January 2004 
Editor: Mimi Lozano

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research

Content Areas

United States

Hispanic Heroes
Orange County, CA
Los Angeles, CA
Northwestern US
Southwestern US
East of Mississippi
East Coast
Family History
Meetings January 31
SHHAR Quarterly meeting



A California Soldado de Cuera, (c) 2003
Watercolor painting by Tami Early 
Prominent California Artist in San Diego
was inspired to Honor the  
Hispanic American Heroes Series, Galvez Project

Search previous issues for surnames, places, dates, subjects, etc. 
click on: 
News: Speaker's Bureau to promote Hispanic/Latino Heritage
Does your organization need a luncheon or dinner speaker for 2004, please contact Michael Perez and schedule your event,  We have presenters all over the country.
News: to host Hispanic Chat Line To access the chats, log on to: Then sign in by using your screen name and Internet Server (i.e. We ask you to  use your screen name and server so that we can send e-mail to answer questions, if necessary. No password is required. Then scroll down under lobby and LOG IN to COUSINS CONNECTION Room.

An opportunity to chat with the authors of articles submitted to Somos Primos has been facilitated by . Starting in January 2004, on Mondays and Fridays specific times have been established for the convenience of Hispanic esearchers from coast to coast.

Mondays:  9-10 p.m. Eastern Standard time EST.
Fridays:    8-9 p.m. Pacific Standard time PST

Co-hosts will be Chuck Bobo and Mimi Lozano, editor of Somos Primos.  On Fridays, authors of articles submitters to Somos Primos will be online to answer questions. During the month of January SHHAR Board member
John P. Schmal will be answering questions. 

John Schmal is an historian, genealogist and lecturer. With his friend Donna Morales, he co-authored "Mexican-American Genealogical Research: Following the Paper Trail to Mexico" (Heritage Books, 2002). He has degrees in History (Loyola-Marymount University) and Geography (St. Cloud State University) and is a board member of the Society of Hispanic Historical Ancestral Research (SHHAR).  

John is an associate editor of SHHAR's online monthly newsletter, He is also a frequent contributor to, and Mexico Connect.  

In the next two months, John Schmal will have new publications dealing with a founding family of Los Angeles and an indigenous family from Jalisco. At the present time, he is presently collaborating with Eddie Martinez - a graphics illustrator - on a manuscript entitled "Indigenous Mexico: Past and Present." He has just finished work as a contributing editor to "Latina Encyclopedia," which will be published in 2004 by Groliers.  

Again, To access the chats, log on to: Then sign in by using your screenname and Internet Server (i.e. We ask you to use your screen name and server so that we can send e-mail to answer questions, if necessary. No password is required. Then scroll down under lobby and LOG IN to COUSINS CONNECTION Room.


Somos Primos Staff: 
Mimi Lozano, Editor
John P. Schmal, 
Joan De Soto, 
Howard Shorr
Armando Montes
Michael Stevens Perez
Rina Dichoso-Dungao, Ph.D.

Lic. Salvador Romero Arreaza 
Doug Barry
Chuck Bobo
Eliza Boné
Nancy Bonetti Ray
Jaime Cader
Bill Carmena
Luis/Margaret Cepeda
Dena Chapa Rupert
Oscar Chapa
Carlos Cortés, Ph.D.
Jack Cowan
Joan De Soto
Rina D. Dungao, Ph.D
Lic. Armando O. Escobar     .......Olemedo
Granville Hough, Ph.D.
John Inclan
Carlos Ray Gonzales
Mickey Garcia
Edward Grijalva
Manuel Hernandez
Granville Hough
Luis Larios, Ph.D.
Cindy LoBuglio
Leroy Martinez
Lic. Carlos Martín Herrera de Garza
Juan Mayans
Ing. Emma Rosa O. de Herrera
Paul Newfield
Lic. Guillermo Padilla Origel
Jose Pantoja
Barbara Ann Richman
Howard Shorr

Robert Smith 
Lic. Miguel Antonio Vera    
J.D. Villarreal
SHHAR Board:         
With the firm commitment of maintaining a cross-section of Hispanic heritage and regional interests the Board welcomes three new members: 
Manuel Garcia
, Portland, Cuban-American (retired bus. owner and political activist)

Les Rivera,
L.A.  Puerto Rican-American (Music Exec.)
Lourdes Tinajero, Washington DC, Mexican-American (Consultant, Ex-Gov. employee)
Laura Arechabala Shane   
Bea Armenta Dever  
Steven Hernandez
Mimi Lozano Holtzman 
Henry Marquez
Yolanda Ochoa Hussey   
Michael S. Perez   
Crispin Rendon  
Viola Rodriguez Sadler 
John P. Schmal   

More Information:  714-894-8161


Hispanic of the Year:
U.S. Commander Lt. Gen. Sanchez

New Generation is Leading the Way Weekly Digest

United States Newspaper Program 
I Speak for Democracy
The Making of a Multiculturalism
A Conversation with Alana
Celebrating Culture and Community
Caucasian Club Founder Transfers
Barron Prize for Young Heroes
Qué Bebé!
Bilingualism Makes You Smarter
Teach Spanish to Your Child Online 
Latino Language
U.S. Hispanic Internet Usage Rises 
Anika entre Libros 
World War II Memorial, May 29th
Hell's Angels
Oscar Chapa, Air Force Mechanic
Vice Admiral Richard Carmona

Free CD on Latin American Family History Resources,  click 


Extract: U.S. commander in Iraq shaped by South Texas childhood   
Sent by J.D. Villarreal
As reported by Dallas Morning News, The Associated Press  12/21/2003 

CORPUS CHRISTI, Texas — Before Sanchez, 52, was appointed commander of the Army's V Corps and all coalition ground forces in Iraq earlier this year after being named a three star general, he learned the value of hard work growing up in the small town of Rio Grande City. It's located just two miles from the Mexican border at the base of Starr County, which the 2000 U.S. Census labeled as the poorest county in the United States.

When he was 13 years old, Sanchez, who was named "Hispanic" magazine's Hispanic of the Year, told his mother he and his older brother didn't want to go to school anymore. So Maria Sanchez said they would have to instead work and pick cotton.

"I woke them up at 5 in the morning and sent them off in one of the trucks," said Maria Sanchez, 77. "They came home and they were very tired, but I just gave them some dinner and told them, 'Go to bed because tomorrow you have to wake up early. You have to get up at 5 a.m. and pick cotton for the rest of your life.' "  One 14-hour workday was all it took for Sanchez to realize school would be the answer to his future.

The Army, Sanchez has said, is easy compared to growing up in Rio Grande City, in a household of six children, with one parent, no plumbing and no electricity.

Sometimes Sanchez didn't get encouragement outside his home. When he was in the sixth grade, a math teacher called him "dummy." Eager to prove her wrong, he studied harder and eventually majored in math at Texas A&I University, now Texas A&M University-Kingsville, where he met his wife, Maria Elena Garza.

"That negative event had a tremendous impact on my life. It really made me who I am today," he said. "It was the first instance where I remember being challenged and reacting in a way that was very focused in order to prove people wrong."  Sanchez finished at A&I in 1973 as a distinguished military graduate, having double-majored in math and history.

He entered the Army in the 82nd Airborne, in Fort Bragg, N.C., commissioned as a second lieutenant. From there he earned promotion after promotion.

Sanchez has served all over the United States, as well as in Korea, Panama and various parts of Germany. This is his second tour of duty in the Middle East, having served as a battalion commander in Iraq during Operation Desert Storm. The bulk of his assignments have been in armored divisions, serving in or commanding tank battalions. ( 0701 12/21/2003 16:37:31 ) 

A New Generation Leading the Way 
by Donna Jackson Nakazawa
Orange County Register, July 6, 2003
Donna Jackson Nakazawa is the author of 
"Does Anybody else Look Like Me?  
A Parent's Guide to Raising Multiracial children"  

The number of multiracial children in the U.S. is increasing rapidly.  How will they affect the way we think about race?  According to the latest U.S. Census estimates, 4.5 million children now under 18 in this country are multiracial.  The rate of interracial marriages is skyrocketing.  In some areas, one in six babies born today is of two or more racial heritages - making multiracial youth one of the fastest-growing segments of our population.

The desire to fit in, to find a group with which to identify is a challenge. which seems to follow those of mixed races.  Many multiracial young people say they came into their own during the college years, as they began to broaden their own sense of identity in settings with a wide variety of people.

Today, more than 25 colleges have multi-racial student organizations - including Brown, the University of Pennsylvania, the University of Virginia, the University of Michigan, Smith, Wellesley and the University of Texas.  These multi-racial college students are becoming bridges.  Bethany Bastinelli, 24, whose parents are Native American and Italian - works in the Fraternity and Sorority Affairs Office at Lehigh University.  "I want to help incoming freshmen to understand that in college they're surrounded with people from all different backgrounds, and they can choose to erase the stereotypical tapes we all have in our minds," she says. "When they do have a racist thought, they can say to themselves,` Hey, this is stupid. This isn't how I want to think.'" 

 "There's a trend toward rejecting whiteness as a way 
of expressing success." 

That's the big change over time. 
There's a Latino identity that's neither white nor black, 
and it's a positive identity." 

Lewis Mumford Center for Comparative Urban and Regional Research
at the State University of New York at Albany. Go to extract of article.
Sent by John Inclan Weekly Digest
Our Point of View - Nuestro Punto de Vista
(NOTE: Patrick Osio, Jr.'s manual - a primer on the Mexican Perspective on perceptions and issues between the US and Mexican people to allow a better understanding of one another, and essays on the culture and protocol to help establish personal and business relationships - will be available for electronic download purchase for $9.95 on December 30, 2003. Further information and secure purchasing instructions will be sent via email.)

United States Newspaper Program
Humanities, November/December 2003
Funds were given to all states to microfilm their  newspapers back to 1800.  
Sent by Carlos Ray Gonzales  

The United States Newspaper Program is a cooperative national effort among the states and the federal government to locate, catalog, and preserve on microfilm newspapers published in the United States from the eighteenth century to the present. Funding is provided by the National Endowment for the Humanities. Technical assistance is furnished by the Library of Congress.

The Real American Love Story, Why America is a lot less white than it looks
. By Brent Staples Posted Tuesday, Oct. 5, 1999, at 12:28 AM PT 
Sent by John Inclan

The PBS broadcast last month of An American Love Story--a 10-hour film about an interracial family--spawned a great deal of chatter to the effect that mixed-race couplings were the wave of the future. In fact, they are the wave of the past. Interracial marriages accounted for only 2.2 percent of all marriages in the Current Population Survey of 1992, a gain of only two-tenths of a percent over 1980, and the number of mixed couplings actually decreased slightly in 1991. The census pattern suggests that slightly more interracial couples will fall into each other's arms in the coming years but that there will be nothing resembling a dramatic acceleration of marriage across the color line. 

 Circa 1949/50 Speech made by Mimi Lozano

In 1949 (or 1950), I won in an American Legion speech competition. My speech was entitled, I Speak for Democracy. Part of the award was to have your speech recorded onto a 78 in record. 

On December 15th, 2003, the day that Saddam's capture filled every newspaper, I heard a radio exchange expressing the thought, that only when the world's nations' governments function under a democratic system would we all be safe.

What a surprise that same afternoon to hear my words, carefully recaptured, that expressed the same thought more than 53 years ago. I was either 15 or 16 years old, a sophomore or junior.

Recording done in Fidelity Sound Recording Studio,
 2001 Pacific Avenue, Stockton, California.

On December 15, in the morning, my friend Dr. Earl Beecher, Outstanding Records, picked up the old record and said that "if anyone could do it Frank could." Gratefully, Earl was right, Frank __________, owner, Cassette Company, Santa Ana was able to copy the phonograph record, which was not even recorded with the standard technology of the time. It was recorded on some form of coated paper. Frank actually had to glue the record to the turn-table and turn it by hand.

Although the CD has noise, except for the second sentence, the words are very clear. The other surprise is that as a teenager, I was actually expressing the same thoughts that I still adhere to. . . . the principles of Democracy, with intercultural respect and understanding is the foundation of peace.


"Have you ever seen a baby clutch at its mother's hand, a dog follow at its master's side. The thoughts which run through those small heads puts fear in their hearts. . . . 
 . .  when acted upon . . (they need) someone that they can depend upon.

The people of the United States must be the ones to lessen the fear in the heart of world. We must be the leaders into the atomic age, an age in which no one knows what the outcome will be. The world needs strong forces to hold it together, a government to guide the world into an age of science, and not destruction, education and not ignorance.

In the early century man invented many things, most of them when possible were used in warfare The turmoil and absolute destruction of this age are in our hands. The atomic bomb produced from one of the most powerful forces of nature, the minute atom has now been put to use by man.

This can only controlled by an education world, educated in democracy to know by what means to use this atomic energy with its vast and unknown potentially as a new source of power and energy for the benefit of the world.

I am proud of many things. Proud that I can walk to the grocery store, get some bread, milk, gossip awhile and on the way home perhaps get a soda at the malt shop, and maybe go to the church after. Proud, Proud because I know that we are responsible for these liberties. Proud of our lands and riches, and what we have done and are doing with them through democracy.

I have always thought that it was a divine providence that made this nation so different from others, that put so many different kinds of people in one great nation, that combined the customs of so many different nationalities into one harmonious pattern, that utilized the knowledge of the world to such fine advantages.

We better than any nation should understand the danger that confronts the world. Our understanding of the different nations and customs, our powerful and successful government should make us ready leaders in this present world civilization.

The world needs us and we must go to its aid , not by giving money and food, or by signing treaties, but by teaching, teaching democracy."

The Making of a Multiculturialist

Carlos E. Cortés is a Professor Emeritus of History at the University of California, Riverside. Since 1990 he has served on the summer faculty of the Harvard Institutes for Higher Education and is also on the faculty of the Summer Institute for Intercultural Communication.

Sent by Carlos Cortés, who can be reached at (909)-787-5401, x11487, or at
Carlos Cortés has been a first-hand observer and participant in the growth of multiculturalism and multicultural education from their birth in the social movements of the 1960s to the present day.  In this unique collection of essays about diversity, society, and education, he provides readers with valuable insights, both from his own life story and from some of the most thought-provoking article he as written over the past three decades.  In many ways, Cortés's personal and professional story is the story of the multicultural movement itself, and this value gives witness to the struggles and successes that Cortés and many others have experienced while striving to create a place of the voices, values, and visions of racial and ethnic groups in our culturally diverse national and shrinking world. This one-of-a-kind reflective history:
  • Examines the evolving nature of multiculturalism and multicultural education as a dynamic and interactive process.
  • Features the perspective of a historian who has participate din the multicultural education movement.
  • Urges readers to reflect on their own lives, careers, and efforts to meet the challenges and opportunities of our increasingly diverse society.
  • Helps educators examine their own reasons for participating in the struggle to build a better multicultural future for our children.


by Carlos E. Cortés

When I retired in 1994 after 26 years as a Professor of History at the University of California, Riverside, I set out on my new life as an independent writer, lecturer, and diversity consultant. However, nowhere in my wildest fantasies did I imagine that less than ten years later I would be presenting my own one-person autobiographical play. Yet here I was, on December 4, 2003, doing just that at Valencia Community College in Orlando, Florida.

How did this come about and what does this have to do with Hispanics? Well, as they say in the world of theatre, let's take it from the top.

In 1918, at the age of eleven, my father (also Carlos Cortés) immigrated from Mexico to rejoin his family in the United States. I say rejoin, because the rest of his family had fled in 1913.

During the Mexican Revolution, Grandfather Carlos Cortés (who died before I was born) had been jefe político of Guadalajara under President Francisco Madero. When Madero was overthrown and then assassinated in 1913 by the dictatorship of General Victoriano Huerta, my grandfather was told that he was about to be arrested and probably executed. He had to leave immediately.

With his wife and children (except my father), Grandfather Cortés fled, settling in the San Francisco Bay area. According to family oral tradition, he could not even pick up my father, then six, at school, because Huerta's men were waiting for him there. When Dad returned home after school that day, he found his entire family gone. For the next five years he lived in Guadalajara with his devoutly-Catholic aunt before reuniting with his family in California.

Like thousands of other Mexican Revolution refugees, the previously wealthy Corteses lost just about everything and had to start over again in the United States. But they did have one major advantage over most other refugees. They spoke English and my grandfather was an engineer, having graduated from Stanford. He joined Shell Oil in Martinez, California, and the family did well until his 1928 death from colon cancer.

My father went first to the the University of Nevada, Reno, where he boxed and played football, and later to the University of California, Berkeley, where he graduated with a degree in History. He even began work on an M.A. However, after his father's death, he had oldest-son responsibilities to his mother and five younger siblings. When the Great Depression hit, he dropped out of graduate school to go to work.

However, during the Depression there was certainly no great demand for historians. So he became a service station auto mechanic, which he was when he met my mother.

Mom's family could hardly have come from a more different world than Dad's wealthy, aristocratic, Mexican Catholic family. Her parents were uneducated, working class, turn-of-the-century Jewish immigrants, my grandmother Ada Weinsaft from Vienna, Austria, my grandfather Morris Hoffman from a village near Kiev, Ukraine. Their families settled in Kansas City, Missouri, where they met and courted in Yiddish, the common language of Eastern European Jews.

Slowly, resolutely, my grandparents pulled themselves up into the middle class. They began selling produce in the Kansas City Market, then my grandmother managing apartments so that my grandfather could go to night school, and finally establishing a small construction business.

As their only child, my mother, Florence Hoffman, became the focus of their hopes and dreams. They immersed her in Jewish life and sacrificed to give her opportunities they never had. This included going to college at the University of California, Berkeley. While a senior there, she met my father. It was from California that she wrote home that she had fallen in love with a Mexican Catholic immigrant auto mechanic.

This was not exactly the fulfillment of my Jewish immigrant grandparents' dreams. Yet, despite opposition from both of their families, my parents married in 1933. The following year I was born, in Oakland, California. Some six months later my folks moved to Kansas City so that my mother could be near her family to help take care of me. For Mom this was a return home. For Dad this was a radical dislocation from his immediate and extended family in California and Mexico. It turned out to be a permanent dislocation that would haunt him until the day he died.

I was raised in a Mexican-Catholic-Austro-Russian-Jewish home in mid-twentieth-century Kansas City. This was an era of rigid racial and religious racial segregation combined with deeply-rooted religious separation dividing Catholics from Protestants from Jews. Because of my particular mixed background, I grew up marginal in just about every social situation.

A few years ago I began to write my family's story, beginning with the diverse backgrounds of my grandparents until the death of my father in 1985, leaving me the oldest member of my family at age 51. The result is a book manuscript, "Letters to Alana: An Autobiographical Portait of an American Family," which is in the final stages of revision before submission for publication. Neither a standard family history nor a straightforward autobiography, it is rather a combination of the two. It is my family's story told through my eyes as I lived it, felt it, pieced it together, and tried to make sense of it.

The story revolves around my family's ethnic and religious tensions, which were never fully resolved even though their marriage lasted for half a century. Written from an autobiographical perspective, it relates my coming-of-age experiences of trying to deal with family conflicts while, at the same time, learning to cope with Kansas City's racial, ethnic, and religious divisions despite my stigmatic mixed background, which made me a perennial outsider.

After 1952, when I went away to college, I never again lived in Kansas City, although I worked there during college summers and have visited at least once a year since. Therefore, my perspective in the book changes from continuous participant to intermittent observer of and occasional contributor to the often-dramatic changes occurring in Kansas City. Moreover, the book becomes a kind of mystery story, as I began to learn about more family secrets and discovered documents, such as my parents' love letters, that have continuously modified the story I thought I knew so well.

In the process of writing and revising the book manuscript, I have received lots of input from others. The entire manuscript was read and reacted to by my younger brother (and only sibling), Gary, in Kansas City, his wife, Debby, his oldest daughter, Rita, my wife, Laurel, and my daughter, Alana. (The book is titled "Letters to Alana" because it is written in the form of a series of letters to my daughter, in which I tell her my own and my family's story, as well as explain to her how I have tried to unravel the mystery of my family.)

Over the years I have read selected chapters to others in order to get their responses and feedback. This began with one-on-one readings, sometimes with people who appear in the book, such as old Kansas City friends. Later these readings grew into small-group sessions in Kansas City, in my memoir-writing class at my university, at conferences where I was speaking, and at colleges and universities where I had been invited to give lectures and do diversity workshops. I even spent a week as writer-in-residence at my former Kansas City high school, where I did a public reading from the chapters about my high school days.

Audience reactions have been fascinating, particularly from people of mixed backgrounds and those involved in mixed marriages. They want to talk, share their own stories and family histories, explain their dilemmas, and relate how they have overcome personal and family challenges. Sometimes these discussions have lasted longer than the readings themselves.

During this process I was approached on two occasions by stage directors, both of whom told me that the story was so intriguing and dramatic that it should also be turned into a play. Well, nothing ventured, nothing gained. The result? "Letters to Alana" (the book) has been joined by "A Conversation with Alana: One Boy's Multicultural Rite of Passage" (the play).

In December, 2003, I presented my first public reading of the play in Orlando. I have also received a number of other invitations to present or read the play -- from universities, from small theatre groups, even at a national diversity conference in June, 2004.

Based on my experience with the readings of book chapters, the play should also prove to be a springboard for rich discussions of heritage and experience. After my Orlando reading, numerous people came up to me to tell me their own stories. One young man, a Muslim who is dating a Christian girl, told me that my tale of the challenges of growing up in a mixed family had revealed to him the importance of thoroughly discussing religious and ethnic issues if marriage should become a possibility.

One of the startling aspects of these private and public readings is how listener reactions constantly trigger my own thinking and give me more insights into my own family's story. As a result, I imagine that "A Conversation with Alana" will be a play in constant revision or as long as I continue presenting it publicly.

As the old miner's poem ends, "It isn't the gold that I'm wanting so much as finding the gold." The search to keep rediscovering my family history is truly an ongoing rediscovery of myself.


Celebrating Culture and Community, San Jose, California

Sent by Jaime Cader, Vice-President

CC&C's first board of directors (minus one) 1997

Celebrating Culture and Community is dedicated to promoting cross-cultural understanding.  Their activities include multi-cultural multi-day festivals, forums, classes, public art programs and exhibits. 

We believe public art best serves the community when the public can be involved in producing the art, and when the art serves as public testimony to the contributions made by diverse ethnic communities. We organize public forums on topics of interest to the general community, and to specific ethnic groups, to school groups and to commercial entities.

We also have items related to our diverse communities and their culture for sale at our center: CDs. framed color photographs of performers, note cards featuring public art, and more. 510- 236-3255

Caucasian Club Founder Transfers
by Jose Antonio Vargas, San Francisco Chronicle,  via Orange county Register, 10-23-03

In Oakley, California, high school student Lisa McClelland attempted to organize a club which she said would be "a kind of comfortable place where students of all background could talk about - with an emphasis on European history - and how her "whiteness affects those who aren't white. Caucasian/White Club.  

There's a black Student Union, a Latinos Unidos for Latin-Americas and an ALOHA Club for Asian-Americans at the school.  So, McClelland wondered, why not a Caucasian Club?  Pedro Noguera, a sociologist at New York University, sympathizes with McClelland -"at least to an extent," he said.  

"On one level, it is understandable that when white students see other students celebrating their cultures and participating in activities that recognize their backgrounds - - those students might feel some degree of resentment.  They wonder if they, too, have an ethnicity," Noguera said. 

"But almost everything else, thought it's not named as a celebration of white people and white culture, is just that.  Most of U.S. history glorifies the experience of individuals and groups of people who are white."

Gloria Barron Prize for Young Heroes

Barbara Ann Richman
The Gloria Barron Prize for Young Heroes seeks nominations for its 2004 awards. The Barron Prize recognizes young people ages 8 to 18 who have shown leadership and courage in public service to people and our planet. Barron Prize winners each receive $2,000 to be applied to their higher education or to their service project. Nomination deadline for 2004 is April 30. For more information, visit http://   or email

Qué Bebé!

Wal-Mart distributes this magazine at their stores, Qué Bebé! 
It is written in Spanish for parents of babies.  It is filled with suggestions written by medical professionals for child care.   Articles cover the physical, psychological, and social needs of the infant.  In addition, a column of suggestions by readers is included.

Does Bilingualism Make You Smarter? Research shows it could be.
By Domenico Maceri  December 19, 2003
Domenico Maceri  PhD, UC Santa Barbara, a contributing columnist to (, teaches foreign languages at Allan Hancock College in Santa Maria, CA.Sent by John Inclan

Traditionally, the idea was that bilingual children’s language development was slower because of having to deal with the confusion of two languages. Laura-Ann Petitto, a researcher at Dartmouth University says that the heightened cognitive skills of bilingual children have to do with the increased computational demands of having to process two different languages.

The advantages of bilingualism affect the entire education of students. Students educated in more than one language develop a mental agility that monolinguals lack. One of these advantages has to do with something researchers call a "plasticity" of the brain.  Bilingual children recognize that just as there are two ways to say something, there are also two ways to learn and solve problems. 

The Dartmouth study confirms past research done at George Mason University, in Virginia. Researchers in a 14-year study found that kids educated in dual-language schools outperformed monolingual children on standardized tests. Students in dual-language schools did better than those in traditional bilingual education and those educated only in English.

There are now 271 dual language schools nationwide, more than double the number of 1995. Although the most typical combination is English-Spanish, others involving Asian and European languages are also available.

The federal government provides funds to implement dual-language programs. San Bernardino schools received $1,375,000 over five years to implement their dual-language program.

The benefits of bilingualism become evident as kids grow into adults and will affect their pocketbook even in the US, a country in which English is clearly king. In Florida, Hispanic families speaking only English averaged a yearly income of $ 32,000, while those speaking both Spanish and English had incomes of $50,376, according to a study conducted by the University of Florida.

If your school district does not offer a dual-language program, contact your school board and request it. It will be a great investment for your kids but for the rest of the country a well.

Teach Spanish to Your Child Online 
Whether your home/school language is English and you want to introduce Spanish as a second language or your children/students are bilingual and you want to support and reinforce their Spanish, will be a welcome resource.

Latino Language
By Manuel Hernandez
         John Edwards classifies the Latino’s search for identity as “a sense of group identity deriving from real or perceived common bonds such as language, race or religion”(125). The mark and ethnicity of Latinos is defined through the ability to reveal ideas creatively with the use of languages. Mixing, code-switching and Spanglishing are elements of pride in many Latinos. The pioneer in Latino/a Literature, Piri Thomas would probably say   “it is a matter of dignity”. 
Latino language is causing a stir, an uprising and a linguistic revolution. United States Census Bureau’s statistics places Spanish as a majority amongst the 20% of the American population that speaks other languages besides English. The Latino population grows by the second and its primary language with it. In a world of many voices, Latino language whispers, speaks, shouts but after the year 2000, there are no comebacks. Latino language is here to stay and will continue to impact American society for decades and centuries to come.

Manuel Hernandez, a contributing columnist to
 (, lives in Puerto Rico where he teaches school. He has a B.A. and MA Teaching English. He is a candidate for a PhD. Contact him at:

Abstract:  Study:
U.S. Hispanic Internet Usage Rises 
By Mindy Charski, November 18, 2003
DALLAS U.S. Hispanic Internet usage increased by double digits during the last year, according to a new report released last week by comScore Media Metrix. There are 12.5 million Hispanics online in the U.S..  In a representative panel of 50,000 U.S. Hispanic Internet users that spanned all key markets and language preferences, the study discovered that both the amount of time spent online and the number of Web pages viewed has increased dramatically.

The report noted that Hispanic Internet users spent an average of 26.5 hours online this past September, versus 21.4 hours in October 2002—an increase of 24 percent. The study also found that growth in content consumption was up, with the average U.S. Hispanic user visiting 2,791 pages in September, an increase of 30 percent versus the same period last year.

The data also found that about half of the U.S Hispanics who use the Internet prefer to speak English, while the other half either prefers Spanish or uses Spanish and English equally. The report concluded that while English-language content reaches large numbers of Hispanics, marketers must also provide relevant Spanish-language content to fully influence U.S. Hispanics online.

Anika entre Libros   
An interesting website with listings and reviews of the books on their list, plus  the opportunity for readers to send comments/reviews of the books. Sent by Luis Larios

World War II Memorial in Washington, D.C. to be Dedicated on Sat. May 29th 

On Saturday, May 29, 2004 the World War II Memorial in Washington, D.C. will be dedicated.  The ceremony is free to the public.  However, World War II veterans will be given first priority to get reserved seating at the ceremony which will be attended by President Bush.Seating tickets can be reserved by calling (800) 639-4WW2 or on-line at  All World War II vets should order their tickets immediately.  Latino Advocates for Education, Inc. is attempting to organize a reception for all Latino veterans on May 28, 2004.  Latino Advocates is not arranging travel or hotel accomodations.  Each veteran must make their own travel and hotel reservations.  

Hell's Angels completed 48 combat missions in World War II

BALDWIN CREW - 358th BS  B-17F Hell's Angels #41-24577 (VK-D)
In front of the 359th BS 8-Ball #41-24581  (original crew assigned 358BS: 15 Sep 1942 - photo: 13-10-1942

On 07 January 1944 the 303rd BG(H) adopted the name "Hell's Angels" as the Groups official name. On 26 November 1943 "Hell's Angels completed 48 combat missions.

(Back L-R) Capt Irl E. Baldwin (P)(1), 1Lt Ripley W. Joy (CP)(2),
Capt Harold Fulghum (N)(POW)(3), 1Lt Donald R. Bone (B)(4)
(Front L-R)
T/Sgt James R. Rodriguez, Jr. (E)(5),
T/Sgt Russell M. "Birddog" Warren (R)(6), S/Sgt Harry J. "Jim" Brody (BTG)(7),
S/Sgt Harold E. Godwin (TG)(9), S/Sgt Allerton F. "Fred" Meddaugh, Jr.(LWG)(8)

Thank you to Carlos Ray Gonzales for finding and pointing out James R. Rodriguez, Jr. in this Squadron. Gonzales can be reached at:

Skilled mechanics were an important part of the Army Air Force strength. 

Alicia Reynoso & Cpl. Oscar Chapa Marriage, March 5, 1942

Sgt. Oscar Chapa, Line Chief, 
June 20, 1943

Oscar Chapa was born in Monterrey, Mexico, December 15, 1917.  In 1939, Oscar joined the National Guard.   After the December 7th Pearl Harbor attack, war was declared against Japan and Oscar was inducted into the Army Air Force as a corporal.  

As a 11-year old youth, Oscar first started working in a automotive garage, as a goofer and assistant. That experience served him well in the military.  With his natural mechanical ability and experience, he very quickly was made Line Chief over a 20-man mechanic crew at Esler Field, Louisiana.   His crew was responsible for maintaining the B-40s and B-41s.  He served in that capacity during World War II,  10th RCN SQ (F). Oscar was made Sergeant, then Staff Sergeant, then Master Sergeant.

When the war ended in 1945 is mechanical expertise had received sufficient recognition that the then governor of California, Earl F. Warren was aware of him. Oscar was offered the job of private mechanic to the governor; but, Oscar did not want to be separated from the family. Instead he decided to start a family restaurant in Stockton, California.  It was built, brick by brick by the family on South El Dorado Street, and called Mexico Cafe.  [For more history, go to 

Oscar entered the United States as a child with his family through Laredo in 1925. The Chapas first settled in San Antonio, but in the early 1930s  moved to Los Angeles, living first in the Bunker Hills area and then East L.A.   

When Oscar was inducted into the Army Air Force, he was told that because his father had become a citizen before Oscar was 21, Oscar was automatically a citizen.  His father, Alberto Chapa, had been Superintendent of Schools in Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.  In the late 1930s his father become a citizen in United States; however, his mother did not. 

Living the life of a citizen, voting and actively involved in community activities, it was almost 15 years later that Oscar found out, he was not a citizen.  As an officer with the Lion's Club, a passport was needed to attend a conference in Taiwan.  Attempting to process his passport, he found out that even though his father was a naturalized citizen, his mother was not; and therefore he was not a United States citizen after all.  That was quickly rectified.

[[ I am proud to say that Oscar Chapa is my uncle, brother of my mom.]]

Vice Admiral Richard H. Carmona
M.D., M.P.H., F.A.C.S.  
United States Surgeon General Commander

USPHS Commissioned Corps
United States Department of Health and Human Services
Sent by Bill Carmona 

Vice Admiral Richard H. Carmona was sworn in as the 17th Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service on August 5, 2002. 

Born and raised in New York City, Dr. Carmona dropped out of high school and enlisted in the U.S. Army in 1967. While enlisted he received his Army General Equivalency Diploma, joined the Army's Special Forces, ultimately becoming a combat-decorated Vietnam veteran, and began his career in medicine. 

After leaving active duty, Dr. Carmona attended Bronx Community College, of the City University of New York, where he earned his associate of arts degree. He later attended and graduated from the University of California, San Francisco, with a bachelor of science degree (1977) and medical degree (1979). At the University of California Medical School, Dr. Carmona was awarded the prestigious gold headed cane as the top graduate. He has also earned a masters of public health from the University of Arizona (1998). 

Dr. Carmona has worked in various positions in the medical field including paramedic, registered nurse and physician. Dr. Carmona completed a surgical residency at the University of California, San Francisco, and a National Institutes of Health-sponsored fellowship in trauma, burns and critical care. Dr. Carmona is a Fellow of the American College of Surgeons, and is also certified in correctional health care and in quality assurance. 

Prior to being named Surgeon General, Dr. Carmona was the chairman of the State of Arizona Southern Regional Emergency Medical System, a professor of surgery, public health and family and community medicine at the University of Arizona, and the Pima County Sheriff's Department surgeon and deputy sheriff. 

Dr. Carmona has also held progressive positions of responsibility as chief medical officer, hospital chief executive officer, public health officer, and finally chief executive officer of the Pima county health care system. He has also served as a medical director of police and fire departments and is a fully-qualified peace officer with expertise in special operations and emergency preparedness, including weapons of mass destruction. 

Dr. Carmona has published extensively and received numerous awards, decorations, and local and national recognition for his achievements. A strong supporter of community service, he has served on community and national boards and provided leadership to many diverse organizations. 
Last revised: November 10, 2003

Hispanic American Heroes Series

Santa Fe artist C.J. Wells
2004 California Co-Chairs
San Antonio Chapter of  SARs
International Galvez Foundation
2004 Events 
King Carlos' Royal Order

Free CD on Latin American Family History Resources,  click 

Hispanic American Heroes 2004
The Executive Board of the Hispanic American Heroes Series have decided, rather than selecting one Hispanic historical figure to honor as we did in 2003, we want to celebrate and honor all the colonial Spanish soldiers and colonizers who were present during the American Revolution, and whose presence and support, between 1779 and 1783 were crucial to the success of the American Revolution, .  
We are asking for historical submissions to manifest the reality of the diverse and varied Spanish contributions. Do you have a Spanish ancestor who was a soldier or provided leadership during the American Revolution?  Please share your family history. 

The information we would like to include is where the soldiers or individual served, their rank or supportive activities, interesting tidbits to personalize your family history, and accompanying visuals, such as maps, documents, photo of you, or your children, family heirloom, etc. . . something to give a sense of continued presence. . 

The mission saddle will be used as an icon to identify those articles in Somos Primos of  colonial Spanish heritage family research.  We are
hoping to get articles from all over the the world. Many soldiers serving in Nueva España stayed and settled in the Americas, but some returned to Spain and colonized in other parts of the world..


From the "Santa Fe New Mexican" 
December 19, 2003

"Santa Fe artist
C.J. Wells has been honored by the Hispanic-American Heroes Series for her work, including a portrait of a Spanish soldier in the army of Gen. Bernardo de Galvez during the American Revolution." Juan Mayans, chief executive officer of the Hispanic-American Heroes Series, presented the award to Wells during a December reception at the Rio Grande Gallery on Water Street.

Wells' work during her 26-year career reflects her Spanish and American Indian heritage. release. 
The article says her portraits of American Indian warriors and children often depict her subjects with glowing "yellow eyes" signifying traditional respect for the "holiness of the heart and animals".
2004 California Co-Chairs
We are proud to announce the 2004 California Co-Chairs for the Hispanic American Series,
Maria Angeles O'Donnell Olson, the San Diego Honorary Consul of Spain, and historian, colonial Spanish Soldier re-enactor, Michael Hardwick.  Both served on the 2003 Galvez Committee.

Spanish Consul Olson was a frequent presenter for the Galvez Project in 2003. 

Michael Hardwick, was just accepted as Honorary Life Trustee for the Santa Barbara Trust For Historic Preservation.  Last year Michael organized the living history ceremonies which honored General Bernardo de Gálvez, Spanish hero of the American Revolution.  

Michael lives in Santa Barbara and has been involved with the restoration of the presidio there for over 30 years.  Mike comes to us with a wealth of experience as a student of Spanish Colonial History.  He is a historian member of Los Californianos.  He is on the Board of the Santa Barbara Mission Museum and a member of CMSA (California Mission Studies Association).  

Mike is also a living historian and does an impression of Felipe de Neve, First Governor of the Californias , 1777-1782. Currently Mike is involved with the Old Mission at Santa Barbara and Is writing a book on the beginnings of horticulture in the California Missions.

We are happy to report that the Galvez Project has encouraged considerable activities across the nation and internationally, as well. The San Antonio Chapter of the Sons of the American Revolution are in the planning stages of a huge event to recognize the Tejano cattlemen who supported the American Revolution.

"Events on the planning table so far are a trail ride, a parade, a Bar-B-Q, a cowboy breakfast, and a dance (possibly a masquerade ball - Louisiana style). I'm thinking along the lines of a three- day event in the spring or fall of 2005."  . . .  So writes Jack Cowan

Bernardo de Galvez descendent Marta Galvez and Juan Mayans, CEO for the Hispanic American Heroes Series are collaborating on forming an International Galvez Foundation. For more information contact Juan Mayans,
Some of the 2004 Hispanic American Heroes Series events in which Somos Primos is involved and readers are invited to participate:   

January 10:  Some SHHAR Board members and Juan Mayans, Hispanic American Heroes Series CEO will be attending a dinner in Los Vegas. More information: Juan Mayans

January 31: Quarterly Meeting of the Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research, 674 S. Yorba, Orange Family History Center in the city of Orange, California. Judge Fredrick Aguirre, President of the Latinos Advocates for Education will speak on the contributions of  Mexican Americans in World War II.  Click

March 19-20: 
San Juan Capistrano, Swallows Days Parade.  The re-enactor of the Mormon Battalion are seeking to add Early Spanish California historical personages. For more information contact:
Guy Dickson

April 17: 
Santa Barbara Presidio Founder's Day activities.  This is an opportunity for historical and  genealogical societies and clubs to set up displays and promote their organization. For more information contact Michael Hardwick,

King Carlos' Royal Order

Source: Mission San Juan Capistrano, The Jewel of the Missions Quarterly Newsletter of Mission, San Juan Capistrano, Summer 1996, Vol. 2, No. 2

Spanish and America documents show Spain as an active but silent financial supporter of the American cause as early as 1774, but the first record of the missions' involvement was in 1778.

By King Carlos' Royal Order, all Spaniards were to be assessed $2 and Indians $1 to be paid by the missions as financial support for the American Revolution. Total cash donations (Spanish silver dollars minted in Mexico were the exchange throughout North America at the time) amounted to $4,216 for the California missions and the contributions of Governor de Neve. It was a considerable amount of cash for those days when bartered goods were the norm. 

Additionally, the missions were also ordered to prevent British ships from landing and provisioning in California. After the missions began preventing British ships from landing in California, Britain, in turn began seizing Spanish ships and the two nations declared war on June 23, 1779. Thereafter, Spain actively and openly supported Washington and his revolutionaries. 


Roberto José Pérez Guadarrama, a Venezuela researcher has shared considerable information on Guadarrama families in South America.  Go to: Guadarrama

El Apellido Guadarrama es poco frecuente en Venezuela y en el resto del Mundo. Los Países que tienen habitantes con este Apellido son: México, USA, Venezuela, España, Argentina, Puerto Rico, Filipina, Chile, Francia y Canadá. ( El orden en que estan colocados estos Países indica donde hay mayor números de Personas con Apellido Guadarrama " primer Apellido ", según las Guía Telefónica-Paginas Blancas de estos Países ).

En España de donde proviene el Apellido, los Guadarrama que encontré no son muy numerosos ( 253 Personas ), ni estan en todas las Ciudades o Pueblos de España. Según la Guía Telefónica-Paginas Blancas hay Guadarrama ( primer Apellido ), en las siguientes Ciudades: Tenerife ( 78 Personas ),  Madrid ( 71 Personas ), Valladolid ( 49 Personas ), Barcelona ( 15 Personas ), Pontevedra ( 5 Personas ), Ávila ( 5 Personas ), Zaragoza ( 3 Personas ), Ourense ( 3 Personas )  Alicante ( 2 Personas ), Granada ( 2 Personas), Málaga ( 2 Personas ), Segovia ( 2 Personas ), Sevilla ( 2 Personas ), Vizcaya ( 2 Personas ), Las Palmas ( 2 Personas ), Baleares ( 2 Personas ), Córdoba ( 1 Persona ), Guipúzcoa ( 1 Persona ),  León ( 1 Persona ), Murcia ( 1 Persona ), Salamanca ( 1 Persona ), Valencia ( 1 Persona ), Zamora ( 1 Persona ) y Girona ( 1 Persona ).

The following list of surnames is a list of the surnames whose origin has been included in previous issues of Somos Primos, issue identified. 

De la Libertad
Ortiz and Ortega

November 2003
September 2002
April 2002
July 2002
August 2002
May 2002
September 2003
January 2003
February 2003
October 2002
April 2003
August 2003
June 2002
June 2003
July 2003
May 2003
October 2003
December 2002
March 2003
November 2002
December 2003



Photo: Rosario Marin:  
7th Veterans Day Celebration, 
Cal State Fullerton University
January 31st, SHHAR Meeting
Brown vs Board of Education
World War II Mexican Veterans

Free CD on Latin American Family History Resources,  click 

Rosario Marin former U.S. Treasurer greets high school ROTC cadets who took part in the 7th annual Veterans Day Celebration.  A Tribute to Mexican American POWs and Iraq War Veterans on November 8th at Cal State Fullerton. Source: Dateline, Cal State Fullerton, V 3, # 7, 11-20-03  Sent by Granville Hough, former professor at Cal State Fullerton.

If this is the year you have decided to start your personal family history, 
start the year out right by attending SHHAR's first meeting of the year.  

No cost to attend and no membership fees.

The Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research
 invites you to learn how to seek out your ancestors on the internet.
Get excited about your history.

January 31st, Saturday,9 am-12 noon
Quarterly Meeting of the 
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research
Orange Family History Center
674 S. Yorba
Orange, California 

 9:00 - 10:00:  
              Beginners, Hands on Computer Family History Research
              Regional Small group sharing, come meet your cousins
10:00- 10:30:  
              Introductions, announcements, networking break

10:30- 11:15
   Judge Fredrick Aguirre 
                       How Mendez vs Westminster School District (1947) influenced 
                       Chief Justice Earl Warren in the Brown vs Board of  
                       Education (1954) decision.  2004  will be the 50th anniversary 
                       Learn the origins, the history.  
                       Learn why and how Chief Justice Earl Warren, California 
                       Governor was influenced by actor, Californio Leo Carrillo.

11:15- 12:00  Judge Fredrick Aguirre
                       World War II Mexican American Veterans 
                       Judge Aguirre has chaired the Celebration of Mexican American
                       Veterans for seven years.  He has gathered the histories and
                        photographs of  many Hispanic men and women who served in
                        the military.  You'll hear about individuals and also statistics.

                        Learn about the World War II Memorial in Washington, D.C.. It
                       will be dedicated May 29th of this year.


Latin American Family History Free CD and book on the LDS
Family Enrichment Program
Early California Lectures, Long Beach
Latin Art                                                      Fragment of Saint's Cloak 

Free  CD
Latin American 
Family History Resources

The Family Enrichment Program, FREE 
8½ x11 books (Eng/Span)

Somos Primos has volunteered to distribute these free materials for the L.A. Public Affairs Office of the LDS Church. 

If you have already requested these resources, please send your request again, include your  title and mailing address. 

Email directly  to your editor, Mimi Lozano 

Organizations can request sufficient numbers of the Family Enrichment Program book for distribution to their members. Please specify
English or Spanish.  

Early California 10 a.m. Lecture Series at:
Rancho Los Cerritos Historic Site
4600 Virginia Road, Long Beach 90807 
Further details will be posted on the calendar section at
Reservations are encouraged - please call (562) 570-1755. 
Admission: $5.00 non-members/$3.00 members &students 

January 24    Baja California: Where California Really Began,  Dr. Iris Engstrand, 

February 21   Women in Spanish &Mexican California, Dr. Donna Schuele,  

March 13       The Hide and Tallow Trade, Dr. William Barger,   

April 17         The History &Heritage of Mexican Los Angeles: Ranchos to Barrios, 1781- Present,  
                                                               Dr. Antonio Rios-Bustamante,  
May 8  The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and the Californio Ranchos, Dr. Ricardo Griswold del Castillo 
Eliza Boné, Public Relations/Marketing Coordinator
Rancho Los Cerritos Historic Site
(562) 570-1755 Fax: (562) 570-1893

Latin Art presents a comprehensive and easily navigable website. The Artists section features biographies and interviews with established artists from around the world and leading emerging artists; Exhibition tours the major international exhibitions; a comprehensive Calendar listing of art fairs, auctions, museum openings and other international events; articles on Art Issues written by experts in the field addressing major themes in the study of Latin American and Latino art; Collector's Issues addresses the art market and presents important auction information for collectors; a Resource directory of key institutions all over the world. Finally, our Art Partners section helps promote galleries and all interested parties with virtual gallery spaces that are dynamic and easy to manage. All information is bilingual in both Spanish and English and updated regularly. invites the beginner to explore the depth and breadth of the modern and contemporary art of the Americas. Based in Los Angeles, we expand our interest to include art produced in Latin America as well the regions, countries, and cities it dialogues with. Thus, an emerging Mexican-American artist who works out of Los Angeles is as relevant to our discussions as an internationally renowned one working in Medellín.

For further information please contact

Fragment of Saint's Cloak in L.A.

Orange County Register, Wednesday Dec. 10, 2003 

     Los Angeles- A piece of a 500-year-old cloak that is said to be miraculously imprinted with an image of the Virgin Mary was enshrined at the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels in Los Angeles.
     The ceremony marks the end of a national tour for the postage-stamp-size the relic, which was cut from a saint's cloak by the Archdiocese of Mexico and given to the Archdiocese of Los Angeles as  a gift in 1941. It has been held in archives.
     It is the only piece known to be in the United States. Only four snippets have been taken from the cloak, which hangs in the Basilica of Guadalupe in Mexico City.
     Officials expect thousands of people to pay homage to the relic in the coming days, she said.
     The Virgin of Guadalupe long has been venerated by Mexicans and in 1999 she was named the patron saint of all the Americans.
     According to tradition, the cactus-cloth cloak belonged to a poor Mexican Indian, Juan Diego, who was visited by Mary in 1531 on a hill outside Mexico City. 
     To convince a skeptical bishop, Mary told him to gather up roses in his cloak form a hill where they never had grown in midwinter. When he spilled out the flowers, the image of Mary was revealed inside his cloak.
     Last year, Pope John Paul II canonized Juan Diego, making him the church's first Indian saint.
     The relic was enshrined after a Mass in honor of the feats day of St. Juan Diego. It will be permanently displayed on a 17th-century statue of the Virgin of Guadalupe.


 San Jose's Pueblo Papers
Founding Mothers and Children
Spanish Colonial Soldiers: 
     Roque Jacinto de Cota
     Sgt. Juan Pablo Grijalva
Niece honors Albert Chapa
Migrant Farm Workers: Fact Sheet, `03
350-year old statue Honored
US Newspapers reveal history
Spanish Immigrants in Hawaii 

Free CD on Latin American Family History Resources,  click 

In celebration of  the 225th Anniversary of the Founding of the City of San Jose
"In Search of San Jose's Hispanic Past"

Two articles from 7 articles written by 
By Elena Robles
Published in La Oferta Review
November 22, 2002

Sent by José Pantoja
Photo by Elena Robles 

Jose Pantoja (researcher) is joined by History San Jose Archivist, Paula Jobloner, to search original Pueblo Papers for a questions concerning the mayor's name in 1832.  the search proved that all lists needed to be correct to Ignacio Peralta.

There are several ways to learn and discover about California's Hispanic past, including visiting libraries and special collections, historic sites, and on the Internet to learn about sites, hours, and references. Most collections are available for research free to charge.
    About The Pueblo Papers 
    In the late 19th Century, the state Surveyor General traveled throughout California in search of original pueblo  documents which may have had valuable information and details pertinent to land grants and property disputes. He was able to gather more then 6,00 pages which were then bound into sets of seemingly related information.
    Statehood in 1850 had begun a land grab that resulted in many of the founding families losing their original homesteads. There were few records and English speaking speculators took advantage of the fact that Mexicans  immediately disappeared from public office (there were no more Hispanic mayors for 150 years), judicial positions, and other positions of power. These 6,00 documents were vital in providing proof of property ownership. 
    The Pueblo Papers, as they were later named, went into the custody of various intuitions over the years: were housed in different cities, and finally ended in the possession of the City of San Jose. The Pue4blo Papers represent the largest collection  of documents relating to civil authorities within California before Statehood.
    The massive project of microfilming these papers was undertaken in the 1950's by archivists from the Bancroft Library in Berkeley. These film strips are made available to the public for research and still represent the largest collection of written documentation of pre-1850 Hispanic California in the state.
    Unfortunately, when the Pueblo Papers were bound by the Surveyor General's office they were grouped out of sequence. Singular documents with multiple pages were sometimes split to into different groups by mistake and they were subsequently microfilmed out of order. One of the reasons for this disarray may be because original organizers could not read Old Castilian, but it did subsequently make it particularly difficult to conduct research.
     Nine years ago, Jose Pantoja and Patsy Castro Ludwig began the painstaking process of reading and cross-indexing the 6,000 pages of the Pueblo Papers. Their interest was altruistic and they volunteered hundreds of hours to this task. As a result, the indexing and cross referencing is near completion and (pending funding) transcription and translation can soon follow. Pantoja has taken the extra step to transcribe significance pages into present day Spanish, quite a service for researchers. Translations, especially from handwritten Old Castilian are expensive and not easy.
    Archives and Library Collections
    The city of San Jose turned over the entire collection of Pueblo Papers, archival materials and artifacts in April of 1998 to the management of History San Jose, a separate not-for profit corporation. This represents the largest and most extensive collection of Santa Clara County history, including over 20,000 photographs and nearly 1000 maps. Business and organizations ministrations are maintained as well as old Santa Clara County and City records dating from as early as 1850. Pre-statehood Pueblo Papers record of the Pueblo San Jose de Guadalupe. the earliest document is a map from 1781.
    The relationship between artifacts and the Pueblo Papers was most recently demonstrated when a County Registry book of cattle brands was identified for restoration by Paula Jobloaner, Archivist for 4 years with History San Jose. She explained that this registrations was "required by the county so that lost cattle could be returned to their owners. " We  believe it is every brand that was registered within the county from 1850 to 1927." Branding iron designs are clearly visible representing many founding families including Peralta, Vasquez, and Castro. 
    Paula Joblaner is grant-writing in the pursuit of funding to put images from this  book and 1000 others of valley history on the goal of the organizations to do "outreach into the various parts of the communities in San Jose and put them on the web as well."
    The research library is located at History Park located at the corner of Phelan and Senter Roads in San Jose./ It is open on Wednesdays afternoons or by appointment by calling 408-918-1054. check for more resources. 
    the California Room is located on the third floor of the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.  Library in downtown San Jose. It is open Monday through Saturday on varied schedule, and on Tuesdays and Wednesdays in the evenings.
    Historic Hispanic Sites
    San Jose has a few locations to visit early California history. Unfortunately, there are very few remains of the adobes and buildings of original Pueblo San Jose de Guadalupe.
    The 1797 Jose Luis Peralta Adobe is located in San Pedro Square near the corner of  West St. John Street. Once open week long for visiting and picnicking, the Adobe is now available only for touring on weekend. It is popular with educators and is booked throughout the week for hands-on programs and school tours. The Sunol two story plank home is a California  Landmark. Known as Lauraville (used as attorney offlices) can be seen while driving along Lincoln Avenue just one block south of the I-280 overpass. It is not open to the public. 
    Much under appreciated is the artistic monument Parque de los Pobladores, which was dedicated in recognition of the original settlers of the Pueblo San Jose de Guadalupe. The four, three-sided terracotta monoliths were created in 1995 by the East Los Street Scapers artists Botello, De la Loza, and Healy and dedicated in 1997. The monoliths are covered with tiles that tell the story of the four cardinal points. The floor has a tile display of compass points with a center colored tile stylized map that shows the de Anza trail. It is located at the junction of South First Street and Monterey Road, two blocks north of the I-280 overpass.

An 1830 map of the Pueblo San Jose de Guadalupe displays buildings, a church and 36 homes.  The population was over 240 people.

And Don't Forge the Founding Mothers and Children

    California has yet to recognize that the civilians who participated in the most difficult project of founding its first settlement on November 19, 1777, were mostly people of color...and women. Its time for us Californios to stop being defensive if I say the founders were not "Spaniards" by today's standards. The original Fundadores (founders) were born in the Americas, not the Iberian Peninsula. They were Americans.
    It might have taken 225 years, but its time to get progressive. I'd like to proceed with the logical premise that if an adult female (wife, daughter or servant) arrived with the founding "fathers" to build the Pueblo San Jose de Guadalupe, that they were equally responsible for beginning California's first settlement. 
    In all the written material I have ever read on the birth of San Jose, including copies from the original Pueblo Papers, credit has never gone to the founding females name, followed by and their families.
     Of the original male settlers: "fourteen men...with their families," there were only five civilians. Three of these men were mulattos, one man was Apache and one was a mestizo born in Mexico City.
    Manuel Amestica, Manuel Gonzales, and Jose Tiburcio Vasquez had arrived with the families on the De Anza expedition; while Ignacio Archuleta and Joseph Romero arrived to Monterey by other routes and joined the group of soldiers and settlers that was formed by Lieutenant Jose Joaquin Moraga to found the Pueblo San Jose.
The remaining nine men were technically not settlers they were paid soldiers;  a few with wives and children. They came from the military bases of Monterey and San Francisco and continued receiving their soldier's pay to work alongside the five civilian families in San Jose.
     the  five female founding settler were Maria Bojorques de Vasquez, Maria Petra Aceves de Romero, Michael la Ruiz de Gonzales, Maria Gertrudis Borjorques and Ignacia Pacheco de Archuleta.
    The original pueblo documents held several inconsistencies in the list of founders. The last two of the founding female settlers were considered adult female at age 16 but both 16 year old servant "Lugo" were listed as male children Other documents didn't even list the family servants on the roster of Fundadores, nor did they list the cattleman Jose Sinoba  and his wife Maria  Gertrudis Bojorques, who should be considered servant of the township - paid to look after the herds.
    There are probably several cultural reasons for these oddities. Certainly during that era, married females of any age could easily have been considered Indian servants "childlike" and in need of supervision. In truth all these individuals were needed for their skills and should be considered members of the pueblo now look at their founding ancestor; through the eyes of the prejudices of those times or through the enlightened concepts of current society? How should we display the list of our founders? History is so interesting. 
    the cost of the new Pueblo San Jose de Guadalupe was financed almost entirely by King Carlos III, with money for the settlers as well as the operation of the township. This ended after five years, but administrative salaries continued to arrive until California was overtaken by the U.S. in 1948. Each civilian head of house hold was offered royalties of ten pesos per month for two years as an inducement to relocate form Mexico. They were given a provision of soldier's ration until the crops became productive, along with loans of livestock and tools to till the fields build their homes and start their herds. Items such as plows, pickaxes, spades, and hatches; along with livestock such as breeding stock , horse, cows and pigs, belong to the township and had to be repaid in like kind to the presidios on behalf of the King after five years.
    The King also loaned each civilian household several parcels of land within the settlement boundaries. these equaled approximately 5 acres of which at least half had to be useful for growing crops. The purpose, after all, was to raise food and leather goods for the presdios of Monterey and San Francisco. The pueblo also owned communal property that could be used by the residents for grazing their cattle and other uses. The town could rent these properties to villagers and the money was used to develop public facilities like municipal building, dams, roads, and running the government.
    Pueblo life was carefully regulated and no one could travel away from it without carrying a written permit from the comisionado. On the other hand, each settler had the opportunity to win his allotted public land if he rendered "a useful service to the King" by building his land into a small farm with suitable building and corrals, irrigated gardens and well kept tools, animals, and household. What the land produced could be sold to the commissaries at set prices, with deductions made to pay off the debt to the King. The surplus cash from the sale was given to the settler.
    Settlers were expected to help build the town granary, water ways, roads, bridges, and public buildings; as well expected to plant and harvest a minimum amount of corn from the communal lands and to care for the growing number of horses produced by the local stud farm run by the military. Surplus horses and mules that came from breeding the family personal stock could only be sold to the military, with severe penalties for violations. If the settlers did all this, the homestead would eventually become deeded to the family for them to keep or to sell, but not earlier than five years after inscription.
    Therefore, it can be said that Pueblo San Jose de Guadalupe had its first real residents in 1783 followed by electing its first official major: Jose Ignacio Archuleta.   

Hispanic Soldiers Accepted into the Sons of the American Revolution
California Soldiers that have been accepted into the SAR through Hispanic Lines
Sent by Leroy Martinez

1998 Peter David Hill – ancestor Jose Maximo Alanis, San Diego Presidio , CA .

           1998 Stephen Darrel Machado – ancestor Manuel Machado/Orchaga, Santa Barbara Presidio, CA.

           1998 John William Heaney – ancestors Captain Jose Ortega, Corporal Manuel R. Arellano, Corporal Jose M Ortega, and Francisco S. Lugo, all of CA. Presidios.

           1998 Ted Felix Spriggs, ancestor Lt. Juan Pablo Grijalva, de Anza Expedition to CA and San Francisco Presidio.

           1999 Paul Edgar Trejo – ancestor Manuel Butron, Catalonian Bluecoat, Monterey Presidio, CA.


Nancy Bonetti Ray is a direct descendent of Roque Jacinto de Cota, a soldier that served under Lt. Jose de Zuniga in the San Diego Presidio. 
Private Roque Jacinto de Cota was born about 1724 at El Fuerte, Sinaloa, Mexico, the eldest son of Andres de Cota and Angela de Leon. Roque Jacinto de COTA was one of the Spanish soldiers who led the Pobladores to the founding of the Los Angeles.    

Francisca Sanchez (my Great-Grandmother) is the 2nd Great Grandaughter of Roque Jacinto de Cota. 
Juan B. Arellanes (my Great-Grandfather) is the great-grandson of Manuel Ramirez Arellanes.  

Photos:  Francisca Sanchez Arellanes and Juan Bautista Arellanes.  
The child is Nancy's grandmother, Artemisa Arellanes.

Artemisa Arellanes, Nancy's grandmother, was the mother of eleven children and has many descendants. She married Henry Bonetti, from Someo, Ticino, Switzerland which is the only Italian -speaking Canton south of the Alps. They married in Santa Maria, California.  Their children were all born in California - - mostly in the Guedalupe area.  Teodoro Arellanes (Artemisa’s Great-Grandfather) received one of the California Land Grants (in the Santa Maria area).  A portion of the original grant is still owned by our family today!
                                                                 Nancy Ray 

is listed in the Presidio de San Francisco Lista de la Compania 31 Aug 1782

In 1998 Ted Felix Spriggs, a descendent of Lt. Juan Pablo Grijalva, a member of the de Anza Expedition to CA and San Francisco Presidio was accepted into the Sons of the American Revolution.
Eddie Grijalva, a relative of Juan Pablo Grijalva has been very active in seeking documentation. He is a frequent submitter to Somos Primos of information on Juan Pablo Grijalva, and on the surname Grijalva.  Eddie was successful in locating the remains of the Grijalva adobe and having the city of Santa Ana recognize a plaque placed on wall.  In addition, he lobbied and was successful in having  a Santa Ana park named after Juan Pablo Grijalva.

Eddie worked closely with writer/publisher Doug Westfall to produce several publications about Juan Pablo Grijalva.  Doug has also included segments of the Spanish presence in books that he has published, such as Prisoners of the Civil War by Doug Westfall, pg110

A land-bearing lawsuit evolved in 1868 in southwest Los Angeles County and the company of Chapman & Glassell took the case. This was the breakup of the great Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana, some 78,000 acres of choice land. Founded in 1801 by Juan Pablo Grijalva, a retired Spanish soldier, the rancho had been left to his grandson and namesake, Juan Pablo Peralta.

The son of Grijalva’s daughter, Peralta, had partnered with Antonio Yorba, aged husband to the other daughter of Grijalva. This was three years after Grijalva had died, in 1806.

Sixty years later, this was the State of California within the United States of America, and the great rancho was being divided up. Chapman & Glassell provided legal counsel for the Yorbas and received 1,300 acres of land as payment; small compared to their previous awards.

Below are two baptismal documents, one of Juan Pablo's own baptism and the other he is listed as the Padrino, both sent my Eddie Grijalva.

Baptism of Juan Pablo Grijalva
  (3rd item, on the bottom)
Gueavi Mission, Nogales, Arizona  Page 17 Baptism 02 - 02- 1744

Today, February 2. 1744 , I solemnly baptized Juan Pablo, son of Andres Grijalva and Luisa de Leiva. His godparents were Señor Don Bernardo de Urrea and Doña Mariana Gallardo. 

Item as above Joseph de Torres Perea (rubic), Minister for His Majesty.
Jose de Torres Perea, Priest

Last item, 139 on the page, lists Juan Pablo Grijalva as the Padrino in the baptism of a child, dated November 1779

  Social Service in the Community by dedicated Stockton Volunteer

Stockton, California. Dedicated to the Practice of Medical Sciences 
and to the Service of Humanity.

Dena Chapa Rupert
Holds the plaque dedicated to her Uncle Albert Chapa, who although not an attorney, served as legal council to farm workers within this building., and never lost a case.

Dena Chapa Rupert, a recently retired teach of 30 years is now a dedicated full-time community volunteer. In addition to teaching English at the Stockton Mission, and helping the Feed the Poor program, she is also active with the office of the California Rural Legal Assistance.  The same office where her uncle Albert Chapa dedicated himself to assisting farm workers. 
I am proud to say that Albert Chapa was my uncle too.]]   

Migrant Farm Workers: Fact Sheet, October 2003
in the Diocese of Stockton, California
Sent by Dena Chapa Rupert

  • There are 75,846 migrant and seasonal farm workers who live and work within the six counties making up the Diocese of Stockton—San Joaquin-46,913, Stanislaus-28,623, Calaveras-106, Tuolumne-183, Alpine-0 and Mono-21. (From a study by the U.S. Government in September 2000.)
  • Official estimates indicate that more than 70% of these workers are Catholic. If that estimate is correct, then more than 54,000 of these workers are of the Catholic faith.
  • According to the Rural Community Assistance Community, 50% of the nation’s fruits and vegetables are grown in California, and 85% of these are hand harvested or cultivated.
  • According to the same organization, nationally more than 300,000 workers suffer from acute pesticide poisoning each year and agricultural workers are three times more likely to die of nonmalignant respiratory diseases.
  • A May 7, 2003, article in the Stockton Record reports that last year $1.34 billion in farm products were produced in San Joaquin County alone. The article indicates clearly that billions of dollars worth of produce are grown each year in the Central Valley of California and every one of these crops is dependent upon migrant and season farm labor.
  • In spite of the economic contribution these workers make, three earn less than $10,000 per year and only one out of seven workers earn an income of more than $12,500 per year. Fifty one percent of agricultural workers do not own a vehicle and only one sixth of the workers own a dwelling.
  • Richard Smoley, a former managing editor of California Farmer magazine once wrote that each farmer in California feeds 82 people in the world. A stunning 25% of all table foods consumed in the U.S. are grown in the Great Valley of California.
  • A fact sheet issued by The National Center for Farm Worker Health, Inc. indicates that over 85% of the fruits and vegetables produced in this country were hand harvested and/or cultivated. "Without the seasonal influx of migrant farm labor during peak periods, the production of many fruit and vegetable crops would not be possible".


Carlos Montalvo and Yvette Ramirez 
Photo by Luis Gris Elizarras/Herald photos

Our Lady of Guadalupe Parish in Sacramento hosted thousands of pilgrims from Northern California, August 14-21 for Masses and veneration of the 32-inch replica of the Our Lady of San Juan de los Logos, the state of Jalisco, where the devoted believe a young girl killed an acrobatic performance was miraculous brought back to life in the 1600s through Mary's intercession.

The 350-year old statue is a replica of the original image and has traveled around the United States and Mexico for almost three centuries.

More than 4,000 people participated in the two-mile procession with the image and prayed the rosary through downtown Sacramento. 

Source: The Catholic Herald, 96th Year, No. 7
Diocese of Sacramento, August 23, 2003
Sent by Cindy LoBuglio


The Newspaper in American Life
"The Earth Shook, The Sky Burned" by By Rachel Galvin
National Endowment to the Humanities 

Before dawn on April 19, 1906, the city of San Francisco woke to a series of explosions and a tremendous rumbling. In less than a minute, the earthquake set in motion the worst natural disaster the nation has ever experienced.

Fire sprang from gas mains, wood stoves, and toppled lanterns, and church bells were set clanging. Gold Rush-era cisterns were useless and all but one water main was ruptured. “Big buildings were crumbling as one might crush a biscuit in one’s hand,” said one eyewitness. “Ahead of me a great cornice crushed a man as if he were a maggot--a laborer in overalls on his way to the Union Iron Works with a dinner pail on his arm.”

Only one newspaper managed to publish that morning. The San Francisco Daily News moved to a small print shop on Mission Street and on a hand-cranked press, rushed out an edition--peppered with errors--until the building was evacuated and dynamited as a firebreak.

By noon, all of Newspaper Row was destroyed, including the city’s tallest structure, the twenty-two-story Call Building. All telegraph lines were down, and for the first time, San Francisco was cut off from the world. “People were hungry for news,” says Mark Sweeney, chief of the Library of Congress’s preservation reformatting division, and technical coordinator of the United States Newspaper Program. “The water lines had broken, so there was no steam to run the presses, and consequently, no newspapers.”

Newspapermen from the three major papers, the Call, the Chronicle, and the Examiner, made their way across the bay to the offices of the Oakland Tribune, where they worked together to produce a special combined edition on April 19 with the headline:

The paper carried no advertisements. It was distributed free of charge to the people congregating in Golden Gate Park and elsewhere.

“The newspaper, above all, is the local history of this country,” says Henry Snyder, professor of history and director of the California Newspaper Project.

The California project is part of the United States Newspaper Program, which was launched in 1984 to locate, catalog, and preserve newspapers published in the United States from the eighteenth century to the present. The holdings of public libraries, county courthouses, newspaper offices, historical museums, college and university libraries, archives, and historical societies are being inventoried, and catalog records are entered into a national database maintained by the Online Computer Library Center. Microfilm copies of newspapers are available to researchers across the country through interlibrary loan.

“Newspapers recorded history in a way that no other documents did. They are a rich source of history on two levels: they tell about the lives of everyday people and about extraordinary events,” says Sweeney.

The day after the quake hit, as two dozen aftershocks shook San Francisco and the city continued to burn, the special edition Call=Chronicle=Examiner announced, “Death and destruction have been the fate of San Francisco. Shaken by a temblor at 5:13 o’clock yesterday morning, the shock lasting 48 seconds, and scourged by flames that raged diametrically in all directions, the city is a mass of smoldering ruins.”

“It was the great cataclysmic event in twentieth-century California history. As they say, on April 18, 1906, the earth shook, the sky burned,” says Gary Kurutz, curator of special collections at the California State Library.

The two halves of earth along the San Andreas fault had rebounded past one another like a released rubber band, producing seismic waves traveling at 7,000 miles per hour. Charles Richter had yet to devise his scale, but geologists estimate that the quake would have registered an 8.3.

Within two hours the wood-frame buildings south of Market Street, an overpopulated area built on reclaimed ground in the Mission Swamp, collapsed and caught flame like tinder. By midday, sparks from a quake damaged flue had lit the “Ham and Eggs Fire,” which engulfed the north side of Market Street. “The story goes that a woman was cooking breakfast after the great quake and apparently the sparks flying up her chimney caused a fire that spread throughout the city and devastated almost all of downtown,” says Kurutz.

It was five hours before a Western Union wire chief was able to restring a single wire and reconnect the city with the outside world. Perched on a thirty-foot pole, he spent the next eighteen hours sending out the word. The National Guard was dispatched that day.

The San Francisco Chronicle later reported some of the untold stories of that day under the headline PLUCKY NEWS GATHERER STICKS TO HIS WORK IN GRAVE PERIL: “No one has written of the work of the newspaper men on April 18 and 19 and the following days; they have not time to write it, and no one else can. Only the boys that were in the thick of it know what each other did and what they went through.”

The Chronicle quoted a member of the Associated Press, Jerry Carroll. “’The last office of the Associated Press on the night of the 18th was on a doorstep in Chinatown, and the copy was written in the glare of conflagration--a light that cost $1,000 per second.’

‘“I was told to write the lead for that night’s story,’ says Jerry, ‘but the Postal people told me I would have to hold it down to 500 words. I could just as well have condensed the Bible into a half column as I could have confined the news of that day in that space.’”

Before the earthquake, San Francisco had been the nation’s ninth largest city, and the largest in the West: an industrial port city with a booming artistic and literary community. When the fires finally ceased on April 21, nearly three thousand acres were destroyed, thousands of people had been killed, and a quarter of a million were homeless.

“An enumeration of the buildings destroyed would be a directory of San Francisco,” Jack London wrote in an eyewitness account for Collier’s. “Not in history has a modern imperial city been so completely destroyed. San Francisco is gone. Nothing remains of it but memories and a fringe of dwelling-houses on its outskirts.”

History would ultimately prove London wrong, and the city would rebuild in time to host the 1915 World’s Fair. The Fair would celebrate not only the opening of the Panama Canal, but also the renaissance of San Francisco, demonstrating to the world that the city was flourishing as ever before.

But many of the major runs of the city’s papers were entirely destroyed in the fire. “Reconstructing the history of San Francisco is more difficult, since many of the long runs don’t exist, and if they exist, they are in repositories outside San Francisco,” says Snyder. One of the advantages of a centralized database is that it tells a researcher based anywhere from California to Maine that the only known copy of the San Francisco Daily News from April 18, 1906, is held at the New York Public Library, while copies of the Call=Chronicle=Examiner are held by five museums and historical societies in California.

“The Huntington Library in San Marino has unique issues of New England papers,” Snyder says. “Conversely, some California newspapers survive only in New England libraries, like the New-York Historical Society, because the miners sent them back. Some of the gaps in one state title can only be filled in from runs in another state.”

The California State Library has been collecting newspapers for fifteen decades. One of its treasures is a copy of the state’s first newspaper, the Californian, dated August 15, 1846. It was published in Monterey by Philadelphian Walter Colton, who noted in his journal, “To-day the first newspaper ever published in California made its appearance. . . . My partner is an emigrant from Kentucky, who stands six feet eight in his stockings. He is in a buckskin dress, a foxskin cap; it is true with his rifle, ready with his pen, and quick at the type-case.”

Colton and Robert Semple used a wooden screw-type press that had belonged to the governor of California. “The story goes that they had to scrounge around and use paper associated with making cigarettes and cigars to print the first issue,” Kurutz says. The first edition was foolscap-size and printed in both Spanish and English. Colton wrote, “Though small in dimensions, our first number is as full of news as a black walnut is of meat.”

“Locally the paper was very important for giving news of the Mexican War, the conquest of California, and what was going at the time with Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor,” says Kurutz. “It also contains the earliest published account of the famous Donner party stranded in the Sierra in 1846.”

The next year, the same wooden press was employed to print San Francisco’s first newspaper, the California Star, and two years later, the pioneer publisher Edward Kemble used it to print Sacramento’s first newspaper, the Placer Times. When Kemble discovered he did not possess typeface large enough for his masthead, he carved out the words Placer Times with a jackknife.

By the time Kemble wrote a history of California newspapers in 1858, the number had leapt from two titles to three hundred and twenty-four, largely because of the flurry of newspapers generated by the Gold Rush. By the early 1850s, Kurutz says, “San Francisco, in fact, could boast that it not only consumed more champagne than Boston, but it also published more newspapers than London.”

But most papers were short-lived, and in 1858 Kemble characterized California as a “newspaper graveyard.” As for the editors and publishers, “Not one can be said to have become rich from the profits of their newspapers.” He noted that one suffered knife wounds, one was killed by an assassin, and four were injured in duels because of articles they had written.

Duels were not uncommon on the East Coast either, where newspaper publishing had been thriving for a century. The same year the first California paper was published, John Ritchie Jr., the Republican editor of the Virginia Enquirer, met the challenge of John Hampden Pleasants, the editor of the Whig. Pleasants did not survive the showdown.

“There were very politically charged newspapers, and they channeled the political passions of the people of the time in a way that they don’t now,” says Errol Somay, director of the Virginia Newspaper Project. He recounts that when the editor of the State challenged the editor of the Whig to a duel in 1883, the two took elaborate measures to evade the law, traveling two hundred miles to meet in West Virginia. Although dueling was illegal, the incident was covered on the front page of the victorious editor’s paper. “The final duel is described in great detail, like a sporting event.”

The Virginia project has been inventorying and cataloging its 6,250 titles for nearly ten years. “Every library in its particular region has its own treasures,” Somay says. “Here in Virginia it is our collection of the Virginia Gazette. Our newspaper publishing goes back to 1736 in this state, which is one of the earlier dates.”

Eighteenth-century papers such as the Gazette printed official proclamations and dispatches, and presented news differently than today. When Thomas Jefferson signed the Louisiana Purchase, the historic occurrence was buried in the back of the paper, in an item about presidential bills. “We expect major events always to be front-page news,” says Somay. “But with the early newspapers like the Virginia Gazette, most of the front page would be taken up with ads for rum or livestock.”

“Newspapers become a vital link to the time they were printed in,” he continues. “The title that is the most requested here at the Library of Virginia is the Recorder from 1802. In it is an editorial by John Callendar, tearing into Thomas Jefferson for his supposed liaisons with Sally Hemings.” Callendar writes in his editorial, “The name of Sally will walk down to posterity alongside of Mr. Jefferson’s own name.”

“He was a great scandal monger, but two hundred years later, people are dying to get at it, because it is one of the first official documents of this event,” says Somay.

Five years ago, the Library of Virginia received approximately ninety requests for microfilm per quarter, but since the newspaper program began, the number of requests has more than doubled to two hundred per quarter. One paper highly sought after by researchers, the Richmond Planet, is an African American newspaper founded during Reconstruction by a group of former slaves. Its most well-known editor, John Mitchell Junior, was appointed to the position at the age of twenty-one. In a time of segregation, lynch mobs, and the rise of the Ku Klux Klan, he dared to “hurl the thunderbolts of truth into the ranks of the wicked,” as one writer put it. On the back page of each issue, he printed a listing of all documented lynchings across the nation. “He was not only doing it because of its obvious racial atrocity--there were children, there were white people--it was a matter of taking a stand against uncontrolled vigilantism,” says Somay.

The library continues to acquire copies of papers that tell unexpected stories of the past, such as a copy of a Civil-War era Richmond Dispatch. The paper had been sent across the river from the southern side to the northern side during a Christmas truce in the Battle of Fredericksburg. “The northerners and southerners would exchange boats and sail things across the river--the southerners would send plugs of tobacco, and the northerners would send coffee and newspapers,” explains Somay. When the library received the Dispatch, it still had a note attached to it saying,Friend Yanks, you seem disposed to communicate with us but the wind is against you, in the morning probably the wind will have shifted when you can send us over a paper. A fresh one if you please will be more acceptable than some old copies that you have been in a habit of cheating us with. Thomas Seaton, Co. H 17th Miss. P.S. Instruct your relief in the morning to send us over a paper that is if the wind does not shift to knight.

“A lot of what we film is made up of titles that we become aware of from other librarians, archivists, researchers, newspaper offices themselves,” says Jeff Sohn, project coordinator of the New York Newspaper Project. “I receive requests regarding papers that have not been filmed, that are in jeopardy of extinction, because they are in a small historical society that can no longer house them--or they may be deteriorating, or in the basement of a newspaper office that no longer wants them.”

New York State’s first paper, also named the Gazette, was printed in 1725 by William Bradford, a publisher with royalist sympathies. It was just two pages in length, and contained lists of ships, outdated foreign news, and a few advertisements. Within a century, the number of New York State papers would reach one hundred and twenty, and by the time of the Civil War, the number had tripled.

The nation’s first African American newspaper, Freedom’s Journal, was published in New York City in March 1827, the same year slavery was abolished in New York State. Twenty years later in Rochester, Frederick Douglass founded the abolitionist North Star, in which he combined the condemnation of slavery with a call for the emancipation of women. The paper had a circulation of four thousand subscribers in the U.S., Europe, and the West Indies, and carried the motto “Right is of no Sex – Truth is of no Color – God is the Father of us all, and we are all brethren.”

One paper in the New York project’s collection, the Sandy Hill Herald from Hudson Falls, New York, had the foresight to admonish its readers on Jan. 28, 1886: “As a rule, the local paper is read and then cast aside as of little worth. This is a thoughtless disposal of what would, if carefully preserved for a few years, be of great value to its possessor. Every year would increase its value as an encyclopedia of former events. There are before us twenty five bound volumes of the HERALD dating as far back as 1841, and the fortunate possessor would not part with them for any consideration. He has at times been offered as high as ten dollars for the privilege of cutting a single article from their pages. . . . There are many reasons why every person should preserve at least their village paper.”

“There is a gap in the way we think about collecting our historic memory,” says Somay. “If you get a published book about the Battle of Gettysburg, you catalog it and put it in your collection. If it is starting to deteriorate, you preserve it. It’s sanctified, because it’s a book, but newspapers have been treated as ephemera. Yesterday’s paper may talk of important issues of the day, both locally and nationally--so they are primary source documents. They have incredible importance especially when you are at a hundred years remove from the time.”

Many papers have been saved but are in bad condition, even if they have been bound into volumes, says Andrea Vanek, assistant director of the California Newspaper Project. “The best way to preserve newspapers is to lay them flat in an acid-free box, but most of the papers that we find are not that way. We’ve found nails, or brads, or sometimes holes punched in the pages, and you lose text because of the holes--it is very destructive to the paper. We also find a lot of papers that have just been folded and put on the shelf, so they are brittle and brown along the fold.”

Newsprint deteriorates because of the high acid in the paper. Newspapers printed before 1875 were often printed on paper composed of old rags beaten into a liquid pulp, cast onto a screen, and made into individual sheets. “We have books that date back to the sixteenth century, the incunabula period, that look excellent and will last forever,” says Kurtuz.

With an increasingly literate population and the demand for papers in larger quantities, a faster means of papermaking was devised. “One of the ironies of newspaper preservation is that fact that you could take the Virginia Gazette home--it’s in great shape, very durable, because it is printed on rag paper,” says Somay. “Then around the 1860s the demand for newspaper printing became so great, they began breaking down wood pulp with alum, which converts to an acid over time, so that the paper becomes embrittled. Newspapers from the 1830s don’t have the same preservation demands that the 1930s have--in fact papers from the 1930s are often in dire condition.

“So we’re at risk of losing our more immediate past, which is an odd situation. The papers contain the seeds of their own destruction.”

“You walk up and down the aisle at the library and you see the ‘cornflakes,’ the chunks of newspaper that fall down to the floor,” says Kurutz. “That’s why microfilm, and later, digitization, is going to be such an advantage--because newspapers are a primary source and you will be able to read them without damaging the original.”

Microfilming is a painstaking and time-consuming process. “It’s very rare that you find a whole run of a paper in good condition,” says Vanek. “We have to disbind them to film them, because usually the binding is so tight that you cannot get a good image. Sometimes we have to put whole sheets into a Mylar sleeve or tape or iron them, or sometimes correct numbering or dates in pencil on the issues. It takes a very long time to get them camera-ready.”

“Papers are being ferreted out and made available not only bibliographically, but also preserved--it’s a real boon to researchers to finally know who has what,” says Kurutz. “This is a bibliographic Mount Everest for California, with its complex newspaper history. From San Diego up through Fort Bragg, tremendous resources are being made available.”

Snyder, the director of the California newspaper project, has been canvassing the Golden State for more than a decade, on the hunt for old and rare newspapers. “You never know when you’re going to turn up a lead one place that will take you some place else,” he says.

One regional publisher had saved local papers from Winton, California, for twenty-five years, and showed Snyder his attic stacked full of them. “They were in bundles and pigeons had roosted in there. It was dirty and dusty and it was a hot day. I went through and tried to make the best inventory I could of these bundles, and I took the earliest issue I found of each of these eight titles.” Snyder cataloged them, hoping to return and complete a thorough inventory. “I called him a few months later, and he said, ‘You’ll be very sad to hear that sixty days after you were here, the place burned down to the ground.’ So I had the earliest known copies, since I’d saved them. That was a tragedy: eight local communities, twenty-five years worth, lost, because the local libraries hadn’t saved them.”

Snyder is semi-retired, but he says that the work continues to be “intensely rewarding.” He himself has long ties to the state: his great-great-grandparents arrived by covered wagon in the 1850s, and there were newspaper publishers on both sides of his family.

Snyder says, “I’ve found towns that were six miles apart but each had their own newspaper.” In Downyville he met the publisher of the Sierra Booster, Hal Wright, a relative of the Wright Brothers. For forty years, Wright was California’s only flying newspaper deliveryman, tossing his paper onto the front porches of subscribers as he flew by in his 1949 Aeronica Sedan. He published and delivered the paper every three weeks until he died at the age of ninety-six, the oldest active pilot in the United States.

“That kind of local identity is not characteristic of most of today’s publications,” says Snyder. In the past twelve years, he and his team have identified more than half of the twenty thousand California newspapers that have been published since 1846. They are printed in thirty-nine languages and represent Oakland’s Portuguese community, San Francisco’s Greek and Chinese, Fresno’s Armenian, Cambodian, and Hmong, and California’s many Spanish-speaking communities.

Somay says the collection and microfilming of newspapers is urgent business. “We may never have this chance again to preserve newspapers that are on the verge of total extinction,” he says. “We may never pass this way again.”

Spanish Immigrants in Hawaii 
in the Early 1900s 
and their Descendants
by Jaime Cader 
© 2003

During the early 1900s over 8000 Spaniards emigrated to the Hawaiian Islands to work mostly in the sugar cane plantations. From Spain they embarked on ships that traveled through the Straight of Magellan and then continued on towards Hawaii.

After four or five years, the great majority of these individuals left Hawaii to reside in California.

There were various reasons why they left Spain, however most emigrated because of the poor economic conditions in their homeland. A smaller percentage left in order to escape the fate of their sons’ eventual recruitment to fight in Spain’s war in Morocco.

Different reasons also existed for the later emigration to California. Many had Spanish friends and family members who had preceded them to the Golden State. Those in California encouraged their counterparts in Hawaii to leave the islands so that they could take part in the good living conditions of a state that resembled Spain.

Some Spaniards abandoned Hawaii after seeing or hearing about the brutal putting down of a Russian rebellion. There were different immigrant groups in Hawaii, and the Russians rose up against their poor treatment in their work camp. Upon learning about that incident, some Spaniards decided that it was best to stay quiet and to then just sneak off to California.

In order to write this article, I referred to two written works: 
1) the book Memories of Spain, first published in 1994 by Anne Santucci for the Club Espanol of Rocklin (California), and 
2) a written paper entitled " Vida y Desventura de Ocho Mil Españoles en Hawai Durante las Primeras Decadas del Siglo XX" by German Rueda Hernanz of the University of Valladolid’s Contemporary History Department.

I have also interviewed seven individuals who are children, grandchildren, or spouses of Spaniards that had a Hawaiian connection. The information from these interviews will be presented in this article. I hope that I have not gotten too sidetracked as I relate some of their experiences as I was also told about circumstances during the Spanish Civil War, etc.

The persons that I interviewed told me their stories as they knew or experienced the events. It is possible that other Spanish-Hawaiians and their descendants recall the events differently.

Finally I will include information about ‘Spanish-Hawaiian’ families taken from obituaries and other printed sources, such as programs from Spanish associations’ celebrations, etc.

Before presenting all of this, I want to mention that my first major encounter with this subject took place almost twenty years ago when I often had conversations with a Mrs. Pilar Lopez who worked in the same public school office building as I did. Lopez, whose parents were from the provinces of Salamanca and Soria, Spain respectively, said that in the mid 1920s many Andalusians lived around what was referred to as "la loma" in San Francisco, California. These Andalusians had lived in Hawaii.

"La loma" included all of the streets leading up to Koit Tower. It comprised of the hill area of Vallejo and Green Streets (and Kearny Street in the same area). The location started from Columbus and Grant Avenues, -and Stockton and Union Streets also had sections in this area.

Many Spaniard’s also lived in San Francisco’s Mission District during that same period. Lopez had some friendships among the residents of "la loma" and she has always been a good and generous source of information. Lopez was a child when she and her family attended the inauguration of the Club Iberico in San Leandro in the early 1930s.

In reference to the publications mentioned previously, note should be taken that while Santucci’s book lists seven trips on ships that brought Spaniards to Hawaii starting in 1907, it does not report a ship called the Victoria which left the port of Vigo (in Galicia), Spain in 1900 with 300 Spaniards which is listed in Rueda Hernanz’s write-up. Rueda Hernanz, for his part, does not list the ship Kumeric which is listed in the previously mentioned book and which arrived in Hawaii in in 1907 with a total of 1114 passengers.

The Interviews

The interview of Blanca Crovetto Avancena was conducted in her office in Walnut Creek, California on September 19, 2003. It was the second of two interviews that were done in Spanish. Crovetto Avancena is originally from Madrid, Spain. She works as a counselor for women who have cancer.

The connection that Crovetto Avancena has to the Hawaiian episode is that she is a descendant of Don Carlos Crovetto, who worked in immigration matters and assisted many Spaniards in doing the paper work for them to emigrate to Hawaii.

A flyer (which is printed in Santucci’s book) was put up in many places in Spain that advertises the need for workers in Hawaii. On the bottom of that flyer it says "For more information …: Don Carlos Crovetto, person in charge of revision … Malaga (Spain)."

According to Crovetto Avancena, Don Carlos Crovetto had an Italian origin, making her a descendant of a General Crovetto, whose statue is to be found in Genova, Italy.

Word for word interview of Antonia Sanchez. This was the first interview done in Spanish and it took place on February 13, 1998 in Sanchez’s home in Antioch, California. (Her words were translated into English by this author.)  Sanchez is the widow of Antonio Sanchez whose parents, grandparents and other family members had gone to live in Hawaii.  

Sanchez: I was born on April 3, 1922 in Estepona, on the Costa del Sol, in the province of Malaga.
We were nine brothers and sisters, that’s five men and four women. We lived well until Franco (the dictator) came to power. When Franco was taking control, everything became very different.

I was a teenager when Franco came, however I know a lot about the situation at that time because this has been talked about much in our home throughout our lives. We who did not win the war suffered a great deal. In my family we were not Franquistas. There were no jobs to be had. We had fields and these and everything else was taken away from us.

We had to leave to another province because of the danger of the war. We walked the entire distance from Malaga to Almeria, where we ended up staying for three years, most of the entire time in a tent.

Eventually we returned to Estepona and because of some connections we had, we were at least able have our house back. One brother returned from the war missing an arm. He had fought against Franco’s forces. (It was not on the recorded interview, but Sanchez also said that her mother was lucky to have all of her children alive after the war. Other families were not so fortunate.)

Three of my brothers were in concentration camps and then they were transferred to prisons. They were taken to the penal prison of Santa Maria in Cadiz where they were held for five years. Prisoners whose families did not send them food ended up dying.

After having suffered much, we encountered good people that helped us a great deal. Presently, of the nine brothers and sisters, there are only two left. Myself, and an older brother…

The parents of my late husband were Manuel Sanchez and Isabel Mena. They emigrated to Hawaii in 1911. My husband Antonio was born in San Francisco, California.

My in-laws lived in Hawaii for four years and then they came here (to California). They later returned to Spain after one of their sons was killed by a truck. A daughter of theirs had also previously died during the ship voyage from Spain to Hawaii. Her name was Francisquita. Her body was thrown into the ocean as a burial.

The other children that went to Hawaii with them were Isabel, Antonia, Maria and Juan, who was the one killed by a truck in California. They took their children Maria, Manuel, Juana, and Antonio -my husband back to Spain with them. In Spain another child was born to them.

The grandparents of my husband died in Oakley, California. These grandparents left Spain for Hawaii because their sons Francisco and Antonio (the uncles of the interviewee’s husband) were going to be taken to fight in a war against Morocco. Many people were also dying of a fever in Morocco. So that is why they left for Hawaii.

Thus it was my in-laws and my husband's grandparents that left for Hawaii. They all went on the same ship and years later arrived in California on a same vessel. They were all originally from Estepona, Malaga.

My husband was about seven years old when he was taken back to Spain. Years later we married and we lived together for 11 years before coming to live in California. Back then Spain was still not doing well economically and my husband’s sisters in California encouraged him to return to the land of his birth.

He preceded me to California and wrote to me saying that yes, the poor are better off in America than in Spain. So in nine months our two daughters and I joined him. One of my daughters was ten years old and the other one was eight months old. That was in May of 1953.

I now also have four grandchildren and two great grandchildren. They all live in Antioch. (They all speak Spanish because that is the only language Sanchez can really speak to them in.)

(Returning to the conversation about Hawaii):

My husband’s family worked on the sugar cane plantations in Hawaii. They were actually better off in Spain where they had a large farm with many animals.  They left to keep their sons out of the war around Melilla (Morocco). One of my own mother’s cousins was killed there.

Here in Antioch my husband worked in a cannery. He later went to work at the paper mill where he worked 16 to 17 hours a day. It was because of all of this work that we were able to buy a house.

After my first year here, I also started to work in a cannery. I missed my family in Spain. In California I only had my husband’s family. Besides my cannery job I had five houses where I worked washing and ironing clothes. During the summer months we would go to harvest nuts…

Note: Sanchez told me that the initial years following her arrival in Antioch were pleasant ones. Spanish families living on 9th, 10th, and 11th Streets would visit each other on their front porches. There was a Spanish association and there was much happiness. This is now all gone.

Interview of Father Fernando Cortez, on February 18, 2003 at his St. Albert’s parish residence in Alameda, California.

Cortez: I knew Spanish since childhood and I studied it in the university as well.  Both of my parents are of Spanish origins. My dad’s family is from Malaga. They emigrated to Hawaii and then they came to California. My mother came to the United States from Spain in 1948 and my parents met here and got married.

I was ordained a priest in October 1977. I have religious order people in the family, -in the family background there are people that are Dominicans and Salesians, but I wanted to be a diocesan priest principally because I wanted some sense of control over my life …and also to keep closer to home because I am from a small family.

It was only my brother and myself and my parents at the time, and belonging to a small diocese like Oakland, I knew that I wouldn’t be any where further than Contra Costa County… And I like the Bay Area a lot because I was born here.

My father was born in Hawaii. My grandfather had fought in the "Guerra de Cuba" in the Spanish-American War, and when he returned home he married. At that time I think he would have been around 25. And my grandmother was about a month shy of 13 (years old).

I guess the authorities are dead now I suppose. So it’s not going to matter… but very young, married way too young.  I think they did migratory work, because the only evidence for that is that one of my uncles was born in Cadiz, which is a neighboring province. And that wouldn’t happen except that they might have been traveling to do harvesting… harvesting grapes or olives or something.

So I don’t think that they were stationary. Most people didn’t own land, so they had to be on the move to try to find work… So my uncle Juan was born in Cadiz and the rest, the other three I guess were born in Malaga.

My dad’s parents and four of his other brothers and sisters came over in 1911 to Honolulu, Hawaii. And they were there till sometime in 1917 and then they came to California.

They stopped off briefly in San Francisco, and I guess through word of mouth or some sort of local help they found a place to purchase. That place (area) is called Ramos Camp.

And the time the family was built up, it was the parents, the grandparents, and ten kids… Four (born) in Spain, three in Hawaii including my father, and two more were born in Hayward (California). And a tenth child was adopted…

Yes, the home that they purchased… is at where today is basically Ramos Avenue (in Hayward). It was a very small house, so it was a bit crowded. But they did have a large enough piece of property to have a home garden. The places that I know of from my own experience (where Spaniards lived) were Hollister, Sunnyvale, Hayward, San Leandro, and a few people in Oakland, and a few people in the Antioch area.

I knew a few people from Antioch because I lived there as a child briefly for a about a year or two, and my parents had a mom and pop’s store. We came back to Hayward after that…

The other thing that affected the local Spanish communities… the (Spanish) Civil War in the thirties ended up being extremely divisive. The only comment I heard once was that there had been some rows and fights over where (to Nationalists or Republican areas) Red Cross materials were going to be sent… I think that profoundly affected the stability of the Spanish immigrants’ socializing. There wasn’t that kind of divisiveness for Portuguese or other groups because their countries didn’t go through that process, the way Spain did so drastically…

I think that locally, I don’t know how, but I suspect that that very much divided the community… I’ve never been able to understand why the Spanish situation here was so weak compared to other immigrant groups, as far as their cohesiveness, -and that’s (the divisions over the war) the only thing I can think of.

Note: Fr. Fernando Cortez expressed that most of the Spaniards that he knew about that had emigrated to Hawaii, were for the most part from Andalusia.

Interview of Frank Perez, conducted at his residence in Martinez, California on December 8, 2003.

Perez: I was born in Hayward, California in 1946. I learned a little (Spanish) at home, but actually to carry on a conversation I had to learn it in high school. My parents spoke English around the house. It was my grandpa and grandmother who were the only ones that actually spoke Spanish.

My paternal grandfather died in Spain before my father was born. So my paternal grandmother came (to Hawaii) with three children and another male, whom we’re not sure who he was.  And my maternal grandparents both came [to Hawaii]. (Perez knows more about his paternal side of the family).

On my mother’s side, I asked my grandmother - she said because your grandfather didn’t get along with the people in the village. And he wanted to leave because he didn’t like them.

That was the Sephardic side, on my mother’s side.

Interviewer’s question: How did you know that you have Sephardic ancestry on your mother’s side?

It was just kind of known. They didn’t practice it, but they really didn’t practice Catholicism either. It was just kind of there, you know… It just was kind of known in the family, but it was like something to hide, not discussed. It would come out once in a while.

One time I asked her [my grandmother] why she had all these crucifixes and things around the house. She said, " In case they came." I said, "who?" She said, " In case they come to look, to see if we have them…"  Wine would come out for Hannukah…

(In reference to Spanish communities in the San Francisco East Bay area…) These were small towns. Everyone was pretty hick. San Leandro was the closest town, real city. Everyone knew everybody in these towns because they would go from Oakland to San Leandro, Fremont, Newark. It was like a little community. So everyone knew everyone, everyone was Spanish, knew everybody in those communities.

I could go into Oakland and they’d take a look at me and they say, "Oh, you’re one the Mateo kids, aren’t you?" And I say, "Yeah, that’s my grandmother."

There were a lot less people in those days. A lot less. We had family in Oakland, San Leandro…It was a tight-knit community, because there was not that many people.

The Club Iberico in San Leandro, they’d have weddings and parties and birthdays. We were there a lot. I have a lot of memories there. Good memories.

My grandmother, my maternal grandmother knew all the other people that came from the old country. They all kind of hung together, all the old ladies and old men. And they would socialize in each other’s homes. There was a little community there.

My maternal grandmother could not read or write. I think they said my paternal grandfather could. That was pretty common in those days.

My father was, I think, five [years old] or something when he went over there [to Hawaii], and talks about the voyage and how bad it was.

The first place they got to after leaving Portugal was either Montevideo or Argentina. Some of the family left at that point because the voyage ended up almost two months. And they said enough of this. So a lot of them jumped ship there. We lost track of them [those relatives].

And then the next step was Punta Arenas, Chile. And some [relatives] left in Chile. And then, they left Chile and headed toward Hawaii.

And my father went to Lahaina [Maui] first and they worked on the sugar cane plantation. And he talks about what it was like. The surprising thing is though, that they were like slaves. They were treated like slaves.

And he talks about how the plantations are owned by the whites and usually the strong bosses were the Portuguese. And they treated them even worse than the whites did. They were really rotten to them.

As soon as he got there [to Hawaii, my father worked]. The whole family worked. Pulling cane. He [my father] had a third-grade education, if that.

So he was out there with his two brothers who were older than him. The thing that amazes me is how everyone got along… because they were there with the Chinese, the Japanese, the Filipinos…

He always talks about the flu, that when they had the big epidemic. And he was saying that, I think she was Portuguese, would make chicken soup. And she would go from shack to shack, or whatever they lived in, and people would pool whatever they had to make this food.

So they were just hauling bodies out of there. People were just dying. That was when they had a world epidemic of the flu.

But all these different people from all over the world were all pooling together to survive. They were all healing each other.

And then he talks about how the Puerto Ricans wouldn't take any [?] from the Portuguese bosses. And if you were sick, they’d come and they’d rouse you out of bed. [They say] "You’re not sick - work!" And they’d drag you out. That’s like slaves.

Well they got kind of pushy with a couple of the Puerto Ricans. They were out there, on the sugar cane fields and killed the bosses, the Portuguese bosses. They just got a knife and slit their throats.

He talks about how, on the one hand, they were treated so terribly, but then, on the other hand, he talks about how as a kid, not going to school, running around -- because they fooled around a lot too.

And I remember he was talking about how when they left there to go to Honolulu, the owner of the plantation, whatever, gave my grandmother a shawl and was crying because they didn’t want to see her leave. Because my grandmother worked in their house, and did their washing and ironing.

There was no dock there, in Lahaina. So they’d have to take it all out on this little boat, and load it onto this big ship. And they were there and all scared going to Honolulu. And they lived there for a while. They came to the states after that.

[In Hawaii] you had to pay off [by working], work off your indentured servitude. But they worked that off and got enough money together and they came to the states.

I said, "Why did you leave paradise to come here?" They said you couldn’t get ahead there unless you were Asian. By that point all the big plantations were owned by whites, but the regular businesses were all owned by Asians. And they wouldn’t hire you. They would hire Asians, it was very prejudiced that way. You couldn’t get a job. You couldn’t get ahead there.

The Portuguese stayed [in Hawaii], but the Spanish as far as I know all left.

Ouestion: Is your father still living?

Perez: Oh yeah.

Question: And your mother?

Perez: She died in the sixties…

The family pretty well married Spanish, until they came here [to California]. They went to San Francisco first. They hated it; it was so cold. They were there for a very short time, like months.

They went to a picnic in Niles Canyon. Someone invited them. Some David they knew. These people all networked. Everybody, it was unbelievable, in network.

And then they met somebody there, and then they said, " Oh, we live in Union City." - which was Alvarado then. And they liked it out here because it was warmer. So then, they moved out here and then they stayed.

These were all networked. You didn’t do anything without networking… There was this little community of Spanish people. And they, all the old timers, who were there from the old country. The mother, the grandmother-type, you know from the old country. Not necessarily all from Hawaii… These kids would marry or settle down. They'd build a house for them. So there was this whole little thing here.

One part of the town was Spanish and Mexicans; the other part was Portuguese.

Now it’s the Indians and the Afghanis, they’ve done the same thing, in the same town.

There are still some [Spaniards] there, believe it or not… It the Alvarado district, [of Union City] on the bay side of the freeway, of [Interstate] 880.

[Back then] I would say 600 to 700 Spanish people lived there. It was a small town…

It was always a big treat to go there [to the Club Iberico of San Leandro], because you’d see all the Spanish people. There was very much pride involved.

My family stopped going, my grandmother got older. And then I remember her children, my mother and aunt and uncle weren’t interested at all. That was like a relic of the past.

If she’d [my grandmother] wanted to go, they’d kind of like would begrudgingly take her. They were not into it at all.

Well they weren’t going, and I was a teenager doing my own things. So all of a sudden it wasn’t there any more.

(More thoughts on Perez’s childhood experiences):

My father was from Andalusia, my mother was from the province of Caceres. As a little kid they'd always point, my mother, I can still remember to this day, she'd point at my finger tips and say that they were dark. She’d say, "Cause you have Moorish blood." Which is not a good thing.

My mother married an "andaluz" and we’re mixed with the Moors, so you are less than them…

And I was the only kid [among my cousins] that didn’t have blond hair as a child. All the other kids had blond hair or light hair. I had jet-black hair because I had all the Moorish blood.

At the Club Iberico [in San Leandro] at social gatherings, there was a little hierarchy that went on. The Spanish that were from the East Coast [of the U.S.A.], that came from Spain to like, New York, or Connecticut or something - and ended up in the Bay Area, they carried themselves, acted a little better, a little higher caste… better dressed, a little more educated, than the Hawaii branch of Spaniards.

And they were always like the upper crust, and we were always like below them. It was never said. I don’t recall anyone ever saying this…

There were even class differences as to where you lived. If you lived in San Leandro or Oakland, you were higher caste than if you lived in Hayward or Union City. The houses were better, more expensive [in the former cities mentioned]…

(Perez said that most of the Spaniards around his generation married Anglos. He only has one cousin that married a Spaniard).

Author’s note: Of the Spanish- Hawaiian descendants that I met, many married Anglos, Mexicans, Portuguese, Spaniards, etc.

In summary, Perez's father was born in 1906. He arrived in Hawaii in 1911 and he was 16 years old when came to California.

Interview of Rose Pearce, on done December 15, 2003 at her residence in Brentwood, California.

Question: When were you born?

Pearce: 1922 in Oakley, California.

Question: Do you speak Spanish?

Pearce:  Yes sir… As a child I spoke both languages [Italian and Spanish]. I didn’t speak English when I went to [started] school.

My mother’s family came from Ubeda, Spain, -which is Southern Spain. My father and his three brothers came from Italy. And then they came through… well, they came through New York and they went to Bradford Island because they had two uncles living there.

My mother’s family came on the Willesden [ship]. My mother and her family lived in Hawaii for five years, that was the contract that they had with England.

Well, of course, you know the paper [a flyer distributed] was in Spain, telling all about Hawaii, and they gave them a house to live in, and school was free and the house was free if they stayed five years, which my grandparents did stay five years [they would’ve been given land], but they never knew about it.

And after five years, the house and the lot around it would be yours. But he didn’t know, so he didn’t claim it. And I think that happened to a lot of them.

My mother’s family was on the big island of Hawaii and they were in the town called Pahala. My mother went to school there.

My grandfather and his family left Spain because they were starving. They were very poor and they had no future. And so he saw this paper [flyer] in town and somebody read it for him (he couldn’t read) and so he got the inspiration to come to Hawaii, because he wanted to better his family life. Because they had nothing to eat in Spain.

My grandfather fought in the Spanish-American War against the Americans… in the Philippine Islands. His name was Jose Sanchez.

My mother was born in Spain. Her name was Ana Maria Sanchez and she was five years old when she left Spain. She left with her parents, an older brother and two younger brothers. One more sister was born in Hawaii.

I went to Hawaii and I went to see where they lived, and I saw the house. It was fine. They had this house and they had the kitchen outside because that was the custom back in those days. It was a two-bedroom house. Yes, it was on stilts, it had to be on stilts.

They worked in the sugar cane [plantations], they cut the cane with the machetes. They worked in the fields, the kids and all. Of course, they had to go to school, that was the law.

They left [eventually] and went to San Francisco [in 1918] and they went to high school in San Francisco… My mother worked at Ghiradelli Chocolate factory.

They lived in San Francisco for a while, but my grandfather liked the country. Some of them came out this way and they’d write to each other and we came out this way.

[In San Francisco] they lived on Pacific Avenue. "La loma" they called it, the Koit Tower area.

My grandfather was very much involved with the Spanish community of the Antioch-Oakley area. Not my mother so much because my father was Italian and he had a lot of Italian friends…

My grandfather bought a house there [in Oakley] and he worked out in the fields. And then he bought, can you imagine, he bought 29 acres of land and he paid cash. Can you imagine that?

Yes, I knew a lot of Spanish families through my grandfather because he would visit a lot. Many of us joined the one [the Spanish club] in Rocklin.

I have a book that has photographs. This is the company that they worked for (showing the book). 
This is the Spanish camp, see… this is the book of Hawaii where they worked. That’s the name of the company [and the book] -Kau Sugar Company, Incorporated. That’s all about the place where they worked. And the history is there, everything is there.

I went to the company and got the book, when I went to Hawaii. And they gave it to me. [The book is dated December 29, 1972.]

[In California] my father was a farmer... My mother when she's living at home with her parents, that's how she met my father, she worked out in the fields.

In those days there used to be seven packing houses in this area. And she worked in the packing houses... I cut fruit and everything and worked out in the fields. Yeah, at home.

There were a lot of Spanish people in Oakley. We used to call it Spanish town at one time. They had streets and streets of Spanish people... because they worked in the fields, and of course the farms are out in this community. The ones in Antioch worked more in the mills.

The ones my age, some of them are still around. But a lot of them, you know, they married other nationalities and moved.

We had the theatre in Brentwood, we showed Spanish-speaking movies. We showed movies from Mexico and from Spain. Then Oakley had Spanish-speaking films and we use to go a lot there. But that closed up and then we showed them. In the theatre we showed Spanish-speaking movies Wednesdays and Thursdays.

Question: Who did that? Who initiated and organized that?

Pearce:  My husband and my brother in law.

Question: So all this in the 50s was, your family did that?

Pearce: Yes, my brother in law and my husband both.

I'll tell you a cute story from Hawaii. A Japanese man came to the house and he said, "arigato." That's Japanese for thank you, right?... He [my grandfather] use to kill hogs in the winter time. You know, all the Spanish people use to do that. So he [the Japanese man] came over to buy some meat. And he said, "arigato." But this sounded like "cara de gato" (catface) in Spanish.

(Pearce's grandmother understood that he had called her 'catface', and her grandfather went after the Japanese man.)

My grandfather, he did quite well for a man that couldn't speak English. He couldn't read and write his own language. He had 13 children. He raised eight. Some went to college.  Five children passed away when they were small. There's one buried in Hawaii, another one buried in San Francisco...

A lot of them (the Spaniards from Hawaii) had to come to Angel Island (in the San Francisco Bay). Because I went to Angel Island to see where they passed... I heard it from the Spanish people that some of them had to come through Angel Island. I think there was a flu epidemic here at that time or something. And they had to go there before they could come in. I heard it. I didn't read it, and it's a true story.

(In reference again to the family emigration to Hawaii):

My grandfather and his family and two sisters were going (to go) to Hawaii. Somewhere or another things got mixed up in Gibraltar and they (the sisters) ended up in Brazil. They got mixed up somehow and got on the wrong ship. They (the sisters) wrote back to Spain and my grandfather sent a letter to Spain, and that's how they found out what happened.

Note: Pearce said that England had placed the flyers around Spain to encourage people to sign up to work in Hawaii. Pearce's maiden name is Giannini.

Interview of Dave San Martin, done on December 16, 2003 in the home of this author (Jaime Cader).

Martin: I was born in 1967, in Antioch (California). My father was born in Antioch in 1923. He was the last one to be born in his family. He was the tenth one. He had a brother Adam, that was born, that died as a child in Hawaii. My uncle Joe, Joe San Martin, I believe was born in Hawaii, if not Antioch. Then I had an uncle Frank San Martin, -those are the three brothers all together.

Then there was four sisters. One died as a child, Rose San Martin. Then there was my aunt Dorothy who I believe was the one that was born in Spain, -as a little child came over on the ship to Hawaii...and then to San Francisco and migrated to Antioch.

Then there was my other aunt, aunt Asumption. And there was also my aunt Margaret...

Adam was buried in either Maui or Hawaii, but my aunt Rose was buried in the Catholic cemetery in Antioch. Also my grandfather Simon and Francis San Martin (the grandmother) were buried in Holy Cross Cemetery (the Catholic cemetery in Antioch).

My grandmother Francis passed away when my dad was two years old. Sad to say, from a poisoned pickle or bad pickle...It was very traumatizing to the family.

1962 [It's when my grandfather died]. I believed it was Palencia, Spain, but It could have been Valencia, Spain, - but I believed it was Palencia [where my grandparents were from].

Question: Why do you think your family might have left Spain?

Martin: Possibly for a better life in America, - a more prosperous life or a new start.   When I went to go visit Hawaii (1977) to go look for my uncle's grave, Adam, - I was at a church playing with my sister and looking around I noticed that there was a carving in the tree, and it happened to be my aunt Dorothy's carving of her name in the tree and the date on the tree, when she was there...

(In reference to why his grandparents came to Antoich)

I believe it was possible that Father Perdigon (a Spanish priest in Antioch) came over in the boat, the same time, my grandparents did, he helped to found Holy Rosary Church.

He [my grandfather] purchased some land on 4th Street and K [Street], or 5th and K. And they had a home with a cellar. And then they built a small apartment and another home. They made wine in the cellar. My grandfather was a contractor with the farms in the surrounding areas, and his children where part of his crew.

That was part of the survival as a fruit picker, was they got to have some of the food [i.e. grapes for wine making] themselves. Also he used some of the wine as a barter system. He traded wine for certain possible other things, other foods or what have you - "You help me do this and I'll give you some wine"...

Yes, the whole family spoke Spanish. In 1988 he [ my father ] passed away...He owned a bar in Antioch, on 4th and K Street, called Hank's Forum Club. He was in the bar business from age 18 till he sold it at age 65...He started out as a bouncer in the bar that he did own eventually...

In fact there was a Spanish lodge in Antioch. My father told me about it. [It was] from the age when my father was a young man...I believe so [that there was a building]. They did have "fiestas" in Antioch in the streets. They'd kill a pig.  They would dance to Spanish music and drink wine [in] old downtown Antioch.

My father had an affiliation with the police department since he was in his teens. and that was one of the reasons why he was well known in Antioch. So that's one of the reasons why he was able to be a bouncer when he was 18.

And he rode with the police at a very young age until he was diagnosed with cancer. His bar was a cop bar.  One of the first things they did when an Antioch police officer became a cop, was to bring him to my dad's bar and introduce him to my dad.

She [my mother] came from Alabama. [When] she was sixteen years old she ended up in California. They (her family) are very deep-rooted in Alabama.

I loved him (my father) very dearly, but he had to work long hours, six days a week. That made it rough on the family. My father went to Spain when I was a young child. I believe he saw some relatives. But he was very home sick for me and his family, and he came back home early. He brought me back a few things.

Note: San Martin's Aunt Margaret, who married into the Spanish Del Pozo family, has kept in touch with relatives in Spain. They have come for visits.


Jaime Cader, a second generation Salvadoran-American resides in Antioch, California and is presently the only Hispanic commissioner with the Contra Costa Human Relations Commission. He is also a board member of Celebrating Culture and Community, a non-profit multicultural arts organization.

Interview of Elvera Rios, done by telephone on December 17, 2003. Rios is the widower of Martin Rios, whose parents emigrated from Spain to Hawaii. The following is not the word for word transcript of the interview, but rather the information that was jotted down while taking notes.

Martin Rios' parents were Martin Rios and Angelina Marquez. They were originally from La Zarsa, Granadilla, Spain and they worked the sugar cane plantations for several years in Hawaii.

Martin Rios Sr. limped because he had an accident in Hawaii. He was walking a team of horses when he suddenly fell into a ditch. He was eventually found some time later. His nickname was "Martin el cojo." Years before arriving to Hawaii, Rios Sr. had fought for Spain in the Spanish-American War. He had a brother that had emigrated to Argentina.

Martin Rios Jr. was born in Oakley, California in 1925. He passed away on December 25, 2001 in neighboring Antioch, California. (His obituary will be presented later on in this article.) His sister Angelina Rios was born in Chico, California around 1924 and his brother Joseph Rios was also born in Oakley around 1927.

Elvera Rios's maiden name is Furtado. She was born in Sacramento, California in 1927. Her father was born in Brazil to Azorian parents. Her mother, who was of Portuguese descent, was born in Niles, California, which is presently the city of Fremont.

In 1979 and in 1982, Martin Rios Jr. and his wife Elvera traveled to Spain and visited family members.

Elvera's older sister Evelyn also married a Spaniard whose family had emigrated to Hawaii. Evelyn's birthplace is San Francisco, California. Her late husband, Manuel Perez, was born in Brentwood, California. His sister Mary was born in Hawaii. Perez passed away five years ago in Antioch, California.

Elvera and her sister Evelyn each had three children. Martin and Elvera Rios were active in the Circulo Espanol de Stockton. It was because of their encouragement that this author and his mother became members of that club.

A Book emigrated: In 1926 a book entitled History of Contra Costa County (California) with Biographical Sketches was published by the Historic Record Company of Los Angeles, California.

On page 939 there is an entry detailing historical and family information concerning two brothers, Joseph and Peter Lopez. Of some of the family members mentioned, some include the family of Antonio Sanchez, the late husband of Antonia Sanchez whose interview is included previously in this article.

Four Obituaries:
Isabel Sanchez Lopez
Martin Rios, Jr.
Antonia Sanchez Lopez
Antonio Pretel 

[Sisters, Isabel Sanchez Lopez and Antonia Sanchez Lopez are sister in-laws of Antonia Sanchez.]

Printed in the Ledger Dispatch (of Antioch, California) on June 1, 2000:
Isabel Sanchez Lopez, April 20, 1900-May 24, 2000
Age 100. Died at Kaiser Hospital, Walnut Creek, CA due to a short illness. She resided in Concord, CA at the time of her death and lived in Contra Costa County for 85 years. Native of Estepona, Spain.

Isabel was a loving mother, grandparent and packer at Western Cannery in Antioch, Ca.  She attended Immaculate Heart of Mary Catholic Church in Brentwood, CA.  Preceded in death by her husband Pedro Lopez in 1974 and her daughter Marina Lopez in 1998.

She is survived by: Daughters; Mary L. Martinez of Concord, CA; Isabel Arnold of Richland, Washington; Son, Michael Lopez of Brentwood, CA; Sister, Antonia Lopez of Pittsburg, CA; Brother, Francisco Sanchez Mena of Estepona, Spain and 10 grandchildren, 17 great-grandchildren, 6 great-great grandchildren.

Services were held on Wednesday, May 31 at the Brentwood Funeral Home. Burial was at Holy Cross Cemetary, Antioch, Ca.

Memorial gifts be given to your favorite charity. See
(Note: Isabel Sanchez Lopez was the sister of Antonia Sanchez's late husband, Antonio Sanchez. Sanchez Lopez emigrated to Hawaii in 1911. Her sister Antonia Lopez, was the mother of Pete Lopez, a former mayor of Antioch, California. Pete Lopez was elected to the Antioch City Council on April 12, 1966. He was elected mayor by the Council on April 10, 1967. He completed his term as mayor in April of 1968 and was an outgoing Council member on April 21, 1970.)

Printed in The Sunday Times (Contra Costa Times), December 30, 2001.
Martin Rios Jr.  Feb. 8, 1925 - Dec 25, 2001

Martin Rios, Jr. a long time resident of Antioch died on December 25th, at the age of 76. Martin served in the Army 10th Mountain Division during World War II. He was a long time member of the Y.M.I # 26 & El Circulo Espanol of Stockton. He retired from Dupont after 20 years and previously worked for Fibreboard. Martin is survived by his loving wife of 54 years, Elvera and three children and their spouses, Martin & Maria Rios, Bernadette & Kraig Hansen and Edward & Denise Rios all of Antioch. He is survived by seven grandchildren which he enjoyed babysitting, Frank, Jacob, Josh, Sarah, Christine, Curtis & Ryan. Martin is also survived by a brother Joseph of Katy, Tx & sister Angelina Miolono of Albuquerque, NM. He is preceded in death by brothers Isaac, John, Paul & Donald, sisters Flora, Victoria, Bernice &

Mary & grandson Eddie.

Friends and relatives are invited to attend a visitation at Higgins Chapel Wednesday, January 2, 2002 from 4:00 to 8:00 p.m. with the Vigil Service at 7:00 p.m. Funeral mass will be held Thursday, January 3, 2002 at 10:00 a.m. at St. Ignatius Church, Contra Loma Blvd. He will be laid to rest at Holy Cross Cemetary, Antioch.Memorial donations may be made to St. Ignatius Church Building Fund.

Printed in the Contra Costa Times on April 22, 2003.
Antonia Sanchez Lopez
January 3, 1903 -April, 19, 2003

She was born, as was her deceased husband of 65 years (1986) Mike Lopez Sr., in Estepona, Spain. She lived in the cities of Pittsburg, Winters, and of late, Antioch, CA. She was well known in the "Cannery Workers circle" in Pittsburg and Antioch.

She is survived by her daughter, Isabel Lopez Wallace of Antioch; sons, Pete Lopez of Antioch and Anthony M. Lopez of Las Vegas; and many grandchildren and great-grandchildren and great-great grandchildren. She was also preceded in death by sons, Mike Lopez, Jr., Manuel S. Lopez; grandson, Mark A. Lopez.

She was proud to be a 3-star mother, having three sons who served during World War II.  Visitation will be held Wednesday, April 23, 2003, 3-8 p.m. Rosary at 7:30 p.m. at the Higgins Chapel. Graveside Services will be held Thursday, April 24th at 10:00 a.m. at Holy Cross Cemetery. Family requests donations be made to Holy Rosary Church.  (Note: Sanchez Lopez emigrated to Hawaii with her parents when was about eight years old.)

Printed in the San Francisco Chronicle on Friday, October 31, 2003.

Antonio Pretel   - In San Francisco, October 28, 2003 at the age of 100. Father of Mary & Dick; father-in-law of John & Susan; grandfather of Deborah, Michelle and the late Brian; great-grandfather of Crystal, Elisabeth, and Brian; great-great grandfather to Juliet.

Antonio was a native of Spain and raised in Hawaii. He came to San Francisco in 1921 and became a United States citizen in 1938. He was a member of the Moose Lodge in Colma. Antonio was a proud candy maker for over 50 years. He will be remembered as a very special and caring father, grandfather, and friend.

Family and friends are invited to visit Thursday, Oct. 30 2003 after 1 p.m. and attend the Vigil Service at 7:30 p.m. at HOGAN, SULLIVAN & BIANCO, 1226 - 9th Ave. (Irving & Lincoln). Funeral Mass Friday, Oct. 31, 2003 at 9:30 a.m. at Holy Name of Jesus Church (39th Ave. & Lawton). Internment Holy Cross Cemetary, Colma. Flowers welcome.   (415) 664-2413

(Note, the following information was told to me by Pilar Lopez, whom I referred to at the beginning of this article: Pretel's real last name was Pretez, however upon arriving in the United States, he was most likely misunderstood and his last name was written down as Pretel. He was an Andalusian and had lived on "la loma" in San Francisco, California.

Manuel Carillo: The following was obtained from speaking to Inez Dominguez, the president of the Sociedad Isabel la Catolica, her father Manuel Carillo, and from a program for the 68th anniversary celebration of the previously mentioned "Sociedad" and the same program to celebrate the 71st anniversary of the Sociedad Cervantes Espanola on February 27, 1999:

Manuel Carillo was born in Hawaii to Andalusian parents. His late wife Dolores (Dottie) Carillo was also born in Hawaii to Andalusian parents. Dolores became the first woman president of the Sociedad Cervantes Espanola in 1986. Both of these Spanish associations are located in the Sunnyvale, Calif. 

Dolores Jimenez: From the program celebrating the 25th anniversary of El Circulo Espanol de Stockton on October 19, 2003:  Dolores Jimenez was the first president from 1978 to 1979. She was elected president for later years also. Currently, her daughter Eleanor Vetter is the president. 

(Note: Dolores Jimenez was born in Maui, Hawaii to parents from Extremadura, Spain. Her story was reprinted in the book Memories of Spain by Anne Santucci.)

It is hoped that with this article the story of Spanish emigration to Hawaii will become better known. Also, I hope that the story about Spaniards in recent California history will be known. I have not seen any articles about this community in the Antioch area newspapers.

I want to thank the staff of Somos Primos for allowing me to present these stories and information.  Sincerely, Jaime Cader,


LEAD, Latino Empowerment Program
Hispanics adopting American culture
Spanish- language Mass in the Reno area
Southern Pacific Railroad 
Students Reach with PC Literacy Project        
Family History Unifies Diverse Ward
Latino values fit right in with Utah's  

The Oregon History Project

Free CD on Latin American Family History Resources,  click 

Hispanics in the Northwest 

The following photos and abstracts from four articles reflect the presence, influence and adjustments being made by the increasing numbers of Hispanics moving to the state of Nevada. A big thank you to Cindy LoBuglio for sending the newspapers.

The 393,970 Hispanics in Nevada's population include Mexicans, who make up 72.6 percent, Cubans account for 2.9 percent and Puerto Ricans 2.6 percent.  The remaining 21.9 percent are people from other Spanish-speaking countries, including those in Central American, Sought American and the Dominican Republic.

Many want to be bilingual and bicultural, but they perceive than a push for acculturation and the identity struggles of immigrant children embedded in American society have threatened their connection to their Spanish-speaking homelands. 

"We want to conserve our culture.. . We don't want our children to forget their roots,"  said Edwin Enrique Ergon.  Orlando Cardoza and other Spanish-speaking parents realize the best way to hold on to their language is to insist it be spoken in the home.  "All my children know how to read and write good Spanish."  That ability now means more job opportunity as more companies target Hispanics.  

"They can learn the American culture without having to forget their Mexican culture," said Gloria Garcia who left Puebla, Mexico for the United States in 1986.  "It's very important, but it's the responsibility of the parents."

Abstract of article by Geralda Miller, Reno-Gazette Journal, 9-22-03 

Fernando Cisneros and employee Kelly Marsh.
Abstract of article by Sarah Purdy, 10-12-03
Photo by Marilyn Newton/Reno Gazette-Journal

Business owner Cisneros is a leader in the Hispanic Chamber of Commerce of Northern Nevada program, Latino Empowerment Advancement and Development program which was started last year.  The purpose is to foster social responsibility and grow future leaders. The Hispanic population is growing quickly; we strongly felt a need to put out Hispanics ready for leadership positions. 

Isabel and daughter Litzia Martinez.  
Abstract of article by Geralda Miller, 9-22-03
Photo by Andy Barron/Reno Gazette-Journal
Martinez is among the Hispanics in Northern Nevada who are adopting American culture while holding on to the traditions, history and heritage of their ancestors.  They use language, historical and religious celebrations, food and music to preserve the connections with their families' countries of origin.  Martinez is a teacher's aide at the Miguel Ribera Family Resource Center in Pine Middle School.    

Father Larry Morrison leads Spanish Mass 
Abstract of article by Geralda Miller, 10-2-03
Photo by David B. Parker Reno/Gazette-Journal

In 1975, pastor Rev. Vincent Squatrito received permission to celebrate the first Spanish- language Mass in the Reno area.  The Catholic Diocese of Reno now has six priests who are bilingual.   At least 19 of the diocese's 28 parishes now celebrate at least one Mass each weekend in Spanish.
Rafael Alegria at Sparks railroad station, Carlin
Abstract of article by Geralda Miller, 9-15-03
Photo by Candice Towell Reno/Gazette-Journal

Legria was 19 when he left his home in Queretaro, Mexico, in 1949 to come to Northern Nevada. He and his brother joined about a half a dozen Mexican families, most  employed by the Southern Pacific Railroad.  Hispanics are 19.7 percent of Nevada's population.
Students Reach Out to Less Fortunate with PC Literacy Project

LDS Business College Philanthropic Giving Site,7989,761-1-3-1605,00.html

"I'm learning all sorts of new things that I really didn't expect to learn," says Marcio Silveira, a native of Brazil and a returned missionary who came to LDS Business College to earn a degree in network management. 

In the college's Applied Associates of Science in Network Management program, students like Silveira learn to build, network, and support computers. Through a project called PC Literacy, these students apply what they learn in their coursework and then deliver the computers they refurbish to individuals and families in need of a working computer. The receiving families use the computers to stay current in vocations, upgrade employment, and assist in education. 

"This project is all about improving the quality of life and self-reliance of those who receive the computers," says Sister Marjorie Wright, director of special projects in the Salt Lake Inner City Mission. "It is a great program that helps those who receive and those who give. The students are using what they learn to bless others and I think it is wonderful."  Approximately 30 students per semester participate in the PC Literacy project, and in that time period about 7 families receive computers. 

Applied learning and Christian service are at the heart of this practical service-learning collaboration. Because of its benefit to students and community, the PC Literacy project is one of LDS Business College's ongoing outreach efforts. The LDS Business College Board of Trustees has approved the college's outreach efforts as a fund-raising priority. Additional funds and support for PC Literacy will allow the project to influence more lives—more students and more families. 

"I'm doing what I like," says Silveira. "I'm learning how computers work. It is a new experience for me, but I'm working with students, with missionaries, and with families. I'm teaching them and being taught at the same time." 

Family History Unifies Diverse Ward

Family Historians.  Folks of all ages and nationalities from the Burton Ward (Congregation/Parish) South Salt Lake Stake, traveled to the BYU Family History Library.  A copy of the ward's collection of personal histories was donated to the library.  Thirty-five women contributed.  
Juan Merlos, the Bishop of the ward believes the project has prompted unity in the ward because members know each other better. The women's weekly meeting used to have an attendance of 4-5 women, after this project, the attendance of the women averages closer to 100.  
Extract: Church News, week ending November 22, 2003    Photo by Bishop Juan Merlo

Latino values fit right in with Utah's
by Diane Urbani, Deseret Morning News, October 20, 2003

According to a nationwide survey by the Pew Hispanic Research Center, Latinos hold conservative family values which may have something to do with the migration of many Hispanics from California to Utah, a state with a reputation for being conservative and family-oriented.

Only two in 10 Latinos (20 percent) consider abortion acceptable, while more than four in 10 non-Hispanic whites called the procedure acceptable, noted the Pew report, which surveyed some 3,000 Latinos last year.

On the subject of divorce, 40 percent of Latino respondents said it's unacceptable while only 24 percent of white said so.  Gay Sexual relationships were thought to be unacceptable by 72 percent of the Hispanics in the survey, compared with only 59 percent of whites.  

Then comes a response that, at first, doesn't seem to fit with the other traditionalist attitudes.  Having a child out of wedlock was acceptable to 57 percent of Hispanics and 55 percent of whites.  When asked to explain, Centro de la Familia de Utah director Graciela Italiano-Thomas replied, "The answer is that children are sacred. . . People may feel that the young woman and man may have made a mistake.  But that's not the unborn child's fault."

Colorado's Window to the Hispanic Community

If you live in Denver, this is a great resource in a variety of way, besides historical. The webmasters, Louis and Margaret Cepeda were the former editors of  The Greater Denver Hispanic Guide. Their expansion into the historical, includes a fun Latin American Quiz page and a database of resources for Spanish speaking countries. 

The Oregon History Project

Includes a concise over-view of the Mexican presence in Oregon.

Sent by Carlos Ray Gonzales

Prior to the 1950s, and as early as the 1850s, immigrants from Mexico worked as mule drivers, sheepherders, vaqueros, or cowboys, and as migrant laborers in rural Oregon. By the 1900s, and particularly during the labor-strapped war years from 1941-1946, Mexican laborers filled positions as field hands under the bracero program, working the hop, bean, and sugar beet fields of rural Oregon. When the bracero program was terminated in 1964, members of Oregon's Mexican community had already teamed up with social organizations to demand improvement of the substandard living and working conditions that were part and parcel of the bracero program and migrant work in general. The Valley Migrant League, founded in 1965,and the Oregon State Chicano Concilio,founded in 1974,sought to improve educational and bi-lingual programs for Mexican children and adults alike, and recommended that more local, state, and federal government jobs be opened to Chicanos. By the 1980s, the affect of these earlier movements showed some success and more persons of Latin American descent were moving from rural regions to the Portland metro area. By 2002, the Chicano population in Portland numbered more than 100,000. Spanish-language newspapers, radio stations, and annual celebrations attest to the growing and continued development of the Chicano population in Portland and a new generation of professionals, entrepreneurs, and city officials marks clearly the continued change in the role that Chicanos play in the shaping of Portland and Oregon.


B'Nai Or  Congregation
Colonial Spanish Soldier:  
            Juan Antonio Benavides
Searching For Distant Relatives?   
Beyond Origins of NM Families
Colorado Tombstone Project
Tucson, Arizona

Sacagawea’s son led Mormons 

Free CD on Latin American Family History Resources,  click 

   Sephardic conference to be held by B'Nai Or Congregation in Pueblo, CO   
This special weekend of activities for those who have found or those who are seeking to connect with their Jewish Sephardic roots.  

The event will be held in
Pueblo, CO at the:
Westminster Presbyterian Church, 10 University Circle, Pueblo, CO 81005
Friday January 9th : 7 pm service
Saturday January 10th: 9 am worship
Sunday January 11th: 2 pm social

The congregation hopes to make this festival an annual event in Southern Colorado.
"We have a wealth of individuals to draw from" said Paul M. Aviles-Silva, president of the congregation.. "Many Hispanics living in Northern New Mexico and Southern Colorado have traced their ancestry back to the 17th century immigrants who came through Mexico to our continent."

The activities will include Cantor Robert Esformes performing Ladino music throughout the activities. A mini Sephardic conference from 1-5 pm on Saturday will focus on Jewish genealogy. The conference will be held at the Southeastern Colorado Heritage Center, 201 West B Street.

Robert is descended on his maternal side from the Sephardic Jews of Istanbul and Salonika.  He grew up hearing his mother and grandmother conversing in Ladino, the language of the love songs and ballads. Robert's worship services are a mosaic of chant, sacred poetry, kavvanot, meditation and Torah, grounded in the palpable presence of

peace and loving kindness. He also mixes in Mizrachi modes, improvisations on prayer texts, and modern cantorial selections.  His style is warm and unique. He accompanies himself on guitar.

A testimonials from Rabbi M. Mitchell Serels Director, Semana Sepharad Festival of Sephardic Culture: Robert Esformes brings to his performance the genuine renditions of the traditional ladino music of his ancestors.  The audience is treated to a remembrance of Spain as it was carried to the far reaches of the Ottoman Empire.  The music carries a contemporary twist which makes the tunes all the more meaningful to audiences today.  In this syncretic approach, Esformes has maintained the tradition of Sephardim of combining tradition with modernity.

There is a charge for the Saturday evening concert, $15 adults, $7.50 youth and children, free under 4 years old.. All other activities are by donation. Tickets for the concert will be available at the door. For more information, please contact:

Paul M. Aviles-Silva
President of the B'Nai Or Congregation
A Jewish Renewal Community will hold its
354 W. Winterhaven Drive
Pueblo West, CO 81007-2644
(719) 547-1249-H
(719) 547-1254-Home Fax
(719) 671-7209-Personal Cell

Colonial Spanish Soldier:  Juan Antonio Benavides
Sent by Leroy F. Martinez

Spanish Patriot Juan Antonio Benavides is listed as being a soldier in New Mexico during the American Revolution period of 1779 to 1783.

  Virginia L. Olmsted indicates in the <I style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">National Genealogical Society Quarterly, Volume 67, September 1979, Number 3, in an article Spanish Enlistment Papers of New Mexico 17-1820, page 235, that he is described as follows:

“Juan Benavides, son of soldier Domingo Benavides and Francisca Lujan, of  Ojo Caliente. Farmer. 5’3’. 22. Chestnut hair, black eyebrows, blue eyes, straight nose, thin beard, fair skin, dark spot on face, scars above right eyebrow and on calf of left leg. 1 July 1779. Married. Literate. Signed. Died in combat 6 Oct. 1796. (852)”

Being a soldier in those days was considered a high duty to the community and to the King of Spain. A soldier was required to own at least four horses and own their personal and military equipment. Soldiers were few. The duties of a soldier were varied and often took them away for long periods as travel escorts or for combats. 

New Mexico wartime monthly rosters in microfilm rolls can be purchased from the New Mexico State Archive for about $14.00. Information includes the military status for the month. For example, Jose Francisco Martinez had gained three files in rank as a soldier, from #26 in 1779 to #23 in 1780. In 1780, he was in Sonora in an expedition under Lt. Col. Anza to establish a road from New Mexico to Sonora, hence to California. A possible new requirement in applying for the Sons of the American Revolution organization (SAR) which I came upon was to provide a “Record of the Day.” This was proof that my patriot was on a military roster during the years of Spain’s participation of the American Revolution.

During 1999, Charles Martinez y Vigil was inducted into the SAR. He was the first inducted under a New Mexico Patriot Ancestor. Charles is now New Mexico’s State SAR President. I knew that I would be confronted with questions as “Why should descendants of soldiers be accepted in SAR?” I could not respond any better than Charles when he said “We are learning more about the American Revolution than our grandparents knew. One of them is that Spain and its colonies contributed significantly to the cause of the American Revolution. These contributions included military, personnel, money, covert action, and overt support. Based on these requisites, descendants of Spanish soldiers are being accepted into the National Society of the SAR. This allows us, and our children to see that the American Revolution was truly a World War, and in the end, allows us to get a better picture of the wonderful country we line in.” 

Resistance to becoming a SAR or Daughter of the American Revolution (DAR) member, in part, belong to those who use the excuses, such as, “What’s the benefit? It’s too white bread for me, or its too white don’t join it.” Continued resistance means that SAR and DAR members will remain uninformed, the society will remain uninformed and the future children will remain uninformed. In contrast, becoming a member will help present members be informed, will help as being an educator to society and will help rewrite our history books for our future children.

Thanks mainly to Granville W. Hough PhD. and his daughter N.C.Hough, persons who are descendants of Spanish soldiers anywhere in the world during the American Revolution period of 1779-1783 qualify to be a member of the SAR. Dr. Hough articulated his response which can be read in www.Somos Dr. Hough, along with his daughter, researched and wrote eight volumes of listed Spanish soldiers and sailors in the Americas who participated in the American Revolution. They are still working on other volumes. His books can be purchased from Borderlands Bookstore.

George Farias
Borderlands Bookstore
P.O. Box 28497
San Antonio, CA 78228
(210) 433-5732

Searching For Distant Relatives?

Southern Colorado and Northern New Mexico
San Luis Valley Museum Association
Sent by Joan de Soto

The San Luis Valley Museum Association spans an area the size of Connecticut!  Our member museums each have intimate knowledge of the people and events comprising their history.  Please feel free to use the map on our home page to locate the museum nearest the town you are interested in, then contact them for more information.

Maria Clara Martinez has a database comprising 39,000 primarily Hispanic persons from Southern Colorado and Northern New Mexico.  This comprehensive resource includes the founding families of La Culebra, La Veta, Walsenbury, Conejos, San Miguel de La Costilla, and other San Luis Valley towns.  Maria has done special research on descendants of William (Guillermo) Le Blanc, Tom Tobin, Charles Bent (who was killed at the Taos massacre), Kit Carson, the Vigil family, Tom Boggs, and Antoine Leroux.  Feel free to email Maria for more information.

Marta Norton maintains excellent web sites with a wealth of genealogical information for Costilla and Saguache Counties.  Click the links to visit these sites.

Another excellent source of information is the Monte Vista Historical Society, which has over 1,500 photographs cataloged.  They will be happy to try to help you, and can provide custom reprints of any of their images.  Finally, try our link to the San Luis Valley Genealogy Site to search for family names from Colorado's past.

Beyond Origins of New Mexico Families
A website maintained by José Antonio Esquibel
Sent by Joan de Soto

This series of pages is designed to provide additions and corrections to the great work of New Mexico genealogy compiled by the late Fray Angélico Chávez (1910-1996), Origins of New Mexico Families in the Spanish Colonial Period. 

This seminal book was first published in 1954 by William Gannon, Santa Fe, New Mexico. A facsimile edition was published by William Gannon, Santa Fe, in 1975. Under the supervision of Thomas E. Chávez, nephew of Fray Angélico and Director of The Palace of the Governors (Museum of New Mexico), a revised edition was published by the Museum of New Mexico Press in 1992. This revised edition included the important addition of "Addenda to New Mexico Families," first published as a series in El Palacio, the magazine of the Museum of New Mexico, from 1955 to 1957, and "New Names to New Mexico," which also appeared in the same magazine in 1957 (September, October, November, December). Both of these related works were often difficult for interested people to locate. 

This web site contains new genealogical information on many New Mexico families that is based on research into primary documents, and highlights additional material published in past and current genealogical journals related to New Mexico colonial families or material from other publications.

Colorado Tombstone Transcription Project
Sent by John Inclan

The Colorado Tombstone Project Manager is Gail Meyer Kilgore 
Colorado Cemetery Status Symbols: 
Open for registration and transcription. 
Partial or in-progress transcription on this cemetery. 
This cemetery has been registered. 
This is a completed transcription! 
I was born in Tucson, Arizona.. Indian and Mexican mixed as we all are, some where down the line, I follow the descendants of the following families, Moisa ( Moyza ) Mejia, Miranda, Pasos, Gonzalez, Peralta, Canez, Sanchez, Lujan, Figueroa, Aguirre, Morales, Najar, Torrance, Taylor, Bradford, Fitzgerald, Hanks. Plus others from intermarriages.  States include AZ, CA, ( Najar )  NM, TN, NC, NY, and Saltillo Coahuila, and Alta Sonora, Mexico. 

Sent by Carlos ( Ray ) Gonzalez.     

Sacagawea’s son led Mormon Battalion through New Mexico

By Ollie Reed Jr./The Albuquerque Tribune, Dec 19, 2003, 
By way of the Carlsabad Current-Argus Regional News, Dec 22, 2003

HIDALGO COUNTY — Down here in New Mexico’s Bootheel, it’s not difficult to imagine the roars of grizzly bears echoing in the mountains. 

Rocky, dry creek beds flanked by gnarled trees and steep hills studded with thick, stunted vegetation mark the Coronado National Forest in the extreme southwestern part of the state. 

Here, 157 years ago, the Mormon Battalion struggled to get wagons through forbidding land on its march to California during the Mexican War. 

Near here, Jean Baptiste Charbonneau, one of the battalion’s guides, cornered three grizzlies and — in a short, fierce fight — killed one of the bears for food for the hungry Mormon volunteers. 

Lt. Col. Philip St. George Cooke, commander of the 397-man battalion, recorded the incident in his journal entry for Nov. 25, 1846. 

“Whilst the (wagon) train was crawling up the pass, I discovered Charbonneau near the summit in the pursuit of grizzly bears. I saw three of them far up among the rocks, standing conspicuously and looking quite white in the sun, whilst the bold hunter was gradually approaching them. 

“Soon after, he fired and in 10 seconds again; then there was a confused action, and we could see one fall and the others rushing about with loud, fierce cries that made the mountains ring.” 

Out of ammunition, Charbonneau scrambled onto a boulder to escape the charge of the two surviving bears. These were likely young animals, and they retreated after failing to reach the hunter. 

Who was this bold hunter? 

Charbonneau was a mountain man whose life was filled with adventure, but his name is not as well known today as his trapper companions — Jim Bridger, Joe Meek and Jim Beckwourth. 

He came into this world on the harsh northern plains of America, but spent several years in the courts of Europe and came to speak several languages. 

He was equally at home among whites and Indians, the uncouth and the cultured. 

He was the son of Sacagawea of Lewis and Clark fame, and he was born on the great expedition that blazed a trail to the Pacific Ocean. 

Sacagawea gave birth to Jean Baptiste Charbonneau on Feb. 11, 1805, at Fort Mandan, which served as the Lewis and Clark expedition’s winter quarters in North Dakota. 


Muslims in Early America
Muslims in Early America
Sent by John Inclan

     Michael A. Gomez addressed the issue of Muslims in America in an article in the Journal of Southern History, LX (November, 1994) 4, 671- 710. Gomez analyzes the regions of the African coast from where Muslims could have been exported and concludes that Muslim slaves could have accounted for "thousands, if not tens of thousands," but does not offer a more precise estimate. It is likely that historians have underestimated the numbers of Muslims actually brought to North America. There is evidence of Muslims in North America in colonial records, but their numbers are limited and they probably came from the Senegambia.
     A number of Muslims are known to have lived in New Netherlands and New York in the seventeenth century, among them Anthony Jansen van Salee, whose Koran still exists. It is unclear what percentage of them arrived as slaves, but they appeared to have congregated in the vicinity of Gravesend in present day Brooklyn, which was known to have liberal religious attitudes.
     Despite the known existence of Muslims in early New York there are no known studies of them or their community. It is possible that the Muslim religion had some influence in laws prohibiting Africans from gathering together in Kings County, Long Island, after 1684. It appears that most Muslims eventually converted to Reformed Christianity in the New York City, region, though the community may have merely gone underground.
     Anthony and Abraham van Salee were among the earliest arrivals to 17th century New Amsterdam. In a number of documents dating back to this period, they are both described as "mulatto". From what scholars have been able to piece together about their background, they appear to have been the sons of a Dutch seafarer by the name of Jan Jansen who had "turned Turk" and become an admiral in the Moroccan navy.  With the Port of Salee as the base from which it harried European shipping, references to the fleet he commanded are salted away in the old English sea shanties that are still sung about the Salee Rovers. The mother of his two sons was probably a concubine he had while trading in this part of the world before his conversion to Islam.
     As a result of the anti-social behavior of his white wife, Anthony van Salee was induced to leave the city precincts of lower Manhattan and move across the river, thus becoming the first settler of Brooklyn. Since Coney Island abutted his property, it was, until sometime in the last century, also referred to as "Turk's Island"; the word, "Turk", being a designation of his which the records used interchangeably with, "mulatto". According to the documentation that people like Professor Leo Hershkowitz of Queens University have sifted through, it would seem that Anthony van Salee never converted to Christianity. His Koran, in fact, was in a descendant's possession until about fifty years ago when, ignorant of its relevance to his family's history, he offered it for sale at auction.
     The Van Salee history also includes a more contemporary black collateral branch in the U.S. Anthony's brother Abraham fathered an illegitimate son with an unknown black woman. The son became the progenitor of this side of the family. Although having to face constraints that their "white" cousins could at best only imagine, two of these van Salees nevertheless left their mark in the annals of African American history.
     Dr. John van Salee De Grasse, born in 1825, was the first of his race to be formally educated as a doctor. A member of the Medical Society of Massachusetts, he also served as surgeon to the celebrated 54th Regiment during the Civil War. His sister, Serena, married George Downing who was not only an enormously successful black restaurateur both in New York City and in Newport, RI, but a man who used his wealth and connections with the East Coast's most powerful white families to effect social change for his people. Because of his organization and his own contribution to the purchase of Truro Park in Newport, one of the streets bordering it still bears his name. Interestingly enough, this genealogy was done as part of an ongoing study of the Ramopo in Tappan, NY, one of those red, white and black groups sociologists and ethnographers are now working on and which in academies are referred to as "tri racial isolates". It is because of what advantages their Indian heritage (no matter how discernibly negroid they were) legally and officially provided them that the opportunity for "passing" in these groups was not only a more ambiguous political or moral decision but, comparatively, a more easily documentable one as well.

Genealogical note:  Family lines of American historical importance that can trace lines of descent from this ancestry
John Hammond of Columbia Records
Jackie Kennedy Onassis
Humphry Bogart

A more complete article on Anthony and Abraham van Salee can be viewed on the internet as part of a PBS Documentary - The Blurred Racial Lines of Famous Families

Additional sources of information:
Hoff, Henry B. "Frans Abramse Van Salee and His Descendants: A Colonial Black Family in New York and New Jersey," The New York Genealogical and
Biographical Record. Vol. 121, No.2 (April-October 1990): 65-71, 157-161,   205-211.
New York Genealogical & Biographical Record, vol. 103, p. 16. The Washington-McClain Ancestry, by Charles A. Hoppin, vol. 3


Navajo Code Talkers
Nation Divided, Tohono O'odham
Indian Country News
, 4-hour KABC drama  

Sidney Bedoni, Navajo Code Talker
Artist, Dezie Lerner

Extract: Navajo Code Talkers, helped turn tide of War                          by Jill B. Adair, Mesa, Arizona
Church News, week ending nov 29, 2003

At nearly 80 years of age, Sidney Bedoni is one of a dwindling few still left of a unique group of U.S. Marines that played a crucial role in World War II - the Navajo code Talkers.

He along with other young men from the Navajo reservations in Arizona, helped to outwit one of the most sophisticated war machines in the world and may have communicated in the only truly unbreakable code in the history of warfare.

He explained that a code was devised using the Navajo language.  The idea originated with a civilian named Philip Johnston, a son of 

Protestant missionaries who had spent most of this childhood among the Navajos and knew the Navajo language to be complex though unwritten.  the military eventually took to the idea and with the help of the Navajo developed a code that assigned words in their language to military terminology.  

With Navajo-speaking Marines on both ends of communications during battle, commander could order air support, battlefield maneuvers, and artillery and naval bombardments instantaneously, without wasting time deciphering encrypted codes.

Two years ago the Navajos were awarded Congressional Medals of Honor by President George W. Bush.  Members in the original group of 400 code talkers were awarded the gold Medal of Honor.  Sidney Bedoni (a member of the LDS Church) was in the group that followed.  They received the Silver Medal of Honor.

 Photo by Jeffry Scott

Extract: A Nation Divided, Tohono O'odham: Campaign for citizenship
By Carmen Duarte
Sent by Carlos Ray Gonzales 

Pablo Lewis holds a photo of himself as a young GI. But he can't prove his citizenship, because he was born on O'odham land in Mexico.

Tribal officials want the U.S. government to amend the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 to make all enrolled tribal members U.S. citizens. Under the amended act, the tribal membership card would serve as proof of citizenship or a birth certificate. 

American Indians who live along the U.S.-Canadian border were given dual citizenship through treaties hundreds of years ago and have not faced separation from their people. They travel freely between both countries. This was not done for the Tohono O'odham who border Mexico.  

For decades, with the blessing of the U.S. government, Tohono O'odham members in both countries were allowed to cross the border freely to work, participate in religious ceremonies, keep medical appointments in Sells and visit relatives.  In 1999, a pilot program between Mexico and U.S. immigration officials led to Mexican passports and U.S. border-crossing cards for 100 enrolled tribal members in Mexico. 

However, the tribe has 24,000 enrolled members and 8,400 on both sides of the border - most of them with no birth certificates to prove citizenship. Immigration officials on both sides of the border worked together to make this happen -waiving certain documents, and using tribal rolls to meet requirements. 

But this did not solve the problems in three situations: O'odham living in the United States who are Mexican-born; O'odham born in the United States who cannot prove it; and O'odham children who qualify for dual citizenship but don't have it. 

Affected tribal members: 
The four groups of Tohono O'odham affected by the U.S.-Mexico border and laws that define nationality are: 
* About 7,000 members who were born in the United States, but who do not have documents to obtain birth certificates. 
Some of these people cannot get Social Security numbers, retirement benefits, veterans' benefits, widows' benefits, a driver's license or a passport. 
* About 1,400 members who were born in Mexico and still live there. 
* Members born in Mexico who now live illegally in the United States. Several hundred of this group are included in the tally of 7,000 affected members. 
* Members born in Mexico of parents who are U.S. citizens, but whose parents cannot prove it. These members live illegally in the United States but qualify for dual citizenship. This number also is included in the 7,000 affected members. 

Indian Country News, The Nation's Leading Native American Indian News Source   
Sent by John Inclan 
[[ A storehouse of previous articles, plus current events.]]

The on-line version of Indian Country Today does not include the full content - articles, advertisements, notices and listings - that appear only in the newsprint edition. Subscription information is available on the site.
Suzan Shown Harjo, columnist for Indian Country Today, the leading Native American newspaper. is a writer, poet, lecturer, curator and policy advocate, who has helped Native Peoples recover more than one million acres of land and numerous sacred places. more >> Rebecca Adamson, a columnist for Indian Country Today, is Founder and President of First Nations Development Institute, and founder of First Peoples Worldwide. She has worked directly with grassroots tribal communities, and nationally as an advocate of local tribal issues since 1970. 
John C. Mohawk, Ph.D, a columnist for Indian Country Today, is an author and professor in the Center for the Americas at the State University at Buffalo, New York. He is currently serving as the Director of Indigenous Studies at the Center. more >> Carey N. Vicenti, columnist for Indian Country Today, also serves as an Assistant Professor of Sociology, at Fort Lewis College, in Durango, Colorado. He has written on the use of traditional concepts of justice in the development of a new and emerging tribal jurisprudence. He served previously as a President of the Native American Bar Association. more >> 

President of First Nations Development Institute, and founder of First Peoples Worldwide. She has worked directly with grassroots tribal communities, and nationally as an advocate of local tribal issues since 1970.
Rebecca Adamson, a columnist for Indian Country today, is Founder and 
Dreamkeeper: A 4-hour drama on KABC

[[ Editor's note: If you missed this, I strongly suggest that you look for the re-run.  It is excellent.  The visual effects, the social and character values being shared, the dramatization, all are top quality. Following is the TV magazine's highlights.]]

Legends come to life as men of two generations travel together. The 16-year-old member of the Dog Soldiers street gang owes his crew money and is anxious to get away, so he agrees to escort his grandfather from the Pine Ridge Reservation to an All-Nations ceremony in New Mexico.  Grandpa tell his stories along the way, and it's his grandson's duty to learn them and pass the stories along to future generations. 



Resources Inquisition and other early Hispanic Archives

 Sephardic conference to be held by B'Nai Or Congregation in Pueblo, CO  
For more information, click

Resources Inquisition and other early Hispanic Archives
[[ Editor's note: I believe this was sent by John Inclan.]]

The valuable information on this page has been provided by Lawrence H. Feldman, Ph.D and MLS ( in an email responding to a question I asked him. I asked if I could share the information on this website and he graciously agreed. Dr Feldman is a very knowledgeable indexer, researcher and writer. His address is at the bottom of the page for those who might wish to ask him further questions. 

The Inquisicion in the New World In the earliest years of the Spanish colonies the bishops ran the New World Inquisicion. Their inquisicion files would have originally been in the episcopal archives and, in some places, probably still are in those repositories. The organization sometimes known as the La Inquisicion Espanola, that is the official government run organization with a central headquarters in Madrid and tribunals in various localities in Spain set up to detect and destroy certain crimes associated with religious issues (among which cryptojudaism was one but no means the only-- crypto moslems, witchcraft, fornicating clergy, blasphemy, and several other kinds of illegal behavior also came under its jurisdiction), didn't officially come to the New World until close to the end of the sixteenth century. Three tribunals were set up in the New World. One in Mexico City for the North American mainland south to Panama and the Philippines. One in Lima, Peru for most of South America. and one in Cartagena, Colombia (then in Nueva Granada or the Audiencia de Santa Fe) for the northern coast of South America and the Caribbean islands. Two of these archives have survived. That in Mexico City ended up in the Archivo General de la Nacion (AGN). Consisting of 1555 bound volumes dating from 1522 to 1819, they include the records of the inquisicion of the bishops and that of official Tribunal of the Santo Oficio de la Inquisicion which was established in Mexico in 1569. Much, but by no means all, of the bishops inquisicion concerns trials of Indians. The arrival of the Inquisicion organization brought with it an intensified search for secret Jews. The colonial records of the AGN (not just the Inquisicion) are very well organized and a very detailed and comprehensive guide to these records is in the process of being placed on a CD-ROM. As of about three years ago the guide to about half of the these holding were searchable by means of this CD-ROM. Also each bound volume of Inquisicion records at the AGN has a brief abstract of each of the files in the volume, allowing one to search them very rapidly. The records of the Inquisicion in Lima have also survived but those in Cartagena disappeared many years ago. Correspondence between these three New World tribunals and the Supreme headquarters of the Inquiscion in Madrid is kept at the AHN in Madrid. These consist of only 175 manuscript bundles and 78 manuscript books. Among them are the few remaining references to cases tried by the Cartagena tribunal. 

Notarial and other Archives 

The best genealogical records in Spain are the most voluminous and hence the hardest to use. These are the notarial archives. They commonly go back to the 1200's and even earlier. These are Notary Public records of sales of land, loans of money etc. Problem is that for any one year you can have 3000 or more unindexed difficult to read pages of data for even small towns. Yes, they do identify the religion of the individuals recorded and background. But you need to know exactly when and where you are looking, and give yourself plenty of time. You also MUST be able to read the handwriting of the period. Spanish hasn't changed much since the early middle ages but the penmanship can look very strange, even to a native speaker who isn't familiar with the script. Click here for an example of XI century Spanish. The Notarial Records are worse than most since the scribe INTENTIONALLY made them difficult to read; he earned money by being able to read what no one else could understand. 


Remember the Alamo PBS, Feb 2
Luciano Guajardo Collection
HOGAR de Dallas
Ayala family, Texas 
Ayala Marriages of Monclova
Marriages of Monclova, Coahuila
El Colegio de Cronistas e Historiadores 
TX Cattlemen, American Revolution
Postcards of Texas

1875 Census,  Municipalidad de Nava
Man's research tells Tejano story 
Jefferson Found Guilty in Mock Trial 

Free CD on Latin American Family History Resources,  click 

Remember the Alamo Program on PBS-FYI  
Sent by Howard Shorr
Source:  Web Published 12.22.2003

Press Release: 
Long before the Alamo made heroes of Jim Bowie and Davy Crockett and spawned the well-known battle cry, Jose Antonio Navarro and a group of Tejanos —Mexicans of Texas who had lived there for generations—started the battle for Texas. 

Remember the Alamo, a one-hour documentary airing on AMERICAN EXPERIENCE Monday, February 2 at 9pm on PBS, explores the life of the famed Tejano leader and his efforts to protect the sovereignty of his homeland as it passed through the hands of multiple governments. 

“After years of research in archives and libraries, and dozens of discussions with descendants and scholars, we have created a film that challenges popular notions of what happened at the Alamo in March of 1836, and in Texas,” says producer Joseph Tovares (Zoot Suit Riots), who is himself a descendent of Tejanos from San Antonio. 

History books have traditionally painted the battle at the Alamo as a two-sided fight for Texas between the United States and Mexico. Yet inside the Alamo, an old mission in San Antonio, a third group — Tejanos — fought alongside Anglo settlers from the US. “The irony is that the Alamo is seen as a strictly Anglo-Texan versus Mexican dynamic, when in reality Tejanos initiated the independence movement and developed the principles of independence against the Mexican government,” says historian Andres Tijerina. 

More than two decades before the battle at the Alamo, Tejanos in San Antonio waged a brutal — and unsuccessful — rebellion against Spanish rule. At the time, Texas was part of Mexico, which was under Spanish control. Navarro’s family helped lead the rebellion. When it was crushed, they and other Tejanos sought refuge in the United States. 

By the time Mexico won its independence from Spain in 1821, Navarro had 
returned to San Antonio. Poised to lead the Tejanos and Texas, he was quickly appointed mayor. 

That same year, Stephen F. Austin left his home in Missouri and moved to San Antonio with an ambitious plan to lure United States families to Texas through rock-bottom land prices. Foreseeing prosperity for his homeland, Navarro backed Austin’s efforts and the two started to work as partners. 

Austin’s plan succeeded thanks in part to Navarro’s ushering a bill through the state legislature that circumvented Mexican anti-slavery laws. The bill’s successful passage reassured Southern plantation owners that a move to Texas wouldn’t jeopardize their ability to own slaves. But when the number of Anglo settlers in Texas reached 30,000, the Mexican government closed Texas to further immigration. 

Meanwhile, in Mexico City, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna had assumed the Mexican presidency. A Spanish loyalist who fought at San Antonio in 1813, Santa Anna held a grudge against Texas, Tejano rebels, and Navarro’s family. 

In 1834, Santa Anna concentrated power in Mexico City, dissolved all state legislatures and abolished the federal constitution. Tejanos saw Santa Anna’s rise to power as a severe blow to Texas sovereignty. Newly arrived immigrants from the US feared that Santa Anna would revoke their settlement contracts and confiscate their slaves. Texans and Tejanos organized and by the end of 1835 succeeded in driving all Mexican soldiers out of Texas. What started as a civil war became an overt movement to separate Texas from Mexico. In February of 1836, Navarro and other Texas leaders gathered at Washington on the Brazos,150 miles east of San Antonio, to declare independence. 

Meanwhile, Santa Anna was advancing into Texas with 4,000 men, headed for the Alamo, where almost 200 American and Tejano volunteers huddled, awaiting an attack. 

The now-infamous battle that occurred on March 6, 1836, resulted in a Mexican victory and the death of every last Alamo defender. Not left unscathed, the Mexicans lost 600 men. 

Six weeks later, after a surprise attack on the Mexican forces near the San Jacinto river, Texan army commander Sam Houston rallied his troops with the cry, “Remember the Alamo!” Although the battle was won within minutes, the vengeful Texan army—including Tejanos—continued fighting for hours, killing any Mexican soldier they found. Santa Anna was captured the following day, effectively ending the war. 

For several years following Texas independence, Tejanos and Anglos shared power in San Antonio. But recent Anglo immigrants from the US were unaware of the Tejanos’ contribution to the territory’s independence, and felt a common distrust and hatred for all people of Mexican descent. As the times grew worse for his community, Navarro became a champion of Tejano rights. His Apuntes Historicos — historical notes on the role of Tejanos in Texas independence — reminded Texans, both Anglo and Tejano, that the fight for Texas had begun generations before the conflict with Santa Anna. Navarro asked that his readers acknowledge the longstanding presence of Tejanos in Texas and to keep their fight for sovereignty in mind as they remembered the Alamo. 

Remember the Alamo shows how Tejanos, far from being passive onlookers, actively changed the course of Texas history — on the battlefield and in the political arena. It recasts the war for Texas independence as a natural extension of the Tejano fight for self-determination and economic freedom. 

“This is a tough story for all three parties involved, but especially for the Tejanos. The frontier was a very unforgiving place,” says Tovares, “One can argue with many of the decisions of men like Navarro, but what’s important to remember is that they were not bystanders in this fight.” 

Written, directed, and produced by Joseph Tovares 
Co-producer: Desirée J. Garcia 
Editor: Jon Neuberger 
Cinematography: Michael Chin 
Original music composed by: Claudio Ragazzi 
Narrator: Hector Elizondo 

Monday, February 2, 2004 at 9pm (check local listings)
Documentarian Joseph Tovares has been a producer, director and writer for television, film and new media. He produced Zoot Suit Riots for AMERICAN EXPERIENCE and is the managing producer for La Plaza, the long-running series about Latinos from WGBH. 

Luciano Guajardo:

Luciano Guajardo Historical Collection, Laredo Public Library
Sent by John Inclan
The Historical Collection is named in memory of Luciano Guajardo, who served as Library Director from 1953-1988. Born in Omaha, Nebraska in 1923 to a Mexican father and a first generation Texan mother. He died in Laredo, Texas on November 18, 1994. Mr. Guajardo was the founder of the Laredo Historical Collection. The collection was officially named in his memory, April, 1995 during National Library Week ceremonies.     

The purpose of the Luciano Guajardo Historical Collection is to archive materials relating to the history of Laredo, Texas, Webb County and northern states of Mexico. It houses approximately 1520 Volumes and 11,000 vertical files. Works by local authors on both sides of the Border are also collected. The Collection contains City of Laredo government documents dating back to 1755 and genealogical materials which emphasize Hispanic heritage. The archives also include photographs, machine readable information, newspaper clippings, vertical files, audio and video cassettes, maps, posters, pamphlets and periodicals. The Archives actively encourages donations of family papers and pictures to preserve Laredo's rich heritage for many generations to come. 

Laredo Public Library
1120 E. Calton Rd.
Laredo, TX 78041

HOGAR de Dallas, new Website
Sent by Jerry Benavides Jgbenavide 

President Arturo Garza
HOGAR de Dallas
P.O. Box 497891
Dallas, Texas 75049-7891 

Aurelio Ayala and Sara Lopez Ayala

Grandparents of Ruben Ayala

Aurelio Ayala:  25 Sept 1900 -  16 July 1978
Sara Lopez Ayala   24 Aug 1906 -  23 Apr 1964

Both born in Mexico.  Aurelio was probably born in the Mexico City area.  
Aurelio moved to the US as a young man, and settled with his family ultimately in Campbellton, Atascosa County, Texas. He worked for many years as a Section Worker for the Missouri/Pacific Railroad.   He was a very handy man, who had a variety of skills. He worked as a Professional Boxer in Mexico, a butcher, a barber, a singer, a carpenter.

Sara had parents named Trinidad Lopez and Sarome Salinas.   At one point they resided in Piedras Negras and Senor Lopez was a constable and rancher, who raised sheep. Sara had several brothers (Andres and Alberto) who also came to the US, while her sisters Encarnasion and Lupe stayed in Mexico.     Encarnasion settled in Morelia, Michuacan.    Her married name is Saggiante and she had daughters Minerva, Lupe and ?.   Also one son named Gustavo, who was supposedly an Olympic soccer coach for Mexico.

Great-grandmother, Josefa Tejada, 

My grandfather had several siblings, a sister named Luz and an unknown brother and sister.      

His mother was named Josefa Tejada and was from Leon, Guanajuato.    She was from a wealthy family and taught music at the University of Mexico City, with an emphasis on harp.   She later became despondent when her husband, Aurelio, left for another woman with all their wealth. 
This husband, Aurelio Ayala, was a lawyer in Mexico City who was a large property owner.   

Mickey Garcia's book, Marriages of Monclova, Coahuila, Mexico During the Spanish Colonial Era, 1689-1822 includes some Ayala marriages:

#680.  18 February 1764
Juan Sebastian Alvarez, native of the Valle de Santa Isabel del Armadillo ad resident of Monclova, widower of Maria de lost Reyes, and legitimate son of Diego Alvarez, deceased, and Matiana de la Cruz Tristana, married Maria Leonar de Ayala, native of the Rancho del Topo, jurisdiction of " Reino" [Monterrey?], and resident of Monclova, legitimate daughter of Pedro de Ayala, deceased, and Maria Guadalupe de la Garza.  Witnesses were Pablo Munguia, Juan Antonio Olivares, and Juan Felipe, who was also sponsor with Maria de la Cruz.

# 1036.  22 September 1772
Don Joaquin Flores, Cabo de Escuadra of the garrison in Monclova widower of Maria Antonia Maldonado, married doña Apolinaria de Ayala, native of the city of Monterrey, legitimate daughter of don Carlos de Ayala and doña Gregoria de Villarreal.  Witnesses were Pedro de Abrego, Juan Antonio de Olivares, and don Miguel de Estrada, who was also sponsor with doña Candelaria Maldonado.

For more information on purchasing the book, contact the author at:

El Colegio de Cronistas  e Historiadores de la Frontera Norte de Tamaulipas y Sur de Texas

Although this conference was held in December, I am including it because of the individuals, their titles and their topics.  It was held December  13th  at the University of Texas, Pan American . It was the VI  annual Conference 
El Colegio de Cronistas  e Historiadores de la Frontera Norte de Tamaulipas y Sur de Texas, A. C.
Le invitan a su VI reunión de trabajo en el marco del 255 Aniversario de la Fundación del Nuevo Santander, que tendrá como tema principal “ La Tenencia de la Tierra en el Nuevo Santander,
Escrituras y Testamentos ”

Invitado de honor
Don Ernesto Garza Sáenz, Cronista de Ciudad Camargo
y Lic. Cesar H., Isassi Cantú, Cronista de la Ciudad de Reynosa

Presentaciones: Las ponencias se entregaran por escrito con el objetivo de reproducirlas  y entregarlas ese mismo día a los participantes, el tema principal será la “Tenencia de la tierra en el Nuevo Santander”, la duración será de 15 minutos máximo, para mayores informes comunicarse al: 
us (956) 849-0099 cel en mex: 01-86-88-85-20-28
al correo electrónico:

Conferencistas confirmados
1.- Antropólogo Martín Salinas. Miembro de la Sociedad Historica de Reynosa, A. C. 

2.- Lic. Pedro Antonio Campos Rodríguez  Investigador del Instituto de Investigaciones Históricas de la U.A.T y Director del Archivo Historico Municipal de Reynosa 

3.-Ing. Clemente Rendon de la Garza IV Cronista de la Ciudad de Matamoros Ponencia 

4.- Dr. Rafael Beltrán del Rio Investigador de Antropología Física Ponencia: “ Cerámica Prehispánica y hallazgos Arqueológicos: Apreciación estética desde la perspectiva odontológica ”

5.- Lic. Miguel Bedolla  “ La tenencia y el Uso de la Tierra en el Nuevo Santander según el Reporte del Intendente Calleja en 1795 ”  

6.- Lic. Carlos Eduardo Montemayor  Presentación del libro: “ Lenguas y leyendas de los Grupos Indígenas en Tamaulipas ”

For more information, contact: 
George R. Gause, Jr.
Special Collections Librarian
(956) 381-2799: 381-5196 fax.
1201West University Drive, Edimburg, Texas 78539-2999

Texas Cattlemen during the American Revolution

Cattle, Branded and Orejano, Exported from Texas under Governor Domingo Cabello, 1779-86
Source: Appendix A of Los Mesteños, Spanish Ranching in Texas 1721-1821

If you are a descendent of any of these cattlemen, Somos Primos would like to publish your pedigree.  Descendants of these ranchers can apply for membership in the Sons of the American Revolution.  California soldados are being recognized for their protection of the California coast line against the British.  Texas ranchers can be recognized for their support by supplying cattle.  

The cattlemen exporters are listed by the number of cattle that were exported.

Simón de Arocha
Luis Mariano Menchaca
Felipe Flores
Vizente Flores
Juan José Flores
Juan Barrera
Julian de Arocha
Santiago Seguín
Manuel de Arocha
José Antonio Curbelo
Marcos Hernández
Antonio (le) Blanc
José Andrés Hernández
Francisco de Arocha
Sebastian Monjaras
Joaquin Flores y Zendeja
Manual Gonzáles
Mission Espada
Manuel Delgado
Juan Monjarás
Ignacio Calvillo
Francisco Flores
Francisco Péres
Jose de Cárdenas
Francisco X. Rodríguez
Juan José Pacheco
Amador Delgado
Carlos Martínez
Felix Gutiérrez
Micario Sambrano  

Postcards of Texas
Source:  Dennis V. Carter

1875 Census of the Municipalidad de Nava
Located at present day Nava, Coahuila
By Donald May.


Paper cover, 8.5X11 inches, Tape binding, 41 pages including index
1217 names:  name, age, marital status, and profession of each enumerated person

This book is $11.00 plus $1.35 postage
Los Bexarenos Genealogical Society, P.O. Box 1935, San Antonio, TX 78297
Sent by

Man's research tells Tejano story 

Times staff writer, Laredo morning times Sent by Walter & Elsa Herbeck who received it from Rudy who received it directly from the author of the article, Tricia Cortez.
While flipping through Texas history books, one may be hard-pressed to find anything on Tejano pioneers and their role in shaping Texas history and culture. 

Andrés Tijerina, however, is working to change and reverse "the blatant exclusion" of Tejanos from the written and oral histories of Texas. 

After 23 years of research, the award-winning historian and professor is currently overseeing a five-person research team charged with writing the text for the Tejano Monument that will be erected on the Capitol grounds in Austin. 

The monument is the first of its kind and will consist of 12 life-size bronze statues. It is a tribute to the Spanish, Mexican and Tejano legacy to the state's history and culture. The text will be engraved onto six bronze relief plaques. 

"If you want to understand the story of Texas, you must understand the story of the Tejano," Tijerina said. "The Tejano is critical to the founding and identity of Texas and everything that we're proud of - ranching, cowboys, chaps, spurs, cowboy hats, even the land." 

Tijerina has won several awards for his books on Tejanos and has spent the past two decades researching and writing the role of Tejanos in the Lone Star State and how their history "has been a brutal and bloody one." 

Most of his material has come from the national archives in Spain, Mexico and Washington, D.C., as well as the archives of the Texas Rangers and the University of Texas at Austin. Historical documents have helped him piece together the long, difficult and, up to now, unknown history of the Tejano. 

"I was the first historian of the Texas State Historical Association to stand up in front of them and say, 'Tejanos had their lands stolen from them through violence, murder and assassination. Not only was theft and deceit involved, but the U.S. government played a role," Tijerina said describing the paper he presented to the association three years ago. 

"I was applauded and nobody challenged me," he said. 

He explained how Tejanos came to occupy this soil, only to see their vibrant communities and way of life disappear and give way to Anglo settlers. 

He also gave several theories on why Tejano history has been omitted from the books. 

"The historians of Texas did not speak Spanish, and half the history of Texas is written in Spanish," Tijerina said. "Walter Prescott Webb, called the dean of Texans historians, did not speak or read Spanish. He was walking through a gold mine blindly and did not see any of it." 

Tijerina continued, "Some did it on purpose - intentionally omitting this history - because of economic interest, so they could take economic advantage of Tejanos and their land, cattle and economy." 

He argued that Tejano heritage has often been presented in a "derogatory light." 

"Texas and Americans have tended to look down on the Mexican culture. Our identity was associated with the worst characteristics - that we were lazy and corrupt and unable to understand the most rudimentary principles of government," he said. "It was offensive to me, so I have had this drive to bring out the truth." 

Tijerina, an instructor at Austin Community College, said Tejanos were responsible for bringing Western civilization, law, government, society, land titles, and industry into Texas when they founded it in the late 1600s and early 1700s. 

The Spanish term "Tejanos" refers to the state's original Spanish and Mexican pioneers, their descendants, and all others who have adopted their culture. 

"They are the ones who gave Texas its distinctive flavor and culture, which make it different from all other states. No other state had 6 million longhorns. Texas was also different from all of Mexico because of its millions of wild mustangs, sheep and goats," he said. 

The history of these Tejanos and the name "Texas" has their roots in the Spanish explorers. 

In 1689, the Spaniard Captain Alonso de Leon reported Native Americans in the East Texas region of Tyler and Nacogdoches would hold up their hand and say "Tejas." 

"They assumed that meant 'friend.' So when de Leon went back and recommended to make this land a province of Spain, they called it 'Los Tejas,' because in Spanish, the 'j' and 'x' are interchangeable," Tijerina said. 

Two hundred years later, in the 1800s, about 4,500 Tejanos lived between the Nueces River and the Sabine River, which is the boundary between Texas and Louisiana. 

Many lived in the towns of San Antonio, Nacogdoches, Goliad and Victoria. Others lived in ranches, which had several homes and a tapia (courtyard) spanning almost a city block, he said. 

"Tejanos have always scattered out in ranch country. Just look at the Rio Grande Valley," he noted. 

Tijerina then described the brutality suffered by Tejanos in the last 300 years. 

Between 1813 and 1819, half the Tejano population was killed by the Spanish army; hundreds were slaughtered in and around San Antonio and what is now the Austin area. 

Although Mexico declared its independence from Spain in 1810, the war lasted until 1821. 

"These Tejanos kept fighting back and finally got rid of the Spanish government and army... Two years later, they allowed Anglos to come in and gave them land because they had just won their independence," Tijerina said. "That's why it's a misnomer to say Texas got its independence in 1836." 

"Tejanos wanted to set up their own government and have their own decision-making authority. They did not want Mexico to make decisions for them or come take their land," he added. 

"They knew that with their land, the Gulf Coast and the ports, like Lavaca, they could become one of the wealthiest states, but not if Mexico taxed them, so they partnered with the Anglos," Tijerina said. "When Santa Ana came, he wasn't after Davy Crockett, he was after those rebellious Tejanos." 

He explained that when Anglos came to Texas, they came in buckskin, moccasins and coonskin caps. They were farmers of corn, tobacco and cotton and carried long rifles. 

"Within five years, they were all riding horses, wearing chalecos, working cattle, using pistols and daggers, rope and lassos. They adopted the values of living in ranches," he said. 

As the years went by and after 1848, South Texas was added to the map and included Laredo, Brownsville, Corpus Christi and El Paso. 

Tejanos had their own form of government, land titles, economy, cattle industry, art, literature, music and civic organizations. Tejano pioneers in the legal field established homestead, adoption and community property laws that other U.S. states later adopted, he said. 

"What happened?" Tijerina replied. "Well, they were outnumbered 100 to 1 by Anglos. And the U.S. government and U.S. Army helped the Anglos fight and kill Tejanos." 

When Santa Ana defeated the Anglos and Tejanos at the Alamo, he was not defeated by the Texans at San Jacinto, but by the U.S. Army. 

"Conventional wisdom holds that it was Texans who defeated Santa Ana because troops of the U.S. Army regiments, who were stationed in the Louisiana area, simply defected from the U.S. Army, stripped their uniforms and declared themselves to be Texans," Tijerina explained. 

"They have gone down in history as Texans, but how can we call them Texans if they had only been here less than two weeks? Davy Crockett had been in Texas less than two months," he remarked. "The irony is that the real Texans - the Seguins and all those who had been here 150 years - are not called 'Texans,' they are called 'Mexicans'." 

During the battle of San Jacinto, Tijerina noted whole regiments of the U.S. Army crossed into Texas and defeated the Mexican army. They then camped out in Corpus Christi during the U.S.-Mexico War of 1845. 

After the war, the U.S. Army never left Texas. 

"Three-quarters of the entire Army was in Texas from 1850 to 1900. They, along with the Texas Rangers and Anglo-American gangsters, persecuted Mexican-Americans and assassinated thousands. Many were political leaders," Tijerina said. 

One of the clearest examples occurred in Laredo. 

On May 17, 1885, Texas Ranger B.D. Lindsay and other Rangers shot an elderly gentleman who was a "well-known citizen of good repute of Laredo." 

"The Rangers were hiding in the brush and saw him with two younger men ride in from the ranch and shot him in the back. He was an upstanding social and political leader of Laredo," Tijerina said. 

He then detailed countless episodes of massacres and theft of land that eventually wiped out the Tejano culture and pushed those who remained into the marginalized shadows of history. 

"Fortunately, things are changing slowly. History books are starting to talk about Tejanos, and in the past five years, most major colleges in Texas have teachers of Mexican-American descent teaching Texas history. That's what's remarkable," Tijerina said. 

"Texas history is a distortion. It is a comic book history. Texas historians have to start writing the truth because Americans are starting to open their eyes," he argued. 

Some of Tijerina's books include: Tejanos and Texans Under the Mexican flag (1994), Tejano Empire: Life on the South Texas Ranchos (1998) and A History of Mexican-Americans in Lubbock (1979). 

For high school readers, Tijerina discovered El Mesquite, a short work of fiction written by a Tejana, Elena Zamora O'Shea, in 1935. He has had it published through Texas A&M University Press and is currently at work on a biography of Ricardo Beasley, the only known vaquero artist. 

(Staff writer Tricia Cortez can be reached at 728-2568 or 



Louisiana Military Resources Regiment of Infantry, 1765-1821
Jefferson Found Guilty in Mock Trial 

Free CD on Latin American Family History Resources,  click 

Access Genealogy - Louisiana Military Resources

for the Revolutionary War, Civil war, Spanish America War, World War I, World War II
Sent by Joan de Soto

Although this seems to suggest only Louisiana, the links are for all military research.
Links to: 
Military Records Research Guide 
Assistance in using NARA's records for your research for all wars. 
Military Records 
Types of military records. Help to determine if your ancestor fought in the military. 
Ordering Military Records 
How to order military and pension records 
Ordering Confederate Military Records 
How to order Confederate military and pension records 
How to Order Military Pension Records
Obtaining Military Records & Medals 

The National Personnel Records Center (NPRC), Military Personnel Records (MPR) is the repository of millions of military personnel, health, and medical records of discharged and deceased veterans of all services during the 20th century. 

The Louisiana Regiment of Infantry, 1765-1821

Although the title says Louisiana, the site includes information on Alabama, Illinois, Michigan, Mississippi, and Oklahoma.  Great resource, with maps, links to genealogist, articles, etc.. 

Initially established and manned by peninsular Spanish regulars in 1765 as an infantry battalion to occupy Luisiana, acquired from France three years earlier, what would ultimately become the veteran and professional  Regimiento de Infantería de Luisiana formed the core of Spain's military establishment in Louisiana and, later, in the Spanish Floridas until it faded into oblivion during the terminal period of Spain's colonial tenure in North America.

Reorganized after its arrival in North America in 1769, the battalion's detachments performed garrison duties at outposts in Spanish Louisiana as far north as Illinois.  In 1779, when Spain joined France in an alliance against England during the American War for Colonial Independence, the unit was enlarged to regimental strength through the addition of a second battalion and participated with distinction in the 1779-1781 conquest of then-British West Florida under the leadership of Louisiana Governor Bernardo de Gálvez.  Spain's official repossession of Florida by the terms of the 1783 Treaty of Paris resulted in a third battalion being added to the regiment for service in the Floridas in 1786.  This seemingly impressive force was, however, a "paper tiger." It never achieved its newly authorized strength in manpower, nor did it enjoy adequate supplies of material provisions to properly maintain itself. 

Jefferson Found Guilty in Mock Trial 
By CAIN BURDEAU, Associated Press Writer,  Dec 20, 2003
Sent by John Inclan

NEW ORLEANS - Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia (news - web sites) nodded, agreeing with his fellow jurists that Thomas Jefferson was indeed guilty of prolonging slavery, deporting American Indians and discriminating against the French in Louisiana. 

Scalia joined federal and state judges to hear the testimony of Jefferson and French ruler Napoleon Bonaparte in a mock trial to review lingering legal and historic questions about the Louisiana Purchase. 

New Orleans caps a yearlong celebration of the bicentennial of the mammoth land acquisition with a host of events Saturday. 

Friday evening, the verdict ran like lightning through the hushed audience in the 5th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals (news - web sites). 

Jefferson's lawyer jumped to his feet outraged, and demanded an appeal. 

Napoleon flashed a grin and a thumbs-up sign after being acquitted of abandoning the peoples in the Louisiana province when he struck the land deal with Jefferson in 1803. 

On Dec. 20, 1803, the American flag was hoisted in the Place d'Armes, now Jackson Square. 

Friday was the final act of this three-part yearlong trial organized by Cajun Francophone lawyers. It was performed mostly in French and also celebrated the movement to preserve the French language in the United States. 

"I think this trial proves that the French language in Louisiana is alive and well," said John Hernandez III, one of the main organizers of the trial. 

As the representative of the 5th Circuit on the Supreme Court, Scalia was invited to attend the "proces simule," as it was termed in French. 

"It's gratifying to see that we're remembering the native cultures of the time of the Purchase," said Warren Perrin, head of the Council for the Development of French in Louisiana, a pivotal organization for Cajuns. 

"Just to get to see a justice of the Supreme Court, state court judges and federal judges interested in something like this is hard to describe," said Fortune' Dugan, a New Orleans lawyer in the audience. 

Scalia didn't utter a word during the trial, and agreed with a nod — after consultation with the bench — to the verdict: Jefferson guilty, Napoleon innocent. 

The main contention in this legal play was that the development of the United States has often come with a price: The abused. 

Jefferson, played by a lawyer-turned-actor in wig and breeches, took the stand first. 

He was interrogated by representatives of the American Indians, black and white Creoles, Spanish and Acadians — the people who called the swamps and pine forests of the Mississippi River valley home in 1803. 

For the Indians, the argument ran, the territories the United States occupied after the Purchase — the Great Plains — became the land for reservations. 

 "Did you ever hear of the 'Trail of Tears' which was the trail of hardship and death over which the Cherokee Indians from Georgia were marched by U.S. soldiers at gunpoint one thousand miles to Indian territory in the Louisiana Purchase?" Jefferson was asked. 

"I have heard rumors of that, but it did not happen during my administration," the president replied — astonished. 

For black slaves, the fertile Mississippi River valley — with its soil so ripe for cotton and tobacco — turned into plantation country. 

Their representative sneered at Jefferson: "You say you wanted to abolish slavery, and yet, when you died, were not your slaves sold off at auction to pay your debts?" 

Jefferson conceded: "Yes, I am sorry to admit. As I grew old, I sometimes asked myself whether my country was the better for my having lived at all." 

In his defense, Jefferson added: "I did what I could. I always believed and proclaimed that all men are created equal and that they are endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights, that liberty is among these rights." 

The Cajuns asked: "Why do you believe that the French language had to be stamped out?" 

Replied Jefferson: "Well, I will quote here a great American, Theodore Roosevelt, who shares with me a place of honor on the national monument of Mount Rushmore: 'There is room for but one language in this country, and that is the English language, for we must assure that the crucible turns out Americans and not some random dwellers in a polyglot boarding house.'" 


Going Beyond Black and White Latino Youths Find Their Own Tongue

Free CD on Latin American Family History Resources,  click 

Extract; Going Beyond Black and White, Hispanics Choose ’Other’ 
By MIREYA NAVARRO, November 9, 200

Sent by John Inclan

Patria Rodriguez, an advertising sales director for a women's magazine in New York, takes after her father. With light brown skin and thick, curly hair, she says she resembles the actress Rosie Perez, but some people have asked her if she is Italian, and others have told her she looks like the singer Sade. 

Like many Hispanic Americans, Ms. Rodriguez does not think of herself as black or white. "I acknowledge I have both black and white ancestry in me, but I choose to label myself in nonracial terms: Latina. Hispanic. Puerto Rican. Nuyorican," Ms. Rodriguez, 31, said. "I feel that being Latina implies mixed racial heritage, and I wish more people knew that. Why should I have to choose?" 

As the Hispanic population booms, the fluid ways that she and other Latinos view their racial identities are drawing more attention and fueling the national debate over racial classifications - what they mean, what they should be and whether they are needed at all. 

Now members of the United States' largest minority group, the nation's 38.8 million Hispanics, nearly half of them immigrants, harbor notions of race that are as varied as their Spanish and that often clash with the more bipolar views of many other Americans. 

White? Black? Try "moreno," "trigueno" or "indio," terms that indicate skin shades and ancestry and accommodate several hues. 

This heterogeneity has stumped the Census Bureau. In its 2000 count, almost half the Hispanic respondents refused to identify themselves by any of the five standard racial categories on the census forms: white, black, Asian, American Indian or Alaska native and a category that includes natives of Hawaii and the Pacific Islands. The agency has since been surveying Hispanics to find a way to pinpoint them racially. 

In the census, respondents can mark their ethnicity as Hispanic, but then they are asked to choose a racial label. In 2000, almost half of the Hispanic respondents, 48 percent, identified themselves as white. Only 2 percent chose black. 

But from the light-complexioned to the dark, more than 14 million, or more than 42 percent of all Latino respondents, marked the box labeled "some other race" and wrote in such disparate identities as Mayan, Tejano and mestizo. (An additional 6 percent said they were members of two or more

The category "some other race" was used almost exclusively by Hispanics; of all those who chose it, 97 percent were Latino. Claudette Bennett, chief of the Census Bureau's racial-statistics branch, said follow-up research showed that a large portion of these respondents wanted Hispanic to be considered their race. 

A recent study by the Lewis Mumford Center for Comparative Urban and Regional Research at the State University of New York at Albany noted that the popularity of the "some other race" category came at the expense of the "white" category, which was the choice of the majority of Latino respondents in 1980. 

"There may have been a sense that being white was part of the process of being assimilated," said John R. Logan, Mumford's director.
"There's a trend toward rejecting whiteness as a way of expressing success." That's the big change over time. There's a Latino identity that's neither white nor black, and it's a positive identity." 

While there are clearly white Hispanics and black Hispanics, many more come from racially mixed stock, with white, black and American Indian or other indigenous strains. Even within one family, one sibling may look black by many Americans' standards, another white, and another in between. And factors as disparate as hair texture, education, income and even nationality matter almost as much as skin color in racial self-image. 

Ellis Cose, who examined racial identity in Latin America for his 1997 book, "Color-Blind: Seeing Beyond Race in a Race-Obsessed World," said these malleable views were quickening the pace of a shift in this country that began in the 1960's, after legal segregation ended and intermarriage became more common. 

. . . Hispanics who complain of discrimination by other Latinos do not cite race as a major factor, said a national survey last year by the Pew Hispanic Center and the Kaiser Family Foundation. Among those who said they were the victims of bias, the survey found, 41 percent attributed it to disparities in income and education and 34 percent to differences in country of origin. Only 8 percent said it was because of skin color, the survey said. 

Extract: Latino Youths Find Their Own Tongue

By Michelle Garcia, Washington Post, December 25, 2003
Sent by Howard Shorr  from the Internet (Details) 

In the span of a single city block, 15-year-old Gregory Beltre exhales words in rapid-fire Spanish, in the English drilled into him at school and in the slang heard on the street. 
Spanish spoken at a Caribbean cadence once dominated the pavement chatter on the steep streets of Washington Heights, a Dominican enclave in upper Manhattan. But with an influx of younger immigrants, and a U.S.-born generation, the neighborhood is sounding more like Beltre than like the old-timers.
 Dominicans now number more than half a million in New York City and soon will overtake Puerto Ricans as this city's largest Latino group. But the glue that often holds ethnic communities together -- language -- is changing as fast as the community itself.
A recent study by the Pew Hispanic Center found that second-generation Latinos are substantially bilingual and that English is the dominant language for the third generation. That has in subtle ways changed how Dominicans, and more broadly Latinos, frame their powerful sense of cultural identity.
But Latinos are not necessarily destined to dissolve in the American melting pot. Suro suggests that the younger generation may instead form a new group identity, with its own name and language hybrid.
"The idea is not to feel the language badgering you or making you feel insufficient, but to let it expand you," said Algarin, a retired literature professor at Rutgers University in New Jersey. "You use the blending of language to code and transmit information that's usually very social" and reflects a unique group experience, he said.
You can hear this happening in the Dominican community. Darlene Lee, 13, U.S.-born and self-described "half-Dominican, half-American," relishes the freedom of a language under construction. When she lived in Brooklyn, Lee spoke Spanish to her Dominican mother and English on the street. When she moved uptown to Washington Heights with her family, she said, her language grew richer and more expressive.
Author Junot Diaz, a professor of writing at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, emigrated from the Dominican Republic to New Jersey as  a child. Diaz cautions that the mix can be alienating for children, who feel pressure, he says, to demonstrate their linguistic allegiance to an "American-ness and Dominican-ness." 
The desire of many young Dominicans to retain a foothold in Spanish reflects another concern as well: Many have dark skin, reflecting their island's mix of African, Native American and Spanish ancestries. Their ability to speak Spanish and English allows them to move in and out of language and racial identities with an ease known to only a few Americans. 
 "That is part of the dexterity of most of the second generation," said Ana Celia Zentella, an anthropolitical linguist at the University of California at San Diego, who has studied Dominican language patterns.  "They are leading the way to challenging the U.S. rules of racial identity," in which "you're in either a black or white box," Zentella said.
Dominicans have yet to name their fusion of the language and identity, but snatches appear in the music and clothing of popular culture. Six years ago, Rafael Jimenez, 35, started a fledgling T-shirt company in Washington Heights. He christened the endeavor Republica Trading Co. -- "Republica" to honor his parents' homeland, "Trading Co." to convey his hope that his company might grow "to be part of a bigger picture in the United States." 
The company's Dominican-influenced hip-hop apparel is now carried at Bloomingdale's.   "I'm American, but it might not be by the definition of what American was before waves of immigration," he said. "This is the new definition of what American is." 


Photo, Salvatierra, Guanajuato, MX 
Una página con la firma del Virrey
Familia Armando M. Escobar Olmedo
Fundadores y Pobladores, 1644
Nuestra Señora de La Luz 
Valladolid de Michoacán, 1631
Porfirio Díaz
Presidentes de Mexico
The Mexican War, Illustrations

Postcards of Mexican Revolution
Electronic Guide to Mexican Law 

Free CD on Latin American Family History Resources,  click 

Salvatierra, Guanajuato, Mexico 1938

Una página con la firma del Virrey don García Sarmiento de Sotomayor
Conde de Salvatierra ( el se firmaba Salbatierra). 
Nota: La firma del virrey es la que esta abajo de donde dice " 
"Hecho en México a ocho de Henero de mil seiscientos y quarenta y seis años"
Mide el original, 12.6 pulgadas de largo por 8 de ancho. 
El original se encuentra en el Archivo General de la Nación, en el Ramo de Tierras, Volumen 185, del expediente, sobre la "Fundación de Salvatierra", es de los años 1644-46.

Sent by Armando M. Escobar Olmedo
An example of the clarity of documents available in the archives of Mexico.
The computer copy of the original is twice the size.

Museo Nacional de Antropología e Historia

Estimada Mimi, 
Te envíamos una foto que tengo en mucha estima. Fue a principios del año pasado, me tomaron la foto en la Sala Tarasca o del Occidente de México en el Museo Nacional de Antropología e Historia, hacía unos momentos que la Ministra de Cultura doña Sari Bermudez acababa de colocar el facsimil de "La Relación de Michoacán" de cuya edición me tocó en suerte Coordinar y hacer el estudio introductorio y paleográfico. (Mas gusto le tengo pues acabo de recibir el diploma donde el Ministerio de Cultura Español nos acredita a la obra como la mejor edición del 2002 al mejor facsimil editado en España)  Ahi en la foto vez a casi la familia (falta solo mi hija Flor de Ahtziri que se casará en el proximo mes de mayo), a la izquierda está mi hijo Mauricio, sigue mi hija Pita, luego mi esposa Marilupe, luego el Alcalde de Morelia (de entonces) don Augusto Caire y un servidor, [Armando M. Escobar Olmedo]

A un lado de Mauricio está un monolito prehispanico. Fue un alto honor que pusieran ahi la obra pues en el Museo, no exhiben réplicas, sino originales,¡ y pensar que a unos cuantos metros se encuentra el Calendario Azteca, las joyas de Montealbán etc¡, es algo que me emociona mucho. 

El Jardin Principal de la Ciudad de Salvatierra y al fondo la
la Parroquia de la Ciudad de Salvatierra, Guanajuato
muestra al centro el escudo de armas de la ciudad,

Los Fundadores y Pobladores 
de la Ciudad de Salvatierra, Guanajuato, año de 1644.

Armando M Escobar Olmedo, Presidente
de la Academia Michoacana de Historia
de la Sociedad Mexicana de Geografía y Estadística
 Capítulo Morelia

Después de varios intentos por fundar una ciudad en la antigua Congregación de San Andrés de los Chochones, en la Jurisdicción civil de la Villa de Celaya y la eclesiástica del Obispado de Michoacán, a orillas del Río Grande, de Toluca o Madonté en el año de 1643, varios vecinos de los Valles de Huantzindeo y Tarimoro dieron nuevamente su poder al escribano Agustín de Carranza Salcedo. para que aprovechando la donación de unas tierras propiedad de Gabriel López de Peralta se terminaran las gestiones correspondientes ante el virrey García Sarmiento de Sotomayor, Conde de Salvatierra y se materializara el viejo anhelo de los lugareños de fundar, no una villa, sino una ciudad de españoles en una región muy rica en la producción agrícola y ganadera y que había sido asiento de antiguas culturas en un amplio y feraz Valle señoreado por la imponente mole natural del Cerro del Culiacán, cuya figura piramidal debió impresionar a los naturales, de tal manera, que le pusieron el emblemático y sagrado nombre de la partida de la peregrinación de las siete tribus nahuas. Ya en la anterior década de los años treintas, se intentó fundar en dicho lugar, una Villa, con un nombre no menos significativa para los hispanos que el de Villa de Madrid. El proyecto fracasó por la oposición de la Orden de San Agustín que al ser propietarios de cercanas tierras se verían afectados en sus intereses. La cercana Villa de Celaya tampoco estuvo conforme con esa pretensión, máxime que la naciente población sería Ciudad, rango mayor al que ellos tenían y vieron con alarma y menosprecio que cerca de su Villa naciera sin más, una población a la que se verían sujetos por tener mayor categoría.

Años mas tarde con la llegada del nuevo gobernante se hizo un nuevo intento y con las mismas oposiciones. Sin embargo, ahora los deseos del virrey García Sarmiento de ver perpetuado su nombre y gestión pudieron más que aquellos y dio permiso para que se creara, en la ya citada Congregación, una ciudad con el nombre del lugar donde había nacido don García (Salvatierra, a orillas del Río Miño en Galicia) y del cual llevaba el título de Conde.

La región que para entonces estaba ya muy poblada, quedaba en medio de un triángulo en cuyos vértices se encontraban: los pueblos de Acámbaro, Yuririapúndaro y la ya citada Villa de Zalaya o Celaya.

Entre las personas que dieron su poder al promotor de la fundación, el escribano don Agustín de Carranza Salcedo para materializar sus gestiones y obtener el título de fundadores, distinción que llevaba unida a la posesión de mercedes de solares en la ciudad y tierras en su fundo, así como varios privilegios fueron las siguientes:

Salvador Hernández
Felipe Jiménez Larios
Pedro Díaz de Arenas
Miguel de Piña Molina
Alonso de Arenas y Raya
Juan de León Antolín
Domingo de Chávez
Luis de los Reyes
Hernando Luis de Sayaavedra
Julián de Arvelais
Jerónimo de Escamilla
Baltasar de Soria
Cap. Sebastián de Andia
Cristóbal de Sotomayor
Alonso de Contreras Orozco
Pedro de Mercado
Pedro Guerra
Alonso de Soto
Pedro Botello
Nicolás Botello
Luis de Zamudio Zirate
Juan Pérez de Figueroa
Rafael Hernández de la Citis
Martín Hoz de Arenas
Francisco Bravo de Aguilar
Diego Martínez
Alonso de Piña Molina
Pedro Guerra
Juan de Tendilla Salcedo
Bartolomé de Carriedo Ordóñez
Diego de Mendoza
García de Mendoza
José de Piña Molina
Cap. Antonio Escobedo
Juan de Arriaga y
Diego Morelos.
Aparte dieron le poder para obtener mercedes, solicitar oficios entre otros:
Andrés de Arenas
Lic. Juan Guerra
Pablo Guerra
Alonso Gutiérrez
Lorenzo de Fuentes
Bernardino Guerra
Juan de Soja ¿
Hernando de Ulloa Cervantes
Diego Pérez Botello.
Diego Morelos
Sebastián Morillo
Domingo Sáenz Escudero
Hernando García
Alonso Ramos
Pablo Gómez
Melchor Frixe ¿
Nicolás de Salazar
Francisco de Cabida
Juan García Bustillo
Ventura Martín
Bartolomé Altamirano
Manuel Ruiz Cardoso
Pedro de Herrera
Diego de Santiago
Jacinto Pulido
Lázaro Jiménez
Miguel de Escamilla
Melchor Pérez de Escamilla
Rafael Hernández de la Cruz
Diego Morillo
Gonzalo Báez
Juan de Sotomayor
Juan Bautista de Orozco
Sebastián Vélez
María de Torres, viuda.
Pedro López
Antonio de Espinosa
Ignacio de Acosta
Sebastián Hernández
Juan Báez
Pablo García
Blas González Pichardo
Antonio Blas
Juan de Fuentes
Martín de Arenas
Mateo de Raya
Pablo Gordo Altamirano
Sebastián Altamirano
Juan Martín Hernández, el Mozo.
Nicolás de Sayaavedra
Francisco de Gavia
Juan de Larrea
Catalina González, viuda.
Cristóbal de Arévalo
Ana de Arévalo
Diego Pérez Botello, el Mozo.
Diego Martínez de Rojas
Juan de Morales
Jacinto de Olivares
Juan de Valencia
Antonio González
Francisco Infante
Alonso Rodríguez
Gonzalo Martínez de M
Francisco López
Julepe de Viosa
Gregorio de Cárdenas
Pedro Landín.
Francisco de la Casa Nova
Diego Aguado
Alonso de Ontiveros
Lorenzo Gómez
Diego Gómez
Sebastián Martín
Alonso Morales Corona
Domingo de Chávez
Luis de los Reyes
Pedro del Mercado
Juan Gómez de Camargo
Juan Ascencio de Burgos
Jerónimo de Cendejas
Francisco Ferrer
Juan de Arreola
Jerónimo Álvarez C
Alonso Martín
Diego Mata
Miguel Sánchez Palenzuela
Alonso de Palenzuela
Jerónimo Alcalde
Cristóbal de Estrada
Juan Pérez Velasco
Cristóbal Tello R
Luis Chávez
Juan González
Alonso Núñez Cote
Nicolás de Estrada
Juan Díaz de Carvajal
Diego Sánchez de Rojas
Lorenzo de Soria
Cristóbal de Quesada Mendoza
Gral. Gaspar de Quesada Mendoza
Cap. Roque de Vergara
Cap. Antonio Hernández Poveda
Bach. Nicolás de Mucientes
Juan Ochoa Martínez
Miguel de Vega
Juan Izquierdo
Miguel Rico
Gaspar Gutiérrez
Juan Gutiérrez
Diego Rancel
Salvador Rancel
Francisco Rancel
Juan de Tendilla Salcedo
Lic. Nicolás de Larrea B
Luis de Salas y Valdez
Vicente Hernández Camino
Cap. Baltasar Juárez Troncoso
Matías de la Cerda
Nicolás de Peralta
Miguel Núñez Guerrero
Juan de Santiago
Jerónimo Girón Herrera
Miguel González y
Antonio Ocejo.
Varios de ellos ya eran vecinos de la región, como otros ya fallecidos o que no han sido mencionados. Tal es el caso del capitán Antonio de Arizmendi Gogorrón ( o Gugorrón), Hernán Pérez de Bocanegra, Nicolás Tamayo, Antonio de Esquivel y Vargas entre otros.

Nuestra Señora de La Luz 
o las Luces

La puerta de la parroquia, La iglesia de finales del siglo XVIII y contruida en diferentes épocas, tiene como advocación a Nuestra Señora de La Luz o las Luces, 

Armando M Escobar Olmedo, Presidente, 
de la Academia Michoacana de Historia
de la Sociedad Mexicana de Geografía y Estadística
 Capítulo Morelia

Libro de Bautismos
Valladolid de Michoacán, 1631

Armando M Escobar Olmedo
Morelia, Michoacán, México

Los registros parroquiales tanto de bautismos como de matrimonios y defunciones ofrecen para el investigador un material muy rico en información sobre la microhistoria de las familias en una determinada región. Lamentablemente la consulta de los libros que la contienen no es siempre fácil y accesible por diversos motivos a los interesados en su consulta, es por ello que se ha pensado en facilitar algunos extractos de los registros de bautismos, que se encuentran en el libro segundo de ellos en el Archivo Histórico de la Sacristía del Sagrario Metropolitano de Morelia, con el único objeto de que se conozca una pequeña parte de la enorme riqueza de un importante material poco estudiado.

La información que a continuación se da a conocer se encuentra en el Libro 2 de Bautismos de la ciudad de Valladolid. Si bien en la carátula dice "Libro 2 del mes de julio del año de 1636" en realidad los registros comienza en el año de 1631 y varias hojas más delante se encuentran algunos de 1623.

Las primeras hojas se encuentran muy deterioradas y solo son legibles los nombres de los bautizados o la parte final del registro, (10 de ellos). Los al menos 45 bautismos restantes, sí se encuentran completos en las partes esenciales de la información.

A continuación damos a conocer los registros del citado año de 1631, esperando pueda ser de utilidad a los investigadores o interesados en el tema y a quienes les sea difícil la consulta de este importante material.

He incluido los registros de indios, mulatos y negros que son frecuentemente omitidos por los genealogistas o buscadores de antepasados únicamente hispanos.


Año de 1631

La ciudad de Valladolid de Michoacán, denominada así por el Virrey don Martín Enríquez de Almanza hacia 1575, era para los inicios de la tercera década del siglo XVII de muy corta extensión, unas siete largas calles cuyo eje principal era la Calle Real, de oriente a poniente y de las calles transversales la de la Plaza de la Iglesia al Convento del Carmen.

Gobernaba la Diócesis de Michoacán el Obispo fray Francisco de Rivera, de la Orden de la Merced quien había puesto mucho empeño en consolidar la casi arruinada y vieja iglesia Catedral "de Prestado" que se encontraba a un lado de la actual Catedral. Entre las iglesias y conventos sobresalientes tenemos al de: San Francisco, San Agustín, El Carmen, Nuestra Señora de las Mercedes (en construcción) y el de las monjas de Santa Catarina de Sena (dominicas).

La población de la pequeña ciudad fluctuaría entre unos tres mil o tres mil quinientos habitantes, de los que un 30% serían españoles. Rodeaban a la ciudad más de 13 populosos barrios. Dos ríos: el Grande y el de Guayangareo bordeaban a una Valladolid con fuertes problemas de crecimiento. Con todo era la flamante capital religiosa del vasto Obispado de Michoacán, no así la de la Provincia que de antaño le correspondía a la Ciudad de Pátzcuaro. El Alcalde Mayor lo era don Francisco de Solís Barraza, cuya vivienda se encontraba en las Casas Reales frente a la Plaza Principal.

Las noticias contenidas en los registros son en su gran mayoría de indios, mulatos y negros, a los que se les agrega su condición y barrio al que pertenecen, pocos son este caso los bautismos de españoles.

Creo que es de interés conocer los apellidos de los indios naturales, muy tarascos por cierto y a pesar de ser muy repetitivos nos da una idea mas precisa de este destacado núcleo de trabajadoras y trabajadores vallisoletanos, muy poco estudiados como ya hemos anotado antes.

Los primeros registros que se tienen en el libro empiezan hasta mediados del año ya que el primero que encontramos es del 2 de julio y se trata de una niña de nombre Antonia, no se encuentra, ni el nombre del padre ni la condición de ambos, el de la madre dice solamente María Martínez y no trae el de la madrina que al parecer fue mulata. En el segundo registro únicamente se aprecia el nombre del infante: Antón; el tercero corresponde a una niña de nombre Catalina, el bautizo parece haber sido el 13 de julio; el cuarto es del niño Juan.

Los registros siguientes solo contienen trozos de la información como el de Joan hijo de Juan de….y Luisa de Torres. Es muy difícil apreciar los cuatro siguientes. La gran mayoría de los bautismos fueron realizados por el padre Francisco Pacho, cura beneficiado de la Santa Iglesia Catedral. La hoja siguiente ya más legible, corresponde a los registros que ha continuación se detallan:

El 27 de julio fue bautizado Pedro, hijo de Pedro Tzintzuni y de Catalina María, indios, fueron sus padrinos Francisco Tzitzuqui e Isabel (?) Tzipaqua. Lo bautizó el padre F Pacho.

El 27 de julio fue bautizada, Isabel, (solo se encuentra parte del apellido de la madre:) Ábrego, mestiza, soltera, fueron sus padrinos Miguel Jerónimo Hidalgo y María de Monjaraz. Bautizó el padre Pacho.

El 27 de julio fue bautizada Esperanza. (No aparece el nombre del padre y el de la madre es) Esperanza, morena, esclava de don…. (García de) Cisneros, fueron sus padrinos… e Isabel de Morón, morenos. La bautizó el padre F Pacho.

El 28 de julio fue bautizado Nicolás, (está roto donde aparecen los nombres de sus padres) fue su padrino el capitán Manuel López. Lo bautizó el padre F Pacho.

El 3 de agosto fue bautizada Ygnacia (Ycnacia), hija de María, india del Barrio de Chicáquaro, fue su madrina Magdalena del Barrio de San Diego, mestiza. La bautizó el padre F Pacho.

El 3 de agosto fueron bautizados Antonio y Lucrecia, negros esclavos de don García de Cisneros. Fueron sus padrinos Juan García y María de la Cruz, morenos. Los bautizó el padre F Pacho.

El 10 de agosto fueron bautizados Manuel y Baltasar, morenos, esclavos de don García de Cisneros. Fueron sus padrinos: Francisco Lorenzo y Ana María, morenos. Bautizó el padre F Pacho.

El 17 de agosto se bautizó a Domingo, hijo de Catalina Gómez, mulata libre, soltera, fueron sus padrinos Miguel García y Juana Sotelo. Lo bautizó el padre F Pacho.

El 18 de agosto se bautizó a Diego y Lorenzo, mestizos, hijos de Francisco Gabriel y de Catalina Tsipaqua, fueron sus padrinos Pedro Ramírez y su mujer María (A)polonia, ambos indios del Barrio de San Pedro. Los bautizó el padre F Pacho.

El 22 de agosto se bautizó a Pedro, hijo de Pedro y Ana, naturales, del Barrio del Carmen, fueron sus padrinos…e Inés, naturales, de Tarímbaro. Lo bautizó el padre Antonio de Alcalá.

El 24 de agosto se bautizó a Jerónima, hija de la iglesia, fue si madrina Jusepa de Loaysa. La bautizó el padre F Pacho.

El 1 de septiembre se bautizó a María hija d…(¿Joan?)de Cendexas y de Ana de Vargas, fueron sus padrinos Francisco de Rueda y su mujer Jerónima de… La bautizó el padre F Pacho.

El 1 de septiembre, se bautizaron a tres morenos: Francisco, Francisca y Juan, esclavos de don García de Cisneros, fueron sus padrinos Sebastián. García e Isabel de la Cruz, morenos. Los bautizó el padre F Pacho.

El 7 de septiembre, se bautizó a María, hija de Isabel, morena, esclava de Juan González de Guerrea, fueron sus padrinos, Juan García e Isabel de la Cruz, morenos. La bautizó el padre F Pacho.

El 7 de septiembre, el padre Francisco Pacho bautizó a Bartolomé, hijo de Juana Velásquez, soltera, fue su padrino don Pedro Moreno.

El 7 de septiembre, el padre Francisco Pacho bautizó a María, hija de Hernando Sanabria y de Isabel Teresa, mestizos, fue su madrina doña Estefanía de Caravajal.

El 8 de septiembre, el padre Francisco Pacho bautizó a Agustina, hija de Felipe Xanaq ua y de Catalina Tzipaqua, fueron sus padrinos, Juan Bautista y Juana María, todos indios de la Huerta del Alférez.

El 10 de septiembre, el padre Francisco Pacho bautizó a Ana, hija de Francisco Gabriel y de María Beatriz, fue su madrina Petrona Hernández, todos indios del Barrio de Santa Ana.

El 11 de septiembre, el padre Francisco Pacho, bautizó a María, hija de don Joseph (González) de Figueroa, Alférez Real y doña Beatriz de Sámano, fueron sus padrinos don Francisco de Solis Barraza, Alcalde Mayor y su mujer.

El 15 de septiembre, el padre Francisco Pacho, bautizó a Antonia, hija de Juan y de María Huche, indios del Barrio del Carmen, fueron sus padrinos, Juan García, moreno y Juana, mestiza.

El 22 de septiembre, el padre Francisco Pacho, bautizó a Magdalena, hija de Pedro y de Agustina, indios naturales, de la Hacienda de don Joseph de Figueroa, su madrina lo fue Luisa, india del Barrio de Santa Ana.

El 28 de septiembre, el padre Francisco Pacho, bautizó a Nicolás, hijo de Miguel Xuares y de Magdalena, indios de Cuparataro, fueron sus padrinos Jerónimo de Covarrubias, mestizo y Juana Hernández.

El 2 de octubre, el padre Pedro Agundez, bautizó a Theresa, hija de la iglesia, fueron sus padrinos el Capitán don Manuel López Zerpa y doña Andrea de Ugarte, su mujer.

El 5 de octubre, el padre Francisco Pacho, bautizó a Mariana, hija de don Juan de Quijada y de María Sotelo, fueron sus padrinos don Diego Sorge y su madrina doña Ana de Mendoza.

El 5 de octubre, el padre Francisco Pacho, bautizó a Diego, hijo de Matías y de Lucía, fueron sus padrinos Andres Xanaqua y Beatriz Putzuto, todos indios de la labor del Alférez don Joseph de Figueroa.

El 6 de octubre, el padre Francisco Pacho, bautizó a Miguel hijo de Blas de Rivadeneira y de María Hidalgo, fueron sus padrinos el licenciado Miguel Robello e Isabel de los Olivos.

En 8 de octubre, el padre Francisco Pacho, bautizó a Jerónimo, hijo de Gregorio Moreno y de Francisca de la Cruz, criados del reverendo Diego de Novella, fueron sus padrinos Francisco e Isabel López.

En 8 de octubre, el padre Francisco Pacho, bautizó a Mateo, hijo de don Salvador Duarte y de doña Catalina de Vascones, fueron sus padrinos, el Capitán Manuel López Zerpa y su mujer doña Andrea de Ugarte.

En 15 de octubre, el padre Francisco Pacho, bautizó a Francisco, hijo de Agustín y de Antonia, indios de "La Huerta" de don Joseph de Figueroa, fue su madrina Juana María, mulata.

En 20 de octubre, el padre Francisco Pacho, bautizó a Ana, hija de Juan Bautista Paua y de María Tzipaqua indios del Barrio de Urdiales, fue su padrino Juan de Betancor, moreno.

En 28 de octubre, el padre Antonio de Alcalá, bautizó a Teresa, hija de Francisco Turequi y de Catalina María, del Barrio del Carmen, fueron sus padrinos, Juan Trujillo Gallardo y María Tzipaqua.

En 2 de noviembre, el padre Francisco Pacho bautizó a Marta, hija de Francisco Lemos y Clara, indios del Alférez Joseph de Figueroa, fueron sus padrinos Juan Rincón y Marta María, mulata.

En 9 de noviembre, el padre Francisco Pacho bautizó a Andrea, hija de Isabel de los Olivos, mulata libre, soltera, criada de Melchor Gutiérrez. Fueron sus padrinos Melchor de la Cruz y Luisa González, mulatos.

En 16 de noviembre, el padre Francisco Pacho bautizó a Catalina, hija de Andres y de María, indios, criados de las monjas, fueron sus padrinos, Miguel Tía y su mujer Lucía Nuca, indios.

En 21 de noviembre, el padre Antonio de Alcalá bautizó a Juana, hija de María, esclava de Gonzalo Díaz de Betancor, fue su madrina Magdalena María.

En 21 de noviembre, el padre fray Martín Delgado bautizó a Diego, hijo de Francisco Gudino y de Ana Núñez Vala, fueron sus padrinos don Andrés de Betancor y doña María de Cárdenas, su mujer, todos vecinos de esta ciudad de Valladolid, "hice este bautismo con licencia de su Ilustrísima".

En 23 de noviembre, el padre Francisco Pacho bautizó a Diego, hijo de Juana, morena, esclava del capitán Manuel López de Zerpa, fue su madrina Inés de la Cruz, mulata.

En 30 de noviembre, el padre Francisco Pacho bautizó a Martín, hijo de María Ortiz, mulata soltera y no se le conoció padre, fueron sus padrinos, Nicolás de Morales y Leonor de Arlanzón, mulatos.

En 2 de diciembre, el padre Antonio de Alcalá bautizó a Melchora, hija de la iglesia, fue su padrinos Pablo de Arroyo.

En 7 de diciembre el padre Francisco Pacho bautizó a María Catalina, hija de Juan Cruz y de Catalina su mujer, morenos, mis esclavos. Fue su madrina Esperanza, morena, de Marcos Estévez.

En 14 de diciembre el padre Francisco Pacho bautizó a Andrés hijo de Beatriz Pérez, mulata, esclava de María de Rivera, fueron sus padrinos Agustín Redondo de Rivera y doña María de Loaisa.

En 24 de diciembre el padre Francisco Pacho bautizó a Catalina hija de Miguel Cuini y de Ana Tzipaqua, fueron sus padrinos Pedro de la Cruz y su mujer María Tzipaqua, todos del Barrio de Santa Ana.

En 27 de diciembre el padre Francisco Pacho bautizó a Juan, hijo de la iglesia, fue su padrino el canónigo don Pedro Agúndez de Ledesma.

En 27 de diciembre el padre Francisco Pacho bautizó a Lucía, hija de Felipa Hurtado, mulata, soltera, esclava de don Juan Sotelo, fue su madrina Manuela de Prado, mulata.

En 29 de diciembre el padre Francisco Pacho bautizó a Francisco, hijo de Mónica, soltera, criada de Luis de Quiroz, fueron sus padrinos Agustín de Salceda y Sebastiana de Ávila.

Con el anterior bautizo terminan los registros de bautismos del año de 1631.

AGN, Colección Fotográfica de Propiedad Artística y Literaria, F. L. Clarke, Personajes, foto 6.

He esperado con paciencia el día en que la República de México esté preparada para escoger y cambiar a sus gobernantes en cada período sin peligro de guerras, ni daño al crédito y al progreso nacionales. Creo que ese día ha llegado...

Sent by Carlos Martín Herrera de la Garza


This is only one example of an extensive collection of photos in México, Un Siglo en Imágenes
1900-2000. The file is divided into decade. This photo is from category Política 1900 to 1910.

Archivo Franciscano
Manuscritos del siglo XIV al XIX sobre los Franciscanos en México, con documentos relacionados con actividades de carácter misional, fundación de pueblos, descripciones geográficas, etc., en el Norte de México y el Sur de los Estados Unidos.

Revistas Literarias
Espanoles e Mexico en el S. XIX
Revistas que contienen artículos de temas didácticos y de miscelánea que reflejan el saber común de la gente del siglo XIX. Iniciamos esta colección con revistas que influyeron en la educación de las mujeres.

Espanoles en Mexico en el S. XIX
Una selección de
cartas del Archivo de Enrique de Olavarría y Ferrari, español, nacionalizado mexicano, y autor de la Reseña Histórica del Teatro en México y del IV tomo de México a través de los siglos. Las cartas seleccionadas (con transcripciones) son de autores que van desde Ignacio Manuel Altamirano, Luis G. Urbina, Salado Alvarez hasta Rafael Zayas Enriquez, el Dr. Atl, Joaquín Baranda, Laura Méndez de Cuenca, Victoriano Agueros, entre otros... 

Libros electronicos
embed src="anima/animacion.swf" quality="high" pluginspage="" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" width="131" height="100"> </embed 

· Visión de los Vencidos
· Geografía Médica de la República Méxicana
· Diccionario de Historia de la Educación en México
· La Guerra de 1846-1848
· México un Siglo en Imágenes . .  in which the photo of Francisco Diaz is found.

Presidentes de Mexico, 1824-2000
Sent by Joan De Soto

General GUADALUPE VICTORIA nacido en Tamazula, Durango, a fines de 1786, distinguiéndose en la Guerra de Independencia al lado del gran Morelos. Tomó posesión el 10 de Octubre de 1824 y entregó la presidencia a las once de la mañana del 31 de Marzo de 1829. Durante su gobierno capituló la guarnición española que aún conservaba en su poder el castillo de San Juan de Ulúa, frente a Veracruz, el 18 de Noviembre de 1825. Murió en el fuerte de Perote, Ver., víctima de ataques epilépticos, el 21 de marzo de 1843. 

The Mexican War, Illustrations
Sent by Joan De Soto

Gen. Scott leaves Puebla for Mexico City

Mexican War maps 
Battle of Palo Alto (May 8, 1846) 
Battle of Resaca de la Palma (May 9, 1846) 
Battle of Monterrey (Sept. 21-23, 1846) 
Battle of Buena Vista (Feb. 22-23, 1847) 
Siege of Veracruz (March 9-27, 1847) 
Museo Historico Naval, Veracruz 
Fort San Juan de Ulua, Veracruz 
Baluarte de Santiago, Veracruz 
Plan del Rio Bridges 
Battle of Cerro Gordo (April 17-18, 1847) 
Battle of Contreras (Aug. 19, 1847) 
Battle of Churubusco (Aug. 20, 1847) 
Battle of Molino del Rey (Sept. 8, 1847) 
Battle of Chapultepec (Sept. 12, 1847) 
Battle Scenes from the Mexican War 
Mexican War Monuments 
U.S. Flags Captured by the Mexican Army 

Postcards of the Mexican Revolution
by John Hardman     EMail:
P.O.Box721, Warren, OH 44482-0721
Sent by Joan De Soto 

Much of Mexico's history for the decade of 1910-1920 was recorded by hundreds of photographers on postcards. Using glass plate cameras and early cut film cameras, primitive by today's standards, the photographers faced injury and death to obtain negatives which would be printed on postcard stock and sold to the soldiers and general public on both sides of the U.S.-Mexican border. Some of the views were obviously posed, and others showed the death and destruction resulting from the violence of a nation involved in a bloody civil war.

Many times the revolution spilled across the border or involved U.S. military forces. The United States occupied Vera Cruz for nearly seven months in 1914 after Mexican officials arrested an American seaman. In 1916, Mexicans raided Glenn Springs, Texas, and Pancho Villa and his army crossed the border at Columbus, New Mexico, burned part of the town and killed seventeen soldiers and civilians. President Woodrow Wilson ordered General John J. Pershing to lead a "Punitive Expedition" into Mexico to kill or capture Villa. Villa eluded Pershing, and after eleven months the expedition returned to the United States.

For more information about the postcards of the Mexican revolution, the Columbus, New Mexico raid, Pershing's Punitive Expedition, and the U.S. occupation of Vera Cruz you can read the following books: BORDER FURY, A Picture Postcard History of Mexico's Revolution and U.S. War Preparedness 1910-1917 by Paul J. Vanderwood and Frank N. Samponaro. Alburqueque NM. University of New Mexico Press 1988.
Check out the Association of American University Presses Online Catalog AAUP.
WAR SCARE ON THE RIO GRANDE, Robert Runyon's Photographs of the Border Conflict 1913-1916 by Frank N. Samponaro and Paul J. Vanderwood. Austin, TX. Texas State Historical Association 1992. 
Check out the Texas State Historical Association's Publications and Books by Author.

Electronic Guide to Mexican Law 

By Francisco Avalos and Elisa Donnadieu

Francisco Avalos is Foreign and International Law Librarian at the University of Arizona College of Law Library. He obtained his undergraduate degree from the University of Arizona in 1971 and his Master of Library Science in 1976. He is the author of several books and articles dealing with the legal system and history of Mexico. He has served as past President and Secretary of AALL FCIL- SIS and has made several presentations on the Mexican legal system at national conferences and conventions. He has been a special consultant to the National Law Center for Inter-American Free Trade for the last ten years.

Elisa Donnadieu is a 1997 graduate of the University of Arizona, College of Law. She has worked with the Pima County Public Defender’s office since 1998 and continues to do so on a part-time basis. Currently, she is enrolled in the Library Science Master’s program at the University of Arizona and has a fellowship with the University of Arizona College of Law Library.

Published March 1, 2002

Table of Contents
I. A Brief History of the Mexican Legal Government II. Federal Government III. Major Primary Federal Legislation IV. State Governments V. Mexico's Legal System VI. Mexico Government VII. Legislative Sources VIII. NAFTA IX. Overall Coverage of Mexico X. Free Translation Sites 

I. Brief History of the Mexican Legal System
The Mexican legal system has historical roots that go back to 16th century Spanish law and to Pre-Colombian indigenous law. After the Spanish had conquered the Aztec Empire, they found an advanced indigenous legal system in place. The Spanish crown did not rid itself of the indigenous legal system completely, instead, kept those indigenous laws and legal institutions that did not go directly against the Spanish customs or against Church Doctrine. The Spanish Crown also introduced its own laws and legal institutions.
After Mexico finally established independence, it went through a series of different constitutions. The current Mexican Constitution is commonly referred to as the 1917 Constitution. The official name is the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States (Constitucion Politica de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos). The Federal Constitution is the most important political document in Mexico.
It is the source and origin for all Mexican law. The hierarchy of sources of law in the civil law tradition to which Mexico’s legal system belongs are, “constitution, legislation, regulation, and custom.” The constitution will override all legislation, legislation will override all regulation, and regulation will override all custom.


Country Resources Pirates of the Caribbean 

Country Resources for Caribbean Genealogy
The specific film numbers are identified.
Sent by Joan De Soto

Note: Spaniards in the Province of Venezuela, (Viceroyalty of New Granada); Military service records; (for an index of these records, refer to Catalog XXXII del achivo de Simancas, Secretaria de Guerra (Siglo XVHII, Hojas de Servicios de America).
Spain; Venezuela Trinidad and Tobago military records- IN SPANISH

PARISH RECORDS NOTE: Parish register of baptisms, marriage and deaths from San Carlos, Santo Domingo (Distrito Nacional), Church records;

NOTE: Civil registry containing birth, marriage, divorce and death records.
NOTE: * These two sets of film #’s seem to be inconsistent, they might be transposed

BRITISH NATIONALS Consulate registers, 1811 -1813; 1849 -1932
Births, baptisms, marriages, deaths and other records of British Nationals in the Dominican Republic

FINANCIAL ACCOUNTS Public Records, 1733 - 1775
NOTE: Financial accounts during the Spanish Colonial era.

Pirates of the Caribbean
[[ This site has both fiction and non-fiction, quite diverse. Very interesting.]]
Sent by John Inclan


Celebrating the New Year in the

Instituto Cervantes
Library of Congress
Latin American Links

Spain's Royal Family 
Genealogia de Espana y Mexico 
     de los Ezquerra

Obra del apellido Guadarrama 
Zaragoza. Aragón. España

Free CD on Latin American Family History Resources,  click 


by Rina D. Dungao, Ph.D


It is the month of January once again and most of us find ourselves making our New Year’s resolutions vowing to high heavens that we would stick to them unlike the past years. As always, the past year has brought us some good experiences along with the unfortunate ones-- whether personally or professionally –but which have only made us grown wiser in our ways.

In the Philippines, Filipinos have many superstitious beliefs they practice to ward off any unlucky or unfortunate events as well as to bring in good fortune with the coming of the New Year. Most of them have eventually become a part of our culture.

So, how is a typical Filipino New Year’s Eve celebration?

Similar to Christmas Eve, most Filipino families hear New Year’s Eve (Vigil) holy mass scheduled between 9:00-10:00 p.m. or 10:00-11:00 p.m. Rarely is a mass scheduled at midnight because most families want to be home to make sure that they practice their beliefs in preparing for the coming of the new year.

However, sometimes, because a lot of fireworks (called "paputok" in Tagalog) start going off in many areas as early as 5:00 p.m. in the afternoon (the government has attempted to take stricter measures to ban some fireworks for safety reasons but somehow, most people find out where to go to buy more fireworks especially children who enjoy playing with the different kinds of "paputok". For most of them, New Year’s Eve celebration is something they really look forward to primarily because it gives them a chance to make all the noise that they want to from lighting fireworks to tooting their horns!) The belief in making so much noise is that the "old" evil spirits will be forced to "get out" of their hiding places and the "new" good spirits have a chance to come in and replace the bad ones. Because of all the noise and because some families fear that a carelessly thrown "paputok" might find its way to the gasoline tank of their cars, some of them opt to hear holy mass the next day between the hours of 9:00 a.m.– 12:00 noon when most of the past night’s revelry has died down and most of the children are still asleep in their warm beds. Others who find it difficult to wake up in the morning attend the late afternoon masses usually scheduled between 5:00-7:00 p.m.

Also, just like Christmas, many Filipinos make sure that there are a lot of dishes on the table especially when the clock strikes twelve at midnight. Not only because there are going to be a lot of relatives around to celebrate and feast on the food but more so, because they believe that when the first hour of 2004 strikes and there is a lot of food on the table, it only means that there will be abundant food throughout the year.

Fruits, most especially grapes are usually found on the table along with other "round" fruits like apples and oranges because any fruit closely resembling a "round" figure means money coming in during that year. Families make sure that there are twelve "round fruits" (most of the time, 6 apples and 6 oranges) on their table before the first hour of the new year begins. Each member of the family is told to "leave room in their stomachs" to eat no less than twelve (12) pieces of grapes—with each single grape signifying each month of the year. Since wine is derived from grapes and wine symbolizes the blood of Jesus Christ, most Filipinos believe that by eating one grape which represents each month of the year, they are assured of continued blessings from the Almighty and good luck for the whole year.

Still another popular practice by Filipinos is making sure that there are coins on every windowsill in the house. Again, the belief here is that, when the New Year comes in and there is money on every window, money or finances will not be tight and will smoothly flow for that year. It does not matter what currency is placed on every windowsill just as long as there are coins on the windows.

Even the manner of dressing is addressed in a Filipino’s New Year’s Eve custom. I vividly remember my whole family making sure that we all wear polka-dotted shirts (the bigger the polka dots, the better!) or dresses before the New Year starts because that would only mean a more stable financial future for each family member.

Being assured of abundant food for 2004 means stocking up and making doubly sure that the canisters or containers for rice, salt, vinegar and sugar are full to the brim. Better to have more than less for the New Year! Everyone does not like to be caught empty-handed!

Lastly, from what I can recall, all cabinets and drawers are also partly opened before the first hour of the New Year strikes, again, because of the belief that the old or evil spirits that shall be warded off by all the noise made from fireworks, toot horns, loud stereo music, honking of many cars, clanging of pots and pans and loud merry singing from some folks, shall be replaced by the new and good spirits—ones to bring them good fortune and luck so they better get in those drawers and cabinets!

Do I practice those beliefs or customs now that I am residing in the United States of America?

You bet I do! Come and see me in my big blue polka dotted blouse this New Year’s Eve!


Instituto Cervantes
Sent by Paul Newfield

El Instituto Cervantes es una institución pública creada, por creada, por España, para la promoción y la ensenañza de la lengua español.

Library of Congress

Local History & Genealogy Reading Room
Humanities & Social Sciences Division
Sent by John Inclan

Introduction - I. Handbooks - II. Surnames - III. Hispanic History of - the United States - IV. Arizona
V. California - VI. Florida - VII. Louisiana - VIII. New Mexico - IX. Texas - X. Other States 
XI. Puerto Rico - XII. Cuba - XIII. Mexico - XIV. Spain - XV. Emigration from Spain - XVI. Jews
XVII. Catalogs and Archives - XVIII. Other Countries of Spanish America - XIX. Miscellaneous

[[ The Library of Congress is a major resource. The website is easy to browse. Some of the records can be read in their completeness, some can be forwarded by email. Do look!!]].

These were found in chapter XV Emigration from Spain

Fernández de Recas, Guillermo S. 
Aspirantes americanos a cargos del Santo Oficio. México: Librería de M. Porrúa, [1956]. p. 
LC call number: F1205 .F4
LC control number: 60029848
Catalog Record
Genealogies of 1,208 families of Spanish America and the Philippines. 

Fernández-Pradel, Pedro Xavier. 
Linajes vascos y montañeses en Chile. Santiago de Chile: Talleres gráficos San Rafael, 1930- . v coats of arms.
LC call number: CS311 .F4 
LC control number: 43047201
Catalog Record
Based on the thesis that most Spanish immigrants to Chile were Basques, and that their culture absorbed that of the Castilians, Extremadurans, and Andalusians in Chile, this work serves as a reference for history, language, and etymology of surnames for Basques everywhere. The historical and geographical descriptions of Guipúzcoa, Vizcaya, Alava, Navarra, Benabarre, Laburdi, Zuberoa, the mountainous regions of Burgos and Santander, and the description of Basque archaeology up to 1930 are told by describing each village in detail. There follows a sketchy 24-page outline of Basque grammar and vocabulary and a 364-page dictionary of etymologies of Basque surnames giving a history of each family and describing its coat of arms when appropriate. 

Garrain Villa, Luis J. (Luis José).
Llerena en el siglo XVI: la emigración a Indias. [Mérida, Spain]: Junta de Extremadura, 1991. xiv, 390 p. Ill., maps. 
LC call number: F1419 .S63 G37 1991
LC control number: 93142991
Catalog Record
Biographies of the 296 men and 65 women who emigrated to America from the city of Llerena in Extremadura during the 16th century. Study of the political and economic reasons for leaving, photographs of the city, and diagrams of the churches. Entries vary from three lines to several pages and give all information available on emigrants' families, professions, activities, and church of baptism. Some include letters from the emigrants, printed or reproduced in the original handwriting. Full citation of sources. Fifteen documents relating to emigration are printed in full and contain additional names of persons not from Llerena. Bibliography, personal and place name indexes. 

This was under Miscellaneous: 
Lohmann Villena, Guillermo. 
Los americanos en las órdenes nobiliarias. Preámbulo de Francisco de Solano. 2 vols. 2a. ed. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1993.
LC call number: CR5819 .L64 1993
LC control number: 95176107
Catalog Record 
Abstracts of background investigations of applicants for membership in the orders of Santiago, Calatrava, Alcántara, Montesa, Carlos III, and Malta. Begins with the 16th century, traces each family back to all four grandparents and in some cases further. For each name investigations were made in many cities of Spain and Spanish America. 
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Welcome to the Home Page of the Department of Hispanic Studies at the University of Wales, Swansea. The Times 'Good University Guide' has placed it  second in its League Table of university Spanish departments. Click here to find out more:  Sent by Joan De Soto

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LEON, GTO. 2002


El municipio de Zuera consta en la actualidad de varios núcleos urbanos:
 Zuera, la Entidad Local de Ontinar del Salz, el Barrio del Portazgo 
(también conocido como Barrio de la Estación) 
y las urbanizaciones de Las Lomas del Gállego y Las Galias.

Según algunas tesis históricas, el municipio tuvo algún tipo de asentamiento, difícil de precisar, antes de la colonización romana; se integraría dentro del territorio de los ilergetes y podría haber estado poblado por vascitanos. Era una región fronteriza con el territorio dominado por los vascones, que se extendían a lo largo de una franja de norte a sur que iba desde el Pirineo hasta el Ebro y estaba limitada a ambos lados por el territorio de Iruña (actual Pamplona) y la cuenca del Arba, y por otro por la cuenca del Gállego, amparada por bosques espesos, de los que solo quedan los que se conocen por Montes de Zuera.

Esta proximidad al territorio vascón, y la penetración que estos pudieran llevar a cabo en el territorio de los ilergetes, ha llevado a algunos autores a decir que el nombre de Zuera tiene una base etimológica vasca en el término "zubi", que en Euskera significa puente.

Las primeras noticias fiables acerca de los pobladores del término proceden de la época de la romanización. Casi todos los investigadores sitúan en las cercanías del actual casco urbano la antigua Gallicum, "mansio" (mencionada en el "Itinerarium Antoninianum") en la calzada romana que discurría desde Cesaraugusta hasta el Bearn, pasando por Osca y remontando el Puerto del Palo (Aragón Subordán). La denominación de Gallicum, para el asentamiento romano del lugar, podría venir determinada por el cauce del río Gállego, considerado paso obligado desde las Galias a la Hispania Citerior. Estas mansiones eran puntos intermedios en los que el Estado romano disponía de lugares de descanso y relevo de animales o postas.

Aun cuando el paso más cómodo del río Gállego se realiza por el término de Zuera, el lugar no es fácilmente defendible, por lo que dificulta el establecimiento de asentamientos estables. Todo parece indicar que hasta que se creó una estabilidad política en el norte de la Península Ibérica, los asentamientos en el municipio de Zuera debieron corresponder a pequeñas posadas y destacamentos militares, de escasa importancia y poco estables, que se encargaban de defender el paso del Gállego.

La estabilidad política llegó con la dominación musulmana, a partir del siglo VIII. Los pobladores del norte de África debieron quedar fascinados por el valle del Gállego, los excelentes terrenos de las terrazas cuaternarias y los espesos bosques que rodeaban al valle, en donde se asentaron aprovechando los esquemas de expansión territorial creada por los romanos. De esta época datan las primeras noticias y los auténticos orígenes de Zuera, de la antigua Zufaria, topónimo árabe que, según Asín y Palacios significa "bonita". Dentro del actual término municipal es posible que los musulmanes fundaran también el asentamiento de Salzey (llamado así por la gran cantidad de saliceras que había en el entorno) situado en las proximidades de la actual ermita del Salz.

En 1106 el rey de Aragón y Navarra, Alfonso Sánchez, conocido como Alfonso I El Batallador, se detuvo en Ejea y Tauste en sus intentos de conquistar la ciudad de Zaragoza. Plantó sus reales en el Ebro y se asentó en el Castellar, en espera de mejores ocasiones de conquista. Con la ayuda de los Gascones, Gastón de Bearn y Céntulo de Bigorre, decidió en 1118 un cambio en su estrategia militar y procedió a conquistar Zaragoza, atacando por el flanco oriental. Tal planteamiento dio resultado y tras conquistar toda la cuenca del Gállego, y con ella Zuera, procedió a la de Zaragoza. Fueron los gascones quienes introdujeron en Zuera el culto a San Licer, evangelizador del Bearn y patrón de la villa, aunque la tradición dice que este acontecimiento se produjo en 1212.

A pesar de las conquistas de los reyes cristianos, el elemento campesino musulmán, gran conocedor de los sistemas de riego y pilar fundamental de la economía de las zonas conquistadas, permaneció al frente de sus tierras.

Ramón Berenguer IV, en su carta de Colonización, señala el término de la ciudad de Zuera, a la que llama "Çofera". En torno al siglo XII se introduce el culto a la Virgen del Salz, que según las crónicas se apareció a un caballero de una de alguna de las órdenes militares de la época.

La villa perteneció, entre otros, a D. Artal de Luna, que castigó cruelmente a los vecinos porque los zufarienses habían llegado hasta Erla y cometido atrocidades con los que allí vivían. Los vecinos de Zuera le acusaron al Justicia de Aragón y este le impuso una sanción.

Tras el episodio de Artal de Luna, la Villa y sus aldeas (Leciñena y San Mateo) volvieron a la Corona. Así en 1338 el Zalmedina (cargo público de la época) y jurados de Zuera, reunidos en el cementerio (que rodeaba a la iglesia), nombraban a sus procuradores generales para todos los pleitos que el Concejo hubiera de sostener con terceros, recayendo el nombramiento en Guillén de Salz, García de Araniellya, Domingo de Araniellya y Juan de Tolosa.

En 1366, el rey Pedro IV, obligado por los gastos de la guerra contra Pedro I de Castilla (gastos que le hicieron vender también otras villas y lugares como el Castellar, Fuentes, Luna .), vendió la villa de Zuera y sus aldeas al Concejo de Zaragoza, con todas sus posesiones, tributos y derechos, en 170.000 sueldos jaqueses. Alfonso V, por la misma causa, vendió a Zaragoza, en 1432, el "Ius luendi" o derecho de redención y carta de gracia de Zuera, por 8.000 florines. Con todo ello, Zaragoza quedó dueña absoluta de la Villa y baronía, recibiendo el vasallaje de la Villa de Zuera y sus aldeas, que en aquellos días percibía uno de los cinco peajes que pagaban las mercancías que se transportaban por la ruta de Zaragoza a Francia.

Muy a su disgusto, la Villa de Zuera y sus aldeas pertenecieron a Zaragoza hasta 1617 e incluso con posterioridad mantienen algún tipo de relación.

Durante los siglos XV, XVI y XVII, la población del municipio estaba totalmente asentada. En el censo de población de 1459, Zuera cuenta con 152 fuegos. Durante el siglo XVI la población de Zuera continua creciendo. En el censo demográfico de 1610 cuenta con 250 fuegos.

Jordán de Asso señala que a finales del siglo XVIII, Zuera contaba a las márgenes del Gállego con una "dilatada vega de 3.000 cahizadas regables, y otras 1.000 en el monte. Este es mui dilatado, y vestido de romerales, de que se alimentan muchos abejares, que producen la miel más estimada de Aragón. La cosecha de cera se regula en 125 arrobas, a que corresponden en año bueno 500 de miel". Estas actividades económicas agrícolas y las comerciales, motivadas por el tránsito constante de mercancías en la dirección Norte-Sur y procedentes de Cinco Villas, permitían un asentamiento fácil en la zona.

Jordán de Asso cuantifica la producción agraria zufariense, poco antes de 1800, de esta manera: 3.250 cahíces de trigo, 2.000 de cebada, 500 de maíz, 200 de alubia y 95 alqueces de vino (un cahíz estaba en torno a los 180 litros. El alquez, sobre los 190).

Pascual Madoz, entre 1846 y 1850, recoge de Zuera que "tiene 280 casas distribuidas en 5 calles anchas y rectas; casa de ayuntamiento, en la que también está la cárcel; escuela de primeras letras, dotada con 2.800 reales, a la que concurren 40 discípulos". "Dentro de la Villa y en calle llamada de Navas hubo un hospicio de religiosos franciscanos." "En su término hay un edificio que fue convento, llamado de los Santos, donde antes de la exclaustración de los religiosos en 1835 existía una comunidad de la orden de Agustinos Descalzos". "En la partida denominada Bacarizal hay una ermita o santuario llamado del Salz, de la propiedad de la misma Villa y sostenido por sus vecinos". " En su extenso radio comprende varias torres o granjas, denominadas de Morterón, de Vallés, de la Camarera y de Rabal y un magnífico y antiquísimo edificio llamado la Cruz Cubierta, por hallarse sobre un pilón o columna de arena sólida de 16 palmos de alto, cubierta con una bóveda que forman 6 columnas y otros tantos arcos con buenas labores". "Población: 284 vecinos, 1.350 almas".

La ubicación geográfica de Zuera, su proximidad a la ciudad de Zaragoza y lo dilatado del término municipal han condicionado el desarrollo histórico de la Villa desde sus inicios hasta hoy. Los asentamientos urbanos del municipio de Zuera están ubicados justo en la ribera del Gállego, siguiendo un eje longitudinal por el que circulan (continuando los esquemas de transporte y comunicación establecidos por los romanos) la nacional 123, el ferrocarril Madrid - Barcelona y Zaragoza - Francia, y las líneas eléctricas de alta tensión.

El tránsito ha sido la constante histórica del municipio. En 1900 contaba con 2.597 habitantes. En la actualidad la población asciende a 5.560 personas.

Linaje Aragonés


Municipio: Cubre una superficie de 419 Km2
Está a una distancia de 25 Km de Zaragoza Situado a una altitud de 279 m
En 1996 tenía una población de derecho de 5374 habitantes

Ayuntamiento: Plaza de España, 3.
Teléfono: 976680002
Fax: 976680818

Fiestas:  a la ermita de la Virgen del Salz (patronales, Lunes de Pascua); San Licer, del 26 al 30 de agosto (patronales); y el Santo Cristo de la Buena Muerte, domingo siguiente al 14 de septiembre.


Situación: al NE. de Zaragoza por ctra N-123, en la ribera del río Gállego.

Pertenece a la comarca de

Linaje Aragonés



Linaje Aragonés, que se extendió en otras regiones de España, como Santander y Guipúzcoa, y en América se encuentran principalmente en La Habana, los Estados Unidos y en México en Álamos, Sonora, Culiacán, y el Pochote, Sinaloa, escrito con S o sea Ezquerra, la rama en estudio radica en la Perla del Bajío desde finales del siglo XIX, procedente de Zuera, España.

I.-Don Martín de Ezquerra, nace por 1719 en Zuera, provincia de Zaragoza, región de Aragón, España y se casa con Doña Josefa Ferríz, y fueron sus hijos entre otros:

II.-Don Agustín Joseph Ezquerra Ferríz, nace en 1739 en Zuera, y se casa en 1770 con Doña Joaquina Alyeto y fueron sus hijos:

1.-Don Lorenzo Manuel Ezquerra Alyeto, casado con Manuela Seral, y fue su hijo a su vez:

A.-Don Agustín Ezquerra Seral, nace en 1829 y se casa en primeras nupcias con Doña Tomasa Ferríz en 1854, y fue su hijo: Don Agustín Ezquerra Ferríz, luego Don Agustín Ezquerra Seral, se casa en segundas nupcias con Doña Catalina Ligorred en 1871 y fue su hermano:

B.-Don Agustín Ramón Ezquerra Seral, nacido en 1789 y se casa con Doña Antonia Zamora en 1816 y fue su hijo : Don Agustín Pascual Ezquerra Zamora,( esta rama se extendió y se quedó en España.).

Fue hermano de Don Agustín Ezquerra Ferríz, esposo de Doña Joaquina Alyeto:

II.-Don Francisco Antonio Ezquerra Ferríz, nace por 1732 y se casa con Doña María Lorenza Sosén, y fueron sus hijos:

1.-Don Agustín Dionisio Ezquerra Sosén , nacido en 1768 (de esta rama no se si hubo suceción) y

2.-Don Antonio Francisco Ezquerra Sosén, nace por 1763 en Zuera, Zaragoza, España , se casó el 25 de octubre de 1788 en Zuera , Zaragoza con Doña Manuela de Soler, fue su hermana Doña Francisca casada con Don Miguel de Atienza y fue su hija Antonia Juana Atienza Ezquerra, bautizada el 13 de junio de 1780, en Zuera y casada el 14 de diciembre de 1801 con José Agustín Ruiz de Torres, volviendo a Don Antonio Francisco y Doña Manuela Soler , fue su hijo:

II.-Don Antonio Ezquerra Soler, nace por 1790 en Zuera, Zaragoza y se casó por 1814 con Doña Eustacia Fuertes y fue su hijo:

III.-Don Antonio Ezquerra Fuertes , nace por 1818 en Zuera, Zaragoza y se casó por 1844 con Doña Mariana Ortiz y fueron sus hijos entre otros:

IV.-Don Aniceto Ezquerra Ortiz, nace por 1850 en Zuera, Zaragoza, y se casó por 1876 con Doña Rogelia Palacio Gil llega a México por 1888 y fue su hermano Don Antonio cuya suceción radica en España, fueron sus hijos de don Aniceto y Doña Rogelia radicados en Leon, Gto. México:

V.-Doña Concepcion Ezquerra Palacio, casada con Don Carlos Sánchez

Con sucesión.

V.-Doña Leopoldina, Doña María y Doña Leocadia Ezquerra Palacio, solteras y

V.-Don José Ezquerra Palacio, nació en León Gto. el 27 de agosto de 1891, murió el 30 de noviembre de 1971 y se casó el 17 de octubre de 1929, con Doña Consuelo Aguilar Ramos, nacida en Guadalajara, Jalisco el 17 de octubre de 1908 y murió en León el 28 de febrero de 1992, hija legítima de Don Eustacio Aguilar Gómez y de Doña María Ramos Oliva y fueron sus hijos todos nacidos en León, Gto.:

VI.-Don José Rogelio Ezquerra Aguilar, casado con Doña libertad Lloret Pascual, y fueron sus hijos:

Libertad, Moserrat, José Rogelio, y Laura del Consuelo Ezquerra Lloret

Don Antonio Ezquerra Aguilar, soltero

Doña Consuelo Ezquerra Aguilar, casada con el Dr. Alfredo Silva Tovar, y fueron sus hijos:

Alfredo y Jorge Silva Ezquerra

Don Manuel Ezquerra Aguilar, soltero, murió el 1 de abril de 1990

Doña Aracelly Ezquerra Aguilar, casada el 4 de Julio de 1975 con Don Raúl Padilla Orozco, sin descendencia, hijo legítimo de Don Trinidad Padilla González y de Doña María del Refugio Orozco Barba

Don Alejandro E. Ezquerra Aguilar, casado con Doña Maria Dolores Vázquez-Mellado y Herrera y fueron sus hijos:

Alejandro, Anarda, Carlos Alberto, Paulo Yako y Rodrigo Ezquerra Vázquez-Mellado

Doña María del Carmen Alicia Ezquerra Aguilar, casada con Don Héctor Díaz Olavarrieta y fueron sus hijos:

María del Carmen Alicia, Alejandra, Claudia, Paulina, Héctor y Berenice Díaz Ezquerra

Don José Luis Ezquerra Aguilar, casado con Doña Ana Maria Aguilar Moreno, y fue su unigénito:

José Luis Ezquerra Aguilar


La Obra de Roberto José Pérez Guadarrama 
del apellido 

This is the first in a series of family research being shared by South American researcher Roberto José Pérez Guadarrama.  The focus of this first article is data on the Guadarrama surname. 

The information below includes:
1) Family groups of Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela
Actas de Defunciones
3) Otras Familias Guadarrama en Venezuela y México
4) Información del Libro: Tierras de Falcón, Paraguaná de Carlos González Batista
5) Información del Libro: Los Taques, Geografía Humana de: Ramiro Jesús Díaz.
6) A continuación transcribo el acta de Matrimonio de: Custodio Guadarrama y Vicenta del Carmen Valdez Goitia, con comentarios sobre su contenido hecho por expertos Genealogistas.

Roberto has footnoted all of these records, identifying in detail the source.  That information is not included in Somos Primos,  but Roberto has indicated that he is eager to make contact and assist other researchers. Please contact him directly:

Some of surnames with whom the Guadarrama surname is connected are:

Agueda, Aldama, Álvarez, Arias, Asdrúbal, Ávila, Batista, Bello, Blanchard, Bolaños, Borges de la Raga, Castillo, Caldera, Chabelo, Chiche Chirinos, Días,  Díaz, Dbret,  Eljuri de Churuguara, Elíceles, Enrich, Escobar , Falcón,, Garcia, Gomez, González, Gotopo,  Goyo, Guardia, Guitarristas, Hernández,  Irausquín, Jiménez, Laclé, Layla, Latre,  La Vela, León de Hernández, Laroche de García, Lina y Margot, Lores, López, Ocando, Olazábal, Ortuñez y Esteban,  Marín y Villa de Jadacaquiva, Martínez, Millano,
Montero, Pancha Salima Smith, Pedroza, Pérez, Pereira, Primera, Quevedo, Rodríguez, Rojas, Rosa, Ruiz, Salima y Delfina Smith de Salima, Sánchez, Saturna de Primera,  Sierralta, Tadea, Valdez, Valles, Villanueva de Guaibacoa-La Vela de Coro, Wesfer,Yuba,  Zavala,  

Estimados Familiares/Amigos:
En esta primera Entrega o Capitulo de los Orígenes de algunos Apellidos de Familias Paraguaneras.
La Idea es poco a poco ir buscando los Registros-Orígenes de los Apellidos que enriquecen Mi Árbol Genealógico, como son los Apellidos: Guadarrama, García, Valdez, Millano, Ocando, Lugo, Blanchard,... Y de esta forma documentar mejor la Historia de los Apellidos de Mis Ancestros y procurando ser de utilidad a los Escritores, Historiadores, Cronistas del Estado Falcón, a los Genealogistas de Venezuela en sus Investigaciones y por supuesto a los Familiares. 
En este Capitulo se presenta el Apellido Guadarrama. Mas que todo este trabajo presenta los registros de Bautismos, Matrimonios y Defunciones en los Libros Eclesiásticos entre los años 1836 y 1917. La información de los Guadarrama que corresponde al Siglo XX, por ser mas cercana, será mas fácil de actualizar con la colaboración de los interesados. En los Libros Eclesiásticos se llevaban los registros de los Sacramentos de varias Parroquias o Pueblos cercanos.

En este caso los Libros Eclesiásticos corresponden a los Pueblos de Jadacaquiva, Los Taques y Pueblo Nuevo, en el Estado Falcón, Venezuela. En Venezuela las Personas con el Apellido Guadarrama de primer Apellido, se encuentran en los Estados: Falcón ( Cardon, Punto Fijo, Judibana,... ), Distrito Federal , Zulia ( Maracaibo, Coquivacoa ), Miranda ( Sta. Teresa del Tuy, Guatire, Higuerote, Guarenas, Tacarigua, San Antonio de los Altos ), Lara ( Moran, Ayacucho ), Carabobo ( Valencia ), Bolívar ( Puerto Ordaz ) y Aragua ( Maracay, La Victoria )  
Esta información de este Capitulo o Entrega se mejorara con los registros Eclesiásticos anteriores al año 1836 hasta la fecha en que haya llegado el primer o los primeros Guadarrama a Venezuela.
Muy interesante es la información encontrada en la Bibliografía consultada, donde se expresa que 2 Hermanos de Apellidos: Pérez Guadarrama y Rodríguez Guadarrama se establecieron en 1752 en Paraguana, donde adquirieron algunas Propiedades. 

Bueno espero que sea de su interés y utilidad la información de este primera Entrega.
Roberto José Pérez Guadarrama

El Matrimonio de Francisco Goitia ( Nació: Aproximadamente en 1820 en Jadacaquiva, se Caso aproximadamente en 1844 en Jadacaquiva y Falleció en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela ) (1) y Saturnina Guadarrama ( Nació: Aproximadamente 1823 en Jadacaquiva, se Caso aproximadamente en 1844 en Jadacaquiva y Falleció en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(2) tienen a los siguientes Goitia Guadarrama: ( El Apellido: Goribargoitia se transformo en el Apellido: Goitia )(3) 

  1. José Saturnino del Rosario ( Nació: el 02 de Octubre de 1836 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela ).(4)
  2. Maria de la Paz ( Nació: el 24 de Enero de 1839 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(5)
  3. Magdalena del Carmen ( Nació: el 22 de Julio de 1840 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela ) (6)
  4. José Ramón de la Merce ( Nació: el 26 de Febrero de 1843 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(7)
  5. Benigna Antonia Sebastiana ( Nació: el 20 de Enero de 1845 en Jadacaquiva y Falleció en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(8) 
  6. Cecilio Antonio ( Nació: el 20 de Noviembre de 1846 en Jadacaquiva y Falleció en: Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(9)
  7. Felix Maria Antonio ( Nació: el 20 de Noviembre de 1848 en Jadacaquiva y Falleció en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(10)
  8. Maria Eulogia Antonia ( Nació: el 12 de Marzo de 1853 en Jadacaquiva y Falleció en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(11)
  9. Maria Petronila ( Nació: el 16 de Febrero de 1856 en Jadacaquiva y Falleció en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(12) 
  10. Eusebia Antonia ( Nació: el 14 de Agosto de 1857 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(13)

El Matrimonio de  Benigna Antonia Goitia Guadarrama ( Nació el 20 de Enero de 1845 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela y Fallecida en Jadacaquiva, Falcón , Venezuela )(14) casada con Benjamín Hill ( Nació aproximadamente en 1843 en Guacuira, Falcón, Venezuela y se Casaron aproximadamente en 1863 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela y Falleció en Guacuira, Falcón, Venezuela )(15). 

El Matrimonio de José Quintín de Lugo y Josefa Maria Guadarrama tuvieron a los siguientes: de Lugo Guadarrama

  1. Quintín ( Nació: el 31 de Octubre de 1836 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela(16) y fue sepultado el 14 de Enero de 1871 en el Cementerio General de Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela. Adulto, Soltero. )(17) 
  2. Manuel Maria del Carmen ( Nació: el 16 de Julio de 1839 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela ) (18) y se Caso con Teotiste Irausquin Enrich ( Hija de: Jesús Maria Irausquin y Clara Josefa Enrich) el 07 de Enero de 1871 en Jadacaquiva. (19) 
  3. Buenaventura ( Nació: el 04 de Septiembre de 1841 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(176) 
  4. Bacilio Antonio ( Nació: el 14 de Abril de 1843 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(20) y se Caso con Rosa Josefa Irausquin Enrich ( Hija de: Jesús Maria Irausquin y Clara Josefa Enrich ) el 07 de Enero de 1871 en Jadacaquiva . (21)
  5. Faustina Ramona ( Nació: el 28 de Febrero de 1845 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(22)
  6. Jesús Maria Agapito ( Nació: el 18 de Agosto de 1846 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(23) y se Caso con Natalia Irausquin Henrriches ( Hija de: Jesús Maria Irausquin y Clara Henrriches) el 28 de Enero de 1881 en Jadacaquiva .(24)
  7. Maria Guadalupe de La Concepción ( Nació: el 12 de Diciembre de 1849 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(25)

Josefa Maria Guadarrama quedo Viuda (26) y tuvo un Hijo natural de Nombre: Custodio Guadarrama ( Nació: el 02 de Enero de 1854 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(27)

El Matrimonio de Custodio Guadarrama y Vicenta del Carmen Valdez ( Hija de: Justo Valdez y Felipa Goitia ) el 14 de Junio de 1874 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela.(28) Tuvieron a los: Guadarrama Valdez

  1. Maria Encarnación del Carmen ( Nació: el 25 de Marzo de 1880 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(29)
  2. Domingo Esteban ( Nació: el 03 de Agosto de 1882 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(30)
  3. Valentín del Carmen ( Nació: el 17 de Diciembre de 1884 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(31)
  4. Ángel Isaías del Carmen ( Nació: el 06 de Julio de 1887 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(32)
  5. Calistro de Jesús ( Nació: el 14 de Octubre de 1890 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(33)
  6. Ramón ( Nació: el 31 de Agosto de 1892 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(34)
  7. Juana del Carmen ( Nació: el 24 de Noviembre de 1894 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(35) 
  8. Fidelia Guadalupe ( Nació: el 24 de Abril de 1897 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(36)
  9. Petra Lourdes del Carmen ( Nació: el 23 de Octubre de 1899 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(37) 

Saturnina Guadarrama era contemporánea y Comadre de: Josefa Maria Guadarrama(206), Andrés Guadarrama(207), Tomas Guadarrama(208), Maria Lorenza Guadarrama(209), Ramón Guadarrama(210) y Manuela Guadarrama(211).  

Josefa Guadarrama era contemporánea y Comadre de: Maria Rita Guadarrama.(221)

El Matrimonio de: Magdaleno Guadarrama y Josefa García (38), tuvieron a los siguientes: Guadarrama García.

  1. Camilo ( Nació: el 15 de Mayo de 1846 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(39)
  2. Magdaleno ( Se Caso con Maria del Rosario ( Hija de: Lucas Dbret y Josefa Maria García, Difuntos Ambos ) el 13 de Abril de 1872 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela. Para el momento de la Boda, Magdaleno Guadarrama ( Padre ) estaba Difunto. )(40) 

Con respecto al Matrimonio de Magdaleno Guadarrama García con Maria del Rosario Dbret García el 13 de Abril de 1872, se escribió en el acta de Matrimonio: "Se digno dispersarles el impedimento de cuarto grado igual de consaguinidad en línea oblicua con que estaban ligados"(220)

Josefa García es registrada el 08 de Diciembre de 1855, en un Bautismo como: Viuda de Guadarrama.(212)    

El Matrimonio de Magdaleno Guadarrama García y Maria del Rosario Dbret García (41). Tuvieron a Guadarrama Dbret:

  1. Maria Josefa del Rosario ( Nació: el 13 de Mayo de 1873 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(42)

El Matrimonio de Pablos Guadarrama y Quintina Lugo (43), tuvieron a los: Guadarrama Lugo

  1. Andrés Fabián ( Nació: el 20 de Enero de 1857 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela ) (44) y se Caso con Florentina García ( Hija de: Rosa García , el 28 de Febrero de 1881 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(45) 
  2. Ramona del Carmen ( Nació: el 29 de Octubre de 1859 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(46)
  3. Juan Bautista del Carmen ( Nació: el 24 de Junio de 1863 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(47)
  4. Nicolás de Jesús ( Nació: el 20 de Noviembre de 1866 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(48)
  5. Merced Gerónima ( Nació: el 30 de Septiembre de 1973 en Jadacaquiva, Flacón, Venezuela ) (49)
  6. Edelmira Pastora ( Nació: el 04 de Mayo de 1877 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(50) 

Pablos Guadarrama era contemporáneo y Compadre de: Ramón Guadarrama(213) y Maria Lorenza Guadarrama(214).     

El Matrimonio de Juan Guadarrama y Bartola Ávila (51), tuvieron a los: Guadarrama Avila

  1. Gabriela del Carmen ( Nació: el 28 de Abril de 1870 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(52)
  2. Hipólito de Jesús ( Nació: el 22 de Agosto de 1874 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(53) 
  3. Leoncio Ramón ( Nació: el 12 de Septiembre de ---- en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(54)
  4. Francisco de Jesús ( Nació: el 18 de Enero de 1880 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(55)
  5. Maria Estanilada ( Nació: el 14 de Noviembre de 1881 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(56)
  6. Bartolomé ( Nació: el 24 de Agosto de 1883 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(57)
  7. Juana Francisca ( Nació: el 28 de Agosto de 1885 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(177)

El Matrimonio de Juan Guadarrama y Josefina Lores (58), tuvieron a los: Guadarrama Lores

  1. Edelmira del Carmen ( Nació: el 06 de Mayo de 1893 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(59)
  2. Medardo de Jesús ( Nació: el 15 de Octubre de 1897 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(60)

El Matrimonio de Nicolás Guadarrama y Agueda del Carmen Lores (61), tuvieron a los: Guadarrama Lores      

  1. Delia Antonia ( Nació: el 29 de Diciembre de 1893 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(62)
  2. Pablo Teodocio ( Nació: el 11 de Enero de 1896 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(63)
  3. Maria Elena ( Nació: el 2 de Noviembre de 1897 en el Municipio Miranda, Falcón, Venezuela )(64)
  4. Luisa Mercedes ( Nació: el 24 de Septiembre de 1908 en Los Taques, Falcón, Venezuela )(65) 

Juan Guadarrama era contemporáneo y Compadre Triple de: Nicolás Guadarrama.(215)(216)(217)

El Matrimonio de Andrés Guadarrama y Flora García(66), tuvieron los: Guadarrama García

  1. Arcelia ( Nació: el 09 de Noviembre de 1882 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela )(67)

El Matrimonio de Julián Latre y Mercedes Guadarrama(68), tuvieron a los: Latre Guadarrama

  1. Petronila Emerita ( Nació: el 03 de Marzo de 1895, en Los Taques, Falcón, Venezuela )(69)

El Matrimonio de Julián Wesfer y Mercedes Guadarrama(70), tuvieron a los: Wesfer Guadarrama

  1. Andrés Fabián ( Nació: el 01 de Octubre de 1897 en Los Taques, Falcón, Venezuela )(71)

Mercedes Guadarrama era contemporánea y Comadre de: Andrés Guadarrama.(218)

Nicolaza Guadarrama ( Manumisa, Nació: el 06 de Diciembre de 1844 en Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela ), Hija de: Maria de Jesús Guadarrama ( Esclava de Magdaleno Guadarrama ).(73) 

Actas de Defunciones:

Maria Inocencia Goitia Guadarrama ( Adulta, Soltera, Hija Legitima de: Ramón Goitia y Maria Potenciana Guadarrama ), fue sepultada el 27 de Junio de 1869 en el Cementerio General de Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela.(72)

Quintín Lugo Guadarrama ( Adulto, Soltero, Hijo Legitimo de: Quintín Lugo y Josefa Guadarrama ), fue sepultado el 14 de Enero de 1871 en el Cementerio General de Jadacaquiva, Falcón, Venezuela.(188)      

Otras Familias Guadarrama en Venezuela y México. 

El Matrimonio de José Maria Guadarrama ( Nació: en Ejido, Edo. Mérida, Venezuela ) y se Caso con Maria Francisca Hernández el 26 de Noviembre de 1866 en ST, TDA, G, México. Hijo natural de: Juan Pablo  y Maria Francisca Guadarrama. Maria Francisca Hernández, nació en Tasco .(74)  

El Matrimonio de José Maria Guadarrama ( Nació: en Ejido, Edo. Mérida, Venezuela ) y Simona Días ( Nació: en Egido, México )  se casaron el 26 de Marzo de 1879 en SP, TDA, G, México.(75)

El Matrimonio de Fructuoso Pedroza ( Fallecido: en el Estado de México, México ) y Maria Guadarrama ( Fallecida: en el Estado de México, México ). Tuvieron a: Petra Pedroza Guadarrama ( Nació: el 29 de Junio de 1911 y Falleció: el 01 de Enero del 2000 )(178)
El Matrimonio de Najera y Guadarrama. Tuvieron a: Najera Guadarrama.(179)

El Matrimonio de Isidoro García ( Nació: el 04 de Abril de 1886 en México y Falleció: el 22 de Septiembre de 1976 en Los Ángeles, California, USA.)(180) con Juana Guadarrama. (181)

El Matrimonio de Irene ( Chata ) Guadarrama y Martín Hernández.(182)

El Matrimonio de Enriqueta Guadarrama ( Nació: en 1893 en Churuguara, Edo. Falcón, Venezuela ) y se Caso en 1914 en Churuguara, Edo. Falcón, Venezuela. Casada con Seferino Castillo ( Nació: en 1889 en Churuguara, Edo. Falcón . Tuvieron un Hijo llamado: Enrique Guadarrama ( Nacido en 1915 en Churuguara, Edo. Falcón, Venezuela y Falleció: en Enero de 1974 )(76)

El Matrimonio de Sr. Guadarrama con una Sra. Bolaños. Tuvieron a 2 Hijos: Celestino y Bruno Guadarrama Bolaños. Celestino Guadarrama Bolaños ( Nació: en Villa Guerrero, Estado de México, México ) se caso con Juana Pérez Rodríguez.

Celestino Guadarrama Bolaños y Juana Pérez Rodríguez tuvieron a: Ignacio, Mario, Aurelio, Rita, Tomasa, Irene y Alberto Guadarrama Pérez .

Ignacio Guadarrama Pérez tuvo un Hijo con Maria de La Luz Zepeda Vale, de Nombre: Víctor Guadarrama Zepeda. 

Información del Libro: 
Tierras de Falcón, Paraguaná de Carlos González Batista

"La acción del Pbro. D. Pedro Silvestre de Quevedo, se redujo a partir de la ultima fecha citada a 60 pesos, pero en 1752 adquiere la posesión de la sabana y tanque que había sido de Da. Sebastiana Laguna, puesta en publica almoneda por el juez eclesiásticos de Coro con el objeto de satisfacer un censo de 500 pesos. Sabemos por un documento bastante posterior (1760), que este derecho era de 33 pesos, 2 ½ reales. En enero de 1753 el referido sacerdote extendió escritura extrajudicial a favor de su sobrino político D. Marcos Pérez Guadarrama, en la venta de una acción ( de 25 pesos, seguramente ) "que hube y compre de (Da.) Rosa Maria de Quevedo, mi hermana",y del tanque y la acción ya mencionada "de Treinta y tantos pesos" que había sido de Da. Sebastiana Laguna. Nos resulta desconocido el origen de la acción comprada a Da. Rosa de Quevedo, aunque pudiera aventurase que se trataba de aquella perteneciente a Juana Alvirana Laguna, a la cual nos hemos referido anteriormente. En la testamentaria de D. Marcos Pérez Guadarrama se comprueba la venta de ambas acciones (1760). D. Marcos había casado con una sobrina del vendedor, Da. Francisca Tadea Valdez y su hato se denominaba El Calvario; tambien posela un tanque, "algo siego [ ... ] que a mi costa tengo escarbado y cercado", originalmente de Da. Sebastiana Laguna; ( Testamentarias, Guadarrama, 1760, f.4. Hermano de Guadarrama fue según parece, D. Juan Miguel Rodríguez Guadarrama, natural como el anterior de las Islas Canarias, y tronco de los Guadarrama paraquaneros; era, este ultimo, dueño del hato del Román, originalmente de D. Andrés Goribargoitia, su suegro, puesto que desposo a su hija Da. Rosalía Goribargoitia Borges de la Raga. Fue teniente de gobernador de la península en 1797 ). Al fallecer sin descendencia, los bienes pasaron a su viuda y heredera. De los 35 pesos que restaban en poder de D. Pedro Silvestre, nada se sabe, aunque resulta plausible que hayan quedado en poder de la familia, quizá en alguna de sus sobrinas a quienes había favorecido largamente en vida".(183)

"Da. Beatriz de Quevedo, mujer de, D. José Valdez procreo entre otros hijos a Da. Beatriz Díaz Valdez, casada con D. Diego García de Quevedo( Español de Extremadura ) y a Da. Francisca Tadea, mujer de Guadarrama. Su acción de 25 pesos, cuyo origen ya hemos establecido, debió de haber pasado a su hija del mismo nombre, sin olvidar lo que tal vez heredo del Pbro. Quevedo, todo lo cual justifica la presencia de la familia García de Quevedo en el lugar desde mediados del siglo XVIII. La otra hermana. Da. Francisca Tadea, viuda de Guadarrama paso a segundas nupcias con otro caballero de origen canario D. Francisco Miguel de Cubas, y a este consorcio llevo sus 58 pesos. Las Cubas o Cuba no tuvieron descendencia, pero su apellido, transferido a sus esclavos se extendió por la península."(184)
"En el aparte sobre los Laguna nos hemos referido a la descendencia de Da. Paula de Rojas, pero de sus hijos estimamos que fue Da. Sebastiana Laguna Rojas, la que heredo los 33 pesos de acción materna. Caso esta señora con D. Juan Bautista de Olazábal y aunque tuvo descendencia, su acción no le fue transmitida sino que a fin de satisfacer una hipoteca de 500 pesos, fue pregonada en publica almoneda, y aunque el avaluó de la acción y de un estanque [algo siego], en el valor fue por 600 pesos pero no hubo quien los diese, rematándose por el valor de la deuda en el Lic. D. Pedro Damián Sánchez, quien a su vez la vendió tambien al tambien Lic. Pedro Silvestre de Quevedo. La acción y el tanque fueron vendidos por Quevedo a su sobrino político D. Marcos Pérez Guadarrama, y lo manifiesta como sabemos, en su testamento que es de 1760, señalando que su valor era exactamente, de 33 pesos, 2 reales y ½".(187)  

"Benedicto Ocando señalaba en 1839 que su Tío José Tomas Ocando había vendido en 1833 al Sr. Andrés Guadarrama un hatillo que había fundado Bartolomé Nava, [a distancia de un cuarto de legua, poco mas o menos del hato del Román], hato este ultimo, que como ya sabemos y declara el presentante, fue de D. Juan Miguel Rodríguez Guadarrama ( La viuda de este vendió al Pbro. Manuel E. García de Quevedo [una cuarta parte de sabana], es decir, 6 pesos, 2 reales ). La fundación vendida en 1833 había pertenecido a Lutgarda Guadarrama, esposa de José T Ocando. El Román que a fines del XVIII era de los Guadarrama se mantuvo en su poder, pero el hatillo de Ocando lo vendió Andrés Guadarrama en 1844 a Quintina de Lugo. Tambien otros Guadarrama, Magdaleno y Josefa Guadarrama habían vendido a Manuel Montero un estanque y una huerta en el sitio del Mulato ( Magdaleno Guadarrama era en 1845 dueño de Amaraya, la vieja fundación de los González de Rivera, y de [la posesión en que estaba fundado], esto es de su derecho, cuya cuantía para aquel entonces se desconoce".(185)

"Sea como fuere, la acción real, es decir, de suerte principal en esta ultima posesión correspondiente a cada heredero, era bastante reducida, e insuficiente para establecimientos de hato de alguna importancia por lo cual debemos dar por descontado la adquisición adicional de derechos por aquellos integrantes de la familia allí establecidas durante la 1ra. Mitad del siglo XIX. Una prueba de ello seria, por ejemplo, lo que el presbítero Manuel Estaban García de Quevedo manifiesta en su testamento de 1836: la compra de una cuarta parte de posesión a la viuda de D. Juan Miguel Rodríguez Guadarrama, que lega a cuatro de sus esclavos de apellido Caldera".(186)

Información del Libro: 
Los Taques, Geografía Humana de: Ramiro Jesús Díaz.

Al escribir sobre la Familia Quevedo, menciona:

" Juan Macario Quevedo Lores, se caso dos veces, primero con Carmen Delia Ruiz Guadarrama y tuvieron a Ele y Gladis Quevedo Ruiz. En segundas nupcias con Carmen Gotopo, de donde descienden Argenis, Irma, Ramiro, Haydee, Auxiliadora, Juan Antonio, Rafael, Oscar, Alida y Antonio Quevedo Gotopo . "(189)     

Al escribir sobre la Familia Lores, menciona:

" Agueda Lores Irausquin y su esposo Nicolás Guadarrama, tuvieron a Luisa Gabriela, Carmen Delia y Maria Guadarrama Lores. "(190)

Al escribir sobre las Otras Familias, menciona:

" Entre las familias que llegaron a esta tierra y se quedaron para siempre tenemos las siguientes:

- Guadarrama, López, Bello, Martínez, Olazábal, Zavala, Guardia, Sierralta, Marín y Villa de Jadacaquiva, Villanueva de Guaibacoa-La Vela de Coro, Eljuri de Churuguara, entre otras."(191)

Al escribir sobre la Familia Escobar – Guadarrama, menciona:

"-De Ifigenia Riera de Escobar e Ignacio Maria Escobar Diez, para unos Escobalito y para otros Dr. Escobar, pues ejerció empíricamente la medicina, nació Joaquín Escobar Riera, quien con Maria Guadarrama Lores de cuya unión descienden Ignacio Maria, Antonia, Vicenta, Sol, Joaquín José y Argenis Escobar Guadarrama.

Ignacio Maria Escobar Guadarrama fue el Primer Profesional Universitario de Los Taques, "Nacho", como cariñosamente se le conocía en el Pueblo, se graduó de Doctor en Farmacia en la Universidad de Los Andes (U.L.A.)."(192)

Al escribir sobre la Familia Laclé, menciona:

"-Del matrimonio de Julián Laclé, hijo de Jacobo Laclé y Andrieta Weffer, naturales de Aruba, con Mercedes Gerónima Guadarrama, hija de Pablo Guadarrama y Quintina Lugo, nacen Andrés, Petronila, Maria y Arcelia Laclé Guadarrama.

-Del vinculo de Arcelia Laclé Guadarrama, con Antonio Sánchez, nace Antonio Jesús Sánchez Laclé."(193)

Al escribir sobre la Familia Ruiz, menciona:

"-Genaro Ruiz, se caso dos veces, la primera con Carmen Delia Guadarrama Lores, de cuya unión nacen Pedro José, Genaro Segundo, Carmen Julia, Carmen Ramona, Pastora y Antonia Ruiz Guadarrama, en segundas nupcias con Carmen Rita Primera Primera, de donde descienden Ali, Hilda, Ramiro, Genaro Antonio, Rafael, Daysi, Alida y Jesús Armando Ruiz Primera."(194)

En donde escribe de las Parrandas Navideñas, señala:

"Parranderos que se destacaron fueron Pedro Arias, Gerónimo Ñoño Arias, Sebastián Tatan Enrich, Pedro Morocho Gómez, Gregorio Compa Goyo Irausquín, Virgilio Arias, Esteban Arias, Juan Arias, Pedro José Arias, José Isabel Chabelo Gómez, Julián Blanchard, Pedro José Díaz, Rafael Díaz, Conrado Díaz, Héctor Guadarrama, Tomás Ortuñez y Esteban Ortuñez, entre otros.

Durante mucho tiempo el conjunto musical estuvo integrado por: Pedro Arias y José Isabel Chabelo Gómez , (Cuatristas), Pedro José Arias, Pedro José Díaz, Rafael Díaz y Asdrúbal Yuba Álvarez, (Guitarristas), Pedro Morocho Gómez y Juan Arias (Tamboreros), Héctor Guadarrama y Conrado Díaz (Maraqueros).

En las voces sobresalía Pedro José Arias conocido como El Ruiseñor y el coro lo hacían Rafael Díaz, Héctor Guadarrama, Gregorio Compa Goyo Irausquin, Juan Arias, Virgilio Arias, Esteban Arias y Tomas Ortuñez." (195)

En la sección de Los Carnavales, señala:

" De Acuerdo a mi vivencia el primer carnaval organizado que se realizó en la comunidad, fue en el año 1953. El comité organizador estuvo integrado por Francisco Panchito Primera, Elíceles Aldama, Omar Irausquín, Hipólito Cheché Valles, Nelson Díaz, Saturna de Primera, Serafina Fina de León de Hernández, Clarucha Brett, entre otros.

Como reina fue elegida por votación popular la señorita Vicenta Escobar Guadarrama y como príncipe el señor Reinaldo González, las damas Eltha Cristian y Ligia Ruiz Guadarrama con sus caballeros Hipólito Cheché Valles y Arnold Díaz respectivamente, la coronación se efectuó en el cine Santa Cruz, propiedad de Pablo Saher y el grupo musical que amenizo la fiesta carnestolenda fue el Grupo de José María Hill. Fueron unas fiestas vistosas, donde las comparsas fueron las principales atracciones por su originalidad y por las demostraciones realizadas.

El martes de carnaval, se jugó Los Negritos se integraron a la organización, las señoritas Lilia de Salima y María Concepción Sierralta de Ruíz, mejor conocida como ChoChon, quien fue elegida reina. Los músicos que le dieron sabor y colorido a esta fiesta fueron Antonio Herman Medina ( Violinista), Luis Rafael Reyes (Cuatrista), Asdrúbal Yuba Álvarez (Guitarrista) y Antonio Gómez (tamborero), es de observar que estas personas trabajan en la prefectura. Esto fue el inicio de los carnavales, continuaron con los reinados de Ligia Irausquín Ocando, Beatriz Aldama Brett, Antonia Ruíz Guadarrama, Isbelia Valdez Falcón, Noris Suárez Falcón, Antonina Rodríguez y Mirian Sánchez Sánchez,..."(196)

En la sección de las Hijas de María, menciona:

" De mis vivencias, tengo fresca las imágenes de las "Hijas de María, grupo religioso integrado por las jóvenes de la época Clarucha Brett García, Agueda Lores Guardia, Maruja Marín, Graciela Brett García, Auristela Valles Brett, Rosa, Layla y Pancha Salima Smith, Toña, Chenta y Sol Escobar Guadarrama, Lina y Margot Primera Primera, Elba Díaz García, Teresa Primera Chirinos, Carmen Marín y Rita Chiche Gregoria Irausquín Irausquín, quienes usaban un traje blanco con una cinta azul bordeado la cintura, una medalla colgada del cuello y un fino velo de color blanco sobre sus cabezas." (197)

En la sección de Las Autoridades, menciona:

" Para una mejor ilustración se presenta un cuadro informativo de las autoridades representativas del municipio Los Taques en el transcurso de los años.

Jefe Civil Secretario Años

Juan Guadarrama J. O. Irausquin 1.895-1.896

Asiclo Guadarrama Millano Francisco R. Falcón Irausquin 1.945 ".(198)

En la sección de Telégrafos y Correos, menciona:

" Por el año 1.928 el Administrador de Correo era Marcelino Díaz Guanipa y el cartero era Juan Bautista Díaz, quien trabajó en el Correo desde 1.926 hasta 1.931, trasladaban las valijas desde Pueblo Nuevo-Jadacaquiva-Los Taques-Amuay-Carirubana, este recorrido lo hacian a pie y en bestias; después continuaron como Administradores de Correo, Carmen Elena García de Guadarrama y funcionaba en la casa de Sabas Zea, hoy propiedad de Francisco Primera Chirinos, de lo vivido, recuerdo a Antonia Escobar Guadarrama, Luisa de Díaz, Layla Salima entre otros, de los repartidores de telegramas Tomas Ortuñez, Benigno Sánchez y Custodio Ventura y de los carteros a Francisco Chiquilan González, Arol González y Jesús Alvarez." (199)

En la sección de Los Maestros, se menciona:

" En el transcurso del tiempo surgieron valores en tan digna profesión como Petra Ramona "Nona" Irausquín de Falcón, Celestina Brett de Aldama, Vicenta Escobar Guadarrama, María Concepción Chochón Sierralta de Ruíz, Margot Primera y Adolfo González; quienes con sus escuelas gratuitas y privadas ejercían dichas actividades, eran los tiempos en que se estudiaba a la luz de una vela."(200)    

En la sección El Cine, menciona:

" A los amantes del cine, que habitaban en Amuay, los trasladaba Pedro José Ruiz Guadarrama en "El Madrigal", un autobús de su propiedad. El Horario de la sección se iniciaba a las ocho de la noche, tocaban un pasodoble, que por costumbre le decían "La Marcha", al finalizar ésta, se iniciaba la película."(201)

En la sección Sectores y Casas, Sector Sur, menciona:

"En la calle Sur "A", Rosa Bello, Jesús Bello y Brígida Bello de Bello, Flor Bello, (hoy de Juanita Gómez, Damas Salesianas, José de las Nieves Ruiz, Familia Reyes-Díaz), Emilio Aldama Quevedo y Celestina Brett de Aldama, Pedro Dámaso Irausquín Arias y Blanca Morón de Irausquín, (en la actualidad Dalia Ramírez de Quero), Manuel Arias y María Josefa Ocando de Arias, Hilario Arias, (hoy casa de Acción Democrática), Francisco Salima y Delfina Smith de Salima, (hoy habitada por la familia Eljuri-Salima), Don Jesús García Fleming y Doña Laura Laroche de García, (fue sede de un partido político), Gregorio Valles y Rosa Arias de Valles, Ernesto Irausquín de León y María Arias de Irausquín, Gregorio Irausquín y Eugenia García de Irausquín, Erasmo Salima y Lilia Irigoyen de Salima, (hoy casa de Rita Primera Aldama), Joaquín Escobar y María Guadarrama de Escobar.(202)

En la sección Pioneros Petroleros, menciona:      

"El primer trabajador paraguanero que inició sus labores en la Creole Petroleum Corporation, fue Carlos Ocando Lugo, nativo del caserío La Vela. De mis vivencias tengo presente a los siguientes:

Los Taques: Alfredo Sánchez, Augusto Díaz, Antonio Sánchez, Ramón Monchú Millano, Gregorio Aldama, Julián Aldama, Ulises Aldama, Camilo Aldama, Cristóbal Aldama, Ramón Jesús Aldama, Ramón Monche Díaz, Juan Ramón Sánchez, Eduardo Gómez, Héctor Guadarrama, Roseliano Olazábal, Héctor Quevedo Hermoso, Melquíades Bello, Segundo Primera Primera, Encarnación Canacho Marín, Esteban Cossi, Eulogio Gómez Lugo, Juan de Dios Falcón, Avelino Comenencia, Manuel Villanueva, Eleuterio Ruiz, Jesús Eljuri, Dámaso Gomez, Jesús Lugo Lugo, Antonio Lugo, Pedro José Irausquín, Raúl Jiménez, Ventura Jiménez, Raúl González, Hipólito José Valles, Omar Irausquín Aldama, Juan Ramón Primera, Julio Falcón Guanipa, Gregorio Irausquín Quevedo, Clara Celinda Brett García, Teresa Primera, Antonia Escobar Guadarrama, Cristina Margarita Primera, Carmen Ramona Ruiz Guadarrama, Francisco Primera Primera, Cristóbal Díaz e Ignacia Maria Escobar Guadarrama, entre otros.

Después continuaron Pedro José Díaz Weffer, Luis Reyes, Francisco Primera Chirinos, Pedro José Ruiz Guadarrama, Temístocles Zea Aldama, Armando Pereira, René Irausquín, Darío Valles, Darío Irausquín Quevedo, Samuel Querales, Orlando Totuma Sánchez y Ligia Ruiz Sierralta."(203)

en la sección de Club Los Animales, Los Miembros y sus Apodos, menciona:

"Entre los socios se recuerdan a los siguientes: " Héctor Guadarrama, El Chévere;..."(204)

Y finalmente en la sección de la Familia Millano-Ocando, menciona:

"De la unión de Josefa Milano Ocando, con Valentín Guadarrama, nace Asisclo José Guadarrama Millano, quien se caso con Carmen Elena García, cuyos descendientes son Gladis, Alfredo, Iván y Betty Guadarrama García." (205)

A continuación transcribo el acta de Matrimonio de: Custodio Guadarrama y Vicenta del Carmen Valdez Goitia, con comentarios sobre su contenido hecho por expertos Genealogistas.

" En la Iglesia Parroquial de la Purísima Concepción del Cantón Paraguaná a catorce de Junio de mil ochocientos setenta y nueve Yo el Infraescrito (!) Cura Rector de Santa Ana y encargado de ésta, presencié el Matrimonio que por palabra de presente contrajeron enfaciae ecclesiae (2) Custodio hijo natural de Josefa Guadarrama con Vicenta del Carmen hija legitima de Justo Valdés y Felipa Goitia (3) ambos contrayentes naturales i vecinos de esta Parroquia el Reverendísimo Señor (4) Dr. Víctor José Díaz dignísimo Obispo de esta Diócesis quien se digno dispensarles del impedimento de tercer grado igual dobles y el de cuarto también igual ambos de consaguinidad en línea transversal con que estaban ligados(5). Se precedió a la exploración de sus voluntades, el examen y aprobación de la doctrina cristiana y no resultó ningún otro impedimento. De las tres proclamas que con arreglo al Santo Concilio de Trento se leyeron en Misa conventual de tres días efectivos que lo fueron el once, el diez y ocho y el veinticinco del mes próximo pasado. Se confesaron y comulgaron y seguidamente (6) recibieron las bendiciones nupciales Siendo Testigos de todo Rafael Colina y Florentina Navega de que certifico .

Miguel Antonio Vera." 

 La palabra Infraescrito es una forma de deir el susudidcho

(2)  Efaciae Ecclesiae es un termino en latín que se utiliza en estas partidas por la Iglesia para expresar que se sigue lo estipulado por ella al celebrarse un sacramento, matrimonio en este caso. Es raro que después no diga ´"según el Ritual Romano" o "según el RR".

(3) Es un apellido de orígen Vasco. Por lo general se cambiaba el original por una falla del escribano. De todas formas, al degenerarse un apellido, queda de la forma como se transformó. Cambiarlo al origína genera gastos y problemas de sucesión.

(4) El Reverendísimo Señor Dr. Víctor José Díaz Madroñero, Obispo de Venezuela para ese entonces, de muy grata memoria. En ese entonces se esra demasiado protocolar, por eso tanto tútilo al referirse al Sr. Obispo,

(5) Si efectivamente existe un parentezco consanguíneo, eran primos segundos y primos terceros, de madres primas hermanas y a la vez primas segundas.

(6) Sólo dice que una vez que se confesaron y comulgaron se le fueron dadas las bendiciones nupciales-    Ing. Emma Rosa O. de Herrera.

1- "El infrascrito": Se refiere al escrito abajo, al padre Miguel Antonio Vera
2- "In facie eclesiae" Ante la iglesia
5- Tercer grado iguales y dobles: Comparten el mismo bisabuelo y bisabuela (un padre o madre de uno era primo hermano del padre o madre del otro) y el par de padres restantes eran primos segundos, a esto se refiere el "cuarto grado igual". (Los contrayentes por este otro lado compartían tatarabuelos).
Lateral -o colateral-, porque en línea recta está expresamente prohibido el matrimonio.
En formato de sólo texto es difícil de explicar lo que se podría demostrar con un diagrama sencillo. (por eso me he demorado en contestarle el anterior)
6-"Seguidamente" No siempre las bendiciones se recibían en el mismo acto

 Saludos a todos, Salvador Romero Arreaza.   



Notorious Pirates
Shipwreck of 1865 Riches
Flu Pandemic
Political Graveyard: Historic Cemeteries
U.S. Veterans War with Mexico
American Battlefield Preservation 

Shipwreck of 1865 starts giving its riches

Orange County Register, Sunday, Nov. 30, 2003

Jacksonville, FLA.- Historical record indicate the Sidewhell steamer SS Republic was carrying 20,00 gold coins - worth $120 million to $180 million today - when a hurricane sent it to the bottom of the Atlantic in 1865.
     But there could be more. A lot more. based on early examination of the sunken wreck by the crew of the ship Odyssey Explorer, coin expert Donald Kagin thinks there could be nearly 30,000 gold  pieces down there 1,700 feet beneath the surface.
     Either way, it will almost certainly be one of the richest shipwrecks ever salvaged. and because it is far out in international water, salvage company Odyssey Marine Exploration doesn't have to share governments. The company also gained legal possession of the site in federal court under a principle known as "admiralty arrest" to bar any one else from laying claim to the treasure.
     The discovery in July of the Republic wreck, about 100 miles southeast of Savannah, took more than a decade of searching by Morris and his partner, Greg Stemm.
     The Republic, a 210-foor steamer that was once part of the Union fleet, was carrying 59 passengers, money and supplies from New York to New Orleans for post Civil War reconstruction when it went down.
     All the passengers escaped aboard lifeboats, accordi8ng to newspaper accounts at the time, but the ship was lost until the Odyssey explores detected it last summer.

Flu Epidemics

A flu epidemic happens when a virus spreads rapidly through a population. This happens nearly every year. A pandemic occurs when a virus spreads across the world. The following was CNN online.  The worse flu was the 1918  pandemic. 20 million people died.  It is referred to as the Spanish flu, however, it does not specifically claim that the flu started in Spain.  The Asian and Hong Kong  pandemics and Russian flu scare were identified as to their point of origination. Editor: Does anyone have any information on why the 1918 pandemic was called the Spanish flu? 

1918: Spanish flu pandemic
More than 500,000 people die in the United States and more than 20 million worldwide in a pandemic known as the Spanish flu. An estimated 20 percent to 40 percent of the world's population falls ill during the worst-ever outbreak, which is thought to have spread through troop movement in World War I. The Spanish flu works quickly, sometimes infecting and killing a person in the same day. Unlike other flu viruses, the Spanish flu kills healthy adults. 

1957: Asian flu pandemic
The Asian flu pandemic claims nearly 70,000 lives in the United States after spreading from China. Experts identify the virus quicky and create a vaccine available in limited quanitities. Spread largely through schoolchildren who bring the virus home to their families, the Asian flu virus causes the most deaths among the elderly population. 

1968: Hong Kong flu pandemic
The Hong Kong flu pandemic kills approximately 34,000 in the United States, with the elderly population the hardest hit. The virus was first detected in Hong Kong in early 1968. 

1977: Russian flu scare
A flu virus spreads around the world, infecting mostly children and young adults under 23. The virus is similar to the Avian flu that circulated in 1957, which experts say might explain why only young people -- who had not developed immunity to the 1957 virus -- were infected with the new virus. Because it only affected children, the Russian flu is not considered a true pandemic. 

The Political Graveyard: A Database of Historic Cemeteries
  Sent by Win Holtzman

The Internet's Most Comprehensive Source of U.S. Political Biography, or The Web Site that Tells Where the Dead Politicians are Buried.120,948 Politicians, Judges, Diplomats
Links to: 
Alphabetical index 
Offices held or sought 
Date or year born or died 
State and county of birth or death 
Democratic and Republican national conventions. 
Leading political families 
Many other categories! 

U.S. Veterans of the War with Mexico, a guide to genealogical and historical research


According to U.S. Government documents published in 1848, a little more than 100,000 men served in the armed forces of the United States during the War with Mexico. Of these, approximately 75,000 served in volunteer organizations raised by the following states: Alabama; Arkansas; California; Florida; Georgia; Illinois; Indiana: Iowa (Mormon Battalion); Kentucky; Louisiana; Maryland and the District of Columbia; Massachusetts; Michigan; Mississippi; Missouri; New Jersey; New York; North Carolina; Pennsylvania: Ohio; South Carolina; Tennessee; Texas; and Virginia. The remainder served in the regular U.S. Army, the U.S. Navy, or the Marines. The number of men employed by the Quartermaster's Dept. as teamsters or steamboat hands or the number of women who served as cooks or laundresses is presently unknown. Most volunteers and regulars served in the infantry. Only in Texas were all the regiments mounted.

The average Mexican War soldier was a young man in his late teens or early twenties. In all likelihood he grew up on a farm and was unable to read or write. Probably, he was native-born. If he was an immigrant, he was most likely to be Irish or German. He joined the army for adventure and glory. What he got, in most cases, was boredom, tedium, and misery.

Of the approximately 13,000 U.S. soldiers and sailors who died in the Mexican War, only about 
2,000 were killed by the enemy or died of battle wounds. The majority of deaths were caused by disease or illness, often the result of poor sanitary conditions in camp. Yellow fever, malaria, measles, and dysentery were the most common ailments. Nearly 10,000 men were given disability discharges before their terms of enlistment expired. Some died before reaching home. About another 10,000 deserted (but only a handful went over to the Mexican side).

Of all the soldiers who died and were buried in Mexico, only 750 were interred in the U.S. National Cemetery in Mexico City. These were primarily casualties of the battles in and around Mexico City in September 1847, as well as soldiers who died during the occupation of the capital. Most U.S. soldiers who died during the Mexican War lie buried in graves that are unmarked and forgotten.

Mexican War veterans with a service-connected disability were eligible for a federal pension of half-pay. For a private, this amounted to $3.50 per month. The widow or orphan of a Mexican War soldier was also eligible for this same amount.

Immediately upon discharge, Mexican War veterans were eligible for a federal bounty land warrant, redeemable for 160 acres of land anywhere in the United States. These warrants were also redeemable for $100 in scrip. Not a few veterans were swindled out of their warrants by unscrupulous land speculators who took unfair advantage of returning veterans ignorant of the warrant's true worth. Many parted with their warrant for $50 or less.

The National Archives in Washington, D.C. keeps records of individual service on file, along with bounty land and pension records.

Some state archives also contain records relating to the Mexican War.

The holdings of some large public libraries, genealogical libraries, and regional branches of the National Archives may include microfilmed indexes of federal records pertaining to individual service in the Mexican War. It is suggested that you contact these before making a special trip, to be sure they have the records you want to examine.

Copies of individual military service records, bounty land records, and pension records may be ordered directly from the National Archives & Records Administration (NARA) in Washington, D.C.

From The Descendants of Mexican War Veterans Bylaws,
Sent by Joan De Soto

Article II: PURPOSE.
The purpose, aims and objectives of this organization are:
To associate in one united body, descendants of American military veterans of the U.S.-Mexican War of 1846-1848 and to cultivate and perpetuate the ties of fraternity and friendship entailed thereof. 
To perpetuate the memory and spirit of the American soldiers and sailors who served their country during the U.S.-Mexican War of 1846-1848. 
To foster the preservation of documents and relics of the U.S.-Mexican War of 1846-1848. 
To urge, encourage, and assist in activities designed to increased public awareness and understanding of the U.S.-Mexican War of 1846-1848 and its participants. 
To establish a facility devoted to study, research and understanding of the U.S.-Mexican War of 1846-1848 and its participants. 
To secure and memorialize historic sites within the boundaries of the United States which are connected with the history of the U.S.-Mexican War of 1846-1848 by erecting markers or other monuments thereon. 
To encourage the publication of records of individual soldiers and sailors of the U.S.-Mexican War of 1846-1848, as well as the general history of that war in all its aspects. 
To promote the annual celebration or observance of certain momentous events in the history of the U.S.-Mexican War of 1846-1848. 

The Civil War, The American Battlefield Preservation Program
Sent by John Inclan

Online publications:
Civil War Sites Advisory Commission (CWSAC) 
CWSAC Report on the Nation's Civil War Battlefields (1993) 
CWSAC Technical Volume II: Battle Summaries 
Shenandoah Valley Civil War Sites Study
Civil War Soldiers & Sailors 
Civil War Parks:

Abraham Lincoln's Birthplace NHS 
Andersonville NHS
Antietam NB
Appomatax Court House NHP
Arkansas Post NM
Arlington House - the Robert E. Lee Memorial
Brices Cross Roads NBS
Chickamauga and Chattanooga NMP
Clara Barton NHS
Ford's Theater NHS
Fort Donelson NB
Fort Moultrie NM
Fort Point NHS
Fort Pulaski NM
Fort Scott NHS
Fort Sumter NM
Fort Washington 
Frederick Douglas NHS
Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania NMP
General Grant NM
Gettysburg NMP
Glorietta Pass (part of Pecos NHP)
Harpers Ferry NHP
Kennesaw Mountain NBP
Lincoln Boyhood NM
Lincoln Home NHS 
Lincoln Memorial
Manassas NBP
Monocacy NB
Pea Ridge NMP
Petersburg NB
Richmond NB
Shiloh NMP
Stones River NB
Tupelo NB
Ulysses S. Grant NHS
Vicksburg NMP
Wilson's Creek NB



Two genealogy sites to consider  
     Family Tree Searcher
     Genealogy Search Advice
Saying Goodbye in a Modern Way
Treasure Maps Newsletter


Free CD on Latin American Family History Resources,  click 

Two genealogy sites to consider  

Sent by Doug Barry, Webmaster
Family Tree Searcher,
Genealogy: Advice for Effective Searches,

I am the Webmaster for two free genealogy sites that you might be interested in trying. Both sites help people with genealogical research on the Internet. One makes it easier to search for family trees and the other uses an interactive questioning process to guide people as to where they might find records on the Internet that could further their research. These records could be census records, birth records, death records, directories, obituaries, etc. 

The first site is
Family Tree Searcher,
This is a free site that makes it easier for people to find family trees on the Internet. With it, you need to enter your ancestor's information just one time to search multiple sites for family trees. The search page that you should try is
Suggestions for linking to this site can be found at There you can find various types of links. Two possible text links:

A simple text link:   Family Tree Searcher - Find Family Trees Easily
A more descriptive text link:  Family Tree Searcher - Find Family Trees Easily
Enter your ancestor information just once to search for family trees at multiple online genealogy databases.

The second site is
Genealogy: Advice for Effective Searches,

This is also a free site. It asks questions concerning what you already know about your ancestry. Your answers to the questions help create a customized plan on what you might do and where you might look in order to develop your research more fully. The advice page that you should try is

Suggestions for linking to this site can be found at There you can find various types of links. Two possible text links:

A simple text link:    Genealogy: Advice for Effective Searches
A more descriptive text link:   Genealogy: Advice for Effective Searches
Answer a series of simple questions and get free, customized advice on the most effective    next steps for searching your ancestors.
An example of Saying Goodbye in a Modern Way

This is a  very touching memorial prepared by historian Greg Smestad honoring his grandmother Velma Lucille Bernal Mendoza, a descendant of San Jose's Spanish Settlers.  There are 16 photos,
notes, bibliography, and many links for understanding more about the early families and colonization in the San Jose area.  Wonderful way to experience the life of an individual.  Please go to the site.
Treasure Maps Genealogy Newsletter, December 2003 Issue

Some suggestions to encourage response from people that you are interviewing. 
Here are a few of the writing prompts from the book:   

-This is what we usually did at Thanksgiving. 

-I want you to know this about my grandmother(s). 

-I want you to know this about my grandfather(s). 

-One book that had a very strong impact on me was. 

-I am proud of my sibling(s) for this reason. 

Here is one of my favorites: 

-My predictions for each of my grandchildren are these: 

  As you read these few writing prompts, didn't your mind automatically start to fill in the rest of the story with your own experiences? You see how you can convert these writing prompts into questions don't you? 

  Still, the questions seem a little stiff. One of the best ones is, “I am proud of my sibling(s) for this reason.” 

This can be changed into a question like, “Why are you so proud of your brother, Ron?” If say, your Mother has a brother named Ron that she is close to, this would be a good question to ask. 

Memory prompts can be anything: An object, a place, a song, a smell, a person sitting next to you reminding you (it happens when family stories are told), but one of the best memory prompts are photographs. 

When you are doing an oral history interview, make sure they have their photo albums handy. These are some of the most valuable memory triggers. Memories start to unfold; they speak volumes;
your questions will come naturally; times flies; you hardly even look at your list and you will have fun. 

In the case of oral history interviews, convert writing prompts and memory prompts into QUESTION
prompts, but…    Remember the first critical question? “How do you feel about your children?” 

  The oral history and autobiography list I have seen lack the word “feel,” which is a mystery to me for
two reasons:   

1.  How wonderful to know how someone you care about feels about something, especially another family member. This will be one of the most treasured parts of the recording.   

2.  It is the perfect open-ended question that gives them a wide-open canvas on which to paint a picture with words and emotion. 

  Here is how you can get to plenty of resources, including lists of oral history questions: 

  Go to the Google search engine at--   Then TYPE IN:   

         +oral +history +interview +genealogy 

  Type it in exactly as shown, or you can copy and paste it from this page. Click on the “Google Search” button and examine the results. You will find links to all the lists of questions, tips, and tricks that you will ever need. 

  But don't let this information overload bog you down. Remember the natural approach is what you are interested in. This other information is only a springboard for your ideas--not the end all answers to what you really need to do. 


Experts Recover Stolen Maya Altar Rediscovering El Dorado

Experts Recover Stolen Maya Altar

 by Randolph E. Schmid, 
Associated Press via 
Orange County Register, 10-30-03

Lost and found: the elaborately carved Maya altar, which is more than 1,200 years old, shows king Taj Chan Ahk ah kalomte playing ball with another king, a ritual used to finalize treaties.

"The importance of the altar is scientific and archaeological, and it happens also to be a masterpiece of Maya art." national geographic society an elaborately carved Maya altar more than 1,200 years old was recovered after archaeologists turned detective and joined Guatemalan police to rescue it from looters. the rescue of the 600 pound artifact gives researchers vital information on the closing years of the Maya civilization, archaeologists Arthur Demarest of Vanderbilt university said Wednesday. 

The altar was erected in the A.D. 796 as a marker at the end of the royal ball court in the Maya city of Cancuen, site of one of the largest royal palaces ever found. The altar from the other end of the court was found in the 1915 and is in Guatemala's national museum of archaeology. 

Federico Fahsen, who is interpreting the writing on the altar, said in a statement that "Taj Chan Ahk was the greatest in Cancuen's long dynasty of rulers, and his titles on altar show his aspirations to take control of the whole region during these final decades of classic Maya Civilization." "His strategies allowed him to stay in power and even expand his authority at a time about A.D. 800, when most of the other Maya kingdoms of the west were collapsing," Fahsen said.

Extract:  Rediscovering El Dorado
By Gareth Cook,  Globe Staff, 11/16/2003 News
Source: The Boston Globe
Sent by John Inclan
Notions of ancient kingdoms in the Amazon jungle have long been discounted, but new evidence of cities and roads may rewrite history.

In 1542, Orellana led the first expedition by Europeans down the world's mightiest river, the Amazon. Along the way, he said, his flotilla passed by massive cities rising high into the trees and extending miles in length.  In modern times, this possibility has been largely discounted. Every expedition since Orellana has seen no cities on the river and found only small tribes in the jungle.

And there is another problem: The soil is so bad for agriculture that it is hard to imagine it sustaining a dense population. Indeed, in the 1950s, a pair of researchers concluded that all of the Amazon is a "counterfeit paradise," a place that teems with life but is profoundly unsuited for the dense populations that are the hallmark of great civilizations.

Now, though, a small group of modern explorers is finding evidence that the Amazon may have once been home to a sprawling world of forgotten roads and cities.

For the last decade, University of Vermont associate professor James B. Petersen has been investigating areas of the Amazon with a mysterious, incredibly rich soil, called terra preta. He and others believe that the charcoal-black soil, several feet deep, is left over from human settlements. Examining the area, they have found massive mounds, strewn with ceramic shards. These mounds mark cities, they believe, and these cities were connected by roads to more cities. " Everywhere we go," Petersen says, "we find more."

If their theories are correct, the implications could be vast and surprising. The Amazon may have been home to sophisticated kingdoms that rivaled the Incan or Mayan civilizations. And the people in these kingdoms may have created the richly organic terra preta, which made widespread agriculture possible and which may even hold secrets for transforming bad soil in Africa or other areas.

The new work is part of a heated debate about the number of people who lived in the Americas before 1492, documented in a story in The Atlantic Monthly last year. Historians have long assumed that the Americas were sparsely populated, because this is what the settlers of both major continents saw when they arrived.

The 19 settlements, which date to between AD 1250 and 1400, are said to have included cities with populations as large as 5,000. Some of the roads connecting the cities were 150 feet wide, straight as an arrow shot, with large curbs along the edge.

Such settlement was probably made possible by farming on the terra preta soil, which scientists believe was created by the people living there. But researchers don't know whether the soil was a natural byproduct of human waste or if it was part of an intentional fertilizing program for agriculture.


This Day in History
Family TreeDNA 
Do you Remember when?

This Day in History: 

The History Channel website supports, informs, and augments their program offerings. 
This Day in History is a wonderful resource of concise information.  One service is to send a birthday message which includes what historical event happened on that particular day. One way to encourage an interest in history.

Family TreeDNA 

History Unearthed Daily: Family Tree DNA Test Kit
Sent by John Inclan

Kits can be ordered whereby an indiidual Y chromosome testing can be done for as low as $159 or mtDNA testing for only $219. 

Information about the project, testimonials and a video can be viewed.

Family Tree DNA provides a safe, accurate and exciting breakthrough in the field of Genealogy. Using cutting edge University-proven technology, we provide a service that has not been offered before anywhere in the world. 

While other companies offer to determine a relationship between a child and the father, Family Tree DNA offers that same type of test between the child and, for example, the great-grandfathers' brother's offspring or other distant relatives. 


To all of us who were born before 1960 and it is a miracle that we did survive.
Sent by Bob Smith
We licked the beaters and didn't have anyone telling us we were going to become deathly ill from eating batter with raw eggs in it! 

At Easter time, we had our dyed Easter eggs in a nest on the counter and they sat out at room temperature for the week after Easter. We would peel one whenever we felt like it. I can't believe we made it!

If you were a child in the 40's, 50's, 60's or 70's, looking back, it's hard to believe that we have lived as long as we have... As children, we would ride in cars with no seat belts or air bags. 

Riding in the back of a pickup truck on a warm day was always a special treat. 

Our baby cribs were covered with brightly colored lead-based paint. 

We had no childproof lids on medicine bottles, doors or cabinets, and when we rode our bikes, we had no helmets. Not to mention hitchhiking to town as a young kid! 

We drank water from the garden hose and not from a bottle. Horrors. 

We would spend hours building our go-carts out of scraps and then rode down the hill, only to find out we forgot the brakes. After running into the bushes a few times we learned to solve the problem. 

We would leave home in the morning and play all day, as long as we were back when the streetlights came on. No one was able to reach us all day. No cell phones. Unthinkable. 

We played dodge ball and sometimes the ball would really hurt. We got cut, broke bones and broke teeth, and there were no law suits from these accidents. They were accidents. No one was to blame, but us. Remember accidents? 

We had fights and punched each other and got black and blue and learned to get over it. 

We ate cupcakes, bread and butter, and drank sugar soda but we were never overweight ... we were always outside playing games. We shared grape soda with four friends, from one bottle, and no one died from this. 

We did not have Playstations, Nintendo 64, X-Boxes, video games, 
99 channels on cable, video tape movies, surround sound, personal cell phones, Personal Computers, Internet chat rooms ... we had friends. We went outside and found them. 

We rode bikes or walked to a friend's home and knocked on the door, or rang the bell and just walked in and talked to them. Imagine such a thing. Without asking a parent! By ourselves! Out there in the cold, cruel world!  Without a guardian. How did we do it? 
We made up games with sticks and tennis balls and ate worms, and although we were warned, we did not put out very many eyes, nor did the worms live inside us forever. 

Little League had tryouts and not everyone made the team. Those who didn't, had to learn to deal with disappointment. 

Some students weren't as smart as others so they failed a grade and were held back to repeat the same grade . Horrors. Tests were not adjusted for any reason. 

Our actions were our own. Consequences were expected. No one to hide behind. The idea of a parent bailing us out if we broke a law was unheard of. They actually sided with the law, imagine that! 

This generation has produced some of the best risk-takers, problem solvers and inventors, ever. The past 50 years has been an explosion of innovation and new ideas. 

We had freedom, failure, success and responsibility, and we learned how to deal with it all. And you're one of them. Congratulations! 

Do You Remember when?  
Sent by Bob Smith

All the girls had ugly gym uniforms? 
It took five minutes for the TV warm up? 
Nearly everyone's Mom was at home when the kids got home from school? 
Nobody owned a purebred dog? 
When a quarter was a decent allowance? 
You'd reach into a muddy gutter for a penny? 
Your Mom wore nylons that came in two pieces? 

All your male teachers wore neckties and female teachers had their hair done every day and wore high heels? 

You got your windshield cleaned, oil checked, and gas pumped, without asking, all for free, every time? And you didn't pay for air? And, you got trading stamps to boot? 

Laundry detergent had free glasses, dishes or towels hidden inside the box? 

It was considered a great privilege to be taken out to dinner at a real restaurant with your parents? 

They threatened to keep kids back a grade if they failed. . .and they did? 

When a 57 Chevy was everyone's dream cruise, peel out, lay rubber or watch submarine races, and people went steady?   No one ever asked where the car keys were because they were always in the car, in the ignition, and the doors were never locked? 

Lying on your back in the grass with your friends and saying things like, "That cloud looks like a ..."

Playing baseball with no adults to help kids with the rules of the game? 

Stuff from the store came without safety caps and hermetic seals because no one had yet tried to poison a perfect stranger? 

And with all our progress, don't you just wish, just once, you could slip back in time and savor the slower pace, and share it with the children of today? 

When being sent to the principal's office was nothing compared to the fate that awaited the student at home? Basically we were in fear for our lives, but it wasn't because of drive-by shootings, drugs, gangs, etc. Our parents and grandparents were a much bigger threat! But we survived because their love was greater than the threat. 

Send this on to someone who can still remember Nancy Drew, the Hardy Boys, Laurel and Hardy, 
Howdy Doody and the Peanut Gallery, the Lone Ranger, The Shadow Knows, Nellie Bell, Roy and Dale, Trigger and Buttermilk. 

As well as summers filled with bike rides, baseball games, Hula Hoops, bowling , 4 square, tetherball, and visits to the pool and eating Kool-Aid powder with sugar. 

Hanging out! Didn't that feel good, just to go back and say, "Yeah, I remember that"? 

I am sharing this with you today because it ended with a double dog dare to pass it on. To remember what a double dog dare is, read on. And remember that the perfect age is somewhere between 
old enough to know better and too young to care. 

How many of these do you remember?
Candy cigarettes 
Wax Coke-shaped bottles with colored sugar water inside Soda pop machines that dispensed glass bottles, Coffee shops with tableside jukeboxes, Blackjack, Clove and Teaberry chewing gum 
Home milk delivery in glass bottles with cardboard stoppers, Newsreels before the movie P.F.Fliers 

Telephone numbers with a word prefix....(Raymond 4-601). Party lines 

Peashooters, Howdy Doody , 45 RPM records, Green Stamps, Hi-Fi's 
Metal ice cubes trays with levers, Mimeograph paper, Beanie and Cecil, Roller-skate keys, Cork pop guns, Drive ins, Studebakers, Washtub wringers, The Fuller Brush Man, Reel-To-Reel tape recorders 
Tinkertoys, Erector Sets, The Fort Apache Play Set, Lincoln Logs, 15 cent McDonald hamburgers, 
5 cent packs of baseball cards with that awful pink slab of bubble gum, Penny candy, 35 cent a gallon gasoline, Jiffy Pop popcorn 

Do you remember a time when... 
Decisions were made by going "eeny-meeny-miney-moe"? 
Mistakes were corrected by simply exclaiming, "Do Over!"? 
"Race issue" meant arguing about who ran the fastest? 
Catching the fireflies could happily occupy an entire evening? 
It wasn't odd to have two or three "Best Friends"? 

The worst thing you could catch from the opposite sex was "cooties"? 
Having a weapon in school meant being caught with a slingshot? 
A foot of snow was a dream come true? 

Saturday morning cartoons weren't 30-minute commercials for action figures? 
"Oly-oly-oxen-free" made perfect sense? 
Spinning around, getting dizzy, and falling down was cause for giggles? 

The worst embarrassment was being picked last for a team? 
War was a card game? 
Baseball cards in the spokes transformed any bike into a motorcycle? 
Taking drugs meant orange-flavored chewable aspirin? 
Water balloons were the ultimate weapon? 

If you can remember most or all of these, then you have lived!!!!!!! 
Pass this on to anyone who may need a break from their "grown-up" life . . .I double-dog-dare-ya! 


                12/30/2009 04:48 PM