University, and author of The Truth Must Be Told: How Spain And Hispanics Helped Build The United States (McFarland and Company, 2001) and America’s Charters of Freedom in Spanish and English (Declaration, Constitution, Bill of Rights, and Gettysburg Address) published by Villamel Publishing Company).

Professor Carolina Crimm
, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Latin American History, Sam Houston State University, author of De Leon, a Tejano Family History (University of Texas Press, 2004).

Question and Answer session
with the audience

12:15 to 1:15 p.m. – First Workshop Session: patrons pay $15 to attend any and all workshops offered this session, and patrons will receive the notes for all workshops this session. Workshops will be held in the Presidential Conference Rooms on the Main Level.

Claire Bettag, Certified Genealogical Records Specialists, and Certified Genealogical Lecturers, "Land Entry Papers at the National Archives: An Overview."

Marie Melchiori, Certified Genealogical Records Specialist and Certified Genealogical Lecturer, "Beginning Genealogical Research with U.S. Records."

Marian Smith, INS Historian, "Hispanic Immigrant Records, 1893-2004." A broad overview of INS records with emphasis on Hispanic immigrants. Records discussed include arrival manifests, visas, border crossing cards, imported laborer documentation, A-Files, naturalizations, and more.

Mimi Lozano, plus examples of family pedigrees by John Inclan,
"First steps in Hispanic Family History Research, Si se pude!!"

1:15 to 2:30 p.m. - Lunch (patrons are on their own)

2:30 to 3:30 p.m. – Second Workshop Session: patrons pay $15 to attend any and all workshops offered this session, and patrons will receive the notes for all workshops this session. Workshops will be held in the Presidential Conference Rooms on the Main Level.

Constance Potter, NARA archivist, "Using Census Records for your Genealogical Research."

Claire Bettag,
CGRS, CGL, "Private Land Claims in the West and Southwest: Sources for Genealogical Information."

Marie Melchiori, CGRS, CGL, "Civil War Research in the National Archives."

3:30 to 4:30 p.m. – Third Workshop Session: patrons pay $15 to attend any and all workshops offered this session, and patrons will receive the notes for all workshops this session. Workshops will be held in the Presidential Conference Rooms on the Main Level.

Michael Hussey, NARA archivist, "From the State Department: Using Passport and Visa Applications in Your Genealogical Research."

Mimi Lozano, "The Black Latino Connection"

Yolanda Ochoa and Stephen Hussey, "Family History Research via the Internet".


Schedule for Saturday, October 2nd



10:30 to 11:30 a.m.Fourth Workshop Session: patrons pay $15 to attend any and all workshops offered this session. Patrons will receive the notes for all workshops this session, and workshops will be held in the Presidential Conference Rooms on the Main Level.

Claire Bettag, CGRS, CGL, "Records of Spanish Colonial Louisiana."

Marie Melchiori, CGRS, CGL, "Mexican American Claims Commission 1825– 1938"

Marian Smith, INS Historian, "Hispanic Immigrant Records, 1893-2004."

Mimi Lozano, plus examples of family pedigrees by John Inclan,
"First steps in Hispanic Family History Research, Si se pude!!"

11:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. – Fifth Workshop Session: patrons pay $15 to attend any and all workshops offered this session, and patrons will receive the notes for all workshops this session. Workshops will be held in the Presidential Conference Rooms on the Main Level.

Claire Prechtel Kluskens, J.D., & NARA archivist, "Mexican border crossing (immigration) records."

Mimi Lozano, "Celebrating Hispanic Heritage Month, Tools for Community and Classroom Use."

Yolanda Ochoa and Steve Hussey, "Resources available online for Hispanic research."

12:30-1:30 p.m. Lunch (patrons are on their own)

1:30 – 3:30 – Panel discussion and book signing, Jefferson Room: Books in Print about the Hispanic American Experience

Caroline Castillo Crimm, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Latin American History, Sam Houston State University, author of De Leon, a Tejano Family History (University of Texas Press, 2004)

Carlos B. Vega, professor of Spanish at Montclair State University, and author of The Truth Must Be Told: How Spain And Hispanics Helped Build The United States (McFarland and Company, 2001) and "America’s Charters of Freedom in Spanish and English" (Declaration, Constitution, Bill of Rights, and Gettysburg Address) published by Villamel Publishing Company)

Dr. Barbara Mujica, professor at Georgetown University's Spanish department, is the author of several books/anthologies of Spanish and Spanish American literature, including: Milenio: Mil años de literatura española (2001), Antología de la literatura española: Siglos XVIII y XIX (1999), and Premio Nóbel: Once grandes escritores del mundo hispánico (1997)

Arthur R. Cresce, Jr. - Chief of the Ethnic and Hispanic Branch in the Population Division of the U.S. Census Bureau, "Identification of Hispanic Ethnicity in Census 2000: Analysis of Data Quality for the Question on Hispanic Origin," by Arthur R. Cresce, Audrey Dianne Schmidley and Roberto R. Ramirez. Issued July 2004, working paper #75.

All Hispanic/Latino historical and genealogical societies, cultural groups and museums  are encouraged to send brochures, posters, and/or flyers for distribution at the conference. 

Contact, for more information, reservations and to mail brochures and display materials:

Sam Anthony, Director of Lecture Programs, 
National Archives and Records Administration
700 Pennsylvania Ave. NW  Room G-7
Washington, DC 20408 
(202) 208-7345 phone;               


he proud warriors of Baker Company wanted to do something to pay tribute To our fallen comrades. So since we are part of the only Marine Infantry Battalion left in Iraq the one way that we could think of doing that is By taking a picture of Baker Company saying the way we feel. It would be awesome if you could find a way to share this with our fellow countrymen. I was wondering if there was any way to get this into your papers to let the world know that "WE HAVE NOT FORGOTTEN" and are proud to serve our country."

Semper Fi,  1stSgt Dave Jobe  

The above photo was forwarded from one of the last U.S. Marine companies in Iraq. They would like to have it passed to as many people as possible, to let the folks back home know that they remember why they're there and that they remember those who've been lost.


The  Journey of Marcelino Ramirez Bautista
by Mercy Bautista-Olvera

My father Marcelino Ramirez Bautista was born in the city of Zacatecas, Mexico on June 2, 1906. In 1916 after his mother, Petra Ramirez passed on, his father Tiburcio Bautista decided to travel to United States looking for work, bringing his younger son with him and leaving the older children with relatives in Zacatecas. In New Mexico, his father found work and with the help of some neighbors he attended school, however, his father lost his job and decided to go back to Zacatecas. As a young man, Marcelino fell in love with a beautiful young girl, Anastacia Nunez Robles and married on June 7, 1930 in Zacatecas. My father worked in the mines at that time, and heard of the opportunity to come to United States as a Bracero. The couple had six children by that time: Victoria, Enrique, Andrea Petra, Modesta, Maria Guadalupe and Esther.

During WWII my father was one of the first workers to be hired for the "Labor Worker Program", and worked for the railroad. I remember him talking about the places where he worked, such as Ohio, Missouri, Kansas etc., I remember photos he sent to my mother posing with co-workers wearing overalls on the side of their train, but sadly these photos were misplaced and probably do not exist now. 

My father visited his family in Mexico during brakes he had from working. Mom would get pregnant during those times, and my brothers Carlos, Jess and I were born. I did not know my dad as a young child, since he was always traveling. When the Veterans came back from WWII my dad was sent back to Mexico as well as many other men that worked for United States.

However, my father knew that it was a good opportunity in United states, emigrated as soon as he could, and worked for Sully Miller Construction Company until he retired. With the help of his sister Maria, who was already living in Los Angeles, he sent for us to come to U.S. By that time two of my sisters were already married and so they stayed behind. We came to United States with my dad, and after many years my dad helped his daughters' and families to immigrate to United States. 

My father passed on May 12, 1989 in California, he was such an inspiration in my life. My dad was a man that wanted a better life for his children and grandchildren. He was generous, kind, positive, funny, and above all he loved his family.

Although men fought bravely and women helped during WWII let's not forget Mexican-born who served on United States working as Braceros. A 1942 U.S. Mexican pact allowing for temporary employment of Mexican workers on railroads and farmland. These men left their families behind in Mexico on an off, not only to be able to provide better for their families but to help United States when needed. My father was one of them, He also served during WWII but in United States homeland, working as a bracero. 

Hispanics cheer 'DREAM' 

By Lee Davidson
Deseret Morning News, Wednesday, July 14, 2004
Sent by JV Martinez 

Deseret Morning News      WASHINGTON — Maybe it was the easiest standing ovation that Sen. Orrin Hatch ever received. He merely mentioned the name of his "DREAM Act" to the National Hispanic Leadership Summit, and most stood and cheered long with gusto.

Hatch then urged the 300 leaders there to work with just as much zeal to win support from their home-state senators for his Development, Relief and Education for Minors (DREAM) Act. The bill is blocked by some fellow Republicans who fear it would offer amnesty to children of illegal aliens and invite more illegal immigration.
      "It's not amnesty. It is a way of helping these young people to earn their rights to an education and jobs — and citizenship, ultimately — if they live good lives and get an education," Hatch said to more applause.
      Hatch is pushing the bill to allow illegal aliens who entered the country before age 16 — and at least five years before the bill is enacted — to quality for federal college loans and work study (but not grants). It also clarifies that states may give them in-state tuition rates, which Utah already offers. 

      By registering for college, those illegal aliens would be given temporary legal residency and could win permanent legal residency if they earn a college degree. Hatch estimates that 50,000 children of illegal immigrants graduate from U.S. high schools each year, but many cannot afford college without aid.
    "It would be a great mistake to allow them to continue the suffering of the consequences of their parents' illegal behavior. It would be a shame, to say the least, for them to be removed to unfamiliar foreign countries that . . . they never had anything to do (with), where the opportunities are so limited," Hatch said.
      He gave the example of Danny King Cairo of Utah, born in Mexico to a single mother who later came to America illegally. Cairo's mother abandoned him at age 14. He lived on the streets of Salt Lake City for three years until the Kevin King family took him in and helped him graduate from high school. 
       He is now studying broadcast journalism at the University of Utah, where education is helping him to escape far from the streets that offered little opportunity. "Danny is the perfect illustration of what can happen if a young person is given a chance," Hatch said.
      "When I was on the street I resorted to survival options like crime or exploiting social services," Cairo said Tuesday.
      He now works with kids who are trying to make something of themselves and he promotes the idea of higher education to Hispanic and other children who may have disadvantages to going.
      "These kids are condemned for decisions that are not in their hands," he said. "By not allowing them to go to college they become a problem, something the community will need to take care of. Also, going to college will allow them to improve the hispanic as well as the larger community."
      State Office of Hispanic Affairs director Tony Yapias, who attended the summit, praised Hatch for his "courageous" stand to "give them the opportunity for an education."
      "In the long term this is going to benefit these kids," he said. "More than that, we're going to have an educated Latino population benefiting the economy of this nation."
      Hatch told the group the bill is still controversial, and he does not dare bring it to the Senate floor until he has 60 co-sponsors — or the three-fifths majority needed to cut off a likely filibuster by opponents.
      He currently has 47 co-sponsors.
      One critic is Sen. Jeff Sessions, R-Ala. During Senate Judiciary Committee debate last year, Sessions said, "It sends the message that America has immigration laws, but we don't intend to enforce them. It says that if you get away with it (illegal immigration) for a while, we will not only not punish you — we will reward you."
      The bill is controversial in Utah as well. Rep. Chris Cannon, R-Utah, who is shepherding the bill in the House, was forced into a primary election this year largely by opponents of that bill and other immigration reform he is pushing, which opponents contended amounts to amnesty for illegal aliens.

Been there, done that.
Robert Andres Olivares
    A 27 year-old past gang member expresses his perspective.

Today I feel like I have not made the best use of my life. Today I found out that my cousin dropped out of high school because he didn’t feel like he was smart enough to be there. I remember growing up I always had trouble in school, I felt like a failure and I hated waking up. Eventually I grew tired of being a fat and awkward kid who seem to fail at everything so I decided it would be easier to die. 
The summer before I was to be in Eleventh grade there I was in my bed listening to my parents in the background as my body began to die from the poison I swallowed. My heart was slowing down and all I had to do was close my eyes but I couldn’t. Before I knew it I was being slapped by the doctor so I wouldn’t fall asleep and never wake up. I spent the next few days with a tube up and my nose and down my throat being fed charcoal. Life didn’t get better once I got out it was for me just another failure in my life and I hated life. I couldn’t even kill myself so I figured someone would have to do it for me and I fell into gangs and drugs to become numb to life and hopefully to be released from the pain of opening my eyes. Before I knew it I became a target and I thought for sure I would finally find peace. 

Instead of death what I was given was a wake up call, I found myself kneeling on the ground with a gun to that back of my head and my mid flooded with flashbacks of times when I was supposed to leave this world. I was nine again and staring down the barrel of a shotgun, I was sixteen and being slammed into a wall by a white officer with no explanation and I closed my eyes. A week later I would once again find myself being arrested and I thought for sure my life was spiraling even further down. It was under the threat of incarceration that I finally in my fourth high school buckled down and realized that all the work I have been hiding from wasn't hard at all. Yet there I was a senior and I didn’t even my ninth grade credits.
For once I did really well and I began to regret all the time I wasted, the free education I just tossed aside so I can sit idle in a cloud of smoke with a forty ounce in my hand. As I look back on the violence that I have seen I shutter, every night I pop Prozac so I can feel comfortable. I am a high school graduate whom made it out of a desire not to go to jail and I hope that my younger cousins can avoid my path. I a filled with guilt even three years after I watched a young man died in my arms. I am filled with guilt that I couldn’t have been a better role model. I hope that my life, that this story can help young men see that there is no glory on the streets for the strength we need comes from knowledge. 

Change of Heart by Adam Goodheart
AARP, May/June 2004

The good news is that in the 50 years since the Supreme Court ruled in favor of school desegregation in the case of Brown v. Board of Education, there has been some dramatic changes in Americans attitudes toward race and equality. Today, most American - 55 percent - think that the state of race relations is either very or somewhat good, according to a landmark telephone survey of 2,002 people conducted last November and December by the Gallup Organization for AARP and the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights (LCCR). Yet disheartening divisions between the races persist.

The most astonishing progress has been made in two areas that hit closest to home for most Americans: interracial relationships and the neighborhoods we live in. Consider that 70 percent of whites now say they approve of marriage between whites and blacks, up from just 4 percent in a 1958 Gallup poll. Such open-mindedness extends across racial lines: 80 percent of blacks and 77 percent of Hispanics also say they generally approve of interracial marriage. Perhaps even more remarkable, a large majority of white respondents - 66 percent - say they would not object if their own child or grand child chose a black spouse. Blacks (86 percent) and Hispanics (79 percent) were equally accepting about a child or grandchild's marrying someone of another race.

Between 1850 to 1930 the foreign-born population of the United States 
rose from 2.2 million to 14.4 million

AOL Hopes to click with Hispanics
Orange County Register, 8-13-04

American Online, the nation's biggest Internet service provider, is reaching across the digital divide to lure first-time computer users with bilingual service and a low-cost PC.  The computer system will be available this month at Office Depot stores for $299.99 with a 12-month commitment to AOL's top-speed dial-up service at $23.90 per month.  The subscription charges bring the total cost to $586.79, which is still less than many low-end systems with monitors and printers.

AOL's offer is aimed at the 27% of U.S. households without computers and specifically at Hispanics, who lag the general population in home Internet access but are rapidly catching up.  The new PC, which features a simplified user interface, makes it easy to toggle between English and Spanish, he said.  

National Latino museum considered

Idea wins some approval in House committee talk
L.A. Daily News, Thursday, July 22, 2004,1413,200~20954~2288740,00.html
By Lisa Friedman
Washington Bureau

WASHINGTON -- A key House committee chairman on Thursday endorsed the idea of a national Latino museum in the nation's capital, the first step on a long road to establishing a major new cultural center focused on Hispanic Americans. "It's a tremendous idea, and it's good for the country," said House Administration Chairman Bob Ney, R-Ohio.

The National Museum of the American Latino concept also picked up cautious support from Smithsonian Institute Secretary Lawrence M. Small. He predicted building a new facility would cost hundreds of millions of dollars -- money the Smithsonian doesn't have -- but said he would welcome a commission studying the establishment of a Latino museum.

"We can get big projects done. The challenge is getting the money to do them," Small said. "We're very serious about our commitment to seeing that the Smithsonian represents the cultural mosaic that has made the United States so vibrantly unique." 

The hearing Thursday by the House Administration Committee was the first public examination of plans by Rep. Xavier Becerra, D-Los Angeles, to create a museum dedicated to honoring the nation's 38 million Hispanic Americans. Latinos are the largest ethnic group in Los Angeles County, comprising 45 percent of the county's population in 2000.  "For many years, many Americans -- Latino and otherwise -- believed that the mosaic portrayed in Washington's museums was missing a few tiles," Becerra told the panel.

Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, R-Fla., who is co-sponsoring the legislation with Becerra, said a Latino museum would "recognize the past contributions of the Hispanic community and encourage new ones from our youth.  "We may come from many different places, but we're united in the common cause of making this the best country in the world," Ros-Lehtinen said.

Becerra's legislation would authorize $3.2 million for the creation of a bipartisan 23-member commission charged with planning for the establishment, funding and maintenance of the new museum. The panel would examine the cost and possible locations of the new museum, as well as the availability of Latino artifacts. It would issue its report to Congress and the president 18 months after the bill becomes law.

Sen. Orrin Hatch, R-Utah, and Sen. Barbara Boxer, D-San Francisco, have introduced similar legislation in the Senate.  Small said operating the museum after it is built will cost "tens of millions" of dollars annually.  Lisa Friedman, (202) 662-8731

Sí TV aims to reach an underserved demographic: Latinos who prefer English programs. by Justino Aguila, The Orange County Register, July 18, 2004

"Life in the City: Urban Jungle," above, puts nine "suburban preppies" in East Los Angeles and watches what happens.

Jeff Valdez, a one-time standup comic who saw past the state and became a TV producer, came up with the idea of launching a channel for Latinos who didn't really identify with Mexican soap operas and other offerings on Univision or Telemundo.  It was the beginning of a long, often, frustrating, journey that led to Sí TV.  

Those behind Sí TV believe there's a two hold mission: to serve Latinos who speak English, but also so introduce the culture to those who may not be familiar with it.  "We want them to see we're American like their friends and co-workers, but happen to be from a different cultural background," Perez said.

Visiones: Latino Art & Culture [PBS Previews]  
Sent by George Gause
A groundbreaking six-part television series airing on PBS Sundays, September 5-October 10, 2004. 
VISIONES: LATINO ART AND CULTURE is the first PBS series to focus exclusively on Latino artistic expression in the United States. Through storytelling and vivid imagery, the series leads the viewer to understand the origins of Latino art and culture. It also depicts the struggles and victories of the artists as part of their artistic interpretation. Additionally, it examines the nation's diverse Latino communities and how they were able to keep their artistic expressions alive while creating new and unique visions that contribute to art in America.  It is about awareness, about acknowledging the pivotal role Latino artistic expression has played and continues to play in shaping the U.S. cultural landscape," comments series executive producer and director Hector Galan.  Hector Galan has produced documentaries for PBS for more than 20 years, including the award- winning four-hour public television series CHICANO! HISTORY OF THE MEXICAN-AMERICAN CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT (1996). 

The six episodes cover topics and artists such as the Latino Mural Movement of the 1960s, Nuyorican spoken word, Miriam Colon and the Puerto Rican Traveling Theater Company (PRTT) of New York, the Santero art tradition of New Mexico, Luis Valdez and the legendary Teatro Campesino, performance
artists, Latino hip hop dance and culture, the variety of music styles in Miami, Latino poetry, dancer Rudy Perez, the first Mexican-American Prima Ballerina Evelyn Cisneros and much, much more.

Check out Visiones on the PBS Fall 2004 Preview Website

Careers in Government:
An article in the May issue of Hispanic magazine indicates a governmental outreach to Hispanics. 
The government is expecting that 1/3 of all their employees will be retiring by 2008.

Careers in Government:
Federal Jobs Net:
Student Jobs:
Office of personnel Management:
U.S. Secret Service:
U.S. Army (Spanish)
U.S. Navy (Spanish):
U.S. State Department Careers:

Society for Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science

Sent by Dr. Refugio Rochin, Excecutive Director of  SACNAS
Former and first director of the Smithsonian Center for Latino Initiatives

The mission of SACNAS (Society for Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science) is to encourage Chicano/Latino and Native American students to pursue graduate education and obtain the advanced degrees necessary for science research, leadership, and teaching careers at all levels.

For 30 years, SACNAS has provided strong national leadership in improving and expanding opportunities for minorities in the scientific workforce and academia; mentoring college students within science, mathematics and engineering; as well as, supporting quality pre-college science education. SACNAS’ annual National Conference and K-12 Teacher Workshops, summer research opportunities, E-mentoring Program, and online internship/job placement resources are tools that help a diverse community of undergraduate and graduate students, professors, administrators, and K-12 educators achieve expertise within their disciplines.

[[ Editor's note: Below are the names included in the Biography Project.  Each includes a photo and mini-bio. They are excellent for the classroom and actually for all of us.  It gives me great pride to see our primos who have excelled.  The first one I linked too was Cecilio Barrera.  I knew he would be a Tejano, one of my distant unknown cousins. . and he was.  You'll also see the name of JV Martinez who has been very supportive of SHHAR and Somos Primos. ]]


Dr. Renato Aguilera, Biologist
Dr. John F. Alderete, Microbiologist
Dr. Vernon Avila, Biologist
Dr. Cecilio Barrera, Microbiologist
Dr. Manuel Berriozábal, Mathematician
Dr. David R. Burgess, Biologist
Dr. Carlos Castillo-Chavez, Mathematical Biologist
Dr. George Castro, Engineer & Associate Dean
Dr. Carlos Catalano, Pharmacist/Biochemist
Dr. Inés  Cifuentes, Seismologist
Dr. John Cortinas, Meteorologist
Dr. Eugene Cota-Robles, Microbiologist
Dr. Ermelinda DeLaViña, Mathematician
Dr. Wilfred Foster Denectlaw, Zoologist
Dr. Joan Esnayra, Geneticist
Dr. J.D. Garcia, Physicist
Dr. Frank A. Gomez, Chemist
Dr. Leo Gómez, Radiation Biologist
Dr. Elma González, Cell Biologist
Dr. Frank González, Oceanographer
Dr. Carlos Gutierrez, Physicist
Dr. Scottie Henderson, Invertebrate Biologist
Dr. Jani Ingram, Chemist
Dr. Nancy Jackson, Chemist
Dr. Robin Kimmerer, Plant Ecologist
Dr. Marigold Linton, Cognitive Psychologist
Dr. Vicente LLamas, Physicist
Dr. Ramon E. Lopez, Physicist
Dr. Emir Jose Macari, Civil Engineer


Dr. Karen Magnus, Biophysicist
Dr. Theresa Maldonado, Electrical Engineer
Dr. Ernest D. Márquez, Microbiologist
Dr. Leticia Márquez-Magaña, Molecular Biologist
Dr. Cleopatria Martinez, Mathematician
Dr. J.V. Martinez, Physicist
Dr. Lee Anne Martinez, Ecologist
Dr. Robert Megginson, Mathematician
Dr. Luz Miranda-Martinez, Physicist
Dr. Miguel Mora, Wildlife Toxicologist
Dr. Donna Nelson, Chemist
Dr. Elvia Niebla, Soil Scientist
Dr. Alfonso Ortega, Mechanical Engineer
Dr. Sonia Ortega, Prog Dir & Marine Biologist
Dr. Clifton Poodry, Biologist
Dr. Eppie David Rael, Molecular Biologist
Dr. Eloy Rodriguez, Natural Products Chemist
Dr. Michael Rodriguez, Medicinal Chemist
Dr. Javier Rojo, Statistician
Dr. Joaquin Ruiz, Geochemist
Dr. Frank Talamantes, Endocrinologist
Dr. Richard A. Tapia, Mathematician
Dr. William Vélez, Mathematician
Dr. Eugene Vigil, Plant Biologist
Dr. Lydia Villa-Komaroff, Biologist
Dr. Luis P. Villarreal, Virologist
Dr. Jerry Yakel, Neuroscientist
Dr. Maria Elena Zavala, Plant Biologist
Dr. Martha Zuniga, Biologist
Hispanic Alliance for Career Enhancement

If you are looking for direct contact with company management and recruiters, you will not want to miss HACE's unique recruitment and networking events. 

HACE is a 22 year-old non-profit organization "dedicated to incubating and nurturing Latinos through every stage of the career continuum from high school through college, and on to the professional years." Overall, our mission is to increase the number of successful Hispanic professionals.

We invite you to learn more about HACE by visiting our web page ( and by reading what the Wall Street Journal, Money Magazine, HR Magazine and other national media is saying about us ( Events are held all over the country. Go to the calendar.
Louie Arecco
Managing Director, National Accounts
Hispanic Alliance for Career Enhancement (HACE)
25 E Washington Street, Suite 1500
Chicago, Illinois 60602
312.435.0498 x 14



Apellido castellano con ilustres y antiguas casas solares en la provincia de Toledo y Madrid, afincado en Andalucía desde los primeros tiempos de la Reconquista y que se halló presente en América en los primeros de la gesta del descubrimiento.

Por el ingreso en la Orden Militar de Santiago de don Diego Arnalte y Marañón Vacas, Cadenas y Bautista, natural de Toledo, en 1661, y de don Diego Felipe Remírez Mejía, Bautista de Heredia y Fernández de la Cuadra, de Esquivias, Toledo, en 1670, se acreditó la nobleza de sangre de este apellido, en las fechas expresadas.



En los Colegios que se indica, pertenecientes a la Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, probaron su "limpieza de sangre" para ser admitidos como colegiales:

Don Juan Bautista, natural de Toledo, Colegio de San Antonio, 1572; don Juan Bautista, natural de Ronda, Málaga, en 1572, Colegio de San Antonio; don Félix Bautista y López, Igaral y Moral, natural de Ugena,Toledo, Teología, 1771, y don Luis Bautista Bavia y López, Mercader y Téllez, natural de Madrid y procedente de Toledo, Colegio de San Felipe, 1582.


Otros, ponen en oro una banda de gules,resaltada de un carnero de plata.

Don Francisco y don Juan Bautista Veintín, obtuvieron la devolución del impuesto denominado "Blanca de la Carne" en  la ciudad de Sevilla, en 1615 y 1588, respectivamente, lo que llevaba implícito el reconocimiento de su nobleza de sangre. En esta misma ciudad, ingresó en el Colegio de Santa María, después de acreditar su "limpieza de sangre", don Nicolás Bautista Rodríguez, en 1818.

Ante las autoridades militares españolas, justificaron su calidad con el objeto de contraer matrimonio, doña Isabel Bautista y González, natural de Puebla de Alfarnate,Málaga, que pretendía desposarse en 1830 con don Agustín Muñoz del Rosal, y doña Eugenia Antonia Bautista de Tebar, natural de Puebla Nueva, que deseaba casarse en 1842 con el Teniente de Infantería don Miguel Pociello y Mañas.

Entre los conquistadores de México, figuran:

Don Juan Bautista, natural de Palamós, Gerona, que llega a la Nueva España en 1525, participando en la toma de Zapotecas, de donde fue Corregidor posteriormente, poseedor de la Encomienda de Ocotepeque en los Mixes; don Marcos Bautista, natural de Sevilla, que pasa en 1538; don Juan Bautista, que llega con Grijalva, concurriendo en la toma de Colima, Michoacán, Jalisco y otros lugares, natural de Génova, que en 1550 aparece como Alcalde Mayor de la provincia de Oaxaca, y don Juan Bautista, de, de la misma naturaleza, que arriba con Juan de Burgos, conquistador de Colima y Pánuco, mencionado en 1547 como vecino de México, casado y con hijos.

Don Juan Gabriel Bautista, obtuvo el nombramiento de Escribano de la Real Hacienda de la provincia de Yucatán, en 10 de julio de 1797

Extract from BLASONES Y APELLIDOS, 828-page book by Fernando Muñoz Altea
In its second edition, the book can be ordered from or at
P.O. Box 11232, El Paso, Texas 79995  or by contacting Armando Montes



Galvez Patriots

Passing on Past at Presidio California's Donations to Spain's  1779-1783 War with England 

Donning period garb for the afternoon were, from left, docents Michael Hardwick and 11-year-old Torrey Rasmussen. They showed visitors Seneca Solis, 14, and Phoenix Solis, 10, an antique rifle, which Mr. Hardwick later fired.

Passing on past at Presidio 

Santa Barbara News Press, July 26, 2004

Families that wandered along to El Presidio de Santa Barbara on Sunday stepped back in time. 
Docents with the Santa Barbara Trust for Historic Preservation taught visitors at the free family day how to make tortillas and mix adobe mud with their feet. 

by Granville Hough, Ph.D.

Chapter X of the book 
Spain's California Patriots in its 1779-1783 War with England During the American Revolution

The author hopes that all those in the DAR who are working on the donative will reconsider service in the Spanish Army or Navy and conclude it was even more patriotic than donations, and just as patriotic as serving in the Spanish Army and Navy with Gálvez in Louisiana and West Florida (where their descendants have been accepted into the DAR since 1925.)"

It is well known among historians that King Carlos III on 17 August 1780 asked all his "free vassals in America" to make a contribution to defray expenses of the War with England.  This message was heard in California and the rest of New Spain, just as it was heard in the West Indies, South America, and all other Spanish lands of America.  The royal decree, requesting the donation, was issued at the Royal Palace at San Ildefonso, 17 Aug 1780, from The King:

"The insulting tyranny of the English nation has precipitated me into a war, the exorbitant cost of which has forced me to raise the revenue exacted from the provinces of our Spanish homeland by a third.  I had hoped not to have to extend this burden to my loyal subjects in America, even though they would seem to be the principal target of the grasping avarice of my enemies.  Nevertheless, I have always been able to count on the faithful generosity of the voluntary contributions of those vast and wealthy colonies.  To make this burden as light as possible, I have resolved to ask for a donativo of one peso from every freeman who is an Indian or of mixed blood, and two pesos from every Spaniard and those of the higher class.  These last may also pay for their servants and workers and later discount the amount from their salaries or daily wages.' 'Therefore, I command all of my royal officials in the Indies to announce and explain my royal decree so that all of the inhabitants of the Indies will once again have opportunity to show me their love and gratitude for the benefits I have bestowed on them.  I also charge all of my church officials there to expedite this project by their
persuasion and good example, for this is my will.' 'All copies of this decree, duly signed by my Secretary of State and Universal Office of the Indies, who also signs below, shall have the
same force as the original." 'Given at San Ildefonso, on this seventeenth day of August of the year
seventeen hundred and eighty."  Signed by I, The King and José de Gálvez (Minister of the Indies), and certified as a copy of the original by José de Gálvez.

It took a year for the royal decree to get through the English blockade and all the bureaucratic channels and reach Commandante General Cabellero de Croix at Arispe for execution.  In August, 1781, he transmitted the royal decree to each Governor, along with a list of thirteen instructions from Viceroy Martín de Mayorga for those who supervised the operation.  Commissioners were to be set up for each jurisdiction, and each had to give his donors a receipt and turn in the signature of each one, showing the amount he gave, lest the accounts be pilfered.  The eighth instruction forbade commissioners from using any coercion or showing any displeasure if the prospective donor gave
nothing.  The collections were stopped by Commandante General Felipe de Neve in January, 1784, when he learned the war with England was over. Any collections after that time were for pledges made earlier.  (There were two problems with Viceroy Mayorga’s instructions for those on the
frontier.  The Commissioners for remote areas could not always write; and when they could, there was frequently no paper available.  As making paper was a monopoly, it was scarce in peace or war.)

From Arispe, Sonora, on 12 August 1781, Commandante General Theodore de Croix of the Northern Provinces of New Spain dispatched the message notifying Fray Serra of the terms of this Royal  Order.  Fray Serra then notified the missions.  Each Spanish citizen over 18 was to contribute 2 pesos (or Spanish dollars) and each Indian neophyte over 18 was to contribute 1 peso.  At the time, this would have been equivalent to a week's pay.  It is certain the message also went to the military
authorities of Alta and Baja California.

(It is not clear how de Croix's message got to Alta California and Fray Serra.  There were no supply ships or packetboats, whatsoever, to Alta California in 1781.  The courier passage from Sonora to San Gabriel had been closed in July, 1781, by the Yuma uprising, though de Croix had not learned of this disaster when he prepared the letter.  It is most likely the message was carried by Lt Col Pedro Fages when he was sent to Alta California to get help to subdue the Yumas and reopen the passage.  In this case the message reached San Gabriel 26 Mar 1782 and was sent from there to Monterey.  The only other courier path was south from Arispe to San Blas, then across the Gulf of California to Loreta, then up the Baja Peninsula, a long and dangerous wilderness trek.  In 1781, there was indeed one supply trip to Loreta in the frigate "Favorita" under Juan Pantoja, but the timing of this trip has not been recovered.  If the message followed this route, it would have arrived late in 1781 or early 1782.)

The message was clearly in Alta California in mid 1782, where Fray Serra and Governor Felpe de Neve managed the collections of the donations so that everyone paid.  Each Presidio therefore developed a roster of its soldiers for 1782, although the records do not indicate the rosters were simply to record donations.  Each mission was to draw up a padron of all the Indian males eighteen years and older within its jurisdiction, along with an account of the produce turned over to the
governor and  sold by him for cash.  This was the only way to do it as the colony operated on a barter economy and the Indians had no money at all.  So the contributions were not in currency as we know it but in accounting records which were converted into cash after the records were received and approved in Mexico.

We can also accurately fix the timing of the contributions to the year 1782 because Governor de Neve made up the deficit of contributions, and he left Alta California with Lt Col Fages in mid 1782 to attack the Yumas.  Governor de Neve did not return to Alta CA as he was promoted to become Inspector General of the Internal Provinces (Provincias Internas) while on the campaign, and he proceeded on to that post in Northern Mexico from the Colorado River.  A few months later, he replaced Theodore de Croix as Commandante General.  Also, as Santa Barbara Presidio and Mission San Buenaventura each contributed, and each was founded in 1782, it seems they could only have done so by late summer. In the fall of 1782, San Diego and San Juan Capistrano were still
requesting relief from the contribution.  When Governor de Neve made up the deficit of contributions from various installations, he probably covered San Diego and San Juan Capistrano, expecting to be reimbursed later; however, no such expectation has been identified in the records.

So, the contributions from the missions had been arranged in the accounts by late 1782, so that when he received and approved them, the Procurator in Mexico City could make the actual cash contribution to the War fund.  If, as Bancroft indicates,  all the funds went to Commandante General Theodore de Croix, Governor de Neve probably took them, along with all other dispatches, when he went in mid-1782 to supervise the joint military operations against the Yumas.  As noted above, de Neve did not return to California.

When de Croix announced on 7 Dec 1782 that the amount of the collections was $4216, this differed from the Alta California records which showed $2683.  Bancroft indicated the difference was made up by Governor de Neve, and it is possible this difference was part of the negotiations between de Croix and de Neve when de Neve turned over the Governorship of California to Lt Col Fages and became Inspector General of the Internal Provinces.  In just a few months, de Neve became Commandante General of the Internal Provinces.     The records could have gone on to Mexico City in Dec 1782 or early 1783.  If, however, the accounts were actually sent on the last packetboat to leave Alta California in 1782, they would have arrived first at San Blas; and from there, sent overland
to Mexico City, probably arriving there in early 1783.  Then, after studying the accounts, the Procurator could have converted them into cash for the war fund some time in 1783.

Actually, some contributions were made in California in 1784, noted by Fray Serra as a year after the war was over.  These 15 pesos in the accounts were for 15 neophyte Indians who had run away and were not present when the first records were made.  They had been captured and returned to the missions, so the fathers believed they should be included in the contribution records.  This scrupulous accounting leaves no doubt that all the contributions were made in good faith, and that
such contributions throughout the Spanish dominions helped the Spanish King Carlos defray expenses of the war, thus supporting the American Colonies in the overall fight with England.  On 1 July 1784, a few weeks before his death, Fray Serra mentioned an envelope entitled: "Reports,
Inventories, and Census List of San Gabriel Mission," which he had received; so a census list was certainly made for San Gabriel, but the period which it covered was not noted.  It had to be 1782 or 1783.

The timing of the Alta California contributions relative to world events may be of interest.  We forget today that Alta California was one year behind in world events, and six months behind in Mexico events.  It vied with Manila to be the end of the Spanish world.  We may note that the virtual end of land hostilities in the American Colonies was the Cornwallis surrender at Yorktown on 19 Oct 1781, probably before or about the time the request for contributions was received in Alta California.  The preliminary articles of peace between the American Colonies and England were signed 30 Nov 1782, before General de Croix announced on 7 Dec 1782 the amount collected to be $4,216.  Hostilities between Spain and England ceased in January, 1783, after a treaty was signed at Versailles, probably before the accounts could reach Mexico City and be converted to cash for the war fund.   The only remaining major action before the general peace treaty of 3 Sep 1783 was a July, 1783 naval battle between the English and French in the Indian Ocean.  (The Admirals did not know the war was over.)  No Spanish or Americans were involved.

There seems to be no utility in tracing the funds beyond the time they left Alta California in late 1782.   They were undoubtedly used to defray expenses caused by the war, exactly as planned.   Once aggregated with other contributions in Mexico City, it is not possible to say which debts the California contributions paid.  With equal validity, one could suggest they paid for Chapultepec gunpowder shipped up the Mississippi River to Americans, or they repaid the loans made by Havana citizens to support the Chesapeake Bay/Yorktown operations, or for building forts at San Blas or Manila, or supporting Central American operations against the British, or for attacking British at Gibraltar, or for paying the Spanish and French troops waiting to invade Jamaica.  And, like Andrew Jackson's battle and victory at New Orleans in 1815, the Alta California contributions were made carefully and faithfully; but they had no effect on the war, which was already over.  (It is also likely Felipe de Neve was never reimbursed for any funds he advanced to cover the shortages in contributions.  He died as Commandante General of the Internal Provinces in 1786 and left no wife nor children.)

What is of interest today is finding the mission censuses or lists of Indian neophytes who were over 18 at each mission.  This would give a valuable record for genealogists working on California Indian ancestry. The list of pobladores who contributed would also be of interest.  These lists or censuses could  also be used to support applications by descendants to join historical societies.  However, as a general statement, we can say every male over 18 in Baja and Alta California, who could be accounted for in military or mission activities, was credited with a voluntary contribution at the time.  It is possible that the names of collecting Commissioners will be found, along with the amounts each collected.  It seems unlikely that more specific records of individual contributors will ever be found.  But they may exist.

Because of the way the contributions were handled, the records are most likely in the financial accounts for each mission, presidio, and pueblo for 1782, 1783, and 1784.  It seems that very few of these accounts have been translated and published; indeed, few may survive.  Some are at the Santa Barbara Mission Archives, some are in the Bancroft Library at UC Berkeley, and some have been filmed by the LDS.  Others may be in records of the Commandantes General of the
Provincias Internas of New Spain or the records of San Blas in the Archives in Mexico City.  Herein lies an opportunity for someone fluent in Spanish to make a scholarly reputation.


Robert Archibald.  The Economic Aspects of the California Missions. Washington, DC, Academy of American Franciscan History, 1978.

Bancroft, Hubert Howe.  History of California, Vol 1 (18), pp 426-428, Santa Barbara, Wallace Hebberd, 1884.  (Bancroft references Provincial State Papers, Benicia Military, MS ii:5; iii:11, 27-29; and viii:4; then Provincial State Papers, MS, iv:76; then Provincial Records MS ii:70,
74-75. Presumably, these records are at the Bancroft Library.)

Beilharz, Edwin A. Felipe de Neve - First Governor of California, San Francisco, California Historical Society, 1971.  This study covers the critical years from 1777 until 1782 from the viewpoint of the first governor to actually hold the title and live in Monterey.

Kieran McCarty, pp 51-56, Chapter 12, "Arizona's Contribution," Desert Documentary: The Spanish Years, 1767-1821, Arizona Historical Society, Historical Monograph, No. 4, Tucson, AZ, 1976.

Mildred L. Murry, Spanish Mysteries and Missions During the American Revolution: A Resource Guide for Teachers, pp 25-29, 59.  Blankenship and Murry, 1996.

Antonine Tibesar, Writings of Junipero Serra, Vol IV, pp 119, 147, 187, 213, 277.  Washington, DC, Academy of American Franciscan History, MCMLXVI (1966).

Francis J. Weber.  "California Participation in the Spirit of 1776," Southern California Quarterly, Vol LVIII, #2, (Summer, 1976), pp 137-142.  Most of the references of this article were found in the Santa Barbara Mission Archives.

CARevCont.doc, 28 May 1998, revised 3 Aug 2004, Granville W. and N. C. Hough


Mission San Juan Capistrano
Jesus Aguilar, Bell Ringer 1934
Repatriation Documentary
Federación de Michoacanos 
Porfirio Soto Morones
Outstanding writer: Carlos López Dzur 
Educator: Dr. Vicki Ruiz
Dia de la Familia, Sunday, Sept 12
O.C. Archives Seminar, Sept 25
Los Angeles Times Archives

Mission San Juan Capistrano
Source: Orange County Register, 7-27-04

Finishing touches: A portrait of St. John of Capistrano, for whom the mission is named is hoisted into position.

Photo by Michael Goulding

Fifteen years after the first steel scaffolding went up, the ruins of the Great Stone Church of Mission San Juan Capistrano finally re-opened to the public on  July 28th.  The $9.6 million project will make the ruins of the 198-year-old church earthquake safe through a steel support system.  The Great Stone Church restoration project has been funded through public and private grants, and through the work of the Mission Preservation Foundation.  For information on the foundation, go to  or call 949-234-1300

Los Angeles Times, Dec 1, 1934 
San Juan Capistrano's Bell Ringer Passes on 

SAN JUAN CAPISTRANO, Nov. 30. - Don Jesus Aguilar, faithful bell toller and one of the two chanters at the San Juan Capistrano Mission since the late '60s, died this morning in the home of his birth, the Hacienda Aguilar, the oldest adobe house in the Mission City. 

He was 81 years of age and was one of the oldest residents of the countryside.  His father, Don Blas Aguilar, served as alcalde of San Juan Capistrano in 1847 and his grandfather, Don Rosario Aguilar, an early settler, was the alcalde in 1843. 

After a "velorio" at the Hacienda Aguilar tonight, requiem mass will be conducted at 9 a.m. tomorrow by Father Arthur J. Hutchinson, padre of the mission, in Father Junipero Serra's church, of which he was an early member.  Friends of Don Jesus Aguilar will carry the casket up the long hill to the old mission cemetery, where the body will be laid to rest. 

He leaves his widow, Dona Balbineda Ruiz de Aguilar, who was born in the barracks of the mission in 1854.  His sister, Dora Lorenza Manriguez, also born in the Hacienda Aguilar, is the oldest living resident in the vicinity.  There are five children living here.  They are Don Jua. . Aguilar, guide at the mission, who retains a private museum of heirlooms and antiques at the old home; Don Francisco and Don Blas Aguilar and Mrs. Florencia Ruiz and Mrs. Francisca Sepulveda.

Gerardo Briceno, left, Alfonso Alvarez and Alex Cortez want to document forced repatriations of the Depression era.

Repatriation Documentary
Source: Yvette Cabrera, Orange Country Register, 8-15-04

Photo by Jebb Harris

Three Chapman University graduates, Alex D. Cortez, Alfonso Alvarez and Gerardo Briceño are interviewing survivors of the Mexican Repatriation of the 1930s. All three are sons of Mexican immigrants.  For a year and a half, Cortez, Alvarez, and Briceño have traversed the country, from California to Michigan, and headed south to Mexico to recorded these stories. 

"In a sense, part of our mission is to correct history because an injustice in the history is in essence an injustice to us as a community," says Alvarez, 36, a Santa Ana native.  They are motivated by a sense of urgency because many survivors are in their 70s and 80s.

In one decade, thousands of families lost property, businesses and bank accounts.  Children and the elderly died of dehydration on the train rides to the Mexican border.  Once in Mexico, many died of malaria and dysentery.  Others died as they tried to make their way back to the United States.  

The survivors interviewed say they don't want monetary compensations. All they want is an apology.  Link to an article on Michigan repatriation stories. 

Federación de Michoacanos en el Condado de Orange y Santa 

Durante la semana, que se desarrollará del 9 al 12 de septiembre, se llevarán a cabo eventos que promueven la riqueza cultural, artística y turística de Michoacan y permiten la convivencia de los Michoacanos de este lado de la frontera. 

Roberto Laurean, presidente de la Federación de Michoacanos en el Condado de Orange y Santa Ana afirmó que en el Condado de Orange resident 250 mil michoacanos y que la Federacion de Michoacanos en el Condado de Orange y Santa Anga agrupa a 22 clubes.  

Para mayores informes sobre la Semana Cultural Michoacana, llamar 714-920-5004 
Excelsior del Condado de Orange, por Patricia Prieto, 714-796-4302


Migration of Porfirio Soto Morones
from Durango, Mexico to Garden Grove, California

 Laura Arechabala Soto Morones Shane  

My mother Julia Thompson Arechabala was born in Mexico D.F. on January 30, 1901. She had a twin brother Roberto. Her father was an Army officer in Mexico after having attended Military Academy.  He was killed in action April 27,1913. November of the same year my grandmother Theresa Carrillo died leaving my mother and Roberrto orphans.  When I wrote to National Archives in Mexico, i was informed that the academy had closed doors during the revolution. My mother was orphaned at the age of 12 years.  Her grandmother Julia Thompson took Roberto away.  My mother thinks that they probably returned to Spain and My mother never saw her twin brother again.  She tried working taking in ironing but she coud not do it.  Some one told her that a woman was coming to Los Angeles and needed a nanny for her daughter and was expecting a baby which she was going to deliver in USA They came through Sonora and Arizona.  I have the immigration papers. 
Once in Los Angeles the lady mistreated my mother and my mother  went to the authorities. The authorities saw what was happening and deported the lady back to Mexico.  My mother was placed in a home with a school principal, so my mother started school in USA at age 14. She met and married my father Porfirio Soto Morones.  They lived in Los Angeles for a few years then they moved to Garden Grove and that is where we were all born and raised.     
My father was born in Durango, Mexico.  All his family worked for Southern Pacific Railway in Mexico.  One by one they migrated to USA. They traveled through many states working for Southern Pacific and eventually they came to Los Angeles and stayed here. My Morones grandmother was French her name was Ruperta Soto. My Morones grandfather was pure Azteca Indian.    

My parents were naturalized American citizens
Here they are: My father was born in Durango, Mexico
My grandfather's name was Antonio de la Cerda Morones
My mother entered through Nogales, Sonora on December 2,1915 by Southern Pacific train.
Her last residence was in Hermosillo, Sonora
Her mother's name was Florentina Carrillo (not Teresa)
Also I do not have pictures of the Arechabala.s  because the woman my mother came with burned everything my mother brought with her. She did this when mother went to the authorities, actually the woman beat my mom up.  My mother was 5' 1".
Also My mother had two sisters Sarah 5 yrs  Aurora 3 yrs.  She was suppose to take care of them which was impossible and she put them up for adoption. Two separate families but the men were brothers.  When my brothers were old enough to drive they took her to search for her sisters, but until 1962 some one in Hermosillo remembered the families that adopted the two little girls and my mother took it from there.  Sarah lived in Phoenix, Ariz and Aurora in San Leandro, California.  We had a family reunion at Prentis Park in 1962 with both families and three sisters 

Carlos López Dzur 
Recognizing Outstanding Individuals in the Community
Quietly living in Orange County, Carlos López Dzu 
has received world-wide recognition for his prolific literary accomplishments.
A historian, genealogist, researcher, reporter, he expresses himself in a wide range of expressions.

Carlos López Dzur es un narrador, poeta y filósofo, nacido el 1 de septiembre de 1955 y residente en Orange County, California, desde hace más de 20 años. Caribeño, con visión hostosiana y bolivariana, es candidato doctoral en la Universidad de California, Irvine. Cursó sus estudios de B.A. en Literatura Comparada e Historia Latinoamericana en la Universidad de Puerto Rico; obtuvo dos M. A. 'Summa Cum Laude' en Montana State y San Diego State University. También hizo estudios graduados en Filosofía Contemporánea, siendo discípulo de los filósofos Dr. Alfred Stern y la Dra. Martha Nussbaum.

Su libro, El Hombre Extendido, fue laureado en el Certamen Literario Chicano de la Universidad de California, Irvine, en 1986. Anteriormente, fue premiado su libro de ensayos y poemas Cuaderno de Amor a Haití por el Liceo Iberoamericano de Cultura de Los Angeles; posteriormente, López Dzur ganó varios premios en las categorías de ensayo investigativo sobre temas cubanos y de poesía por textos de su libro inédito, Tantralia, reconocido por la Casa de la Cultura de Long Beach en 1996 y 1998. Fundó y dirigió en San Diego la revista multicultural «Sequoyah», junto a los profesores César A. González, Dr. Juan Manuel Bernal Becerra y la Dra. Ivon Gordon-Vailakis.

Su primer libro fue Sarna de la ira parda (Editorial QeAser, 1980), cuentos; al que siguieron La casa (1988), poemas y dos ediciones de El Hombre Extendido. Publicó las novelas Simposio de Tlacuilos (Editorial Nuevo Espacio, New Jersey, 2000) y Las máscaras del tabú (Great Unpublished, South Carolina, 2001). Sus libros más importantes están inéditos en papel, pero se han compartido extensamente en su website y en innumerables revistas electrónicas, incluyendo Desde El Límite, Tertulia de Mizar (Puerto Rico), El Perro Andaluz, Adamar (España), Bar de las Virtudes, Argos (México), Poetas 2000, Letralia, Mondo de Kronhela (Argentina) y otras. Entre ellos, están Libro de Anarquistas, Tantralia, Heideggerianas, Libro de la guerra, Cuentos y leyendas histórico-eróticas, El ladrón bajo el abrigo, Manual de filosofía para incrédulos y las novelas Rocío la Tartamuda, Para matar a los dioses, Diario de Simón Güeldres y otros.

Sobre su obra ha dicho el crítico y poeta Joserramón Meléndes: «Lo qe aya qe decir de Carlos A. López se dirá de su prosa. Sus cuentos retoman la altura de la mejor tradisión puertorriqueña qu conocimos asta Luis Rafael Sánchez». El antropólogo mexicano Luis F. Cariño Preciado, al reseñar su poemario La Casa (California), anotó: «Cuando uno viaja por las letra de López Dzur quisiera oirlas pronunciadas por él y de inmediato comentarlas. El manejo que hace del lenguaje es tan nuevo... nos tiene acostumbrados a un nuevo manejo del idioma, a una novedosa forma del lenguaje, gracias a la cual nos transporta a originales interpretaciones del todo y sus partes. Leer sus textos es someterse a una ráfaga de ideas y pasajes mentales contrarios a sí mismos y entre sí, pero consecuentes en la esencia». El 4 de abril del 2000, el laureado poeta puertorriqueño Vicente Rodríguez Nietszche comentó sobre la poesía de López Dzur: «Tus poemas están escritos con verdad y sustancia vitales que podemos llamar poesías».
De Carlos Lopez Dzur
Fragmentos #17 al 21 de Los Parásitos / Carlos López Dzur

«Anduvieron de acá para allá cubiertos de pieles de ovejas y de cabras, pobres,
angustiados, maltratados, de los cuales el mundo no era digno; errando por los desiertos, por los montes, por las cuevas y por las cavernas de la Tierra»: Hebreos: 11-37-38

Ustedes son peores.
Tienen el corazón vacío.
Vestidos están de crímenes
hasta la médula, pero se reúnen
a invocar los nombres que ellos conocieron,
sin la culpa que a ustedes acusa,
desde las lágrimas
de puercos, brutos gadarenos
tan hambrientos, pobres, maltratados,
cubiertos de pieles de ovejas y cabras,
fugitivos de acá para allá,
y de los que no fueron dignos.

¿Para qué hablan entonces?
¿Para qué su Estado y su Sacerdocio?
¿Para qué su democracia y su humanismo cívico?
Al que todo lo sufre, lo entrega, lo vive, lo declara,
exilaron y burlaron y huyeron del honesto testimonio
que se dolió hasta la sangre, con sus vidas.
Jamás danzarán sus pies con furia de galaxia.
Ni brotarán canciones de sus labios.
Ni se llagarán en estigmas de amor, misterio y llama.
Ni con ellos, amándoles,
 ustedes podrán recibir lo prometido.

Los predicadores de la razón oscura,
aquellos pavlovianos y sicologistas,
levadura de leviratos,
¿qué saben de Tu Pan?

Por eso, por tan ciegos,
no te descubren en cada aminoácido.
Ni te aplauden en cada ameba.
Ni te celebran en cada carbono del genoma.
Y, tú, Pan de Dolores, ¡cómo los compadeces!
A quienes más odias, los pervives
para que coman de tí
pan de tu gloria,
belleza de tus manos,
sexo de tus deseos.

Del libro inédito: Manual de filosofía para incrédulos de CARLOS LOPEZ DZUR

Outstanding Individual in the Community

Dr. Vicki Ruiz, 
Professor, history and Chicano/Latino studies Historical perspective

Source: Karen Morris
Sent by Lorri Ruiz de Frain

Professor, history and Chicano/Latino studies Historical perspective Vicki Ruiz integrates storytelling, conventional research to shed new light on American history For Vicki Ruiz, history begins with storytelling – stories learned from her mother and grandmother around the kitchen table, stories gleaned from books in her neighborhood bookmobile, stories gathered personally from
eyewitnesses to 20th-century American history.

Ruiz writes these stories, recounting, for example, the lives of the Mexican cannery women in Southern California. And she tells these stories, enthusiastically launching into a series of oral narratives. There’s the tale of the pioneering California woman whose Spanish land grant – Rancho
Rodeo de las Aguas – was transformed by enterprising developers into Beverly Hills. There’s the saga of Los Tomboys, 1947 Orange County Latina “league-of-their-own” softball champs. And there’s the account of Gonzalo Mendez, a Westminster, Calif. parent, whose legal challenge led to the desegregation of the state’s public schools eight years before the U.S. Supreme Court’s Brown v. Topeka Board of Education.

Professor of history and Chicano/Latino studies and director of UCI’s Humanities Out There (HOT) outreach program, Ruiz integrates oral history and conventional archival sources to personalize her work, connect past and contemporary issues and, above all, make history accessible. Her efforts
have earned her a presidential nomination to the National Council on the Humanities and Latina magazine’s “Woman of the Year” award in 2000. She currently serves as president of the prestigious Berkshire Conference of Women Historians. At the forefront of a new generation of historians who
view history in broad cultural and social contexts, she sees, in the words of artist and poet William Blake, “a world in a grain of sand.”

“Vicki Ruiz essentially created her field – the study of Mexican-American women in the U.S. Southwest and on the Pacific Coast – and won acceptance for it among American scholars,” says Kenneth Pomeranz, chair of UCI’s history department. “More broadly, she stands as a major contributor to labor history, women’s history, immigration history and the history of the American West. Her work has been pathbreaking in the new topics it raised for study and in the new light it cast upon the larger fields of U.S. and Mexican history.”

Ruiz’s doctoral dissertation and first book. Cannery Women, Cannery Lives: Mexican Women, Unionization and the California Food Processing Industry, 1930-1950, launched her career. Since then, her impressive professional experiences have included serving as director of the Institute of Oral
History at the University of Texas, El Paso, professor of history at UC Davis and chair of Chicano studies at Arizona State University. She also held an endowed chair and chaired the history department at Claremont Graduate University.  

Upcoming Events: 

Dia de la Familia, Sunday, September 12
Sigler Park, 7200 Plaza St.  1:00 to 5:00 p.m.
Folkloric Dancers, Band, Food, Entertainment, Music
City of Westminster, Community Services & Recreation Department
8200 Westminster Blvd., 714-895-2860

Archives Seminar: Researching O.C.'s Past, September 25th
Saturday, September 25, 2004, 9:00 a.m. - 12:00 p.m. Workshops
Old Courthouse, 211 West Santa Ana Blvd.
Learn how to use the Archives materials: County and Historical Building Records. Information on County-owned historical sites. Seminar sponsored by the Orange County Historical Commission
No cost, limited seating- pre-registration required, by September 10th, 2004
OCHC 211 West Santa Ana Blvd. Santa Ana, CA92701
Phone: 714-973-6609 fax: 714-834-2280      e-mail:



Eugene A. Obregon Congressional Medal of Honor Monument

Annual Walk to Los Angeles
Festival de Libro Latino y La Familia
Fin de Semana y Otros Cuentos
MALDEF Graduates 100 Parents 
L.A. History Project
Buscando Nuestras Raices, 
          Save the date: Oct 9th
          Monterey Park Conference
Sent by Eddie Martinez


To Promote Brotherhood Among All Americans


Above and Beyond the Call

Sponsorships and contact
EAO/CMH Foundation
P.O. Box 3212
Culver City, Ca 90231

Founder, William Douglas Lansfora

Korean War Medal of Honor Recipient
Pfc. Eugene Arnold Obregon

Private first class Eugene Obregon was 19, a small, quick kid from East L.A. Pfc. Bert Johnson, also 19, was a tall, rangy boy from Grand Prairie, Texas. Texans and Chicanos aren't supposed to get along, but "Obie" Obregon and "Bobo" Johnson had made it together from boot camp to the same machinegun squad in Korea. They were like brothers, as other Marines would later recall.

That afternoon of September 26, 1950, as the leading elements of the First Marine Division fought their way down a wide, war-torn boulevard toward Changkok Palace, in the South Korean capital of Seoul, these two young Leathernecks were about to lend a new meaning to their Corps' motto: Semper Fidelis -- Always Faithful.

``Suddenly the silence was shattered by fire from a camouflaged North Korean machinegun,'' Fred Davidson. a fellow Marine, later wrote. ``Bert went down.''

Young Johnson had taken hits in his side, both legs and the right elbow. His skull was fractured by a fifth bullet hitting his helmet.

Seeing his buddy fall, Obregon shouted. ``Stay put, Bobo. I'm coming for you!'' Johnson yelled back: ``Don't try it, Obie! Keep your cover!'' But Obregon was already on his way.

Armed only with a pistol, firing as he ran, Obregon reached Johnson and dragged him to a curb, where he began bandaging his wounds. And at that moment a platoon-sized force of North Koreans attacked.

Quickly seizing Johnson's carbine, Obregon placed himself as a shield in front of his buddy and continued firing until the enemy fell back, leaving 22 dead behind.

This time, the determined North Koreans brought up a machinegun to support their attack. But refusing to give way, Obregon continued firing, protecting his friend, until two machinegun bullets struck him in the face.

Obie's death had not been in vain. With time to reorganize, the Marines attacked, killing the remaining North Koreans. Despite his wounds, Bert Johnson survived, rotated home, and lived for 44 more years. ``And never did a day go by,'' recalled Johnson's friends, ``when Bobo didn't think of Gene Obregon, and the price he'd paid to give Bert back his life...''

In addition to the Medal of Honor, Private First Class Obregon was posthumously awarded the Purple Heart Medal, Presidential Unit Citation, and Korean Service Medal with three Bronze Stars.

Los Pobladores 
Annual Walk to Los Angeles, 1781-2004

City of Los Angeles 223rd Birthday and 

Walk starts: 6: a.m. at the San Gabriel Mission, 428 S. Mission Drive, San Gabriel, Ca
Post Walk Celebration: 10 am to 2 pm, El Pueblo Historical Monument (Kiosko)
125 Paseo de la Plaza, Los Angeles, Ca

Sponsored by: City of Los Angeles, El Pueblo Historical Monument, Council District 14, City of San Gabriel, Los Pobladores 200, Department of Water and Poer and Los Angeles County 5th District Supervisor, Michael D. Antonvich. Information, 213-485-8225

September 11-12.
Chespirito Guest of Honor at upcoming 8th annual Los Angeles event
Sent by
CONTACT:  760-434-4484

Carlsbad, Calif., August 25, 2004 - The Latino Book & Family Festival, the largest Latino consumer expo in the United States, continues its eighth year of promoting literacy, culture, and education via popular educational Festivals for the Latino family with the 8th Annual Los Angeles Festival to be held at California State University, Los Angeles, 5151 State University Dr. Los Angeles, September 11-12.

Special Guest of Honor at the Los Angeles Festival will be Roberto Gómez Bolaños, aka Chespirito, will be speaking about his career as an actor and author). Recognized worldwide by Hispanic communities as an actor, scriptwriter, comedian and creator of unforgettable characters, Roberto Gómez Bolaños has written for theater, television and movies. His television show, Chespirito, is sketch comedy at its best. It was on Chespirito that "El Chapulin", and "El Chavo", were created by its star, Roberto Gómez Bolaños. It is family entertainment that bridges the gaps. Many parents that grew up watching this program now share it with their children. His new book is called ... y también poemas ( ... And Also Poems). With this book the author discovers another one of his facets and offers poetry close to the heart, loving, reflective, humoristic, enjoyable and sometimes intimate.
Also featured will be former Galaxy star and El Salvador International player, Mauricio Cienfuegas who will be talking about his life in and out of sports. Cienfuegos has a new biography of his life that will also be on sale and available for autographing.
Authors either reading and/or signing their books include:
€ Esmeralda Santiago
€ Los Angeles Times’ editorial cartoonist, Lalo Alcaraz
€ Children’s author Lisa Umina
€ Poet Victor Valle.
Other items of particular interest include:
€ A special SAT preparatory course will be offered free of charge by the Princeton Review.
€ Live appearance by Dora the Explorer.
€ A home buying seminar put on by Chase Home Finance.
€ Special showings of selected episodes of American Family.
€ The BECA Project: a quiz show for students and parents with special participation by your    
  favorite Latino stars and hosted by rising Latina star, Ruth Livier.
€ Poet Antonieta Villamil presents a screening of the film Poetry in Wartime.
€ Screenings of episodes of Visiones: Latino Art & Culture followed by a panel discussion.
€ “Paying for College” seminar put on by the Sallie Mae Fund.
€ Music by exciting new band SANTI.
Sponsors of the 2004 Los Angeles event include: Chase Home Finance; Blue Cross of California; Nick Jr.; Sav-on Drugs; Telscape; Hoy Newspaper; WSS: Warehouse Shoe Sale; Urban LatinoTV; Al Borde; Wave Newspaper Group; Para Todos; and Excelsior.
“We are extremely proud our event has resonated so powerfully with the Latino community,” said Edward James Olmos, co-producer. “We have expanded our Festival related programs to include more interactive events for the community to participate in. This expansion is the truest sign that we are becoming successful in our mission to produce quality, educational events for the Latino community.” These programs include: Open A Book, Change Your Future, a scholastic participation program for elementary, middle and high schools ( <> ); and Folklórico Challenge USA, featuring regional competition for three age levels at each of our Festival venues with national finals to follow.

The Latino Book & Family Festival is free to the public and feature a show floor with six distinct activity areas:
Book Village
English and Spanish, children and adult books are on display coupled with respective, scheduled author readings and book signings.
Careers, Education, & Technology Village
Available options in higher education, quality children’s primary and secondary education alternatives, and employment opportunities are showcased within this village. This section also explores the explosive growth of the Internet and eCommerce and how these new tools for entertainment, education, and business can benefit the Latino community.
Children’s Village
Young people in attendance are able to participate in entertaining learning activities with their peers. Children’s book publishers and displays of toys and children’s clothing make the section a well-rounded destination for families. Story telling by famous authors with follow-up activities that encourage reading comprehension are one of many activities offered.
Culture & Travel Village
Information on domestic or international travel, recreation facilities close enough for weekend getaways, or cultural clothing, arts, and crafts are available. Attendees also have the opportunity to speak with artists and learn about local and national cultural organizations that service their community.
Health Village
Health and fitness is the focus of this village featuring hospitals, cost-efficient insurance options, health care and nutritional expert professional advice. Sessions on the importance of testing and regular check-ups, affordable health care, arthritis, cholesterol and diabetes are some of the educational programs offered.
Mi Casita Village
Intelligently buy, furnish and maintain a home with the information provided by home experts in “Mi Casita” seminars and workshop. Onsite meetings with professional realtors, insurance representatives, home re-modelers and pool builders are obtainable.

Actor, director and community activist, Edward James Olmos and Kirk Whisler, founding past president of the National Association of Hispanic Publications, produce the Festival. Past sponsors include Target Stores, Nissan, Chase Bank, Telemundo, Wells Fargo, Chrysler, Univision, Barnes & Noble, Borders, Washington Mutual, The Houston Chronicle and Continental Airlines.

For information on schedules in the following cities,  San Diego, Phoenix, Los Angeles, Houston, Chicago, Inland Empire of Southern California, please visit:

Professor Luis Larios Vendrell, author of Fin de Semana y Otros Cuentos shares the information that one of the short stores from this collection is being published in English. Fin De Semana was published in Majorca, Spain in 2002. It can be pruchased from Rio Hondo Collee Bookstore, 562-699-8676


The MALDEFIAN, August 2004
Sent by J.V. Martinez

(LOS ANGELES, CALIF.)  Over 200 community members and family celebrated the accomplishment of over 100 parent leaders who presented school improvement projects at a National Parent School Partnership program graduation ceremony at MALDEF's downtown Los Angeles headquarters on Saturday, July 24.  

As a prerequisite for graduation, parents must take on a civic project to improve their schools and neighborhood.  In Pasadena, parents held a forum to shed light on the issue of gentrification and its effect on the Pasadena school district.  The group is also forming a districtwide parent leadership network with the goal of having at least one Latino parent in a school committee in every Pasadena public school.  
In the Boyle Heights area of Los Angeles, a parent center was established. Parents in Koreatown are advocating for a canopy for the outdoor eating area to protect children from the elements. In the Lincoln Height area, MALDEF parents are creating social events to engage parents to attend meetings and increase their participation in the local PTA. And in South Los Angeles, parents are working with a local elementary school principal to develop a pocket-sized guide of school programs and contact persons for parents to know where to get help if their children need it.
MALDEF's National Parent School Partnership Program operates throughout the nation and is supported by foundations, corporations and individuals.  To find out how you can support the leadership training of parents and community advocates, please contact Javier Angulo, Associate Director of Development, at (213) 629-2512 or via email at

L.A. History Project
Hi, my name is Stacey Ramsower and I am the Festival Coordinator for this year's L.A. History Project, sponsored by EdgeFest. LAHP is a two day, free event that showcases new works by local theatre artists that focus on the diverse history of Los Angeles.  One of the pieces in this year's festival that I thought you might be interested in is a play by Wayne Peter Liebman entitled "Sun Maiden". It is the story of the San Gabriel mission and the Gabrielino uprising led by an Indian woman.  The festival will take place October 9 and 10 and, again, it is free and open to the public. There will also be time for talk-backs after each performance. I hope this is something you and your readers/members will find interesting. I have attached the press release with further information.
Please contact me if you need:

Stacey Ramsower


"Buscando Nuestras Raices"  Conference

Saturday October 9th, 8 am to 5 pm
2316 Hillview Ave, Monterey Park, CA  91754

Keynote address 
Richard Griswold del Castillo, Ph.D. Historian/Author
La Familia, Chicano Families in the Urban Southwest, 1848 to the Present

Workshops for beginners, intermediate and advanced researchers, 
throughout the day in English and Spanish. 

12 Workshops in the morning and 12 in the afternoon

No cost for attending the conference
Food can be purchased on site

Conference hosts:
Monterey Stake of the Church of Jesus Christ of Later Day Saints 
The Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research
More information:  
George Muriel
Veronica Jenks
The complete schedule will be published in the October issue of Somos Primos



St. Monica Catholic Church
City of Santa Clara, History, Part 1
California Immigrants
CA Spanish Genealogy Obituaries 
Antonio Aguilar 
El Monte Cemetery, L.A. County  
Real Founder of San Diego
Real Estate Transfers
To Have But Not To Ho
Click to Southwest for more on 
       De Anza's Cartas


Mass had been celebrated in the Santa Monica beach area somewhat regularly since 1877, two years after the town was developed by Senator John P. Jones. However, the first recorded Mass to be celebrated in what is now Santa Monica was offered on May 4, 1770, by Padre Junipero Serra. The first presidente of California's Franciscan missions camped there on the feast of Saint Monica on his way to Monterey. According to legend, Spanish soldiers with Serra's party discovered two springs on the site which they likened to "the tears of Saint Monica," mother of the once wayward Saint Augustine. (The fourth century saint lived to see her son's conversion.) Serra apparently named the region in honor of her feast day. 
For a history of St. Monica Catholic Church, go to
Sent by Johanna De Soto who felt this was important information all families of La Ballona.

City of Santa Clara, City History, Part 1
Sent by Johanna De Soto

1846-1848: Prelude To Statehood 
During the summer of 1846, the diverse elements working for change in California began to coalesce. In March, Colonel John C. Frémont and his men had arrived in the Santa Clara Valley after roaming throughout the middle of California. After clashing with General Castro near San Juan Bautista, Frémont moved north where he joined forces with Americans led by William Ide. On June 1st the rebels took General Vallejo and others prisoner in Sonoma. They designed a flag with a grizzly bear and a red star, raised it and declared a California Republic. One month later word was received of a declaration of war between Mexico and the United States. Upon the capture of Monterey by Commander Sloat on July 7th, the Bear Flag Rebellion ended as the "Bear Flaggers" joined with the American Military, becoming the California Battalion. Descriptions of California appearing in eastern newspapers had encouraged Americans to come and settle, and during 1846 immigrants had been arriving overland in greater numbers. The "Great Migration" of 1846 consisted of entire families, a completely different type of American immigrant than had arrived before. Stopping at Sutter's Fort upon completion of their journey, these newly arrived American immigrants were informed by Frémont and the Californian that they could shelter during the rainy season at a number of mostly unoccupied missions. Among those named was Santa Clara. 

At Mission Santa Clara the immigrants would find a place ill-prepared to receive them. The years of being impacted by politics, stealing, and neglect since secularization, had impoverished what was once reputed to be the wealthiest mission in California. When visiting in 1848, Edwin Bryant described the picture of neglect he saw stating, "The rich lands surrounding the mission are entirely neglected... The picture of decay and ruin presented by a country so fertile and scenery so enchanting is a most melancholy spectacle to the passing traveler." 

From mid-October through November 1846, an estimated 175 adults and children, including William Campbell and his family, arrived at Mission Santa Clara. Although upon their arrival they found a site in disrepair, due to the advent of the War the new arrivals decided to stay on at the compound. The immigrants sought shelter, living under what they would later describe as "deplorable conditions, sharing a large warehouse building with little light [the mission granary]. It was raining and the roof leaked. Food was in short supply." By the end of the year conflict arose. With few of the immigrants understanding Spanish or the customs and manners of the Californios, many offers of assistance were refused. Rumors transmitted as facts, prompted the organization of a militia at Santa Clara. One of the immigrants, Joseph Aram, established his headquarters at the mission with a force of thirty-one men assuming leadership when the mission militia elected officers. Ignoring the pleas of the Californios, Captain Aram and his men proceeded to cut down several of the willow trees (planted by Father Catalá) along the Alameda to use in barricading the mission. The lack of understanding between the two cultures culminated with the Battle of Santa Clara on January 2, 1847; the only campaign in the Northern District of California between the Californios and the United States forces during the Mexican-American war.

This "battle" which took place on the open plain about two miles from the mission, was a result of several rancheros rebelling against Americans taking their livestock and property. It was actually a 2 hour skirmish not a battle; no one was killed, and the only casualty was the American military forces' cannon, which continually bogged down in the knee-deep mud. A peaceful treaty was arranged on January 7, 1847. However, the American immigrants who viewed it from the tops of the mission buildings interpreted it as a tremendous defeat of the "enemy." Joseph Aram's militia company was disbanded on March 1st, and for the American immigrants, the winter spent at Mission Santa Clara was over. However, during 1847, problems would continue at Santa Clara due to a continuing influx of American immigrants; the non-Indian population of California almost doubled between 1845 and 1848. By Spring, immigrants were not only occupying the adobe buildings paying rent but many were simply "squatting" refusing to vacate the premises. In June Governor Mason ordered the unauthorized occupants to leave. However he proposed that the immigrants be allowed to stay until harvest time or longer if they paid rent, and Father Real, the last Franciscan priest of Mission Santa Clara, assented to that request.

William Campbell had enlisted as a private in "Captain" C. M. Weber's company of California riflemen, participating in the Battle of Santa Clara. In February he returned home to the Mission and among other enterprises took up the profession of surveyor. In October 1847, Father Real hired him to survey lots near the mission complex, on mission land, and draw up a town plat--this would become the Town of Santa Clara. It has been said at various times that this survey and its lots were later declared invalid, but the recordation of the first official survey in 1866 states differently: "this [1866] map... correctly represents the blocks, streets, and squares of the said town as surveyed in the year 1847; and...the land embraced with in the said survey of 1847 has been occupied and used for town purposes ever since." 

Hostilities between the United States and Mexico ceased in early 1848, and the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo on February 2nd, ceded Texas, New Mexico and California to the United States. No longer a Mexican Province, California was now an American possession, and Mission Santa Clara, an embryonic American town.

Places to See 
1. Mission Santa Clara, church and compound; located at the end of Palm Drive, Santa Clara University. 
2. Mission Corral Plaque (where both side's horses were corralled after the Battle of Santa Clara); located in front of the Mission Library.

(Intro) (I) (II) (III) (IV) (V) (VI) (VII) (VIII) 
1500 Warburton Ave Santa Clara, CA 95050 tel:(408) 615-2200 fax:(408) 241-6771 

Sent by Johanna De Soto




Plaque located in the City of Santa Clara. Originally placed at 2780 El Camino Real.
Later relocated to El Camino Real near Bowe Ave. (South-West corner.) Between San Tomas Expy. and Kiely Blvd., Near the Moonlite Shopping Plaza sign.


California Immigrants

Current Project underway.  Dr. Sally M. Miller, professor Emeritus at the University of Pacific  is seeking material of California immigrants of any background, diaries, letters in translation and any other pertinent items. She is compiling the history of all immigrant groups in California - from Basques to Serbs and every other ethnic group. Send directly to or call 209-946-2318 

California Spanish Genealogy Obituaries
Source:  Michelle Nunez and Eva Booher  

 [[Editor's note: This is a wonderful growing resource for California families.  You click on the letter of your interest and then scroll down to the surname of your interest.  The website has stories such as the obituary below.]]

Collection of information obituaries published in the
Los Angeles Times 
Extracted by Karla Everett  
For more information :

AGUILAR, Antonio 
Los Angeles Times, August 18, 1909  LINK WITH PAST BROKEN. 
Pioneer Who Could Recall Pueblo Days to Be Buried This Morning. 
Expert Saddle Maker. 

The funeral of Antonio Aguilar, who was accidentally killed on Saturday, will be held at 8:30 o'clock this morning at the family residence, No. 1579 Henry street.  There will also be services at Sacred Heart Church.  Interment will be at Calvary Cemetery. 

Mr. Aguilar was born in Lower California eighty-seven years ago, and came here when Los Angeles was a pueblo and the surrounding country was divided into ranchos consisting of thousands of acres, with countless numbers of cattle and horses roaming over the hills and through the valleys. 

He took up as an occupation the manufacturing of stockmen's riding saddles, for which California was, and is today, famous.  In this he became most proficient, having made some of the most magnificent designs ever shown in the West.  At the time of his death he had been in the employ of the Los Angeles Saddlery and Finding Company for fifteen years. 

He was always a public-spirited citizen, upholding the law and using his influence among his people in the cause of justice and good citizenship. 

He leaves a widow, a daughter, Mrs. Albert Scheller, who resides in San Fernando; a son in Lower California, and a daughter, Mrs. Henry Shore, and a son, Louis Aguilar, who live in this city. 

Submitted to the website by: Karla Everett 


El Monte Cemetery, Los Angeles County  
Forwarded by Alex King
Source: Iris Jones   Master List 8 , Master List 7 

On Tue, 3 Aug 2004 20:55:46 -0700, "Sue Silver" wrote: 
Greetings:  Recent news has been noted regarding the El Monte Cemetery, also known as the Savannah Pioneer Cemetery and Savannah Memorial Park, in the City of Rosemead, Los Angeles County. 
The El Monte Cemetery Association is apparently experiencing financial difficulty and is contemplating selling the cemetery to developers. If this were to occur, it has been stated that the 3,000 graves in the cemetery will have to be disinterred and relocated elsewhere. 
If you have family ancestors or loved ones who were interred in this cemetery, you are encouraged to contact the El Monte Cemetery Association. I have posted a page covering what I've learned about the present situation and other information I have found about the cemetery at the following link:
If you have any questions about the information on the web page, please contact me off list. 
Thank you,  Sue Silver, State Coordinator, California Saving Graves 

California Researcher writes: 

Thanks for this message and the great link to more information.

I am not sure if I have anyone in this cemetery or not, but I swear over the years I've been under the impression that we have relatives (Machado??) buried in THE Rosemead Cemetery.  If anyone comes up with a list of the people, please share the information. I tried the search they offered, but couldn't bring up anyone as I did not have first names, etc.

This is so sad, but it is NOT the first time I've heard about them doing such a thing.  For instance about 20 years ago they "removed" the people in the Reno cemetery in order to build more housing for the University.  In San Francisco, a development replaced one 20-30 years ago--a dear friend spent day after day watching the excavations and told us some really weird tales of things he saw because they opened each and every coffin.  Many great causes that I must get letters written for and about.

Thanks again.  Hope all is well with everyone. 
Best wishes from the Sierra, Cindy LoBuglio

"Will the Real Founder of San Diego Please Stand Up"
By Michael W. Gates
Sent by Johanna De Soto

This is a conversation between Michael W. Gates and Dennis Sharp.

July 10th, 2001. Interview between Michael Gates and Dennis Sharp. Sharp is the assistant archivist with the San Diego Historical Society at Balboa Park. Michael Gates is with the SDSU Foundation, a division of S.E.R.G., researching an article, the working title of which is "Will the real founder of San Diego please stand up?"   

Los Angeles Times, extracted by Karla Everett 

- Dec 13, 1881

Petra Abila de Serrano to Miguel Yorba, Godofredo Yorba, Francisco J. Yorba and Francisco Yorba, heirs of Isabel Serrano de Yorba, lot 8, Ro. Canada de los Alisos, $100.

Refugio Cota de Martinez to O. W. Childs, interest in tract W side San Pedro street, $25.

Wm. H. Workman and Marie E., his wife, to Sarah Jane Rulo, lots 1, 3 and 5, blk 1, Boyle Heights, $1.

- July 16, 1882

Maria de la Cruz Ybarra to Arcadia B de Baker, all interest in Jose Maria Ybarra tract, fronting 222 feet e side Buena Vista street, city, $250.

- Jul 21, 1882

Francisco Jose Leonardo, Maria de la Cruz, Francisca, Manuela and Desiderio Ybarra and Timotea Ybarra de Olivera to Refugio Ybarra, all interest in Ybarra tract, fronting 222 feet on w side Buena Vista street, adjoining Mrs. Baker, $1.

Refugio Ybarra to Arcadia B de Baker, above property, $200.

- July 28, 1882

Thos McLain to Rafael Bassye, 10 ¼ acres and 20 acres in Rancho San Francisquito, $2400.

- Aug 10, 1882

Remi Nadeau to Henry T Gage, 28.40 acres at the Jaboueria, San Antonio Ro, and certain waters, less certain rights and road. $2500.

G W Morgan and A H Judson to Wm and Asa Hunter, 266.56 acres in Ro San Rafael, 1500.

Arcadia B de Baker to E J Baker, above lot, $1.

- Oct 12, 1882

Guardianship of Guadalupe Luisa, Maria Fredervinda, Domitilla, Marcos Antonio Aguberto and Francisco Antonio Martin Chavez, order confirming sale of their undivided 4-5 in Chavez tract, city, to Jose Julian Chavez for $5005.

D McDonald to Arcadia B de Baker, lot fronting 50 ft e side Buena Vista street, in above locality, $500.

Arcadia B de Baker to Duncan McDonald, lot of 50 ft front, Buena Vista street, in above locality, $500.

Luisa Machado de Chavez to Samuel Frick, lots 2, 3, 6 and 7, blk 8, and lots 2, 3, 4, and 6 blk 9, Chavez tract, city, less certain reservations, $1.

Dolores R de Dunne to Joseph Coujet and Roch Sarrail, lot on w side San Pedro street and one adjoining it fronting on e side of extension of Los Angeles street, $600 (or $6,000?)

James Irvine to C W Wilcox, northeasterly ½ of lot 33 of subdivision of part San Joaquin and Santiago de Santa Ana Ranchos, 40 acres, less roads, $2000.

S P R R Co and Lloyd Tevis and D O Mills, trustees, to Jose Maria Acuna, lot 2 of nw ¼ of sec 29, % 6 s, R 8 w, 28.19 acres, $70.48.

Albert L. Jeffrey to Geo Brum and Ed Beauchamp, five tracts, aggregating 80 ½ acres in Ro Azusa de Duarte, and water right, subject to easements, $136.

- Nov 11, 1882

Francisca Allen and Petra P Allen to Thomas B Hayes, lots 3, 7 and 11, blk 18, range 3, Wilmington, $300

A. H. Dunlap to M. F. Tyler, 28.2 acres in Ro Paso de Bartolo Viejo, $1.

A. H. Dunlap and M. F. Tyler to John J. Lane, 8 tracts, 28.2, 8.11 and 19.83 acres, in Ro Paso de Bartolo Viejo, $4,803.

Louise Naud to Los Angeles Electric Co., part of lot 1, blk 4, Sanchez tract, $750.

- Mar 14, 1883

Teofila Ortiz to Raquel E de Valle, lot e side Buena Vista st, gift.

- Jan 11, 1885

Mason C Oden to Anton Sylva, 20 acres in Ro San Pedro, $500.

M L Wicks to Wm E Darracott, E 10.52 acres of lot 38, Watt's subdivision of part of Ro San Rafael, $845.60.

Sacramento Lopez de Cummings and George Cummings to Joseph Hyans, lot in block K, in lot 9, block 60, Hancock's survey, $1.

- Jun 3, 1892

Petra Doyle to J G Wright, lots 2 and 3, block I, South Los Angeles (21-78,) $325.

B F Maxson to E W Maxson, lots 5 and 6, block B, Rancho San Francisquito (31-50,) $3,750.

To Have But Not To Hold
The Bernals of early San Francisco and their lost corner of the City. by Greg Pabst
Sent by Johanna De Soto

Juan Francisco Bernal (Jr.), born at Villa de Sinaloa in 1763 and Maria Petronia (called "Petra" by Font) Gutiérrez (born also at Villa de Sinaloa) were married at Mission Dolores on May 17, 1782. Newlywed Juan Francisco Bernal, son and son-in-law of Anza "Soldier Recruits," himself became a soldier at the San Francisco Presidio. Juan Francisco and Maria Petronia (who appears to have been his second wife) had three sons and a daughter. One son, Apolinario, in the new family tradition a soldier, was killed in 1813 by Indians in the San Ramon Valley. Their youngest child, José Cornelio Cipriano Bernal, born September 7, 1796, was also to become a soldier and married, at Mission Santa Clara, Maria Carmen Sibrian (also sometimes spelled Cibrian, born April 15, 1804 at Santa Clara) in June of 1819. This family too, because of his career, made their home at the Presidio of San Francisco.

It must have been obvious to all Californios, and especially those of ambition like José Cornelio Bernal, that the key to success in Alta California lay in the acquisition of land. The Nation of Mexico, established in 1822, was by 1830 deeply in debt. As the crisis widened the frontier provinces, including Texas, New Mexico and California, experienced increasing governmental neglect and virtual fiscal abandonment. This condition presented an opportunity for "ordinary" families to climb another rung on the social ladder, for the Governor of Alta California, who had little hard cash to pay for civic services, had an alternative economic power - the power to bestow land.

[[Go to the site for a historical account of the acquisition of land and the loss of land by the Bernal family. The transition resulting from political and social changes. is clear and concise. Lots of links.]]

Greg Pabst

If you are a descendant of the Bernals, or one of the other land grant families of California, I'd like to talk to you about your family's oral history - the stories passed down to you from your parents and/or grandparents. Go to the welcome page and send me e-mail on how I can contact you. Thanks!

I'm an MA candidate in history at San Francisco State University.    Send me comments via e-mail at:


Santa Rosa's Carrillo Adobe needs your help NOW. Please help in three ways:

The Sonoma County Historical Society states:

1. Send this information along immediately to anyone you think has an interest in history, historical preservation, or California, Native American, Hispanic history. 

2. Get more information about the meeting, the adobe, and the proposed project, and who to contact. See the letter below. Please go to the Sonoma County Historical Society website:   For those who hesitate to write a letter, go to this site for copies of letters which have been written to the city council. 

3. Contact the Santa Rosa City Council and let your thoughts be known. The Sonoma County Historical Society opposes the rezoning.
  Mayor Sharon Wright
  Jane Bender
  Mike Martini Janet Condron Noreen Evans Steve Rabinowitsh Bob Blanchard
Sonoma County Third District Supervisor Tim Smith
Tim Smith - Also: 
Sonia Binnendyk
Department of Community Development, City of Santa Rosa
P.O. Box 1678, Santa Rosa, CA 95402

To contact City Manager's Office at (707) 543-3010. You can also send a FAX to (707) 543-3030.
City Council at: Santa Rosa City Hall
P.O. Box 1678
Santa Rosa, CA 95402

The President of the Sonoma County Historical Society provided the following information:
July 30, 2004

Dear Friends:
On Tuesday, August 3, 2004 at 3:00 PM in the City Council Chamber, City Hall, 100 Santa Rosa Avenue, Santa Rosa, will be held a public meeting that everyone in Sonoma County should know about. the hearing is being held to confirm plans to go ahead with the "construction of 265 Apartment Units on 9.18 Acres and a neighborhood park/open space on the remaining 5.66 acres for Creekside Village Apartments located at 2323 Montgomery Drive, File Number MJ01-031."
For those unfamiliar with this location, let me describe it.

The proposed apartment complex would stand on and around what is without dispute the most important historical site in Santa Rosa, and also indisputably one of the most important archaeological and historical sites in this part of California: the Carrillo Adobe.

The Carrillo Adobe (walls still standing, protected under a metal-roofed pole structure) was the first house built in Santa Rosa. It was built in 1837 on her arrival here by the founder of Santa Rosa, Maria Ignacia López de Carrillo, a Spanish widow from San Diego, mother-in-law of Mariano Vallejo. Though insufficiently documented, there is some evidence that Señora Carrillo built her house at what had earlier been a Spanish-Mexican asistencia, or satellite chapel, of the Mission of San Francisco Solano in Sonoma. But even if there had never been this chapel pre-dating the Carrillo Adobe, the importance and antiquity of this place goes back much, much further.

For generations and centuries on this site was, as abundantly proved in numerous archaeological investigations and reports, a place of habitation for the native peoples of this area * the Southeastern Pomo. Many artifacts have been found there over the years, and even possibly fragments of human bone, showing this place to have been a favored place of residence for the Pomo, on the banks of the Santa Rosa Creek.

The Creekside Village Apartments Environmental Impact Report, submitted in the course of this project, was reviewed by members of the Sonoma County Historical Society. We are of the opinion that mitigations to issues raised in the process earlier have not been adequately addressed.
And other essential issues yet to be addressed have also surfaced in the meantime. We are convinced that the project's Environmental Impact Report must be submitted to yet another round of public comment.

The Sonoma County Historical Society would like to urge all Sonoma County residents who care about preserving this irreplaceable piece of our history to take part in this discussion. If our opportunity to speak now is allowed to slip away, so may well be our history.
Sincerely yours, Anthony Hoskins, President

Sincerely yours,
Anthony Hoskins, President
Sonoma County Historical Society         
Post Office Box 1373
Santa Rosa, California 95402

Sent by Los Californianos Alert, from



Chicano vs. Latino Immigrant Issues
KCNC-TV-Denver Becomes a First 
Oregon - California Trails Assn. 
Western Trails
37th annual Basque Festival
Utah, Ideal Genetic Laboratory

Chicano vs. Latino Immigrant Issues: A Case Study of Denver, Colorado  

Sent by Howard Shorr
 Cultural learning curve 
Separated often by language and traditions, Latino students at North High School. 
By Elizabeth Aguilera, Denver Post Staff Writer (July 20, 2004) 

"The Chicanos feel like they are in the middle. They don't know which way to go - with the white kids or the Mexican kids," Nidian Calzada says. "They are trying to figure out who they are."

This unease caused a rift between Chicano ROTC students and Mexican roqueros, rockers, early in the 2003-04 school year. It eventually erupted into a fight.  Administrators invited the leaders of the groups to a meeting to discuss the situation, says Darlene LeDoux, assistant superintendent on special assignment as principal at North.  

"We brought them together to talk about the differences and found out it was language," she says. "They didn't understand each other. They thought they were talking about each other."  LeDoux chose some of the students to attend an off-campus conflict resolution center. The next time tensions flared, those students were able to defuse the situation.

Through mariachi music and family customs, Nidian Calzada stays in touch with her native Mexico.
Calzada, with her permanently tanned look and high cheekbones, is soft-spoken. Those who talk to her sometimes have to lean in to hear her accented sentences. She's a lead singer in the school's mariachi band and won the "El Grito" contest, the traditional cry that commemorates Sept. 16, 1810, when priest Miguel Hidalgo called on Mexicans to battle the Spanish. She also earned a 4.0 GPA, performs in the bilingual Shakespeare Club and is the soccer team's goalie.

Each day, a rift largely unseen by Anglos is played out in schools, on job sites and among extended families as longtime Coloradans of Latino descent learn to cope with an influx of immigrants who mirror their looks but who arrive with different ideals and a strong bond to a mother country many Coloradans lost generations ago.

It is a Chicano-vs.-immigrant tension that permeates the Latino community. It is mostly silent but influences Latino relations at all levels. And while school officials and community leaders are keenly aware of the rift, they struggle to bridge the gap between the groups.

Many longtime Coloradans of Latino descent consider themselves Chicanos. Mexican-American activists coined that term in the 1960s to describe the civil rights movement and the struggle for equality. The moniker has been passed on in some families, while others simply identify themselves as Mexican-American, Hispanic or Latino. Immigrants tend to identify themselves by their country of origin - Mexican, Nicaraguan, etc.

By the 1990s, immigrants were becoming an ever-greater segment of the Hispanic community. The Chicano struggle for civil rights seemingly took a back seat to issues vital to the new immigrant population - language, education, jobs and housing, among others.

Largely owing to the influx of immigrants, Colorado's Latino population nearly doubled from 424,301 in 1990 to 735,601 in 2000, according to the Census.

Immigrants account for 34 percent of the state's Hispanic population, while 47 percent of Colorado's Latinos have been in the U.S. for at least three generations, according to a report by the Population Studies Center for the Urban Institute. The statistics include Latinos who have moved to Colorado from other states.

"Those of us here for a long time lost the language," says Polly Baca, a former state legislator. "There is tension between old families and new families. We have to be just as concerned about (immigrants) as we are about our own families. Those kids who get beyond it and make it are the ones who will make a difference."

Tension in the halls.  Hispanics make up 84% of North High's students, but differences lead to name-calling and stereotypes. North High School, like West and Lincoln high schools, has undergone a transformation that reflects the changes in Denver and throughout Colorado. The school is 84 percent Hispanic, and 17 percent of the school's students are new English- language learners, according to the district.  The division is not just language; it's also cultural.

Cliques are split by taste in music or country of origin, including roqueros (Spanish rock fans) and charros (who listen to traditional country Mexican tunes).  Mexican boys in cowboy hats and belt buckles greet each other with the saying "Cien perciento," which is a shortened version of a phrase that means "100 percent Mexican."

Meanwhile, second- and third-generation Hispanic students greet each other with "Dude" and "Hey." They dress in Gap-style T-shirts and baggy hip-hop-style pants, with their hair flattened by baseball caps or CU beanies.

"The Mexicano doesn't understand the Chicano for what he is, and the Chicano sees the Mexican and doesn't understand why they are the way they are," says del Castillo, who is also co-chairman of the Collaborative School Committee at North. "Nobody has peeled back the onion to see they are the same."

Longtime Latino residents and immigrant leaders are exploring options to address tensions and bring both groups together. They want to find common ground instead of focusing on language differences, history and the notion that immigrants get more help than Chicanos, del Castillo says.

"We need to mix the two and help them learn from each other; we have to help people engage," he says. "We could be the most powerful force in the state if we could get people to come together to realize that."

Dina Rodriguez looks in the mirror at her daughter, Danette, preparing to go to the North High School prom with her boyfriend. 

Photos by  Cyrus McCrimmon
Nidian Calzada, whose father won’t allow her to date, went to the prom with her friend’s brother. Five-year-old cousin Lilybeth Yanelly talks with Nidian at her graduation dinner. 
A third-generation Coloradan, the 17-year-old is the quintessential all-American girl with a 4.0 grade-point average at North High School. She plays basketball and softball and is on the student council. Her boyfriend, John Sigala, plays football and baseball and also will attend CU-Boulder.

Still, she feels left out somehow. She isn't confident about her Spanish skills, even though she understands it when others speak.

Danette Rodriguez, who will attend the University of Colorado at Boulder in the fall and won more than $13,000 in scholarships, senses it from Anglos on the college campus and immigrants in the high school. She is neither one nor the other.

"I'm in the middle; I get judged twice. If I do speak Spanish, everyone is, 'Whoa,' and if I don't speak Spanish, the Mexicans are saying, 'She's just another guera (light person),"' says Rodriguez, who lives in Montbello. "I am Hispanic. So I go to Boulder, and there are a lot of white kids who give me the impression they think they are better. But I have the same grades, and I'm paying the same amount of money."

And it doesn't help that her extended family - and other longtime Coloradans - call her "whitewash" for being such a success.

Nidian Calzada also graduated from North High this spring with a 4.0 GPAs. But other parts of their lives played out differently

 Nidian Calzada is the second of six children, all born in California except for her. She was born in Mexico. As a child, she had to pretend to be her older sister when crossing the border.  The family returned to Mexico to live when she was 10.

"My dad wanted us to go back to Mexico to get away from gangs and for us to learn more about the culture," she says. "If we had stayed, I would speak mocho (broken) Spanish like them (Chicanos)."

They stayed in Guerrero, Mexico, four years before returning to the U.S. and settling in Colorado.

"In some ways, I did want to come back because I know you have better opportunities here, but I really felt more comfortable with my people over there," Calzada says.

"The culture shouldn't be lost; it's important to have both," says her father, Erasmo Calzada, 52. "Let them learn English at school and the American way outside. We hold ourselves back if those who came first look down on those who came later."

KCNC-TV-Denver Becomes the First U.S. NAHJ Parity Project Broadcast Partner

Colorado's News Channel - CBS 4, KCNC-TV--Denver, a CBS owned and operated station, announced that it is the first TV station in the United States to partner with the National Association of Hispanic Journalists' (NAHJ) Parity Project, a program to help increase diversity in television news coverage and newsrooms and to develop future minority broadcast journalists.

The NAHJ Parity Project aims to increase the number of Latinos in U.S. newsrooms and improve overall media coverage of the Latino community. Recent census figures show that 32 percent of Denver's more than 500,000 residents are Latino. According to a recently released Radio-Television News Directors Association (RTNDA) survey, the percentage of minorities working in local television and radio news last year returned to previous levels above 20 percent.

"We are excited to partner with NAHJ on this ground breaking project," Walt DeHaven, CBS 4 General Manager said. "As the first broadcast station in the country to take on this role, we hope to foster the growth of future
minority journalists as well as increase diversity in the kind of news coverage you see on TV each day."

NAHJ President Juan Gonzalez hails KCNC-TV's partnership in the Parity Project. "The new RTNDA study shows that Latinos make up about 6.6% of the overall newsroom staff at local English-language TV news outlets, which is an increase from the year before. That's a positive sign. Yet census figures show that Latinos make up 13% of the overall U.S. population. KCNC-TV is taking a bold step forward by joining the Parity Project. This partnership will give NAHJ the opportunity to help KCNC develop stronger ties to Denver's Latino community and will, in the long term, help bring more Latinos into newsrooms across the country."

CBS 4 and NAHJ will co-sponsor community forums with many of Colorado's Latino social and civic leaders to learn about local issues and opportunities affecting their communities. Community representatives will
also work with the CBS 4 staff to offer recommendations on what it can do to improve coverage of Latinos.

"We are very excited to be working with NAHJ on this important initiative." Angie Kucharski, CBS 4 Station Manager, Vice President-News and NAHJ member said. "The Parity Project gives us an opportunity to better connect with our minority communities by offering forums and creating a pipeline of future minority journalists."

CBS 4 also partners locally with KCEC-TV, Channel 50, which provides news to Denver's estimated 197,000 Hispanic households to share production facilities, photographers, reporters and breaking news stories. KCEC is
part of the Univision Television network, which reaches an estimated 80 percent of the market, making it the largest and most-watched television network (English or Spanish-language) among Latino households in the country.

NAHJ's Parity Project is sponsored by the Robert R. McCormick Tribune Foundation and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. This is the second news operation NAHJ has partnered with in Denver, having first
launched the Parity Project at the Scripps-owned Rocky Mountain News in April 2003. Since the launch of the Parity Project at the Rocky Mountain News, the percentage of Latinos on the news staff has doubled and there has
been a dramatic increase in the number of other journalists of color at the paper. 

Oregon - California Trails Association
Sent by Johanna De Soto

. . . To the World Wide Web camp of the Utah Crossroads Chapter, Oregon-California Trails Association. Our organization is dedicated to preserving, studying and marking the long-distance historic trails within our own state and others in the West. We are fascinated by the people that preceded us here and the ways and means by which they arrived. Our members are prolific in preparing both scholarly and popular works as well as educational materials about these subjects and myriad others.

If you share an interest in the pioneers, traders, trappers, settlers and travelers and the old trails, tracks and emigrant roads that brought them this way, you're a kindred spirit. We invite you to spend some time getting acquainted with us. If you've been here before, welcome back and be sure to take a good look around - we're always fixing up the place.

As long as you're here, drop by our Discussion Forum and Guest Book, and leave a note. It's the perfect place to make a comment or chew the fat with other trail fans. You can start a fresh conversation or respond to one that's already going. Use the Forum button from the bottom of any page. 

Explore the many sections of our site. There are dozens of interesting pages inside. If you can cast your imagination back to the early days when dirt trails carried brave pioneers to the West, we are confident you'll enjoy what you find here.

Western Trails

Four Western states are working together to digitize materials from their archives, historical societies, libraries and museums. Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska and Wyoming share in "common border, common heritage and common customs." to learn more about the project and see what has already been made available, go to:

You sill sense that there is more focus on history than genealogy here, but if you have Western roots and want more than just names and dates, take time to explore. Migration patterns are explained and charted, covering reasons why families relocated - from Mormon history to relief from tuberculosis.

Don't confine your research to present-day boundaries and overlook the treasure nearby.
Western Trails received funding through a grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Services, which is a Federal agency. The Colorado Digitization Program Program seems to a prime mover.

Source: UGA News, May-June 2004, Vol. 33, No. 3
 Extract: 37th annual Basque Festival
Siobhan McAndrew (more stories by author)

Chorizos and Guinness — two great reasons to head downtown this and next weekend.
Sent by Cindy LoBuglio

The 37th annual Basque Festival is Saturday and Sunday at Wingfield Park; next weekend, Reno’s Celtic Festival brings out the pipes. Both festivals are part of Artown, the July arts festival with more than 200 events produced by 60 cultural organizations and businesses.

Basque Festival

"Basque culture is a big part of Nevada history--so learning about it is a good thing," said Javier Navarte, president of the Reno Zazpiak Bat Basque Club. "If you come to the festival this weekend, you are going to see some wonderful dancing, hear some great music and be able to visit booths that will highlight Basque food and crafts."

The highlights of the Basque festival this year include performances by Luhartz, a three-person group that plays the Trikitixa (accordion), guitar and percussion, Navarte said. The group will perform at 1:30 p.m. Saturday at the amphitheater. Exhibitions of Basque sports including wood-chopping and stone-lifting will also take place.

The Reno Basque club has more than 300 members, many of whom have dedicated a lot of time to make this year’s festival a success.  "It’s a good time with lively music, dancing and good food," he said.

By Accident, Utah Is Proving an Ideal Genetic Laboratory

by Kirk Johnson, July 31, 2004

Sent by Cindy LoBuglio

SALT LAKE CITY- Utah is justly famous for its big families, with cousins piled on cousins, uncles from here to Tuesday, and roots stretching back to the Mormon pioneer days. And what once appeared to be a regional quirk is increasingly viewed by scientists as something more: a near-perfect laboratory, arrived at by complete accident, for the study of human kinship.

Mormon genes are hot: Utah DNA is being used for an international study that seeks to identify chromosomes linked to diseases like asthma and diabetes. Other researchers are studying how the genes for left-handedness or longevity or even the ability to taste bitter foods have moved through the Utah gene pool over time. A nonprofit foundation here is compiling a giant genetic database that will try to pinpoint - after a quick swab of a person's cheek for a DNA sample - where the person's ancestors came from.

"Utah's contribution to genetics has been enormous," said Dr. Mark S. Guyer, a division director at the National Human Genome Research Institute in Maryland.

To a scientist, the single greatest attraction of Utah - and its biggest distinction in a nation of rootless
wanderers - is stability. For more than 150 years, largely because of the Mormon church, the state has been a magnet to people who mostly stayed put. A relatively small founding population was fruitful and multiplied - aided in the 19th century by polygamy, adding a unique wrinkle to the genetic trail. With its emphasis on family records and genealogy, the Mormon church, officially the Church of
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, then created a treasure trove of details about those people.

The rest was left to science. In the 1970's, researchers at the University of Utah began melding church records with every measure of public health and mortality they could find, creating a vast database - now containing 1.6 million people - that scientists can use to cross-index family trees with cancer clusters and disease patterns and death rates.

In the 1980's, an in-depth study of the genetic makeup of 50 big Mormon families was begun. Those families, containing more than 650 people, have since been revisited again and again for study. Their identities are closely held secrets, say scientists at the university's department of human genetics, but the raw data of the group's cellular structure has been shared all over the world.

"We know probably more about the definitions of the DNA segments in those individuals than in any others, anywhere," said Dr. Jean Weissenbach, the director of the French National Sequencing Center, which used samples from the Utah families in its work on the multinational effort to define and delineate DNA, called the Human Genome Project, which was completed last year

But there is also something else involved - call it marital fidelity. On average across the United States, about 5 percent to 10 percent of people who have DNA tested for various reasons are not really the sons or daughters of the person they had thought of as dad, scientists say.

In Utah, or at least in the families at the heart of the various genetics studies over the years, the rate of
"non-paternity," as it is called, is less than 1 percent, private industry researchers and University of Utah scientists say.

"They stick to their knitting," said Mark Skolnick, the chief scientist at Myriad Genetic Inc., which is one of the biggest companies in the state's emerging genetics corridor, clustered around the University of Utah, where Dr. Skolnick was a professor and a pioneer in the discovery of the gene marker for breast cancer.

People like Norm Jones also help explain how Utah is different. A missionary who serves at the Mormon church's Family History Library across the street from the downtown temple, Mr. Jones, 69, is a living embodiment of what the culture of genealogy can produce.

He can trace his roots to the 1840's in Salt Lake City, through an extended web of intermarried families in the many decades since. He can print out his family pedigree with the tap of a few computer keys. He knows which of his ancestors walked across the Plains to Utah, and which could
afford a wagon.

Quite often, Mr. Jones said, he wanders up to help a library patron and finds that they have a common ancestor. "After a while, you're related to everybody," he said.

There are certainly other places where genes and genealogy have merged. Researchers in Iceland, where many family histories go back a thousand years or more, have created detailed genetic family trees. Other groups, like the Amish and Mennonites in the United States and Canadians from Quebec have also been studied for their genetic distinctiveness.

What Utah offers, researchers say, is partly the power of numbers. The life and health histories of 1.6 million Utahns, living and dead, have been incorporated into the Utah Population Database run by the Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah. Iceland, by contrast, which is probably Utah's nearest competitor as a geneticist's paradise, has only about 280,000 people. Iceland's population, because of its isolation, is also much more inbred than Utah's, where the gene pool has been
regularly infused with new blood as converts to the church came here over the decades. About 70 percent of Utah's population is Mormon.

Mormons themselves say that the church's emphasis on the importance of family created a natural bridge to the more scientific definitions of kinship. Researchers say there is also a strong community sense that makes people want to contribute, even if it does not help them or their families.

"Among Christian religions, we probably stand out as the one probably most interested in family ties; we are a record-keeping and record-gathering people," said Jay W. Butler, the associate international legal counsel in the church's office of general counsel. "All of that contributes to the uniqueness of Utah as a fertile ground for the research of families."

The Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation, the nonprofit group here that compiling a global genetic database to assist Utahns and others in finding their roots, is housed in a nondescript building a few miles from the sleek new research centers at the University of Utah. The scientists creating the database were hired by a billionaire medical equipment entrepreneur, James LeVoy Sorenson. The chief scientist at the foundation, Scott R. Woodward, said the goal was to have a DNA sample of 100,000 people within the next few years, focused primarily on Western Europe - the place from which most Utahns are descended. About 40,000 samples are already available, he said.

When the database is completed, Dr. Woodward said, a person should be able to walk into the office, provide a DNA sample, and get a report back saying what place - perhaps down to the town or county, if not a region - his or her genes are most likely from.  "Genealogy was the starting place," Dr. Woodward said. "Genetics has now made the tools to go back and verify the genealogy."



De Anza Cartas, Part 2
Letter by Phil Valdez, Jr.
Anza Expedition Roll Call
Cartography, Northern New Spain
How do you define Hispanic?
Southwest Electronic Text Center

 Southwest, Univ of Arizona Lib 

Part 2
by Phil Valdez

In carta number three we had previously mentioned that the Anza colonizing expedition departed Mission San Gabriel on February the 21st 1776. On their way north the Anza route took the colonists through the Santa Barbara channel, where they camped by La Laguna, the future city of San Barbara, and continued northward to camp in places such as Laguna Graciosa, which is now within Vandenberg Air Force Base, Mission San Luis Obispo, where Father Font speaks fondly of the mission neophytes, when he mentions that the Indian girls behaved like little Spaniards, and Mission San Antonio, where they joyfully celebrate their arrival before continuing to Monterey.

Mission San Gabriel


Laguna Graciosa, 
where they camped Feb. 29, 1776

Mission San Antonio, 
where they camped March 06, 1776


Anza’s carta number four was written at Misión del Carmelo, as Anza calls Mission San Carlos Borromeo. The carta was dated March 13, 1776, three days after his arrival at the Presidio of Monterey, where Anza says "that on the 10th of this month [March] with all felicity I arrived (llegue) at the Presidio of Monterey, in seventeen journeys without having any bad weather other than an incidental rain shower on the same (mismo) day I arrived". El día 10 del actual llegue con toda felicidad al 

Presidio  de Monterrei en diez y siette jornadas sin haber tenido mas contra tiempo que una lluvia acaecida el mismo dia que llegue.  Here, the Rivera y Moncada diary does not remain silent, when the Captain Commander, tells of what in his view is most important to him. He confirms the pressure he is under, in regards to the founding of San Francisco.  He writes in his diary on March 30, 1776, ya tarde llegaron 
8 soldados venidos de monterrey.  Han conducido 

cartas del teniente coronel don Juan Bautista de Anza que con eficacia me insta sobre el establecimiento del fuerte de San Francisco. Deverdad que me ha apuesto en aprieto por el grave empeño de aquel asunto y no ser inferior en el que actualmente me hallo empleado entendiendo en la pacificación de estos Indios.

Rivera writes, "late... eight soldiers arrived from Monterey. They carried letters from Lt. Colonel 


Page 2

Don Juan Bautista de Anza, which with efficacy, he petitions over the establishing of the Fort of San Francisco. Truly he has put me in a bind, because of the great obligation of that matter, which is not inferior, to the one I find myself in, of pacifying the Indians". Anza continues, "immediately after ending our journey, (que lo ejecute), I gave the order and on the following day some new soldiers and their families began to surround us. However, because of that order they now understood that they would not be able to continue to their principal and ultimate destination, [San Francisco] as soon as they would have liked. This [delay] has given them great sorrow and disgust. I thought best to let Your Honor know that the end result is to proceed, at the proper time, which would be in the best service [interest] to the King, and also complies with that which is possible, as far as the orders and charges of His Excellency. To which end is the possession of the Presidio of San Francisco in which I will also participate. This will enable me to see it, and inform your Excellency that it is now occupied, (not with every one) with the major part of the expedition [ella]". Here the reader must remember that in carta number three Anza says "that at Misión San Gabriel, he is leaving twelve soldiers and their families behind in charge of Sergeant Grijalva". Immediatamente que lo ejecute di la providencia de que al siguiente día se fuese abarracando una


 nueva tropa y familias, pero como de esta providencia, y se están entendidos que no pasan tan pronto como desean, á su principal y ultimo destino, se les á originado gran pesar y disgusto. Me ha parecido participarlo á Vuestra Merced con el fin de que se les complazca haciendo al propio tiempo el major sevicio al Rey, y también cumpliendo en la parte que se pueda los estrechos ordenes y encargo de sus Excelencia á fin de tomar posesión del Puerto de San Francisco, en lo que yo también me regocijare, y mucho más pudiendo decir á mi vista á sus Excelencia, queda ya ocupado (quando no con toda) con la major parte de ella.
Anza says "because in this way it can be verified, (without discussing at present the missions that need to accompany it). Therefore, I ask your Honor in both my name and that of the (pre dicha) aforementioned expedition, being certain that with it, we will all have the relief that we long for, by seeing that the major part of our Superior orders, are being put into effect, which I offer Your Honor. (Because of what I have stated I have extended the time which is left before returning to Mexico). After my return of the first reconnaissance, that I am making of the stated port, I will proceed within five days and return if it’s convenient and conduct to its destination our mentioned


troops that should be established there as agreed with Your Honor. (I have no doubt) that my so called influence will not be necessary. Surely with the zeal and activity of Lt. José Joaquín Moraga, I am certain that he is ready for this [endeavor] and other major activities. The individuals who are to accompany him have their own desire (propio ardor) as well". Porque así se verifique (sin tratar en lo present de las misiones que le deben acompañar) se lo suplico á Vuestra Merced, en mi nombre, y de la pre dicha expedición estando cierto de que en ello, todos trendremos el consuelo que apetecemos, en ves en la mayor parte efectuadas las ordenes de nuestros Superioridad para lo que ofrezco á Vuestra Merced, (sin embargo de lo que le consta por mi dicho lo estrechado del tiempo que me queda para regresarme á México) el que después que me vuelva del primer reconociemiento que voy á hacer del mencionado Puerto, á que saldré dentro de cinco días bolveré si lo tiene por combeniente, ha conducer a su destino nuestra mencionada tropa, que allí deve establecerse, en lo que combiendo Vuestra Merced, (como no dudo) no será necesaria mi tal influencia, pues el celo, y actividad del Teniente José Joaquín Moraga, me consta que es presto á este, y mayors intentos, y los individuos que le han de acompañar, poseén el propio ardor.


Page 3

Anza describes, "our horses have arrived in reasonable [shape] and in making our calculations, Don José Joaquín Moraga and I [believe] that the harnessed mules which we have conducted, will be sufficient to carry the provisions to the Port of San Francisco, not including those that will remain here. We agree
that there are sufficient  [mules]."
Nuestra caballerías han llegado mui razonables aquí, y haciendo nuestros cálculos Don José Joaquín Moraga y yo, de que las mulas aparejadas que


hemos conducido, habrá las suficientes para que también lo haga de víveres al Puerto de San Francisco, no obstante el atajo que ahí quedo, combenimos en que hay las suficientes
Anza explains, "the expedition carries, just in case, (por si) one crow bar, three axes, and the same amount of shovels, with the addition of the same and a little bit more, it will be sufficient to commence their buildings, with regard that it’s always best to build the flat roofs (terrado) first. [Therefore], I would like to 


ask Your Honor to send the provision/help of a carpenter".
La expedición trahe por si una barra y tres hachas y
tantas palas, con lo que ó poco más que se agregué tienen lo suficiente par ir comenzando sus fabricas. y respecto á que siempre será lo major que se hagan quanto antes de terrado, me parece decir a Vuestra Merced que mande la providencia de que el carpintero.
El Gran Capitan, closes carta number four in his customary manner by saying ……


Our Lord keep your Honor many years, Carmel Mission, March 13,1776, Your most devoted and certain servant kisses the hand of Your Honor.


Senor Anza
inserts a postscript and says, "I have certain information that the Father Ministers, destined for the Mission of San Francisco, have the spirit to leave on the first ships. If from now, until you arrive, we do not proceed, at least the forces should be in place, which I believe is what I going to put into effect, thus enabling me to prevent this charge (lance), which could end in bad results. And I do not doubt that is how some religious feel because of their anxiety in waiting for their destination for so long".

Tengo noticias ciertas de que los padres ministros destinados á la Misión de San Francisco hacen animo de irse en los primeros barcos, si de aquí á su arribo no se procede al menos á la ubicación de fuerzas, en lo que me parecido imponer á abrir para que excuse este lance, que puede ser de malos resultados, y no lo dudo que así lo practiquen unos religiosos que ha tanto tiempo esperan este destino con ansia.

Page 4

Arrow upper hand corner, San Luis Obispo          Arrow lower hand corner, Mission San Gabriel
Anza's carta number five was written at Misión del Carmelo on March 13, 1776 as well. He writes, "in virtue of the requests of Your Honor, I sent the number of men that you have asked for on [February] the 8th. Even though, we could not execute the requests (los que) that Your Honor expressed, it was because we could not go. For the same reason, I have permitted Gerardo Peña, to be replaced by Casimiro Vartia, who is married".  Here the expedition roster lists a Casimiro Varela, I have not been able to locate a Vartia. He continues, "the first one drives the horse-herd and does the will of Your Honor and [reason] why he is so well informed, in which view Your Honor can determine of them, that which he thinks best".  

Misión del Carmelo
Circo 1770s 

En virtud de los encargos de Vuestra Merced, le remito el numero de hombres que me pidió con fecha de 8 del pasado le remiti ese, y aunque no lo ejecutan los que Vuestra Merced me esspressa, es por motivo de que lo ai para que no puedan hir. Por la misma he licenciado á Gerardo Peña entrando en su lugar Casimiro Vartia casado. El primero conduce las caballerías en que hacia el arbitrio de Vuestra Merced, de que va inteligenciado; en cuya vista podrá Vuestra Merced determiner de ellas lo que mejor le parezca.

Anza says, "Lt. José Joaquín Moraga has informed me of the [conversation] with Your Honor, after the chase of the deserters, and having turned them in to the Sergeant Commander at San Gabriel. They were (the four loiters that he left there in prison as well as the one he imprisoned after his return from San


Diego). I sentenced them to work in the building of the Presidio and Mission of San Francisco for a period of time and without salary. In the meantime, His Excellency the Viceroy will render something else, as I will inform him of this matter". El Teniente Don José Joaquín Moraga, me ha dado parte de lo que ejecuto con Vuestra Merced, de la seguida que hizo de los desertores como de haber los entregados al Sargento

Page 5

Comandante en San Gabriel, a los que, (estos es á los cuarto haraganes que ahí dejo en prisión, y al que mando poner después de que se regresarsé de San Diego), condeno á que pasen á la frabrica del Fuerté y Misión de San Francisco, á ración, y sin sueldo, entre tanto dispone otra cosa el Excelentísimo Señor Virrey, a quien daré de este particular.  Anza explains, "over this matter [el] Moraga has written, that he has not received any judicial order. However, he assures me that the verbiage of all, [the deserters] attest in expressing the above mentioned desertion. Therefore, I will proceed to tell Your Honor how I feel. If the case is argued to be true! it’s because he has sold some [items] repeatedly, and has hinted about the robbery to Corporal Carrillo as well. Some portion[s] of chocolate and aguardiante who the muleteer José Ignacio Amarillas was in charge of, is known, and referred to found them missing due to the 


robbery. In the form of
punishing him for his infidelity, I took part in asking the soldier and the rest of the deserters, [about the case] and after having settled it by consent (en ello), when the time came to follow through, the stated Amarillas repented. With that view point and having made the spirit to [arrest] them, the five consented and were apprehended by the same official". Sobre el, no ha practicado ninguna providencia judicial, y por escrito dicho Teniente Moraga, pero me asegura que las vervales de todos, contestan en esspressar que la mencionada deserción dimano de lo que siento decir a Vuestra Merced, si el casso se averigua ciertto y es el que habiendo vendido reptidas veces y por su sugestión al robo, y al Cabo Carrillo, porción de chocolate y aguardiente, el arriero José Ignacio Amarillas, á cuio cargo 
estaba lo referido y 
conociendo este, que se hallaba de echar menos su robo, como de catigarle yo su infidencia, tome el partido de combidar al soldado y de mas desertores y habiendo combenido en ello, al tiempo de ejecutarlo se arrepintió el pre dicho Amarillas. En cuia vista, y de tener hecho el animo para efectuarlo la consumaron los cinco que aprendió el mismo Oficial.

El Gran Capitan, closes carta number five by saying, "I inform Your Honor of all that has been referred to me, so that during your visit, you take or cause to take the declarations which will benefit the process of the soldiers, or the justification of one of them". Digo a Vuestra Merced, todo lo referido para que en su visita, thome ó mande thomar las declaraciones que combengan para el processo de los soldados, ó justificación de uno de ellos.

                     Mission San Antonio to Monterey 

Page 6

Carta number six was written at Misión del Carmelo as well, and Anza says, "even though we remember what we agreed upon at the Presidio of San Diego, we hope to see you at the Mission of San Gabriel by the 25th of the this month to finally discuss those matters which have been entrusted to us by His Excellency the Viceroy. Towards the effect of the opposition of the contingency, if it is not possible to confirm our meeting, it appears to me to advise Your Honor, of the following matters, of which it will serve you to respond".

Mission San Luis Obispo, 
where Anza camped on March 2/3 1776.

Sin embargo de que según lo que accordamos en el Presidio de San Diego, espero nos veamos en la misión de San Gabriel para el 25, proximo ocurrente á fin de que nos acordemos sobre los asuntos que nos estan encomendados por el Exceltísimo Señor Virrey, a efecto de obviar todo contingente, por si no se pudiere verificar nuestra visita me ha parecido imponer á Vuestra Merced, en los particulares siguientes, á gue de todos modos se servirá contestarme .

Anza informs Rivera, "in virtue of the Superior Orders of His Excellency of January 2 and May the 24th of last year, and that of which [we] both also agreed in the matter of exploring the Port of San Francisco, and the immediate environs better suited for the establishment of the Fort and the Missions which should accompany it. By which inspection I found that the interior of the


mentioned Port has not been explored, and in the widest part of its mouth (where I planted a cross) there is sufficient land for the establishment of the Fort, [Presidio] and benefits from a number of permanent springs close by, so we all thought. And at two leagues there is an abundance of green and dry wood from where an adequate supply for building the stockade and barracks can be found. Likewise, the best pastures of all this land are in the said interior of the Port. To the indicated principal site one can also conduct for about five or six leagues, morillos of pine tree by mule for the formal buildings from the Cañada de San Andres (where I have been), the trip can be accomplished in three days by a good road, which is free of [without] sand dunes, which have been in transit [encountered] until today". En virtue de las Superiores Ordenes de su excellencia de los de Enero y veinticuarto de Maio del año próximo anterior, y de lo que también conbenimos entre ambos sobre este asumpto passé al essamen del Puerto de San Francisco, y parajes inmediatos mas proporcionados para el estableciemiento de su Fuerte, y las dos Misiones, que le deben acompañar. En cuia inspección halle que en lo mas interior del mencionado Puerto que no se había reconocido, y en lo mas estrecho de su boca (donde de deje plantada una cruz) hai proporción suficiente para la ubicación del Fuerte, pues logra de varias aguas muy inmediatas y permanantes según á todos nos pareció, y á hasta dos leguas con abundancia de leña verde y seca, de la que se puede sacar la palizada pressisa para estacadas, y barracas, como también mejores pastos que los de todos esos terrenos, todo en dicho interior del Puerto, á cuio sitio principal indicado también se puede conducer de cinco a seis leguas de la

Page 7

cañada de San Andres, (donde estuve) morillage de pino en mulas para fabricas mas formales. Cuio viage se podrá efectuar en tres días por buen camino, y libre de los medanos que han transitado hasta hora. Anza continues, "in virtue of this and the principal objective of the expenses, which have been made and continue to be made for the occupation of the referred port, they [the colonists] aspire for its founding, so it can be guarded by the soldiers who are destined to go there. It’s my opinion that it should be occupied at the same place where I planted the cross and have advised Lt. Don José Joachín Moraga so. It is not lacking (as we judged) the right amount of drinking water in such a circumstance. I will separate my sentiments so that it will be established by a lagoon of running water, which is one league from this first site in the interior of the Port, [Mountain Lake] or by the Dolores spring which is also in the interior and known by the same officer. It being two leagues distance from the first site". En virtud de esto y de que el principal objecto de los gastos que se han hecho, y hacen para la ocupación del referido Puerto, aspiran a que se verifique en el propio, para que pueda ser guardado de la tropa que se le destina, es mi dictamen que quede de luego a luego ocupado en el mismo lugar en gue dejo clavada la cruz, y ha visto el tiente Don José Joaquín Moraga, no faltando (como juzgamos) el agua precisa para beber en cuia circumstancia separaré mi dictamen para que se ubique en una Laguna de Agua corriente que esta á una legua de este primer sitio, en lo interior del Puerto, ó en el ojo de agua de los Dolores, también interior, y sabido por el mismo Oficial, distante del primer sitio dos leguas.
Anza continues, "in the last mentioned [statement] I surmise that water will not be lacking. As some of the crops that require watering could suffer, and farther in about half a league, there is a wide valley of good moisture. All these places run towards the coast of the estuary which direction is to the south and when all is not confirmed the fort should sit in the middle of both missions and at the least distance possible. I also gave orders so that in it, they establish the first mission, and the second in the Cañada de San Andres. Likewise, if the first is lacking in the precise requirements, it should be situated at the site of San Pedro Regalado. Even though, I did not see it, [the site] I am assured that it fits the purpose, being immediate to the fort,  and near the coast which is one
of the distinguished features that His Excellency recommends".

El ultimo mencionado en la suposición de no faltarle las aguas que tiene, puede sufrir alguna siembra de riego, y más interior á media legua, hay una hancha cañada de buena humedad, todos estos lugares van corriendo a la costa del estero que gira a sur y para que cuando no del todo se verifigue que el fuerte quede en medio de las misiones, y lo menos distante que pueda ser, también doy mi dictamen para que en él se funde la primera, y la segunda en la cañada de San Andrés, como igualmente si le faltan á la primer las porporciones precisas, que sea en el sitio de San Pedro Regalado, el que aunque no lo vi, me aseguran ser para casso el mas inmediatto al fuerte, y cerca de la costa que es una de las particularidades que recomienda su Excelencia. Anza writes, "I put your superior orders in effect, and did not deviate from the spirit of them in any substantial, [way] because the necessity did not obliged me to. In view of what I have seen of the land, I provide Your Honor with a report as ordered by His Excellency, and as I have stated at the beginning, which will serve Your Honor to give me a response, so I can lay it against (acusso) those


Page 8

effects which could benefit me".
Dice Anza, arreglado sus superiors órdenes, y sin separar me del espiritu de ellas en lo mas sustancial, si la necesidad no me ha precidado, en vista de lo que observado sobre el terreno, produzco á Vuestra Merced mi anterior dictamen como me ordena dicho Señor
Excelentísimo de que como digo al principio, se sevirá Vuestra Merced, darme el correspondiente acusso para los effectos que me combengan
Here Rivera y Moncada’s dairy dated April 13, 1776 says, Pase la noche sin observer minima novedad, y siguiendo camino mas agravado de mi dolar, casi arrepentido de no haber me quedado en San Luis, como a las 4 de la tarde encontre al sargento Gongora que me dijo iba para San Diego con carta para mi, del teniente coronel don Juan Bautista de Anza. Me la daba y le dije la guardara; no venia en estado de leer por el dolor y la cabeza aturdada. "I passed the night with minimum news and following the road, being aggravated by my pain, I almost repented not having stayed in San Luis [Mission San Luis Obispo]. At about 4 in the in the afternoon I met Sergeant Gongora who

informed me that he was going to San Diego with a letter for me from Lt. Colonel Don Juan Bautista de Anza. As he was handing it to me I told him to save it, as I did not feel like reading it, due to my leg pain, giddy feeling (giddy-head), and perhaps a degree of temperature (fever)".

Clearly from the previous six cartas there is no doubt that Anza’s ultimate desire is to establish the Presidio of San Francisco, its two missions, and take care of his troops. While Moncada, in refusing to read his letters, continues to perpetuate the idea that he does not care. Here, I have addressed the Captain Governor, as Moncada, as does His Excellency Bucareli. He does, however, mention that he does not feel like reading them due to his pain. Further, his diary states that his pain is so bad that he is being helped in getting on and off his horse. Nonetheless, he concurs that the founding of San Francisco and its two missions is just as important as his task of pacifying the Indians (no ser inferior). However, Moncada is beginning to recognize that he could be in deep trouble when he writes, "Deverdad que me a puesto en aprieto," meaning, Anza has put the


squeeze on me, and if all that was not enough, Anza than tells him, "I will inform His Excellency of all these matters". No doubt Anza is not only feeling superior in rank, but autocratic, and cavalier as well, as he rambles with remarks such as, "I can stop at any place I want to" and continues with "I did not deviate from your orders because I did not have to", [otherwise I would have] and lastly "I will inform His Excellency of all these matters". Anza, in his frustration is beginning to practice the theory of my way or the highway. Not a good thing for theses two giants of early California. Should the reader finds the English section of the article a little cumbersome, it’s because I have translated verbatim, and choose to be as close to the original text as possible. Other than the use of brackets to enhance the word flow, it’s about as close as one can get. As mentioned previously, articles such as this, require the work of many, therefore, I would like to acknowledge Jose Pantoja, Eddie Grijalva, Vladimir Guerrero, Ph.D and Greg Bernal Smestad, Ph.D for their sound contributions.

Look for more to come with cartas 7, 8, and 9.


In response to a letter of interest concerning Juan Bautista de Anza 
s, Phil Valdez Jr. writes:

Thank you for your e-mail. From your statements and requests I gather you are a novice and wish to learn more about the Juan Bautista de Anza expeditions.

First and foremost there were two, the 1774 exploratory and the 1775/1776 colonizing expeditions. The exploratory left Tubac, Sonora in what is now Arizona in January 1774 with 34 soldiers which included Juan Bautista Valdez, the courier, who on the return trip carried the diaries of the journey to His Excellency, Viceroy Bucareli, in Mexico City. The expedition returned to Tubac in May of that same year. Herbert Eugene Bolton, California’s immanent historian says this of my Gran Papa. "Juan Bautista Valdez was the first man in record history to make the round trip, on horse back, from Mission San Gabriel to Mexico City".

The colonizing expedition left the Real Presidio de San Miguel de Horcasitas in late September of 1775, and arrived in Monterey (Monterrey) on March 10, 1776. These poblanos were recruited in the alcaldias of Culiacan, Sinaola, Alamos, and El Fuerte. This group, unlike the exploratory expedition who returned, left to augment the Presidio of Monterey and establish the Presidio de San Francisco and Mission Dolores. This is "the story of families who went to Alta California to settle as opposed to conquering". In other words they went to stay. There are debates as to the reasons why, but stay they did. Because of the lack of help from Madrid and Mexico City our ancestors took on the name of Californios.

Web de Anza, on the Internet, has the diaries of both Anza and Father Font, the meticulous chronicler, of the colonizing expedition. You will find them in both English and Spanish and are supplemented with the diaries of Lt. Moraga, second in command of the colonizing expedition, Costanso, the engineer with Portola’s first entrada of 1769, and Father Garces, better known as the wandering Padre.

Some historians have claimed that Anza was a pathfinder, however, nothing could be further from the truth. You see we now know that he was following the trail of others. For example:

  1. The path considered to be the Anza trail, is now known to have been Indian trails, used by them for thousands of years.
  2. From Sonora to the Yuma crossing, Anza was using Father Kino’s map of the Pima region, which photocopy, I have in my possession. Padre Kino’s route to the Yuma crossing had been used by Spanish explorers for at least fifty years prior to Anza.
  3. From the Yuma crossing to Mission San Gabriel he was lead by the great Indian, Sebastian Tarabal, who had traversed that region a year earlier after having run away from the said mission.
  4. From Mission San Gabriel to Monterey well that was Portola country. Don Gaspar and his men had traversed California twice once in 1769 and again in 1770. Juan Bautista Valdez, a Soldado de Cuera, was assigned to the exploratory expedition because he had been with the Rivera/Portola entrada of 1769 and knew the California road.
  5. The five, volume edition of Boltons Anza’s Expeditions, are five good books where one can get his or her feet wet. There are other like Anza Conquers the Desert, Rim of Christendom, History of California the Spanish Period, On the Trail of a Spanish Pioneer, and others too numerous to mention. However, if you are really interested in the subject matter, I recommend first reading one or two books that deal with Spain and her empires, augmented with one or two books on Mexico and her indigenous, and continue with California history. And of course Somos Primos.

I am glad that you are interested in learning more about the history of Juan Bautista de Anza and his skills as a leader.

As a writer, scholar and historian, I am interested in telling the story as stated in the writings of our people. I do not subscribe to the early writings of historians who embellished, romanticized, and wrote unchecked for a white institution, and a white audience.

The Salida Conference is a good a place as any to start getting acquainted with Anza, his governorship of New Mexico, and battles with Cuerno Verde, etc.

Welcome to the study of El Gran Capitan, the Anza expeditions, and let’s continue the dialogue.

          Phil Valdez Jr., MBA., CHA  

For more on Anza's 1775/76 colonizing expedition members. 

Juan Bautista de Anza Expedition Resource Page


The 240 Persons who left Tubac,  Monday October 23, 1775 


Sergeant Juan Pablo Grijajva (34)
and his wife, Maria Dolores Valencia
Maria Josepha (9)
Maria del Carmen (4)

Corporal Domingo Alviso
and his wife, Maria Angela Trejo
Francisco Javier (10)
Francisco (9)
Maria Loreto (5)
Ignacio (3) 

Corporal Jose Valerio Mesa (42)
and his wife, Maria Leonor Barboa
Jose Joaquin (12)
Jose Ignacio (9)
Ignacia Dolores (6)
Maria Manuela (7)
Joseph Antonio (3)
Juan (3) 

Corporal Gabriel Peralta (45)
and his wife: Francisca Javier Valenzuela
Juan Jose (18)
Luis Maria (17)
Pedro Reglado (11)
Maria Gertrudis (9) 

Juan Antonio Amezquita (37)
and his wife, Juana Maria de Guana
Manuel Domingo (23)
and his wife Rosalia Zamora
Maria Josepha (20)
Maria Dolores (10)
Maria Getrudis (3)
Maria de los Reyes (baby) 

Justo Roberto Altamirano (31)
with his wife, Maria Loreta Delfina
Jose Antonio
Jose Matias

Jose Ramon Bojorques (39)
and his wife: Francisca Romero
Maria Antonia (15)
Maria Gertrudis (l2)
Maria Micaela (l3)
and her husband,
Jose Anastacio Higuera

Ignacio Linares (31)
and his wife, Maria Gertrudis Rivas
Maria Gertrudis (7)
Juan Jose Ramon (5)
Maria Juliana (4)
Salvador (1) 

Carlos Gallegos
and his wife, Maria Josefa Espinosa 


Juan Salvio Pacheco
and his wife, Maria del Carmen del Valle
Miguel (20)
Ignacio (15)
Igrnacio Gertrudis (15)
Bartolome Ignacio (10)
Maria Barbara (10) 

Jose Antonio Garcia
and his wife Maria Josefa de Acuna
Maria Graciana
Maria Josefa
Jose Vicente
Jose Francisco
Juan Guillermo 

Pablo Pinto (44)
and his wife, Francisca Javier Ruelas
Juan Maria (17)
Juana Santos & husband Casimiro Varela
Juana Francisca
Jose Marcelos 

Antonio Quitero Aceves (36)
and his wife, Maria Feliciana Cortes
Maria Petra (13)
Jose Cipriano (11)
Maria Gertrudis (6)
Juan Gregorio (5)
Pablo (3)
Jose Antonio (2) 

Ignacio Maria Gutierrez
and his wife, Ana Maria de Osuna
Maria Petronia (10)
Maria de los Santos (7)
Diego Pascual (baby)
who was born on the Gila, en route 

Ignacio de Soto (27)
and his wife, Maria Barbara Espinosa
Maria Antonia (2)
Jose Antonio (1) 

Jose Manuel Valencia (27)
and his wife, Maria de la Luz Munos
Maria Gertrudis (15)
Francisco Maria (8)
Ignacio Maria (3) 

Luis Joaquin Alvarez (36)
and his wife, Maria Nicolasa Ortiz
Juan Francisco
Maria Francisca 

Jose Antonio Sanchez (25)
and his wife, Maria de los Dolores Morales
Maria Josefa (7)
Jose Antonio (2)
Ignacio Cardenas (adopted) 

Manuel Ramirez Arellano (34)
and his wife, Maria Agueda de Haro
Jose Mariano 

Joaquin Isidro de Castro (44)
and his wife, Maria Martina Botiller
Ignacio Clemente (20)
Maria Josefa (18)
Maria Encarnacion (12)
Maria del Carruen (10)
Jose Mariano (9)
Jose Joaquin (6)
Francisco Maria (2)

Francisco Antonio

Felipe Santiago Tapia (31)
and his wife, Juana Maria Filomena Hernandes
Jose Bartolome
Juan Jose
Jose Cristoval
Jose Francisco
Jose Victor
Maria Rosa (15)
Maria Antonia (13)
Maria Manuela (10)
Maria Ysidora (4) 

Juan Francisco Bernal (39)
and his wife, Maria Josefa de Soto, sister of
Jose Joaquin (13)
Juan Francisco (12)
Jose Dionisio (10)
Jose Apolonario (9)
Ana Maria (5)
Maria Teresa de Jesus (3)
Tomas Januario 

Juan Atansio Vasquez
and his wife, Maria Gertrudis Castelo
Jose Tiburcio (20)
Jose Antonio (10)
Pedro Jose 

Juan Agustin Valenzuela (26)
and his wife, Petra Ignacia de Ochoa
Maria Zepherin 

Santiago de la Cruz Pico (43)
and his wife, Maria Jacinta Vastida
Jose Dolores (12)
Jose Maria (11)
Jose Miguel (7)
Francisco Javier (6)
Patricio (5)
Maria Antonia Tomasa
Maria Josefa 

Jose Vicente Felix (35)
Manuela Pincuelar, Wife, died in childbirth.
Only person to die on the Expedition.
Jose Francisco
Jose Doroteo
Jose de Jesus
Jose Antonio Capistrano
Maria Loreta
Maria Antonia
Maria Manuela 

Sebastian Antonio Lopez
and his wife, Felipa Neri (or Felipa Zermana)
Maria Tomasa
Maria Justa 

Jose Antonio Sotelo
and his wife, 
Gertrudis Peralta (or Manuela Gertrudis Buelna) 

Pedro Antonio Bojorques (22)
and his wife, Maria Francisca de Lara
Maria Agustina (4) 


Don Juan Bautista de Anza
Fray Pedro Font  
Fray Francisco Garces
Ensign Don Jose Joaquin Moraga
Sergeant Juan Pablo Grijalva
Don Mariano Vidal, Commissary

Jose Manuel Gonzales
and his wife,
Maria Micaela Bojorques
Juan Jose
Maria Gregoria 

Nicolas Galindo (33)
and his wife,
Maria Teresa Pinto
Juan Venancio (1) 

Nicolas Antonio Berreyesa (15)
accompanied by his sister,
Isabel (unmarried) (22) 

Maria Feliciana Arballo
widow of Jose Gutierrez
Maria Tomasa Gutierrez (6)
Maria Estaquia Gutierrez (4) 



Don Francisco Munos
Pedro Perez de la Funte
Marcos Villela 

Father Font says "According to this list 
there were 193 persons. I do not know if it be 
complete or lacks some names since I was not
permitted to be informed". 

STATISTICS OF 193 persons:

ADULT MALE -- 39 persons
ADULT FEMALE -- 34 persons
BOYS -- 70 persons
GIRLS -- 50 persons
TOTAL -- 193 persons 

Note: The ages of 78 children in above list show 44 were under 10 years old. 


Cartography for Northern New Spain

Sent by George Gause

As Catholic missions and military presidios advanced the frontier of Spanish dominion in North America, Spanish military officers, missionaries, and cartographers developed a spatial vision of the provinces that would become northwestern Mexico. The following maps dating from the eighteenth century show major topographic features like rivers and mountain ranges as well as the communities that were forged by Indians and Spaniards on the northern frontier of the Spanish American Empire.
Table of Contents with links to each map.
New Mexico Maps 1729/1792 
Fronteras Map 
Buenavista Map 
Terrenate Map 
Altar Map 
San Miguel Horcasitas Map 
Tubac Map Fronteras Photograph #1 
Fronteras Photograph #2 
Valle de Térapa Photograph 
Rio Chico Photograph 
Altar Photograph #1 
Altar Photograph #2 
Nueva Vizcaya Map 
Baja California Map 
Sinaloa Map 
Ostimuri Map 
Sonora Map
Opateria Map 
Arrowsmith Map of Mexico (ca. 1840) 
Disturnell Map of Mexico (ca. 1850) 
Debray Map of Mexico (ca. 1880) 

How do you define Hispanic?

How do you define Hispanic? That is the question Nationwide, one of the country's largest insurance and financial service corporations, presented to artists around the nation at today's launching of its Hispanic Heritage Month Art Contest. Under the theme 'We Are One But Made Of Many' the contest encourages artists to capture and express their ideas of the diversity encountered in the Hispanic culture.

This year's first-place winner will receive $800, second place $500, and third place $400. Winners' paintings are currently being displayed in Nationwide's headquarters and will be utilized in the future for a calendar. Entries for this year's Hispanic Heritage Month Art Contest will be accepted through October 1, 2004 at One Nationwide Plaza, 1-28-25, Columbus, Ohio 43215-2220. Attention: Hispanic Heritage Month Art Contest. 

Participating artists should be legal residents of the U.S. and at least 18 years of age as of July 17, 2004. See official rules by visiting
The University of Arizona, Library's Southwest Electronic Text Center Projects

    Significant changes in publishing have occurred as a result of electronic publishing technology and its blending with networked information. Since the summer of 1996, librarians have complemented other electronic publishing projects by creating electronic texts from print materials. 

     In some cases, the electronic texts were part of larger World Wide Web exhibits. In others, they represent an electronic version of rare, out-of-print works related to the Southwest. 

Other text centers:

Books of the Southwest, The University of Arizona Library

Rudo Ensayo: A Description of Sonora and Arizona in 1764

[[ Editor's note: The entire text can be accessed. What I liked best was the ability to click immediately to the source of the information.]]


Title page 
About the Translators… 
Table of Contents (As in the original volume) 
Biographical Sketch 
Letter from Nentvig to Zeballos (July 16, 1764) 
1. A Description of Sonora
1.1. Its Name, Location, and Boundaries 
1.2. Its Latitude and Longitude 
2. On the Rivers and Brooks of Sonora
2.1. The Yaqui River and Its Tributaries 
2.2. Of Other Rivers and Creeks 
2.3. The Gila and the San Pedro Rivers 
2.4. The Colorado River 
3. Mountains, Climate, and Fertility of the Soil
3.1. Mountain Ranges 
3.2. Fertility of the Soil 
3.3. The Climate 
3.4. Pertaining to Cattle and Their BreedingIn Spanish, cattle (ganado) is a generic word applicable to all animals and subdivided into large (mayor), such as bovines, horses, mules and donkeys, and small (menor), such as sheep, goats, and hogs. 
3.5. Wild Beasts Found in the Province 
3.6. Insects and Disgusting Creatures 
3.7. The Birds 
4. Native Flora
4.1. Fruits 
4.2. Medicinal Products 
5. Indian Tribes of Sonora
5.1. Their Language, Nature, Intellectual Capacity, and Distinctive Traits 
5.2. Their History, Idolatry, and Sorcery 
5.3. Superstitions, Omens, and Credulities 
5.4. Rites, Customs, and Ceremonies 
5.5. War Practices, Ceremonies, and Rituals 
5.6. Treatment of Wounds 
6. Tribes of Sonora
6.1. Opatas, Eudebes, and Jovas 
6.2. Pimas Altos and Bajos 
6.3. The Seris and Their Confederates 
6.4. The Apaches, Ancient Scourge of Sonora 
7. The Jesuit Missions
7.1. San Francisco de Borja Rectorship 
7.2. The Rectorship of Santos Mártires del Japón 
7.3. The Rectorate of San Francisco Javier 
7.4. The Rectorate of Pimería Alta (Nuestra Señora de los Dolores) 
7.5. Depopulated Indian Settlements 
8. The Missions and Government
8.1. The Missions: Their Churches, Furnishings, Worship, and Teachings 
8.2. Ecclesiastical and Civil Governments 
9. Settlements
9.1. Preamble 
9.2. Mining Camps and Settlements of Spaniards 
9.3. The Royal Presidios and Intermediate Villages 
9.4. Curacies: Their Vast Size and Places of Worship 
10. How to Punish the Enemy and Prevent the Ruin of Sonora 
Bibliography and References 
General Index 
Index to Fauna 
Nentvig's Map of Sonora and Areas North, 1762. Retouched by A.F. Pradeau. Reproduced by courtesy of the British Museum. 



New African-Mexican Website
African American Soldier in Louisiana
Historia de Estevanico

New African-Mexican Website

We are pleased to announce the publication of our brand new web page

This site’s intention is to become an informative tool based on discussion about the different aspects that characterize the African heritage in Mexico.

The core of this project consists in the realization of a series of video documentaries that explore
different aspects of the african-mexican people. So far the first two documentaries of the series have
been finished and published which are, “LA RAIZ OLVIDADA” ( The Forgotten Root) and “DE FLORIDA A COAHUILA”. (From Florida to Coahuila)

Presently we are working on our third documentary “CORRERIAS EN EL MONTE”,(Incursions into the Mountains) and we are seeking financial support in order to finish the work in progress. We are raising these funds in the form of co-production, sale of rights of distribution and support from organizations with the objective of promoting projects of cultural character. Another way to support us is by buying our documentaries which are available in a subtitled version in English from our distributor in the US, “Latin American Video Archives”

In Mexico the rol of Africans in the development of the nation is not oficially recognized, and one of the main goals of our project is to fight for that recognition.  We hope that you have a chance to take a look at our site, and if you can provide us with feedback that will be most helpful for us. Please feel free to forward this mail to anyone you consider might be interested in our project. This would allow us to meet our goals in a timely manner, goals which help, to some extent, to the development of a culture of tolerance and the vision of diversity as the main asset of human kind.

AfriGeneas Military Research Forum
Ninteenth Century Black Military Heroes;read=487
Sent by by Bill Carmena

Posted By: Isiah Edwards,  29 August 2003

The African American Soldier in Louisiana

African American Soldiers have a long history of military service in the Louisiana Territory and the State of Louisiana. Not only did they struggle to enter the armed forces, but when finally accepted by three governments (France, Spain and the United States), they had to work under segregated and unequal conditions and prove their abilities. This internal battle continued through the late seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, up into the first half of the twentieth century.

In 1729, after the massacre of Fort Rosalie in Natchez, the French government established a small unit of slave soldiers (Slaves were promised freedom) to fight the American Indians. Under Governor Jean Baptist Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville, a company of 104 slaves and freemen would be organized to fight the Chickawaw an ally of the Natchez. These slave soldiers were praised for their "deeds of surprising Valor." The French Government recognized the first Black Militia unit.

When the Spanish Government took over territorial control of Louisiana, the Spanish government recognized the Black Militia unit that was in place.  During the American Revolution, Bernard de Galvez, the Spanish Governor of Louisiana and Commander of the Fixed Regiment, mobilized a force of 670 men of which 80 were freemen organized into two companies. These companies helped in capturing Baton Rough, Mobile and pensacola. In praising his troops for their performance Galvez sited, "no less deserving of eulogy are the companies of Negro and Free Mulattoes," who "conducted themselves with as much valor and generosity as the whites."

One of the most significant battles in American history occurred at the Chalmette Plantation - Battle of New Orleans. It was the last time the United States and Great Britain fought as enemies.

After the Louisiana Purchase, on June 21, 1804, Governor Claiborne presented a Stand of Colors to the (Black Militia) Battalion.

Two months after the war's outbreak in 1812, the Louisiana Legislature passed a new militia bill which, in addition to authorizing 2,200 new troops, also empowered the Governor to enlist "Certain Free People of Color. As a result of the militia bill authorization, Claiborne organized four companies of Black Militia, with each company mustering 64 men. The new unit was designated as the Battalion of Free Men of Color. One provision of the bill specified that the new Black units be commanded by white property holders. However, Claiborne defied the Legislature's restriction concerning white officers. Among the battalion's newly commissioned officers were three Black second Lieutenants: Isadore Honore',Jean Louis Dolliole, and Etienne Saulet.

The Battalion of Free Men of Color were officially mustered into the service of the United States and became paret of the United States Army on December 16, 1814. Vincent Populus was the ranking Negro officer with a grade of second Major or Aide Major. This was the first recognition by the United States Army of a Black Officer of or near field grade, indeed, of one with superior rank. On many occasions Populus was in charge of the organization.

The Battle of New Orleans lasted less than two hours, with major fighting confined to about 30 minutes. British casualties exceeded 2,000; the Americans reported only 13. The Free men of Color Battalions sustained many injuries and a few casualties, though exact figures have not survived. General Jackson himself stated in a letter to the Secretary of War that the fatal shot that felled the British leader in the battle, General Sir Edwards Pakenham, "have always believed (was) the bullet of a free man of color, who was a famous rifle shot."

NOTE: These Men were the Fathers and Grandfathers of the Native Guards. On September 27, 1862, the 1st Regiment of the Native Guards was mustered into the service for three years and thus became the first officially sanctioned regiment of Black Soldiers in the Union Army.

Angel Custodio    Click for another article by Custodio
A continuación te transcribo el guión/texto de la charla que di  el pasado dia 3 de junio en el Colegio Montessori de Huelva, con motivo de su XIV Semana Cultural, para que la conozcas.

Anécdotas de los encuentros con América

 No se conoce la fecha del nacimiento de este esclavo, que vino al mundo en la aldea de Azemmour,  en la costa atlántica de Marruecos, aunque se calcula que nació alrededor de 1501.

Su madre murió a los pocos meses de nacer él, haciéndose cargo de la familia el padre que hacía trabajos de carpintería y herrería  en el pueblo.

Pertenecían a la tribu de los Hausa y su familia tenía fama en la tribu por su altura, ya que eran mas altos que el resto de sus vecinos.

En 1513, los portugueses invaden el pueblo de Azemmour, saqueando lo poco que hay de valor y sometiendo a los nativos a la esclavitud, hambre y miseria.

Unos portugueses que tenían comercio de esclavos entre África y Europa, capturan a Estevanico, ya que consideraban que tendría un buen precio de venta por su altura y su constitución atlética.

Desde Azemmour el mercader de esclavos lo lleva para Lagos, en el Algarve portugués, donde había un importante comercio humano, en un edificio que aún se conserva.

Cuando el barco del mercader iba hacia Portugal, al pasar cerca de la costa de Huelva, era costumbre que estos barcos recalasen algunos días en Gibraleón, ya  al mismo tiempo que reponían fuerzas de la travesía, como el Duque de Bejar tenía negocio de esclavos,  era aprovechada la parada para la venta de algunos de ellos entre los que acudían al pueblo onubense. Esto ocurría alrededor de 1526.

Al llegar a Gibraleón nos encontramos con Pablo Dorantes, hombre de confianza del Duque de Bejar y que al parecer era  una de las personas que llevaban la administración de los bienes del Duque y por ello de las compra-ventas de esclavos.

Con Pablo Dorantes y su esposa Isabel de Carranza vivía en Gibraleón su hijo Andrés Dorantes, que había decidido alistarse como Capitán en la expedición de Pánfilo de Narváez , por lo que el Capitán Andrés Dorantes que pidió a su padre le proporcionase un criado para su aventura, tomo a Estevanico como esclavo personal y ambos formaron parte de la expedición que partió de Sanlucar de Barrameda.

Pánfilo de Narváez  había obtenido permiso del Rey Carlos V para en su nombre conquistar la zona que actualmente comprenden Texas, Arizona, Florida y el norte de México  y como premio seria nombrado gobernador de la región.

Durante aquella época el aire estaba lleno de historias de aventuras y de leyendas sobre las cantidades de oro y plata que llegaban de América, por lo que el 17 de junio de 1527 navegaron desde España hasta Santo Domingo, cinco naves sobrecargadas que convirtió aquel viaje en una historia de pesadilla, porque además de los componentes de la expedición, llevaban en los barcos, caballos, cerdos, cabras y ovejas, todos hacinados de tal forma que nada mas llegar a la orilla en Santo Domingo, ciento cuarenta de los seiscientos que iban abandonaron.

El viaje continuó siendo un desastre porque cuando llegaron a Cuba, dos barcos que Pánfilo de Narváez había enviado a la Isla de Trinidad con sesenta hombres y veinte caballos, fueron sorprendidos por un huracán y desaparecieron, por lo que tuvieron que refugiarse en Cuba todo el invierno hasta febrero de 1528 en que partieron para Florida uniendo un nuevo barco que Pánfilo de Narváez había comprado en Cuba y llegando por fin a la costa de Florida el 12 de abril de 1528, después de haber perdido en la travesía a varios hombres y animales.

El 1 de mayo de 1528, 260 hombres a pié, cuarenta jinetes, cinco frailes y varios criados y esclavos marcharon desde la Bahía de Tampa hacia el norte. Pánfilo de Narváez no atendió los consejos de los militares que iban en la expedición, que le pedían que formasen allí mismo una población y después de planificar detenidamente marchar para cumplir su cometido.

Fueron dos semanas espantosas, cuando llegaron exhaustos al río Withlacoochee el 15 de mayo de 1528, todos, personas y caballos,  picados por insectos voladores, moscas, abejas y todo tipo de mosquitos y quemados por el sol, además de mal alimentados.

Cuando estaban en el río fueron rodeados por indios en actitud amenazante, pero después de una corta lucha, los indios se rindieron y llevaron a los españoles a su aldea, donde le explicaron a Narváez que había una ciudad con mucha riqueza el norte, ofreciéndose los indios como guías

Esta fue la primera expedición que exploró por tierra el sur de los Estados Unidos.

Cuando llegaron a otro río, el que los indios denominaban Suwannee, adelantó a un jinete a caballo para cruzarlo y ver su profundidad, pero tanto el jinete como el animal, fueron arrastrados por la corriente y se ahogaron. Esto sucedió el 17 de junio de 1528.

A finales de junio llegaron a la ciudad que habían dicho los indios, Apalachen, que era un caserío de cuarenta chozas cubiertas con paja, con mucho fango y muy sucia.

Los exploradores ocuparon la ciudad que solo estaba habitada por mujeres horrorizadas y niños, ya que los hombres había huido.

Narváez había perdido una fortuna en la expedición y no había recuperado nada de valor. Sus hombres estaban muertos de hambre y mucho enfermos.

Recuperaron fuerzas con los alimentos que les quitaron a los indios; maíz, calabazas, raíces, y pescados secos.

Al segundo día, los Apalaches que habían huido a las montañas atacaron a los españoles y los hicieron huir, aunque antes incendiaron las chozas. Llegaron al mar y decidieron construir algún barco ó cosa parecida para salir de aquel infierno, pero se encontraron que en la expedición solo había un hombre que había sido carpintero y no tenían herramientas ni material, pero con madera de pino y calafateando con las fibras de resina del  palmeto de pino, ademas de aprovechar sus ropas para construir las velas, se hicieron a la mar. Aparte de ello, el alimento escaseaba cada vez mas, se habian comido ya los pocos caballas que les quedaban y la mayoría de los hombres estaban lesionados o enfermos con fiebre y disentería.

Terminaron las barcazas y en septiembre marcharon río abajo los 242 hombres que quedaban, sin ningún caballo, porque el que último se lo habían comido el día antes de partir.

Los primeros días de navegación fueron muy bien, pero cada vez que se acercaban a las orillas del río para conseguir agua dulce o alimentos, eran atacados por los indios o por las tormentas, por lo que Pánfilo de Narváez decidió que los barcos se dispersaran para conseguir salvarse el que pudiera. 

Cuando llegaron el 6 de noviembre de 1528 a la isla de Galveston y Bahía de Lavaca, el barco de Pánfilo de Narváez se había perdido en el mar y al recontarse vieron, con horror, que solo quedaban cuarenta y ocho hombres.

De estos 48, el primer día del año 1529, habían muerto muchos por hambre y enfermedad y por los ataques de los indios y solo quedaban Estevanico, el esclavo negro, y 15 españoles. Cuando trece de ellos intentaron moverse por la costa para intentar escapar, mataron a otros tres y los que quedaron fueron visitando las aldeas durante cuatro años largos, siempre como esclavos de los indios y para obtener alguna comida, hasta que llegaron a una en la que el Jefe estaba muy enfermo y al llegar y ponerle uno de los españoles la mano encima con agua fría, el Jefe indio sanó y los tomaron por hechiceros, con lo que estuvieron viviendo de aldea en aldea, actuando de chamanes.

En esto tuvo especial acierto Estevanico, que iba adornado como en su tribu, con abalorios y colgantes que sonaban como cascabeles y bailaba en plan ritual ante los enfermos. A ello le unimos que por su atractivo físico y por ir muchas veces materialmente desnudo, era muy codiciado por las indias que gustaban de estar con él.

Así estuvieron durante siete años, vagando por unas tierras inhóspitas, siempre intentando escapar y quedando al final vivos tan solo cuatro; tres capitanes, Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Alonso del Castillo Maldonado, Andrés Dorantes Carranza y Estevanico. 

Quedó un cuarteto de personas valerosas, inteligentes y resueltas, que atravesaron a pié, lo que es hoy el Estado de Texas y llegaron después de ocho años a zona civilizada.

De los cuatro que quedaron, Estevanico era hombre grande y de gran alcance, con una mente rápida. Aprendió fácilmente los dialectos usados por los indios, ya que tenían cierta similitud con los utilizados en África y aunque comenzó la expedición como esclavo, se convirtió en el hombre clave de la cruzada y que salvó a los otros tres del triste fin que tuvieron el resto de los expedicionarios, si bien el líder del cuarteto siempre fue Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, al que todos obedecían, ya que no olvidaban que había llegado a la expedición como Tesorero Real.

Los cantes y bailes de Estevanico y la confianza que daba a los indios con sus conjuros y rezos, hizo que en muchas ocasiones salvasen el pellejo.

Después de muchas penalidades, y con las fuerzas justas llegaron a un puesto avanzado en el pequeño pueblo de San Miguel de Culiacán en mayo de 1536, donde fueron recibidos como auténticos héroes ya que todos los habían dado por muertos, por el Gobernador de Nueva Galicia, Nuño de Guzmán, 

Después de unos días de comer y reponer fuerzas, fueron llamados por el Virrey de México que quería conocer la aventura en su totalidad.

Llegaron a México en julio de 1536 y el virrey Antonio de Mendoza pidió a Dorantes que él y su esclavo Estevanico, acompañasen a la expedición que organizada por el franciscano Fray Marcos de Niza partiría para las míticas siete ciudades de Cibolá, a lo que Dorantes no quiso aceptar, pero cedió o vendió a Estevanico al virrey.

Al parecer Dorantes y Cabeza de Vaca esperaban que le concedieran licencia real para colonizar Texas y Nuevo México, quedando muy desilusionados con ello.

En febrero de 1539, salió la expedición de Fray Marcos de Niza,. Iba por delante de la expedición Estevanico, que enviaba con corredores cruces que indicaban que hacia descubrimientos, pero de poca importancia, por lo que las cruces eran pequeñas.

De pronto descubrió Hawikuh, un pueblo de la tribu Zuni y envió un corredor con una cruz muy grande.

Cuando llegó a la aldea, Estevanico fue recibido por los Zunis con desconfianza, por lo que le ordenaron que esperase en las afueras mientras los ancianos discutían sobre dar la autorización o no.

A la siguiente mañana, los Zunis atacaron y mataron a Estevanico.

Andrés Dorantes embarcó en el puerto de Veracruz para volver a España, pero, pero el barco que lo traía era viejo y tuvo que volver a puerto, lo que él consideró un mal presagio y desistió de retornar a Gibraleón.

Se casó con Maria de la Torre, viuda de Francisco Valdés y a la muerte de ésta se volvió a casar con la viuda de Antonio Gómez de la Corona. Tuvo 14 hijos en Nueva España y murió en 1550.

Alonso del Castillo, después de su aventura decidió continuar en el Nuevo Mundo, aunque hizo una breve visita a España y volvió como funcionario de Hacienda a Guatemala. Se casó y murió al final de la década de 1540.

Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, volvió a España y en 1540 regresó a América como segundo Adelantado del Río de la Plata, aunque allí las cosas no le fueron muy bien, fue acusado de maltrato y estuvo encarcelado dos años y posteriormente enviado de nuevo a España, donde aun cuando lo encontraron culpable, fue perdonado por el rey.

Fue nombrado juez del Tribunal Supremo de Sevilla, siendo Prior de un Convento de la misma ciudad y murió en 1564.   



Lt. Col. Leonard Lowry
Indigenous Council Formed 
Sarah Winnemucca Statue
Cindy LaMarr, American Indian Educator
Juan José Fustero, last Tataviam

Link to articles in Mexico
Search for Aztlan Maps  
"La Señora Elmy" 
Indigenous Mexico

Extract: Sierra Army Depot honor Native Son
Lassen County Times, May 4, 2004
Susanville, California, Vol 26, No. 26
Sent by Cindy LoBuglio

April 27, the Sierra Army Depot named a new headquarters building after Lt. Col. Leonard Lowry.  Lt. Col. retired in 1967 after spending 27 years as a soldier and leader and served in three wards: World War II, Korea and Vietnam. Lowry, the most decorated and highest ranking Native American to serve in World War II, was buried by special Lassen County Resolution in the Susanville Pioneer Cemetery, following his death, August 17, 1999.

Lowry was awarded five Purple Heart medals while suffering 22 entrance and exit wounds in combat.  he also earned the Distinguished Service Cross and two Silver Stars in addition to the Legion of Merit and World War II Victory medals, among other honors.

He served with the famous Second American Infantry Indian Head Division during the Korean War and his men told radio personality Lowell Thomas Lowry ws "bravest man they had ever seen in action."

Indigenous Council Formed 
In June, Representatives of 61 indigenous ethnic cultures formed a new council to advise Mexico's government.  The new commission is partly an outgrowth of the 1994 Zapatista rebellion in the southern state of Chiapas, through the Zapatistas have rejected President Vicente Fox's initiatives.  The new council is supposed to advise the National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples, which oversees government policies directed toward the roughly 10 million Indian people in Mexico.  Fox's Indian-affairs official Xochitl Galvez, said Mexico's Indian people still face great difficulties. Galvez said few Indian communities have access to phone lines or other infrastructure.

Sarah Winnemucca Statue
Nevada Women's History Project
Source: Nataqua News, Vol 8, Issue 2, May 2004
Sent by Cindy LoBuglio

Her original Paiute name was Thocmetony.  She was the daughter of the Chief of the Paiutes, Winnemucca, and granddaughter of Chief Truckee in Nevada. The Paiute creation story tells how dark and light-skinned people were all one family in the beginning, which is the basis for their belief in the brotherhood of mankind.

The first book ever written by a Native American woman was Sarah's autobiography, "Life Among the Piutes: Their Wrongs and Claims."  This is the story of her life and customs of the Northern Paiutes, as well as her struggle for justice for her people.  Sarah spent most of her adult life seeking that justice through lectures and pleading with authority.  She went to Washington D.C.. to meet the president and testify in congress about the conditions of her people. 

Sarah also started a school for Native Americans and taught children both in their native language as well as English to enable them to function in both worlds.  Serving as an interpreter and negotiator for the U.S. Army, she pleaded for her people to be returned to their ancestral lands.  A small portion of their original land was eventually returned to them through her tireless efforts.

Sarah deserves to be honored as a representative of Native American, not only in Nevada but thought the entire country.  The Nevada Women's History Project intends to add the highest honor yet to the many Sarah has received . .  her statue in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C..

For more information Nevada Women's History Project, 
770 Smithridge Dr., Ste, 300 Reno, NV 89502

Cindy LaMarr awarded American Indian Educator of the Year
Lassen County Times, May 18, 2004
Sent by Cindy LoBuglio,

LaMarr, who is Pit River and Paiute, serves as National Indian Education Association president and the conference brochure said, ". . . she is working on national educational and budgetary Issues as the President of the National Indian Education Association, the largest Indian education organization in the country dedicated to education advocacy. 

LaMarr is the first California Indian and the first California resident to hold this position in its 35-year-history.  She was named the Educator of the Year at the 27th Annual California Conference on American Indian Education.  

On April 30th in a special signing ceremony at the White House, President George W. Bush signed an Executive Order of American Indian and Alaska Native Education.  The purpose of the order is to "assist American Indian and Alaska Native students in meeting the challenging student academic standards of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 in a manner that is consistent with tribal traditions, languages and cultures."



Juan José Fustero, 
who lived in the 
Piru-Camulos area, 
billed himself as 
"the last of the Piru Indians." 

Possibly the last full-blooded Tataviam Indian — a topic of some dispute — Fustero died on June 30, 1921,
 at or near Rancho Camulos.

Santa Clarita Valley Historical Society
 Sent by Johanna De Soto

Santa Clarita Valley History in Pictures:
Tataviam Indians:

All aspects of the history, people, and geography of the Newhall, California area.  Outstanding site. You'll need to glean all the information.

Sunday, October 29, 2000 

Objects can talk. In fact, they talk volumes if one knows how to listen.
    The home of Art Brewer of Agua Dulce is full of such objects — artifacts made by the Tataviam Indians hundreds of years ago. An amateur archeologist, Brewer has been collecting these artifacts for more than 30 years.
    "I don't dig for them myself," he said. "I've been living in this community for decades. People know me and know how much I care about preserving this area's history, and they bring these things to me.
    "They know I will take good care of them."
    Brewer's collection includes stone artifacts such as manos and metates (used to grind hard seeds), mortars and pestles (to pound acorns), arrowheads, spear points and small beads. He also has small clay objects that puzzle experts for two reasons: No one knows what they were used for and, according to archeological data, the Tataviam didn't even make pottery. Another curious piece in Brewer's collection is a stone ax, also found locally.
    Brewer was visited by Dr. John Johnson, curator of anthropology at the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, who was very excited about the ax.
    "There were only three axes like this ever found in California," Johnson said, "including this. It is very interesting."
    Johnson said the ax is known as a "grooved ax" and is not native to California. Its origin is southern Arizona, and it was made by an Indian tribe there, the Hohokam.
    "This clearly shows extensive trade," Johnson said.
    Brewer agrees.
    "I think that Vasquez Rocks was an extremely important hub of interstate trade," Brewer said. "The artifacts found suggest that many groups of people came here periodically to trade. It is hard to go anywhere in California without passing through Vasquez Rocks."
    Then there is The Bowl.
    Found on Agua Dulce resident Mark Meyer's property in 1994, the wooden bowl "might be the most significant artifact ever found in the Southwest," said archeologist Dr. Charles Rozaire.

    The 9 1/2-inch by 9-inch bowl is made of oak gall — an abnormal swelling on a tree caused by insects or disease — and it shows traces of several mendings. It had remnants of basketry on the top and bottom, and was coated with asphaltum inside, indicating that it might have been used to carry water.
    Meyer donated the bowl to the Vasquez Rocks Nature Center, but for lack of an appropriate storage facility it was given to the Santa Clarita Valley Historical Society on a long-term loan in 1995.
    "The deal was, the VRNC would get it back as soon as our interpretive center was built," Brewer said. "But unfortunately this seems to be in jeopardy."
    Earlier this year Meyer reportedly took the bowl back, and his intentions are not known. Meyer did not return a phone message.
    Brewer's biggest fear is that "because of improper storage, its condition might deteriorate irreparably.
    "We (the Vasquez Rocks Nature Center Associates) would like to get it back and take good care of it," he said. "It is an important piece of history and should be on display for everybody to appreciate it."
    Brewer is president of the VRNCA, a non-profit organization formed in 1991 to build a Nature Interpretive Center at Vasquez Rocks, which was listed on the National Register of Historical Places in 1973 for its archeological and historical importance.
    "We collected signatures from 3,500 local residents and got a professional rendering by architect Dave Baumont for a small interpretive museum at Vasquez Rocks," Brewer said. "Then we presented the plans to (Supervisor) Mike Antonovich, who thought it was a worthwhile effort."
    The VRNCA held fund-raisers to get the word out about the project, and in 1998 the County of Los Angeles allocated $1.2 million from Prop. A funds to build an interpretive museum at the park.
    "No specific site has been picked yet," said Mike Sharp, head ranger at Vasquez Rocks County Park.
    VRNCA's mission is to educate the public about local history and nature, provide recreational opportunities and preserve the Native American sites at the park. The group intends for the Vasquez Rocks Interpretive Nature Center to be dedicated solely to local history — mainly to preserve and educate about the town's early inhabitants, the Tataviam.
    Under the tentative plans, the museum will host alternating displays of artifacts, research facilities, a re-created archeological excavation site for children to learn about "digs," and a small life-like Tataviam village setting where visitors can learn about food preparation, see how tools and clothing were made, and discover other cultural features of the tribe.
    "Preserving history should be the most important thing in the world," said Brewer. "'Without the past, there is no future,' my professor used say, and all I'm trying to do now is make sure our local history is properly preserved." 



350 years of Jewish life in America, Important Exhibition
More Than 10,000 Jews  Fought For The Confederacy
American Sephardi Federation 

350 years of Jewish life in America
Be Part of An Important Exhibition  . . .  A Call for Contributions 
Letter from Esme Emmanuel Berg, Director of the Center for Jewish History  

Dear Friends,

It is my pleasure to invite you to participate in an important project in which the America Sephardi Federation with Sephardic House is currently involved - an exciting new exhibition.

In the spring of 2005 the Center for Jewish History will mount a major exhibit focusing on 350 years of Jewish life in America.  All of the partner institutions will participate in this project, using this important anniversary to show how the development of Jewish communities in America affected Jews around the world.  some of these influences were quite.  Jews immigrated to American and sent back letters full of information about life in their new home.  This stimulated further migration and helped Jews around the globe learn about American and its people.  Jewish newspapers, wherever they were published news and stories about the immigration and the development of Jewish life in American.  Jewish organizations founded in the United States i.e., the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, B'nai B'rith, the American Jewish Committee, the Jewish Joint Distribution Committee and ORT - all played a role in shaping Jewish life all over the word.

Do you have any family mementos, letters, artifacts, or photographs that might help illustrate this truly international story?  Can you share stories about how your family came to American and what they knew about the place as they made their decision about where and when to immigrate?

With this exhibition, the American Sephardi Federation with Sephardic House and its members and friends have a unique opportunity to educate the larger Jewish community and non-Jewish community alike about our Sephardic culture and history.  Moreover, we have an opportunity to play a significant role in Celebrate 350 along with our illustrious partners at the  Center for Jewish History, the American Jewish Historical society, the Leo Beck Institute, Yeshiva University Museum, and YIVO.

I hope that you will search your minds and your closets to help make the Sephardic contribution to this project a significant one.  Please call me if you have any questions or would like to make a contribution.

At the Center for Jewish History
15 West 16th Street, New York, NY 10011
Tel: (212) 294-8350   Fax: (212) 294-8348  email:

More Than 10,000 Jews Fought For The Confederacy
By Thomas C. Mandes, Special to the Washington Times, 6-18-2?
Sent by Yolanda Ochoa

The term "Johnny Reb" evokes an image of a white soldier, Anglo-Saxon and Protestant and from an agrarian background. Many Southern soldiers, however, did not fit this mold. A number of ethnic backgrounds were represented during the conflict.   

For example, thousands of black Americans fought as Johnny Rebs. Dr. Lewis Steiner of the U.S. Sanitary Commission observed that while the Confederate army marched through Maryland during the 1862 Sharpsburg (Antietam) campaign, "over 3,000 negroes had arms, rifles, muskets, sabers, bowie knives, dirks, etc. And were manifestly an integral portion of the Southern Confederate Army."   

There also were Hispanic Confederates. Col. Santos Benavides, a former Texas Ranger, city attorney and mayor of Laredo, Texas, commanded the 33rd Texas Cavalry, while Gen. Refugio Benavides protected what was known as the Confederacy of the Rio Grande. Recent Irish Catholic immigrants also chose to fight for the South, as did a few stalwart Chinese who served nobly in Louisiana.   

The largest ethnic group to serve the Confederacy, however, was made up of first-, second- and third-generation Jewish lads. Old Jewish families, initially Sephardic and later Ashkenazic, had settled in the South generations before the war. Jews had lived in Charleston, S.C., since 1695. By 1800, the largest Jewish community in America lived in Charleston, where the oldest synagogue in America, K.K. Beth Elohim, was founded. By 1861, a third of all the Jews in America lived in Louisiana.   

More than 10,000 Jews fought for the Confederacy. As Rabbi Korn of Charleston related, "Nowhere else in America - certainly not in the Antebellum North - had Jews been accorded such an opportunity to be complete equals as in the old South." Gen. Robert E. Lee allowed his Jewish soldiers to observe all holy days, while Gens. Ulysses S. Grant and William T. Sherman issued anti-Jewish orders.   Many young Jews served in the ranks. There were a number of Jewish officers who were part and parcel of Southern society. They had spent their formative years in the South defensive about slavery and hostile about what they perceived as Northern aggression and condescension toward the South. 

Some of the more notable among the officer corps included Abraham Myers, a West Point graduate and a classmate of Lee's in the class of 1832. Myers served as quartermaster general and, before the war, fought the Indians in Florida. The city of Fort Myers was named after him.   

Another Jewish officer, Maj. Adolph Proskauer of Mobile, Ala., was wounded several times. One of his subordinate officers wrote, "I can see him now as he nobly carried himself at Gettysburg, standing coolly and calmly with a cigar in his mouth at the head of the 12th Alabama amid a perfect rain of bullets, shot, and shell. He was the personification of intrepid gallantry and imperturbable courage."   

In North Carolina, the six Cohen brothers fought in the 40th Infantry. The first Confederate Jew killed in the war was Albert Lurie Moses of Charlotte, N.C. All-Jewish companies reported to the fray from Macon and Savannah in Georgia. In Louisiana, three Jews reached the rank of colonel: S.M. Hymans, Edwin Kunsheedt and Ira Moses.   Many Southern Jews became world-renowned during this period. Moses Jacob Ezekiel from Richmond fought at New Market with his fellow cadets from the Virginia Military Institute and became a noted sculptor. His mother, Catherine Ezekiel, said she would not tolerate a son who declined to fight for the Confederacy.   

He wrote in his memoirs, "We were not fighting for the perpetuation of slavery, but for the principle of States Rights and Free Trade, and in defense of our homes which were being ruthlessly invaded."   In tribute to Ezekiel, it was written, "The eye that saw is closed, the hand that executed is still, the soldier lad who fought so well was knighted and lauded in foreign land, but dying, his last request was that he might rest among his old comrades in Arlington Cemetery."   

The most famous Southern Jew of the era was Judah Benjamin. He was the first Jewish U.S. senator and declined a seat on the Supreme Court and an offer to be ambassador to Spain. Educated in law at Yale, he was at one time or another during the war the Confederacy's attorney general, secretary of war and secretary of state. After the war, he settled in England, where he became a lawyer and wrote a seminal legal text.   

Simon Baruch, a Prussian immigrant, settled in Camden, S.C. He received his degree from the Medical College of Virginia and entered the conflict as a physician in the 3rd South Carolina Battalion, where he joined the fighting before the Battle of Second Manassas. He eventually became surgeon general of the Confederacy.   

While he was away during the war, his fiancée, Isabelle Wolfe, painted his portrait in the family home in South Carolina. It was at this time that Sherman began his March to the Sea. His raiders set the Wolfe house afire, and as she rescued the portrait, a Yankee ripped it with his bayonet and slapped her. Witnessing this, a Union officer gave the attacker a beating with his sword.   

From this, a romance began to blossom - quickly squelched by the young woman's father, who remarked: "Marriage to a gentile is bad enough, but marriage to a Yankee, never, ever, it is out of the question." Isabelle Wolfe eventually married Baruch. After the war, they moved to New York City, where he set up what became a prominent medical practice on West 57th Street.   Mrs. Baruch became a member of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, and the couple raised their children with pro-Southern views. If a band struck up "Dixie," Dr. Baruch would jump up and give the Rebel yell, much to the chagrin of the family. A man of usual reserve and dignity, Dr. Baruch nevertheless would let loose with the piercing yell even in the Metropolitan Opera House.   

Their son Bernard became the most successful financier of his time and one of the best-known American Jews of the 20th century. Bernard Baruch was an adviser to presidents from World War I to World War II and became a confidant of President Franklin D. Roosevelt.   Today, little remains of the Jewish Confederate South. With the mass migrations from Russia and Eastern Europe, new immigrants knew little if anything of the struggle that had ensued during the preceding half-century. Confederate Southern Jewry eventually disappeared.   

Thomas C. Mandes is a physician in Vienna, Va.


American Sephardi Federation with Sephardic House
Constantly updated websites: programs, events, projects, and a gift shop with unique Sepharic items
Online catalogue and archival records



Humanities Texas Teacher Awards
State Hispanic Genealogical Confer 
United LatinoArtists, Sept 18th Parade
Texas Latinas foil PGA plans
Guadalupe "Lupita" Castillo Ramirez

So Why So I Care?
The Tamale Queen
HOGAR 2004 Journal
Clayton Library
Battle of Medina 

Humanities Texas Teacher Awards

Humanities Texas would like to alert you to our Outstanding Teaching of the Humanities Award and the Linden Heck Howell Outstanding Teaching of Texas History Award.  The deadline for submitting nominations for either awards program has been extended to September 15, 2004.
The nomination form is available here:
For more information: 
Eric Lupfer, Ph.D.
Senior Program Officer
Humanities Texas
3809-A S. 2nd St.
Austin, TX 78704-7058
512.440.1991 x120
512.440.0115 (fax)
Sent by J.D. Villarreal

Texas State Hispanic Genealogical Conference 
The 25th Annual Texas State Hispanic Genealogical and Historical Conference, “Racing through History – Tracing the Lives and Travels of our Ancestors”, will be held September 17-19, 2004. This conference sounds like a party as well as an educational experience. The professionals will present a variety of outstanding topics on Hispanic research topics. This event will take place at the Holiday Inn Hotel, 2705 E. Houston Highway, Victoria, Texas.

Michael A. Salinas, will present “Hispanic Genealogy on the Internet”. This will be an exciting hands-on computer genealogy class.  Space is limited to 20 per session.  There will be three 45-minutes sessions. Come prepared with a specific area or topic that you are interested in.  These 3 programs will be held at the University of Houston-Victoria.  Maps provided at registration.  Call 361/572-2787 M-F from 8a.m. - 5p.m. or email to reserve a space. Cost: Free!
You can visit with experts in a variety of specialized areas of Hispanic Genealogy research or learn about new products available to researchers in one-o! n-one roundtable discussions from 3:00 – 5:30p.m. Take this opportunity to discuss your genealogy problem or the services, activities, and opportunities that may benefit you and your research. Stop by the Rio Grande Room to learn more!  Cost:  Free!

For more details, visit  Registration questions may be sent by email to

Texas United Latino Artists, T.U.L.A, Sept 18th Parade

The target Date for the Parade is Sept. 18th, A Saturday. We leave the American Statesman parking lot around 5 PM arrive at the Front steps of the Texas State Capitol around 6 or 6:30 PM. We will have Speakers, Poetry, Danzistas, and Music for 3 to 4 hours. Then we have the After Parade Party. .   Food. Drink. And Dance. 

All of the events will be filmed and videotaped. The primary purpose is to create an instructional film documentary. T.U.L.A is proposing that we celebrate Mexican Independence Day at all United States Capitols and a Joint one in Washington D.C. in 2008. The Capitol Ground Floor Rotunda has also been reserved if any one wishes to exhibit their art We need to have another meeting, Please respond if you wish to attend.

The Mural Project- The Wall is 30 ft. high by 300 ft. long. People wishing to participate, please do so.  Part of the work was done by Lucas Negrette, on the TULA Statue, Olmeca Face, and part of Quezalquatl. Lejon Garcia and his wife Loretta have done one commemorating the late Randy Garibay of Cats Don't Sleep Blues Band. 

For information:  Joe M. Pérez   512-477-5829

Golf course civics lesson: Texas Latinas foil PGA plans
By Kris Axtman | Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor, June 24, 2004 

[[Editor's note:  The full text of this article is below.  It chronicles the effectiveness of a dedicated grassroots activism, in this case, by women. Kudos to the Tejanas.]]

Settled by the Payaya Indians more than 300 years ago, San Antonio was originally named Yanaguana, or "place of refreshing waters," because of the richness of the resource. 

In those abundant waters, local developers recently saw the potential for emerald golf greens and 800 permanent jobs in recreation. But here, where water has always been fiercely protected, the idea of building a huge golfer's paradise atop the Edwards Aquifer was controversial from the get-go.

What surprised many residents was that the battle, in the end, may have been swayed by a group that is hardly known as the local power brokers: Latina women.

The 2,600-acre project, known as the PGA Village, would have been set over the recharge zone of the Edwards Aquifer, one of the world's most pristine and profuse aquifers. At 180 miles long, it is the water source for 1.7 million people.

Concerned about possible water contamination, Latina community leaders organized house parties to discuss the issues. Neighbor-to-neighbor conversations resulted in new coalitions.

Environmentalists joined with neighborhood associations, limited-growth advocates united with churches, and scientists teamed up with social-justice organizations. The momentum eventually unseated a developer-friendly city council.

"They refused to give up," says George Rice, a groundwater hydrologist for the Edwards Aquifer Authority, who won a seat on the authority, with support of the Latinas, during the upheaval.

What is clear is that for some Latinas here, what began as a battle over water has become a lesson in civics, and in the power of grass-roots activism.

Clean water is particularly important to Hispanics, as many have immigrated from countries where it is not always easily accessible. And for Hispanic women especially, who are the traditional caretakers of health issues in the home and family, clean water is a hot-button topic.

"People who come from Mexico don't take clean water for granted. It's very important to them," says Annalisa Peace, a board member of the Aquifer Guardians in Urban Areas in San Antonio. "In this case, some incredibly strong Latina women stepped up and did a very good job educating the community on the issue."

One of those leaders was former councilwoman Maria Antonietta Berriozábal.  "The water issue in San Antonio divides the men from the boys and the women from the girls," she says. "I lost a mayoral election [in 1991], not because I'm Latina or because of money, but because of my track record on water."

The issue escalated two years ago when opponents began a petition drive to force a referendum on the project. They collected well over the 68,000 signatures needed, but the city council circumvented the election by quietly signing a new agreement with a frustrated PGA.

In the end, it may have been simple economics that killed the deal, says Carlos Guerra, a columnist with the San Antonio Express-News who was the first to make the deal public three years ago. The PGA still had not secured the financing for the luxury hotel as of May. Still, he admits the Latina leaders played a significant role in proving that developers don't always win.

"We came out of this effort with a new sense of leadership and understanding," says Joleen García, a community advocate with the Esperanza Peace and Justice Center in San Antonio. "We proved that what has been done by the male-led organizations for centuries can be done just as successfully by women-led organizations."

Article at:
Copyright ©, Inc. 2004. All Rights Reserved. 


Another Latina that lead the the way was Guadalupe "Lupita" Castillo Ramirez
Lupita C. Ramirez passed away Monday, August 9, 2004 in San Antonio, Texas at Brooke Army Medical Center.  She was a loving wife, mother grandmother and great grandmother who was devoted to her loving husband of 58 years and doted on her grandchildren.  Lupita was born in Houston, Texas to Pedro and Porfiria Castillo; over-came being orphaned at age 16, and was raised by her maternal aunts in Kingsville and Laredo, Texas. 
Lupita founded the "Villa San Agustin de Laredo Genealogical Society" in 1986 and promoted genealogical research into the origins of the Mexican-American and Hispanic population of Laredo, Texas, Webb County and the surrounding area.  Lupita established a home library, which included family histories from the U.S., Mexico, the Caribbean, South and Central America, Italy, Spain and Portugal.  She was well known and respected in genealogical circles and heritage preservation groups.  Lupita was recognized in 1992 by the "Spanish-American Genealogical Association" and was presented the Luciano Guajardo Historical Award by the "Webb County Heritage Foundation" in 1997.  She was also a member of the "Webb County Historical Commission" where she conducted extensive research on the first telephone exchange in Laredo.  She was currently researching the history of the Plaza Theater.  Her hobbies included reading, communicating worldwide with friends through her computer and traveling.  Lupita visited Spain, France, Mexico and all of the Caribbean Islands on five cruises.  Lupita worked for South Western Bell for 38 years and was a member of the "Pioneers of America," a community service organization of retired employees.  She received a GED at age 62 and an Associates of Arts degree from Laredo Junior College at age 64.   

So Why So I Care?
Baltazar Acevedo

Buenos Dias Mis Amigas y Amigos, All of a sudden the demographic shift is accelerated and presto, the Hispanic population is now the majority population in Texas. Sounds far-fetched? Not according to Dr.Steve Murdock, the Texas State Demographer and professor at UT-San Antonio. In a recent press statement, Dr. Murdock made the following observations:

"...that Anglos are likely to be the minority in Texas by spring [2005]about two years earlier than originally expected. The Anglo population is growing more slowly because the flood of newcomers that Texas saw in the 1990s has slowed to a trickle. Meanwhile, births, primarily for Hispanics, kept a fast pace from 2000 to 2002. The more rapid shift in Texas' racial and ethnic diversity means that the state must find ways to improve education, access to health care and job training to remain competitive economically." (Fort Worth Star-Telegram, June 26, 2004) Murdock goes to make these other observations: "Undocumented immigrants are not specifically accounted for, but some of them are part of the Census 2000 head counts that serve as a starting point for the estimates. If the official counts could estimate undocumented immigrants, he said, Anglos would probably already be in the minority in Texas."

So why should we care? Apparently Mexican Americans are taking back the Texas that was lost to Mexico in the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo. Not so fast. We now must care, not as in 1848 when caring was not part of the military or divine doctrine equation. This demographic shift will have major implications for our schools, educational financing, trained professional, health resources, our tax base [do we want workers making $5.50 an hour as the backbone of our social security trust?], affordable housing and so on and so. It is important that we all care because this population will form the foundation for the future workforce that will support the baby-boomers in retirement [me and some of you], the tax base to support the infrastructure, work to hold our technology backbone in place and pay for the future Wal-Marts that are bursting forth at every street corner in Texas.

Now comes the downside and upside. I have attached a recent article [in Word] which describes the educational attainment gaps between Whites and Hispanic in this United States. The full report is found at the following website:  Please review the challenges in this report and then evaluate your personal academic, interpersonal and professional assets as well as those of your colleagues, community and institution and prepare an action plan to make a difference. I am fortunate to personally know many of you and I am secure in knowing that you are now and will be responding to these challenges to collectively make a difference here and now. Our children are counting on us as we did on our familias who helped us become who we are.

Peace and Health. Baltazar 

Baltazar Arispe y Acevedo, Jr., Ph.D.
Executive Director/Professor
Cross Border Institute for Regional Development UT-Brownsville/Texas
Southmost College 500 E. St. Charles
Brownsville, Texas 78520
Direct Office Telephone: 956-983-7581
Direct Business Cell: 956-551-3337
Fax: 956-983-7475

The Tamale Queen, Goya Pina
Sent by Johanna de Soto    [[Go the site for the photos and lots of recipes.]]

I grew up on a remote ranch in West Texas.  Not far down the road from where I grew up lived a family that worked on the ranch. The Mom was named Goya, and she was the best cook in the world.  She is pictured at left in a photograph made in 1963.  Goya taught me how to make tamales.  It is her recipe that I have described on this site.

Goya and her  family lived in a very small cinder block house.  The house had a tiny kitchen that barely had room for a stove.  Some of my fondest memories are walking over to Goya's house.  As you got near her house you could always smell something wonderful cooking in that tiny kitchen. She was almost always making flower tortillas.

These are not the kind that you buy in the store today, but the kind made from scratch, and cooked quickly on a hot griddle.  I can remember when I would walk up she would always greet me with a smile and a warm hello.  She would throw me a flour tortilla right off the griddle. She would toss it just like a Frisbee.  Never since have I ever been able to find a tortilla that tasted as good as those she would throw me off that griddle.

Goya would also make hot tamales.  I will always remember how good her tamales tasted.  Luckily, she taught me how to make tamales, and it is her special recipe that is presented on this site.  I hope to ad more of Goya's recipes as time goes on.

 [[ Sorry, I could not identify the writer of the essay and the web mistress of the site.]]

HOGAR de Dallas 2004 Journal's Table of Contents 
Arturo Garza,
This year's journal contains 314 pages of genealogical information--a total of about 330 pages including the Introduction, Forwards, and Sections separating pages.  HOGAR members who pay their dues will receive their journals next month or at the September Victoria conference.  Nonmembers will be able to obtain their copy for a $25. donation.
    HOGAR 2004-2005 Board Members
    HOGAR General Information
    Expression of Appreciation from HOGAR Journal Committee

    Nicolás Ayala, Recipient of the Second Annual HOGAR Scholarship, his Ancestors and his Essay
Abuela Josefa Castaño And Family Photos by Janet Paulos Khashab  
Eleven-Generation Ancestral Report of my Grandmother Josefa Castaño by Janet  Paulos Khashab  
Añoranzas de un  Pasado Inolvidable by Raúl Mitre Valle 
History of León, Cerralvo, Agualeguas, and General Treviño (El Puntiagudo)  by Lionel Garza  
Biography of Captain Louis Juchereau de St. Denis by John D. Inclán
Antiguos Pobladores de la Nueva España, Nuevo Reyno de León,  and Nuevo Santander, The  
      Guerra Cañamar History by Ben Figueroa
The Longhorn Cattle by Lionel Garza             
The Spanish Surname Tenorio  by Lydia Tenorio Zermeño Chavarría
Dig for those Roots & Plant that Family Tree, "Limpieza de Sangre,"  by Mona Hernández
La Genealogía by Mickey Margot García
What is a Kissing Cousin? by Roberto Vela II and Irma Saldívar Vela
The Vela Surname and Vela Descendants by Lionel Garza    
Descendants of Joseph Bartholomé Seguín by John D. Inclán
Ancestors of Juan de los Santos García by Dorina Alaniz Thomas 
Genealogical Descendancy Report of Domingo González and  María Jacinta de Hinojosa 
     by J. M. Benavides  
Genealogical Descendancy Report of Antón García & Ana Sepúlveda by Esther Arredondo Herold
Flores Pérez Ancestry by Dorina Alaniz Thomas
Genealogical Descendancy Report of Diego Castaño y Mendosa and Gertrudis de la Garza
    by Janet Paulos Khashab
Descendants of Jean Juchereau, Sieur de More by John D. Inclán
Ancestors of Joseph Eugenio Elizondo by Dorina Alaniz Thomas
Genealogical Descendancy Report of Joseph de Farías and Inés de Aguirre by J. M. Benavides 
Descendants of Antonio Rivers AKA Antonio del Río:  by Ruby Rivers Reed 
Ancestors of Nicolasa de Villarreal:  by Dorina Alaniz Thomas  
Descendants of José Manuel de Goseascochea: by John D. Inclán
Genealogical Descendancy Report of María Ignacia de Urrutia and Simón de Arocha
    by J. M. Benavides
 Ancestors of Felipe de la Serna: by Dorina Alaniz Thomas
 Algunos descendientes de Fernán Blas Pérez: by Araceli Guadalupe Cerda Chavana
Queries: Six Queries                                                                                     
1. Joseph Cayetano Treviño and María Luisa Gutiérrez de Lara  from José G. Treviño
2.  Manuel Ramírez and Bernardina Marquina from Lupita Ramírez
3. José Jesús Baez and Manuela Guajardo from J. M. Benavides
4. Antonio del Río aka Antonio Rivers from Ruby Rivers Reed
5. Tomás Campos, Julia Ramírez, & Cecil Tenorio and Pedigree Chart from Lydia Campos Tenorio
6.  José Miguel Guajardo and María Gertrudis Flores & José Ignacio Guajardo and María 
       Francisca Flores  from J. M. Benavides
Recipes by Gloria H. Benavides

Census of Candela, Coahuila-1815 by Mickey Margot García
Translation of Consanguinity Dispensation of Francisco Xavier de la Garza, by Lionel Garza
Confederates in the Civil War---Laredo's Defenders  submitted by J. M. Benavides

Clayton Library,  Members Meeting 
Sent by Dick Warren
[[ Editor's note:  Although this meeting is past, this is for those that do not known about the Clayton Library.]]  

The next Members Meeting of the Clayton Library Friends is August 14, 2004. The meeting begins promptly at 10 a.m. at the Bayland Community Center, 6400 Bissonnet, Houston, Texas. 

"Everything you wanted to know about the Texas State Archives but were afraid to ask". Tony Black, Texas State Archives, Military Research Expert, & Author, will discuss CLF Texas Records microfilm and Using other records in the Texas State Archives.

Mr. Black has a B. A. in History from the University of Texas, El Paso and a M. A. in Medieval History from the University of Texas, Austin. He has taught U. S. history at the college level for many years. Currently, he spends his workdays on the records of Governor George W. Bush and "appraises state agency records for their archival and historical value". He has worked with the records for the Texas Adjutant General's office, the Comptroller of Public Accounts, the Secretary of State and the Department of Human Services. 

Dick Warren, Clayton Library Friends

Battle of Medina 

[[Editor's note: Although August 18th has passed I am sending this along in preparation for next year. There are websites underneath that you may want to read and see if your Tejano ancestors were involved in the Battle of Medina.]] 

Fellow Historians,  I am sorry if we have not contacted you about what I hope will turn into an annual ceremony honoring all those men and women who fought and died in the Gutierrez-Magee Expedition, at the site of the Battle of Medina.  As you know this is the 191st anniversary of the largest and bloodiest battle in Texas history, and I hope you will join us again this year under the giant Oak tree on the Old Applewhite Road where we met last year.  We will begin the ceremony at 11:00 a.m. and complete it by noon, due to the heat.  You will recall that the site is located off Highway 281 some 15 miles south of the intersection of Loop 1604 (South) and Highway 281, south of San Antonio.  I will have signs at the turns as we did last year, so bring your folding chair, water, umbrella, hat and sunglasses and lets honor our ancestors who fought in 1813 for how they believed Texas should be ruled.    Keep History Alive,    Tom Green  (281) 922-1118 

First Republic of Texas
... In the document by James Gaines, a participant in the Gutiérrez-Magee Expedition, he describes the Nolan expedition, The Battle of Medina, about Lafitte ...
Handbook of Texas Online: MEDINA, BATTLE OF
... MEDINA, BATTLE OF. The battle of Medina was fought on August 18, 1813, between
the republican forces of the Gutiérrez-Magee expedition qv under Gen. ... online/articles/view/MM/qfm1.html

Handbook of Texas Online: ROSILLO, BATTLE OF
... Gobierno, and a constitution. All came to an end after the disastrous
battle of Medina qv on August 18, 1813. In 1992 neither the ... online/articles/view/RR/qfr2.html

The Battle of Medina. ... The Battle of Medina occurred to the north of this
area, and was the largest land battle ever to occur on Texas soil. ...



Thrown Out Understanding the French and Spanish Connections
Canary Islanders Heritage Society of Louisiana.

Thrown Out 
by Tom Schram 
Metro Times Detroit, 7/28/04
Sent by JV Martinez
[[ Editor's note: This is the complete text.  Go to Orange County and read more on this subject.]]

The Depression-era deportation of thousands of Mexicans still resonates in Detroit and beyond 

Seventy-five summers ago, Detroit was home to a vibrant, thriving and industrious Mexican community. Life revolved around family, Our Lady of Guadalupe Catholic Church and days of hard labor in the auto plants.

Five years later, everything had changed. The church near Roosevelt and West Kirby, which was built by the Mexicans themselves, was in a steady decline as the southwest Detroit community comprising from 15,000 to 30,000 people of Mexican descent reeled from a devastating blow.

The reason for the demise of the Mexican community in Detroit and in cities across the nation was a little-reported, guileful, organized government campaign. The effort deprived thousands of Mexicans — most of whom were in the United States legally, many of whom were actually American citizens — of their basic civil liberties. They were sent packing back to Mexico as the United States confronted the economic horrors of the Great Depression.  It was called the Repatriation. Those who were its victims became collectively known as los repatriados.


Mexicans had been coming to Michigan in numbers since at least the 1880s, mainly to work in the sugar beet fields, most notably those of the Michigan Sugar Co., which had plantations and processing plants in Clinton, Gratiot, Lapeer, Saginaw and Tuscola counties. But by 1920, the lingering end of the decade-long Mexican Revolution and the labor shortage in Detroit-area auto plants combined to turn the trickle into a flood.

Jorge Chinea is nearing 50 and just starting to gray. Late last year he was appointed an associate professor of history and the director of the Center for Chicano-Boricua Studies at Wayne State University. He is renovating a house in Clinton Township where he lives with his family — his wife, his two sons, a daughter and a small Pomeranian named Paquito, who he laughingly refers to as his “fourth child.”

The house has a huge back lawn. A vegetable garden boasts a healthy assortment of tomatoes, peppers and squash. A tree-lined undeveloped lot next door gives him isolation. In measured distances it is hundreds of miles from the environment of his youth. In cultural and aesthetic distances, it is light years away.

Chinea grew up in a barrio near San Juan, Puerto Rico, moved to a Hispanic slum in New York City at 13 and fought his way into American academia through a gantlet of crime, youth gangs and drugs. His suburban home is now his sanctuary, with his bright, energetic family surrounding him. Even Paquito is friendly to the point of distraction.

Chinea says the rush of Mexicans to Detroit was well-orchestrated.

“A lot of them were recruited by local companies,” he says. “Ford Motor Company sent people to the border. They posted signs in the communities telling people that you could make so much money, that you could have housing, that you could eat three meals a day, that this was the way to go.

“You had a lot of deprivation in Mexico, a lot of instability; you had chaos. There were women who left simply because their husbands had died in the war and they had no means of supporting their families. So the enticement of a job in Michigan sounded great on paper. Companies used contractors known as coyotes. They would round up people and transport them illegally to the jobs in Michigan.”

And so they came, streams of Mexicans. For reasons that will be explained, it is not possible to know or even estimate closely the numbers. But they rushed to the opportunity, not only to the auto plants of Detroit, but to the cotton fields of the South and Southwest, to the farms of the Midwest, to the meat packing houses of Chicago and to wherever there was a railroad line waiting to be laid.

They had no idea what would befall them.

When the Depression hit in October of 1929, critics predicted the end of capitalism. Job opportunities ranged from scarce to nonexistent. A nationalistic swell of anti-Mexican sentiment grew into hysteria. Both those on the right and in organized labor, led by the American Federation of Labor, called for the preservation of jobs for “real Americans.”

The Herbert Hoover administration reacted by having the Immigration and Naturalization Service launch a campaign to deport the Mexicans, sending them back to their ravaged homeland, often without choice. So began the Repatriation.

As California State University professors Francisco E. Balderrama and Raymond Rodriguez reported in their book, Decade of Betrayal (1995, University of New Mexico Press), “As the deportation system was then structured … deportation proceedings were made to order for wholesale violations of basic human rights. Mass raids and arrests were conducted without the benefit of warrants. Individuals were often held incommunicado … Deportees languished in jail until the next deportation train was formed.”

Distinctions between legal and illegal, citizen and non-citizen, Mexican and Mexican-American were blurred.

“Los repatriados is a name that means the repatriated, but in a way it is a misnomer because the people who were victimized by this campaign to remove Mexicans from the United States in the 1930s were not always simply asked to leave,” Chinea says. “A lot of them were just deported. There were people who were born in America [and therefore U.S. citizens] who were never given the choice as to whether they wanted to leave or not.”

It was a time of terror for all Hispanics, according to Decade of Betrayal: “All Mexicans, whether legal or illegal, looked alike to immigration officials. In street sweeps throughout the nation’s major cities, people who ‘looked Mexican’ found themselves at risk of being picked up and taken into custody. To act first and ask questions later seemed to be the policy of the Immigration Service. Arrests were often made without warrants or even probable cause.”

Immigration laws did exist, as did a deportation-appeal process, but the language barrier often skewed the proceedings in favor of the government. And since immigration authorities served as prosecutors, judges and juries, appeals rarely went anywhere. The niceties of due process were often set aside. As detailed in Decade of Betrayal, appeals were largely moot.

“In reality, it was not difficult to convince Nationals that returning home voluntarily was the best choice available to them. The reason was quite simple: If individuals asked for a formal hearing and were denied entry, they were automatically barred from ever being eligible to reenter the United States. On the other hand, if they agreed to voluntary deportation, no arrest warrant was issued and no legal record or judicial transcript of the incident was kept. The deportees were free to reenter the U.S. legally at some future date.”

By all accounts, there were some Mexicans who wanted to go back. But Chinea says that it makes little sense that very many would have returned absent the INS’ deception and pressure.

“People were afraid of being deported and so they felt pressured,” he says. “Under those conditions, people were basically deceived into thinking that the government of Mexico and the government of the United States had concocted this master plan to help them. Mexico was in a recession after having gone through the Revolution from 1910 to 1920, the last thing you want to do is in the late 1920s is to go back to Mexico.”

The roughshod treatment of the Mexicans and the abuses of their rights by the INS did create a certain hue and cry among activists and civil libertarians. In response, the government created the Wickersham Commission, chaired by distinguished jurist Reuben Oppenheimer. In its 1932 report, the commission concluded: “The apprehension and examination of supposed aliens are often characterized by methods unconstitutional, tyrannic and oppressive.”

William N. Doak, Hoover’s labor secretary and point man in the repatriation campaign, denied all charges of abuse and misconduct. Nothing really changed.


The story of the Repatriation is more than a story of government abuse and a system that fostered the elimination of civil liberties. It is mostly a story about los repadriatos themselves, their families and how what happened 75 years ago wrenched a community in ways that still resound today.

Elena Herrada’s grandfather was one of los repadriados. A hyperactive woman of 47, Herrada grew up in an ethnic hodgepodge of an East Side Detroit neighborhood, moving to Sterling Heights as a teen. A self-described poor student in high school, she caught the education bug when a Latino studies professor cornered her on a visit with friends to Wayne State. She began a life of activism and is now the head of a small union local that represents cafeteria workers in Detroit-area auto plants. She has worked on many social justice issues in the Latino community. She is frustrated by the fact that although she can speak Spanish fluently, she can neither read nor write it.

“You know what they say about Chicanos,” she jokes. “We’re illiterate in two languages. That’s kind of the way it is because we didn’t have any way of learning.”

The Repatriation has become an obsession. Working with other activists, she has created a video on the subject, started a Web site — — and helped organize a weeklong conference on the subject that was held in Mexico in June. A mother of four daughters, her clean, well-kept house sits in the shadow of Tiger Stadium in southwest Detroit. In the back yard, a gurgling pond brings surprising touches of wildlife to the urban setting.

On a sparkling June day, Herrada sits on her front porch and talks about the Repatriation, Mexican-American culture and community in Detroit, and how they are connected.

“My grandfather came to Detroit in 1920 after the revolution,” she says. “A million people died in the revolution and probably another million came to the United States. There was nothing left there. It was devastated. Can you imagine traveling all that way, having nothing, not knowing how to read or write? Imagine how brave those people were.”

Herrada encountered a remarkable cultural phenomenon when her studies of the Repatriation led her to confront her grandfather.

“I took the book to my grandfather and I said, ‘This is what the scholars said happened. And I know you went to Mexico during the Depression. But is this what really happened?’ And my grandfather for a long time wouldn’t tell me that they had been forced to leave. And I still don’t know, because he died before I got the real story from him.”

It is this Mexican culture of silence, of forgetting, that has kept the story of the Repatriation from being widely disseminated.

Herrada speaks of a line from author John Philip Santos’ family memoir, Places Left Unfinished at the Time of Creation.

“He said, ‘Forgetting is to Mexicans what remembering is to Jews.’ That just resonates. Everyone knows about the Holocaust, many people know about the Japanese internments. In the Mexican community, those who returned did not talk about it. They did not tell their own families. In the beginning I couldn’t understand why people would not talk about it. And as I did more interviews and as I talked to more and more people and their descendants, it got to the point that I’m amazed that anyone talks about it at all. We’re very lucky to get their stories. It isn’t their fault. They didn’t understand it. They didn’t want to revisit it. They wanted to disappear it in their minds.”

In her attempt to recruit los repatriados for her conference in Mexico, Herrada ran up against the problem again. Only one would make the trip.

“They refused to go with us back to Mexico,” she says. “None of the people who got deported would go. Only one. The memories were way too bitter for them. They don’t know why we’re doing this or why we’re talking about it. They think we’re just revisiting wounds that are better left unopened.”

Chinea has also observed this phenomenon.

“The people that we interview said they have never told their children, because it would be demeaning for a father to have to admit he was thrown out,” he says. “In Latino culture, the men have to take care of their families. When you can’t do that, when you’re thrown out, it’s very demeaning. People wouldn’t talk about it.”

This cultural tendency toward silence extends not only to family, but to society and citizenship. According to Herrada, Mexicans have a tradition of keeping to themselves. This explains why no one knows how many Mexicans were living in Detroit in 1929. It explains why estimates of the number of Mexicans deported nationwide during the Repatriation vary from 300,000 to 1 million. No one knows. No one ever will know.

“We came from people who would not deal with the government at any level that they didn’t have to,” Herrada says. “This is why we don’t vote; this is why we don’t answer the census; this is why we don’t participate in anything government-related if we don’t have to. It’s just like a tradition that’s been passed down. We come from a tradition of non-participation. I joke that we don’t even RSVP. We never can know who’s coming to our events.”

One number we do know from the INS’s own reports is that from 1930 to 1939, Mexicans constituted 46.3 of all those deported from the United States. During that time, they comprised less than 1 percent of the population.

“Across the country 60 percent of those who were deported were U.S.-born,” Herrada says. “And nobody was illegal. There wasn’t a question of legality crossing the border then. People were invited to work here. They didn’t have to sneak across the border to get here.

“Wayne County was very involved in the Repatriation. They would just come to the houses and say, ‘You have to go.’ Mexicans were demonized by the press and by Congress and the general public. It was a horrendous thing to do. To target a community, to round them up, to tell them they had to leave.”

Racism was definitely in play. Chinea says social Darwinism, Manifest Destiny and the eugenics movement all fueled the deportation hysteria.

“We also had a nativistic movement in the United States that’s been there throughout our history where we always favor native-born over foreign-born. The labor movement was advancing the notion of nativism because they didn’t want foreign workers to be hired.”


“For me, I was lonely for Mexicans growing up,” says Herrada, the pain still evident. “And when I did come around this Mexican community, I never wanted to leave it again. There’s great comfort in community. And that’s what the Mexicans lost.”

Much, if not most of the Mexican community eventually came back to Detroit. Again, there are no hard numbers, but the anecdotal evidence is strong. The Depression over, Detroit became the nation’s “Arsenal of Democracy” and the plants fired up again, this time making materiel and vehicles to fuel the World War II effort. Mexican labor was once more needed.

But great damage had been done. For the Mexicans, nothing would ever be the same.

“One of the effects of the Repatriation was that people came back and got extremely dissimilated,” Herrada says. “Many married non-Mexicans, moved away from the community, didn’t speak Spanish and didn’t have any connection with the community of Mexicans, which to me is the biggest loss. It’s like being banished. This was never articulated and when the people came back, they wouldn’t even tell their children why it wasn’t OK to be Mexican. So you had a whole generation of people who grew up being ashamed without knowing why. The fact that there is a Mexican community here is in itself an act of resistance. The need for association, for affiliation is greater than the fear. That’s how I feel.

“A lot of people think that Mexicans are backward because we’re less assimilated than other groups who started here around the same time. And we’re less educated and less successful financially. That’s a result of having been kicked back for a generation.”

Chinea agrees but says that there has not been enough research done to know the magnitude of the blow the Repatriation struck.

“Probably in that time frame, the Repatriation did a lot of damage to the Mexican communities,” he says. “It stunted them, just as they were growing. And so they had to restart again in the ’40s. This needs to be more quantified.”

For her part, Herrada has established Fronteras Nortenas, a nonprofit company that will seek grant money to keep open a Mexican museum in Detroit and to foster community education and oral history. Its goal, she says is “reclaiming our intellectual, historical and spiritual history.”

A lawsuit for compensation for los repatriados has been started in California. Chinea says speed is of the essence.

“There needs to be some kind of compensation,” he says. “I don’t know what form it would take. There needs to be some action taken now, because as time goes on, those records get shredded. The human record is also going away.”

Herrada says that the families by and large don’t want money “because money can’t replace what they’ve lost. Certainly the people who had this happen to them don’t want it to happen to anyone else. They understand what we’re doing. We’re not going for vengeance or even an apology. The great author Betita Martinez said, ‘I don’t want to participate in the oppression Olympics.’”

Government recognition of the atrocity would help, Herrada says. But what los repatriados really want, she says, is to make it unhappen. What she thinks about, she says, is why it happened. She grows quiet, diverting her eyes as she ponders the answer.

“I guess it happened because it could happen, for one thing,” she says. “The world was arranged in a different way then. It was kind of a mob behavior and mentality — retaining the jobs for ‘real Americans.’ And there were all these immigrants who weren’t ‘real Americans,’ who didn’t speak English, who looked different. They weren’t worthy of being here in difficult times. And they had no way to support themselves.

“I’ve been looking for this: Who stood up against this? And I haven’t found out yet.

“Nobody stopped it,” she whispers. “Nobody stopped it.”

More articles by Tom Schram on the subject:
A painful period:
Two who never came back:
Forget about civil rights:
Deportee documentary

Filmmaker Alex Cortez has seen the stories of the Repatriation as no one else has. In compiling dozens of interviews for a documentary on los repatriados, he has spoken face to face with more deported members of the Mexican community than anyone else.

Cortez says he has conducted about 60 interviews and wants to emerge with a feature-length film that he hopes will eventually end up on public television. One thing he is sure about. He is not getting rich from his work on the project.

“There’s no money, no wages. But it’s a story that needs to be told. There are stories here that haven’t been told at all. I’m hoping that this will open up more doors. The Native Americans have their Trail of Tears. This is another one.” 

Understanding the French and Spanish Connections
Daily Canary Island newspaper
Sent by Bill Carmena


France ceded Louisiana to Spain and Great Britain in 1766 following the French and Indian War. Spain acquired that part of Louisiana lying west of the Mississippi River and the Island of Orleans, an area east of the Mississippi including New Orleans.

Early in the 1770's Spanish officials learned that the British were planning to invade and occupy the Province of Louisiana, using the province as a base from which to attack Mexico and deprive Spain of the vast deposits of Mexican silver and gold. The British attempted to realize their plans almost fifty years later during the Battle of New Orleans. Consequently, Spanish administrators started developing Louisiana as a barrier between Mexico and the British colonies east of the Mississippi River.

Reacting to successful British colonization efforts along the Gulf Coast in British West Florida, Spain settled thousands of immigrants from Malaga and the Canaries, as well as Acadian refugees, in Louisiana. The settlers came to Louisiana to increase production of food, populate the province and defend it against the projected British invasion.

The first Isleños arrived in Louisiana during 1778 and continued to arrive in the province until 1783. They were settled in four locations, strategically placed around New Orleans to guard approaches to the city. Galveztown, situated just below Baton Rouge, was the first settlement. The others were Valenzuela, located along Bayou Lafourche; Barataria, located along Bayou des Familles in Jefferson Parish; and La Concepcion, later San Bernardo, located in St. Bernard Parish along Bayou Terre-aux-Boeufs.

A fifth settlement for Bayougoulas was planned, but never completed.Isleños fought against the British during the American Revolution through their service in the Galvez Expedition. Militiamen from the four Isleño settlements, including San Bernardo, participated in the three major military campaigns (Baton Rouge, Mobile and Pensacola) of the expedition, which resulted in the expulsion of the British presence from what is now the United States Gulf Coast. 

My G/G/Ggrandfather Josef Morales came from Aguimes on the isle of Gran Canaria on the Spanish Friggate "San Ignatio de Loyola", landed in New Orleans in January of 1779 and was a militiaman with the Regiment of Louisiana at the fort at Galveztown.My G/G/ Grandfather Roumaldo Carmena, a Corporal in the detachment at Galvez, arrived in 1791 and married Josef's daughter Josefa Morales in 1796. . Enjoy. Bill Carmena

For more information on the participation of the Islenos a brief historical overview of The Los Islenos Heritage and Cultural Society:

Los Isleños Heritage and Cultural Society was organized in 1976 in an effort to preserve the culture and history of the Canary Islanders who settled in Louisiana between the years 1778 and 1783. The Isleños, or Islanders, were a hearty group of pioneers who braved the crossing of the Atlantic Ocean and the marshes of Louisiana to mold St. Bernard Parish and other areas of the state into livable and productive communities. 

Los Islenos Heritage & Cultural Society
1357 Bayou Road, St. Bernard, LA 70085 
Telephone/Fax: (504)-682-0862

Canary Islanders Heritage Society of Louisiana.
Sent by Bill Carmena

Beautiful new website and a very accessible resource of State Land Office Online Documents. 

When you click on State Land Office Online Documents, you'll be guided through, with links at each junction.  The highlighted words are links within the website.

FIRST TIME USERS - Please download and install the free document viewer. The viewer is required to view document images. Instructions are included in the User Manual.

To search for Historical documents, go to Historical Records. These documents include U.S. and State historical land title information, including information related to: Land Grants; all severance documents of U.S. and State public lands - which lists the first private owner; all U.S. Official Township Survey plats and field notes; the U.S. and State Tract Books - which are an index of all the other documents mentioned; Section 16 School Lands; State Patents; and numerous related documents. These records make up the source of title for every acre of land in Louisiana.

To search for Tax documents, go to Tax Records. These documents include Property Tax Adjudication documents (comprising adjudications, redemptions, cancellations, and sales) relating to lands seized for the non-payment of State property taxes from 1880 to 1973.

You can also check out the document definitions to better understand the types of documents available at this site.

Are you being prompted to Open or Save each image? If so, and you'd like change your settings so images open without prompting you first, click on changing file settings and follow the steps.

All document images can be downloaded in .jpg format free of charge.

You may also order a copy of any document. You can specify your mailing and payment information to purchase requested copies.

For your convenience, you may ask questions, notify us of problems, or make comments at our feedback page.  Let us know how we can better serve your needs!



St. Cloud High School Teaches Dance Techniques and Diversity

Nancy Barber
2000 Bulldog Lane
St. Cloud, Florida 34769

[[ Editor's note:  I met Nancy Barber and her mother in D.C. in May.  I was impressed by her description and philosophy of  incorporating various cultural aspects to high school dance classes.  With a high percentage of Latino students in Florida, South American dances are an expected part of the program, but Nancy's curriculum is quite diverse, and quite unique. They are in constant demand and have performed all over the state. 

There is no other high school dance program in the state designed and structured to included basic living skills, such as dining etiquette. Considering the immigrants need to assimilate socially, I thought it interesting enough to share with readers.  ]] 

Nancy has Hispanic lines through her mother, a descendent of Spanish colonists in St. Augustine.

Class description reads:  Dance Techniques is a social dance class that encompasses Ballroom, Latin, Country and Swing dances. A little dance history is also studied, along with basic dining etiquette. Students have the option to attend after-school ballroom dances and group or private lessons with professional dancers in the Central Florida area. 

In addition, there is also an opportunity to perform at various venues during the year. We have an alumni in Brigham Young University with a Ballroom dance scholarship, a sophomore who auditioned for a received a callback from CBS for Star Search, and a senior with an invitation to dance in Europe this summer. 



Search for Aztlan,  the Ancestral Homeland of the Mexican, Maps 
"La Señora Elmy" from Yucatan
, Mensaje Radiofonico del Presidente Vicente Fox
Luz Montejano de Mexico 
Links to Mexican Municipios by state 
Exiles to be offered nationality back 
Participa en Escritores de Jalisco,
Genealogía de la Familia Garcia Sancho y sus Alianzas Tapatías
NARA Mexican Border Crossing Records Information
Returning from California to Sinaloa
Founding Families of Jimenez,  Coahuila
Descendants of Don Juan Canales


Teachers . . .  these prints are excellent for schools.  Artist and historian, Eddie Martinez has created visuals which are both historically accurate and easy to grasp and absorb the information.  
To see more of his work go to his homepage: :

Contact by email:


"La Señora Elmy" from Yucatan, Mexico

by Jaime Cader


I met Mrs. Elmy Bermejo approximately 32 years ago after first meeting her daughters who had participated in folkloric dance productions at a church in San Francisco, California. I also danced in those programs and eventually danced with Elmy’s oldest daughter at several cultural events.

Bermejo’s complete name is Elmy Magaña de Bermejo, and she along with her husband Tomas are fluent speakers of the Yucatecan Maya language. Together they have five children and three grandchildren.

Bermejo was born in the village of Akil (near the city of Tekax) in the state of Yucatan, Mexico in 1934. Although her first language was Spanish, her father had a store in the village where most of the customers spoke the Yucatecan Maya language. Being the eldest of five children, Bermejo began to assist her father in the store when she was nine years old. In order to do a better job, she learned the language spoken by their clientele.

The Bermejos came to reside in the United States in 1962. In 1965 they opened up Tommy’s Mexican Restaurant which they still have today. It is located on Geary Blvd., which is a main street in San Francisco. Aside from the general Mexican cuisine that Americans are familiar with, a few Yucatecan dishes are also served there. Paintings of Mayan temples and other Mayan styled artwork adorn the walls. Many of the employees speak the Mayan language of Yucatan (From here on I will simply refer to this language as Maya, as does Alfred M. Tozzer in his book "A Maya Grammar").

Bermejo taught me some Maya words and phrases. I will use an English manner of spelling for the sentences since the way the letter "j" is pronounced in English is closer to the Maya pronunciation.

"Cosh a janá?" means –Are we going to eat? "Cosh ó cot?" means -Are we going to dance? (In Spanish it would be "Vamos a bailar?" "Cosh" is equivalent to the Spanish "vamos.")

"Conesh!" means –Let’s go!

"Cosh taná? –Are we going home? "Otoch" is the word for house.

Bermejo also told me that the word for dog is "pek." "Yaá peko" means many dogs, "yaá" being the word for many.

I asked Bermejo if she was able to understand any of the Mayan languages spoken in Guatemala. Her answer was that she once heard Guatemalan Mayan Indians speaking their language on television and that she was able to understand some of the things said.

Bermejo said that Maya is now being taught in "academias" (academies) and that it can be heard on the radio in Merida and in the villages. There are presently Mayan names for restaurants, hotels and other businesses. Bermejo expressed that she would like to learn even more about the Maya language since she wants to increase her vocabulary.

Elmy Bermejo commented that before people were ashamed to speak Maya and that now the children are forgetting the language. However there are persons that are promoting Maya. "It is a language, it is not a dialect," she said.

This author feels privileged to have known Bermejo for many years. It is always a pleasure to speak to her when I dine at her family’s restaurant. "Es una señora simpática y agradable" as I would say in Spanish.

In reference to Elmy’s marriage, the book "Living Happily Ever After (Couples Tell About Lasting Love)" has a section on Elmy and her husband Tomas who have been married for 51 years. That book was put together by Laurie Wagner, Stephanie Rausser, and David Collier in 1996.


Gordon, G.B. (with his introduction): "The Book of Chilam Balam of Chumayel" 1993. (This book shows photographs of the original pages of a Maya manuscript written with Roman letters.)

Luxton, Richard N. (his translation and annotation): "The Book of Chumayel –The Counsel Book of the Yucatec Maya 1539-1638" 1995. (This is a translation of the first book listed in this bibliography.)

Tozzer, Alfred M.: "A Maya Grammar," republished 1977.

LAZOS, Mensaje Radiofonico del Presidente Vicente Fox
El Instituto de los Mexicanos en el Exterior (IME) reproduce a continuación, el mensaje que el Presidente Vicente Fox Quesada dirigió a la comunidad mexicana en Estados Unidos el lunes 16 de agosto. 
El audio de este mensaje se encuentra disponible en la siguiente dirección electrónica:
To be put onto the online newsletter mailing list, contact: and request to be added to

Luz Montejano de Mexico
Visita mi pagina Web:

Luz Montejano de México, a partir del día martes 7 de septiembre de 17:00 a 18:00 p.m., tiempo de la Cd. de México, estará todos los martes trasmitiendo vía Radio Internet a través del reproductor de  su programa "GENEALOGÍA PARA TODOS", buscando a nuestros ancestros, en ESPAÑOL. Contará en ese mismo horario con el Chat de MSM Messenger con la dirección

Este programa tendrá como objeto principal el compartir y difundir la genealogía, sobre todo en mi país MÉXICO, por lo cual se tratará de platicar sobre archivos históricos mexicanos, recomendar libros que nos pueden auxiliar, entrevistar a todo aquel que nos aporte conocimiento genealógico, histórico e incluso archivístico y por supuesto este programa intentará ser una vía mas para compartir con otros nuestras dudas, pero también nuestras experiencias.

¡Los invito a disfrutar y a participar conmigo para hacer de este programa "GENEALOGÍA PARA TODOS" de un buen rato genealógico!

Links to Mexican Municipios by state 

Name        Last modified  Size   Description

Parent Directory
        07-Jul-2004 18:03      -  
  Colima/                  15-Mar-2004 18:38      -  
  bajacalifornia/          10-Mar-2004 17:48      -  
  bajasur/                 15-Mar-2004 18:37      -  
  campeche/                11-Jun-2003 17:43      -  
  chiapas/                 10-Mar-2004 17:26      -  
  chihuahua/               11-Jun-2003 17:43      -  
  coahuila/                15-Mar-2004 18:47      -  
  durango/                 11-Jun-2003 17:42      -  
  enciclo.html             24-Sep-2003 12:45    17k  
  guanajuato/              15-Mar-2004 18:50      -  
  guerrero/                15-Mar-2004 18:50      -  
  hidalgo/                 15-Mar-2004 18:45      -  
  jalisco/                 30-Mar-2004 15:30      -  
  mexico/                  15-Mar-2004 18:50      -  
  michoacan/               15-Mar-2004 18:50      -  
  morelos/                 15-Mar-2004 18:50      -  
  nayarit/                 15-Mar-2004 18:51      -  
  nuevoleon/               15-Mar-2004 18:51      -  
  oaxaca/                  15-Mar-2004 18:51      -  
  puebla/                  11-Nov-2003 18:09      -  
  qroo/                    15-Mar-2004 18:51      -  
  queretaro/               11-Jun-2003 17:39      -  
  sanluispotosi/           15-Mar-2004 18:52      -  
  sinaloa/                 11-Jun-2003 17:39      -  
  tabasco/                 02-Jul-2003 18:58      -  
  tlaxcala/                15-Mar-2004 18:52      -  
  veracruz/                02-Jul-2003 19:20      -  
  yucatan/                 15-Mar-2004 18:52      -  
  zacatecas/               17-May-2004 11:53      -  

Exiles to be offered nationality back 
Wire services    El Universal 
Viernes 23 de julio de 2004   Nuestro mundo, página 3
Sent by George Gause

Mexican-born citizens of other nations can once again regain their Mexican nationality though not citizenship under a decree published Thursday in the official gazette. 

The measure could help hundreds of thousands of Mexican born people living in the United States maintain rights to property and inheritance in their homeland. 

Congress last year approved the constitutional amendment, which also had to be approved by 16 of the country's 31 states. It takes effect with publication in the gazette, the Diario Oficial. 

The amendment is meant to correct what many saw as an error in an earlier reform. It eliminates the five-year time limit under which people could seek restoration of nationality. 

Sixty-seven thousand people took advantage of that measure before it expired in March 2003. 

According to U.S. census data, some 1.6 million people born in Mexico now have American citizenship, effectively renouncing their Mexican citizenship under Mexican law. Several million other Mexican-born people also live in the United States. 

The measure does not restore Mexican citizenship, which carries voting rights and some other privileges, as well as a duty for men to register for military service. 

But Mexico does allow people to share the more general term "nationality" with other countries. Mexican nationals do not face the same restrictions on property ownership, residence and inheritance faced by nationals of other countries. 

The original bill in 1998 was part of an increasing movement in Mexico to embrace people who have migrated abroad a community whose remittances and tourist visits are now crucial to the economy. 
                        © 2004 Copyright El Universal-El Universal Online

Participa en Escritores de Jalisco, un grupo de MSN ¡Estás invitado!

Descripción:  Escritores de Jalisco, en todos los géneros y de todas las épocas, pero principalmente los de actualidad: obra, crítica, opiniones, tendencias, publicaciones, eventos y más.

¡Leerla! Visita Escritores de Jalisco para darnos tu opinión.

Asegúrate de agregar este vínculo a los Favoritos de tu explorador, lo que te facilitará encontrarlo más tarde. Participa en el grupo y podrás: Exponer un mensaje en el Panel de mensajes.

Agregar algunas fotos al Álbum de fotos
Participar ahora

Para obtener una lista de todos los grupos de MSN a los que perteneces, consulta en Mis grupos.

¿Necesitas más información? Obten más información acerca de MSN Grupos en Página de Ayuda o Ponte en contacto con nosotros para obtener ayuda.

¿Necesitas ayuda para registrarte? Si necesitas ayuda con el inicio de sesión en Passport consulta la Ayuda de Passport.
Participar ahora

Saludos, Blas Roldán

NARA Mexican Border Crossing Records Information
Can be accessed at National Archives website

One on the site, click : NARA | Genealogy | Mexican Border Crossing Records 


Prepared by Guillermo Padilla Origel


I.-Don Juan García
, bautizado el 20 de septiembre de 1587, en la villa de Enciso, del solar de Tejada, de Logroño en la Rioja, España, se casó el 2 de julio de 1609, con Doña Isabel López, y fue su hijo:

II.-Don Jacinto García López, hijosdalgo, bautizado el 31 de diciembre de 1611, en la villa de Enciso, y se casó el 21 de septiembre de 1638 con María de Grandes, y fue su hijo:

III.-Don Juan Francisco García y Grandes, bautizado el 11 de noviembre de 1645, en la villa de Enciso, y se casó el 19 de octubre de 1664 con Doña Ana María Martínez de Sancho, y fue su hijo:

IV.-Don Juan García Sancho y Martínez, bautizado el 27 de enero de 1666, en la villa de Enciso, y se casó en la villa de Villanueva el 28 de agosto de 1694, con Doña Ana María Jiménez de Murilla, y fue su hijo:

V.-Don Marcelino García Sancho y Jiménez de Murilla, bautizado el 12 de mayo de 1711 en la villa de Enciso, y se casó el 1 de septiembre de 1733, con Doña Josefa García de Saldívar, y fue su hijo:

VI.-Don Joseph Ventura García Sancho y García de Saldívar, bautizado el 16 de enero de 1733 en la villa de Enciso y se casó en la villa de Lumbreras, el 1 de mayo de 1764 con Doña María Águeda Moreno , y fueron sus hijos entre otros:


1.-Don Joseph Ventura García Sancho y Moreno de Tejada, bautizado en la villa de Lumbreras, el 14 de julio de 1770, diputado del solar de Tejada, pasó a Nueva Galicia con su hermano Manuel y casó en Guadalajara, el 19 de julio de 1806 en la parroquia del sagrario con Doña Micaela Sánchez Leñero, en 1829, y obtuvo en Madrid el certificado de Blasón y Genealogía en Madrid, fue su hijo entre otros:

a.-Don Joseph María García Sancho y Sánchez Leñero, casó con Doña Trinidad Ibarrondo y después pasaron a radicar a España, fue su hijo:

b.-Don Joseph Ventura García Sancho e Ibarrondo, nació en la ciudad de México en 1837; luego alcalde de la ciudad de Madrid, donde casó ahí mismo el2 de junio de 1861con Doña María del Pilar de Zavala y Guzmán, (octava marquesa de Aguilar de Campoó) y fue su hija entre otros:c.-Doña María del Pilar García Sancho y Zavala, bautizada en 1863, en Madrid, (novena marquesa de Aguilar de Campoó) y se casó en 1886, con Don Leopoldo Travesedo y Fernández Casasiego; y fue su hijo entre otros:

d.-Don Juan Bautista Travesedo y García Sancho, nacido el 21 de junio de 1890, que se casó con Doña María del Carmen Martínez de las Rivas y Richardson, y fue su hija entre otros:

e.-Doña María del Pilar Travesedo y Martínez de las Rivas, casada con Don Joseph de las Mosevas y Olozaga, radicados en España.



2.-Don Manuel Ángel García Sancho y Moreno de Tejada, se casó en Guadalajara de la Nueva Galicia el 25 de enero de 1790, con su deuda : Doña María Josefa Moreno de Tejada y fueron sus hijos entre otros:

a.-Don José de Jesús , presbítero, Doña Mariana, Don Joaquín, Doña Margarita, Doña Susana, Doña Isabel, Fray Teófilo, (profesor del seminario en Guadalajara), García Sancho y Moreno de Tejada, sin sucesión.

b.-Don Juan García Sancho y Moreno de Tejada, se casó con Doña Antonia Zumelzu, y fueron sus hijos, entre otros:

Don Carlos, casado con Guadalupe Villagordoa; Josefa, casada con Roque Mercado; Francisco, casado con Emilia Chacón y Doña Isabel, casada con Gonzalo Ancira.

c.-Doña María de los Dolores García Sancho y Moreno de Tejada, nació el 28 de abril de 1818, en Guadalajara con Don José Palomar y Rueda, (fundador de varias industrias y benefactor), hijo legítimo de Don Abdón Zenén Palomar y Sancho y de Doña Lugarda Rueda, casados en la Magdalena, Jal., el 7 de noviembre de 1806; Don José y Doña María de Los Dolores, tuvieron 13 hijos de los cuales sobrevivieron 8 que citamos a continuación :

aa.-María Dolores Palomar y García Sancho, se casa en 1855, con Don Silviano González de Castañeda y Zavala, y fueron sus hijos a su vez:

Joseph González de Castañeda, casado con Doña Laura Cañedo, sin descendencia.

Ramón González de Castañeda, casado con Gabriela Castaños y García Granados, y fueron sus hijos:

Ramón María, Joseph, María, Dolores, González de Castañeda y Castaños.

Luis González de Castañeda y Castaños, casado con Ernestina Galindo Ochoa, y fueron sus hijos : Ramón y Luis González de Castañeda y Galindo.

María Guadalupe González de Castañeda y Castaños, casada con Ramón Camba, y fueron sus hijos: Ramón, Guadalupe, casada con Jorge Cortés Cuesta; Cecilia, Margarita Camba y González de Castañeda.

Soledad González de Castañeda y Castaños, casada con Enrique Ladrón de Guevara, y fueron sus hijos: Gabriela, casada con Enrique Ursuñuela; Enrique, casado con Rosalía Lomas; Concepción, Agustín y Cristina Ladrón de Guevara y González de Castañeda, casada con Jorge Oltling Colignón.

bb.-Doña Josefa Palomar y García Sancho, casada con Agustín L. Gómez, y fueron sus hijos:

Luis Gómez Palomar, casado con María Gutiérrez

Concepción Gómez Palomar, soltera

Francisco Gómez Palomar, casado con Margarita Madrigal, y fueron sus hijos: Francisco, Isabel, Manuel y María Luisa Gómez Madrigal.

Agustín Gómez Palomar, casado con Isaura Orendain

María Teresa Gómez Palomar, casada con José Guadalupe López de Lara, y fueron sus hijos: Luis y José López Gómez, este último casado con Amparo Guevara y fueron sus hijos a su vez: Ana Rosa, Amparo, José y Jaime López Guevara.

José Vicente Gómez Palomar, soltero

Antonio Gómez Palomar, casado en primeras nupcias con Mercedes Robledo, y fueron sus hijos: Antonio Gómez Robledo, casado con Catarina Verduzco, y fue su hija Sofía Gómez Verduzco; Antonio Gómez Palomar, se casó en segundas nupcias con Dolores Orozco, sin sucesión.

Javier e Ignacio Gómez Robledo, sin sucesión.

cc.-Don Agustín Palomar y García Sancho, se casó el 1 de mayo de 1869 en el sagrario de Guadalajara, con Doña Concepción Corcuera y Luna, hija de Don Manuel Corcuera y Vizcarra y Doña Nicolasa Luna, y fueron sus hijos:

Dolores Palomar Corcuera, casada con Guillermo B. Carroll

Catalina Palomar Corcuera, casada con Manuel Verea y Bosque

Ana Palomar y Corcuera, casada con Francisco Martínez Negrete

Isabel Palomar y Corcuera, casada con Lorenzo Villaseñor

dd.-Concepción Palomar García Sancho, se casó con Don Manuel Corcuera y Luna, y fueron sus hijos:

José Corcuera Palomar, casado con Teresa Cuesta

Pedro Corcuera Palomar, casado con María Guadalupe Mier y Cuevas

Enrique Corcuera Palomar, casado con Guadalupe García Pimentel

Elena Corcuera Palomar, casada con Ramón Alcázar Ibanguergoitia

Concepción Corcuera Palomar, casada con Carlos Verea Vallarta

ee.-María del Carmen Palomar y García Sancho, se casa con Don Manuel García Granados, y fueron sus hijos:

Manuel, José, casado con María Ordóñez, Carmen, casada con Luis Vieyra, Senén, y Alfonso García Granados y Palomar, este último casado con Raquel Symonds.

ff.-Don Miguel Evaristo Palomar y García Sancho, casado el 31 de julio de 1875 en el sagrario de Guadalajara, con Doña Dolores Vizcarra y Portillo, hermana de Don Carlos de Jesús Vizcarra y Portillo, ascendiente de Doña Eugenia Irma Vizcarra A. De Jiménez, madre del investigador y genealogista Don Claudio Jiménez Vizcarra, y Doña Dolores fue hija legítima de Don José María Vizcarra y Arzubialde, viudo de Doña Ignacia Abad y Arreola , y a su vez Don José María, hijo legítimo del primer Marqués de Pánuco : Don Francisco Javier de Vizcarra , dueño de la hacienda "La Sauceda", ( viudo de de Doña Josefa Pesquera y Castillo) y de su segunda esposa Doña Mariana de Arzubialde y Porres Baranda, casado Don José María en segundas nupcias, con Doña María Guadalupe Portillo, y fueron sus hijos de Don Miguel y de Doña Dolores:

1.-Don José Federico Elias Palomar y Vizcarra , nacido en 1876, casado con Margarita Escudero y López Portillo, y a su vez fueron sus hijos:

Doña María del Carmen, Manuel Palomar Escudero, solteros; María de los Ángeles, casada con Juan Zurbarán, sin descendencia, Elena Palomar y Escudero, casada con José Gabino Oseguera, con sus hijos María Elena y y José Oseguera Palomar y

Don Guillermo Palomar Escudero, casado con Lourdes Aspe, y fue su unigénita: Berta Lourdes Palomar Aspe, casada con Guillermo Reynoso Córdova, y a su vez fue su hijo : Guillermo Reynoso Palomar, y se casa en 1977, con María Teresa Patricia Márquez Lozano y de ahí fueron tres hijos: Erick Andrés, (investigador nacido en México D.F. , y radicado en Toluca y sus hermanos María Fernanda y Rodrigo Guillermo Reynoso Márquez.

2.-Doñas Luisa y Virginia Palomar Vizcarra, solteras

3.-Don Miguel Palomar Vizcarra, casado con Dolores Silva González

4.-Doña Enriqueta Palomar y Vizcarra, casada con Manuel de la Mora y Castillo Negrete

gg.-Don Senén Palomar y García Sancho, se casó con Doña Ana Vizcarra y Portillo el 23 de junio de 1882 en Guadalajara , y fueron sus hijos:

1.-Don Senén Palomar y Vizcarra, casado con Luz Vizcarra y García Teruel (V marquesa de Pánuco) y fue su hija Margarita Palomar y Vizcarra, muerta a los 17 años de hemofilia.

2.-Don Enrique Palomar y Vizcarra, se casa en primeras nupcias con Doña Joaquina Fernández del Valle y Corro, y en segundas con Doña Clementina Martínez.

3.-Doña Margarita Palomar y Vizcarra, casada con Don Fernando Ricci

4.-Doña María Palomar Vizcarra, casada con Don Luis Camarena Morfín

5.-Don Javier Palomar y Vizcarra

hh.-Don Luis Gonzaga Palomar y García Sancho, casado con Doña Concepción Álvarez del Castillo, y fueron sus hijos:

1.-Doña Ana Rosa, religiosa, Luis, Concepción, Ángeles y María Guadalupe Palomar y Álvarez del Castillo, esta última casada con Don Javier Verea y Vallarta.


From California to Sinaloa
Sent by Peter Carr   
Found it on the net:

MEMPHIS DAILY APPEAL [ATLANTA, GA], June 25, 1863, p.1, c.5 Correspondence Houston News.]

Monterey, May 3d.-- . . .There are nearly five hundred  Southern families in Mazatlan who have fled from California to escape their being constantly insulted and persecuted by the cowardly Yankee caravan which have overrun that State.

Many of these families intended to settle on certain lands in lower California, but as no water can be obtained in that dry region, where it sometimes does not rain for three and even four years, and there are no houses built to protect them from the burning sun, they have decided to make their present abode in Sinaloa.  The Mexicans in that State are kind-hearted and hospitable.  The climate is healthy.  The wealth of the country consists in agriculture, grazing and minerals.  I am assured that cotton is an indigenous plant of Sinoloa of which there are three classes, viz, a fine long staple (small seed), an unknown colored and the common cotton.  The plant requires to be sown only every four years.  

Tobacco and indigo are raised in all parts, and sugar cane yields a fair return.  Corn, coffee, beans, rice, plantains, oranges, pineapples, etc., are quite abundant.  The mineral wealth is really great. Silver mines are almost all in a virgin state.  In Callaean (the capital) there is a mint which from 1846 to 1855 coined in silver and gold the sum of ten millions.  Mazatlan is the only port, and although it is not very good, its location commands the trade of an extensive back country.. . . Pickwick.

Founding Families of Jimenez,  Coahuila

Sent by Horacio González De Hoyos  

In a way, Jimenez, Coahuila is like an extension of San Antonio..almost as if the settlers  hoped to start another San Antonio, hence the original name, " Resurrección".. 

Jimenez was founded in 1859 by a group of  Tejano expatriots from San Antonio de Bexar, and also families from the surrounding villas near Piedras Negras and Zaragoza, Coahuila.
The leader of this group was captain don Manuel Leal, a veteran of Seguin's Tejano patriots, who had fought along with the Anglo Texans against Mexico. Manuel Leal fought in the battle and seige of Bexar, and later at San Jacinto.

When Seguin left Texas for Mexico and fought against the Texans on the side of the Mexican Army under Gen. Adrian Woll, Manuel Leal was again alongside Juan Seguin,  with the "Defensores de Bexar" brigade.

Jimenez was also the site of the first armed uprising against the dictatorship of Porfirio Diaz on Sept. 26, 1906.  The leader of these "Revoltosos" was my wife's grt-grt-grandfather Juan Jose Arredondo, a native of Morelos, Coahuila.

I am slowly but surely getting more info posted as I find it, hopefully some of this info will be helpful to others, as with the Leal name alone, would fill gaps in people with Isleño roots...Manuel Leal was a grt-grandson of Juan Leal Goraz, his  father was Miguel Leal and his mother was Ma. Antonia Casanova,  of the Perez-Casanova clan, more Canary Islanders. His wife was Casimira Casillas.

When I began this research I came upon records which dealt with the allotting of land grants for the original settlers of Jimenez, and since then I have found and confirmed a lot of the names that appear in those archives of Jimenez, with the baptism, wills & inventories, census records of Bexar County, and such fine sources such as "With the Makers of San Antonio" , as well as the Memoirs of Juan Seguin and Adrian Woll.

Thank you for your time.
Horacio González De Hoyos
- Digital  Imaging Technologies
Digital Imaging Dept.  Branch-Smith  Inc.  817.882.4184

 1.- Juan Villa.

 2.- Lorenzo Domínguez.

 3.- Juan Gomez.

 4.- Francisco Aguilera.

 5.- Jesús Garza Elizondo.

 6.- Juan Villarreal.

 7.- Carlos Resen.

 8.- Perfecto Guerra.

 9.- Anato Garza.

10.- Vicente de la Garza.

11.- Martina Fuentes.

12.- Eduardo Constanza.

13.- Benigno Rodríguez.

14.- Manuel Pérez.

15.- Manuel Flores.

16.- Eulogio Arreola.

17.- Secundino Jiménez.

18.- Jesús Sandoval.

19.- Fernando Sandoval.

20.- Luis Fernández.

21.- Román Arreola.

22.- Rafael Menchaca.

23.- Anastacio Hernández.

24.- Dionicio Campos.

25.- Julio Guerra.


26.- Francisco Flores.

27.- Atanacio Sandoval.

28.- José Ma. Morales.

29.- Juan Pérez.

30.- Luciano Leal.

31.- Damacio Galván.

32.- Miguel Sandoval.

33.- Ma. Albina Martínez.

34.- Manuel Montalvo

35.- Acensio Constancia.

36.- Marcelino Rodríguez.

37.- Felipe Romero.

38.- Manuel Galán.

39.- Francisco García.

40.- Jesús Arreola.

41.- Damacio Rodríguez.

42.- Fidencio Cuellar.

43.- Yrineo Casillas.

44.- Encarnación Cuellar.

45.- Abraham Gaitan.

46.- José Ma. Rodríguez.

47.- Justo Guerra.

48.- Paulino Sandoval.

49.- Felipe Conde.

50.- Mariano Casillas.


51.- Ma. del Rosario Vargas.

52.- Rumualdo Martínez.

53.- Vicente Cuellar.

54.- Matías Herrera.

55.- Simon Palacio.

56.- Dolores Hinojosa.

57.- Bartolo Villarreal.

58.- Felix Martínez.

59.- Crescencio Montes.

60.- Agapito Guerra.

61.- José Montalvo.

62.- Severo Gutierrez.

63.- Sirilo Olivares.

64.- Vicente Galván.

65.- Ma. Gregoria Casillas.

66.- Ma. Dolores Cuellar.

67.- Francisco Salinas.

68.- Paulino de la Garza

69.- Antonio Pérez.

70.- Domingo Ybarra.

71.- Félix Campos.

72.- Eusevio Valdes.

73.- Ma. Trinidad González.

74.- José Ma. Flores.

75.- Teodoro Rodríguez.    -- Next --


Descendents of Don Juan Canales

Compiled by John D. Inclan

May 2002

Part 1 of a 2-Part Pedigree
Part 2 will in in October issue of Somos Primos


 Generation No. 1 


1. JUAN3 CANALES (JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1650 in Nuevo Reino de Leon, Mexico. He married (1) GERTRUDIS DE MONTEMAYOR. He married (2) MARIA DE CHARLES. She died December 27, 1698.

Notes for JUAN CANALES: Source:Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza, page 232.


2. i. CAPTAIN BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, b. 1676, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; d. Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.




 Generation No. 2 


2. CAPTAIN BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR (JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1676 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and died in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married MARIA BAEZ-DE-BENAVIDES-Y-DE-LOS-REYES, daughter of BERNARDO BAEZ-DE-BENAVIDES-Y-MARTINEZ and FRANCISCA DE-LOS-REYES-PONCE. She was born 1680 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.


i. JUAN ANTONIO BAUTISTA5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, d. Aft. February 14, 1780, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
Notes for
JUAN ANTONIO BAUTISTA CANALES-BENAVIDES: He signed his last will and testament on February 14, 1780. Source:Testamentos de Monterrey, by Lilia E. Villanueva de Cavazos.


3. v. MICHAELA CANALES-BENAVIDES, b. Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; d. January 29, 1774, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

4. vi. GERTRUDIS CANALES-BENAVIDES, d. December 22, 1784, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.



5. ix. JOSE-SALVADOR CANALES-BENAVIDES, b. 1702, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; d. December 04, 1768.

6. x. JOSE-BLAS CANALES-BENAVIDAS, b. Abt. 1710, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; d. December 07, 1780, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.


Source:Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza, page 103.

7. xii. JOSE-CAYETANO-LUCAS CANALES-BENAVIDES, b. 1724; d. May 20, 1801, Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

8. xiii. MARIA RITA CANALES-BENAVIDES, b. 1730; d. Revilla,Tamaulipas,Mexico.


  Generation No. 3 


3. MICHAELA5 CANALES-BENAVIDES (BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and died January 29, 1774 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. She married NICOLAS SALINAS-MORONES June 11, 1732 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, son of ANTONIO MORONES-SALINAS and FRANCISCA PEREZ-DE-DUENA. He was born in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.




iii. CAYETANO SALINAS-CANALES, m. MARIA-LUGARDA SAENZ-DE-LA-SERNA, October 02, 1795, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; b. 1755, Vallecillo, Nuevo Leon,Mexico.

iv. CRISOBAL SALINAS-CANALES, m. (1) APOLINARIA DE SILVA; m. (2) ANTONIA DE TREVINO-SAENZ, September 25, 1786, Montemorelos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.



10. vii. PEDRO-JOSEPH SALINAS-CANALES, b. 1744, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

11. viii. JOSE-SALVADOR SALINAS-CANALES, b. Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; d. June 04, 1805, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.



12. i. JOSE-SEBASTIAN6 FLORES-CANALES, b. Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

ii. MARIA GUADALUPE FLORES-CANALES, m. GASPAR GARCIA, October 28, 1781; b. 1720; d. 1795.





5. JOSE-SALVADOR5 CANALES-BENAVIDES (BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1702 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and died December 04, 1768. He married MARIA-JOSEFA GONZALEZ-HIDALGO-CANTU May 21, 1728 in Cadereyta Jimenez, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of MARCOS GONZALEZ-HIDALGO-TREVINO and TOMASA DE-LEON-CANTU. She was born 1703 in Cadereyta Jimenez, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and died December 09, 1775.

Notes for JOSE-SALVADOR CANALES-BENAVIDES: He signed his last will and testament on December, 9, 1736. Source:Testamentos Coloniales de Monterrey by Lilia E. Villanueva de Cavazos. Page 103.


13. i. ALFEREZ REAL JOSE-JOAQUIN6 CANALES-GONZALEZ-HIDALGO, b. 1730, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; d. January 24, 1811, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

14. ii. JOSEPH-IGNACIO-HERMAN CANALES-GONZALEZ, b. November 03, 1731, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

iii. JUAN ANGEL CANALES-GONZALEZ, b. July 08, 1734, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; d. November 25, 1807.

iv. ANA MARIA JACOBA CANALES-GONZALEZ, b. August 02, 1737, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; d. January 25, 1794.

v. FRANCISCA PETRA CANALES-GONZALEZ, b. March 03, 1739/40, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

vi. JOSEPH FRANCISCO EUPHEMIANO CANALES-GONZALEZ, b. April 15, 1741, Sagrario Metro, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

vii. MIGUEL EUGENIO CANALES-GONZALEZ, b. November 22, 1742, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

15. viii. JOSE-JUAN-ANTONIO CANALES-GONZALEZ, b. 1743, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; d. April 21, 1792, Mier, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

ix. JOSEPH GABRIEL CANALES-GONZALEZ, b. March 26, 1744, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

16. x. JOSEPH TOMAS CANALES-GONZALEZ, b. December 28, 1745, Sagrario Metro, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; d. Bef. 1802, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

xi. MARIA INES ROSALIA CANALES-GONZALEZ, b. January 27, 1747/48, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; d. Aft. November 08, 1802, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

She signed her last will and testament on November 8, 1802. Source:Restamentos de Monterrey, En resumen genealogico, by Lilia E. Villanueva de Cavazos.

xii. MARIA MANUELA CANALES-GONZALEZ, b. June 10, 1750, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

xiii. ANA INFANTA CANALES-GONZALEZ, b. September 11, 1758, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

6. JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS (BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born Abt. 1710 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and died December 07, 1780 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married MARIA-ROSA-CATARINA ANZALDUA-SAUCEDO 1735 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon,Mexico, daughter of SEBASTIAN ANZALDUA-DUENAS and MARIANA SAUCEDO-PEREZ. She was born Abt. 1715 in Saltillo, Coahulia, Mexico.






19. v. JOSE-ANTONIO-BLAS CANALES-ANZALDUA, b. 1735; d. Agualeguas, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

20. vi. JOSE-VICENTE CANALES-ANZALDUA, b. 1748, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico; d. September 14, 1816.

21. vii. JOSE-RAMON CANALES-ANZALDUA, b. 1753, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico; d. March 19, 1811, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.


7. JOSE-CAYETANO-LUCAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDES (BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1724, and died May 20, 1801 in Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico. He married (1) ANA JOSEPHA LIZARRARAS-Y-CUELLAR-MARTINEZ January 26, 1755 in Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico, daughter of TOMAS CUELLAR-GARCIA and MARIA-INEZ MARTINEZ-DE-LA-GARZA. She was born 1734, and died February 08, 1760 in Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico. He married (2) MARIA-ANA-DOMINGA GUERRA-GUERRA April 01, 1761 in Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico. She was born 1739.


He is listed with his wife, Dona Josefa Cuellar, on the 1753 & 1757 census, Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico. He, his wife, Dona Maria Dominga Guerra, and family are listed on the 1780 census, Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico. Source:Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza, page 195.



23. ii. JOSEPH-NICOLAS-LUCAS CANALES-CUELLAR, b. October 19, 1755, Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico; d. January 09, 1804, Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico.




v. MARIA-GERTRUDIS6 CANALES-GUERRA, m. JOSE-JUSTO JAMIE-MARTINEZ, August 25, 1803, Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico; b. 1780.

vi. JOSE ENCARNACION CANALES-GUERRA, m. JUANA ROSALIA JAMIE-MARTINEZ, November 26, 1800, Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

vii. MARIA ROSALIA CANALES-GUERRA, m. JOSE VENANCIO GONZALEZ-HIDALGO, February 10, 1803, Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico; b. Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

viii. MARIA TRINIDAD CANALES-GUERRA, b. 1766, Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

ix. ANA-DOMINGA CANALES-GUERRA, b. 1769, Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

24. x. MARIA-FRANCISCA CANALES-GUERRA, b. 1771, Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

xi. JOSEPH MANUEL CANALES-GUERRA, b. 1773, Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

xii. MARIA DE JESUS CANALES-GUERRA, b. 1775, Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

xiii. MARIA-ANTONIA CANALES-GUERRA, b. 1776, Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

xiv. MARIA ENCARNACION CANALES-GUERRA, b. 1778, Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

8. MARIA RITA5 CANALES-BENAVIDES (BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1730, and died in Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico. She married BARTOLOME JACINTO CUELLAR-MARTINEZ April 14, 1760 in Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico, son of BARTOLOME CUELLAR-GARCIA and MARIA-GREGORIA MARTINEZ-DE-LA-GARZA. He was born 1737, and died in Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

Notes for MARIA RITA CANALES-BENAVIDES: She is listed living with her brother on the 1753 census, Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico.
Notes for
BARTOLOME JACINTO CUELLAR-MARTINEZ: He and his family are listed on the 1780 and 1791 census, Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico.


i. MARIA-DEL-REFUGIO6 CUELLAR-CANALES, b. 1763, Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico; m. JOSE-MARCELINO HINOJOSA-ANZALDUA, January 29, 1779, Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico; b. 1756, Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

He and his wife are listed on the Rancho de Jacinto de Cuellar. 1780 census, Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

Note: This is his father-in-law’s Ranch.

25. ii. MARIA-TRINIDAD CUELLAR-CANALES, b. 1765, Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico.


iv. JOSE DOMINGO CUELLAR-CANALES, b. 1779, Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico; d. November 22, 1779, Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico.


 Generation No. 4 


9. MARIA-ANA-LUCIA6 SALINAS-CANALES (MICHAELA5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1754. She married JOSE-ALBINO GONZALEZ-GARCIA August 23, 1772 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, son of DIEGO GONZALEZ-TREVINO and ANA GARCIA. He was born 1752, and died February 14, 1793 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.





iv. MARIA JESUS GONZALEZ-SALINAS, b. 1776; m. FELIPE SAENZ, February 04, 1799, Camargo, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

v. ESMERENCIANA GONZALEZ-SALINAS, b. December 05, 1778, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico; m. TOMAS GARCIA.

vi. MARIA GONZALEZ-SALINAS, b. December 05, 1778.

28. vii. JOSE-RAFAEL GONZALEZ-SALINAS, b. March 22, 1783.

viii. JOSE CRISTOBAL GONZALEZ-SALINAS, b. January 30, 1786; d. November 14, 1806.

ix. CAYETANA GONZALEZ-SALINAS, b. November 01, 1787; d. January 11, 1788.

10. PEDRO-JOSEPH6 SALINAS-CANALES (MICHAELA5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1744 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married (1) MARIA-GERTRUDIS LOPEZ-DE-JAEN-LONGORIA May 15, 1765 in Nuestra Sra de Santa Anna, Camargo, Tamaulipas, Mexico, daughter of MIGUEL LOPEZ-DE-JAEN-HINOJOSA and MARIA-GERTRUDIS LONGORIA-CHAPA. She was born 1747, and died January 08, 1766 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married (2) MARIA-INEZ BENAVIDES-VELA January 30, 1779 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of JOSE-ANTONIO BENAVIDES-CERVERA and MARIA-FRANCISCA-JAVIERA VELA-CAMACHO. She was born in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

Marriage Notes for PEDRO-JOSEPH SALINAS-CANALES and MARIA-INEZ BENAVIDES-VELA: Marriage source: Index to the Marriage investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara by Raul J. Guerra, Jr., Nadine M. Vasquez, Baldomero Vela, Jr. Page 234.



11. JOSE-SALVADOR6 SALINAS-CANALES (MICHAELA5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and died June 04, 1805 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married (1) MARIA-JOSEFA DE CHAPA. She died 1781. He married (2) MARIA-PETRA DE LEON-GARCIA February 12, 1781 in San Carlos, Vallecillo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of MATEO DE LEON-RODRIGUEZ and MARIA-ROSALIA GARCIA-DAVILA. She was born 1760.


i. MARIA-DE-LOS-SANTOS7 SALINAS-CHAPA, b. November 07, 1769, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. JOSE-IGNACIO RODRIGUEZ-BACA-DE-LOS-RIOS, February 28, 1789, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; b. 1760.

ii. MARÍA-SANTISIMA-TRINIDAD SALINAS-CHAPA, b. February 11, 1774, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. JOSE-ALEJANDRO MENDEZ, June 18, 1793, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

iii. MARÍA-IGNACIA-DE-GUADALUPE SALINAS-CHAPA, b. December 1781, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.


iv. JOSE-RAFAEL7 SALINAS-DE-LEON, m. MARIA-GUADALUPE MADRIGAL-SALINAS, April 22, 1815, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; b. November 13, 1791, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

29. v. JOSE-FRANCISCO SALINAS-DE-LEON, b. April 06, 1783, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

12. JOSE-SEBASTIAN6 FLORES-CANALES (GERTRUDIS5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico. He married MARIA-JULIANA DE-LA-BARRERA-GARCIA May 26, 1784 in Mier, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of JOSE-SANTIAGO DE-LA-BARRERA-GARCIA and MARIA-SALOME GARCIA. She was born 1761 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.




13. ALFEREZ REAL JOSE-JOAQUIN6 CANALES-GONZALEZ-HIDALGO (JOSE-SALVADOR5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1730 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and died January 24, 1811 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married (1) ISABEL-MARIA SANCHEZ-NAVARRO 1755. She was born 1740. He married (2) MARIA-JOSEFA TREVINO-TREVINO July 25, 1764 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of JOSE-DOMINGO DE TREVINO and MARIA-MARGARITA TREVINO-DE-LA-GARZA. She was born September 24, 1748 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and died April 17, 1816.

In the book, Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza, he is listed as a descendent of Don Alonso de Estrada, Duke of Aragon. Page 20.


Marriage source: From the Book, Index to the Marriage Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara by Raul J. Guerra, Jr., Nadine M. Vasquez, Baldomero Vela, Jr. 1751-1779 Page 115.


i. JOSEPH SALVADOR JORGE7 CANALES-SANCHEZ, b. April 30, 1758, Santa Rosa de Lima, Melchor Muzquiz, Coahulia, Mexico.


ii. MARIA JOSEFA JUSTA7 CANALES-TREVINO, b. July 23, 1765, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

iii. JOSEPH ANGEL REMIGIO CANALES-TREVINO, b. October 05, 1766, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

iv. MARIA-IGNACIA CANALES-TREVINO, b. 1767; m. JOSE-DOMINGO DE-LA-PENA, July 31, 1780, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

v. MARIA DE JESUS BARBARA CANALES-TREVINO, b. March 05, 1769, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

31. vi. JOSE-ANTONIO-NEPOMUSENO CANALES-TREVINO, b. April 25, 1774, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

vii. JOSE-IGNACIO-DE-LOS-SANTOS CANALES-TREVINO, b. November 07, 1776, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

viii. MARIA TERESA DE JESUS MELCHORA CANALES, b. January 13, 1778, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

ix. MARIA JOSEFA CANALES-TREVINO, b. January 19, 1786, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

14. JOSEPH-IGNACIO-HERMAN6 CANALES-GONZALEZ (JOSE-SALVADOR5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born November 03, 1731 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married MARIA-GERTRUDIS FLORES-Y-VALDEZ February 10, 1772 in San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Villaldama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of IGNACIO FLORES-DE-VALDEZ and MARIA-IGNACIA DE AGUIRRE. She was born 1750 in Boca de Leones, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.


i. JOSEFA MANUELA7 CANALES-FLORES, b. February 04, 1773, San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

32. ii. JOSEPH-MARIANO-DIONISIO CANALES-FLORES, b. April 10, 1774, San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Villaldama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

iii. MANUEL MARIA CANALES-FLORES, b. January 16, 1780, San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Villaldama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

33. iv. FRANCISCO-XAVIER-YGNACIO-CAMILO CANALES-FLORES, b. July 23, 1784, San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Villaldama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

v. JOSE MARIANO DE JESUS CANALES-FLORES, b. April 28, 1788, San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

vi. MARIA MANUELA IGNACIA CANALES-FLORES, b. January 12, 1792, San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

vii. JOSEPH IGNACIO CANALES-FLORES, b. August 18, 1792, San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

15. JOSE-JUAN-ANTONIO6 CANALES-GONZALEZ (JOSE-SALVADOR5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1743 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and died April 21, 1792 in Mier, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married MARIA-DE-LOS-SANTOS GARCIA-DE-LA-BARRERA September 18, 1771 in Mier, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of JOSE-GASPAR GARCIA and MARIA-GERTRUDIS DE-LA-BARRERA. She was born 1752.


34. i. JOSE-ANTONIO-TIBURCIO7 CANALES-GARCIA, b. April 04, 1773, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; d. February 01, 1839, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

35. ii. ESTEBAN CANALES-GARCIA, b. December 23, 1774.

iii. MARIA-JOSEFA CANALES-GARCIA, b. September 04, 1776, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

36. iv. MARIA-LEONOR CANALES-GARCIA, b. February 28, 1778, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico; d. March 11, 1850, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

v. JOSE-MIGUEL-PRICILIANO CANALES-GARCIA, b. January 08, 1781, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

37. vi. MARIA-DOROTEA CANALES-GARCIA, b. February 09, 1782, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

vii. MARIA-MARTA CANALES-GARCIA, b. March 13, 1784, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

viii. MARIA-DE-LA-ENCARNACION CANALES-GARCIA, b. April 07, 1785, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

ix. JOSE-SANTIAGO CANALES-GARCIA, b. August 10, 1787, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

16. JOSEPH TOMAS6 CANALES-GONZALEZ (JOSE-SALVADOR5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born December 28, 1745 in Sagrario Metro, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and died Bef. 1802 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married MARIA LUISA DE GUAJARDO August 15, 1777 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.





i. MARIA ALEJANDRA7 FELON-CANALES, m. JUAN MIGUEL POLANSO, August 06, 1783, San Carlos, Vallecillo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

ii. JOSE BIBIANO FELON-CANALES, b. December 28, 1772, San Carlos, Vallecillo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.


Notes for MARIA-BERNARDA CANALES-ANZALDUA:  Source:Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza, page 131.



ii. MARIA-IGNACIA SALINAS-CANALES, b. February 22, 1770.

iii. MARIA-JOSEFA SALINAS-CANALES, b. March 19, 1772.

38. iv. JOSE-MANUEL SALINAS-CANALES, b. February 04, 1774.

39. v. JOSE-CRISTOBAL SALINAS-CANALES, b. January 07, 1776.

vi. MARIA-DE-ROSARIO SALINAS-CANALES, b. November 07, 1777.

vii. JOSE-EUGENIO SALINAS-CANALES, b. December 16, 1779.

viii. JOSE-ANTONIO SALINAS-CANALES, b. March 04, 1781.

ix. MARIA-EUFEMIA SALINAS-CANALES, b. December 07, 1783, Agualeguas, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

x. JOSE-SALVADOR SALINAS-CANALES, b. January 23, 1785, Melchor Ocampo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.


xii. MARIA-JULIANA SALINAS-CANALES, b. March 14, 1791, Agualeguas, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.


19. JOSE-ANTONIO-BLAS6 CANALES-ANZALDUA (JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1735, and died in Agualeguas, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married ANA-JOSEFA DE-LA-GARZA-GUERRA March 29, 1755 in San Gregorio, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of JUAN-JOSE DE-LA-GARZA and FRANCISCA GUERRA-CANAMAR-DE-LA-GARZA. She was born 1737, and died December 1824 in Lampazos de Naranjo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.





40. iv. JUAN-FRANCISCO-JAVIER CANALES-DE-LA-GARZA, b. 1756, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico; d. April 20, 1792, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.


42. vi. MARIA-MARGARITA CANALES-DE-LA-GARZA, b. June 27, 1764, San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Villaldama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.


viii. ANA-LUCIA CANALES-DE-LA-GARZA, b. January 01, 1766, San Gregorio, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; d. Agualeguas, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. JOSE-FRANCISCO VILLARREAL, November 12, 1788, San Gregorio, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

44. ix. MARIA-JAVIERA CANALES-DE-LA-GARZA, b. July 26, 1767, San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Villaldama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

x. MARIA-DEL-REFUGIO CANALES-DE-LA-GARZA, b. October 14, 1770, San Carlos, Vallecillo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

xi. VIVIANA CANALES-DE-LA-GARZA, b. December 17, 1772; d. September 13, 1797.

45. xii. JOSE CASIANO BENITO CANALES-DE-LA-GARZA, b. April 09, 1776.

46. xiii. MARIA-GUADALUPE CANALES-DE-LA-GARZA, b. December 30, 1777, San Gregorio, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; d. Agualeguas, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

47. xiv. ANTONIO CANALES-DE-LA-GARZA, b. 1780; d. Laredo, Webb County, Texas.

20. JOSE-VICENTE6 CANALES-ANZALDUA (JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1748 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, and died September 14, 1816. He married MARIA-GERTRUDIS GUERRA-VELA August 26, 1770 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of JUAN SOLIS and JOSEFA VELA. She was born 1750 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

Source:Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza, page 229.









viii. JULIAN CANALES-GUERRA, b. 1778; d. 1778.

49. ix. JOSE-DE-JESUS CANALES-GUERRA, b. 1783, Canaleno, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

21. JOSE-RAMON6 CANALES-ANZALDUA (JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1753 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, and died March 19, 1811 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico. He married MARIA-LEONOR GARCIA-SALINAS September 14, 1781 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, daughter of DIEGO GARCIA-VELA and MARIA-GERTRUDIS SALINAS-LONGORIA. She was born 1754 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, and died in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

Notes for JOSE-RAMON CANALES-ANZALDUA:  Source:Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza, page 144.


50. i. MARIA-LUISA7 CANALES-GARCIA, b. August 25, 1782, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

51. ii. JOSE-JOAQUIN CANALES-GARCIA, b. March 28, 1784, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

52. iii. JOSE-RAFAEL-PINCIANO CANALES-GARCIA, b. November 30, 1785, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

iv. MARIA-MATIANA CANALES-GARCIA, b. February 24, 1788, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

v. JOSE-DOMINGO CANALES-GARCIA, b. May 09, 1789, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

53. vi. MARIA-GREGORIA CANALES-GARCIA, b. September 15, 1790, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico; d. January 12, 1858, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

vii. HERMEREGILDO CANALES-GARCIA, b. December 12, 1793, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

54. viii. MARIA-DE-JESUS CANALES-GARCIA, b. December 12, 1793, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico; d. November 26, 1863, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

ix. JOSE-HERMEREGILDO CANALES-GARCIA, b. April 21, 1800, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

x. MARIA-DE-LA-ASENCIA CANALES-GARCIA, b. May 02, 1802, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.



i. MARIA JOSEFA7 CANALES-VILLARREAL, b. Boca de Leones, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. JOSE TRINIDAD REMIGIO CANALES-HINOJOSA, August 04, 1807, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; b. October 09, 1783, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

ii. MARIA MAGDALENA CANALES-VILLARREAL, b. August 01, 1784, San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Villaldama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

iii. MARIA ANDREA CANALES-VILLARREAL, b. February 17, 1786, San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Villaldama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

23. JOSEPH-NICOLAS-LUCAS6 CANALES-CUELLAR (JOSE-CAYETANO-LUCAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born October 19, 1755 in Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico, and died January 09, 1804 in Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico. He married (1) MARIA-DE-JESUS SANCHEZ-DIAZ November 06, 1776 in Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico, daughter of JUAN-BAUTISTA SANCHEZ-DE-LA-GARZA and JUANA-MARIA DIAZ-TREVINO. (Note:Juan Bautista is the brother of Captain Tomas Sanchez de la Barrera, the founder of Laredo Texas). She was born 1758, and died February 01, 1798 in Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico. He married (2) MARIA-CATARINA GARCIA-SALINAS November 13, 1798 in Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico, daughter of JUAN-JOSE GARCIA and ANA-JOSEFA SALINAS-OLIVARES. She was born 1755.

Notes for JOSEPH-NICOLAS-LUCAS CANALES-CUELLAR:  He and his family are listed on the 1757, 1780, & the 1791 census, Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico.  On the 1780 census for Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico, he is listed living on his Mother-in-Law's Ranch.

Marriage Notes for JOSEPH-NICOLAS-LUCAS CANALES-CUELLAR and MARIA-DE-JESUS SANCHEZ-DIAZ: Marriage Source:From the book, Mil Familias III by Rodolgo Gonzalez de la Garza. Page 212.


55. i. JOSE-DOMINGO-DEL-REFUGIO7 CANALES-SANCHEZ, b. February 29, 1772, Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

ii. JOSEPH CALIXTO CANALES-SANCHEZ, b. 1778, Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

iii. MARIA GUADALUPE CANALES-SANCHEZ, b. 1779, Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

iv. JOSE NARCISCO NEPOMUCENO CANALES-SANCHEZ, b. 1780; d. November 29, 1780.

v. JOSE DOMINGO CANALES-SANCHEZ, b. Aft. 1780; d. March 10, 1782.





x. MARIA DEL REFUGIO CANALES-SANCHEZ, b. Aft. 1780; m. JOSE FRANCISCO TREVINO-GARCIA, January 13, 1806, Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

57. xi. MARIA-PETRA CANALES-SANCHEZ, b. Aft. 1780; d. Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

xii. JOSE GREGORIO CANALES-SANCHEZ, b. 1792, Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico; d. Laredo, Webb County, Texas; m. ANTONIA MOCTEZUMA-RETA, February 04, 1833, San Agustin, Laredo, Webb County, Texas.


24. MARIA-FRANCISCA6 CANALES-GUERRA (JOSE-CAYETANO-LUCAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1771 in Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico. She married JOSE-MARIA LAUREL-FERNANDEZ-SAENZ October 29, 1787 in San Gregorio, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, son of JUAN-JOSE FERNANDEZ-LAUREL-VILLARREAL and JUANA SAENZ-SALAZAR. He was born February 21, 1765 in San Pedro, Villaldama, Nuevo Leon Mexico.


i. MARIA-DOLORES7 LAUREL-FERNANDEZ-CANALES, b. August 04, 1793, San Carlos, Vallecillo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

59. ii. MARIA-PETRA LAUREL-FERNANDEZ-CANALES, b. February 20, 1796, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

25. MARIA-TRINIDAD6 CUELLAR-CANALES (MARIA RITA5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1765 in Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico. She married JOSE-ANTONIO DE-LA-GARZA-HERNANDEZ June 07, 1786 in Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico.





60. iv. MARIA-DE-SAN-JUANA DE-LA-GARZA-CUELLAR, b. April 07, 1791, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

v. MARIA-ISABEL DE-LA-GARZA-CUELLAR, b. November 21, 1792, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

61. vi. PEDRO-JOSE-RAMON DE-LA-GARZA-CUELLAR, b. May 09, 1795, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

vii. MARIA-FRANCISCA-REGINA DE-LA-GARZA-CUELLAR, b. September 13, 1796, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

viii. JOSE-ANTONIO-NICASIO DE-LA-GARZA-CUELLAR, b. May 27, 1798, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

ix. MARIA-FELIPA DE-LA-GARZA-CUELLAR, b. June 04, 1798, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.




i. MARIA ROMANA7 VELA-CUELLAR, b. Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico; m. JOSE-TOMAS DE-LA-SERNA-RAMIREZ, February 23, 1819, Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico; b. Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico.





 Generation No. 5 

27. JOSE VENTURA7 GONZALEZ-SALINAS (MARIA-ANA-LUCIA6 SALINAS-CANALES, MICHAELA5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1774. He married MARIA LUISA YZAGUIRRE-VELA February 1798 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, daughter of JUAN-PANTALEON IZAGUIRRE-HERNANDEZ and MARIA-GERTRUDIS VELA-GARCIA. She was born October 31, 1772 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, and died February 23, 1856 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.









iv. MARIA GONZALEZ-VELA, b. August 07, 1804; m. JOSE-AGUSTIN DE-LA-PENA, January 15, 1824.

v. ANASTACIO GONZALEZ-VELA, b. August 20, 1807; m. MARIA DE-LA-GARZA-GARCIA, May 19, 1827.

vi. JOSE RAFAEL GONZALEZ-VELA, b. January 05, 1812.

vii. MARIA INEZ GONZALEZ-VELA, b. September 08, 1814.

viii. RITA GONZALEZ-VELA, b. May 29, 1815.

ix. JOSE RAMON GONZALEZ-VELA, b. May 15, 1818; d. November 07, 1819.

x. RAMON GONZALEZ-VELA, b. November 02, 1819; d. May 19, 1820.

xi. CATALINA GONZALEZ-VELA, b. November 29, 1820; m. JOSE FELIX GARCIA, February 08, 1842, Camargo, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

xii. JUAN JOSE RAMON GONZALEZ-VELA, b. December 24, 1823; d. January 08, 1824.

xiii. MARIA FRANCISCA GONZALEZ-VELA, b. October 08, 1826; m. JOSE-BASILIO SAENZ, July 07, 1845.


29. JOSE-FRANCISCO7 SALINAS-DE-LEON (JOSE-SALVADOR6 SALINAS-CANALES, MICHAELA5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born April 06, 1783 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married MARIA-GREGORIA LOPEZ-SALINAS December 10, 1815 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of JOSE-ANTONIO LOPEZ-DE-JAEN and MARIA-GERTRUDIS SALINAS-GARCIA. She was born May 19, 1799 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.






31. JOSE-ANTONIO-NEPOMUSENO7 CANALES-TREVINO (JOSE-JOAQUIN6 CANALES-GONZALEZ-HIDALGO, JOSE-SALVADOR5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born April 25, 1774 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married MARIA-JOSEFA ROSILLO-CANALES October 15, 1797 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of JUAN RONCLES-Y-ROSILLO and MARIA-JOSEFA DE MIER-NORIEGA. She was born 1779 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.


i. MARIA-ANTONIA-FRANCISCA8 CANALES-ROSILLO, b. August 17, 1800, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

68. ii. GENERAL ANTONIO-MARIANO CANALES-ROSILLO, b. December 24, 1802, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; d. 1852, Camargo, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

iii. MARIA-GENOVEVA CANALES-ROSILLO, b. January 16, 1805, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. DOMINGO DE UGARTECHEA-Y-MIER, May 17, 1823, Sagrario Metro, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

69. iv. MARIA-JUANA-DE-LA-EXPECTACION CANALES-ROSILLO, b. December 28, 1809, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

32. JOSEPH-MARIANO-DIONISIO7 CANALES-FLORES (JOSEPH-IGNACIO-HERMAN6 CANALES-GONZALEZ, JOSE-SALVADOR5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born April 10, 1774 in San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Villaldama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married MARIA-JOSEFA-CELEDONIA DE SOBREVILLA December 11, 1794 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of JUAN-NEPOMUCENO-EUGENIO DE SOBREVILLA-CANTU and MARIA-JOSEFA-DE-LOS-NIEVEZ GALINDO-VILLARREAL. She was born March 11, 1774 in San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Villaldama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.


i. JOSE-YGNACIO-LAZARO8 CANALES-SOBREVILLA, b. December 24, 1795, San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Villaldama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

ii. MARIA-JUANA CANALES-SOBREVILLA, b. June 29, 1797, San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

iii. MARIA-JOSEFA CANALES-SOBREVILLA, b. February 13, 1799, San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

iv. JOSE-MARIA-CANALES-SOBREVILLA, b. October 02, 1803, San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Villaldama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

70. v. JOSE-MANUEL-FELIPE CANALES-SOBREVILLA, b. February 06, 1806, San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

vi. JOSE MANUEL CANALES-SOBREVILLA, b. December 27, 1807, San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

vii. MARIA BALBIUA CANALES-SOBREVILLA, b. December 18, 1809, San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Villaldama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.



i. JOSE MATEO IGNACIO8 CANALES-TREVINO, b. September 25, 1817, San Juan Bautista, Lampazos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

34. JOSE-ANTONIO-TIBURCIO7 CANALES-GARCIA (JOSE-JUAN-ANTONIO6 CANALES-GONZALEZ, JOSE-SALVADOR5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born April 04, 1773 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and died February 01, 1839 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married SEGUNDA GUERRA-CANAMAR-TREVINO. She was born March 03, 1783.





iv. ANDRES CANALES-GUERRA, b. November 20, 1805.

v. JACINTA CANALES-GUERRA, b. August 27, 1806.








iii. MARIA-MANUELA CANALES-GONZALEZ, b. April 13, 1797, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

iv. JUAN-BAUTISTA-FLORENCIO CANALES-GONZALEZ, b. March 16, 1800, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

v. MARIA-FRANCISCA-DEL-ROSARIO CANALES-GONZALEZ, b. October 08, 1802, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

vi. JOSE-SALVADOR CANALES-GONZALEZ, b. January 26, 1804, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

71. vii. PETRA-RITA CANALES-GONZALEZ, b. May 25, 1810.

36. MARIA-LEONOR7 CANALES-GARCIA (JOSE-JUAN-ANTONIO6 CANALES-GONZALEZ, JOSE-SALVADOR5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born February 28, 1778 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, and died March 11, 1850 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico. She married JOSE-ALEJANDRO VIDAURRI-SANCHEZ August 10, 1795 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, son of JOSE-FERNANDO VIDAURRI-VASQUEZ-BORREGO and MARIA-ALEXANDRA SANCHEZ-DE-LA-BARRERA. (Note:Maria Alexandra is the aunt to Captain Tomas Sanchez de la Barrera, founder of Laredo, Texas). He was born 1766 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, and died February 10, 1847.


i. ALEJANDRO8 VIDAURRI-CANALES, d. 1888, Killed by indians, Rancho Dolores, Zapata County, Texas.

Notes for ALEJANDRO VIDAURRI-CANALES: His murder is the last recorded killing by indians in Zapata County.

El Rancho in South Texas, Continuity and Change from 1750, by Joe S. Graham

ii. MACARIO VIDAURRI-CANALES, b. 1791, Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, Mexico; Adopted child; m. (1) IGNACIA VELA, November 26, 1810, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico; d. 1830, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas; m. (2) MARIA-PILAR GARCIA-RAMOS, March 14, 1850, San Agustin, Laredo, Webb County, Texas; b. Laredo, Webb County, Texas.

A.K.A. Pilar Ramos and Pilar Ramos Martinez.

iii. MARIA-ANTONIA VIDAURRI-CANALES, b. June 20, 1796, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

72. iv. MARIA-ANTONIA VIDAURRI-CANALES, b. May 18, 1797, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

v. JOSE-CECILIO VIDAURRI-CANALES, b. December 06, 1800, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico; d. August 16, 1801, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

vi. JOSE-FELIX VIDAURRI-CANALES, b. November 25, 1802, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

vii. JUAN-JOSE-ANTONIO VIDAURRI-CANALES, b. May 29, 1804, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

viii. JOSE-MANUEL VIDAURRI-CANALES, b. June 20, 1809, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico; d. Aft. 1880, Rancho San Jose de Corralitos, Zapata County, Texas.

He is listed on the 1880 USA census, Rancho San Jose De Corralitos, Zapata County, Texas

73. ix. JOSE-LAUREANO VIDAURRI-CANALES, b. July 06, 1818, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico; d. Rancho San Jose de Corralitos, Zapata County, Texas.

37. MARIA-DOROTEA7 CANALES-GARCIA (JOSE-JUAN-ANTONIO6 CANALES-GONZALEZ, JOSE-SALVADOR5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born February 09, 1782 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico. She married JOSE-IGNACIO DE-LA-PENA-GARCIA January 18, 1804 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, son of JOSEPH-ANTONIO DE-LA-PENA-LOPEZ and MARIA-PETRA GARCIA-DE-LA-BARRERA. He was born January 31, 1782 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.



ii. MARIA-FRANCISCA DE-LA-PENA-CANALES, d. September 06, 1833, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico; m. JOSE-ISIDRO GARCIA-SAENZ, November 25, 1825, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

iii. SAN-JUANA DE-LA-PENA-CANALES, m. JOSE-RAFAEL HINOJOSA-GARCIA; b. July 28, 1809, Purisima Concepcion, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

iv. JUAN-FRANCISCO DE-LA-PENA-CANALES, b. August 21, 1806, Mier, Tamaulipus, Mexico.

v. MARIA-JOSEFA DE-LA-PENA-CANALES, b. April 20, 1812, Mier, Tamaulipus, Mexico.

vi. ROSA-MARIA-DE-JESUS DE-LA-PENA-CANALES, b. May 01, 1814, Mier, Tamaulipus, Mexico; m. SABAS DE-LA-GARZA.

vii. JOSE-LEONARDO-DE-LA-TRINIDAD DE-LA-PENA-CANALES, b. November 14, 1817, Mier, Tamaulipus, Mexico; m. TOMASA MARTINEZ.

viii. MARIA-ANTONIA DE-LA-PENA-CANALES, b. January 15, 1819, Mier, Tamaulipus, Mexico.

ix. VALENTIN DE-LA-PENA-CANALES, b. February 10, 1820, Mier, Tamaulipus, Mexico.



i. RAFAEL8 SALINAS-GONZALEZ, b. Carricitos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. MARIA-DE-REFUGIO GONZALEZ, December 15, 1840, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.







iv. MARIA-DOLORES SALINAS-GONZALEZ, m. SEFERINO FLORES-DE-LA-GARZA, March 05, 1832, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.


Marriage source:  From the book, Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza, Page 139.

40. JUAN-FRANCISCO-JAVIER7 CANALES-DE-LA-GARZA (JOSE-ANTONIO-BLAS6 CANALES-ANZALDUA, JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1756 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, and died April 20, 1792 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico. He married (1) MANUELA YZAGUIRRE. He married (2) MARIA-GERTRUDIS SALINAS-GARCIA January 1772 in Mier, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of JOAQUIN SALINAS and MARIA-DE-LOS-SANTOS GARCIA. She was born 1754.




ii. JOSEFINA RAMON8 CANALES-SALINAS, b. Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.




vi. RUMALDA CANALES-SALINAS, m. CAYETANO CHAPA-VELA, June 11, 1811; b. November 07, 1785.

76. vii. GENERAL JOSE-ANTONIO-TIBURCIO CANALES-SALINAS, b. April 04, 1773, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; d. February 01, 1838, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

77. viii. MARIA-CLARA CANALES-SALINAS, b. August 22, 1784, Mier, Rancho el Alamo, Tamaulipas, Mexico; d. September 18, 1855, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

78. ix. JOSE-ANTONIO-MATEO CANALES-SALINAS, b. February 11, 1786, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico; d. 1860, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

79. x. JOSE-EUGENIO CANALES-SALINAS, b. January 21, 1788, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

xi. JOSE-RAMON CANALES-SALINAS, b. September 02, 1790, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico; m. JOSEFA GARCIA-GARCIA, June 07, 1814.

80. xii. JOSE ANDRES CANALES-SALINAS, b. 1792; d. October 14, 1833.

xiii. JOSE-APOLINARIO CANALES-SALINAS, b. February 13, 1793, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

xiv. MARIA-DE-LA-MERCED CANALES-SALINAS, b. October 02, 1803, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico; m. (1) PEDRO GUTIERREZ, December 04, 1827; m. (2) MANUEL DE REINA, April 11, 1841.

81. xv. JOSE-DESIDERIO CANALES-SALINAS, b. January 1808, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.



i. JOSE-FRANCISCO-JAVIER8 DE-LA-BARRERA-CANALES, b. December 12, 1785, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

ii. MARIA-FELIPA-DE-JESUS DE-LA-BARRERA-CANALES, b. March 07, 1788, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

iii. MARIA-GERTRUDIS DE-LA-BARRERA-CANALES, b. March 10, 1791, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

iv. MARIA-DOMINGA DE-LA-BARRERA-CANALES, b. September 30, 1793, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

42. MARIA-MARGARITA7 CANALES-DE-LA-GARZA (JOSE-ANTONIO-BLAS6 CANALES-ANZALDUA, JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born June 27, 1764 in San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Villaldama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. She married JOSE-MANUEL SALINAS-GARCIA August 31, 1783 in San Gregorio, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, son of JOAQUIN SALINAS and MARIA-DE-LOS-SANTOS GARCIA. He was born in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.


i. MARIA-DE-LA-TRINIDAD8 SALINAS-CANALES, b. December 02, 1784, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.



i. JOSE-MATEO8 DE-LA-PENA-CANALES, b. September 22, 1785, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

ii. FRANCISCO-HILARIO DE-LA-PENA-CANALES, b. October 05, 1787, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

iii. JOSE-MARIA DE-LA-PENA-CANALES, b. November 21, 1789, Mier, Tamaulipus, Mexico.

iv. JUAN-JOSE DE-LA-PENA-CANALES, b. July 12, 1792, Mier, Tamaulipus, Mexico.

v. JOSE-DOROTEO DE-LA-PENA-CANALES, b. February 28, 1794, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

44. MARIA-JAVIERA7 CANALES-DE-LA-GARZA (JOSE-ANTONIO-BLAS6 CANALES-ANZALDUA, JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born July 26, 1767 in San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Villaldama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. She married ALEJANDRO DE-LA-GARZA-FERNANDEZ September 22, 1803 in Nuestra Sra del Refugio, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.


i. JUANA8 DE-LA-GARZA-CANALES, b. 1813; m. JULIAN HINOJOSA-LONGORIA, March 06, 1832, Nuestra Sra del Refugio, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico; b. 1805, Reynosa, Tamaulipas, Mexico.



i. JOSE ANTONIO8 CANALES-YGLECIAS, b. February 20, 1802, San Juan Baptista, Lampazos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

ii. MARIA-YGNACIA CANALES-YGLECIAS, b. January 25, 1804, San Juan Baptista, Lampazos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

iii. MA ESCOLASTICA DE LOS ANGELES CANALES-YGLECIAS, b. February 09, 1806, San Juan Baptista, Lampazos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

iv. MARIA ANTONIA CANALES-YGLECIAS, b. January 23, 1808, San Juan Baptista, Lampazos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

v. JOSE DE JESUS CHRISOSTOMO CANALES-YGLECIAS, b. January 27, 1810, San Juan Baptista, Lampazos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

vi. JOSE ANASTACIO CANALES-YGLECIAS, b. January 24, 1811, San Juan Baptista, Lampazos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

vii. JOSE FRANCISCO CANALES-YGLECIAS, b. April 12, 1813, San Juan Baptista, Lampazos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

82. viii. JOSE MANUEL DE LA CRUZ CANALES-YGLECIAS, b. September 15, 1815, San Juan Baptista, Lampazos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

ix. JOSE CARLOS CANALES-YGLECIAS, b. November 08, 1818, San Juan Baptista, Lampazos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

x. MARIA DE JESUS CANALES-YGLECIAS, b. January 29, 1820, San Juan Baptista, Lampazos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.



 San Juan Baptista, Lampazos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

xii. JUANA CANALES-YGLECIAS, b. February 23, 1824, San Juan Baptista, Lampazos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. FRANCISCO DE-LA-GARZA-GUAJARDO, November 28, 1844, Lampazos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

xiii. MARIA JUANA CANALES-YGLECIAS, b. February 23, 1824, San Juan Baptista, Lampazos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

xiv. MARIA DEL CARMEN CANALES-YGLECIAS, b. July 19, 1827, San Juan Baptista, Lampazos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.



i. MARIA-GUADALUPE8 RIVAS-CANALES, m. JOSE-MANUEL GARCIA-SOLIS, January 19, 1818, Nuestra Sra del Refugio, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

ii. MARIA-RAFAELA RIVAS-CANALES, m. (1) SIMON GARCIA-SOLIS, July 03, 1815, Nuestra Sra del Refugio, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico; m. (2) VACILIO GARCIA-HINOJOSA, July 04, 1821, Nuestra Sra del Refugio, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

iii. JUANA-MARIA RIVAS-CANALES, m. PEDRO-JOSE GOMEZ-SALINAS, April 19, 1819, Nuestra Sra del Refugio, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.



47. ANTONIO7 CANALES-DE-LA-GARZA (JOSE-ANTONIO-BLAS6 CANALES-ANZALDUA, JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1780, and died in Laredo, Webb County, Texas. He married CAYETANA SALINAS-DE-LA-PENA. She was born 1782, and died in Laredo, Webb County, Texas.


i. SILVESTRA8 CANALES-SALINAS, b. Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico; m. JACINTO GUTIERREZ-DE-LA-GARZA, October 26, 1827, San Agustin, Laredo, Webb County, Texas; b. Camargo, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

ii. LEONARDA CANALES-SALINAS, b. 1811, Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico; m. MANUEL ADAME-MARTINEZ, October 07, 1829, San Agustin, Laredo, Webb County, Texas; b. Camargo, Tamaulipas, Mexico.



85. i. JOSE TOMAS8 HINOJOSA-CANALES, b. Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

49. JOSE-DE-JESUS7 CANALES-GUERRA (JOSE-VICENTE6 CANALES-ANZALDUA, JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born 1783 in Canaleno, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married MARIA-GREGORIA CANALES-GARCIA February 19, 1810 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, daughter of JOSE-RAMON CANALES-ANZALDUA and MARIA-LEONOR GARCIA-SALINAS. She was born September 15, 1790 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, and died January 12, 1858 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

Source:Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza, page 231.


86. i. ISABEL-MARIA8 CANALES-CANALES, b. December 06, 1812, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

ii. JOSE GERONIMO CANALES-CANALES, b. October 08, 1815, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

iii. NORBERTA CANALES-CANALES, b. June 12, 1817.

iv. CANUTA CANALES-CANALES, b. January 26, 1821.


87. vi. MARIA DOROTEA CANALES-CANALES, b. June 10, 1828, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

88. vii. ALBINO CANALES-CANALES, b. March 07, 1831, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico; d. 1904.



i. MARIA-ANTONIA-LUISA8 PEREZ-CANALES, b. January 11, 1805, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

51. JOSE-JOAQUIN7 CANALES-GARCIA (JOSE-RAMON6 CANALES-ANZALDUA, JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born March 28, 1784 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico. He married MARIA-LEONOR RODRIGUEZ-HINOJOSA May 25, 1814 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, daughter of JOSE-NARCISCO RODRIGUEZ and MARIA-JUANA HINOJOSA. She was born in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

Source:Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza, page 144.





iv. MARIA ASUNCION CANALES-RODRIGUEZ, b. November 16, 1815, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

v. PETRA DE JESUS CANALES-RODRIGUEZ, b. October 28, 1830, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

vi. RAFAEL MACEDONIO CANALES-RODRIGUEZ, b. September 19, 1834, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.




ii. DEMETRIA CANALES-ZAMORANO, b. December 24, 1827.

53. MARIA-GREGORIA7 CANALES-GARCIA (JOSE-RAMON6 CANALES-ANZALDUA, JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born September 15, 1790 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, and died January 12, 1858 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico. She married JOSE-DE-JESUS CANALES-GUERRA February 19, 1810 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, son of JOSE-VICENTE CANALES-ANZALDUA and MARIA-GERTRUDIS GUERRA-VELA. He was born 1783 in Canaleno, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

Source:Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza, page 231.
Children are listed above under (49) Jose-de-Jesus Canales-Guerra.


Notes for MARIA-DE-JESUS CANALES-GARCIA:  In the book, Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza, she is listed as a descendent of Don Alonso de Estrada, Duke of Aragon. Page 19.


i. MARIA TRINIDAD8 HINOJOSA-CANALES, b. December 10, 1810, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico; m. JOSE DE JESUS DE LA GARZA, August 06, 1834, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

ii. MARIA ANTONIA HINOJOSA-CANALES, b. September 06, 1813, Hacienda de Dolores, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. JOSE MANUEL HINOJOSA-LOPEZ, February 05, 1834, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

iii. MARGARITA HINOJOSA-CANALES, b. July 24, 1815, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

iv. JUANA HINOJOSA-CANALES, b. June 26, 1817, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

v. JOSE CLEMENTE HINOJOSA-CANALES, b. October 28, 1819, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

vi. MARIA CLEMENCIA HINOJOSA-CANALES, b. 1820; m. JOSE PABLO SALINAS-CANALES, July 05, 1838, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

vii. MARIA ESTEFANA HINOJOSA-CANALES, b. September 03, 1821, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico; d. September 04, 1821, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

90. viii. FRANCISCA HINOJOSA-CANALES, b. October 08, 1822, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico; d. December 22, 1888, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

91. ix. MARIA JOSEFA DARIA HINOJOSA-CANALES, b. December 22, 1824, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

55. JOSE-DOMINGO-DEL-REFUGIO7 CANALES-SANCHEZ (JOSEPH-NICOLAS-LUCAS6 CANALES-CUELLAR, JOSE-CAYETANO-LUCAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born February 29, 1772 in Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico. He married MARIA-VICTORIANA JUAREZ-MARTINEZ July 30, 1806 in Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico, daughter of FRANCISCO JUAREZ and MARIA-ROSALIA MARTINEZ. She was born 1782 in Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico.









i. JOSE-SABAS-NEPOMUSENO8 LIENDO-CANALES, b. December 06, 1816, Guerrero, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

ii. MARIA-DE-JESUS LIENDO-CANALES, b. April 15, 1822, Guerrero, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

57. MARIA-PETRA7 CANALES-SANCHEZ (JOSEPH-NICOLAS-LUCAS6 CANALES-CUELLAR, JOSE-CAYETANO-LUCAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born Aft. 1780, and died in Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico. She married JOSE-CRISTOBAL RAMIREZ-DE-LA-SERNA July 10, 1800 in Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico, son of JOSE-SANTIAGO RAMIREZ-HINOJOSA and MARIA-GERTRUDIS-APOLINARIA DE-LA-SERNA-MARTINEZ. He was born 1781 in Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico, and died in Guerrero Viejo, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

Source:Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza, page 195.



ii. JOSE MARIA RAMIREZ-CANALES, b. Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico; m. ZARAGOSA ALVARES-LUNA, October 04, 1830, Nuestra Sra del Refugio, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico; b. Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico.



93. v. MARIA-APOLINAR-DEL-REFUGIO RAMIREZ-CANALES, b. June 17, 1804, Mier, Tamaulipus, Mexico.

58. MARIA-VERONICA7 CANALES-SANCHEZ (JOSEPH-NICOLAS-LUCAS6 CANALES-CUELLAR, JOSE-CAYETANO-LUCAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born Aft. 1780. She married (1) JOSE-CIRILIO TREVINO-BENAVIDES January 13, 1809 in Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico. She married (2) JOSE-ANTONIO CHAPA-TREVINO March 09, 1822 in Camargo, Tamaulipus, Mexico, son of JOSE-MIGUEL CHAPA-GARCIA and ROSA-MARIA TREVINO-CAVAZOS. He was born April 24, 1774 in Camargo, Tamaulipas,Mexico, and died October 02, 1872 in Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.


i. MARIA-CECILIA-DE-JESUS8 CHAPA-CANALES, b. December 14, 1822, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico. 
94. ii. MAXIMILIANO CHAPA-CANALES, b. June 10, 1824, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.
iii. LUCIANO CHAPA-CANALES, b. December 13, 1827, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.
iv. JOSE PAULINO CHAPA-CANALES, b. June 29, 1829.



i. MARIA-ANTONIA8 VELA-LAUREL, b. June 17, 1837, Nuestra Senora de Agualeguas, Agualeguas, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.













Notes:   1. Brøderbund Family Archive #110, Vol. 1, Ed. 4, Social Security Death Index: U.S., Social Security Death Index, Surnames from A through L, Date of Import: Feb 22, 2003, Internal Ref. #



Departure, Canary Islands for Cuba  Working with Latinos/Hispanics in the U.S.A. in San Juan, Puerto Rico

Departure from Canary Islands for Cuba
Sent by Paul Newfield
Here is a little factoid that I found interesting.  It relates to the motivation behind some young men leaving the Canary Islands for Cuba in c.1909.   It shows how events in one place can influence actions and decisions on other side of the world.
In that period of pre-World War I colonial expansionism, Spain had for many centuries owned its North African outposts at Melilla and Ceuta.  In July 1909, Spain became engaged in serious military operations in North Africa.  Fresh troops would be needed to fight in these conflicts (and yet it was only about 10 years after Spain's disasterous loss of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines to the United States).  
From Francisco Tarajano Perez's book, *Memorias de Aguimes - 1* (Aguimes, Gran Canaria: Ayuntamiento de Aguimes, 1999; 277 pages):  (p.134)  "El 26 de julio de 1909 llega al Ayuntamiento una orden del Gobierno Civil de que no se consientan mitimes ni manifestaciones publicas contra la guerra de Melilla.  Los mozos de Aguimes protestaron con la emigracion a Cuba de un buen numero de ellos.  No quisieron 'servir al rey' en una torpe guerra."

Working with Latinos/Hispanics in the U.S.A. in San Juan, Puerto Rico
Sent by Paul Newfield

The University of Puerto Rico (UPR), Mayagüez Campus, is sponsoring the 1st “Working with Latinos/Hispanics in the U.S.A.” Conference, October 27-29, 2004, in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The objective of the activity is to share information regarding Latinos/Hispanics in the United States. Latinos and Hispanic-Americans are staged to become the largest minority in the U.S. As a corollary, the impact of Latinos/Hispanics presence will be felt all over the nation. It is necessary for professionals who will serve a Latino/Hispanic clientele to be educated and sensitize on these issues.

We understand that professionals who serve a diverse clientele could improve their services by learning valuable information on the following topics, as they pertain to Latino/Hispanic reality in the U.S.:

• Health/Nutrition -- including ways in which Latinos/Hispanics people use traditional healers/ “curanderos” in relation to health care workers and naturopathy instead of modern medicine.
• Cultural differences among Latinos/Hispanics ethnic groups. Analysis of differences between new immigrants and those citizens who have been in the U.S. for a long time are also welcome.
• Migrant patterns (streams) for agricultural workers; their diversity; work related and ethical issues.
• Family structure and dynamics.
• Youth – focusing on drug-use and teen pregnancy prevention
• Community dynamics focusing on leadership
• Diversity – focusing on how to deal with oneself and with the diversity that Latinos/Hispanics represent in the U.S.
• Language: the challenge of translating educational material – keeping the integrity of meaning; is it possible to speak about a “mainstream” Spanish within Latinos/Hispanics groups in the U.S.? How do media corporations like Disney and Univision treat the delivery of Spanish, either in translating or in the delivery of programs targeted to Latinos/Hispanics audiences in the U.S.?
• Recruitment of volunteers and/or employees who will serve Latino/Hispanic clientele (skills and criteria for recruitment).


De La Garza de Lepe
Spain's Day in Court
Algunos Guadarrama  
Gibraltar Celebrates British Capture 300 yrs ago


Custodio Rebollo Barroso 

Custodio is a columnist for the Spanish newspaper, El Correo Odiel Informacion, published in Andalucia, S.L. .  His column appears twice a week under the title of "De Salida"

In this article, Custodio suggests an organization to facilitate contact between researchers in the United States and Spain be formed.  Sounds like a good idea. If any would like to help with this effort, please let me, Mimi

Este articulo se publicará el 2 de agosto proximo. Si le encuentras algún fallo me lo dices.  


Todo nació por  un articulo publicado en Odiel Información. relacionado con el fundador de Laredo, el capitán Tomás Sánchez de la Barreda y Garza, que era descendiente de  Francisco Sánchez de la Barreda hijo de José Sánchez Ortega y Juana Márquez de la Barrera, nacido en Lepe en 1603, que llegó a Nueva España como soldado de Felipe III en la Compañía del Gobernador Martín de Zavala 

Este articulo fue publicado en Internet en el Boletín de la Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research, de los Estados Unidos y desde entonces he recibido un buen número de correos electrónicos de personas que tienen el apellido “ de la Garza” y que se encuentran en diferentes países, especialmente en los Estados Unidos y en México, agradeciendo los datos facilitados e incluso pidiendo ampliación de algunos.

También recibí llamadas de onubenses que me daban pistas sobre el fundador de Corpus Christi, que era un De la Garza, también descendiente de Lepe y que fue origen, hace unos años, de un hermanamiento entre ambos Ayuntamientos.

Contacté  con el Archivo Municipal de Lepe telefónicamente y les prometí una visita en fecha próxima, aunque me adelantaron lo poco que me pueden facilitar y ya lo que me queda es visitar el Archivo Parroquial de Lepe, para averiguar si tienen algo, aunque en esas fechas eran escasos los datos que se guardaban.

He puesto en contacto a los diferentes de la Garza que me han consultado y pienso que sería muy bueno, si aún no existe, crear una Asociación  para recoger datos de los portadores de dicho apellido e intercambiarlos entre ellos. Esta Asociación se podría ofrecer a la SHHAR para, si consideran oportuno acoplarla a su boletín en Internet, “Somos Primos”                                   

Spain's Day in Court
Archaeology, Nov/Dec 1999, pg.18

The 1763 treaty ending the French and Indian Wars has proved to be a pivotal legal document in an ownership battle between Spain and the salvage firm Sea Hunt, Inc., over two centuries-old Spanish frigates recently discovered off the Virginia coast.

A federal judge in Virginia's Eastern District Court ruled in April that Spain was the rightful owner of the Juno, a frigate that sank in 1802 while carrying more than 400 passengers and Spanish gold coins.  This victory may be the initial salvo in a long-term legal and diplomatic offensive by Spain to protect its cultural heritage.  "Spain is actively considering further steps to protect historic vessels," said Jim Goold, a lawyer for the country.

The judge also ruled that Spain holds no claim to the frigate La Galga, which sank in 1750, citing the 1763 Treaty of Paris which ceded to Britain "all that Spain possesses on the continent of North America, to the East or South East of the river Mississippi."  Spain plans to appeal the La Galga decision, arguing that the 1763 treaty did not include the transfer of sunken ships and that a previous, signed in 1667 by Great Britain and Spain, declared neither side would take ownership of its opponent's sunken vessels.  Britain has filed a brief supporting Spain's position.


Gibraltar Celebrates its captured by the British 300 years ago

Photo: Anton Meres, Reuters

Gibraltar: Thousands in Gibraltar linked hands to create a human chain around the tiny British colony at the tip of the Iberian peninsula, celebrating the 300th anniversary of the territory's capture by Britain.  

The human chain was an unmistakable political statement to the colony's neighbors in Spain, which lost the deep sea harbor and strategic naval base August 4, 1704, and has yearned to recover it since. About 12,000 people - a third of colony's population turned out to create the chain.  Many were red T-shirts adorned with British flags.

Algunos Guadarrama  
Sent by Eddie Grijalva
And Elsa Herbeck
Estoy interesado en contactar a Personas, Instituciones, Historiadores, Cronistas de Ciudades, Comunicadores Sociales,...para ensamblar y compartir la Base de Dato sobre las Personas que han tenido, tienen y tendrán el Apellido: Guadarrama.

Este Apellido tienes sus Orígenes en España, de hecho en España hay un Pueblo y una Sierra ( Cadena de Montañas ) con este Nombre: Guadarrama

En Venezuela y Costa Rica también tienen Pueblos con este Nombre: Guadarrama

México tiene el mayor numero de Personas con el Apellido: Guadarrama, seguido por USA ( Descendientes Mexicanos ), Venezuela, España,... 

En Venezuela tengo un amplio registro de los Guadarrama Venezolanos y de algunos Guadarrama del resto del Mundo.

En Venezuela las Personas con el Apellido Guadarrama de primer Apellido, se encuentran en los Estados: Falcón ( Cardon, Punto Fijo, Judibana,... ), Distrito Federal , Zulia ( Maracaibo, Coquivacoa ), Miranda ( Sta. Teresa del Tuy, Guatire, Higuerote, Guarenas, Tacarigua, San Antonio de los Altos ), Lara ( Moran, Ayacucho ), Carabobo ( Valencia ), Bolívar ( Puerto Ordaz ) y Aragua ( Maracay, La Victoria )  

Esta información de este Capitulo o Entrega se mejorara con los registros Eclesiásticos anteriores al año 1836 hasta la fecha en que haya llegado el primer o los primeros Guadarrama a Venezuela.
Muy interesante es la información encontrada en la Bibliografía consultada, donde se expresa que 2 Hermanos de Apellidos: Pérez Guadarrama y Rodríguez Guadarrama se establecieron en 1752 en Paraguana, donde adquirieron algunas Propiedades. 
El Apellido Guadarrama es poco frecuente en Venezuela y en el resto del Mundo. Los Países que tienen habitantes con este Apellido son: México, USA, Venezuela, España, Argentina, Puerto Rico, Filipina, Chile, Francia y Canadá. ( El orden en que estan colocados estos Países indica donde hay mayor números de Personas con Apellido Guadarrama " primer Apellido ", según las Guía Telefónica-Paginas Blancas de estos Países ).

En España de donde proviene el Apellido, los Guadarrama que encontré no son muy numerosos ( 253 Personas ), ni estan en todas las Ciudades o Pueblos de España. Según la Guía Telefónica-Paginas Blancas hay Guadarrama ( primer Apellido ), en las siguientes Ciudades: Tenerife ( 78 Personas ),  Madrid ( 71 Personas ), Valladolid ( 49 Personas ), Barcelona ( 15 Personas ), Pontevedra ( 5 Personas ), Ávila ( 5 Personas ), Zaragoza ( 3 Personas ), Ourense ( 3 Personas )  Alicante ( 2 Personas ), Granada ( 2 Personas), Málaga ( 2 Personas ), Segovia ( 2 Personas ), Sevilla ( 2 Personas ), Vizcaya ( 2 Personas ), Las Palmas ( 2 Personas ), Baleares ( 2 Personas ), Córdoba ( 1 Persona ), Guipúzcoa ( 1 Persona ),  León ( 1 Persona ), Murcia ( 1 Persona ), Salamanca ( 1 Persona ), Valencia ( 1 Persona ), Zamora ( 1 Persona ) y Girona ( 1 Persona ).
Bueno espero que sea de su interés y utilidad la información de este primera Entrega.
Roberto José Pérez Guadarrama

Urb. Trigal Norte, Avenida Del Antártico,
Conj. Red. Valle Escondido, Casa # 10,
Valencia, Edo. Carabobo, Venezuela 2001
Telf.: 58-0241-8432029
Cel: 04143403359

Los invito a entrar a esta paginas web:




International Variety Galore 
Women in the Azores 
A Filipino researcher states
Cristobal de Alfaro, Costa Rica
Huge database of Canary Islanders 
Flags of the Canary Islands
Fundacao Biblioteca Nacional 
Genealogia de Familias Chilenas 
Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer

Women in the Azores and the Immigrant Communities
by Rosa Maria Nevis Simas
This is a four volume book.  Each volume features the Portuguese women in the Azores and in the USA and contains articles written by Portuguese Women and scholars from the   Azores, Canada, Massachusetts and California.  Each volume can be purchased for $50.  For further information, go to
Source: Portuguese Ancestry Vol SIV, #1 Apr 2004, 
Editor: Rosemarie Capodicci

A Filipino researcher stated:

I "harvested" a lot of names of my deceased relative, their date of birth, death dates and marriages, but as I got closer to 1849, I could not connect any of those names to any earlier.

One day, as I sat in a beauty parlor waiting for my turn to get my regular monthly trim, I chanced upon a local magazine.  There, I found an article saying that in 1849, the then-Spanish governor-general in the Philippines issued a decree ordering all Filipinos to choose from a list of surnames he had provided.  Before this decree, the natives arbitrarily chose Catholic saints' names for their surnames.

I went back to the library a few days later.  As I continued my search, I noticed a kind of evolution of surnames.  The surnames I'd been looking for, such Ona and Ozaeta, actually evolved from Ona Santos, Ozaeta Santos, (Santa Ona and Saint Ozaeta) which initially were both de los Santos.  There was no doubt in my mind because spouses' first names, children's birth dates and parents' other data matched the other information I had.

A floodgate of information was opened, and I was to extract more names of my ancestors back to the 1700s.       . . . . .Maria Carolina Paat, Philippines Ilagan Mission

Source:  Church News, week ending June 12, 2004

Dear Sirs:
I would to know about where was born
CRISTOBAL DE ALFARO, "Conquistador y Encomendero" of Costa Rica at XVI Century.
Best regards, Joaquín A. Fernández
  Costa Rica

[[Editor's note:  Out of curiosity I decided to do a quick google search and found some interesting information. Never ceases to amaze me . . how much is available through the internet. ]]

FERNANDO ALFARO, EL VIEJO, Y CRISTOBAL DE ALFARO, naturales de Alcaraz y vecinos de Las Peñas de San Pedro obtuvieron Ejecutoria de Hidalguía ante la Chancillería de Granada el 29 de mayo de 1524 [ Ejecutoria (301-5-4) ] 

Click here: Los ALFARO en España

GeneaNet  Genealogical Database Network   
Huge database of Canary Islands names.
Sent by Bill Carmena

To navigate in this database, search: by person, first name surname, public name or alias. 
Web Master: Wade Falcon  (337) 232-3174       810 S. College Dr., Lafayette, La.  

Flags of the Canary Islands

The web master plans to collect all the information available about the flags of the Canarian archipelago at any level, regional, insular or local, both official and unofficial, and both current and historical.   Web master:

Fundacao Biblioteca Nacional (Portuguese)
Biblioteca Vistual, Miguel D. Cervantes
Paul Newfield says. . "worth exploring"

Genealogia de Familias Chilenas Genealogy of Chilean people
Author and Webmaster
Tomás Pino Aldunate por Familias Chilenas
Sent by Johanna De Soto . .  this is a treasure, a goldmine!!


Origen Apellidos

antiguos recuerdos 


Los descendientes


¿ Tu buscas a ?

Quienes y que aportaron

Que tenemos



Bibliografía, Escritos y otros


Introducción a la Genealogía de la Nacionalidad Chilena

Por que escribir la familia, y no una familia, es por una razón simple, no es una familia que posee bajo nuestras leyes cuatro apellidos, si no más bien una red de familias, cual semejanza de una araña fue tejiendo sus redes en el transcurso de los siglos, desde su llegada a este continente llamado América, no olvidando sus orígenes en el viejo continente europeo.

Desde el descubrimiento de América por Cristóbal Colon en 1492, este continente fue recibiendo enormes oleadas de emigrantes europeos, aunque durante los primeros 50 años fueron escasas las familias que se radicaron en él, debido a que los que llegaron fueron básicamente soldados, cuyo objetivo era la conquista de este nuevo mundo.

Se recuerda que en los primeros 16 años de la conquista de América, el único lugar poblado fue Santo Domingo, por 1512 se pobló Cuba, la cual seguida muy de cerca fue Panamá en el año de nuestro señor de 1514.

Entre los años 1493 y 1517 se gestan en nuestro continente las primeras formas de gobierno, trabajo y tributación.

La relación entre los conquistadores y los naturales del continente, no siempre estuvo marcada por la paz, si no que tuvo alzas y caídas, en un comienzo fue la esclavitud de los indios, para después de consultas a los teólogos de la corona, estos debían ser "vasallos libres", esto último desencadenó como solución en las mentes de los codiciosos españoles la búsqueda de una institución que les permitiera generar una importante mano de obra, y poder asegurar la explotación de las grandes extensiones de tierras y recursos mineros, de esta necesidad surgió la "encomienda".

El gran "regulador", fue Carlos V, quién creó el "derecho de indias", que involucraba a los adelantados, encomenderos, curas, protectores de indios, a la par que organizaba los territorios en virreinatos, gobernaciones, corregimientos y audiencias en el nuevo mundo, estas audiencias no-solo eran tribunales de segundo orden, si no además órganos de gobierno.

La Conquista de Chile.

Durante 1536, llegó a Chile la expedición de don Diego de Almagro, si bien esta no tuvo resultados, preparó por esos avatares del destino, la expedición de don Pedro de Valdivia la que si los tuvo, ya que definitivamente permitió la radicación de colonos europeos en nuestro país.

Este Capitán español, llegó al valle de Santiago un glorioso año de 1540, probablemente en el mes de Diciembre, en ese mes fundó la ciudad de Santiago.

Aproximadamente, después de 1655, según algunos autores, luego de los alzamientos indígenas, podemos hablar de una aristocracia chilena, la cual se basaba en la posesión de la tierra. Era una aristocracia terrateniente como así mismo un "conjunto de patricios urbanos".

Tal vez el principal factor que explica nuestra nacionalidad sea la guerra permanente, originada por el espíritu indómito del pueblo mapuche, debido a esto nuestro ejército pasó a ser una institución gravitante en el gobierno de esta nación, así mismo como un ente catalizador continuo de sangre nueva venida de España.

Metodología de lectura.

Este trabajo fue desarrollado en orden descendente, es decir desde el primer ancestro hasta los actuales descendientes. Se numeró el orden de descendencia, así mismo como se subrayó el ancestro directo, a objeto de distinguirlo del resto de sus colaterales.

La Composición de nuestra población.

A mediados del siglo XVI la población indígena alcanzaba a las 500.000 almas y la española llegaba a las 10.000 donde "el mestizaje fue mayor se produjo de una alta tasa de hijos ilegítimos con bastantes excepciones, estableciéndose en estamentos que regían la sociedad española, peninsulares nobles contraían matrimonio con indias de alcurnia, en tanto que los "simples pecheros" lo hacían con naturales de baja extracción o convivían con estas.

Esta situación originó que de los 77 compañeros de Pedro de Valdivia, que dejaran descendencia conocida se conocen 226 mestizos, con solo un matrimonio con india y siete bodas con mestizas.

Con el pasar de los siglos cada vez fue menor el número de los indios que se mezclaron con los españoles, estos se mezclaron con mestizas, por tanto la población se fue "blanqueando" y no a revés.

En el siglo XVIII, llegan a nuestro país los vascos, y en menor grado catalanes y aragoneses, forman una clase social de comerciantes y funcionarios, que se orientaron a la vida urbana y social, lo que contrastaba con los castellanos, que tenían una fuerte orientación a la guerra y la agricultura, únicos afanes que nutrieron a los viejos conquistadores.

Algunas familias llegadas en este periodo fueron los Aldunate, Vial o Viel, De la Lastra, Eyzaguirre, Larraín, Carrera, Freire, Bulnes, Arechavala y otros.

Los negros, llegaron con los españoles y su población variaba al siglo XVIII entre el 3% y el 10% del total de la población existente. Aunque en su casi totalidad se mezclaron con la población nativa.

Los hijos fuera del matrimonio se dividían en naturales, aquellos concebidos fuera del matrimonio pero de un hombre y mujer solteros, y los adulterinos, aquellos vástagos concebidos por alguien que ya estaba casado.

Los primeros incluso formaron parte de la familia y fueron reconocidos como herederos, los segundos ocultados y no heredaban. Además no faltaron los hijos sacrílegos, concebidos por sacerdotes, poco creyentes de las normas de nuestra iglesia.

La bastardía no quitaba la "hidalguía", se ejemplifica con la dinastía de Trastamara en Castilla.

Otro de los factores que han forjado nuestra identidad a sido las continuas calamidades que han azotado nuestro país, el historiador Mellafe cuenta 283 desastres entre 1520 y 1906, sin tomar en cuenta las guerras, revoluciones, incendios. Hay un terremoto cada 7 años, una sequía y una epidemia cada cuatro.

Los Apellidos y su uso.

Los apellidos y sus reglas surgen en el siglo XVIII, vienen junto a la Revolución Francesa, junto al siglo de las luces y la racionalidad.

Antes de esa época era común en toda la península ibérica así mismo como en Portugal que los hijos de alguna familia adoptaran el apellido de la madre, padre, abuelos, ya sea paterno o materno o algún antepasado anterior, basándose en la gloria y poder de este, donde las reglas de caballería y los romances andaban de la mano.

Por tanto hay muchos portadores de un apellido que no pertenecen al núcleo familiar por parentesco.

Se agregaba el problema de la grafía, es decir como se "escribía el apellido", así mismo como la "castellanización" de los mismos, lo cual no es exclusivo de nuestro país o América, si no de Europa, cada país modificó a su arbitrio y a la calidad de sus escribanos, los apellidos provenientes de fuera de sus fronteras.

Los apellidos compuestos han cambiado y su objeto a sido simplificarlos o acortarlos, esto ocurrió en forma masiva, después de 1800 en nuestro país, su ejemplificación es "Del Pino" como "Pino" y "Martínez de Aldunate" como "Aldunate".

Una culpa importante de estos cambios la tienen los escribanos, los interesados o los sacerdotes que manejaban estos apellidos en las ocasiones solemnes.

Títulos y apelativos eran usados con gran parsimonia en todos los documentos que suscribían, como así mismo a su condición social y alcurnia, todo lo último fue borrado de raíz por "Bernardo O´Higgins", quien como director supremo de esta nación además abolió los títulos nobiliarios y los escudos de armas, además de la costumbre social imperante en aquella época que ya por entonces tendía a la simplicidad y a la pujanza del individuo contra los derechos heredados sin ningún valor.

Los Mapuches tenían diversas formas de utilizar y heredar el nombre, no existía diferencia entre el nombre y el apellido. Con la estabilización del cacicazgo los nombres comienzan a heredarse y transformarse en apellidos, ya que expresaban el poder del que lo ostentaba.

Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer

Zia Northwest is proud to present a seminal work in the field of Spanish-American poetic choreography.*
Sent by Joel Aragon
360-668-4108 PH  360-668-3390 FAX
With English interpretations and readings by Dr. John A. Aragón 
Musical accompanist Moisés Rodríguez
Spanish readings by Eliseo Casillas 

(* Blending and arranging of the music and interpretative readings together in a way that expresses the heart and mind of the poet.)

From the liner notes: The time has come for the world to recognize the talent of Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer, a poet who ranks with Keats and Shelley and Byron.  The Spanish-speaking community, the English-speaking community should know the glory and the grandeur of this great Spanish poet.  It is hoped that this record will close the circle of American poetic choreography.

In all of Spain, in all its history, there isn’t a greater poet than Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer.  There isn’t in all of Spain, in all of the XIXth Century, a greater poet than Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer.  He rises late when the fury and the anger of romanticism were already spent.  Bécquer brings to the world of poetry a new tone, a new sound.  Bécquer does not scream, Bécquer does not throw a tantrum.  He plays a minor key on the keyboard of Spanish poetry.  The voice of Bécquer is soft and gentle.  He cries and he pleads in disciplined accents of reason, couched in such simple language that they reach the ears of the uninitiated as well as the learned.  

History and literary criticism have determined that Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer is the major poet of the XIXth Century in Spain, and that he is the first of our modern poets.  Listen, my friends, to the voice of Spain, listen to the voice of the human race, listen to the voice of man as he sings or laments the triumph or the disaster of human love.  All Spanish-speaking young people from here and there, from then and now, know Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer by memory, because all young people are lovers, and being lovers , they are romantic.  Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer, romantic poet of all the centuries!

The guitar of Moisés Rodriguez brings to us echoes of the most ancient Spain and the most modern America.  Spanish guitar, American guitar.  Everyone knows that Moisés Rodriguez is one of the outstanding guitarists in the world.  Listen, and you shall hear the capability of one artist to understand and feel the artistic capability of another artist.  It was time that Bécquer found a musician worthy of him!  Moisés has achieved the total fusion of verse and music.  The poetry and the music are one and the same. 

The Spanish readings are by Eliseo Casillas.  Eliseo captures the subtlety of the Spaniard but adds just a hint of the flair of Spanish-speaking America.  Those who know Spanish will appreciate the quality of voice and emphasis.  Those of you who are learning the language should listen well.  You will seldom hear the language spoken with such clarity and controlled emotion.  

Translation is impossible.  The translation of poetry is beyond the pale.  It takes a poet to interpret poetry and thereby transmit it into another language.  John Aragón is a poet who has had the sensitivity to vibrate to Bécquer’s poetry and to transmit these vibrations into probably the best and most sensitive rendition of Bécquer’s poetry in English.  I challenge you poets, hybrid poets, linguists-come up with better translations! Sabine R. Ulibarrí, Ph.D.Chairman, Department of Modern and Classical Languages  The University of New Mexico  




                                   Sent by Orlando Lozano

  This is worth remembering, because it is true. It's familiar territory, but those of you that graduated from school after the early 60's were probably never taught this.  Our courts have seen to that! 

   Did you know that 52 of the 55 signers of "The Declaration of Independence" were orthodox, deeply committed, Christians? That they all believed in the Bible as the divine truth, the God of scripture, and His personal intervention.  It is the same Congress that formed the American Bible Society, immediately after creating the Declaration of Independence, the Continental Congress voted to purchase and import 20,000 copies of Scripture for the people of this nation. 

  Patrick Henry, who is called the firebrand of the American Revolution, is still remembered for his words, "Give me liberty or give me death"; but in current textbooks, the context of these words is omitted. Here is what he actually said: "An appeal to  arms and the God of hosts is all that is left us. But we shall not fight our battle alone. There is a just God that presides over the destinies of nations. The battle, sir, is not to the strong alone. Is life so dear or peace so sweet as to be purchased at the price  of chains and slavery?  Forbid it Almighty God. I know not what course others may take, but as for me, give me liberty, or give me death." 

  These sentences have been erased from our textbooks.  Was Patrick Henry a Christian?  The following year, 1776, he wrote   this: "It cannot be emphasized too strongly or too often that this great Nation was founded not by religionists, but by Christians; not on religions, but on the Gospel of Jesus Christ. For that reason alone, people of other faiths have been afforded freedom of   worship here." 

  Consider these words that Thomas Jefferson wrote in the front of his well-worn Bible: "I am a real Christian, that is to say, a  disciple of the doctrines of Jesus. I have little doubt that our whole country will soon be rallied to the unity of our creator."  He   was also the chairman of the American Bible Society, which he considered his highest and most important role. 

  On July 4, 1821, President Adams said, "The highest glory of the American Revolution was this: "It connected in one indissoluble bond the principles of civil government with the principles of Christianity." 

  Calvin Coolidge, our 30th President of the United States reaffirmed this truth when he wrote, "The foundations of our society   and our government rest so much on the teachings of the Bible that it would be difficult to support them if faith in these   teachings would cease to be practically universal in our country." 

  In 1782, the United States Congress voted this resolution: "The Congress of the United States recommends and approves the   Holy Bible for use in all schools." 

  William Holmes McGuffey is the author of the McGuffey Reader, which was used for over 100 years in our public schools   with over 125 million copies sold until it was stopped in 1963. President Lincoln called him the "Schoolmaster of the Nation." 
Listen to these words of Mr. McGuffey: "The Christian religion is the religion of our country. From it are derived our nation, on the character of God, on the great moral Governor of the universe. On its doctrines are founded the peculiarities of our free Institutions.  From no source has the author drawn more conspicuously than from the sacred Scriptures.  From all these extracts from the Bible, I make no apology." 

  Of the first 108 universities founded in America, 106 were distinctly Christian, including the first, Harvard University, chartered in 1636. In the original Harvard Student Handbook, rule number 1 was that students seeking entrance must know   Latin and Greek so that they could study the Scriptures: "Let every student be plainly instructed and earnestly pressed to   consider well, the main end of his life and studies, is, to know God and Jesus Christ, which is eternal life, John 17:3; and   therefore to lay Jesus Christ as the only foundation for our children to follow the moral principles of the Ten Commandments." 

  James Madison, the primary author of the Constitution of the United States, said this: "We have staked the whole future of all our political constitutions upon the capacity of each of ourselves to govern ourselves according to the moral principles of the Ten Commandments."  



The Research Process at a Glance
Mexican Genealogical Research 
Heraldry:  HispanicOnline
New LDS Research support
Facts & Genes,Family Tree DNA
Geographic Name Service 
FirstGov website

This month begins a six-part lesson series for the beginning genealogist. "The Research Process at a Glance" is the first lessn of these series. A lot of this content I borrowed directly from George R. Ryskamp’s book Finding Your Hispanic Roots. This book is number one on my recommendation list—I suggest to beginners and advanced researchers alike to invest in this book. And no, I am not getting paid to say this.

"The Research Process at a Glance"

By Salena Ball Ashton


Sometimes we feel overwhelmed by how much is involved in beginning our family history. The worst thing you can do to begin your research is start by looking in census and church records. Why? Because maybe someone else has already done that. You’ll be spending enough time as it is doing your genealogy. Don’t waste your time by reinventing the wheel!

By glancing at this article, I hope you’ll get an idea of how the process works and how simple it really is.  The basics of family history are:

1. Collect the information that others have already gathered.
2. Evaluate this information: what is missing or conflicting?
3. Search documents, etc. for this missing/conflicting information.
4. Evaluate this new information. Does it make sense? If not, go back to step 3.
5. If the new information opens up new leads, return to step one and collect the information that has already been gathered about this new lead.


The Research Process is simple. This is the cycle your research will take, whether you are just beginning or if you are a professional researcher. Here is the process with more detail:

1. See what has already been done. This is called Preliminary Search.

        Family Sources- It doesn’t matter if your fifth generation professional genealogist or the first 
        and only one who cares, the work is about the family. And what better place is there to turn for
        information about the family than the family?

i. Previous Research
ii. Family Interviews
iii. Stories
iv. Pictures
v. Memorabilia

         Internet- Many people put their genealogy on the Internet, and it is also the second place we 
         should turn to when searching for information. It is second only to family sources.

i. -- This is a free genealogy website. This program consists of six databases:


                   € Ancestral File- Women are usually listed with their maiden name. This database shows individuals linked together as families.

                   € International Genealogical Index- Women are usually listed with their maiden name. This database shows individuals and families linked together.

                   € Pedigree Resource File- Submitted by other researchers. Sometimes they will have included their sources and contact information.

                   € U.S. Social Security Death Index- For those people who had Social Security Numbers, and are dead, they might show up in this database. Don’t be surprised to see
                   people born in the 1860s in here. Some of them lived through the 1930s to receive a
                   Social Security Number. Women are listed by their married name.

                   € Vital Records Index- Just what it sounds like, an index to the vital records. Vital records are birth, death, and marriage records.

                   € Family History Web Sites- When you type in a name or a location, often the database will find related websites. This is how I found the Bible entries of my Gorman and
Sandusky ancestors. Otherwise, I would have never known they were on the Internet.

                   € Family History Library Catalog- This will tell you whether or not there are compiled genealogies of your family, microfilmed records of the church in a small village, etc.

ii. -- This is another database full of names, though it is not free. They also have message boards where you can post queries and find distant cousins who are searching the same families.
iii. -- Another wonderful database of names that is FREE. It also has wonderful databases on county, state, and country information that is so vital to research. They also have message boards where you can post queries and find distant cousins who are searching the same families.
iv. -- Dedicated to the Hispanic genealogist. Adding to and accessing the database is free, as are all the articles and consultation services.
v. -- This is a genealogical website directory. There are tens of thousands of genealogy sites listed here. Some are general, some are ‘how to’s’, and some are extremely specific. You will never exhaust this website. Not using this website is like trying to play baseball without a bat.


 Other Resources to Consider-

i. Libraries and Archives, on various judicial levels: city, county, state, and national libraries and archives. Some libraries, even small ones, have genealogy sections.
ii. How to Books. See for an excellent selection, then go  to ebay to find that item cheaper.
iii. Manuscript Collections—ask your librarian.
iv. PERSI—as your libraria

2. Evaluation

 Now that you have found all that has already been done, you are ready to evaluate the

     i. Ask yourself: Does this make sense?
     ii. Do the dates, names, and places make sense?
     iii. Is there any conflicting information?

        Enter this information into your PAF or other genealogy software program, or if
                   you’re not using software, enter the information into your notes and family group sheets.

         Organize what you have. I guarantee that if you don’t organize your work, you
                   will not be as effective in your research.


3. What information do I want to learn?

The answer to this question will be determined on how well you evaluated your preliminary research in step two. If there is no marriage date—search for the marriage date. If there are three variations of a surname (not including spelling) search for that.
How important is the information you want to learn about? If it is necessary to continue the research, then by all means, please research it!! However, if it’s something not so important like "who was grandma’s first boyfriend?" you may want to reconsider how cost-effective it will be to find that out.
Once you’ve decided what you want to research, now you have to research it! This is called Original Research. Here, you go into the documents, the dusty books, the microfilmed records, and ship passenger lists.


Census Records
Vital Records (Birth, Marriage, and Death)
Church Records (Baptism, Confirmation, Marriage, and Burials)
Military Records
Other original records.

4. Evaluation of original research.

Just as you did in step two, now you need to evaluate the information you have found. Did you answer your questions from step three?
What additional information did you find?
Do you have more questions now than when you first began? Good. That will be your lead into your next search.

5. Start over.

               Once we’ve answered our original questions from step three, we can either stop or continue to research. With new information, sometimes we’ll have to look at different people, different locations, or other things that we had not previously researched. Instead of jumping straight into more census records or church records, you would be wise to first do preliminary research—to see if someone else has already done the work!


The Ashton Family with new addition. 


by John P. Schmal

A. Collect information from family members.  Questions to ask:
1.  Dates of birth, marriage, places where ancestors lived.
2.  Where did our ancestors live in 1920 (for the 1920 census).
3.  Did our ancestors become citizens? (Naturalization records)
4.   Did we have non-citizen immigrant ancestors living in U.S. in 1940?(Alien Registration forms)
5.   Do we have passports or visas for our ancestors? (Use to get additional info from the INS.)
B.  Naturalization records
C.  Birth, marriage, death certificates (civil or church).
D.  Obituaries or cemetery records


(Once you have found out what municipio, city, or estado your family came from):
A. Locate your ancestral town on a large-scale map.
1. Which municipio is the town in?
2. What church did they attend? (Church records and civil records may be in different locations).
3. Is the town near the boundary of another jurisdiction (municipio, estado)?
4.  If your ancestral town was a small hacienda, locate the geographic coordinates in a Gazeteer of
Mexico, then go to a large-scale map and note the municipio in which it lies.

A. Search for the town or municipio in the Family History Catalog.
1. Civil records (Municipio).
2. Church records.
3. Other (census, padrones, military, family histories).
B. Search the International Genealogical Index (IGI).
C.  Write to the Catholic Archdiocese office for records.
D.  Write to the State Civil Registers for records.

"Mexican-American Genealogical Research:  Following the Paper Trail" has several chapters that assist readers with many of these categories of research. Are you trying to learn more about your ancestors that came from Mexico?  Trying to figure out how to find key information so you can trace your Mexican roots? Do you know the name of the hacienda or villa or city they came from?  You can purchase "Mexican-American Genealogical Research: Following the Paper Trail to Mexico" by going to the Heritage Books website:

The book includes a whole chapter on border crossing records:  non-resident alien identification cards, temporary permits, manifests, etc., as used in previous years.

Heraldry:  HispanicOnline - Hispanic Heritage Plaza 2002
Sent by Bill Carmena

New Family History Research supports program needs online volunteers  
Sent by Lorraine Hernandez
Research Support, a new unit of the Family and Church History Department of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, was organized to help patrons and family history consultants quickly find quality research advice. We will accomplish this in two ways.  First, we will help route questions to communities of enthusiasts who can answer them best. Second, we are building tools to help patrons and consultants find research advice quickly.

How to Ask Us a Question

For those who have questions about research, they can send their e-mail request, at any time, using the following these steps:
Go to
Click on the Library tab 
Click on the following statement “Click here to send us an e-mail” 

The Community
No family history enthusiast can know the answer to every research question. We are all limited to certain specialties and are asked questions we cannot answer.  However, by networking enthusiasts to share knowledge in a community, each with a different research specialty, we can help patrons receive the best answer.

To build these networked communities, we are looking for people with expertise in:
·       Research for beginners

·       Research in specific localities (countries, states, counties, parishes, etc,)

·       Research of specific racial or ethnic groups (Native American, Maori, etc.)

·       Record types (census, immigration, birth, probate, etc.)

·       Record analysis, interpretation, or translation 

The Tools
The software we use is web-based, which allows you to provide research advice to patrons from your home, from family history centers, or from any other place that has a high-speed Internet connection. In late 2004, we will release a knowledgebase and dedicated search engine, which will help you quickly find answers to patrons’ questions.

Research Support Questionnaire
If you would like to use our upcoming tools and be a part of this research community, we would love to hear from you. Please contact us to receive a questionnaire. We look forward to working with family history enthusiasts worldwide to help each other provide great research advice to patrons!

Facts & Genes from Family Tree DNA
August 25, 2004 Volume 3, Issue 5
Editor's Corner
Welcome to this issue of Facts & Genes, the only publication devoted to Genetic Genealogy.

Facts & Genes provides valuable information about utilizing Genetic Genealogy testing for your genealogy, and keeps you informed about the latest advancements in the field.

Last month, I asked in the newsletter about the oldest participant, and would like to thank all those who responded. It was quite amazing to find so many participants in their 90's and a few in their 100's, which is evidence of the willingness of the senior population to explore new technologies. The oldest participant reported was 103 when they took a DNA test, as part of the International Dalton Surname Project. The next oldest participant was 102, and a member of the Faux Surname Project.

If you have older relatives, especially if they are the last male in a branch, you may want to get their sample stored now, while you still have an opportunity. If you are sponsoring the test, and working within a budget, consider the 12 Marker test, which can always be upgraded at a later date.

Sent by Tom Ascencio  Tom

The Geographic Name Information Service (GNIS) is located at
Sent by George Gause

According to the website, GNIS, developed by the USGS in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names, [it] contains information on almost 2 million physical and cultural geographic features in the United States and its territories.  It is our Nation’s official repository of domestic geographic names information. Included are maps and aerial photographs.
Many of these websites give full in-depth descriptions of their record sets.  Many provide the data online, instructions on how to locate the records and the forms needed to request the information. The use of federal records and federal websites is practically unlimited.  
SOURCE: NCGS News [North Carolina Genealogical Society newsletter], Summer, 2004, page 7-7 [unnumbered].

FirstGov website
Sent by George Gause

FirstGov website The ultimate website to access all other federal websites is     This is an internet site to really get excited about!!! From this site, you can access all other federal government websites including NARA (National Archives and Records Administration), a Civil War Soldiers database, information about the Federal Census, Naturalization records or Federal Land Patent records, Folk Life and Culture, Presidential History, National, State, and County Data and Statistics, GNIS [covered in a separate / forthcoming message], etc. etc. etc.  SOURCE: NCGS News [North Carolina Genealogical Society newsletter], Summer, 2004, page 6 [unnumbered]. 



First Americans' arrival figured at 18,000 years ago.
by Nicholas Wade, New York Time, via OCR, Jul 25, 2003

That's the latest genetic estimate for New World's original residents, once thought older.
Scientists studying the genetic signatures of Siberians and American Indians have found evidence that the first human migrations to the New World from Siberia probably occurred no earlier than 18,000 years ago.

The new estimate undermines earlier estimates by UCI researchers that colonization occurred as far back as 30,000 years ago, but reinforces archaeological findings and a linguistic theory that most American languages belong to one family, Amerind.

The evidence fits, for example, with the discovery of a campsite in Chile put at 15,000 years old, and the presence of big-game hunters in North American, 13,6000 years ago.  the few sites with possibly older traces had not gained wide scientific acceptance.

By studying the DNA of living Siberian and American Indian populations geneticists had previously been able to see traces of at least two early migrations from Siberia.




Will Rogers, who died in a plane crash with Wylie Post in 1935, was probably the greatest political sage this country has ever known.
Sent by Sergio Hernandez

Enjoy the following:
1. Never slap a man who's chewing tobacco.
2. Never kick a cow chip on a hot day.
3. There are 2 theories to arguing with a woman...neither works.
4. Never miss a good chance to shut up.
5. Always drink upstream from the herd.
6. If you find yourself in a hole, stop digging.
7. The quickest way to double your money is to fold it and put it back in your pocket.
8. There are three kinds of men: The ones that learn by reading. The few who learn by observation. The rest of them have to pee on the electric fence and find out for themselves.
9. Good judgment comes from experience, and a lot of that comes from bad .
10. If you're riding' ahead of the herd, take a look back every now and then to make sure it's still there.
11. Lettin' the cat outta the bag is a whole lot easier'n puttin' it back.
12. After eating an entire bull, a mountain lion felt so good he started roaring. 
He kept it up until a hunter came along and shot him. The moral: When you're full of bull, keep your mouth shut.


1. Eventually you will reach a point when you stop lying about your age and start bragging about it.
2. The older we get, the fewer things seem worth waiting in line for.
3. Some people try to turn back their odometers. Not me, I want people to know "why" I look this way. I've traveled a long way and some of the roads weren't paved.
4. When you are dissatisfied and would like to go back to youth, think of Algebra.
5.You know you are getting old when everything either dries up or leaks.
6.I don't know how I got over the hill without getting to the top.
7.One of the many things no one tells you about aging is that it is such a nice change from being young.
8. One must wait until evening to see how splendid the day has been.
9. Being young is beautiful, but being old is comfortable.
10.Long ago when men cursed and beat the ground with sticks, it was called witchcraft. Today it's called golf.

And finally ~ If you don't learn to laugh at trouble, you won't have anything to laugh at when you are old.



                12/30/2009 04:49 PM