September  2002
Editor: Mimi Lozano,

          Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
          Publication of the Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research © 2000-2      714-894-8161


Content Areas

United States
. . . 3
Surname Armendariz 24
Orange County, CA
. 26  
Los Angeles, CA
. .  32
California . . 32
Southwestern US. . . 40
Black  . . 43
Indigenous . . 43
. . 47
Texas . . 48
East of Mississippi
 . 55
East Coast
. . 56
. . 57
. . 67
. . 69
. . 72
  . . 74
2002 Index

Meetings Sept 21


The Restless DNA Gene, Especially in South America

        In South America, where the first settlers traveled enormous distances from Asia beginning over 12,000 years ago, more than 60 % of the native population has a gene  variation,7R.  But in parts of Asia where the current population have been fairly sedentary, less than 1% of the people have it.
        University of Toronto psychiatrist James Kennedy says this is data provides the most solid finding linking any gene to any behavior or behavioral disorder.  The same genetically inspired impulse to move around could help explain migrations of entire populations says biochemist Robert Moyzis of the University of California - Irvine.  

DNA gene research has discovered that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, seems to be influenced by the presence of a  "receptor" proteins, DRD4. 7R is a variation of DRD4 that allow brain cells to pick up a chemical messenger called dopamine, which influences motivation and behavior. 
         Among DRD4's variations, 7R appears in about 50% of the kids with ADHD, but  in just 20% of those without the ADHD disorder. ADHD frequently expresses itself in students as a restlessness making them difficult students for teachers to handle, and troubled learners. Students with the DRD4-7R react faster to new challenges and have great curiosity.  They are the entrepreneurs, the explorers, the military leaders.
Emily Sohn, The Gene that wouldn't sit still, U.S. News and World Report, 8-19-02, pg. 50-51
       [[ Editor: Although diagnosing a student's specific learning disabilities is difficult, educators, psychologists, and social workers recognize a connection between students with learning disabilities and ADHD.  The implications of the Kennedy study suggests a need for research of Hispanics in the U.S.  Is there a restless gene shaping the learning styles of Hispanics? ]]
        Community activists for special education students and adult literacy proponents estimate that 90% of those incarcerated in U.S. prisons are functionally illiterate.
The following statistics indicate the extent of the problem nationally, and clearly show that early identification and intervention are vital for individuals affected by learning disabilities.  
  • 31% of adolescents with learning disabilities will be arrested 3-5 years out of high school. National Longitudinal Transition Study (Wagner 1991)
  • 35% of students identified with learning disabilities drop out of high school.  This is twice the rate of their non-disabled peers.  (This does not include the students who are not identified and drop out). National Longitudinal Transition Study (Wagner 1991)
  • 50% of juvenile delinquents tested were found to have undetected learning disabilities.  Source: National Center for State Courts and the Educational Testing Service 1977
  • 50% of females with learning disabilities will be mothers (many single) within 3-5 years of leaving high school.  Source: National Longitudinal Transition Study (Wagner 1991)
  • 60% of adolescents in treatment for substance abuse have learning disabilities.            Source: Hazelden Foundation, Minnesota 1992
  • 62% of learning disabled student were unemployed one year after graduating.              Source: National Longitudinal Transition Study (Wagner 1991)
  • 75% to 80% of special education students identified as learning disabled have their basic deficits in language and reading.  Source: National Institutes of Health.
Learning disabilities and substance abuse are the most common impediments in keeping welfare clients from becoming and remaining employed, according to the 1992 report from the Office of the Inspector General.  Source:  Office of the Inspector General on "Functional Impairments of AFDC Clients".    Report of the Summit on Learning Disabilities, 1994  as published in The Gram, September 1995, Vol. 29, No. 3  For information on world wide DNA research, click molecular.

"If a nation expects to be both ignorant and free, 
it expects what never was and never will be." 
    Thomas Jefferson

Somos Primos Staff  
Mimi Lozano, Editor
John P. Schmal, 
Historian & Genealogist
Johanna de Soto, 
Internet  Surfer & Genealogist
Armando Montes, Surnames

Sources and Contributors:
Rene Aguilera
Yeda Baker
Jerry Benavides
Michah'el Ben-Yehudah
Greg Bloom
Chuck Bobo
Carmen Boone de Aguilar
Yvette Cabrera
Bill Carmena
Peter Carr
Dennis V. Carter
Rene Escobar
Liza Fernandez
Anthony Garcia
George Gause
Debbie Gomez
Eddie Grijalva
Elsa P. Herbeck
Miguel Hernandez
Zeke Hernandez
Dennis R. Hidalgo
Rogelio Hinojosa
Jonathan J. Higuera
Dr. Granville Hough
Al Jensen
Jose Roberto Juarez
Asuncion Lavrin
Priscilla Martinez Gamer
Rueben Martinez
Letisia Marquez
Donna Morales
Rena McWilliams
Paul NewfieldPatrick Osio
Rosa Parachou
Gullermo Padilla Origel
Sam Padilla
Mary Kathryn Peralta
Ugo A. Perego
Michael Stevens Perez
Lorraine Quiroga
Reuben Martinez
Robert Ragan
Joan Rambo
Sandra Robbie
Helen Romer
Andrés Sárez
Carolina Sarmiento
Howard Shorr
Andrés Tijerina
Ivonne U. Thompson
John Tepley
Carlos Villanueva
Glen Welker
Brent Wilkes
Dr. Donald Panther-Yates
SHHAR Board Members: Laura Arechabala Shane, Bea Armenta Dever, Diane Burton Godinez,
Peter Carr, Gloria Cortinas Oliver, Mimi Lozano Holtzman, Carlos Olvera
Celebrating Hispanic Heritage Month
Smithsonian's Lawrence M. Small Speaks
Websites for Celebrating
PUBLIC LAW 100-402 establishes HHMonth
Celebrating with Public Service Announcements
Seeking Inspirational Stories
Multicultural Core Curriculum
Fingerprinting at Border Entries 
Tamale orgy &
a Tamale Museum 
Immigration: Foreign Kid's Bill
Judge Rules on Mexican Guest Workers
Large Influx of Immigrants Brings Change
The Great 'White' Influx
Spanish-Language Broadcasters
Ethnic Sites Draw New Ad Wave
LULAC Receives Multi-million Dollar Grant
Mexicans Abroad
Second Youth for Latinos
Dual Citizenship
From Indigenous to Mexican to American
Celebrating Hispanic Heritage Month
September 15 to October 15
Dear Colleagues:  Lawrence M. Small, secretary of the Smithsonian Institution has an editorial in the current issue (August 2002) of SMITHSONIAN, the official publication of the Smithsonian Institution, a prime memory keeper for the nation. He begins acknowledging the presence of Spaniards and Hispanic civilization in North America since 1565. Let me quote verbatim what follows:

"Because the founding heritage of vast regions of this country was Hispanic, no account of the past --and no understanding of the present--can be complete if it does not acknowledge that indelible cultural imprint. The figures hold the future: the Latino population in the United States and Puerto Rico is now some 40 million, and more than 40 percent of it is under 25 years old. The Smithsonian came late to a formal recognition of the Latino contribution to the history of the nation, but we are determined to make up for the lost time. In 1997, the Board of Regents established the Center for Latino Initiatives ... Its mission can be stated simply enough: to generate and advance knowledge and understanding of the Latino role in U.S. history, culture, arts, music and science."

        The Smithsonian will support traveling exhibitions, educational programs etc . There is a Latino Virtual Gallery on the center's Web site. I encourage you to visit this Web site and to learn more about the Smithsonian's project. There may be a place for some of you in that project. Or they may have something to offer you as teachers. Or you can help to improve it if you find it is missing something. On any account, get to know  it.  Sent by:
 Asuncion Lavrin  LAVRIND@AOL.COM Dennis R. Hidalgo and Peter Carr

Five Smithsonian Websites for Celebrating Hispanic Heritage Month Events
Encyclopedia Smithsonian: US Latino History and Culture
150 Years of Research on Latin America, interactive exhibition 
Young Americanos Virtual Gallery Exhibition Service
Hispanic Heritage Month Events

PUBLIC LAW 90-498, Approved September 17, 1968, 90th Congress

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United State of America in Congress assembled, That the President is hereby authorized and requested to issue annually a proclamation designating the week including September 15 and 16 as "National Hispanic Heritage Week" and calling upon the people of the United States, especially the educational community, to observe such week with appropriate ceremonies and activities.

PROCLAMATION 4310, September 4, 1974
- - - Partial text (Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States, Gerald R. Ford, 1974, U.S. Government printing office)
Now, THEREFORE, I GERALD R. FORD, President of the United States of America, do hereby proclaim the week beginning September 10, 1974, and ending September 16, 1974, as National Hispanic Heritage Week. I call upon all the people of the United States, especially the education community and those organizations concerned with the protection of human rights, to observe that week with appropriate ceremonies and activities.

PUBLIC LAW 100-402, Approved August 17, 1988
, 100th Congress
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, Section 1.

The joint resolution entitled "Joint resolution authorizing the President to proclaim annually the week including September 15 and 16 as `National Hispanic Heritage Week'" approved September 17, 1968 (36 U.S.C. 169f) is amended --
(1) by striking "week including September 15 and 16" and inserting "31-day period beginning September 15 and ending on October 15";
(2) by striking "Week" and inserting "Month"; and
(3) by striking "week" and inserting "month"

Section 2. EFFECTIVE DATE: The amendments made by section 1 shall take effect on January 1 of the first year beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act.

PROCLAMATION 5859 signed by Ronald Reagan, September 13 1988.
Partial text, extracted information by your editor. (Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States, Ronald Reagan, 1988-89, II, U.S. Gov. Printing Office)

 Using Historical Mini-articles as Public Service Announcements 

        [[ Editor: As part of an effort to assist classroom teachers in their effort to celebrate Hispanic Heritage Month, and as a member of an Orange County Hispanic Heritage Committee, I prepared a booklet that was published by the Excelsior and Orange County Register in 1997. It consisted of 40 brief articles published in first published in the quarterly paper issues of Somos Primos  prior to 1995. The articles were selected for their suitability to use as public service announcements. The articles were also translated into Spanish and used on Spanish language radio.  Below are two examples of the little mini-articles.  
        At about the same time that Somos Primos went online as a monthly publication, Celebrating Hispanic Heritage started taking shape.  Celebrating Hispanic Heritage is an on-going effort to assist educators in sharing Hispanic history and heritage.  The two articles are available on the website with additional teacher materials. Submissions and links are very welcome. ]]
Tracing Family Roots
        Genealogy, the study of one's family history is one of the most popular hobbies in America today. However, it is not a new interest. From Mayan steps to Egyptian tombs, from the Bible's Genesis to the European kings, records have been kept in one form or another throughout the world. Records for purposes of land and property rights were needed to insure the passing of one's wealth to one's posterity. But in many cultures, pride of bloodline itself was sufficient reason to keep the records straight, whether on paper or passed on orally. 

         Most Americans of ethnic background question the probable success of compiling a family tree. Some groups are harder to research than others. Unfortunately the hardest ethnicity's to research are Native Americans and African Americans, with written records going back 150 years; then Greek and Irish back 200 years; English, 300 years; Scots, Scandinavian, French and Italian are all 400 years; Germanic and Slavic, 500 years and Swiss 600 years. The surprise is that Spanish records surpass all of the aforementioned. Spanish records are the most complete with records dating back a thousand years. Source: The Family Tree Aug/Sept 1994
 Mayan Captive 1511
        Spanish blood was both spilled and mixed early in the colonization of the Americas. Two men, Gonzalo Guerrero and Gerónimo de Aguilar escaped death in 1511 by being slaves to the Mayas.
        By 1519 when Cortés landed at Cozumel Island, both men had achieved both acceptance and prominence among the Indians. Of the two men, it was only Aguilar who responded to Cortés' inquiry. Aguilar stated that Guerrero did not come because "he has his nostrils, lips and ears pierced and his face painted and his hands tattooed according to the custom of that country... Indeed, I believe he failed to come on account of the vice he had committed with the woman and his love for his children." 
        According to Spanish official reports, Guerrero died in action in 1536. Apparently he chose to remain and fight with his Indian family. "He is the one who lived among the Indians for 20 years or more, and in addition is the one whom they say brought to ruin the Adelantado Montejo ... he came with a fleet of 50 canoes to destroy those of us who were there. "
Source: National Geographic, 
Dec 1975, Vol 148. No. 6. p. 76
I am producing a television special about taking control of your life. I am looking for Spanish speakers that have been in a bad place and have managed to take control and turn their lives around. The situation could have been anything from losing a lot of weight, leaving gangs, over-coming and addiction to drugs or alcohol, or leaving an abusive relationship, etc... If you have an inspirational story or you know of someone who does and would like to tell the story on television and inspire others to take control, please contact me via e-mail at   
From: Liza Fernandez            
Cable in the Classroom Magazine 
September 2002
A Multicultural Core Curriculum
Using the Internet to Direct Student Inquiry into Latino and Community History 
by Howard J. Shorr, Clackamas Community College (Oregon City, Oregon)
        [[Editor's Note: Howard Shorr, a monthly submitter to Somos Primos has been a leader in promoting multicultural approaches to regional histories.  He has compiled a list of resources to help the classroom teacher. The following is a brief extract of the philosophy to a core curriculum that can be adopted by the classroom teacher. Go to Celebrating Hispanic Heritage and click on Multicultural Core Curriculum for the full document. ]]  

        Multicultural education is now inseparable from the core curriculum. It is not a question of finding a way to relate diversity to the core materials—it is the core curriculum. If an instructor is teaching the American Revolution, for instance, the roles of African Americans, Native Americans, women, and poor whites are as central to the subject as the roles played by wealthy white men. 
        Using diverse ethnic histories and as many resources as possible—including the Internet—incorporates multiple perspectives into history. This approach also breaks down stereotypes and builds a new sense of community and pride among Latino students. It can even have an impact outside the classroom. In 1999, as a result of creating my Roosevelt High course, I was asked to serve as a historical advisor to an exhibition about the history of Boyle Heights at the Japanese American National Museum in Los Angeles. It has been gratifying working with the museum staff, and now people will see the range of cultures that have left their mark on this ethnically diverse neighborhood. 
        For many students, learning about their history and culture had a positive effect on their lives. A former student who is now a director of a non-profit in New York City that helps single parents with their children recently wrote to me. "You introduced us/me to a different world and gave us an opportunity to critically think about our world," she said. "I still remember so many details about your government class after all these years."    
Extract from article Fingerprinting at Border Entries by Christopher Newton, 
Associated Press via OC Register, 8-13-02
The Justice Department has chosen September 11 as the starting date for a program that will require tens of thousands of foreign visitors to be finger-printed and photographed at the border.  The security program, developed by the Immigration and Naturalization Service, will begin at several unidentified ports of entry and will mostly affect those from Muslin and Middle Eastern countries.
        "The vulnerabilities of our immigration system became starkly clear on September 11," said Attorney General John Ashcroft.  "This system will expand substantially America's scrutiny of those foreign visitors who may present an elevated national security risk.  And it will provide a vital line of defense in the war against terrorism."  "The terrorists were able to exploit what they perceived as weaknesses.  We can make sure that won't happen again, said INS spokesman Bill Strassberger.
Opiniones Latinas, Survey conducted by McLaughlin & Associates
        The Opiniones Latinas poll was based on interviews with 1,000 Latino adults, about 60% of whom were registered voters. It was conducted by McLaughlin & Associates Opiniones Latinas earlier this month and has a margin of error of plus or minus 3 percentage points.
        The poll found that immigration and discrimination are the top issues for Latinos, followed by education and jobs. Thirty-one percent said they personally had experienced discrimination in the last year.
        There were notable differences on some issues among Latinos who are established in the United States and mainly speak English, and those who are more recent arrivals. Overall, 64% of Latinos said attitudes of other Americans toward them were unchanged as a result of the Sept. 11 attacks. But among the 35% who noted a change, English-speaking Latinos said by 2 to 1 it was positive, while Spanish speakers reported a negative fallout by nearly the same ratio.
        Differences, however, all but vanished on the issue of legalizing undocumented workers, which enjoyed strong support from Latino ethnic groups, including Puerto Ricans, who are U.S. citizens.
        On the issue of cultural identity, which has defined many debates about immigration and language, nearly 56% said they felt Latinos should become more a part of American society, even if it means losing some traditions. But 33% said they would prefer to keep their own culture, even if it means staying somewhat separate from other Americans.
        Sent by Carlos Villanueva. MBA, President C&V International, Hispanic  Media & Communication,

Tamale orgy to protest McDonald's in Oaxaca, Mexico  Efe - August 18, 2002

Oaxaca, Mexico, Aug 18 (EFE).- About 500 people protested the opening of a McDonald's restaurant on the main plaza of the southern Mexican city of Oaxaca on Sunday. Instead of the usual marches and loud protests, the demonstrators placed large tables in the city square and proceeded to eat huge quantities of tamales. 

The protest was organized by the Cultural Heritage Pro Defense Council (PROAX), which is led by painter Francisco Toledo. In 1989, Oaxaca was declared a Cultural Heritage Site by UNESCO, and many consider the firm's presence in the city to be an insult.
        "We do not need a symbol of U.S. transnationals in this area where our cultural identity and political institutions are represented," PROAX said.  PROAX asked the authorities to "prevent transnational fast-food corporations from entering the nation's culturally relevant areas." "We particularly want the state legislature to modify laws and rules to exclude these types of businesses from areas that have been declared part of the cultural heritage of Oaxacans and mankind," the protestors said.                                                                              

A Tamale Museum ground-breaking was held July 27th in Mission San Juan Capistrano, California. "The Mission is the perfect backdrop for a food museum," said John Sedlar, dubbed the father of modern Southwest cuisine, "because of its proximity to Mexico and Latin America and its 200-year history of providing shelter and food for so many people."  

IMMIGRATION:  Bush signs foreign-born kids bill
WASHINGTON (AP) - President Bush on Tuesday signed legislation ensuring that children born to American parents outside the United States don't lose their place in line for permanent residence status when they turn 21. The measure was aimed primarily at naturalized American citizens who want to bring their children from their home country to join them in the United
States, said Michael Shields, spokesman for Rep. George Gekas, R-Pa., who authored the bill.
        Foreign-born children under 21 are supposed to get immediate consideration for visa petitions. But if the Immigration and Naturalization Service, because of backlogs, doesn't begin processing the petition until after the applicant becomes 21, the person is shifted to a different category and the application process can be extended for years.
The backlogs are especially long for immigrants from Mexico and thePhilippines , Shields said.
        Under the new measure, passed easily in both the House and Senate, the immediate relative status is determined when the application is made, not when the INS begins processing it.
Patrick Osio, Jr.Editor,

On August 6, 2002, President George W. Bush signed the Child Status Protection Act. This act addresses the immigration problems that arise when children turn 21 years of age before their Applications for Adjustment of Status (Form I-485) are adjudicated. Children of U.S. Citizens For family-based petitions filed by U.S. citizens on behalf of children under 21 years of age, the child must be under 21 at the time of filing the I-130 (petition for alien relative). The child remains eligible even if s/he turns 21 before the case is approved. Thus, even if a person files the I-130 Petition which is received by the INS on the day before the child's 21st birthday, it would appear that s/he

 would be protected and considered to be an immediate relative under this new law. Immediate relatives are a privileged category with no limitations on the number of people eligible to immigrate each year. For more information, log on to:

Judge Rules on Mexican Guest Workers, by Deborah Kong, Associated Press, 8-29-02 

        SAN FRANCISCO (AP) - After a judge dismissed their lawsuit, Mexican laborers said they would continue to demand millions of dollars they believe is owed them for working on American farms and railroads more than 50 years ago. 
        Judge Charles Breyer wrote that he did "not doubt that many (workers) never received savings fund withholdings to which they were entitled. The Court is sympathetic to the braceros situation." But he concluded Wednesday that the former workers were not entitled to any relief in a U.S. court of law. Luis Magana, whose father came to California from Mexico in 1943 at age 17 to pick asparagus, tomatoes and sugarbeets, said the decision was unfair. 
        "That decision will not stop us," said Magana, who is coordinator of Proyecto Bracero del Valle Central in Stockton. "Justice is on our side." The workers were among more than 300,000 Mexicans who came to the United States between 1942 and 1949 to harvest crops and maintain railroad tracks as guest workers. 
        Called "braceros," after the Spanish word for arm, they came under an agreement between the United States and Mexico aimed at filling labor shortages caused by World War II. Under the agreement, 10 percent of each worker's wage was to be withheld and transferred, via U.S. and Mexican banks, to individual savings funds set up for each bracero. But many braceros said they never received that money when they returned to Mexico. 
        In March 2001, a group of former braceros who worked in the United States between 1942 and 1949 sued the U.S. and Mexican governments, Wells Fargo Bank and three Mexican banks. The braceros sought repayment of the money deducted from their paychecks, plus interest. While they did not specify the amount owed, advocates estimated it at $500 million. 
                                                                                    Sent by Howard Shorr
Abstract from: Large Influx of Immigrants Brings Change, Associated Press, August 07, 2002 
        The influx of Hispanics into the Midwest and South is creating a language barrier in many communities, forcing changes in how governments provide services and the way businesses attract workers and customers. 
         The Federal Civil Rights Act of 1964 covers discrimination based on foreign language. An executive order issued in 2000 ordering federal agencies and organizations receiving federal funds to ensure they have a system that provide services for limited English proficiency residents so they "can have meaningful access to them." The 2000 census found 11 percent of U.S. residents age 5 and older, or about 28 million people, spoke Spanish at home, up from 8 percent in 1990, or about 17 million. And among those Spanish-speakers in 2000, about half spoke English less than "very well," about the same percentage as a decade earlier.
         In Georgia, advocates say some Latino immigrants get substandard health care because they cannot speak English well and few hospitals have Spanish translators. In Tennessee, manufacturing and retail employers say they would hire more Hispanic immigrants, but cannot adequately train or relay job safety requirements to non-English speakers.  In North Carolina, the number of Spanish-speaking residents nearly quadrupled in 2000. In Iowa,  it tripled.  In Memphis, Tennessee's largest city, doubled since 1990.                                   Sent by Howard Shorrr
Extract  from article:  The Great 'White' Influx:  Two-Thirds of Immigrants In The 2000 Census Stated They Were White by Solomon Moore and Robin Fields, Los Angeles Times, 7-31-02

An Analysis of the 2000 Census counted 28 million foreign-born residents. Two-thirds identified themselves as white. Whereas in 1990, half of the foreign-born population checked "white."  
Latinos are driving those numbers. Almost half checked the "white" box in Census 2000.
        Yareli Arizmendi, a Mexican American actress, said she used to be typecast as "the gangbanger's mother" or "the excitable Cuban woman." So she stopped specifying her ethnicity at auditions. Recently, she landed the part of a Jewish lawyer on an episode of the television series "NYPD Blue." No one guessed her roots until she mentioned them to a hairstylist on the set. "I am a Latino," said the actress, who lives in Hollywood. "But I am white too, and I don't want to be pegged as 'the other.' " In Mexico, where Arizmendi was born and raised, "we never asked: 'What are you? What percentage Negroid? What percentage mongoloid? Are you Latin American or Mayan or Aztec or European or Moorish?' " she recalled. "Because a lot of us are all of these things."
        In the past, people of mixed race were almost uniformly counted as minorities, not as whites.
In the first national headcount, in 1790, government enumerators placed people in four slots: free white males, free white females, slaves, and "others," a category that included free Native Americans.  Today, people fill out the survey themselves, choosing from six options for race: white; black or African American; American Indian or Native Alaskan; Asian; Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander; and "other." In 2000, for the first time, respondents could check more than one category.  
        After the end of the Mexican-American War in 1848, census enumerators counted people with Spanish surnames as white. That practice continued until 1930, when a separate "Mexican" racial category was created. Mexican Americans successfully lobbied to have the designation dropped in 1940. Once again, enumerators classified virtually everyone with Spanish surnames as white.        
        The census allows Latinos the most room for layered self-definition. Since 1980, the survey has treated Hispanic ethnicity apart from race, asking about it in a separate question and indicating that Latinos can be of any race. The Hispanic category is meant for people who trace their origins to a Spanish-speaking nation.
        People who pick Hispanic as their ethnicity and white as their race often are communicating that they feel "functionally white," said Ian Haney Lopez, a UC Berkeley law professor. For example, Latinos living in affluent, suburban parts of the Los Angeles area tended to call themselves white in Census 2000. By contrast, 50% or more of Latinos living in several of the region's urban barrios picked "other" as their race.
        "There's been this idea that demography is destiny and that America is going to be a nonwhite nation," said Peter Skerry, author of "Mexican Americans: The Ambivalent Minority" and a fellow at the Brookings Institution in Washington. "It ain't necessarily so." 
        The latest arrivals are also upsetting conventional wisdom, which held that the percentage of white Americans would inevitably dwindle over time.  (However) About 75% of the U.S. populace defines itself today as wholly or partly white. Many demographers expect the same will be true in 50 years, despite continued immigration from Latin America, Asia and elsewhere.
                                                                               Sent by  Howard Shorr
Spanish-Language Broadcasters Paid Less Than English Counterparts
         A new study released by the UCLA Chicano Studies Research Center reveals a dramatic disparity between Spanish-speaking broadcasters and their English-language counterparts, particularly in terms of income, benefits, working conditions and union representation. While Spanish-speaking broadcasters are an essential part of the industry's growth and ratings, researchers believe employers have been slow to recognize and reward their role at community assets. 
More info: Letisia Marquez, UCLA Office of Media Relations,  (310) 825-2585.

Ethnic Sites Draw New Ad Wave Marketing News - August 6, 2002 Originally Published, 8-5-02.

        Ethnic community Web sites are gradually becoming a more popular ad medium for multicultural marketers because they have a growing audience and offer the benefits of Internet advertising targeting.
        The community sites are on the rise in terms of total visitors, registered users and ad revenues, but they also have attracted a attracted a broader range of advertisers over the past year as more multicultural marketers explore ad placement options beyond traditional ethnic media.
        The rise of ethnic community Web sites "finally provides another alternative to ad buyers" who want to reach an ethnic audience in the United States, says Jackie O'Brien, senior vice president of marketing and sales at Hispanic community site, a Spanish-language site that's a joint venture of Redmond, Wash.-based Microsoft Corp. and Telefonos de Mexico, S.A. de C.V. (Telmex), based in Mexico City.
        However, executives at ad agencies that specialize in multicultural marketing say that, while the sites are a promising ad medium, they still typically receive only a small portion of the total ad dollars in most multicultural campaigns because advertisers are hesitant to move away from the proven avenues of ethnic television, radio and newspapers.              

LNESC Receives Multi-million Dollar Department of Education Grant, August 19, 2002
        Washington D.C.- The LULAC National Educational Service Centers have been re-awarded by the United States Department of Education to continue delivery of the Educational Talent Search program in sixteen areas around the country and in Puerto Rico.
        The $3.4 million grant will provide LNESC with operating and program funds for four years to provide comprehensive post-secondary advisement to promising Hispanic and disadvantaged students. Currently, services reach over 14,000 students and include college admission guidance,
scholarship and financial aid awareness and searches, placement exam workshops, field trips to area universities, leadership development, career planning and other activities focused on post-secondary education.
        “With the awarding of this grant LNESC is in a stronger position than ever to impact the future of Hispanic America,” said Richard Roybal, LNESC Executive Director. “This award demonstrates that the US Department of Education realizes how effective LNESC is and how much our
services are needed.”  LNESC has centers in sixteen areas including Corpus Christi, Dallas, El Paso, Houston, and San Antonio, Texas; Los Angeles, Pomona and San Francisco, California; Albuquerque, New Mexico; Colorado Springs, Denver and Pueblo, Colorado; Kansas City, Missouri; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Miami, Florida; Chicago, Illinois and Bayamón, Puerto Rico. 

Sent by Lorraine Quiroga
LNESC , 2000 L Street, NW, Suite 610; Washington, D.C. 20036
tel: (202) 835-9646; fax (202) 835-9685; Contact: Charles Tamez  202-835-9646
Key Findings: According to a study by the Civil Rights Project at Harvard University, the last 10-15 years has seen a steady unraveling of almost 25 years worth of increased integration.
  • Virtually all school districts analyzed are showing lower levels of inter-racial exposure since 1986.
  • From the early 19070s to the late 1980s, districts in the South had the highest levels of black-white desegregation in the nation; from 1986-2000, however, some of the most rapidly resegregating districts for black students' exposure to whites are in the South.
  • Many of the districts experiencing the lowest levels of black-white exposure are also segregating in Latino exposure to whites.
  • Districts that show the least resegregation in black-white exposure are mostly in the South.
  • Despite an increasingly racially diverse public school enrollment, white students in over one-third of the districts analyzed became more segregated from black and/or Latino students.
    Source: HispanicOnline, August 9, 2002


Mexicans Abroad
Fox forms immigrant council which redirects issues to Foreign Ministry, upsetting many activists. 
        Extract from article by Minerva Canto, OC Register, August 7, 2002
        Mexican President Vicente Fox  announced the creation of a council to represent the interests of Mexicans abroad, disappointing many immigrant leaders who worried about a loss of direct access to the president.
        Fox said the new council would respond better to immigrant needs, but the leaders said they believe their interests have been sacrificed because of bureaucratic infighting. 
        Previously, Fox entrusted the high-profile portfolio to a Mexican-American college professor whose office was next door to his own. Now, the new National Council for Mexican Communities Abroad will be under the Foreign Ministry. Though it will have Fox as chief, several leaders of U.S.-based immigrant groups said they are worried about their issues getting lost amid the ministry's many priorities. 

LULAC Praises Fox's New Initiative, August 9, 2002
        WASHINGTON, DC - The League of United Latin American Citizens today praised Mexican President Vicente Fox following his announcement of an historic initiative on behalf of millions of Mexicans living abroad. At the center of his new program is the creation of a new cabinet-level agency which he will personally oversee. 
        "We congratulate President Fox for his bold decision to lead the National Council of Mexican Communities living Abroad (NCMCA), an umbrella organization that will bring together the heads of various key Cabinet-level agencies," said Hector Flores, LULAC President. "This truly sets out the priority he places on the needs, concerns and issues of his citizens living in the United States and elsewhere outside Mexico. It is a significant step forward that brings the totality of Mexico's governmental resources into this most important and timely undertaking affecting millions."
        In outlining NCMCA, President Fox explained that the project will be administered through a newly-formed Institute of Mexicans Living Abroad (IMLA) which will be headed by a Mexican emigrant. This assures NCMCA that President Fox will closely monitor and have direct involvement in the program's progress. 
LULAC National Press Release by Brent Wilkes  August 9, 2002
For Immediate Release, Contact: Lorraine Quiroga, 202-833-6130
AARP Websites explores "second youth" for Latinos 50+
        A new bilingual AARP website for Latinos 50+ provides information about health, finances, entertainment, travel, news, grand parenting and many other issues is the online version of AARP's newest publication, Segunda Juventud, a quarterly magazine for Latino AARP members. 
        The website provides a full bilingual option, and includes articles from Segunda Juventud plus interactive polls, quizzes and web site reviews. Translated as "second youth," the print version is distributed among Latino AARP members in Illinois, Nevada, New Jersey, Puerto Rico, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, Florida, New York, California and Texas. There are about five million Latinos over age 50 in the United States and the number is expected to nearly triple over the next 25 years.       

Research by Dr. David Hayes-Bautista reveals that when it comes to heart disease, cancer and strokes, Latinos at age 65, 75, and 85 have a 30-40 percent lower death rate than for non-Hispanic whites.
        And despite having "terrible access to health care," lifestyle factors seem to work in favor of Latinos, he says.  They are three times as likely than non-Hispanic whites to go to church and more likely to be living with adult children or other family members.  
Extract from an article by Yvette Cabrera, OC Register, 8-30-02
Dual Citizenships for Mexican Citizens
        The dilemma that prompted the Mexican government to approve a dual-nationality policy in 1996 was that thousands of Mexican legal residents in the United States were hesitating to apply for U.S. citizenship because of their ties to Mexico.  They had family, property, and traditions that were still very much a part of them, and they feared losing their rights in Mexico upon becoming U.S. citizens. That changed when the law took effect in March 1998.
        The Mexican law now allows Mexican nationals to regain property and investment rights in Mexico but does not grant voting privileges or require service in the armed services as it does of Mexican citizens. Those Mexican natives who became U.S. citizens since March 1998 automatically retain their Mexican nationality, while those who became U.S. citizens before March 1998 must submit an application to receive dual nationality.
        Extract from article by Yvette Cabrera, columnist for the Orange County Register, sharing her own proud experience of obtaining a dual citizenship, 8-18-02.

Extract of article Cyberspace 'Plazas' Help Mexicans Stay Connected by Ana Campoy, Staff Reporter, The Wall Street Journal  
        Raudel Duran in Atwater, California is an electrician, part of an expanding grassroots effort reconnecting Mexican immigrants in the U.S. to their hometowns by Internet. At more than two dozen such sites, Mexicans of all ages and income levels can do everything from swapping stories about the latest hometown fair to analyzing local government budgets.    
        Started mainly by computer-savvy Mexicans in the U.S. , these sites in many ways recreate on the Web the life of a typical village plaza by including family photo albums, news and messages and offering services such as free e-mail and friendly betting pools. Although Web access and literacy is limited in many of Mexico 's small towns, Internet activity is starting to catch on because it is such a fast and cheap way for people to stay connected.  
        Mario Tejeda, creator of Sanmartinjalisco.com5, is raising money through the site to buy computers for schools in the village. And the creators of have a project in the works to take a $50,000 computer server to the village of 5,154 people, thereby providing it with a resource even unavailable in much bigger and richer towns. The Chavez family of Jalpa has gone a step further by creating an Internet service provider to tape into the growing Web ties between the U.S. and Mexico .  
        "People use this as a way of keeping in touch with their roots," says Mr. Duran, who taught himself computer programming to launch two years ago. Totatiche.com2, centered on a town in the Jalisco state of the same name and created by Jose de Jesus Felix, a building-maintenance worker in Mill Valley , Calif. , keeps its natives in the U.S. abreast of their village's latest projects.

Extract from Records Checks - Displace Workers, - August 6, 2002                Thousands of immigrants have been forced to leave their jobs in the last few months, the result of a little-publicized operation by the U.S. government to clean up Social Security records, immigration experts say.
        Since early this year, the Social Security Administration has sent letters to more than 800,000 businesses -- about one in eight U.S. employers -- asking them to clear up cases in which their workers' names or Social Security numbers do not match the agency's files. The letters cover about 7 million employees.
        Agency officials say that they are simply trying to tackle a bookkeeping problem and that the action is not related to the new get-tough approach on immigration stemming from the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks. But the result could be the most dramatic blow in years to undocumented workers on company payrolls.
        Social Security officials note that there may be innocent reasons for some of the discrepancies, such as the misspelling of a worker's name, which can easily be corrected.
        But the crackdown has highlighted an open secret: A huge number of illegal immigrants work "on the books," providing stolen or made-up Social Security numbers to employers and having U.S. taxes deducted from their paychecks. Now, with those employers being confronted by Social Security, many in turn are confronting their workers, insisting that they clear up the problem.
        In recent years, the agency has received a growing pile of money from taxpayers whose names or Social Security numbers don't match its files. Such contributions from workers and employers totaled $4.9 billion in 1999, the most recent year for which data were available. 

Donna S. Morales and John P. Schmal

My name is Donna Morales and I am a Mexican-American woman who is proud of both her American and Mexican heritage. My family has lived in this country for almost a century and we have become very American during this period. But most American families have an interesting story to tell about their journey to America and their evolution as American citizens. 

The story of my family through the centuries is a story of evolution. My Morales ancestors started out as the indigenous inhabitants of a strategic area in central Mexico. However, as the Spaniards entered this part of Mexico, my family soon evolved and we became the Christian subjects of the Spanish Empire. Under the Spanish racial system, however, we remained classified as Indians. Then, with the progression of time and the independence of Mexico, we were reclassified as citizens of the Mexican Republic. And, in 1912, we became an American family.

I carry the surname that my father's family brought to America from Aguascalientes. The surname Morales is derived from moral, the Spanish word for mulberry tree, specifically the Black European Mulberry. The suffix "es" or "ez" in Spanish denotes "son of." So I presume that a person who was called Morales in Medieval Spain may have been a person who dwelt near a mulberry tree. However, in Spanish, moral also means "moral." Therefore, it is equally possible that Morales may also have designated a person who is right and true. This interpretation has great meaning for me because my father, Daniel Morales, was a very moral and very righteous person. 

It has been said that the surname Morales originated in Santander in northwest Spain sometime around the Eleventh Century. For many years, I wondered to myself, "When did my first Morales ancestor come to Mexico from Spain. And from what part of Spain did he come from?" I had thought that it would be very interesting to find out that some distant Morales ancestor had left some part of Spain, perhaps in the hopes of coming to Mexico to make his fortune. Since most of us Mexican-Americans carry Spanish surnames that would be a logical presumption.

Lagos de Moreno.
However, family history research has determined that my earliest Morales ancestors on my direct paternal line were Indians from the town of Lagos de Moreno in the northern highlands of Jalisco. My great-great-great-great-great-great-grandparents, Miguel Morales and María de la Cruz, were Indian peasants who were raising their family during the last two decades of the Seventeenth Century in the Spanish colonial province of Nueva Galicia.

I have been able to trace my father's direct paternal line back to the Seventeenth Century because the Catholic church parish registers (Registros Parroquiales) go back to 1634. I was able to access the baptism and marriage records for many of my ancestors because they are available through the Family History Library of Salt Lake City, which permits individuals of any religious persuasion to access their huge collection of Mexican parish registers. The Parish registers of Lagos de Moreno range from 1634 to 1957 and can be accessed on 476 rolls of microfilm.

A significant number of my father's ancestors appear to have originated among the indigenous inhabitants of the present-day municipio of Lagos de Moreno. In Indian times, the territories of the Cazcanes, Tecuexes, Guamares, and Guachichiles all seem to have intersected in or near the area of present-day Lagos de Moreno. So the ethnic indigenous makeup of my ancestors from this northern Jalisco town is very complex. And I have concluded that the blood of all four tribes - and many others - runs through my veins. Although these tribes probably belonged to the Uto-Aztecoidan linguistic family, they have been culturally extinct for almost four centuries.

Where Lagos de Moreno stands today was once an Indian village called Pechichitlán (also known as Chichimequillas). According to some sources, the tribe that inhabited the immediate area when the Spaniards arrived was called the Ixtachichimeca. Then, in March of 1530, the delicate balance of power between the tribes of this region was forever altered with the intrusion of a new and dynamic military force.

Nuño de Guzmán's lieutenant, Pedro Almíndez Chirinos, with a force of fifty Spaniards and 500 Tarascans and Tlaxcalans, appeared in the area. The fact that the indigenous people of this region gave Chirinos and his men a peaceful reception probably saved them. The main branch of Guzmán's army ravaged through large parts of Jalisco, Nayarit, and Sinaloa, destroying villages and enslaving the Amerindians. With his superior military firepower and the strategic assistance of his Indian allies, Guzmán forever changed the landscape of Jalisco.

A decade later, during the Mixtón Rebellion of 1540-41, the Cazcan Indians living in this region (and in many parts of eastern and northern Jalisco) rose in rebellion against the Spanish military authorities. In a desperate attempt to drive the Spaniards and sedentary Indians from their native lands, the Cazcan Indians burned several churches and killed Christian missionaries. After the Mixtón Rebellion was put down in 1541, cattlemen from Guadalajara started to run their herds through the entire Los Altos region, which had been given the name Los Lanos (The Flatlands). 

In 1560, the silver mines at Comanja were discovered, drawing more people from the south to this area. Three years later, on January 15, 1563, as the Chichimec War (which had begun in Zacatecas in 1550) raged throughout the region, the Spanish administration at Guadalajara authorized the founding of Santa María de Lagos in order to consolidate the position of the Spanish military in this area. Years earlier, in 1554, the Spanish military had suffered a disastrous defeat at the hands of the Chichimeca Indian in the Ojuelos Pass a short distance to the north of Lagos. 
Charged with the task of establishing the town, Hernando de Martell, assembled seventy-three families of settlers. Living south of the newly-founded settlement were the Cazcanes, who had aroused such fear during the Mixtón Rebellion of 1541. 

Because of the many lakes in the area, the small town was called Villa de Santa María de Los Lagos. The town soon became a shelter for travelers and an outpost for the Spanish caravans as they traveled the silver route from the rich mines of Zacatecas to Mexico City. However, by March of 1574, the menace of Indian attack caused so many people to flee that only eight residents stayed on. 

The Chichimeca War.
For several decades, the Zacatecos and Guachichile Indians waged a fierce guerrilla war, staging attacks on both mining towns and the small caravans entering the war zone, which included Lagos. However, in 1585, Alonso Manrique de Zuñiga, the Marqués de Villamanrique, recently appointed as the Viceroy of Mexico, decided to investigate Spanish policies in the war zone. 

The Viceroy learned that some Spanish soldiers had begun raiding Indian settlements for the purpose of enslavement. Infuriated by this practice, he prohibited further enslavement of all captured Indians and freed or placed under religious care those who had already been captured. Soon, he launched a full-scale peace offensive and opened up negotiations with the principal Chichimeca leaders. In trade for peace, Villamanrique offered food, clothing, lands, and agricultural implements. This policy of "peace by purchase" worked and by the early 1590s, the raids had ceased.

In the meantime, Catholic missionaries had begun a vigorous campaign to win the hearts and souls of the native peoples of this region. The peace offensive and missionary efforts were so successful that within a few years, the Amerindians near Lagos - and in many locations to the north and east and west - were persuaded settle down in local settlements alongside the sedentary Indians.

The Transformation of Indigenous Jalisco.
However, the ethnic identity of my indigenous ancestors is complicated by the events of these decades. Enormous and wide-ranging migration and resettlement patterns took place throughout Jalisco and Zacatecas, thanks to the Spanish military's frequent use of Indians as soldiers, slaves, or settlers (pobladores). The late historian and author John Wayne Powell discussed - in great detail - the Spaniards' use of Indian allies in various capacities: "as fighters, as burden bearers, as interpreters, as scouts, as emissaries." 

Dr. Powell states that "the pacified natives of New Spain played significant and often indispensable roles in subjugating and civilizing the Chichimeca country." In addition, the discovery of silver brought many Indians from southern Mexico into this area, seeking mining jobs (usually carrying ore). And, so, Dr. Powell continues, "This use of native allies... led eventually to a virtual disappearance of the nomadic tribes as they were absorbed into the northward-moving Tarascans, Aztecs, Cholultecans, Otomíes, Tlaxcalans, Cazcanes, and others... within a few decades of the general pacification at the end of the century the Guachichiles, Zacatecos, Guamares, and other tribes or nations were disappearing as distinguishable entities in the Gran Chichimeca." 

In the last decade of the Sixteenth Century, cattle ranchers and Indians from southern Mexico started to settle in Lagos and the surrounding areas. The Chichimeca War became a distant memory, and the Amerindians of this area, working in the fields and mines alongside the Mexica, Tlaxcalan, and Tarascan Indians, were rapidly assimilated. As the new century dawned, Dr. Powell concludes, "the Sixteenth-century land of war thus became fully Mexican in its mixture." And, thus it came to pass that my ancestors, while appearing to be Indian in physical appearance, became Christian Mexicans, subjects of the Spanish king and his authorized representatives.

The Lagos de Moreno of today is located in the northeastern part of the Mexican state of Jalisco. It is bounded on the north and west by the municipio of Ojuelos and the state of Aguascalientes, both of which were also home to many of my ancestors. Lagos de Moreno is also bordered on the east by the state of Guanajuato and on the south and west by the municipios of San Juan de Los Lagos and Encarnación de Diaz. Lagos de Moreno is located about 200 kilometers from Guadalajara and 445 kilometers from Mexico City and is one of the most populous municipios of Jalisco with a population of at least 100,000. 

A Family of Indians.
The story of the Morales family begins with Miguel Morales and María de la Cruz.. Their first child, Lorenza Morales, was baptized on June 26, 1684 at the Immaculate Conception (Inmaculada Concepción) Church in Ciénega de Mata, which lies almost directly north of Lagos. With the baptism of their next daughter, Michaela, on November 6, 1690, Miguel and María started bringing their children to the church at Santa María de los Lagos for baptism. Another daughter, Juana, was baptized on August 17, 1692.

On June 24, 1698, Miguel Morales and Maria de la Cruz had their newborn son, Juan Miguel, baptized in the church at Santa Maria de los Lagos. Little Juan Miguel, it turns out, is my direct ancestor. Less than twenty-two years later, on February 15, 1722, this same Juan Morales, now 23 years old, walked down the aisle at the church. His bride, Paula Petrona de la Cruz, was described in the church records as being an Indian woman. Paula, who was almost 17 years old, was the daughter of Martin de los Reyes and Silveria de Ortega.

Juan Morales and Paula Petrona had at least six children born in the years following their marriage: María (February 9, 1723), Francisco Marcelo (March 1, 1725), Antonia Bernarda (March 17, 1727), Joséph Joachin (April 3, 1729), Antonio Simon Morales (May 6, 1731), and Dionicia María Anna (April 19, 1733). 

My direct ancestor was their second child, Francisco. However, when Francisco got married in 1754, he was called Francisco Xavier Morales. This apparent change of Francisco's second name is very common and was discussed by George R. Ryskamp in his publication, Finding Your Hispanic Roots.

"The most common variation found in given names over a person's lifetime is where a person is given more than one nombre at the time of his birth, but all of the given names are not repeated at the time of his marriage or at the birth of his children. A person often decided in later life not to use the first in the series of given names that he received at birth. For example, it is quite common to find three given names at birth, with the second or third more frequently used in later life."

Thus, we find that my ancestor Francisco Morales dropped his middle name (Marselo) and adopted the middle name of Xavier, which she shared with his godfather. Francisco was married to a mulata girl named Lucrecia de Montelongo, who had been born in nearby San Cristobal as the daughter of Torribio Montelongo and Maria Ana Gomes.

Francisco and Lucrecia had several children together, including my ancestor, José Nosiforo Morales, who was baptized on August 10, 1755. José grew up in the colonial Santa María de los Lagos of the late Eighteenth Century. In 1783, José married María Tereza Aranda. But the first wife died a few years later and José was remarried on February 8, 1794 to my great-great-great-grandmother, María Josefa Delgado. 

Sixteen-year-old María Josefa Delgado was from a long line of Indians living in the vicinity of Lagos. After having several children born in the next decade, María Josefa gave birth to my great-great-great-great-grandfather, José Casimiro Morales, who was baptized on March 12, 1804 in the church of Lagos.

The War of Independence.
The next twenty years would mark an important turn of events for the Mexican people. When José Casmiro was a ten-year-old boy, the first shots of Mexico's War of Independence would be heard throughout the land. Early on the morning of September 16, 1810, Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla (1753-1811) summoned the largely Indian and mestizo congregation of his small Dolores parish church in Guanajuato and urged them to take up arms and fight for Mexico's independence from Spain. His Grito de Delores (Cry of Dolores) maintained the equality of all races and called for redistribution of land. 

Within days, a motley band of poorly armed Indians and mestizos made their way to San Miguel, enlisting hundreds of recruits along the way. San Miguel fell to the rebel forces, but when Hidalgo's forces reached the city of Guanajuato on September 28, they met with stiff resistance from royalist forces. Before the day was over, a fierce battle had cost the lives of 500 Spaniards and 2,200 Indians. But the rebels had captured the city and in October, they moved on to take Zacatecas, San Luis Potosí, and Valladolid. By October, Hidalgo, with a revolutionary army now numbering 80,000 men, approached Mexico City. 

Although Hidalgo's army defeated a small, well-equipped Spanish army outside of the city of Hidalgo, he decided to a northward retreat because his forces were short on ammunition. From this point, the Spanish forces began a campaign to recapture lost territory. In March 1811, Hidalgo and other rebel leaders were captured in Coahuila. Most of the rebel leaders were executed as traitors. Found guilty of heresy and treason, Father Hidalgo was executed on July 31st.

The revolutionary cause was next taken up by Father José María Morelos y Pavón (1765-1815). By the Spring of 1813, Morelos' rebel army had encircled Mexico City and isolated the capital from both coasts. However, within six months, the Spanish military was able to break the siege and recapture lost territory once again. In the Fall of 1815, Morelos was captured and executed by a firing squad. With his execution, the Independence movement reached its nadir.

Over the next five years, some sporadic guerilla warfare continued to plague the Spanish military. However, the Mexican Independence Movement would receive unexpected help from a foreign ally. In 1820, a revolt of the Spanish military in Spain brought about a renewed vitality on the part of the Mexican people. In December of 1820, a royalist officer, Agustín de Iturbide (1783-1824), switched allegiance and made common cause with the rebel movement.

On February 24, 1821, Agustín de Iturbide declared the Plan of Iguala, calling for an independent, constitutional monarchy headed by an emperor. He entered Mexico City on September 27, 1821, and took power soon after. The treaty of Córdoba' was signed by Agustín de Iturbide and the last Viceroy, Juan O'Donojú, on August 24, 1821. This treaty recognized Mexico's independence. However, on May 19, 1822, the Congress named Iturbide as the constitutional emperor of Mexico. 

The Republic of Mexico.
It soon became apparent that Iturbide did not have the support he needed to remain Emperor of Mexico. On December 1, 1822, the commander of the Veracruz garrison, Antonio López de Santa Anna Pérez de Lebrón (1794-1876), leading a force of 400 troops, rose in rebellion against Iturbide. On that day, Santa Anna proclaimed a republic. On February 1, 1823, José Antonio Echáverri, the Captain General of Veracruz, joined forces with Santa Anna. Within two weeks, Itrubide abdicated his throne and fled into exile. Mexico had finally become a true Republic without a monarch and my ancestor José Casimiro Morales became a citizen of this republic.

On June 16, 1823, Jalisco, formerly known as the Intendancy of Guadalajara, become a state of the new Republic. The state of Jalisco received its name from the fusion of two Nahuatl words, xalli (sand or gravel) and ixtli (meaning face, or by extension, plane). Thus, Jalisco can be translated as meaning "sandy plain." 

The early years of independence were difficult years for Mexico. The War of Independence and the subsequent separation from Spain, according to the historian Mark Wasserman, had taken "an enormous toll politically, psychologically, and financially." The colonial economy was "devastated" and "mining, its fulcrum, was in ruins." But the worst was yet to come, and "a long series of foreign invasions and civil wars followed, consuming immeasurable human and material resources." 

War, Insurrection, and Instability.
In 1829, the Mexican army defeated an attempt by Spain to reconquer Mexico. At about the same time, Mexico was forced to deal with an insurrection by the inhabitants of both Texas and Zacatecas. Although the revolt in Zacatecas was quelled by General Santa Anna, Texas was able to declare its independence in 1836. Two years later, a French invasion of Mexico was defeated. 

But the most disastrous war of all was the War of 1846-1848 with the United States. By the end of this war, Mexico had lost almost half of her territory to the United States. In the meantime, the Caste (race) War erupted in the Yucatán (1847). From 1857-1860, a devastating civil war (The War of the Reform) polarized the entire country. This war was followed by a French invasion and occupation that lasted from 1861 to 1867.

In the decades following her independence, Mexico's political situation seemed to be in a constant state of turmoil. Between 1824 and 1857, Mexico had 16 presidents and 33 provisional chief executives, for a total of 49 national administrations. In 1829, the office of President changed hands three times, and in 1833, the same office changed hands seven times. In 1844, 1846, 1855, the office would change hands four times in each of those years.

During this period, the military dominated the highest echelons of the federal government. From 1821 to 1851, only six civilians served as President, while a total of 15 generals also held the office. Three of the civilian presidents lasted mere days in office. Anastasio Bustamante (1780-1853) held the position of President for the longest consecutive period of time (four and a half years), while General Santa Anna served as chief executive a total of eleven times. 

Starting in 1827, a campaign of vengeance against the Spaniards in Mexico commenced. According to the historian Stanley C. Green, Spaniards "formed a numerically small but influential component of Mexican society." Numbering about 10,000 at the time of independence, they were "found at all levels of society" and "had been highly visible in the better circles, as merchants, country gentlemen, military officers, bishops, canons, and monks." 

In May of 1827, the Mexican Congress passed a bill that purged all Spaniards from the federal bureaucracy, army, and regular clergy. Jalisco, "the most strident center of anti-Spanish feeling," writes Mr. Green, "took the lead." On September 3, 1827, the Jalisco legislature became the first in Mexico to expel Spaniards from the state. Within four months, all of the other states would follow suit.

During these perilous years of instability, writes Mr. Wasserman, "the core of everyday life retained its essential characteristics." Many Mexican citizens lived in the countryside on haciendas (large land-holdings). Most haciendas employed both permanent inhabitants and temporary laborers. The permanent employees included resident peons, tenants, or sharecroppers, while temporary laborers would be brought in from neighboring villages. Many villagers relied on the estates for work that would supplement their meager earnings from working their own lands. However, the hacienda system in Mexico was severely weakened starting in 1821 because of shrinking markets for their products and uncertain political conditions.

Sometime around 1830, my great-great-grandfather, Casimiro Morales, at the age of 26, left Santa María de los Lagos (which, by this time, had been renamed Lagos de Moreno after the revolutionary patriot, Pedro Moreno). He moved to Palo Alto along the present-day boundary of Jalisco and Aguascalientes. However, he probably worked at one of the sixteen haciendas located in and about the small town of Cienega de Mata. 

According to the historian Stanley C. Green, Jalisco "emerged from the revolutionary era with imperialistic ambitions, prepared to challenge the city of Mexico for leadership. Its population in 1826 was reckoned at 656,830, second only to the state of Mexico." However, Aguascalientes, the new home of Casimiro Morales, still belonged to the state of Zacatecas and did not earn the status of territory until May 23, 1835. Two decades later, in 1856, Aguascalientes would become a state.

In June 1836, Casimiro Morales was married to 18-year-old Zeferina Valades in the church of Cienega de Rincon. By this time, Casimiro was 30 years old and had been a resident of Palo Alto for six years. Zeferina Valades was a native of Palo Alto was the daughter of Vicente Valadez and Rufína Campos.

In the next twenty years, it appears that Casimiro Morales and his wife Zeferina Valades would have several children, some of whom were baptized in Cienega de Mata. However, in the 1840s, the family moved to Rancho del Muerto (Ranch of the Dead) in Aguascalientes, where they became laborers and continued to raise their children. In 1846, Casimiro and Zeferina had a son named, Austacio (also spelled Eustacio). 

At the age of eighteen, Austacio Morales was married to Juana Salas in the Parish of the Assumption in Aguascalientes. Both were natives of Rancho del Muerte and although Juana was only 14 years old, both receive the permission of their respective father's to marry. During the 1870s, the Morales family moved to the Hacienda of Santa María, outside of Aguascalientes. Here, they worked as laborers and raised a small family. Austacio Morales and Juana Salas had several children, including my paternal grandfather, Olayo (Eulalio) Morales, who was born in 1875. 

Olayo and Juana.
After the turn of the century, my grandfather Olayo Morales met a young girl named Juana Luevano. Juana, had been born in Villa Hidalgo, which is located in the state of Jalisco just south of the boundary between Jalisco and Aguascalientes. Today, Villa Hidalgo has a population of 20,000 and occupies fourth place in the manufacture of textile products in Mexico. In earlier centuries, it was sometimes called Paso de Carretas (Cart's Crossing), in reference to its reputation as a stop-over for carts traveling to and from Aguascalientes. 

I do not know the circumstances under which my grandparents, Olayo and Juana, met, but it is possible that their families were employed by the same hacienda. When they were married in 1903, the wedding took place in Cieneguilla, a small town in Aguascalientes just a few miles northeast of Villa Hidalgo. Olayo was 22 years old and Juana was 16. The Luevano family of my grandmother was one of the first Spanish families to settle in Aguascalientes in the late Sixteenth Century when it was still just a small outpost along the road to Guadalajara and Mexico City. Juana represented the tenth generation of the Luevano/Luebana family in Mexico since their emigration from Spain. It is through Juana that I have inherited my Spanish ancestry.

Olayo, with a family to support, had moved to the Hacienda de al Cantera to work as a laborer. The first child born to the union of Olayo and Juana was my Uncle Carmen, who was born in 1905 in Aguascalientes. Their second child, my Uncle Celestino, was born on April 8, 1908. Four days later, Olayo and Juana took little Celestino to the Church of the Assumption for his baptism. 

The Mexican Revolution
As Olayo and Juana raised their small family in Aguascalientes, Mexico started to experience profound social and political changes. The era of Mexican politics that lasted from 1876 to 1910 is usually referred to as The Porfiriato, for Porfirio Díaz, who served as President through six terms of office starting in 1876. During this period, according to Mr. Meyer, "Mexico entered a period of sustained economic growth the likes of which she had never before experienced."

However, writes Mr. Meyer, the peace, prosperity, and stability of this era was preserved in part by the use of "brute force." Through "adroit political maneuvering, threats, intimidation, and, whenever necessary, callous use of the federal army," Porfirio Díaz maintained himself in power. In spite of the modernization of Mexico's industry and the prosperity of the small upper class, Mexico remained an "overwhelmingly rural country... dominated by the hacienda complex." And, unfortunately for the average Mexican citizen, "the abuses of the system were exacerbated markedly during the Díaz regime."

By 1894, one-fifth of the total landmass of Mexico was owned by land companies "and some 134 million acres of the best land had passed into the hands of a few hundred fantastically wealthy families." According to the Mexican census of 1910, 8,245 haciendas existed in the Republic and half of all rural Mexicans lived and worked on them. Mr. Meyer writes that these millions of laborers "were worse off financially than their rural ancestors a century before" and "in terms of purchasing power correlated with the price of corn or cheap cloth," the Mexican peón was actually twelve times poorer than the average American farm laborer.

By 1910, President Díaz had come under sharp criticism from his political opponents for the autocratic nature of his rule. It was only a matter of time before a social revolution would become necessary. The opposition eventually coalesced around an eccentric northern landowner, Francisco I. Madero (1873-1913). On November 20, 1910, Madero, who had taken refuge in the United States, issued a call for an armed uprising. By May of the next year, President Díaz was forced to resign and flee the country. 

However, the resignation of Díaz did not bring stability to Mexico. Instead, the turmoil became more intense, especially after the overthrow and assassination of Madero in February 1913. General Victoriano Huerta, a general who was born in a small Jalisco village, assumed the office of President after having overthrown Madero. But Huerta's stay in office came to an end on July 8, 1914, when he was forced to resign. "The years following Victoriano Huerta's ouster," according to Mr. Meyer, "are the most chaotic in Mexican revolutionary history as the quarrels among erstwhile allies began." 

Some have estimated that the loss of life in the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920) was between 1.5 and 2 million. "In a country with a population of roughly 15 million in 1910," writes Mr. Meyer, "few families did not directly feel the pain as one in every eight Mexicans was killed. Even Mexico's high birthrate could not offset the casualties of war. The census takers in 1920 counted almost a million fewer Mexicans than they had found only a decade before." 

With this major loss of life, the already fragile Mexican economy was nearly destroyed. Jobs were scarce in many parts of the country, and the average daily wage of the common farm laborer in Mexico did not exceed twenty-five cents a day. Railway laborers in Mexico were making fifty to seventy-five cents a day in 1910. By comparison, railway workers in the United States made $1.25 a day.

After the Civil War had begun, many Mexican families began to move northward in the hopes of avoiding hostilities. But some of the earliest battles took place in the north, complicating the plight of the Mexican citizens seeking refuge. During these dangerous times, my grandparents decided to leave the chaos and conflict of Mexico for a new life in the United States. Alien registration and immigration records indicate that the Morales family crossed the border into the U.S. several times. Juana's alien registration card indicated that she had first crossed the border on February 20, 1906.

Six years later, on November 19,1912, Juana and Olayo crossed the border for the last time, carrying with them two small children, Carmen and Celestino. The Immigration Service (then a section of the Department of Commerce and Labor) made a separate manifest of each family member as they crossed the border on that day at Eagle Pass Port of Entry in Texas. 

They had arrived at the border by traveling along the Ferrocarrilles Nacionales de Mexico (Mexican National Railway), which terminated at Piedras Negras, located across the Rio Grande from Eagle Pass. As Juana moved across the border, she was described as being in good health and without money. Anxious to reach Houston, Texas (where it is believed that Luevano relatives awaited them), Olayo and Juana, with their meager funds, may have boarded the Galveston, Harrisburg and San Antonio Railway for their journey to Houston.

The Morales Family in America.
My grandfather moved his small family to Houston, Texas where he apparently found work. Shortly after coming to America, my grandmother gave birth to a daughter, Maria. Then, on September 23, 1914, my father, Daniel Morales was born. He was baptized a week later, with his uncle José Luevano as his godfather. 

According to the 1920 Federal census, Olayo Morales, a native of Mexico, lived at 304 Walker Street in Houston, Harris County, Texas. Living in Enumeration District 66, Olayo was described as a 30-year-old male who drove an "express wagon" for a living. Because of his inability to speak English, Olayo's age was off by many years. Juana, as his wife, was also listed as 30 years old, even though she was actually 35 years of age. The children listed were Carmen (son, 15 years old), Celestino (son, 13 years old), Maria (daughter, 7 years old), and Daniel (son, 5 years old). Maria and Daniel were both born in the United States, while all the other members of the family were natives of Mexico.

Daniel Morales
In 1932, Daniel Samuel Morales, as he was called for most of his life, came to Kansas. He first worked for the railroad and was married to one Agripina Llanos. However, that marriage ended very soon when Agripina died in childbirth. Soon after he met Bessie Dominguez, a native of Texas and the daughter of Zacatecas immigrants. Bessie was a beautiful woman with very exotic Indian features, an inheritance of her ancestors who spent many centuries working the mines in northern Zacatecas.

Then, on April 18, 1937, after a short courtship, Daniel and Bessie were married in Jackson County, Missouri. Over the years, Daniel and Bessie would have a total of eight daughters: Jenny, Olivia, Mary Ellen, Eleanor, Ruth, Carol, Donna, and Abigail. I was the sixth daughter out of the eight children.

Not long after my parents were married, my father took a job as a clerk for the Rock Island Railroad. However, because the Great Depression gripped the nation during these years, Daniel found it necessary to take on additional jobs. To make ends meet, he also worked at the Muelbach Hotel in Kansas City as a waiter. But, in addition to these jobs, Father also took a great interest in theology. Because he was a religious man, he decided to become a Sunday school teacher at the First Mexican American Baptist Church in Kansas City.

My father was an energetic and compassionate man. Because he felt that it was important to put into action his religious principles, he practiced charity both at home and in the outside world. For two decades, Daniel Morales would go down to the railroad yards to find the Mexican laborers who had ridden the rails into Kansas City looking for work. He would take these poor illiterate strangers who had little or no knowledge of the English language and bring them to the Salvation Army store. Here, he would buy them shoes and shirts to wear. After clothing them, Father would bring them home where my mother would cook them a nice meal. He would give them a place to stay in our house while he went out to find jobs for them. To my father, this service was his way of practicing his Christian charity.

Service to God and God's children meant a great deal to Father. Although he had no sons, he became a Scout Master for Boy Scout Troop #230 and continued in that capacity for 17 years. Taking part in the spiritual growth of others was so meaningful and important to Daniel that he continued to teach Sunday school for over forty years. When World War II began with the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, my father decided that he must serve his country and enlist in the Army. However, my mother was adamantly opposed to such a move. With two daughters and a wife to feed, Daniel had too many responsibilities and, in the end, he decided not to enlist. 

World War II was a great struggle against tyranny and every American family had to make sacrifices. When my mother's brother, Erminio Dominguez, was captured by the Germans in 1944, my father offered his shoulder for my mother to lean on. When my Uncle Louis Dominguez was killed in action while fighting the Germans on March 31, 1945, once again my Father was the pillar of strength that my mother and her family came to rely upon for solace and moral support. 

My father worked his three jobs for many years. His energy and enthusiasm for life and service endured for most of his life. In 1975, he retired from his job at the Rock Island Railroad. In the 1990s, he became increasingly frail with stomach problems. He was diagnosed with stomach cancer and passed away on November 16, 1996 at Trinity Lutheran Manor. His funeral was held on Tuesday, November 19 at Simmons Funeral Home, followed by burial at Maple Hill Cemetery.

The Morales family continues on its American journey. I have two children and four grandchildren and many nieces and nephews, living primarily in Kansas, Missouri and Texas. The Morales family has endured for centuries and will continue to endure and serve when the need is present.

Copyright © 2001 by Donna S. Morales and John P. Schmal. This article has been extracted in large part from the unpublished manuscript, My Family Through Time: The Story of a Mexican-American Family. All Rights under applicable law are hereby reserved. Reproduction of this article for commercial purposes is strictly prohibited without the express permission of John P. Schmal or Donna S. Morales. 

Corwin, Arthur F. "Mexican Emigration History, 1900-1970: Literature and Research," Latin American Research Review, VIII (Summer 1973), 3-24.

Gerhard, Peter, The Northern Frontier of New Spain. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1982.

Green, Stanley C. The Mexican Republic: The First Decade, 1823-1832. Pittsburgh: The University of Pittsburg Press, 1987.

Hanks, Patrick and Hodges, Flavia. A Dictionary of Surnames. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Meyer, Michael C. The Course of Mexican History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Mines, Cynthia. Riding the Rails to Kansas: The Mexican Immigrants. Kansas, 1980.

Morales, Donna S. and Schmal, John P. My Family Through Time: The Story of a Mexican-American Family. (Unpublished Manuscript, 2000).

Powell, Philip Wayne. Soldiers, Indians and Silver: North America's First Frontier War. Tempe, Arizona: Center for Latin American Studies, Arizona State University, 1973.

Ryskamp, George R. Finding Your Hispanic Roots. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.

Stevens, Donald Fithian. Origins of Instability in Early Republican Mexico. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University, 1991.

Wasserman, Mark. Everyday Life and Politics in Nineteenth Century Mexico: Men, Women, and War. Albuquerque: The University of New Mexico Press, 2000.
En las historias de Aquitania, de Navarra y del Bearne, se cita repetidamente el Señorío de Armendáriz, de inmemorial antigüedad y uno de los más famosos por el lustre de sus varones y las alianzas que contrajeron con las más nobles familias de esos países.

Ya en el siglo XII era conocido este Señorío, pues cuando Ricardo Duque de Aquitania y luego Rey de Inglaterra, concedió a la ciudad de Bayona los privilegios que constan en la Carta del año 1170,entre los Barones que con su sello y firma atestiguaron el documento, aparece allí don García, Señor de Armendáriz.

En el año de 1304 era jefe de esta estirpe don Pedro, Señor de Armendáriz y su nieto don Pedro Sanz, también poseedor de la mencionada propiedad y la de Mendigorri, a la sazón Alcaide de Rocafort en los primeros años del siglo XV. Tuvo varios hijos, siendo el segundo de ellos don Juan de Armendáriz, Alcaide del Castillo de Laguardia, esposo de doña Graciana de Samper, Señora de este antiguo solar.

Don José de Armendáriz y Perurena, descendiente de aquel, fue Maestre de Campo, Capitán General de los Ejércitos Españoles y VirRey del Perú; poseyó el Toisón de Oro, la mayor distinción de su tiempo, vistió el hábito de la Orden de Santiago, en 1699,y por sus altos merecimientos, don Felipe V le otorgó el título de Marqués de Castelfuerte el 5 de junio de 1711,falleciendo sin dejar descendencia

Don Juan Francisco de Armendáriz y Perurena, hermano del anterior, II titular de la señalada merced y también santiaguista, en la misma fecha, llegó al mundo en la ciudad de Pamplona, abrazó la carrera de las armas y llegó al grado de Teniente General, delos Reales Ejércitos. En su esposa doña María Joaquina de Monreal, engendró a don Juan Esteban de Armendáriz y Monreal, Señor de Ezcay, Coronel de caballería, Gentilhombre de S.M, que como primogénito sucedió como III Marqués de la expresada denominación; celebró esponsales con don doña María Manuela de Acedo y Jiménez de Loyola, hija del Conde de Echauz y Vizconde de Río Cavada, y viudo de ésta contrajo nuevas nupcias con doña Donata de Samaniego, hija del Marqués de Monreal, exhalando su postrer suspiro en la villa de Madrid, en 1784.

A la segunda rama, perteneció don Jaime Díaz de Armendáriz, Señor de Cadreita, que como Coronel participó en la batalla de Ravena, Italia, en 1512, donde murió peleando con bravura.

Entre las personas importantes que ostentaron este apellido, también destacaron:

Don Lope de Armendáriz o Díez de Armendáriz, nacido en Quito, Ecuador, por 1575, Señor y primer Marqués de Cadreita, dignidad nobiliaria otorgada por Felipe III en 29 de abril de 1617,General de la Armada y de la Guarda de Indias, Embajador en Alemania, Virrey y Capitán General de la Nueva España de 1635 a 1640, y Caballero de Santiago en 1605; don Juan Fernando de Armendáriz, natural de Bayona, Francia, Barón de Armendáriz, Teniente Coronel de caballería en 1806, fecha en la que se cruzó en la Orden de Santiago, nieto del también santiaguista, ya citado, don Juan Francisco de Armendáriz, en 1699; don Armando de Armendáriz, que vio la primera luz en 1757, sucesor en la repetida Baronía, de Santiago, igualmente y Oficial General de los ejércitos del Rey de Francia; don Juan Armando de Bachouè y Armendáriz, nieto materno del antecedente, Conde de Barraute, Caballero de San Luis, Capitán del mismo soberano y jefe de la casa bearnesa de su linaje, heredó la Baronía de Armendáriz y el palacio de este nombre, en 1833; a la muerte de su tío don Armando Juan, entró al servicio de España, llegando a ser Teniente General, siendo casado con doña María de la Encarnación de Armada y Mondragón y Guerra, hija de los Marqueses de Santa Cruz de Ribadulla y Vizcondes de San Julián; Don Juan Armando de Bachouè y Armendáriz, de los mismos títulos e hijo del antecedente, nació en Barraute, Francia, en 1818,ingresó en la Orden de Montesa, en 1859 y fue también Caballero de la Real Maestranza de Caballería de Sevilla; don Bernabé de Armendáriz y Alvarez de Eulate, Capitán del Regimiento de Infantería Española de Aragón, nacido en Sangüesa, Navarra, en 1695.Regidor de noble de su ciudad natal, en 1695,vistió el hábito de la Orden de Santiago, en 1727, y don Bernabé de Armendáriz y Mendoza, natural de Pamplona, donde llegó al mundo en 1745,Oficial Mayor de la Secretaría de la Cámara de Gracia y Justicia y Estado de Castilla, originario del solar de Olite, fue admitido en la Real y Distinguida Orden Española de Carlos III, en 1815.

Las armas que los Armendáriz de Navarra generalmente ostentan, se organizan así:


Los de la casa de Gainza traen:

Escudo cortado: 1o. jaquelado de oro y sinople, y 2o. de plata, con un árbol de sinople y dos lobos empinados a su tronco. En los flancos de esta partición, seis estrellas de gules, tres a cada lado, puestas en palo.

Esta palabra vascona la traducen los principales etimologistas como el roble del monte pedregoso.

El primer miembro de esta familia que al parecer pisó tierra mexicana, fue el licenciado don Miguel Díaz de Armendáriz, natural de Navarra, que antes llegó a Bogotá, como Juez de Residencia, en 1539.

Don Juan Antonio Armendáriz y Sarasola, natural de Isasondo, Guipúzcoa, casado con doña Tomasa de Echegaray, litigó por el reconocimiento de su nobleza de sangre ante la Sala de los Hijosdalgo de bla Real Chancillería de Valladolid, en 1785, obteniendo de aquel tribunal Real Provisión de un mismo acuerdo favorable a su demanda al siguiente año.

Don Manuel de Armendáriz, nacido por el año 1818, de origen chihuahuense, fue Diputado al Congreso Extraordinario Constitucional de 1874, y uno de los firmantes de la Constitución de ese año del referido Estado. Más tarde, Vocal del Consejo de Estado; Magistrado del Supremo Tribunal de Aduana del Paso del Norte, destacándose durante la Intervención Francesa y la valerosa protesta que siendo Diputado realizó contra el Imperio.

En la actualidad proliferan multitud de familias de este apellido en el norte de la República Mexicana, especialmente en el Estado de Tamaulipas.

Source: Blasones y Apellidos by Fernando Muñoz Altea. 
The book can be ordered from
Sent by Armando Montes
4th Annual Mariachi Festival, . . . . . . . Sept 7
Fandango sin Fronteras . . . . . . . . . . . Sept 8
Introduction to Military Records, . . . . .Sept 12
Tarahumara Benefit Dinner . . . . . . . . . Sept 14
1930 Census Search Strategies,  . . . . . Sept 17
Guy Gabaldon...American Hero. . . . .   Sept 17
Sephardic Symposium. . . . . . .  Sept 21
DNA samples to be taken
      Molecular Genealogy Research Project
      Bios on Speakers at Symposium

Mendez v. Westminster . . . . . . . . . . . Sept 24
Genealogical Resources. . . . . . . . . .  Sept 25
Cheech Marin Chicano Visions . . . . . Sept 25
Knights of Columbus
Veterans Museum 

GIGANTE Mexican Super Market to Open
A Call to Local Artists

Many Activities for Celebrating Hispanic Heritage Month in Orange County

4th Annual Mariachi Festival, September 7, Sponsored by the Hispanic Chamber of Commerce of Orange County.  Complete information at:  http:// 
Fandango sin Fronteras, September 8 
Centro Cultural de Mexico presents Fandango sin Fronteras a music festival that brings together in one night the masters as well as innovators of son jarocho - from Veracruz, Mexico, Mono Blanco and Son De Madera. The festival is a re-creation of a fandango or jam session common in the southern state of Veracruz, Mexico in which musicians, dancers and poets perform son jarocho - one of the most vital and creative styles of Mexican folk music. 

The fandango celebrates the music of Veracruz, its improvisational beauty and the multiple influences it has encountered and generated both locally and internationally. The event features Mono Blanco - Mexico's premier ensemble that resurrected the son jarocho movement of today, Son de Madera - Veracruz' new generation of soneros expanding the definition of son jarocho.

Fandango sin Fronteras is taking place at 1608 N. Main St., Santa Ana, CA Sunday September 8, 2002 from 2:30 pm to 8:00 pm, Donation $10.  Information: 
Carolina Sarmiento 714-856-1413 /
Alejandra Alvarez 714-750-8157 /

Centro Cultural is a Non-Profit Organization, New location: 1522 S. Main St., Santa Ana, CA 92707; Tel (714) 953-9305. For more information on son jarocho, click

National Archive and Records Administration, 24000 Avila road, 1st Floor East, Laguna Niguel
Fall 2002 Schedule of Genealogical Workshops for September, call to reserve a seat.
Introduction to Military Records, Thursday, September 12
1930 Census Search Strategies, Tuesday, September 17
Introduction to Genealogical Resources, Wednesday,  September 25
Classes start at 9:30 am, $5. fee paid at the door. Information: Randy Thompson at (949) 360-3427

Una Mano Amiga host Tarahumara Benefit Dinner September 14 
Una Mano Amiga is proud to bring the Rarámuri runners from the Sierra Tarahumara of Chihuahua, Mexico. They are visiting Southern California to promote the struggles their people are experiencing in Sierra and to collect money they will take back to their own families. The droughts of Chihuahua,
Mexico have affected several communities.  The Rarámuri will be here to expose the problems they are facing.  Please join us to support the runners and their strife. They will be in Orange County Sept. 12th - Oct. 14th.  For more information call or email
Inez Robles (714)550-4678    Cecy Guerrero (626)833-0012
                                                                                  Sent by Anthony Garcia
WATCH FOR THIS KOCE TV FEATURE: "Guy Gabaldon...American Hero"
An interview--Produced and Hosted by Alfredo Lugo on Tuesday, September 17th at 8:30 p.m.
An Alfredo Lugo Production, in association with KOCE TV Foundation "Don't miss this one"

Sephardic Symposium

September 21, 9 am to 3 pm

Presented by the 
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research

at the Orange Multi-Regional Family History Center
674 S. Yorba, Orange, California

9-10 am  Registration, Networking, tour of the Family History Center and view a 10-minute video
about the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Study and give a DNA sample. 

10-10:30:   Mimi Lozano-- Sephardics in the American Colonization
10_30-11:30:  Michael Stevens Perez-- Early Iberian Jews Migrations 
11:30- 12:00:  Kathryn Peralta-- A Researchers' Discovery

12-1:00:  Lunch and Book Signing by John P. Schmal

1-2:00:  Michah'el Ben-Yehudah--Sephardic Roots in New Mexico
2-3:00:  Peter Carr-- Jewish Sephardics in the New World

Further Explanations of Special happenings: 
Participation in the Molecular Genealogy Global DNA Study. DNA Samples will be collected through a new saliva test. The 2-minute test is a mouthwash sampling technique, newly developed. If you did not participate last year, here is another opportunity of contributing to the world-wide family tree. 
Ruth Alatorre, Diane and Ramon Gutierrez will assist in the sample taking.

Requirement: A minimum of a 4-generation chart must be submitted on disc or paper. You may submit as much information as you would like. It will be added to a world-wide database. View 10- minute video explaining the process and history of the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation. 

Lunch:  Tamales and drinks will be sold. 
During the luncheon, we will enjoy the opportunity of celebrating with John Schmal in the publication and recent release of his new book by Heritage Books, Inc.,
Mexican-American Genealogical Research: Following the Paper Trail to America. Join us in applauding John and his co-author Donna Morales in their success. The book  is a beginner's guide for Mexican Americans who are just starting to trace their families or for those who don't know where or how to start. If you would like to receive this flyer, Email Heritage Books, Inc.  The book consists of 200 pages,  $21.00. ,The book number is S2139. If anyone wants to order a copy, they can call Heritage Books at 1-800-398-7709 and place an order with a credit card (Visa/MC or Discover) or they can send a check for the book plus $5.00 shipping to 1540E Pointer Ridge Pl, Bowie, MD 20716.    

The Molecular Genealogy Research Project

Ugo A. Perego MS, Natalie M. Myres MS,
Joel E. Myres PhD, Scott R. Woodward PhD

        Under the direction of Dr. Scott Woodward, the Brigham Young University Center for Molecular Genealogy and the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation have joined efforts to develop a new genealogical database. This study is known as the Molecular Genealogy Research Project (MGRP).
        Molecular genealogy links individuals together in "family trees" based on the unique identification of genetic markers. This is accomplished by using the information encoded in the DNA of an individual and/or population to determine the relatedness of individuals, families, tribal groups, and populations. Pedigrees based on genetic markers can reveal relationships not detectable in genealogies based only on names, written records, or oral traditions. A genetic identification is unique and can even discriminate between closely related individuals or those sharing the same name. The fact that DNA is inherited and that each individual is the product of his/her progenitors means that DNA can be used to not only create unique identifications, but also to identify members of the same family, the same clan or tribal group, or the same population.
        At this time, the use of genetics in the genealogical field is primarily limited to tests involving the Y chromosome (which follows the paternal line) and the mitochondrial DNA (which follows the maternal line). The use of these two genetic tests can detect the presence of a common male or female ancestor between any two individuals that have reason to believe they belong to the same paternal or maternal line (the two outermost lines found on a pedigree chart). Unfortunately, these two methods of testing are not sufficient to answer more complex genealogical questions concerning additional family lines.
        The majority of people living in the US today descend from immigrants of foreign countries. About eighty percent of these immigrants originated from the British Isles, Scandinavia and Germany. Genealogical investigation has shown that through the process of immigration, or because of adoptions, illegitimacies, or other causes, genealogical records have often been changed, lost, destroyed, or never kept in the first place. As a result, many individuals cannot find a country of origin for one or more of their ancestors. What can be done to restore the link to their rightful heritage?
        The MGRP is currently constructing a correlated genealogical/genetic database that will enable those with blocked genealogies to extend their family history search. Once the database is fully functional, individuals can be tested genetically to determine the geographic origins of their ancestors. To construct the database, over 32,000 participants representing over 150 countries have contributed a small biological sample (blood or saliva) and a complete biological pedigree chart with four or more generations to the project. Individuals interested in learning more about the project or that would like to be a participant can contact Ugo A. Perego at
. For additional information, please visit the MGRP Web sites at
 and at

Bios on speakers: 

Michah'el Ben-Yehudah

         Michah’el David Ben-Yehudah was born in 1947 to a mixed ethnic family, his father was a Roman Catholic descended from Crypto Jews of Sephardic origin, and though Michah’s mother was raised Methodist, her family descends from a long line of Ashkenazic Eastern European rabbis. He is a Ha-Levi by birthright.
        At the age of five, he was introduced to summer Bible school at a Methodist church, and then at the age of ten, was enrolled in catechism classes for the Roman Catholic faith. He renounced G-d in 1965, when his paternal grandmother died, and spent the next four years searching. It was while he was serving an eight-year commitment in the United States Air Force, during the Viet Nam conflict, he became a believer in the L-rd and received His Salvation. He is married to his second wife, and is the father of five, and the grandfather of fourteen.
        Michah later became a policeman and then a private investigator. He has graduated from the University of Denver, and is pursuing a Masters of Public Administration. In the interim, he obtained an Associate of Criminal Justice, while acting as Director of Training at Executive Security International, Ltd. – a school for training executive protection specialists.
        As a private investigator it was only natural that Michael David study genealogy. He got started when he ran across a printing of Frey Angelico Chavez’s Origins of New Mexico Families at the University of Denver library. From that one source, he traced his Ribera family back to the sixteenth
century. He ran across stories about the Ribera name and came to believe that there was a secret surrounding the family names he was trying to trace.
        However, he ran into roadblocks surrounding the Gallegos name. After finding that his father remembered things like lighting of Sabbath candles, refusing to eat pork because it was dirty, and other idiosyncrasies, all traits of Crypto Jews, he openly embraced his Jewish heritage. He is now a practicing Orthodox Jew. He has combined his study of genealogy with his study of scripture, and though he has gone through some personal tribulations as of late, he continues steadfastly to espouse the necessity and importance of studying his heritage and the faith that has become an integral part of that study - Judaism.
        Michael Steven Perez wasn't yet born when the family moved from Santa Fe, New Mexico to San Diego, California during the Second World War. His birth followed the end of World War II. 
        After high school he attended college graduating from the University of Redlands with an undergraduate degree in Business Administration. Michael then attended Pepperdine University completing his Masters in Business Administration.
        After graduating, he accepted a position as a communications consultant with General Telephone and Electronics Company of California (GTE) in Santa Barbara, California. While living in Santa Barbara, Michael received the GTE Citizen of the Year Award for outstanding community service. He also served as a member of the Chamber of Commerce Governmental Review Committee.   As career opportunities presented themselves, he then accepted a series of executive level positions (Director, VP, EVP, CFO, CEO) in other private industry organizations including Hughes Aircraft Company, Ericsson Business Communications, and two small telecommunications companies. 
        Leaving private industry in 1990, he began teaching at the University of LaVerne as an adjunct professor. Two years later, Michael joined local government accepting a position with the County of Los Angeles, Department of Health Services (DHS). This began his career in healthcare. For the past twelve years he has continued teaching at both undergraduate and graduate levels in the areas of healthcare administration and business management and has held several management positions with DHS.
        Over the past three years, Michael has become interested in family genealogy. Preferring a focused approach, he has concentrated on his mother's de Ribera family line, as well as the, Ceballes, Barela, and Quintana lines. This genealogical research with an emphasis on New Mexico families has broadened to include historical research related to the three periods commonly known as the 1598 Onate Expedition, the 1680 Indian revolt, and the 1693 de Vargas Re-colonization of New Mexico period. Additionally, Michael has expanded his interest to the New Mexican Jewish converts to Catholicism, or "Conversos".
        Michael's research and dedicated resulted in sharing his findings on the De Ribera Webpage:
        Mary Kathryn Peralta is also a New Mexico native.  Through research Kathryn has found family connection to both Michael and Michah.  Kathryn  moved to California in the early 70s where her affinity with her roots led her to be a founding member of an agency that provided a myriad of advocacy services to the Hispanic community.  Kathryn graduated from San Francisco State University and New College of California, School of Law located in San Francisco, CA.  Kathryn selected New College Law School because it is currently one of two law schools in the United States that focuses exclusively in "public interest" legal training.  This focus fit with her life-long interests in community service and historical research.  The legal training has been invaluable in conducting her passion-genealogical research.  
        On the way to becoming a practicing lawyer Kathryn accidentally found another passion-teaching children.  Currently, she is a teacher with the Santa Ana School District, enjoying the challenge of teaching a bilingual classroom of second graders.  Kathryn has been very actively involved in community groups, such Soroptomists, the Mexican American Arts Council (now Hispanic Arts Council) of Bowers Museum, MANA, LULAC, and the Hispanic Heritage Committee.  Life can have such wonderful twists and turns if we slow down enough to bend and enjoy the turns.  Kathryn call this the "scenic route through life."

Peter E. Carr, native of Cuba, graduate California State University, Long Beach, worked as an anthropologist, author of Guide to Cuban Research, articles published in many genealogical and Latino publications, winner of ASG Scholar Award for 1997, named as State Chair by the National Association of Hispanic and Latino Studies. Peter is the newly elected president of the California State Genealogical Alliance.

For information on Mimi Lozano, go to,  Web Mistress. 

Mendez v. Westminster: For All the Children, Para Todos los Niños
Tuesday September 24, 2002 / 7:30 pm Airs on: PBS KOCE-TV (Orange, Los Angeles counties)

        In 2004, America will celebrate the 50th anniversary of the historic Brown v. Board of Education decision that ended segregation in the U.S.  However, one of the most important untold stories in American Civil Rights history happened in Orange County. Mendez v. Westminster ended segregation in Orange County and throughout  California, seven years before Brown v. Board of Education. 
        "So many of us believe that the fight for Civil Rights is a black and white battle that was fought and won solely in the American South. Mendez v. Westminster is the story of people of many colors fighting for American equality, right here in Orange County."
        In 1944, Orange County schools were segregated; there were schools for whites and schools for Mexicans. Sylvia Mendez was only eight years old when she and her brothers walked with their aunt Sally Vidaurri and cousins to enroll at the 17th Street School in Westminster. School officials told the aunt they would enroll the Vidaurri children, who had light skin and eyes, but turned away Sylvia and her brothers because they had dark-skin and a Mexican last name. Mrs. Vidaurri enrolled none of the children that day. Instead, she stormed home and told her brother Gonzalo Mendez what had happened. Gonzalo and his wife Felicitas did not want to fight, but they had no choice. So they led a community battle that changed California forever and set important legal precedent for ending segregation in the United States. 
        Seven years before Brown v. Board of Education, Mendez v. Westminster ended segregation in Orange County and throughout California. The NAACP, ACLU, American Jewish Congress, and Japanese American Citizens League all contributed amicus briefs to the appeal that was decided in San Francisco in 1947. Two important players in the historic chain of events include NAACP lawyer Thurgood Marshall and California Governor Earl Warren. Marshall went on to argue and win the landmark desegregation case of Brown v. Board of Education in 1954 and eventually became the first black Supreme Court Justice. Earl Warren went on to become the Chief Justice who wrote the Brown v. Board of Education decision. 
        Producer Sandra Robbie says, "So many of us believe that the fight for Civil Rights is a black and white battle that was fought and won solely in the American South. Mendez v. Westminster is the story of people of many colors fighting for American equality right here in Orange County. Most of Orange County, much less the United States, has no idea of the important contribution that was made here. In fact, most of the people I've spoken with, including teachers and lawyers, have no idea segregation ever existed in California. " 
        In 2004, America will celebrate the 50th anniversary of the historic Brown v. Board of Education decision that ended legalized segregation in the U.S. Hand-in-hand with that celebration, Sandra Robbie's goal is for every student in California and the U.S. to understand the important role Orange County played in American Civil Rights history. She says, "Shoulder-to-shoulder, people fought together - that is how the Mendez case was won. Hand-in-hand, people working together, that is how news of this upcoming program will spread in our communities." 
        The Real Orange documentary "Mendez v. Westminster: For All the Children, Para Todos los Niños" is set to debut on KOCE in Orange County on Tuesday, September 24, 2002 at 7:30 p.m. as part of their Hispanic Heritage Month celebration. Teachers especially are encouraged to tell their students and set their VCRs for the program. 
Information:  Sandra Robbie at  or (714) 838-1419. 
CHEECH MARIN, Wednesday, September 25, 2002
signing his new book: Chicano Visions: American Painters on the Verge, 7:00pm
Event at Libreria Martinez will take place at 1110 N. Main St., in Beautiful Downtown Santa Ana, CA 92701. For more information, please call (714) 973-7900 or you may fax us at (714) 973-7902, or please visit our website at                           Sent by Reuben Martinez
Knights of Columbus
Orange County was host to the 120th International Supreme Council of the Knights of Columbus.
There are 5,500 Knights of Columbus in Orange County, 50,000 in the state and 1.6 million world-wide.  Representatives from all over the country, the Philippines, Central America, Canada, Mexico and the Caribbean.  The Knights were founded to help widows of Irish immigrants.  Today they engage in charitable works.  OC Register, 8-6-02
Veterans Museum 
Ronald Melendez, manager of the Veterans Service Office is spearheading an effort to turn one of the blimp hangars at the former Tustin Marine Corps Air Station into the world's largest veterans' military museum and  cultural center. The County Board of Supervisors are studying the matter. The county's Veterans Service Office has already collected more than $60 million worth of tank,  aircraft, weapons and war uniforms in its inventory for the museum, which would take visitors through the events of World War II, the Korean War and the Vietnam War.  The project's first phase will focus on World War II's Pacific theater.  OC Register, 8-6-02
GIGANTE Mexican Super Market to Open in Anaheim, 650 North Euclid

After much discussion by the the Anaheim City Council, Gigante, one of the largest grocery chains in Mexico finally received approval to open in Anaheim. The initial action by the City Council was rejection based on concerns about the ethnic atmosphere and the position that targeted shoppers were not reflective of the area. However, the Latino population is 60%.  The success of getting the City Council to change is attributed to the pro-active Latino community leaders who demonstrated a broad based community support for the supermarket.
A Call to Local Latino Artists . . .  
Latinos have been accused of not being interested in their environment. Visiting the Ocean Gallery in Huntington Beach, I saw no Hispanic surnames among the represented artists.  I bring this interesting project to your attentionHopefully some Latino artists will participate.]]         
        The Huntington Beach Chamber of Commerce announces its 5th annual Surf City Art  Show and Business Exp, October 5 & 6th at the Pier Plaza in downtown Huntington Beach Pier.  Artists are being sought for participation in the "One Mile Ocean Mural" project. The One Mile Ocean Mural project is part of a larger 100-year project, For the Seventh Generation,  to eventually create a free-standing panorama that includes images from each mile of the California, Oregon and Washington coastline. The goal is to draw attention to the needs and value of the ocean through the united efforts of artists and their ability to share their appreciation of the ocean to people across the nation. 
  Decisions made today [should] be done in light of their impact to the society and future world of our children, grandchildren and grand-generations.  John Tepley,     
The format for each panel should measure 48" across by 24" high and must include a horizontal element 8" and 8" down in the composition.  Image can be on diverse materials such as batik, wood block print, canvas, etc.  To view works by other artists, go to the Oceans Gallery, Headquarters at 7682 Edinger in Huntington Beach.  $35. participation fee is requested.  For more information, contact,  John Tepley, MFA Director said he would accept entries until October 3. Call: 714-841-3515
Expressiones Sin Fronteras, last day . . Sept 5
Free Curatorial Workshop. . . . . . . . . . Sept 6-8
The Power of Place, Opens. . . . . . . . .  Sept 8
Silver Lake Film Festival. . . . . . . . Sept 12-21
Fiestas 16 Festival. . . . . . . . . . . . . Sept 12-15
El Alcalde de Zalamea Play, Opens   Sept 30
Expressions without Border - Expressiones Sin Fronteras   
The exhibition runs until September 5th, 2002.
        "Sin Fronteras" is an Art exhibition presented by ARTINO at the El Pueblo Art Gallery on L.A.'s historic Olvera Street.  ARTINO is a group of Artists who have joined together to bring a greater appreciation of Latino Art to the world. Yours truly, Mark Vallen (the latest member of this dynamic group), has on display four important works, one of which will be on public display for the very first time. The Artist's Reception for the exhibit was a resounding success. Held on July 20th 2002,
the event attracted many hundreds of people from all over Los Angeles. At times the spacious Gallery was so crowded it became difficult to view the Artworks on display.
        To read a full review of the exhibition which includes many photographs of the works on display, visit the ARTINO Website at:
         The El Pueblo Art Gallery is located at: 125 Paseo de la Plaza, Ste. 400, smack dab in the middle of Olvera Street. For more info, call ARTINO at: (818) 365-3033.
Free Curatorial Workshop, September 6-8th, 1-4 PM each day 
Mexican Cultural Institute Art Gallery, Olvera Street in the Plaza, Downtown Los Angeles
The workshops are completely hands-on and completely free of charge to the public. Experienced curators and museum professionals will teach all the workshops.  Reserve a spot, (213) 624-3660.
  • Learn all about what goes into planning an art exhibition.
  • Learn how to actually install paintings in a gallery.
  • Learn how to write and prepare educational materials for schools, the media, and as part of the exhibition.
  • Learn how to plan and organize related activities to involved different community groups.
  • Learn how to express your unique vision of art through exhibitions.
The Power of Place
        Boyle Heights: The Power of Place exhibit at the Japanese American National Museum in Los Angeles. Weingart Foundation Gallery (September 8, 2002 – February 23, 2003) The exhibition will open to the public on Sunday, September 8, 2002 in conjunction with an exhibition of prints depicting imagery related to and inspired by Boyle Heights at Self-Help Graphics. We are cross-promoting the exhibitions and on September 8th will provide free shuttle transportation between the National Museum and Self-Help Graphics to encourage visitors to experience both exhibitions. 
Howard Shorr
Silver Lake Film Festival, September 12-21, 2002. 
        A 10 day event featuring over 200 films, music, parties and art from the local area. On September 16, Mexican Independence Day, there will be an event called "Cinema Mexicana" which will feature Latino films to be shown at the Vista Theatre. Also, looking for companies to sponsor (community, food, or liquor sponsors), advertise in the programs, or take part in some way. 
        In need of projectors and lighting equipment. For more information: or contact  or 323-993-7225. 
To sponsor information: Michelle Pinto-e-Costa 323-665-5226 
                                                                                        Sent by LatinoLA

Fiesta 16 Festival at Plaza Olvera, September 12-15 Presented by Telemundo 52
Three-day festival of music, dance, and celebration, 
Preceded by a reception Thursday, September 6-8 for Roberto Rosique,
internationally know artist and journalist form Tijuana, Mexico
at the Mexican Cultural Institute Art Gallery, 125 Paseo de la Plaza, Los Angeles
RSVP for reception, (213) 624-3660

Entertainment and special activities for children organized by the Mexican Cultural Institute
Alameda side at Los Los Angeles Street from 10 am to 5 pm. 

El Alcalde de Zalamea, written by Pedro Calderón de la Barca 
Adapted by Margarita Galban and Lina Montalvo
September 20 through November 3, 2002
The Bilingual Foundation of the Arts, 421 N. Ave 19, Los Angeles, CA 90031
Ticket Information (323) 225-4044 is dedicated to providing pathways for expanding the appreciation and understanding of modern and contemporary historical periods in Latin American art from the 20th century onwards. The purpose of this educational site is to present the most current and scholarly information on international issues, events, exhibitions, and established masters to cutting-edge artists, in Latin America. connects the student, scholar, art professional, artist, collector, and others with direct access to the exciting field of Latin American art through a comprehensive calendar listing of art fairs, auctions, gallery and museum openings, and other international events; articles on art issues written by prominent scholars; virtual tours of major exhibitions and biennials; live interviews with the leading artists; and a resource directory of key individuals and institutions all over Latin America. All information is bilingual in Spanish and English, and updated regularly. For further information please contact Staff Directory LatinArt is managed by a group of collectors, curators and art historians of Latin American Art and maintains offices at 100 South Doheny Drive, Suite 1011, Los Angeles, CA 90048, 310-247-8885, Fax: 310-247-8771 email: 
Senate Bill 1614 Passed 
Choice California Websites
Cesar Chavez High School Name Rejected
150-mile March for Farmer's Rights
Mexican farm workers eligible for U.S. pensions 
Online Archive of California
California History Online
Redlands Mexican Independence Day, Sept 14
Viva Roseville Festival, Sept 15 
Victor Villaseñor
Cal State Northridge, 1.6 million grant 
The First House in Lake Elsinore Genealogy Library
History in San Luis Obispo County
California Newspaper Project

California 1850 - A Snapshot in Time
August 31,  SB 1614 passed, this Senate Bill will virtually shut down the CA birth and death indexes to genealogical researchers. It now will go to Governor Gray Davis, for his signature. We must write letters to him, asking him to veto the bill. It is my understanding he is the one behind getting this bill passed. Maybe we haven't been letting him know how we feel I have been told that not all emails and faxes will reach him, but the following address for snail mail letters will reach him.

Governor Gray Davis, State Capitol Building
Attention Legislative Unit, Sacramento, CA 95814

It is the Legislative Unit that will see that he receives all the mail addressed in this manner. For any of you not familiar with SB 1614, it has gone through a few revisions, but not enough. I received the following email as an update to what is going on in Sacramento:

SUMMARY OF SB 1614 in its present form:

1. This bill would remove the comprehensive birth and death indices from protection of the California Public Records Act.

2. This bill would require the State Registrar to establish a separate, NON-comprehensive electronic birth and death indices, available for public inspection FOR A FEE at county recorders' offices statewide and at the office of the State Registrar. The information to be excluded is: mother's
maiden name on the birth index; and Social Security Number from the death index. Individuals who wish to view the non-comprehensive birth or death index must certify, UNDER PENALTY OF PERJURY, that the information they view will not be used for criminal purposes, and explain why they wish to access.

3. This bill would permit the release of SPECIFIED personal information to financial institutions and consumer credit reporting agencies, for the sole purpose of determining if the person whose information is being released is still living. The COMPREHENSIVE indices will no longer be available to the public.

4. This bill would impose a criminal penalty - misdemeanor, punishable by imprisonment in the county jail for a period not to exceed one year or $1,000.00 fine - on anyone selling, assigning, or transferring the indices information.

Read the full text of the amended language at:
        I was asked for suggestions on what to include in a letter to the governor. Please do not use exact wording, we want him to believe we are thinking on our own, and not little lemmings playing follow the leader. This bill is very important as other states are watching us. You may not have research in California, but you sure have research somewhere, do you want vital record indexes shut down to you?
        Exactly what use is it to remove the Soc Sec number from CA death indexes? They are on the SSDI (Soc Sec Dth Idx).
        Removing a mother's maiden name from a birth index will accomplish what? How many people today are even using their mother's maiden name for identification on their bank accounts? I personally changed mine before I was even using a computer. I realized I was exchanging family history with people I didn't really know, all across the country. This was before we heard much about hackers. It was just common sense to ask the bank if I had to use my mother's maiden name. When they told me no, I just had to think of something I wouldn't forget -- do you know how hard that was for me?
        Identity thieves do not use basic research sources to steal identities. Join the real world, governor, they go right for the throat, get in and out quickly, by the time the theft is noted, they are well on their way to going after someone else's bank account, credit cards etc.
        While this bill was in committee, hackers broke into the California State Employees Payroll Records, now I really feel safe that a bill has stopped someone from looking at those indexes.
        Individuals who wish to view the non-comprehensive birth or death
index must certify, UNDER PENALTY OF PERJURY, that the information they view
will not be used for criminal purposes, and explain why they wish to access.*** Now, doesn't that sound like the trite questions asked at the airports "Has your luggage been out of your sight? Did anyone else pack your luggage? etc etc" They are dropping those dumb questions at the airports, after all if someone was a crook do you really think they'd tell you so? And, I'm sure the threat of perjury is going to scare crooks, right?
        Add what you like in your letter, genealogists are not the only ones against this bill.
        Joan Rambo, Vice President FHA 
Santa Clarita Valley History In Pictures
Almanac: California Missions
UCR/CMP: California Missions 
CMSA: California Missions Scholars               Sent by Johanna de Soto
School Board Rejects Naming of Cesar Chavez High School in Watsonville, CA
By David L. Beck, San Jose Mercury News / August 16, 2002
        When it finally came to a vote, all the political pressure and popular petitions that organizers could muster, all the sign-waving and speeches couldn't persuade a Watsonville school board to name its new high school after Cesar Chavez.
        The school board, haunted by memories of labor strife in the 1970s, when Chavez and his United Farm Workers tried to organize the Pajaro Valley, said they were moved by a desire for unity in a community they saw as once again being torn apart over the name Chavez and what it symbolizes.
        Supporters predicted their vote could have far-reaching consequences in Watsonville, a city of 47,000, an estimated 75 percent of whom are Latinos. Despite their numbers, the Latino population has only recently begun to dominate local politics, winning a majority on the city council for the first time in 1998. And they still have barely a presence on the school board.
                                                                                            Zeke Hernandez

Extract from: PV board rejects Chavez high school name; protest erupts 
by Karen A. Davis, The Santa Cruz Sentinel staff writer / Aug. 15, 2002
But some longtime residents decried allowing the school to be named for the preference of any one ethnic group. We have to choose a name that is going to be welcoming to everyone," said Willie Yahiro. "I've had parents call me to say they won't send their kids to that school."  "If we are going with one culture, what are we saying to the others?" asked lifelong resident Shawna Lynn.
150-mile March for Farmer's Rights
        Growers who want Gov. Gray Davis to veto a bill to expand the rights of farm laborers have showered him with campaign contributions, while the United Farm Workers union has organized a 150-mile march up the Central Valley.  August 16 was the start of the march.
        Promising daily fasts and celebrity supporters, the UFW plans to retrace the steps Chavez took on his first march to Sacramento. The route took 10 days, begun  in Merced and went through farm towns and cities like Modesto and Stockton.
        The 10-day, 150-mile "March for the Governor's Signature" culminated with a rally at the state Capitol. Led by UFW president Arturo Rodriguez and Dolores Huerta, who co-founded the union with the late Cesar Chavez, the core group of 75 marchers gathered at a park in Turlock for a lengthy 7 a.m. Mass, then set out for Modesto, waving red-and-white flags with the black UFW eagle on them, listening to jaunty Mexican folk tunes by Los Lobos and other artists. 

UFW Continues Efforts for Governor's Signature on SB 1736
        On August 25, hundreds of farm workers finished a 165 mile "March for the Governor's Signature" and were joined by 7000 farm workers and supporters on their final steps. They reached the Capitol on Sunday and held an emotional rally. Dozens of lawmakers were present. Lupillo Rivera, who was once a farm worker, heard of the March, came of Sacrmamento and entertained with his popular songs.
        Join Melissa Gilbert, President of Screen Actors Guild, UFW leaders and hold huge signs urging Gov. Gray Davis to sign the UFW bill for binding arbitration. The media coverage has been intense. An "A" list of Hollywood actors; Jack Nicholson, Danny Glover, Martin Sheen, Barnara Streisand, Sean Penn, and many others signed onto a letter that was published in "Variety" calling on Davis to sign the farm worker bill.    To Participate, contact:  Zeke Hernandez

Mexican farm workers who toiled in U.S. eligible for pensions  Efe - August 6, 2002

        Mexico City, Aug 6 (EFE).- Some 2,000 Mexican migrant workers who were covered by United Farm Workers of America (UFW) contracts are eligible for pensions, California Lt. Gov. Cruz Bustamante said. Bustamante said the union, organized by Chicano labor leader Cesar Chavez, created the Juan de la Cruz Farm Workers Pension Plan in the 1970s for the benefit of some 9,700 people, including 2,000 Mexicans who have not claimed their pensions.
        Bustamante added that the pensions paid between $100 and $800 a month, depending on the length of time the migrants worked, and could be claimed by contacting the UFW.

Online Archive of California  

Note re Spanish names: Many of the Spanish names appearing in these documents are incorrectly written, therefore we have corrected them, according to the present rules of the Spanish language.
Examples: Errera (Herrera), Albares (Alvarez), Albarado (Alvarado, Ybarra (Ibarra), Yguera (Higuera), Balenzuela (Valenzuela), Valdez (Valdes), Balencia (Valencia), Berdugo (Verdugo), Carmel (Carmen), Ygnacio (Ignacio), Bacilio (Basilio), Geronimo (Jeronimo), Raymundo (Raimundo), Ysidro (Isidro), Ysidoro (Isidoro), and many others.

Inventory of the Los Angeles County Prefecture Records
The Huntington Library, San Marino, California, Contact information:

Manuscripts Department, The Huntington Library
1151 Oxford Road, San Marino, California 91108
Phone: (626) 405-2203 Fax: (626) 449-5720
Email:  URL:
                                                                                                             Sent by Johanna de Soto
California History Online
Sent by Johanna de Soto
VIVA ROSEVILLE ! Hispanic Heritage Festival, Sunday September 15, 2002 / 11 am to 8:30 pm
Royer Park, Roseville, CA   FREE Admission / FREE Parking 

        The Hispanic Empowerment Association of Roseville or (HEAR) will host and sponsor with the Sacramento Hispanic Chamber of Commerce Cultural Arts Committee - the 3rd Annual VIVA ROSEVILLE! - Hispanic Heritage Festival. The Hispanic Heritage Festival will be presented on Sunday, September 15,
        VIVA ROSEVILLE! is a regional wide celebration of Hispanic Heritage with over 60 booths, non-stop world famous Hispanic entertainers, azteca dancers, wonderful ethnic foods and children's activities. $5,000 in Student Scholarships will be awarded at VIVA ROSEVILLE! to Latino 1st year college students enrolled with 12 units or more at any local College or University and that graduated from any high school in Roseville, "Class of 2002." HEAR gave out 13 Scholarships last year at $250 each. 
        Media inquires and press credentials please call Cindy Lopes of Blue Marble Communications Inc. at 916-772-5365 or via email at
 Rene Aguilera at (916) 782-2040 
Redlands Mexican Independence Day, September 14

        The festival will run from 11 a.m. to 7 p.m. Community Park on Church Street and Pennsylvania Avenue in Redlands. Entertainment, music, food, children's activities, booths and displays.
        Robert Gonzales organizers says, "It's about all of our freedom here in this part of the world,"  As with the Fourth of July, Sept. 16 is part of a shared history of independence from colonial power, he said.
        Gonzales recently created Inland Mexican Heritage, which took over from where his Redlands Oral History project left off. He hopes it will serve as an umbrella organization for other area cultural groups. Inland Mexican Heritage recently applied for a grant to help fund the project "Living on the Dime," a look at the past and present of communities on Interstate 10 from Rialto to Banning.
        For more information,  or (909) 347-2379.
Source: Amy Diaz, The Press-Enterprise, 8-23-02   Sent by Anthony Garcia,

Victor Villaseñor
The acclaimed author of Macho, the Ballad of Gregorio Cortez and Rain of Gold, Mexican American writer Víctor Villaseñor continues the story of his family, begun in Rain of Gold, with Thirteen Senses, a Memoir. First published in 1991, Rain of Gold takes the reader from war-torn Mexico during the Revolution to the present day. A daring memoir of love, magic, adventure, and miracles, in Thirteen Senses the author brings readers into the Bonnie-and-Clyde-like world of his colorful, immigrant family: a world set in Depression-era Southern California: a harsh world, where only the wily and strong survive, and where love, passion, and commitment to familia are the sole dependable forces.

Cal State Northridge Library awarded $1.6 million grant for Latino outreach program

The California State University , Northridge's library has been awarded a five-year $1.6 million grant from the U.S. Department of Education to bolster the library's outreach
program to the Latino community. The project, "Improving Student Success Through Strengthening Library Collections, Archives and Information Competence," received the grant through the Department of Education's Hispanic Serving Institutions [HSI] Program.
        Susan C. Curzon, dean of the university's library, said the project has three objectives: to increase Latino students' library use and research skills by expanding the library's
collections, in all media, related to Latino history, social sciences and culture; to acquire, digitize and improve accessibility of primary archival materials related to Latino individuals and organizations in the San Fernando Valley area 
and other areas within Los Angeles; and to measure the impact of instruction by librarians on student information competence skills, a goal of the university's overall general education program. Cal State Northridge officials say that of the 31,448 students enrolled in fall 2001, 30 percent were Latino. The Department of Education grant will give the university $1,610,951 over the course of five years, or about 82 percent of the total cost of the project. Curzon said the remaining money would come out of the university's budget. Library Journal Academic Newswire (TM). 
Source:, Inc.

The First House in Lake Elsinore
The Gate Leading to the Machado Adobe

Thousands of motorists pass by this gate near the junction of the Ortega Highway and Grand Avenue every single day, but few realize or even know that this is the site of the very first building ever built on the banks of the little lake that the Pai-ah-chi Indians called Etengvo Wumoma.   
                                                                                                           Sent by Johanna de Soto Genealogy Foundation  Library - United States - History

Pioneer Notes from the Diaries of Judge Benjamin Hayes, edited by Marjorie Tisdale Wolcott
Published: Los Angeles, Privately Printed, 1929.  Note: Born Baltimore, Maryland, 1815; moved to California in 1850; was 1st Judge of the Southern District of California, which included Los Angeles 
and San Diego counties.                                                                         Sent by Johanna de Soto
This is an interesting site ,with links to many historical California websites.  Sent by Johanna de Soto
California Newspaper Project,

        Newspapers have recorded California history since August 15, 1846, when Robert Semple published the first issue of The Californian in Monterey. These publications contain much more than news articles, telling us about moral and ethical concerns, as well as tastes, fashions and standards of living. Birth, death and wedding announcements present important sources for genealogists. The state's foreign language newspapers chronicle the rich diversity of California's many ethnic communities, serving as an important source for multi-cultural research and education.
        The California Newspaper Project (CNP), managed by the Center for Bibliographical Studies and Research, University of California, Riverside, under the direction of Dr. Henry L. Snyder, constitutes a major effort to identify and preserve the state's history and heritage as reflected in its newspapers. Offices of the California Newspaper Project are located at the University of California, Riverside, the University of California, Berkeley, and the California State Library.               Sent by Johanna de Soto
California 1850 - A Snapshot in Time focuses on California life and culture in the year of statehood.

The book captures the delight of those interested in California history, from novices to seasoned history buffs. It also makes a useful travel companion with its lists of historical sites and museums to visit in each county. Maps, photographs Maps, photographs, biographical sidebars, rancho charts, and endnotes full of intriguing bits of information add interest that will extend the life of the book well into the new millennium. In addition, this website has links to many other websites which pertain to California history.                                                  Sent by Johanna de Soto

Spanish Classes Are in Demand
SURNAMES of  New Mexico Families
Cowboy Poetry
NMDI Project Update
Virginia Sanchez Accepted into the DAR
Searchable Spanish Mission Records in Tumacácori
National Hispanic Cultural Center of New Mexico 
Colorado Marriages and Divorces
 Spanish Classes Are in Demand, The Arizona Daily Star  - August 11, 2002  

        Tucson professionals have shown a growing interest to encourage bi-lingual skills.   . .  And with good reason: A recent University of Arizona study found that Mexican visitors spent more than $300 million in Pima County last year and more than $960 million statewide. And all that spending occurred in a recession-racked year in both countries, according to the study, conducted for the city's Tucson-Mexico Office.
        Hispanics are taking Spanish language classes. . . . "Our parents, whether consciously or subconsciously, made an effort to have English be their kids' primary language," she said. "During their time, it was definitely not seen as an attribute to speak Spanish as your native tongue."
        She says attitudes have changed and many people now recognize the ability to speak more than one language is an attribute. "I'm getting more in touch with my cultura and that's very important," she said.
        That's also important to Lucy Silva-Stump, office manager at the Boys & Girls Club of Tucson. Silva-Stump has wanted to learn Spanish since moving to Tucson in 1973 and will soon begin the Tucson Hispanic Chamber of Commerce class.
        She hopes her employer will help pay the $365 tuition fee because she knows that - as beneficial as learning Spanish will be to her - it will be equally beneficial to the Boys & Girls Club.
"I was raised by parents in Michigan who felt it would be better if we spoke only English," she said. "Even though I can understand some, I'm very self-conscious about not speaking at the level I want to. I see it as doubling my communication and doubling my value to my employer."

* Contact Star Business reporter Jonathan J. Higuera at 573-4104 or at
To see more of The Arizona Daily Star Online, or to subscribe, go to 

SURNAMES of  New Mexico Families
                                                                                       Sent by Helen Romer
Cowboy Poetry
        Cipriano Vigil, a music professor at Northern New Mexico Community College, is pioneering a movement to modify traditional Spanish-language folk music to address contemporary political and social issues confronting New Mexico's Latinos. "I remember as a little boy being able to go into the mountains to fish, hunt, and gather wood for the fires to cook our tortillas.  Then the Forest Service fenced the land, and a big Colorado outfit cut all the timber.  They stripped the land and changed our lives."  The following was excerpted from "Se ve triste el hombre/ The Man Looks Sad")

In my grandfather's day,
when wire fences didn't exist,
from this rock to that little pine
my land extended,
from this rock to that little pine
my land extended.

Those days are gone,
they have taken everything away.
Now they look at us and laugh
and see us as fools,
now they look at us and laugh
and see us as fools.

The man looks sad,
the man from the mountains.
They destroyed Nature
and took away the water and the land,
they destroyed Nature
and took away the water and the land.

Source:  Article in the Sunset, January 1994
Buckaroo Bards, the West's new breed of cowboy poets by Jeff Phillips

NMDI Project Update
         My name is Sam-Quito Padilla G., and I am the Head Coordinator for the New Mexico Death Index Project. I am not sure if you are familiar with the project, check it out.  Although the NMDI Project is not completed, I wanted to give you an update on what is happening.:
         The Section 3 (years 1941 to 1950) has been put back at least until January of 2003. The death index has not been filmed, still on paper. The department said that they are very shorthanded and will try to get to the death index by December or early 2003. There are many people waiting for this section to be completed and will make an announcement when this part of the project starts.
        Our volunteers are still very restless in doing something, so we have started to index the 1930 New Mexico Census. A soundex was not done for New Mexico and many other states for the 1930 Census. We have started this important project and looking for assistance from people as yourself. You can get more information by going to the New Mexico Death Index Project Website at: and there is a link in the lower part of the page about the NMDI Projects.          Bye for now, Sam-Quito
Virginia Sanchez Accepted into the DAR
        Congratulations to Virginia Sanchez for being inducted into the Daughters of the American Revolution on 4 July.  Her ancestor, Antonio Xavier Madril,  was a soldier under Anza during the time of the American Revolution. Virginia's 65 page application was sent to Washington, D.C. in May for processing. NSHG Newsletter, August 2002
        The National Society Daughers of the American Revolution was founded on October 11, 1890 - Historical to perpetuate the memory and spirit of the men and women who achieved America Independence; Educational - to carry on the injunction of Washington in his farewell address to the American people, "to promote, as an object of primary importance, institutions for the general diffusion of knowledge, thus developing an enlightened public opinion . . ."  and Patriotic -maintain and extend the institutions of American freedom, to foster true patriotism and love of country, and to aid in securing for mankind all the blessings of liberty.
         Dr. Granville W. Hough shares the following: The soldiers at the Santa Fe Presidio made their donation by working on the Presidio fortifications, so they did not have to contribute money, which was available in New Mexico. In San Diego, where the donativo was made, it was an accounting transaction converted into money transfer later in Mexico City.                                                            Dr.Granville W. Hough         
Searchable Spanish Mission Records in Tumacácori  Home | Planning Your Visit | Park Tour | Special Events | Anza Trail | Priests | Father Kino |Kino Missions | Natives | Natural Resources | Educational Resources | Preservation Efforts Volunteering | Site Map

This is a wonderful site, with cross references of documents and actual copies of the document. You can enter a name and will get a listing of the documents available on that person.

Event ID: 5031 Book: Tubac-M Page Number: 8
Event: Marriage Event Date: 08/14/1818 Event Place: Tubac

Notes: 86 - José Chamorro and Isabel Otero. In the year of the Lord 1818 on the 14th day of August, the three Banns prescribed by the Holy Council of Trent having preceded on three solemn and consecutive feast days, and no canonical impediment having resulted, I, Fray Narciso Gutiérrez, in charge of Tubac, in the church asked José Chamorro, widower of María Agustina Miranda, and Isabel Otero of the Yuma nation and a resident of the gentility, if they wanted to be joined in marriage. Having their consent, I solemnly joined and veiled them in true and legitimate matrimony according to current church ceremony on the same day. Witnesses who were present and well known were Juan José Zuñiga, Tomás Verdugo, and Thomas Castro, and I signed as above: 
= Fray Narciso Gutiérrez, in charge of Tubac.                                       
Sent by Johanna de Soto

National Hispanic Cultural Center of New Mexico
Showcasing historic and contemporary Hispanic arts, humanities, and achievements from the past 400 years. Enjoy art exhibits, dance, music, and theater. Explore your family roots in our state-of-the art genealogy center. Also visit our gift shop, La Tiendita and restaurant, La Fonda del Bosque. 
Colorado Marriages and Divorces  Search on all marriages (from 1975 through April 2002) and divorces (from 1968 through April 2002) in the state of Colorado.                                                                                           Sent by Johanna de Soto
Black Indian Genealogy Research Reparations
Black Indian Genealogy Research
African American Ancestors among the Five Civilized Tribes by Angela Y. Walton-Raji
        The historical relationship between Native Americans and African Americans has been called "one of the longest unwritten chapters in the history of the United States."  Unlike the commonly held perception that slavery in American consisted only of white people owning black people, the reality was much more complex.  There were many white people who were enslaved or indentured, many blacks were free, and many Indians who owned Africa slaves.
        Not all white-Indian relations were hostile and a number of tribes, in particular the Cherokees, Chickasaws, Choctaws, Creeks, and Seminoles, of the "Five Civilized Tribes" as the became known, adopted European ways, including agriculture and black slave to work their new farms.
        In 1907 the Indian Territory became the State of Oklahoma.  To qualify for the payments and land allotments were set aside for the Five Civilized Tribes, the former slave of these nations had to apply for official enrollment, thus producing testimonies of immense value to today's genealogist.  Ms. Walton-Raji shows were to find and how to use the Indian Freedman Records, discusses Black Indian and Tri-Racial groups from the Upper South and has added two lists of family names: Freemen Surnames from the Final Rolls of the Five Civilized Tribes, and Surnames of Tri-Racial families of the Upper South.  1993, 180 pp., illus. bibl., index, paper, $20.50.
        Several thousand supporters of reparations for slavery gathered in front of the Capitol August 17 and demanded a national dialogue on how to repay the descendants of slaves for their centuries of free labor. The rally, whose theme was "Reparations Now: They Owe Us," marked the first such mass gathering in Washington in favor of ederal compensation to the descendants of African-American slaves. 
        Louis Farrakhan, leader of the Nation of Islam said " America owes black people (and) native Americans a lot for what we have endured.  Black America must unite on the principle of reparations."  OC Register, 8-18-02

National Pow Wow, Washington, DC, Sept 14-15
Mexican Indians seek political asylum in U.S.
Winnebago, Omaha Tribe Soaring
Mission Record of California Indians
The Chumash
Indigenous Peoples Survival Foundation

Cocopa Indigenous Community
Marriages in the Chickasaw Nation 1855 - 1907
We Salute
Dreaming a Language Back to Life
Indiana University Pow Wow 
Tepee for Sale
National Museum of the American Indian Pow Wow, September 14-15
The National Mall, Fourth Street at Jefferson, Drive, SW  Washington, D.C.      or email at  202-357-3164 ext. 159
Mexican Indians seek political asylum in U.S.
Several hundred Indians accused the Mexican government of discrimination Thursday and asked the U.S. Embassy in Mexico City for political asylum. Gathering in front of the embassy, the Mazahua Indians held up signs requesting asylum for the 18,000 people who live in the town of San Antonio Pueblo Nuevo, 125 miles west of Mexico City.  Embassy officials said they referred the group to six Mexican state and federal organizations, including several human-rights groups that might be able to help them.  The embassy does not process political asylum requests, official said.  Some 300 Indians sat peacefully in front of the embassy for several hours.  OC Register, 8-9-02

Winnebago, Omaha Tribe Soaring
     Lance Morgan, the son of a Czech-American roofer and his Winnebago Indian wife was just a few years out of Harvard Law School when the tribe of 1,600 people hired him in 1995 to capitalize on their gambling profits.
     Morgan masterminded a tribe-owned corporation (Ho-Chunk, Inc.) that has parlayed modest profits from a tribe-run casino into a diversified company with 275 employees and annual revenues of $50 million.  In December Harvard's Kennedy School of Government gave HCI a prestigious $100,000 award in recognition of its success.
     Morgan has moved his tribe from gambling "into a healthier set of businesses.  It allows them to preserve their culture and move into a high-tech future."  People, 4/8/02, page 183-4     


From a Manuscript in the Bancroft Library by Alfred. L. Kroeber, Published May 28, 1908 in
Web Edition, newly edited by Copyright 1999 by Joel GAzis-SAx

[[This is fascinating reading. Information concerning each of the California missions is based on first hand observations of the Indian traditions by early colonizing priests and soldiers. Attitudes vary among the writers, but the activities of the indigenous came to life.This is one file out of a massive collection of information about California before 1900.  It also has a variety of sources for the information.  Maps with select information is included to clarify points.]]  Sent by Johanna de Soto

Early California History, Southern California before 1900
Maintained by
Francis F. Steen, Communication Studies, University of California Los Angeles

The canoe / Courage! / You have the power to succeed in reaching the other side, so that you may get where you want to go . . .  CHUMASH INDIAN CANOE SONG, (RECORDED BY JOHN PEABODY HARRINGTON)

Sea captain Sebastian Vizcaino explored the southern California coast in A.D. 1602, sixty years after the first Spanish ships had ventured northward from Baja California. He sailed through the sun-drenched waters of the Santa Barbara Channel, which the Chumash called "The Ocean-Where-the-Islands-Are-in-Front." He wrote, "A canoe came out to us with two Indian fishermen, who had a great quantity of fish, rowing so swiftly that they seemed to fly . . . After they had gone five Indians came out in another canoe, so well constructed and built that since Noah's Ark a finer and lighter vessel with timbers better made has not been seen. Four men rowed, with an old man in the center singing . . . and the others responding to him."Sea captain Sebastian Vizcaino explored the southern California coast in A.D. 1602, sixty years after the first Spanish ships had ventured northward from Baja California. He sailed through the sun-drenched waters of the Santa Barbara Channel, which the Chumash called "The Ocean-Where-the-Islands-Are-in-Front." He wrote, "A canoe came out to us with two Indian fishermen, who had a great quantity of fish, rowing so swiftly that they seemed to fly . . . After they had gone five Indians came out in another canoe, so well constructed and built that since Noah's Ark a finer and lighter vessel with timbers better made has not been seen. Four men rowed, with an old man in the center singing . . . and the others responding to him."
                                                                                                               Sent by Johanna de Soto

Indigenous Peoples Survival Foundation (IPSF)
        The Indigenous Peoples Survival Foundation (IPSF) is a non-profit organization which helps indigenous peoples around the world, regardless of origin, race, religion, nationality, or 
gender. The indigenous peoples are those who hold onto their ancient traditions and live among nature in peace and harmony. 
        They consider Mother Earth and all that she holds in her bosom to be sacred. The water, air, animals, vegetation, land and mountains are all honorable and have been entrusted to 
mankind for use during the journey of life. This gives us a chance to share and care for those who are unfortunate.
        Indigenous Peoples Survival Foundation, P. O. Box 535, Pelham, NY 10803 USA 
914-636-5663 fax: 914-632-7522 website:  
BC's Cocopa Indigenous Community: Fighting to Fish and Survive
        In late April, 2002, Mexico's Comisión Nacional de Derechos Humanos (National Commission for Human Rights, CNDH) sent a request to the Procuraduría Federal de Protección al Medio Ambiente (Federal Environmental Protection Agency, Profepa) to have Profepa allow the Cocopa indigenous people to fish in their historic territory.
        The CNDH's request came after two years of study in which it concluded that a fishing ban in the Colorado River Delta Biosphere Reserve was unconstitutional as it violated the Cocopa's right to food, work, social well-being, and the preservation of their culture. The ban was established in 1993.
        The Cocopa asked for the CNDH's help in 2000 when the water level of the Colorado River dropped to levels that the Cocopa believed would threaten the lives of regional fish, according to two articles in the Méxicali newspaper La Crónica.
        While most of the 260 Cocopa have scattered throughout Baja California and western Sonora, fifteen families still remain in one community, El Mayor, which is part of the Colorado River ecosystem. The Cocopa are not allowed to fish in the rich Colorado River Delta, part of their historic range, and the ban is enforced by federal inspectors and the Mexican military.
        Instead, the Cocopa must fish the meager pickings of the upper stretches of the Colorado. There, they pull in ten kilograms (approximately 22 pounds) of fish per day.
        Further downstream, in the Gulf of California, fishing vessels bring in so many tons of fish that the fish market floods and the fish cannot be sold. In a strange twist, when they cannot survive on their own fishing, the Cocopa sometimes work gutting fish from the Gulf's big commercial boats, according to La Crónica.
        The CNDH has said that if the fishing question is not dealt with properly in the next few years, the Cocopa will face serious survival problems.
La Crónica
(Méxicali), April 29 & May 3, 2002. Articles by César Murillo & Carlos Alvarez.
Frontera NorteSur  On-line news coverage of the US-Mexico border To see our site or subscribe for free to our daily news service go to: FNS is an outreach program of the Center for Latin American and Border Studies New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM
Sent by Greg Bloom, Editor   Email address:  (505) 646-6817

Marriages in the Chickasaw Nation 1855 - 1907
        Source: "ghwelker"
There have been many collections published regarding marriages performed in the Chickasaw Nation, 1855 - 1907, but those collections concern only marriages performed under United States marriage licenses AND NOT Chickasaw Tribal licenses. The collection of marriage records included herein are those which were recorded or mention in the surviving records of the old Chickasaw Nation, the majority of which were performed under tribal license.

We Salute by Elouise Cobell
The following itemized articles are from this site:
        Montana State University will award four honorary doctorate degrees at its 106th graduation ceremony May 11, including one to the Blackfeet woman who has battled the federal government over billions of dollars owed to American Indians for a century of trust land mismanagement. 
        Elouise Cobell of Browning, plaintiff in the class-action lawsuit against the federal government, will be honored, along with Stuart Conner of Billings, who is a leader in the preservation of rock art and Indian oral history; Whitney MacMillan, retired president of Cargill, who is active in world 
hunger campaigns; and Mary Munger of Helena, a nursing leader who fought for collective bargaining for nurses.
Dreaming a Language Back to Life
        On the Mashantucket Pequot Reservation, in the brightly colored Child Development Center, words are being uttered that haven't been heard in hundreds of years. To the children in the tribe's development center, it is simply the "Flag Song." But these children are a link to the tribe's past, to its culture, to its language. The simple song about honoring a flag was developed with the few words the Pequots have recovered so far and has been put on tape. 
        "I'm so proud when I hear the children at the Development Center singing," said Charlene Jones, a member of the Pequot Tribal Council who is spearheading the effort to retrieve lost Indian languages. "They have a greater understanding of who they are and every parent becomes emotional." 
Indiana University Pow Wow  Offers Glimpse of Heritage
        Indiana University may not seem like the logical place for a pow wow. Only 81 students out of more than 35,000 claim American Indian heritage. Only 317 Monroe County residents out of 120,000 are listed as American Indians on the federal census. Rather than being an argument against a celebration of American Indian culture, tradition and history, however, IU professor Wesley Thomas believes those numbers are the best argument for the pow wow.
Tepee for Sale
Al and Minga Hoerauf, owners of Buffalo Days in Galway, N.Y taught themselves how to make tepees and have been at it for more than 30 years.  Minga has Comanche ancestors.  Today, tepees are an alternative to camping tents or weekend-long festivals.  A lone person can assemble a 16-foot-tall tepee in one or two hours.  Sizes range from 14 to 28 fee in diameter, and cost between $400-$600 for a children's 6-foot tepee and $855-$3,500 for a painted, family-size model about 24 feet high.  
Sephardic Newspapers Melungeons & Crypto-Jews
Tejano Sephardics
Sephardic Newspapers       
        Recovering the U.S. Hispanic Literary Heritage Project recently acquired copies of newspapers published in the United States and written in Ladino with Hebrew alphabet.  The following sepharidc newspapers have been published in New York: : La Vara, La Amerika, La Voz del Pueblo, La Epoka, La Luz, El Luzero Sefaradi, and El Progreso: and from Los Angeles: El Mezajero.
        Recovering the U.S. Hispanic Literary Heritage Project will be indexing and scanning the newspapers in its ongoing program to index and compile electronically the complete corpus of Hispanic periodical literature.  Important literary and historical items will be digitized and for  delivery over the Internet.   Summer 2002, Vol. 11, No. 2
Melungeons & Crypto-Jews

        Robert Ragan, Editor of Treasure Maps included in Vol. 8, # 7, speculation by Dr. Donald Panther-Yates, professor at Georgia southern University concerning the connection between the Melungeons and Crypto-Jews.
        Below is an extraction from a posting  on by Dr. Panther-Yates.  The discussion pertains to the importance of including the DNA of women in the study of the Melugeon.  Please note,  Panther-Yates concludes that the Melungeons are Sephardics, crypto-Jews, not crypto-Moors. 
        As for the point about why study DNA if they were all male founders, Jones and Kennedy did discover one interesting finding by studying the female lines: there was a small contribution of  Siddi or Roma (Gypsy). This was interpreted to indicate that the Melungeon base population came over to this country already in family units!
        I believe they drew the right conclusion but missed the ethnicity of those family units--they were Sephardic Jewish. Only medieval Spain unified all the strains that are emerging as "Melungeon"--Moorish, Arabic, Turkish, Portuguese, Jewish, Gypsy (they came with the Moslem conquerors from Iran), Spanish, Morrocan, etc.       
        Only the expulsion of the Jews in 1492 and later can adequately explain the movements and reassembly of "Melungeons." Only Judaism can provide motivation and "Occam's razor" (simplest explanation) for cousin marriage and secrecy, generation after generation. If the reporters had talked to Beth Hirschman and me instead of Kevin Jones they would have learned that the true story is that Melungeons are crypto-Jews (and crypto-Moors) and that the genetics is actually remarkably "pure" and homogenous rather than mixed. In my case, for instance, my ancestors formed consanguneous marriages for 12 generations, documented. Right down to my generation, we have always married "within the nation." Even today my wife and I are Jewish. We have many Jewish-Indian cousins in the mountains of  Tennessee, too. 
        The big story is that Melungeons are line-bred Sephardic Jews. There may have been a few single males but in general they came over with their families. The larger crypto-Jewish network picked up the strays and helped them out.
        For more on this subject,go to :
Tejano Sephardics
According to Richard G. Santos, Sephardics colonized the states of Nuevo Leon, Coahuila, Tamualipas and la Provencia de Tejas in the 1640-1680s and thereafter.  Pastries popular to Tex-Mex pastries are similiar to familiar Jewish pastries eaten by Sephardic Jews today in many parts of the world. Source: Anne deSola Cardoza                                                 Sent by Rosa Parachou
Las Porciones, 23rd Annual Texas 
Choice Websites
Starr County
Candela, Coahuila Website
Norma Ester Borrego
Health of Latinos in Texas
Refugio County & Rena McWilliams
Tejano Monument Planned for State Capitol 
Duval County
The State of Texas 1850 U.S. Federal Census
Texas County Highway Maps  

Las Porciones, 23rd Annual Texas Conference on Hispanic Genealogy & History
September 27-29, 2002, Casa De Palmas Hotel, McAllen, Texas 
For more information:  Rene Escobar (956) 781-2205 or Sandra Garcia (956) 664-1111  

Marin Nuevo Leon, Genealogy
Relatos y personajes de la historia de Coahuila (y Texas)
Virreyes de la Nueva España            Sent by Johanna de Soto
Longoria Family [Reynosa] web page updated...
Daniel [Danny] Villarreal
Starr County,  J.D. Villarreal's homepage
J.D. shares the focus of his rich website which is varied,  with links to many other sites:  
This website is a compilation of many outstanding educational resources. It is by no means complete. It is created with one person in mind, to help all those who desire to use the internet for educational purposes and have no idea where to begin. It is directed to school administrators, teachers, students, parents, and all taxpayers. As such I request that all copy rights be honored and that it be used for educational and non commercial purposes only.
        I dedicate this work to all American Veterans who have sacrificed to see that we , the people of this nation, cherish and protect our liberty, property, and the pursuit of happiness. In particular I dedicate this work to my beloved father, Jorge M. Villarreal (1917-1970), and to my father in law, Jesus G. Guzman, both World War II Veterans. 
        I also dedicate this work to my lovely wife, Gloria, and my children who were patient enough to see that I research all these websites so that others may enjoy.
                                                                        Source: Dennis V. Carter /
Candela, Coahuila Website
Congratulations to Marcela for her beautiful new website. The wide variety of information is presented in Spanish and covers history, geography, customs, medicine, and much more. The web is in the process of development. Queries are welcomed.
                                                                                                                    Sent by Jerry Benavides
Norma Ester Borrego, 18-year old university graduate 
        Norma Ester Borrego began her career at the University of Texas-Pan American before she was old enough to drive.  Three years later, the 18-year-old was one of the youngest Bachelor of Arts degree candidates at the 2002 spring commencement and had already been accepted to several law schools.
        "I started taking classes at the university when I was 15, and for the first two years while I ws in high school, my parents would come and drop me off at UTPA because I was not old enough to drive," Borrego said.  When she graduated from Edcouch-Elsa High School in 2000, Borrego had earned 42 hours of college credit.  
        During her sophomore year at UTPA, she tested out of an additional 12 hours of college credit in Spanish and English.  She said the biggest factors in her academic sucd3ess are her time management skills, her ability to prioritize and on the the support of her parents, Jesus Mario and Juanita Borrego.                                                  Sent by Dr. Granville Hough
UT conference discusses Health of Latinos in Texas 
By Cindy Tumiel, San Antonio Express-News, 8/15/2002

        Hispanics in Texas are twice as likely to be without health insurance as Anglos and twice as likely to go without early pre-natal care. They contract Hepatitis A at a rate four times higher than that of Anglos and they die of complications caused by diabetes three times more often. 
        Those statistics were part of the grim picture of ethnic health disparities that Texas Commissioner of Health Dr. Eduardo Sanchez painted Wednesday when he addressed the Texas Latino Health Summit at the University of Texas Health Science Center. 
        A big part of the solution, Sanchez said in his keynote address, begins in classrooms. "It's my contention that literacy and education equal improved health," Sanchez said. Doctors need to join educators to help children understand how improving diet and lifestyle can lead to better health, Sanchez said. A good education also will help Hispanics get better-paying positions - including in health care professions, an area where they remain underrepresented. "When we do that, we will see healthy Latino people and healthy communities," Sanchez said. 

The two-day conference is sponsored by the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), which wants to be a partner with political leaders in crafting solutions to ethnic health disparities, said Vincent Ramos, executive director of Texas LULAC. "These disparities, which you all know about, are things that alarm us," Ramos said before the meeting. 
                                                                                             Sent by Brent Wilkes

   Refugio County   

Sincere thanks to Rena McWilliams, the Refugio County Coordinator  for the TXGenWeb.  It is apparent that she is very, very busy finding, organizing, identifying, labeling, and in general, a wonderful friend to all Tejanos with roots in Refugio County.  Thank you also fo George Gause  and Elsa P. Herbeck for forwarding this great information to Somos Primos.  
Rena writes. . . . 
        Friends, I have created a separate section on the Refugio site under the Table of Contents. It is currently "Hispanic Archives", but if you think of a more appropriate title for the section, I am open 
to suggestions. I did this so that searching might be easier for someone who winds up on the site by chance through use of a search engine and so that I might have a place to file some items 
that might otherwise go under the "History" heading and not have enough exposure. For now, this section includes the La Bahia census records for 1810, 1811 and 1825 (which is now complete) and the "Protest Against the Opposition of Power and Hewetson to Settlement by Martin de Leon", dated June 3, 1831, which I posted yesterday. I have some more transcriptions from Msgr. Oberste's files which I will be posting over the next few months.
        The census records will also be filed under "Census Records" and baptisms and marriages will remain in the same place. I feel like I have to do this for those who have not mastered maneuvering 
through a website. The new section is primarily for those records that are exclusively Hispanic, and as Hispanic surnames are found throughout public records, you will still have to review those 
records so as to not miss anything. 
        If any of you have ideas and/or suggestions, please contact me. I want this information to be easily accessible and of a nature that is of interest to the researchers. 

Rena McWilliams,  TXGenWeb

The following material  with data of interest to Refugio County is from the Bexar Archives and the 
translations were by R. B. Blake and appear in his collection:

(1) Viana to Elguezabal - Concerning Damian Valenzuela - 1805 

(2) Salcedo to Elguezabal - Concerning Inspection of Presidial Company of La Bahia  1805

(3) Amangual to Elguezabal - Concerning State of Affairs at La Bahia  1805

(4) Amangual to Elguezabal - Concerning Exemption of Certain Items from Taxes  1805

(5) Soldiers of Companies of Bexar and La Bahia - January 28, 1800

(6) Investigation by Indians of Refugio Mission of Cannon Shots near the Coast  1799

(7) Report of Findings by Indians of Refugio Mission  1799

(8) Report of Amangual at La Bahia of 4 Soldiers Who Deserted from Nacogdoches  1804

Mission Residents 1792 to 1796; Mission Residents Killed by Indians 1814
The following have been excerpted from Oberste's History of  Refugio Mission and are now posted to the Refugio site:  Mission residents between 1792 and 1796.  Mission residents killed by Indians in 1814. I noticed the name of Diego Chirino, who appeared on both the 1810 and 1811 La Bahia census records. 

"Reminiscences of Annie Fagan Teal" 
This is a fascinating manuscript describing 19th century life in coastal Texas and along the San Antonio River. The tale begins with the arrival of the Fagan family at Copano in 1829 and is 
full of names and places. Includes references to Carlos Rancho and Prudencio. It was first published in 1897, and I am delighted to be able to include it on the Refugio site. It appears here with 
the permission of Harold Johnston, ggg grandson of Annie Fagan and Peter Teal.

Baptist Church - Blanconia - First Baptist Church in Refugio County. Shara Hatcher has sent an early photograph of the church. Be sure to take a look.

Death Records of Bayside Residents - Social Security Database 1964 through July 2002 I have abstracted all social security death records of individuals who were listed as residents of 
Bayside, Refugio Co., at date of death. They are in order of social security number and are not alphabetical or by death date. The birth date is included, which is especially helpful.

It should be noted that Texas Death Certificates are recorded in the county where the death actually occurs, not in the county of residence. No date of birth is included with the Texas Death Records online. Social Security death records, on the other hand, give the county of residence, date of
birth and state where the social security number was issued.

Posted to the Refugio webpage: Journal of Events, Nacogdoches, June 1805.  
This is a journal kept by Dionisio Valle (rubric) for each day of  June 1805. It does not necessarily have a bearing on the area  of what was to become Refugio County, but it does give an  accounting of Indian relations and other matters of importance.  It includes names and specific incidences.

1) La Bahia 1825 Census, Household Nos. 62 through 77. Two more 
pages and this census will be complete!!

(2) 1950 Graduating Class of Refugio High School.
Composite photograph of the 1950 class.
Reunion 1985 photograph of the 1950 class.

The two photographs are being featured for the August Photographs  of the Month and can be accessed from the front page under  Photographs of the Month.

(3) Death Records of Austwell Residents - Social Security Database   1964 through July 2002

I have abstracted all social security death records of individuals  who were listed as residents of Bayside, Refugio Co., at date of  death. They are in order of social security number and are not 
alphabetical or by death date. The birth date is included, which  is especially helpful. Links are on the front page under Newest Pages.

Refugio Co. Marriages, Book A, Pages 1 through 20
Marriages, Book A, Pages 1 through 20 (37 marriages). These marriages  include some brides/grooms who were residents of Aransas Pass,  Victoria Co., Goliad Co. and Lavaca Co. but married in Refugio Co. 
There are 85 pages in Book A. As I post the others, I will let you know

These are not the earliest marriages for Refugio Co. These are the  marriages with the earliest filing dates. The actual earliest marriage  dates appear on marriages recorded at the beginning of Book C. Do I  have you confused yet? The order in which the marriages were recorded  is the order in which they appear in the Record Books. That is not  necessarily chronological with respect to marriage dates. Links are on the front page under Newest Pages.

Marriages, Book A, Pages 21 through 30
The entries include some residents of San Patricio, Victoria and  Guadalupe Counties, as well as Refugio County.  The dates do not appear to be in chronological order, but I have 
copied them as they were written. The link is under Newest Pages on the first page. After a 
few days it will be moved to the section, "Births, Baptisms, etc."

1825 La Bahia Census - Households 21 through 61 Household Nos. 21 through 61 of the 1825 
La Bahia census  are now posted to the Refugio site. 

The 1825 La Bahia census covered the jurisdiction of La Bahia  at Goliad. I am including it on the Refugio site because so  many of the residents appear in the Refugio Co. records, as  well as the records of the surrounding counties. There are  103 households in all. I will post notices as the remaining  households are completed. Links are on the front page under Newest Pages.

1825 La Bahia Census  Households 78 through 96.
Baptisms at Our Lady of Refuge Catholic Church, 1899. Fifty-one  baptisms include date of birth, date of baptism, location, parents  and sponsors. The microfilm I used for these records was very 
light. Unless I was quite sure of a name, I did not attempt a  transcription. Rather I noted it as illegible or left a blank. Please  let me know of any corrections.

Mission Residents 1792 to 1796; Mission Residents Killed by Indians 1814
The following have been excerpted from Oberste's History of  Refugio Mission and are now posted to the Refugio site: Mission residents killed by Indians in 1814. I noticed the name of Diego
Chirino, who appeared on both the 1810 and 1811 La Bahia census records.

"Protest Against the Opposition of Power and Hewetson  to Settlement by Martin de Leon", dated June 3, 1831.  This is on the front page under "Newest Pages". This  instrument was transcribed in the 1940s for or by  Msgr. Oberste, priest of Our Lady of Refuge Catholic  Church in Refugio for many years. It was typed and I  have copied as it was transcribed, with the exception  of one number of which I could not be certain. It is  among Msgr. Oberstes papers at the county library  in Refugio.

Tejano Monument Planned for State Capitol by Tricia Cortez, Times staff writer, 8-11-02

[[Editor's Note:  This is such an exciting happening, that I did not want to extract from the article, instead, the complete article follows. Congratulations to  Dr. Cayetano Barrera.   Hopefully his  success will encourage others to follow his lead.]]

        One summer day, two years ago, Dr. Cayetano Barrera of McAllen made the rounds of the newly renovated Capitol in Austin when he suddenly noticed something he never had before. "I told my wife, 'I need to go around again' I couldn't believe my eyes," said Barrera, who had walked the grounds dozens of times in the past. 
        "Out of the 31 statues and monuments I saw inside and outside the Capitol, not a single one had a Spanish or Mexican name, and not one was dedicated to the Spanish or Mexican pioneers that have lived on this land since 1519." 
        The family practitioner got on the phone and called his nephew Richard Sanchez, chief of staff for state Rep. Kino Flores of Mission, and asked, 'Would you please go around the grounds to look because maybe I missed something?"  When Sanchez called his uncle back with the response, Barrera set the ball rolling to undertake the "historic and long-overdue project." 
        The goal was to erect the largest monument to grace the 22-acre Capitol grounds. It would commemorate the 500-year role of Tejanos and the Spanish-Mexican legacy in Texas. With the help of Flores and state Senator Mario Gallegos, the State Preservation Board and historian Andres Tijerina, Barrera was able to get legislation passed unanimously in February 2001 authorizing the monument. 
        "I think everyone was caught with a little embarrassment that this had never been done," Barrera said. Flores admitted being "nervous because I was not sure at how the legislature was going to respond. Surprisingly, there was no opposition whatsoever. 
        "This monument should have been there many, many decades ago. The Capitol has monuments of other Texas heroes, but none of us. We, Tejanos, Latinos, Hispanos, Chicanos, whatever you want to call us, have carved out the history of Texas. Our roots are imbedded in every part," he said. 
        "I realized that for many years, little Mexicanitos and Chicanitos have visited the Capitol and have come back believing they don't have a place in Texas history. They have looked at the paintings and monuments, and even their textbooks, none of which trace anything back to them. These young people have left thinking they were on borrowed land which is not the case," Flores added. 
        Rick Crawford, executive director of the State Preservation Board, which manages the Capitol building and grounds and the Bob Bullock Texas State History Museum, said he did not know why Tejanos have long been excluded from the Capitol grounds. 
        "All I can tell you is that Kino Flores was the first one to push for this monument. We are directed by the Legislature to do monuments, but they all require a law to be passed," he said. 
        Tijerina, an award-winning historian at Austin Community College, explained his opinion of the delay in acknowledging Tejano contributions to the state. Mexican-Americans, or Tejanos, are just now reaching a population base of middle class professionals who can present this heritage in a formal format," he said, referring to legislative resolutions, fundraising campaigns, books, magazines, genealogy and other professional organizations. 
        "Before this, Tejanos were not able to reach that formal level. We have always been here but have not always had access. But, let me stress that everyone, Anglo-Americans and Hispanics, have been gratified that we are now finally presenting these very positive and constructive facts. No one has challenged us, or questioned us, or expressed any doubt of any of the information we're celebrating," Tijerina said. 
        "Everyone has been exuberant. When Kino introduced this on the House floor, the bill drew 48 co-sponsors, most of who were Anglo-Americans," he added.  Once the monument's site is finalized, the State Preservation Board has to approve the design and receive the construction money to begin, Crawford said. 
        The $1.4 million bronze will consist of 12 life-size sculptures. Though it does not single out specific Tejano heroes and pioneers, it will cover the era from the 1500s to the 1800s. 
        Last summer, the Tejano Monument's executive board commissioned Laredo artist Armando Hinojosa for the project.  "We are taking great pains to make everything authentic to the period, from the jacket, bridle, chaps, to the horse being a mesteño (mustang) and not a thoroughbred. There will also be a vaquero and a Tejano couple with a baby," Barrera said. 
        He noted that five prominent historians, led by Tijerina, are writing the monument's text which will be recorded on six bronze relief plaques. Tijerina is also chairing the statewide fundraising effort. 
"Because we have to raise the money ourselves, we are about to launch a fundraising campaign with focal points in Dallas, San Antonio, Houston and Austin. We're also looking at El Paso, Corpus Christi and the Valley," Barrera said. 
        Just last Friday, the International Bank of Commerce, through its Zapata branch president Renato Ramirez, pledged $100,000 to the project, brining the total amount of funds raised to $250,000. "I personally sponsored a gala event at the Bob Bullock History Museum last November to kick off the fundraising effort," Ramirez said. 
        Sanchez, Barrera's nephew, described the memorable gala. "We invited people from all over the state, many of whom came in costume. The attire read "Tejano Chic," Sanchez laughed.  "It meant dressy but with a Tejano flair. Some of the ladies borrowed costumes from a place in Corpus Christi depicting Tejano life in the 1800s. Some wore ball-type dresses worn by the Tejano elite of that day, and the men wore wide bottom pants, blousy shirts, spurs, cowboy sombreros." 
        A Tejano Honor Guard also showed up "in really authentic looking stuff," he said. "We also hired a group from Mexico to play period music," Sanchez said He then recalled the excitement of the group's first meeting during the fall of 2000. 
        "We sat around a table in the Capitol, and there was so much energy at that table. Everybody wanted to be there so bad, and everybody had so many ideas. We had to rein them in and had to first talk about why we deserve to be part of the Capitol grounds," he said. 
        After the bill passed last February, the group formed a non-profit corporation in April 2001 called Tejano Statue-Capitol, Inc. d/b/a/ the Tejano Monument. It is charged with fundraising and helping the preservation board erect the statue. Interested donors can access, where small bronze statuettes of the central figure, the vaquero, will soon be sold as limited editions. 
        Barrera said the project should take two years to complete. The four historians working under Tijerina are Carolina Castillo Crimm of Sam Houston State, Felix Almaraz of the University of Texas at San Antonio, Gilberto Hinojosa of the University of the Incarnate Word and distinguished historian Jack Jackson of Austin. (Staff writer Tricia Cortez can be reached at 728-2568 or
                    Sent by Priscilla Martinez Gamer & Elsa P Herbeck

The Institute of Texan Cultures presents

The Family History of San José and El Fresnillo Ranch
                        By Andrés Sáenz, Edited by Andrés Tijerina                

        The purpose of this Web site is to make available to students and researchers of 19th century Texas history rare primary source material about two early Tejano ranches in Duval County: Rancho San José and El Fresnillo. The two book-length documents provide a firsthand account of the geography, daily life, and culture of Tejanos as they went about building their homes and raising their families in South Texas from 1860 to 1960.  This material is also available in paperback book format and may be obtained for $20.00 by calling 1.800.776.7651
        RANCHO SAN JOSÉ: This is the story of four generations of the López family: José Miguel López, José Antonio López, Pedro López, and Ydolina López Sáenz. In the 1860s, Antonio came north from Mexico and began Rancho San José. Rancho San José became the family ranch or farm with many family members building homes there. Through Andrés Sáenz, his mother Ydolina tells us the maternal family history of Don Andrés Sáenz.

The State of Texas
        1850 U.S. Federal Census - Free Population Schedules
One of the project goals of The TXGenWeb Project is to have the entire 1850 census "online" and available to all free of charge. Here you will find links to the counties that have currently been transcribed. If you know of transcriptions "online" that are not listed here please send them to Trey Holt. If you are interested in participating in transcribing please visit The USGenWeb Census Project.
                                                                                                         Sent by Johanna de Soto
Texas County Highway Maps
        If your family search leads you to Texas, here is a valuable resource for you. You can access very detailed maps of every Texas county. Every county road, and every tiny burg (as long as it has a zip code, and perhaps if it doesn't) is on the map.
        You can pick the per cent of magnification of a map, and the image size (how big you want it on your screen). You can search by a place (city, university, lake, etc.) Even city/town streets do appear on many of these maps as you zoom in, but no street names are included in the search index.
        All county maps have a legend of symbols printed on the page. You have to zoom in close to read them. They are extensive. There are icons to indicate to you the location of cemetarys, golf courses, military bases, dirt roads, paved roads, etc. etc.
Source: Dennis V. Carter  Sent by George Gause
Louisiana Purchase Bicentennial Conference
Canary Island Passenger List to Louisiana
"Brass Cannon" Website
Civil War Buffs

Louisiana Purchase Bicentennial Conference, January 22-25, 2003
The initiating event in the year-long celebration of the Louisiana Purchase bicentennial will examine the impact of the Louisiana Purchase on the history of the United States from 1803 to 1860, analyzing the long-term effects of the purchase on the nation's development as a diverse society. In addition to the conference program, several receptions and cultural events are being planned.  For further information call (504) 598-7171, fax (504) 598-7168, or email  For a copy of the current program go to http://www.louisianapurchase2003..
Painting, a bequest of Mary Alston Simmis.

Napoleon I, 1810-1815

Canary Island Passenger List to Louisiana 1778-1783
Very good list on our original "Islenos" ancestors by ship,date , family, etc.  My g/g/grandfather Josef Morales arrived on the frigate San Ignacio de Loyola along with his wife Antonia Veira and 3 daughters. Hope you will find it of use.                     Sent by Bill Carmena

Bill has been sharing wonderful information for the descendants of families from the Canary Islands.  Thought you'd all like a little background on Bill: 
        Born and raised in Baton Rouge. Graduated Louisiana State University in 1950. Entered Air Force 1951 ,spent 1 yr. in Korea, 4 years in Europe as a navigator. Has traveled extensively in Europe, Mid and Far East. Spent last 7 years in the Air Force in South Dakota as a Maintenance Officer with the Minute Man ICBM Missile System. Retired in 1971 as a Lt/ Col. Employed in Safety field 1972 till 1995 ,working at the Safety Council of Greater Baton Rouge and for Contract Maintenance firms as a Safety Supervisor. at several local plants. 
        Was involved in the founding of the original " Islenos de Galvez " group and served as it's first vice president Has been involved in nearly all of the organization projects since it's founding. He is very interested in Genealogy and has traced his mainland Spanish ( Anover de Tajo , near Toledo) Carmena ancestors back to 1507. 
        His Canary Island connection is from Josef Morales from Aguimes . Both his Morales and Carmena ancestors were malitia soldiers at Galveztown . Bill has visited the villages where both of his ancestors came from, and is an active speaker on local Spanish History.  He welcomes inquiries.
I have updated my "Brass Cannon" Website to include information on Canary Islands Censuses (c.1678-c.1774), and to publish Our (Louisiana's) Genealogical "Wish-List for the Canary Islands". 
Paul Newfield
Greetings Civil War Buffs and Researchers!
        Do you know about the Lauderdale County Department of Archives and History? We are located at 410 Constitution Avenue, 2nd Floor Raymond P. Davis Annex Building in Meridian, Mississippi, United States. Our website is hosted by  Our direct website address is
        While many know of Mississippi's rich history, they do not know exactly where to go when looking for specific information such as family, or community histories, except for Public Libraries.
Another excellent option is the Archives in Jackson, or the first county Archives Department
organized in the state of Mississippi, the Lauderdale County Department of Archives and History.
        The Lauderdale County Department of Archives and History is a part of the county government that is charged with managing county records such as court cases and other various documents. Much of the work done within the department is performed by volunteers who have an ongoing interest of the preservation of our local past. They research local community and church histories as well as their own families and other areas of interest such as The Civil War, and donate their research to the Archives. This information is then published and placed in the Archives "bookstore" for sale.
        Our collection of publications do not include Lauderdale County alone. Many of our publications include information of surrounding Mississippi counties, as well as neighboring Alabama counties, and other Southern States. The publications currently number 198! A description and price for each book is located on our website. We accept mail orders with check or money order, or internet orders through Paypal. Instructions on placing an order is on our website.
        We are also offering a FREE BOOK with a $20.00 or more purchase. Make sure when you order that you include this Promotional Code L02J07M31. Supplies of the FREE BOOKS are limited so PLACE YOUR ORDER TODAY!
        We currently have 13 Books on Confederate Inductions and 61 Books in the Confederate Deaths and Burials Series. These books often give information on soldiers; such as names, units served in, where and when born, where they died, and where they are buried along with other various pieces of information.
        We also have a Research Room that is open Monday - Friday 8 a.m to 12p.m. and 1 p.m. to 5 p.m. We have a Librarian available to assist you when you visit. If you can’t make it for a personal visit we hope that you will visit our website. We also accept email research requests at   Sent by Lauderdale County Archives

Hispanic Heritage Month Display 
At the Visitor's Center, 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Days 
Washington,  D.C. Temple
Mounted by Yeda Baker, 
Member of the 
U.S. Senate Task Force on Hispanic Affairs
Assisted by Friends of Somos Primos

Twelve Rich 12 Mexicans 
Narco-corridos Banned 
Camargo Church Baptismal Index
Archivo de Nuevo Laredo on the Move
Jose Roberto Juarez
La Bodega Antiques
Missions of Baja California
Catholic Funeral Records, Carrizozo
Marmolexo Genealogy
Manríquez-Malacara Genealogy

Twelve 12 Mexicans among the 500 richest people in the world.
Source: Forbes magazine has ranked, OC Register 7-29-02

Narco-corridos Banned 
        There will be no more drugs and violence on Mexican radio stations in and around Tijuana.  Baja California state radio stations signed an agreement to ban songs known as narco-corridos, and instead have decided to play only songs that promote positive messages and good values. They also urged Spanish-language U.S. stations across the border and in California to do the same.
         Narco-corridos have long been popular in Tijuana, a city trying to clean up its image as a haven for drugs and crime.  The northern Mexican folk songs chronicle the tales of drug lords to the backdrop of accordions and strumming guitars.    OC Register, 7-20-02  
Santa Ana de CAMARGO CHURCH Baptismal Index 1764-1888
These records are the missing records that have been needed by researchers for over 50 years. They are housed at Center for American History in Austin,m Texas. The book contains about 400 pages with almost 17000 entries.  The book sells for $150.00 and a CD for $100.00.
                                           For more information, contact Debbie Gomez
Archivo de Nuevo Laredo on the Move
Cambiará instalaciones Archivo Histórico, Diario de Nuevo Laredo, Agosto 8, 2002

        Será en diciembre de este mismo año cuando el Archivo Histórico Municipal de Nuevo Laredo, cambie sus instalaciones a la antigua Estación Ferroviaria. El Dr. Manuel Ceballos Ramírez, titular de esta dependencia, explicó que el cambio de dirección trae importantes beneficios y resuelve la falta de espacios.
        "Se han iniciado los trabajos de remodelación en la antigua Estación del Tren. Lo importante aquí es que ahora contaremos con más secciones o centros de exposiciones", anticipó y agregó que de esta manera se brindará un mejor servicio a los neolaredenses.
        Indicó que por lo tanto en las actuales instalaciones del Archivo Histórico Municipal situadas en el lado sur del Palacio Municipal por la calle Maclovio Herrera, se trabaja en la catalogación y depuración de documentos históricos de Nuevo Laredo.
        También mencionó que se tiene una exposición sobre el tema de cartografía de Tamaulipas a la que han acudido niños y jóvenes.
        Con una exhortación a la población para que observe en el Archivo Histórico Municipal esta exposición de mapas de lunes a viernes de las 9:00 de la mañana a las 5:00 de la tarde y los sábados de las 9:00 de la mañana a la 1:00 de la tarde, durante agosto, concluyó el funcionario

                                                  SOURCE: Rogelio Hinojosa, Texas A&M International University

Former professor Jose Roberto Juarez tells Kiwanis of genealogy 
        By Odie Arambula, Laredo Times editor, [date unknown]
        Jose Roberto Juarez, Ph.D., a scholar and history buff, said Tuesday his work in genealogy led him to his family roots dating to Mexican historical events of the 17th century. 
        Juarez, who formerly served as academic dean and vice president for instruction at Laredo Junior College before moving to Texas A&M International University, told Kiwanis Club members and guests he developed an interest in genealogy because of a personal desire to learn about his family background. 
        A former Woodrow Wilson Scholar and Fulbright Scholar, Juarez said he finds genealogy a fascinating art, encouraging Kiwanis members and guests to invest time learning the family roots and 
sharing the documented information with other family members. 
        "I was able to trace my family back to six generations, dating to the year 1690 with one Juan Bautista Juarez in Guanajuato, Mexico," Juarez said. 
        He said he was able to find data on Juan Bautista Juarez to the year 1711 and the names of the man's 12 children. Juarez said other data placed his Juarez ancestors in Revilla during Spanish colonization of northern Mexico and later in old Guerrero. 
        He said the search took him to a figure in Texas history, Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara, who was a contemporary of Father Hidalgo, and tried to get American support in Washington in Mexico's fight for independence. 
        Juarez said the Gutierrez de Lara name surfaced in Louisiana and later in San Antonio, where he was jailed and subsequently escaped to Mexico and went on to become governor of Tamaulipas. 
        Juarez outlined some basic rules for genealogy to yield the best results. He encouraged taking good notes, recording names, places and dates, and to investigate all available resources. The first check, he said, should be a living member of the family to provide some direction. 
        He suggested that the researcher consider letters, newspaper obituaries, government documents like passports, property deeds, tapes and microfilms. Juarez said good resources are available at 
the Laredo Public Library, TAMIU, Laredo Community College, the Texas State Archives, University of Texas System, Texas General Land Office, judicial records, county clerk records and others. 
        Another excellent resource, Juarez added, is the Laredo Archives Collection now in deposit at the St. Mary's University Library. Juarez said the city archives, recovered and preserved through the years by the late Serbian Wilcox and later turned over to St. Mary's, offer a wealth of information. 
        Juarez, who has done extensive research in Mexico and U. S. archives, has published numerous articles for several scholarly publications, graduated from St. Augustine High School and St. Edward's University. He earned a master's and doctorate in Latin American Studies from UT-Austin. He taught at St. Edwards', UT-Austin and University of California at Davis before coming to LCC. 
        He retired from TAMIU in 1997 and has remained active with the Villa San Agustin de Laredo Genealogical Society, Los Bexarenos Genealogical Society of San Antonio, AOL Hispanic 
Genealogy, Hispanic Genealogical Society of Houston and Hispanic Genealogical Society of Guerrero Viejo. Dr. Dan Bell, Kiwanis president, introduced Juarez. 

Odie Arambula is editor of the Laredo Morning Times, 728-2561 or by e-mail at
                                   Sent by Elsa P Herbeck and George Gause

La Bodega Antiques - New Acquisitions
Carmen Boone de Aguilar warns against ordering from this site, cautioning that the "merchandise" advertised on this website, might have been stolen. Very involved in preservation efforts in Mexico, Carmen says, "You wouldn't believe the thousands of colonial sacred art works that are stolen every year from churches all over Mexico, whether cathedral or rural chapel. Interpol is after a whole international network that even dares to take pre-orders: "You name it, we'll get it for you." 
                                                                                Carmen Boone de Aguilar
The Missions of Baja California, 1697-1849 
        Historical overview presented by a series of 60 photographs and art work .  Very well done.
As early as the 1530s, the Spanish coasted Baja California.  Hernan Cortes established an aborted colonly near modern La Pax in 1535.  Over the next 180 years pearl fishermen visited the coast of the peninsula, but thee contacts were sporadic at best. In the 1680s, there was a second aborted colonization attempt.  The crown then abandoned plans to settle the peninsula, so the Jesuits applied for and were given permission to establish missions at their own expense.  Sent by Johanna de Soto

Catholic Funeral Records
November 1897 -- December 1944
St. Rita Parish, Carrizozo
Preview and Introduction Click here

Navigation Template 








This data was abstracted from a microfilm of records of Santa Rita Catholic Church in Carrizozo. The records are a collection of reported deaths and burials of Catholics in Lincoln County from the end of 1897 until the end of 1944. The parish, or parroquia, covered the entire county and included the many small churches and cemeteries found in local towns and ranches. Entries note that many died without the Final Sacraments, a funeral Mass, or even the presence of a priest at the burial.

A NOTE OF CAUTION Do not rely solely on this list for your genealogical work. Information about the deceased was given to the parish priest by family, friends or neighbors, so it may or may not be accurate.  The records vary in content from year to year and even page to page. The list includes biographical information which is present in most of the records. Be advised that the microfilm has more information than is shown here, such as parents’ names, the spouse’s name, the number of children in the family, the cause of death, and the name of the priest. If you would like a complete transcription and translation of a burial record, contact Annette . Please allow two weeks for a response. Also note that there are no entries for the year 1919 and there may have been other deaths which were not recorded.

IF YOU ARE LOOKING FOR A FEMALE ANCESTOR - Married women were usually listed by their maiden names in early Hispanic sacramental records. When searching this list for a married female, look under the maiden surname first. Occasionally, both the maiden and married names were listed in official records. When this was done the maiden name came first, then the word de, meaning "of," and then the husband’s surname. In later years, the de was often dropped. When both the maiden and married surnames are listed in a record, the name appears twice in the list.

IF YOU ARE LOOKING FOR A MALE ANCESTOR - Men used to add their mother's maiden name to their father's surname with the word y, meaning "and." For example, if someone were named Jose Chavez y Montoya that would mean his father's last name was Chavez and his mother's last name was Montoya. When the deceased’s surname is listed in this way in a record, it appears exactly the same way in the list.                                                                      Sent by Johanna de Soto


Guillermo Padilla Origel
Leon, Gto. 

I.-Don Diego de Marmolexo ,hijosdalgo, originario de Sevilla, en Andalucía , España, Militar, conquistador de México en 1520, se casó en 1527 en la Villa rica de la Veracruz de la Nueva España con Doña Francisca de Villalobos, originaria de esa Villa, y fue su hijo:

II.-Don Francisco de Marmolexo y Villalobos, oriundo de Veracruz , luego fundador y vecino de la villa de San Phelipe en el ahora Estado de Guanajuato, mercedado y dueño de varias tierras entre ellas " La Hacienda de Ibarra", por merced real del 27 de enero de 1595, se casó en dicha villa con Doña María de Pedraza y fueron sus hijos :

Don Pedro Marmolejo y Pedraza, que sigue.

Don Diego Marmolejo y Pedraza, soltero, dueño de la hacienda de " Los Altos"

Don Antonio Marmolejo y Pedraza, otorgada merced del sitio llamado " Juan Alvarez", en 1618 junto a " Ibarra", se casó con Doña Ana Gómez de Portugal y Arrona , originaria de San Felipe, y hermana de su cuñada Melchora y fueron sus hijos entre otros:

Don Juan Gómez Marmolejo, heredero de las haciendas de "Ibarra", " Santa Bárbara" y " Torreón"en 1683 y

Cap. Don Diego de Marmolejo y Gómez de Portugal, dueño de " Ibarra", la cual su esposa ya viuda Doña Juana de Bribiesca e Isasi, hija legítima de Don Isidro Bribiesca y Doña María de Isasi y Cuevas originarios de Lagos, vendió dicha hacienda en 1707, al Marqués de las Torres de Rada, dueño de " Peñuelas" y fueron sus hijos de Don Diego y Doña María :

Doña Catalina Marmolejo y Bribiescas, casada con Don Francisco Guerra Valdés y Gallardo , y

Doña Rosa Marmolejo y Bribiescas, casada con Don Álvaro Guerra Valdés y Gallardo

III,.Don Pedro Marmolejo y Pedraza, oriundo de San Felipe , testó y murió en León, el 2 de Septiembre de 1660, dueño de la hacienda de " San Juan de Otates", se casó en primeras nupcias con Doña Melchora de Portugal y Arrona, hija legítima de Don Diego Gómez de Portugal y de Doña María de Arrona , con numerosa sucesión a continuación, y en segundas nupcias con Doña Josefa de Busto y Puelles, originaria de Gto. hija legítima de Don Pedro de Busto, alférez Mayor de la villa de León y de Doña Ana de Puelles, y fueron sus hijos:

Ana , Juan , Francisca e Inés Marmolejo y Busto y dela primera esposa fueron:

1.-Don José Marmolejo y Portugal, casado con Josefa Rico de Rojas, fue su hijo entre otros: Don Juan Marmolejo Rico, casado con Maria Josefa Canales,( de esta linea desciende el Genealogista Ing. José de Jesús Barba y Ornelas)

2.-Doña Mariana Marmolejo y Portugal, casada el 12 de Octubre de 1658 en San Felipe, con Cristóbal de Herrera.

3.-Don Nicolás Marmolejo y Portugal, que sigue.

4.-Don Diego Marmolejo y Portugal y 

5.-Don Marcos de Arriaga y Portugal

IV.-Don Nicolás de Marmolejo y Portugal, casado con Doña Luisa de Esquivel y Vargas, herederos y dueños de las hacienda de "San Juan de Otates", municipio de León y fueron sus hijos :

1.-Bachiller Don Francisco Marmolejo y Esquivel. 

2.-Don Pedro de Marmolejo y Esquivel,

3.-Doña Luisa de Marmolejo y Esquivel, se casó con Don Francisco Matías de Busto y Moya, primer Marqués de San Clemente , bautizado el 6 de Marzo de 1684, en el mineral de Cata , en Gto. (ver Genealogía en el libro "Crónicas de un Palacio Guanajuatense" del lic. Mariano González Leal )

4.-Doña Nicolasa de Marmolejo y Esquivel, se casó con Don Nicolás de Busto y Moya, dueños de la hacienda de " la Palma"

5.-Doña Teresa de la Cruz Marmolejo y Esquivel, se casó con Don José de Quíjas Escalante, originario de sierra de Pinos, en el estado de Zacatecas

6.-Don Antonio de Marmolejo y Esquivel, que sigue.

7.-Doña Francisca Marmolejo y Esquivel, se casó con Bernardo de la Carrera.

8.-Doña Melchora Marmolejo y Esquivel

9.-Doña María Encarnación Marmolejo y Esquivel, se casó con Andrés Patiño Duval

10.-Capitán Don Cristóbal de Marmolejo y Esquivel, se casó con Doña Luisa Teresa de Menchaca , dueños de las haciendas de " Duarte y El Palote " en León, fueron sus hijos entre otros:

Doña María Josefa Marmolejo y Menchaca, casada con Don Ignacio de Urruchúa , y fue su hija Doña Isabel de Urruchúa y Marmolejo, dueños de " Duarte " en León, y 

Don Francisco Marmolejo y Menchaca, dueño de " el Palote" en León

11.-Doña Juana de la Cruz Marmolejo y Esquivel, se casó con Don Diego de Quijas y Escalante, originario de Sierra de Pinos, Zacatecas, dueños de la hacienda de "San Juan de Otates", y fue su hijo entre otros:

Don Antonio Anselmo de Quijas y Marmolejo, casado con Ana María Manuela del Río y a la vez fue su hijo entre otros:

Don Diego Antonio de Quijas y del Río, casado con María Josefa Alcocer y a su vez fue su hija Doña Mariana Rafaela Quijas y Alcocer, pero como era demente tuvo dos tutores para administrar la hacilenda de " Otates" que fueron Don José Antonio Campo Verde y su tío el Bachiler Don Francisco de Alcocer.

12.-Doña María Marmolejo y Esquivel, se casó con Don Manuel de Cos, y fue su hijo:

Don Diego Guillermo de Cos y Marmolejo, dueños de la hacienda de " la labor de Santa Rita"

IV.-Don Antonio de Marmolejo y Esquivel, se casó con Doña Juana Luisa de Bañales, vecinos de León, dueños de la hacienda de "los Naranjos", y fueron sus hijos :

1.-Don José Ignacio Marmolejo Bañales,

2.-Doña Lorenza Javiera Marmolejo Bañales, casada con Felipe de la Campa

3.-Fray Ildefonso de Jesús María Marmolejo y Bañales

4.-Don Miguel Marmolejo y Bañales

5.-Don Nicolás Marmolejo y Bañales

6.-Doña Ana Marmolejo y Bañales, casada con Antonio Madrid

7.-Doña María Marmolejo y Bañales, 

8.-Teniente Coronel Don Francisco Javier Marmolejo y Bañales, que sigue.

9.-Doña Josefa Matiana Marmolejo y Bañales, casada con Don Francisco de la Fuente, dueños de la hacienda de " San Pedro del Monte" , en León.

10.-Doña Rita Marmolejo y Bañales

V.-Teniente Coronel Don Francisco Javier de Marmolejo y Bañales , testó en 1752 en León, dueño de la hacienda de " El Comedero ", se caso en primeras nupcias con Doña Clara Diaz del Castillo y Guerra, con descendencia, que sigue. Y en segundas nupcias con 

Doña Margarita del Portillo dueña de la hacienda de " Cañada de Negros" y fueron a su vez sus hijos:

Don José María Marmolejo y del Portillo, casado con Gertrudis Gómez Poleo y

Doña María Teresa Marmolejo y del Portillo, casada con Don Alfonso de Obregón y Arce, vecinos de la villa de León; de la descendencia de la primera esposa de Don Francisco y Doña Clara Diaz del Castillo , fueron los siguientes hijos:

1.-Doña Maria Josefa Marmolejo y Diaz del Castillo, religiosa

2.-Bachiller Don Antonio Plácido Marmolejo y Díaz del Castillo y

VI.-Don Francisco Marmolejo y Díaz del Castillo, casado con Doña Josefa Ignacia García Álvarez, originaria de Jalpa de Canovas y fueron sus hijos :

1.-Don José María Marmolejo y García, alcalde ordinario de la villa de León, casado en primeras nupcias con Doña María García y en segundas nupcias con Doña Juana María Miera, con descendencia en la Villa de León.

2.-Doña Ana María Marmolejo y García, 

3.-Doña Maria Clara Marmolejo y García, nacida en 1781 casada con Don Luis Miera

4.-Doña María Josefa Marmolejo García , casada en primeras nupcias con el Insurgente Lic. Don Ignacio Aldama, y en segundas nupcias con Don Juan Ignacio Espinoza de los Monteros

5.-Doña Luz Antonia Marmolejo y García , nacida en 1777 y se casó por 1794 con Don Manuel García de Quintana y de la Riva.

6.-Don Romualdo Marmolejo y García, nace por 1790 también en León, Gobernador del estado de Guanajuato dueño de la casa "del Quijote" a principios del siglo XIX, en 1856 Doña Luz Marmolejo la traspasó al Minero Don Brígido Gaytán suegro de el Gral. Don Manuel Doblado y se casó Don Romualdo en la ciudad de Santa Fé de Guanajuato el 31 de Julio de 1818 con Doña Jacoba García de Quintana y de la Riva, Genearcas de varias generaciones de los Marmolejo asentados en la ciudad de Guanajuato y después en León de los Aldamas, Gto.,

7.-Doña Cenobia Marmolejo y García

8.-Don José Ana Marmolejo y García

asi como el Pbro. escritor Don Lucio Marmolejo fue hijo natural de Don José Francisco Marmolejo y Díaz del Castillo.

Notas: Fuentes Consultadas

Archivo Histórico Municipal de León, Gto.

Archivo Notaria Parroquial de San Felipe, Gto.

Fichas genealógicas de Marmolejo en el estado de Guanajuato

Libro: Haciendas y Ranchos del Bajío de David A. Brading

Libro : Genealogía de la Familia Guerra , del Lic. Mariano González Leal

Libro: León, Trayectoria y Destino, de Lic. Mariano González Leal



I.-Don Francisco Manríquez-Malacara, español, originario de Andalucía, nace por 1650 y se casó con Doña Juana de Canseco y Quiñónes

II.-Don Francisco Manríquez-Malacara y Canseco, originario de la Antequera del valle de Oaxaca, nace por 1673, luego vecino de la Villa de san Phelipe, (del ahora Estado de Gto.), Efectuó testamento en esa Villa el 25 de Octubre de 1733 y se casó por 1695 en primeras nupcias con Doña Maria Manuela de Fonseca y Montenegro, de origen Gallego, avecindada en Guanajuato y luego en San Felipe, hija legítima de Don Luis de Fonseca y Montenegro y Josefa de la Rocha, fueron Dueños de la extensa Hacienda de " La Cieneguilla", procrearon 11 hijos que luego enumeraremos; se casó en segundas nupcias con Doña Maria de las Nieves Sánchez Caballero, vecina de la Villa de León, (ahora León , Gto.) y tuvieron dos hijos :

A) Don Juan Lorenzo Manríquez-Malacara y Sánchez Caballero, quien murió el 10 de Junio de 1779, y se casó con Doña Mariana Caballero de Acuña y Pérez Quintana, fundadora del templo de los Ángeles , en la Villa de León, el 10 de Enero de 1762, sin descendencia y

B) Doña María Luisa Manríquez-Malacara y Sánchez Caballero 

De la primera esposa de Don Francisco fueron sus hijos :

Doña Petronila Manríquez-Malacara y Fonseca, bautizada el 6 de Julio de 1697 en San Felipe, soltera.

Don Joseph Manríquez-Malacara y Fonseca, murió soltero de 34 años

Doña Juana Agustina Manríquez-Malacara y Fonseca , nace por 1701 en san Felipe, y se casó , con Don Julián Busso y Aguilera

Doña María Josefa Manríquez-Malacara y Fonseca, bautizada el 18 de Marzo de 1705, en san Felipe, y se casó con Don Martín Muñoz Ledo, dueño de " la labor de Otates"

Don Francisco María Manríquez-Malacara y Fonseca, bautizado el 25 de Julio de 1707 en san Felipe, no se sabe si hubo sucesión

Don Antonio Nicolás Manríquez-Malacara y Fonseca, que sigue.

Doña Ana Gertrudis de la Candelaria Manríquez-Malacara y Fonseca, bautizada por 1712 en san Felipe, se casó con Don Joseph Gómez de Alas en Guanajuato.

Doña Isabel Catarina Manríquez-Malacara y Fonseca, se casó con Don Pedro Fonseca

Doña Ana Manuela Manríquez-Malacara y Fonseca, bautizada el 3 de julio de 1716 en la ciudad de Guanajuato, se casó con Don Tadeo Sánchez

Doña Rosa Rufina Manríquez-Malacara y Fonseca, bautizada el 5 de agosto de 1718 en la ciudad de Guanajuato

Doña Teresa Antonia Manríquez- Malacara y Fonseca, bautizada el 19 de noviembre de 1726 en la ciudad de Guanajuato.

III.-Don Antonio Nicolás Manríquez-Malacara y Fonseca, bautizado el 14 de junio de 1709, en San Felipe, se casó el 28 de noviembre de 1733, en san Felipe, con Doña María Josefa Sánchez, y fueron sus hijos :

Don Antonio Anastasio Malacara y Sánchez, bautizado el 1 de Octubre de 1735 en san Felipe, y se casó el 26 de abril de 1761, en Pinos, Zacatecas, con Doña Maria Ignacia Gertrudis Gallegos y fueron que se sepa 3 hijas:

Doña Maria Gertrudis, bautizada el 17 de mayo de 1766

Doña Ana Rita Florencia, bautizada el 13 de noviembre de 1768 y 

Doña María Sotera Malacara y Gallegos, baut. el 2 de mayo de1764

No se si hubo sucesión

Doña Francisca Javiera Malacara y Sánchez, bautizada el 8 de diciembre de 1737 en san Felipe.

Don Blas Vicente Malacara y Sánchez , bautizado el 12 de febrero de 1739 en san Felipe

Don Pedro Luis Malacara y Sánchez, bautizado el 31 de marzo de 1747, en san Felipe

Gemelos: Doña Maria de Jesús Malacara y Sánchez y

Don Cayetano Malacara y Sánchez, que sigue.:

Doña Maria Guadalupe Malacara y Sánchez, bautizada el 20 de diciembre de 1749 en san Felipe.

Doña Maria Encarnación Malacara y Sánchez, bautizada el 3 de abril de 1751, en San Felipe

Doña Ana Gertrudis Malacara y Sánchez, bautizada el 10 de Agosto de 1755 en san Felipe

Don Joseph Ignacio Malacara y Sánchez, bautizado el 9 de abril de 1757 en san Felipe.

IV.-Don Cayetano Malacara y Sánchez, bautizado con su hermana gemela el 28 de agosto de 1748 en san Felipe y se casó con Doña Ana María Negrete, el 3 de octubre de 1773 en san Felipe y fue su hijo entre otros:

V.-Don Cayetano Malacara y Negrete, nacido por 1775 en san Felipe, y se casó con Doña Rafaela Morales, radicando en Comanja de Corona, Jalisco y fueron sus hijos entre otros:

Don José Prudencio Malacara y Morales, nacido en 1800, en Comanja de Corona y 

V.-Don Diego Malacara y Morales, nacido el 20 de abril de 1812, en Comanja de Corona, Jalisco, y se casó con Doña María Medina, y fue su hijo entre otros:

VI.-Don Eustacio Malacara Medina, nace por 1845, en Comanja de Corona, Jalisco y se casa con Doña Francisca Garcia y de un hermano de ella desciende el Lic. Mario Aguado Malacara y de una hermana de ella, el Pbro. Monseñor Daniel Castillo y Cabrero, hijo de Don Felipe Castillo y Malacara y de Doña Juana Cabrero, y fueron sus hijos de Don Eustacio y de Doña Francisca :

Doña Luz Virginia Malacara García, casada con Roberto Aguirre, su hija Luz Virginia se casó con Roberto Escoto

Doña Julia Malacara García, se casó con el Gral. Vicente Barajas

Don Miguel Malacara García, 

Don Francisco Malacara García, soltero

Don Víctor Malacara García

Don José Malacara Garcia 

VII.-Don Daniel Malacara García, se casó con Doña Mercedes Moncayo, y fueron sus hijos :

A.-Don Antonio Malacara Moncayo, que se casó con Doña Teresa Velásquez y a la vez sus hijos:

Lourdes, Antonio, Mercedes, Guadalupe, Miguel, María de Jesús, Magdalena, Germán, Patricia, Ramón y Genaro Malacara Velásquez

B.-Don Zacarías Malacara Moncayo, se casó con Doña Celia Hernández Alvarez y a su vez sus hijos:
Zacarías, Vicente, Celia, Luz María, Daniel ( famoso Científico), Juan Manuel, Maria Eugenia y Francisca Malacara Hernández. y

VII.-Don Pedro Malacara García, nació en León, Gto. el 30 de Enero de 1881, se casó con Doña María Rodríguez Gaona, hija legítima de Don Jesús Rodríguez Fernández y de Doña Josefa Gaona, originarios de Guanajuato y fueron sus hermanas de María Rodríguez : Teresa, casada con Tomás García, Carmen, soltera, Josefina, soltera, Margarita, soltera , Herlinda, soltera, (dueñas que fueron de la famosa papelería " El Lápiz Rojo" en León, Gto., Francisco, casado con Clementina García y fueron sus hijas: Ofelia casada con David Hidalgo y Luz casada con José Garcidueñas y el Dr. Don Jesús Rodríguez Gaona, que fue Gobernador del Estado de Guanajuato, casado con Beatriz Rodríguez, orig, de Zacatecas, sin sucesión; fueron sus hijos de don Pedro y de Doña María Rodríguez Gaona :

VIII.-Don Francisco Malacara y Rodríguez, nacido en León, Gto. casado con Doña Refugio Luévano Rodarte y fueron sus hijos :

Francisco, José Pedro, y Patricia Malacara Luévano, esa última casada con Jesús López Aguilar

VIII.-Don Jesús Malacara y Rodríguez, nació en León, Gto. el 2 de mayo de 1906, casado con Doña Socorro Hernández Jaime, hija Legítima de Don Esteban Hernández Romo y Doña Dolores Jaime, y fueron sus hijos, todos nacidos en León, Gto.:

Teresa Malacara Hernández, soltera

Dr. Jesús Malacara Hernández, ( prestigiado Oculista ) casado con Adela Yver Trueba, y fueron sus hijas : Gabriela, Verónica y Carolina Malacara Yver

Luz María Malacara Hernández, casada con Julio Sojo Acosta y 

IX.-Eduardo Malacara Hernández, casado con Olga Nieto Rivera, originaria de Valle de Santiago, Gto., y fueron sus hijos :

X.-Eduardo y Mauricio Malacara Nieto.

Notas.-Fuentes Consultadas

Archivo Histórico Municipal de León, Gto.

Notaría Parroquial de San Felipe, Gto.

Notaría Parroquial de Comanja de Corona, Jalisco

Fichas Genealógicas de Manríquez y Malacara siglos XVII Y XVIII

Libro : León, Trayectoria y Destino , del Lic. Don Mariano González Leal, sección Notas, página 60

Información Verbal de Don Eduardo Malacara Hernández

Información Verbal, basado en su archivo particular de Don José de Jesús Barba y Ornelas, León, Gto.
Dominican Diaspora Revisited
Canary Islanders in Puerto Rico
Assn of Descendants of Canary Islanders in Puerto Rico  
St. Peter de Betancurt 

The Dominican Diaspora Revisited: 
Dominicans and Dominicans-Americans
in a New Century

Max J. Castro, Thomas D. Boswell
his paper presents new data on the Dominican migration process and Dominicans in the United States. Immigration from the Dominican Republic to the United States increased dramatically from the 1960s through the mid-1990s. Within the Western Hemisphere, the number of Dominican immigrants to the United States is second only to those from Mexico. Migration from the Dominican Republic peaked in the 1990s, even though the country was experiencing significant progress toward democracy and one of the fastest rates of economic growth in the world.  However, Dominican economic growth was accompanied by wide inequality in income distribution. Dominicans in the United States continue to suffer from low levels of education, income, and occupational status. The good news is that second-generation Dominicans have achieved considerably higher levels of education and secured better jobs than their foreign-born elders.                                Sent by Johanna de Soto

Canary Islanders in Puerto Rico
        La formacion del pueblo puertorriqueño, La contribucion de los Isleño-Canarios,  by Estela Cifre de Loubriel  should be the first stop for anyone looking for their Canary Islands ancestors in Puerto Rico.  (San Juan P.R.: Centro de Estudios Avanzados de Puerto Roco, 1995, 498 pages)
        Rondalla Canaria, Circulo de Amigos de Canarias, is a group organized in Puerto Rico. The president of the group is Mr. Hector R. Tores del Hoyo his e-mail is 
        A new foundation called the Canary Islands USA Foundation for Culture and Education is in the process of organization. The foundation will be formed by the president of each Canary Islands descendent group in North America ( 2, in TX 3 in LA, 1 FL, 1 PR, and one in Mexico City) as well as by other historians who want to help in recognizing the historic importance of the Canary Islands in USA and Mexico. There will be an historical committee formed by US historians and Canary Islands historians and art committee.                                           Sent by Bill Carmena  
Association of Descendants of Canary Islanders in Puerto Rico    
        At the present time, an association of descendants of Canary Islanders is being formed in Puerto Rico. As you may know thousands of Isleños settled in Puerto Rico in the 18th and 19th centuries. I have forwarded your message to Dr. Enrique Delgado in PR who is involved in the formation of the proposed group. He and I have traveled to Tenerife in 1999 and 2001 and traced our ancestry to immigrants from the town of San Miguel de Abona who immigrated to the northwestern part of Puerto Rico in the 1850s. 
Visit the website of the Puerto Rican Hispanic Genealogical Society, a passenger list is posted.
Sent by President of the  PRHGS,                          Miguel Hernandez,

The late Estela Cifre de Loubriel wrote a book, La formacion del pueblo puertorriqueño, La contribucion de los Isleño-Canarios, (San Juan P.R.: Centro de Estudios Avanzados de Puerto Roco, 1995, 498 pages). It should be the first stop for anyone looking for their Canary Islands ancestors in Puerto.Rico.                                                 Sent by Paul Newfield

 St. Peter de Betancurt, (1626-1667)

Homily of John Paul II

St Peter de Betancurt was born on 19 March 1626 at Chasna de Vilaflor on Tenerife in the Canary Islands. He died on 25 April 1667 in Guatemala City, Guatemala. His life, marked by a heroic holiness, is a shining testimony of faithfulness to the Gospel. Peter was a descendant of Juan de Betancurt, one of the Norman conquerors of the Canary Islands. His immediate family, however, was very poor and he started work as the shepherd of the small family flock. His parents raised him soundly in the faith, and his contact with nature nurtured his deeply contemplative soul. As a young boy, Peter learned to see God in everything around him.

When Peter heard about the miserable living conditions of the people of the "West Indies" (present-day America), he felt called to take the Christian message to this land. In 1650 when he was 23 years old, he left for Guatemala where a relative had already gone to become secretary of the Governor General. His funds ran out in Havana so Peter had to pay for his passage from that point by working on a ship which docked at Honduras from where he walked to Guatemala City.

Peter was now so poor that he had to stand in line for his daily bread at the Franciscan friary, and it was here that he met Friar Fernando Espino, a famous missionary, who befriended him and remained his lifelong counsellor. He found Peter a job in a local textile factory. In 1653 Peter realized his ambition to enter the local Jesuit college in the hope of becoming a priest. He showed little aptitude for study which led him to withdraw. Here Providence once again helped him as he met Fr Manuel Lobo, S.J., who became his confessor.

Friar Fernando invited Peter to join the Franciscan Order as a lay brother, but Peter felt that God wanted him to remain in the world; and in 1655, he joined the Third Order of St Francis. From then on, Peter dedicated his time to alleviating the sufferings of the less fortunate in the midst of inexpressible toil and difficulty. He became the apostle to African-American slaves, the Indios subjected to inhuman labour, the emigrants, and abandoned children, with ever-expanding generousity and deep humility in total abandonment to God's will. Inspired by the charity of Christ, he became everything to everyone. In 1658 Peter was given a hut which he converted into a hospital for the poor who had been discharged from the city hospital but still needed to convalesce.

It was called "Our Lady of Bethlehem". He also founded a hostel for the homeless, a school for poor and abandoned children, and an oratory. Peter received help for these foundations from both the civil and religious authorities. He begged for alms to endow the Masses celebrated by poor priests and also endowed Masses to be celebrated in the early hours so that the poor might not miss Mass. He had small chapels erected in the poor sectors where instruction was also given to children. Every year, on 18 August, he would gather the children and sing the Seven Joys of the Franciscan Rosary in honour of the Blessed Mother, a custom still continued today in Guatemala.

He was joined by men and women, who became the Bethlehemite Brothers and the Bethlehemite Sisters, and formulated a Rule that included the active apostolate of working with the poor, the sick, and the less fortunate, based on a life rich in prayer, fasting and penance. The Bethlehemite Congregation was thus established. Peter died on 25 April 1667, at 41 years of age. Throughout his life, the Child of Bethlehem was the focus of Peter's spiritual meditation. He was always able to see in the poor the face of "the Child Jesus", and to serve them devoutly. He is known as the "St Francis of the Americas".                                                                               Sent by Johanna de Soto

INTERNATIONAL :   Lanzarote, Canary Islands
        It is difficult to gain much firm information about the earliest inhabitants of the Canary Islands and there is some doubt about their origins. Some sources suggest that they may have come from the south of Spain whilst others suggest that they came from North Africa. The early inhabitants certainly had some resemblance to the darker skinned peoples of North Africa.
        The inhabitants of the islands were known, collectively, as Guanches. The inhabitants of all seven Canary Islands spoke a similar language, but with slight variations. We are told that they had a highly developed political and social structure.
        One unusual, but intriguing, development in communication has been on the island of Gomera. Here, the mountains are so steep and the valleys so deep that the people of the island developed the habit of whistling to each other across the ravines. By this means they were able to 'talk' to each other. I was once priviledged to witness this 'talking' in action and was most impressed. The whistling 'language' has lived on, but with all the modern innovations, is now likely to die out.
        The Guanches were pastoral and worked the land. Their way of life was very basic - almost 'stoneage' - and the tools which they used were primitive. They had no ploughs and wheels were unknown to them. The clay pots which they used were moulded by hand. Most were cave dwellers although a few of them did lay stones, one on top of the other, to form rudimentary houses.
        Visit this website to gain a better insight into the way of life of the Guanches. 
The Island Is Discovered
        More became known about the island of Lanzarote and it's inhabitants as various explorers 'discovered' it. One of the first to arrive - in the 1300's - was an Italian seafarer by the name of Lancelloto Malocello. It is possible that the island's name of Lanzarote is derived from Malocello's first name.
        Then it was the turn of the Spanish - or, rather, a Frenchman acting on behalf of the Spanish king. Jean de Béthencourt (a nobleman from Normandy), acting for Enrique III of Castille, brought the island under Spanish rule during the first years of the fifteenth century. In his southward venture, Lanzarote was the first of the Canary Islands which he came upon.
        The local inhabitants had been at the mercy of raiding pirates and Béthencourt, leading a small troop of men, is reported to have promised the king of the Guanches protection from the pirates. He, Béthencourt, was allowed to build a fortress on the Rubicón (a plain in the south of the island) to protect the islanders. His conquest of the island is said to have been peaceful.
        After Lanzarote, Jean de Béthencourt later went on to subdue Fuerteventura and El Hierro. He brought settlers out from Spain, who coexisted peacefully with the Guanches. The whole conquest took only four years.  Bethencourt acquired the title 'Lord of the Islands'. Following his conquest of the islands, he returned to France and was succeeded by his nephew, Maciót.
        Whereas Béthencourt had ruled peacefully, his nephew, Maciot, did not. Maciót traded in slaves and exploited his newly acquired land. The king of Spain, hearing of his deeds, had him removed from the island and exiled to Madeira. Maciót's scheming was still not over, however. One of his subsequent acts was to offer to sell the 'rights' to the Canary Islands to Portugal. As a consequence, a dispute ensued between Spain and Portugal which was only settled by the intervention of the Pope.  After Maciót had been deposed, a series of feudal lords controlled the island.
  The Arrival of The Pirates
       A period of relative peace followed. That is - until the appearance of pirates and corsairs from the nearby North African coast. The island was then subjected to repeated attacks and was fought over for nearly four centuries. Great bloodshed and ruin was caused.
        Many inhabitants were carried off to be sold as slaves. Many of those inhabitants who were not murdered or carried off were forced to take refuge in the Cueva de los Verdes in the North.
        As the capital of the island in those turbulent times, Teguise suffered badly - the church in the main square being repeatedly vandalised, sacked and burnt. Teguise ceased to be the capital of the island in 1852 in favour of Arrecife.
        Pirates of other nations also abounded in Canarian waters. These included Jean Florin and 'Peg Leg' LeClerc from France, together with Sir John Hawkins, John Poole and Sir Walter Raleigh from Britain.
        In the middle of the seventeenth century Lanzarote's population was reduced to a few hundred inhabitants. At this distance in time, and living the comparatively comfortable lives which most of us now do, it is difficult for us to imagine what their lives must have been like. Quite apart from working hard to win the means to survive, they were at times reduced to living in caves to avoid being murdered or carried off to be sold into slavery. It is hardly surprising that many of Lanzarote's inhabitants emigrated to other islands of the archipelago and to South America. There is a museum at the Castillo de Guanapay dedicated to displaying souvenirs and other records of the lives of those emigrants.
An Eye Witness Account, Lanzarote, 1730

Sent by Paul Newfield  and Bill Carmena 
wonder if these events in 1730 might have been a primary cause for those early Canarians leaving their land and going to Texas at that time. 
The area which is now designated the Timanfaya National Park (the 'Fire Mountains') was once one of the most fertile areas of Lanzarote. Fertile, that is until the first day of September, 1730. That day saw the beginning of a six year period during which this area would be totally devastated by successive volcanic eruptions, not terminating until the 16th day of April, 1736. During all that period, there would only be short periods of calm. The parish priest of Yaiza, Father Andrés Lorenzo Curbelo, recorded the happenings of the first few months of that disastrous six year period.  His account covers the period from the 1st. September, 1730, to the 28th. December, 1731. He wrote:
        "On the first day of September, 1730 between nine and ten oclock at night, the earth suddenly opened near Timanfaya, two miles from Yaiza. An enormous mountain emerged from the ground with flames coming from its summit. It continued burning for 19 days.
        Some days later, a new abyss developed and an avalanche of lava rushed down over Timanfaya, Rodeo and part of Mancha Blanca. The lava extended over to the northern areas to begin with, running as fast as water, though it soon slowed down and ran like honey.
        On September 7, a great rock burst upwards with a thunderous sound and the pressure of the explosion forced the lava going northwards to change direction, flowing then to the north west and west north west. The lava torrent arrived, instantly destroying Maretas and Santa Catalina in the valley.
        On September 11, the eruption became stronger. From Santa Catalina lava flowed to Mazo, covering the whole area and heading for the sea. It ran in cataracts for six continuous days making a terrible noise. Huge numbers of dead fish floated about on the sea or were thrown on the shore.Then everything quietened, and the eruption appeared to have come to an end.
        But on October 18, three new fissures formed above Santa Catalina. Enormous clouds of smoke escaped, flowing over the whole island, accompanied by volcanic ashes, sand, and debris. The clouds condensed and dropped boiling rain on the land. The volcanic activity remained the same for ten whole days with cattle dropping dead, asphyxiated by the vapours.
        By October 30, everything had gone strangely quiet.
        Two days later, however, smoke and ashes reappeared and continued until the 10th of the month. Another flow of lava spewed out causing little damage as the surroundings were already scorched and devastated.
        A further avalanche started on the 27th, rushing at unbelievable speed towards the sea. It arrived at the shore on December 1 and formed a small island in the water where dead fish were found.
        On December 16, the lava, which until then had been rushing towards the sea, changed direction, heading south west, reaching Chupadero which, by the following day, had turned into a vast fire. This quickly devastated the fertile Vega de Uga, but went no further.
        New eruptions started on January 7, 1731, with spontaneous fireworks embellishing the sadness and desolation of the south. Powerful eruptions with incandescent lava and blue and red lighting crossed the night sky.
        On January 21, a gigantic mountain rose and sunk back into its crater on the same day with such a terrifying sound, covering the island with stones and ashes. The fiery lava streams descended like rivers towards the sea with the ash, rocks and dense smoke making life impossible. That lava flow ceased on January 27.
        But on the third day of February, a new cone threw out more lava towards the sea, which continued for 25 consecutive days.
        On March 20 new cones arose, with more eruptions continuing for 11 days.
        On April 6, the same cones erupted again with even more fury.
        On the 13th, two more mountains collapsed into their own craters making a frightful sound.
        By May 1, the fire seemed to have burned out, only to start up again the following day, with yet another new cone rising and a current of lava threatening Yaiza itself.
        By May 6, everything was quiet again and remained so for the rest of the month.
        On June 4 an enormous land rift took place which opened up three new craters and accompanied by violent tremors and flames which terrified the local people. The eruption once more took place near Timanfaya. Different openings soon joined into one and the river of lava flowed down to the sea.A new cone appeared among the ruins of Maretas, Santa Catalina and Timanfaya. A crater opened on the side of a mountain near Maso spewing out white fumes which had never been seen before.
        Towards the end of June, 1731, all the western beaches and shores were covered with an incredible number of dead fish of all species -- some with shapes which islanders had never known before. In the north west, visible from Yaiza, a great mass of flames and smoke belched forth accompanied by violent detonations.
        In October and November more eruptions took place which worsened the islanders fears.
        Christmas Day, 1731, the whole island shook with tremors, more violent than ever before.
        December 28, a stream of lava came pouring out of a newly risen cone in the direction of Jaritas. It burned the village and destroyed San Juan Bautistas chapel near Yaiza".
HISTORY  &  Archaeology
Dark Years of Franco's Rule
Journal of Archaeology, History & Exploration
Swords & Sabres of Spanish Cavalry Troopers 
Archivo General de Indias

Extracts from Spain Gripped by Soap Set in Dark Years of Franco's Rule
Cuentame Como Paso ("Tell Me How It Happened")  The Independent - London - August 9, 2002

        CONFOUNDING ALL expectations, a Spanish soap set in the dark years of Franco's dictatorship has blown away the silence shrouding Spain's recent past to become a prime-time television blockbuster. 
        The interiors evoke the lower middle-class Spain of the late Sixties, but the storyline is what has gripped the country, keeping millions glued to the screen. Cuentame Como Paso ("Tell Me How It Happened") shows, in sweetened form, the hardships, fears, ambitions and frustrations of an ordinary Spanish family struggling under the dictatorship.
        The series has caught the imagination of all generations of Spaniards: those who remember Franco relish the authenticity of every detail; youngsters who never knew him are fascinated by this window on their otherwise silent and invisible history. "It reflects where we Spaniards come from, our immediate history and what that period was like," says the director, Tito Fernandez, 71, who remembers it all vividly. "It is important that people know."    Source:

Journal of Archaeology, History, and Exploration

This is wonderful website.  It has the latest news item in archaeology and paleoanthropology.. 
The table of contents to previous issue are listed, with links.                          Sent by Eddie Grijalva

Swords and Sabres for Spanish Cavalry Troopers
Part One (1728 - 1814) by Juán José Perez    

        In this article series we are going to briefly consider the different Spanish Cavalry Troopers patterns that were issued between 1728 and 1907 (before 1728 that concept did not exist, and in 1907 the last troopers pattern approved in Spain was issued). We have left deliberately apart from this study Dragoons sabres and swords, because they presented during 18th century a great variability, lacking of specific weaponry since 1815. All the referred patterns were produced at the Toledo Factory. In this first article we cover the period from the first known standard pattern to the end of the wars against Napoleon.                                                                                   Sent by Johanna de Soto


Archives of the Indies Web Site  

En 1785 nacía, por deseo del rey Carlos III, el Archivo General de Indias, con objeto de reunir en un solo lugar los documentos referentes a las Indias hasta entonces dispersos en Simancas, Cádiz y Sevilla. El impulsor del proyecto fue José de Gálvez, secretario de Indias, y el ejecutor el Académico e historiador Juan Bautista Muñoz, cosmógrafo mayor de Indias. El espléndido edificio, la Casa Lonja de Sevilla, que se construyó en época de Felipe II sobre planos de Juan de Herrera, sirve hasta hoy como sede del Archivo.   

This website has links to a great variety of information, historical and cultural.  If reading in Spanish is easy do go to it. . . .  explore.                                  Sent by Bill Carmena
Son Jarocho
Genealogy Forum
How to use accents and ñ in your E-mails
Family History Radio
Renaissance Design
You live in. . .
You know you're from Louisiana if . . .
Shared by Chuck Bobo

Mono Blando and the Music of Veracruz
        The gulf coast state of Veracruz has been a cultural flashpoint for over 500 years as Mexico's principal port of entry to the world. African, European and Indigenous cultures clashed and fused and created a unique cultural form. The music of this region reflects this phenomenon like no other cultural marker. In son jarocho, the traditional dance music of Veracruz, the African presence has always been stronger than in other Mexican regional styles because of the historical participation of the
African population brought as slaves to Mexico. This is evidenced by the call-and-response vocal style and the rhythmic syncopations. Son jarocho was born in this environment and continues to be the dominant cultural expression of Veracruz. 
        Played on instruments specifically created for this music, son jarocho employs guitar-like instruments called jaranas (small strummed 8-string guitars), requintos (4-string guitars on which percussive melodies are played) and the harp (diatonic folk harp for syncopated melodies and bass lines) as well as the pandero (large wood-framed tambourine). Contemporary adaptations of this music have incorporated different instruments, styles and cultural influences.
        Mono Blanco: This internationally acclaimed musical group is the leading proponent of  son jarocho, the traditional music and dance of rural southern Veracruz. It is a multi-generational ensemble of over twenty members whose families have played and danced indigenous art forms for generations and has a unique sound owed to a rich ancient tradition in the hands, feet and voices of energetic and insightful musicians. Since its inception in 1978, Mono Blanco has toured Asia, Europe, Central America and North Africa, the United States, Canada and Mexico. 
        Mono Blanco's artistic director Gilberto Gutierrez has received numerous honors including the National Endowment for the Arts Folk Art Award and the Rockefeller Fund for Culture to develop projects that promote son jarocho. However, its most important work remains within the rural
communities of Veracruz. 
        As a large part of disseminating this tradition, Mono Blanco conducts workshops on traditional song, dance as well as traditional instrument making. In 2001, Mono Blanco opened El CaSon School for Popular Music - an independent music school whose sole mission is to promote and teach son jarocho. All of the workshops expose the idea of learning through teaching whether that is in workshops on jarana, zapateado, harp or violin. El CaSon features a monthly fandango where students as well as educators participate in a jam session that displays the rich traditions of lyrical and instrumental improvisation. In addition, El CaSon provides a space for the local jarocho groups to come and showcase their talent. 
        Son de Madera is the finest example of the new movement of son jarocho that Mono Blanco created. It's director Ramon Guiterrez Hernandez; the half brother of Gilberto Gutierrez is considered by many the leading virtuoso of the guitarra de son in the new generation of soneros. Their unique synthesis of the African, baroque and indigenous roots of son jarocho has been hailed by music lovers and popular audiences alike. 
        Blessed with an enormous arranging talent and innovating spirit, Son de Madera departs from the traditional form of son jarocho with surprising success in the son movement. Their work enriches the traditional instrumentation of requintos, jaranas, percussion, with the "cinco zapotero" (a string instrument that uses 5 pairs of strings) the marimbula (an instrument used in Veracruz to accompany the African derived "rumbas de cajon"), the quijada de caballo (a dry horse jaw) as a percussive instrument, the harmonica and a continual bass that gives depth and serenity to the ensemble.
        Son de Madera's repertoire is rooted primarily in the sones of the traditional fandango or jam session found in southern Veracruz, Mexico as well as from the popular celebrations that gathered round the tarima (or portable stage). This is where all of the musical currents that passed into the gulf, flow and meld ceaselessly to create a true people's music.
        Son De Madera's exceptional sound and breath has garnered them invitations to many of the major jaranero conferences and festivals throughout North America. With four recordings to their credit including: Son de Madera (Urtex), El Son Mexicano (Nimbus Records), Raices (Son De Madera), and a collaboration with the Irish group, Kasidi, Son De Madera is playing an increasing role in the wide-spread popularity of son jarocho. 
How to use accents and ñ in your E-mails:
á Press Alt and 160
é " " 130 
í " " 161
ó " " 162
ú " " 163
ñ " " 164
¿ " " 168

For the above numbers use the number key pad.  For a quick reference, I have the above on a small "post-it" on the computer monitor.  Saludos, Ivonne U. Thompson
HispanicOnline has added an interactive opportunity for readers.  Forums give you an opportunity to share your opinions on some of the latest Hispanic issues.  A chat line is another strategy for networking with concerned Hispanics who do not live in Latino barrrios or communities.  
Family History Radio press release   
        Family History Radio will host a live free Genealogy webcast on September 10th from 8:00 to 9:00 PM EDT.  Family History Radio celebrates its one year anniversary with a live Genealogy webcast on September 10, 2002. from 8:00 to 9:00 PM EDT. A webcast is just like a live radio broadcast only it's delivered over the Internet. Family History Radio is excited to announce that Karen Clifford, a renowned professional genealogist, curriculum developer, and genealogy author with over 30 years experience, will webcast a free live genealogy question and answer session on the Internet. 
        In addition to Karen's question and answer session, Family History Radio will talk about current genealogy news, Genealogy research tips and tricks, and the latest Genealogy products and services. This will be presented by Steve Jensen the Host for Family History Radio. During the webcast listeners can call in their questions and hear the live answers from Karen. Listeners will also be able to interact with Karen and others live on the air. Slides and text will also be presented during the live webcast that relate to the subject being discussed. In addition to the question and answer session, Karen will also be talking about a series of new learning courses that will be offered on Family History Radio starting on September 10, 2002. 
        Don't miss this exciting event. To register go to and fill out the response form. Registrants will receive information telling them what to do to be able to tune in and listen. Registrants will also be eligible to win prizes, giveaways and free Genealogy training sessions.  The webcast is free to all who register. All that is required to listen to the webcast, is a computer with Windows 98 or better, an audio card and speakers, Internet Explorer Browser and a 56kbps or better connection.
        Al Jensen, President, Family History Radio  1-801-553-9005
Renaissance Design is one of a handful of companies turning our haute couture creations for priests.  Since the firm began nine years ago, sales have quadrupled to more than $1 million a year.  The firm offers handmade chasubles (sleeveless tunic), stoles, miters, and altar cloths.
U.S. News & World Report, August 19, 2002
You live in California when . . .
1.You make over $250,000 and you still can't afford to buy a house.
2.The high school quarterback calls a time-out to answer his cell phone.
3.The fastest part of your commute is going down your driveway.
4.You know how to eat an artichoke.
5.You drive to your neighborhood block party.
6.When someone asks you how far something is, you tell them how long it will take to get there rather than how many miles away it is.

You live in New York when . . .
1.You say "the city" and expect everyone to know you mean Manhattan.
2.You have never been to the Statue of Liberty or the Empire State Building.
3.You can get into a four-hour argument about how to get from Columbus Circle to Battery Park, but can't find Wisconsin on a map. 
4.You think Central Park is "nature."
5.You believe that being able to swear at people in their own language makes you multi-lingual.
6.You've worn out a car horn.
7.You think eye contact is an act of aggression.

You live in Alaska when . . .
1.You only have four spices: salt, pepper, ketchup and Tabasco.
2.Halloween costumes fit over parkas.
3.You have more than one recipe for moose.
4.Sexy lingerie is anything flannel with fewer than eight buttons.
5.The four seasons are: winter, still winter, almost winter, and construction.

You live in the Deep South when . . .
1.You get a movie and bait in the same store.
2."ya'll" is singular and "all ya'll" is plural.
3. After five years you still hear, "You ain't from 'round here, are ya?"
4."He needed killin' " is a valid defense.
5. Everyone has 2 first names: Billy Bob, Jimmy Bob, Mary Sue, Betty Jean, etc.

You live in Colorado when . . .
1.You carry your $3,000 mountain bike atop your $500 car.
2.You tell your husband to pick up Granola on his way home and  you're talking about your kid.
3.A pass does not involve a football or dating.
4.The top of your head is bald, but you still have a pony tail.

You live in the Midwest when . .
1.You've never met any celebrities, but the mayor knows your name.
2.Your idea of a traffic jam is ten cars waiting to pass a tractor.
3.You have had to switch from "heat" to "A/C" on the same day.
  4.You end sentences with a preposition: "Where's my coat at?"
  5.When asked how your trip was to any exotic place, you say, "It was different!"

You live in Florida when. . .
1.You eat dinner at 3:15 in the afternoon.
2. All purchases include a coupon of some kind - even houses and cars.
3. Everyone can recommend an excellent dermatologist.
4. Road construction never ends anywhere in the state.
5. Cars in front of you are often driven by headless people.
6. There are only GIANT doctors in Florida (Every person's doctor is "The Biggest" in his field)

Bill Carmena
You know you're from Louisiana if:

You start an angel food cake with a roux.
Watching "Wild Kingdom" inspires you to write a cookbook.
You think the former head of the United Nations is Boudreaux-Boudreaux Guillory.
You think a lobster is a crawfish on steroids.
You think boudin, hogshead cheese, and a Bud is a bland diet.
You think Ground Hog Day and the Boucherie Festival are the same holiday.
You take a bite of 5 alarm chili and reach for the Tabasco.
Fred's Lounge in Mamou means more to you than the Grand Ole Opry.
You have an "envie" for something instead of a craving.
You use a #3 washtub to cover your lawn mower or your outboard motor.
You use 2 or more pirogues to cover your tomatoes to protect them from the late frost.
You use a gill net to play tennis, badminton, or volleyball.
The horsepower of your outboard motor is greater than that of your car motor.
You pass up a trip abroad to go to the Crawfish Festival in Breaux  Bridge.
Your favorite TV talk show host is "Okra Winfrey."
All your favorite recipes begin..."First you make a roux..."
Your school teaches the four basic food groups as: 
1) Boiled seafood, 2) Broiled seafood, 3) Fried seafood, 4) Beer
You are asked to name the holy trinity and your reply is, "Onions, celery, bell pepper".
You are asked to name the "Fab Four" and you respond, "Paul  Prudhomme, John Folse, Justin Wilson, and Vernon Rogers."
You let your black coffee cool and find that it has gelled.
You describe a link of boudin and cracklins as "breakfast."
Every once in a while, you have waterfront property.
Your mama announces each morning, "Well, I've got the rice cooking...what will we have for dinner?"
None of your potential vacation destinations are north of the old Mississippi River Bridge (US 190).
You  refer to Louisiana winters as "Gumbo Weather."
You get a disappointing look from your wife and describe it as, "She passed me a pair of eyes."
You think of gravy as a beverage.
You sit down to eat boiled crawfish and your host says, "Don't eat the dead ones," and you know what he means.
You learned Bourre the hard way...holding yourself upright in your crib.
You don't know the real names of your friends, only their nicknames.
You give up Tabasco for Lent.
Your burial plot is six feet over rather than six feet under.
You worry about a deceased family member returning in spring floods.
You're not afraid when someone wants to ax you something.
You don't learn until high school that Mardi Gras is not a national holiday.
You push little old ladies out of the way to catch Mardi Gras throws.
You leave a parade with footprints on your hands.
You believe that purple, green and gold look good together -- you will even eat things those colors.
Your last name isn't pronounced the way it's spelled.
You know what a nutria is but you still pick it to represent your baseball team.
You like your rice and your politics dirty.
You greet your long lost friend at the Lafayette Regional Airport  with
Bill Carmena


    12/30/2009 04:48 PM