to Hispanic Heritage
OF CONTENTS JULY
2000, Issue 7
Editor: Mimi Lozano, firstname.lastname@example.org
is my earnest hope - indeed the hope of all mankind - that from this
solemn occasion a better world shall emerge out of the blood and carnage
of the past. A world founded upon faith and understanding, a world
dedicated to the dignity of man and the fulfillment of his most
cherished wish for freedom, tolerance and justice . . . Let us pray that
peace be now restored to the world and that God will preserve it always.
General Douglas MacArthur, accepting the Japanese surrender abroad the U.S.S. Missouri, September 2, 1945, .
|History of Hispanics
in America's Defense
by John P. Schmal
Los Angeles, CA
East of the Mississippi
the Fair. . . . . Free
Bea Armenta Dever
Edward B. Flores
Mimi Lozano Holtzman
Gloria Cortinas Oliver
Teresa Maldonado Parker
Laura Arechabala Shane
thanks to our submitters who take the time to share with their Primos!
Sylvia (Villarreal) Bisnar
Carmen Boone de Aguilar
Mary Anne Curry
Clara and Marcelo Gamez
Jaime G. Gomez, M.D.
Elsa P. Herbeck
Herbert L. Herbeck
Granville Hough, Ph.D.
Richard D. Perry
John P. Schmal
Johanna de Soto
Josie Trevino Trevino
Estella M. Zermeno
Celebrating Hispanic Military Contributions in honor of July 4th
any American Hispanics of Mexican heritage, this July 4th will long be
remembered because of the dramatic results of the Mexican election. With hope for
a better Mexico, Mexican-Americans can rejoice with their Primos.
We can look forward with great expectancy for improved conditions
for Mexicans in both Mexico and the United States.
In Orange County, California, 80% of Hispanics living here are of Mexican heritage.* We have a debt to our ancestors, to give corrected historical visibility to Mexicans, whose descendents are now living in both the United States and Mexico. Everyone will benefit. Please share your family research. Mimi. .
*Orange County Register, 7-2-00
The History of Hispanics in American's Defense
A very special
thanks to John P. Schmal for researching and writing this article
For the last 224 years, America has had to turn to its young men to help defend freedom. Every ethnic group now in America has answered the call of Uncle Sam. The Mexican-Americans of this country are no exception and, as a matter of fact, have performed admirably in their zeal to defend the country of their birth.
In "Hispanics in America’s Defense," a publication of the U.S. Department of Defense, this contribution is acknowledged and described in detail. According to this book, "Hispanic Americans have defended our nation with pride and courage. Thirty-seven Hispanic Americans have received the Medal of Honor — America’s highest decoration for valor.... When our country has been in need, Hispanic Americans have had more than their share of stouthearted, indomitable men. Their intrepid actions have been in the highest tradition — a credit to themselves, their ancestry and our nation."
The American Revolution began in 1775 and lasted six years. At this time, a large section of the present-day United States was occupied by the Spanish Empire. In 1779, Spain declared war against Great Britain, in essence supporting the American uprising against British rule. At this time, Spanish soldiers of Mexican stock stood the watch along the California coast, ready to defend the newly-founded Spanish colony against English attack.
No war has cost more American lives than the Civil War (1861-1865). A wide array of ethnic American groups fought in this bloody conflict and shed their blood. In effect, this war gave many immigrants a chance to prove their loyalty to the United States. Large numbers of German and Irish immigrants who had arrived from Europe in the 1840s and 1850s had been greeted with a great deal of discrimination. But when war came in the 1861, they stood ready to defend their adopted country. In effect, these two ethnic groups earned their Americanism through their services.
By the same token, Mexican-Americans in some of the southern and western states also welcomed the opportunity to prove their loyalty. The number of Mexican-Americans who served in this war has been estimated at 3,500. It is believed that 2,550 of these men fought in the ranks of the Confederacy, while 950 served in the Union Army. In "Vaqueros in Blue and Gray," the historian Jerry Don Thompson describes the Mexican-American participation in the Civil War as "complex and difficult to assess" primarily because of "the neglect, prejudicial treatment and frustration" that many Mexican-Americans experienced in this conflict. Nevertheless, many Tejanos served the Confederacy when the call to action arrived.
Tejanos who enlisted in Hood’s Texas Brigade marched off to Virginia and saw action at the Battles of Second Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, and other locations. Mexican-Texans from San Antonio served in the 6th Texas Infantry and saw action at the Battles of Chattanooga, Chickamauga and in the Atlanta Campaign. At least 300 Tejanos from Refugio and Bexar Counties enlisted in the Eighth Texas Infantry. Many of these men helped repulse a Union force in the Battle of Corpus Christi in August 1862.
Men with Spanish surnames also served in the 10th Texas Cavalry, the 55th Alabama Infantry, and the 6th Missouri Infantry. Colonel Santos Benavides, originally from Laredo, Texas, ultimately became the highest-ranking Mexican American in the Confederate Army. As the commander of the 33rd Cavalry, he drove Union forces back from Brownsville, Texas in March 1864.
According to Thompson, some 958 Mexican-Texans are believed to have served in Union forces. Most of these served in the Second Texas Cavalry, an almost exclusively Mexican-Texas outfit. In 1863, the United States Government also ordered the establishment of four companies of Mexican-American Californians in order to utilize their "extraordinary horsemanship." At least 469 Mexican Americans served under Major Salvador Vallejo, helping to defeat a Confederate invasion of New Mexico.
On April 11, 1898, at the start of the Spanish-American War, the United States Army, according to the Defense Department, was "a small professional force" of 30,000 officers and men "scattered across small posts throughout the country."
Among the 17,000 American soldiers who landed in Cuba in June of 1898, were the 1,200 men of the 1st U.S. Volunteer Cavalry under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Theodore Roosevelt More commonly known as the "Rough Riders," this unit included several Hispanic Americans, including Captain Maximiliano Luna and George Armijo (who later became a member of Congress).
In World War I (1914-1918), the military was rife with discrimination against Hispanics. Soldiers with Spanish surnames and Spanish accents were sometimes the objects of ridicule and relegated to menial jobs. Latinos who lacked English skills were sent to Camp Gordon, Georgia or Camp Cody, New Mexico, where attempts were made to improve their language proficiency so that they could be integrated into the mainstream army. However, America’s participation in the War lasted only from April 1917 to November 1918. As a result, many soldiers never had the opportunity to go overseas and into combat.
However, a few Mexican-Americans did make it to the front lines. On September 12, 1918, Private Marcelino Serna captured 24 Germans. For this event and other feats of bravery, Private Serna was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross, the French Croix de Guerre, the Victory Medal with three bars, and two Purple Hearts. Nineteen-year-old Nicolas Lucero from Albuquerque received the French Croix de Guerre for destroying two German machine gun emplacements and for keeping a constant fire on the German positions for over three hours.
At the start of World War II 1939-1945), approximately 2,690,000 Americans of Mexican descent lived in the United States. Eighty-five percent of this population lived in the five southwestern states (California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, and Colorado). In 1940, while America was still at peace, two National Guard units from New Mexico, the 200th and 515th Coast Artillery (Anti-aircraft) battalions were activated and dispatched to the Philippine Islands. Largely made up of Spanish-speaking personnel — both officers and enlisted men from New Mexico, Arizona, and Texas — these two units were stationed at Clark Field, 65 miles from Manila.
On December 7, 1941, the Japanese Imperial Navy launched a surprise attack on the American naval fleet at Pearl Harbor, forcing America into war. Within days, Japanese forces were attacking American positions in the Philippines. Outnumbered and desperate, General Douglas MacArthur moved his forces, including the 200th and 515th, to the Bataan Peninsula west of Manila. Here, fighting alongside their Filipino comrades, they made a heroic three-month stand against the large-well equipped invading forces.
As the weeks wore on, rations, medical supplies, and ammunition diminished and became scarce. On April 9, 1942, starving and greatly outnumbered, most of the surviving troops surrendered. After their capture, the American and Filipino soldiers had to endure the 12-day, 85-mile "death march" from Bataan to the prison camps, followed by 34 months of captivity. Three years later, General Jonathan Wainwright praised the men of the 200th and 515th units, saying "they were the first to fire and the last to lay down their arms and only reluctantly doing so after being given a direct order."
In the Pacific Theater, the 158th Regimental Combat Team, known as the Bushmasters, an Arizona National Guard unit comprised of many Hispanic soldiers, saw heavy combat. General MacArthur referred to them as "the greatest fighting combat team ever deployed for battle." Company E of the 141st Regiment of the 36th Texas Infantry Division was made up entirely of Spanish-speaking Americans, the majority of them from Texas. After 361 days of combat in Italy and France, the 141st Infantry Regiment sustained 1,126 killed, 5,000 wounded, and over 500 missing in action. In recognition of their extended service and valor, the members of the 141st garnered 31 Distinguished Service Crosses, 12 Legion of Merits, 492 Silver Stars, 11 Soldier’s Medals, and 1,685 Bronze Stars.
It is believed that the number of Mexican-Americans serving in the armed forces during World War II may have been as high as 500,000. The 30th Infantry Regiment of the 3rd Infantry Division, with its significant representation of Mexican-American soldiers, fought in France. The 313th Infantry Regiment, 79th Infantry Division, also containing Hispanic soldiers, landed at Utah Beach in Normandy in 1944 and fought its way across France.
A total of twelve Hispanic soldiers received the Medal of Honor for acts of valor in World War II. Staff Sergeant Macario Garcia of Sugarland, Texas, received the award for his actions on November 20, 1944 near Grosshau, Germany. Sergeant Jose M. Lopez, with the 23rd Infantry Regiment, 2nd Infantry Division, earned his Medal of Honor for his actions near Krinkelt, Belgium on December 7, 1944. Private Jose F. Valdez of New Mexico, serving with the 7th Infantry Regiment, was awarded the Medal of Honor for his bravery on January 25, 1945 near Rosenkrantz, France. The acts of valor and bravery displayed by the Hispanic Medal of Honor recipients are discussed in detail in the "Hispanics in America’s Defense"<BR>
During the Korean War (1950-1953), significant amounts of Mexican-Americans served in American units. By the time the war had ended, nine Hispanic soldiers had received the Congressional Medal of Honor for heroism. This tradition of service has continued to the present. In the extended Vietnam Conflict (1963-1973), approximately 80,000 Hispanic Americans from all parts of the country, including, but not limited to, Mexican-Americans, served in the military. Although Latinos only made up about 4.5% of the total U.S. population at that time, they incurred more than 19% of the casualties. Lieutenant Everett Alvarez, an American pilot from Salina, California, was shot down over North Vietnam and spent almost eight and a half years as a POW. After his release from captivity and his retirement from the military, Alvarez served as the Deputy Director for the Veterans Administration. In all thirteen Hispanic soldiers won the Medal of Honor during this conflict.
Twenty thousand Hispanic servicemen and women participated in Operation Desert Shield and Desert Storm (1990-1991). By March 1994, 28,067 Latinos of various backgrounds were serving in the military. This amounted to more than 5% of American military personnel at the time. Writing in "Hispanic Heritage Month 1996: Hispanics — Challenging the Future," Army Chaplain (Capt.) Carlos C. Huerta of the 1st Battalion, 79th Field Artillery stated that "Hispanics have always met the challenge of serving the nation with great fervor. In every war, in every battle, on every battlefield, Hispanics have put their lives on the line to protect freedom.
Dedication: This article is dedicated to two brothers, Erminio and Luis Dominguez, natives of Kansas and the sons of immigrants from Zacatecas. In 1942, Erminio enlisted in the 3rd Ranger Battalion and saw action in both Italy and France. When the 3rd Rangers hit the beaches on D-Day (June 6, 1944), he was there. Erminio was captured in August, 1944 by the Germans and confined to Stalag 7A in Moosburg, Bavaria for the rest of the war. However, in August, his baby brother, Luis Dominguez, barely 18 years old, enlisted in the Army with high hopes of joining the American troops who would liberate his brother.
Luis Dominguez served in the 289th Infantry Regiment, 75th Infantry Division. In March, 1945, as the Americans approached the German homeland, the Germans were relentless in their furious counterattacks against the 75th Infantry. On March 31, Luis was killed in action and buried at a military cemetery in Margraten, Netherlands. Erminio Dominguez, released from German captivity after eight months, came home and received for his acts of valor four bronze stars, the Purple Heart, the Service Ribbon and a good conduct medal. He died on June 8, 1996 in Kansas City, Kansas. These two brothers are merely one example of the sacrifices that so many Mexican-American families made in World War II.
Department of Defense, the
Hispanics in America’s Defense. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Printing
Veterans Day Celebration,
phone (714) 954-0253 fax
Black Latino Connection
On June 23 the Black Chamber of Orange County held it's 9th annual awards banquet in the Grand Ballroom of the Disneyland Hotel. The agenda, decor, and entertainment was all directed towards the Black Chamber's Black History theme, the Black Latino Connection. Among those receiving awards were Peter Villegas, first vice president and manager of Government Relations in California and Nevada for Washington Mutual and Edward Hernandez, Chancellor of Rancho Santiago Community College District.
Bobby McDonald, Executive Director of the Black Chamber wrote in the introduction to a publication prepared for the event, Black Latino Connection (53 pages):
Reviewing our esteemed history, this year's Black Chamber Black History Theme "A Black Latino Connection" is both significant and timely. Significant and timely from the standpoint that multiculturalism and diversity is the buzzword and key ingredient in the new millenium. In order for businesses, governments, and economies to pursue the new millenium with vigor, they have to not only understand new trends, but how old trends in history blend and influence the new world order.
The purpose of this book of stories, facts and notes is to enlighten those about a commonality of history we share and those you yearn to learn more about, those commonalities that developed, molded and comprised the building of America and other nations. Our country was formed by and from the basis of a Black Latino Connection.
The book was prepared by Somos Primos Editor, Mimi Lozano, coordinated by Bobby McDonald of the Orange County's Black Chamber of Commerce in cooperation with Ruben Alvarez, Executive Director of the Hispanic Chamber of Commerce. Free copies may be obtained by sending a self-addressed 9X12 manila envelope with $1.21 (1-33¢ and 4-22¢) in postage to:
An Orange County Hood story - Embracing Diversity
For Memorial Day, we held our first block party in our newly developed community. While we held tri-cyle and bike races, balloon tosses, relay races, and a pinata and ribbons, nothing prepared us for the most touching moment. It went something like this: we played and ate and were wrapping up, when I gathered everyone once again and publicly acknowledged the Veterans for their duty to God and Country. As I named them off, the neighbors learned of Jim who is a 3 time veteran. He served in WWII, Korea, and Vietnam War. ! In addition, Haung was a Huey Copter pilot for the US and he was so touched by this first ever public acknowledgement, that he shed tears. We all were very touched as well because we take so much for granted and we don't necessarily take time to thank those among us for their small or large contribution to making this a better evolving world. Please note that another statement that was stated over and over, was that this was their first ever block party and that they enjoy having neighbors and not just houses with people.
Mimi, Marcelo and I were so touched by the many accolades we received, but you know, we are such a friendly cultural. We felt like we made a difference to a "hood" that is very diversified and that we gave our cultural an extra good name.
I enjoyed the day and will enjoy it for many more years to come. Glad I could bring joy to a small portion of the world population.
Submitted by Clara and Marcelo Gamez
The U.S. Senate unanimously approved a
measure June 23, 2000 to rename the Santa Ana regional post office after
the late Hector Godinez. Godinez who spent 48 years in the Postal
Service, in 1960 became the first Mexican-American postal worker to be
named a postmaster. Before joining the Postal Service, he was tank
commander in the Army under Gen. George S. Patton and earned a Bronze
Star for bravery in World War II. Godinez died last year at age
Orange County Register, 6-24-00
Antonio Mendoza, 27, is a Zapotec Indian from Teotitlan Del Valle, a city in Oaxaca, Mexico. He spends about half his time there, and the other half in Santa Ana., California. Weaving is something that has been part of Mendoza's life since he was seven years old and part of his people's culture for more than 3000 years. Mendoza said it might even be more than that. "I've been doing some research and it might be about 5000 years, actually," Mendoza said.
When Mendoza was 14 years old, his father decided to bring the family to the United States "the idea was to learn English and then go back home," Mendoza said. After two years, Mendoza's father decided it was time to go back to Mexico, but Mendoza said that he fell in love with the English language and wanted to stay and continue studying. For a time, Mendoza stop weaving, and studied music at the University of California, Irvine. "I begin to realize that people didn't care about collecting weaving," Mendoza said "so I started doing some research."
In 1993, Mendoza went to Europe to study textiles and is some research on weaving in other cultures. He also went back home to Oaxaca and learned how to read Zapotec and did research on color usage by talking to people in the nearby towns. Mendoza works on loom built by his great grandfather in the 19th-century. He does every step in the process of weaving - from spinning the wool to preparing dyes and weaving. The only processes not involved is the shearing the sheep.
Mendoza said he does not weave specifically to make money, but to educate people about traditional Zapotec weaving. It usually takes him about six months to make an average-size tapestry of 2 1/2 feet by five feet, working six hours a day. He has sold his works for up to $4000. Mendoza's work will be on exhibit at the Orange County fair in July.
Orange County Register, 6-15-00
Teacher Sister May Drew
Sister Mary Drew collects cultural items from Mexico, Spain and California. Children are allowed to handle all the objects, they learn how to make tortillas from scratch, dress-up, count money, and more. For 10 years, under the leadership of Oscar Rosales, the Paramount Rotary Club chapter has donated $1,500 every year. In addition, Rotary member Neil Fitzgerald has donated a a yearly $1,000. The money is used to help schools that can't afford the $3-per-student fee she charges.
Orange County Register, 6-23-00
Robert Smith and members of the Los Pobladores 200 held a special 4th of July Celebration in Los Angeles, the 151st celebration acknowledging the arrival of a Mormon battalion to Los Angeles . They will be celebrating at the Mormon Monument just above the Los Angeles Plaza Monument at Olvera Street.
The event will start at 8:00 AM with a walk from the Plaza Church and Olvera Street to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Monument at Fort Moore. The event included music, dancing, speeches, and reenactments by the descendants of the Mormon Battalion, and others. In addition canon and muskets were fired and a formal flag rising.
For more information: (310) 847-4147 or e-mail: RSmith7456@aol.com
World War II Mexican American Women
Thank you in advance, Elizabeth
Submitted by Cindy LoBuglio
Notes and News from:
Pio de Jesus Pico (1801-1894) is remembered as the last Governor of
Alta-California, and for the military struggle against the United States,
but played an interesting role as an advocate for civil rights in California. In 1827 twenty-six year old Pico was elected a deputy to the
If readers do not know already, Pio Pico State Historic Park has begun
an exciting renovation of its adobe and grounds. Plans are underway to restore the historic Park to reflect the 1880s, a time when Pico was in
residence. Discoveries of new archaeological materials, historic zanjas
The Park is also beginning an oral history/photo collecting project, and
we need your help. If you are or know of any Pico family or other Californio descendants or area residents with interesting memories of the
"Jim Town", Pico, Pico Rivera or Los Nietos areas we would like to talk to
Please call 562/695-1217 for further information or e-mail:
California Hispanic Chambers of Commerce
On April 29th the California Hispanic Chambers of Commerce linked over 50 Hispanic chambers and business association statewide, by sponsoring its first conference on Latino businesses and the Internet. The event was held in Orange County, California. Sessions were conducted in Spanish and English. Experts and practitioners examined six Southern California Latino businesses that successfully demonstrated how they benefited from the Internet. Chamber leaders discussed the powerful networking capacity provided by the Internet to Hispanic chambers and business associations. Part of the conference had a live discussion over the Internet broadcasted by LatinOffice.com.
The conference offered an opportunity for all participants to sign up for t free E-mail accounts and Internet service, register Internet names and set up websites to do business online domestically and internationally.
Hispanic Business Journal of Orange County, June 2000
According to 1998 US Department of Commerce, even in the highest economic levels. Hispanics are falling behind as computer users. The following figures are the percent of households of $75,000+ with a computer and by race/origin:
Land Claim of 12 Tribes Rejected
On May 23, A federal judge rejected a bid by 12 Indian tribes to stop the city of San Diego, California from transferring the former Naval Training Center, which covers 430 acres of prime real estate, to a development firm that wants to build hotels, homes and offices.
The tribes claimed the property, arguing that it was part of their ancestral territory before the Mexican colonization.
But Judge Thomas Hogan, whose court is in Washington, D.C., rejected the tribes' lawsuit against the Department of Defense and the Bureau of Indian Affairs. He said the Indians have virtually no chance of winning a lawsuit because a 1901 court decision stripped the tribes of ownership rights.
Mayor Susan Golding hailed the judge's decision as a major step toward resolving a 7-year-old dispute about the property and allowing long-delayed development to begin, including construction of a cultural and arts center.
Los Angeles Times, 5-24-00
Don Jose Francisco de Ortega
On February 16, 2000, the Don Jose de Ortega Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution conducted a memorial ceremony for their namesake at the Santa Barbara Mission. A beautiful bronze plaque mounted on a large rock was dedicated in a secluded spot in the Mission cemetery. Later a reception was held in a Mission social hall where a brief presentation on Ortega's life was presented by Ruthelyn Plummer, a direct descendent of Don Jose. There were four other direct descendants in attendance: Robert Woodward, Katherine Plummer Geddes, her son, Bill Blanke and Dr. Sven Lokrantz.
Today we are gathered to honor of man of indefatigable spirit an extraordinary courage- Don Jose Francisco de Ortega. Not only did he play a critical and skillful role as a pathfinder for Spain's expedition into Alta California, but also as a founder, builder and commander of various missions and presidios.
Ortega was born in 1734 in Celaya, Guanajuato, New Spain. We don't know much about little Jose's childhood years, but we can make some assumptions: he was the first male child, enjoyed a good family life and grew up in an upper class environment. Guanajuato was a booming area of silver mining. Many of yell against all in an adobe homes are occupied today - beautifully restored. Ortega had a superior education, as later revealed in his letters and reports. Also, good physical and leadership skills that prepared him for the role he would play in our great state - California.
It would be interesting to know how Ortega went from the mountains of Guanajuato to the desert of Loreto, which is about in the middle of Baja California. And there, our Jose joined the Spanish Royal Army at the age of 21 years, and within a year and a half he jumped to Sergeant! In Loreto, he met an courted a lovely young woman, Maria Antonia Carrillo, which resulted in their marriage in 1758. His duties on the Baja Penninsula lasted for 14 years, where he served as a kind of alcalde (sheriff-mayor) of all the mining camps, and later, in charge of the Royal warehouse. It was now 1769 and he was 35 years old and father of five children.
By now, big things were happening along the California coast: Don Gasp[ar de Portola we began his historic explorations and conquest of the Alta California for the King's Spain, while Father Junipero Serra would build omissions to educate and convert the Indians to Christianity. From Loreto, Ortega joined Portola and Serra.
It was during a march from San Diego to Monterey, that Jose distinguished himself by his tireless activity. He was in commanded of the advance guard; it was his duty to explore and plot the way, not only to find a best path, but water and pasture. When the party reached Monterey Bay, they did not recognize it, but continued onto the Bay of San Francisco. It is said that Ortega was the first Spaniards to see the Bay. It took them about four months to travel 500 miles, then great racing their steps, they went south until they reached Monterey Bay, but still did not recognize it. Though the men did not realize it, their mission was accomplished and Ortega had made the El Camino Real (known as Highway 101) to Monterey.
After this grinding, exhilarating journey, Ortega spent the next few years between Loreto and Alta California until 1775, when he led an expedition from Loreto to San Diego, which included his own family and one another. A few months later, his wife, Maria, gave birth to the first "white" child born in California. It was their sixth child and they named him Jose Francisco.
Ortega was a great favorite of the missionaries, and especially a Father Serra. The good father urged the authorities to appoint the proficient soldier to be the next commandante of Alta California. But, as often happens, political appointments don't always go to the best talent. However, Father Serra's efforts were not all lost, as Ortega was promoted to Lieut. and assigned Commander of San Diego Presidio, where he served for eight years.
Ortega spent turbulent years carving out the highways and towns that became the backbone of our State. He established mission sites, the pueblo of Los Angeles, and, after long years of waiting, in 1782, he was ordered to build an command a Presidio at Santa Barbara. Not only did he oversee the construction of the buildings, but he de sign a system of water infrastructure that still serves the city.
Ortega, at age 48, a petition the Crown for his retirement and some land. Instead, he was sent to command a Presidio at Monterey, and then later, sent back to Loreto. He was finally given retirement as a Brevet Captain in 1795, age 61 years.
From the Spanish archives of Alta to California, it is noted by Gov.Arillaga:
The Lieut. John Jose Francisco Ortega:
His Character: Honest; Valor: well-known. His health call and broken. Service: 40 years
In the expedition to San Diego and Monterey, he had the commission of explorer of roads which the expedition had to follow. In the execution of this duty, he was frequently threatened and surrounded by large bodies of hostile Indians, who he always forced to retire. During his command of San Diego, he prevented various uprisings of Indians, arresting the Chiefs and reducing them to peaceful conditions. He founded the missions of San Juan Capistrano and San Buenaventure, and the Presidio at Santa Barbara. He then exercised, and exercises with honesty, the functions of Habilitado.
The Don Jose Francisco de Ortega die in 1798, and was buried at the Santa Barbara mission. In 1803, his wife, Maria Antonia, passed away at was buried in the Royal Presidio Chapel, Santa Barbara.
This concludes a brief history of a remarkable man during a remarkable period of California history. The Don Jose de Ortega Chapter of the DAR can be proud of their namesake.
Fort Tejon State Historic Park
Fort Tejon State Historic Park, located just north of Lebec, California offers history demonstrations of California in the 1860s. Depicting California during the Civil War includes portrayals of people and life at this U.S. Army post during that time period, military operations such as artillery drills, carpentry and weapons demonstrations, highlighting battles and tactics used in the eastern United States during the Civil War. (661) 248-6692, fax (661) 248-8373
San Diego County’s city of Oceanside, for example, all 1,200 city
employees now log on to their computers with fingerprint scanners rather
than with passwords. The change was necessitated, says Oceanside’s
computer systems director, by a chronic and irremediable problem: people
kept forgetting their passwords.
Ambassador, May 2000
SPONSORED BY Spanish America Genealogical.Association
.CORPUS CHRISTI, TEXAS
Embracing the New
The Texas conference
is not limited to Texas research. Tejano family roots are
historically based in Mexico. If you have never attended a
Texas conference and have South Texas and/or Northern Mexico lines,
SHHAR strongly recommends that you organize your schedule and
Tour will be conducted by Homero Salinas Vera, editor/publishes of El Meste Magazine. Make your reservations early as there will only be one bus with a 50 person limit. Address questions on the trip to: email@example.com.
For further program
or registration information contact: SagaCorpus@aol.com
Headquarters: Omni Bayfront Hotel, 900 N. Shoreline, CC, TX
Make reservations by calling (361) 887-1600 or 1-800-the-OMNI or via internet at website: http://www.omnihotels.com/
Cesar Chavez Blvd.
in Houston, Texas
Congratulations to the Lorenzo De
Zavala Chapter of the Tejano Association for Historical
Preservation. On April 1, 2000, after 4 years of preparation, the
official renaming of 67th Steet in Houston to Cesar Chavez Blvd
took place. The ceremony included historians, state and local
governmental officials, church officials, veteran's and community
Dr. Tijerina pioneered book publishing on the internet with his first venture "Early Tejano Ranching in Duval County," a full-length book published on the internet by the University of Texas Institute of Texan Cultures, 1999.
In addition to the renaming of the
street, a Commemorative Magazine was published.
In memory of Jeff
Davis High School Alumni killed in the Vietnam War
In memory of Consolidate High
School Fallen Soldiers in Vietnam
The Founding of the Tejano Association for Historical Preservation
By Rolando M. Romo, 1989-1993
I visited the chained-off area that have the tombstones of the Zavala family. As I stood facing the tombstones of Zavala's family and neighbors, a I overheard an individual say, "It's a shame what happened to their graves." I was struck by curiosity and found myself asking, "What you mean what happened to them? Aren't they buried here? " "No, they were originally buried on Zavala's land across the bayou and the Houston Ships Channel's long years and wave action eroded most of that bank and the graves were washed away and only their tombstones were saved and brought across to the battlefield," came the answer. I was completely stunned and anger at the news. How could a hero of the Texas Revolution have met such an ignoble fate? I thought to myself, with this have been allowed to happen if this were the grave-site of Crockett or Austin?
Lorenzo de Zavala, Jr. was aide-de-camp for General Sam Houston at the Battle of San Jacinto, and served as the initial interpreter between Houston and Santa Ana after the Battle
The individual offered to take me across the ferry and right onto what had been Zavala's land and show me the exact spot where the cemetery had been. Being the curious sort, I readily agreed. I found myself seeing the remnants of a wired fence that was one foot from the bank's edge. I was shown the original site were once the house of Zavala had stood. It was all commercially developed. The only reminder of Zavala's existence was a flagpole with a marker that attributed this land as once being his home.
I resolved that the only thing that could make a difference in preserving buildings and sites that were historically or archeologically important to the Mexican-American community was to have an organization that specifically dealt with their preservation. I felt that in organization was needed to do the following:
1. Preserve buildings insights that were historically/archeologically important to Mexican Americans.
2. Educate the public on the local and national history of Mexican Americans that had made a significant contribution to their respective communities.
3. Establish an education center that would provide historical exhibits and research materials for historical topics relevant to the Mexican and Mexican-American community.
Commemorative Magazine, April 2000the
Submitted by Estella M. Zermeno
Viva Tejas by Ruben Rendon Lozano
"To the Mexican-Texan there has been left a heritage as proud as that borne by the American-Texan. Side by side their ancestors won Texas' independence and built the republic that was destined to become a great state. Today, on the hundredth anniversary of the events which created history, the descendants of those patriots whether Mexican-Texan or American-Texan, share equally the glory of a resplendent ancestry. "
Submitted by Mary Anne Curry
Jose Roberto Juarez
Dr. Jose Roberto Juarez, former professor of history at Texas A&M International University, has been named president of the Texas Catholic Historical Society for 2000-2001. Dr.Juarez, will head the Austin-based organization dedicated to documenting and preserving the history of Texas Catholicism. Born and educated in Laredo, Dr. Juarez graduated from St. Augustine High School and earned the bachelor's and master's degrees at St. Edward's University. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Texas at Austin. His academic research has earned him numerous awards, including the prestigious Woodrow Wilson and Fulbright Fellowships, which permitted historical research in the U.S. and Mexico archives.
Dr. Juarez has published numerous research articles including appearances in journals such as The Hispanic American Historical Review, Historia Mexicana and Atzlán. He remains a popular lecturer on Mexican history and the history of the Mexican American in Texas and the Southwest.
In addition to his faculty service at A&M International from 1994-1997, he has been a member of the faculties at St. Edward's University, the University of Texas at Austin and the University of California at Davis. In addition to his service to the TCHS, he is secretary of the Webb County Heritage Foundation, Historical Markers Chair of the Webb County Historical Commission and Chair of the Membership Committee of the Texas State Historical Association.
He is currently completing a manuscript on the recuperation of church wealth in the archdiocese of Guadalajara, 1860-1911. He and his wife Toni, also a longtime educator, make their home in Laredo.
Submitted by Elsa P. Herbeck, firstname.lastname@example.org
National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution
As published in the San Antonio The Recorder, March 12, 1987
Angela Salinas Fernandez is the first American woman of Spanish ancestry to have her lineage accepted by the National Society of Daughters of the American Revolution. Her research for membership was accepted by the DAR Oct. 10, 1986. She is a member of the Ol' Shavano Chapter of the DAR.
She started researching her family in 1951 before her father died. He gave her heads, such as "With the Makers of San Antonio", the Land Grant Office in Austin and the Bexar County Archives. In the late 1770s, her great-great-grandfather Francisco Manuel Salinas and His brother, Pedro Zavier, followed their father, Joseph de Salinas, and served in the Spanish Royal Army under Capt. Domingo Cabello in Texas.
They and other Spanish ranchers rounded up cattle, horses, and mules from the San Bartolome Ranch, which was partly owned by the Salinas family. The animals from that ranch and 24 others was driven to Nacogdoches and then to Louisiana to be given to Gernardo de Galvez for the American Revolution. Francisco Manuel Salinas also went on scouting expeditions for the cause.
After he retired from the Spanish Royal Army, he served as a procurdor (attorney) for the City Council, a mayordomo Dec.21, 18010-02, a regidor (councilman) 1804-05, and again as a procurador in 1818. On the eve of the Mexican revolution, he and his family lived on the San Bartolome Ranch. His two sons aided the Republic of Texas, with Pablo participating in the First Siege of Bejar and at San Jacinto and Jose Maria serving as alcalde four times.
Submitted by Mary Anne Curry
March 12, 1987 - The Recorder, San Antonio TX
PASQUALE LEO BUQUOR, or P. L. BUQUOR, as he is more commonly known, was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, in about 1821. He was the son of Honore Buquor and Eugenie Prevost of that city. His great-great-grandfather, Henry Buquor was in New Orleans as early as 1721. His paternal grandmother, Felicite Perpetua Bugeaud (or Bujol), was born in St. Charles Parish, Acadia, and was a descendant of many of the early settlers of Acadia, including Charles LaTour, who at age 17 came from France with his father, Claude, in about 1609 with the Sieur de Poutrincourt.
Leaving New Orleans at the tender age of 17, Mr. Buquor came to Texas in 1838. He and served as a member of the U.S. Army under Gen. T. J. Rusk during the Cherokee Campaign. On July 6, 1839, he was involved in a hard fought battle between the Texans and the Cherokees in which Chief Bowles was killed and his band driven from the State.
In 1840, Mr. Buquor came to San Antonio as an officer in the Commissary Department. That same year, he joined the Texas Rangers and was in Capt. Jack Hayes' Company. Capt. Buquor was with Capt. Hayes on April 7, 1841 during a battle north of Laredo against about 35 Mexicans who had reportedly been attacking traders between Laredo and San Antonio. After the battle, 25 Mexican were taken prisoner, and three died. The Rangers suffered no losses. This battle is described in detail in "Colonel Jack Hayes, Texas Ranger," by Colonel Harry McCorry Henderson. For his service to Texas, Mr. Buquor was granted land on Calaveras Creek, about 8 miles east of Mission San Jose.
On 16 April,1841at the age of 20, he married Maria de Jesus (Teresa) Delgado) who was born June 10, 1826. She was the daughter of Jose Maria Delgado and Juana Curbelo, descendants of the Canary Islanders who settled in San Antonio in 1731. The wedding was performed at the San Fernando Cathedral and Father Calvo performed the ceremony. He took his bride to his hometown of New Orleans for their honeymoon. After returning from their honeymoon, Mr. Buquor resigned from the army and then spent a term carrying the mail.
From February 11, 1846, to October 1, 1846, Mr. Buquor served as City Marshall and in 1848 he sold his property which fronted Villita Street, backing to Nueva Street.
In the 1850 census, Mr. Buquor was listed as a farmer, and had property worth $6,000.
In February 1852, he was elected to the office of County Commissioner by a count of 65 votes.
On January 1, 1856, Governor E.M. Pease appointed him Notary Public in Bexar County.
On January 7, 1860, he was appointed Notary Public of Bexar County by then Governor Sam Houston. That same year, he was also elected Justice of the Peace of Precinct No. 2. He had an office in the Navarro Building.
From January 1, 1861 to January 1, 1862, he was an alderman for the City. When the Civil War broke out, he organized a volunteer company, and serving as Captain of the 3rd Infantry 1st Company A, Texas. He was ordered to Camp Verde and then shortly ordered to Brownsville. His wife and family accompanied him on both assignments. While in Brownsville, two of his sergeants: William Burns and Pat Johnson, were killed by a drunk named Millican, who in turn was shot by an angry mob.
Capt. Buquor was a personal friend of Col. Robert E. Lee, then commander of the San Antonio 2nd Cavalry.
Mr. Buquor was well known in the city by 1862 when he returned to San Antonio and ran for mayor against a very strong incumbent, S. A. Maverick, who was one of the biggest cattlemen in the area. Mr. Buquor won by 75 votes. He served from January 1, 1863 until January 1, 1865. One of the ordinances enacted during his term in office was outlining the proper conduct of slaves since this was during the Civil War. In his obituary, which appeared in the San Antonio Light newspaper March 16, 1901, it is stated that: "Colonel Buquor was a veteran of the Mexican war and mayor of San Antonio... During his administration Mayor Buquor introduced a method for the extermination of vermin by which he offered five cents for every rat tail that was brought to him. This had the effect of encouraging the slaughter of rats and there were many who did nothing else but kill rats and take the tails to the mayor for which they would receive five cents apiece."
In his book, "Frontier and Pioneer Recollections" by Vinton Lee James, James described Mayor Buquor while at the funeral of a Confederate soldier in the front hall of the old Bat Cave building near Military Plaza, as "a large fleshy, good-looking gentleman, who was dressed in a long-tailed coat and a suit of somber black, was master of ceremonies. He made an eloquent speech in a deep, pleasing bass voice in which he eulogized the dead as having been a brave soldier who gave his life that his country might live."
In January 1866, he had an office on the north side of Military Plaza and was listed as a notary public, conveyor and translator.
In 1867, he was appointed City Assessor. He was a member of the Texas Veteran Association. In1872, he was appointed as Supervisor of Elections of Starr County by a U.S. District Judge. He was Notary Public and Justice of the Peace in 1872 for Starr County.
As reported by the San Antonio Express, on March 4, 1881, "Major P.L. Buquor was employed as an interpreter in Federal Court. He was probably the finest Spanish language scholar in all Texas."
On May 6, 1884, he was appointed by John Ireland, Governor of Texas, as Honorary Commissioner to the World's Industrial Centennial and Cotton Exposition.
He and his wife were married for 60 years. They had 6 children, Adolph (b. 1849 m. Francesca de la Pena), John (b. 1846 m. Cecilia Bean), Maria F. (b. 1850) Felicia (b. 1851 m. William Bledsoe) Oscar, and Ophelia,
Mrs. Buquor was interviewed by a report for the San Antonio Express in July 1907, where Mrs. Buquor recalled warning David Crocket and William Travis, who were visiting her family at the time, of Santa Anna's forces in San Antonio. She was not quite 9 years of age at the time. She states that they were forced to give up their home to the Mexican soldiers at that time and had to seek refuge from the flying bullets in the cellar of another family who lived on Arciniega Street. She also recalled the seven men who escaped from the Alamo who were killed on the banks of the river near her house, as well as the Council House fight.
Mayor Buquor retired to Floresville and after a long illness he died on March 15,1 901. Services were conducted at Sacred Heart Catholic Church. He is buried in the Canary Islanders Cemetery in Floresville, Texas.
Submitted by great-great-granddaughter, Sylvia Villarreal
14, the third annual
conference of Legado
Brigham Young Un.
For more information call, Marcia Chavez, 801-224-4693 or email@example.com or website: www.genealogia.com
- - Documentary Relations of the Southwest is now online. www.statemuseum.arizona.edu/drsw
This is a major project of at least 20 years of research gathering.. Marvelous resource for any Southwest researchers.
Sent by Ed Flores
The Casa Grande Ruins National Monument in Coolidge, southeast of Phoenix, will soon be bordered by a Wal-Mart Supercenter on the east and possibly a federal holding prison on the west. Houses already exist south of the ruins.
Wal-Mart scored a public relations coup by donating more than 13 acres on the northwestern part of its site to the Archaeological Conservancy, a non-profit group that preserves such site.
The Arizona Republic, 3-11-2000
Southwestern South Dakota
Tens of millions of dollars are spent on government programs on the southwestern South Dakota reservations each year, yet government reports have tagged Shannon County as the poorest in the nation. Some tribal members blamed corruption and mismanagement by elected leaders for the tribes struggles and say a big part of the problem is the tribes government structure setup under a 1934 federal law.
The best solution, they say is a return to traditional tribal governments based on consensus reached in council meetings. A draft report by an independent auditor found serious problems in the tribes accounts funded by its casino, land leases and other activities some programs over spent their budget in 1999, some money was not within the proper accounts and some records were missing, the draft said.
In 1868 the Fort Laramie Treaty reserved Western South Dakota for the Lakota, but soon after the Sioux and Cheyenne defeated Ltr. Col. George Custer at the Battle of the Little Big Horn in 1876, the Sioux tribes were confined to much smaller reservations.
The 1934 Indian Reorganization Act authorized tribes to create their own Constitution's and bylaws, which basically set up executive, legislative and judicial branches within tribal governments. A traditional government would be based on Treaty rights, and the Oglala Sioux would deal with United States as one nation to another, said Floyd Hand who with five others plan to travel to Washington to discuss such a plan with federal officials.
Orange County Register, 5-22-00
Quechan tribe, Arizona
On June 19, 2000, the Supreme Court jeopardized the allocation rights of urban water users in Arizona and Southern California by ruling that an Indian tribe is entitled to seek additional rights to Colorado river water.
By 6-3 vote, the justices said the Quechan tribe should have the opportunity to prove its claim that it owns about 25,000 acres of Fort Yuma Reservation land straddling the river along the boundary between the two states.
Unless the tribe is found to be the land's owner, it would have no claim to the water. The decision, although it does not end the dispute that in one form or another has been before the nation's highest court since 1952, is a victory for the tribe. It signals a defeat for Arizona and California officials who had argued that the tribe sold the disputed land to the federal government for $15 million in 1983.
The tribe contends it has owned the disputed lands since the reservation was created in 1893, and that the $15 million was paid in 1983 was to compensate for previous trespassing and a history of broken promises by the federal government.
Orange County Register, 6-20-00
Oregon's Grand Ronde Tribal Council
The head of the Museum of Natural History in New York and an American Indian group signed an agreement to share custody of a 10,000-year-old meteorite that's centerpiece of the museum's new planetarium. "What a milestone it is to have reached this agreement here," said Kathryn Harrison, chairwoman of Oregon's Grand Ronde Tribal Council. The 16-ton meteorite became a central attraction in the planetarium when it opened in February. But the tribal council claimed ownership of the rock. Under the agreement, a the tribal receive access for and annual ceremonial visit to the museum. To the Clackamas, Tomanowos - as they called the meteorite - was sent to Earth as a representative of the "Sky People."
Orange County Register, 6-23-00
Indian Whaling Rights Shot Down
On June 9, 2000, a federal appeals court overturned a ruling that allowed Washington's state's Makah Indians to resume whaling for the first time in more than 70 years. The Makah had hunted whales for generations until the 1920s, when commercial whaling decimated the whale population. Gray whales were removed from the endangered species list in 1994, and the tribe move to resume hunting, claiming whaling rights under an 1855 treaty with the U.S. government.
In 1997, The International Whaling Commission ruled that the 2000 member tribe of could take up to 5 whales a year from 1998 through 2002. In May to 1999, the Makah finally hunted and kill the gray whale after U.S. District Judge Franklin Burgess in Tacoma rejected an attempt by environmentalists and Rep.Jack Metcalf, R-Washington to block any whaling. Indian whalers have been out this spring in the waters off the tip of Washington's Olympic Peninsula, but hasn't been successful
Biologists estimate 26,000 gray whales migrate each year between the waters off Alaska and Mexico.
San Diego Union-Tribune, 6-10-00
Quapaw Tribe in Oklahoma
Anna McKibben, the 10th National Miss Indian USA from the Quapaw Tribe in Oklahoma, has inititated a campaign to the place Sac and Fox Indian athlete Jim Thorpe's image and sport achievements on the Wheatie cereal box. In a 1950 Associated Press poll, he was judged America's Greatest All-around male Athlete at America's Greatest Football Player of the half-century. Fifty years later, his talents still unparalleled, Thorpe was proclaimed ABC's Wide World's of Sports Athlete of the Century prior to the 2000 Super Bowl in Atlanta.
Individuals, organizations, groups, tribes, schoolchildren, and others wishing to support this project are urged to write or call: General Mills, Wheaties Department, P.O. BVox 1113, Minneapolits, MN 55440, 11-800-328-1444. For further information contact Anna McKibben, 63181 East 600 Road, Quapaw, Oklahoma 7444363, 918-542-1853. Such
The Family Tree, June/July 2000 stage
Southwest Kansas, KYUU
Spanish language stations are spreading in all part of the US thanks to entrepreneurs in California and Texas. Hispanic businessmen have seized the opportunity created by the nationwide spread of Latin American culture companies like Sacramento- based ZSpanish which offer the programming, beamed in by satellite. ZSpanish fills up the bulk of the air time for low budget, mostly AM operations. ZSpanish began in 1992 as a string of stations in California's Central Valley. "Once we beamed up our signal to the satellite we discovered the footprint covered the entire US," says co-owner John Bustos. "We discovered what great, growing (Latino) populations there are in all these places, like in Arkansas and Nebraska."
In Grand Island, Nebraska, station KMMJ broadcast live play-by-play soccer games. These teams are mostly of immigrant meat packers and other laborers. In-studio guests have included the Mexican consul from Denver and local border patrol agents, who were asked to explain why the agency is setting of offices in town (immigrant smuggling has soared in Nebraska and neighboring Iowa).
As a whole, Spanish-language radio generated $440 million in ad revenue in 1998.
Los Angeles Times, 6-23-00
JOSEPH DE LA BAUME
JOSEPH DE LA BAUME, the son of Count Joseph de la Baume and Mary Isabel d'Alton, of the courtship of la Baume, Province of Avignon, France, was born in 1731.
He came to America during the Revolutionary War as a Captain in the French Army commanded by the Marquis de Lafayette and served as Company Commander in the Regiment of the Vicomte de Bonneville. According to his Last Will and Testament, he "was present and commanded his company in all the battles where La Fayette was present and at the surrender of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown."
At the Texas State Capital Building in Austin, there is a brass plaque put up by the Texas Society of the Sons of the American Revolution listing Joseph de la Baume's name along with others from Texas who served in the American Revolutionary War.
The end of the revolution found de la Baume in Louisiana. The first records, dated 13 June 1777, show that the Chev. De Clouet, commandant of the Opelousas Post certified a petition to the Spanish Governor, Bernardo, the Comte de Galvez, for de la Baume as a "habitant" for the Vacherie or cow-pasture within the king's land. De la Baume was granted a 40-arpent concession located on the bayou on the Prairie des Nez Pique.
Joseph de la Baume owned property on both sides of the Ouachita River adjacent to that of Jean Filhiol, through the town of Monroe, Louisiana, as shown on an undated early plat map for area around Monroe, Louisiana.
On 26 February 1778, in the Post of Opelousas, before the "Captain Civil and Military Commandant for the (Spanish) King of the Post of Opelousas" Joseph de la Baume married Dame Marie LeKentric (Ana Marie Kentree), widow of Saintmont, daughter of Mr. Joseph le Kintrek and Dame Marie leBoeuf, native of New Orleans. However, she died the following year. It is believed that she was the niece of Jean-Baptiste Filhiol.
In 1783, Jean-Baptiste Filhiol, who had seen service under Governor Bernardo de Galvez during the Florida campaigns against the British, was appointed the military and civil commander of the Ouachita Post. He named Joseph de la Baume as his First Lieutenant and second in command of the Post. This military district was created to "help Spain hold lands and discourage the encroachment of English, Americans and vagabonds
During de la Baume's military service at the post, the Osage and Choctaw Indians were constantly attacking the colonists and stealing their horses, therefore, Commandant Filhiol felt it was necessary to build a fort to protect the Ouachita settlement. In May 1787, he issued a formal request to Colonel Estevan Miro, who succeeded Bernardo de Galvez as governor of Louisiana, that the king should supply the funds needed to build a fort. However, this request was denied as Gov. Miro felt a fort was unnecessary. As the Indian depredations continued, Filhiol continued to press Miro, but when no help came, he and de la Baume formulated plans to build the fort themselves. Filhiol asked his men for a petition explaining the need for a fort, which he would then forward to Miro. The petition, written in French and dated August 19, 1790, was written by de la Baume. His signature as well as that of 17 of his soldiers appears on the document. Gov. Miro denied the request as he still felt that the fort was unnecessary.
Construction of the fort began on September 8, 1790, under the direction of de la Baume and was completed on February 11, 1791. They named the 18,000 square foot stockade "Ft. Miro," after the governor, and it soon became the center of all activity in the Ouachita Valley. Here, Commander Filhiol held his court sessions, made announcements, marketing took place and soon they were holding dances, which became "Creole-style balls."
The city of Monroe, Louisiana now sits on the land of the former fort. There is a historical marker located across the street from the present-day courthouse states "Fort Miro -- Original stockade built on this site in 1790 by Commandant Jean Filhiol and Lieut. Joseph de la Baume of Ouachita District. The land was donated by Filhiol, and half of timbers furnished by officers; half by garrison and settlers. Joseph de la Baume is considered one of the founding fathers of Monroe, Louisiana, as a result of his contributions to building the fort. <BR>
When the Indian threat continued through 1792, Filhiol created a cavalry unit at the request of the Baron de Carondelet to which he named de la Baume as Lieutenant.
After Spain ceded the east bank of the Mississippi river to the United States in 1796, Ouachita as a defense post became more vital. Commander Filhiol was ordered to reorganize the fort into two Dragoon Companies, however, he felt it better to have one Dragoon Company and one Infantry. Joseph de la Baume was named Captain of the Dragoon Company.
However, the Indian depredations continued without fear of reprisals as there were only 134 soldiers, most of them over 50 years of age, to defend the fort. The disillusioned Filhiol soon decided to resigned as his continued requests for more funds and soldiers were denied. In his absence, de la Baume continued as the executive officer and carried the commandant's insignia.
While at Ft. Miro, de la Baume formed a life-long friendship with Felipe Enrique Neri, colonizer, legislator, and self-styled Baron de Bastrop, who had established a colony in the Ouachita valley. After Louisiana was sold to the United States in 1803, the Baron moved to Spanish Texas and was permitted to establish a colony between Bexar and the Trinity River. The Baron is best remembered in Texas history for his intervention on behalf of Moses and Stephen F. Austin to allow the establishment of their Anglo-American Colony. In 1823, he was appointed commissioner of colonization for the Austin Colony."
De la Baume left the fort to live in Natchitoches, Louisiana, presumably with the Baron, when he heard rumors that Louisiana was being ceded back to France.
In the May 1802 report of post activities at Nacogdoches, Texas, which the authorities filed monthly with the Spanish Governor in Bexar, de la Baume and his family's arrival was noted as a colonist. At that time, his family consisted of himself and eight Negro slaves. He evidently then began an interesting career as a trader between Bexar and Natchitoches, Louisiana.
In about 1805, de la Baume married Luisa Cuturie (Curturie) in Nacogdoches, Texas, who had already had a young son, Valerio, from a previous relationship. Four children were born during this marriage: Victorina, born in about 1805; Joseph, born in about 1806; Sancir Pedro, born in about 1809; and Gertrudis, born in about 1811.
On August 4, 1803, de la Baume wrote to Commandant General Nemesio Salcedo from Nacogdoches for permission to settle in Bexar or La Bahia Texas with his family "because he wished to follow the Spanish Flag." He called himself a physician and herb doctor. Records from a long-involved lawsuit with one his slaves reflect that he lived in Nacogdoches until 1806. Joseph de la Baume left for Bexar when he received a Spanish land grant of about 27,000 acres in Texas for his service to the Spanish crown, as well as permission to settle in the Villa de Bexar.
In 1806 the Villa de Bexar had a population of 2,000 inhabitants, most of which lived in mud-daubed, grass-roofed houses. However, having the accumulated substantial funds, he built a large two-story double-stone house among the cottonwood grove known as "Las Alamedas." The house was built in 12 acres of gardens just two blocks south of the Alamo, across from St. Joseph's Catholic Church on East Commerce Street. It was known as "LaBaume Place" for many years. The Greater San Antonio Chamber of Commerce building now stands on this site.
De la Baume established the El Capote Ranch on the 27,000 acres Spanish land grant, however, there is no evidence that he ever lived on the ranch. The ranch is located on both side of the Guadalupe River, near Capote springs, east of present Seguin (12 miles southeast of Seguin) and west of present Belmont, in present Guadalupe and Gonzales Counties, near the headwaters of O'Neal Creek. The highest of these hills, Porter Knob, stands 670 feet above mean sea level, 150 feet above the surrounding landscape. Part of the property later became part of the DeWitt's Colony. There is a historical marker in front of the El Capote Ranch gate which states, in part: "The founder of El Capote Ranch was Jose de la Baume (1731-1834), a French Army Officer who came to North America with the Marquis de Lafayette and fought in the American Revolution…" The ranch is presently owned by Gilbert Denham, Jr. of San Antonio.
In 1813, a seldom-remembered revolution took place in Texas, which was put down in the bloodiest battle ever fought in this state. The Spanish Royalists reconquered Texas and de la Baume was arrested as a "traitor." At the advance age of 82, he was imprisoned in a granary located on the north side of Main Plaza. He spent seven months in chains and was fined 7,000 doubloons. All of his money and papers, including his military records, were confiscated at that time. When Mexico again threw off the Spanish, he was pardoned, however, his fortune of 7,000 gold ducats, 50,000 silver pesos and the deed to El Capote were lost.
De la Baume was pardoned on March 8, 1814, by Jose Antonio Saucedo, Governor of Coahuila y Texas. The notice states, in part: "insurgents pardoned and of the families, that are able to be suspected and disturb the quietude and public tranquility of this province... That of the Frenchman LaBaume."
Joseph de la Baume later employed Stephen F. Austin as his attorney and began to petition for the restitution of his property. His petition, dated December 19, 1825 states that he had been a resident of San Fernando de Bejar since 1806. Petitions accompanying the request were signed by a number of residents of San Antonio who later became historic figures; namely, Sam Houston, Jose Antonio Navarro, Erasmo Seguin, Green de Witt, John W. Smith and others. On November 4, 1828, the ranch property was ceded back to de la Baume by the Mexican Government. The deed was issued in 1832 by the State of Coahuila y Texas.
De la Baume is listed on page 54 of the "1830 Citizens of Texas," written by Clifford White: "Esteban F. Austin and Samuel M. Williams, 21 Dec 1832. I am European by birth and married in Nacogdoches (wants to be admitted). My name is Joseph de la Baume born in Montpelier, France. Married ... 5 children, 3 males and 2 females. My spouse is Maria Louisa Couturier, native of New Orleans, of age 50 years..." Also on pg 75: "Special Grant by Jose Antonio Navarro and Green DeWitt in DeWitt's Colony -- 133 - Joseph de la Baume, here since 1816, in San Fernando de Bejar since 1832. Concession 22 Jan 1826."
In a petition dated 15 of February, 1833, de la Baume applied, through his lawyer, Stephen F. Austin, and certified by Sam Houston, for an American Veteran's pension for his service in the American Revolution. The government denied the petition based on the fact that he had served less than six months.
When de la Baume was old and infirm at the age of 103, he called several citizens of San Antonio together to his home in the Alamedas. He asked that they sign and authenticate his Last Will and Testament. Stephen F. Austin was present as his attorney, along with Francisco Xavier Bustillo, Bachelor Francisco Maynes, Fernando Rodriguez, John W. Smith, Erasmo Seguin, J. Antonio Padilla, and Manuel Yturri Castillo. His will was dated 4 April 1834, and "Filed in Court this 6th day of July, A. D., one thousand eight hundred and forty-four. Thos. H. O. Addicks, Cl'k, Probate Court." John W. Smith testified by affidavit as follows:
"In the spring of the year 1834, I was called upon to visit the room of Jose de la Baume. On entering the room I found there assembled several of the citizens of the city of San Antonio. Shortly after entering the room, the said Jose de la Baume, in the presence of the persons present, drew from under his pillow a written document and exhibited the same to the persons present and then declared that he was old and infirm, and was desirous to make and execute a last will and testament, and that he had invited those present to see him sign and authenticate the document then in his hand as his last will."
In the will de la Baume stated: "I am a resident of the City of San Antonio de Bexar in the State of Coahuila and Texas of the Mexican Republic, and although I am ill, I am in sound mind, memory, and natural understanding."
He went on to state that he "truly believed in all the articles and mysteries of our sacred Catholic faith…"
He stated that he had reared as a son, Valerio la Baume, since his tender, issue of his present wife, and directed that Valerio enjoy the same share of his estate as his other children.
His property was listed as being: His own property the dwelling and land situated in the Alameda (his home); a tract of land with 300 varas frontage and 600 varas depth on the far side of the acequia; six sitos of land situated at Capote Springs on the Guadalupe River; one sito of land between Brazos and Colorado Rivers in the colony of the Empresarios, Stephen F. Austin and Samuel M. Williams; a ranch with farm land within the boundaries of Nacogdoches composed of two sitos of land along Loco Creek; as well as his household furniture and farm implements found at his house.
He also requested that all debts be paid.
He directed that his title of Count de la Baume be handed down to his daughter, Victoria, or, if the French government disallowed a female, then title would pass to his son, Joseph.
His wife, Luisa Couturier was named testamentary executor of his will along with his son, Joseph, and Juan Antonio Padilla.
He directed that he be buried "without any pomp whatever, in a sacred place where all faithful Christians are laid to rest." It is believed that his grave is unmarked somewhere in Austin County near Bellville. Not long after the will was filed with the Court, de la Baume died.
In 1840, Michael Erskine purchased the El Capote Ranch. Erskine is famous for a cattle drive in 1854 from the El Capote Ranch, through hostile Indian country to California. He started out with 1,000 head of cattle and ended up in the gold fields with the same number. A wooden cabin from the ranch and believe to have been inhabited by French Smith, the famous Indian fighter, was restored and donated to the Texas Tech Ranching Heritage outdoor museum by Gilbert Denham, Jr., whose grandfather purchased the property from Erskine in 1897. One of the signers of the deed was Theodore Roosevelt, who owned a horse from the El Capote Ranch.
Written by 4th
Alfred Rascon, Congressional Medal of Honor Recipient
After 34 years, Alfred Rascon, a Mexican immigrant, received to nation's highest military award, the Congressional Medal of Honor. Rascon is not the first immigrant to receive the Congressional Metal of Honor. Immigrants were actually awarded one out of five of the 3,427 authorized since the honor was created in 1861. There are currently over 60,000 immigrants serving in United States Armed Forces.
Rascon, born in Mexico, moved with his family to Oxnard, CA when he was just a young boy. Growing up near three military bases, he was enamored with the Armed Forces. After graduating high school he enrolled in the Army before even becoming a U.S. citizen. Rascon, when asked why he volunteered to go to Vietnam when not even as citizen, said "I was always an American in my heart." [Mr. Rascon is current Inspector General for Selective Service.]
Beyond the Call of Duty
On March 16, 1966, Alfred Rascon and his platoon were in the Long Khanh Province of Vietnam. In the middle of intense fire, Rascon, a medic, was attending to a fatally wounded machine gun or when he was hit with shrapnel and shot in the hip.
Although the bullet traveled parallel to his spine and came out of the shoulder, he still managed to carry ammo from the dead soldier to another who was running out. That's when several grenades went off in his face, ripping opened his mouth. He noticed two more grenades fall close to two of his fellow soldiers.
Despite his wounds, he managed to cover both of their bodies and absorb the blast himself blast himself. Even more, he got up from that, barely able to walk, and covered an unmanned machine gun that the enemy was about to capture, saving his platoon.
Source: LULAC NEWS, May/June 2000
IMMIGRATION BILLS - AMNESTY
Family historians understand the important of migration patterns in doing family research. The United States is the assimilation and accumulation of people from all over the world. Currently, immigration issues are of intense political concern.
Current estimates are four to six million undocumented persons reside in the U.S., over half being Latino. April 12, Univision President Henry Cisneros and Jack Kemp, Empower American Chair, called for a bipartisan meeting in order to suggest a legislative agenda for 2000 that would prioritize gaining approval of a new adjustment program or "amnesty" for undocumented workers.
The William C. Velásquez Institute Spring 2000 issue of de las Américas is dedicated to Amnesty information. Antonio González, chief editor, writes that it is "crucial for Latino leadership, as well as others concerned with immigrants, to immediately ally with the business and labor in a broad-based, left-right alliance. The strength Latinos bring as the electoral group most in demand in 2000 by both parties and presidential candidates should be enough to persuade the republican-controlled congress and the democratic-controlled White House to speedily approve a new amnesty for the undocumented."
Source: Immigration and Naturalization Service
New York, 12%
to the 1996 census,
Mexico contributed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
of all the Legal Immigration
71% of all the Illegal Immigration
|I strongly encourage Hispanics
(in particular those of Mexican-heritage) to be aware of suggested
immigration reforms and bills.
The William C. Velásquez Institute will conduct a Latino Community
Public Education and Outreach Campaign during the period of June-August
20000 in key regions and states across the U.S. WCVI proposes to
generate Latino and public awareness around the "four
4) Visa overstay adjustment is a concept that would allow
several hundred thousand Section 245(i) visa recipients who are in
noncompliance with their visas to require legal status.
De las Américas , Spring 2000 issue
|The late amnesty cases
cover approximately 250,000 class members throughout the United States.
An unknown number of these class members were "front-desked"
during the one-year legalization application period that occurred after
the passage of the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act. The
term refers to a procedure whereby the applicant went to an Immigration
and Natguralization Services (INS) office with a legalization
application and fee, but the INS refused to accept the
application. [Editor's Note: The problem in 1987 was that the
applicants did not have a paper trail proving that they were living in
the U.S. - letters within envelopes, bank accounts, recorded church
LULAC filed a federal class action suit [Newman (LULAC) v. Reno] for
late amnesty applicants. In September of 1996, Congress passed
Section 377 of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant
Responsibility Act that purports to strip the federal courts of
jurisdiction to entertain claims relating to legalization under Section
245a of the INA unless the litigant attempted to present a
"complete" legalization application and fee to an INS
representative during the 1 year legalization -application period that
lasted from May 1987-May 1988. If Congress fails to
repeal Section 377, many late legalization applicants will not get
permanent residence through the late amnesty cases.
LULAC NEWS, May/June 2000
If you have relatives who are seeking legalization, you may be
able to help them.
WARTIME EXPERIENCES ARE BEING COLLECTED
During the next few years, the U.S. Army Military History Institute will be conducting a questionnaire project to collect wartime experiences of those who were involved in World War II and the Korean War.
In addition to battle accounts, the survey asks for memories on personal background, training experiences, logistics, transportation, medical information, combat actions, occupation duty, demobilization, and postwar experiences. Although the survey focuses on the Army ground forces, veterans of the Navy, Marine Corps, Army Air Corps, or Air Force can modify the form for their specific branch of military service and may also complete the questionnaire. Future researchers and historians will want to know about all aspects of the experiences of the men and women who served during World War II and the Korean War.
The U.S. Army Military History Institute, the Army's official repository for information (located at the historic Carlisle Barracks in Carlisle, PA), conducted a similar survey of Spanish-American War and World War I veterans, which are available to researchers. The Institute's goal is to preserve the history and traditions of the Army.
All veterans who return their questionnaire will receive an acknowledgement for helping to preserve the heritage of our military. Remember to keep a photocopy of the completed questionnaire for your family's records and/or to send a copy to your family historian to include in your family's history.
To obtain your copy of the World War II or Korean War Survey questionnaire for yourself or family members, contact the U.S. Army Military History Institute:
Source: Ancestry Daily News, 22 June 2000
Submitted by Johanna de Soto
FIRST GOVERNMENT EMAIL
Important new web site: www.firstgov.gov
Within 90 days, an important new web site should be online. The government is consolidating its 20,000 Web sites into a single Internet location. Whether you want military information, archival data, or census information, it will be available from one entry.
NARA FIRE BUG
The National Archives and Record Administration has been informed that the Federal Protection Service has arrested a NARA employee, Marlon M. Mason, charging him with arson in connection with a fire on April 5t, at the Washington National Record Center operated by NARA in Suitland, Maryland. A NARA employs the accused part-time as an archives aid. His worked for NARA since 1994. If such
The Family Tree, June/July 2000 stage
With Latinos now estimated to make up to nearly a third of the more of then 25 million theme park visitors in Southern California annually, Six Flags Magic Mountains wants to make sure it gets its share of this increasingly lucrative market. The arrangement calls for Los Angeles based Univision to create a as Latin festival that will tour eight Six Flags theme parks nationally. Univision to use it clout at United States largest Spanish-language broadcasters to attract stars of novelas and top network talents to tour series. While Univision commands an over-whelming 85% share of the Spanish-language television audience in the U.S., it reaches 92% of Latino teens.
Manny Flores, chief executive of Latin Works Marketing of Austin,Texas, said it makes sense that if four of the eight markets scheduled for the Univision tour are in a California and Texas, which are home to 55% of the nation's Latino population.
Los Angeles Times, 6-17-00
Times Warner, which is being bought by American Online Inc. is forming a unit to produce books just for the Internet. Analysts said electronic books haven't caught on yet, partly because there is a lack of material from well-known authors. They also say electronic text is difficult to read, something Microsoft is to trying to remedy with its software.
Los Angeles Times, 5-24-00
Politico - The Magazine for Latino Politics and Culture
V3-26, 6/17/00 www.politicomagazine.com
Latino leaders consider the issue of media diversity crucial. That's why National Council of La Raza started its Media Advocacy Project in the early 1990s, said NCLR spokeswoman Lisa Navarette, "One of our ongoing issues is Latinos in the media," she said. "There is concern about the negativity and invisibility."
Navarette said the ALMA June 17 Awards is a spin-off of the Media Advocacy Project. "We found if we wanted positive, accurate programming about our community, we had to do a couple of hours ourselves." So NCLR modeled its show after NAACP's Image Awards, which honors black entertainers, as well as the Oscars, Emmys and other televised award programs.
The ALMA awards, however, may have been slightly ahead of its time. The presence of Latinos working in the television industry is low and may actually be getting worse. Navarette estimates that the percentage of Latinos on television was about 3 percent in the early 1990s. But by the end of the decade it was about 1 or 2 percent, and close to none in leading roles.
The Screen Actor's Guild puts the Latino employment figure at 3.5 percent in 1999. This, even though Latinos are about 12 percent of our total population.
CompUSA was purchased by the Slim brothers of Mexico City who paid close to $800 million for it. If successful in turning the money-losing CompUSA around, the Slim empire will extend a three-decade reputation for reviving distressed retail businesses, and help reverse a dismal record by Mexican companies trying to break into US consumer markets. The 60 year-old father, now taking a back seat to his three sons, immigrated to Mexico with his Lebanese parents at the start of the last century. Patriarch Slim developed a knack for resuscitating ailing companies, stretching from a soft-drink bottling plant to the Sanborns restaurant chain and Sears stores in Mexico.
David E. Kalish, Associated Press via Daily Breeze, 5-30-00
Hollywood Filming in Mexican Towns
REAL DE CATORCE, Mexico (June 8) - This mountain town of stone houses and stunning views was once a bustling metropolis, a center of silver mining and a candidate for Mexico's capital. But when the mines closed, the people left. A town that had 48,000 people in 1910 was left with abandoned homes, empty streets - and only 40 people.
''If a dog went by on the street you looked. What else was there to look at?'' said Juan Aguayo, 40. Added Daniel Mendoza, 65: ''You could say a word and there wouldn't be anyone to hear it.'' Now townspeople see a new savior for Real de Catorce. And it's called Hollywood.
Brad Pitt and Julia Roberts have caused a sensation here during the filming of ''The Mexican,'' a DreamWorks production about a cursed pistol and the man sent down to Mexico to recover it. At least a third of Real de Catorce's 1,200 residents have been hired to build the set, guard the equipment or act as extras. Workers on the film have snapped up all the town's hotel rooms and spend big bucks on its restaurants. The presence of Pitt and Roberts has drawn thousands of tourists eager to catch a glimpse of their screen idols.
The crew also has installed a dozen phone lines (there was one), a cellular tower, new transformers for the electrical grid and pumps to reduce the chronic water shortages. Plus they built a couple of jungle gyms for local kids to play on. Most importantly, many townspeople believe the scenes from the movie will inspire more tourists to come see the breathtaking colonial town firsthand, and revive the local economy, now based almost entirely on pilgrims who come to the 18th-century church dedicated to St. Francis of Assisi.
''In the future we'll have a lot more tourism. People are going to try to come,'' said Aguayo, who has a small food stand and rents horses to tourists. His 10-year-old son is acting as an extra, earning 400 pesos ($42) for a 15-hour day.
The town generally is frequented more by backpackers than high-end tourists. Many come looking for peyote, the hallucinogenic cactus that grows in the surrounding desert and is used by the Huichol Indians in rituals.
But the signs of an impending tourist invasion are everywhere. Petra Puente, who along with her Swiss husband owns a hotel and restaurant in the center of town, said the movie crew has forced businesses to stay open later and offer better service.
''This really was a ghost town, but it's changing a lot,'' she said. ''Brad Pitt has come a lot to our restaurant. He wants guacamole, Mexican things. But the others want imported cuts of meat, gourmet food, so we've had to change.''
Advertisments for a cockfight are posted in Spanish and English:
''The Municipal Drinking Water Commission Invites You to a Sensational Tournament of Cocks. Bring Your Cocks There,'' the pink leaflets read.
Hippies from as far away as Argentina and Italy hawk silver jewelry and rolling paper on blankets on the cobblestone streets. Hotels post dollar conversion rates at their reception desks.
Thousands of fans have flocked to Real de Catorce from around Mexico to catch a glimpse of the stars, and the townspeople aren't immune to rubbernecking either.
People dash toward the newly built helipad everytime a chopper sets down, hoping Roberts or Pitt will emerge. Police barricade off the area around the house holding the makeup room, and hundreds of people crowd around hoping Pitt will wave as he crosses the street.
Pitt, who arrived in April, even inspired a fashion trend after he was spotted wearing an orange T-shirt for several days running. Suddenly, everything orange was the rage, according to the Mexican newspaper El Norte.
El Norte, based in the northern city of Monterrey, has stationed a reporter and a photographer in Real de Catorce for the duration of the shoot - a level of media coverage this decaying mining town has never seen. Journalists with other publications have been visiting regularly.
Hector Tavares, personal secretary to the mayor, said there was resistance at first to the idea of the movie coming to town, but that all reservations have since been dispelled.
''In the beginning the people didn't want it. But now they're grateful because they're working,'' he said. ''Because of the jobs, because of the water, the children's parks. And because more tourism will come.''
Not all townspeople are happy, however. Many complain that the crew shut down streets for filming and one day even closed the spectacular old mining tunnel that is the only way to get into town, other than a grueling ride on horseback over the tall mountains.
Pedro Espitia, a 65-year-old man with deep wrinkles and silver-capped teeth, said the crew is taking the town away from its residents. He claimed it isn't true that the movie is providing much work to townspeople.
''The movie makers brought in their own people, not many from here,'' he said. ''They just want tall, dark-skinned people.''
And many in town worry that when the crew packs up, it will leave little behind other than the jungle gyms.
''When they leave, we'll be right back where we started, with nothing,'' said Benito Tovar, 32, as he kept watch on a movie warehouse in an orange vest, playing a handheld video game. He makes 120 pesos ($12.60) for a 12-hour day.
Most residents won't even get to see the finished product. The nearest movie theater is in Matehuala, a two-hour bus ride away.
Submitted by Johanna de Soto
Monterrey, Nuevo León, México
For the towns or municipalities in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mira Smithwick highly recommends this site as an excellent reference point.
Exploring Colonial Mexico http://www.colonial-mexico.com
Richard D. Perry
US National Cemetery in Mexico City
On May 30th a Memorial Day Service was held at the Mexico City National Cemetery. Within the grounds is a US National Cemetery. The US National Cemetery was founded in 1851 to inter the remains and to perpetually honor the memory of the United States War Dead who fell in battle in and around Mexico City during the Mexican-American War.
The cemetery is presently maintained and operated by The American Battle Monuments, a United States Government agency. The cemetery is located at Virginia Fabregas #31, Colonia San Rafael, Mexico City. The United States Ambassador to Mexico, The Honorable Jeffrey Davidow, was the principal speaker.
Louis de Planque
I am working with Larry Jones, an Austin collector of rare 19th century images, on a book on the Rio Grande frontier during the era of Civil War and Reconstruction (1861-1872) that will feature the photographs of Louis de Planque. De Planque probably came to Mexico with the French Army and eventually set up studios in both Matamoros and Brownsville. The coffee-table book will be published by the Texas State Historical Association. Most of the images in the book will be from the collection of the Brownsville Historical Society, but I am hoping there are other de Planque photographs in other collections. De Planque photographed scenes in both Brownsville and Matamoros and some of the more prominent citizens on both sides of the river and the officers in both the Federal and Confederate armies, the Mexican Republican armies of Juarez, as well as the interventionists, especially the French.
If you have in your collection any de Planque images (or any taken by any photographer on the Rio Grande during the Civil War and Reconstruction) or know of the existence of any images in other collections, I would sincerely appreciate hearing from you.
Dr. Jerry Thompson, Dean, College of Arts & Humanities,
Forwarded by George Gause
A Cuban Exile
My name is John O'Donnell-Rosales. I am a Cuban exile. The history of my family did not begin in the United States when, fleeing the Communist regime in Cuba, we arrived here in 1971. We had been here before as explorers, colonists, missionaries, conquerors, and soldiers in war. The proximity of Cuba to and Mexico, and before that to the French and Spanish, settlements in the Gulf coast iof Florida made commerce, immigration, and intermarriage commonplace. Whole regiment of militia were stationed in what became the Gulf states. When Spain seated Florida to the young United States in 1819, an era came to an end though Hispanic influence continued first as Spanish, then Texas/Mexican influence in the Southwest until the Mexican war of 1846 -- 1848. The majority of the settlers stayed on to become, with the descendants of the French, the famous Creoles of today.
The links with Spain and her former colonies were not broken off. Ships from the Spanish colonies of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the new Central and South American states did brisk and steady business with New Orleans, Mobile, and Pensacola. This business across the border between United States and Mexico led a large number of these people to settle in the area, thus strengthening the retention of the Spanish language and Christian faith.
The war for Southern independence saw thousands of these men and their descendants flock to the Confederate cause.
Whole companies were raised of Spanish/Hispanic men. This history has been largely forgotten in this era of political correctness. The vogue term for us lately has been Latinos. I do not speak Latin or come from Latium.
I am Hispanic, of Spain by descendancy and speak Spanish proudly. I’m brown and proud of the racial admixture that runs in my veins. I know the history of our people and can talk down a real racist (Yes, there are some in the United States) because I know who I am. Hispanics can be of any race or religion. We run the spectrum from white to red, from yellow to black, or an admixture of these. We have fought in every war here in the United States, but it seems to have been forgotten by the history publishing companies when it comes to the war of Southern Independence.
The time has come to speak of these silent men who, like the Black Confederates, have been almost forgotten. History is the study of facts, regardless of who they bother or annoy. We can only learned from the past, if it is studied.
I've heard it said by real racists that Hispanics cannot assimilate, that we are not part of Western civilization, forgetting that Spain is in Europe.
The purveyors of hate and disunity on all spectrum of the color line are the real enemies of this country. I must honestly admit that, although I love United States, I have never felt American, but instead I feel Southern. I love the swamps of Louisiana, the Blue Ridge of Virginia, and the red soil of Alabama. The South will only rise again when whites, black, red, yellow, and brown realized that we have to live here together.
This land is our sacred birthright, each group having earned it by their blood and toil.
When my Confederate ancestor, Pvt. Kelvin ( Carlin) Rosales of Louisiana, heard the call to arms, he went. He was wounded many times and surrendered with the last Confederate units still active in June 1865. You see, my friends, my entry into the United States was paid a long time ago with my ancestor’s blood. The bravest sons of the South, of every color and tongue, went bravely to their duty. Their memories and sacrifices will be remembered as long as honest and truthful men walk the Southern soil.
Their spirits linger here; thus let the battle flags fly. Let them once again catch the wind. It is the least we can do for our valiant dead.
Preface to: Hispanic
Confederates, ©1997 John O'Donnell-Rosales, Clearfield Co.
The Puerto Rican Connection
Marguerite Collazo of Mission Viejo, California, is of Puerto Rican descent and publishes a bilingual newsletter called The Puerto Rican Connection. There are 135,000 Puerto Ricans in California, with groups in San Jose and San Diego, but no such groups in Orange County.
I was born and raised in Spanish Harlem, went to school with the Irish and the Italians, and didn't pay much attention to my Puerto Rican heritage. We were all just kids having fun together hanging around. When I was a senior in high school, my mother tells us to Puerto Rico to live. It was a real culture shock, but I didn't have a choice. Girls didn't wear pants are shorts, they didn't smoke, and the prom was fully Shaffer owned by parents. I went back to New York. In 1982 I came to California I attended the house of Puerto Rico a regional cultural and historical center (in San Diego). I became a sponge, wanting more information, looking for books, anything about Puerto Rico. It was hard. I couldn't find out much about our people or our contributions to the world or what was going on with Puerto Ricans worldwide.
So, I began in bilingual newsletter about the Puerto Rican culture, history, and traditions. It is not at all political, but I showcase Puerto Ricans who are making a difference. We feature articles on genealogy, history, a calendar of people and events, even recipes and sometimes a Cross were puzzled in Spanish and English. We are connecting to Puerto Ricans around the world. We are developing a web site. This will make it so much easier for people on the West Coast to get in touch with their homeland. I have met Admiral Horacio Ribero, who is the first Puerto Rican four-star admiral in United States Navy. Dr. Alberto Diaz Jr. is a platter read and who is commander of San Diego's naval medical Center. I want people to have role models for their children and grandchildren, I don't want the culture to die.
Marguerite Collazo's email is firstname.lastname@example.org. She welcomes those who would like more information. She says the knowledge and pleasure she has gained in studying her heritage has helped her grow and understand her place in the world.
Orange County Register, 6-5-00 As told to Lois Evezich
PUERTO RICAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO AMERICAN LIFE
by John P. Schmal
The destiny of the Puerto Rican people became inexorably linked to that of the American people in April 1898 when the United States declared war on Spain. On July 25th of that year, 3,400 American troops commanded by General Nelson A. Miles landed at Guanica in Puerto Rico, not far from where Columbus had landed in 1493. With the raising of the American flag in San Juan on October 18, 1898, Puerto Rico, in effect, became a territory of the United States.
From the beginning, the Puerto Rican people felt a need to participate in their own defense. On March 2, 1899, the Puerto Rico Regiment of Volunteer Infantry was organized. One battalion was stationed in San Juan while a second one stood guard at Henry Barracks. This unit would eventually become known and respected as the Puerto Rican 65th Infantry Regiment. In 1917, just as America prepared to go to war against Germany, the Jones Act granted citizenship to the people of this island.
Not long after, Antonio R. Barcelo, the first President of the Puerto Rican Senate, asked President Woodrow Wilson to apply the military draft to the new American citizens iin Puerto Rico. As a result, 18,000 Puerto Ricans enlisted or were drafted into the army. Segregated from the rest of the American armed forces, the 65th Infantry was sent to guard the Panama Canal Zone.
From 1940 to 1946, more than 65,000 Puerto Ricans served in the American military. 23,000 of these men had volunteered for service, and nearly all of the 65th was sent overseas during World War II. The 295th and 296th Infantry Regiments of the Puerto Rican National Guard participated in the Pacific theater, while other Puerto Rican soldiers served in Europe. In addition, 200 Puerto Rican women served in the Women's Army Corps, where some were used as linguists in the field of cryptology, communication, and interpretation.
The Korean War (1950-1953) provided the Puerto Rican people with an opportunity to show their patriotism and combat skill. During this war, 43,343 Puerto Ricans served in the 65th Infantry Regiment and played a role in nine major campaigns, losing 582 men in battlefield action. Fernando Luis Garcia became the first Puerto Rican recipient of the Congressional Medal of Honor when he sacrificed his life for his fellow soldiers, jumping on a hand grenade and absorbing the blast.
Because of their courageous efforts in Korea, the 65th Infantry received a Presidential Unit Citation, a Meritorious Unit Commendation, and two Republic of Korea Unit Citations. Individual members of the unit received four Distinguished Service crosses and 124 Silver Stars. Of his experience as commander of the 65th Infantry Regiment, General William W. Harris wrote: "No ethnic group has greater pride in itself and its heritage than the Puerto Rican people. Nor have I encountered any that can be more dedicated and zealous in support of the democratic principles for which the United States stands. Many Puerto Ricans have fought to the death to uphold them."
During the Vietnam Conflict 1963-1973), approximately 80,000 Hispanic Americans served in the American military. By this time, Puerto Rican soldiers were no longer segregated from the rest of the armed forces. During this conflict, three Puerto Ricans were awarded the Medal of Honor in recognition of their heroism. In 1967, Private First Class Carlos James Lozada of the 2nd Battalion, 502nd Infantry, distinguished himself while serving as a machine gunner with the 1st Platoon Company in Vietnam. Private Lozada was mortally wounded while providing machine gun cover for his battalion.
In 1966, Captain Euripides Rubio of the 1st Battalion, 28ith Infantry, assumed command of a rifle company that was under attack from a numerically superior enemy force. Disregarding his own multiple wounds, Captain Rubio distributed ammunition and aided in the evacuation of his men. Under fire from the enemy, Rubio succeeded in strategically placing a smoke grenade (used by bomber pilots to locate enemy positions) behind enemy lines. As a result, American pilots were able to locate and bomb the enemy positions.
In 1968, Specialist Fourth Class, Hector Santiago-Colon of 5th Battalion, 7th Cavalry, distinguished himself at the cost of his life while serving as a gunner. In the past hundred years, Puerto Rico has contributed at least 197,100 of its sons and daughters as combatants in the armed forces of the United States. In that time, 6,200 have been wounded, and 1,225 have died while serving their country.
Department of Defense. Hispanics in America's Defense. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Printing Office, 1990.
Harris, William Warner. Puerto Rico's Fighting 65th Infantry: From San Juan to Chorwau. San Rafael, California, 1980.
Puerto Rico Herald, "A Tribute to Puerto Rican Veterans," Puerto Rico Herald, November 11, 1999. Online, 2 pages.
Schmal, John P. "Hispanic Contributions to America's Defense," Puerto Rico Herald, November 11, 1999. Online, 4 pages.
In an effort to preserve the famed Inca Trail to the Machu Picchu ruins, Peru has limited the growing number of hikers on the route to 500 a day. The 30-mile path is dotted with the remnants of Inca culture as it winds through the jungle-cloaked Andes to Machu Picchu, situated atop a craggy peak about 310 miles southeast of the capital, Lima.
Los Angeles Times, 5-11-00
Virtual Gallery on Internet
Smithsonian Center for Latino Initiatives in partnership with the Special Collections Department, University of Texas in El Paso opened its Latino Virtual Gallery on Internet:
Loquesea.com is a new web site going after Spanish-speaking, under 30 MTV crowd. The company has nurtured a defiant, cutting-edge attitude that is reflected in its name, which translates from Spanish as "whatever.com." The pan-regional Internet company is one of the first to focus on Latin American youth ages 15-19, a coveted demographic. The company’s portals, which get a million page viewers a day, dish out unabashed talk about sex, drugs, music and fashion in irreverent, street-wise language.
Two Spanish-language regional portals target youth in Argentina and Mexico, while a third aims at the rest of Latin America. A Portuguese-language portal recently opened in Brazil, and a "Spanglish" site for U.S. Hispanics.
San Diego Union-Tribune, 6-10-00
ANTONIANA MARGARITA BY GOMEZ PEREIRA (1500-2000)
As part of the 5th Centenary celebration of Gomez Pereira, the Santiago de Compostela University Press just finished the bilingual edition (Latin-Spanish)
of an exceedingly scarce book. It has been estimated that only thirty copies remain from two previous editions of 1554 and 1647. They are kept at the rare book section of a few libraries.
Gomez Pereira said that Antoniana Margarita was the work of thirty years of his life. Pereira was a physician and philosopher of the University of Salamanca, who lived in his home town of Medina del Campo. He was well reputed and the King called him on consultation to see his son Prince Charles.
Antoniana Margarita is well known in Europe. A great number of authors found great similarities between Pereira’ theories and those of Descartes, who claimed he never read the book by the Spanish Physician. It is almost completely unknown in the USA. Only five references about this work has been found in the English Language.
The main purpose of his writings was to define animals are irrational beings and that the soul of man is immortal. Pereira proposed:
Ø" I know that I know something, everything one knows is, therefore I am ", which one century latter became: the well known enthymeme:
Ø" I think, therefore I am".
In Antoniana Margarita and in his second book "Truly New Medicine" (1558, 1647) Pereira laid the basis of the Scientific Method. He states:
Ø"The only reason to write this book has been the search for the truth."
Ø "Nothing should be accepted without the experimental confirmation of the facts"
Ø " "The only impulse I had to write was the search for the truth." Pereira followed with the statement "Nothing should be accepted in science without the experimental confirmation of the facts. I began to question medical and philosophical opinions that were accepted as truth. I tested them with my experience and proved these opinions to be false; whereas, my theories confirmed first by reason and after by success, became part of my thought. Ø Not dealing with religious matters. The only authority is the experimental one. I would not budge before any philosopher if this is not based on reason."
Ø "The importance of experience is so great trying to discover the truth, that when reason apparently is contradicted by experience , we ought to trust more in experiments than in reason."
As a precursor of the Scientific Method, Pereira deserves the laurel wrath. The Scientific Method was adopted by the US Supreme Court as standard in the Federal trials.
According to a very well known Spanish Historian of Medicine,
Anastasio Chinchilla,(1840), "Pereira is "the physician that greatest honor and glory had given to Spain" Guardia wrote in French in 1889: "Pereira is the most important Spanish Philosopher and Spain has done nothing to divulge his memory."
The second book is a medical treaty dedicated to fever. Its importance lays in the fact that for the first time a physician dared to challenge Galen teachings that were dogma for one thousand years. Pereira opens with this publication the Renaissance o Medicine. The book is to be translated from Latin and published.
Antoniana Margarita can be obtained from: <email@example.com> or by Internet, filling the form at <http://filosofia.org/bol/not/bn008.htm>
Saluting British Airlines
As we know, we see discrimination in some form or another almost everyday and often times it leaves a sour taste in our mouths.
The following story shows us the side of diversity that we are all working for. It is a pleasant twist to see that there are companies and individuals who face discrimination head on, if only one small step at a time. Enjoy reading the positive side of diversity...I applaud British Airways for their action in this situation.
On a British Airways flight from Johannesburg, a middle-aged, well-off white South African Lady has found herself sitting next to a black man. She called the cabin crew attendant over to complain about her seating.
"What seems to be the problem Madam?" asked the attendant.
"Can't you see?" she said "You've sat me next to a kaffir. I can't possibly sit next to this disgusting human. Find me another seat!"
"Please calm down Madam", the stewardess replied. "The flight is very full today, but I'll tell you what I'll do - I'll go and check to see if we have any seats available in club or first class."
The woman cocks a snooty look at the outraged black man beside her (not to mention many of the surrounding passengers).
A few minutes later the stewardess returns with good news, which she delivers to the lady, who cannot help but look at the people around her with a smug and self satisfied grin:
"Madam, unfortunately, as I suspected, economy is full. I've spoken to the cabin services director, and club is also full. However, we do have one seat in first class."
Before the lady has a chance to answer, the stewardess continues...
"It is most extraordinary to make this kind of upgrade, however, and I have had to get special permission from the captain. But, given the circumstances, the captain felt that it was outrageous that someone be forced to sit next to such an obnoxious person." With which, she turned to the black man sitting next to the woman, and said: "So if you'd like to get your things, sir, I have your seat ready for you..."
At which point, the surrounding passengers stood and gave a standing ovation while the black guy walks up to the front of the plane.
Submitted by George Gause
In a Tokyo Hotel: Is forbidden to steal hotel towels please. If you are not a person to do such thing is please not to read notis.
In a Bucharest hotel lobby: The lift is being fixed for the next day. During that time we regret that you will be unbearable.
In a Leipzig elevator: Do not enter the lift backwards, and only when lit up.
In a Belgrade hotel elevator: To move the cabin, push button for wishing floor. If the cabin should enter more persons, each one should press a number of wishing floor. Diving is then going alphabetically by national order.
In a Paris hotel elevator: Please leave your values at the front desk.
In a hotel in Athens: Visitors are expected to complain at the office between the hours of 9 and 11 A.M. daily.
In a Yugoslavian hotel: The flattening of underwear with pleasure is the job of the chambermaid.
In a Japanese hotel: You are invited to take advantage of the chambermaid.
In the lobby of a Moscow hotel across from a Russian Orthodox monastery: You are welcome to visit the cemetery where famous Russian and Soviet composers, artists, and writers are buried daily except Thursday.
In an Austrian hotel catering to skiers: Not to perambulate the corridors in the hours of repose in the boots of ascension.
On the menu of a Swiss restaurant: Our wines leave you nothing to hope for.
On the menu of a Polish hotel: Salad a firm's own make; limpid red beet soup with cheesy dumplings in the form of a finger; roasted duck let loose; beef rashers beaten up in the country people's fashion.
In a Bangkok dry cleaner's: Drop your trousers here for best results.
Outside a Paris dress shop: Dresses
for street walking.
a Rhodes tailor shop: Order your summers suit. Because is big rush
we will execute customers in strict rotation.
A sign posted in Germany's Black forest: It is strictly forbidden on our black forest camping site that people of different sex, for instance, men and women, live together in one tent unless they are married with each other for that purpose.
In a Zurich hotel: Because of the impropriety of entertaining guests of the opposite sex in the bedroom, it is suggested that the lobby be used for this purpose.
In an advertisement by a Hong Kong dentist: Teeth extracted by the latest Methodists.
In a Rome laundry: Ladies, leave your clothes here and spend the afternoon having a good time.
In a Czechoslovakian tourist agency: Take one of our horse-driven city tours - we guarantee no miscarriages.
Advertisement for donkey rides in Thailand: Would you like to ride on your own ass?
In a Swiss mountain inn: Special today -- no ice cream.
In a Bangkok temple: It is forbidden to enter a woman even a foreigner if dressed as a man.
In a Tokyo bar: Special cocktails for the ladies with nuts.
In a Copenhagen airline ticket office: We take your bags and send them in all directions.
On the door of a Moscow hotel room: If this is your first visit to the USSR, you are welcome to it.
In a Norwegian cocktail lounge: Ladies are requested not to have children in the bar.
In a Budapest zoo: Please do not feed the animals. If you have any suitable food, give it to the guard on duty.
In the office of a Roman doctor: Specialist in women and other diseases.
In an Acapulco hotel: The manager has personally passed all the water served here.
Outside a Hong Kong tailor shop: Ladies may have a fit upstairs.
From a Japanese information
booklet about using a hotel air conditioner:
From a brochure of a car rental firm in Tokyo: When passenger of foot heave in sight, tootle the horn. Trumpet him melodiously at first, but if he still obstacles your passage then tootle him with vigor.
Nuestra Fiesta Patria: el Cuatro de Julio
"We remind those, who claim any Hispanic parentage, that they may be related to persons, who helped our Great Nation gain its Independence. "Spain supported the American Colonies' drive for Independence all along. It became a declared belligerent against England on June 21, 1779.
"King Carlos III urged soldiers and sailors to attack any English, who might be within their reach in California, including the English Captain James Cook. Captain Bernardo de Galvez of Spanish Louisiana captured West and East Florida. He also attacked English strong points along the Mississippi. "Spain continued war operations against English until peace was declared September 4, 1783.
Que viva el Cuatro de Julio!"
Spanish American Patriots
The Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research (SHHAR) has actively promoted this awareness. During the history of the distribution of Somos Primos as a quarterly, (1990-fall 1999) Dr. Pat Moseley Stanford, California State Librarian of the Daughters of the American Revolution, requested and received Somos Primos. In support of their interest, copies of Somos Primos were sent to Sacramento.
In 1988, a series of booklets were
prepared on the minority military service between 1775-1783; however the
minorities in the following states were primarily blacks and
Leadership within the California DAR lead the way in researching the contributions of the Spanish to the American Revolution. Dr. Mildred Murry headed the National DAR California Mission project, researching the Spanish contributions to the California missions, meant for the Revolutionary War. Her research is being produced as a CD.
Dr. Granville Hough, retired military, a university professor and a Son of the American Revolution has devoted his research to the Spanish soldiers serving between 1779-1783. The SAR had determined that Spanish soldiers serving in the Spanish military during that time period had a right to be considered Sons of the American Revolution.
Dr. Hough and his daughter, N.C. Hough have produced books to help Hispanics find their Spanish soldier ancestors who served during that time. Even if you are not interested in joining the SAR, these books are major contribution to southwest Hispanic researchers. If you have early lines in the following states, you are strongly urged to get a copy to facilitate your research. Dr. Hough has just completed the Texas work. Still to be prepared are manuals for Louisiana and Florida.
Government agencies and Special interest Organizations for Military Research
THE PLACE TO START: Everything from the Dept of Defense: http://www.cooklib.org/mildef.html
ARCHIVES- ORDER FORMS: To receive Military Records http://www.erols.com/jreb/genelogy.html
MILITARY PERSONNEL RECORD CENTER: Trying to order personal information on a military person or a civilian involved with the military? Try here: http://www.nara.gov/regional/stlouis.html
THE ALAMO: The battle that changed the history of the west. http://numedia.tddc.net/sa/alamo/
VETERANS OF ALL WARS: Military Information sites http://members.aol.com/veterans/warlib6.htm
REVOLUTIONARY WAR: Search records also. http://www.rootsweb.com/~ars/index.htm
WORLD WAR I: Served during WWI, this is the place to go. http://www.fylde.demon.co.uk/welcome.htm
MEXICAN WAR: Veterans listed! http://member.aol.com/dmwv/home.htm
MEXICAN WAR page: http://sunsite.unam.mx/revistas/1847/Summa.html Also an Article " Proving Ground for the Civil War" http://www.thehistorynet.com/CivilWarTimes/articles/0496_text.htm
MEXICAN-AMERICAN WAR: Causes: http://www.azteca.net/aztec/war/Mexican-American-War.html
INDIAN WARS: The Home Page of the Indian Wars http://www.delta.edu/~anburke/amlit/revevents.html
INDIAN WARS: Reenactments of the Indian Wars: http://www.wf.net/~adixon/SCASRLHI/indian.htm
SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR: American History - Wars: A detailed account of the Spanish-American War: http://www.studyweb.com/his/american/amwar4.htm
ARLINGTON MEMORIAL CEMETERY: http://portia.advanced.org/2901/home.htm
COLONIAL WARS: Center for Military History -Colonial Wars Bibliography and Extract from "American Military History" http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/online/colon.htm
LINKS FOR WWII: Telling your Father's WW2 Story: http://members.aol.com/dadswar/index.htm#milsites
SHIP CROSSING INFORMATION: Ships during WW2: http://members.aol.com/troopship/index.htm
THE ARMY'S HOME PAGE:. Search a full list of Medal Of Honor winners from the Civil War through now. Read about the Army Nurse Corp plus lots of other information. http://imabbs.army.mil/cmh-pg/
CHRONOLOGY OF WWI: http://www.earth.nwu.edu/people/tom/wwi.chron.html
WAR 1812: Jo Thiessen maintains a site where you can search for vets of the war of 1812 and list your own. http://www.rootsweb.com/~kyharris/1812vets.htm
CONFEDERATE ELECTRIC CARD INDEX: Actual scanned images of the Confederate Roster cards. It's horribly slow to load, but is well worth the search. http://image.vtls.com/collections/CF.html
THE CIVIL WAR HOMEPAGE http://www.access.digex.net/~bdboyle/cw.html and another site titled "The Civil War Homepage" http://sunsite.utk.edu/civil-war/warweb.html
CIVIL WAR HELPFUL HINTS FOR RESEARCH: Links and lots of tips on how to research a Civil War Ancestor http://www.ristenbatt.com/genealogy/civilwar.htm
LA STATE U CIVIL WAR PAGE This page has "by their count" over 2,100 links to Civil War sites plus a great article on how to research your Civil War Ancestor http://www.cwc.lsu.edu/
KEN JONE'S CIVIL WAR PAGE: Alabama and Texas records are featured, but he has links to the Regimental or Unit Histories for ALL STATES. http://www.tarleton.edu/~kjones/
CIVIL WAR INDEX PAGE: This site is being updated everyday with new information on civil war rosters of both confederate and union soldiers. If you had an ancestor serve in the civil war visit this page and add your information. http://www.insolwwb.net/~egerdes/ Another great site is the American Civil War Home Page http://sunsite.utk.edu/civil-war/
CIVIL WAR CEMETERIES: Cemeteries records: http://www.cwc.lsu.edu/cgi-bin/cemetery.search
SOLDIERS & SAILORS IN THE CIVIL WAR - Both Black and White: This site is transcribing the basic information found in the National Archives on both Union and Confederate Soldiers & Sailors. It contains a list of over 23,000 names of Colored troops. It's being updated all the time; you will want to bookmark it and keep going back. http://www.itd.nps.gov/cwss/
INDEX TO THE CIVIL WAR ON THE INTERNET: Anything and everything to do with the Civil War, books, poems, flags, medals, clothing, battles - http://www.cwc.lsu.edu/civlink.htm
For information: (714) 894-8161 firstname.lastname@example.org http://members.aol.com/shhar
Black Indian Genealogy Research
It is known that many Africans intermarried with Native Americans. Less widely known is the fact that many Native Americans also owned Africans slaves, and fathered children with Africans slave women. As a result, thousands of Americans have black and Indian ancestry. This pages dedicated to the Freedman and of Indian Territory -- now Oklahoma, who were the former slaves and free persons of color in the five Civilized Tribes. Within these nations -- the Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, and Seminoles Nations, genealogists will find thousands of records documenting the history of those African people living within the Indian nations. More than 20,000 Africans were adopted into these nations at the end of the 19th century. Furthermore, several census counts were taken between 1866 and 1907, specifically of the persons of color in Indian Territory. Join the journey of researching the history of these African people, and explore a unique part of the African Diaspora, through the history of the Africans of Indian Territory.
Black Indian Slave Narratives
Is significant to know that the Freedman of Indian Territory were a unique people with a unique lifestyle and culture. Most of the Freedman were bilingual, although many spook little or no English and only the language of their Indian slaves masters. The Oklahoma Slaves Narratives contain many references to their culture and style, illustrating how immersed they were in the native way of life.
The principal leaders were mixed blood and so were the majority of persons who owned slaves. There were close associations with full bloods in many of the nations. This was especially the case in the Creek and Seminoles nations, and to lesser degree in the Cherokee Nation. The Choctaw and Chickasaw had few associations with their slaves in terms of forming lasting personal relationships. However many Choctaw man did father children by African slave women. The Choctaw Freedman and Chickasaw Freedman, did, nevertheless, speak the language with fluency, and prepared foods, and practice the same customs.
For glimpses into their lives, The Slaves Narratives of the give a personal account of their lives in Indian nations. These narratives are part of the WPA Slave Narratives taken in the 1930s. Many of the Freedmen narratives were not published in the first series. In 1996 the University of Oklahoma press, re-issued the slave narratives in the book, Oklahoma WPA Slave Narratives. Included among the dozens of narratives, were 29 narratives of the Estelusti.
WAR I DRAFT REGISTRATIONS AT ROOTSWEB
Rootsweb in a storehouse of varied
files of information. Excellent possible resource is their World War I
Draft Registration information. In early 1917, the United States
declared war on Germany. In the first months of the American
participation in World War I, enthusiasm was strong but volunteer
enlistment into the army was modest. Consequently, a draft was
instituted to bring in the needed number of men. On three designated
registration days in 1917 and 1918, approximately 24-million civilian
men born between 1872 and 1900 provided information for draft
registration cards. More than 80% of these civilians received exemptions
or deferrals, and they were thus never called for military service.
Human Genome Project
The publicly financed human genome project has already cost about $300 million and officials say it is a bout 90 percent complete. About 50,000 genes have been identified and there may be several thousand more to find. Computers reading DNA are sending more than 10,000 sequences an hour into a public data bank.
Genes do their work - directing the formation and functioning of cells - by causing proteins to be made. Dr. Francis Collins, head of the Human Genome Research Institute, agreed that a complete understanding of proteins produced by the genes may take 100 years, saying "Where we may have 50,000 genes, we may have as many as a million proteins to keep track of."
Orange County Register, 6-24-00
COURTESY AND ETIQUETTE ONLINE = COMMON SENSE
could you please put an article in Somos on Internet Etiquette? I know you did before, I can't remember what you covered in the blurb, but members just aren't using their noodles. You must have received the email from XXXXXXXXX as well. Well it created a disastrous domino effect, i.e., his letter created a major printout before you get to the question he had; then whoever responded to his query, created the same monster 5x - so I used almost a ream of paper just to find out that he is researching in an an area I don't work in and can't help him. Drove me crazy! Use this copy as you wish, please elaborate or change any way you wish.
-- First of all, it is an abuse of a resource. Our names are not on this list to be used for Mass Mailings . . . it's as annoying as telemarketing. These names are not private, but please realize it's still <B>junk mail</B> that we have to open, print out, read, remove, or file - and that all takes time! So you have wasted the time of hundreds of people, to make your search easier. We're all available to help, but the world is getting too big, and SHHAR is getting too big and if everyone sends their queries to the entire list of SHHAR, we would all spend have our lives opening up mail.
-- Not all members are researching your area of interest, and could care less.
-- This is also how Computer Viruses multiply, attaching to all the email addresses you placed in your email query.
2. Please don't address an entire mailing list "TO".
-- When you use "TO" . . . Guess what? When you print out message, the entire list prints out, so 20 pages later here comes the two line message. Then the next guy that "Responds" to your message creates a CHAIN LETTER MONSTER; and his message prints out 20 pages of useless mailing list addresses, etc, etc.
-- Use "BCC" Blind Carbon Copy to send
3. Use a pertinent title for subject, so email can either be tossed or filed and easily found later.
Do your homework first. Learn the standard tools from the help area of your service provider, regarding the Carbon Copy and Blind Carbon Copies.
Humor: Which Military Service is the Best?
Walter L. Herbeck
A Soldier, a Sailor, an Airman, and a Marine, got into an argument about which service is "The Best." The arguing became so heated that they eventually ended up killing each other. Soon, they found themselves at the Pearly Gates of Heaven. So, they met St. Peter and decided that only he could be the ultimate source of truth and honesty so they asked him: "St. Peter, which branch of the American Armed Forces is the best?" St. Peter instantly replies: "I can't answer that. But, I will ask God what he thinks the next time I see Him."
Some time later the four servicemen see St. Peter and remind him of the question and ask if he was able to find the answer. Suddenly, a sparkling white dove lands on St. Peter's shoulder. In the dove's beak is a note glistening with gold dust. St. Peter says to the our men, "Your answer from the Boss. Let's see what he says." St. Peter opens the note, trumpets blare, gold dust drifts into the air, harps play crescendos and St. Peter begins to read it aloud to the four young servicemen:
MEMORANDUM FOR SOLDIERS, SAILORS, MARINES, AND AIRMEN
SUBJECT: Which Military Service is the Best
Gentlemen, all branches of the United States' Armed Services are "Honorable and Noble." Each serves your country well and with distinction. Being a member of the American Armed Forces represents a special calling warranting special respect, tribute, and dedication. Be proud of that.
GOD, USAF (Ret.)