Proudly shares the genealogical research of
Table of Contents
following are a few select articles published in SomosPrimos.com
representing Dr. Hough's dedication to promote a better understanding of the
Hispanic contributions to the American Revolution. For more information on a specific topics, please go to Somos Primos homepage and review previous
data and personal objectives
Organizations connected to the American Revolution
Louisiana in support of the American Revolution
Bernardo de Galvez
support of the American Revolution throughout the Americas
Recommended websites to Bookmark
Hard copies can be
purchased from Borderland Books:
Granville W. Hough of Laguna Woods, CA, is Professor Emeritus, California State University, Fullerton, and a retired Lieutenant Colonel, Regular Army. He has been an amateur genealogist and historian for forty-five years, with more than twenty-five books to his credit, including eight written with his daughter, N. C. Hough, on Spanish soldiers of the Borderlands who served during the time of the American Revolutionary War. Listings of these books may be viewed on the web site for the Library of Congress or on the web site of the Family History Center at Salt Lake City.
Granville was a student at Mississippi State University in Nov 1942 when he
joined the Army Enlisted Reserve shortly before his 20th birthday. He was
soon on active duty as an infantryman, but he was
The Army had constantly changing needs for people with higher education skills
during the Cold War. Responding to those needs, Granville gained a
Master’s degree in Mechanical Engineering from USC in 1955, a Master’s
degree in Business Administration from George Washington University in 1965, and
a PhD in Public Administration from American University in 1971 (after
In 1991, Granville joined the National Society, Sons of the American Revolution. His research experience has indicated to him that much of the history of the American Revolution is incomplete and misleading. He strongly believes that the NSSAR, and other patriotic organizations, should be at the forefront of revising the history we teach our children about our country and those who have worked with us as allies, co-belligerents, and even as enemies.
In 1996 I learned that the National Society, Sons of the American Revolution, had turned down a California applicant who had no receipt to prove his soldier ancestor had donated one or two pesos to defray the costs of the war with Britain from 1779 into 1783. This seemed a strange denial as the applicant's ancestor had risked his life as a soldier, so why worry about a donativo? I told my SAR chapter I could develop a rationale for acceptance of Spanish soldiers as patriots, and it said go ahead.
I knew Louisiana soldiers serving under Governor Bernardo de
Gálvez had been accepted as Patriots since 1925, and that French soldiers and
sailors who served under General Rochambeau and Admiral de Grasse had been
accepted since 1903.
It was interesting research, and no one had ever done such a
compilation of Spanish soldiers and sailors. We then did Arizona and
Northern Sonora, then New Mexico. We were able to get our first descendant
of a New Mexico soldier accepted in 1999. We moved on to Texas where we
found a couple of people had already been accepted but there was no composite
list. So we did one, including all the territory now under Texas
History of Somos Primos and SHHAR's connection with Dr. Hough
In May of 1995, I met California state DAR librarian, Dr. Patricia Stanford
Moseley at the National Genealogical Society Conference in San Diego. At that time and throughout the 1990s Somos Primos was a hard-copy quarterly.
We had a display and complimentary copies for attendees to the conference.
Within two years, and directly related to Dr. Stanford's enthusiasm, NSDAR formed a Spanish Task Force. Called the California Mission Project, the goal was to identify Spanish heritage individuals in the United States whose ancestors contributed to the Revolutionary cause. Orange County, California educator, Dr. Mildred Murry lead the research effort, with a 2-fold goal: 1) to aid in genealogical research of Spanish connections to the Revolution, thus opening new avenues for NSDAR membership, and 2) to encourage donations to the NSDAR Library concerning these ethnic connections. NSDAR http://www.dar.org
Dr. Granville Hough and his daughter were busy researching and compiling
California data, full-time, a project that he had been dedicated to since
1996. In 1997, Dr. Hough contacted us for the possibility of SHHAR
publishing his work, starting with the California Patriots Volume I
(1998). The copyright was given to us, and the funds raised went to SHHAR.
The importance of the Hough work was clear, and the opportunity to promote his
research was met with much enthusiasm. The publication of the volumes
followed, volume 2 of California (1999). The series consists of
California (2 volumes), Arizona (1999), New Mexico(1999), Texas (2000),
Louisiana (2000), Patriots of the West Indies (2001), and the last volume in the
series, Northwestern New Spain (2001). Each book (about 180 pages) includes a listing of all the Spanish soldiers present in those locations during that time period.
Each volume focuses on a location where battles were
fought and the specific Spanish soldier identified in the military records in
that location between 1779 and 1783,
Dr. Hough's research continues. In addition to the books, Somos Primos has published on-going research which is included in this compilation, he also was involved in the 2002-2003 Galvez Project.
American Spirit,, the magazine of the National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution, Mar/Apr 2002. Vol. 136, No. 2. The article featured in the NSDAR magazine was written by Robert H. Thonhoff, a retired educator, author of the book, The Texas Connection with the American Revolution, published in 1981. Being a Texas researcher, and already in touch with Mr. Thonhoff, I called to congratulate him. In a telephone conversation Thonhoff said, "For twenty-five years I have felt like John in the wilderness trying to tell everyone about the Spanish contribution to the American Revolution. People are finally listening."
Spanish Contributions to the American Revolutionary War
“DISCURSO PRONUNCIADO POR EL SR. CONSUL GENERAL
EL 29 DE MARZO DE 1979 ANTE LA LOUISIANA HISTORICAL SOCIETY,”
by Hon. José Montero de Pedro, Marqués de Casa Mena, Consul General de España
Shared by Dr. Granville Hough
It is a great pleasure and satisfaction for me to be with you this evening on the occasion of the viewing of the films about the life and career of Bernardo de GÁLVEZ in Louisiana. In accepting the invitation of the Louisiana Historical Society my address will deal with the Spanish contribution to the cause of the American Revolution.
Ask any American, with the exception of the trained historian, what he knows of the aid given by Spain to the United States in its struggle for independence during the Revolutionary War and the answer will be short and instantaneous - “Nothing”. Ask the same question of many students of American History and the answer will be the same. And yet, the Spanish contribution to the birth of the United States was enormously important.
Let it be recognized frankly that neither France nor Spain entered the struggle for the independence of the American Colonies from pure altruism. Nations have always acted for reasons of state, as they do to this day. But this is not to say that the participation of the two countries did not substantially contribute to the winning of independence.
The story of the contribution of France has often been told. But what of the contribution of Spain? That story has been sadly and inexplicably neglected. It is the purpose of this short address to reveal or remind you of that story, as dispassionately and objectively as possible.
Modern research carried out in archives in Spain, France, and Washington reveal that the courts of Madrid and Paris had agreed, early in the year 1776, upon a plan for giving assistance secretly to the
revolting colonies. It was agreed between them that in order to insure the secrecy, since neither Court was to appear as an ally of the insurgents, all monies and supplies should be handled by a third party and appear as open business transactions. (italics added). (Comment by GWH: Why was it feasible on 4 July 1776 for the American Colonies to declare independence? One partial answer is that the framers knew that France and Spain were in support and would presumably be trading partners for the future. Without such support, it would not have made sense to declare independence from one’s lifeline, and the war would have taken some other course.)
Sympathy for the Americans, when they began open hostilities against the mother country, ran high throughout Spain. At that time, however, Spain was not in a position to make her sympathy openly known. She was engaged in a war with Portugal over possessions in South America that was costing her vast amounts in money and many men and ships. England, the open ally of Portugal, held the dangerous points of Minorca, Mahan, and Gibraltar. Her navy was the most powerful on the seas, second in numbers only to the Spanish fleet.
Carlos III, was, at this time, diplomatically involved in peace negotiations with Portugal and could ill afford to enter into any alliance that might endanger the successful conclusion of these negotiations. To become openly engaged in the struggle of the American colonists against their mother country would certainly lead to a declaration of war against England and invite an immediate blockade of all Spanish ports, thus ending all possibility of signing the desired treaty with Portugal. Such was the position of Spain when the Americans began hostilities against England. It also sufficiently explains the reasons why Spain decided to keep secret her aid to the revolting colonies.
Nevertheless, Spain was still maintaining in 1777 the cloak of secrecy over its operations, a secrecy believed to be vital to the security of its (Spain’s) American dominion. For this reason, when Charles III decided to send Juan Miralles as an observer to the headquarters of General Washington in 1777, Miralles took up his duties under the patronage of the French Ambassador, following the instructions of the Spanish Court. Miralles’ position was humiliating. He felt, and not without reason, that the affairs of Spain were being adjusted to the indirect advantage of France. But it proved impossible to bring about a change in his status. Washington and Miralles became very close friends. The Spanish diplomat died in Washington’s headquarters, at Morristown, in April 1780. The highest military honors were rendered to him as if he had been a fully accredited ambassador. Washington paid his final tribute to his friend in a letter to the Governor of Havana saying of him “in this country he has been universally esteemed and (his death) will be universally regretted.”
In the fall of 1777, Washington, his army short of clothing and war supplies,
was facing the winter that might well decide the fate of his country. Desperate
agents of the colonies were becoming more and more indiscreet, announcing openly
the sources of aid to America. By giving the strong impression that Spain and
France were actually their open allies, they hoped to weaken England’s will to
continue the war.
Spain’s entry into the War came at a time that was highly critical for the
Colonists, who were trying to fight the strongest nation in Europe almost
barehanded. In 1778, the center of gravity of the war had been transferred from
the North to the South and there the fortunes of war were not exactly favoring
the Colonists. That year the English took Savannah and Augusta, as well as other
towns, causing severe setbacks for the American forces which had lost some 5,000
Spain contributed to prevent this from happening by entering the Revolutionary
War and providing the Colonists with secure Southern and Western borders, from
its (Spain’s) bases in Louisiana and Cuba. This was extremely important since
it prevented the American Revolutionaries from getting encircled. Supplies could
continue to flow up the Mississippi and, from then on, the Colonists would be
able to wage their war of Independence with their backs well protected.
Anniversary of Spain’s Entry into the Revolutionary War.
by Granville W. Hough, Ph.D. email@example.com
Somos Primos, June 2004
On 21 June 1779, King Carlos III of Spain declared war on England and thus made official his support of Americans in their struggle for independence. Clandestine support had already been provided for three years, but afterwards support was open and direct.
In the past few weeks, my daughter and I have been studying documents of
the Continental Congress looking for names of American mariners. We
found the reports of Arthur Lee, and the 1777/79 manifests of twelve
vessels which were loaded out from Cadiz, Spain, with war supplies
headed for Boston and Philadelphia. (Papers of the Continental
Congress, Records Group M0247, Item #83, Roll 110, “Letters Received
from Arthur Lee, 1776-1780,”). This was pre-war, but vital to the
4. The victory at Yorktown was made secure by the West Indies strategies
of Spain and France. England was forced into a defensive strategy,
as Jamaica was the big target for Spain. The French Expeditionary
Force was moved in 1782/83 from North America to Venezuela to participate
It can also be accurately stated that what made Yorktown significant and
secured it as the last great land battle in America was the British
preoccupation with defending the West Indies (particularly Jamaica)
against Spanish and French invasion. So we owe the Spanish people for their contributions to our freedom.
It is a debt we should not forget.
and What won the Revolutionary War?
Sea power, clandestine aid, unknown treaties, treasure ships, biological warfare, U-boats, or other?
By Granville W. Hough
South Coast Chapter, CASSAR
Somos Primos, December 2002
In reviewing several thousand records of individual soldiers and sailors who served in the Revolutionary War under American, French Spanish, and Dutch flags, my daughter and I had to ask ourselves, over and over, what these individuals were doing in the places listed for their service. We began to get new insights (to us) on what it all meant. When we read what American, French, and Spanish historians say about the war, we had to remind ourselves they were talking about the
same war the individual soldiers and sailors of our study actually fought and died in. To the British, Yorktown in 1781 was just a failure in application of sea-power, not particularly interesting in the long run of British successes. To the French, the failure of the invasion of England in 1779 was just the result of biological warfare (unintended ??) which devastated the Spanish and French fleets, but not the British fleet. To the French, Les Saintes, with its loss of more than 3100 killed or captured, was not a climactic battle which changed the course of naval warfare, but just a setback which had little effect on the outcome of the war. The list goes on and on. Even the agreements which governed conduct of the war, or clandestine aid, or privateering, are unknown or ignored by many historians. (endnote 1)
The Effect of the U. S. Victory at Saratoga
Few Americans saw with greater clarity than George Washington how the future of the nation lay in sea power. For without access to the sea there would be no arms and supplies, no markets and access to worldly goods through trade. No one courted more avidly the representatives of France and Spain than did Washington, for these countries had enough sea-power to divert Britain away from the local land conflict of the thirteen colonies.
The Battle of Saratoga (Sep 1777) convinced France the colonies could win. For over a year France and Spain, each separately, and together in a secret 50-50 financial partnership, had been covertly supplying the Americans with money, arms and war materials. (endnote 2). France
formally recognized the U. S. as a nation by signing a treaty of Friendship and Trade on 6 Feb 1778, as well as a secret military treaty. An (undeclared) war with Britain soon erupted, and Britain
immediately changed her priorities to reflect the new reality.
First, protect the homeland from invasion;
Second, protect the sugar islands and timber resources of the West Indies;
Third, restore the 13 colonies to British sovereignty;
Fourth, hold Gibraltar and Mediterranean sea bases;
Fifth, advance British interests in other areas.
According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, "This fact shows how the
French alliance had changed the nature of the war. It now became to a
large extent a contest between the two navies (e. g., British and French),
the principal evolutions of which occurred in West Indian and European
seas." Perhaps the statement could be improved from the French
perspective if the Indian Ocean were added. Certainly the result was much
of what George Washington had hoped for. (endnote 3)
The French were committed to aid America and sent an Expeditionary fleet
under Admiral Count d’Estaing on 12 April 1778 to that end. This fleet
arrived at the Delaware River too late to stop General Clinton on his way
back to New York. Then it went on to New York, but it would not enter the
harbor to attack. It did engage the British at sea near Newport, but bad
weather hampered operations.
Both France and Spain wanted a quick and decisive stroke, BUT: Dull notes, page 134. "Since to attack England would require 70,000 infantry and 5,000 cavalry, Vergennes (the leading French minister) suggested instead to attack Ireland with 27,000 infantry and 3,000 cavalry, half to be provided by each country. Vergennes expected the Irish, particularly the Irish Presbyterians with their passion of democracy, to rise against the English…." When the Spanish made clear they would not provide troops, but only limited naval support, Vergennes began to consider alternative invasion plans. This went on all through the summer of 1779. One plan after another was studied and put on hold. The British spy network in France and Spain reported on the planning and put the British people on alert. Alfred T. Mahan, in his Major Operations of the Navies in the War of American Independence, page 117, stated: "The alarm in England was very great, especially in the south. On the 9th of July a royal proclamation had commanded all horses and cattle to be driven from the coasts, in case of invasion. Booms had been placed across the entrance to Plymouth harbor, and orders were sent from the Admiralty to sink vessels across the harbor’s mouth. Many who had the means withdrew into the interior, which increased the panic…"
The situation was finally resolved in August, 1779, when the Spanish fleet joined six weeks late, and both fleets suffered from an epidemic. (The name of this disease and the number of casualties it caused have not been found, and it apparently did not affect the British fleet. In the U. S. political climate of late 2002, it would surely be credited to biological warfare.) The combined but sickness- weakened French and Spanish fleet of 65 warships could not even find, let alone destroy, the English fleet of 35 warships protecting the British Isles, such destruction being the prerequisite for invasion. The troops waiting to attack had to go on to other missions. Though Britain did not know it at the time, it gained its first priority objective of protecting the homeland from invasion in August, 1779. The French minister, Vergennes, gradually moved the focus of the war to the Western Hemisphere, though the terms of the Aranjuez Convention were not changed.
Other hostilities by Spain began immediately at sea, in West Florida, and in Central America. Greatest successes were achieved by Governor Bernardo de Gálvez of Louisiana, who captured Baton Rouge in 1779, then Mobile in 1780, then focused on Pensacola in 1781. In 1780, Spain sent an army of 10,000 men to the West Indies to support its activities there. Her main effort, however, was in her adjacent waters where she blockaded Gibraltar and laid siege to it, and moved to recover all the Balearic islands she had lost after the Seven Years War.
When the news of war with France reached India in 1778, the British
authorities there moved against the French installations with the intent
of eliminating the French presence in India. They captured Pondicherry in
the Bay of Bengal in 1778. A fleet arrived to help in 1779. British
capture of the French port of Mahé on the Western shore of India alarmed
the Sultan of Mysore, and he declared war on the British in July 1780.
This diverted the British efforts for some time until the Sultan could be
neutralized. By 1781, both France and Britain had fleets in the Indian
Ocean protecting their individual interests, as explained below.
Without this war to shake her up and get her refocused, the
world would have developed much differently.
Because she supported the great ocean explorer, Capt James Cook
(1728-1779), Britain also came out of the conflict knowing more about the
Pacific Ocean than any other power. Capt Cook and his scientific
explorations really opened the Pacific world, which had partly been known
to the Spanish but kept secret by them. He experimented with sauerkraut
and citrus and confirmed that scurvy (the ancient scourge of sailors)
could be prevented. British sailors became known as
Ignorance among American
the Inter American University of Puerto Rico. This particular article was republished in 1985 by the Embassy of Spain, USA.
The Relations Between Spain and the United States:
Lousiana and the Middle West Territory (1763 - 1795)
By Antonio R. Peña
Sent by Paul Newfield firstname.lastname@example.org
This article analyses the political, military and social relations that were established between Spain and the United States on the middle ground territories since 1763 to 1795. A great European power and a new republic fought over those unpopulated territories and the relations between them oscillated between cooperation and confrontation. Two opposite conceptions and political and socioeconomic models clashed and crushed in the same place.
Key words: middle ground territories, Continental Congress, Continental army, Western Conventions, Virginia Assembly, Louisiana, Mississippi, Spanish government, Great Britain, France, James Wilkinson, José Bernardo Gálvez, Esteban Miró, Conde de Aranda, Floridablanca, George Washington, State Board.
El presente artículo plantea las relaciones políticas, militares y sociales que se establecieron entre España y los Estados Unidos sobre unos territorios del medio-oeste o middle ground, muy poco poblados y disputados entre una gran potencia europea y una república que acababa de nacer. Entre estos dos estados se entablaron unas relaciones que oscilaron entre la cooperación y el enfrentamiento. Dos concepciones y modelos políticos y socioeconómicos opuestos coincidieron y chocaron en un mismo espacio físico.
Palabras clave: territorios del middle ground, Congreso Continental, Ejército Continental, convenciones del oeste, asamblea de Virginia, Luisiana, Misisipí, gobierno español, Gran Bretaña, Francia, James Wilkinson, José Bernardo Gálvez, Esteban Miró, Conde de Aranda, Floridablanca, George Whashington.
A.G.I.: Archivo General de Indias. (General Archive of the Indies).
A.H.N: Archivo Histórico Nacional. (National Historic Archive).
Op. Cit: Opus citate
Loc. Cit: Locum citate
Leg: Legajo (file)
Ss: siguientes (following)
[[This is the first part of an excellent historical overview of the political complexities that existed during this time period. ]]
1. POLITICAL AND MILITARY SITUATION AND BORDERS.
The Peace of Paris on the 10th February 1763 ended the Seven Years War and meant the restructuring of the northern territories of America around the Mississippi. The 7th article of the treaty established the borders between France and Spain: “(...) the borders will be irrevocably fixed with a line drawn in the middle of the Mississippi River, from its source to the Iberville River, and from there, with another line drawn in the middle of this river with the lakes Maurepas and Pontchartrain to the ocean (...)”. The 20th article established that Great Britain would keep the territories in the east shore of the Mississippi, with Florida, the Penzacola Bay, San Agustín, Mobile and its river, and all the Spanish possessions in the east and southeast of the Mississippi. The territories of the west would be for France. The treaty also declared the free navigation through the river for all the British and French vassals  . This way, Northern of America was divided in two sovereignties, Great Britain and France. However, Spain and France had signed the Treaty of Fontenebleau on the 3rd of November 1762, which obliged France to concede Louisiana including New Orleans and its island to Spain  .
In 1766, Antonio Ulloa arrived in Louisiana with 90 soldiers and 3 civil servants to take over the province as the new governor on the name of the King of Spain. He found it on a critical situation: economical and political crisis. The territory he had to govern was very vast and not very populated. The trade was interrupted and the majority of the French population was worked up on the verge of rebellion. And he only had at his disposal 100 Spanish soldiers  . In the meantime, the British army was getting stronger on the west shore of the Mississippi breaking the Treaty of Paris and getting ready to conquer Louisiana, which was the last obstacle to their advance towards the Pacific. The danger of the British invasion got the French Creoles to reject the revolt and to collaborate with Ulloa in return for reestablishing the trade with the French colonies in the Caribbean. In 1768 the situation was untenable, and A. Ulloa had no choice other than accepting the French collaboration and creating a government with the French Creoles. This way, the French controlled the colony again, which became ruled by a Supreme Council that set the governor’s functions. In spite of all that, Ulloa continued making orders, for example he did an edict forbidding the trade with the French colonies in the Caribbean. Finally, the Council and Aubrey, the captain of the French Army, recommended the governor to leave the colony with his 90 soldiers and 3 civil servants. Doing that, Aubrey avoided a confrontation between Spanish and French that would have benefited the British  .
In spite of this situation, the key of the control of Louisiana was in Cuba. The Spanish Council had sent Ulloa as governor under the military jurisdiction of the government in la Havana. That was one of the reasons why the French Creoles avoided an open revolt, because it would have meant a military answer from the government in La Havana. In fact, a military contingent of 2.600 soldiers had already been sent in the command of General O´Reilly with a new Governor, Luis Azanga. Then the Supreme Council sent Aubrey to go meet the Spanish troupes that were about to go up the Mississippi. When the two contingents met, Aubrey was under General O´Reilly orders. He dismissed the Supreme Council, arrested 9 of its ringleaders and executed 5.That ended the riot that had lasted a month  . The new government with L. Uzanga had as main aims the pacification and the control of the territory. To achieve that, Uzanga fused the French and the Spanish troupes into only one army commanded by General O´Reilly, creating an army of 5.000 soldiers. He did the same thing with the whole society: trade companies, artisan guilds and associations... This period lasted about 10 years. We can say that in 1776 the colony was pacified. Then L. Uzanga hand the government over to General Bernardo Gálvez. During that period, France had achieved important aims: to get rid off the direct financing of a territory that in 1762 cost them 800.000 pounds and to give it to Spain. This way the Catholic Monarchy was weaker and also it stopped the British advance. France was also controlling Louisiana through its companies and traders  .
Gálvez’s Government lasted only 6 years, but in my opinion, they were the most decisive ones. When he arrived, the control of Louisiana was more nominal than real. There were not enough people to colonize the territory and the British controlled the Mississippi’s Valley but, prudently, they didn’t intervene in Louisiana to avoid the Spanish military reaction from its colonies in Mexico and the Caribbean. Besides, in the decade of 1770, the British were confronting the revolts for independence on their own colonies.
In 1765 there were 11.000 inhabitants in Louisiana. Half of them were black slaves, 2.500 Spanish and 5.000 French and Acadians. Until the arrival of B. Galvez, Spain had not had clear colonial and immigration policies for Louisiana. In 1776, Colonel Bouligny elaborated a report about the colonization of the territory. On this report, Bouligny said that Spain would disappear from northern America: Louisiana was a vast territory with not much population loyal to Spain, and the Anglo-Saxon colonies were bigger and continually growing. Those people would arrive soon to the Mississippi, they would cross it and colonize the whole continent to the Pacific. In this situation, the Anglo-Saxons would only have to expel the Indians to make an agreement with them  . From the Spanish Court, Conde de Aranda prophetically summarized the situation: “(...) Spain will remain hand in hand with another power in the whole Northern America. ¿And what power? The power that has called itself America. It has two and a half millions of inhabitants, descendents from Europeans, and according to the rules of its propagation, will double its inhabitants every 25 or 30 years, and in 50 or 60 years the population can reach eight or ten millions. Besides, the emigration from Europe will continue because of the attractive laws that the territory offers (...)”  .
Among those who furnished aid to the American colonies must be included the Viceroys of Mexico (New Spain), first, Viceroy Antonio María Bucarelli, who died in office in 1779, and second, Viceroy Martin de Mayorga, who served from 1779 until 1783, the exact years of the war. One of the resident judges of New Spain, Don Francisco de Anda, was asked to evaluate Mayorga's contributions to the war effort, and he reported on 19 Sep 1783. This report came just as the war ended and Martin de Mayorga was being replaced as Viceroy by General Matías de Gálvez, former President of Guatemala. It included what was publicly known about Mayorga's activities, but it does not specifically include secret aid to American colonies. However, it is clear that shipments of
gun powder to New Orleans must include some which was passed on to Americans. The shipments to Guarico are of interest because this was the staging area in Haiti for Spanish soldiers under General Bernardo de Gálvez awaiting the invasion of Jamaica. It was the imminence of this
invasion which kept the British focused on the West Indies rather than on the American colonies. The amounts of money provided must include support for Americans as well as support for General Bernardo de Gálvez in his operations in West Florida and Guarico. The last paragraph of
Judge de Anda's report follows:
"And finally, that he (Mayorga) demonstrated courage and perseverance in the success of our arms in the past war with the English: he exerted himself to the utmost, in the defense of this Kingdom (Mexico), keeping it free of enemies and pirates, giving prompt orders for the construction of powder mills in Santa Fe and Chapultepec, where great quantities were produced, and there were sent from them to Havana 400,000 cajones, and the rest, amounting to 740,000 cajones, to New
Orleans, Campache, Presidio del Carmen, Tabasco and El Guarico, expediting with equal energy and collection, embarkation and shipment from Veracruz of great sums of money, provisions, goods, war stores, troops, and seamen to support them: to the Army and Squadron of Operations (Havana) went the sum of 31,941,304 pesos, 3 reales and 2/3 grains: and adding to this account the value of money spent on account of the fortifications of Havana: he did not fail to aid promptly and
amply the Kingdom of Guatemala, the Philippine Islands, the Department of San Blas and the Californias, the forts of the interior, the expeditions sent from Yucatán and other ports and other obligations of the treasuries of this kingdom: for whose defense he succeeded in removing the sand duns in the vicinity of the forts of Yucatán; the coastal batteries of Alvarado and Mocambo and Coatzacoalcos; launches armed with cannon were built and galleys for the coast: picket boats which could go twenty leagues offshore were equipped with signal flags and explored the coast to observe the enemy ships: barracks and hospitals were established for the troops quartered at Orizaba, Córdoba and Puebla, and officers of the army were assigned to the instruction of the militia on the coast and in the several provinces, and vacancies were filled in the Infantry Regiments of Asturias, Granada, and the Crown, and in the Dragoons of Spain and Mexico."
(Endnote1.) pp 279-280, Glascock, Melvin Bruce, New Spain and the War for America, 1779-1783, Phd dissertation, LSU, Baton Rouge, LA, 1969, published by University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, MI, 1980. Glascock stated he had found the statement to be essentially correct, though poorly organized for clarity and understanding."
by Granville Hough, Ph.D
American historians who have encountered the name Francisco Saavedra have
been puzzled and perplexed by it. In his 1969 dissertation on New
Spain, Melvin Bruce Glascock stated in a footnote: “The exact identity
of Francisco Saavedra and his mission to New Spain remain a mystery…
Jonathan Dull partly understood the
importance of Saavedra but completely misunderstood his role and
activities, inadvertently crediting Bernardo de Gálvez with activities
and events which were not within Bernardo’s authority. (Endnote 4.)
Caughey, most quoted biographer of Bernardo de Gálvez, does not index
Saavedra at all.
B. Vega is Professor of Spanish, Montclair State University of New Jersey.
Below are the first few paragraphs in
Chapter 1: A Call to Reason
Somos Primos, November 2003
In writing this book we have embarked on a very arduous and ambitious mission. In essence, what we have set out to do is to challenge conventional history as it pertains to the role span and other Hispanic countries played in the making of the United States. The fact is that the vast majority of historians have simply squeezed out of their accounts most of the great deeds achieved by Spain in North America. Consequently, we, as a nation, know very little about the true historical facts, perhaps as little as two per cent of the whole truth. The rest, or the other ninety-eight per cent, has remained entombed until now in the catacombs of history.
These words from the eminent American historian Charles F. Lummis should enlighten most readers on this historical injustice perpetrated on Spain. This is what he had to say over 100 years ago:
"It is because I believe that every
other young American loves fair play and admires heroism as much as I do,
that this book has been written. That we have not given justice to the
Spanish pioneers is simply because we have been misled. They made a record
unparalleled; but our text-books have not recognized that fact, though
they no longer dare dispute it. Now, thanks to the New School of American
History, we are coming to the truth, - a truth which every manly American
will be glad to know. In this country of free and brave men,
race-prejudice, the most ignorant of all human ignorances, must die out.
We must respect manhood more than nationality, and admire it for it own
sake where found, - and it found everywhere. The deeds that hold the world
up are not of any one blood. We may be born anywhere, - that is a mere
accident; but to the heroes we may grow by means which are not accidents
nor provincialisms, but the birth right and glory of humanity.
By Robert H. Thonhoff*
[ANNOTATOR’S NOTE: Thirty years ago, with the standard education that I had received, I probably would have held much the same views as the writer of the following letter-to-the-editor. Relatively recent research in the voluminous Spanish archives, however, has revealed new information about the history of the American Revolution. Indeed, it has added a new dimension to that history. To paraphrase the words of radio commentator Paul Harvey, ". . . and now we know the rest of the story!"]
[Original letter in blue and the rebuttal is typed in red inside the brackets.]
In his [Houston Chronicle] October 27 Outlook article, "How Hispanic America first came to the U.S. rescue," television producer Anthony Burden attempted to show that Hispanics deserve as much credit as the French in aiding the cause of the American Revolution. I don't question Burden's scholarship, but I do take issue with his politics and the manner in which his facts were presented. [Yes, indeed, we all want the facts presented to be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth. Unfortunately, the facts about Spain’s vital role during the American Revolution have been grossly overlooked and misrepresented far too many years. Fortunately, relatively recent scholarship has brought to light new information from Spanish archives that would corroborate Anthony Burden’s presentation.]
We are led to believe that, through the kindness of his heart, Spanish commander Bernardo de Galvez sent supplies up the Mississippi to the rebellious colonists in the form of "aid," opened the port of New Orleans to American warships and marshaled his forces to fight the British on our behalf. This is not exactly the truth. [That is exactly what happened! Bernardo Gálvez was, indeed, a compassionate, kind, and caring man. One but needs, for example, to read John Walton Caughey’s magnificent book, Bernardo de Gálvez of Louisiana, 1776-1783 (Pelican Publishing Company, Gretna, Louisiana, 1972), and other publications about his life and deeds to deduce this. Spain had good reason to fight the British on behalf of the Americans and on its own behalf.]
During the course of the Revolution, the Colonies did ask for and received, several small loans from Spain which were ultimately repaid; [On the contrary, the American Colonies requested and received loans of not only large amounts of money, (millions of pesos—the currency standard of the times) but also outright gifts of great amounts of food, uniforms, blankets, shoes, stockings, medicine, muskets, bayonets, cannons, cannon balls, musket balls, musket flints, lead, gunpowder, and other items, most of which was never repaid or paid for.] the Mississippi was used as a trade route with New Spain [The Mississippi and Ohio rivers served as a veritable lifeline for Spanish aid to reach the embattled colonists.] but all items received were paid for by the colonials and not accepted as "aid" [ Totally incorrect: All of the aid was gratefully accepted by the Americans, and little was repaid.] Spanish forces did fight the British in New Spain (the Gulf Coast), but on their own behalf not ours. No Spanish ground forces were committed on American soil [Tens of thousands of Spanish soldiers fought the British not only at Manchac, Baton Rouge, Mobile, and Pensacola, but also at St. Joseph (Michigan), St. Louis (Missouri), Vincennes (Indiana), Kaskaskia (Illinois), Cahokia (Illinois). and worldwide. At the siege of Pensacola alone, Gálvez had over 7,000 soldiers and sailors under his command. Even a contingent of the First Continental Marines fought under Gálvez in his campaign along the Gulf Coast.] and no Spanish ships were deployed to American waters to repel the British Navy. [Hundreds of Spanish ships, many of them from México (deep New Spain) were deployed to wage war against the British along the Gulf Coast, in Central America, in the Bahamas (where a part of the South Carolina Navy served under Gálvez), and in global engagements against the British in the far off Philippines, Galápagos, Juan Fernández Islands, Honduras, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Bahamas, Jamaica, Minorca, and Gibraltar. France extended the worldwide dimensions of the war by fighting the British in India, Hudson Bay, and Sierra Leone in addition to the North American Continent and the West Indies.]
Unlike the French who were already well on their own road to revolution, Spain was strongly committed to monarchy. [The French and Spanish Bourbon monarchs were strong and intact at this time in history. Spain’s King Carlos III, sometimes called "The Best of the Bourbons," was one of the world’s most enlightened and benevolent monarchs. A little later, in the 1790s, Napoleon Bonaparte ascended into power during the French Revolution and became the Emperor of France from 1804 to 1815. Unbeknownst to many people, he set up his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, as King of Spain from 1807 to 1814 (during which time the Mexican Revolution started on September 16, 1810).] When Spain finally declared war on England, it was not to encourage or aid the cause of American independence. [Because of the complex world situation, Spain assumed a policy of "benevolent neutrality" toward the Americans and a "cautious neutrality" toward the British. From 1775 until the formal declaration of war against England on June 21, 1779, Spain sent covertly (secretly) aid of all kinds to the Americans. After the declaration of war, Spain militarily engaged the British not only in North America but also over the world, at the same time posing a possible Spanish-French invasion of England.] The Spanish, rather, saw an opportunity to recoup losses suffered at the hands of the British. This cannot be attributed to benevolence but to self-interest, pure and simple. [Spain had many reasons, benevolent and political, to befriend the Americans and wage war against the British. After the war, the American Congress commended Bernardo de Gálvez for his aid during the war, and Spanish aid was gratefully acknowledged. Since then, for whatever reasons, America has generally forgotten not only the great contribution of Spain to American independence but also the great Spanish hero of the American Revolution, General Bernardo de Gálvez, whose name should rightfully rank with the Marquis de Lafayette, General Rochambeau, and Comte de Grasse of France; Baron von Steuben and Baron de Kalb of Prussia (now Germany); and Thaddeus Kosciuszko and Casimir Pulaski of Poland.]
The United States' history gives credit to the French (who did send aid), because credit is deserved. On the other hand, if history seems to neglect the contributions of the Spanish in our fight for independence, it is only because those contributions were minuscule and hardly worth mentioning. [Quite the contrary! Far from being "minuscule and hardly worth mentioning," Spain’s contribution should be truthfully characterized as "munificent and vital" to the winning of the American Revolution. Interestingly, both France and Spain stood by the United States of America in the War for Independence. Unlike France, however, Spain has stood by the United States again in the current War against Iraq, an important phase in the ongoing War against Terrorism.]
John P. Bridge, Katy, Texas
for Acceptance of Residents of New Spain as Patriots
Somos Primos, April 2003
Up until last month, the Sons of the American Revolution had no guidelines for determining the eligibility of Hispanic patriots during the American Revolutionary War, except the soldiers who fought under General Bernardo de Galvez, from 1776-1783.
I prepared and presented the following Request to the Genealogy Committee of the SAR, in which I am a member. The motion passed and was recommended to the Executive Committee, which also passed it, effective March 1, 2003: (Trustees meeting in Louisville)
REQUEST OF THE MEXICO SOCIETY, SAR to the SAR GENEALOGY COMMITTEE to establish GUIDELINES FOR ACCEPTANCE OF RESIDENTS OF NEW SPAIN AS PATRIOTS
WHEREAS, descendants of New Spain during the time of the American Revolutionary War have applied for membership in the Mexico Society, SAR, and
WHEREAS, there are no guidelines in existence relating to Hispanic applicants, and
WHEREAS, Spain was a valuable ally of the colonists during the American Revolutionary War - even before July 4, 1776; her soldiers and militia men fighting the English in what is now Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida; and because there were incursions along the Texas Gulf Coast by the British; and Spanish Galleons searched for Captain Cook, along the California coast; and because Spanish soldiers and militia were required to remain vigilant against attack by both the British and the Indians being supplied by the British, and specifically were required to guard the Camino Real, lifeline between Mexico City and Galvez' army in Louisiana;
NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED AS FOLLOWS:
The Genealogy Committee of the National Society, Sons of the American Revolution recommends to the National Trustees that the following guidelines relating to residents of New Spain be adopted:
1. Any member of the army or navy of Spain, who, after Spain declared war against England in May 1779, was stationed in New Spain, including what is now Mexico, be considered a patriot.
2. Any member of the militia of New Spain, after Spain declared war against England in May 1779, including what is now Mexico, be considered a patriot.
3. Any male, who contributed a "donativo" to the war effort at the request of Carlos, III, king of Spain, be considered a patriot.
4. That the following non-exclusive list of books be acceptable proof of military or naval service, militia service, and/or making a financial contribution to the war effort to Spain:
S. Weddle, The Handbook of Texas (Texas State Historical Assoc.,Austin,
Granville W. Hough and N.C. Hough, Spain's Texas Patriot's in its
1779-1783 War with England during the American Revolution (SHHAR,
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research, Midway City, CA,
Part 5, 2000).
1. What is the basis for acceptance?
PROVINCIAS INTERNAS. Activities common to all Provincias Internas of New
Spain and Louisiana were service in the Spanish Army, service in the militia,
service as Indian auxiliaries, making voluntary contributions to defray expenses
of the War, and leading public prayers as mission priests. As the priests did
not leave descendants, our interest is in locating and marking their graves as
patriots. Voluntary contributions were certainly made, and amounts are known for
CA, Sonora, NM, and Nueva Espana as a whole, but no general lists of
contributors have been found to date. Until such lists are found, there is no
easy way to define the patriots who contributed. This leaves those who served in
the various forces as soldiers, militia, or Indian auxiliaries as the ancestral
patriots for joining the Sons of the American Revolution.
TEXAS. Activities relating to Texas include furnishing beef to Galvez' Army in Louisiana (1776-1783), protecting the province from the internal Indian threat (1779-1783), and probably making voluntary contributions to the war effort. No records for these contributions have been identified. It may be noted that the appointed Governor of Texas in 1779 was a Louisiana Patriot, Athanase de Mézières, who arrived in San Antonio with a militia unit from Louisiana to bolster the San Antonio defenses. He had been a successful negotiator with Indian tribes, and he had been appointed governor partly because he believed he could negotiate with the Comanches and work through them to establish a trade route to New Mexico. Governor-designate de Mézières died before he could take the office. Descendants of those who drove beef cattle to Louisiana to help Governor Gálvez have been accepted by the NSDAR and by the NSSAR. The NSSAR has also accepted descendants of Spanish soldiers who served at San Antonio.
LOUISIANA. Louisiana activities are well known and descendants of its
soldiers for the war period have long been accepted; however, some relationships
to the Provincias Internas should be noted. One was the suggestion by the first
Commandante General, Caballero Teodoro de
Croix, that Col. Bernardo de Gálvez of Louisiana bring 300 to 400 hunters
(frontiersmen) from Louisiana to help him eliminate the Apaches. As he had known
Bernardo de Gálvez earlier in Nueva Vizcaya, he knew this would be successful.
However, de Galvez had already been
appointed Governor of Louisiana and could not be spared. A second activity was
the recommendation by Bernardo de Gálvez in 1778 to his uncle, Joséf de Gálvez,
on the superior merits of Louisiana's approach to handling hostile Indians to
those of the Provincias Internas. When Bernardo de Gálvez later became Viceroy
of New Spain, he put these recommendations into effect with good results. A
third item was noted above in the support for appointing Athanase de Mézières
as Governor in Texas. Finally, after war started when Governor Domingo Cabello y
Robles of Texas asked for permission to furnish livestock to support Galvez in
Louisiana, he was encouraged to do so.
(In setting up support for the American Colonies, it was necessary to conceal Spain's role as Spain did not want to go to war with Portugal, an ally of England. Therefore, most of the support Minister of the Indies Joséf de Gálvez arranged was sent through French fronts, and France happily took credit for it. Historians now have better access to Spanish archives, and understand that the preponderance of supposed French support in money and materiel was actually from Spain. After Spain entered the war, she was better able to take credit for her support; but she soon found also that she had to support the French efforts in addition to the American ones. A particular case was the Siege of Yorktown in Sep/Oct 1781, which combined Spanish financial aid from Cuba, the French fleet under Admiral de Grasse, and the combined French and American Armies. On his way to Yorktown, Washington stopped in Philadelphia and he and others drank toasts to the Americans, the King of Spain, the King of France, and especially to Admiral de Grasse (who could participate only after he had sufficient Spanish support). (p 450, Benson Bobrick, The Triumph of the American Revolution, 1995). It took four tries to get everybody toasted.
9. So, why are Southwest Spanish Borderlands
soldier descendants accepted as SAR members?
10. How many people apply?
Some Donativo Commissioners for Prospective DAR Members,
by Granville Hough email@example.com
Somos Primos, September, 2003
The National Society, Daughters of the American Revolution, accepts descendants of soldiers who served under General Bernardo de Gálvez in his campaigns in Louisiana and West Florida, but it does not accept Spanish soldiers who served with him in Guarico (St Domingue). Nor does
it accept descendants of Spanish soldiers who served in other parts of New Spain under other leaders.
The NSDAR does accept descendants of those who made voluntary contributions to defray expenses of the War with Britain. King Carlos III signed the request for this “donativo” on 17 Aug 1780, and he suggested two pesos from each Spanish male over 18, and 1 peso from from each male over 18 from mixed or Indian ancestry.
The Viceroy of New Spain, Mayorga, developed a list of 13 instructions to assure the contributions were voluntary, and sent them out to each jurisdiction. They reached the Comandante General Cabellero de Croix of the Provincias Internas in August 1781, and he transmitted them to each
Governor of the Northern Frontier. Communications had just been cut with Alta California by the Yuma Massacre, so that the request for the donativo probably reached Alta California during the latter part of 1781.
However, collections were soon underway in each jurisdiction and continued until news came in 1784 that the war was over. After that time, the only collections were for pledges made earlier. The final
tabulations for 10 Jul 1786 showed the military personnel and settlers at the Tucson Presidio of Alta Pimeria (AZ) had contributed 459 pesos, more than enough to cover every male over 18, settlers, soldiers, and Indians. The total for Sonora (including Sinaloa) was 22,420 pesos, 4 reales. The 1787 tabulation for New Spain showed that almost one million pesos had been collected. That amount would have purchased about 150,000 excellent riding horses or 400,000 beeves for the Spanish
Theoretically, this should give the NSDAR a recruiting base of about 500,000 patriots; however, there were problems. First, in nearly all jurisdictions, there were wartime shortages of paper, which was a
monopoly. This limited the way the Viceroy’s instructions could be carried out. Second, in many jurisdictions, the collectors did not read nor write, and the issue of paper made no difference. Thirdly, who would keep that scrap of paper receipt, if provided, over 225 years?
So, the NSDAR has limited its acceptance to those at upper levels, typically the Commisioners for different jurisdictions whose names are known, or other public figures. It is conceivable that a few lists exist in some archive, but they have not been identified thus far. Still, the lists of Commissioners will be helpful to a few prospective DAR candidates. Following is a partial list for Sonora (and Sinaloa):
Andrés Arias Caballero, Capt of the Altar Presidio, 332 pesos.
Manuel de la Azuela, Captain of the Fronteras Presidio, 100 pesos.
Diego de Barcona, Commissioner of Copala province, 1,217 pesos,
Juan María Bojórquez, Commisioner of Alta Pimería, 641 pesos.
Cabellero de Croix, the Comandante General, and his household, 24 pesos.
Francisco Dorronsoro, Commissioner of the mining town of La Cieneguilla, 506 pesos.
Francisco Xavier Figueroa, Commissioner of Villa, Fuerte de Montesclaros, 2,480 pesos.
Patricio Gómez de Cossío, Commissioner of Ostimura province, 2,415 pesos.
Migual de Hugues y San Martín, Commissioner of Sonora valley, 306 pesos.
Juan Agustín de Iriarte, Commissioner of the town of Alamos, 1,943 pesos.
Manuel Agustín Mascaró, the Royal Engineer, 20 pesos.
Pedro de Mata Viñolas, Lt of the Santa Cruz Presidio, 174 pesos.
Juan Mazón, Commissioner for Santa María Baserac mission district, 141 pesos.
Juan Mazón, also shown as Commissioner for Oposura valley, 375 pesos, possibly same person.
José Antonio de Mesa. Commissioner for the town of El Rosario, 652 pesos.
Agustín Antonio de Norsagaray, Commissioner for Villa of Sinaloa, 2,085 pesos.
Mateo Ortega, Commissioner for Mazatlán village, 200 pesos.
Gregorio Ortiz Cortés, Commissioner of Tepachi valley, 353 pesos.
Juan Francisco Rendón, Commissioner for Maloya province, 277 pesos.
Juan Honorato de Rivera, Commissioner of the town of San Antonio de la Huerta, 583 pesos.
Miguel Saenz de Escabosa, Commissioner of Opodepe valley, 234 pesos.
José Antonio Serrano, Commissioner for Chinapa village, 212 pesos.
Francisco Velásquez de la Cadena, Commissioner for Culiacán province, 2,381 pesos.
Juan Ventura Batiz, Commissioner for town of Cosalá, 1,040 pesos.
Others whose names can possibly be determined through additional research:
Administrator of the tobacco tax at El Rosario and his dependents, 114 pesos.
Administrators of sales tax and liquor tax at El Rosario, 86 pesos.
Commissioners for San Miguel de Horcasitas, 908 pesos.
Intendent-Governor, Capital at Arispe, 201 pesos.
Secretary of the Comandancy-General and his dependents, 19 pesos.
Treasury officials at El Rosario, their dependents, and administrators of salt beds, 84 pesos.
Others who would be on donativo lists not yet found:
Dragoons of Spain, at Villa of Pictic, 175 pesos.
Military personnel and settlers at the Santa Cruz Presidio, 134 pesos.
Military personnel at Altar Presidio, 1,211 pesos.
Settlers at Altar Presidio, 131 pesos.
Military personnel and settlers at the Presidio of San Carlos de Buenavista, 205 pesos.
Military personnel and settlers at the Tucson Presidio, 459 pesos. The
list of soldiers and settlers are known, but not the amount of individual contributions.
Military personnel at Fronteras Presidio and settlers of the village of Cuquiárachi, 369 pesos pledged but not yet collected at the time of accounting.
References: Kieran McCarty, pp 51-56, Chapter 12, “Arizona’s
Contribution,” Desert Documentary: The Spanish Years, 1767-1821, Arizona
Historical Society, Historical Monograph, No. 4, Tucson, AZ, 1976. A
footnote on page 56 states: “An unsigned early copy of the Sonora
tabulation is in drawer 1 of file cabinet 3 of the Archivo Histórico del
Estado in the library of the University of Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora.”
Granville W. and N. C. Hough, Spain’s Arizona Patriots in its 1779-1783 War with England during the American Revolution: Third Study of the Spanish Borderlands, 1999. In this study we listed all known males over 18, military, settlers, and Indians, and we feel sure we found most of those who contributed; however, this would not be acceptable proof that any one specific individual contributed. The military personnel would be suitable ancestors for those joining the Sons of the American Revolution, based solely on their military service during the war period.
Cattlemen during the American Revolution
Cattle, Branded and Orejano, Exported from Texas under Governor Domingo Cabello, 1779-86
Source: Appendix A of Los Mesteños, Spanish Ranching in Texas 1721-1821
If you are a descendent of any of these
cattlemen, Somos Primos would like to publish your pedigree.
Descendants of these ranchers can apply for membership in the Sons of the
American Revolution. California soldados are being recognized for
their protection of the California coast line against the British.
Texas ranchers can be recognized for their support by supplying cattle.
The cattlemen exporters are listed by the number of cattle that were exported.
Luis Mariano Menchaca
Juan José Flores
Julian de Arocha
Manuel de Arocha
José Antonio Curbelo
Antonio (le) Blanc
José Andrés Hernández
Francisco de Arocha
Flores y Zendeja
Jose de Cárdenas
Francisco X. Rodríguez
Juan José Pacheco
on the Provincias Internas del Norte
by Granville Hough, Ph.D.
Somos Primos, February 2004
In 1776 officials in Mexico and Spain were not satisfied with the state of defense of the frontier of New Spain, especially in the western areas where the Apaches were more troublesome than ever. Accordingly, the Commandacy General of the Provincias Internas del Norte was created as a more effective organization for dealing with both Indians and foreign menaces to New Spain's northernmost colonial provinces. Headquarters was to be located at Arizpe in Sonora.
Charles III, King of Spain, appointed Brigadier Theodoro de Croix as the first Commandant General. Croix was born in France and had served the Spanish army for nearly 30 years prior to his appointment. He had come to New Spain in 1766 as a captain of his uncle's [the marqués de Croix, Carlos Francisco de Croix] vice-regal guard. Serving as commandant of the fortress of Acapulco and subsequently as inspector of all troops in the viceroyality, Croix was knighted as a caballero in the Teutonic order.
Croix assumed his new appointment on May 16, 1776. In special royal instructions King Charles III defined Croix's new authority with almost vice-regal powers over the provinces of Texas, New Mexico, Coahuila, Nueva Vizcaya, Sinaloa, Sonora, and Baja California. In the new province of Alta California, however, he was to share authority with Viceroy Bucareli.
research tells Tejano story
BY TRICIA CORTEZ
Times staff writer, Laredo morning times
http://madmax.lmtonline.com/mainnewsarchives/112403/s4.htm Sent by Walter & Elsa Herbeck firstname.lastname@example.org who received it from Rudy email@example.com who received it directly from the author of the article, Tricia Cortez.
While flipping through Texas history books, one may be hard-pressed to find anything on Tejano pioneers and their role in shaping Texas history and culture.
Andrés Tijerina, however, is working to change and reverse "the blatant exclusion" of Tejanos from the written and oral histories of Texas.
After 23 years of research, the award-winning historian and professor is currently overseeing a five-person research team charged with writing the text for the Tejano Monument that will be erected on the Capitol grounds in Austin.
The monument is the first of its kind and will consist of 12 life-size bronze statues. It is a tribute to the Spanish, Mexican and Tejano legacy to the state's history and culture. The text will be engraved onto six bronze relief plaques.
"If you want to understand the story of Texas, you must understand the story of the Tejano," Tijerina said. "The Tejano is critical to the founding and identity of Texas and everything that we're proud of - ranching, cowboys, chaps, spurs, cowboy hats, even the land."
Tijerina has won several awards for his books on Tejanos and has spent the past two decades researching and writing the role of Tejanos in the Lone Star State and how their history "has been a brutal and bloody one."
Most of his material has come from the national archives in Spain, Mexico and Washington, D.C., as well as the archives of the Texas Rangers and the University of Texas at Austin. Historical documents have helped him piece together the long, difficult and, up to now, unknown history of the Tejano.
"I was the first historian of the Texas State Historical Association to stand up in front of them and say, 'Tejanos had their lands stolen from them through violence, murder and assassination. Not only was theft and deceit involved, but the U.S. government played a role," Tijerina said describing the paper he presented to the association three years ago.
I was applauded and nobody challenged me," he said.
"They have gone down in history as Texans, but how can we call them Texans
if they had only been here less than two weeks? Davy Crockett had been in Texas
less than two months," he remarked. "The irony is that the real Texans
- the Seguins and all those who had been here 150 years - are not called
'Texans,' they are called 'Mexicans'."
by Dr. Granville Hough
A recent article in The Los Angeles Times, entitled "Spanish Cajuns' Win Place in History Books," dated 2 Sept 2000 lauds the fact that, after over 200 years of no mention, the Canary Islanders of Louisiana now get who pages in the eighth grade history books of Louisiana this is almost an insult to people who came to Louisiana as soldiers to fight for Governor Gálvez when Spain was supporting the United States in its effort to gain independence.
Soon after Colonel Bernardo Gálvez took over as Governor of Louisiana Province, he took a census of his soldiers and militia and found he had less than one soldier for each mile of frontier he was to protect. He desperately needed soldiers and population if he was to hold Louisiana from the Gulf of Mexico to Canada. He sent an urgent message to authorities in Spain, including his uncle, Minister Jose de Gálvez, asking for soldiers and settlers, actually soldier--settlers. Having observed and fought alongside the Presidial soldiers of the Southwest against Apaches and another Indian tribes, he believed more in soldier-settlers than in the soldiers who served an enlistment and then moved on to other areas.
The Crown was sympathetic to his plea and
decided to do a recruiting effort in the Canary Islands, which was somewhat poor
and overpopulated. In a few months, 700 Canary Island men volunteered as
soldiers, along with their wives and children, 2300 in all. They went on
the payroll for the Louisiana Infantry Regiment, which paid all their expenses
for travel and upkeep. They began their move in 1778, as ships became
available. The first five ships were the Santísimo Sacramento, La
Victoria, San Ignacio de Loyola, San Juan Nepomuceno, and the Santa Faz.
These ships all arrived in Louisiana before war started, and Governor Gálvez
was able to form four more companies, with Canary Islanders both going into the
new companies and replacing the soldiers moved from the old companies. 482
soldiers had arrived along with 1100 dependents. The older solders, or
those encumbered with large families were settled into new town of St. Bernard,
Galveztown, Barataria, and Valenzuela. There they were paid militia on call to
defend their areas if required to do so. The other soldiers were those
providing the manpower nucleus which enabled victories at Manchac, Baton rouge,
and Mobile. These Louisiana companies served on through the Pensacola
Campaign, and also saw service at Natchez, Arkansas Post, and some many have
been at St. Louis.
The remaining 99 soldiers in the Canary
Islands and their families came in three smaller ships, the San Carlos, San
Pedro, and Nuestra Señora de los Dolores. Only the Dolores
arrived safely in Havana with its 17 volunteers and families. These joined
those already held in Havana. The San Carlos was captured by the
British in Caribbean and its 47 volunteers and their families were deposited at
Tortosa. These people were able to go to Puerto Rico first, then alter to
Havana, where they joined the others. The San Pedro went astray and
landed at La Guaira, the port for Caracas, Venezuela. What happened to its
33 soldier and their families has not been recovered.
So it is that about 600 Canary Islanders became soldier-settlers who were to help hold Louisiana for the Crown and then became part of the cultural melting pot which Louisiana is, still, to this day. However, the memory of Canary Islanders, as Patriots of Louisiana, has been mostly lost. So far as can be determined, only three persons from the Canary Islands have been listed as ancestors for DAR or SAR members. Several thousand potential members live in St. Bernard Parish, alone, and others are scattered throughout Louisiana and other states.
References: Din, Gilbert C. The Canary Islanders of Louisiana, Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge, LA, 1988. This is the best reference now available on these people.
Villere, Sidney Louis. The Canary Island Migration to Louisiana: 1778-1783, Genealogical Publishing Company, Baltimore, MD, 1972. This is an older reference best used for its listing of 207 settlers at Terre-aux-Bouef in St. Bernard Parish.
This is the sixth study we have undertaken of Spain's patriots in its 1779-1783 War with England, during the Revolutionary War; and it covers Louisiana, West Florida, East Florida, and related areas under Spanish control at the time. As we have worked our way across the Spanish Borderlands from California to Florida, we believe we have gained an appreciation of Spanish activities beyond that held by historians who have preceded us in recording the soldiers of Louisiana. Their interest has been in identifying the units and individuals of Louisiana who served, with little attention paid to the Spanish soldiers, mariners, and volunteers who constituted the bulk of the forces involved.
We know there were over 10,000 persons involved in the various army, naval, and mariner units of Spain and France, with about 2000 of the number coming from the militia, Indians, or other forces normally indigenous to or assigned to Louisiana. We believe we have doubled the number of identified persons whose service would qualify descendants to join the Sons of the American Revolution (SAR) or the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR). We regret that we have been unable to travel to the libraries which hold additional information, but we have done what we could using interlibrary loan resources. We believe there are at least 6000 persons yet to be named as soldiers, sailors, or other patriots, serving along with General Gálvez.
We have prepared a consolidated list, with asterisks used to designate those for whom we believe records are suitable as documentation of service during the war. We have also include others who were of a suitable age, but for whom we did not see documentation. In our previous studies, we included lists of males over 18 who may have contributed to the war fund set up by King Carlos III for defraying expenses of the war. We found no direct record of contributions collected in Louisiana. It seems that there would have been collections, as many of the people were more able to contribute than those of New Mexico or California. We did find evidence of contributions in Cuba, which was under the same military jurisdiction. We also found no direct record of priests actually carrying out the request of King Carlos III to pray for victory. We assume they did, so priests are included as patriots. As priests left no descendants, the SAR interest is in finding and marking their burial sites.
Our presentation outline includes an introduction, a summary time line, then a listing of units involved in each engagement or campaign, then a listing of persons involved, then a list of references which may be useful to other researchers.
France ceded Louisiana to Spain and Great Britain in 1766 following the French and Indian War. Spain acquired that part of Louisiana lying west of the Mississippi River and the Island of Orleans, an area east of the Mississippi including New Orleans.
Early in the 1770's Spanish officials learned that the British were planning to invade and occupy the Province of Louisiana, using the province as a base from which to attack Mexico and deprive Spain of the vast deposits of Mexican silver and gold. The British attempted to realize their plans almost fifty years later during the Battle of New Orleans. Consequently, Spanish administrators started developing Louisiana as a barrier between Mexico and the British colonies east of the Mississippi River.
Reacting to successful British colonization efforts along the Gulf Coast in British West Florida, Spain settled thousands of immigrants from Malaga and the Canaries, as well as Acadian refugees, in Louisiana. The settlers came to Louisiana to increase production of food, populate the province and defend it against the projected British invasion.
The first Isleños arrived in Louisiana during 1778 and continued to arrive in the province until 1783. They were settled in four locations, strategically placed around New Orleans to guard approaches to the city. Galveztown, situated just below Baton Rouge, was the first settlement. The others were Valenzuela, located along Bayou Lafourche; Barataria, located along Bayou des Familles in Jefferson Parish; and La Concepcion, later San Bernardo, located in St. Bernard Parish along Bayou Terre-aux-Boeufs.
A fifth settlement for Bayougoulas was planned, but never completed.Isleños fought against the British during the American Revolution through their service in the Galvez Expedition. Militiamen from the four Isleño settlements, including San Bernardo, participated in the three major military campaigns (Baton Rouge, Mobile and Pensacola) of the expedition, which resulted in the expulsion of the British presence from what is now the United States Gulf Coast.
My G/G/Ggrandfather Josef Morales came from Aguimes on the isle of Gran Canaria on the Spanish Friggate "San Ignatio de Loyola", landed in New Orleans in January of 1779 and was a militiaman with the Regiment of Louisiana at the fort at Galveztown.My G/G/ Grandfather Roumaldo Carmena, a Corporal in the detachment at Galvez, arrived in 1791 and married Josef's daughter Josefa Morales in 1796. . Enjoy. Bill Carmena JCarm1724@aol.com
For more information on the
participation of the Islenos a brief historical overview of The Los
Islenos Heritage and Cultural Society: http://www.canaryislands-usa.com/cifec/losislenos.html
Canary Islanders Heritage Society of Louisiana.
Sent by Bill Carmena JCarm1724@aol.com
Beautiful new website and a very accessible resource of State Land Office Online Documents.
When you click on State Land Office Online Documents, you'll be guided through, with links at each junction. The highlighted words are links within the website.
FIRST TIME USERS - Please download and install the free document viewer. The viewer is required to view document images. Instructions are included in the User Manual.
To search for Historical documents, go to Historical Records. These documents include U.S. and State historical land title information, including information related to: Land Grants; all severance documents of U.S. and State public lands - which lists the first private owner; all U.S. Official Township Survey plats and field notes; the U.S. and State Tract Books - which are an index of all the other documents mentioned; Section 16 School Lands; State Patents; and numerous related documents. These records make up the source of title for every acre of land in Louisiana.
To search for Tax documents, go to Tax Records. These documents include Property Tax Adjudication documents (comprising adjudications, redemptions, cancellations, and sales) relating to lands seized for the non-payment of State property taxes from 1880 to 1973.
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Sons of the American Revolution acceptance of the
Descendants of French Soldiers
by Granville Hough, Ph.D. firstname.lastname@example.org
Somos Primos, February 2004
In 1899, the NSSAR began accepting descendants of French soldiers and
sailors who served in Continental America or adjacent coastal waters.
It found there were no lists of persons available in the U.S. Thus
began a joint American/French effort to develop a suitable list and this
took many months. It was published in 1905 in France and the United
States. It is still used. It is entitled "Les Combattants
Français de la Guerre Américaine, 1778-1783," Du Ministère des
Affairs Etrangères, and Washington Imprimerie Nationale, 1905.
Those who served under the Spanish flag were first accepted in the 1920 decade, about 1924/25; and the lists made then were done from research by the President of the Louisiana state SAR society, Mr. Churchill. Mr. Churchill was able to find some lists in Louisiana, or in Cuba, but he hired a researcher in Spain who did the most work. His lists have been used by the SAR and later the DAR.
Mr. Churchill never published his work, but he did prepare five copies of the main part and several other miscellaneous papers. The only complete listing of the names he found is included in Spain's Louisiana Patriots in its 1779-1783 War with England During the American Revolution.
Louisiana Regiment of Infantry, 1765-1821
Somos Primos, January 2004
Initially established and manned by
peninsular Spanish regulars in 1765 as an infantry battalion to occupy
Luisiana, acquired from France three years earlier, what would ultimately
become the veteran and professional Regimiento de Infantería de
Luisiana formed the core of Spain's military establishment in Louisiana
and, later, in the Spanish Floridas until it faded into oblivion during
the terminal period of Spain's colonial tenure in North America.
Accepts Pierre Juzan as “New Patriot”
Sent by Granville Hough, Ph.D. email@example.com
Raine Ennis has notified Granville W. Hough that her application for DAR membership has been accepted based on the service to the Spanish of Pierre Juzan as Indian agent. The work of Medina Rojas was not used as the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) Library could not find the book in year 2000. (Granville Hough has since been notified that the DAR Library now has a copy, probably a gift from the DAR chapter at Madrid, Spain.)
Acceptance was based on a letter Juzan sent to Governor Gálvez on 11Jul 1780, wherein Juzan reports on British activities at Pensacola with the Choctaw Indians, the tribe of Juzan’s wife and children. This letter is translated into English and is found in pages 382-383, Lawrence Kinnaird, ed., Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the year 1945, Volume II, Spain in the Mississippi Valley, 1765-1794, (Part I) The Revolutionary Period, 1765-1781, Washington, DC, US Government Printing Office, 1949.
The DAR has listed Pierre Juzan as a “New Patriot,” meaning that Raine Ennis is the first descendant of Pierre Juzan to join the DAR. (Granville Hough notes there are more than a thousand potential “New Patriots” in the second reference shown above, waiting to be documented by descendants.)
Granville W. Hough, “Choctaw and Illini Descendants of Pierre Juzan Eligible for SAR Membership,” Somos Primos, Oct 2000.
Granville W. and N. C. Hough, Spain’s Louisiana Patriots in its 1779-1783 War with England – During the American Revolution, TX, 2000
Francisco de Borja Medina Rojas, José de Ezpeleta: Gobernador de la Mobila, 1780-1781, Escuela de Estudios Hispano-Americanos de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain, 1980.
DONATIONS TO SPAIN’S 1779-1783 WAR WITH ENGLAND
Chapter X of the book
|In 1952 "The Royal and Most Illustrious Order of Carlos III" was bestowed upon the city of Santa Barbara, which is the only city in the United States to be so honored. The flag of the city wears the rosette and ribbon of the order.|
"For Virtue and Merit"
On the occasion of the birth of his
grandson and heir, Carlos III created "The Royal and Most Illustrious
Order of Carlos III". The heavenly blue and white colors of the
decoration signifies that it was under the protection of the Virgin Mary,
while its motto "For Virtue and Merit" appropriately expressed
the king’s values. The present king of Spain, Juan Carlos I, regularly
wears the rosette and ribbon. The decoration was awarded to many men who
helped create California, including Portolá and members of the Gálvez
Monterey’s San Carlos Cathedral and the “Royal Presidio Chapel” as an American Revolution War Site.
November 6, 2004, the California Society of Sons of the American Revolution recognized the site Somos Primos, December 2004
The Very Reverend Peter A. Crivello is giving his presentation at the ceremony. Represented at the ceremony are American Revolution Soldiers, Soldado Bob Stevens of San Diego, Soldado Leroy F. Martinez of Mission Viejo and SAR member, Soldado Frank Martinez of San Leandro and his daughter Lauriel dressed as an Indian child, Father Serra, Officer's wife dressed in late 1700's clothing Suzanne Novotney, and Soldado Joseph Lopez of San Bernardino.
The Daughters of the American Revolution (D.A.R) were also in attendance represented by the State Regent Nancy Alexander, Vice State Regent Anne Lampman, Commodore Sloat Chapter Regent Sharon Law Tucker and at least ten other D.A.R. members.
General Bernardo de Galvez ProjectExtract of article in Somos Primos December 2002 introducing the project.
Few Americans know of the monumental contributions made by the famous Spanish General Galvez during the American Revolution. Even fewer know of the millions of dollars sent by Hispanics to General Washington's forces during that war. The Board of Somos Primos E-Magazine and its many supporters are kicking-off the Galvez Project; a media event dedicated to his memory and the contributions Hispanics made to the founding of this great nation. An internationally supported project, it will educate the American public on those contributions made by Hispanic-Americans during that Great War for independence.
Project is nonpolitical, politically neutral and funded by Hispanics
and Non-Hispanics alike. We at Somos Primos
E-Magazine seek your support. The project as envisioned by the newly
appointed General Bernardo Galvez Project Executive Council will
promote the contributions of the great Spanish hero of the American
Revolution, Bernardo Galvez. The Project's varied media outreach
approach will cluster around a documentary about his life and military
exploits during the founding of this great nation.
1746-1776 Born in Macharavialla, Malaga, Spain, to Matías de Gálvez and María Josefa Gallardo. Served as a young army officer against the Apaches on the Northwestern Frontier (Northern Mexico and Southwestern United States). Returned to Europe and went to France to study military art and science and learn the French language and customs.
1776 Assigned to Louisiana as leader of the Louisiana Regiment and understudy to Governor Unzaga, who had begun clandestine aid to the American colonies.
1777 Took over as Governor and set up a system of observers in the American colonies. He also took a census and requested reinforcements, which began to arrive in 1778. Among these were the Canary Islanders, whose descendants live to this day in Louisiana.
2 Nov 1777 Bernardo also allied with one of the wealthiest and most influential families of Louisiana when he married the widow, Félicité de St. Maxent d’Estrehan, dau of Gilberto Antonio de Saint-Maxent and Isabel LaRoche.
1778 Arranged for Athanese de Mézières to go to Texas and determine the availability of cattle and horses in the event of war. On receiving a favorable report, Bernardo suggested de Mézières be appointed Governor of Texas. Mézières accepted the appointment but died on the way to San
1777-79 Bernardo continued and expedited the flow of supplies to the American Colonies, both up the Mississippi River and around Florida northward along the Atlantic Coast.
21 June 1779. Spain declared war and England and Gálvez was ready with a “strike first” policy.
27 Aug 1779. Gálvez moved north from New Orleans against Fort Bute at Manchac, which fell 7 Sep. He then moved on to Baton Rouge which fell 21 Sep, along with Fort Panmure at Natchez on 5 Oct.
Jan 1780. With all available Louisiana troops and some support from Cuba, Gálvez attacked Mobile, which fell 14 Mar 1780.
7 Mar 1780. The first invasion of Pensacola began, but the Army and Navy could not agree on how to attack, so the force returned to Havana.
16 Oct 1780. The second invasion of Pensacola set sail, but was hit by a terrible hurricane, which scattered the forces, some taking refuge at Mobile, some at New Orleans, some at Campeche, with only a few able to get back to Havana immediately.
28 Feb 1781. The third invasion of Pensacola began, with Bernardo de Gálvez leading the way in his own vessel. The forces he had were adequate for pinning down the defenders.
April 1781 Francisco de Saavedra y Sangronis, the King’s personal representative, arrived in Havana and arranged for reinforcements sufficient to overcome the defenders. Pensacola surrendered 10 May 1781.
1781 Bernardo was promoted to Field Marshal and appointed Captain-General of Louisiana and West Florida. He could then negotiate on an equal basis with the King’s representative, Saavedra, and with the Captain-General of the West Indies, and also with the naval authorities.
Jul 1781. Saavedra went to St. Domingue (Haiti) and met with French Admiral de Grasse, where they developed the Saavedra/de Grasse accord, which then governed the subsequent conduct of the joint Spanish and French efforts in the Western Hemisphere.
August 1781. After Saavedra learned de Grasse needed money to support the Chesapeake Campaign, he went to Havana and arranged for the support which made the Chesapeake/ Yorktown Campaign feasible. Bernardo approved of these actions and immediately began preparations for the invasion of Jamaica.
April 1782. While Admiral de Grasse was moving troops into position to invade Jamaica, he was forced into a climactic battle with the British under Admiral Rodney at Les Saintes. De Grasse was captured, along with seven of his ships. This loss to the French fleet halted Jamaica invasion operations until more support could be obtained from Europe.
1783 The French North American Expeditionary Force of General Rochambeau arrived in Venezuela in Feb 1783. A combined French/Spanish fleet under French General d’Estaing gathered at Cadiz ready to sail to the West Indies to attack Jamaica. Bernardo was to be the overall land commander. The Marquis de Lafayette was ready to become the future Governor of Jamaica. However, peace negotiations took over and the invasion never took place.
1783/84 Bernardo went to Europe where he was given many honors and was appointed Captain-General of Cuba and the West Indies in addition to being already Captain-General of Louisiana and West Florida.
1784 Bernardo became the Viceroy of New Spain, following his father, Matías, who died shortly after taking over that office.
30 March 1786. Bernard died in Mexico City. What his plans were for the future of Hispanic America will never be known.
Somos Primos, Sept 03
The village is situated at 235 metres above sea level and is reached by road from the coastal town of Rincon de la Victoria or in about ten minutes by car from the new motorway. The population is approximately 350 inhabitants and as is typical of most villages in the region the principal source of income comes from the cultivation of almond and olive groves as well as vineyards. The village was founded in the sixteenth century on what had originally been an Arab settlement. The tranquil lifestyle of the villagers, indeed the entire rural population of the Axarquia was seriously affected by a blight, Phylloxera, which practically obliterated the vineyards in the year 1870.
Macharaviaya, however, is particularly distinguished by a single name, Galvez. A family of this name rose to prominence not only in the town but in the political life of Spain at the time and members of this distinguished family were selected by King Carlos the third ( 1759-1788 ) for positions of importance in his reformist administration.
The Galvez family which lived mainly in Madrid never forget their native town and in spite of the then vast distance in terms of transport between the capital and this small village, important schemes were financed by the family and carried out to improve the economical and spiritual life of the villagers. Roads were built, streets were paved, a church was built, a public laundry and schools were constructed and most importantly a playing card factory was established in 1776 which supplied Spain and the American possessions.
The political prominence of the family also extended to America and the town of Galveston in Texas bears testimony to the name of Don Bernardo de Galvez who was a general and viceroy at the time of the American War of Independence and played a part in the conflict.
As with most dynasties and empires and periods of great bounty, time took
its toll and little by little the village reverted to its simple
agricultural roots. The family is still remembered and the visitor can
admire the magnificent facade of the church of San Jacinto in whose
interior lie the mortal remains of Don Jose de Galvez, marquis of Sonoro.
The main facade of the church bears the coat of arms of King Carlos the
third of Spain. In the adjoining hamlet of Benaque the poet Salvador
Rueda was born (1857-1933). Poet, novelist and dramatist his work,of great
range and diversity on mainly Andalusian themes, influenced many writers
of the time, particularly the early works of another significent writer,
Juan Ramon Jumenez.
Michael Stevens Perez, Program Manager of the Bernardo de Galvez Project, accompanied by the Honorary Spanish Consul Maria Angeles O'Donnell Olson and Dr. Granville Hough will address the Orange County California Genealogical Society in Huntington Beach.
In 1779, General Bernardo de Galvez
and his multi-ethnic army of Creoles, Indians, free African Americans and his
own Spanish regulars, marched on the British-held forts at Baton Rouge and
Natchez. Then they took the British at Mobile and Pensacola. They immobilized
the British forces in the South when Great Britain needed them most, resulting
in its eminent defeat. Today, Galveston, Texas bears honor to his name.
Text of the address given by Honorary Consul Consul Maria Angeles Olson
to the Orange County California Genealogical Society
In his address to the joint meeting of the House and the Senate held
at the House of Representatives on June 2, 1976, Juan Carlos I, King
of Spain declared: In this year of the Bicentennial, it is with
pleasure that I recall the role that Spaniards, and Spain, with her
diplomatic, political, financial, naval and military resources, played
in the global struggle whose victory received the recognition of the
independence of the United States."
The book from which I gather the information for my presentation is
called Spain's contribution to the independence of the United States,
published by the Embassy of Spain, United States of America in 1985.
Author Enrique Fernández y Fernández. In the inside cover it says:
Article originally published in REVISTA/REVIEW INTERAMERICANA - Vol.
X, No. 3, Fall 1980 - Copyright 1985 by Enrique Fernández y Fernández
- All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.
LONG BEACH More than 200 years after the United States gained its independence, a group of local historians has set out to honor the contributions of a long- forgotten Spanish Army general whose forces played a crucial role in the nation's birth. Meeting Friday in downtown Long Beach, the group announced the beginning of a yearlong push to educate the public about the role General Bernardo de Galvez and his multicultural army played in crucial battles that aided America's fledgling struggle for independence.
In October, Long Beach will host the Galvez Project Gala Festival, which includes a historical exposition honoring Hispanic contributions to the Revolutionary War, a historical lecture series and a black-tie gala and symphony by the Long Beach Symphony Orchestra in honor of General Galvez and his troops.
"Our goal is to make the country aware of the contributions made by Hispanics from the very beginning of our nation,' said Henry Marquez, a board member of the Society of Hispanic and Ancestral Research, an Orange County-based historical research society that hosted Friday's event. "This is to honor the Hispanics, indigenous peoples, blacks, Spaniards and others who fought under Galvez for (America's) independence but have gone largely unnoticed by historians.'
Galvez, for whom Galveston, Texas, was named, is credited with funneling gunpowder, medical supplies, rifles, bullets and blankets to the armies of generals George Washington and George Clark in the early days of the Revolutionary War.
After Spain allied itself with the colonists' independence movement in 1779, Galvez's troops won numerous victories against British forces in the Gulf of Mexico, Lower Mississippi Valley, Michigan and Missouri.
Galvez also led 7,000 multiethnic troops in a successful battle against the British Army at Pensacola, Fla., in 1781 only five months before the end of the Revolutionary War.
Some of Galvez's contemporaries later founded Los Angeles, San Diego and other Southern California communities.
The General Bernado de Galvez Project Gala Festival will begin Oct. 12 in conjunction with Hispanic-American Heritage Month.
For more information, call 866-4- GALVEZ
or visit http://www.hispanicamericanheroesseries.com
Primary/Original Documents concerning Galvez
Documentary Relations of the Southwest,
Arizona State Museum
Baker, Maury and Margaret Bissler Haas, Eds. "Bernardo de Gálvez’s
Combat Diary for the Battle of Pensacola, 1781," Florida
Historical Quarterly,Vol LVI (Oct 1977):176-99. (in English.) Beerman, Eric. "The French Ancestors of Felicite de St. Maxent,"
Louisiana Review, Vol VI (Summer, 1977):69-75. This sketches the
ancestry of the wife of Bernardo de Gálvez, the St. Maxent family of
France and Louisiana. Beerman, Eric. "’Yo Solo’ not ‘Solo’: Juan Antonio de
Riaño," The Florida Historical Quarterly, Vol 58, #2,
(1979):174-184. This short study of Bernardo’s brother-in-law shows
how he was with Bernardo
Baker, Maury and Margaret Bissler Haas, Eds. "Bernardo de Gálvez’s Combat Diary for the Battle of Pensacola, 1781," Florida Historical Quarterly,Vol LVI (Oct 1977):176-99. (in English.)
Beerman, Eric. "The French Ancestors of Felicite de St. Maxent," Louisiana Review, Vol VI (Summer, 1977):69-75. This sketches the ancestry of the wife of Bernardo de Gálvez, the St. Maxent family of France and Louisiana.
Beerman, Eric. "’Yo Solo’ not ‘Solo’: Juan Antonio de Riaño," The Florida Historical Quarterly, Vol 58, #2, (1979):174-184. This short study of Bernardo’s brother-in-law shows how he was with Bernardocommanding another vessel in the famous crossing of the sandbar at Pensacola Bay leading the invasion of Pensacola. After fighting with distinction there, Riaño was promoted, married Bernardo’s sister-in-law, Victoria de St Maxent, then transferred to the Spanish Army when Bernardo became Viceroy of New Spain. After forty years service, Riaño was killed 28 Sep 1810 as Governor of Guanajuato in the Hidalgo uprising, along with his son Gilberto. Another son was killed in 1812 in the battle of Cantle de Amilpas. His surviving children were son Honorato, who married Victoria Setien y Riaño, and dau Rosa, who married Miguel Setien.
Boeta, José Rodulfo. Bernardo de Gálvez, Madrid, Publicaciones Españolas, 1977. This is a study of how Bernardo carried out the wishes of Carlos III of Spain in supporting the Americans during the American Revolution. (Available through loan from FHL INTL Film, #1573156, item 7.)
Caughey, John Walton. Bernardo de Gálvez in Louisiana, 1776-1783, Gretna, LA, Pelican Pub. Co., 1972. This is the standard and most available reference in English for Governor Gálvez. The foreword is by Jack D. L. Holmes.
Churchill, Charles Robert. Bernardo de Gálvez: Services to the American Revolution, LA Society, Sons of the American Revolution, 1925, 1996. Compatriot Churchill was a leader in developing understanding of the Gálvez contributions, and descendants of Louisiana soldiers serving under Gálvez have been accepted into the SAR and DAR since his work, 1920-25.
Coleman, James Julian, Jr. Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent: The Spanish-Frenchman of New Orleans, New Orleans, Pelican Publishing House, 1968. This book covers all the sons and daughters of the outstanding St. Maxent family of Louisiana, daughters who married Spanish officers at the highest level, and sons who served in the Spanish Army.
Gálvez, Bernardo de. Engraving, undated, part of the picture
collection, LSU Libraries. How this engraving looks is not known to
the author of this list; however, there are on the internet Gálvez
likenesses at www.oakapple.net/gwhough/galvez.jpg/
for quick viewing, and for detailed downloading at www.oakapple.net/gwhough/galvez-big.jpg/
Holmes, Jack David Lazarus. The 1779 "Marcha de Gálvez": Louisiana’s giant step forward in the American Revolution, Baton Rouge Bicentennial Corporation, c 1974. This monograph was published as part of the American Revolution Bicentennial, 1776-1976. The title is taken from an actual musical work, the "Marcha de Gálvez," which commemorates Governor Gálvez, and was commissioned by the LSU Bicentennial Program Office. The author is Dinos Constantinides, and the music is for soloists, mixed chorus and instrumental ensemble; poetry by Julien Poydras; translated by Leon Phillips, 1976.
Larrañaga, Bruno Francisco. El sol triunfante, Mexico, D. F., Frente de Afirmación Hispanista, 1990.
Parks, Virginia, ed. Siege! Spain and Britain: Battle of Pensacola, March 9-May 8, 1781, with contributors Jesse Earle Bowden and others, Pensacola, FL, Pensacola Historical Society, 1981.
"Poesa sobre el sirrey [!] Gálvez," Mexico, 1787, 4
pamphlets in 1 volume, authors not listed.
Roberts, Russell. Bernardo de Gálvez, Bear, DL, Mitchell Lane Publishers, c 2003, children’s book.
Rojas y Rocha, Francisco. "Poema epico," Mexico, F. de Zúñiga
y Ontiveros, 1785.
Santa Maria y Sevilla, Manuel de. "Suspiros que en le muerte del exmô, señor cond de Gálvez, exsaló," Mexico, Inprenta nueva de J. F. Rangel, 1786.
Souviron, Sebastian. Bernardo de Gálvez, virrey de Méjico, un infante de la marina española, Malaga, 1946. "Spain furnishes authentic coat of arms of Gálvez," Galveston Daily News, no date, no page, no author, but apparently the City of Galveston, TX had requested and received a coat of arms for use in their city to commemorate their namesake.
Stanford, Donald E. Louisiana laurels. (various artists contributed articles, portraits, and other items to commemorate Louisiana heros), Baton Rouge, LA, for the Arts Council of Greater Baton Rouge by Printing, Inc, c 1991.
Valdez, Manuel Antonio. "Apuntes de algunas de las gloriosas acciones del exmô. Señor d. Bernardo de Gálvez, conde de Gálvez, virey, gobernador y capitan general que fué de esta Nueva España, &c." Mexico, F. de Zúñiga y Ontiveros, 1787.
Valery S., Rafael. Miranda in Pensacola:génesis de la independencia hispanoamericana, Los Teques (Miranda, Venezuela), Biblioteca de Autores Y Temas Mirandinos, 1991. It is easy to overlook the ideas generated among the young Hispanic officers, born in the Americas, as they saw the successful struggle of the Americans for independence. Within a generation, nearly every part of Hispanic America was in an independent nation. The time had come, and the example was before these young officers.
De Varona, Frank. Bernardo de Gálvez, Milwaukee, Raintree Publishers, c1990. This is designed for juveniles with both Spanish and English, (juxtaposed, if I recall correctly) and is from the Raintree Hispanic stories.
De Ville, Winston. Yo solo: the battle journal of Bernardo de Gálvez during the American Revolution, with comments from E. A. Montemayor, Eric Beerman, Juan Carlos I, King of Spain, and Gerald R. Ford. English edition.
Woodward, Ralph Lee, Jr. Tribute to Don Bernardo de Gálvez: royal patents and an epic ballad honoring the Spanish Governor of Louisiana, Baton Rouge, Historic New Orleans Collection, 1779.
Works Progress Administration (LA). Louisiana Militia under Don
Bernardo de Gálvez, 1770-1797. This is a work which the author of
this list did not learn about while working on Louisiana Patriots. It
was done during the Great Depression as a make-work enterprise for
historians. It is available from FHL US/CAN Film #1794157, item 5.
by Dr. Granville W. Hough
When studying membership lists of U. S. patriotic organizations, it is notable that certain groups have not been honored by their descendants. It is not prudent to say this is the fault of the patriotic organizations, such as the DAR or the SAR, or the fault of the descendants. At least now, if not before, descendants can honor their Patriot ancestors.
Under General Gálvez were Spanish, French, German, English, and assorted others of European stock. Also with him at Baton Rouge, Mobile, and Pensacola were soldiers of American Indian and African stock, as well as mixes of these races with the Europeans. All fought bravely, and all deserve to be recognized.
When Gálvez first moved against Manchac and Baton Rouge, he called on Louisiana Indians for help; and they responded with all the fighting braves they could spare. The village chiefs came separately to Natchitoches and took the oath of allegiance to the Spanish crown. We have their names, but we have not recovered the names of the 160 warriors who actually served.
1. Chief KYAAVADOUCHE of the Nadaque Nation, 74 warriors.
2. Chief COCAILLE of the Yatasse Nation, 16 warriors.
3. Chief YAMOH of the Natchitoches Nation, 13 warriors.
4. Chief QUENSY of the Adayes Nation, 16 warriors.
5. Chief CAPOT of the Bydaye Nation, 7 warriors.
6. Chief TYNIQOUAN of the Grand Cadoe Dahiou Nation, 77 warriors.
7. (chief deceased) of the Petite Cadoe Dahiou Nation, 58 warriors.
8. Chief NICOTAGUE-NANAN of the Quy de Singeo Nation, 54 warriors.
When Gálvez got to Mobile, he either recognized or organized the Compañia de Negros de la Mobila, commonly known as the "Compañia de Petit Jean." Activities of this company were frequently mentioned in records for Mobile, even though there were only 18 men. The Company Commander was Petit Jean, a free mulato, formerly slave to Louis Lusser of Mobile. Next in command was Corporal Garcí/García. Others who have been identified were Joseph Agustín, Agustín Badon, Cupidón Badon, Ambrosio Benoit, Andrés Chastán, Nicolás Chastán, Sinegal Chastán, Joseph Dubrocar, Jean Luis Duret, Luis Duret, Joseph Forgeron, Joseph Livois, David Medair, Philipe Narbonne, Príncipe Orbane, and Will Trouiller/Truillet.
Another organized unit of black soldiers was the company of the Moreno Battalion of Havana which found itself at Mobile for the British counterattack on the Village on 7 Jan 1781. They were from an infantry battalion of free blacks assigned to the Fall, 1780, attack on Pensacola which was destroyed by hurricane. Their transport ship had managed to take refuge from the storm in the Mobile harbor, and they were assigned to prepare for British counterattack. With others, they held the line at the Village in fierce fighting, forcing the British into retreat.
They later served at Pensacola.
Only the names of the dead and wounded have been recovered. Also
serving at Mobile were blacks or mixed race people who were generally
slaves from New Orleans or Mobile on loan to Gálvez by their owners.
Some had special skills, while others were simply strong workers. They
Another group important at Mobile were the slaves captured on the plantations near Mobile. They were fed and sustained by the Spanish and put to work on the fortifications or in other support roles. The names of many of this group are known as well as their fate. Under terms of surrender, they were returned to their pre-attack owners.
Allan J. Kuethe, Cuba,
1753-1815, Crown, Military, and Society, Knoxville, TN, The University
of Tennessee Press, 1986.
F. de Borja Medina Rojas, José de Espelita: Governor of Mibila, 1780-1781, Sevilla (Spain), Publicaciónes de la Escula de Estudios Hispanos Americanos de Sevilla, 1980.
| Patriots of Yucatan
by Granville W. and N. C. Hough
Some Patriots of the Yucatàn Peninsula, Mexico, who served in Spain’s 1779-1783 War with England – During the American Revolution - are found in Legajos 7296 and 7297, LDS Film Roll 1156357, which includes service for each soldier up to 1785, or 1788, or later, years the soldiers were stationed in Yucatàn. The sequence of information for each soldier shown below is name, year of birth, place of birth, marital status when the record was made, wartime service, position when record was made, and Legajo number, section and page. In Legajo 7289, only the officers and key personnel are shown, giving records for about ten percent of those who actually served in the units.
It is known that Campeche, Yucatàn, was a port which served as a refuge for ships from the second Expedition to Pensacola (which was stopped and scattered by a hurricane). Later, in the third Expedition to Pensacola, many soldiers and volunteers from Yucatàn joined the forces under Governor Gálvez. Volunteers from Yucatàn were in the 15 Sep 1779 capture of the British center for Yucatan and Honduras logging at St Georges Cay (Cayo Cocina). When the British captured the port and fort at San Fernando de Omoa in Honduras on 10 Oct 1779, Yucatàn soldiers were in the 1780 expeditions to recapture it. They also took part in expeditions to the Rios Nuebo, Waliss (Belize), and Schebum, which were probably to establish boundaries to the British logging
operations on the eastern coast of the Peninsula (present day Quintaro Roo and Belize).
It is probable that any descendant of these soldiers would be accepted into the National Society, Sons of the American Revolution. (The present King of Spain, Juan Carlos I, and his son, the Crown Prince of Asturias, are already members, based on their descent from King Carlos III, the wartime King of Spain. As they have been accepted, it seems logical that descendants of others who were in service to fight the English will also be accepted.)
Francisco Abreu y Borjes (1739 Campeche - ), married. Lt, 1776-1787, Vol Blancos, Campeche at Bacalar Presidio. Lt of Grenadiers, Vet, 1796, Bn Inf, Mil Discip, Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7297:II:21 and Legajo 7296:VII:12.
Diego Antonio Acevedo (1739 Africa - ), married. Sgt Major, 1773-1796, grad Lt Col, Bn Inf Mil Discip Vol Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7297:V:10.
Yldefonzo Acosta (1748 Mérida - ), married. 1st Sgt, 1777-1799, Bn Inf Mil Discip Vol Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7297:VI:29.
Josef Aguayo (1752 Mérida - ), married. Cadet, 1779, Campeche Garrison. Cadet, 1781, Capt, 1799, Bn Inf Mil Discip Vol Blancos,Mérida, Legajo 7297:VI:10.
Miguel Aguayo (1753 Lucena, Spain - ), married. Garzon, 1770-1788, Plana Mayor de Blancos, 1st Div, Bacalar Presidio. Adjutant, 1796, Plana Mayor of Blancos aggregated with Companies of Pardos, Mil Discip de Campeche, Legajo 7297:III:4.
Diego Aguilar (1742 Merida - ), 1st Sgt, Vol Blancos, Merida, in the Expedition of Cayo Cocina. Sgt, 1799, 1st Bn, Inf Mil Discip Blancos,Mérida, Legajo 7297:VI:30.
Juan Aguilar. Capt, 1789, Bn Inf Mil Vol Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7296:XVIII:13, date of service entry not identified.
Manuel de Aguilar (1752 Yucatàn - ), married. Lt, Presidio del Carmen, Yucatàn, 1781-1787. Capt, 1799, 2d Inf, Garrison, PR, Legajo 7289:II:14.
Marcelo Alayola (1750 Mérida - ), married. 2d Cpl in 1779, 2d Sgt, 1781, Sgt, 1796, Vet, Bn Inf Mil Discip, Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7297:II:41.
Manuel Alfosea (1730 Villa Hermosa - ), widowed. Lt Grenadiers, 1776-1784, Capt, 1793, Bn Inf de Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7297:I:87.
Juan de Dios Aliendo (1762 Campeche - ), single. Distinguished Soldier, 1780, SubLt, 1796, Bn Inf Mil Discip, Blancos of Campeche, Legajo 7297:II:36.
Josef Álvares (1735 Andalusia - ), single. Capt, 1778-1787, Grad Lt Col, 1793, Bn, Inf de Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7297:I:84.
José Ignacio Álvarez. Sgt, 1796, Bn Inf, Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7297:I:57, service entry date not identified.
Juaquin de Ampudia y Valdes (1755 Zueta - ), single. Lt, Adjutant, 1776-1787, Vol Blancos, Campeche. Adjutant and Vet, 1797, Bn Inf Mil Discip, Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7297:II:8.
José Xavier Arfian (1758 Florida - ), married. Cadet, 1779, SubLt, 1782-83, with Real Despacho Vol Blancos, Campeche, Bacalar Presidio. SubLt, 1796, Bn Inf Mil Discip, Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7297:II:31.
Benito Argaiz (1736 Mérida - ), married. SubLt, 1781-1788, Bn Inf Mil Discip, Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7296:XIX:29.
Miguel Barceló (1753 Espita, Yucatàn - ), married, Cadet, 1777-1790, Mil Vol Blancos de Mérida, Legajo 7296:XVII:39.
José Ygnacio Rafael Barrero (1752 Campeche - ), married. SubLt, 1782, Vol, Blancos, Campeche, volunteer to go to Honduras. Lt, 1796, Bn Inf, Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7297:I:39.
Fernando de Biempica (1740 Benaberre - ), married. Capt, 1776-1784, Sgt Major, 1796, Bn Inf, Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7297:I:23.
Antonio Bolo (1740 Mayorca - ), married, son of Lt Col. Capt Grenadiers, 1778-1785, Lt Col, grad Col, 1796, Bn Inf, Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7297:I:22.
Josef Bosada (1743 Barrantes, Castilla - ), married. 1st Sgt, 1770-1785, Lt, 1789, Bn Inf Mil Vol Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7296:XVIII:23.
José Bosadas. Lt, Vet, 1796, Bn Inf Mil Discip, Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7297:II:26. (Service entry date not found.)
Rafael Breson (1749 Alicante - ), married. Capt, 1778-1787, Lt Col, 1797, Bn Inf Mil Discip, Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7297:II:7.
Manuel Buendia (1753 Mérida - ), married. SubLt, 1776-1785, Lt,1797, Bn Inf Mil Discip Vol, Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7297:VI:18.
Cristóval Calderón (1736 Yucatàn - ), married, son of person with a title. Capt, 1776-1784, grad Lt Col, 1790, Bn Inf, de Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7296:II:6.
Cristóval Calderón (1767 Yucatàn - ), single, son of Lt Col. Cadet,
1781, Lt, 1797, Bn Inf de Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7297:I:7.
Felipe Santiago Calderón (1765 Yucatàn - ), single, son of Lt Col. Cadet, 1780, Lt, Bn Inf de Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7297:I:5.
José María Calderón ( 1761 Mérida Yucatàn - ), single, Cadet 1773-1783, Campeche Garrison, Vol Blancos Campeche at Bacalar Presidio. Lt, Vet, 1796, Bn Inf Mil Discip, Blancos, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7297:II:23.
Manuel Joaquín Calderón (1769 Yucatàn - ), single. Distingished Soldier, Aug 1781, Cadet, Oct, 1781, SubLt, 1797, Bn Inf de Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7297:I:9.
Antonio de la Camara (1747 Mérida - ). Lt, 1782-1789, Comp Vet Dragoons of Mérida, Legajo 7296:XXVIII:2.
Bernardino de la Camara (1752 Merida - ), married. Lt, Provincial, 1782, Lt, 1783, with Real Despacho, Vol Blancos, Campeche, to Bacalar Presidio. Lt, 1799, Bn Inf Mil Discip Vol, Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7297:VI:17.
Cristóbal de la Camara ( ). Capt, 1799, Bn Inf Mil Discip Vol Blacos,Mérida, Legajo 7297:VI:7.
José de la Camara Castillo (1745 Mérida - ), single. Capt, 1776-1793, Bn Inf Mil Discip Vol Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7297:V:58.
José de la Camara Vergara (1750 Mérida - ), married. Capt, 1781-1799, Bn Inf Mil Discip, Vol Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7297:VI:6.
Dionisio de Cañas (1750 Cataluña - ), single, Lt, Mil, 1776-1785, Vol Blancos Campeche, to Honduras. Lt of Grenadiers, 1788, Bn Inf Mil Vol Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7296:VI:12.
Francisco de Canto (1750 Mérida - ), married. Capt, 1778-1799, Bn Inf Mil Discip Vol, Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7297:VI:5.
José Rafael Caraveo. Capt, 1797, Bn Inf Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7297:I:2.
Miguel Caraveo (1753 Yucatàn - ), single. Lt, 1781-1788, Bn Inf Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7296:III:17..
Hilario Cárdenas (1741 Campeche - ), married, 2d Sgt, Grenadiers, 1777-1785, Vol Blancos Campeche, in 1779 to Rio Nuevo, then to Rios Waliss and del Norte. Sgt, 1796, Bn Inf Mil, Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7297:II:40.
José Mariano de Cárdenas (1763 Mérida - ), single. Cadet, 1780, SubLt, 1781, Capt, 1796, Bn Inf Mil Discip Vol, Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7297:V:77.
Matheo de Cárdenas (1752 Mérida - ), married. Capt, Grenadiers, 1778-1793, Inf Mil Discip Vol Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7297:V:56.
Juan Manuel Carpizo (1739 Mérida, Estremadura - ), married. Capt, 1776-1787, Vol Blancos, Campeche. Legajo 7296:VII:6.
Felipe Santiago del Castillo (1748 Merida - )??? (faint). SubLt, 1761-1787, Dragoons of Merida, Legajo 7296:XXIX:3.
Francisco del Castillo (1764 Campeche - ), married. Cadet, 1782, Lt, Vet, 1796, Bn Inf Mil Discip, Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7297:II:28.
Manuel Castillo (1746 Mérida - ), married. 2d Sgt, 1776-1787, Sgt, Vet, 1796, 1st Bn, Inf Mil Discip, Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7297:II:42.
Vizente del Castillo (1752 Mérida - ), married. SubLt, 1772-1783, Lt, 1799, Bn Inf, Mil Discip Vol, Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7297:VI:15.
Miguel de Castro y Araoz (1743 Sevilla - ), married. Capt, 1776-1787, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7296 or 7297. (This may be the Lt Col in 1798 who was Governor of the Province of Tobasco, Legajo 7275:VII:9).
Manuel Ceballos (1745 Yucatàn - ), widower. Lt, 1779, Lt, grad Capt, 1790, Bn Inf, Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7296:I:15.
Leonardo Cetina (1740 Mérida - ), single. Lt, 1776-1785, Lt, grad Capt, 1799, Bn Inf Mil Discip, Vol Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7297:VI:11.
Antonio Chazarreta (1757 Mérida - ), married. SubLt, 1781-1796, Mil Discip Vol, Inf, Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7297:V:35.
Fausto Antonio de Cicero (1735 Campeche - ), single. Capt, 1776-1787, Vol Blancos Campeche, served on Rio Nuebo and Caio Cosina. Capt, 1790, Bn Inf Mil Vol Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7296:V:5.
Francisco María Cicero (1753 Campeche - ), married. SubLt, 1777-1787, Vol Blancos Campeche, war service in Honduras. Capt, 1796, Bn Inf Mil Discip, Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7297:II:16.
Ildefonzo de Cordoba (1744 Yucatàn - ), married. 2d Sgt, Grenadiers, 1781, 1st Sgt, 1783-1790, Bn Inf, Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7296:I:35.
Juan Correa (1749 Yucatàn - ), married. 2d Sgt, 1778-1787, Sgt, 1788, Bn Inf, Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7296:III:40.
Agustín Crespo (1744 Isla de la Palma - ), married. SubLt, Grenadiers, 1782, in 1783 with Real Despacho, Vol Blancos Campeche, war service with Truxillo in Honduras. Capt, 1787, Bn Inf Mil Vol, Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7296:VII:9.
Manuel Francisco Díaz (1752 Yucatàn - ), married. 2d Sgt, 1782, Sgt, 1796, 3rd Comp, Inf, Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7297:I:56.
Luiz Duran (1765 Mérida - ), married. Cadet, Jul, 1783, SubLt, 1799, Mil Discip Inf Vol Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7297:VI:20.
Juan José Elizalde (1748 Campeche - ), married. Capt, 1776-1787, Vol Blancos, Mérida. Capt, 1796, Bn Inf Mil Discip, Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7297:II:11.
Pedro Bernardino Elizalde (1753 Campeche - ), married. SubLt, 1776-1787, Vol Blancos, Campeche at Bacalar Presidio. Capt, 1796, Bn Inf Mil Discip, Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7297:II:15.
Angel Antonio Enriquez (1753 Mérida - ), married. SubLt, 1782-1790, Comp Vet, Garrison, Presidio Bacalar, Legajo 7296:XV:2.
Fernando Enriquez. Cadet, 1790, Comp Vet Garrison, Presidio Bacalar, Legajo 7296:XV:5. (Service entry date not found).
José María Enriquez. SubLt, 1800, Comp Inf Vet, Garrison of Presidio de San Felipe de Bacalar, Legajo 7297:IV:4. (Service entry date not found.)
Juan Joseph de Fierros (1753 Yucatàn - ), single. SubLt, grad Lt, 1781, SubLt, grad Capt, 1782, Capt, 1796, Inf de Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7297:I:30.
José María Flóres (1745 Mérida - ), married, a natural son. 1st Sgt, 1771-1785, 1st Sgt of Grenadiers, 1796, Mil Discip Inf Vol Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7297:V:36.
José Severiano Frayre (1756 Campeche - ), married. SubLt, 1776-1787, Capt, 1796, Mil Discip Inf, Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7297:II:18.
Lucas de Gálvez (1739 Ciudad Ecija - ), married. Naval Captain, 1781, Estado Mayor de Campeche. In 1780, el corzo a el oeste del estrecho Gibraltar. Navy Capt, 1788, Estado Mayor plaza Campeche, Legajo 7296:XIV:1.
Francisco Javier Gamboa (1753 Mérida - ), married. Garzon, 1780, Plana Mayor 1st Div, en la demarcación de limites, Rios Waliss, Nuevo, y Hondo. Lt, 1796, Mil Discip Inf Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7297:II;27.
Felipe García (1749 Yamàl, Yucatàn - ), married. 2d Sgt, 1777-1785, Sgt, 1799, Bn Inf Mil Discip, Vol, Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7297:VI:31.
Josef García Benites (1748 Zueta - ), single, Lt, 1769-1785, Capt, 1793, Inf de Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7297:I:88.
Juan García Barros (1753 Tui, Galicia - ), married. SubLt, 1777-1793, Mil Discip Inf Vol Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7297:V:75.
Joaquín Antonio Garrido (1751 Rodrigo, Murcia - ), married. 1st Sgt, 1770-1785, Vol Blancos, Mérida. Lt, Vet, 1796, Bn Inf Mil Discip, Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7297:II:29.
Ignacio Gil (1746 Ciudad Toro - ), married. Capt, 1776-1787, Vol Blancos Campeche, Presidio de Bacalar. Capt, 1788, Mil Inf Vol Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7296:VI:4.
Pedro Gil (1749 Villa Laguna de Cameros - ), married. 1st Sgt, Grenadiers, 1777-1785, Vol Blancos, Mérida. Lt, 1796, Mil Discip Inf Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7297:II:25.
Ignacio Gómez de Castro (1749 Yucatàn - ), married. 1st Sgt, 1778-1787, SubLt, 1796, Bn Inf, Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7297:I:51.
Miguel Gómez (1751 Yucatàn - ), married. 2d Sgt, 1780, Sgt, 1790, Bn Inf, Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7296:I:39.
José de Gongora (1750 Pueblo de Mani - ), married. Garzon, 1780, Plana Mayor, Campeche. Garzon, 1796, Plana Mayor de Blancos aggregated with the Compañias de Pardos Mil Discip de Campeche, Legajo 7297:III:5.
Andrés Lázaro/Laõ González (1759 Yucatàn - ), single. Cadet, 1775-1785, Lt, 1796, Bn Inf, Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7297:I:40.
Cosmé González (1735 Puerto Santa Maria - ), married. 1st Sgt, 1770-1787, Vol Blancos, Campeche. Legajo 7296:VII:30.
Francisco González (1768 Yucatàn - ), single, son of Colonel. Cadet, 1780, Lt, 1797, Bn Inf, Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7297:I:6.
Francisco González (1765 Campeche - ), single. Distinguished Soldier, 1779, Cadet, 1782-1793, Mil Discip Inf Blancos de Campeche, Legajo 7297:II:89.
Henrique/Enrique Grimarest (1741 Cataluña - ), widower, son of Brigadier. 1780, Governor of Mobile, 1787, Lt of the King, Yucatàn. Col, 1787, Estado Mayor de la plaza de Campeche, Legajo 7296:IV:1.
Juan Bautista Guâl (1758 Cumaná - ), widower. Lt, 1783, Capt, 1796, Inf de Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7297:I:33.
Joseph Hernández (1746 Campeche - ), married. 1st Sgt, 1778-1788, Vol Blancos Campeche, wartime service in Honduras and at Bacalar Presidio, Legajo 7296 or 7297.
Francisco Hurtado (1748 Almofia/Almojia - ), single. Lt, provisional, May 1782, SubLt, Jul 1782, Lt 1783, Vol Blancos Campeche at Bacalar Presidio. Lt, 1797, Vet Mil Discip, Inf, Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7297:II:22.
Josef Infante (1743 Yucatàn - ), single. SubLt, Grenadiers, 1779, Lt, 1793, Bn Inf, Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7297:I:92.
Juan María de Lara (1749 Mérida - ), married. Lt, 1772-1785, Capt, grad, 1796, Mil Discip Inf, Vol Blancos, Mérida, Legajo7297:V:20.
Julian de Lara. SubLt, 1799, Mil Discip Inf Vol Blancos de Mérida, Legajo 7297:VI:27, service entry date not identified.
Juan Antonio López (1749 Castilla la Vieja - ), single. SubLt, 1776, Campeche Garrison, Lt, May 1783, Vol Blancos Mérida. Legajo 7296 or 7297.
Félix López de Toledo (1764 Havana - ), single. Cadet, 1781-1782 Campeche Garrison, under command of naval Capt Gálvez, on the last expedition of Truxillo, or sailed with the expedition destined for Honduras. Lt, 1796, Bn Inf, Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7297:I:41.
Francisco López de Toledo (1762 Havana - ), married, son of Lt Col.Cadet, 1781, Inf Campeche Garrison, sailed on the expedition for Honduras. Lt, 1796, Bn Inf, Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7297:I:17.
Francisco Lopez de Toledo (1740 Florida - ). Capt, Feb 1783, Capt, grad Lt Col, 1796, Bn Inf, Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7297:I:31.
Juaquín de Loza (1755 Sisante, La Mancha, Castilla - ), single, Lt, 1778-1785, Lt, 1799, Mil Discip inf Vol, Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7297:VI:13.
Josef Maldonado (1761 Cadiz - ), single. Cpl of Artillery, 1780, and he was on the last expedition of Truxillo to Honduras, 1781, SubLt,Grenadiers, 1797, Bn Inf Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7297:I:8.
Francisco Marcilla (1715 Villanueba, Arcardete, Spain - ), widower.Lt, 1769-1785, Lt of Grenadiers, 1787, Bn Inf Mil Vol Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7296:XX:13.
Marcelo Antonio Marin (1738 Merida - ), married. SubLt, 1779, Vol Blancos, Mérida. Lt, Vet, 1796, Bn Inf Mil Discip Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7297:II:24.
Juan Antonio Marrufo (1751 Yucatàn - ), married. 2d Sgt, Fusileros, Sep 1783, Sgt of Grenadiers, 1796, Inf de Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7297:I:55.
Diego Martínez. Sgt 1st cl, Distinguished, 1796, 6th Comp, Inf de Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7297:I:61 (service entry date not identified.)
Nicolás Martínez (1748 Mérida - ), widower. Capt, 1781-1796, Mil Inf Discip Vol Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7297:V:17.
Thoribio Mazo (1763 Astudillo de Campos, Castilla la Vieja - ), single. Cadet, 1781, Laguna Presidio, Vol Blancos, Mérida. Lt, 1799, Mil Discip Inf Vol, Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7297:VI:16.
Agustín Bernardo de Medina (1739 Ciudad Malaga - ), widower. Capt, 1776-1785, Campeche Garrison. Governor, Presidio del Carmen, grad Lt Col, 1798, Legajo 7275:VIII:13.
Manuel Antonio Mendez (1749 Galicia - ), married. SubLt, 1776-1787, Vol Blancos Campeche, Bacalar Presidio. Capt, 1796, Mil Discip Vol Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7297:II:14.
Miguel Mendez (1753 Mérida - ), married. Wartime regiment was Bn Garrison of Castillo, for seven years a Distinguished Soldier, Cadet, 1786, Vol Blancos, Campeche. Legajo 7296 or 7297.
Pedro Mendez. (1752 Mérida - ), married. 2d Sgt, 1777-1785, Sgt, 1790, Mil Inf Vol Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7296:V:32.
Pedro Mendez (1747 Alcobendar, Castillo - ), married. Adjutant, 1770-1787, Plana Mayor Campeche, in wartime defending the packetboat which came from Veracruz. Capt, grad Subinspector, Plana Mayor de Blancos aggregated with the Companies of Pardos, Mil Discip, Campeche. Legajo 7297:III:2.
Buenaventura Mendicut (1740 Mérida - ), married. SubLt, 1776-1787, Vol Blancos Campeche. Legajo 7296:VII:23.
Josef María Mendivil (1770 Ciudad Veracruz - ), single. Cadet, June 1783-1787, Inf Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7296:IV:49.
Vizente Mendozda (1751 Mérida - ), married. SubLt, 1781, Capt, 1799, Mil Discip Inf Vol, Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7297:VI:9.
Antonio Montero (1744 Mérida - ), married. 1st Sgt, Vol Blancos Campeche, Bacalar Presidio, 1780. Sgt, 1796, Mil Discip Inf, Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7297:II:38.
Andrés Morano (1753 Moguel, Andalucia - ), married. SubLt, 1779-1783, Capt, 1796, Bn Mil Discip inf, Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7297:II:19.
Francisco Muñoz (1740 Tenerife - ), married. Capt, Provisional, 1780, Capt, with Real Despaco Vol Blancos Campeche, 1781, on the Second Expedition against the establishments on the Rio Nuebo. Capt, 1790, Mil Inf Vol Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7296:V:8.
Josef Negro (1754 Mérida - ), married. Capt, 1776-1799, Mil Discip Inf Vol Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7297:VI:4.
Vizente Nolasco (1759 Yucatàn - ), single. SubLt, 1779, Campeche Garrison, SubLt, 1785, Vol Blancos, Mérida. He served under naval Capt Gálvez during the war. Lt, 1796, Mil Vol Inf Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7296:XVII:16.
Ignacio Ochoa de Antezana (1746 Yucatàn - ), married. Lt, Campeche, 1778-1787. Capt, 1796, Provinciales, Inf Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7297:I:34.
Juan de Ojeda y Guilarte (1757 Revilla del Campo, Burgos - ), married. He was apparently trained as a Marine Guard. Lt of Fragata, Real Armada, 1781. Estado Mayor, Campeche, 1788. Sgt Major, 1796, Estado Mayor de la plaza de Campeche, Legajo 7297:II:93.
Tomás de Olmedo (1716 Arrabal del Portillo, Castilla la Vieja - )???. 1st Sgt Dragoons of Mérida, 1761-1787, Legajo 7296:XXIX:4.
Diego Ordoñes (1747 Mérida - ), married. 1st Cpl, 1780, Bn de Casta Campeche Garrison, by 1787 in Plana Mayor, Campeche. Garzon, Plana Mayor de Blancos aggregated with Companies of Pardos, Mil Discip de Campeche, Legajo 7297:III:8.
Pedro Oreza (1756 Mérida - ), married. 2d Sgt, 1780, 1st Sgt, 1782-1796, Mil Discip Inf Vol Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7297:V:39.
Juan O’Sullivan (1740 Cataluña - ), married. Capt, Campeche Garrison, 1778-1787. Lt Col, 1796, Bn Inf de Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7297:I:29.
Alonso Manuel Peon (1715 la Cuesta, Asturias - ), married. Cavallero del Order de Calatrasa, Col, 1776-1786, Vol Blancos, Mérida. Col, 1793, Bn Inf Mil Discip Vol Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7297:V:52.
Ignacio Peon (1764 Mérida - ), married. Capt, 1781-1785, Col, 1799, Bn Inf Mil Discip Vol, Mérida, Legajo 7297:VI:1.
Leonardo Péres (1747 Campeche - ), married. 2d Sgt, 1774-1785, Sgt,Vet, 1796, 1st Mil Discip Inf, Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7297:II:39.
Pedro Péres (1747 Mérida - ), married. Capt, 1780, Campeche Garrison, Estado Mayor (Staff Officer), 1788-1796, Plaza de Campeche, Legajo 7297:II:95.
Juan de Piñeiro (1717 Galicia - ), married. Commander, Bn Inf de Castilla, Campeche Garrison, 1773-1788, grade of Colonel, Legajo 7296:III:1.
Juaquín del Puerto (1758 Mérida - ), married. Capt, Mil Urbanas, Mérida, 1780, Lt, 1787-1793, Mil Discip inf Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7297:II:66.
Ignacio de Quijano (1756 Mérida - ), single. Capt, 1778-1799, Commanding the Dragoons of Mérida, Legajo 7297:VIII:11.
Josef Mariano Quijano (1757 Yucatàn - ), single. SubLt, 1781, Lt, 1797, Bn Inf, Castilla, Campeche Garrison. Wartime: “Exercio las funsiones de Abanderado; 1781 extõ y agregdo a este.” Legajo 7297:I:4.
Francisco Rafon (1747 Yucatàn - ), married. 2d Sgt, 1777-1784, Campeche Garrison, wartime under command of naval Captain Gálvez.
Alexandro Ramírez (1745 Valladolid, Yucatàn - ), single. Cadet, 1780-1790, Mil Vol Blancos Inf, Mérida, Legajo 7296:XVII:40.
Juan Estevan de Requena (1756 San Agustin, Florida - ), married. SubLt1779-1782, Vol Blancos, Campeche. Adjutant, 1796, Estado Mayor de la plaza de Campeche, Legajo 7297:II:94.
Ignacio Ribas (1758 Mérida - ), married. SubLt, 1780-1793, Mil Discip Inf Vol Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7297:V:76.
Bartolomé Ribera (1755 Mérida - ), married. SubLt, 1777-1785, Capt, 1799, Bn Inf Mil Discip Vol Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7297:VI:8.
Josef Riberon (1752 Laguna, Canary Islands - ), married. 2d Sgt, 1780, SubLt, 1796, Inf Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7297:I:19.
Caietano de la Roca (1729 Madrid - ), married. Adjutant, Milicia, 1776-1788, Vol Blancos Campeche, Legajo 7296:VI:3.
Josef María de la Roca (1764 Yucatàn - ), single. Cadet, 1776-1787, Campeche Garrison, under command of Capt. Gálvez. SubLt, 1796, Bn Inf de Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7296:I:47.
Lorenzo María de la Roca (1771 Mérida - ), single. Cadet, 1782, SubLt, 1796, Bn Inf Mil Discip Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7297:II:33.
Mariano de la Roca (1768 Yucatàn - ), single. Distinguished Soldier, 1780, Cadet, 1784-1790, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7296:II:42..
Pedro Rivas Rocafull (1745 Cueta - ), married, son of Lt Col.Adjutant, Plana Mayor, 1st Div, 1780, Legajo 7296 or 7297.
Andrés de la Rocha (1754 Isla Española de Santo Domingo - ), single. SubLt, 1776-1787, Lt of Grenadiers, 1796, Bn Inf, Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7297:I:36.
Rodrigo de la Rocha (1755 Isla Española de Santo Domingo - ), single. SubLt, 1776-1785, Capt, 1797, Bn Inf, Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7297:I:28.
Andrés Rodriquez (1747 Puerto Santa María - ), married. 2d Cpl, Bn de Castilla, Campeche Garrison, 1st Cpl, 1782. In 1787 in Plana Mayor Campeche. Garzon, 1796, Plana Mayor de Blancos aggregated with Companies of Pardos, Mil de Campeche, Legajo 7297:III:7.
Antonio Rodríquez Godoy (1753 Xequelchecan - ), married. SubLt, 1781, SubLt, 1782, with Real Despacho Vol Blancos Campeche de Bacalar Presidio. SubLt of Grenadiers, 1796, Mil Discip Inf, Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7297:II:62.
Baltasar Rodríques de Trujillo (1757 Malaga - ), married. Adjutant, 1780, Plana Mayor Campeche. Capt, grad, 1790, Plana Mayor de Blancos aggregated with Companies of Pardos, Tiradores de Campeche, Legajo 7296:VIII:2.
Ignacio Rodríquez de la Gala (1745 Campeche - ), married. Capt, 1780, Mil Urbanas, Campeche, in 1787, Vol Blancos, Campeche. Col, Mil Discip Inf Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7197:II:6.
Miguel Rodríquez Trujillo. SubLt, 1796, Bn Mil Discip Inf, Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7297:II:32. (Service record starts in 1786 as SubLt. There may have been previous service.)
José Roldan y Ampudia (1747 Granada - ), married. SubLt, 1779, Vol Blancos, Campeche. Capt, 1796, Mil Discip Inf de Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7297:II:17.
Josef Rosado (1710 Mérida - ), married. Col, grad, 1780, Vets Bacalar Presidio. Col Grad, 1784, Comp Vet, Garrison of Presidio San Felipe de Bacalar, Legajo 7296:XVI:1.
José Francisco Rosado ( ). Cadet 1784, Comp Vet, Garrison of the Presidio de San Felipe de Bacalar, Legajo 7296:XVI:6, service entry date not found.
Josef María Rosada (1767 Bacalar - ), single, son of Colonel. Cadet, 1779, Lt, 1800, Comp Inf Vet, Garrison of Presidio de San Felipe de Bacalar, Legajo 7297:IV:2.
Josef Nicolás Rosado (1745 Campeche - ), married. Lt, 1776-1784, Capt, 1796, Comp Inf Vet, Garrison, Presidio de San Felipe de Bacalar, Legajo 7297:IV:9
Eugenio Rubio (1749 Barcelona - ), married, son of Capt. SubInspector, 1779, Plana Mayor, 1st Div. Subinspector, 1793, 1st Div, Pardos Discip, Mérida, Legajo 7297:VII:10.
Josef Seron (1748 Mérida - ), married. 2d Sgt Grenadiers, 1780, Vol Blancos Mérida. At Bacalar Presidio and in 1st Expedition, Cayo Cocina. Garzon, 1799, Plana Mayor Inf Vol Bn Mil Discip, Mérida, Legajo 7297:VI:48.
Fernando Martín de Sevilla (1752 Villa Fuentes - ), married. Garzon, Plana Mayor, 1st Div, 1780-1799, Plana Mayor Bn Mil Discip Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7297:VI:47.
Nicolás Simes (1757 Mérida - ), married. Cadet, 1781-1790, Mil Discip Inf Vol Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7296:XVII:41.
Josef de Sosa (1749 Pueblo Ticul - ), married. 2d Sgt, Castilla Bn, 1783, and served under Capt Gálvez. In 1787 in Plana Mayor, Campeche. Garzon, 1796, Plana Mayor de Blancos aggregated with Companies of Pardos Mil Discip, Campeche, Legajo 7297:III:6.
Angel de Toro (1761 Yucatàn - ), single, Cadet, 1775-1784, Campeche Garrison. Adjutant, 1797, Bn Inf Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7297:I:3.
Camilo Tovar. Sgt, 1796, Vet, Bn Inf Mil Discip Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7297:II:46, service entry date not found.
Mauricio Troconiz (1739 Mérida - ), married. SubLt, 1771-1785, Capt, 1793, Bn Inf Mil Discip Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7297:V:64.
Cosmé Antonio Urquiola (1748 Ontoria, Osina - ), single. Lt, 1776-1787, Vol Blancos, Campeche. Capt, grad Lt Col, 1800, Comp Inf Vets, Garrison of Presidio de San Felipe de Bacalar, Legajo 7297:IV:1.
José de Urrutia (1743 Campeche - ), single. Lt Col grad, 1780, Vol Blancos Campeche. Volunteer, Caio Cozina, Rios Waliss and Schebum. Capt, grad Lt Col, 1796, Bn Inf, Mil Discip Blancos, Campeche, Legajo 7297:II:12.
Juan Antonio de la Valle (1745 Yucatàn - ), married, son of Sgt Major. Capt, 1781-1790, Bn Inf de Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7296:II:11.
Juan Jossef de la Valle (1743 Yucatàn - ), married, son of Sgt Major. Capt, 1776-1787, Capt of Grenadiers, 1797, Grad Lt Col, Bn Inf de Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7297:I:1.
Alexandro Villajuana (1749 Yucatàn - ), married, son of Sgt Major. Lt, 1779, Campeche Garrison, Adjutant, 1781, Plana Mayor, 1st Div. Capt, grad, 1799, Plana Mayor Inf Vol Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7297:VI:45.
Josef Villanueva (1755 Barcelona, Cataluña - ), married, son of an official. 2d Sgt, May 1782, 1st Sgt, Sep 1782, Vets Bacalar Garrison. SubLt, 1796, Bn Inf, Castilla, Campeche Garrison, Legajo 7297:I:49.
Domingo Zapata (1746 Mérida - ), married. Sgt Major and Adjutant, 1776-1785, Vol Blancos, Mérida. Capt, 1799, Bn Inf Mil Discip Vol Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7297:VI:12.
Lorenzo Zapata (1739 Mérida - ), married. 1st Sgt, 1773-1793, Bn Inf Mil Discip Vol Blancos, Mérida, Legajo 7297:V:84.
Comments: The above is incomplete because we could not read parts of or all of a few entries. The abbreviation of SubLt is for the Spanish rank of Alférez. The rank of Sergeant Major in the Spanish Army was a commissioned officer equivalent to an American Executive Officer. The
regular army Spanish units were listed as Fijo Infantry (or Cavalry), equivalent to Infantry or Cavalry Garrison. The trained militia units were listed as Milicia Disciplinado Infanteria (or Caballeria) which we abbreviated to Mil Discip Inf (or Cav). Some regular army officers were also assigned to the militia.
Request: One article was not available to us through interlibrary loan, and it may have names of other soldiers and the units which took part in the Pensacola Campaign. We would be very pleased if some reader can provide us with a copy of the article by Jorge Inacio Rubio Mañé, “Las
Tropas de Campecha en la toma de Penzacola,” Revista de Historia Yucateca, vol 13 (1973):156-159.
For other reader comments or additional information on the Sons of the American Revolution, contact Granville Hough, email firstname.lastname@example.org, or mailing address: 3438 Bahia Blanca West, Unit B, Laguna Woods, CA, 92653-2830.
(Optional) Typical signatures for Antonio Bolo, Fernando Biempical, Lucas de Gálvez (2), Henrique Grimarest, Juan de Ojeda y Guilarte, Cayetano de la Roca, Andrés de la Rocha, Rodrigo de la Rocha, and Eugenio Rubio. (carefully traced from microfilm projection, xeroxed, and reduced.)
Yucatàn, 3 Jul 2001
Researched and Submitted © 2002 Granville W. and N. C. Hough
Part of the Bourbon Reforms introduced by King Carlos III was the requirement that each jurisdiction collect its own taxes and that tax collectors be accountable for their work. Captain-General Matias de Gálvez of Guatemala (Chiapas and all of Central America except Panama) was a very good administrator who carried out the edicts of King Carlos III very effectively. Those who were wealthy enough to pay taxes and those appointed to collect them were generally the same people who held appointments in the militias and who made contributions (donativos) when called upon to do so. For this reason the taxpayer lists for Central America are important for the war period. Other records may eventually be found connecting these persons to war service.
These records were found in LDS Roll 0741892, covering a few locations in present day Honduras (Comayagua) and Guatemala. They are mostly for 1781 and 1782 and frequently list products which the person grew or traded, or for which the person was taxed. Cultural historians will be interested to note that the products mentioned included:
arrovas de asúcar; bacas;
balcones de fierro; bestias;
carne; carne marrano; carne de murrcino;
carne de puerco;
cavalleras de tierra;
caxetas de vapadura; caxones de loza echiza;
colchas ordinarias de algadon;
corazas ordinarias de baqueta;
fiero de la tierra;
fierro de Vizcaya;
generos de Castilla y de la tierra;
petacas de pasas; pezcados cuyameles; plantanos;
peroles de cobra;
pimta de bacala; pollinos;
sombreros de palma;
sombreros de vicuña;
por una res
deventa y reventa; reses bendidas en tajo;
ropa de Castilla;
ropa de la tierra;
ropa de la tierra segonta;
and zora prieta.
Acosta of Chiquimula;
Mariano Agirre/Aguirre of Tocoi;
Manuel Agilar of Orica, Comayagua;
Gregorio Aguirre of San Agustín;
Manuel Aguirre of San Agustín;
Lorenzo de Ahumada of Comayagua;
Manuel Alarcon of Chiquimula;
Visente Alarcon of Chiquimula;
Pedro Alcantar Varillas of Acasaguastran;
Antonio Aldana of Gualan;
Pedro Aldana of Chiquimula;
Josef Antonio Alfaro of Jalapan;
Josef María Allala of Tocoi;
Juan Allala of Tocoi;
Lorenzo Alonzo of San Agustín;
Juan Pazqual Altamirano of Olanchito, Comayagua;
Agustín Alvallero of Jocotan;
Francisco Albarado of Xalapa;
Francisco Alvarado of Comayagua;
Juan Alvarado of Caridao, Comayagua;
Pablo Alvarado of Caridao, Comayagua;
Antonio Albares of Xalapa;
Juan Alvarez of Choluteca, Comayagua;
Thomas Alvarez, citizen of Guatemala, alcavala payment in Chiquimula;
Josef Amasa of Chiquimula, apparently died intestate, alcavala payment in 1781, los Almonedas de los rematados;
??? Amendaño of Mita;
Manuel Antunes of Silca, Comayagua;
Francisco Aragon of Acasaguastran;
Vicente de Aragon prepared census for Pueblo
de Santo Domingo Nancinta and
Pueblo de Santa Isabel Sinacanthan in 1816;
Manuel Antonio Aranivar of Zopilotepe, Comayagua;
Marcelino Arasila of Zacapa;
Marcelino Archila of San Agustín;
Domingo Argueta of Ycpala;
Pedro Arias of Nicaragua, Comayagua;
Gabriel de Ariasa of Tocoi;
Assensio Aristondo of Tocoi;
Isidro Aristondo of Tocoi;
Josef Arizti of Comayagua:
Silverio Arqueta/Argueta of Chiquimula;
Juan Ignacio Arraurrenechea/ Arrsuirrerrechea of Arohiaga, Comayagua;
Isidro Arriaza of San Agustín;
Josef Antonio Arrue of Chiquimula, Interventor and Receptoria of alcavalas, 1780;
Pedro Artica of Ovineral del Corpus, Comayagua;
Leon Asaytuno of Acasaguastran;
Manuel Asencis of Chiquimula;
Juan Josef Aseyre of Zacapa;
Lorenso Asseytuno of Zacapa;
Lorenza Azayturo of Zacapa (may be a widow);
Gaspar de Àvila of Nicaragua, Comayagua;
Manuel de Ayala of Tocoi;
Manuel Ayala of San Agustín;
Julian Ayestas of Comayagua;
Josef Azeytuno of Acasaguastran;
Ramón Balcazar of San Agustín;
Juan Baptista Baldes of Chiquimula;
Juan Josef Baldes of Chiquimula;
Ignacio Baldonado of Chiquimula;
Francisto Balladares of Leon, Nicaragua, and Comayagua;
Josef Banegas of los Valles, Comayagua; Paulino Banegas of Ycpala;
Vasilio Banegas of Olancho, Comayagua; Bernardo/Bernardino Baquero of San Agustín; Juan Francisco Barama of Sulaco, Comayagua;
Juan Antonio de las Barcenas of
Manuel Bardales of Zacapa;
Florentin Bardona of Juticalpa,
Manuel Bardona/Baraona of San Agustín and Gualan;
Miguel Bargas of Pinula;
Isidro Barreda of Tocoi;
Josefe Barrientos of San Agustín;
dela Barzena of Chiquimula;
Antonio Basques of Jocotan;
Manuel Basques of Jocotan;
Juan Belarde of Sansaria;
Miguel Belis of Chiquimula, witness for Micaela Rodríguez in alcavala payment regarding un hizo de un esclavo;
Domingo Beltran of Jalapan;
Luís Beltran of Chiquimula, apparently died intestate, alcavala payment in 1781, los Almonedas de los rematados;
Roberto Benero of pueblo el Viejo,
Luíz Beza of Esquipulas;
Damian Bisai of Chiquimula;
Paulino Bojorques of Chiquimula;
Francisco Borjas of Comayagua;
Juan Antonio Borjas of Sitio, Comayagua; Manuel Joseph Brenes of Chiquimula;
Benito Bueso of Jocotan;
Manuel Bustamente of Mita;
Cabrera of Comayagua;
Juan/Juana Cabrera of Gualan (likely a widow);
Josef Calderon of Ycpala;
Luís Calderon of Ycpala;
*Francisco del Campo of Chiquimula, Capt, Infantry, also shown at Corregidor, Quesaltepeque in 1781;
Josef Campos of Jalapan, vecino de la Nueva Guatemala;
Manuel Campos of Gualan;
Lucas Canelas of Agaltas,Gualaco, Comayagua;
Gregorio Canjura of Acasaguastran;
Ambrocio Carcache, sender of cacao cargo to Pedro Martín of Nicaragua, Comayagua;
Sebastian de Cardenas of Chiquimula;
Antonio Cardona of Gualaco, Comayagua;
Antonio Cardosa of Chiquimula;
Antonio Cardoza of Chiquimula;
Lucas Carrascal, Administrador proprietario,
Renta de Alcavalas y Varlov’to, Provincias de Comayagua Theguzigalpa, Puerto de Omoa, y
Chiquimula de la Sierra, 1780;
Antonio Joseph Carrillo of Gualan, signing official for alcavalas, 1781;
Juan Carrillo of Chiquimula;
Miguel Ignacio Carrillo of Queguesgue y Tempisque, Mataterainte;
Josef Antonio Carrion of Nicargua Comayagua; Sebastián de Carsena of Chiquimula, witness for Micaela Rodríguez in alcavala document involving one Hizo de un esclavo;
Juan Casasola of Jocotan;
Juan Cascarte of Nicaragua, Comayagua;
*Bentura Casco, Captain, Olancho el Viego,
Juan Castañeda of Zacapa;
Miguel Castañeda of Gualan, Chiquimula and Zacapa;
Silbestre Castañeda of Sansaria;
Simón de Castañeda of Zacapa;
Antonio Castillo of Chiquimula;
Bartolomé Castro of Olanchito, Comayagua;
Francisco Castro of Tocoi;
Josephine Castro of Jocotan ( likely widow);
José Castro of Jocotan;
de Díos y Castro of Pueblo de Santa María
Xalapan, signing official for alcavalas, 1782;
Juan Josef Castro of Granada, Comayagua;
Benito Cavallero of Villa de Yoro, Comayagua;
Antonio Chacon of Chiquimula;
Christoval Chacon of Acasaguastran;
Nicolás Chacon of Gualan;
Thomas Chacon of Acasaguastran;
Francisco Chavarria of Zacapa;
Juan Chávez, age 73 in 1816, with his fourth wife, Cayetana Vasquez, widow of Pablo Vasques, with two young sons and two daus was at Pueblo Santa Isabel;
Patricio Chavez, vecino of Managua, Nicaragua, Comayagua;
Santiago Chiapa of Mita;
Nicolás Chileño of Jalapan;
Mariano Chinta of Chiquimula;
Juan Chrisostomo of Olancho el Viejo, Comayagua;
Hilario Cisneros of Sansaria;
Vicente Colindres of Quequesque;
Antonio Contreras of Xalapa;
Silvestre Contreras of Jalapan;
Mariano Cordero of Tocoi, signing official for alcavalas, 1782;
Nicolás Cordero of Jocotan;
Antonio Cordon of Jocotan;
Juan Cordon of Zacapa;
Manuel Cordon of Zacapa;
Matías Cordon of Chiquimula;
Norverto Cordon of Acasaguastran;
Patricio Cordon of Acasaguastran;
Thomas Cordon of Zacapa;
Luís Coronado of Quequesque;
Benito de la Cruz of Minerals de Zedros, Comayagua;
Christoval de la Cruz of Jalapan;
Ignacio Cruz of Tapale, Comayagua;
Julián de la Cruz of San Agustín;
Manuel de la Cruz of San Agustín;
Thomas de la Cruz of San Agustín;
Juan Miguel Cruzado of Chiquimula;
Dardon of Sansaria;
Josef Antonio Dardon of Sansaria;
*Juan Tomás Dardon, Captain of Acasaguastran;
Vicente Dardon of Sansaria;
Matheo Dàvila Llugo, signing official for alcavalas at Jocotan in 1782;
Pedro Delem of Nicaragua, Comayagua;
Dias of Chiquimula;
Nicolás Dias of Chiquimula;
Juan Diego of Mita;
??? Dionicia of San Agustín;
Ildefonso Ignacio Domezayn of Comayagua; Guillermo Duarte of Chiquimula;
Joseph María Duarte of Gualan pueblo;
Pedro Duarde Cruz of Zedros, Comayaga;
Agustín Ecoto of Tapale, Comayagua;
Josef Elias of Sansaria;
Antonio Enrriguez/Henrriguez of Chiquimula; Manuel Enrriguez Pais of Acasaguastran;
Miguel Enrriguez/Henrriguez, cura of Chiquimula;
Paulino Ercoles of Chiquimula;
Antonio Errera of Ycpala;
Juan Errera of Mita;
Justo Errera of Mita;
Juan Escalon of Mita;
Escobar of Comayagua, relacion
jurada, 1782; Antonio Escudero of Chiquimula;
Juan de España of Mita;
Victorino España of Chiquimula;
Anastacio Espina of Chiquimula;
Manuel Espino of Chiquimula;
Andrés Estrada of Moramulca and Valle de San Juan, Comayagua;
Joseph Estrada of Acasaguastran;
Juan de Estrada of Chiquimula;
Luíz Antonio Estrada of Leon, Comayagua;.
Fernández Vixil of Sacatecoluca, Comayagua;
Josef’c María Fernándes of San Agustín; Antonio Ferrera of Valle de Tapale, Comayagua;
Alexandro Fiallos of Amarateca, relación jurada, Comayagua;
Mariano Figueroa of Quequesque;
Bernardo Flóres of Juticalca, Comayagua;
Antonio Flóres of partido de Ofojona, Comayagua;
Santiago Flóres of Jalapan:
Antonio Franco of Zacapa;
Clemente Franco of Zacapa;
Miguel Franco of Zacapa;
Alexandro Funes of Olancho, Comayagua;
Manuel Funes of Pesipiere, Comayagua;
Bentura Galindo of Choluteca, Comayagua; Francos
Gallegos of Comayagua;
Pedro Galvan of Jocotan;
Manuel Garaycoa of Juticalpa, Comayagua;
Josef García of Ycpala;
*Pedro Garmendia, fray and cura of Comayagua;
Pedro Vicente Garmendia of Cuscateca, relación jurada, of Comayagua, cargo via Joaquín Ximénez in 1782;
Blas Gascon of San Agustín;
Joseph Manuel Giron of Ycpala;
Juan Giron/Xiron of Chiquimula;
Juan Goday of Chiquimula;
Alonso Gomez of Sansaria;
Anastacio Gonzales of San Agustín;
Facundo Gonzales of Zacapa;
Josef Gonzales of Chiquimula;
Josef Gonzales Aguero of Comayagua;
Josef Miguel Gonzales of Jocotan;
Juan José Gonzales Zerayn prepared census for Coatepeque in Feb 1813;
Juan Miguel Gonzales of Jocotan;
Leon Gonzales of Chiquimula;/
Gonzales of San Agustín;
Pedro Gonzales of Olancho, Comayagua;
Seferino Gonzales of Zacapa;
Thomas Gonzales of Zacapa;
Silvestre Guera of Chiquimula;
Antonio Guerra of Jocotan;
Francisco Guerra of Jocotan;
Jophe Guerra of Jocotan (likely a widow);
Silbestre Guerra of Chiquimula;
Mateo Guevara of Acasaguastran;
Teodoro Guevara of Acasaguastran;
Blas Guillen of Corpus, Comayagua;
Matías Guillen of Chiquimula;
Manuel Gutieres of Acasaguastran;
Francisco Gutierrez of Sansaria, signing official for alcavalas in 1782;
Antonio Gusman of Quesaltepeque;
*Bartolomé Guzman, padre of Nicaragua, Comayagua;
Bitoriano Gusman of Tocoi;
Bonifacio Guzman of Chiquimula;
Thomas Guzman of Chiquimula;
Henrriquez, Comisario, Renta de
Alcavalas, Pueblo de Julotopeque, 1782, and signing
officer for alcavalas at Ycpala, 1782;
Deciderio Hernandez of Juticalpa, Comayagua; Pedro Hernandez of San Agustín;
Pedro Hernandez of Gualaco, Comayagua;
Hernández of Nicaragua, Comayagua;
Juan Francisco de Herrara of Juticalpa, Comayagua;
Juan Josef Herrera of Juticalpa, Comayagua; Santiago Herrera of Olancha, Comayagua; ??? el Herrero of Mita;
el Ingles of San Agustín (likely widow);
Pedro de Iribarren of Comayagua, Administrador de Tobacos in 1781;
|Juan Antonio Irungaray of Comayagua, cargo contract with Juan Ignacio Arraurrenechea in 1782;|
de Jesús of Yoro, Comayagua;
Miguel de Jesús of Nandayme, Comayagua;
Baltazar Jovel of Chiquimula;
Juan Jovel of Chiquimula;
Manuel Jovel of Chiquimula;
Miguel Jovel of Jocotan;
Pablo de la Juana of San Agustín;
Bentura Juares of Acasaguastran;
Feliciano Juares of San Agustín;
Leonardo Juares of San Agustín;
de Landa of San Miguel, Comayagua; Pedro
Buenaventura Landa of Leon, Comayagua, Masaya, and
at Pueble el Viejo;
Manuel de Lara of Tocoi;
Seberino Lemuz of Quequesque;
Antolino León of Acasaguastran;
Francisco León of Chiquimula;
Gerónimo de León of Tocoi;
Josef León of Acasaguastran;
Josef de León of San Agustín;
Josef Antonio de León of Nacaome, Comayagua;
Mathías León of Acasaguastran;
Matías de León of Chiquimula;
Antonio Leste Chanzele of Quesaltepeque, mentioned in certificate of alcavalas in 1781; Damaso Lima of Jalapan;
Domingo López of Jocotan;
López of Chiquimula;
Gabriel López of Mita;
Josef Manuel Lópes of Chiquimula;
Juan López of San Agustín;
Juan Lópes of Jocotan;
Manuel López of San Agustín;
Martín López of Zacapa; with Simón de Castañeda in 1781, then he was Receptor of Alcavalas for Zacapa in 1782.
Matheo López of San Agustín;
Manuel Loyo of Zacapa;
Josef Antonio Lozano of Comayagua;
Juan de Dios Lugo of Jocotan;
Mateo Lugo of Chiquimula;
Miguel Lugo of Chiquimula;
*Pablo Lugo, Captain in Nicaragua, Comayagua;
Manuel Luteris of Chiquimula;
Machuca of San Agustín;
Baltazar de Madariaga of Comayagua,
relation jurada in 1782;
Bernardo Madrid of Chiquimula, Administrator of Alcavalas, 1781;
Pedro Madrid of Comisario Medina, Comayagua;
Benito Magarola of Sansaria;
??? el Magueño of Chiquimula, apparently died intestate, alcavala payment in 1781, los Almonedas de los rematados;
Bernardo Manchame of Jocotan;
Juan Ambrocio Manchame of Chiquimula;
Julián Manchame of Jocotan;
Manuel Manchame of Jocotan;
Pedro Manchame of Jocotan;
Joseph Manuel of Gualan;
Josef’e María of San Agustín (likely a widow);
Antonio María Marroquin of Sansaria;
Josef Antonio Marroquin of Jalapan;
Juan Marroquin of Chiquimula;
Marcos Marroquin of Sansaria;
Phelipe Marroquin of Sansaria;
Simón Marroquin of Chiquimula;
Vicente Marroquin of Sansaria, also at Queguesque y Tempisque, Mataterainte;
Juan Martín of Pinula;
Estébin Martínez of Gualaco, Comayagua;
Felipe Martínez of Acasaguastran and Chiquimula;
Gregorio Martínez of Chiquimula;
Ignacio Martínez of Yoro, Comayagua,
cargo in 1781;
Inginio/Eugenio Martínez of Chiquimula;
Josef Lorenzo Martínez of Chiquimula, witness to alcavala summary in 1782;
Juan Martínez of Pinula;
Manuel Martínez of Chiquimula;
Patricio Martínez of Chiquimula;
Pedro Antonio Martínez of Guatemala, Guarda Mayor, Rentas de Alcavalas y Tabacos, 1800; Thomas Martínez of Gualan;
Pedro Martín de Zelaya of Comayagua;
Juan de Marulanda of Chiquimula, apparently died intestate, alcavala payment in 1781, los Almonedas de los rematados;
Diego Masariegos of Quequesque;
Jucon de Mata of Zacapa;
Phelipe/Felipe Mayorga, vecino of Chiquimula dela Sierra, Guatemala, served as Alcavalas Reseptor Principal in 1781 and 1782, prepared cargo lists in 1782;
Manuel Antonio Mayorgas of Acasaguastran; Pasqual Maziv of Nicaragua, Comayagua; Antonio Benito Medrano of Nicaragua, Comayagua;
Melgar of Tocoi;
Josef Diego Melgar of Tocoi;
Francisco Melo of Cilca, Comayagua;
Manuel Mendes of Mita;
Ysidro Mendez of Mita;
Juan Antonio Mendoza of Comayagua;
Rafael Antonio Mendoza of Nicaragua, Comayagua;
Marcelo Menendez of Mita, signing official for alcavalas, 1782;
Benancio Mexia of Ycpala;
Jacovo Mexia of Gualaco, Comayagua;
Josef Mexia of Gualaco, Comayagua;
Josef Estéban Mexia of Comayagua;
Juan Marcos Mexia of Olanchico, Comayagua;
Manuel Mexia of Sansaria;
Antonio Midence of Comayagua, cargo contract with Joaquín Ximénez of Potrero for novillos in 1782, relación jurada for San Josef del Potrero, Comayagua in 1782;
Joseph Miguel of Gualan;
Josef Antonio Miralda of Silca, Comayagua;
Martín Miranda of Chiquimula;
Pablo Miranda of Chiquimula;
Juan Antonio Molina y Bran of Chiquimula;
Basilio Monrroy of Chiquimula; Mariano
Monroy of Chiquimula;
Pedro Josef Monrroy of Ycpala;
Sebastién Monroy of Chiquimula;
Juan Montecino of Jocotan;
Mauricio Montero/Monteros of Chiquimula; Antonio Morales of Acasaguastran;
Diego Morales of Tocoi;
Francisco Morales of Acasaguastran;
Gregorio Morales of Tocoi;
Josef Morales of Tocoil;
Josef Nicolás Morales of Sansaria;
Josef Trinadad Morales of Sansaria;
Juan Morales of Acasaguastran;
Lucas Morales of Acasaguastran;
Manuel Morales of Gualan;
Manuel Antonio Morales of Sansaria;
Mariano Morales of San Agustín;
Mauricio Morales of Chiquimula;
Balentin Moran of Pinula;
Clemente Moran of Jalapan;
Francisco Morga of San Agustín, signing official for alcavalas, 1782;
Josef’e Morga/Mozga of San Agustín (this may be a widow);
Pedro Morales of Nicaragua, Comayagua;
Antonio Morillo of Silca Comayagua;
Juan Josef Motiño of Juticalpa, Comayagua; Marcos Motiño of Juticalpa, Comayagua;
Mateo Murcia of Acasaguastran;
Navas of Mita;
Josef Naxera of Chiquimula;
Jocotan (this may be a widow);
Obando of Quequesque;
Raphael Ochoa of Jocotan;
Juan Oliva of San Agustín;
Juan Antonio Ordoñes of Acasaguastran and Chiquimula;
Manuel Orego of Chiquimula;
Isidro Orellana of San Agustín;
Miguel Oreyane/Ozeyana of Chiquimula;
Faustino Orrego of Chiquimula;
Orrego of Chiquimula; a widow
Manuel Orrego of Chiquimula;
Juan Ortega of Tocoi;
Antonio Ortis of Zedros, Comayagua;
Matías Ortis of Acasaguastran;
Nicolás Ortis of Jalapan; Rumualdo Ortis
of San Juan, Comayagua;
Vizente Oseguera Mexia of Comayagua;
Josef Osorio of Chiquimula;
Pacheco of San Agustín;
Patricio Pacheco of Puerto San Fernando
de Omoa, Comayagua;
Miguel Padilla of Gualaco, Comayagua;
Manuel Paens of Quequesque;
Cilverio Pais of Acasaguastran;
*Capt. Francisco Pais of Acasaguastran;
Juan Carlos de Paiz of Acasaguastran, Receptor of Alcavalas in 1782;
*Lt Juan Manuel Pais of Acasaguastran;
Lorenzo Pais of Acasaguastran;
Manuel Estévan de Pais of Acasaguastran; Marzelo Pays/Pais of Acasaguastran;
Miguel Pais y Oliva of Acasaguastran;
Pedro Pais of Acasaguastran;
Antonio Palacios of Chiquimula, signing official
for Valle de Quequesque y Tempisque, Mataterainte, in 1782;
Pablo Palle of Jocotan;
Anastacio Palma of Quequesque;
Juan Palma of San Agustín;
Juan Josef Palma of Quequesque;
Mateo Palma of Chiquimula;
Josef Palomo, Mayordomo at Jalapan;
Pedro Pantaleon of Acasaguastran;
Ubalde de Pasos of Nicaragua, Comayagua;
Juan Pays of Zacapa;
Antonio Juan de Paz of Chiquimula;
Ildefonso de Paz of Zacapa;
Alexandro Peña, vecino de la Benta & Jocotan;
de la Peña of Chiquimula;
Bernardo de Perdomo, Ministro (of the government);
Juan Perdomo of Tocoi;
Felisiano Peres of Tocoi;
Lorenzo Péres of Jocotan;
Antonio Pesquera of Chiquimula;
Juan Pineda of Chiquimula;
Juan Domingo Pineda of Comayagua;
Luís de Pineda of Jalapan;
??? Pioquinto of Zacapa;
Felipe Pinto of Chiquimula;
Joseph Pinto/Pintto of Gualan;
Manuel Pinto of Chiquimula;
Manuel Antonio Pinto of Chiquimula;
Ramón Pinto/Pintto of Jocotan;
Pedro Pinula y Mallo of Pinula;
Miguel Platero of Zacapa;
Rafael Pontasa of Jalapan;
Carlos Portela of Jocotan;
Antonio Portillo of Chiquimula;
Juan Portillo of Zacapa and Chiquimula;
Juan Estéban Portillo of San Agustín;
Juan Josef Portillo of Chiquimula;
Mathías Portillo of Acasaguastran;
Pedro Portillo of Zacapa;
Joseph Portio of Acasaguastran;
Rofas Possadas of San Agustín;
Josef de Prada of Zacapa and Chiquimula;
Ber’l Quintania of Olancho, Comayagua;
Raban’l of Quesaltepeque, relación jurada;
Joseph Rada of Chiquimula;
Josef’e Rafael (possibly widow) of San Agustin;
Juan Ramires of Mita;
Juan Antonio Ramirez of Olancho, Comayagua;
Lucas Ramires of Mita;
??? Regalado of Mita;
Francisco Remigio of Jalapan;
Juan Rexon of Gualan;
Baltazar Reyes of Chiquimula;
Josef’e Reyes of San Agustín;
Josef Manuel Reyes of Chiquimula;
Manuel Reyes of Chiquimula;
Pablo Reyes of San Agustín;
Josef Rios of Quequesque;
Enrique Rivera of Nacaome, Comayagua;
Juan Rodriges of Tocoi;
Rodriques of Chiquimula;
Pablo Rodríguez of Juticalpa, Comayagua;
Cristóbal Rojas of Tocoi;
Juan Rojas of Tocoi;
Juan Roman of Mita;
Ignacio Romero of San Agustín;
Juan Romero of Silca, Comayagua;
Lucas Romero of San Salvador, San Miguel, Comayagua;
Gregorio de la Rosa of Comayagua;
Bernardo Roxas of San Josef de Topale, Comayagua;
Enrriquez Roxas of Leon, Comayagua;
Francisco Roxas of Sansaria;
Diego Ruano of Jalapan;
Francisco Ruano of Acasaguastran;
Eldifonzo Ruis of Acasaguastran;
Eustacio Ruíz of Chiquimula;
Joseph Ruís of Acasaguastran;
Josef Ruíz of Juticalpa, Comayagua;
Saavedra of Antigua Guatemala prepared a list of
pueblos in Oct 1806 and found 48 at that time;
Marcos Saabedra of Zacapa and Chiquimula;
Josef Antonio Sagastime of Chiquimula;
Domingo Sagastume of Quequesque;
Francisco Sagastume of Acasaguastran;
Matías Sagastume of Chiquimula;
Rafael Sagastume of Quequesque;
Santiago Sagastume of Chiquimula;
Josef’e de Salama (probable widow) of San Agustín;
Thomas Salas of Nicaragua, Comayagua; Martín Salbatierra of San Agustin;
Mauricio Salbatierra of San Agustín;
Joseph Salgero of Acasaguastran;
Carlos Salguero of Mita;
Felis Salguero of Acasaguastran;
Josef Salguero of Zacapa;
Juan Salguero of Zacapa and Acasaguastran; Manuel Salguero of Zacapa and Chiquimula; Pedro Salguero of Zacapa;
Francisco Sanabria of Quequesque y Tempisque, Mataterainte;
Bernardo Sánchez of San Agustín;
Gaspar Sánchez of San Agustín;
Jossef’e Sánchez (probable widow) of San
Pablo Sánchez of Chiquimula, public scribe who
made alcavala document involving slave María dela
Manuel Sánchez of San Agustín;
Matheo Sánchez of San Agustín;
Francisco Antonio Sanchinel/Sanchinello of Chiquimula;
Cayetano Sandobal of Jalapan pueblo, signing official for alcavalas in 1782;
Cecilio Sandoval of Pinula;
Faustino Sandobal of Chiquimula;
Gregorio Sandoval of Pinula, signing official for alcavalas in 1782;
Antonio de Santa Cruz of Comayagua, countersigning official for alcavalas in 1782; Juan Santaneco of Jalapan;
Clemente Savala of Valle de Tapale, Comayagua;
Santiago Savino of Jalapan;
Tomás Savino of Sansaria;
Agustín Serna of Gualan;
Manuel Serna of Chiquimula;
Pedro Serzano of Chiquimula;
*Fray ??? Severino of Chiquimula;
Miguel Solorzano of Leon, Comayagua;
Josef Somosa of Zacapa;
Andrés Sosa/Zoza of Acasaguastran;
Felis Sosa of Acasaguastran;
Eugenio Soto of Chiquimula;
Tabuada of Nicaragua, Comayagua, shipper of cargo
carried by Padre Bartolomé Guzman;
Joseph’e Tapia (probable widow)of San Agustín;
Antonio Tercero of Corpus, Comayagua;
Juan Thorres of Chiquimula;
Torre of Managua, Comayagua;
Manuel Tobel/Jovel of Chiquimula;
Pedro Tovel/Jovel of Jocotan;
Balentin Indio Tratante of San Agustín;
Francisco Indio Tratante of San Agustín;
Andrés Travino/Travinis of Chiquimula;
de Ulloa of Comayagua;
Juan Antonio Urbina of Yoro, Comayagua;
Manuel Ursina of Silca, Comayagua;
Useda of Chiquimula;
Juan Useno/Vseno of San Agustín;
Joseph Valdez of Chiquimula;
Alexandro Varillas of Acasaguastran;
Christóval Varillas of Acasaguastran;
Gregorio Varillas of Acasaguastran;
Manuel Varillas of Acasaguastran;
Marcello Varillas of Acasaguastran;
Balerio Vasques of Pueblo Santa Isabel, age 71 in 1816, widower of Casilda Hernández, and three daughters;
Francisco Vasquez of San Agustín;
Manuel Vasquez of San Agustín;
Pasqual Vasquez of San Agustín;
Juan Velarde of San Agustín;
Velasquez of Olancho, Comayagua;
Ignacio Velasquez of San Agustín;
Antonio Vidal of Quesaltepeque, Reseptor de Alcavalas, 1781;
Antonio Vidal of Chiquimula;
Eugenio Vidal of Quesaltepeque, mentioned in certificate of alcavalas;
Matías Villafranca of Juticalpa, Comayagua; Francisco Villela of Acasaguastran;
Josef Vinar of Chiquimula; Josef Vivas of Chiquimula;
Manuel Vivas of Chiquimula; Francisco Viviano of Jalapan;
Manuel Vizente of Chiquimula;
Ximénez Bejarano of Comayagua; Francisco Ximénes
Joaquín Ximémez of Cuscateca, Comayagua, relación jurada and he had contracts with Juan Ignacio Arraurrenechea;
Pablo Ximénes of San Agustín;
Juan Xiron of Chiquimula;
Yaguin (probable widow) of Jocotan; Graviel
Ydalgo of Jalapan;
Manuel Ydalgo of Jalapan;
Miguel Ydalgo of Jalapan;
Juan Antonio Ysasi of Comayagua, cargo relación jurada in 1782;
Zales of Pinula;
Juan Zapata of Pinula;
Josef de Zelaya of Zuyapa, Comayagua, relacion jurada for frutos y esquilmos in 1782;
Josef Antonio Zelaya of Comayagua, shipper of goods carried by Pedro Martir de Zelaya, in 1781;
Pedro Martir de Zelaya of Choluteca, Comayagua, and relación jurada, 1782 for mulas;
Zepeda of Guadaquibir,Comayagua, relación jurada
in 1782 for frutas y esquilmos;
Bernave Zepeda of Juticalpa, Comayagua; Miguel Zolorzano of Nicaragua, Comayagua; Manuel Zoza of Chiquimula;
Joaquín Zoto of Yoro, Comayagua;
group payments of Los Justicias de Jilote, alcavala
payment in 1781 at Ycpala, en ?dho? Pueblos cobraron
de alcavala; Los Justicias of Jpala, alcavala payment
in 1781 at Ycpala, en ?dho? Pueblos cobraron de
alcavala; Los Justicias de Ycpala, alcavala payment in
1781 at Ycpala,
por lo q’e recaudaron; Pueblo de Santa María Magdalena, alcavala payment at San Agustín in 1781, dieron los Justicias; Pueblo de Santa María Magdalena (visita de este Curato), alcavala payment at San Agustín in 1781, justzo’s de dbo. Pueblo; and Las tropas, relación jurada, 4
pueblos, Comayagua, 1781, carniceria.
and Answer: Central
Somos Primos, October 2004
Dear Dr. Granville Hough,
I hope that all is well with you. Yesterday I was looking through some Somos Primos issues from previous years and I saw your article about the SAR in I believe the April issue of the year 2000. I read it and I enjoyed it. It was very informative. It was giving reasons why one should join the SAR.
I have a question. I know that my Spanish ancestor in Central America was around during the years from 1779 to 1783. According to one source he had a city government position in that time frame. (His daughter was born in 1786.)
In the only document that I have that mentions his name, it is said that he was an officer in the Spanish army.
If he was once in the Spanish army, was it considered that he was always in the army once he
enlisted? For example, when he held a city government position would he still have been considered to be in the Spanish army?
I am trying to figure out if I am going to be able to join the SAR.
Thank you for all of your help.
Sincerely, Jaime Cader
Granville Hough, Ph.D. response:
Jaime, this is what I recall from studying
civil and military duties in New Mexico and Texas. I would expect similar
customs in other areas.
Information shared by Granville
Hough, Ph.D. email@example.com
The other problem is that the
designations were not strictly accurate but reflected social status. A
San Diego soldier whose descendant joined the SAR was recruited as an
Indian, then as a successful soldier was Mestizo, then as a retired
soldier and owner of the land in and around UCLA, he was Español.
As far as the 8-volume Spanish Patriot's books are concerned, I included racial designations if they were given in the references used. However, it doesn't matter to the Sons of the American Revolution. What matters is that the service is documented.
I believe there is no way to develop a list of Spanish soldiers which accurately indicates racial background. They were all culturally Spanish because the Spanish Empire was the foremost racial integrator of its time. We forget that the Republic of Mexico would not elect a President who was not part Indian, or did not elect one until possibly Fox
being sought by the South
Sons of the American Revolution Seeks Applicants
The South Coast Chapter, Sons of the American
Revolution (SAR), is seeking applicants from Cuban-Americans
who descend from soldiers and seamen who fought under Governor Bernardo de Gálvez
in the captures of Mobile and Pensacola in 1780 and 1781. Over 9000 persons were engaged in these operations, but most were from the regiments of Cuba and the Naval Fleet of Havana. We believe that thousands of descendants of these patriots have left Cuba and now live in Florida or other parts of the U. S.
Some of the famous Spanish Army regiments involved in these operations included the Regiment of Havana, the Regiment of Principe, Regiment of Navarra, Regiment of Espana, and the Hibernian Regiment.
Persons interested should contact
Granville W. Hough, 3438 Bahia Blanca
West, Apt B, Laguna Hills, CA 92653-2830, email:firstname.lastname@example.org.
Republic Support for Chesapeake
by Granville Hough, Ph.D.
Somos Primos, January 2003
Santo Domingo (now the
Dominican Republic) was actively involved in financing, providing troop
support, and protecting itself during the Chesapeake Bay/Yorktown
Campaign in which America’s independence was assured. Here is how it
Patriots of Santo Domingo (Española)
Those of us who do research at home with computer assistance should have in our
bookmarks all those resource bases we use over and over. I want to share
my four most useful bookmarks with the hope that others researching history of
Spanish America for the 1775-1785 time period will also share theirs.
Library of Congress, http://www.lcweb.loc.gov. From the Library Catalog, I can learn what has been published, plus whom the researchers/authors were and are. I can then print out the book descriptions I need. I then attach each book description to a library loan request at my local library and ask the Reference Librarian to get the references for me. Three or four weeks later, the Librarian calls and tells me I have the book or books for 20 days usually. I extract what I can use and return
the books (The Librarians do not have to have the Library of Congress readout, but they can surely read the printed numbers better than they can read my handwriting. In the long run, it saves time for me to provide it.)
The Library Index (LIBDEX), www.libdex.com/country/USA.html. With LIBDEX, I get a listing of all the states, then I select California, then University of California at Irvine (UCI), and go to its Catalog. (I can get to UCI without driving on the freeway.) If one of the books I found in the Library of Congress listing is at UCI, I just go there and copy what I can use. Once I am in the stacks and have found my call number book, I look at close numbers and generally find other treasures I can use. In using LIBDEX, if I want to know what has been published in Mexico, or Spain, I replace USA with Mexico and browse around in various cities and universities and see what comes up.
Family History Center, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, http://www.FamilySearch.org. (Local family history centers are close enough to get to by bus or without getting on the freeway.) I go to the Family History Library Catalog on the internet and search by subject, author, or title. The listings show books in the Library at Salt Lake City, plus those which have been microfilmed and are available to be borrowed at local family history centers. Once you identify a microfilm of interest, you take the description and number for ordering to your local family history center, fill out a request, pay a rental fee, and about two weeks later the library volunteer will call you that your film is in and can be used for 30 days at the local family history center.
You go there and copy what you need from it, and you can extend the rental if you need to. (Books not on microfilm may be used in Salt Lake City, but do not go out to branches. These may be recent books where the author or publisher does not consent to microfilming. What you do in those cases is get the book description and go request it through your local public library. In most cases, you can get US books in Salt Lake City without going there.) However, because Salt Lake City receives materials from all over the world, there are many microfilms and books there not found elsewhere in the US. For example, you can get microfilmed service records for all Spanish army officers in the Western Hemisphere for the 1790-1800 period. The alphabetical index of these officers is available through regular library loan.
Arizona State Museum, Office of Ethnohistorical Research, Documentary Relations of the Southwest (DRSW), www.statemuseum.arizona.edu/drsw/index.html. This remarkable collection of 1500 microfilm reels covers New Spain (Mexico) from Mexico City northward from the 1530 decade until 1821, when Mexico became independent. Each reel contains many bundles of documents. These have been extracted (in English) by subject matter, author or government official, places or units, and key persons mentioned. You can use these designations to call up what you are researching. If I used the name Martinez I would get several hundred names for the whole period of 1530 through 1821. So I have to work out a strategy for calling up a particular Martinez in a particular place. If the name is unusual, such as Coca, there might be just a dozen entries. You can study each abstract until you find the one of your interest. The extracts also show where the original microfilm was made, or other places where it may be stored. You can go either to the campus of the University of Arizona at Tucson and view the microfilm, or you can go to the place the microfilm was made, and study the whole document (in Spanish). (I have had little success in hiring others to go print out the originals, so I suggest you try it yourself before hiring someone else.) If you are interested only in surnames, there is also a Biofile, which seems to be extracted from published books. You can get the essential information from the Biofile direct from the internet. Not mentioned above are the holdings of Orange County Public Library, Orange County Community College Districts, National Genealogical Society Library Loan, and New England Historical and Genealogical Society Library Loan.
We do have them book marked for other uses, but the holdings are quite general and were soon exhausted for the period of Spanish history we are researching. At present we are working on West Indies, South America, Central America, Mexico, and the Philippine Islands. If anyone has found
internet data bases for the 1775-1785 period for any particular region, we would appreciate learning about them.
Granville W. & N. C. Hough, email@example.com.
Bookmark, Nov 2003.