JUNE 2017 
Editor: Mimi Lozano, © 2000-2017


Table of Contents

United States
Spanish Presence in the Americas' Roots
Heritage Projects

Historic Tidbits
Hispanic Leaders
American  Patriots

Books and Print Media
Family History
Orange County, CA
Los Angeles County, CA
Northwestern US
Southwestern US
Middle America
East Coast
Caribbean Region 
Central & South America

Somos Primos Advisors
Mimi Lozano, Editor
Mercy Bautista Olvera
Roberto Calderon, Ph,D.
Bill Carmena
Lila Guzman, Ph.D
John Inclan
Galal Kernahan
Juan Marinez
J.V. Martinez, Ph.D
Dorinda Moreno
Rafael Ojeda
Ángel Custodio Rebollo
Tony Santiago
John P. Schmal

Submitters/attributed to:  
Ruben Alvarez
Ben Alvillar
Larry P. Arnn, Ph.D. 
Cynthia Becht
Salomon Baldenegro
Kevin Cabrera
Michael Calderin
Eddie Calderon, Ph.D.

Angel Cervantes
John Chess 
José Antonio Crespo-Francés 
Dr. Carlos Campos y Escalante
Arturo Cuellar Gonzalez
Arnoldo DeLeon
Charlette Devaul
Yvonne Duncan Gonzalez
Wendy Fawthrop
Gary L. Foreman
Mauricio Javier Gonzalez
Dave Gutierrez
Odell Harwell 
Dr. Ann Harvey 
Sarah Heras
Walter Centeno Herbeck,Jr.

Silvia Ichar 
John Inclan
Arturo Jacobs
Lucas Jasso
Miguez Juarez

Linda LaRoche 
Joe Antonio López 
Josepha Lopez 
Alfred Lugo  

Jerry Javier Lujan
Juan Marinez
Lupe Martinez
Jerry Medina
Elsa Mendez Pena
Dorinda Moreno
Ricardo R. Palmerìn Cordero
Diana J. Noble
Maria Angeles O'Donnel Olson
Daniel A. Olivas
Francisca Ortaz
Felipe de Ortego y Gasca, Ph.D.
Dr. Ramona Ortego-Liston
Ray Padilla
Rudy Padilla
David Parra
Leonard S. Pelullo
Richard Perry
Gilberto Quezada 
Albert Monreal Quihuis
Oscar Ramirez, Ph.D. 
Richard M. Ramirez, Ed.D  

Frances Rios 
Erasmo "Doc" Riojas
Refugio Rochin, Ph.D. 

Letty Rodella
Dave Rodriguez
Richard M. Rodriguez
Tom Saenz
Armando F Sanchez  
Benicio Samuel Sánchez García
Gema Sandoval
Albert Seguin Gonzales
Sister Mary Sevilla, CSJ
Dr. Richard Shortlidge
Robert Smith
Jerry Thompson, Ph.D.
Jose Fernando Tobón
Dr. Eliseo "Cheo" Torres 
Charley Trujillo
Minnie Wilson
Kirk Whisler 
John Valadez
Teresa Valcarce
Val Valdez Gibbons
Martha Vallejo-McGettigan 
Armando Vazquez-Ramos
Yomar Villarreal Cleary


Letters to the Editor

Hi Mimi!

I was over-joyed to read the short article about "Los San Patricios."  I am a direct descendant of my great grandfather Anthony Mondac known as Antonio in Mexico. He was a gabacho who supposedly came from Ireland with "Los San Patricios" but his surname is not Irish.  I suppose he liked to fight thus may have been categorized as a soldier of fortune. He married my great grandmother Estefania Torres. and they gave birth to three girls Josefina, Rosario and Laura  He did not return from one of the revolutionary battles thus leaving a relatively young widow to care for the children. The family never had word of his demise. My great grandmother passed-on leaving the three young girls to be reared by their tio Manuel Cota and his wife Eustolia "Tola" Valderama, ranchers in Northern Mexico. 
I am a direct descendant of my grandmother Josefina.
Oscar Ramirez, Ph.D.  

Thank you Mimi for empowering all of us with your detailed information.
Many thanks Mimi!
Silvia Ichar 



Mimi, thanks for the note.  Indeed, there Is so much to the story that is typically ignored (forgotten) in mainstream U.S. history.  Let's hope that present and next generations of Spanish Mexican-descent U.S. citizens will grow up knowing that justice and freedom don't come easily.  Successes we enjoy today throughout the Southwest rest on struggles, such as Méndez vs. Westminster School District. 

Saludos, Joe López 
Thank you Mimi

Lupe Martinez
President /CEO
2701 S. Chase Ave.
Milwaukee, WI  53207
414-489-0216 Fax


Somos Primos is a national Hispanic online monthly magazine.  It started as a genealogical newsletter from ladies from the LA area with roots in West Texas.  Mimi Lozano, the editor/publisher has roots in Ft. Davis.  The magazine has evolved into an important repository of the Chicano/Mexican American experience in the US.  Its contents offer a  wealth of information for researchers, present, and future.  I have made some contributions which have been published.  You may find articles which might interest you in as well as a place where you can share some of your work with others.  

You will find Mimi Lozano very approachable and great to work with.  Enjoy!  
Jerry  jerry_javier_lujan@hotmail.com  


Hi, Mimi, a former Anaheim, CA LULAC member, Alex Maldonado, attended the "Mexican" school in Westminster.  Alex is 93,  could recount vividly going to school next  to the  electric fence and the cow pasture, having hand-me-down books with missing pages and no school materials.  He has said that when they graduated from school, they were "dumb as rocks", and couldn't possibly compete at the Junior High School level.
Thank you again for your wonderful contributions to our Mexican American history.
Charlette Devaul
   I am thrilled with all the information you so generously and beautifully included and displayed about Diana's novel, Evagelina Takes Flight, and about her grandmother's (my mother's) bio, originally written by my brother, David, in the May issue of Somos Primos.  I thank you for your kindness and support.  I also thank Joe López and Chema Peña for suggesting I contact you several weeks ago and for providing your contact information.
   The whole May issue of Somos Primos is great, and several of the other books described seem to be pretty interesting also - worth exploring further.
   Again, many, many thanks for your kindness and support.  
   Arturo Jacobs  arturoaj@aol.com

Mimi, a heartfelt thank you from me too!  The Somos Primos newsletter and website are chock full of information!  If there is a mailing list, I'd appreciate being added so I can keep up with all Somos Primos has to offer.

Warm regards,  Diana J. Noble
Washington, WA 98026

Hello Mimi,
I absolutely love all the diversity that you put into the latest issue of Somos Primos. It's apparent how much work you've devoted to it and the smorgasbord of information is superb, good job!

Linda LaRoche 

Dear Mimi,
Thank you for including some of my contributions in the current issue of Somos Primos.  Did you know that the Austrian emperors descend from the Spanish Catholic kings through their grand child Ferdinand, the brother of Carlos I de España y V de Alemania?
Greetings from Vienna.
Dr. Carlos Campos y Escalante 

Westminster,  CA 

Quotes of Thoughts to Consider 
Being grounded in the past allows us to fully enjoy the present.  ~ Oscar Ramirez, Ph.D.
As an educator and author, I feel that if I made a difference in the life of one student, then all my efforts were worthwhile and were not in vain.   ~  Gilberto Quezada  < Click for his life/career highlights




With Gratitude on Memorial Day by Gilberto Quezada 
The Challenge Coin sent by Erasmo "Doc" Riojos
Remembering Our Past and Those Who Shaped It by Felipe de Ortego y Gasca
Jovita Carranza appointed by President Trump as 44th treasurer of the United States
LULAC Congratulates Jovita Carranza for her Nomination as U.S. Treasurer
Rotary lunch honoring students serves up hope
by Steve Lopez
America's Hispanics Emerging as a Force in Philanthropy by Sarah Murray
2017 LULAC National Convention & Exposition July 4-8  San Antonio, Texas
2017 NCLR National Council of La Raza, Annual Conference July 8-11 Phoenix, AZ 
Latino Media Market 
The FBI released 27 new photos of the Pentagon on 9/11
United States Constitution, free online course
America's 11 Most Endangered Historic Places
Joe López:  Copper and Tin Equals Bronze  
Marijuana May Boost, Rather Than Dull, the Elderly Brain

The Hispanic Legacy in the United States, words of Dr. Refugio I. Rochin

With Gratitude on Memorial Day 
by Gilberto Quezada 

When we were growing up in the barrio El Azteca during the 1950s, my older brother and I asked Mamá for permission to play with the grenades outside with the rest of the neighborhood kids. We tossed the grenades all over the place as we played soldiers.  It was not until my parents moved to San Antonio and later in the 1980s when I called the bomb squad from the San Antonio Police Department to check the grenades.  I was informed that the grenades were "live and dangerous." And they took them away in a special container. 

Luckily, when we played with them, we never took the lynch pin off. We could have blown the whole barrio into smithereens.  Our guardian angels were looking after us.  In honor of all the veterans on this special day, and especially my dad and my older brother, I proudly salute you. 



On bended knees and cross my heart, I offer my most profound gratitude and appreciation to all who served our country, living and deceased. My heartfelt warmest thankfulness go to all of you and may God bless you. My dad, who served in World War II in the U.S. Navy and saw action in Guam, left me some mementos that he brought back from the Pacific theater.  Among the items are a Japanese helmet with an inscription on the inside and a bullet hole on the right side, some Japanese grenades, a Japanese canteen, and some bullets and the bottom shells
of bombs.

Gilberto Quezada 


============================= ===========================================
================================== ==================================

Watch this short video and think back over the years.  This is an incredibly great video.  It humbles you down to your toes. It is a fine tribute.

http://www.youtube.com/embed/ rKsW6c_CgFY?feature=player_ detailpage  

Memorial Day approaches this one is worth another viewing.  . . .  
Yomar Villarreal Cleary ycleary@charter.net 


Patriots from the Barrio by Dave Gutierrez, 
Published in 2014  

True story of an all Mexican-American US Army combat unit in WWII.  The unit was the Thirty-Sixth Division, 141st Regiment, Second Battalion, Company E



Sent by Erasmo "Doc" Riojos

================================== ==================================
Although no one is certain how challenge coins came to be, one stor dates back o World War I, when a wealthy officer had bronze medallions strck with teh flying squadron's insignia to ive to his men.   Shortly after, one of the young flying aces was shot down over Germany and captured.  The Germans took everything on his person, except the small leather pouch he wore around his neck which happened to contain his medallion. The pilot escaped and made his way to France.  But the French believed he was a spay, and sentenced him to execution. In an effort to prove his identify, the pilot presented the medallion. A French soldier happened to recognize the insignia and the execution was delayed.  The French confirmed his identify and sent him back to his unit.  This evolved from a unit's medallion, and members would "challenge" each other by slamming a medallion down on the bar.  If any member present didn't have his medallion, he had to buy a drink for the challenger and for anyone lese that had their coin.  If all the other members had their medallions, the challenger had to buy everyone drinks.  

The coins are a treasured gift to me from Erasmo "Doc" Riojas.  Erasmo served on the Seal Team 2 in the United States Navy as a Hospital Corpsman in both Korea and Vietnam, between 1962 and 1973.  His unit was recognized as the U.S. Navy's most decorated unit in Vietnam.

Erasmo "Doc" has been a long time reader and supporter of Somos Primos.  In January 2002, he sent some information about being raised in the barrio, "la ladrillera" in Laredo TX. He writes, "our barrio was bordered by the Fort. There was one section of the solid rock wall torn during WWII because the Border Patrol was operating out of the Fort and they needed to build an airplane runway. The widest Ave. was ANNA Ave. that was for the longest time barb wired fenced and the runway was oil blacktop for single engine aircraft. After the war, they took down the fence so that the people who lived along SANCHEZ St could cross where as before they had to detour to Park St. "Los Votos de la Ladrillera used that large street (Anna Ave.) to play baseball and football. " 


For the May 2017 issue, Erasmo sent an article aboutThe story of the Navy SEALs who served in Vietnam and their Vietnamese combat interpreter Minh. Assumed executed after the War ended he was found to be alive and living in My Tho over 40 years later.

 Minh, the interpreter and his SEAL brothers were reunited in the USA and Vietnam and this is their story.  Published on Aug 29, 2016. Watch it on:

Erasmo Riojas  
Pearland TX
713 575 5425





From La Prensa de San Antonio, May 26, 2008; posted on Somos en Escrito: Latino Literary On-line Magazine, May 25, 2012; posted on Educational Equity, Politics, and Policy in Texas, May 25, 2012. Revised annually.

By Felipe de Ortego y Gasca


Scholar in Residence, Western New Mexico University; Distinguished Professor Emeritus of English and Comparative Literature, Texas State University System—Sul Ross  
Memorial Day is about remembering and honoring not only those who
have fallen in battle in military service to the country but remembering all those who have lived before us and made our present possible. The event urged Longfellow in 1867 to write the poem “Decoration Day” which ends with the words: “Your silent tents of green / We deck with fragrant flowers / Yours has the suffering been / The memory shall be ours.”

No one is sure about who exactly initiated Memorial Day. Here’s one story. Boalsburg, Pennsylvania (off Route 322 in the foothills of the Alleghenies of Centre County), boasts the origin of Memorial Day. The story (apocryphal or true) is that on a pleasant Sunday morning in October of 1864, Emma Hunter and Sophie Keller were placing flowers on the grave of Emma’s father, Dr. Reuben Hunter, a surgeon in the Union Army, when they met Mrs. Elizabeth Meyer who was placing flowers on the grave of her son Amos, a private in the Union Army who was killed on the last day of the battle at Gettysburg. They decorated the graves of each other’s kin and gave birth to Memorial Day originally called Decoration Day.

Gaining adherents, on May 5, 1868, General John A. Logan, commander-in-chief of the Grand Army of the Republic, proclaimed May 30, 1868 as a day for decorating the graves of those who died in defense of their country. In 1882, the event was designated as Memorial Day and later broadened to include any American who had died in war or peace as soldiers or civilians, to whom Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote: “One flag, one land, one heart, one hand, one nation evermore.” In May of 1966, President Lyndon Johnson recognized Waterloo, New York, as the “official” birthplace of Memorial Day. (extracted from http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~pacentre/memory.htm).

What does Memorial Day mean for all of us? During World War II, 16 million Americans (men and women served in uniform. Only 620,000 of them remain. Today there are only 6 living World War II Medal of Honor recipients. The remaining veterans of World War II are dying at the rate of 372 a day. There are few World War II American Hispanics still with us. I am one of the fortunate. So fortunate that on April 8, 2015 I received a Quilt of Valor from the National Quilt Foundation. And on February 19, 2015 I was heralded for having survived World War II.

Memorial Day should give us pause to remember all Americans who have given their last full measure of devotion to the nation. American Hispanics have been part of the United States since its founding and have also fallen in every American war in defense of the country [see Hispanics in America’s Defense, Department of Defense; also Vet Vox: War and Remembrance by the author].

American Hispanics fought in World War I, the Spanish-American War, the Civil War, the War of 1812, and the American Revolution, and countless other skirmishes including the present day conflagrations in Bosnia, Afghanistan, and Iraq. Many historians point out that without Spain ’s help the American colonists could not have won their independence. Hispanics have been America’s strongest supporters and allies. More importantly, though, Memorial Day gives us a moment to remember our antepasados and their struggles for our well-being. We all stand on the shoulders of those who went before us.

It is therefore fitting on Memorial Day to honor the memory of all Americans who have served in America’s defense and their place in our lives and in our history. I miss the men I served with and who died during World War II.  

In 1776 Hispanics (Sephards) were part of the founding of the United States, having become part of the American population when the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam (of which they were a part) became New York.  When the United States acquired the Louisiana territory and New Orleans , the Hispanic citizens of that purchase became Americans (having been French briefly when Napolean acquired the territory from Spain ). And again when the United States acquired Florida in 1819, the Hispanic settlements of that region became Americans. Hispanics are not newcomers in the United States . They have been part of the American fabric since the beginning.

The largest number of Hispanics who became Americans by fiat were the Mexicans who were part of the Mexican Cession—that territory of Mexico annexed by the United States as a prize of the U.S.—Mexico War of 1846-1848. The territory dismembered from Mexico was larger than Spain, Italy, and France combined. Today that territory includes the states of California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and parts of Wyoming, Kansas, and Oklahoma. In part, we are the progeny of that “conquest generation” that endured the slings and arrows of outrageous fortune and discrimination.

Like other “territorial Americans” (Native Americans, Mexican Americans, Pacific Islanders), the United States came to Puerto Ricans, they did not come to the United States. Territorial Americans are Americans by fiat—they came with the territories acquired by the United States by force of arms and conquest.

Despite the travails of life in their own lands as strangers, Hispanics have answered the nation’s call in times of peril. During World War II, they served in numbers greater than their percentage in the American population. Figures vary, but best estimates indicate that more than 700,000 Hispanics were in uniform during World War II, most of them Mexican Americans. As a group they won more Medals of Honor than any other group.

We must remember and honor all the veterans who gave their lives to shape our present and why we ought to decorate their graves. More importantly, however, we ought to extract from that memory the most important lesson of history as George Santayana, the eminent American Hispanic philosopher, put it: those who cannot learn the lessons of history are condemned to repeat it. Por eso nos recordamos de nuestros valientes militares y nuestros antepasados en este dia de la memoria—Memorial Day! [That’s why we remember our valiant military men and women and our antecedents on this day of memory—Memorial Day!]

Re: WNMU Faculty: Memorial Day
John W Chess chessj@wnmu.edu 
Sent: Thu 5/21/2015 10:57 PM
To: Philip Ortego Philip.Ortego@wnmu.edu

Dear Dr. Felipe de Ortego y Gasca,

Thank you for your article regarding the history and symbolism of Memorial Day.  Your skill sets as a writer are superb and engaging.  In sharing this broad spectrum of information, you provided each reader with a wide ranging and inclusive multifaceted perspective. It was a learning experience for me.

Sincerely, John Chess 
Adjunct Professor
Department of Social Work


RE: Memorial Day
Ann Harvey Ann.Harvey@wnmu.edu
Sent:Thu 5/21/2015 4:38 PM                                                                                                                                

To: Philip Ortego Philip.Ortego@wnmu.edu

Dear Felipe,  Nicely done.

Dr. Ann Harvey  
Professor of Reading
Martinez 209
Western New Mexico University
Silver City, NM 88061

Dear Dr. Ortego:

The Memorial Day article you shared is the most touching article I have read. Earlier I wrote to Dr. Garcia sharing that Memorial Day is not about BBQs or partying as most of our fellow countrymen tend to do on this holiday.  I attended Memorial Day services 100 miles away near San Antonio this morning. One of my acquaintances and Commander of the town's American Legion in Karnes County, sang Bruce Springsteen's, "I Am Proud to Be an American." Not bad for an old Chicano singing it. Take care Doc. I treasure all your contributions.

Lucas Jasso 



I received your essay titled “Memorial Day: Remembering Our Past and Those Who Shaped It.”  I very much appreciate your thoughtfulness in including me in your mailing list.

As usual, your words are touching and most relevant, especially at a time when there are those who are ignorant of our past in this country and our military contributions to it. 

I am attaching FYI a photo of yours-truly in Air Force uniform, circa 1965.

Arnoldo DeLeon, 5//28/16


Jovita Carranza
Photo: courtesy of Wikipedia Creative Commons


On April 28 Former U.S. Small Business Administration executive Jovita Carranza was appointed  by President Trump to serve as the 44th treasurer of the United States.  The appointment does not require Senate approval. 

The presidential appointment does not require Senate approval. Carranza is the seventh Latina to hold the office. All U.S. treasurers since 1949 have been women.

The Presidential Appointment Efficiency and Streamlining Act of 2011 — Public Law 112-166 , signed into law on Aug. 10, 2012, by President Obama — eliminates the requirement of Senate approval for 163 positions, including treasurer of the United States, allowing the president alone to appoint persons to these positions.


Donate | Tell A Friend | Subscribe | https://lulac.org/r/E/ODU1MzQ/NjA5NA/0/0/bWltaWxvemFub0Bhb2wuY29t/aHR0cDovL2x1bGFjLm9yZy9mYWNlYm9vayMhIyE/1976/0 | https://lulac.org/r/E/ODU1NDY/NjA5NA/0/0/bWltaWxvemFub0Bhb2wuY29t/aHR0cHM6Ly90d2l0dGVyLmNvbS9sdWxhYy8jISMh/1976/0 | https://lulac.org/r/E/ODU1NTg/NjA5NA/0/0/bWltaWxvemFub0Bhb2wuY29t/aHR0cDovL3d3dy55b3V0dWJlLmNvbS9qdHJhc21vbnRlIyEjIQ/1976/0

April 30, 2017

LULAC Congratulates Jovita Carranza for her Nomination as U.S. Treasurer

Washington, D.C. – LULAC congratulates Jovita Carranza of Illinois on her nomination by President Trump to be Treasurer of the United States. Ms. Carranza previously served as the highest ranking executive at the United Parcel Service before joining the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) as Deputy Administrator under President George W. Bush, after receiving unanimous confirmation.

“We are proud to congratulate Jovita Carranza, who we fully support, on her nomination as our new U.S. Treasurer,” said Roger C. Rocha Jr. “As a committed community leader, she has built a successful corporate career and brings a wealth of knowledge and expertise to this position. We are confident that she will be a strong asset to the Department of Treasury and will help ensure that the needs of Latino communities are addressed.”

Carranza is the Founder of JCR Group providing services to corporations, government agencies and non-governmental organizations. She serves on the boards of numerous organization including the National Center for Family Literacy, National Council of La Raza, and Alverno College and the American Cancer Society Corporate Advisory Council among other civic committees. She earned her MBA from the University of Miami in Florida.


The League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) is the nation’s largest and oldest civil rights volunteer-based organization that empowers Hispanic Americans and builds strong Latino communities. Headquartered in Washington, DC, with 1,000 councils around the United States and Puerto Rico, LULAC’s programs, services and advocacy address the most important issues for Latinos, meeting critical needs of today and the future. For more information, visit www.LULAC.org.

LULAC National Office, 1133 19th Street NW, Suite 1000 Washington DC 20036, (202) 833-6130, (202) 833-6135 FAX


Rotary lunch honoring students serves up hope by Steve Lopez, Orange County Section, Los Angeles Times.

Some of the students arrived early.  As much as 30 minutes early.

This was a big deal, and you could tell the eighth- graders shuffling into the Doubletree Hotel in Ontario were proud and maybe a little nervous, because the price of success was having to make a speech.


They came with their parents, who left work to be a part of this.

"Welcome, folks. Come on in, and thanks for coming today," Ontario Rotarian, Don Driftmier said to Daniela Balvaneda, 13, of Oaks Middle School. She was with her parents, Carlos and Blanca, and her grandmother, Gloria, all of them spiffed up for the occasion.

"One of the important things for us is that we didn't finish school, but we support our daughters," Carlos said of himself and his wife. "They're both really into school, and I give all the credit to them."

Danielatold me she was pulled out of class one day and told to go to Principal D. Foley's office. She couldn't think of anything she'd done that might have landed her in trouble, but she was nervous.

"I didn't know what was going on," Daniela recalled, "and Mr. Foley told me I won the award from the Rotary Club. I said, 'What's that?'"

The Ontario Rotary Club is in its 95th year, and supporting youth is at the core of its mission. Driftmier emailed me one day to invite me to,the luncheon. He said he served his country in Vietnam, and he enjoys serving his community by honoring the "impressive, well-spoken" students who do themselves, their parents, and the Ontario-Montclair School District proud.

To hear the national conversation about the state of public education, you wouldn't know these kids existed. The narrative is one of failure, and for sure, public school districts — including the Ontario- Montclair district — have huge challenges and plenty of room for improvement.

President Trump's education secretary thinks charter schools and vouchers are the way to go. But at the luncheon, Ontario-Montclair School District Supt. James Hammond and board President EMa Rivas said there may be no better strategy than investing sufficiently in traditional schools and giving them enough autonomy. And letting them put children before "adult-centered politics," as Hammond said.

They said there's been no clamor for charters in their preschool-through-eighth-grade district, in which the majority of the 21,000 students qualify for free or reduced-price lunches because they're from low-income families. The 34 campuses include language and music academies, magnets and international baccalaureate schools. Attendance is at 97%, parents are involved, suspension rates are down, Hammond said. And there's big support from the Rotary Club.

Avaram Iraheta, one of the honored students, led the Pledge of Allegiance at Thursday's luncheon.

Rotarian Dick Gerety led the singing of "God Bless America."

Rotary President John Andrews acknowledged the business leaders who sat with the families of the winning students.

Wiltsey Middle School Principal Henry Romero reminded students that success is no reason to coast, and "college is not a dream; it's a plan."

And then it was time for the students, chosen by their teachers on the basis of academic achievement, to step to the podium.

"I was bullied,"-said Olivia Sanchez of Central Language Academy. "I was bullied over three years."

But her teachers and principal put an end to it, she said, thanking them.  "They stood up for me when no one else would."

Daniel Onwuegbuzie of De Anza Middle School said he moved to Ontario two years ago from Nigeria. He likes math, and his plan is to get all A's in school.

"So far, so good," he said, adding that he plans to go to Harvard University and become a doctor. "J.K. Rowling said it is our choices that show what we truly are. It is my goal to make the right choices, to get to where I want to go in life."

Courtney Pederson of Edison GATE Academy said she used to fake illness because she dreaded school. She thanked her parents for helping her turn that around. She's worn glasses for years, Courtney said, and one day, she's going to be an eye surgeon.

Daniela Balvaneda didn't seem nearly as nervous as she had told me she was.

"I happen to like every single class I take," she said. She's already done the research and wants to attend Penn State, Syracuse University or UC Davis to study forensic science as an undergraduate, then study law at "a bigger school like Yale." One day, she might become a forensic investigator.

Avaram, the pledge leader from Serrano Middle School, said he was honored to win the Rotary award. He read his speech on his iPhone and told the audience he's a tech guy all the way.

"For instance, I know a lot about iPhones," he said, and when he's done with college, he's going to work for Apple.

Raylene Pulido of Vemon Middle School thanked her parents for making sacrifices to support her and her siblings. She said when she got back to campus, she was going to tell all of her friends to work harder, so they can get invited to the Rotary luncheon.



"I might have made some mistakes in the past," said Wenzel Gonzalez of Vina Danks Middle School, "but I will focus on the now, and making my future better."

He's going to be a fire-fighter or an architect.

Ariana Escalante of Vineyard STEM said that she's going to UCLA one day, and that she wants to be a pediatrician. She might have her own practice, or she might work at a hospital. But either way, she's going to help children.

Tamiya Curtis of Wiltsey Middle School doesn't know what she wants to be.

"I don't want to be a math teacher," she said. "I don't want to be a doctor. I don't want to be a veterinarian, or anything as common as that. I want to do something unique that will make an impact and inspire others to do great things."

When they were done, Rotary President Andrews said he's a pretty upbeat guy. But he always walks away from these luncheons more optimistic, and I know what he means.


Sent by Sister Mary Sevilla, CSJ msevilla1256@gmail.com  with the comment: 
"I like what the last student said."


America's Hispanics emerging

as a force in philanthropy

By Sarah Murray
Financial Times
(May 1, 2017)


Latinos still hold a tiny proportion of US wealth - about 2.2 per cent, according to the Federal Reserve Bank of St Louis. Yet the ranks of prosperous individuals are swelling. In the process, many are becoming charitable donors.
Of course, some well-established families have been long-time donors. Last year, for example, Venezuela-born Patricia Phelps de Cisneros made a sizeable gift to New York's Museum of Modern Art. The gift included more than 100 artworks and funding to establish a research institute.
"There's that level of money," says John Gutiérrez, a professor of Latin American history at City University of New York's John Jay College. "And the involvement of Latinos in philanthropy has grown dramatically."
A decade ago, Latino philanthropists were few and far between. "There was very little in terms of individual philanthropy," says Gutiérrez, "and there was very little in terms of community philanthropy or the establishment of foundations."
It is not that Latinos were reluctant to give their money away - far from it. "We have a tremendous personal commitment to give," says Adela Cepeda, a prominent businesswoman who co-founded Nuestro Futuro (Our Future), a donor-advised fund that is an affiliate of the Chicago Community Trust, a grantmaking organisation.
Traditionally, however, this generosity has taken the form of gifts to the church or family members, often in the remittances sent back to countries in Latin America. "We're very family-oriented," says Cepeda, "and we come from very religious countries, so those are the forms of giving we are more familiar with."
Remittances to Latin America and the Caribbean in 2016 totalled more than $70bn, according to Inter-American Dialogue, a Washington think-tank. "Remittances are the number one source of income in many countries in Latin America. Giving is part of who we are," says Diana Campoamor, outgoing president of Hispanics in Philanthropy, a network of foundations that make grants to Latino community organisations.
This is not to say that the flow of remittances is likely to slow, but signs are emerging of a growing desire in the Latino community to engage in more structured forms of philanthropic giving and to support causes and organisations in the US. "What we've seen over the past 10 years is regular people of wealth giving more," says Campoamor.
For example, the Latino Community Foundation's giving circle - in which donors pool their funds - has 390 Latino members, each giving at least $1,000 a year. The Latino Giving Circle Network - the largest in the US, according to Garcel - disburses its funds to US non-profits focused on education, leadership development and civic engagement. "The movement doubled in the past year and there is evidence that there is a growing will and desire by Latinos to engage in the traditional philanthropic sector," says Garcel.
Over the past decade, the Nuestro Futuro fund has made grants of more than $2m to causes such as community development, the arts and early-childhood education for Latinos in the Chicago area.
Kai Grunauer-Brachetti, an executive director at the philanthropy advisory service of UBS, sees a distinction between the charitable giving of recent immigrants and of long-established families from Latin America. The former, he says, tend to donate to their countries of origin. "Then we have the Hispanic population that are second-, third- or fourth-generation Latinos," he says. "They have assimilated more into the philanthropic practices of the US."
Meanwhile, this new wave of philanthropic giving is being driven by an increased awareness of the needs of poor and disadvantaged Latino communities in the US and by the fact that non-profits supporting them receive a tiny proportion of US charitable giving - just 1.1 per cent, according to D5, an initiative that promotes diversity and equity in philanthropy.
It was to channel more funds to Latino non-profits that the New York-based Hispanic Federation was created in 1990, with a focus on causes such as education, health, immigration, civic engagement, economic empowerment and the environment. "Latino non-profits in the US had largely been ignored by traditional philanthropy," says Gutiérrez.
Through its Latino CORE Initiative, the Hispanic Federation has so far made grants totalling more than $40m, according to José Calderón, the federation's president. "You're starting to see a lot of wealthy individuals creating family foundations and doing good locally," he says. "We want to encourage more of that."
What has helped is that celebrities - including singers Ricky Martin, a Puerto Rican, and Gloria Estefan, originally from Cuba, and Chilean-American writer Isabel Allende - have become prominent donors.
Calderón cites the importance of support for the Hispanic Federation from Lin-Manuel Miranda, creator of the musical Hamilton and son of the federation's founding president, Luis Miranda. "He is someone that we hope can serve as a north star for other philanthropists in supporting local groups," he says.
Calderón believes, however, that more needs to be done to encourage wealthy Latinos to become charitable donors. Much of this effort will involve donor education. "It's not that people don't want to make a difference, but they don't know how to go about it," he says.
He also hopes that, as well as celebrities, prominent Latino entrepreneurs will start to serve as role models. "There are a couple of groups in Silicon Valley that are trying to cultivate Latinos who have a great deal of wealth," he says. "But it's a work in progress. We don't have a Bill Gates yet."
High-profile Hispanics
Isabel Allende
Born in Peru to Chilean parents, Isabel Allende became an American citizen in 1993. She created the Isabel Allende Foundation in 1995 in memory of her daughter, Paula Frías, who died in 1992 at the age of 29 and had worked as a volunteer to help poor communities in Venezuela and Spain. Seed funding for the foundation, which supports women and girls' empowerment, came from income generated by Paula, a memoir Allende wrote after her daughter's death.
Al and Carmen Castellano
Alcario "Al" Castellano and his wife Carmen had always supported local community groups, but the family's giving moved to a new level in 2001 after Al won the California state lottery, with a single-state jackpot record of $141m. Since then, through the Castellano Family Foundation, the family has made grants to non-profit organisations in Santa Clara County that promote Latino arts and culture, education and leadership development. The foundation has so far given away more than $4m.
Ella Fontanals-Cisneros
Born in Cuba and raised in Venezuela, Ella Fontanals-Cisneros started collecting works by artists from Latin America in the 1970s. As a philanthropist, she created the Cisneros Fontanals Art Foundation, which makes grants, and commissions and supports exhibitions and publications, and whose mission is to increase understanding and appreciation of contemporary artists from Latin America.
Thomas Meléndez and Aixa Beauchamp
Thomas Meléndez, a Boston-based investment manager born in Brooklyn to Puerto Rican parents, supports Hispanic youths by serving on the boards of organisations such as the Robert Toigo Foundation, which promotes diversity in the financial sector; Aspira, a New York organisation supporting Latino youth; and Boston Children's Hospital. It was his wife, Aixa Beauchamp, he says, who introduced him to formal philanthropy. The couple met as teenagers and today both support Milagros para Niños, a Latino initiative at Boston Children's Hospital, and the Boston-based Latino Legacy Fund.
Arnoldo Avalos
Born in a small rural town in Mexico, Arnoldo Avalos comes from a family of migrant farm workers. Seeing education as the path to a better life, he became a congressional intern before embarking on his studies in the University of California, Berkeley, and later Harvard University, where he received a masters degree in government. He went on to hold senior positions at companies such as Facebook, Google and Cisco before retiring. He established the Avalos Foundation to increase access to education.
Ana Morales
For Ana Morales, it was her family's giving - particularly that of her grandfather, who launched a community organisation - that inspired her to become a philanthropist. Born and raised in Monterrey, Mexico, she spent a decade working for her family's foundation. Morales is now a member of the Maverick Collective, a network of female philanthropists who invest in projects that benefit girls and women.

______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ _____________
The NiLP Report on Latino Policy & Politics is an online information service provided by the National Institute for Latino Policy. For further information, visit www.latinopolicy. org. Send comments to editor@latinopolicy.org.

Sent by Juan Marinez

Our Strength: Education and Empowerment

The League of United Latin American Citizens invites you to participate in the 88th Annual LULAC National Convention & Exposition in San Antonio TX from July 4 through July 8, 2017. As the premier Hispanic convention, the LULAC National Convention draws over 15,000 participants from across the country each year including top leaders from the government, business, and the Latino community.

For more information please contact the LULAC National Office at (202) 833-6130 or visit website at: www.LULAC.org/convention

2017 NCLR National Council of La Raza, Annual Conference July 8-11 Phoenix, Arizona

  Working together with our Affiliates to achieve wins for our community.


The FBI released 27 new photos of the Pentagon on 9/11
(Below are 15 photos from the collection.

By Blake Stilwell
May. 19, 2017

Five al-Qaeda militants hijacked American Airlines flight 77 on Sept. 11, 2001. The plane was on its way from Dulles Airport outside of Washington, D.C., to Los Angeles. The plane made it as far as eastern Kentucky before the terrorists took over the plane and slammed it into the Pentagon.
The FBI recently updated its photo vault with 27 images the agency took on the ground that day, as first responders raced to rescue the wounded and remove the dead from the shell of the nation’s symbol of military power.
Debris from the plane and the building are highlighted in the Mar. 23 release of photos. The attack killed 125 people in the Pentagon, as well as all aboard the flight.

The Boeing 757 took off from Dulles ten minutes early.

Some of the passengers were teachers and students on a National Geographic Society field trip.

Authorities estimate the flight was taken over between 8:51 and 8:54 in the morning, as the last communication with the real pilots was at 8:51.

The terrorists were led by a trained pilot, as the other four herded the passengers to the back of the plane to prevent them from re-taking the aircraft.

The hijacker pilot did not respond to any radio calls.

With no transponder signal, the  flight could only be found when it passed the path of ground-based radar.

At 9:33 am, the tower at Reagan Airport contacted the Pentagon, saying “an aircraft is coming at you and not talking with us.”

At 9:37:46 am, American Airlines Flight 77 crashed into the Pentagon.

Listen actual radio traffic about the flight at NPR.





This message may  contain copyrighted material which is being made available for research of  environmental, political, human rights, economic, scientific, social justice  issues, etc., and constitutes a "fair use" of such copyrighted material per  section 107 of US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107,  the material in this message is distributed without profit or payment to those  who have expressed a prior interest in receiving it for research/educational  purposes. For more information go to:  http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml

Sent by Odell Harwell  




Introduction to the Constitution of the United States of America 

Dear Friend,  I invite you to take two minutes to watch the trailer for our revamped course, "Introduction to the Constitution." It's a new way of presenting the topic, and I think you'll be impressed.

Watch the trailer now.

Warm regards, 
Larry P. Arnn
President, Hillsdale College
Pursuing Truth - Defending Liberty since 1844

NALIP Announces the 13th Annual Latino Media Market Fellows

The National Association of Latino Independent Producers proudly announces the selected group of content creators to participate in the 2017 Latino Media Market (LMM).  Meetings will take place during the NALIP Media Summit at the Ray Dolby Ballroom at the Hollywood & Highland center in Hollywood, CA on June 23rd and June 24th.
The Latino Media Market is supported by HBO, ITVS, the California Arts Council Statewide Networks Programs with additional support from the Los Angeles County Arts Commission. The Latino Media Market™ is an executive meeting series where the selected fellows and their projects meet one-on-one for scheduled pitch meetings with industry representatives who provide sound advice on how to advance their project to the next level. 

This year’s categories include:
Low-Budget Features in Development or Pre-production
Documentary Works-in-Progress
TV/Streaming Scripted Concept/Pilot
Digital Web Series

NALIP received a record number of incredibly powerful submissions and after much deliberation by the NALIP team and industry veteran evaluators the top 27 projects were selected.

Ben Lopez, NALIP’s Executive Director says,"NALIP’s Latino Media Market has become a key industry program to launch Latinx careers and projects. I am very proud to have witness its growth and impact over the last several years. I wish the 2017 cohort of LMM fellows the best of luck and success."

NALIP would like to congratulate the following filmmakers:

Alana Simões & Jose Ramón Mikelajáuregui - The Mexican Dream
Alejandro Antonio – Tattooed Love
Belem Ramirez - That Place Called Babylon
Carla Curiel - Mundo Lanugo: Mi Abuelita Siempre Dice
Christian Contreras & Victoria De La Torre - Phillip
Cristóbal Echevensko - The Horribles
David Ruiz Marquez - Ahava Surf
Denise Cox - Being ñ
Dominic Colon - WERQ IT!
Georgina González & Rodrigo Iturralde – Finding The Werewolf
Jose M. Ferulli - The Country of Forgotten Dreams
Jose Ortiz - HyphenAmerican: The First Generation Experience
Juan Pablo González - El Lugar de la Memoria
Juan Martinez Vera & Ivan Bordas - Cabarete
Juliana Schatz - Mimi Y Milagro
Laura Fran Lozano - #SFX: a Documentary on Magic, Craft & the Art of Believing
Lorena Manriquez - Siqueiros: Walls of Passion
Marlon Moreno - Insurrection
Marta Cross & Virginia Novello - ChiChi & Tucci
Miguel Berg - Aurora
Nicole Karsin - Amazona Lot 1AB
Nicole Vinnola & Andres Torres-Vives - Petrichor
Rocio Romero & Roberto Doveris - The Sequel
Tracey Quezada – You, Me, and The Fruit Trees
William D. Caballero – 115 Ferry StreetVictor Dueñas - Serenity
Vivian Miranda – The Other Sport

The National Association of Latino Independent Producers is a national membership organization, committed to helping Latinx content creators with their professional goals. We seek to increase the quality and quantity of stories by and about Latinos, through professional development, community building, and mentoring.  Additional information and updates about the 2017 LMM visit the homepage at www.nalip.org/latino_media_market

For more information about NALIP or to attend this year’s NALIP Media Summit on June 22nd - 25th, 2017 in Hollywood, CA please visit:   www.nalipmediasummit.com/   .
NALIP http://www.nalip.org/ 


America's 11 Most Endangered Historic Places



Today, to mark the 30th anniversary of the America’s 11 Most Endangered Historic Places list, we are unveiling a retrospective list highlighting 11 once-endangered places that are now thriving and contributing to their communities.

Over the past three decades, we at the National Trust for Historic Preservation have used this annual list to spotlight important examples of the nation’s architectural and cultural heritage on the brink of destruction or irreparable damage. Of the sites that appeared on the list since 1988, fewer than five percent have been lost to date.

As our president, Stephanie Meeks, put it, “This year’s list celebrates the preservation of important places across the country and the people who learned about a threatened place from this list and then did something about it. We are a better nation today because of the people who cared about these important pieces of our national fabric.”

Without the dedicated individuals and organizations who care deeply about these places, they may have been lost forever. Visit our website today to learn more about these 11 success stories, as well as the hundreds of other endangered sites we have highlighted over the years.


Jose Antonio Lopez
(File photo: RGG/Steve Taylor)

López:  Copper and Tin Equals Bronze, May 4, 2017

    General Ignacio Zaragoza

Happy Cinco de Mayo! Right off, two particular questions are often asked regarding this popular date, a favorite money-making event within the U.S. advertising industry (estimated at $1.5 Trillion in 2015):  

(1) Is it Mexico’s Independence Day? The answer is “No”. It marks the date of a decisive battle in Mexico’s history called the Battle of Puebla, fought on May 5, 1862.  

(2) If Texas was already part of the U.S. in 1862, why is El Cinco de Mayo observed in the U.S.?

Answer: There are two main reasons: (a) General Ignacio Zaragoza was born in Goliad, Texas. He led the Mexican Army that beat French General Charles de Lorencez at the Battle of Puebla; and (b) Texas, a former province (state) of Mexico, had been in the U.S. for only 14 years.  

Even though horrid anti-Mexican prejudice had already begun in Texas, Tejanos still had immediate and extended family members living in Mexico. Thus, in spite of bigotry at home, they quickly volunteered to help their parents, grandparents, brothers, sisters, etc. in their time of need. By the way, those blood-related family ties are still visible today throughout the vast bi-national region called The Borderlands.  

How bad was the discrimination against Mexican-descent Texans? As bad as it gets. 

Reflecting the mood in the U.S. at the time, South Carolina Senator John C. Calhoun  
raged against the inhabitants of the newly acquired territory of Texas and the Southwest by expressing the following rebuke against our ancestors on the floor of the U.S. Senate in 1848:  

“…Sir, that we have never dreamt of incorporating into our Union any but the Caucasian race—the free white race. To incorporate Mexico, would be the very first instance of the kind of incorporating an Indian race; for more than half of the Mexicans are Indians, and the other is composed chiefly of mixed tribes. I protest against such a union as that! Ours, sir, is the Government of a white race. … It is now professed to place these Mexicans on an equality with the people of the United States. I protest utterly against such a project.”  

Indeed, Senator Calhoun attacked our Borderlands family tree’s twin roots at the same time. Sadly, symptoms of his hostility remain in today’s U.S. mainstream society.  

That’s why sharing celebrations such as Cinco de Mayo reminds us of our mutual heritage of Native American and Spanish European bloodlines all along the U.S. Mexico border.  

That’s not to say their initial meeting was cooperative. Stemming from worlds apart, first contact between the two forces was certainly a violent clash. Yet, as the encounter cooled, it melded, forming a new mold. That mix of brown-skin Native American culture (copper) with white European Spanish (tin) created a new race of bronze-skin people — half brown, half white. In Spanish, the new race (raza) is commonly known as: “gente de bronce” (bronze people).  

Sadly, even though the origin of Mexican-descent Texans rests on strong family values, the long-standing negative view among Anglo and Northern European-descent U.S. society persists. Generally, they misjudge our genealogical connection to Mexico. Likewise, many Mexican-descent citizens themselves are unaware of their fascinating history, mostly because they’ve been taught to shun their Mexican-linked past. It’s with that thought in mind that the following additional words are provided.  

As mentioned above, there’s no doubt that today’s Mexican-descent (mestizo) people are a product of adversity. The culture clash that ensued between the Spanish and indigenous people, in human endurance terms, symbolizes a large melting pot.  

As an aside, “gente de bronce” in America stretch beyond Mexico, because the same Native American-Spanish European ancestries extend to the tip of Tierra del Fuego. (Spanish DNA traits are also significantly found in other areas around the globe.)  

Here in the U.S., life has not been easy for gente de bronce. After 1848, humiliation of the conquered people was the rule from Texas to California. For generations, they have fought battles of a different kind; for justice, equality, and acceptance. Confronting hardship head-on, they began to defy an entrenched U.S. colonial-style social order standard, not unlike the mid-1800s English Raj-type of unfair rule in India.  

Unable to remove our Mexican-descent and Native American ancestors, mainstream society conveniently pushed the newest U.S. citizens into the lowest social status. Not only were they treated unjustly, official laws were passed in Texas to keep them “in their place”. Such mandates continued unabated for over 100 years. For descendants of the founders of Texas, equality was not assured (by the U.S. Supreme Court) until 1954.  

We’ve made some progress, but the struggle continues. Sadly, many of today’s Mexican-descent young people find it hard to believe that demeaning, undignified bigotry was common in their parents’ daily lives!  

In being able to attend college, eat at the restaurant of their choice, or live where they want to live, Mexican-descent students of today must recognize and pay tribute to the fighting spirit of their elders. They are the ones who won numerous battles without bullets to assure their children didn’t’ suffer indignities they were forced to endure for generations.  

In summary, discussing our “gente de bronce” family history may be painful for some of their descendants, but it’s crucial that present and future generations remember the past. A key point is this: To understand where you are, you must consider where you’ve been.  

So, it is with gente de bronce descendants in Texas, who are “Mexican” only in a genealogical (not a political) sense of the word. That’s because our antecedents were Mexicans (Mexicanos) before they became U.S. citizens. Moreover, it’s not by accident that the southwest indigenous tribes’ homeland (Apachería) straddles both countries and is actually home to the children of several identifiable groups — Pueblo, Hopi, Yuma, Pima, Zuni, Navajo, and Apache. Said another way, we possess the very same distinct DNA attributes in spirit and physical appearance that Senator Calhoun disparaged so many years ago.  

Lastly, for those of us here in Texas, the water (agua) of the Rio Grande doesn’t separate us from our sisters and brothers in Mexico. It unites us through both blood and soul as manifested in those days of a bygone era when our Tejano ancestors valiantly crossed el Rio Grande to fight for liberty. ¡Viva el General Ignacio Zaragoza! ¡Viva el Cinco de Mayo 2017!  

About the Author:  José “Joe” Antonio López was born and raised in Laredo, Texas, and is a USAF Veteran. He now lives in Universal City, Texas. He is the author of four books.  His latest book is “Preserving Early Texas History (Essays of an Eighth-Generation South Texan)”. It is available through Amazon.com.  Lopez is also the founder of the Tejano Learning Center, LLC, and www.tejanosunidos.org, a Web site dedicated to Spanish Mexican people and events in U.S. history that are mostly overlooked in mainstream history books.  ////


Discussion on the concept . . .

Yes, Chicanada are already participants in Mexico Grande (we really have little choice as it is a matter of history and circumstances).  My project is to bring this participation into fuller consciousness and to project it onto a bigger stage.  We Chicanada tend to be localists as demonstrated by the example you gave of sanctuary.  But it is only a matter of degree to project our actions into the national and international levels.  Resources and education are key.  So as Chicanada begin to develop greater wealth and achieve higher education we should see the evolution of action projects of larger scope than we have seen in the past.  At that point, the scenario of Mexico Grande will become obvious to many.
Part of thinking along the lines of Mexico Grande is for Chicanada to take an active role in influencing what goes on in Mexico, particularly in its relationship to Chicanos and the U.S. in general.  We can't afford to just blow off Mexico as a place that our ancestors ran away from (for good reasons).  We must claim what is ours in both Mexico and the U.S.  But in order to do so we must have the imagination to fashion something whole for ourselves.  We have been given the historic mission to literally make a silk purse out of a sow's ear.  But we are Chicanada and, if anything, we are resourceful.
My comments on remisas, money sent to Mexico by Mexicans in the U.S., can be found at the end of my book chapter titled, "U.S. and Mexican Schools as Regulators of Dropout Rates for Chicano Students" (pp. 209-235), which appeared in Leal, D. L, and Limon, J. E., Immigration and the Border, Notre Dame:  University of Notre Dame Press, 2013.  My comments in this chapter are suggestive of how we Chicanada must address policy issues in Mexico because what happens in Mexico does not stay in Mexico.
Ray Padilla   rvpadilla1@GMAIL.COM

If Chicanos want to learn about true Mexican history without any American bias, I recommend that they read The Course of Mexican History by Michael C. Meyer and William L. Sherman published by Oxford University Press, 1991. the book in 718 pages covers everything from Pre-Colombian Mexico through the colonial period, independence, the Revolution, war of the reform, the Cristeros war and the modernization periods.  I have read many books on Mexican history and without a doubt this book is far superior. It is more inclusive of the different movements in Mexico and treats the history, especially the Mexican-American war with respect for the facts and is not subject to the cursed manifest destiny syndrome as so many books on Mexican history published in the U.S. are.


Yes, Chicanada are already participants in Mexico Grande (we really have little choice as it is a matter of history and circumstances).  My project is to bring this participation into fuller consciousness and to project it onto a bigger stage.  We Chicanada tend to be localists as demonstrated by the example you gave of sanctuary.  But it is only a matter of degree to project our actions into the national and international levels.  Resources and education are key.  So as Chicanada begin to develop greater wealth and achieve higher education we should see the evolution of action projects of larger scope than we have seen in the past.  At that point, the scenario of Mexico Grande will become obvious to many.
Part of thinking along the lines of Mexico Grande is for Chicanada to take an active role in influencing what goes on in Mexico, particularly in its relationship to Chicanos and the U.S. in general.  We can't afford to just blow off Mexico as a place that our ancestors ran away from (for good reasons).  We must claim what is ours in both Mexico and the U.S.  But in order to do so we must have the imagination to fashion something whole for ourselves.  We have been given the historic mission to literally make a silk purse out of a sow's ear.  But we are Chicanada and, if anything, we are resourceful.
My comments on remisas, money sent to Mexico by Mexicans in the U.S., can be found at the end of my book chapter titled, "U.S. and Mexican Schools as Regulators of Dropout Rates for Chicano Students" (pp. 209-235), which appeared in Leal, D. L, and Limon, J. E., Immigration and the Border, Notre Dame:  University of Notre Dame Press, 2013.  My comments in this chapter are suggestive of how we Chicanada must address policy issues in Mexico because what happens in Mexico does not stay in Mexico.


Marijuana May Boost, Rather Than Dull, the Elderly Brain
Senior mice treated with THC improved on learning and memory tests
By Stephani Sutherland on May 10, 2017

Picture the stereotypical pot smoker: young, dazed and confused. Marijuana has long been known for its psychoactive effects, which can include cognitive impairment. But new research published this week in Nature Medicine suggests the drug might affect older users very differently than young ones—at least in mice. Instead of impairing learning and memory as it does in young people, the drug appears to reverse age-related declines in the cognitive performance of elderly mice.Researchers led by Andreas Zimmer of the University of Bonn in Germany gave low doses of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, marijuana’s main active ingredient, to young, mature and aged mice.

As expected, young mice treated with THC performed slightly worse on behavioral tests of memory and learning. For example, after THC young mice took longer to learn where a safe platform was hidden in a water maze, and they had a harder time recognizing another mouse to which they had previously been exposed. Without the drug, mature and aged mice performed worse on the tests than young ones did. But after receiving THC the elderly animals’ performances improved to the point that they resembled those of young, untreated mice. “The effects were very robust, very profound,” Zimmer says.

Other experts praised the study but cautioned against extrapolating the findings to humans. “This well-designed set of experiments shows that chronic THC pretreatment appears to restore a significant level of diminished cognitive performance in older mice, while corroborating the opposite effect among young mice,” Susan Weiss, director of the Division of Extramural Research at the National Institute on Drug Abuse who was not involved in the study, wrote in an e-mail. Nevertheless, she added, “While it would be tempting to presume the relevance of these findings [extends] to aging humans…further research will be critically needed.”

When the researchers examined the brains of the treated, elderly mice for an explanation, they noticed neurons in the hippocampus—a brain area critical for learning and memory—had sprouted more synaptic spines, the points of contact for communication between neurons. Even more striking, the gene expression pattern in the hippocampi of THC-treated aged mice was radically different from that of untreated elderly mice. “That is something we absolutely did not expect: the old animals [that received] THC looked most similar to the young, untreated control mice,” Zimmer says.

The findings raise the intriguing possibility THC and other “cannabinoids” might act as anti-aging molecules in the brain. Cannabinoids include dozens of biologically active compounds found in the Cannabis sativa plant. THC, the most highly studied type, is largely responsible for marijuana’s psychoactive effects. The plant compounds mimic our brain’s own marijuana like molecules, called endogenous cannabinoids, which activate specific receptors in the brain capable of modulating neural activity. “We know the endogenous cannabinoid system is very dynamic; it goes through changes over the lifespan,” says Ryan McLaughlin, a researcher who studies cannabis and stress at Washington State University and was not involved in the current work. Research has shown the cannabinoid system develops gradually during childhood, “and then it blows up in adolescence—you see increased activity of its enzymes and receptors,” McLaughlin says. “Then as we age, it’s on a steady decline.

”That decline in the endogenous cannabinoid system with age fits with previous work by Zimmer and others showing cannabinoid-associated molecules become more scant in the brains of aged animals. “The idea is that as animals grow old, similar to in humans, the activity of the endogenous cannabinoid system goes down—and that coincides with signs of aging in the brain,” Zimmer says. “So we thought, what if we stimulate the system by supplying [externally produced] cannabinoids?”

That idea does not seem so outlandish, considering the role of cannabinoids in maintaining the body’s natural balance, says Mark Ware, a clinical researcher at McGill University in Montreal who was not part of the study. “To anyone who studies the endocannabinoid system, the findings are not necessarily surprising because the system has homeostatic properties everywhere we look,” meaning its effects may vary depending on the situation.

For example, a little marijuana may alleviate anxiety but too much can bring on paranoid delusions. Likewise, cannabis can spark an appetite in cancer patients but in other people may produce nausea. So the detrimental effects seen in young brains, in which cannabinoids are already plentiful, may turn out to be beneficial in older brains that have a dearth of them.These chemicals also work to maintain order at the cellular level, McLaughlin says. “We know the endogenous cannabinoid system’s primary function is to try to preserve homeostasis within a given brain circuit. It works like an internal regulator; when there’s too much [neuronal] activity, cannabinoids suppress activity to prevent neurotoxicity.”

Restoring that protection might help safeguard the brain against cellular stress that contributes to aging. “A critical takeaway of this study is that they used low doses,” Ware says, considering that different doses could have entirely different effects. It would be difficult if not impossible to translate the dose they used in mice to a human equivalent, “but it’s clear we’re not talking about vast amounts. We don’t know what would happen with higher doses.”

Researchers don’t know exactly how marijuana affects older adults, in part because they have been focused squarely on younger people, who are thought to be at greatest risk. “Because of the public health concern, research has had a very strong focus on marijuana’s effects in adolescence,” Ware says. But although young people make up the largest group of cannabis users, their rate of use has remained relatively stable over the past decade even as the drug has become increasingly available. Meanwhile, use among seniors has skyrocketed as the drug’s stigma has faded. A March study showed that in people aged 50 to 64, marijuana use increased nearly 60 percent between 2006 and 2013. And among adults over 65, the drug’s use jumped by 250 percent.

The researchers don’t suggest seniors should rush out and start using marijuana. “I don’t want to encourage anyone to use cannabis in any form based on this study,” Zimmer says.
Older adults looking to medical cannabis to relieve chronic pain and other ailments are concerned about its side effects, Ware says. “They want to know: Does this cause damage to my brain? Will it impair my memory? If this data holds up in humans…it may suggest that [THC] isn’t likely to have a negative impact if you’re using the right dose. Now the challenge is thrown down to clinical researchers to study that in people,” Ware says.

Zimmer and his colleagues plan to do just that. They have secured funding from the German government, and after clearing regulatory hurdles they will begin testing the effects of THC in elderly adults with mild cognitive impairments.

Editor Mimi:   I particularly like this marijuana information, not only because of the great need, with people living longer, but because it is another item that was brought in by our primos, which is appears might be very positive.



"The first Ibero-American Congress of Cultural Heritage"

Madrid Spain
December 2001


Welcome to the Andres


I would like to express my gratitude to the hosts and other friends of the Smithsonian Institution's Latino Initiative Center. I am honored to be invited to share some words related to the Hispanic legacy at the Smithsonian Institution and the role played by the Latino Initiative Center for which I am the director.

I am also grateful to the members of the Spanish Association of Cultural Heritage Managers and its President, Mr. Francisco Zamora, for inviting me to this important event. It is especially propitious for me to refer to the subject of the Hispanic legacy due to the growing interest within the United States towards our population, considered as the most representative ethnic group in that country.

Our population is exceptional and unique. However, it requires further study and understanding in order to appreciate the significance of its position within the United States of America. Also, my presentation gives me the opportunity to invite you to visit the Smithsonian Institution, which also has a unique role in America. It is an immense and complex institution, not always understood in terms of its mission and importance.

Generally speaking, I will try, in the first instance, to refer to the Smithsonian Institution as such, which puts us in context to open the discussion about the Hispanic legacy. I must add that I will use the words 'Hispanic' and 'Latino' alternatively in my speech. However, there are large differences in the meaning of the two terms. Latino refers primarily to Hispanic descendents within Latin America and the Caribbean and excludes Spain’s population. About the Smithsonian:

The Smithsonian Institution is 155 years old since the time when the English scientist  James Smithson bequeated almost all of his wealth “... to the United States of America with the sole purpose of creating, in the city of Washington, and under the name of the Smithsonian Institution an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge.”

It was then that the Congress of the United States accepted the donation and issued the Organic Act of 1846 which defined the institution as it is known today. Congress established that the trust be administered by a Board of Regents and a Secretary, who have complete discretion to determine and choose the most convenient means to increase and disseminate knowledge. Likewise, Congress established that the Board of Regents be chaired by the President of the Supreme Court of Justice, the Chancellor, by virtue of his position, the Vice President of the United States, by virtue of his position, three members of the Senate carefully selected, three from the House of Representatives, and nine 'citizen' members chosen by the Board.

The Smithsonian's role in the United States is unique and prominent in that it brings Americans closer to their history and cultural and scientific legacy than any other institution in the world. Additionally, it allows Americans to learn about other people and other cultures through programs that include materials from all over the world. From the beginning, the Smithsonian has helped develop collections and exhibits to create an understanding of history, culture, and society through access to music, art, science, technology, and international exchanges.

The Smithsonian is comprised of 16 museums and galleries, the National Zoo, a library system and nine research centers. Two major new museums are currently under construction: The Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center of the National Air and Space Museum, located near Dulles International Airport, and the American Indian National Museum next to the Congress Building. U.S. The Smithsonian Center for Latino Initiatives was created as a pan-institutional office with funds and programs to assure the presence and programs for U.S. Latinos throughout the Institution. I will discuss our strategy below.

In total, the Smithsonian's heritage exceeds 280 million articles. Of this number, museum collections hold more than 140 million objects, and the archives hold about 140 million documents, photographs and other records. The libraries of the Institution have approximately 1.5 million copies. The Smithsonian thus constitutes the greatest center of creativity, courage,  aspirations, innovative spirit, imagination, ingenuity, and traditional values of the Americans. In   their collections reside the records of what America has been. Moreover, the collections include millions of articles and documents from around the world, which makes it possible for Americans to understand and investigate other cultures and societies.

The Smithsonian's research covers a wide range of topics covering astrophysics, aquaculture, anthropology, environmental studies, water division management, archaeological excavations, tropical animal behavior, endangered species and causes of Decay of works of art. The Smithsonian is a powerful combination of a very important research institution and an advanced learning center.

However, of the more than 140 million pieces and specimens, we can only exhibit 2 percent at the same time; For this reason, and as a loan, the Smithsonian delivers articles from its vast collection to the different museums of the country, which become affiliates of the  Smithsonian. In addition, hundreds of their possessions are repatriated annually, including human remains and funerary objects from native populations, all over the world.

Unlike other institutions in the United States and Europe, which attract mostly international visitors, 90 percent of Smithsonian visitors are from the United States. Museums and the zoo recorded an impressive 34 million visitors. The trend for 2001 was 40 million, before the attacks on the cities of New York and Washington on 11 September.

In addition, the Smithsonian develops temporary exhibitions in different parts of the country. It is estimated that 36 million visitors have enjoyed this kind of exhibitions near their homes. Moreover, the Institution's website registers approximately 2 million visitors per month. Entrance to the Smithsonian's museums is free and its doors remain open throughout the year with the exception of December 25, Christmas Day.

To achieve these efforts, a lot of money is needed and the commitments are diverse. Approximately $500 million dollars, or 60 percent of the funds, comes from the federal budget. Another $200 million comes from donations and sales of Smithsonian products. However, the Institution needs additional resources to cover expenses for repairs and  renovations of its historic buildings and facilities. It also needs to pay its nearly 6,000 employees in charge of day-to-day operations, security, information and education programs. That number would be even greater if it were not for the 5 thousand people who volunteer their work annually.

The Center for Latino Initiatives

Given this close review of the history and importance of the Smithsonian Institution in the United States, we might think that it has long been considered an office or museum dedicated to the Hispanic population in this country. Amazingly it was not. This omission became evident in the nineties when U.S. Latino leaders organized the ceremonies to commemorate the five centuries  of the arrival of Christopher Columbus to the American continent in 1492. For many, this date  was the opportunity to celebrate the Hispanic legacy. For others, the opportunity to question the  treatment that was given to the American Indians throughout 500 years of European   intrusion. But in the Smithsonian it was relatively little that was organized for the occasion, with   the exception of a wonderful exhibition and a program known as "Seeds of Exchange". This             program endeavored to show what the Spaniards introduced to the Americas and what they in turn took to Europe.

Local Latino leaders wanted to know why the Smithsonian did only this series of programs. In response to this concern, the Smithsonian organized a group of Latino community leaders and members of the Institution in 1994 for the sole purpose of studying the problem. This group produced a report titled "Wilful Neglect", which was published in May 1994. In a very strong language, the content of this document attempted to challenge the Smithsonian to close the existing gaps in the issue of Hispanic/Latino representation. The report explicitly concluded that:

"The institution excludes and ignores almost entirely the Latino population in the United States. This lack of inclusion is evident in the absence of facilities in museums focused on Latino or Latino American art, culture or history; The absence of Latino exhibits or programs; The small number of Latino personnel; The small number of positions aimed at curators or  entrepreneurs; And in the almost non-existent representation of the Latino community in the governing structure. For the group writing this report, it is difficult to understand how this  consistent pattern of Latino exclusion in the Smithsonian's work could have occurred without an intentional omission. "

When the report was published, a new Secretary, I. Michael Heyman, was appointed to lead the Smithsonian Institution. He had served on the National Board and was the Chancellor of the University of California, Berkeley. He witnessed Latino protests and efforts to open institutions of higher education. In a first act as Secretary, he created the "Latino Supervisory Committee" in order to determine actions to follow within the Smithsonian. That group drafted a second report entitled "Towards a Shared Vision". The report was published in 1997 and its content provided valuable initiatives on possible solutions. He affirmed that the Smithsonian should be "truly a space for the nation, representing and reflecting the changing American kaleidoscope through its collections, exhibitions, research and public programs, and its administration, employees, visitors and volunteers. "Toward a Shared Vision" also suggested the establishment of a Latino Center to coordinate, research and expand Latino programming within the Smithsonian.

Background and Role

Thus, the Smithsonian Center for Latino Initiatives was created by the Board of Regents in the fall of 1997, just four years ago. In some ways, a historic reparation was being made, which we could sum up in the words of Secretary Heyman in his inaugural address of 1994:

"We will pay special attention to Americans of Hispanic origin, not to differentiate them, but to educate us all about our origins, in a way that promotes feelings of pride and therefore acts against separation and make creation more achievable of a single type of Americans. "

Mission and Priorities

I had the honor and the immense responsibility of being appointed Founding Director of the  Center. I opened the Center near the office of the Secretary in the Smithsonian Castle on August 1998. My authoriztion as Director has been to define the course and direction of the Center within the Smithsonian Institution, across all its historic programs, buildings and diverse museums.

Today our mandate is clearly in line with the vision of the Smithsonian's first benefactor, James Smithson, in the sense of creating an entity for the "increase and diffusion of knowledge." Mr. Smithson believed that the development of knowledge would generate opportunities for the social and moral improvement of mankind. Smithson also believed that spreading that knowledge was equally important in order to reach the widest possible audience.

Today the Center's mission is to advance and spread the knowledge and understanding of the contributions of Latinos and Latinas in the history, art, music, culture, science and society of the United States. Our mission is being fulfilled through the generation of knowledge through research and scholarships, interpreting and communicating knowledge through exhibitions, electronic and Internet capabilities, and building dialogue and relationships among Latino communities living in the United States, The Smithsonian Institution and other organizations dedicated to education and knowledge, foundations, corporations and government agencies.

First, we are a Center dedicated primarily to enhancing the knowledge and understanding of Latinos living and working in the United States and its territories. We have a commitment to education and communication throughout the nation and with Latino communities. We give  priority to Latinos from the United States in our activities, including Latinos from Puerto Rico and the territories of the United States. This does not mean, however, that we have an exclusive agenda or division between Latinos in the United States and those in Latin America. We have no borders because in our work and research we have much to learn from others and much to gain in the study of science, history, art, music, entertainment and culture of Latin America.

Second, we are a Center that facilitates and promotes Latino initiatives within the same Smithsonian Institution. That is, through our work we intend to increase the representation of Latinos in the Smithsonian's museums, galleries and educational and research centers. Our intention is to improve more and more the dependencies of the Smithsonian in terms of Latin representation.

Third, we are a Center committed to strengthening the nation's interest in the museums, cultural centers and educational initiatives of Latinos. We are achieving this by developing training programs, workshops, communication systems, forums and national events, and collaborating with networks of students, curators, conservationists and professionals committed to history,  art, music, photography, science and culture Latina Our mission will be successful as we complement our work with that of others committed to Latino communities.

Fourth, we are also a Center that leads the way in promoting initiatives where and when theCenter must show the way. Among these initiatives we can mention the interdisciplinary and interinstitutional projects focused on the combination of resources and specialties.

Programs of the Center

Today, the Center for Latino Initiatives has an overall strategic plan for Latin programming, consisting of three areas:

• Historical and Musical Traditions 
How to define the Latino without talking about the rhythms, verses and melodies that circulate through the blood of the Hispanic population? There is no doubt that the
corrido, son, cumbia, rancheras, mariachi, tangos, vallenato, bolero, salsa or merengue, among many other rhythms, are an essential part of the Latino being. That is why we have focused on Latin/Latino music  because it connects and enriches our knowledge about Latino history and culture and gives our society a wonderful display of Latino presence and spirit. It is our intention to express Latino music, and to the musicians and scholars of the same, a predominant place within the Smithsonian. We also sponsor research related to the history and culture of Latin music. Our goal is to establish a national center for information, study and references of authors of Latino  music. The program will also include presentations and educational events co-sponsored by Smithsonian museums and educational facilities.

• Latino Arts and Culture

The intention of the Center's initiatives in the Latino arts and culture is to publicize the immense contributions of Latinos in areas such as visual and performing arts, fashion and illustration, and other related artistic productions, in order to increase their understanding. The Center promotes research related to these themes, exhibits and opportunities within the Smithsonian in order to reach larger audiences. The Center has plans to raise funds for the funding of Smithsonian researchers and support programs for Latino communities throughout the nation. To achieve success in this regard, exhibitions and collaboration within the Smithsonian and organizations that promote Latino culture, arts, and legacy are essential.

• Research, Dissemination and Educational Resources

We have identified, on the other hand, the need to interweave the areas of music, arts, culture, and science with a staff dedicated primarily to the goal of increasing research, dissemination and educational resources. We have several lines of responsibility, including: Pre and Post-Doctoral programs for resident experts. Training at the Smithsonian and assistance and technical support to Latino museums and cultural centers. An additional component in our educational programming is the "Virtual Gallery Latina" of the Center, which presents exhibits related to Latino themes and educational content.

Challenges and Opportunities

Today there is no doubt about the importance of having a Latino Center at the Smithsonian Institution. We have about 40 million people of Hispanic/Latino origin living in the United States and Puerto Rico, or about 14% of the total population. Given the rising birthrate and the nearly 700,000 new Latino immigrants each year, we anticipate about 50 million Latinos in the next 10 years. Latinos from kindergarten to the last year of high school are now the largest minority enrolled in public schools. In 2000, Latino voters accounted for 9 percent of national results in local elections. It is expected that this percentage will increase exponentially in the next elections, and thus provide voters of Latin origin with an important role in America. Keep in mind that Latinos are relatively young. In fact, about half of the Latino population is less than 25 years of age, while the average age of the rest of the Americans is 35 years.

Latinos are also, as never before, a predominant group within the US workforce and economy as a growing and influential population of consumers, voters, and investors. Latinos are increasingly important in the entertainment industry, sports (particularly in baseball and soccer) and fashion design. Hispanics' purchasing power averaged nearly $ 500 billion in 2000. Today, magazines and newspapers in Spanish are increasing in numbers and producing profits thanks to the steady increase in advertising. Spanish-language radio and television networks have an immense and growing audience. More and more Latinos are seeking information and recognition in our museums and cultural centers. This implies a great responsibility for us, since we must respond to the needs of this dynamic Hispanic population.

Latino Communities

We are currently experiencing increasing diversity and dispersion among Latinos living in the United States. Usually we think of Latinos in terms of a few distinct groups identified by their nationality, such as Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans-Americans, Central and South Americans, and other groups of Hispanic origin, including Philippinos and others of Spanish language heritage and culture. [Note: The Philippines were conquered by Spain in 1565, the islands were ceded to the US in 1898, following the Spanish-American War.]

Given this diversity and demographic dispersion, we must then refer to Latinos in terms of 'Latino  communities'. For example, in terms of places that reflect the growing concentration of Latinos in different parts of the United States. An article in "US News and World Report" identified 17  different types of Latino cultural groups. As an example, the article ranks Latinos in the United States in the following groups:

1) Californians: Mexican immigrants, middle-class Mexicans, dwellers neighborhood and American Center of Union Peak (a section of McArthur Park in Los Angeles)

2) Texans: Texans from the South, Mexicans from Houston and Guatemalans from Texas.

3) Chicagoans: Cubans, Mexicans from Chicago and Puerto Ricans from Chicago.

4) Miamians: Cubans, Nicaraguans and South Americans.

5) New Yorkers / Dominicans: Puerto Ricans, Dominicans and Colombians. 

6) Beltway Latinos: Salvadorans, Hondurans and Caribbean Natives.

7) Other: Latino or Latino Indians, New Mexico Hispanics, and migrant workers.

Latino communities are fascinating and extraordinary. Among Latinos newly arrived in the United States there are tens of thousands of Indians from Latin America. Many of them are Mixtecos, Zapatecas, Quechuas, Aymara, Yaquis, Tarahumaras, Tohono-Odum and Mayas. The Latino Indians enrich the cultural tradition through its diverse languages and customs. We also find a growing interest in Afro-Latin heritage and culture, especially from the Caribbean region. If we add to this mix the religious interests and tendencies of Latinos, including Islam and Judaism, among others, we will get a great mix of Latino communities to be addressed today within the United States.

The diversity of the Latino population is increasing so rapidly that even Latinos are sometimes unaware of the range of Latinos' identities, histories, issues, and issues of interest in the United States.

Latino Heritage

The Smithsonian Center for Latino Initiatives plays a key role in identifying and disseminating Latino culture and heritage. It also pays special attention to the projects that provide teachers and school students with information and materials that promote a positive image of Latino culture. We must focus our efforts on Latino youth and educational issues because 50 percent of the Latino population is under 23.

When we look at the characteristics of Latinos from the racial, cultural and linguistic point of view, we can emphasize in all cases that Latinos are multiracial and multicultural. This represents an important attribute of Latinos. Hardly is a Latino without racial mixture, or as it is denominated in Castilian: 'mestizaje'. There is much to be learned once the Latino concept of the mestizo term is understood. This should not be considered as a demeaning concept. According to renowned Mexican philosopher Jose Vasconcelos, in his book "The Cosmic Race" (1947): "The mestizos are the basis of a new civilization." In other words, knowing who we are, a mixture of whites, blacks, Asians and Indians, we can understand our own wealth. The great Mexican artist, Diego Rivera, contemporary of Vasconcelos, defined himself as Spanish, Indian, African, Italian, Jewish, Russian and of Portuguese ancestry. Millions of Latinos could say the same thing. Looked at in these terms, how rich we are to be mestizos!.

Exhibitions and Projects Required

Although we generally rely on social statistics to describe the Latino population, we should not forget our past. More research and publicity is needed to show the importance of Latinos. I hope the following three examples will sufficiently explain the issues that need the most attention.

An important point is the role that Hispanics played in the formation of the United States. For example, who of you knows General Bernardo De Galvez? Near the State Department we find a modest statue of the uniformed General and his horse. During the American Revolution, the General served as Governor of the Spanish territories in what are now Louisiana, Texas and ten other states. Under Galvez's mandate, Spain proved to be a vital ally and a significant factor in securing American independence from Britain. Gálvez replaced generals Washington and Clark, and commanded a multi-national army of more than 7,000 soldiers between whites and blacks from Spain, Cuba, Mexico, Puerto Rico and Hispaniola, who won a crucial battle in Pensacola, Florida, managing to stop the British. However, few of us know these facts. Worse, the aforementioned statue was not put there by the United States. It was a gift made by Spain just a few years ago. There are many more Hispanics who fought for the United States. Today I ask you: where is the recognition of the other heroes for their contribution to the construction of this nation?

Secondly, in the National Museum of American History there is a beautiful structure of stainless steel: "Infinity". Every 8 minutes it gives a complete spin. "Infinity" has done it for thirty years. Despite its history and strategic location in the city, few know its creator. It was the first piece of abstract art acquired by the Federal Government to be exhibited in the city. Its creator was a Latino born in Louisiana, internationally recognized at the time. His name: José de Rivera, born under the name of José Ruiz in 1904. He died in 1985. Other works by the artist are in the Hirshhorn and Metropolitan Museum of Art. His documents are in the American Art Archives. Despite this, very few know that this man was a Latin American. My thanks to Mr. Shayt for providing this information to me. What is evident from these data is the great need to fill our own collections with documentation on Latinos who have contributed to the Smithsonian.

Third, in times of xenophobia in America, and when it is said that Spanish-speaking Latinos are not loyal Americans, I think we need better documentation of the facts in the Smithsonian. Thanks to the information provided by Colonel Gil Colorado, I am pleased to mention some specific points in a large list of historical events.

Since the American Revolution, 38 Hispanics have received the highest honor of the nation: The Congressional Medal of Honor. I understand that few ethnic populations of the United Stateshave received so much honor. Three in the Civil War and many more in other battles including The Boxer Rebellion. During World War II, eleven Hispanics received this important award. Additionally, there were three combat pilots who accumulated 41 victories among them. In the Korean War, 8 Hispanics received the Congressional Medal of Honor. Captain Manuel J. Fernandez Jr, USAF, who was a combat pilot shot down at least 14 aircraft. The Puerto Rico Infantry Regiment 65 participated in nine major campaigns defeating thousands ofenemies. The members of this Infantry received four Silver Crosses and 124 Silver Stars as adistinction. During the Vietnam War, 13 Hispanics were awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor. The last American to leave Vietnam in the famous evacuation of the American Embassywas Sergeant Major Juan J. Valdez. In Iran, when Ayatollah Khomeni offered to release the detained minorities as hostages, the sailors Lopez and Gallegos rejected the offer, each saying: "I am American, I am a seaman of the United States, I will be the last one to leave." In Silvas, Illinois, 22 Mexican-American families living on a street just a block and a half sent over a hundred young men to three different wars: World War II, Korea and Vietnam. This street contributed to military service with more men than any of the same size in the United States. Appropriately, this street bears the name of "Heroe Street of the United States", and has its place in the military history of the United States.

There is no doubt that the United States and its history of freedom struggle owe much to the population of Hispanic origin! Today we are beginning to be aware of that historical and moral debt.


Today, fortunately, interest in Latin American history, literature, music, arts, photography, science, heroes, and cultural traditions grows. Latinos have a lot to be proud of. And we have a lot of work ahead of us at the Smithsonian Institution to develop the knowledge and understanding of America’s Latino population.

I hope these words have provided a solid foundation for understanding the Hispanic legacy in the United States, the role of the Smithsonian and the Center for Latino Initiatives. We have a highly qualified staff and a promising future. We are working to achieve a shared vision. From all that I have mentioned, the need to share initiatives with international organizations is evident. We will always rely on the help of teachers, students and administrative staff to carry out our exhibitions, collections and research on the Latino theme. We will need funding and investment in our programs from foundations, philanthropists and corporations. There is plenty to do and we hope that many will join in our efforts. I am sure that you have understood the situation. Thank you for inviting me as speaker. I look forward to your initiatives regarding the Latin theme.

Thank you very much

Refugio I. Rochin-Rodriguez, PhD, Professor Emeritus, University of California, 
Founding Director of the Smithsonian Center for Latino Initiatives
Madrid Spain
December 2001

Posted by the Presidential Library Andrés Pastrana 
All Rights Reserved | Created by Kirabytes


latinas-de-la institucion-smithsonian/    Jun 16, 2001


Agradecimientos. Quisiera expresar mi gratitud a los anfitriones y demás amigos del Centro de Iniciativas Latinas de la Institución Smithsonian. Me siento honrado por la invitación para compartir unas palabras relacionadas con el tema del legado hispano en la Institución Smithsonian y el papel que juega el Centro de Iniciativas Latinas del cual soy director.

Agradezco también a los miembros de la Asociación Española de Gestores de Patrimonio Cultural y a su Presidente, el señor Francisco Zamora, por invitarme a este importante evento. Es especialmente propicio para mi referirme al tema del legado hispano debido al creciente interés dentro de los Estados Unidos hacia nuestra población, considerada como el grupo étnico más representativo en ese país.

Nuestra población es excepcional y única; sin embargo requiere de un mayor estudio y entendimiento con el fin de apreciar el significado de su posición dentro de los Estados Unidos de América. Así mismo, mi presentación me brinda la oportunidad de invitarlos a que visiten laInstitución Smithsonian, la cual tiene también un rol único en América. Es una institución inmensa y compleja, y no siempre comprendida en términos de su misión e importancia.

De manera general intentaré, en primera instancia, referirme a la Institución Smithsonian como tal, lo cual nos pone en contexto para abrir la discusión sobre el legado hispano. Debo agregar que utilizaré las palabras ‘hispano’ y ‘latino’ de manera alternativa en mi discurso. No obstante, existen grandes diferencias en el significado de los dos términos.

Acerca del Smithsonian

La Institución del Smithsonian tiene 155 años de existencia desde la época en que el cientifico inglés James Smithson donara la totalidad de su patrimonio … a los Estados Unidos de América con el único fin de crear, en la ciudad de Washington, y bajo el nombre de la Institución Smithsonian un establecimiento para el aumento y la difusión del conocimiento…

Fue entonces cuando el Congreso de los Estados Unidos aceptó la donación y expidió el Acto Orgánico de 1846 el cual definió la institución tal como se le conoce en la actualidad. ElCongreso estableció que el fideicomiso fuese administrado por una Junta de Regentes y un Secretario, los cuales poseen total discreción para determinar y escoger los medios más convenientes con el fin de aumentar y difundir el conocimiento. Así mismo, el Congreso estableció que la Junta de Regentes sea presidida por el Presidente de la Corte Suprema de Justicia, el Canciller, en virtud de su cargo, el Vice Presidente de los Estados Unidos, en virtud de su cargo, tres miembros del Senado cuidadosamente seleccionados, tres de la Cámara de Representantes, y nueve miembros ‘ciudadanos’ escogidos por la Junta.

El rol que juega el Smithsonian en los Estados Unidos es único y prominente en la medida en que acerca a los americanos a su historia y a su legado cultural y científico más que ninguna otra institución en el mundo. Adicionalmente, permite que los americanos aprendan acerca deotra gente y otras culturas a través de programas que incluyen materiales provenientes de todo el mundo. Desde un principio, el Smithsonian ha ayudado a desarrollar colecciones y exhibiciones con el objetivo de crear un entendimiento de la historia, cultura y de la sociedad, por medio del acceso a la música, el arte, ciencia, tecnología, y los intercambios internacionales.

El Smithsonian esta compuesto por 16 museos y galerías, el zoológico nacional, un sistema de bibliotecas y nueve centros de investigación. Dos importantes nuevos museos están siendoconstruidos en la actualidad: el Centro Steven F. Udvar-Hazy del Museo Nacional de la Aire y el Espacio, ubicado cerca del Aeropuerto Internacional Dulles, y el Museo Nacional del Indio Americano próximo al edificio del Congreso de los Estados Unidos.

En total, el patrimonio del Smithsonian sobrepasa los 280 millones de artículos. De este número, las colecciones de los museos poseen mas de 140 millones de objetos, y los archivos albergan cerca de 140 millones de documentos, fotografías y otros expedientes. Las bibliotecas de la Institución poseen 1.5 millones de ejemplares aproximadamente. El Smithsonian se constituye de esta manera en el más grande centro de creatividad, coraje, aspiraciones, espíritu innovador, imaginación, ingenuidad, y valores tradicionales de los americanos. En sus colecciones residen los expedientes de lo que América ha sido. Más aún, las coleccionesincluyen millones de artículos y documentos del mundo entero, lo cual hace posible que los americanos entiendan e investiguen acerca de otras culturas y sociedades.

La investigación del Smithsonian cubre una gran variedad de temas que abarcan la astrofísica, acuacultura, antropología, estudios ambientales, la administración de la división de aguas, excavaciones arqueológicas, el comportamiento de los animales tropicales, las especies en peligro de extinción y las causas del decaimiento de las obras de arte. El Smithsonian es una poderosa combinación entre una importantísima institución de investigación y un avanzado centro de aprendizaje. 

Sin embargo, de los más de 140 millones de piezas y especímenes, únicamente podemos exhibir el 2 por ciento al mismo tiempo; por ésta razón, y en calidad de préstamo, el Smithsonian entrega artículos de su vasta colección a los diferentes museos del país, los cuales se convierten en afiliados del Smithsonian. Además, anualmente son repatriados cientos de sus posesiones incluyendo restos humanos y objetos funerarios de poblaciones nativas.

A diferencia de otras instituciones en los Estados Unidos y Europa, que atraen en su mayoría visitantes internacionales, el 90 por ciento de los visitantes del Smithsonian son de Estados Unidos. Los museos y el zoológico registraron el impresionante número de 34 millones devisitantes. La tendencia para el 2001 era de 40 millones, antes de los ataques a las ciudades de Nueva York y Washington el pasado 11 de septiembre.

Adicionalmente, el Smithsonian desarrolla exhibiciones temporales en diferentes partes del país. Se estima que 36 millones de visitantes han disfrutado de este tipo de exhibiciones cercade sus hogares. Mas aún, la página de internet de la Institución registra aproximadamente 2 millones de visitantes al mes. El ingreso a los museos del Smithsonian es gratuito y sus puertas permanecen abiertas durante todo el año con la excepción del 25 de diciembre, el día denavidad.

Para lograr mantener estos esfuerzos se necesita mucho dinero y los compromisos son diversos. Aproximadamente 500 millones de dólares, es decir, el 60 por ciento de los fondos,proviene del presupuesto federal. Otros 200 millones provienen de donaciones y de las ventasde los productos del Smithsonian. No obstante, la Institución necesita recursos adicionales para cubrir los gastos destinados a reparaciones y renovaciones de sus históricos edificios e instalaciones. También necesita pagar a sus casi 6 mil empleados encargados de las operaciones diarias, seguridad, información y programas de educación. Ese número sería aun mayor si no fuera por las 5 mil personas que anualmente ofrecen su trabajo de manera voluntaria.

El Centro de Iniciativas Latinas

Vista esta apretada reseña sobre la historia y la importancia de la Institución Smithsonian en los Estados Unidos, podríamos pensar que en ella se ha contemplado desde hace mucho tiempo una oficina o museo dedicados a la población hispana en este país. Asombrosamente no fue así. 

Esta omisión se hizo evidente en la década de los noventa cuando los líderes latinos organizaban las ceremonias para conmemorar los cinco siglos del arribo de Cristóbal Colón al continente americano en 1492. Para muchos, esta fecha era la oportunidad para celebrar el legado hispano. Para otros, la oportunidad de cuestionar el tratamiento que se le dio a los indios americanos a lo largo de 500 años de intrusión europea. Pero en el Smithsonian fue relativamente poco lo que fue organizado para la ocasión, con la excepción de una maravillosa exhibición y un programa conocido como “las Semillas del Intercambio”. Este programa se esforzó por mostrar lo que los españoles introdujeron a las Américas y lo que ellos a cambio se llevaron a Europa.

Los líderes latinos locales quisieron saber por qué motivo el Smithsonian realizó únicamente ésta serie de programas. En respuesta a esta inquietud, el Smithsonian organizó en 1994 a un grupo de líderes de la comunidad latina y a algunos miembros de la Institución con el único fin de estudiar el problema.

Este grupo realizó un informe que llevó como título: “Omisión Intencional”, el cual fue publicado en mayo de 1994. Con un lenguaje bastante fuerte, el contenido de este documento pretendió retar al Smithsonian a cerrar las brechas existentes en el tema de la representación hispana. El reporte explícitamente concluyó que:

“La Institución excluye e ignora casi enteramente a la población latina en los Estados Unidos. Esta falta de inclusión es evidente en la ausencia de instalaciones en los museos enfocadas a lo latino o hacia el arte, cultura o historia latinoamericana; la ausencia de exhibiciones o programas latinos; el reducido número de personal latino; el escaso número de posiciones dirigidas a curadores o empresarios; y en la casi inexistente representación de la comunidad latina en la estructura gobernativa. Para el grupo que escribe este informe, es difícil comprender cómo este consistente patrón de exclusión de lo latino en el trabajo que realiza el Smithsonian pudo haber ocurrido sin una omisión intencional”.

Cuando el informe fue publicado, un nuevo Secretario, Michael Heyman, fue designado para dirigir la Institución Smithsonian. Él creó el “Comité de Supervisión Latino” con el fin de determinar acciones a seguir dentro del Smithsonian. Ese grupo redactó un segundo informe titulado “Hacia una Visión Compartida”. El informe fue publicado en 1997 y su contenido aportó valiosas iniciativas sobre posibles soluciones. Afirmó que el Smithsonian debería ser “verdaderamente un espacio para la nación, representando y reflejando el cambiante kaleidoscopio americano a través de sus colecciones, exhibiciones, investigación y programas públicos, y en su administración, empleados, visitantes y voluntarios. “Hacia una Visión Compartida” también sugirió el establecimiento de un Centro Latino que coordinara, investigara y ampliara la programación latina dentro del Smithsonian.

Antecedentes y Rol

Fue así como, finalmente, el Centro de Iniciativas Latinas del Smithsonian fue creado por la Junta de Regentes en el otoño de 1997, hace apenas cuatro años. De alguna manera se estaba cumpliendo con una reparación histórica, que bien podríamos sintetizar con las palabras del Secretario Heyman, en su discurso inaugural de 1994:

“ Pondremos especial atención a los americanos de origen hispano, no para diferenciarlos, sino para que todos nos eduquemos acerca de nuestros orígenes, de una manera que promueva sentimientos de orgullo y por ende actúe en contra de la separación y que haga más alcanzable la creación de un solo tipo de americanos”.

Misión y Prioridades

Tuve el honor y la inmensa responsabilidad de ser designado como Director Fundador del Centro, el cual abrió sus puertas el 10 de agosto de 1998 y ha tenido como sede el Castillo del Smithsonian. Mi misión como Director ha sido la definición del curso y la dirección del Centro dentro del Smithsonian.

Hoy en día nuestro mandato está claramente en concordancia con la visión del primer benefactor del Smithsonian, James Smithson, en el sentido de crear una entidad para el “incremento y la difusión del conocimiento”. El señor Smithson creía que el desarrollo del conocimiento generaría oportunidades encaminadas al mejoramiento social y moral del género humano. Smithson también creía que la difusión de ese conocimiento era igualmente importante para lograr llegar a la mayor audiencia posible.

La misión del Centro es avanzar y difundir el conocimiento y entendimiento de las contribuciones de los latinos y latinas en la historia, arte, música, cultura, ciencia y sociedad de los Estados Unidos. Nuestra misión esta siendo cumplida mediante la generación de conocimiento a través de investigaciones y becas, interpretando y comunicando conocimiento por medio de las exhibiciones, capacidades electronicas y en la Internet, y construyendo diálogo y relaciones entre las comunidades de latinos residentes en los Estados Unidos, la institución Smithsonian y otras organizaciones dedicadas a la educación y al conocimiento, fundaciones, corporaciones y agencias gubernamentales.

En primer lugar, somos un Centro dedicado fundamentalmente a enaltecer el conocimiento y el entendimiento de los latinos que viven y trabajan en los Estados Unidos y sus territorios.

Tenemos un compromiso con la educación y la comunicación a lo largo de la nación y con las comunidades latinas. Damos prioridad a los latinos de los Estados Unidos en nuestrasactividades, incluyendo los latinos de Puerto Rico y los territorios de los Estados Unidos. Esto no significa, sin embargo, que tenemos una agenda exclusiva o división entre los latinos de los Estados Unidos y los de América Latina. No tenemos fronteras ya que en nuestro trabajo e investigación tenemos mucho que aprender de los demás y mucho que ganar en el estudio de la ciencia, historia, arte, música, entretenimiento y cultura de América Latina.

Segundo, somos un Centro que facilita y promueve las iniciativas latinas dentro de la misma Institución Smithsonian. Es decir, por medio de nuestro trabajo pretendemos incrementar la   representación de los latinos en los museos, galerías y centros educativos y de investigación del  Smithsonian. Nuestra intención es mejorar cada vez más las dependencias del Smithsonian en lo que se refiere a la representación latina.

Tercero, somos un Centro comprometido en la tarea de fortalecer el interés de la nación en los museos, centros culturales e iniciativas educativas de los latinos. Lo estamos logrando por medio del desarrollo de programas de capacitación, talleres, sistemas de comunicación, foros y eventos nacionales, y colaborando con las redes de alumnos, curadores, conservacionistas y profesionales comprometidos con la historia, arte, música, fotografía, ciencia y cultura latina.

Nuestra misión será exitosa en la medida en que complementemos nuestro trabajo con el de otros comprometidos con las comunidades latinas.

Cuarto, somos igualmente un Centro que lleva la delantera en la promoción de iniciativas donde y cuando el Centro debe mostrar el camino. Entre dichas iniciativas podemos mencionar los proyectos interdisciplinarios e interinstitucionales enfocados a la combinación de recursos y especialidades.

Programas del Centro

Hoy por hoy, el Centro de Iniciativas Latinas tiene un plan estratégico general para la programación latina, compuesto por tres áreas:

• Tradiciones Históricas y Musicales

¿Cómo definir lo latino sin hablar de los ritmos, los versos y melodías que circulan por la sangre de la población hispana? No cabe duda de que el son, la cumbia, la música norteña, las rancheras, los tangos, el vallenato, el bolero, la salsa o el merengue, entre tantos otros ritmos, forman parte esencial del ser latino. Por eso, nos hemos enfocado en la música latina porque ésta conecta y enriquece nuestro conocimiento acerca de la historia y la cultura latina y brinda a nuestra sociedad una maravillosa muestra de la presencia y el espíritu latino. Es nuestra intención garantizarle a la música latina, y a los músicos y estudiosos de la misma, un lugar predominante dentro del Smithsonian. Así mismo, patrocinamos la investigación relacionada con la historia y la cultura que encierra la música latina. Nuestro objetivo es establecer un centro nacional de información, estudio y referencias de autores de la música latina. El programa también incluirá presentaciones y eventos educativos co-patrocinados por los museos y dependencias educativas del Smithsonian.

• Artes y Cultura Latina

La intención de las iniciativas del Centro en las artes y cultura latina es dar a conocer las inmensas contribuciones de los latinos en áreas tales como las artes visuales y de representación, moda e ilustración y otras producciones artísticas relacionadas, de manera que se logre incrementar su entendimiento. El Centro promueve la investigación relacionada con estos temas, exhibiciones y oportunidades dentro del Smithsonian con el fin de alcanzar mayores audiencias. El Centro tiene planes de conseguir recursos para la dotación de los investigadores del Smithsonian y los programas de apoyo a las comunidades latinas a lo largo de la nación. Para alcanzar el éxito en este sentido, son fundamentales las exhibiciones y colaboración dentro del Smithsonian y las organizaciones que promueven la cultura, las artes y el legado latino.

• Investigación, Difusión y Recursos Educativos

Hemos identificado, por otra parte, la necesidad de entrelazar las áreas de la música, las artes y la cultura, y la ciencia con un personal dedicado principalmente al objetivo de incrementar la investigación, la difusión y los recursos educativos. Tenemos varias líneas de responsabilidad, incluyendo: programas de Pre y Post-Doctorales para expertos residentes; capacitación en el Smithsonian y asistencia y apoyo técnico a los museos y centros culturales latinos. Un componente adicional en nuestra programación educativa es la “Galería Virtual Latina” del Centro, la cual presenta exhibiciones relacionadas con el temas latinos y con contenido educativo: .

Retos y Oportunidades

Hoy en día no existe ninguna duda sobre la importancia de tener un Centro Latino en la Institución Smithsonian. Tenemos cerca de 40 millones de personas de origen hispano viviendo en los Estados Unidos y Puerto Rico, o sea, cerca del 14% del total de la población. Dado el incremento en la tasa de natalidad y los cerca de 700,000 nuevos inmigrantes latinos cada año, anticipamos unos 50 millones de latinos en los próximos 10 años. Los latinos que cursan desde kínder hasta el último año de bachillerato representan en este momento la más grande minoría matriculada en las escuelas públicas. En el año 2000, los votantes latinos representaron el 9 por ciento de los resultados nacionales en las elecciones locales. Se espera que este porcentaje se vea incrementado exponencialmente en las próximas elecciones, y de esta manera brindar a los votantes de origen latino un importante rol en América. Tengamos presente que los latinos son relativamente jóvenes. De hecho, cerca de la mitad de la población latina tiene menos de 25 años de edad en tanto el promedio de edad del resto de los americanos es de 35 años.

Los latinos son, también, como nunca antes, un grupo predominante dentro de la fuerza laboral y la economía de los Estados Unidos al constituirse como una creciente e influyente población de consumidores, votantes e inversionistas. Los latinos son cada vez mas importantes en la industria del entretenimiento, los deportes (en particular en béisbol y fútbol) y el diseño de moda. El poder adquisitivo de los hispanos alcanzó un promedio de cerca de 500 billones de dólares en el año 2000. En la actualidad, las revistas y los periódicos en castellano están aumentando en número y produciendo ganancias gracias al permanente aumento de la pauta publicitaria. Las cadenas de radio y televisión de habla hispana tienen una inmensa y creciente audiencia. Cada vez más latinos están buscando información y reconocimiento en nuestro museos y centros culturales. Esto implica para nosotros una gran responsabilidad, pues debemos dar respuestas a las necesidades de esa dinámica población hispana.

Comunidades Latinas

Actualmente nos encontramos con una creciente diversidad y dispersión dentro de los latinos residentes en los Estados Unidos. Usualmente pensamos en los latinos en términos de unos pocos grupos distintos entre sí, identificados por su nacionalidad, tal como los Mexicano-Americanos, Puertorriqueños, Cubanos-Americanos, Centro y Sur Americanos y otros grupos de origen hispano.

Dada esa diversidad y dispersión demográfica, debemos entonces referirnos a los latinos en términos de ‘comunidades latinas’. Por ejemplo, en términos de los lugares que reflejan la creciente concentración de latinos en diferentes partes de los Estados Unidos. Un artículo publicado en “US News and World Report” identificó 17 tipos diferentes de grupos culturales de latinos. Como ejemplo, el artículo clasifica a los latinos en los Estados Unidos en los

siguientes grupos:

Californianos: inmigrantes mexicanos, mexicanos de clase media, barrio dwellers Y

Centro Americanos de Pico Unión (una sección del parque McArthur de los Angeles)

Tejanos: tejanos del sur, mexicanos de Houston y guatemaltecos de Texas.

Chicagoans: cubanos, mexicanos de Chicago y puertorriqueños de Chicago.

Miamians: cubanos, nicaragüenses y sur americanos.

Neoyorquinos/dominicanos: Puertorriqueños, dominicanos y colombianos.

Beltway latinos: salvadoreños, hondureños y caribeños.

Other: indios latinos o latinos indios, hispanos de Nuevo México y trabajadores migrantes.

Las comunidades latinas son fascinantes y extraordinarias. Dentro de los latinos recién llegados a los Estados Unidos hay decenas de miles de indios provenientes de Latinoamérica. Muchos de ellos son Mixtecos, Zapatecas, Quechuas, Aymara, Yaquis, Tarahmaras, Tohono odum y Mayas.

Los indios latinos enriquecen la tradición cultural a través de sus diversos lenguajes y costumbres. También encontramos un creciente interés por el legado y cultura afro latina, especialmente los provenientes de la región del Caribe. Si añadimos a esta mezcla los interesesy tendencias religiosas de los latinos, incluyendo el Islam y el Judaísmo entre otros, obtendremos una gran mezcla de comunidades latinas a las cuales dirigirse actualmente dentro de los Estados Unidos.

La diversidad de la población latina se está incrementando tan rápidamente que incluso los mismos latinos en ocasiones no somos conscientes de la gama de identidades, historias, problemática y temas de interés de los latinos en los Estados Unidos.

La Herencia Latina

El Centro de Iniciativas latinas del Smithsonian juega un papel primordial en la tarea de  identificar y divulgar la cultura y la herencia latina. Además presta especial atención a los proyectos que le suministran, tanto a los profesores como a los alumnos de las escuelas, la información y materiales que promueven una imagen positiva de la cultura latina. Debemos enfocar nuestros esfuerzos hacia la juventud latina y la problemática educativa ya que el 50 por ciento de la población latina es menor de 23 años.

Cuando miramos las características de los latinos desde el punto de vista racial, cultural y lingüístico, podemos destacar en todos los casos, que los latinos son multirraciales y multiculturales. Éste representa un importante atributo de los latinos. Difícilmente se encuentra un latino sin mezcla racial, o como es denominado en castellano: ‘mestizaje’. Hay mucho por aprender una vez entendido el concepto latino del término mestizo. Éste no debe     ser considerado como un concepto denigrante. Según el reconocido filósofo mexicano José Vasconcelos, en su libro “La Raza Cósmica” (1947): “Los mestizos son la base de una nueva civilización”. En otras palabras, sabiendo quiénes somos, una mezcla de blancos, negros, asiáticos e indios, podremos entender nuestra propia riqueza. El gran artista mexicano, Diego Rivera, contemporáneo de Vasconcelos, se definió a sí mismo como español, indio, africano, italiano, judío, ruso y de ascendencia portuguesa. Millones de latinos podrían afirmar lo mismo.

Mirado en esos términos, ¡cuán ricos somos al ser mestizos! .

Exhibiciones y Proyectos Requeridos

Aunque generalmente nos basamos en estadísticas sociales para describir a la población latina, no debemos olvidar nuestro pasado. Es necesaria más investigación y divulgación para mostrar la importancia de los latinos. Espero que los siguientes tres ejemplos expliquen suficientemente los temas que necesitan más atención.

Un punto importante es el papel que jugaron los hispanos en la formación de los Estados Unidos. Por ejemplo, ¿quién de ustedes conoce al General Bernardo De Gálvez?. Cerca del Departamento de Estado encontramos una modesta estatua del General uniformado y su caballo. Durante la Revolución Americana, el General se desempeñaba como Gobernador de los territorios españoles en lo que actualmente son Louisiana, Texas y diez estados más. Bajo el mandato de Gálvez, España demostró ser un vital aliado y un factor significativo en asegurar la independencia americana de Gran Bretaña. Gálvez suplió a los generales Washington y Clark, y comandó un ejército multi-nacional de más de 7 mil soldados entre blancos y negros, provenientes de España, Cuba, México, Puerto Rico y la Española, quienes ganaron una crucial batalla en Pensacola, Florida, logrando detener a los Británicos. Sin embargo, pocos de nosotros conocemos estos hechos. Peor aún, la mencionada estatua no fue puesta en ese lugar por los Estados Unidos. Fue un regalo hecho por España hace apenas unos pocos años. Hay muchos más hispanos que lucharon por los Estados Unidos. Hoy les pregunto: ¿dónde está el reconocimiento a los demás héroes por su contribución a la construcción de ésta nación?

Segundo, en el Museo Nacional de Historia Americana posa una hermosa estructura de acero inoxidable: “Infinity”. Cada 8 minutos da un giro completo. Lo ha hecho durante treinta años. A pesar de su historia y estratégica ubicación en la ciudad, pocos conocen a su creador. Fue la primera pieza de arte abstracto adquirida por el Gobierno Federal para ser expuesta en la ciudad. Su creador fue un latino nacido en Louisiana, reconocido internacionalmente en el momento. Su nombre: José de Rivera, nacido bajo el nombre de José Ruiz en 1904. Murió en 1985. Otras obras del artista se encuentran en los Museos Hirshhorn y Metropolitano de Arte.

Sus documentos se encuentran en los Archivos de Arte Americano. A pesar de esto, muy pocos saben que éste hombre fue un latino de Estados Unidos. Mis agradecimientos al senor Shayt por proporcionarme esta información. Lo que se evidencia de estos datos, es la gran necesidad de llenar nuestras propias colecciones con documentación sobre los latinos que han contribuido al Smithsonian.

Tercero, en épocas de xenofobia en América, y cuando se dice que los latinos de habla hispana no son americanos leales, creo que necesitamos una mejor documentación de los hechos en el Smithsonian. Gracias a la información suministrada por el Coronel Gil Colorado, me complace mencionar algunos puntos específicos de una gran lista de acontecimientos históricos.

Desde la Revolución Americana, 38 hispanos han recibido la más alta condecoración de la nación: la Medalla de Honor del Congreso. Tengo entendido que ninguna otra población de Estados Unidos ha recibido tantos honores. Tres en la Guerra Civil y muchas más en otras batallas incluyendo La Rebelion Boxer. Durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, once hispanos recibieron esta importante condecoración. Adicionalmente, hubo tres pilotos de combate que acumularon entre ellos 41 victorias. En la Guerra de Corea, 8 hispanos recibieron la Medalla de Honor del Congreso. El Capitán Manuel J. Fernández Jr, USAF, quien era un piloto de combate derribó por lo menos 14 aeronaves. El Regimiento de Infantería 65 de Puerto Rico participó en nueve grandes campañas derrotando a miles de enemigos. Los miembros de esta Infantería recibieron cuatro cruces de plata y 124 estrellas de plata como distinción. Durante la Guerra de Vietnam, 13 hispanos fueron condecorados con la medalla de honor del Congreso. El último americano en salir de Vietnam en la famosa evacuación de la Embajada Americana, fue el Sargento Mayor Juan J. Valdez. En Irán, cuando el Ayatollah Khomeni ofreció liberar a las minorías detenidas en calidad de rehenes, los marinos López y Gallegos rechazaron la ofertaalegando: “yo soy americano, soy un marino de los Estados Unidos, yo seré el último en irme”.

En Silvas, Illinois, 22 familias mexicano-americanas que vivían en una calle de tan sólo una cuadra y media, enviaron más de cien jóvenes a tres guerras distintas: la Segunda Guerra Mundial, Corea y Vietnam. Esta calle contribuyó al servicio militar con más hombres que cualquiera del mismo tamaño en los Estados Unidos. De manera apropiada, esta calle lleva el nombre de “La Calle de los Héroes de los Estados Unidos”, y tiene su lugar en la historia militar de los Estados Unidos.

No cabe duda: ¡es mucho lo que los Estados Unidos y su historia de lucha por la libertad deben a la población de origen hispano! Hoy estamos comenzando a ser conscientes de esa deuda histórica y moral.


Hoy, por fortuna, crece el interés en la historia, literatura, música, artes, fotografía, ciencia, héroes y tradiciones culturales latinas. Los latinos tenemos mucho de que estar orgullosos. Y tenemos mucho trabajo por delante en la Institución Smithsonian.

Espero con estas palabras haber proporcionado unas bases sólidas para el entendimiento del legado hispano en los Estados Unidos, el rol del Smithsonian y del Centro de Iniciativas Latinas.

Contamos con un personal altamente calificado y un futuro promisorio. Estamos trabajando para lograr una visión compartida.

De todo lo que he mencionado, es evidente la necesidad de compartir iniciativas con las organizaciones federales. Siempre dependeremos de la ayuda de profesores, estudiantes y personal administrativo para la realización de nuestras exhibiciones, colecciones e investigaciones sobre el tema latino. Necesitaremos dotación e inversión en nuestros programas por parte de fundaciones, filántropos y corporaciones. Hay bastante por hacer y esperamos que muchos se unan a nuestros esfuerzos. Tengo la certeza de que han comprendido la situación. Les agradezco el haberme invitado en calidad de orador. Espero con ansiedad sus iniciativas con respecto al tema latino.

Muchas gracias

Refugio Ismael Rochin-Rodriguez, Ph.D. 
Director General, Smithsonian Center for Latino Initiatives.
Profesor Emeritu en Economia y Estudios Chicanos/Latinos 
Universidad de California

Lugar y Fecha 
Madrid, España
Diciembre de 2001
Bienvenido a la Biblioteca Presidencial Virtual 
Andrés Pastrana|webmaster@andrespastrana.org 
APA | Biblioteca Presidencial  Inicio Colecciones  Madrid, España 



The Arrival of Horses in North America  
Get to know Bernardo de Galvez
1803 Battle of San Diego Bay at U.S. Naval Base in Point Loma
On May 22, the Hon. Judge Edward Butler spoke to the Boerne Literary Society, on the topic: "Without the Assistance of Spain in the American Revolutionary War, we would still be flying the British Flag."

The Arrival of Horses in North America  

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Click here: spanish exploration of north america - Google Search

Lewis and Clark are credited with being the great American explorers. Compare the limited land explorations and short length of time of the Lewis and Clark, with the map of the Spanish by horses.  The dates on the Horse trails represent specific, documented Spanish explorations by the Spanish and their Spanish horses.   

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Three hundred years Spain's exploring, prior to Lewis/Clark 

November 3, 1493: Spain arrives with horses on the island which he names Dominica, more than a  hundred years before other European nations arrive with horses.  Most horses in the Americas are descendent of Spanish horses. Note the dates and trails.

1509:  Spanish explorations expands, both north and south.  

1602-1603:  Sebastian Vizcaino expedition of Pacific Coast  
Vizcaino Diary: http://www.americanjourneys.org/pdf/AJ-002.pdf  



Two years of exploring < U.S.

May 14, 1804 the Lewis and Clark expedition left St. Louis, Missouri, on a mission to explore the Northwest from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. 

November 8, 1805, Lewis and Clark reached the Pacific Ocean. September 23, 1806 lays claim to Oregon Territory.  

In 1602, Spanish explorer Sebastain Vizcaino embarked from Spain with a fleet of six ships. Vizcaino sailed up the California coast. He was sent by the viceroy of New Spain to find harbors for Spanish ships on their way back to Mexico from the Philippines.  He made very detailed maps of the coast of Califiornia. He also named many places in California, including San Diego, Santa Catalina, Santa Barbara, and Monterey Bay.

Get to Know Bernardo de Galvez


is a children´s book by Guillermo Fesser and published by Santillana USA. A great opportunity to start a new dialogue on the decisive role of Spanish Speaking Americans during the foundation of this country. 

This book is also a chance for all Americans to discover and enjoy our "Spanish Side." A culture secretly mingled in the roots of this country.

Thursday, May 25, 5:00 pm.
AMA | Art Museum of the Americas 
201 18th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20006.

This program will be presented in Spanish and English
================================== ==================================
http://facebook.us3.list-manage.com/track/click?u=42e810efc6df6ab8200b24a9d&id=27612c5953&e=0a3f9834b6Spanish journalist Guillermo Fesser is known best in his country for his innovative radio program Gomaespuma. He has a remarkable ability to capture and express the human condition in his reporting, often with humor. He is also a scriptwriter, filmmaker, radio correspondent, and an advocate for children’s education around the globe. His children’s books (including Get to Know Bernardo de Gálvez and Ruedas y el enigma del Campamento MT) teach values and concepts through humor and word play. Fesser lives and works in New York City.

I hope I will see you there.  Thank you for walking this journey with me.

Sincerely, Teresa Valcarce
Ambassador of the Association Bernardo de Galvez to the United States of America


Bernardo De Galvez · 555 New Jersey Avenue Northwest, Washington, DC, United States · Bethesda, Md 20814 · USA


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Unveiling ceremony



Entrega del premio Bernardo de Galvez
(minunto 17:25)



1803 Battle of San Diego Bay at U.S. Naval Base in Point Loma
Report by
Refugio I. Rochin - Prof. Emeritus UC Davis

Photo, courtesy of Robert Smith

================================== ============================================
Saturday, April 22, 2017, Cassie and I attended a memorial celebration of the Battle of San Diego Bay at U.S. Naval Base in Point Loma. 

We heard speeches from representatives of the U.S. Navy Base and Casa Espana located in San Diego. Information about Casa Espana is summarized at:   http://www.houseofspainsd.com/our-history/.  

We learned that a questionnable BATTLE took place on March 17, 1803 when the Bay of San Diego was controlled by a garrison of Spanish Navy soldiers - called Brigadoons. The account is difficult to explain because of conflicting versions of the "BATTLE." 

In general, the Spanish Commander - D. Manuel Rodriguez - stopped a U.S. Navy vessel from trading or "stealing" otter pelts, which had a big market in Manila and China. At night a U.S. Navy band under the command of Capt. William Shaler, came back on land to claim otter pelts and took 
five Brigadoons with them for ransom. 

My wife Cassie Morton-Rochin
Retired Dean San Diego City College
 with Joseph J. Bray 
 Keynote Speaker, Biographical Specialist, UCSD.


But, the question comes up with who shot first. By the U.S. account of a historian published 40 years after the event, the Spaniards shot canons at the Navy vessel despite 5 prisoners on board. According to the Spanish Commander Manuel Rodriguez - an account found recently in the Bancroft Library - written by Manuel himself, the US Navy ship fired at the commander on the base and the Spaniards shot back, forcing the U.S. Navy group to return the 5 captured Brigadoons. 

================================ ============================================

I suppose the one and only Battle in the Bay of San Diego in 1803 is still going on in terms of words and claims to fame. NO ONE WAS HIT OR KILLED. On March 21, 1982, the land for this historical battle was designated as a California Registered Historical Landmark, 
No. 69.

The 214th anniversary celebration we attended was held on the exact same spot at Fort Guijarros (Spanish "Castillo de Guijarros").  SEE: 

I noticed that the Spanish fort was buried under the base Fire Station. No more fort, no more battles. Long live the Navy Base Fire Station

~  Refugio Rochin, Ph.D. 

Left to right:  The Honorable Superior Court Judge, 
Fredrick P. Aguirre  and Refugio Rochin, Ph.D

Members of Los Californianos and Los Pobladores de Los Angeles.
Photo, courtesy of Robert Smith.

================================== ==================================
Photo on right:  Letty Rodella, president of 
the Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research, 
www.shhar.net and Nancy and Robert Munson.  

Robert is the Historian at the Cabrillo Historic Monument.

Photo below, members of the Casa de España


For more on this event, please to go the April issue:  Click here: Somos Primos 

Press Release

 On May 22, the Hon. Judge Edward Butler presenter to the Boerne Literary Society, on the topic:
"Without the Assistance of Spain in the American Revolutionary War, we would still be flying the British Flag."

Ree Laughlin of the Boerne Literary Society, (Boerne, Texas) today announced a program to which the public is invited.  Normally, the meetings of the Boerne Literary Society are for members only.  The reason for this exception is the outstanding speaker, Judge Ed Butler.

Judge Butler will be speaking at the May 22, 2017 meeting of the society, which will be held at the Boerne Public Library at 1:30 p.m.  His topic is "Without the Assistance of Spain in the American Revolutionary War, we would still be flying the British Flag."  His presentation will be on  the role played by Spain during the American Revolutionary War as an ally of the United States.  The focus of his power point presentation will be on General Bernardo de Galvez, the Spanish Governor of Louisiana.  Galvez is the person for whom Galveston, TX was named.  Last December, with Judge Butler's assistance, President Obama signed an Order making Galvez an Honorary Citizen of the U.S. - one of only 7 individuals in the history of our nation  to receive that distinguished honor.

Judge Butler's presentation will be a treat.  He has spoken all over the country to historical and genealogical societies, including Boston, MA; Los Angeles, Santa Ana and San Diego, CA; Louisville, KY, New Orleans and Baton Rouge, LA;  Pensacola, Panama City, Ocala, Miami and Tampa, FL, Yorktown, VA and venues all over Texas.  Over 400 members of the Texas Daughters of the American Revolution packed the auditorium in Dallas to hear him last month.

Judge Butler is the author of the book Galvez / Spain - Our Forgotten Ally in the American Revolutionary War: A Concise Summary of Spain's Assistance.  This book has already won 5 awards.  He also recently published George Washington's Secret Ally.  Copies of both books will be available for purchase.

Judge Butler is a retired federal judge.  For many years was a member of the Boerne Rotary.  He served as President General of the National Society Sons of the American Revolution and was founder of both the Order of the Founders of North America 1492-1692 and the Texas Genealogical College.  In 2016 he was admitted into the Texas Genealogical Hall of Fame.

There is no charge for admission.  First Come -first served.  
For more information on the speaker see www.galvez.com

For more on the subject of Spain's valuable contributions to the American Revolution, please go to the following site.  It has collected a series of articles on the subject of Bernardo de Galvez published in the Spanish newspaper ABC.  

Sent by Maria Angeles O'Donnel-Olson, Honorary Consul of Spain, San Diego, conhon.espana.sd@gmail.com .  



Using Current Electronic Technology Beyond the Internet and Google 

Latino Role Models & Success,
Role Model PODCAST Series  by Armando F. Sanchez
AARP Arizona Hispanic Connection: Radio dedicated to educate, celebrate, and connect, West Coast

The Michael Calderin Radio Show, East Coast

====================================================== ======================
Latino Role Models Success

"Make Succeeding 
          a Habit"

Armando F. Sanchez, 
CEO, producer, broadcaster
and author  

There are 234 Episodes in the Role Model Podcast Series


Leadership, entrepreneurship 
and mindful travel  

Facebook, LinkedIn: 
Armando F. Sanchez  

Twitter @ArmandoFSanchez


This is a treasure of interviews with well known Latinos, and Latinos whose stories should be known.  

You'll find considerable diversity of topics:
Lila Quintero Weaver & Leigh Anna Newton, what it means to be a Latina as a comic book creatorLucha Corpi, writer and author of detective and mystery fiction with social issues
Armando F. Sanchez, author, Cold War Spy  
Bel Hernandez, Sal Lopez and Daniel Haro, Lead Panel: The Impact of  Zootsuit 
Dr. Enrique Murillo, Jr., Latino Education Advocacy Days 
Cindy Vallar, writer and editor of a Pirate Magazine
Sonia T Rodriguez: Mindfulness and Success
Oscar Gonzalez: Pedro Pan Project 14,000 children left Cuba unaccompanied to US in the 1960s 
Maria G. Hernandez, Ph.D, Latina VIDA 


AARP Arizona Hispanic Connection is an AARP-hosted English speaking radio-social media platform that convenes community thought leaders to educate on relevant issues (such as history, health, education, money, and other), celebrate Latino accomplishments (academically, politically, business, arts), and connect Hispanics of all generations.

================================== ==================================
Mission: Convening to educate, celebrate, connect.

Radio: Launched May 6, 2017,  in English:
1190 AM / Saturdays 8 am – 9 am
Station’s website: http://onda1190am.com 
The initial idea came from David Parra to create a platform that would convene the community through topics of interest.  David is passionate about his work at AARP and we are thrilled about this new platform.

================================== ==================================

Mimi, We launched our radio program last Saturday and we will talk about history this coming Saturday. We will highlight PBS’s series Latino Americans. I will most likely mention somosprimos.com. If you are available and would like to join the radio program by phone just let me know. You could have a few minutes to explain somosprimos.

Question. I remember seeing in somosprimos a comprehensive list of successful Hispanics in date order. Do you know where I can find it? Many thanks.  
[ http://somosprimos.com/mercy/mercytoc.htm ]

David Parra,  DParra@aarp.org     
Director of Community Outreach / AARP Arizona  
16165 N. 83rd Avenue #201, Peoria AZ 85382

This radio program talks about the history of Hispanics/Latinos in the USA and Arizona, and promotes the PBS series Latino Americans, and somosprimos.com.
================================== ==================================

Mimi, Al, Frank, Dan, and James, thank you so very much for your contribution to a very successful radio program on Saturday. An edited version has been uploaded to both our Facebook page and YouTube channel. The track of Hispanic History is definitely at the top of our list and we will continue to do additional program on this important subject. Here are the links:  

Join radio shows also by: 
FACEBOOK: www.facebook.com/aarparizona 
TWITTER: www.twitter.com/AZ_AARP 
YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qunzP5dRXTE 
WEBSITE: www.aarp.org/phoenix http://states.aarp.org/aarp-arizona-hispanic-connection-launches-radiosocial-media-platform/ 

The Michael Calderin Show

19 Episodes 

Commentary on current events, news, wellness, 
and other issues affecting our nation and our communities.

East Coast

================================== ==================================
Danielle McLaughlin is an Author, Attorney, and Legal and Political Commentator. Danielle appears frequently on U.S. and international TV and radio (Including Fox, Fox Business, CNN, HLN, TV3 New Zealand and the Sean Hannity. . .

Montgomery Granger.  Hear a first hand account of life at Guantanamo Bay during this interview with Montgomery J. Granger, Major, U.S. Army, Retired. We will be talking about his book "Saving Grace at Guantanamo Bay." 

May Golan: Israeli Social Activist/News Commentator, Born and raised in the crime capital of Israel, May Golan is a patriotic social activist who emerged as the voice and symbol of hope for the people of impoverished South Tel Aviv. May Golan is the Founder and CEO of  . . 

Elizabeth R. Blandon, Esq. Immigration Attorney was listed by The Miami Herald as one of the top-rated South Florida immigration attorneys in 2015. She graduated from the University of Pennsylvania Law School, considered one of the best in the  . . 

Alexa Servodidio, LCSW is the author of "Finding Your Peace Within the Chaos" and Host on her radio show "Insight into Healing." While preparing to write this book, Alexa decided to start each chapter with a question from her radio show.... 

Abbey Curran was crowned Miss Iowa USA 2008. Born with Cerebral palsy, she became the first person dealing with a special challenge throughout her life to compete in the prestigious Miss USA competition. 

Danielle Morgan, U.K. singer/songwriter/musician Danielle Morgan's 20 years in the music business have proven that timing + patience + persistence = success. Morgan's music is diverse in topic & eclectic in mood. 

Monica Quintero: A passionate, warm, and engaging journalist, Monica Quintero News Anchor and Reporter  mixes experience with flavor. Currently serving as a Main Anchor/Executive Producer for KIDY/FOX 15 in the San Angelo/Abilene news markets, Monica anchors four nightly.

Michael is a
Senior Pastor at Saint Jude Ministries

Rev. Michael J. Calderin, MA, CAP, CMHP
Saint Jude Ministries, Inc. 15800 Pines Boulevard
954-990-0918 Broward 
305-791-4330 Miami Dade
888-990-0918 Fax  



Glowwounds of the US Civil War 
May 13, 1846: President Polk declares war on Mexico
Treaties of Velasco 
First Families: The Awakening Journey
Children of the Greatest Generation, A Short Memoir

Daily 52917:  Glowwounds of the US Civil War 
Learn Something New Every Day with Online Video Lessons | Curious.com
Happy Memorial Day. Around 750,000 soldiers lost their lives in the US Civil War. But that number would be even higher if it weren't for bioluminescent bacteria. During the Battle of Shiloh, in the spring of 1862, 40,000 Confederate troops ambushed Union encampments along the Tennessee River. The Union sent reinforcements and carnage ensued. The two-day battle resulted in over 23,000 casualties, making it the bloodiest of the war so far—and five times as deadly as the entire American Revolutionary War. But as injured soldiers lay in the mud overnight waiting for help, they noticed a faint blue glow coming from their wounds. Medics noted that the more their wounds glowed, the higher their rate of survival once they made it to field hospitals. Survivors named the unexplained phenomenon the "Angel's Glow" and recorded it in their journals and letters. 

But it remained a mystery until 2001, when high-school student Bill Martin visited the Shiloh battlefield and heard the legend of the glow-in-the-dark wounds. He told his mom, who just happened to be a microbiologist at the USDA. She wondered out loud whether the "Angel's Glow" could be explained by the bioluminescent bacteria Photorhabdus luminescens. It lives symbiotically in the guts of a parasitic worm, which then regurgitates it. The bacteria produces chemicals that kill the insect host, as well as any other bacteria inside it. In other words, it acts like an antibiotic. Bill decided to turn his mom's hypothesis into a science fair project. Not only did they successfully show that the "Angel's Glow" at the Battle of Shiloh was almost definitely caused by Photorhabdus luminescens; their project won first place at the 2001 Intel International Science and Engineering Science Fair. Illuminating! 



This Day in History, May 13, 1846
President Polk declares war on Mexico

On May 13, 1846, the U.S. Congress overwhelmingly votes in favor 
of President James K. Polk’s request to declare war on Mexico in a dispute over Texas.

================================ ===============================
Under the threat of war, the  United States had refrained from annexing Texas after the latter won independence from Mexico in 1836. But in 1844, President John Tyler restarted negotiations with the Republic of Texas, culminating with a Treaty of Annexation. The treaty was defeated by a wide margin in the Senate because it would upset the slave state/free state balance between North and South and risked war with Mexico, which had broken off relations with the United States. But shortly before leaving office and with the support of President-elect Polk, Tyler managed to get the joint resolution passed on March 1, 1845.
Texas was admitted to the union on December 29.While Mexico didn’t follow through with its threat to declare war, relations between the two nations remained tense over border disputes, and in July 1845, President Polk ordered troops into disputed lands that lay between the Neuces and Rio Grande rivers. 

In November, Polk sent the diplomat John Slidell to Mexico to seek boundary adjustments in return for the U.S. government’s settlement of the claims of U.S. citizens against Mexico and also to make an offer to purchase California and New Mexico. 

After the mission failed, the U.S. army under Gen. Zachary Taylor advanced to the mouth 
of the Rio Grande, the river that the state of Texas claimed as its southern boundary.

Mexico, claiming that the boundary was the Nueces Riverto the northeast of the Rio Grande, considered the advance of Taylor’s army an act of aggression and in April 1846 sent troops across the Rio Grande. Polk, in turn, declared the Mexican advance to be an invasion of U.S. soil, and on May 11, 1846, asked Congress to declare war onMexico, which it did two days later.

After nearly two years of fighting, peace was established by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, signed on February 2, 1848. The Rio Grande was made the southern boundary of Texas, and California and New Mexico were ceded to the United States. In return, the United States paid Mexico the sum of $15 million and agreed to settle all claims of U.S. citizens  against Mexico.

Sent by Dorinda Moemo   pueblosenmovimientonorte@gmail.com 

Treaties of Velasco 

Treaties of Velasco 

Two treaties were signed by ad interim president David G. Burnet and Gen. Antonio López de Santa Anna at Velasco on May 14, 1836, after defeat of the Mexican forces at the battle of San Jacinto. The public treaty was to be published immediately, and the secret agreement was to be carried into execution when the public treaty had been fulfilled. The public treaty, with ten articles, provided that hostilities would cease, that Santa Anna would not again take up arms against Texas, that the Mexican forces would withdraw beyond the Rio Grande, that restoration would be made of property confiscated by Mexicans, that prisoners would be exchanged on an equal basis, that Santa Anna would be sent to Mexico as soon as possible, and that the Texas army would not approach closer than five leagues to the retreating Mexicans.

In the secret agreement, in six articles, the Texas government promised the immediate liberation of Santa Anna on condition that he use his influence to secure from Mexico acknowledgment of Texas independence; Santa Anna promised not to take up arms against Texas, to give orders for withdrawal from Texas of Mexican troops, to have the Mexican cabinet receive a Texas mission favorably, and to work for a treaty of commerce and limits specifying that the Texas boundary not lie south of the Rio Grande. Gen. Vicente Filisola, in pursuance of the public treaty, began withdrawing the Mexican troops on May 26; the Texas army, however, refused to let Santa Anna be sent to Mexico and prevented the Texas government's carrying out the secret treaty. On May 20 the government in Mexico City declared void all of Santa Anna's acts done as a captive. With the treaties violated by both governments and not legally recognized by either, Texas independence was not recognized by Mexico and her boundary not determined until the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848.

Content courtesy of the Handbook of Texas
Our mailing address is: Legacy of Texas
3001 Lake Austin Blvd.
Suite 3.116
Austin, TX 78703

FIRST FAMILIES: The Awakening Journey

Hi Mimi,
Here is a new trailer for a documentary we're producing for the San Antonio Tricentennial.
FIRST FAMILIES: The Awakening Journey© - Trailer 

FIRST FAMILIES: The Awakening Journey© - Trailer
A dramatic new documentary spanning three centuries of the original Native/Tejano/Texan Families.  

Gary L. Foreman
Native Sun Productions

"Children of the Greatest Generation" 
A Short Memoir

Born in the 1920s and 30's, we exist as a very special age cohort. We are the Silent Generation. We are the smallest number of children born since the early 1900s. We are the “last ones.”

We are the last generation, climbing out of the depression, who can remember the winds of war and the impact of a world at war which rattled the structure of our daily lives for years.

We are the last to remember ration books for everything from gas to sugar to shoes to meat from the butcher. We saved tin foil and poured fat into tin cans to be used to make ammunition. We hand mixed white stuff with yellow stuff to make fake butter. We stood in line at the grocery store when it was learned a tub of real butter had just arrived, and as kids holding a place in line to await a mother in trail, we learned after being pushed aside by an adult stranger who was also in line, to push ourselves back in line. We saw cars up on blocks because tires weren't available. We can remember milk being delivered to our house early in the morning and placed in the milk box on the porch.

We are the last to hear Roosevelt's radio assurances and to see gold stars in the front windows of our grieving neighbors. We can also remember the parades on August 15, 1945, VJ Day. We saw the “boys” home from the war build their Cape Cod style houses, pouring the cellar, tar papering it over and living there until they could afford the time and money to build it out.

We are the last generation who spent childhood without television. Instead we imagined what we heard on the radio. As we all like to brag, with no TV, we spent our childhood “playing outside until the street lights came on.”

We did play outside and we did play on our own. There was no Little League. Ball games were "pick-up" and played on vacant lots sharing baseball mitts because only the few had them. No kid had a two-wheeler bike until about 1946 when "Victory Bikes" were sold (no chrome, flimsy frame, very thin wheels). There was no city playground for kids. To play in the water, we turned the fire hydrants on and ran through the spray.

The lack of television in our early years meant, for most of us, that we had little real understanding of what the world was like. Our Saturday afternoons, if at the movies, gave us newsreels of the war and the Holocaust sandwiched in between westerns and cartoons.

Telephones were one to a house, often shared and hung on the wall. Computers were called calculators and were hand cranked. Typewriters were driven by pounding fingers, throwing the carriage, and changing the ribbon. The Internet and Google were words that didn't exist. Newspapers and magazines were written for adults. We are the last group who had to find out for ourselves.

As we grew up, the country was exploding with growth. The GI Bill gave returning veterans the means to get an education and spurred colleges to grow. VA loans fanned a housing boom. Pent-up demand coupled with new installment payment plans put factories to work.

New highways would bring jobs and mobility. The veterans joined civic clubs and became active in politics. In the late 40's and early 50's the country seemed to lie in the embrace of brisk but quiet order as it gave birth to its new middle class (which became known as Baby Boomers).

The radio network expanded from 3 stations (NBC, ABC, CBS) to thousands of stations. The telephone started to become a common method of communications and "Faxes" sent hard copy around the world. A neighborhood television set was a rare phenomenon (circular B&W 10" screen). Most families could not afford such a luxury, so as kids, we'd head to the closest TV appliance store, which always had a TV in the sidewalk display window, where we would watch Milton Berle and his Texaco Comedy Hour and, sometimes, even a major league ball game from New York City.

Our parents were suddenly free from the confines of the depression and the war and they threw themselves into exploring opportunities they had never imagined.

We weren't neglected but we weren't today's all-consuming family focus. They were glad we played by ourselves “until the street lights came on.’” They were busy discovering the post war world.

Most of us had no life plan, but with the unexpected virtue of ignorance and an economic rising tide we simply stepped into the world and started to find out what the world was about.

We entered a world of overflowing plenty and opportunity, a world where we were welcomed. Based on our naïve belief that there was more where this came from, we shaped life as we went.

We enjoyed a luxury. We felt secure in our future. Of course, just as today, not all Americans shared in this experience. Depression poverty was deep rooted. Polio was still a crippler. The Korean War was a dark presage in the early 50s, and by mid-decade, school children were ducking under desks Russia built the Iron Curtain and China became Red China. Eisenhower sent the first “advisors” to Vietnam, and years later, Johnson invented a war there. Castro set up camp in Cuba and Khrushchev came to power.

We are the last generation to experience an interlude when there were no existential threats to our homeland. We came of age in the 40s and early 50s. The war was over and the Cold War, terrorism, civil rights, technological upheaval, global warming, and perpetual economic insecurity had yet to haunt life with insistent unease.

Only our generation can remember both a time of apocalyptic war and a time when our world was secure and full of bright promise and plenty.

We have lived through both. We grew up at the best possible time, a time when the world was getting better, not worse.

We are the Silent Generation, “the last ones.” The last of us was born in 1945, more than 99.9% of us are either retired or dead, and all of us believe we grew up in the best of times!

Sent by Oscar Ramirez 



Margie C. Talaugon. Community Organizer 
Juan José Gastélum Salcidor, Mexican Senator and Masonic, 33 Degree
Mel Jurado, California LULAC State Director

Margie C. Talaugon

Margie C. Talaugon, 84 a native of Guadalupe, CA passed away on Tuesday April 5, 2017 surrounded by her husband and all her children, Grandchildren and Great Grandchildren. Her brother Victor Cabatuan and his wife Vickie and her Sister-in-law Jerrie Talaugon.

Mom was born on January 27, 1933 at a small ranch in Oso Flaco, CA. She grew up in Guadalupe up until the age of 17, then in 1950 went off to Los Angeles with her soon to be husband Joe R. Talaugon. One of their 7 children were born in the LA area then to return to Guadalupe where the other 6 children were born (5 girls and 2 boys). Since childhood Mom had been involved in family business, telling stories of the times growing up in the pool hall sitting on the counter manning the cash register. She was proud of her childhood and obviously gaining trust by her parents to help run the business.

As a young adult Mom again had the opportunity to run her own business, handed down by a long life friend of my Grandparents, a restaurant "Margie and Joe's Restaurant" right downtown Guadalupe. They both vested their time and energy in establishing the best home cooked meal like Chicken or Pork Adobo, various Filipino foods from the different regions and a good ol' hamburger. Then as the children grew older they decided to move on and left their hometown in 1965 to Northern California for close to 25 years. Returning to Guadalupe in 1989. But so much had happened living in Northern California and our Mom obviously found her calling, as a Community Organizer, Civil Rights Advocate, and Advocate for our Manongs & Manangs, a researcher, a teacher, an Entrepreneur and what probably stands out to all that knew her "a public speaker". First Generation Filipino American her greatest accomplishments and proud moments was assisting those and empowering the people to stand up for their rights. Rights as a people not because race or religion, creed or color. For all the wrongdoings that this society can put on a person.

Here are a number of organizations and agencies my Mom had been involved in and a member of:
S.C.P.E.O.; Sonoma County People for Economic Opportunity; C.A.C; Community Action Commission; Santa Barbara County and Sonoma County; Filipino American Community of Sonoma County Inc. and Pilipino Youth Alliance; Founder; Brown Coalition; Santa Rosa Junior College; Sandigan, San Francisco; Director 1970's
Loonanon Pioneers of America, Santa Maria; Lifetime member; F.A.N.H.S.; Filipino American National Historical Society Santa Maria Chapter; organizer and lifetime member; International Hotel, San Francisco; participant and organizer; PILDEF; Pilipino Legal Defense; organizer U.P.E.E.; United Pilipino Equal Employment, organizer

One of her greatest accomplishments was the introduction of the Filipino Classification Bill - requires every state agency and department in California to categorize Filipinos as Filipinos for any statistical tabulation of minority groups. (Senate Bill 1870 and Assembly Bill 3452)

Another exciting time in her life was her invention of the Pedia-Kar Pillow; LE'ROY The Original, Pedia Kar Pillow Baby Neck Support Patent No. 4,838,611 Des. 309,393. Invented with her own children in mind.

And her final contribution to the communities The Guadalupe Cultural Arts & Education Center; founder. Now in its 17th year that sits in the City of Guadalupe in a 100 year old craftsman home. The center holds the history of Guadalupe, Guadalupe Sports Hall of Fame and the research center of the Indigenous peoples of the Central Coast. Her legacy of her life's work. As she would say "Finito"...

Here is a recent Facebook post her Grand-Daughter Sabine had written:

I am grateful for your life and every moment we had together and every story you ever told me. Now that you join our ancestors, I am grateful to count you as one. You are a catalyst and a firecracker. You changed this world. You worked hard for your people. You were true to yourself always. You gave space for people to do what they needed to do. You are brilliant; you carved strategy out of rock barriers to help everyone thrive. You knew hard times and that good times were for celebrating. You know the life you wanted to live and you loved it. You were genuine and rooted; you never let anyone sway you. You knew your power. You knew the power of people. You know how hard it is to navigate this world. You knew what it was like to be seen different, as crazy. And I hope you know how much I learned from you although I'm sure you don't care for the credit. All the big decisions I've ever made grew from seeds that you planted. I love you. I will always give thanks to you.

Mom is survived by her husband Joseph Richard Talaugon, her daughter Judith Nona Talaugon, Joni Dee (Hall Ewing), Kristina Talaugon-Rivera (widow), Karen Louise Evangelista (Mario), Joseph Richard Talaugon II, Andrea Lee VanKoughnet and Manuel Nicolas Talaugon (Maris).

16 Grand-Children, 20 Great-Grandchildren and 1 Great-Great-Grandchild on the way. Her brother Victor Cabatuan and many nephews and nieces.

Our family would like to thank Santa Ynez Tribal Health Clinic, Primary care Physician Dr. Amanda Scott and her staff, Dr. Fields and Dr. Ourieff and all the Marian Medical Center nurses that cared for her. Dignity Health Hospice and their ability to assist us in the most incredible journey to see her through. Our heartfelt thanks to Adelina Padilla and her husband Osvaldo for keeping the fire. A huge thanks to all our relatives and friends who keep us in prayer and all the good energy.

In lieu of flowers, donations can be made to the Guadalupe Cultural Arts & Education Center for the Margie Talaugon Scholarship Program.  Any questions, please contact: Karen 805-478-8502

To leave a condolence for the family visit www.dudleyhoffmanmortuary.com
Dudley-Hoffman  Mortuary & Crematory  (805) 922-8463

Joe Talaugon on how his mother, Chumash Indian, met and married his Filipino father

Sent by Dorinda Moreno  pueblosenmovimientonorte@gmail.com 

Condolences to the Joe Talaugon family for the passing of beloved Margie Talaugon   ~ Revanon Deborah Dunn
Apr 18, 2017 1http://santamariatimes.com/content/tncms/live/#1 

Juan José Gastélum Salcido

Mimi...Juan Jose Gastelum was my mother's cousin
 and my grandmother's 
(Guadalupe Gastelum Valenzuela)  nephew.  

Frances Rios  



================================== ==================================
General de División y Senador de la República,  Juan José Gastélum Salcido, Past Soberano Gran Comendador del Supremo Consejo de México y Soberano Gran Comendador de Honor del mismo. 

[ 1 ] Vicepresidente de la XI Conferencia de Supremos Consejos del Mundo.
SubSecretario de la Defensa Nacional.
General of Division and Senator of the Republic, Juan José Gastélum Salcido, Past Sovereign Grand Commander of the Supreme Council of Mexico and Sovereign Grand Commander of Honor of the same. 

1 ]
Vice President of the XI Conference of Supreme Councils of the World.
Deputy Secretary of National Defense.
Con solo 16 años de edad ingresó como voluntario al movimiento Revolucionario, actuando posteriormente en el maderismo y el constitucionalismo, sirviendo siempre en los gobiernos legítimamente constituidos. 

Elevado al Grado 33º por la Logia Masónica ya la Dignidad de Gran Inspector General de la Orden en 1954, para posteriormente llegar a la de Miembro Activo en 1963. En abril de 1968 fue electo Soberano Gran Comendador del Supremo Consejo de México, quien duró 9 años en dicho cargo (una elección y dos reelecciones, máximo del tiempo permitido por Estatutos), donde terminando dicho cargo fue nombrado por unanimidad Soberano Gran Comendador de Honor.

El General de División Juan José Gastelum Salcido, Soberano Gran Comendador, fue visitado en un viaje de buena voluntad.</ref> por el destacado Hermano masón Edwin Aldrin primer hombre que puso un pie en la luna. 

En materia Internacional, concurrió en diversos Congresos Masónicos, europeos, americanos y mundiales, y en el XI Congreso de Supremos Consejos del Mundo fue designado Vicepresidente Mundial.

El Supremo Consejo de España, al recuperar su sede en Madrid, le designó, su Soberano Gran Comendador de Honor. 

Asimismo desempeñó el cargo de Subsecretario de la Defensa Nacional al servicio del entonces presidente Gustavo Díaz Ordaz, cargo que culmina una carrera castrense extraordinaria e impecable. 

Su Estado natal Sonora lo eleva al Senado de la República en el año de 1976. Logra obtener el máximo grado de General de División del Ejército Mexicano que ostentó hasta su muerte en 1981, ya que por decreto presidencial no perdió su calidad de Divisionario en activo. 

At only 16 years of age, he entered the Revolutionary movement as a volunteer, acting later on in Maderism and Constitutionalism, always serving in legitimately constituted governments.

He was elevated to the 33rd Degree by the Masonic Lodge and to the Dignity of Great Inspector General of the Order in 1954, later to become an Active Member in 1963. In April 1968, he was elected Sovereign Grand Commander of the Supreme Council of Mexico, which lasted 9 Years in that position (one election and two reelections, maximum of the time allowed by Statutes), where finishing this position was unanimously appointed Sovereign Grand Commander of Honor.

General of Division Juan Jose Gastelum Salcido, Sovereign Great Commander, was visited on a trip of good will. </ Ref> by the outstanding Brother Mason Edwin Aldrin, the first man to set foot on the moon.

In international matters, he attended various Masonic, European, American and World Congresses, and at the XI Congress of Supreme Councils of the World he was appointed World Vice President. 

The Supreme Council of Spain, upon regaining its headquarters in Madrid, appointed him, its Sovereign Grand Commander of Honor.

He also served as Undersecretary of National Defense at the service of then-President Gustavo Diaz Ordaz, a position that culminates an extraordinary and impeccable military career.

His native State Sonora elevates it to the Senate of the Republic in the year of 1976. It manages to obtain the maximum degree of General of Division of the Mexican Army that showed until its death in 1981, since by presidential decree it did not lose its quality of active Division.

Mel Jurado, California LULAC State Director 
April 25, 2017 
Dear Friends, it is with profound sadness that we inform you of the passing of former California LULAC State Director Mel Jurado early yesterday morning at the age of 90. Mel passed peacefully in his sleep at home. Rose, his wife of 68 years, said his wish was to pass away at home.
We send our deepest condolences to the family and send them our prayers through this difficult time.  A veteran, Mel served his country and his community. He was a LULAC leader and member for many years. I remember him as a gentle and caring person always supporting the organization he was dedicated to.  Mel will be missed by all those he touched. God rest his soul.
Dave Rodriguez, State President 
Member, National Board of Directors
P.O. Box 1362
Camarillo, CA 93011-1362
Please visit our new website at www.californialulac.com
April 25, 2017


I'm truly sadden to learn about Mr. Jurado's passing.  Mel, Rose and their family were our neighbors one block away on Rossylynn Ave, Fullerton.  

Aside from the LULAC  experience via their leadership and the Jr. LULAC organization, Mel was my baseball coach.  As our baseball coach, we learned not only the multiple aspects of the game, but also leadership qualities, as Mel was a superb model.  

The story behind his willingness to coach a baseball team was that the Pony Baseball League leadership would not allow the Chicanitos from the barrio sign-up in the league.  Mel learned about this and he quickly took it upon himself and gathered us up and organized in essence a traveling team.  

I have many fond memories when I played for Mel and learned a lot about how to play the game, especially as a catcher.  The team was exceptional  and we hardly ever lost a game.  As a matter of fact, when Mel attempted to schedule a game against the Pony Baseball League the League would not play us because of our winning reputation. 

Mel was a great man who never was recognized for his local community work, especially his work with the baseball team.

Richard M. Ramirez, Ed.D  

Sent by Yvonne Duncan Gonzalez 

Latino soldiers
 Cebu, Phillipines, WW II


A letter from Alfred Lugo, Documentary Producer/Playwright/Veteran Advocate
Arsenal of Democracy: 
The National  World War II Museum in New Orleans
Government website, concerning "Diversity in World War I"  Hispanic/Latinos Excluded
The Animals That Helped Win World War I

Documentary Producer/Playwright/ Veteran Advocate
April 29, 2017
Dear Friends and Veterans,
There comes a time when decisions have to be made, some favorable, some not so favorable.
 I am at that point-of-decision. I have been a Veteran Advocate since 1983 when I produced my first documentary. I have voluntarily produced many productions and programs for the 11th Airborne, American GI Forum, LULAC, The Eugene A. Obregon Medal of Honor Foundation, The Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department and March Air Field Museum.
I also volunteered yearly for my wife distributing clothes, food at St. Gregory’s, working the food kitchen serving the hungry and volunteering for my sister in the Montebello community distributing turkeys and food for the poor in the community until both passed away. I was also a Scout Master for Cub Scouts and then Boys Scouts for five years producing the first Cub Scout Olympics. Within the last five years I have been actively volunteering for Welcome Home Vietnam Veterans Day and Vet Hunters Project.
Thirty-four (34) years of continual community and veteran advocacy.
With health issues at 73 years of age and a bout with cancer, I come to realize I had to make a decision. My thirty-four volunteer years have been unselfishly shared in helping other organizations complete their goals and projects.
I have finally decided to retire from all veteran organizations activities and become a member-in-name only. I can advise and consult but not be able to be an active participant. I will be concentrating, selfishly, on my personal projects; my play “Roll Call” and promote fundraising for Welcome Home Veterans Day Committee and Vet Hunters Projects.
I have been active with both organizations and have witnessed all of the positive work and volunteer participation in helping veterans and feeding the poor on a daily basis. Being on the Bike Trek across country and witnessing their unselfish work in alleys, under bridges and on Skid Row helping and financially supporting homeless veterans and recognizing Vietnam Veterans, is the reason for my decision to make “Roll Call” work towards raising funds for both organizations and at the same time accomplishing my personal goal of producing “Roll Call” in helping families understand PTSD, TBI, the High Suicide rate among soldiers and veterans.
My other project, “Vet Hunters Recognition Awards” is to give proper recognition for all of the volunteers of Vet Hunters and Vet Hunters MMC as well as raise funds for accomplishing their goal of helping homeless veterans.
If anyone is interested in helping with both or either projects, please let know. Your interest in helping us help veterans is appreciated.
I am submitting this letter praying for all to understand why I have made my decision.
Respectfully submitted
Alfred Lugo
Documentary Producer/Playwright/Veteran Advocate


Award Winning Author Insights
Here's A Letter That Award Winning Author Henry Cervantes Recently Received From 
The National World War II Museum in New Orleans


Dear Mr. Cervantes ,

I am writing to notify you that your oral history has been selected for inclusion in the Arsenal of Democracy: The George and Herman Brown Salute to the Home Front exhibition opening in the Louisiana Memorial Pavilion at The National WWII Museum~ This permanent exhibit will feature the experiences of the American home front, the roles of women and minorities during the war, the internment of Japanese-Americans, training at military bases throughout the country, and will tell the story of the attack on Pearl Harbor and the fall of the Philippines.

This Museum is designated by Congress as America 's official World War II Museum. As such, it tells the story of the war that changed the world - why it was fought , how it was won, and what it means today - so that all generation s will understand the price of freedom and be inspired by what they learn. Thank you for allowing us to preserve and share your story as part of our permanent collection. The Dedication Ceremony for in the Arsenal of Democracy exhibit will be June 10, 2017. In the next week or so, we will send you more information about the planned Grand Opening events. 

Seth Paridon 
Manager of Research Services

Source: Kirk Whisler: Hispanic Marketing 101
May 19, 2017

This is a government website, concerning . . .  Diversity in World War I

Do note how we have been excluded . . . .  

"America’s diverse population of recent European immigrants, women, African Americans, Asian Americans, and Native Americans volunteered with civilian organizations on the homefront, while others wore military uniforms and served overseas."  

Sent by Juan Marinez    marinezj@msu.edu

To contact and complain, go to https://www.archives.gov/contact 


The Animals That Helped Win World War I
Newly digitized photos tell the story of animals that fought as soldiers during the Great War

By Jennifer Nalewicki

John Bull

Rags was as brave and hardworking as the American soldiers he fought alongside during World War I. But one key detail set him apart from the men serving in the First Division American Expeditionary Forces: He was a dog.

The stray dog turned soldier was just one of the estimated millions of dogs, horses, camels and other animals that served during the Great War. Often referred to as “military mascots,” these beasts of burden typically acted as soldiers’ companions, boosting morale when times got rough for soldiers living thousands of miles away from home.

But military mascots didn’t just lend a supportive paw: They did real work on the battlefield. Thanks to their speed, strength or agility (depending on the species), they’d take on important tasks like lugging munitions and other cargo, carrying crucial messages between units and sniffing out buried mines. But many of these animals never received any recognition for their hard work and dedication, and their short lives were largely forgotten—until now.

Recently, the National Archives completed a massive scanning project, digitizing 63,000 World War I photos for its American Unofficial Collection of World War Photographs (165-WW) record series. The extensive collection, which took two years to get online, contains images obtained from the U.S. Army Signal Corps, various federal and state government agencies and the American Red Cross. While a majority of the collection contains images of soldiers participating in various stages of military life, from training for battle to engaging in active warfare, archivists noticed something else in the photos: animals.

“I’m an animal lover,” says Kristin DeAnfrasio, an archivist who worked on the project. “As I was going through the photos, I kept seeing unique animals, like a raccoon, an alligator and a bear, that stood out to me.”

Upon further research, DeAnfrasio learned that many of the animals captured in black and white served as military mascots. (She wrote a post on the subject for the archives’ Unwritten Record blog.)

Not much is known about the animals in the collection beyond the typewritten captions that accompany each photo. But they provide rare insight into an aspect of the war that often gets left out of the history books. Animals have often served on the battlefield—the Assyrians and Babylonians were some of the first groups to recruit dogs for war purposes. Closer to home, animals were a part of the Civil War, sniffing out wounded soldiers and responding to bugle calls. However, their role is often underappreciated or unknown.

Take “John Bull,” an English bulldog who belonged to an English major general up until an American air unit adopted him. Aside from the picture in the archive, little else is known about him and his time at war. Adoption wasn’t the only way animals made their way onto the battlefield—citizens also donated their own pets in a show of patriotism.

And not all of the animals whose images made it into the archives were domesticated. Take, for example, Whiskey and Soda, two lion cubs serving as the mascots of the Lafayette Escadrille, a military unit of the Aéronautique Militaire (French Air Service). Or Dick, a monkey belonging to the Provost Guard at Camp Devens, an Army training ground in Massachusetts. Their stories have been lost to time, so today historians can only wager a guess of what their lives entailed—and if they even survived the war.

Frustrated that so many of these military animals didn’t receive the recognition that they deserved, biographer Grant Hayter-Menzies wrote a book about one of them. From Stray Dog to World War I Hero: The Paris Terrier Who Joined the First Division follows the story of Rags, a canine who went from a street dog scrounging for scraps outside a cafe in Paris to a pivotal member of the First Division. 

“I wanted to write about a dog who came out of a situation where it had reasons not to trust a human,” says Hayter-Menzies. “I’m troubled by service animals in war who were [recruited] into service for something they didn’t cause. No animal ever started a war.”

Rags, who lived from 1916 to 1936, followed soldiers home after they fed him and refused to leave the battlefield. He began his military life in 1918 as a mere mascot, but soon the soldiers realized he had more to offer than just an affectionate wag of his tail. First Sergeant James Donovan taught him to deliver messages during a time when the U.S. military lacked a formal messenger service, and Hayter-Menzies credits Rags with saving the lives of "hundreds" of men thanks to the messages he successfully delivered.

“Practically overnight, Rags learned how to run messages,” Hayter-Menzies says. “He could also tell when shells were coming minutes before the men could hear it, and he would flop over [onto his side to let them know]. When Donovan would go check the mines, Rags would go with him and he was able to identify broken lines, even under foggy conditions, by running up to them and barking. How he did it, no one knew.”

Eventually, while running a message that Donovan carefully tied to his collar with telephone wire, Rags' military career came to an abrupt end. His paws and ears were injured by shrapnel, and his lungs damaged by poisonous gas he inhaled from a close-range explosion after his mask slipped off. (The message was successfully delivered.) Rags and Donovan were transferred to a military hospital in Chicago for medical care. His master succumbed to his injuries, but Rags survived. He was adopted by a military family and was their four-legged companion for the remainder of his 20 years. Today, visitors can visit his grave at Aspin Hill Memorial Park in Silver Spring, Maryland, where he was buried with military honors.

Rags’ life had a happy ending, but for many military mascots, that wasn’t the case. But at least now their memories can live on.

“Often war veterans will go to his grave and leave American flags there,” Hayter-Menzies says. “Rags shed red blood just like the rest of the soldiers. Although he weighed only 25 pounds, on his back he saved hundreds of husbands, fathers and sons. He should be honored with the same flag that they all fought under.”

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About Jennifer Nalewicki
Jennifer Nalewicki is a Brooklyn-based journalist. Her articles have been published in The New York Times, Scientific American, Popular Mechanics, United Hemispheres and more. You can find more of her work at her website.  Read more from this author | Follow @jnalewicki 

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Educator Gilberto Quezada Recalls Career Highlights with the San Antonio Independent School District California-Mexico Studies Center Summer 2017 Program Participants Met for the First Time
May 23rd, 1984 - - Landmark Public Education Suit Filed

Educator Gilberto Quezada Recalls Highlights 
in His Career with the San Antonio Independent School District 

Hello Mimi,

This coming June 28, 2017, I will celebrate my fifteenth year since I retired from the South San Antonio Independent School District as an Associate Superintendent of Special Programs, Finance, Pupil Services, Athletics and Records Management.  The 2001-2002 academic year was a pivotal and crucial one in my educational career.  On March 5, I turned in my letter of resignation to Yuhunter Woodard, Director of Personnel Services, with the effective date of Friday, June 28, 2002, stating in part that, “I want to thank all district employees and board members who shared with me many happy thoughts and experiences during the length of my tenure. I do hope that during my thirty-one years at South San, I have made a positive contribution to the improvement of our students’ academic achievement and for the overall betterment of our students.”  Emails, telephone calls, and letters from my colleagues started pouring in with expressions of disbelief and sadness, but at the same time, they were highly praiseworthy of my work. 

I even received a nice certificate of appreciation from Pete Alaniz, President of the  American Federation of Teachers (AFT), and its members for my efforts in conducting the consultation committee monthly meetings with a high decorum of professionalism.  My good friend, Alfred Rodríguez, from the SANYO days, and who was now working as the Bexar County Archivist send me a gracious letter: “Because of your interest and professional contribution, the South San Antonio Independent School District and many thousands of students are now making San Antonio and Bexar County a better place to work and live.  In a very positive way, you touched many young lives and helped prepare them for their future.  I have always admired your cordial smile, hard work and just getting the job done...I also know that you climbed the administrative ladder at South San and now you have left a standard of excellence that we all hope some good person will attempt to fill. The recognition that you have received from your colleagues and from historical organizations is second only to the thirst you have to continue your writings. May you find the love of God in your hands and in your dreams as you continue to enhance our knowledge and interest through your work.” 

Dr. María “Cuca” Robledo Montecel, Executive Director of the Intercultural Development Research Association (IDRA), had this to say, “The success of the program [Coca-Cola Valued Youth] in helping children stay in school in South San Antonio ISD is in no small part due to your work and commitment. Nationally and internationally you often hosted people interested in implementing the program and responded to countless calls requesting your advice on how to best proceed with the program. For me, it has been a profound honor to work alongside someone whose commitment to youth is tireless…You have left a significant mark and set high standards for those who will come after you.  For your future, there is no road yet built, but as you move forward I know you will again create a new path, one that, as always, leaves the world a better place because of you."  And, Felipe Alanis, Deputy Commissioner at the Texas Education Agency, wrote in his own handwriting the following note: “I wish you all the best with the next chapter in your life and my gratitude for serving the children that needed our voice.”  

I am really enjoying my retirement, but what I miss the most is the excellent working relationship I had with my staff, colleagues, principals, my secretary Lucy, friends, students and teachers.  My working relationship with Mr. Robert C. Zamora, our Superintendent, was always cordial and professional.  He was a very capable and competent administrator.  But now, all those wonderful memories of our working together, which I will cherish for as long as I live, will always bring a smile to my face.  I continue to enjoy these fabulous halcyon years with Jo Emma at my side and a glass of cold red wine in hand.  Each day is a celebration of life, doing the things I love best--reading and writing.  I continue to read voraciously and omnivorously.  I have, and have always had, this insatiable thirst for soaking my mind in the vats of literature. The only lamentation I feel inside a library is that life is too short and I have no hope of a full enjoyment of the ample repast spread before me.  So, indeed, there is life after South San!

Information on some of the photographs is as follows (L-R):

Photo #1: The South Side Reporter newspaper published a very nice tribute on my retirement, dated June 13, 2002. The article highlighted my many accomplishments.

Photo #2: I am assisting Dr. Félix D. Almaráz, Jr., Director of the Bilingual Education Center, who is standing by the podium, on a week of inservice training for bilingual teachers, held at Mission San José.

Photo #3: This photograph appeared in the San Antonio Light newspaper on Thursday, August 9, 1973. Miss Rosaura Villegas, Curriculum Specialist for the Bilingual Education Center, and I are planning a week of inservice training for bilingual teachers and paraprofessionals.

Photo #4: Aurelio Montemayor, an educational consultant from the Intercultural Development Research Association (IDRA), and two teachers from South High School who were involved with the implementation of the Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program. 

Photo #5: The article was published in the San Antonio Express-News and highlighted a very successful dropout prevention tutoring program that was initiated by the Intercultural Development Research Association (IDRA) called "The Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program." An article in the New York Times about the success of our program caught the attention of NBC Today Show, and consequently, they sent a crew to interview me, the staff, and some of the students.

Photo #6: I am meeting with a group of middle school students regarding their role as tutors to elementary students, who are participating in the Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program. 

Photo #7: I am addressing a group of business people at the Plaza Club of the Gunter Hotel regarding funding for educational projects. 

Photo #8: An evening dinner at the Texas State Historical Association (TSHA) conference in Austin. I am sitting at the head table because I was on the Executive Council and representing the school district. To my left is Mr. and Mrs. Al Lowman. He was President of the the TSHA. 
Photo #9: An informal discussion with some students who were in the Migrant Program. This enjoyable class that took place one summer afternoon at the Parent Development Center. 

Photo 9  An informal discussion with some students who were in the Migrant Program.  This enjoyable class that took place one summer afternoon at the Parent Development Center.
Photo #10 (L-R): Louise Gaitanos, middle school teacher coordinator for the Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program; Lucy, my secretary; Jesse James Leija, a professional boxing champion. He was the keynote speaker at our annual luncheon for the student tutors. 

Photo #11: The Texas Institute of Letters had just awarded me a handsome monetary award at the Menger Hotel for my political biography, Border Boss: Manuel B. Bravo and Zapata County,and I was asked to say a few words. 
Photo #12: If you are unable to read a letter that was hand-written by a female middle student in 1999 after I made a presentation to the student body and is visible in the background of the article, it reads as follows: 


"Dear Mr. Quezada, Thank you for sharing your book [Border Boss] with me. I wanted to tell you how much I appreciate you coming to my school. I also wanted you to know that when you came to talk about your book you inspired me to write a book, and my first book will be dedicated to you." 

As an educator and author, I feel that if I made a difference in the life of one student, then all my efforts were worthwhile and were not in vain.   ~  Gilberto  

"El Magonista"
Vol. 5 No. 13
May 3, 2017

Launching of the Winter 2017 California-Mexico Dreamers Study Abroad Program

The California-Mexico Studies Center 
Armando Vazquez-Ramos, President & CEO 
1551 N. Studebaker Road, Long Beach, CA 90815
Phone: (562) 430-5541 Cell: (562) 972-0986
Like us on Facebook, Instagram and Twitter
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Selected CMD Summer 2017 Program Participants Met for the First Time

LONG BEACH - On Saturday April 29, the California-Mexico Studies Center (CMSC) successfully convened the first program orientation where all 34 selected and confirmed participants of the Summer 2017 California-Mexico Dreamers Study Abroad Program came together for the first time.

Also present at the orientation were Dr. Ana María Jaramillo, coordinator of the Department of Population Studies at El Colegio de la Frontera Norte (COLEF), and COLEF students who visited from Mexico to personally meet the delegation of Dreamers that will be participating in the CMD Summer 2017 program.

As you may recall from previous newsletters, the CMD Summer 2017 program is the first of our #DreamersStudyAbroad programs that will take place at El Colegio de la Frontera Norte (COLEF) on their campus in Tijuana, Baja California from August 1 to Aug. 21, 2017. 

Moreover, the CMD Summer 2017 delegation of Dreamers is our most diverse to date in terms of demographics, as it includes 24 Dreamers from California, 3 from New York, 2 from Wyoming, and 1 from Washington, Colorado, Wisconsin, Utah, and Arizona who represent 23 different colleges and universities across the United States. 

Amazingly, 29 out of the 34 program participants are women, which is a gender pattern we celebrate and continue to see on all of our Dreamers Study Abroad programs. Undoubtedly, women are proven to be more courageous and willing to advance their profesional and personal lives.

#DreamersStudyAbroad   ~   #CMDSummer2017   ~   #CMDNet


Launching of the Winter 2017 California-Mexico Dreamers Study Abroad Program

The California-Mexico Studies Center (CMSC) is pleased to announce that we are currently accepting applications from DACA recipients to participate in our Winter 2017 California-Mexico Dreamers Study Abroad Program, which will take place in the Mexico City-Cuernavaca area from Dec. 22, 2017 to Jan. 14, 2018.



May 23rd, 1984 -- Landmark public education suit filed
================================== ==================================
On this day in 1984, the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund (MALDEF) filed a landmark suit against Texas education commissioner William Kirby in Travis County. In Edgewood ISD v. Kirby, filed on behalf of the Edgewood Independent School District, MALDEF charged that the state's methods of funding public education violated at least four principles of the state constitution, which obligate the state legislature to provide an efficient and free public school system. 

Initially, eight school districts and twenty-one parents were represented in the suit; eventually, sixty-seven other school districts and many other parents and students joined the original plaintiffs. 
The plaintiffs in Edgewood contested the state's reliance on local property taxes to finance public education on the grounds that property values vary greatly from district to district, thus creating inequality in education funds. The case took years to work its way through the courts, but in 1990 the Texas Supreme Court delivered a unanimous decision siding with the plaintiffs. In 1993, after several earlier attempts were declared unconstitutional, the legislature passed a school finance reform plan comprising several options for equalizing funding. 

In 1995 the Texas Supreme Court found the plan constitutional but ruled that the legislature still needed to work on equalizing and improving school facilities throughout the state.

Source: Texas State Historical Association 



Christian Prayer in the White House Again

Editor Mimi:  I was really glad to see this photo.  As a Christian,  I was quite concerned when the previous administration broke the tradition of holding an annual non-denominational National Day of Prayer.  Instead, a Muslim breakfast was hosted by the president.


Latin Music USA
Curandero, a Life in Mexican Folk Healing by Dr. Eliseo Torres with Timothy L. Sawyer, Jr.
Josefina Lopez, Playwright/Screenwriter/Writer opens Casa Fina Restaurant & Cantina

First released in 2009 . . .

History: In 2000, (the history of) JAZZ produced by Ken Burns was aired. Burns exclusion of the Latin influence on Jazz was blatant and inaccurate.  Just as Burns was blind to the Latinos in his World War II epic and the History of Baseball, so it was in JAZZ.  

The merging and influence of the varied Latin sounds was totally omitted, making his history of jazz in the United States totally and historically incorrect. Gratefully, musicians across the country reacted and, we are collectively blessed by this exciting record of the true Latino presence in the music of  America, correcting Burns work.

Sadly, excluding our presence, Burns belied the evidence that music was a bridge among minority communities. He missed the point entirely.  His work has consistently done the opposite, putting up blinders, dividing Americans. Ignoring the presence of the mestizo/mulato Americans does not inform; it misinforms. 

Thank you to John Valadez, film-maker, producer, writer, director for letting us know that his Episode 3 was to be aired for El Cinco de Mayo this year on PBS.  Valadez produced Episode 3, the Chicano Wave.  He smoothly tells the story of the connection of  civil rights activities, expressed and bolstered by music born in the hearts and minds of young Latinos, wanting to express their hearts, heritage, and reaction to life.   Stirring and forcefully presented.  

You can view and/or purchase the series.  Go to the end of this article for information.

 ~ Mimi

From Latin jazz and mambo to salsa, Tejano, Chicano rock, Latin pop and reggaeton, LATIN MUSIC USA tells the story of the rise of new American music forged from powerful Latin roots and reveals the often overlooked influence of Latin music on jazz, hip hop, rhythm and blues, and rock 'n' roll on all of American culture.

Discover the fascinating musical fusions that propelled Latin music to the top of the US charts with LATIN MUSIC USA, the series that invites audiences into a vibrant musical conversation that has helped shape the history of popular music in the United States. The re-broadcast of LATIN MUSIC USA recognizes the contributions of Latinos to the United States, celebrating their heritage and culture, which is integral to understanding popular music in the U.S. 

Hour one, “Bridges,” begins with the rise of Latin jazz, the explosion of mambo and cha-cha-chá—a new wave of music and dance styles that swept across the nation from New York City to San Francisco—and continues with the Latino infiltration of R&B and rock n’ roll in the 1960’s. The second hour, "The Salsa Revolution" looks at the salsa influence in New York, a hybrid sound created by Puerto Ricans, Cubans, and other Latinos in the city.

Continuing this musical journey, the
third hour, “The Chicano Wave,” highlights the contributions of Mexican-Americans in California, Texas, and the Southwest and reveals how music and artistic expression played an important role in the American civil rights movement. In the final hour, “Divas and Superstars,” Latin pop explodes, becoming a global phenomenon with chart-topping songs from dynamic artists and inventive producers. At the turn of the century, reggaetón, a hot new sound with the style and swagger of hip hop, speaks to young Latinos.

Woven throughout the series are the sounds and stories of an extraordinary range of musical artists and influencers: Carlos Santana, Gloria Estefan, Jennifer Lopez, Marc Anthony, Pérez Prado, Pitbull, Ricky Martin, Ritchie Valens, Selena, Shakira, and Tito Puente to name a few. LATIN MUSIC USA also features Lin-Manuel Miranda, creator of the Tony® Award-winning musicals Hamilton and In the Heights. The life experiences of these and many other unforgettable artists reveal how Latinos have reinvented music in the United States, while never losing sight of their own rich traditions.

Narrated by acclaimed actor Jimmy Smits (24 Legacy, Dexter, The West Wing), LATIN MUSIC USA airs in English and a Spanish- language track is available.

LATIN MUSIC USA is a WGBH/BBC co-production: 

Watch Full Episodes Online of Latin Music USA on PBS


Latin Music USA on iTunes
Oct 12, 2009 - Preview and download your favorite episodes of Latin Music USA, or the entire season. Buy the season for $6.99. Episodes start at $1.99.

===C=============================== ==================================
Hello Mimi,
The attached power point  presentation, "Mexican Folk Medicine and Folk Beliefs (Curanderismo y Yerbas Medicinales", by Dr. Eliseo Torres is very interesting and informative.  I remember him in the 1980s when he came to the South San Antonio Independent School District as a consultant to do workshops for our teachers.  I have in our personal library two books that I purchased from him.  One is titled, The Folk Healer: The Mexican-American Tradition of Curanderismo, and the other book is titled, Green Medicine: Traditional Mexican-American Herbal Remedies.  I lost track of him over the years and I am glad that he is now a university administrator at the University of New Mexico.  I hope you enjoy this educational presentation.
Mamá was a great believer in the use of herbs.  She used the Governadora for kidney stones, Retama for diabetes, Flor de Asar, hojas de Naranjo and Tila for nervoursness, Maruvio for gastritis, Estafiate for stomach aches, and others.  She was a firm believer in the use of herbs for medicinal purposes.  And, she learned all this from my paternal grandmother and grandaunt who were both curanderas in Nuevo Laredo. 

Saludos y Abrazos, Gilberto Quezada 


1. Google: Mexican Folk Medicine and Folk Beliefs (Curanderismo) Yerbas Medicinales
2. Click on: mexican folk medicine and folk beliefs--University of New Mexico
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El Niño Fidencio. The fidencista movement inspires thousands of pilgrims from all over Mexico and beyond to come to the tiny town of Espinazo twice a year to celebrate El Niño's brief life and work as a powerful healer during the early part of the twentieth century. Like the other two members of Los Tres Grandes, El Niño is considered a folk saint. Click on the image at left to learn more about El Niño.

Teresita Urrea. Of the Three Great Ones, she led probably the most dramatic life, filled with tragedies, triumphs, and a seemingly endless devotion to the sick charges who came to visit her in droves wherever she went. Her short life played out against the backdrop of revolution and the machinations of national and regional politics in Mexico during the early years of the twentieth century. To learn more about Teresita, the Saint of Cabora, click on the image at left.  http://www.unm.edu/~cheo/Teresita.htm 

Don Pedrito Jaramillo. The only one of the Three Great Ones to live a long life, Don Pedrito's beginnings were not auspicious, since as a younger man he worked in the bootlegging business. How he came to have a vision after suffering from a serious injury that led to him to realize he had a don, or a gift from God to heal people, is just one element of his fascinating life that deserves further study. Click on the image at left to learn more about this famous folk saint and healer.  http://www.unm.edu/~cheo/DonPedrito.htm 

Dr. Eliseo "Cheo" Torres
Student, Scholar, and Teacher of Curanderismo

Dr. Torres can be reached at cheo@unm.edu or at: Office of the Vice President for Student Affairs, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131. Phone: 505-277-0952.





JOSEFINA LOPEZ, the award-winning playwright and screenwriter, the creator of the pop culture play and film, Real Women Have Curves, and the Founding Artistic Director of CASA 0101 Theater is about to give birth to yet another artistic milestone in her career, that of Restaurateur.  That's right!  Although primarily universally known as a writer, Josefina López is also a Culinary Chef who graduated with a Supreme Diploma from the renowned Le Cordon Bleu in Paris, France.  She has also attended the New School of Cooking in Culver City where she studied cuisine with a California touch and making pastries, as well as the Gourmandise Cooking School in Santa Monica, where she studied chocolate making, bread making, pasta making and pastries.
            Cinco de Mayo, Friday, May 5, 2017, the annual date reserved to celebrate Mexican-American culture, is the day when Josefina López will join forces with three other business partners and immigrants like herself,Executive Chef Augustin Alvarez and Restaurant Owners, Alonzo Ricardo and Emmanuel Deleage, for the Grand Opening of CASA FINA Restaurant & Cantina, a celebration of color, women and Mexican cuisine!


            Josefina López said:  "My motto and mantra at CASA FINA Restaurant and Cantina is:  Life is a fiesta, so wear bright colors, eat great food and dance the night away!  Our mission at CASA FINA will be to provide an excellent experience through exceptional personal service to our patrons by serving them delicious fresh food, with a unique, warm and vibrant atmosphere that leaves them inspired and feeling alive.  Our vision at CASA FINA is that we are part of the 'Artistic Renaissance' and a celebration of the best of Boyle Heights:  it's people, food and culture."
            López continued:  "CASA FINA Restaurant & Cantina is located at 1842 E. First Street in Boyle Heights where Serenata De Garibaldi Restaurant used to be. CASA FINA is within walking distance to CASA 0101 Theater located at 2102 E. First Street, at St. Louis Street.  I had a lot of beautiful moments at Serenata De Garibaldi when it was a brand new restaurant.  It inspired me to open CASA 0101 Theater, giving me confidence that having a theater in close proximity to a fine restaurant would be good for business for all involved. And that's exactly what happened!  We plan to continue that synergy between CASA FINA and CASA 0101 Theater, and to provide entertainment as well, at the restaurant, for our customers."


            The opening of CASA FINA Restaurant & Cantina also coincides with the 30th Anniversary of Josefina López's beginning as a writer, when as a 17-year-old student at Los Angeles High School for the Arts she wrote her first play, SIMPLY MARIA, Or The American Dream, which launched her successful career as a renowned American playwright and screenwriter.  A Pay-What-You-Can production of her play will be presented at CASA 0101 Theater from April 28 - May 14, 2017 to celebrate the historic occasion.
            The festivities for the Grand Opening of CASA FINA Restaurant & Cantina will kick off on Grand Opening Day, May 5, 2017 from 3:00 to 6:00 p.m. with a FREE Fiesta and Official Ribbon Cutting Ceremony with the participation of CASA 0101 Theater Board Members and local dignitaries, as well as live entertainment, which will soon be announced.  Members of the General Public are invited to come to be part of the fun!  Free Tacos, Aguas Frescas and Cake will be served to all in attendance.
           CASA FINA Restaurant and Cantina is located at 1842 E. First Street, Boyle Heights, CA  90033.  House Specialties include:  Ceviche, Fajitas, Molcajetes and Desserts.  There will be art on the walls at the restaurant, including exhibits by artists and painters, such as:  Juan Solis, Margaret Garcia and Emilia Garcia.  The artwork will be a celebration of women and women painters, including Chicana/o artists, Latinos and women.

           Josefina López elaborated by saying:  "CASA FINA will be different from Serenata de Garibaldi because although we will be serving Mexican food with a modern twist, we will be a Family Dinning Restaurant where everyone is welcome.  We want people in the Boyle Heights community to know that our prices are affordable and within the reach of the residents.  We were conscious to not contribute to the gentrification already plaguing Boyle Heights.  My goal has always been to make theater accessible and now I want to make this restaurant accessible to the Boyle Heights community and all those outside of Boyle Heights who love authentic and fresh Mexican food.  Yes, there are many Mexican restaurants in Boyle Heights already serving delicious Mexican food, but I promise the friendly atmosphere and fiestas will be the best at CASA FINA."
            López continued:  "Our Daily Specials will be my opportunity to create with Chef Augustin Alvarez special dishes and invent Chicana/o cuisine.  I also want to have wine tasting events so the Boyle Heights community can come try our wines and learn about Mexican wines from the Valley of Guadalupe in Baja, CA where our wines will come from.  We want to support Mexican wines by serving them in our restaurant.  In the future I want to create Special Events like Speed Dating, Stand Up Comedy Nights, Open Mike Nights, Bohemian Nights, Karaoke Nights and create many opportunities for Boyle Heights residents to try their hand at performing in front of a crowd.  I even want to have Paint Nights with our featured artists teaching people how to paint as they sip our wine.  It's going to be exciting and action packed in our Cantina!"

           CASA FINA Restaurant Hours of Operation will be:  Monday through Thursdayfrom 1 1:00 a.m. - 10:00 p.m. for both Lunch and Dinner; Friday from 11:00 a.m. - 2:00 a.m.; Saturday from 8:00 a.m. - 2:00 a.m. including Breakfast, Lunch and Dinner and Sundays from8:00 a.m. - 10:00 p.m., including Sunday Brunch from 8:00 a.m. - 12 Noon.
           CASA FINA's Cantina will be open from 10:00 p.m. - 2:00 a.m.on Fridays and Saturdays with a limited Happy Hour Menu.  The restaurant will feature daily specials.  Valet Parking is available in the alley behind CASA FINA.  The phone number is 323-604-9592. The E-mail is:  
Join the conversation with us at:  www.facebook.com/casafinarest aurantandcantina
 www.instagram.com/CasaFinaFie sta 
Twitter:  @CasaFinaFiesta
           Please visit us online at, www.casafinarestaurant.com , to view our entire menu, including Act One - Breakfast, Act Two - Bontanas/Appetizers, Act Three - Entrées, Climax - Especialidades/Specialities, Resolution, Postre/Dessert and Beverages - Hot Drinks, Cold Drinks, Wine Margaritas, Draft Beers and Wine.
Hispanic Marketing 101
Volume 15, Number 15, May 5, 2017 


Today a major advocate of Latino culture will be opening a brand new restaurant in her beloved Boyle Heights ~ CASA FINA Restaurant & Cantina at 1842 E. First St. Please consider visiting this new establishment in the next few weeks. See more below. 

This week Quote comes to us from Stephen M.R. Covey's excellent & insightful book The Speed of Trust. This is part of an important series we are doing on TRUST, a very key and often under appreciated aspect of doing business. Covey recently gave a World Class presentation at the Int'l Franchise Association's Convention in Las Vegas. Best business presentation I've ever heard. 
"The people who I have trouble dealing with...are people who tend to not give full information. They purposefully leave out certain parts of the story - they distort facts." ~ Shelley Lazarus, Chairman and CEO, Ogilvy & Mather

If you find a quote you like let me know. I will be happy to send to our 13,400 plus Hispanic advertising and media executives and give you a plug for sending it!

Our Goal Latino Print Network's goal with each issue is for you to say at least once "Glad I learned that". 

Kirk's signature
Kirk Whisler
Executive Editor



Sofia and Pepe's Adventure Series by Albert Monreal Quihuis
Maria Teresa Marquez and CHICLE: 
      The First Chicana/o Electronic Mailing List 
Mario from the Barrio by Mario R. Vazquez
Betrayal & Conquer, an American Story: Over-coming Hardship & Adversity by
Dr. Ramona Ortega 
Tejano Tiger Jose de los Santos Benavides and the Texas-Mexico Borderlands, 1823-1891 by
Dr. Jerry D. Thompson
Gods, Gachupines and Gringos: A People's History of Mexico 
      by Richard Grabman
Joe Sanchez Picon Supercop/author of four books, latest Yellow Streak
Robert James Waller and Chicano literature by Felipe de Ortego y Gasca

Sofia and Pepe’s Adventure Series 

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Hi Mimi, 

It was a pleasure working with you on the Radio program. I find it exciting when we share our history, stories and being proud of our heritage.  

My children books are design to teach our traditions, culture, history.  I applaud you for your work and efforts to unite our community, I would appreciate if you could add me to your list and keep me informed. Please send me your contact information. 

Join Sofia and Pepe on their life learning experiences. Each new adventure brings on new challenges and with Sofia’s determination and Pepe the parrot’s humor they learn about their culture, traditions and history and being proud of their Latino Heritage.     

After writing his first children’s book to honor his parents and family traditions, Albert became passionate about writing bicultural books that enrich and inspire children while creating community development and removing social barriers.     

 “Sofia’s Awesome Tamale Day” International Latino Book Award
“El Dia Maravilloso De Hacer Tamales Que Tuvo Sofia” International Latino Book Award

Sofia’s grandmother must leave suddenly to take care of her ill sister leaving a young Sofia in charge of making the family tamales for the Holidays. Sofia plans and leads in the process of making tamales which brings Hispanic families together. Foreword by Stella Pope Duarte  

“In Search for the Lost Art of Making Tortillas”

Through her dreams about her ancestors, Sofia travels to the festival of Zapopan and follows the path of the Jaguar to a secret cave hidden behind a waterfall searching for answers and The Lost Art of Making Tortillas.       

“Isabela’s Treasure” Arizona Literacy Award, New Mexico Arizona Book Award

As Sofia searches for her lost family treasure at the mission, mine and the presidio, along the way she discovers the real treasure of being proud of her family heritage and appreciating the sacrifices and wisdom of her ancestors. Foreword by former Arizona Governor Raul H. Castro  

“Sofia’s Summer Adventure” Arizona Literacy Award, New Mexico Book Award, ILBA

Sofia travels and spends the summer with her family in the country where she learns about Native American farming and making a scarecrow. She listens to stories of Tío Joaquín’s bravery and the people who fled Mexico during the Revolution.  She has fun times with her cousins, playing, swimming and a visit to the ghost house and much more.    

More Books to Come- Next book Sofia’s Dia de los Muertos- Due Oct 2017


Author’s Info

Albert Monreal Quihuis- Award Winning Author   
Author available for:  Speaking engagements, Readings and Book Signings
aquihuis@msn.com, 602.615.1850, to order online http://tiny.cc/AlQuihuis 
Award Winning Illustrator: Susan Klecka  


Albert Monreal Quihuis
Award Winning Author 
P.O. Box 8100
Chandler, AZ 85246

María Teresa Márquez and CHICLE: The First Chicana/o Electronic Mailing List

By Miguel Juárez
These days we take e-mail and electronic lists for granted, but imagine a world where there is no e-mail or exchange of information like we have now?  That was the world for Humanities Librarian María Teresa Márquez at the University of New Mexico (UNM) Zimmerman Library and creator of CHICLE, the first Chicana/o electronic mailing list created in 1991, to focus on Latino literature and later on the social sciences. [1] Other Chicano/Latino listservs include Roberto Vásquez’s Lared Latina of the Intermountain Southwest (Lared-L) [2] created in 1996, and Roberto Calderon’s Historia-L, created in March 2003. [3] These electronic lists were influential in expanding communication and opportunities among Chicanas/os. CHICLE, nevertheless, deserves wider recognition as a pioneering effort whose importance has been overlooked.
Check out the rest:

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I want to bring to your attention a new book by Mario R. Vazquez titled Mario From The Barrio.
Born in the historic San Felipe Barrio of Del Rio Texas, Mario graduated from the famed San Felipe High School, the first high school built in the state of Texas in a Mexican barrio.
Mario chronicles his life journey, as part of the US Army he once saluted General Douglas MacArthur in Japan. As a champion of the civil rights movement through his work with the G.I. Forum he worked and met with iconic figures Cesar Chavez, Dr. Hector Garcia, and then California Governor Ronald Reagan. His journey culminated with a meeting in the Oval Office of the White House with the President of the United States Lyndon B. Johnson.

By documenting his story, Mario has accomplished what we are striving for, to tell our stories.  His story will inspire generations to come.  I urge you to get the word out on this book.

By documenting his story, Mario has accomplished what we are striving for, to tell our stories.  His story will inspire generations to come.  I urge you to get the word out on this book.
Mario's book is available now through Pre-Orders and soon to be available online, Amazon.com and BarnesandNoble.com
To order a signed copy of the book please email Mario at :   mariorv83@yahoo.com
Paypal accepted using the same email above.  $20.00 includes shipping. 

Thanks for the support.
Dave Gutierrez
Speaker, Writer, Author

Sent by Dave Gutierrez, Juan Marinez, and Armando F. Sanchez

Betrayal & Conquer an American Story: Over-Coming Hardship & Adversity

Dr. Ramona Ortega is the daughter of Mexican migrants that immigrated to the United States in the 1930’s seeking the American dream. After enduring years of physical and emotional hardship throughout the 1950’s, Ramona and members of her large family found the dreams they sought. This is the inspiring story of one of the nine children born to Maria and Blas Ortega who set out to pursue her own American dream. 

Her name is Ramona.
Not letting the stifling poverty she knew as a child stop her Ramona moved from the Midwestern Iowa cornfields to Arizona pursuing her dream of going to college.

She was triumphant in her educational quest successfully earning an Associate of Arts degree from Scottsdale Community College (with highest distinction), a Bachelor of Science degree (magna cum laude) from Arizona State University (ASU) and a Master’s degree from Harvard University. 


But she was not finished going on to earn a doctorate from ASU eventually becoming an associate professor at The University of Akron where she was named one of six “Women “Trailblazers.” Ramona pursued other aspects of her American dream by volunteering for the Bush-Cheney Transition Team (2000-2001) an account of which she later published in White House Studies (Ortega 2015). And she also became Co-Host for the Presidential Inaugural Awards Luncheon “Leave No Child Behind.” And, yes, Ramona has danced at five presidential inaugural balls!  

Ramona has many years of public service to her credit becoming a Charter Member of the ASU Research Park Board of Directors and a member of the Arizona Governor’s Trade Delegation to Japan. She is the recipient of three prestigious presidential appointments. She was appointed by the Reagan Administration to the Community Colleges of the Air Force Board of Visitors and received the prestigious Air Force Award for Meritorious Civilian Service. Next Ramona was appointed by the George H. W. Bush Administration to the Army Command and General Staff College Advisory Board and to the National Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance. Ramona’s many tiered career includes being an associate in the investment banking firm of Boettcher and Company and she later served as director of the Unaccompanied Minors Shelter Care Program (UMSCP) receiving special recognition by the U.S. Office of the Inspector General for creating a model shelter for unaccompanied minors.


Dr. Ortega’s interest in government and politics began as a Scottsdale Community College student aide to Sandra Day O’Connor in 1975 later becoming Deputy Administrative Assistant to Congressman John McCain (now U.S. Senator). She has been a dynamic speaker on Hispanic and women’s issues at Harvard University and Radcliffe College and is a published author. Among her many research publications are articles on the variables influencing public sector careers of Hispanics and women in higher education.

Only in America can a daughter of Mexican migrants grow up to accomplish the things Ramona has and to live her idea of the American Dream. Few expected that this spunky 17 year old single mother would grow up to become a world traveler presenting academic papers on six of the seven continents. Ramona’s story is inspirational and illustrates that through hard work and educational preparation anyone can rise above their humble beginnings and enjoy the fruits of an independent and courageous spirit.

Ramona’s heartwarming book Betrayal & Conquer: An American Story of Courage & Resilience is available online at: Amazon. Com; Smashwords.com; or through Lightening Source Print on Demand (POD) Publishers, and Ingram Press.

Dr. Ortega is available as a motivational speaker on women’s issues, teen pregnancy, and Latinos in higher education. For book signing tours, contact her at ramona3@uakron.edu.


Ortega, R. (2015). The 2001 Bush/Cheney White House Transition: A View from the Inside. White House Studies Volume 14, Issue 2 (pp. 201-218). Nova Science            

Other publications by Ramona Ortega-Liston

Ortega, R. (1999). Affirmative Action Policies and Workplace Discrimination: Perceived Effects on the Careers of Mexican Americans in Municipal Administration.   Review of Public Personnel Administration, 6(3), 49-57.


Ortega, R. (1999). Can Mentoring Mean the Difference between Success and Failure for Mexican American Professionals? Journal of Public Management and Social Policy, 5(2), 1-9.


Ortega, R. (2001). Mexican American Professionals in Municipal Administration:  DoThey Really Lag Behind in Terms of Education, Seniority, and On-the-Job-           Training?  Public Personnel Management, 30(2), 197-210.


Ortega, R. (2001). Mexican American Professionals in Public Administration:  Are Poor English-Proficiency Skills Holding Them Back? Journal of Public Management and Social Policy, 7(1), 31-41.


Ortega, R. Plagens, G., Stephens, M., Berry, R., (March 2012). Mexican American Public Sector Professionals: Perceptions of affirmative action policies and workplace discrimination. Review of Public Personnel Administration (ROPPA), 32(1), pp. 24-44.  

Ortega, R., Fajardo, M. E., and Cadena, C., (2013). Spanish language publication.  Los mentores en el desarrollo profesional de las mujeres. Estados Unidos y México. Raudem, Revista de  Estudios de las Mujeres. Vol. 1, pp.132-152; ISSN: 2340- 9630.

Ortega, R., Marina, B., Darwich, L.; Boustani, L; Rho, E; Rodriguez-Soto, I; Berry- James, R.M. (2013). The Voices and Choices of Women in the Academy.  Journal of International Association for the Study of the Global Achievement Gap Vol. 1, pp.  5-28. http://digitalcommons.georgiasouthern.edu/jiasgag/9.  

Ortega, R., Berry-James, R. (2014). Critically low Hispanic college graduation rates and Under-Representation in Public Administration. In Donald Klingner and Robert Moreno (Eds.), The Perfect Storm: Drug Trafficking in the Mexico-U.S. Trans-Border Region. Philadelphia: Taylor & Francis Publishers, pp. 172-203.

Ortega, R., and Rodriguez-Soto, I. (2014). Challenges, Choices, and Decisions of Women in the Academy: A Discourse on the Future of Hispanic, Black, and Asian Members of  the Professoriate. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, Vol. 13(4) 285–302. Available online Sage Publications at: http://jhh.sagepub.com/content/early/2014/06/30/1538192714540531. http://jhh.sagepub.com/content/13/4/285. DOI: 10.1177/1538192714540531 2014.

Sent by Rudy Padilla  opkansas@swbell.net 




Hello Mimi,
A very dear friend of mine, Dr. Jerry D. Thompson, Regents Professor of History at Texas A&M International University in Laredo, just had a book published this past February by Texas Christian University Press entitled, Tejano Tiger:  José de los Santos Benavides and the Texas-Mexico Borderlands, 1823-1891.  Professor Thompson and I have been friends and brother historians for many decades.  He has also been teaching at the college level in Laredo since the 1970s.  He received his Ph.D. degree in history from Carnegie Mellon University.  And, he is past president of the Texas State Historical Association, the oldest learned institution in Texas.


I advised Professor Thompson to get in touch with you regarding his new book, and accordingly, I took the liberty of giving him your email address.  Moreover, I told him to email you the table of contents, a short biography, published books and other accomplishments and a photograph of himself, and a brief synopsis of the new book. 

I would highly appreciate it if you could publish my email and his information in the June or the July edition of Somos Primos.  His new book would fit perfectly under the heading of "Books and Print Media." 
Professor Thompson is a prolific researcher and author of many award-winning historical books. 
 Among his numerous works, he has published the following:
Vaqueros in Blue & Gray (1977)
Mexican Texans in the Union Army (1986)
Laredo:  A Pictorial History (1986)
Warm Weather & Bad Whiskey: The 1886 Laredo Election Riot (1991)
Juan Cortina and the Texas-Mexico Frontier, 1859-1877 (1994) 
A Wild and Vivid Land:  An Illustrated History of the South Texas Border (1997)
And this is the information from Amazon Books:
"Riding the rough and sometimes bloody peaks and canyons of border politics, Santos Benavides’s rise to prominence was largely the result of the careful mentoring of his well-known uncle, Basilio Benavides, who served several terms as alcalde of Laredo, Texas, and Chief Justice of Webb County. When the Civil War erupted in 1861, Basilio was one of only two Tejanos in the state legislature. During Santos’s lifetime, five flags flew over the small community he called home—that of the Republic of Mexico, the ill-fated Republic of the Rio Grande, the Republic of Texas, an expansionist United States, and in March 1861, the rebellious Confederate States of America. It was under the Confederacy in the disputed Texas-Mexico borderlands that Santos Benavides reached the pinnacle of his military career as the highest-ranking Tejano in the entire Confederate army. In the decades that followed the Civil War, he became an esteemed political leader, highly respected on both sides of the border. This is the first scholarly study of this important historical figure.

At the pinnacle of his political career in 1879, Benavides held the distinction of being the only Tejano in the Texas legislature. Through strife, sweat, blood, and heroism in defense of the border, Benavides rose to economic and political heights few could dream of. As a friend and confidant of two Mexican presidents, he was one of the single most influential individuals in the nineteenth-century history of the border. His life was one of enduring perseverance as well as binational leadership and skilled diplomacy. He was without doubt the single most important individual in the long and often violent history of Laredo. The niche he carved in the tumultuous transnational history of the Texas-Mexico borderlands seems secure."


Top Customer Reviews from Amazon Books

Comprehensive & Authoritative Yet Easy-to-Read, an Excellent Biography

on March 25, 2017


This author writes good history! This extremely well researched and comprehensive book shows its subject, Santos Benavides of Laredo, Texas, to have been much more than simply the Confederacy's highest rank Tejano (Mexican American). It reveals him as a family man, a businessman, and a politician (one of the very few Tejanos to serve in the Texas legislature during the 1800s). The manner in which the author traces Benavides' life through prejudice, his negotiation of dual loyalties, and his efforts to bridge relations between Mexico and Texas is particularly well explained. Despite its thoroughness in covering its subject, this book is above all easy-to-read. For its coverage of a lesser-know theater of the Civil War and the insight it provides to the difficulties faced by Tejanos of the Rio Grande border area, this book should be in your library.
And Mimi, the new book may be purchased at Amazon Books, Barnes & Noble, and at Texas Christian University Press.  

Well, Mimi, thank you for all your support and may God continue to bless you with abundance of energy.  As always, I am eternally grateful for all you do to keep the Spanish Presence in Americas Roots.

Gilberto Quezada 

                                                          JERRY D. THOMPSON   LAREDO, TEXAS  78040  
                                                                        PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE

2002-Present     Regents Professor of History, Humanities, TAMIU

1968-1982       Laredo Community College

1982-2017       Texas A&M International University                   


2016                Fray Francisco Atanasio Dominguez Award for A Civil War History of the New Mexico Volunteers and Militia from the New Mexico Historical Association

2011                Elected to the Texas Institute of Letters

2010-11-12      Texas A&M University System Teaching Excellence Award

2010`               Judith Zaffirini Medal for Outstanding Teaching and Scholarship

2008                Texas Institute of Letters (Best Non-Fiction Book) for Cortina: Defending the Mexican Name in Texas.

2007                Tejano Book Award Cortina: Defending the Mexican Name in Texas.

Texas Institute of Letters (Best Scholarly Book) for Civil War to the Bitter End: The Life and Times of Major General Samuel Peter Heintzelman.

2005                Texas Historical Commission T. R. Fehrenback Award for Civil War and   Revolution on the Rio Grande Frontier.

2005                Texas Historical Association Kate Broocks Bates Award for Civil War and    Revolution on the Rio Grande Frontier.

2002                Historical Society of New Mexico Gaspar Perez de Villagra Award for Civil War in              the Southwest.

2001-02           President, Texas State Historical Association

1982                Piper Professor


2017                Tejano Tiger: José de los Santos Benavides and the Texas-Mexico Borderlands, 1923-1891, Texas Christian University Press, Fort Worth.

2015                A Civil War History of the New Mexico Militia and Volunteers, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque

2011                Ed., Tejanos in Gray: The Civil War Letters of Captains Rafael de la Garza and Manuel Yturri, Texas A&M University Press, College Station. 

2008                Ed., New Mexico Territory During the Civil War: Wallen and Evans Inspection Reports, 1862-1863, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

Ed. (With Thomas T. Smith and Robert Wooster), Reminiscences of Major General Zenas R. Bliss, 1854-1876, Texas State Historical Association, Austin.

2007                Cortina: Defending the Mexican Name in Texas, Texas A&M University Press.

2006                Civil War to the Bitter End: The Life and Times of Major General Samuel Peter Heintzelman, Texas A&M University Press, College Station.

2004                Civil War and Revolution on the Rio Grande Frontier: A Narrative and Photographic History (with Larry Jones), Texas State Historical Association, Austin. 


                        Last of the Oklahoma Outlaws


                        Taught approximately 10,500 students; wrote over 100 newspaper articles; over 125 book reviews; presented 32 workshops on Texas and Civil War history; wrote script for four documentaries on Texas history; presented over 60 lectures to civic groups and Civil War Round Tables; reviewed over 60 manuscripts for university presses; and presented over 30 scholarly papers


In 1861, Mexico was an independent but highly fragile country unable to pay its creditor nations, with the largest of its debts owed to France. The French, encouraged by the pope, seized upon the situation as an opportunity to expand their colonial empire and to install Maximilian Von Hapsburg as the emperor of Mexico. 

The French first took the Mexican port of Veracruz as collateral, then began a march of conquest. It was a victorious invasion with only one defeat along the way, when on May 5, 1862, soldiers of the elite French Foreign Legion succumbed to Mexican troops in the small town of Puebla. This Mexican victory, though futile, is still celebrated as Cinco de Mayo:

"[To collect its overdue loan from Mexico], France proposed taking over [the Mexican port of] Veracruz and collecting customs receipts until the debt was repaid. This was the standard 19th-century way of dealing with debtor nations -- creditor nations would simply occupy the debtor country's ports and pay themselves out of tax receipts. 

The Mexican government offered to negotiate with its European creditors, but the Europeans expected some kind of security while payment terms were worked out. Reluctantly, Mexican forces were withdrawn from Veracruz. The port was basically turned over as collateral on the outstanding loans and a joint force of the creditor nations landed in December 1861. ...
Young Archduke Maximilian and Archduchess Charlotte

"France had less business in México [than England and Spain], but claimed much larger debts. ... Napoleon III, like his uncle [Napoleon Bonaparte], wanted to expand France, and Europe was out of the question. France had conquered a large part of North Africa and was establishing colonies in Indochina and Africa. Mexico was a tempting target for several reasons. ... Mexican silver mines and farms appeared to be a good investment; the United States, in the middle of its own civil war, was in no position to interfere and the French government listened to the exiles who still believed in a king. ...

"There was Napoleon III's wife, the Empress Eugenia. ... Eugenia -- with her less than royal background -- was a strange woman for a Bonaparte. She was ultra-aristocratic [sic] and Catholic. For her, a monarchy was the only proper form of government and the older the Catholic aristocratic family, the better. She knew there was a member of the oldest, most aristocratic and Catholic family in Europe who needed a job. Who better for Emperor of Mexico than Maximilian Von Hapsburg? ...

"His older brother, Franz Josef, was Emperor of Austria, but no one had found a suitable job for Max. ... Maximilian was viceroy of the Austrian territories in northern Italy, but it wasn't working out. ... [Maximilian's wife] Charlotte, for her part, was a king's daughter. The daughter of the king of Belgium, granddaughter of the queen of France and Queen Victoria of England's first cousin, was not happy being only the sister-in-law of the Emperor of Austria. She believed she should be at least a queen. An empress would be even better.

"There was one more European player: Pope Pius IX. The Pope was fighting his own war against Italian guerrillas, and the once important Papal States were protected only by French soldiers. His entire kingdom would be reduced to a few acres in Rome within a few years. Pius saw monarchy as the Church's best defense against republics [which he viewed as a threat to the Church]. The French revolution had nearly destroyed the Church, and only the first Emperor Napoleon had saved it. France, and another Napoleon, had to come to the Pope's rescue when the short-lived Roman Republic ran Pius out of his own kingdom. The Mexican Republic [was yet another threat to the power of the Church]. A republic was bad enough, but these reformers had attacked the Church and even separated it from the State.

"The Mexican conservatives [whose power had been diminished by the rise of the Mexican Republic] wanted a strong central government that would restore them to power. The Pope and Eugenia wanted to strengthen the Church. Charlotte wanted a crown. Franz Josef wanted his younger brother eased out of Italy and out of a possible future as ruler of Austria. Napoleon III wanted to make money out of his occupation of Mexico. Maximilian wanted an election!

"The French occupation was much more expensive than Napoleon expected. Winfield Scott had invaded with ten thousand men, and the United States Army of the 1840s was considered one of the world's worst by the standards of the time. The French Army in the 1860s was the world's best, and four thousand soldiers should have been more than enough. The army bogged down attempting to capture Puebla, which Archbishop Labastida had assured Napoleon was overwhelmingly conservative and would welcome the French without a fight. On 5 May 1862, Mexican troops, led by Ignacio Zaragoza surprised themselves and beat the best army in the world. [Mexican President Benito] Juarez declared 5 May a national holiday -- Cinco de Mayo, although he knew ... that this was only a temporary victory. The French replaced their commander and sent thirty thousand reinforcements. ...

"With still more troops, the French were finally able to claim control. ... Once more, President Juarez had to ask for emergency power, and once more, Congress had fled the Capital. With the foreigners in control of most of the major cities, the French organized Maximilian's election, and not surprisingly, Maximilian was elected Emperor of Mexico."

Gods, Gachupines and Gringos: A People's History of Mexico

Author: Richard Grabman
Publisher: Editorial Mazatlan
Copyright 2008 by Richard Grabman
Pages: 177-182

Sent by TEJANOS2010, managed by Elsa Mendez Peña and Walter Centeno Herbeck Jr. 
Our purpose is to share information in genealogy, historical, cultural, arts, music, entertainment and other Tejano issues.

Joe Sanchez Picon Supercop and Author of four books, latest just out: Yellow Streak


Super Cop: Badge 3712, NYPD Officer Joe Sanchez’ tragic days
By Doug Poppa, April 27, 2016

He was called a “supercop” and an “arrest machine” by the New York City media in the 1980s. Some cops called him a rat and a “field associate,” a term used to describe a cop who was working for Internal Affairs.

His story is nothing short of compelling yet tragic at the same time.

A Hollywood scriptwriter could not make up a story such as his and it could very easily be a big screen movie in the fashion of one of Philip D’Antoni’s gritty police dramas.

He committed professional suicide while a member of the NYPD when he exposed criminal activity by high ranking NYPD officers. Breaking the Blue Wall of Silence would have serious consequences that eventually led to the demise of his police career.

Jose Manuel Sanchez Picon was born in Santurce, Puerto Rico in January 1947. His family moved to New York City in the 1950’s to find a better life.  Joe Sanchez grew up in the South Bronx.

Sanchez was drafted into the United States Army in 1965 at the age of 18.  Joe Sanchez went from boy to man quickly.  On January 16, 1967 at the age of 20 while with the 1st Air Cavalry Division he was deployed near the village of Phan Thiet in South Vietnam. While in a firefight with the Viet Cong, Sanchez and three of his comrades were seriously wounded.

The 1st Air Cavalry Division deploying under enemy fire in Vietnam. (Wikipedia)  Joe Sanchez was awarded the Army Commendation Medal and the Purple Heart. 

After recovering from his wounds Sanchez returned to New York City and in 1971 was accepted onto the Port Authority Police of New York and New Jersey.  In 1973 Joe Sanchez became a police officer with the New York City Police Department.

During his tenure with the NYPD Sanchez received 31 commendations, made hundreds of arrests and was known as a police officer who went after violent criminals and drug dealers with a passion.

This may sound like a good thing but when juxtaposed with the fact that in New York City at the time many crooked cops were providing protection for drug dealers, bookies, bodega owners and the like, it may not have been such a good idea for Joe Sanchez.

For an honest cop just doing what he was getting paid to do and what is demanded by the public that all cops do, Sanchez was becoming an annoyance for some of his superiors at the time.

Reading from a New York Daily News article from 1982, Joe Sanchez was one of the Top Ten NYPD cops in 1981 for overtime resulting from arrests made.

Daily News ArticeSanchez earned $11, 553 in overtime while assigned to a radio patrol car in Harlem in 1981, logged 60 arrests, including 10 for drug possession, 10 for burglary, eight for robbery and one for attempted murder of a police officer. The article stated just last week Sanchez and his partner were involved in a shootout with a man who fired at them.

Sanchez was by all means a cops cop. He made off-duty arrests many times.  Criminals feared him.  His bosses told him to knock it off.  Sanchez had a reputation on the street of a cop who was all business.

Sanchez once walked into a shop at 158th Street and Broadway to get some coffee. A local man took one look at Sanchez, put his hands on the counter, and yelled, “OK, don’t shoot!” The man was wanted for robbery and had a gun.  In northern Manhattan Sanchez was known as an “arrest machine.”

So how did a highly decorated police officer become a marked man in the NYPD, double-crossed by the Internal Affairs Division, and later framed and arrested on false charges, then exonerated of all charges and fired?

Joe Sanchez did the unthinkable.

He broke the Blue Wall of Silence, the police omerta, by going after a corrupt lieutenant and a captain. In the eyes of many cops Sanchez betrayed them.  And some in the NYPD were going to get back at him by any means they could.

It all started around March 1983 when Sanchez found out that one of his lieutenants and a captain were receiving payments from a local businessman in exchange for “protection”. Sanchez reported this to the Internal Affairs Division who wired him up with a recording device to obtain the evidence against the lieutenant and captain.

Sanchez obtained enough information to implicate both of them. What Sanchez did not know was that some of those who wired him up were personal friends of the lieutenant who had leaked what was going on. The captain transferred Sanchez to another division and the IAD investigation was over.

Sanchez was pegged as an informer who ratted out other cops.  Not good for any police officer especially someone like Joe Sanchez who was an active go-getter when it came to criminals.

Sanchez because of his many arrests specifically against drug dealers would be an easy mark to set up and retaliate against for doing the right thing, or in the eyes of corrupt cops, the wrong thing.

So the NYPD went back to arrests made by Joe Sanchez and his partner from April 1982, almost a year prior, when Joe Sanchez and his partner arrested six suspects on drug and weapons charges. One of the suspects later stated that Sanchez had stolen $1,500 from him.

An Internal Affairs Field Unit investigated the complaint at the time and found no corroborating evidence. The same suspect later told investigators that Sanchez had slapped him, a charge he did not make the day of the arrest.

In October 1983, almost a year and a half after the arrests and six months after Sanchez was wired up to obtain evidence of corruption against an NYPD lieutenant and captain, Joe Sanchez was framed and indicted on burglary, larceny and assault charges, based on the allegations from the drug dealer.

The witnesses against him were the drug dealers he and his partner had arrested back in 1982.  The dealers were promised that their charges would be dropped if they testified against Sanchez.  And who arrested Sanchez? 
The same Internal Affairs sergeant who wired him up back in March 1982.

Joe Sanchez found out the hard way that payback in the NYPD was a real bitch. Sanchez was then suspended without pay.  In court Sanchez was exonerated of all charges except for an assault charge, which was later dropped.

Nonetheless Sanchez who the press once called a supercop and an arrest machine and who had numerous commendations and made hundreds of arrests found himself out of a job.

Fired after twelve years in the NYPD, Sanchez found himself out in the cold with no means to support his wife and children. The New York Daily News ran an article titled, Injustice system KO’s ‘supercop’. He loses his job over disproved charges. 

Sanchez did whatever job he could to support his family. For three years Sanchez states he found himself cleaning toilets, working private security jobs and later as a postal carrier, all the while trying to get reinstated to the NYPD to no avail.

Benjamin Ward who was police commissioner at the time had the authority to reinstate Sanchez but refused to do so.  Ward may have felt that it was better to leave things the way they were with Sanchez rather than opening up a can of worms by exposing further police corruption.

In 1989 Sanchez was back wearing a badge when he was hired by the New York State Department of Corrections. Obviously the State didn’t think much of the NYPD’s frame-up of Sanchez.

Sanchez served as a corrections officer at the famed Sing Sing Correctional Facility, a maximum security prison. For Sanchez he found himself for all accounts in prison with some of the same criminals he had put in prison. While there Sanchez was assaulted. He later transferred to Coxsakie State Prison where one day he was almost killed while trying to help an inmate who was being stabbed by another inmate.

Sanchez decided he had had enough and ended his career as a corrections officer.  How much more could society have asked from Sanchez?

And what happened to the lieutenant and captain that Sanchez obtained evidence against in 1983? They got what Sanchez never did. The lieutenant retired. The captain retired at the rank of deputy chief.

So much for exposing corruption in the NYPD. Another great message sent to all police officers. Keep your mouth shut or else! Sanchez now lives in Florida.  In 2007 his autobiography was published, “True Blue, a tale of the enemy within.”

Sanchez said that behind every good man is a good woman. “I’ve been married only one time and it’s been to the same woman for 48 years. When things were going bad for me,  my wife kept me strong as did my children.”

Sanchez quotes Proverbs 31:12, “She brings him good not harm, all the days of her life.”  Perhaps no man could ask for more.

First two books on the Police Writers Website, http://www.police-writers.com/joe_sanchez.html
All four books available through Amazon.


Latinopia.com/Bravo Road, May 07, 2017

By Felipe de Ortego y Gasca  

Scholar in Residence/Former Chair, Department of Chicana/Chicano and Hemispheric Studies, 2008-2011, 
Western New Mexico University

It may seem incongruous to link Robert James Waller and Chicano literature: he of the best-selling novel The Bridges of Madison County; and Chicano literature still so unread and so unknown—except to the initiated and the curious.

Robert James Waller died on Friday, March 10, 2017, at his home in Fredericksburg, Texas, due to complications of pneumonia and multiple myeloma, a cancer of the plasma cells. QEPD—Que En Paz Descanse—May He Rest in Peace. 

Robert James Waller            I had read The Bridges of Madison County before I met Robert Waller, and I was struck by the creativity of the work and by the reactions it engendered among the literati. Meryl Streep is reported to have said she hated the novel and would not appear in the film unless the script proved better than the novel. I liked the novel and Clint Eastwood provided the kind of direction that kept the tone of the novel in the film while spinning out the yarn of Robert Kincaid (National Geographic photo-journalist) and Francesca Johnson (World War II Italian war bride) living in the Midwest of America.

But the novel is a masterstroke of plot, reminiscent of the early English novels. That’s probably why I liked it. My penchant for the early English novel developed during my graduate studies in English. Both in the novel and the film the story unfolds by discovery While the novel held my attention, it was the association I made between the novel and its detractors and Chicano literature and its detractors that has given me pause.

While Mexican Americans had written fiction (short stories and novels) between 1848 and 1960 the first novel of the Chicano era (1959) to be considered as a Chicano novel was Pocho by Jose Antonio Villarreal, published in 1959. The novel received scant notice and went almost immediately into remainders. What lifted the veil of obscurity from Pocho was its relevance to the Chicano experience—as it was being articulated in the post-World War II years just before the punctuated activities of the 1960’s—and that I had identified it as the first of the Chicano novels in my essay on “The Chicano Renaissance” (Social Casework, May 1971) and in my study of Backgrounds of Mexican American Literature (University of New Mexico 1971). Chicano writers were a novelty to mainstream literary circles which is why I essayed the two works cited. Even so, few mainstream readers, if any, were familiar with Chicano writers. In fact, there was a certain disdain in the inquisitive tones of mainstream folk as they inquired about Chicano writers and Chicano literature.

Chicano writers were not taken seriously in 1966. They couldn’t be any good if they hadn’t made it to the American literary canon. But the mainstream literati was as unbalanced vis-à-vis Chicanos as it was unbalanced vis-à-vis writers emerging out of the Civil Rights movement. Chicano literature was a suspect term as if smuggled into literary parlance by critics with questionable credentials. In like fashion, those who spoke well of The Bridges of Madison County were immediately suspected of literary malpractice. What would Harold Bloom, the elitist literary critic, say about the novel? This is why The Bridges of Madison County is most like Chicano literature. Elitist literary critics like Bloom were not saying nice things about Chicano writers. Abetted by vendidos (renegades) like Richard Rodriguez, they felt smug in their assessments and assertions about Chicano literature and the culture that spawned it, the same way they felt smug about their assessments and assertions about The Bridges of Madison County and the pulp culture that spawned it. 

I'm glad I liked the novel, for when I met Robert Waller in 1994 I was teaching at Sul Ross State University. I immediately liked him. He was personable, witty, charming in an old-world way, and a probing conversation-alist. My first impression of Waller was at a Cotillion in Alpine, Texas, where I was on the faculty at Sul Ross State University and where Waller had purchased a 1,000 acre ranch with the profits of his novel and had settled into the community, remaining as incognito as the ubiquitous cactus of West Texas. Despite the low profile he sought to maintain, Waller was the principal celebrity in the area. Though he eschewed celebrity status he was never-theless gracious in autographing books when asked. There was always a ready smile on his face. I found him genuine, though some thought he was full of himself.

In 1996 he gave a lecture at the university and a guitar concert, having rehearsed prodi-giously for a cruise engagement he had agreed to. He was adept at the guitar, and had a number of guitars on stands in a music and recording studio he had fashioned for himself in “the ranch house” that was his dwelling on the ranch. The first time my wife and I went out to his ranch on university business, he showed us around the place and when I mentioned my interest in the jazz guitar after seeing his guitars he beamed. We swapped a few licks on that trip and Gilda, my wife, came away buoyed by the fact that he had donated to the university library a significant collection of international first-edition copies of The Bridges of Madison County. Gilda was professor and Dean of Library and Information Technologies at Sul Ross State University in Alpine.

Waller seemed comfortable in his ranch surroundings, dressed in jeans, western shirt, and

boots. He wore his graying hair long, almost shoulder length. He spoke about his academic life in Iowa where he had been Dean of the business school at Iowa State University before hitting it big with The Bridges of Madison County.

With genuine interest he asked me about my work, my background, how I came by my interest in the jazz guitar. We bonded around our love of the guitar. The day waned, we had a simple but filling dinner which he and his companion had cooked. There was beer and more conversation as night fell, then we went outside to look at the stars which always seem bigger and brighter in the Texas night sky, especially in Alpine, just north of the big Bend National Park, one of the last pristine areas in the state, originally ordered preserved by Theodore Roosevelt.


here were many encounters with Robert Waller over the next several years. He was busy writing—two novels I did not find as compelling as The Bridges of Madison County. There oft chances that writers have only one book in them. Perhaps that was the case with Robert Waller, I thought, until he wrote A Thousand Country Roads, a sequel to The Bridges of Madison County in which we read about Robert Kincaid’s life after his “affair” with Francesca. Perhaps this is one novel in two parts, but this does not lessen the power of Waller’s prose nor the creativity of such a splendid first novel.

American canonists expect to read Faulkner or Steinbeck or Hemingway in the works of American writers, thus severely limiting inclusion of non-Faulkner /Steinbeck / Hemingway writers into the American literary canon. This excludes, of course, minority American writers a priori. For sure, Mexican American / Chicano writers whose works were/are often written in Spanish or a binary blend of Spanish and English with the onset of the Chicano Renaissance which encouraged such work but was not well-regarded by American readers.

Now, Robert Waller’s work is not a binary blend of Spanish and English nor is it steeped in Chicano ideology, but it does exhibit a binary strand in its architecture and thematics. Architecturally, The Bridges of Madison Country blends the plot of Robert Kincaid and Francesca into the story line of Francesca’s children who are “rummaging” through their mother’s things after her death. The plot reveals the struggle Francesca’s children have on learning about their mother’s infidelity. They are tied ideologically to the concept of fidelity which is shattered by the discovery they make in reading their mother’s words to them. Both refuse to believe the revelation at first but ultimately come to accept its veracity and to see their mother not in the light of a fallen angel but in the light of human propensities that flesh is heir to.

Despite the success of the movie, Waller’s literary work, like Chicano literature, was critically panned. Other than elitism, I’m not sure why critics and canonists object to The Bridges of Madison County. It may be, after all, because Waller did not come out of the standard literary pipeline. Waller is indeed a literary maverick. While not disdainful of the criticism heaped on The Bridges of Madison County, he has kept that criticism in perspective. Keeping in mind that his novel may not be in contention for the Nobel Prize, he is not crestfallen reviewing his royalties not only from American sales but from distribution of his work in dozens of foreign languages. Like Madame Bovary, The Bridges of Madison County is a story about the human heart and its quest for fulfillment as it encounters the foibles of life.

The last time Gilda and I visited Robert Waller at his ranch was when he invited us to a barbeque soiree and an evening of guitar music. He was the consummate host, making sure we had all eaten well. With an accompanist, he treated us to a preview program he had worked up for his cruise gig. He was technically superb, but as I mentioned to Gilda: I found no fault in his performance save that it lacked the kind of “heart” guitarists develop for the instrument and for the “sounds” it can produce in the hands of a “felt” artist—that indescribable sense that elevates the music from the performative  to the artistic. I’m reminded that I left the field of the jazz guitar when I realized that however gifted I was as a jazz guitarist I was never going to be an artist at the instrument. I was good enough to be a studio musician and to back up stellar singers, but I was not going to be a Julian Breem, the Lutist. This is not to diminish Robert Waller’s virtuosity on the guitar, just to point out that Waller was a better story teller than a musician. Waller continued to write and to play the guitar as I do.

Copyright © 2017 by the author. All rights reserved.



Domecq Family

The Domecq family comes from the former French region of the Bearn, near the Spanish borders with Navarre and Aragon, nowadays included in the department of the Low Pyrenees.
================================== ==================================
Mr. Pedro Domecq Lembeye is the first Domecq that comes to Spain in 1816. 

In 1822, he establishes the company "PEDRO DOMECQ". 

During his management, the company becomes the top Spanish business in the Sherry trade. In 1860 he would acquire the first stud farm of pure bred Spanish horses for the family, from the famous bloodstock of the “Cartujo” Spanish horses.

Pedro Domecq had five daughters, all married in France, who didn’t follow their father’s interest in the wine trade. So it would be his brother Juan Pedro Domecq Lembeye, who would be made a partner and would continue the business.

After a visit from King Fernando VII in 1823, Mr. Domecq would be appointed as supplier to the Royal House and later named “Gentilhombre de Cámara”, which allowed him to add the Royal Weapons to the family Coat of Arms. 

It was the first visit of a king to a winery, and to prepare for it a beautiful garden was created in front of the winery premises in Jerez

It was Mr. Domecq Lembeye who would acquire the beautiful Domecq Palace in the the Alameda of the Marquis of Domecq in Jerez.

Juan Pedro remains single, so he adopts in 1866, Mr. Juan Pedro de Aladro (said to be his illegitimate son), who would die in 1914 without children.

Mr. Juan Pedro Domecq Lembeye died in 1869. Two years before he entered into a partnership with his nephew Pedro Domecq Loustau, who had previously been working with him in the business.

It was Mr. Pedro Domecq Loustau that greatly contributed to the fame of the Domecq wineries, creating what would become Spanish cognac or “brandy”: it all came about after the cancellation of an order of 500 barrels of wine eau de vie, of exceptional quality. The order had been prepared with the most sophisticated techniques and the best quality grapes and barrels, that after two years of work had become a top quality product. But the order was cancelled due to financial troubles of the client. Mr. Domecq decided to keep the wine in his cellars until he found another use for it. There it would remain for 5 long years. 

It is after such a long time that Mr. Domecq decides to taste the content of these barrels and discovers that it has become the most exquisite cognac, a golden liquid with an incredible aroma. This would become the Domecq brandy: "FUNDADOR", that goes into the market in 1874, becoming the first brandy to be produced and distributed in Spain.

 the inventor of the first Spanish Brandy 1824-1894

It was Mr. Domecq Lembeye who would acquire the beautiful Domecq Palace in the the Alameda of the Marquis of Domecq in Jerez.

Juan Pedro remains single, so he adopts in 1866, Mr. Juan Pedro de Aladro (said to be his illegitimate son), who would die in 1914 without children.

Mr. Juan Pedro Domecq Lembeye died in 1869. Two years before he entered into a partnership with his nephew Pedro Domecq Loustau, who had previously been working with him in the business.

It was Mr. Pedro Domecq Loustau that greatly contributed to the fame of the Domecq wineries, creating what would become Spanish cognac or “brandy”: it all came about after the cancellation of an order of 500 barrels of wine eau de vie, of exceptional quality. The order had been prepared with the most sophisticated techniques and the best quality grapes and barrels, that after two years of work had become a top quality product. But the order was cancelled due to financial troubles of the client. 
Mr. Domecq decided to keep the wine in his cellars until he found another use for it. There it would remain for 5 long years. It is after such a long time that Mr. Domecq decides to taste the content of these barrels and discovers that it has become the most exquisite cognac, a golden liquid with an incredible aroma. This would become the Domecq brandy: "FUNDADOR", that goes into the market in 1874, becoming the first brandy to be produced and distributed in Spain.

The Palacio Domecq, a stunning example of eighteenth century Baroque architecture in Jerez, since 1885 heart and home of the Domecq family.  


How about dated photos, as a part of your family history?  
Searching Ancestors using Civil Registration Records
New Historic Records on FamilySearch: Week of 22 May 2017

How about dated photos, as a part of your family history?  

================================== ==================================
I received a photo collection that follow the  history of four sisters from 1976 (year by year) to 2014. The pictures were taken by  the husband of one of the sisters, who made it a yearly tradition to take a photo of the four sisters.

The project became a very intimate look at sisterhood and how time affects our lives and relationships.
Although time may change our appearance and our bodies, it never changed the love these sisters shared amongst themselves. The sisters ranged from 16 to 26 years old at the time this began.

While some were entering adulthood, others were already in the midst of it. Here are 39 years. 

The Brown Sisters . . . .


================================== ==================================


Sent by Val Valdez Gibbons  

"Searching Ancestors using Civil Registration Records"

Dear Family History Friends,

Our next class will be on Saturday, June 3rd, 2017 and will be taught by Arturo Cuellar. This class will be taught in Spanish. We will start at 1 PM Utah time (MDT). The class is called "Searching Ancestors using Civil Registration Records" and will be broadcast from the Family History Library in Salt Lake City.

To connect to the class, use this link https://ldschurch1.adobeconnect.com/_a784618764/fhl-esp and upon entering, enter your name and the name of your state or country from where you are watching us. If there are others watching the class together with you, please also indicate the number of people watching the class with you. 

You can find the time for the class for your area in the list below. It is important to remember that you should try to enter the virtual classroom at least 15 minutes before the class begins because once there are 500 connections no other connections will be allowed.

See the list below for the class time for many locations around the world.
12:00 California y otros en la zona del U.S. Pacific Time Zone
14:00 Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua U.S. Mountain Time Zone
14:00 La ciudad de México, U.S. Central Time Zone
15:00 Bogotá, Lima, Guayaquil
16:00 Caracas, Puerto Rico U.S. Eastern Time Zone
16:00 Bolivia, Republica Dominicana.
17:00 Argentina (Buenos Aires), Chile, Montevideo
21:00 Madrid

To view the recordings of previous classes, I invite you to visit the Learning Center in FamilySearch. https://familysearch.org/learningcenter/home.html or the FamilySearch Wiki article Past Webinars from the Family History Library. In these links, you can also download the handouts for this class and many others. 

I invite you to share this information with anyone in your area you so that they can take advantage of these opportunities. If you wish to share the invitation for this class on Facebook, I invite you to use this link. 


Sincerely, Arturo Cuellar Gonzalez. AG®
Family History Library 
Latin America Research Specialist
Salt Lake City, Utah
Office: 801-240-6490

An informative and respected website designed to offer resources for obituaries, funerals, and genealogy search, shared by site volunteer, Suzie Kolber  suzie_kolber@obituarieshelp.org 

Family tree templates have previously only been available to members of a few select websites. Even then you may still have to pay for each download of any individual family tree chart. That has all changed, and we are now pleased to offer you the opportunity to download free printable blank family trees. 

Our high quality charts can be downloaded to your home computer and either printed off in the convenience of your home, or taken to a professional establishment that will produce them on durable oversized paper or canvas. Get started on your family history now, and download one of our free printable blank family tree templates. Look for more information about how to start your family tree template below- 

See more at: http://obituarieshelp.org/free_printable_blank_family_tree.html#sthash.2Ardd7CD.dpuf 

Family Tree Templates - Download 127 Free Family 
Tree Charts From 21 Pages

New Historic Records on FamilySearch: Week of 22 May 2017


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SALT LAKE CITY, UT, (May 25, 2017), The largest historic record collection updates this week are for Peru (over 1 million newly indexed civil registrations) New York Passenger Lists. Search these new free records and more from Chile, Denmark, Germany, Spain, Switzerland, Utah, and New Hampshire at FamilySearch by clicking on the links in the interactive table below. Find and share this news release online in the FamilySearch Newsroom. Searchable historic records are made available on FamilySearch.org through the help of thousands of volunteers from around the world. These volunteers transcribe (index) information from digital copies of handwritten records to make them easily searchable online. More volunteers are needed (particularly those who can read foreign languages) to keep pace with the large number of digital images being published online at FamilySearch.org. 
Learn more about volunteering to help provide free access to the world's historic genealogical records online at FamilySearch.org/indexing.


Indexed Records

Digital Images


Chile, Cemetery Records, 1821-2015



Added indexed records to an existing collection

Peru, Lima, Civil Registration, 1874-1996



Added indexed records to an existing collection

Peru, Amazonas, Civil Registration, 1939-1998



Added indexed records to an existing collection

Spain, Province of Asturias, Municipal Records, 1470-1897



Added indexed records to an existing collection

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June 10th SHHAR Hon. Judge Fredrick Aguirre: Latino Advocates for Education 
June 6th,  Assn of Latino Professionals, America's initiative focuses on professional Latinas 
Fountain Valley Historical Society dedicated the Courreges Tank House 
Voces de Liberación: Latinas & Politics in Southern California, runs through June 21
Graduation Rates Continue to Rise in Santa Ana Unified School District
San Juan Capistrano, Los Rios Street, oldest residential Street in California
Huntington Beach April Colonial Festival 

Heritage Museum of Orange County Progress Report 
SHHAR Reference Books made available at El Modena Library


Come join us at the  June 10, 2017 monthly meeting of the Society Of Hispanic Historical & Ancestral Research (SHHAR) featuring  Superior Court Judge Frederick Aguirre as our speaker.  His topic will be as follows:  

For nearly 20 years, the group known as Latino Advocates for Education has been conducting research on Mexican-American veterans from Southern California, compiling more than 2,000 profiles on those who served in combat from World War II through our present-day wars.  As President of Latino Advocates for Education , Judge Frederick Aguirre has teamed up with the Orange County Department of Education’s Media Services team to film interviews with local surviving Latino combat veterans.  Judge Aguirre will be sharing his research findings and  many years of experiences in working with Latino veterans.   

The free presentation will take place at the Orange Family History Center, 674 S. Yorba St., Orange. Volunteers will provide research assistance from 9 -10 a.m., and Judge Aguirre will speak from 10:15 -11:30 a.m.  For information, contact Letty Rodella at lettyr@sbcglobal.net.  

Letty in the center of the photo, with May speaker John Schmal and family researcher Alice Scott.

Family research attracts involvement by all ages and has become one of the most popular of hobbies.  An early group below waits for the presentation to begin.  Speakers are scheduled for 10:15. am  Following the presentation there is always time for questions.

C Women of ALPFA

This year marks the 15th Anniversary 
of Latina leadership development 
in Paving the Way for Latinas in the US: 
The Roadmap to Power


Tuesday, June 6th, 5:30 to 9:30 PM

Prudential, 3333 Michelson Drive, Irvine, California 92612 

Women Of ALPFA is the Association of Latino Professionals For America's initiative that focuses on Latina professional development. 

On June 6, 2017, ALPFA Orange County presents the OC Women Of ALPFA event. This year marks the 15th Anniversary of Latina leadership development in Paving the Way for Latinas in the US: The Roadmap to Power. Join Latina business owners, small business resource partners and Latina executives at this exciting gathering. 

ALPFA Orange County Organizer of OC Women Of ALPFA

ALPFA is the Association of Latino Professionals For America, whose mission is to empower and develop Latino men and women as leaders of character in every sector of the economy. We strive to strengthen America by connecting over 1,000,000 purpose-driven Latino leaders by 2020... for exponential impact.

The ALPFA Orange County chapter engages with its members and friends in professional development activities, networking, and giving back to the community. For more information, visit www.alpfa.org or email us at info@orangecounty.alpfa.org 

Sent by Ruben Alvarez 

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