United States
Hispanic Leaders
National Issues
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Witness to Heritage
Latino Patriots
Early  Patriots
Family History
Orange Co, CA

Nov 2013

Los Angeles, CA
Northwestern US
Southwestern US
Middle America
East Coast
Central/South America


Diversity Issues

th Online Issue

Editor: Mimi Lozano ©2000-2013


With Thankfulness to Those who have Lead the Way
The Hispanic Art Contest by Daisy Wanda Garcia, click  

Somos Primos Staff 
Mimi Lozano, Editor
Mercy Bautista Olvera
Roberto Calderon, Ph,D.
Bill Carmena
Lila Guzman, Ph.D
John Inclan
Galal Kernahan
Juan Marinez
J.V. Martinez, Ph.D
Dorinda Moreno
Rafael Ojeda
Ángel Custodio Rebollo
Tony Santiago
John P. Schmal

Submitters to November Issue 
Arthur A. Almeida
Dan Arellano
Dr. Eve Armentrout Ma, Esq
Nora H. Barajas
Mercy Bautista-Olvera
Dinorah Bommarito 
Esther Bonilla Read
Michele Bonilla Lillie
Juana Bordas
Marie Brito
Eddie Calderon, Ph.D.

Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.
Gloria Candelaria
Rosie Carbo
Gloria Candelaria
Bill Carmena
Juan Castillo
Humberto Cavazos
Ángel de Cervantes
Amancio J. Chapa, Jr.
Robert Cortez
Sylvia Contreras
Jack Cowan
José Antonio Crespo
Carolina De Robertis
Sal del Valle 
Winston Deville 
Armando Durón  
Ivan Enrique Espinosa
John  Fernandez
Refugio S. Fernandez
Luis Álvaro Gallo
Daisy Wanda Garcia  
Delia Gonzalez Huffman
Isabel Gonzalez Hutchins 
M Guangorena  
Michael N. Henderson
Sergio Hernandez 
John Inclan

Miguel Juárez
Ralph Lambiase Sr.
Rick Leal
José Antonio López
Alfred Lugo
Jerry Javier Lujan
Juan Marintez
Jorge Mariscal
Jessica Mayorga
Cynthia McNaughton
Ramon Moncivais
Richard Montoya 
Dorinda Moreno
Fernando Muñoz Altea.
Enrique G. Murillo, Jr., Ph.D.
Tom Nash   
Rafael Ojeda
Mª Ángeles Olson
Felipe de Ortego y Gasca, Ph.D. 
Tte. Coronel Ricardo Palmerín
Jose M. Pena
Clotilde' Perez Rea Sofikitis 
Daniel L. Polino
Angel Custodio Rebollo
Refugio Rochin, Ph.D.
Jose Roman Gonzalez Lopez
Ben Romero  
Joe Perez   

Mo H Saidi, MD
Tony Santiago
Edith Serafin  Louis F. Serna
Sister Mary Sevilla
Anita Quintanilla 
Marisol Ramos 
Erasmo Riojas
Rogelio C. Rodriguez
Tomas Rodriguez
Freddie Roman
Ben Romero  
Frances Rios
Joe Sanchez
Tomas Saenz
Monica R. Sigla
Elena Strelkas
Javier Tobon 
Lenny Trujillo
Evelyn Ureña
Omar S. Valerio-Jiménez
Carlos Vasquez, DCA
Donivan Vecera
Pancho Vega
Elida Vela de Vom Baur
Margarita B. Velez
Yomar Villarreal Cleary
Kirk Whisler


Nikolai Lenin, the father of Russian communism, wrote in 1917: 
"Germany will militarize herself out of existence, England will expand herself out of existence, 
and America will spend itself out of existence."




Concerning Letters to the Editor by Mimi
The Hispanic Art Contest by Wanda Garcia
Latino Americans
2013 National Council of  la Raza ALMA Awards
Denial of a History is a Denial of a People by Wanda Garcia 
Hispanics Breaking Barriers - Volume 3 - Issue 3 by Mercy Bautista-Olvera
2013 Jose Marti Publishing Awards of the National Association of Hispanic Publications' 
Ruben Salazar was a Mexican-American journalist
Con Safos: Reflection from Up On the Hill, teaser by J.A. Velarde
El Movimiento, How Latino Americans Fought for Civil Rights by Esther J. Cepeda
The Tex/Mex Heritage of "Lady Bird" Johnson
Latinos 101, the Hispanic Heritage of the United States by Felipe de Ortego y Gasca, Ph.D.
The 1940's
Kilroy was here!

Concerning Letters to the Editor, I would like to say . . . . .

I so love receiving confirmation that Somos Primos is helpful and a positive contribution in the lives of readers, such as this email from senior Pancho Vega, who shares, "Cumplo 94, en buena salud y ocupado con negocios y servicio a la comunidad. Mil gracias for the historical work of "Somos Primos" that you continue to provide for so many of us, that continue with interest in our history. I look forward to the additional services that you will be providing.
Saludos y adelante, Pancho

. . . AND from free-lance writer, Rosie Carbo from Dallas who writes: "Thank You So Much For Including My Article! As Always, the Somos Primos Newsletter Is Filled With Inspirational Stories!!  
God Bless You!  Rosie in Dallas~"  

After the airing of  the 6 hour documentary, Latino Americans, friend Joe Sanchez [bluewall@mpinet.net], of  Puerto Rican heritage, from the East Coast wrote to me, of Mexican heritage on the West Coast applauding Latino Americans, as an  excellent documentary which managed to include the histories of all of varied Spanish heritage groups which had entered the United States at different time periods and for different reasons.  Joe said he was receiving lots of comments from friends and family concerning Latino Americans, and offered to send them along.

This program was pretty cool. It covered our migration from PR, along with those of the Dominicans, Cubans and other Hispanic groups.   Freddie Roman

Thanks for the feedback, Freddie. Editor Mimi Lozano does a great job letting the world know about the Hispanic heritage, accomplishments, and their contributions to America and around the world. Others have also gotten back to me on it. I will forward your comments to her. Glad to have had you as my partner in the 25 Pct., back in 1976
Joe Sanchez bluewall@mpinet.net 

What a great documentary . My family enjoyed and learned so much from these segments .
Humberto Cavazos  cavazos7h@aol.com 

You are right, we must support all our attempts to call attention to our rich culture. Somos Primos attempts to do this. And we need to support them in their efforts, thank you Joe. 
Tomas Rodriguez
Many Hispanics have made contributions throughout the world and throughout the years in politics, culture, law, language, religion, human rights, etc. People have to recognize that Hispanics are a proud, loving people, who enrich the lands and cultures, that they come into contact with. Joe, I am not an eloquent speaker/writer, as I would like to be, so please, understand that the foregoing comment is my best.
Stay well, Ralph


Athough I am NOT of Hispanic heritage Joe, I did forward your email to several family members who are. they are all in agreement that it would be a wonderful thing if all Hispanic Americans, and non Americans being of Latino background can learn each other's cultures and unite in loving and respecting one another. Some of our states in the United States, do have a lot of Spanish heritage in them such as Louisiana, Texas Nevada and California. Florida as well. I would really love to see when Dominicans and Puerto Ricans can learn to respect and love one another.

  I would like to see the Mexican people also be honored here in New York and know what their true worth is. there is also a lot of Spanish Native Americans that do not get the proper recognition. unity and respect those are the keywords educating every single Latino background is the greatest thing ever. all my love. y con mucho 

Y con mucho carino, Edith
Edith Serafin

Well Joe, to be honest with you I could have some Latino blood on my mother's side as at one time Spain did rule Naples and that's where my mother's family was from.

  I think there's prejudice in every race. Unity is the keyword Joe. as the old saying goes united we stand divided we fall. Education is another part of the unity. in my own family.  Its really disgraceful how we as human beings could be so empty minded. Please relay to your friend at SOMOS PRIMOS, I commend her tfor a job well done. 13 years is a long wait however , with all the progress that is happening, should make us feel very proud.  God bless you Joe, you're a great person.

Being Hispanic has been my "orgullo', we should all feel the same. Que viva Los Hispanos.

Evelyn Ureña


I would like to confirm my thankfulness for the hundreds of thousands of leaders who have come before us, who have given of  themselves,  tirelessly, dedicating their lives to help, uplift, inform, and educate those of us who share Spanish roots. Daily, I receive stories and tidbits of information that continue to broaden my vision, and continue to enlarge my embrace of others.  We have a  historical and global DNA connection to the world, which should awaken in us a realization of our role in viewing the needs of our nation for freedom, strength and security.   

Among the thousands of  sacrificial leaders is Dr. Hector P. Garcia . . . recognized below by a 7th grader in Texas.



By Daisy Wanda Garcia

Every year since 2007, the Victoria Alliance for Latino Education (VALE) organized by local organizations in Victoria, TX, sponsors a Hispanic Art Contest.  Middle school students in Victoria, TX and Port Lavaca, TX can enter this contest.  The purpose of the contest is to raise appreciation for art, show students the advantages of higher education, and bring awareness about the Hispanic Culture.  The stipulation is that the artworks depict some aspect of the Hispanic culture.

Blanca Sanchez, an art teacher in one of Victoria’s Middle Schools, encouraged her students to participate.  One of her 7th grade students Donivan Vecera  decided to enter the  art contest and had to create a piece about Hispanic Heritage. He asked his art teacher Ms. Sanchez what topic he should use and she suggested veterans.  As a follow up,   Donivan contacted Angel Zuniga, Commander of the American GI Forum, a veteran’s organization to get information about veterans.   Angel Zuniga recommended that Donivan select Dr. Hector P. Garcia as a topic because of his activism for veterans.  After researching Dr. Garcia, Donivan found that he stood up for Hispanic heritage and he was a physician who treated people even if they couldn’t pay.



Donivan decided to create a collage depicting the life of Dr. Garcia for his entry. Donivan, Ms. Sanchez and Donivan’s Mom Cindy went on the internet and found pictures of Dr. Hector Garcia and other relevant information about Dr. Garcia’s life.  Donivan made the collage over black drawing paper and used prisma colors for the visual effects. Donivan used symbols in his collage to depict key events in Dr. Garcia’s life.  For example, Dr. Garcia graduated from the University of Texas at Austin so Donivan looked for pictures of the UT mascot the longhorn.  The search was on to find the appropriate symbols to depict Dr. Garcia’s life. Dr. Garcia founded the American G.I. Forum (AGIF).  Since the flag is the emblem of the AGIF and the organization has chapters in many states,   Donivan used the U.S. flag as the background for his collage.  The bronze statue at Texas A&M University of Dr. Garcia symbolized education. This was the key to Dr. Garcia’s success because he came from obscurity and rose to help the Hispanic Community.  Donivan learned from the PBS documentary “Justice for My People.” that Dr. Garcia drove a blue Cadillac because the Cadillac was large and he could transport many people to meetings and AGIF conventions.   Donivan found a picture of the blue Cadillac and placed it in the collage.  Dr. Garcia was heavily involved in Hispanic fair labor rights and added the picture of Dr. Hector and his sister marching to the Texas Capital in support of the farm worker’s strike.  The caduceus symbolized that Dr. Garcia used his medicine to help and heal people.  The army helmet symbolized of Dr. Garcia’s military service and helping injured men. Donivan selected four medals which Dr. Garcia received to portray in his collage. These were The Medalla al Merito, 1952, for his work with Mexican American veterans, The U.S. Army's Bronze Star and six battle stars, 1942–1946, The Equestrian Order of Pope Gregory the Great from Pope John Paul II, 1990, and the Presidential Medal of Freedom from President Reagan in 1986 symbolizing Justice, Freedom and Education.

According to Donivan’s teacher Blanca Sanchez, Donivan did not win the contest, but there was quite a bit of conversation about this piece from the public that viewed it.  The poster is displayed at the University of Houston in Victoria, TX.  When asked Donivan what lesson he learned from researching the life of Dr. Garcia.  Donivan response was “You can go far in life if you choose too”.   [Bianca Lopez  bel1050@yahoo.com


Congratulations to:
Daniel McCabe and John J. Valadez 

The Latino Americans DVD - shopPBS.org
The Latino Americans 
DVD PBS Price: $34.99
Softcover Book $18.00 
Latino Americans DVD and Book Combo
Price: $47.99 

Independent Lens: The Longoria Affair DVD - shopPBS.org

 Latino Americans chronicles the rich and varied history and experiences of Latinos, who have for the past 500-plus years helped shape what is today the United States. It is a story of people, politics, and culture, intersecting with much that is central to the history of the United States while also going to places where standard U.S. histories do not tend to tread.



Sent by Jessica Mayorga  events@nclr.org 
Caller Times Corpus Christi Caller Times
10/05/2013 A: Main 
(0-1005a011ccct1.pdf.0)  Page A011

October 5, 2013, Powered by TECNAVIA  Copyright ©2013 Caller Times   10/05/2013
 http://callertimes.tx.newsmemory.com/eebrowser/frame/check.7427/php-script/print.php?p . . .    10/5/2013


Hispanics Breaking Barriers 

Volume 3 - Issue 3 
Mercy Bautista-Olvera

The 3th   issue in the series “Hispanics Breaking Barriers” focuses on contributions of Hispanic leadership in United States.  Their contributions have improved not only the local community but the country as well. Their struggles, stories, and accomplishments will by example; illustrate to our youth and to future generations that everything and anything is possible.

 Serena Auñón:  Second Hispanic woman to become a NASA astronaut

Guillermo del Toro: (Spanish pronunciation: [ɡiˈʝeɾmo ðel ˈtoɾo];) Mexican film director, screenwriter, producer, and novelist

V. Manuel Pérez:   Assembly member, District 56th and Assistant Majority Floor Leader of the California State Assembly

Maria Cardona:  seasoned public policy advocate and political strategist. Cardona is a national political commentator, and is currently a CNN and CNN en Español  

Maria Cristina González Noguera: First lady Michelle Obama’s Communications Director


Serena Auñón

Serena Auñón is the second the second Hispanic woman to become a NASA astronaut.

Auñón was born in Indianapolis, Indiana, but considers Fort Collins, Colorado, to be her hometown. Auñón's father is Dr. Jorge Auñón, a Cuban exile who arrived in the United States in 1960. Her mother is Margaret Auñón (pen name Maggie Sefton). She has three sisters. Serena is single.

In 1993, Auñón graduated from Poudre High School, Fort Collins, Colorado.  She earned a Bachelor’s Degree in Electrical Engineering from George Washington University, a Doctorate of Medicine from the University of Texas Health Sciences Center, and a Master’s of Public Health Degree from the University of Texas Medical Branch.  


She has been in Houston, Texas since 1997. In August 2006, Johnson Space Center NASA S originally hired Auñón as a flight surgeon to assist in medical operations for the International Space Station. In 2009, NASA selected Auñón as an Astronaut, and by 2012, she piloted a DeepWorker 2000 Submersible for an exploration mission off Key Largo, Florida.

Her greatest accomplishment is becoming a physician —“I love practicing medicine. I still love it. Medicine is my passion, and it makes me a better astronaut. The type of medicine I practice I have to listen and pay attention to every small detail, and I think that helps a lot as an astronaut. I haven’t been in space yet, but I understand all the problems that go on in space. If we need to design a medical kit for space, it definitely helps with that too,” stated Auñón.


Guillermo del Toro

Guillermo del Toro (Spanish pronunciation: [ɡiˈʝeɾmo ðel ˈtoɾo]; is a Mexican film director, screenwriter, producer, and novelist.

Guillermo del Toro was born in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. He studied at the Centro de Investigación y Estudios Cinematográficos, in Guadalajara. He immigrated to United States as a young man, soon his family followed.

He is married to his high school sweetheart Lorenza Newton, cousin of Mexican singer Guadalupe Pineda. He started dating Lorenza when both were studying at the Guadalajara School of Sciences. He currently lives in California with his wife and two daughters, Mariana and Marisa. 

He wrote four and directed five episodes of the “La Hora Marcada, with other Mexican filmmakers such as Emmanuel Lubezki and Alvonso Cuaron.

In del Toro’s filmmaking career, del Toro has worked between Spanish dark fantasy pieces, such as “The Devil’s Backbone” (2001) and “Pan’s Labyrinth” (2006), and more mainstream American action movies as “Blade II” (2002). “Hellboy” (2004) and “Pacific Rim” (2003).

In 2007, the Academy Awards nominated del Toro for Best Original Screenplay for Pan’s Labyrinth.  The same year, the British Academy Film Awards awarded Guillermo del Toro for Best Film not for the English Language for “Pan’s Labyrinth”.  In 2008, del Toro won for Nebula Award Best Script for “Pan’s Labyrinth.”

In an interview with Robert K. Elder for his book “The Best Film You've Never Seen”, del Toro explains his careful methodology: “I’m as thorough and as well-prepared as I can be in my filmmaking, and that came from the discipline of having to work as a make-up effects artist many, many, many times in my life.”

He spent ten years as a special effects make-up designer and formed his own company, Necropia. He also co-founded the Guadalajara International Film Festival.   

He has directed a wide variety of films, from comic book daptations “Blade II”, “Hellboy” to historical fantasy and horror films two of which are set in Spain in the context of the Spanish Civil War under the rule of Francisco Franco. His films “The Devil’s Backbone” and “Pan’s Labyrinth” are similar settings, protagonists and themes with the 1973 Spanish film “The Spirit of the Beehive”, widely considered to be the finest Spanish film of the 1970’s.  

On June 2, 2009, del Toro's first novel, “The Strain” was published.  It is the first part of an apocalyptic vampire trilogy co-authored by del Toro and Chuck Hogan. The second volume, “The Fall” was released on September 21, 2010. The final installment, “The Night Eternal” followed in October 2011.

He directed “Pacific Rim”, a science fiction film based on a screenplay by del Toro and Travis Beacham. "This is my most un-modest film, this has everything. The scale is enormous and I'm just a big kid having fun, stated del Toro.


V. Manuel Pérez

Assembly member V. Manuel Pérez serves as the Assistant Majority Floor Leader of the California State Assembly. First elected in 2008 and now in his third and final term, Assembly member Pérez represents the 56th Assembly District, which comprises the cities and communities in eastern Riverside and Imperial counties.

Manuel Pérez born in Indio and raised in Coachella, he grew up in a close-knit family that taught him the value of hard work determination, respect and service to others.

He attended public schools, graduated from University of California, Riverside, and earned a Master's Degree in Education from Harvard University.  He has served as a school teacher, a youth advocate, and a community healthcare director. He also served on the board of the Coachella Valley Unified School District.

During his first two terms in office, Pérez   served as chair of the Assembly Committee on Jobs, Economic Development, and the Economy and devoted much of his policy focus to the state’s economic recovery.  He firmly believes in local economic development, supporting small business, and protecting local government. He also strongly advocates for continued investments in education, while ensuring a safety net for our most vulnerable communities.

Pérez has served as a member of the following Assembly Committees:  Government Organization; Health; Jobs, Economic Development and the Economy; and Rules.  He is the chair of the Select Committee on the Renewable Energy Economy in Rural California.  In prior legislative sessions, he has served on Accountability and Administrative Review; Aging and Long-term Care; and Veterans Affairs Committees. He also served as Vice Chair of the California Latino Legislative Caucus.

His accomplishments are to maintain small business to guarantee program and other measures to ensure loans and technical assistance, securing the approval for clean-burning, natural gas power plant to bring investment, jobs and energy reliability to the region. He helps to keep students in school by empowering administrators with narrow discretion to consider alternatives to suspension and expulsion for certain student offenses. Promoting access to the state’s safe Routes to School program for more walkable and pedestrian friendly communities.


Maria Cardona

Maria Cardona is a seasoned public policy advocate and political strategist. Cardona is a national political commentator, and is currently a CNN and CNN en Español political contributor, and has appeared frequently on MSNBC, FOX, Univision and Telemundo.

Maria Cardona:
I was born in Bogota, Colombia, and was 2 years old when her family immigrated to United States.       

Maria Cardona is a Democratic strategist and currently heads the public affairs practice at Dewey Square Group, where she founded the Latinovations practice that focuses on Latino strategic outreach on national, state and local levels. Maria Cardona started Latinovations, the Latino strategies practice of public affairs firm Dewey Square Group (DSG), because she knew its services would be pertinent to the growing and influential U.S. Hispanic community. 

During the 2008, Democratic primary election, Cardona was senior adviser and spokesperson to Hillary Clinton’s presidential campaign and served on the campaign’s Hispanic outreach team. During the 2008 general election, Cardona was a key surrogate for the Obama for America campaign.  

Previously, Cardona was a senior vice president for the New Democrat Network, and before that, the communications director for the Democratic National Committee. During the Clinton administration, Cardona served as a spokesperson at the U.S. Departments of Justice and Commerce. In addition, Cardona will also contribute to CNN en Español.

Conservative columnist David Frum was also named as a new CNN contributor.  

Cardona and Frum joined a deep bench of political contributors at CNN, which includes John Avlon, Paul Begala, Bill Bennett, Donna Brazile, James Carville, Alex Castellanos, Erick Erickson, Ari Fleischer, David Gergen, Roland Martin, Mary Matalin and Hilary Rosen, among others.  

She joined CNN network for the 2012 election season. A seasoned public policy advocate and political strategist, Maria Cardona has more than two decades of experience in the government, politics, public relations and community affairs arenas. She serves as Co-Chair of inSPIRE STEM USA, a coalition working to address America’s high-skilled jobs crisis and to strengthen the U.S. STEM education pipeline.  

She is recognized among the most influential Latinos in the country, Cardona is a Principal at the Dewey Square Group, leading the Multicultural and Public Affairs practices. Cardona founded DSG’s Latino Strategies practice, “Latinovations,” and is a respected advocate on Latino issues.  

 “My parents instilled in us a love of our culture, a fierce commitment to our language, and to be inclusive and invite people in even when we are seen with skepticism” stated, Cardona,” stated Cardona.


Maria Cristina González Noguera

First Lady Michelle Obama has chosen Maria Cristina González Noguera as her new Communications Director.

Maria González Noguera was born in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The White House biography about González Noguera said that she is married and has a one-year-old son.

Maria Cristina Maria Cristina González Noguera, known as “MC,” served as global vice president of Estée Lauder.  

In 1997, she received a Bachelor’s of Arts in International Relations from Tufts University. The university is a private university located in Medford/Somerville, near Boston, Massachusetts.

She has been working at of Estée Lauder since 2005. She is an experienced communications executive currently serving as the Global Vice President, Corporate Communications, for the Estée Lauder Companies Inc. (ELC). González Noguera advised the Company’s leadership team on strategic communications matters including government affairs, media relations, issues management, and employee engagement.

During her tenure at ELC she has played a significant role in leading and integrating the Company’s extensive corporate responsibility initiatives. Prior to joining ELC,   González Noguera was a Managing Director for the Washington, D.C., strategic communications firm Chlopak, Leonard, Schechter & Associates (CLS).  

“MC brings a fresh perspective and a wealth of expertise that will make her an incredible asset to our team,” said the First Lady’s announcement. “My time at the White House has been focused on ensuring all our children and families thrive, and as an experienced communications professional who shares my commitment to this mission, I know MC will be an outstanding partner.”

About her time at the company, she wrote on the site that she led a 20-person global team "responsible for enhancing and protecting the Estée Lauder Companies brand, one of the world’s leading manufacturers and marketers of prestige beauty products, with over 27 brands sold in over 150 countries and close to $10 billion in revenue.”

González Noguera will be succeeding Kristina Schake, who, The Washington Post noted, “helped make Michelle Obama a viral video star and ubiquitous magazine cover presence.”

Schake, the Post said, “has been at Obama’s side as she has stretched the traditional role of a first lady to include ‘mom dancing’ on Jimmy Fallon’s late-night talk show and presenting the best picture trophy at the Academy Awards.”

 A writer in Forbes stated González Noguera’s appointment is significant for Latinos. “Most of all, please pay attention, she’s a world-class consumer marketing exec who just happens to be Hispanic,” the Forbes story said. “The [President] and [First Lady] both grasp the importance of excellence in consumer marketing and communications.”

First Lady Michelle Obama said her outgoing Communications Director will leave big shoes to fill and that González Noguera “brings a fresh perspective and a wealth of expertise that will make her an incredible asset to our team.”



HM101 masthead new      The National Association of Hispanic Publications'    
                         2013 José Martí Publishing Awards .  .  .  . 
October 3, 2013
2 Jose MartiAs the National Association of Hispanic Publications enters it's FOURTH decade of SERVICE and PROMOTION on the importance, power, and variety of newspapers, magazines, newsletters, websites, yellow pages, and more that combine to be Hispanic Print. The Conference was held October 2-5, 2013 at Disney's Paradise Pier Hotel in Anaheim, California.

The Conference had more ad agencies and corporation present than at any in more than a decade - a wonderful sign for the future of Hispanic Print. The event also played tribute to a

man who inspired many of us, Zeke Montes, the NAHP President who passed away earlier in the year. Overall the Conference showed us there are many positive things ahead for theNAHP

The number of judges it took to judge this years awards was a record setting 55 judges. Administration for the awards process was handled by Kirk Whisler & Ana Patiño. 

The new category this year was Outstanding New Publication, a hotly contested category with many entries, another great sign about the future of Hispanic Print. The NAHP's José Martí

Awards are one of the oldest and the largest Hispanic media awards within the USA.

Click here for all 348 winners in the 2013 NAHP's Jose Marti Awards   

Click here to learn more of the benefits of being an NAHP member

About the NAHP

The National Association of Hispanic Publications, Inc. (NAHP, Inc.) is a non-partisan trade advocacy organization representing the leading Spanish language publications serving 41 markets in 39 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico, with a combined circulation of over 23 million.

NAHP was founded in 1982 to promote Spanish language publications, the most effective medium to reach the fast growing Hispanic community. Membership is open to Spanish language and Hispanic owned newspapers, magazines and related media as well as businesses that offer products and services to this market throughout the United States.

What:  Annual The National Association of Hispanic Publications Annual Convention (NAHP)

When: October 2 - 5, 2013

Where: Disney's Paradise Pier Hotel, Anaheim, CA

1717 S. Disneyland Dr.
Anaheim, California 92802

  • Journalist
  • Ruben Salazar was a Mexican-American journalist killed by a Los Angeles County Sheriff's deputy during the National Chicano Moratorium March against the Vietnam War on August 29, 1970 in East Los Angeles, California. Wikipedia

    2010 marked the 40th anniversary of the death of journalist Ruben Salazar, the first Latinojournalist to bring the issues of the Chicano community to mainstream America in the 1960s and ‘70s.

    Salazar was the first significant foreign correspondent of Mexican descent, and in 1969 became the first Latino columnist for a major newspaper. Salazar is seen by many as a martyr for the Chicano movement and a popular folk hero in the Mexican American
    community, but he was first and foremost a journalist who understood the power of the media.

    Salazar was born March 3, 1928, in Juarez, Mexico. He and his family moved across the border to El Paso, Texas, when he was 8 months old. They all became naturalized citizens. After graduating from El Paso High School, Salazar served in the U.S. Army in
    Germany from 1950 to 1952. He then attended Texas Western College (now known as University of Texas at El Paso) where he majored in journalism.

    Salazar was initially interested in becoming a cartoonist but that changed when he was in school and learned of a football game in Texas where the captain of one of the teams was not allowed to play because he was Black. In an editorial printed Nov. 8, 1947, entitled "One American Won't be There," Salazar questioned whether in the event of a war whether the U.S. military would refuse to allow the Black player to serve. “How many draft boards would tell Tempe's football captain: ‘Sorry, but you can't participate in this war; it is being fought exclusively by whites’? He would have been 19 years old when he wrote that.

    Salazar’s first newspaper job was with the El Paso Herald-Post. There he wrote investigative stories on the filthy and uncontrolled conditions of the jail, and the drug trade in El Paso. In the mid-1950s, Salazar moved to the Santa Rosa Press Democrat and then to the San Francisco News. He then moved to Southern California where he worked for the Los Angeles Herald-Express, and then, in 1959, joined the Los Angeles Times. At The Times, Salazar began writing about Mexican-American political and social issues and on the U.S.-Mexico border. In 1965, Salazar got his first foreign reporting assignment to cover the U.S. military intervention in the Dominican Republican, and then later that year was sent to cover the Vietnam War. In the fall of 1966, Salazar left Vietnam and became bureau chief in Mexico City. He returned to Los Angeles at the beginning of 1969 to again cover the Mexican American community, which by now had become more militant.

    The Times wanted Salazar to explain Chicanos to Anglos and Anglos to Chicanos. But as the only Chicano reporter at The Times, and one of only a handful of Latinos working in mainstream media at the time, Salazar fought to avoid the mundane to focus on more serious issues facing the Chicano community. He told Newsweek magazine that his editors kept asking for stories explaining Chicanos to white people, but Salazar responded, “When you've been a reporter this long, you go for more significant, hardhitting
    stuff than telling why people eat enchiladas."

    In April 1970, Salazar left The Times to become news director of KMEX-TV, the then fledgling Spanish-language TV station in Los Angeles. Not wanting to completely sever their ties with Salazar, The Times made him a weekly columnist for the paper. At
    KMEX, Salazar produced stories on police abuse in the Chicano community and wrote columns for The Times that were critical of the police. Salazar told friends at the time that he had been threatened by the police and sheriff’s department for “stirring up the
    Mexicans” and that he felt he was being followed by law enforcement.

    On Aug. 29, 1970, Salazar covered the anti-Vietnam War Chicano Moratorium March in East Los Angeles. The march became violent after sheriff’s deputies tried to end the rally by going after protestors and dispersing tear gas. Salazar stepped into the Silver Dollar Café on Whittier Boulevard to momentarily escape the goings-on. While Salazar was inside the bar, a sheriff’s deputy knelt on the street in front of the bar and fired a 10-inch tear gas projectile through its curtained door. Several hours later, Salazar’s body was found inside dead after being struck by the projectile.

    Salazar was 42. He left a wife and three young children. An inquest into the shooting found that Salazar died “at the hands of another,” but no criminal charges were ever filed against the deputy who fired the deadly shot or the sheriff’s department. The Justice Department also refused to investigate Salazar’s death.

    Forty years later there are still a lot of unanswered questions, in part because the Los Angeles Sheriff’s Department continues to refuse to make public eight boxes of records related to the shooting.

    In 2001, CCNMA established the Ruben Salazar Journalism Awards to recognize stories that demonstrate journalism excellence while contributing to a better understanding of California’s Latino communities.

    Salazar proved that a journalist can be an advocate for empowering a community while still maintaining journalistic integrity. As the Los Angeles Times eulogized him, Salazar was “sometimes an angry man as he observed the inequities around him, yet he spoke with a calm vigor that made his words all the more impressive and influential.”

    Reflections From Up On the Hill - Teaser
    by J. A. Velarde


    Teaser trailer for the upcoming documentary film, "CON SAFOS: Reflections From Up On the Hill". This trailer premiered at the dA CENTER FOR THE ARTS, honoring Filmmaker Jesus Salvador Trevino on Oct. 12, 2013. This documentary explores the impact, significance of the groundbreaking Chicano Con Safos magazine of the 60's and 70's.  

    We are in the final stages...a few more interviews and we'll make the documentary available for the public....

    Sergio Hernandez 

    El Movimiento
    How Latino Americans Fought for Civil Rights
    By Esther J. Cepeda | HUMANITIES
    September/October 2013 | Volume 34, Number 5

    Soldiers of the 65th Infantry rest on maneuvers at Salinas, Puerto Rico, 1941. 
    The 65th went on to serve in Italy, Central Europe, and Germany.—Courtesy of the U.S. Army

    On the evening of September 10, 1945, eighteen days after President Harry Truman hung the Congressional Medal of Honor around his neck, a war hero, looking for a meal, entered a dining establishment in Richmond, Texas.

    The violence that ensued that night—and the subsequent lawsuit—proved a pivotal moment in the modern civil rights movement, and it happened a decade before Rosa Parks took her historic Montgomery City bus ride. Occurring in a little-thought-about corner of Jim Crow country, the event centers on Macario Garcia, a twenty-five-year-old Mexican national, who had earned the United States’ highest award for valor in action in Germany’s Hürtgen Forest.

    Garcia’s story is one of the dozens touched upon in a sweeping new PBS documentary, Latino Americans, a chronicle of the lives and experiences of Hispanics in the United States from the 1500s to the twenty-first century. The series covers the earliest settlers in California and Texas, and tells the stories of the waves of immigrants from Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the Dominican Republic, and of civil rights heroes, among them Dolores Huerta and César Chávez. It also addresses the roots of the challenges today’s Latinos face in navigating an exciting, yet politically perilous, “Hispanic Moment.”

    Macario Garcia’s contribution is detailed in the third episode, “War and Peace,” which is about the estimated half-million Latinos from all over the country and Puerto Rico who served in World War II—often side by side with whites, instead of being segregated into separate companies as the million-plus African-American service men and women were.

    President Harry Truman awards the Congressional Medal of Honor to Macario Garcia in 1945
    .—Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration

    Never before had such a diversity of soldiers marched into battle together and sacrificed so much. But Latino Americans of the Greatest Generation did not win the respect they had hoped for. Though the war hastened vast societal changes—for example, desegregating many workplaces to support the war effort—Hispanics had hoped their service would afford them something more than the second-class citizenship they had lived with before the war.

    For Macario Garcia, the thirst to be recognized as equal manifested itself after a youth spent toiling in the fields with his family. Born in Villa de Castaño, Mexico, on January 2, 1920, Macario grew up in Sugar Land, Texas. His family had moved there in 1924 to pick cotton and tend cattle, in hope of scratching out a better life. Instead, they were met with harrowing poverty.

    When World War II broke out, Garcia, by then twenty-two, joined the United States Army and was assigned to Company B, 22nd Infantry Regiment, 4th Infantry Division. Garcia landed on the beaches of Normandy in June of 1944, just two days after the D-Day invasion. By November 27, Garcia’s platoon was engaged in combat against the Germans in the vicinity of Grosshau, Germany. Surrounded by dense forest and limited by few roads, his company found itself pinned down by enemy fire.

    During the fighting, Garcia managed to destroy single-handedly two machine-gun nests, kill six Germans, and capture four, allowing two companies to charge up the hill in a successful assault. The bullets Garcia took in his shoulder and foot hospitalized him for two months.

    Later, while draping the Congressional Medal of Honor around Garcia’s neck, Harry Truman told him, “I would rather have one of these than be president of the United States.”

    When he returned to Texas, Garcia “was in the papers. He was on the radio,” says legal historian Michael Olivas in the film. “He was a genuine hero.”

    Olivas says Garcia was honored with a party and dance on September 9, 1945, at the nearby Richmond City Hall, spearheaded by the local chapter of the League of United Latin American Citizens. LULAC organizers had seen the event as an opportunity to demonstrate to the larger community that Mexican Americans “deserved better than their hardscrabble fate” and “were ready to claim their share of postwar benefits and opportunities,” Olivas wrote in the Indiana Law Journal.

    The following evening, Garcia entered the Oasis Cafe, which was “at that time, the only night spot in Richmond,” says the café owner’s son, Louis Payton, who is interviewed in the documentary.

    “We had very few blacks or Mexican Americans come in and ask for service because we didn’t cater to their needs,” says Payton. “So, we just didn’t see any of them.”

    It is unknown how the confrontation actually occurred. The Oasis Cafe owner claimed that Garcia had stumbled in, drunk, demanding to be served. After he was denied service, Garcia proceeded to throw salt shakers, sugar bowls, water glasses, and other items at the mirrored walls, ultimately punching the owner, Donna Andrews, in the mouth.

    Garcia contended that he simply asked for service and was beaten with a baseball bat. The story might have ended there. But, in a twist that seems contemporary, the story went “viral” after the episode was mentioned on popular journalist Walter Winchell’s radio show.

    According to Olivas, it was Johnny Herrera, vice president of the LULAC chapter that had thrown the party the night before, who got word of the incident to Winchell and other reporters. Olivas speculates that the embarrassing publicity pushed Fort Bend County officials to bring charges of aggravated assault against Garcia.

    “Texas was the only southern state with a substantial Mexican population, so Jim Crow morphed into a form not found elsewhere in the agricultural South,” writes Olivas. In addition to the racial segregation practiced against African Americans, Mexicans experienced racial separation based on language, national origin, and immigration status.

    This atmosphere made Garcia’s very ability to obtain legal representation a minor miracle. Johnny Herrera, Garcia’s lawyer, cheerleader, and provocateur, was one of a very few Mexican-American professionals licensed to deliver legal services in a time when civil rights organizations such as LULAC were young, decentralized, and underfunded. What funding they did have, came from a tiny group of successful Hispanic businessmen.

    But the fire, the indignation, and the will to change their lot in life were not unprecedented: The will to fight for civil rights was by then already evident in Latino communities.

    There is another case—the Lemon Grove Incident—in which the Hispanic struggle for civil rights long predates the typical history book narrative of how the nation struggled to redefine itself during the civil rights movement of the mid 1950s.

    On January 5, 1931, Lemon Grove Grammar School principal Jerome Green turned away Mexican children at the schoolhouse door, directing them to a small, separate school, which came to be known within the local Mexican-American community as la caballeriza, meaning “the horse stable.” The subsequent boycott by parents eventually led to a landmark lawsuit that became the first successful school desegregation court decision in U.S. history, setting an important precedent for Brown v. Board of Education in 1954.

    This pre-civil rights era promise that conscious challenges could lead to real social change did not end with Garcia’s ill-fated attempt at eating at the white club in town—though it must be noted that history does not leave us an accurate enough record to know if Garcia was indeed making a clearheaded political statement.

    According to Olivas, on February 17, 1946—just before Garcia’s trial was to occur—Bruno A. Garcia (no relation to Macario), another Mexican-American veteran from the area, was also refused service at the Oasis Cafe and was charged with disturbing the peace. In fact, Bruno Garcia and another Garcia, Magdaleno Garcia, apparently had a few drinks and attempted to duplicate the original Macario Garcia incident.

    Negative news coverage of this follow-up event fueled the belief around the country that the people of Fort Bend County were racially discriminatory.

    Ultimately, the negative publicity worked. Garcia’s trial was stalled time and again, but in June 1946 the county quietly dropped the charges against Macario Garcia. His lawyer, Johnny Herrera, and LULAC subsequently also ended their campaign to embarrass the Fort Bend officials.

    Staff Sgt. Garcia went on to become a counselor for the Veterans Administration, was sworn in as a U.S. citizen on June 25, 1947, then earned his GED, married, and settled in the Fort Bend area by 1952. He lived out a quiet life that ended in a car accident on Christmas Eve 1972.

    As the film notes, it is difficult to understand how an entire nation that was overflowing with admiration and gratitude toward veterans could treat some of them as second-class citizens. Yet, it kept happening.

    Another Texas son, Felix Longoria, whose story is also covered in Latino Americans, is not best known for dying in battle in 1945 during World War II, but for the fight that ensued when his body was finally returned in 1948 to his hometown of Three Rivers, Texas. The local funeral home refused to hold a wake for him because Longoria was Mexican American.

    It was this incident, on top of Macario Garcia’s confrontation and the general climate of hostility toward Latinos, that awoke a population unwilling to accept such poor treatment for veterans who had served honorably. The collective outrage over a persistent accumulation of disrespect can be considered a pivotal moment in the history of Latinos in the United States and a concrete advancement in the fight for civil rights for all across the country.

    It spurred Dr. Hector Garcia, who formed the American GI Forum in 1948, to fight the unequal treatment of Hispanic veterans and rally the community. Connected by a shared compassion for impoverished Latino children, Garcia and then-Senator Lyndon Johnson eventually formed an alliance over the Longoria incident.

    Senator Johnson settled the Longoria affair by arranging to have Pvt. Longoria’s remains interred at Arlington National Cemetery. The funeral took place on February 16, 1949, with the Longoria family flanked by Senator Johnson and a personal representative of the president of the United States.

    The relationship between Dr. Garcia and Johnson galvanized a community that saw itself grow into a national force in American politics, propel civil rights issues to the fore, and help put John F. Kennedy into the White House with the American G.I. Forum’s groundbreaking “Viva Kennedy!” campaign. Dr. Garcia’s passion for the well-being of Latino veterans and their parents, siblings, and children exerted an influence on Johnson, in part leading him to sign the Civil Rights Act of 1964 into law. Of course, the law did not change the day-to-day lives of Hispanics and African Americans overnight. But the series of events resulting from World War II veterans arriving home with increased expectations for themselves and their families led many people from different walks of life to come together to end segregation.

    In 1928, Lyndon Johnson (center) taught Mexican-American children in Cotulla, Texas, 
    an experience that influenced his later positions on civil rights and poverty.—Courtesy of the LBJ Library

    Those catalyzing events, much like the ones in Little Rock, Arkansas, and Selma, Alabama, put into motion a culture of fighting for equal protection under the law that has benefitted countless underrepresented groups to this day in a struggle that continues.

    Esther J. Cepeda is a nationally syndicated columnist for the Washington Post Writers Group and a freelance writer based in Chicago.

    GWETA, Inc. received $475,000 in development and production funding from NEH for Latino Americans. The six-part documentary will premiere Tuesday, September 17, on PBS.

    Sent by Juan Marintez  marinezj@msu.edu 



    1st                        2nd                      3rd                     4th 
    Thomas Jefferson Taylor, Jr. married Minnie Lee Patillo
                                Thomas Jefferson Taylor III
                                 Antonio J. Taylor
                                Claudia Alta (Lady Bird) Taylor married Lyndon Baines Johnson  (37th President of USA)
                                                            Lynda Bird Johnson married Charles Robb
                                                                                        Lucinda Desha Robb
                                                                                        Catherine Lewis Robb
                                                                                        Jennifer Wickliffe Robb
                                                            Luci Baines Johnson married Patrick Nugent
                                                                                        Patrick Lyn Nugent
                                                                                        Nicole Marie Nugent
                                                                                        Rebekah Johnson Nugent



    LATINOS 101


    Posted on Historia Chicana, June 22, 2011. Posted on Somos Primos, September, 2011;Revised May 31, 2011 to incorporate 2010 Census Data. Earlier version posted on Weekly Digest HispanicVista.com , October 24, 2003. Excerpt appears in Oxford Dictionary of Latinos and Latinas in the United States, Oxford University Press, 2005. This version incorporates commentary from “Hispanics: What’s in a Name?” (excerpted from the study American Hispanics: A Contemporary Perspective, Caravel Press, 1990) by the author and which ap­peared in Cambio Magazine, Phoenix, Arizona, July 12, 1990.

    By Felipe de Ortego y Gasca

    Scholar in Residence/Founding Member and Past Chair, Department of Chicana/Chicano and Hemispheric Studies, Western New Mexico University, 2007-Present; Founding Director, Chicano Studies Program, University of Texas at El Paso, 1st program in the state, 1970; Faculty Member, Graduate Mexican American Studies Program, San Jose State University, 1973-74; Founding Member, Mexican American Studies Program, Texas State University—Sul Ross, 1995;  Editor-in-Chief, ABC/CLIO Greenwood Encyclopedia of Latino Issues Today (2 Vols., forthcoming ).  


    ccording to the 2010 Census, the total population of the United States was 305,305,818. The count for the Hispanic population of the United States was 50,477, 594, not counting the almost 5 million Puerto Ricans on the island. That would bring the Hispanic count to almost 55 million.

            Hispanic Heritage Month is not about celebrating the heritage of Spain and other Hispanic identified countries in the Americas and elsewhere. Hispanic Heritage Month celebrates the contributions to the United States by Spain and other Hispanic identified countries in the Americas and elsewhere. That’s a critical distinction. Unfortunately, many Non-Hispanic Americans know little about the contributions to American life and culture by American Hispanics; that is, those Hispanics in the United States who are citizens of the United States either by birth or naturalization and, therefore, not (necessarily) citizens of Hispanic countries in the Americas and elsewhere. There are some instances where American Hispanics like other groups have dual citizenship.

    Another way to differentiate U.S. Hispanics from Hispanics in Spain and other Hispanic identified countries in the Americas and elsewhere is to think of the latter as Hispanic Americans and the former as American Hispanics. American Hispanics live and work legitimately in the United States. There are some Hispanics like members of other groups living and working in the United States legitimately with temporary documentation (Green Cards) while waiting to become American citizens. Those Hispanics who live and work in the United States without proper documentation are not considered American Hispanics. They are sometimes referred to as “undocumented workers.”

    Celebrating the Hispanic heritage of the United States actually started in 1967 with a proclamation by President Lyndon Baines Johnson recognizing the 16th of September of that year as Hispanic Heritage Day. The 16th of September is celebrated in Mexico and by Mexican Americans in the United States as Mexican Independence Day from Spain in 1821. The following month the President’s Cabinet (Inter-agency) Committee on Mexican Americans held a Mexican American summit in El Paso, Texas (see “Minority on the Border,” The Nation, 12/7/67 by the author). On September 17, 1968, House Joint Resolution 1299 (Public Law 90-498) was passed unanimously by voice vote proclaiming the week of September 15-22 as Hispanic Heritage Week. Subsequent presidents continued the tradition. On August 17, 1988 Air Force Colonel Gil Coronado successfully persuaded Congress to enact Public Law 100-42 designating National Hispanic Heritage Month from September 16 to October 15, spanning celebration of September 16th and Dia de la Raza (Columbus Day) on October 12. National Hispanic Heritage Month coincides with the independence days of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Chile also.

    Little known because American textbooks exclude it, the Hispanic heritage of the United States is older than the Anglo Heritage of the United States. By the time of the Plymouth Plan­tation in 1619, Saint Augustine (Florida) had been in existence for 55 years, and Santa Fe was already a thriving city. Throughout the vast expanse of the Spanish presence in North America, Spanish settlements of varying sizes dotted the landscape. Spanish exploration in what is now the United States took many forms. In 1536 Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca left for us a record of his travels through Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. And in 1592, Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá recorded in Virgilian cantos the exploits of the Spaniards at Acoma Pueblo near present-day Albuquerque. That text, Historia de Nuevo Mexico, is now  regarded as the first American epic.­ Over time, Santa Fe became ­the commercial center of Spain in what is now the United States and geographically critical in the westward expansion of the United States in what was known as “the Santa Fe Trail.”  


    hat is the term “Hispanic”? What does it mean? Where does it come from? Why is it used to identify particular peoples of the Americas? Is the term “Hispanic” the same as “Latino”? Both the terms “Hispanic” and “Latino” have been used for some time. More recently, however, the revivified term “Latino” has resonated with contemporary American Hispanics, many of whom perceive the term “Hispanic” as a label imposed on them by the bureaucracy of the U.S. Census Bureau. Actually, the term “Hispanic” cropped up in the early Spanish colonial period to designate persons with a biological tie to a Spaniard. In Spanish the term was “Hispano.” Later, the term evolved into “Hispano- Americano” to emphasize that Hispanos were also Americans since they were of the Americas. Historically, the United States appropriated that term for its own identity so that few Americans realize that all the populations of the Americas are Americans.

    The word “Hispanic” is one of those large rubrics like the word Catholic or Protestant. By itself, the word refers to all Hispanics (persons whose heritage derive from historical origins in Hispania-- Roman name for Spain), attesting to a common denominator, conveying information that the individual is an off-spring or descendent of a cultural, political or ethnic blending which included in the beginning at least one Spanish root either biological or linguistic or cultural. That means a Mexican Indian with no Spanish “blood” (as we understand that term) in him or her, but who speaks Spanish and has amalgamated, internalized, or assimilated the evolutionized Spanish culture of Mexico is considered an Hispanic just as an Indian of the United States who speaks English and has amalgamated, internalized, or assimilated the evolutionized Anglo cul­ture of the United States is considered to be an American though in the case of American Indians they are Ameri­cans both by priority (they were here first) and by fiat (the United States made them Americans by colonization and later by law).

    Talking about people in terms of labels can be misleading. For example, a person may be an Hispanic in terms of cultural, national or ethnic roots. Nationally Co­lon (Columbus) was a Spaniard though born in Genoa when it was part of the Spanish empire. Werner Von Braun (father of the American space pro­gram) was born in Germany and became an American citizen after his relocation to the United States from Nazi Germany. In Argentina there are Hispanics who have no “Spanish blood” but who, nevertheless consider themselves Hispanics, speak Argentine Spanish and are fluent in Italian or German, the languages of their immigrant forebears to that country.

    Put another way, the term “Hispanic” is comparable to the term Jew which describes the religious orientation of people who may be ethnically Russian, Polish, German, Italian, English, etc. There are Chinese Jews, Ethiopian (Falashan) Jews, Indian Jews, et al. So too the term “Hispanic” describes  people by linguistic orientation (Spanish speakers from countries whose principal or national language is Spanish). In the Americas there are more speakers of Spanish than English. These may be Mexicans, Nicaraguans, Cubans, Venezuelans, Chileans, Argen­tines, et al. Additionally, there are blended Hispanics often identified as Indo-Hispanics and Afro-Hispanics, Asian-Hispanics (including Filipinos) and a congeries of other mixtures. There are Hispanics who identify themselves as Black and many who identify themselves as White. There is an array of Chinese Hispanics, Lebanese Hispanics, Pakistan Hispanics, Hindu Hispanics, Jewish Hispanics (Sephards) et al. This all points to the fact that Hispanics are far from a homogeneous group. In the main, though, their common characteristics are language (Spanish or a derivative version of Spanish as well as a distinctively derivative ver­sion of English oftentimes called Spanglish) and religion (most are Catholic), though there is a growing number of Hispanic Protestants). There are other lesser characteristics as well.  


    ccording to current demographic data, the United States has the 5th largest Hispanic popu­lation in the world exceeded only by Mexico, Spain, Columbia, and Argentina. By the year 2015 only Mexico will have a larger Hispanic population. In the year 2000, close to 7 million American Hispanics who reported themselves as such in the Census lived in the Los Angeles metropolitan area, another 3 million in New York City. Since 1980 the American Hispanic population of both cities almost doubled. And over the 1990's the His­panic population of the United States grew 58%. Since 1980 Mexican Americans almost doubled their population size. From 24 million American Hispanics in 1990, the 2010 Census enumerated 50.5 million U. S. Hispanics not counting the  4.5 million Hispanics in Puer­to Rico who are excluded from the count. In the 1990 count almost 4 million Hispanics in the United States were missed by the Census , and another 4 million or so undocu­mented Hispanics in the United States.

    At the start of the new millennium there were about 45 to 48 million Hispanics in the United States, making them the single largest minority group in the country. That is, 16% of the U.S. population was Hispanic. Or, 1 in 6 was Hispanic. As a group, American Hispanics are larger than the population of Canada (32 million) and more than twice that of Australia (20 million). Projections suggest that by the year 2050 1 in 3 Americans will be Hispanic. Peter Francese of American Demographics notes that “America really had no clue that the Hispanic population was that big.” But Steven Murdoch, the Texas demographer, has been aware of the growth of the Hispanic population in Texas. He has forecast that by the year 2040 Hispanics in Texas (Tejanos) will comprise 65% of the state’s population while the Anglo population of the state will have dwindled to 25%. Ten percent of the state’s population will be black or other.

    According to the 2010 Census, the Hispanic population grew from 35.3 million to 50.5 million (not counting Island Puerto Ricans). Per the U.S. 2010 Census count, Hispanics are in every state of the country. One report asserts that Hispanics are in every county of the United States. Hispanics make up the majority population in 28 major U.S. cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants, most of them located in California, Texas, Florida, and New Jersey. The Hispanic population more than doubled in Kentucky, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, and South Carolina. 75% of Hispanics live in Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, New Mexico, New Jersey, New York, and Texas. Five states are 15% or more Hispanic (New Mexico, 46.3%; California, 31%; Texas, 30%; Arizona, 22%; Nevada, 15%)  and five states are 10% or more His­panic (Colorado, 14%; Florida, 14%; New York, 14%; New Jersey, 12%; Illinois 10%). Nine states and the District of Columbia are 5% or more Hispanic (Connecticut, 8%; Idaho, 7%; Utah, 7%; DC, 7%; Wyoming, 6%; Washington, 6%; Oregon, 6%; Massachusetts, 6%; Rhode Island, 6%; Kansas, 5%). Five states account for almost 75% of the U.S. Hispanic population (California, 34%; Texas 20%; Massachu­setts, 9%; Florida, 7%; Illinois, 4%. These figures don’t take into account Census errors like the one in 1970 which failed to count some 3 million Mexican Americans. One of the reasons for so much difficulty in counting Ame­rican Hispanics is that a  significant number  report them­selves as White or Black, not Hispanic.

            In the 20th century, the U.S. Hispanic population grew 5 times faster than the overall population. Since 1980, the nation’s Hispanic population has grown by more than 40% compared to 7% for the overall population. At present growth rates, the American population is expected to reach 325 million by the year 2020. Projecting the U.S. Hispanic figures per their growth rates, they could number well over 60 million by the year 2020. That means that about 1 in 5 Americans could be Hispanic, roughly 20% of the U.S. population. (Counting Puerto Rico, the U.S. Hispanic population today is about 54.2 million—17.4% of the total U.S. population.) By the year 2050 some demographic forecasts expect the U.S. His­panic population to triple. At the moment, Hispanics account for more than half of the U.S. population  growth. Astonishingly, these growth rates are not fueled principally by immi­gration but by fertility. An extreme projection by the U.S. Census Bureau  suggests that by the year 2097, 50% of the entire U.S. population will be Hispanic, 30% will be black; 13% will be Asian, and only 5% will be white.

    In a 1988 study, the Arizona Republic of Phoe­nix in­dicated that in the year 2013 “Hispanics will make up nearly half of Arizona’s population, raising the prospect of their taking a strong leader­ship role in the state.” Despite these auguries for the population growth of American Hispanics, little planning if any has been undertaken for such an eventuality. In fact, compared to their size in the American population, American Hispanics are grossly underrepresented in most areas of American public life and policy. Like Blacks, they are congregated in the gladiatorial areas of sports. Despite their looming size, American Hispanics are almost never seen on mainstream network television news shows as hosts or discussants on American domestic and foreign policy issues. Except for special shows, American Hispanics are still largely invisible in the plethora of inane television programs. In film, non-Hispanics portray Hispanics (often badly). Many times in film and television Hispanics are often referred to by Hispanic names in the scripts, but never seen.  


    ho are these people whose presence in the American population will have such a major force in the American future? Surprisingly, most Americans tend to think of U.S. Hispanics as a loose aggregation of “immigrants” who speak only Spanish, some­what aware that the largest number of them live in the Southwest, a fair number in the Mid-West, the Upper Middle Atlantic states and New England with a growing number in the American Southwest.

            Essentially, American Hispanics may be sorted into five groups: (1) Mexican Americans, many of whom identify themselves as Chicanos, an ideological designation that identifies their generation, (2) Puerto Ricans, some of whom identify themselves as Boricuas, (3) there are U.S. Hispanics who identify themselves as Hispanos (found mostly in New Mexico many of whom identify themselves as Manitos and are counted as Mexican Americans; in Texas a vast number if not most Mexican Americans refer to themselves as Tejanos; and in California, many Hispanic Californians who are descendents of the founding families in both Baja and Northern California refer to themselves as Californianos rather than Mexicans, (4) Cuban Amer­icans, and (5) Latinos–-Hispanics from countries other than Mexico, Cuba, Spain, and Puer­to Rico. A recent PEW Hispanic Center Report, When Labels Don’t Fit, explained that “only about one-quarter (24%) of Hispanic adults say they most often identity themselves by “Hispanic” of “Latino,“ adding that “about half (51%) say they identify themselves most often by their family’s country or place of origin—using such terms as Mexican, Cuban, Puerto Rican, Salvadoran of Dominican.”

            Per the U.S. Census Count of 2010 the Mexican origin population grew by 54% and accounts for 63% of U.S. Hispanics, about 32 million. Two out of three U.S. Hispanics are Mexican Americans. Not counting Puerto Rico, Puerto Ricans make up almost 10% of U.S. Hispanics with almost 4 million of them in the continental U.S. Almost 4 million of them live on the island of Puerto Rico. Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans make up almost 75% of the U.S. Hispanic population. In other words, 3 out 4 U.S. Hispanics are Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans. The almost 2 million Cu­ban Americans in the United States, most of them in Florida, make up about 4% of U.S. Hispanics. Latinos, about 12 million of them with roots in Latin America make up the balance of U.S. Hispanics—25%. In other words, 1 out of 4 U.S. Hispanics is Latino, that is, from countries other than Mexico, Puerto Rico, or Cuba. There are other U.S. Hispanic groups, statistically not significant as groups, like Sephardic Americans (Hispanic Jews), Pacific Islanders with Hispanic roots, and American Filipinos who are not counted as Latinos but should be since Spain had a longer presence in the Philippines than in Mexico.

    In profile, U.S. Hispanics are a “young” population with a median age in 2010 of 27 years compared to 34 years for non-Hispanics. Hispanics are predominantly an urban population: 82% live in cities, compared to 65% of An­glos, though there is a trend of U.S. Hispanics migrating to rural areas. In terms of median income, in 2000, U.S. Hispanics earned an average of $23,300, some $2,450 more than blacks but some $2,600 less than Anglos. In 2010 median income for U.S. Hispanics was $40,200. Nearly 1 out of every 4 American Hispanics fell below the poverty level in 1999, more than thrice the ratio for Anglos. In 2000, American Hispanic unemployment rose to 13.8% compared to 7.2% for the total population. In 2010 Hispanic unemployment rose to 18% compared to 9.6% for the total population. While there were gains for some American Hispanics, most of these figures remained relatively unchanged in the year 2010 for the mass of American Hispanics who are still searching for America. Economic projections indicate that by 2012 Hispanics will represent a $1.3 trillion consumer market. In 2010, $21.3 billion in remesas (money sent to Mexico) were generated by Mexicans working in the United States.


    mportantly, American Hispanics are not recently arrived immigrants to the United States. Given the finite immigration quotas for “Latin America” since 1924, the present population of U.S. Hispanics would not be as large if its source of growth were solely from immigration. Their sheer size in the American population points to the fact that American Hispanics are of longer duration in the United States and their growth stems principally from fertility. According to the National Center for Health Statistics, in 2010 there were 98.8 births for every 1000 Hispanic women compared to 66 births per 1000 Anglo women.

    The initial core of Hispanics in the U.S. population came from the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam, later renamed New York after the British acquired it in the 17th century. Later the Hispanic Jews (Sephardim) who came with the Dutch colony contributed significantly to the colonial revolutionary efforts of 1776 and to the later prosperity of the country. In the 19th century, in two swift “gains” within 50 years of each other, the United States “acquired” a sizable chunk of its Hispanic population, not counting the acquisition of Louisiana in 1803 with its Hispanic residents and Florida in 1819 with its Hispanic population. The first “gain” was as a consequence of the U.S. war against Mexico (1846-1848) out of which came the Mexican Americans of California, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Wyoming. No one is sure of the numbers of ”Mexicans” who came with the dismembered territory (almost half of Mexico’s domain) but figures range from 150,000 on the low side to as many as 3.5 million (including Hispanicized Indians). The second “gain” of Hispanics occurred as a result of the U.S. war with Spain (1898) out of which came the Puerto Ricans, Filipinos, Guamanians, Virgin Islanders, and the first wave of Cubans (though Cubans had been emigrating to the American colonies first then the United States since the 17th century. In 1917 Cuba was cut loose by the United States. The figures for these groups range variously as well. But the point is that American Hispanics have been part of the United States historically for some time. In both the U.S. war with Mexico and the U.S. war with Spain, the United States “came” to the Hispanics, the Hispanics did not come to the United States. They were already on their land which the United States appropriated from them as a spoil of war. In both cases, Hispanics who came with the conquered territories were chattels of war. Unfortunately, Americans have tended to think of Hispanics in the United States as newly arrived and to confuse them with Hispanic Americans, the 400 million who populate the Spanish-language countries of the American hemisphere.

    Not all American Hispanics agree on the term Hispanic or Latino to identify themselves. Many American Hispanics from the Southwest, for example, prefer to be called Mexican Americans or Chicanos and think the term Hispanic is an arbitrary label imposed on them by a bureaucracy with a colonial mentality. Sandra Cisneros eschews the term Hispanic; she favors the term Latina. Many Puerto Ricans agree with that sentiment and prefer to be called Boricuas or Latinos. Other American Hispanics contend the term Hispanic dilutes their individual identities as, say, Salvadorans, Nicaraguans, etc. At best, the term Hispanic is a convenient way to talk about a diverse group of people much the way we use the term American to talk about an equally diverse group of people. In vogue now with many Hispanics in the Southwest and elsewhere is the term Latino which could very well include Italians and other groups with links to Roman Latinization.

    This “looking for a name” has created particular problems for American Hispanics, especially in libraries (including the Library of Congress) and with bookstores and booksellers. Irma Flores Manger, an Austin librarian, thinks we are leaving a whole group of people in limbo without any positive literature about Chicanos or other Latino experiences in which the only books available are written by authors in English.  The books are not available in some libraries because if you are not familiar with the authors you will not buy the books as librarians.  The book stores usually have a small section on Latino Studies and sometimes our books are lumped in with immigration studies.  I don't why it's so hard for these stores to carry books by Chicano or Latino authors in English; there is usually a huge section for African Americans or Native American materials.

    The difficulty lies in the fact that indeed Americans (including librarians) do not really have a handle on the Hispanic taxonomy. For them all Hispanics are alike. Unlike African Americans who are not lumped in with Africans, American Hispanics are lumped in with Hispanics of Latin America. The Library of Congress is a good example of this lumping. When one wants to find material on African Americans in the Library of Congress one does not go to the African Section. They are found in the American Section. But to find materials on American Hispanics in the Library of Congress one has to go to the Hispanic Section where all other Hispanics are included also. Mostly, American book-stores have separate sections for African materials and for African American materials. Not so for American Hispanic materials. All Hispanic materials are lumped into the Hispanic section. Peddling the Colombian writer Gabriel Garcia Marquez’ books in Spanish or English translation for Chicanos instead of Rudolfo Anaya’s works only strengthens the proposition that Americans do not differentiate between Hispanics because they don’t know who Hispanics are.

    Admittedly, there is much to a name. I’m an American Hispanic of Mexican stock who subscribes to a Chicano perspective of life in the United States. I’m not an Hispano because I’m not Spanish. And I’m not a Latino because I’m not from one of those “other” Spanish-language countries of the Americas. A Puerto Rican friend of mine explains that he’s an Hispanic of mainland Puerto Rican stock and subscribes to a Boricua perspective of life in the United States. Another friend of mine tells me he’s an American Scandinavian of Norwegian stock who is a registered Republican. I don’t find that confusing at all. We’re all Americans, rich in cultural, linguistic and ethnic diversity.

            What’s in a name? Everything. That’s why my name is Felipe and my friend’s name is Sean. Names help to tell us apart. They also reflect our heritage and background. Unfortunately, many Americans tend to think the word Hispanic refers to a homogeneous group of people–which it does not, anymore than the word German, say, (as in German Americans) refers to a homogeneous group of people. American Hispanics come in all sizes, shapes and colors.  


    deologically, Mexican American Chicanos say the term Hispanic diminishes their demographic priority when “lumped” with other American Hispanic groups (all of which are considerably smaller than the Mexican American group). Those Mexican American Chicanos contend that this lumping suggests that all U.S. Hispanic groups are equal in size and have passed through the same historical process in the United States, a suggestion not supported by the facts. Not all U.S. Hispanic groups have passed through the same historical process as Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans.  The historical process of these two groups has been distinctive, not shared by “other” American Hispanic groups in the United States. A sizable number of Mexican Americans and all Puerto Ricans are American territorial minorities by virtue of con­quest. For this reason, shrill groups of Mexican American Chicanos and Puerto Ricans have resented across the board applications of legal remedies (affirmative action, for one) for all U.S. Hispanics for historical discrimination they have not endured nor suffered. Militant members of these groups say that hiring a U.S. Hispanic of  Peruvian descent, say, to head a major federal program intended to remedy discrimination against territorial Hispanics does not remedy discrimination suffered by Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans at the hands of Anglo-Americans since their conquest and for whom these legal remedies were originally enacted if such remedies are applied across the board for all Hispanics whether or not they are members of  the  aggrieved  groups. Peruvian culture–while Hispanic–is not Mexican American culture nor Puerto Rican culture. There are notable linguistic differences as well.

    Additionally, Mexican Americans and Puer­to Ricans point out the difference between an “oppressed” territorial minority (the U.S. came to them) and “political or economic refugees” (they came to the U.S.) Many Chicano scholars explain that Hispanics  from  Mexico  who gravitate to San Diego, Tucson, El Paso, San Antonio, and Brownsville are migrating to a part of what once  was  their ancestral homeland until 1845/ 1848 (1853 in Southern Arizona with pur­chase of the Gadsen  Strip),  now considered “greater Mexico” (previously New Spain). Some Chicano scholars see this migration as analogous to the migration of Jews to Palestine, their ancestral homeland. Moreover, those same Chicanos point out, most Mexicans migrating to the United States are racially more Indian than Spanish. On their Indian side they are, thus, autochthonous people, here long before the Niña, the Pinta, the Santa Maria, and the Mayflower. They are not immigrants. They are of the Americas, sharing a common bond with the indigenous peoples of the United States and Canada.

            In view of the foregoing, plans for meeting the needs of American Latinos/Hispanics must take into account their over­whelming reliance on the English language, and particularly that 15% of the U.S. Hispanic population which is monolingual Spanish operant. For them Bilingual Education and Spanish-language publishing makes sense. What is not clear, however, is the number of American Hispanics in the  population group of 50+ who rely principally on Spanish for communication and Spanish language publications for news and information. Spanish is the primary language spoken at home by over 35.5 million people aged five or older. There are 45 million Hispanics who speak Spanish as a first or second language, as well as six million Spanish students, comprising the largest national Spanish-speaking community outside of Mexico. Roughly half of all U.S. Spanish speakers also speak English "very well."

            The United States is home to the second largest Mexican community in the world second only to Mexico itself comprising nearly 22% of the entire Mexican origin population of the world. Almost 11% of the American population are Mexican Americans. With the exceptions of Puerto Ricans and Cuban Americans, all other American Latino groups are significantly less than 1% respectively of the American population. Despite the numeric significance of Mexican Americans in the U.S. population, the U.S. Latino population is viewed by the non-Hispanic American mainstream as flat with all U.S. Latinos regarded equal in population.

    Reaching the 50 million plus American His­panic population requires knowledge of who they are and their centrality in the American future. All the more reason for Hispanic Heritage Month every day.  

    Copyright © 2011 by the author. All rights reserved.


    Dr. Felipe de Ortego y Gasca, Ph.D. (English: British Renaissance Studies, University of New Mexico, ‘71)
    Scholar In Residence (01.07-Pr), Cultural Studies, Critical Theory,Public Policy / Social Sciences, Humanities
    Chicano/Chicana and Hemispheric Studies, College of Arts & Sciences, Western New Mexico University
    P.O. Box 680, Silver City, New Mexico 88062. Office: 575-538-6410, Fax: 575-538-6178, Cell: 575-956-5541
    Campuses: Silver City, Gallup, Deming, Truth or Conequences, Lordsburg and on the Web  ortegop@wnmu.edu 

    Professor Emeritus of English, Texas State University System (Retired 1999)
    Founding Member (07) and Past Chair (01.08-08.11), Dep't, Chicano/a & Hemispheric Studies, WNMU
    Founding Director, Chicano Studies Program, UT El Paso, 1970-72 (1st in Texas)
    Faculty, Department of Graduate Mexican American Studies, San Jose State University, 1974-76
    Founding Member/Affiliate Faculty, Mexican American Studies, Texas State University-Sul Ross, 1995-99

    Editor-in-Chief, Greenwood Encyclopedia of Latino Issues Today (2 Vols., forthcoming) 
    Co-chair, Intellectual Freedom Committee, New Mexico Library Association, 2008-2013
    Board of Directors, SW New Mexico Chapter, American Civil Liberties Union, 2011-Pr 
    Advisory Board, Mayborn Literary Non-Fiction Conf, Grad School of Journalism, Univ of N. Tx, 2005-Pr
    Board of Directors, New Mexico Humanities Council, 2012-Pr; Former Bd Member, Texas Humanities
    Senior Fulbright Scholar in American Studies, University of Rosario, Argentina (1969)
    Member, LULAC Council 8003 (National Council of the Year 2012), District 3, Silver City, New Mexico

    World War II Veteran with military service during the Korean Conflict and early Vietnam Era:
    USMC, Sgt: American, Pacific, China Campaigns; USAF, Major (Threat Analyst/Profiler in Soviet Studies), 1952-62
    Air Force ROTC, University of Pittsburgh, commissioned 2nd Lt. USAFR, 1952; Flying School, Class 53-O
    Paid-up-for-Life Member, American Legion; Life Member, American G.I. Forum (Hispanic Vets)

    “The history of the lion hunt will always favor the hunter until lions have their own historians,” old African proverb

    Photos, posters, text and music of the 1940s.  OldBlueWebDesigns.com 
    Click on the the Last Line where it says "The 1940's"
    Sent by Rick Leal  ggr1031@aol.com 

    He is engraved in stone in the National War Memorial in Washington, DC- back in a small alcove where very few people have seen it. For the WWII generation, this will bring back memories. For you younger folks, it's a bit of trivia that is a part of our American history. Anyone born in 1913 to about 1950, is familiar with Kilroy. No one knew why he was so well known- but everybody seemed to get into it. So who was Kilroy?
    Shangrala's Kilroy Was Here Shangrala's Kilroy Was Here
    In 1946 the American Transit Association, through its radio program, "Speak to America ," sponsored a nationwide contest to find the real Kilroy, offering a prize of a real trolley car to the person who could prove himself to be the genuine article. Almost 40 men stepped forward to make that claim, but only James Kilroy from Halifax , Massachusetts , had evidence of his identity.

    'Kilroy' was a 46-year old shipyard worker during the war who worked as a checker at the Fore River Shipyard in Quincy . His job was to go around and check on the number of rivets completed. Riveters were on piecework and got paid by the rivet. He would count a block of rivets and put a check mark in semi-waxed lumber chalk, so the rivets wouldn't be counted twice. 
    When Kilroy went off duty, the riveters would erase the mark. 
    Later on, an off-shift inspector would come through and count the rivets a second time, resulting in double pay for the riveters. 

    One day Kilroy's boss called him into his office. The foreman was upset about all the wages being paid to riveters, and asked him to investigate. It was then he realized what had been going on. The tight spaces he had to crawl in to check the rivets didn't lend themselves to lugging around a paint can and brush, so Kilroy decided to stick with the waxy chalk. He continued to put his check mark on each job he inspected, but added 'KILROY WAS HERE' in king-sized letters next to the check, and eventually added the sketch of the chap with the long nose peering over the fence and that became part of the Kilroy message. 
    Once he did that, the riveters stopped trying to wipe away his marks. Ordinarily the rivets and chalk marks would have been covered up with paint. With the war on, however, ships were leaving the Quincy Yard so fast that there wasn't time to paint them. As a result, Kilroy's inspection "trademark" was seen by thousands of servicemen who boarded the troopships the yard produced.


    Shangrala's Kilroy Was Here Shangrala's Kilroy Was Here
    His message apparently rang a bell with the servicemen, because they picked it up and spread it all over Europe and the South Pacific.
    Shangrala's Kilroy Was Here

    Before war's end, "Kilroy" had been here, there, and everywhere on the long hauls to Berlin and Tokyo . To the troops outbound in those ships, however, he was a complete mystery; all they knew for sure was that someone named Kilroy had "been there first." As a joke, U.S. servicemen began placing the graffiti wherever they landed, claiming it was already there when they arrived.
    Shangrala's Kilroy Was Here
    Shangrala's Kilroy Was Here Shangrala's Kilroy Was Here
    Kilroy became the U.S. super-GI who had always "already been" wherever GIs went. It became a challenge to place the logo in the most unlikely places imaginable (it is said to be atop Mt. Everest , the Statue of Liberty , the underside of the Arc de Triomphe, and even scrawled in the dust on the moon.
    As the war went on, the legend grew. Underwater demolition teams routinely sneaked ashore on Japanese-held islands in the Pacific to map the terrain for coming invasions by U.S. troops (and thus, presumably, were the first GI's there).
    On one occasion, however, they reported seeing enemy troops painting over the Kilroy logo!
    Shangrala's Kilroy Was Here Shangrala's Kilroy Was Here
    In 1945, an outhouse was built for the exclusive use of Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill at the Potsdam conference. Its' first occupant was Stalin, who emerged and asked his aide (in Russian), "Who is Kilroy?"

    Shangrala's Kilroy Was Here

    To help prove his authenticity in 1946, James Kilroy brought along officials from the shipyard and some of the riveters. He won the trolley car, which he gave to his nine children as a Christmas gift and set it up as a playhouse in the Kilroy yard in Halifax, Massachusetts .

    And The Tradition Continues...
    EVEN Outside Osama Bin Laden's House!!!

    Sent by Jose M. Pena  JMPENA@aol.com 



    Frank Martinez: 1924-2013,  artist and mentor dies at 89 
    Elisa Perez: 1926- 2013, Family Historian and Genealogist dies at 87
    Carlos Blanco-Aguinaga: 1926-2013, literary critic, fiction writer dies at 87 
    Jose Montoya: 1932- 2013, poet and artist dies at 81
    Raul Cortez: 1933-2013, businessman

    Frank Martinez: artist; dies at 89
    Aug. 9, 1924 - Aug. 17, 2013

    Specializing in regional and Mexican American themes, Frank Martinez painted murals for Los Angeles cathedral and the Smithsonian.

    September 02, 2013 By Devin Kelly

    Frank Martinez laid his shaking hands on the surface of the blank canvas. As before every painting, he said a prayer.

    Then the artist began his work. He applied acrylic paint and, with a rag, wiped it away. Shapes began to form and colors blended into one another.

    He used a piece of wood to draw straight lines, a task complicated by Parkinson's disease. Slowly, the mural took form, a layered portrait of early 18th century life, mission-building and Catholic faith in California.

    The mural, painted in 2003, hangs in the south ambulatory of the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels in downtown Los Angeles — one of a number of public art pieces created by Martinez, a Pacoima muralist and painter whose humility and quiet style escaped widespread recognition but whose work was revered by a generation of Chicano artists in Los Angeles.

    Martinez died Aug. 17 at the Northridge Hospital Medical Center of complications from diabetes and end-stage renal disease, said his son, Frank Martinez. He was 89.

    Born in Los Angeles to Mexican immigrants, Martinez infused his art with the pride he felt in his Mexican American heritage.

    His paintings sold to collectors in Europe and Australia, and he created murals for the East Los Angeles Community Union, the 1984 Summer Olympics, the Smithsonian Institution and Sky Harbor International Airport in Phoenix. His style, described as contemporary, was characterized by simplicity, texture and images of indigenous and Mexican American culture.

    One mural scaling a wall at San Fernando Middle School depicted Mexican American labor leader and civil rights activist Cesar Chavez surrounded by farmworkers in the fields. Before the dedication ceremony in 1996, an emotional Martinez fretted over his speech — and later explained that speaking wasn't his strong suit.

    "It's very hard for me to put into words," he told the audience, "because one of the things I do best is to express things visually."

    Lalo Garcia, an artist based in the San Fernando Valley who viewed Martinez as an adopted grandfather, described him as a quiet man who spent more time encouraging young artists than promoting his own work.

    "He motivated us to be the best we could, to try to make statements with every piece you created," said Garcia, who credited Martinez with the development of his own artistic style.

    Francisco Alonzo Martinez was born in the Palo Verde neighborhood of Los Angeles on Aug. 9, 1924. His parents, both Mexican immigrants, worked as migrant farmworkers. As a child, Martinez traveled with his parents and worked in the fields, picking cotton, onions and lettuce, among other crops. At the same time, he began affirming his desire to be an artist.

    Martinez enlisted in the Army in 1943 and served as a medic in Europe during World War II. In a 2009 interview for the nonprofit organization StoryCorps, he recalled participating in the invasion of Omaha Beach in Normandy, France.

    After the war, Martinez traveled to London to study at the Borough Polytechnic Arts Institute. Returning to Los Angeles a year and a half later, he met and married Esther Silva, whose parents owned a grocery store in Chavez Ravine.

    He continued his studies at the Chouinard Art Institute, a precursor of CalArts, and then the Otis College of Art and Design. But with his family growing, he never earned a degree, and in 1956, he began working as a lamp designer for the Van Nuys-based Lavery & Co., a job he held for three decades.

    In 1976, Martinez was one of five California artists commissioned to paint a mural for the Smithsonian Institution for the nation's Bicentennial celebration. He traveled to Washington to complete his portion of the canvas, which depicted the early years of the pueblo of Los Angeles.

    His murals and easel paintings often focused thematically on regional history as well as pre-Hispanic and Mexican American history.

    The onset of Parkinson's disease eventually meant Martinez could no longer hold a brush without shaking. But he refused to let the disease overcome him — he continued to sketch almost until the day he died, keeping charcoals and a sketchbook at his bedside.

    Martinez is survived by his wife of 67 years, Esther; sons Joe Silva and Frank Martinez; a daughter, Sylvia Alvarado; seven grandchildren, 15 great-grandchildren and two great-great-grandchildren. Son Ricardo died in 2007, and son Alfredo died in 2009.  devin.kelly@latimes.com

    Sent by Sister Mary Sevilla  

    http://primaelisa.files.wordpress.com/2010/02/screen-shot-2011-06-27-at-11-27-49-am.png Elisa Perez, Family Historian and Genealogist 
    April 29, 1926 – October 20, 2013
    Elisa Perez passed away on October 20th, 2013 after several months of being ill. She died at home in La Puente, California with her loving family present. Elisa Perez has lived in Southern California for her entire life. She has been involved in genealogy studies for many years. Elisa has traveled throughout the Southwest in order to compile a history of her family roots. In the process she has also compiled many historic facts and interesting stories regarding the history of many other Chicano families.
    Her blog can be found at: http://primaelisa.wordpress.com/2013/10/21/elisa-perez-april-29-1927-october-20-2013/ 

    October 21, 2013
    Dear Perez Family,
    My heart is heavy with sadness at this moment, and enjoined with yours at our great loss of “La Prima Elisa.” Your sorrow is my sorrow. Elisa and I had a very strong bond, which arose for our mutual love of history and our ancestral roots. I remember very vividly the first time I met her at my father’s house (Frank N. Lujan) in Las Cruces in the Spring of 1989, when she, Monti, and Dolly came out here is search of their roots. I gave them their first orientation as to the history of La Junta and some of our immediate ancestors. I then told her to visit Enrique Madrid, another cousin who still lives in Redford (El Polvo), to get a deeper perspective on our historical roots.

    I believe that she made around 15 trips in subsequent years to La Junta and Chihuahua tracing our family. My father took her on about eight of those trips and my brother Paco (Frank Jr.) took her about six or seven times.
    She dug much further than Enrique, my dad and I ever imagined she would do. She found the first Lujan in Chihuahua around 1707, and another one around 1730s. After that, she was able to trace the first Lujan in La Junta. Not only that, but she also dug out the genealogy of the Acostas, who were our Native American Ancestors, and belonged to the Jumano Tribe. You can Google the Jumano Indians and find out more. Also Google The Lady in Blue, (Sor Maria de Jesus de Agreda) because that is a most significant part of our history and heritage). 

    All members of the Perez family should feel most proud of the strong FOOTPRINT left by La Prima Elisa. Elisa asked me several times to whom she should leave the treasure trove that was her research. I told her that we have now incorporated the Jumano-Apache Tribe, and that we have been given a tract of land in Redford to build a community center that will be a repository of the writings, folk art and other things of interest to those who have ancestral roots in Redford. We are most interested in having her invaluable work find its resting place there, where her quest began, and to let it become a place where people can go to do their genealogical research. Many of the records that she has, can no longer be found anywhere. Of greater importance is the database of over 20,000 names of persons born in the La Junta area. That collection, to my knowledge is the most comprehensive database of its kind for the La Junta area, whose descendents are now spread out throughout the United States, with many who have a keen interest of knowing where they come from.

    Once again, primos, I join you in your sorrow, but feel honored in having develop that strong bond with your mother. I will miss her so much.  My Condolences, Jerry Lujan

    I for one am very interested in a more extensive genealogy of the Acostas. Crisanto was my great-great grandfather too, perhaps even one more great. My great grandmother was Matilde Acosta de Lujan, married to Secundino Lujan. I hope we can preserve all of her phenomenal genealogical research in the repository we are trying to establish in el Polvo (Redford) where our roots go very deep, and make her work accessible to all future generations of those who want to know from whom they come from. I know the Acostas were Jumanos, which have a rich story and heritage. Just Google the Jumano Indians, and also the Lady In Blue.

    We are in the process of reconstructing our own history from OUR perspective. All the written material on them comes from Americanos, who assume that we have disappeared as a tribe. Nothing could be further from the truth. We just had to go underground in order to survive the European onslaught. Everyone with these roots is welcome to join us. 
    Enrique Madrid our Tribal Historian, can be reached in Redford at 432-384-2339.

    I can be reached via email: jerry_javier_lujan@hotmail.com  or by cell 505-203-7609. 
    Jerry Javier Lujan, Albuquerque, NM

    I’m so upset about this sad news. She was such a delight to visit with and to exchange information on the family. We have lost a real treasure to be sure. My sympathy, and prayers, to all
    Tu Prima, Jan Dawson
    Thank you Elisa for all you have done for our family. You well be missed. Jessica Rede Escalante
    Rest in Peace, dear cousin. Thank you for all you have given to us, your family.  Love, Maggie Van Coops, Tina & Dick Miller
    I’m so sorry to hear of her passing. I believe we are related through Francisco Acosta whose one of his sons Crisanto Acosta was Elisa’s great great grandfather. I hope someone continues her great work. I have a lot of information about the Acosta’s. My great grandfather was Jose Ramos Acosta. He was one of the first settlers in the Big Bend area in West Texas. My email is hija220@sbcglobal.net. I would love to hear from someone. Some of my family members are mentioned in Sotelo’s book, “Ojinaga en una Loma. 
    Marta L. Herrera 

    Vanessa Blanca Ruiz de Lopez 
    Oh Dear, I am deeply saddened to hear of her passing. I only recently found this blog and it offered great insight into all of the wonderful Acosta family stories I have yet to discover. I was instantly inspired to know that someone, whom may very well be my own Prima, had already uncovered a lifetime worth of great family history. Thinking of you Prima Elisa. May you rest in peace.

    I Just can’t believe Our Lord above has called you to his side Elisa, I will miss you my friend, your emails, your helping hand , the stories we would have. I have lost a dear friend in you, and our family has surely lost a greatness. My condolences to your Loving family Elisa, So sorry I did not meet you sooner. She has brought our families together in so many ways, sharing her knowledge and stories, God Bless her, always willing to share what she had spent a life time gathering , The History of Our Family. With out her I never would have been able to bring the many branches of our family tree together, it was her Love for the Family and her work. And we Thank her from the very bottoms of our Hearts for all that she did and all that she brought forth and shared with us. May God Welcome you through those Gates of Gold and set you at his side for a job well done.
    All my Love, tu Prima Deb.  
    Debbie Rede Lopez-Pimentel
    Carlos Blanco-Aguinaga


    Carlos Blanco Aguinaga, distinguished literary critic, fiction writer, and one of the founders of UCSD’s Literature Department, died in La Jolla on September 11, 2013.

    Born in Irún, in the Basque country, Blanco was 9 years old when he and his anti-Francoist family became exiles during the struggle between Republican loyalists and Falangist military forces (Spanish Civil War, 1936-39). The family’s journey began in France and eventually led them to Mexico City in 1938. Blanco went on to receive his B.A. from Harvard and his Ph.D. from the Colegio de México with a dissertation on the Spanish writer Miguel de Unamuno. Together with Carlos Fuentes, Octavio Paz and others, Blanco was a cofounder of Revista Mexicana de Literatura, an internationally preeminent journal of Latin American letters. Prior to coming to UCSD he held positions at the Colegio de México, Johns Hopkins, and Ohio State University.

    In 1964, he was recruited as a founding member of UCSD’s Department of Literature. In the early decades of the La Jolla campus, he was – to remember just a few of his contributions – faculty advisor for the Mexican American Youth Association (MAYA; later known as MEChA); collaborator with Angela Davis and others in the proposal to create the Lumumba-Zapata College (later Third, now Marshall College); founder of Third World Studies; defender of exiled Chilean intellectuals after the military coup of 1973; and always a strong advocate for Chicano and Latin American studies. At the height of campus activism in the later 1960s, former Chancellor William McGill referred to Blanco as “one of our most formidable campus radicals.” Blanco’s influence on many Chicano/a students is evidenced by his inclusion in the UC San Diego “Chicano Legacy 40 Años” mural, a mosaic celebrating the Chicano Movement that was inspired by figures such as Dolores Huerta and Cesar Chavez.

    In the 1980s, he also taught in the Facultad de Letras of the University of the Basque Country (Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea) in Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain. He became Professor Emeritus in 1994.

    His experience of exile, political commitment, literary sensibility, theoretical acumen, and generosity as a colleague and mentor contributed to make Carlos Blanco Aguinaga an especially influential intellectual, scholar of Spanish and Latin America literature and creative writer. Author of many books of literary scholarship, he was especially renowned for his work on Galdós – La historia y el texto literario: Tres novelas de Galdós (1978); Unamuno – Unamuno contemplativo (1959 and 1975); writers of the “Generation of ’98” – Juventud del 98 (1970, 1978, and 2000); a Marxist interpretation of Spanish literature (in collaboration with Iris Zavala y Julio Rodríguez Puértolas) – Historia social de la literatura española (1978-79); cultural production of the exiled Spanish community – Ensayos sobre la literature del exilio español (2006) and Emilio Prados: vida y obra – bibliografia – antologia (1960); and an influential study of Mexican writer Juan Rulfo. His novels, short stories, and memoirs – also exceptional testimony of his extraordinary and engaged life across multiple political cultures – include: Un tempo tuyo (1988; trans. A Time of Your Own, 1997); Carretera de Cuernavaca (1990); En voz contínua (1997); Ya no bailan los pescadores de Pismo Beach (1998); Por el mundo: infancia, guerra y principio de un exilio afortunado (2007); and De mal asiento (2010).

    Carlos Blanco Aguinaga is survived by his wife, Iris Blanco Arévalo, his daughters Alda and Maria Blanco, his son Renato Barahona, and two grandchildren: Amaya Blanco Ramírez and Ernesto Barahona Mallen. Blanco was preceded in death by a third grandchild, Isabel Blanco Ramírez. He also lives on in the hundreds of students and colleagues who had the privilege to learn from him.

    If you are interested in learning of plans to honor the contributions and memory of Carlos Blanco, please contact Professor Jorge Mariscal of the Department of Literature.

    Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D. beto@unt.edu 
    Source: Jorge Mariscal gmariscal@ucsd.edu 


    Jose Montoya

    May 28, 1932 – September 25, 2013


    Jose Montoya joined the Navy during the Korean War, a noted poet, painter, musician and graphic artist. He has exhibited internationally Cuba, Mexico & Paris, as well as all over the United States. Jose Montoya attended San Diego City College as an art student.  He later transferred to the California College of Arts & Crafts in Oakland, California, where he earned a Bachelor’s Degree in Fine Arts and a Master's Degree in Fine Arts from California State University, Sacramento. He began his career by teaching at Leland High School in Wheatland and at Yuba Community College.  Jose Montoya then taught for 25 years in the Department of Art Education at California State University at Sacramento (CSUS).

    In the 1970’s Jose Montoya joined students and members of the Chicano community and established the “Rebel Chicano Art Front,” later renamed the “Royal Chicano Air Force,” which organized cultural, educational, and political activities in the Sacramento area.  

    The following article is reprinted with permission from Jose Montoya’s son, Richard Montoya.  Richard is a member of the performance troupe Cultural Clash.

    G4TNOAMI.6Staff Photographer

    Jose Montoya, Sacramento poet and artist, dies at 81
    By Stephen Magagnini 
    Thursday, Sep. 26, 2013 

    May 28, 1932 - September 25, 2013

    Jose Montoya, one of the original members of the Royal Chicano Air Force, retouches the mural he and several other artists painted in 1977 at Southside Park. Montoya and the artist worked in 2001 on the mural, which had been vandalized, for more than two weeks. 
    jose montoya cartoon


    Cartoonist Sergio Hernandez Honors Chicano Park Muralist Jose Montoya

    by on Sep. 28, 2013, under Chicano art, Cultura, Culture

    Artist/Cartoonist, LA Public Defender and Retired Defense Investigator via Sergio Hernandez honors Chicano Park Muralist Jose Montoya in cartoon. C/S

    Sergio Hernandez writes:

    “As a 19 year old artist the work of artist poet Jose Montoya had a profound influence on the direction of my work. Many years later when we were both older I was able to meet Jose and I told him of the way he affected my work..we became friends after this meeting. Good bye my friend rest in peace…”


    This entry was posted on Saturday, September 28th, 2013 at 11:44 am and is filed under Chicano art, Cultura, Culture
    Tags for this post: , , , .

    Jose Montoya, Sacramento poet and artist, has died
    By Stephen Magagnini  The Sacramento Bee
    Published: Sep. 26, 2013

    Copyright 2013 The Sacramento Bee. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed. 

    Jose Montoya, one of the most influential and inspirational figures in California Latino history, died Wednesday surrounded by family in his midtown Sacramento home. He was 81.

    As a boy, Montoya picked grapes with his family in Delano and Fowler in the blistering Central Valley heat. He vowed that farm work would not be his destiny, and instead became an artist and poet whose work galvanized the Chicano movement in the 1960s and ’70s. One of Sacramento’s poet laureates, Montoya was co-founder of the Royal Chicano Air Force, a collection of artists-turned-activists who used their words, music and images to fight for justice and equality for farmworkers and other marginalized Americans.

    His colorful, expressive paintings with bold strokes have been shown worldwide. His poetry mixed English, Spanish and barrio slang, exploring themes of struggle and injustice. 

    “With the passing of Jose Montoya, our community lost a gentle soul with an extraordinarily creative mind,” said Sacramento County Supervisor Phil Serna, whose late father, Mayor Joe Serna, launched his political career with Montoya’s guidance. “His poems gave us cause to reconsider our individual and cultural condition, called us to action when needed. He taught me respect for art as well as public service – his beautiful words crafted to make us think, feel and act with conviction will live on.”

    The son of farmworker champion Cesar Chavez, Paul F. Chavez, and United Farm Workers President Arturo S. Rodriguez said in a joint statement, “We will always cherish Jose for how he inspired us as well as so many others through his art. But we will also remember him for the countless times when he walked picket lines, helped organize UFW events and fed the farmworkers during every major strike, boycott and political campaign. He was truly a servant of the farmworker movement and we will always be in his debt.”

    Montoya touched the lives of thousands of students during his 27 years as a professor of art, photography and education at California State University, Sacramento, along with high school and junior college students at Leland High School in Wheatland and at Yuba Community College. 

    “Jose taught us how to be bold, how to be courageous, how to be clear, how to be strong and that example empowered many people, generations of farmworkers who were subjugated and oppressed,” said Juan Carrillo, former director of the California State Arts Council, who helped Montoya co-found the RCAF. “In 1967, there was no Latino caucus in the Legislature, no Latino political presence and Jose Montoya absolutely helped politicize Latinos.”

    Montoya died Wednesday from a large lymphoma around his aorta in his home on D Street, said the oldest of his eight children, Gina Montoya, who, like her father, is an activist.

    At the end, he would roll his eyes and say, “Get the horses, I have to get into the sun,” and was also talking to his older brother and mother in the spirit world, Gina Montoya said.

    Jose Montoya was born May 28, 1932, in Escobosa, New Mexico. In a 1998 interview with The Sacramento Bee, he recalled how his mother stenciled the interiors of homes and churches. “We helped grind colors and mix them. We made stencils from discarded inner tubes and gathered colorants from creek beds. I remember chasing horseflies for her. She would dry them and grind their tails and mix them with egg yolk to produce an iridescent blue color that she was known for.
    “Later, when I was a student at the California College of Arts and Crafts, I learned about egg tempera. It was the same thing.”
    His family eventually came to the Central Valley looking for work and moved from Delano – where the United Farm Workers movement was born – to Fowler, 10 miles south of Fresno. He played football and served as art editor of the yearbook and was a big man on campus at Fowler High School, his daughter said. While picking grapes, he began drawing on the paper used to dry grapes into raisins.

    He joined the Navy during the Korean War, then went to San Diego City College on the G.I. Bill and moved to the California College of Arts and Crafts in Oakland to get his teaching credential. He taught art at Wheatland High School and Yuba Community College.

    In 1969, he and other Latino educators were invited to get their master’s degrees through the Mexican American Education Project at California State University, Sacramento. There, he and several other sons of migrant farmworkers formed the Royal Chicano Air Force, an artists’ collective committed to supporting the UFW while bringing art to the people.
    Originally named the Rebel Chicano Art Front, its initials led people to believe they were part of the Royal Canadian Air Force. “I said we’re not Canadians, we’re Chicanos, but we have an air force, we fly adobe airplanes,” Jose Montoya once said. “We wanted to be outrageous, we didn’t want to be boring so we now had an air force we could incorporate into the movement, which was about boycotting Safeway” to keep the chain from selling table grapes until farmworkers’ conditions improved. “We would show up to Safeway dressed in Air Force uniforms and driving a World War II jeep,” which got the media’s attention, Montoya said.

    Montoya and his fellow artists used Joe Serna’s garage to make silk- screen posters, and drafted their kids to picket every weekend. They helped Manuel Ferrales become one of the first Latinos elected to the Sacramento City Council, Gina Montoya said.

    During the Vietnam War, Montoya noticed it was poor students or students of color who were getting drafted, so he would put on the Rolling Stones “and blast it so loud because he was crying and didn’t want us kids to hear him,” his daughter recalled. “When I saw him over the stereo, just crying, it moved me, and I made my first protest sign in sixth grade and got sent to the principal’s office.”
    Jose Montoya became an organizer for the UFW throughout the Central Valley and spent every single Friday and Saturday on the picket line. “He held farmworkers deep in his heart and agonized over the excruciating work they did,” Gina Montoya said. Once, while her dad was playing golf, next to a field, he saw a farm labor contractor chastising some workers, and threw down his golf club, jumped the fence and interceded. “He told them, ‘You have rights, you don’t have to take that,’ and then he realized, what rights do they have?” she said.

    Montoya went on to mentor two generations of artists and activists at Sacramento State, where he taught art and ethnic studies for 27 years.

    “Jose Montoya made tremendous contributions to the intellectual, cultural and social fabric of our nation, and I will always appreciate the many opportunities he created for students as a Sacramento State professor,” said CSUS President Alexander Gonzalez. “He made Chicano art and culture accessible to millions of people during a transformative time in California’s history.”
    A tall, handsome hipster, Montoya celebrated the zoot-suit era of the 1940s, when he and other pachucos wore suits with high-waisted, wide-legged, tight-cuffed, pants and a long coat with padded shoulders and wide lapels. He put people at ease with his good humor and genuine interest in their lives, and channeled his passion in poetry, murals and song.

    Around 1970, Montoya and the RCAF opened a community center on 32nd Street and Folsom Boulevard in east Sacramento, where they put on plays and music and offered silk screening and mural training. “Because my dad was such an extrovert and good at so many things he was just a natural leader, people looked to him for leadership and advice,” Gina Montoya said. “He’d always say to me, `you have gifts, but stay humble.’ That was a very important message for him. When asked his greatest accomplishment, he’d say, “my kids.”

    His children have carried on his legacy of art and activism: Gina Montoya is now vice president of community education for the Mexican American Leadership Defense and Education League, a civil rights organization that’s taken cases to the U.S. Supreme Court. Jose Montoya Jr. is an award-winning poet and writer who founded Poetry Unplugged at Luna’s Cafe. Carlos Montoya is founder, chairman and CEO of Aztec America Bank of Chicago. Richard Montoya is a filmmaker and playwright. Malaquias Montoya is also an executive for Aztec America. Vincent Montoya is an award-winning musician and co-founder of the two bands, Tattooed Love Dogs and Seventy. Tomas Montoya is a student at the Art Institute of Sacramento; Qianjin Montoya is a children’s art studio manager.
    Montoya is also survived by Mary Ellen Montoya, his first wife; his second wife, Juanita Jue, who brought her daughter Maya into the family; 19 grandchildren; and one great-granddaughter.
    Memorial services are pending.

    Read more here: http://www.sacbee.com/2013/09/26/5771228/jose-montoya-sacramento-poet-and.html#storylink=cpy 
    Call The Bee’s Stephen Magagnini, (916) 321-1072

    Sent by Mercy Bautista-Olvera 


    A Tribute to my father Jose Montoya

    By Richard Montoya

    Richard Montoya and his father Jose Montoya

    Just a few days now with Sacramento in my rearview - a moment to breath - to reflect - to think and make sense of a Man - a life - a body of works - I will miss his room and its sweet smells of sage and special medicina - a laugh -  his blessing on the forehead of his grandchildren. In the last few days there was I felt a need to inform you and be straight - so many loved this man - a few did not. There was a time the desire and need to be poetic – tho nobody turned a face or code switched like the Carlo Master that he was. I feel deep sadness now too that while the mythic       Jose will always be with us – the grand papa to hold a crying child – to say it’s gonna be ok and all those human things and assurances only he could do well these things are gone. Pop was human – there was fear and so much pain in the end - his mind so sharp and full of humor and courage too – the vessel gave way to the corruption of a frail body. He lived. He wrote. He captured.  He humanized.  He fought. He died looking death in the face. He would open and then he’d go back to the duel. Saying to those of us around his bed “to get the horses ready…” or keep the horses quiet.” Always poetic always warning Y ahora Sunday, night tucking in Mountee Boy – its hitting real hard locos: He’s Gone. Let it be. Let the vato rest…

    Aho for us all…
    (Submitted by
    Mercy Bautista-Olvera)

    Raul Cortez  June,1933 -  October 11, 2013

    Editor Mimi:
    Raul Cortez is my first cousin. His mother and my mother were sisters. He was only 4 months older than me. I have so many wonderful memories of la familia getting together and us primos playing together at Griffith Park and Echo Park in Los Angeles. I also remember many family get-together in Sierra Madres were the Cortez family lived before Pleasanton. Las tias would play La Lotteria and us kids would play outside, even when it got dark. So much fun.

    Raul always had a love for cars. As a youth, he would build models of both planes and cars, carefully painted model planes hanging from the boy's bedroom ceiling. I was always so impressed with his ability, patience and attention to fine detail. I was not surprised when Raul made a career out of his love of cars. Raul had a sense of quality in life, in cars and dress, and was an outstanding businessman.

    Raul Cortez passed away peacefully at his home surrounded by family on October 11, 2013 after a battle with cancer.  He was born in June,1933, in Los Angeles to Manuel and Adelfa Cortez as the oldest of four brothers.  He was raised in Pleasanton , CA and graduated from Amador High School in 1952.  Raul joined the Navy and served his country for four years, then attended San Jose State University where he graduated with a Bachelor of Science in Business Management.  After graduation, Raul made his living in the car industry where he became a much respected sales associate, reputable manager, and owner of various automobile dealerships.  

    Raul married his best friend and partner in life, Mariann, and they have been together for the past 50 years.  They have one daughter together, Michelle, with Raul having five children from a previous marriage, one of whom passed after his birth.  Raul and Mariann moved to Atascadero in 1980 with their daughter after purchasing the local Ford Dealership and renaming it Atascadero Ford with a business partner.   

    Raul was an avid lover of the lake and boating and could be found at Lake Nacimiento with his family when he wasn’t working.  He enjoyed water skiing, listening to music, doting on his grandchildren and vacationing at Lake Shasta in Redding , CA .  

    He is preceded in death by his parents, oldest son, Raul Cortez Jr. (Sonny); oldest daughter, Linda Cortez; and son Leon Matthew Cortez.  Raul is survived by his wife Mariann, daughter Debbie Cortez Islas, son John Cortez, and daughter Michelle Cortez Goossens, 16 grandchildren, 9 great-grandchildren, and his 3 brothers, Robert, Richard and Rudy, and their spouses / family.  

    At Raul’s request, there will be no services; a family celebration will be held in his honor.  

    The family would like to thank Central Coast Hospice, 253 Granada Suite D, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401, for all their help during his last weeks in life and asks that any donations be made to them in his name in lieu of flowers.

    Sent by brother Robert Cortez 








    Freedom of Speech issue
    Sergio Hernandez Cartoonist, Don't Vote For Any Incumbents
    Definition of Insanity 
    Court: Applicants wrongly denied US citizenship
    Judge: Tribal arrest a U.S. Issue

    On Constitution Day, a student in Modesto, CA was stopped from handing out copies of the US Constitution to fellow students because he was not conducting his exercise in free speech in the designated free speech zone at the college. 

    "For if men are to be precluded from offering their sentiments on a matter . . .  reason is of no use to us . . . dumb and silent we may be led, like sheep, to the slaughter." ~ George Washington 

    "Patriotism means to stand by the country. It does not mean to stand by the president or any other public official."   ~ Theodore Roosevelt 

    Sergio Hernandez

    Sent by Frances Rios  francesrios499@hotmail.com 
    In this Sept. 18, 2013, photo Sigifredo Saldana Iracheta, right and his wife Laura Saldana pose for a photo outside his sister's home in Brownsville, Texas. After a years-long fight, the 5th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals declared that Sigifredo Saldana had been a U.S. citizen since birth. In ruling for Saldana, the court dismissed the government's explanation of the error saying it had been perpetuated and uncorrected since 1978. (AP Photo/Christopher Sherman)

    Court: Applicants wrongly denied US citizenship

    by Christopher Sherman 

    BROWNSVILLE, Texas (AP) — For more than two decades, Sigifredo Saldana Iracheta insisted he was a U.S. citizen, repeatedly explaining to immigration officials that he was born to an American father and a Mexican mother in a city just south of the Texas border.

    Year after year, the federal government rejected his claims, deporting him at least four times and at one point detaining him for nearly two years as he sought permission to join his wife and three children in South Texas.

    In rejecting Saldana's bid for citizenship, the government sought to apply an old law that cited Article 314 of the Mexican Constitution, which supposedly dealt with legitimizing out-of-wedlock births. But there was a problem: The Mexican Constitution has no such article.

    The error appears to have originated in 1978, and it's been repeated ever since, frustrating an untold number of people who are legally entitled to U.S. citizenship but couldn't get it.

    "What this looks like is nobody's ever checked it out. And it is shocking," said Matthew Hoppock, a Kansas City attorney who specializes in federal appeals related to immigration issues.

    Saldana's case was finally resolved earlier this month, when the 5th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals dismissed the government's explanation of a "typo" and ruled that he had been a citizen since birth. The error, the court said, had been "perpetuated and uncorrected" by the Department of Homeland Security.

    For the 49-year-old laborer and sometime carpenter, the Sept. 11 decision ended a grueling and costly ordeal. After serving a prison sentence for a 1989 drug conviction in Texas, he told authorities he was a U.S. citizen, but was deported in 1992. Between 2002 and 2007, he applied four times for a certificate of citizenship. Each time he was deported, he was separated from his family.

    "I have always lived with a fear in my house that whichever night, they'll arrive and arrest me," said Saldana, who was born in 1964 in the border city of Matamoros, across the Rio Grande from Brownsville.

    Days after the ruling, Saldana still seethed with frustration for all the rejections, for every time his family had to scrape together money to hire another lawyer. He rued time missed with his children, the low wages he endured as a worker without papers and the responsibilities that fell on his wife, Laura.

    Saldana argued that he automatically became a U.S. citizen at birth because his father was an American.

    But because his parents were not married, U.S. authorities claimed he should have been "legitimated" by age 21 in a process they claimed was governed by Mexican law, specifically the phantom Article 314.

    A 2008 letter from U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services cited the article and said the only way for Saldana to gain legal legitimacy would have been for his parents to marry.

    The marriage never happened, but it didn't have to.

    Saldana's birth certificate registered with the Mexican state of Tamaulipas includes both his parents' names. The appellate court said that was enough.

    View gallery."
    In this Sept. 18, 2013, photo Sigifredo Saldana Iracheta, right and his wife Laura Saldana pose for …At oral arguments last month in Houston, Judge Jennifer Walker Elrod was incredulous.

    "So all along, that's been in this case, and you all have been citing this over and over again to people for years now, and you can't even look it up in Mexican law," Walker Elrod said to government attorney Aimee Carmichael. "It doesn't even exist."

    Homeland Security officials did not respond to a request for comment.

    The court said the government had "relied on provisions of the Mexican Constitution that either never existed or do not say what DHS claims they say."

    That last part references the government's use of a different provision of the Mexican Constitution, Article 130, to deny Saldana's claim in 2004. That article exists, but says nothing close to what the government claims.

    Hoppock said such mistakes are rare but become more common when interpretations of foreign law are involved. "Most of the people here talking about it don't really know what the Mexican Constitution says," he said.

    He added: "These people are citizens by their birth, and for 35 years the government has been telling them you are not citizens because of this law that doesn't exist."

    Ignacio Pinto-Leon, assistant director of the Center for U.S. and Mexican Law at the University of Houston Law Center, said the Mexican Constitution contains little related to family law and nothing about legitimizing out-of-wedlock births. The court's hypothesis that the government was actually trying to reference state civil code instead of the constitution is possible, but would still be mistaken, he said.

    It's unclear just how many cases have been affected by the error. The court's opinion cited four in addition to the original one in 1978, and there are surely others. Immigration cases are not open to the public.

    Kathryn Mattingly, a spokeswoman for the Justice Department's Executive Office for Immigration Review, which adjudicates immigration cases, said in an email that the agency is reviewing the appellate decision.

    Most denials are never appealed, often because the people involved do not have the money to pursue the matter to higher courts.

    Saldana didn't always have the money either, but he was persistent.

    He would "get to a certain point and have to stop, and a lot of people don't have the money to go beyond the initial denial," his attorney, Marlene Dougherty, said. "They figure 'Well, immigration said this so they're right.'"

    Many immigration attorneys are frustrated with the constant misapplication of the law, she added. But the recent decision in Saldana's favor gives her new hope.

    "Maybe things will be applied more fairly now," Dougherty said.

    Sent by John Inclan  fromgalveston@yahoo.com 


    Save Tejano History Symposium' Held September 28th
    Center for Mexican American Studies (CMAS)
    Thought you would like this history lesson
    San Jacinto Battleground Conservancy 

    Larry Amaro and Dan Arellano

    'Save Tejano History Symposium'
    Mexican American Cultural Center
    Austin. Sept. 28.

    Dan Arellano, "Ignacio Zaragoza", Senator Gonzalo Barrientos, 
    and Don Miles, author of Cinco de Mayo.
    Sent by Anita Quintanilla quintanilla50@yahoo.com 

    cmas masthead

    Center for Mexican American Studies (CMAS) has been to serve Texas and the nation as a leader in the intellectual development of Mexican American studies. The establishment of CMAS represents an institutional recognition of the importance of the Mexican American people in the history of the United States.


    CMAS Announces Public Symposium Scheduled for Fall 2013

    The Center for Mexican American Studies (CMAS) will host a public symposium, "Fashionistas Fabulos@s," on November 7-8, 2013.

    CMAS Announces Public Conference Scheduled for Spring 2014

    The Center for Mexican American Studies (CMAS) will host a public conference,"Illustrating Anarchy and Revolution: Mexican Legacies of Global Change," on February 5-7, 2014.

    CMAS Announces Graduate Fellowships

    The Center for Mexican American Studies (CMAS) has awarded graduate fellowships to six students for the 2013-2014 academic year using funds provided by the Office of the President and the Graduate School.

    CMAS Announces Move to Burdine Hall

    The Center for Mexican American Studies (CMAS) has moved to the 5th floor of Burdine Hall effective July 26, 2013.


    Thought you would like this history lesson

    Probably the best capsule of the history of our country ever put together. It's fascinating to watch the evolution of growth from the 13 colonies up to the present day -- with dates, wars, purchases, etc. all included. As much as you may know about American history, I guarantee you'll learn something from this short video clip.  

    Best history lesson you've had in a long time - maybe the best ever! You can click on each state for more about them.

    This “moving” map of the country, showing it from the beginning of the 13 states and going through the present.

    It includes the acquisitions from England and Spain, the Slave states, the Free states, a segment on the Civil war, it includes some mentions of Central and South America, etc.

    One of the things I especially liked was showing the Indian Nations as they were during the Indian Wars: Modac, Miwok, Mujave, Nez Perce, Flat Head, Crow, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Navajo, Apache, Dakota, Sioux, Kiowa, Wichita and Comanche.

    I know you'll enjoy this site, especially if you enjoy American history, but have forgotten a lot of what was learned in school. Turn on your sound, as the narration is a significant portion of the presentation.  

    Click on Play at the top:  http://www.animatedatlas.com/movie.html  


    San Jacinto Battleground Conservancy   
    TV History: FACT or FICTION?  OCTOBER 19, 2013 SATURDAY, 9am to 1 pm

    Austin Community College HistoryDepartment
    2013 Emeritus Professors Lectures
    "Sea of Mud: Retreat of the Mexican Army after San Jacinto: An Archeological Investigation" Dr. Gregg Dimmick
    PBS "Latino Americans"  www.pbs.org/latino-americans/en/  John J. Valadez, Producer

    Austin Community College, 
    Northridge Lecture Hall, Building 4000
    Austin, Texas

    The San Jacinto Battleground Conservancy is a Section 501(c)(3)nonprofit organization whose mission is to preserve, reclaim, and restore the San Jacinto Battleground and build greater public awareness of the battle of San Jacinto, the culminating event of the Texas Revolution. No other nonprofit organization is devoted entirely to these goals.


    The City of El Paso used the Lincoln Center until 2007, when it was shut down due to a mold outbreak.  Although community Mexican Americans wanted the Lincoln Center to be funded as a reflection of Mexican American history and heritage,  "a newly hired Historic Preservation Officer concluded that “no information on anyone of prominence had attended the school” or that she had “no information on anything of significance that happened in the building.”

    Miguel Juárez a doctoral student at the University of Texas at El Paso, as well as a member of the Lincoln Park Conservation Committee proved the power of a well-organized historical study to support and bring around change in attitudes, who writes:.  
    Pivotal to saving the building was a seminar paper I wrote in Dr. Julia Camacho's class in 2011 that uncovered the history of the building and the community. I used some of the seminar paper to write an article: "Why save Lincoln Center: For our gente," that was published online on Rio Grande Digital.com in 2012: http://www.riograndedigital.com/2012/01/13/why-save-lincoln-center-for-our-gente 

    On Tuesday, October 8th, the City of El Paso voted to re-acquire Lincoln School and develop plans to re-open it, after Mayor Oscar Lesser and Council members listened to an hour of impassioned statements from over half a dozen people a week before during the Call to the Public segment at the October 1st city council meeting.

    Miguel Juárez , MLS, MA, Doctoral student
    E-mail: MiguelJuarez.soha@gmail.com


    Why Save Lincoln Center: For Our Gente


    Lincoln Park School in 1915

    The Rich History of an El Paso Landmark

    By Miguel Juárez  

    January 13, 2012  


    Freeway art and sweet rides.

    In 2011, the Texas Department of Transportation, or TxDOT, requested its demolition by the City of El Paso because it “determined that the Center is not eligible as a historical structure nor its use contemplated in the future.” This meant TxDOT did not see Lincoln Center as a historical site. The city echoed this view by sending its newly hired Historic Preservation Officer to conduct an analysis of the center and she concluded that “no information on anyone of prominence that had attended the school” or that she had “no information on anything of significance that happened in the building,” as well as other issues. Her statements were unfounded.

    The fact is that the Lincoln Park community is a place that has tremendous historical significance, but it has been overlooked. It is situated in proximity to what was once Concordia, which was the site of the first Mexican community north of the Río Grande.

      In 1852, Hugh Stephenson built several buildings and his home at this site. In 1854, he built a chapel named “San José de Concordia el Alto” and the cemetery that still exists. The chapel was located at the corner of Rosa Street and Hammett Boulevard. On February 6, 1856, a deer gored and killed Juana Ascarate Stephenson and she became the first person to be buried in the Concordia Cemetery. Stephenson lost his land after the Civil War, but his son-in-law, Albert H. French, purchased the property at a federal marshal’s sale in 1867.

    In 1868, when the Magoffinsville Post was flooded, Fort Bliss moved to the area south of Concordia Cemetery (now the Lincoln Park community) and it became known as Camp Concordia. It operated as a military base from 1868-1876. The post was later abandoned in 1876 after the troops left El Paso before moving to Hart’s Mill from 1878-1883.

    In a 1989 article written by Mary Bowling and published in Password, the Journal of the El Paso County Historical Association, in 1975, Lillian E. Scott, who had been a teacher at Lincoln School for seven years passed away and she left behind a small journal with notes about her years associated with the school. Mary Bowling had been a student at Lincoln School in 1929 when the journal was found. Bowling subsequently transcribed Scott’s notes and developed a short history of the school up to 1951.

    Lincoln School, formerly known as Concordia School, was first opened as a one-room school in Camp Concordia in the Officer’s Quarters in 1868. Scott wrote in her notebook that, “it was furnished with long rough wooden tables and benches, and its pupils were children of military personnel.” In 1880, the school was expanded to a four-room adobe building that had served as a guard post between 1880 and 1990; later the school opened as a one one-room brick building on Grama Street near the Franklin Canal.

    Bordered by Concordia Cemetery to the North, the Ziegler Union Stockyards to the West, Lincoln Park area was a flourishing community comprised of mostly adobe buildings from as early as the late 1800s at the edge of civilization. In 1909, when the Lincoln Park Addition was registered with the El Paso City Clerk’s office, a two-room school building was created at the present site (4001 Durazno). After the creation of the neighborhood, from 1909 to 1915, Concordia School District #2 purchased various lots where Lincoln School would later expand. In 1915, Lincoln School was expanded to a red brick building with a basement and 13 rooms.

    Among the many students who attended Lincoln School, who later became prominent persons in the community, was State Representative Mauro Rosas, a former pupil of Grace Lord, who taught there for 31 years beginning in 1928. Rosas was born on December 5, 1925. He served in the US Army Air Corps and later became an El Paso Attorney. Rosas was also the first Latino State Representative from El Paso, Texas to serve in Austin during the Twentieth century in 1959 during the Fifty-Sixth and Fifty-Seven Sessions (1959-1963). Rosas was instrumental in building the El Paso Civic Center. He died September 10, 1993 and is buried at the Fort Bliss National Cemetery.

    Another prominent resident who attended Lincoln School was Dr. Manuel D. Hornedo. Hornedo was born on June 11, 1903. He attended El Paso Junior College and Texas School of Mines and Metallurgy (now UT El Paso). Hornedo taught at the El Paso Technical Institute for two years before receiving his M.D. degree from the Medical Branch of the University of Texas. He later joined the United States Public Health Reserve and worked at the El Paso City-County Health Unit in 1933 as a Clinician. In 1952, Dr. Hornedo was appointed Health Officer for the City and County of El Paso and Director of the El Paso City-County Health Unit.

    As late as 1953, Stephenson Street, named after the founder of the area, was located north of Durazno Street and East of Lincoln School. The street was removed in 1973 when the City of El Paso requested the use of the space beneath 1-10 for a public purpose–to develop open space and Lincoln Park was created. Nestor Valencia designed the park. A January 8, 1962 article in the El Paso Herald-Post signaled the arrival of Interstate 10 with the buying of land in El Paso’s East side. That same article featured a photograph that outlined the path the freeway would take from Virginia Street to Hawkins Street and through the Lincoln Park community.

    In 1970, EPISD sold Lincoln School and adjoining 23 acres to the Texas Department of Transportation or TxDOT so it could be used as a field office to build Interstate 10, Gateway East and West and eleven elevated structure or overpasses on 23 acres. In October 1970, the EPISD deeded the building to the State of Texas Department of Transportation or TxDOT to be used as a staging location for the construction and maintenance of Interstate 10 and Gateway East and West. That was also the year Lincoln School was closed.

    In 1970 El Calvario, a stone church that had been built in 1933, that was located at the corner of Durazno and Martínez Streets, was demolished to make way for a freeway column to hold a section of Highway 54 leading to the Bridge of the Americas Port of Entry. One of the options for Lincoln School that was considered in that period (1974) was for it to be used as a satellite campus for El Paso Community College.

    According to a report by the city of El Paso, Community Development Block Grant Funds were to used to renovate Lincoln Center: $100,000 in 1976 to renovate the center; $56,898 in 1978 to install an elevator; $24,950 in 1987 to replace the roof, and $29,000 in 1988 to repair and renovate bathrooms. The Lincoln Cultural Center, at the time was the only cultural arts center run by the city, and it operated from 1977 to 2006.

    From 1977 to 1987 it housed several Parks and Recreation offices; the League of Latin American Council Project Amistad offices; Project Bravo, and also featured a recreation room with pool tables, a meeting room and classroom for informal gatherings and a gallery that was used by local artists for monthly exhibits.

    Latino cultural arts center


    Saving the past.  

    The Lincoln Arts Cultural Center was the only arts center run by the city’s Parks and Recreation Department in a predominantly Mexican-American community and it was used by the entire city, so by default, we can say that it served as the city’s first and last Latino cultural arts center. Currently, in 2012, there is no Latino Cultural Art Center in El Paso, a city where more than 80 percent of residents are Mexican and Mexican-Americans/Chicanos.

    In 1983, Bobby Aduato, Lincoln Center director, asked Chicano artist Felipe Adame to paint murals on the pillars under the Spaghetti Bowl freeway interchange at Lincoln Center. Adame sought to replicate the creation of murals at Lincoln Center like murals in Chicano Park in San Diego. He had been involved in the painting of murals at Chicano Park in San Diego for many years and continues to be involved today. Adame had hoped to paint additional murals on freeway columns but due to a lack of funding he could not paint more. It would not be until 1999 when other artists would advance his idea.  

    In addition to the exterior murals painted on the columns at Lincoln Park, other important murals were painted inside the Lincoln Center, one titled “Tribute to Abraham Lincoln,” painted by Artist Carlos E. Florés in 1984, as well as “Amistad/Friendship,” also by Florés, painted in 1985, assisted by Fermin Montes, Manuel Guzman, Ana Ramos, Flaviano Ortíz, Fernando Galvan, Carlos Casillas, and Enrique Florés. The murals were painted with funding from the El Paso Parks and Recreation Department and the Upper Rio Grande Private Industry Council (PIC).

    Florés attended La Academia de San Carlos. La Academia de San Carlos in Mexico City, the first major art academy and the first art museum in the Americas. He studied painting under Maestro Luis Nishisawa. Nishizawa is recognized as one of México’s leading landscape artists of the 20th century. This is the same university attended by Méxican artists like Saturnino Herrán, Roberto Montenegro, Diego Rivera, and José Clemente Orozco.

    In 1985, the Lincoln Art Gallery presented “Juntos 1985” 1st Invitational Hispanic Art Exhibit organized by Paul H. Ramírez and myself. The exhibit featured prominent artists from El Paso and Ciudad Juárez, including the late Manuel G. Acosta, the late Rudy Montoya, the late Luis Jiménez Jr., the late Marta Amaya Arat, Ernesto P. Martínez, Mago Orona, Antonio Piña (who was a student at Lincoln School), Paul H. Ramírez, Miguel Juárez and Ciudad Juárez Artists: Noel Espinoza, Miguel Varela, Alicia Acosta De Sanz, Ildefonso Bravo, Velia Carranza, Elvira Fe de Mirano, Rebecca Antuna, Antoñio Arrellanes, Irma Camacho, and Lucina Chavéz. The Honorable El Paso County Judge Alicia R. Chacon, who was a city representative at the time, was instrumental in supporting the exhibit.

    The El Paso artists in the exhibition included a who’s who in El Paso Latino Art, including the late Manuel G. Acosta, and the late Luis Jiménez who created “Los Lagartos” in San Jacinto Plaza. In 1986, the gallery was the site of the “Juntos 1986: Hispanic Photographers Exhibit” that included notable Latino photographers, including Internationally recognized photographer Carlos Fernández. This exhibit led to the creation of the National Association of Chicano Arts (NACA) that changed its name to the Juntos Art Association in 1986 (presently a Latino Arts and Cultural organization in its 25th year).

    Numerous other El Paso artists and photographers have exhibited in the gallery and numerous performance groups have performed in the amphitheater next to Lincoln School. It is estimated that from 1981 to 2006, the Lincoln Art Gallery hosted about 3,000 local and school-children artists. Lincoln Center served not only the Lincoln Park Neighborhood, but also the residents of the Durazno and Chamizal Neighborhoods.

    Murals, hot cars and evacuations

    In 1999, Chicano Artist Carlos Callejo, who years earlier (1993-95) had been commissioned to paint a large mural titled “Our History,” in the El Paso County Courthouse at 500 East San Antonio Street in downtown El Paso, proposed and completed a mural project for Lincoln Park in conjunction with the Private Industry Council (PIC). He proposed to work with 80 students from various school districts. They also produced a video on the creation of the murals and sponsored art classes at the Lincoln Center. The project hired five artists to work with them in producing the murals. The artists included Cesar Inostroza, Fabian Arraiza, Steve Salazar and two women who were not artists but youth supervisors.

    Inostroza and Callejo continued painting murals after funding for the project ended. Callejo said each row of columns were dedicated to various themes, one row was titled “Memorial Walk” and was dedicated to historical figures such as Cesar Chavez, Ruben Salazar, Martin Luther King and another row was dedicated to the “Natural Elements:” Mother Earth, Father Son, etc. Callejo organized a community group that included individuals from the neighborhood to approve the themes for the murals.  


    Lincoln Center

    In 2005, the Latin Pride Car Club organized the “First Annual Lincoln Park Day” at Lincoln Park. The event was modeled after similar events held at Chicano Park in San Diego. A year earlier, in 2004, Hector González, firefighter and president of the Latin Pride Car Club, had e-mailed the City of El Paso concerning the fate of Lincoln Center. After the floods in 2006, the city had shut the center down with plans to reopen it. González’s fire unit had been called to help Saipan-Ledo residents evacuate their homes during the 2006 floods. Lincoln Center was used as a rescue station for people escaping the flooding in the Saipan-Ledo neighborhood, where 56 homes were destroyed.

    In 2006, the Latin Pride Car Club organized the “Second Annual Lincoln Park Day,” following in 2007 with the “Third Lincoln Park Day,” and in 2008, the “Fourth Lincoln Park Day.” In 2008, brothers Hector and David González and Artist Gabriel Gaytán created the Lincoln Park Conservation Committee or LPCC to advocate for the needs of Lincoln Park. In 2009 and 2010, LPCC presented the Fifth and Sixth Annual Lincoln Park Days.  

    In 2009, a mural titled: “El Corazón de El Paso,” was painted on a 30-foot-by-20-foot T-shaped freeway column by Gabriel S. Gaytán. Gabriel’s son, Gabriel Itzai assisted Gaytán in the painting of the mural, as did the members of the Latin Pride Car Club who helped with scaffolding and materials.  

    The idea for the mural came from David González a member of the Latin Pride Car Club, who sponsored the mural project and commissioned it. González gave a sketch to Gaytán who then added images of the Franklin Mountains as well as the star on the mountain, and Mexican pyramids that symbolized El Paso’s over 85 percent Mexican-American heritage and population. The main image of the mural was that of a human heart with highways as arteries. Freeways US 54 and I-10 meet at Lincoln Park and spread out to other highways throughout the city.

    In 2010, LPCC joined with residents and created a Neighborhood Association and became a Partners-in-Parks that made it possible to sponsor four events a year: Cesar Chavez Day in March, Lincoln Park Day in September, Día de los Muertos in November and Día/Day de La Virgen de Guadalupe in December. Proceeds generated from these events go back to offset expenses of organizing these events, for beautification of the park and the painting of murals by local area artists.

    The Lincoln Cultural Center and Park remains the social anchor and meeting place for the community and meetings are often held outside of the closed center. One of the goals for LPCC has been to collaborate with city of El Paso to make Lincoln Park and Center a cultural tourist destination for the arts. In partnership with the El Paso Convention and Visitors Bureau, in early 2010, the LPCC printed 10,000 full color brochures to promote the murals and the park.

    After years of trying to find out who owned Lincoln Center in a City Council meeting on October 4, 2011, El Paso City Manager Joyce Wilson stated that the city did not own Lincoln Center, that the Texas Department of Transportation or TxDOT was the rightful owner. At that same meeting, LPCC learned from Wilson that Lincoln Center was slated for demolition and that the newly renamed and remodeled O’Rourke Center (formerly the YMCA) at Virginia and Montana Streets (located four miles away) was the replacement for Lincoln Center.

    Using Freedom of Information Requests (FOIAs), LPCC requested e-mails from the city that documented their intent to tear down the center. These documents revealed that city officials had been planning the demolition since 2007, but had not officially notified residents.

    At a meeting Debbie Hamlyn, the Director of Quality of Life for the City of El Paso, presented a report to City Council regarding the demolition of Lincoln Center. Among her points was that the district had lost population and it no longer warranted a center. The LPCC stated that aside from low-income residents, this part of the city has a large undocumented population, and has historically been under-counted by the U.S. Census and that there were over 6,000 young people in immediate areas of Lincoln Center.

    At Annual Lincoln Park Day on September 25, 2011, thousands gathered to celebrate the park and unveil a new mural by Gaytán and experience one of the largest regional classic car shows in the city. At the same time, under the threat of Lincoln Center’s threat of demolition, LPCC initiated the “Save Lincoln Park,” campaign by hosting a press conference with attendees and Lincoln residents. On that day, LPCC was also able to collect 200 letters to city council members and more than 500 signatures on a petition to Mayor Jonathan Cook. LPCC subsequently presented those letters and petitioned to city representatives and Mayor Cook directly.

    Hamlyn pointed out that the building had issues with mold and asbestos due to the floods of 2006, however, several Open Records Requests (FOIAs) to the city failed to produce any evidence of asbestos. At the meeting, City Representative for District 3, Emma Acosta, introduced a resolution to grant a reprieve to Lincoln Center for six months while the city communicates with the neighborhoods surrounding Lincoln Center regarding its demolition. The resolution passed unanimously. Several LPCC members, supporters and community residents spoke on behalf of keeping Lincoln Center open and stopping its demolition.

    At the first public input meeting on January 11, 2012, six years after the public facility had been closed, at the Silva Health Magnet School, city engineer, R. Alan Shubert, stated that no asbestos had ever been found in the building. This was the first time city officials admitted that they had obviously communicated inaccurate information about asbestos having been the reason to close the building.

    Without a doubt, Lincoln School is the El Paso region’s first and oldest elementary school, created 14 years before the El Paso Independent School District was incorporated (EPISD was created in 1892). The proposed demolition of the building must be stopped and the City of El Paso needs to work with LPCC members and with citizens of El Paso and develop a plan to refurbish, restore and reopen Lincoln Center and not to destroy a building with so much history of our gente. Everyone needs to stand up for what is right and not just the residents of Lincoln Park.

    One of the ideas generated so far have been to reopen Lincoln Center as a Latino Cultural Arts Center, but more ideas are welcomed.

    The next community meeting to discuss Lincoln Center and to solicit ideas against its demolition is scheduled Saturday, January 14th at the Jefferson High School Gym, 4700 Alameda at 10 a.m.  

    El Paso Times article: http://www.elpasotimes.com/latestnews/ci_24264543/el-paso-city-council-votes-develop-lincoln-center 

    El Diario de El Paso article: http://diario.mx/El_Paso/2013-10-09_9ec6a261/acuerdan-resucitar-el-centro-lincoln/ 

    Channel 4 News: http://www.kdbc.com/news/lincoln-center-may-have-new-owner-city-decides-reacquire-building 

    KVIA News story about the one year extension (a significant win, given the building was to be torn down after October 1st)  

    "Why save Lincoln Center: For our gente," published online on Rio Grande Digital.com in 2012: http://www.riograndedigital.com/2012/01/13/why-save-lincoln-center-for-our-gente 

    Miguel Juárez MLS, MA, is a Doctoral student at the University of Texas at El Paso focusing on United States, Borderlands and Urban History, as well as a member of the Lincoln Park Conservation Committee. 

    Miguel welcomes any support to the El Paso Lincoln Center project.  He is especially looking for those who have a family or personal historical connection to it.   migueljuarez.soha@gmail.com  

    Latino soldiers
     Cebu, Phillipines, WW II


    Century of Valor, Part Four, Vietnam War by Rogelio C. Rodriguez
    Korean War Marine Eugene A. Obregon Medal of Honor discovered
    Remembering Juan Francisco Herrera 
    The Story of Israel's Airforce that Led to Independence in '47
    Veterans History Project
    Experiencing War Stories from the Veterans History Project
    Comments on the 6-Hour Documentary, Latino Americans 
    Honoring Navy Commander Eugene A Valencia
    Hispanic Americans in the U.S. Army Slideshow
    New Effort In Support of Congressional Gold Medal for Hispanic Heroes of the 65th Infantry - The Borinqueneers

    Century of Valor
    Rogelio C. Rodriguez © 1999
    United States Military History
    Hispanic Americans in the United States Armed Forces
    uWorld War I  u World War II u Korean War uVietnam War

    Part Four
    Vietnam War, 1963-1973


    Vietnam had been under French colonial rule for nearly sixty years and also under Japanese rule during World War II. In 1954 the country of Vietnam was divided into the North Vietnam (Democratic Republic of Vietnam) and South Vietnam (the Republic of Vietnam). This was an outcome of an international meeting held at Geneva, Switzerland, otherwise referred to as the 1954 Geneva Conference. A Vietnamese Civil war ensued which gave rise to international attention and resulting in a limited international conflict. United States involvement began in 1961 with the signed treaty between South Vietnam and the United States to provide military and economic aid. In 1964 Congress passed a resolution calling for military action against North Vietnam which was provoked by the North Vietnamese torpedoing of U.S. destroyers in the Tonkin Gulf. United States involvement would escalate and lasted up until 1973. Similar to the Korean War, although Congress did not officially declare war during the Vietnam Conflict, the essence of the struggle was in all respects a war and thus the Vietnam Conflict can be characterized as the Vietnam War.

    The 1970 Census estimated Hispanic-Americans at 4.5% of the U.S. population, 9.148 million and an estimated 3.9% of the U.S. population in the 1960’s, 6.993 million [Cary Davis, Carl Haub, and JoAnne Willette, 1983. ‘US Hispanics: Changing the Face of America .' Population Bulletin, Vol. 38, No. 3, p. 8, Table 2].

    Hispanic-Americans were over-represented among Vietnam casualties, an estimated 7% of the casualties.

    Hispanic casualties, specifically for the Southwest where there was a high concentration of Mexican American population, were reported to be 19.4% from January 1961 to February 1967, and 19.0% from December 1967 to March 1969[1]. In contrast to the 11.8% Mexican American population[2] of the period, the casualty rates are relatively high.

    The Vietnam War Casualty Summary Report 2003, prepared by the Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, reported that there were 58,198 in-theater casualty deaths. It is estimated that 2,594,000 soldiers, sailors, and marines served in South Vietnam . It is estimated that there were 170,000 Hispanic airmen, soldiers, sailors, and marines who served in-theater during the Vietnam War. As in World War II and Korean War, Hispanics were identified as Caucasian. In addition, 17 prisoners of war and 65 missing in action airmen, soldiers, sailors, and marines of Hispanic heritage have been identified to date.

    In the book Vietnam Reconsidered: lesson from a war[3] the chapter on “Hispanics and the Vietnam War”, by Ruben Treviso, [pgs. 184-186], mentions the following:

    ·        One out of every two Hispanics who went to Vietnam served in a combat unit.

    ·        One out of every five Hispanics who went to Vietnam was killed in action.

    ·        One out of every three Hispanics who went to Vietnam was wounded in action.

    [1] Guzman, Ralph, Mexican American Casualties in Vietnam, Merrill College, University of

       California at Santa Cruz, [1970]

    [2] Based on 1960 report of U.S. Bureau of the Census.

    [3] Salisbury, Harrison E., New York: Harper and Row, 1984.

    Summary of Vietnam War Hispanic Casualties to Date


    Summary of Vietnam War Medals Awarded to Hispanics to Date


    Died - overall                                       Total


    Killed in Action


    Killed in Action – remains not recovered -found


    Killed in Action – remains not recovered


    Died of Wounds


    Died of Injuries


    Died of other causes


    Died of other causes – remains not recovered


    Missing in Action – died – remains unspecified


    Missing in Action – died - remains recovered


    Missing in Action – died –

    remains not recovered


    Prisoners of War – died while captured 

     remains not recovered


    Prisoners of War – finding of death –

    remains not recovered


    Prisoners of War – finding of death –

    remains recovered


    Prisoners of War – U.S. Civilian -finding of death – remains not recovered


    Missing in Action - overall                 Total


    Missing in Action – U.S. Civilian

     [undetermined status]


    Missing in Action – Returned to Military Control


    Prisoners of War - overall                  Total


    Prisoner of War - escaped


    Prisoner of War - released


    Wounded – overall [1]                          Total


    Overall Award and Decorations Count


    Medal of Honor


    Navy Cross


    Distinguished Service Cross


    Silver Star


    Bronze Star


    Air Medal


    Soldiers Medal


    Purple Heart [1]


    Army Commendation Medal


    Air Force Commendation Medal


    Joint Service commendation


    Navy Achievement Medal


    Navy Commendation Medal


    Note [1]: This figure does not include an undetermined number of wounded or injured in action personnel who have not been identified based on limited sources. These individuals may also qualify to be awarded the Purple Heart.

    In general, the Purple Heart is awarded to any member of an Armed Force or any civilian national of the United States who, while serving under competent authority in any capacity with one of the U.S. Armed Services after 5 April 1917, has been wounded or killed, or who has died or may hereafter die after being wounded. 

    This study provides a historical analysis of the participation of Hispanic Americans in the United States Armed Forces during four major conflicts in the last century - World War I, World War II, Korea and Vietnam.

    We are still uncovering many untold, forgotten or perhaps hidden stories of American valor and the call to duty. Relatively unknown is the extent of participation of a group of Americans – soldiers, sailors, marines and airmen of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Spanish, Latin American or of Hispanic heritage – who have served their country with pride and distinction.  

    The facts and figures presented herein are a brief summary of an over-arching study that details the accounts of service men and women, individual details of casualties and award recipients, and selected images depicting military service personnel in the air, land, and sea forces. Information on over 250,000 military service personnel has been compiled from military records, historical documentation, and personal accounts. The identification of these military personnel is based on the accuracy and corroboration of these records. Careful attention has been placed on the compilation of casualties and award recipients, omissions or errors may exist.  

    According to the Defense Prisoner of War Missing Personnel Office, of the reported 1,711 non-accounted for personnel missing, 935 American remains have been accounted for and repatriated to the United States – post January 27, 1973.

    Vast amounts of records, unit histories, after-action reports, rosters, and casualty reports are continuously being researched. A partial list of resources used for this study is listed below:

    ·        U.S. National Archives & Records Administration

    ·        Library of Congress

    ·        Presidential Libraries

    ·        Public Libraries

    ·        University Libraries

    ·        Department of Defense: Prisoner of War/Missing Personnel


    ·        American Battle Monuments Commission

    ·       Center of Military History

    ·       State Archives  

    Rogelio C. Rodriguez, B.S., M.S., hails from Santa Paula, CA and is a long time resident of Orange County, CA.  Mr. Rodriguez has been conducting military history research on Hispanic American veterans for over 15 years. His efforts are focused on comprehensive research to bring forth these untold stories.  His professional experience includes engineering, higher education management, and organizational learning and development consulting.



    Korean War Marine Eugene A. Obregon Medal of Honor discovered and will be presented to family by the El Rancho School District Board.
    By Alfred Lugo

    Doing research on Latino Veterans, I heard about the Eugene Obregon School in Pico Rivera. I also learned that Eugene Obregon’s Medal of Honor was also at the school on display. Being that I was on Bill Lansford’s Eugene A. Obregon Medal of Honor Monument Committee, I started to inquire about the Medal and I met and contacted El Rancho School Board member Mr. Joe Rivera.

    From our conversation, I learned that the school was closed due to declining enrolment and that the Medal was stored at the district office. I shared with Mr. Rivera that the Medal should not be stored but be displayed proudly. Mr. Rivera agreed. I suggested if it would be possible for the district to donate the Medal to the family or to the Eugene A. Obregon Medal of Honor Monument for permanent display.

    Mr. Rivera indicated that he would share my concern at the next school board meeting.


    At the August 8, 2013 school board meeting, El Rancho School Board Member Mr. Joe Rivera publicly requested that an item be placed on the agenda regarding the return of Eugene’s Medal of Honor to be discussed and voted on for approval at the district’s monthly meeting. In attendance at the school board meeting and speaking for approval were Marvin Smith, 11th Airborne, Ray Ramirez, 173rd Airborne Vietnam, Ricardo Lopez, Air Force and I, Alfred Lugo, Air Force. Mr. Galindo, El Rancho School District Superintendent was present and listened to our request.

    The item regarding the presenting Eugene A. Obregon’s Medal was unanimously passed by the school board. In response, Mr. Rivera and I have made arrangements for a Military Ceremony to be organized.

    All military and their families are welcomed to attend. The ceremony was held at the following location, October 10th:

    Pico Rivera City Hall

    6615 Passons Blvd.

    Pico Rivera, CA 90660


    The ceremony will begin at 7:00 P.M.

    Eugene Obregon and his Medal of Honor represents 43 other Distinguished Hispanic Medals of Honor Recipients.

    Obregon, Eugene Arnold Private First Class Marine Corps Company G

    3rd Battalion, 5th Marines

    1st Marine Division

    Second Battle of Seoul

    01950-09-26 September 26, 1950


    Remembering Juan Francisco Herrera 

    Born March 8, 1941 to Juanita Perez in Corpus Christi Texas. Attended Roy Miller High School in Corpus Christi Texas, awarded Football scholarship to Texas A&I Kingsville Texas under Football Coach Gilbert Steinke, major in Biology. He also attended the Army War College and UNC. He was inducted into the Hispanic Sports Hall of Fame in San Antonio.

    During his 33 year career in the U S Army, with 3 tours in Viet Nam as a helicopter pilot, numerous awards, commendations including the Distinguished Flying Cross. Flying military intelligence aircraft including fixed and rotary wing. Upon retiring as an Honorary Brigadier General, he taught English in Texas.

    He is preceded in death by his son John Frank Herrera. He is survived by his mother Juanita Perez Rea, wife Kathlen and her
    family, daughter Christina Horne and her family, one grandson Cullen, One brother Jose, sisters Teresa, Angela, Rose, Clotilde and many nieces and nephews, cousins, aunts and uncles.

    Indeed Juan was a great Hispanic American soldier, loved and cherished by many.
    We accept everyone's condolences. On this day 10 th of October 2013, we lay him down to rest.
    We salute you.

    Written by Clotilde' Perez Rea Sofikitis 

    The Story of Israel's Airforce that Led to Independence in '47
    The only four (4) airplanes Israel had when the War of Independence began in 1947 were smuggled from the Czech Republic. They were German "Messerschmidt-109's." They were assembled overnight in Tel Aviv and were never flight tested.
    This is a short & amazing video about their pilots. Contrary to popular perception (by the people who do not know history), the United States' assistance to Israel during the war of independence was quite different. Americans were not allowed to join the fight and an arms embargo had been established and was enforced by the FBI. ? At the same time, Arab armies were very well supplied by the same countries who maintained the arms embargo against Israel and of course had a great advantage in manpower & equipment. ?
    Here is the video: 

    Bill Carmena  JCarm1724@aol.com 
    Editor: Bill has a special interest in the Air Force.  He was a Navigator/Bombardier during his military service, and has a pilot license.


    Veterans History Project
    The Library of Congress, American Folklife Center
    Search Results for race:Hispanic . . . 829 total hits displayed in alphabetical order, first 12 listed 
    Abrego, Salomon -- Private First Class, Army Veteran
    World War II, 1939-1945 - Normandy, France; Ardennes; Rhineland; Central Europe; Czechoslovakia; Germany
    Aceves, Frank Ibanez -- Electrician's Mate Second Class, Navy Veteran
    Vietnam War, 1961-1975 - United States Naval Training Center (USNTC), San Diego, Camp Pendleton, Coronado and Alameda, California; Midway Island; Vietnam
    Digitized content includes: video recording(s), photos View Digital Collection
    Acevedo, Joseph Walter -- Torpedoman's Mate Third Class, Navy Veteran
    World War II, 1939-1945 - San Diego Naval Training Station, California; New Guinea; Australia
    Digitized content includes: video recording(s), photos View Digital Collection
    Acosta, Paul E. -- Sergeant, Marine Corps Veteran
    Vietnam War, 1961-1975 - Camp Pendleton, California; Vietnam
    Digitized content includes: video recording(s) View Digital Collection
    Aguilar, Jose Refugio -- Private First Class, Marine Corps Veteran
    Korean War, 1950-1953 - Camp Pendleton, California; Korea
    Digitized content includes: text transcription(s) View Digital Collection
    Aguilar, Peter S. -- Private First Class, Army Veteran
    Other - Fort Eustis, Virginia; Fort Monmouth, New Jersey; Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri
    Aguilar, Peter T. -- Staff Sergeant, Army Veteran
    Korean War, 1950-1953 - Camp Roberts, California; Japan; Kumwha, Korea; Punchbowl, Korea; Heartbreak Ridge, Korea; Fort Jackson, South Carolina; Fort Rucker, Alabama
    Aguirre, Carlos -- Army, Army, Army Veteran
    World War II, 1939-1945, Korean War, 1950-1953, Vietnam War, 1961-1975 - Japan; Korea; Vietnam
    Aguirre, Reyner Aceves -- Seaman Second Class, Navy Veteran
    World War II, 1939-1945 - Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
    Digitized content includes View Digital Collection
    Alcon, Raymond Joseph -- Lance Corporal, Marine Corps Veteran
    Persian Gulf War, 1991 - Camp Pendleton, California
    Digitized content includes: text transcription(s) View Digital Collection
    Alegria, Roberto Antonio -- Sergeant, Marine Corps Veteran
    Persian Gulf War, 1991 - California; Texas; South Carolina; Okinawa, Japan; Philippines; Saudi Arabia; Kuwait City, Kuwait; Iraq
    Alexander, Kenneth Raymond -- E-8, Army Veteran
    Afghanistan and Iraq Wars, 2001-present - Kuwait; Iraq; Afghanistan

    Sent by Bill Carmena  JCarm1724@aol.com 

    Library of Congress          http://www.loc.gov/vets/stories/ex-war-hispanic.html  Veterans History Project Home
    Hispanic American Veterans: Answering the Call (Experiencing War, Stories from the Veterans History Project, Library of Congress)
    Asked to serve their country in time of war, Hispanic Americans displayed loyalty, bravery, and persistence in the face of adversity. Some, especially those of the World War II generation, were familiar with discrimination back home but saw their service as affirming the ideals of democracy. From Charles Rodriguez, who fought with Merrill’s Marauders in WWII Burma, to Jose Mares, a teenager who survived incredible hardship as a POW during the Korean War, here are nine inspirational stories from the archives of the Library of Congress Veterans History Project.
    Image: Sam DominguezSam Dominguez ARMY
    World War II

    Video Interview
    VHP Placeholder ImageJoe Dominguez
    World War II

    Video Interview
    VHP Placeholder ImagePatricino Gabaldon
    World War II

    Audio Interview, Handwritten Memoir
    Image: Jose MaresJose Mares
    Korea, Vietnam

    Video Interview, Photos, Cartoons, Memoirs, etc.

    VHP Placeholder ImageRadolfo Marquiz
    World War II, Korea

    Audio Interview
    Image: Alfonso PerezAlfonso Perez
    World War II

    Video Interview, Photos
    VHP Placeholder ImageJuan J. Rocha
    World War II

    Audio Interview
    Image: Charles RodriguezCharles Rodriguez
    World War II

    Audio Interview,

    Image: Jose SolJose Sol
    World War II

    Audio Interview, Photos
    More Stories...

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    6. Voices of War (Companion Web site)
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    Sent by Bill Carmena  JCarm1724@aol.com 


    HOW SOON, I, personally forgot the discrimination that we as Latinos endured in the USA.
    As a matter of fact, that reminded me of when I reported to USNAS Anacostia D.C..  the "wheels" were trying to decide if I, as a BROWN SkINNED SAILOR belonged in the Black barracks or the white barracks.
    I ended up being compartment cleaner in the white barracks and slept and lived there with the white guys, NO PROBLEMO.
    No body hated or disliked me for being of Mexican descent.

    Erasmo "Doc" Riojas 

    Recommended sites by Erasmos:  

    Efforts Underway to Honor Eugene A. Valencia 
    Estimada Mimi,
    I hope that we can honor Navy Commnader Eugene A Valencia for his 23 ACE in WW II and in Korea.
    When I first learned that the Navy practiced in Pasco WA during WW II, I always include LT Valencia
    and his "Valencia Flying Circus" for his famed "Mowing Machine".
    John L. Scott Real Estate Agent Broker
    Thank you for sharing, Rafael Ojeda
    (253) 576-9547


    "photo images" in the last navy links for past to present images.




    Soldiers behind a canon, which is hidden in the brush

    Hispanic Heritage in the U.S. Army


    Soldiers of 65th Infantry after an all day schedule of maneuvers at Salinas, Puerto Rico, August 1941, eating a meal. Anti-aircraft machine guns of Battery B, 51st Coast Artillery, on alert for planes on recent maneuvers near Punta Salinas, Puerto Rico, November 1941. Mr. Gonzalo Soanes, mayor of Caguas, explains how his town conducted blackouts to Lt. Col. F. Parra, Maj. Gen. Collins, and Lt. Gen. Andrews, Puerto Rico, November 1941.
    Hispanic Americans in the United States Army
    The U.S. Army recognizes the achievements and contributions of Hispanic Americans. America’s diversity is a source of strength, and Hispanic Americans have not hesitated to defend and show their allegiance to this nation in many ways, but especially through their military service.

    Originally a week-long celebration approved by President Johnson, National Hispanic Heritage Month (September 15– October 15) was enacted into law in 1988. The celebration heightens our attention to diversity and the many contributions Hispanics have made to enrich the United States.

    The observance commences on September 15 to coincide with the day several Latin American countries celebrate their Independence Day. Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua celebrate their Independence Day on September 15, Mexico on September 16 (not on May 5 or “Cinco de Mayo”), and Chile on September 18. Columbus Day, “Día de la Raza”, is also celebrated during Hispanic Heritage Month.

    For years, the Army has forged relationships with Hispanic associations, and will continue to support and sponsor professional development forums. Through these relationships, the Army further increases awareness among key Hispanic audiences of the educational and career opportunities available in the Army.

    Sent by Bill Carmena  JCarm1724@aol.com 



    New NPRC Logo


    New Effort In Support of Congressional Gold Medal for Hispanic Heroes of the 65th Infantry - The Borinqueneers


    Washington DC - The National Puerto Rican Coalition (NPRC) is initiating a social and digital media campaign to enhance efforts to award the Congressional Gold Medal to the only Hispanic-segregated, active-duty military unit in U.S. history. Approximately 20,000 soldiers, a majority from Puerto Rico, served in World Wars I and II and in Korea, distinguishing themselves as true American war heroes and known as the 65th Infantry Division-The Borinqueneers. The Borinqueneer Congressional Gold Medal Alliance is a national, non-partisan, all-volunteer organization that, along with other major veterans' and Hispanic organizations like NPRC, has launched a campaign to recognize the sacrifices and dedicated service of the Borinqueneers. The overall goal is to build support among Members of Congress and increase the number of co-sponsors for The Borinqueneers Congressional Gold Medal Act, H.R 1726 and S.1174.
    "Our organization with the assistance of National Media Inc. will apply 21st century social media technology to educate, engage, and secure more bill support from all Members of Congress. NPRC's tweeter account @NPRCAdvocacy will deliver messages weekly to Members of Congress, Capitol Hill staffers, community advocates, and media outlets," said Rafael Fantauzzi President & CEO of NPRC. "As we celebrate yet another Hispanic Heritage Month, we must remind Congress that Hispanics have defended freedom and fought in every war since the Revolutionary war. We are and will continue to be founders of America."
    The Congressional Gold Medal, the highest civilian award bestowed by the U. S. Congress, has been awarded to other minority veterans who served in segregated military units, including the Native American Navajo Wind Talkers, the Japanese American Nisei Soldiers, and the African American Tuskegee Airmen.
    "For their dedicated service in Korea alone, the Borinqueneers received 10 Distinguished Service crosses, 256 Silver Stars, 606 Bronze Stars, and 2,771 Purple Hearts. These brave soldiers overcame the hurdles of segregation and prejudice while protecting our nation's interests and impacting American history and culture," continued Fantauzzi. "In 1951 General Douglas MacArthur praised the loyalty, valor, and courage of these Hispanic and diverse group of heroes, now it's time for Congress to validate those words and our community by bestowing them the Congressional Gold Medal."
    For more information: www.nprcinc.org/borinqueneers AND www.65thCGM.org.


    The National Puerto Rican Coalition, Inc. (NPRC) is the premier non-profit non-partisan Hispanic organization representing the voice of the Puerto Rican community. NPRC is committed to enhancing the social and economic well-being of Puerto Ricans through policy development, research, advocacy, civic engagement, and education.

    National Puerto Rican Coalition
    1444 I Street, N.W.
    Washington, District of Columbia 20005

    Sent by Rafael Ojeda rsnojeda@aol.com 


    November 16, 2013: The 200th Anniversary of the “Battle of Medina
    Granaderos Out And About
    Granaderos National Meeting Held in Houston, Texas
    50th Anniversary San Diego's Cabrillo Festival
    Yo Solo, Bernardo de Galvaz on Stage of the American Revolution
    Los Españoles olvidados de la Isla de Guam 


    November 16, 2013    

    The 200th Anniversary of the “Battle of Medina

    The Battle of Medina Historical Society and the Southside Independent School District 
    presents this Historic and Educational Event. 

    The biggest and bloodiest battle ever fought on Texas soil. This battle was fought between the Spanish forces of General Juaquin de Arredondo and the Republican Army of the North led by Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara who founded the first constitutional government of Texas on April 6, 1813. Over a thousand Tejanos would fight and die in the battle of Medina. So disastrous was this battle that one third of the Tejano population would be dead, one third would flee to Louisiana and the remaining third would live in terror. So determined were our ancestors to achieve victory that they preferred to die on their feet than live on their knees and it was a fight to the last man.

    The reenactment will take place on the football field of Losoya High School 1460 Martinez-Losoya Road during the schools annual “Cardinal Days.” Reenactors should arrive at 10 AM on Saturday November 16, 2013 for rehearsal. All wishing to participate, including women and children must dress in period attire eg; Tejano, Indigenous, Spanish soldier or colonial frontiersman.

    Schedule of events

    • 10-11 AM Parade Line-up
    • 11:15 AM Parade begins
    • 12 PM Battle Reenactment begins
    • 12:30 Fest begins

    Dan Arellano President
    Battle of Medina Historical Society



    The Order of Granaderos y Damas de Gálvez – Founding Chapter
    OCTOBER 2013   
    w w w . g r a n a d e r o s . o r g    SAN ANTONIO, TX

    Granaderos Out And About

    Brook Hollow Library – Saturday, September 7


    Jesse & Miaoyin playing a tune.

                            Henry with bayonet charging.
    Joe Perez, Henry Alvarado, Michael Rojas, Jesse Benavides and Miaoyin Rojas marched through the Brook Hollow Library and into its conference room to give a living history presentation on Saturday, September 7th.

     Joe presented information about Gálvez’ Gulf Coast Campaign, Henry presented information on the weapons and Michael presented information on the Navarre Regiment uniform. Jesse and Miaoyin impressed the audience by playing Yankee Doodle and Jesse gave great information on the Colonial Drummer. Thanks go out to Fifer Debye Nicholl for arranging the event.  

    Visitors at the display table.

    Institute of Texan Cultures  
    Sunday, September 15

    Henry Alvarado and Joe Perez donned the uniform for Pioneer Sunday at the Institute of Texan Cultures where they staffed a living history table and spoke with several visitors to the institute that day. They joined the group Texas Time Travelers with their living history tables.

    Alamo Hall – DRT - Wednesday, September 25

    Governor Joe Perez gave a presentation at the Alamo on General Gálvez and Spain’s involvement in the American Revolution to the Daughters of the Republic of Texas, Alamo Couriers Chapter. At right is a picture of Joe standing with Vice President Linda Barfield (L) and President Martha Flietas (R). His presentation was very well received by the ladies of the Alamo Couriers Chapter who were a very gracious audience. Of course, Joe included information about the Texas Connection to the American Revolution.

    Sent by Joe Perez
    Governor, San Antonio Chapter
    Order of Granaderos y Damas de Galvez jperez329@satx.rr.com 


    Granaderos National Meeting Held in Houston, Texas, 

    October 11 & 12, 2013

    Friday night welcome reception.  An important first step, this will be held in the garden atrium of the La Quinta Hotel at 7:30 PM.  The Houston Chapter will provide a variety of Spanish tapas including  jamon serrano, queso manchego, tortilla española, albondigas, and other savory delights.  Plus frozen Bellini and "killer" Sangria.  

    Saturday morning registration.  The National Meeting will begin with coffee and registration at the Bayou Bend Museum Educational Center, the renowned Houston "house" museum of American decorative arts from the 17th to the early 20th centuries.  The Gardens at Bayou Bend are on eight choice acres of River Oaks… "Que maravilla!  

    The meeting will be held at the state-of-the-art educational center, which houses an exceptional library and a gift shop loaded with tempting treasures.  Lunch will consist of a special tomato caprese salad, meat lasagna, vegetarian lasagna, and a variety of delicious sweets.  Our speakers’ session will be featured at the center.  

    The Clayton Library and “Cuban Papers.”  At 3:00PM we will tour the Clayton Library, one of the foremost genealogical libraries in existence.  It has documents and records pertaining to Texas and "Spanish" Louisiana.  Of particular note is the microfilm archive of Spanish historical documents known as the "Cuban Papers".  These cover much of the early history of the Spanish colonial period in North America during the American Revolution.   The papers resided in La Havana for over a century before finding their way to the Spanish archives in Seville.  

    The Briarhurst Garden.  Finally, at 7:00 PM, we will congregate at the beautiful Briarhurst Garden courtyard for a closing reception hosted by Mari Carmen Palle and Melanie Sarian.  It will feature homemade Spanish paella, a variety of entrees, and rivers of Bellini, sangria and Spanish wines.  La Madrileña Mari Carmen, who has delighted the Houston Chapter with her famous paella, will fire up her one-meter wide casarola for this special occasion. 

    Granaderos y Damas de Galvez of the San Antonio Chapter,

    I am forwarding information on the Annual National Meeting which is sponsored by the Houston Chapter this year. They have done a great job of making the meeting arrangements including dining, presentations and museum tours, all included in the price. Let's support our fellow Granaderos y Damas de Galvez of the Houston Chapter and have a good representation from San Antonio. This is an opportunity for us to have a good time with our fellow members from other chapters. I've already sent in a registration for myself, my wife and my daughter. We're going to have a good time. Come join us in the fun.

    Joe Perez
    Governor, San Antonio Chapter
    Order of Granaderos y Damas de Galvez



    50th Anniversary

    San Diego’s Cabrillo Festival

    Was Held September 28 & 29, 2013


    On June 27, 1542, Cabrillo set sail from Navidad on Mexico’s west coast with three vessels: San Salvador, La Victoria and San Miguel in search of gold and a route to the Orient and the Spice Islands. Sailing northwest into uncharted waters, they explored the west coast of Baja California. On September 17th they anchored at San Mateo, known today as Todos Santos Bay, Ensenada. A few days later they departed. Sailing north they landed on September 28th at "an enclosed harbor which was very good." Cabrillo named it San Miguel. We know it today as San Diego. Cabrillo and his men remained for six days, trading with the native Kumeyaay people living around the bay, exploring and taking on supplies and fresh water. On October 3rd they departed, continuing their voyage northward along the coast of Alta California. Although Cabrillo died of an injury before completing his journey, he is one of the most recognized figures of the Age of Exploration.

    Recibido de la Casda de Espana en San Diego
    Saludos, Mª Ángeles Olson 

    On Sunday September 29, from 11:00AM to 4:00PM, Cabrillo Festival will celebrating the re-enacting of Cabrillo’s landing with music, dancing, and food from various countries; Native Americans, Mexico, Portugal and Spain. The event will be at Ballast Point Naval Base Point Loma. This is a free event.

    For more information, write Cabrillo Festival, Inc. P.O. Box 60718 San Diego, CA 92166-0718 or check us out on our web site.


    Yo Solo, Bernardo de Galvaz on Stage of the American Revolution
    Thanks Joe for sending over the latest issue of your newsletter. I invite you and others to video another great presentation titled Yo Solo, Bernardo de Galvaz on Stage of the American Revolution. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AoLcU-Nr_lU Enjoy.

    Michael N. Henderson, LCDR USN Ret
    Author, Got Proof! My Genealogical Journey Through the Use of Documentation


      “Los Españoles olvidados de la Isla de Guam”  

    Estimados todos,

    Acompaño la Intervención radiofónica en la emisora Es.Radio de Libertad Digital, de hoy domingo 29 de septiembre de 2013, en el programa “Sin Complejos”, dentro de la sección titulada “Españoles Olvidados”, en esta ocasión dedicado a “Los españoles olvidados de Guam” que solos, sin recursos y abandonados en medio del Pacífico desconocían el hecho de la guerra hispano norteamericana. El objetivo de todos estos artículos e intervenciones no es otro que hacer presente y actual nuestra memoria histórica en la idea de abonar el camino para recuperar la verdad histórica y cohesionar España.

    Fonoteca de Es.Radio: José Antonio Crespo nos habla de los españoles olvidados de Guajam o Guam, la isla del Pacífico hoy perteneciente a los EEUU de América.



    · En la publicación digital www.elespiadigital en la sección Informes publica el 15 de septiembre de 2013 el trabajo dedicado a los últimos defensores de la isla de Guam, olvidada en el Pacífico bajo el título “Los olvidados de la isla de Guam”.

    En este sencillo trabajo se saca a la luz otra tierra de españoles olvidados sembrada de topónimos hispanos, donde muchos dejaron su vida desde la exploración al asentamiento y poblamiento hasta su defensa final.

    Sent by José Antonio Crespo


    River of Hope: Forging Identity and Nation in the Rio Grande Borderlands, 
         by Omar S. Valerio-Jiménez 
    Brownsville by Oscar Casares
    The First Texas Independence, 1813, The Unlikely Tejano, José Bernardo Gutiérrez de Lara
         by José Antonio López
    Domestic Negotiations: Gender, Nation, & Self-Fashioning in US Mexicana & Chicana Literature & Art by Marci McMahon

    River of Hope: Forging Identity and Nation in the Rio Grande Borderlands

    Omar S. Valerio-Jiménez

    In River of Hope, Omar S. Valerio-Jiménez examines state formation, cultural change, and the construction of identity in the lower Rio Grande region during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. He chronicles a history of violence resulting from multiple conquests, of resistance and accommodation to state power, and of changing ethnic and political identities. The redrawing of borders neither began nor ended the region's long history of unequal power relations. Nor did it lead residents to adopt singular colonial or national identities. Instead, their regionalism, transnational cultural practices, and kinship ties subverted state attempts to control and divide the population.

    Diverse influences transformed the borderlands as Spain, Mexico, and the United States competed for control of the region. Indian slaves joined Spanish society; Mexicans allied with Indians to defend river communities; Anglo Americans and Mexicans intermarried and collaborated; and women sued to confront spousal abuse and to secure divorces. Drawn into multiple conflicts along the border, Mexican nationals and Mexican Texans (tejanos) took advantage of their transnational social relations and ambiguous citizenship to escape criminal prosecution, secure political refuge, and obtain economic opportunities. To confront the racialization of their cultural practices and their increasing criminalization, tejanos claimed citizenship rights within the United States and, in the process, created a new identity.

    Published in cooperation with the William P. Clements Center for Southwest Studies, Southern Methodist University.


    • "A sweeping, path-breaking achievement, River of Hope will stand as a benchmark study of the borderlands for decades to come. It is a compelling political and social history of identity formations, community building, and overlapping conquests from the earliest Spanish colonial settlements to nineteenth-century Euro-American towns. Omar S. Valerio-Jiménez interrogates how the people who called las villas del norte home created meaning in their lives against a backdrop of state formation, disenfranchisement, and violence."—Vicki L. Ruiz, author of From Out of the Shadows: Mexican Women in Twentieth-Century America

    "River of Hope tells the complex story of how Spanish colonists settled Texas-Tamaulipas, how they became neglected Mexican citizens, and, ultimately, how they were transformed into unwanted American citizens as subjects of the United States. In this rich and nuanced work, Omar Valerio-Jiménez illuminates the struggles over land, identity, and love as native nations, Spain, Mexico, and the United States competed for this terrain."—Ramón A. Gutiérrez, coeditor of Mexicans in California: Transformations and Challenges

    "River of Hope not only documents the history of the Rio Grande area in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries but also provides a model for integrating the concerns of Chicana/o studies scholars, historians of the U.S. West, scholars of gender and ethnicity, theorists of state formation, and political scientists who study 'everyday forms of resistance.' An extraordinary contribution, the book opens up a wide-ranging discussion about the interplay between local and national discourses, particularly in places located on the peripheries of power and at times of rapid social, cultural, legal, and political change. This is genuinely original scholarship."—Susan Lee Johnson, author of Roaring Camp: The Social World of the California Gold Rush

    "River of Hope tells the complex story of how Spanish colonists settled Texas-Tamaulipas, how they became neglected Mexican citizens, and ultimately, how they were transformed into unwanted American citizens as subjects of the United States. In this rich and nuanced work, Omar S. Valerio-Jiménez illuminates the struggles over land, identity, and love as native nations, Spain, Mexico, and the United States competed for this terrain."—Ramón A. Gutiérrez, coeditor of Mexicans in California: Transformations and Challenges  


    http://www.amazon.com/Omar-S.-Valerio-Jiménez/e/B009WU5CWU/ref=ntt_dp_epwbk_0Omar Valerio-Jiménez was born in Matamoros, Tamaulipas, and grew up in Taft, Corpus Christi, and Edinburg, Texas. After graduating from MIT, he worked as an engineer for five years before returning to graduate school at UCLA, where he obtained his master's and doctorate degrees in history. He has taught at universities in California, New York, Texas, and Iowa. Currently, he is an Associate Professor in the History Department at the University of Iowa.

    His first book, River of Hope: Forging Identity and Nation in the Rio Grande Borderlands (Duke University Press, January 2013), combines his research interests in the histories of Chicana/os, the American West, and borderlands. The book explores state formation and cultural change along the Mexico-United States border during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. It traces changes in ethnicity, citizenship, and gender relations among borderland residents as jurisdiction over the area passed from native peoples to Spain, Mexico, and finally the United States.

    Published: 2013  Pages: 384 
    Illustrations: 19 photos, 10 tables, 3 maps 
    Paperback: $26.95 - In Stock   978-0-8223-5185-6   Cloth: $99.95 - In Stock   978-0-8223-5171-9 
    Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D. beto@unt.edu



                                  Oscar Casares

    In this book of well-written short stories by Brownsville native Oscar Casares, there is a not a curandero to be seen, or 13 mysticl senses.  There are a number of men with anger management problems and one or two prostitutes, not no witches of old women whave have conversations with God - - just an array of hard-working mexicanos, mostly male, who are living out their ordinary lives in Brownsville.   

    Seattle Times

    "Although the stories in Brownsville aren't linked by shared characters, they all so vividly evoke Casares's hometown that they seem to suggest a single narrative, similar in vein to James Joyce's Dubliners. Read Brownsville—and you've been to Brownsville."

    New York Times Book Review
    "In Oscar Casares's Brownsville, everyone is so close, tucked up snug against the Rio Grande, that people's quarrels irresistibly spill into on another's lives, like the Mexican soap operas that beam into their TV sets.... With a quiet mastery of the smallest detail, Casares puts on neighborly terms with the locals."

    Chicago Tribune
    "Oscar Casares's fine first collection of short stories creates a lively and memorable community of Mexican-Americans living on the Texas border. What he has achieved is rare: a kind of choral view of a culture that is at the same time remarkable for the individuality of the people portrayed and the variety of the stories."

    Entertainment Weekly
    "Brownsville is a slim but just about perfect debut story collection by Brownsville, Texas, wonder boy Oscar Casares. His characters are border-town castaways with one foot in Texas and the other in Mexico. Their stories, likewise, are Tex-Mex dramedies, sad and yet very funny.... Terrific."

    Miami Herald
    "Casares brings his hometown to dusty life with humor and compassion."

    Publishers Weekly
    "A fine debut collection....With skill and economy, Casares evokes the easygoing, plainspoken, yet slightly stagy voice of the guy on the neighboring bar stool—or nearby cubicle—describing his weekend....Probing underneath the surface of Tex-Mex culture, Casares's stories, with their wisecracking, temperamental, obsessive middle-aged men and their dramas straight from the neighborhood gossip, are in the direct line of descent from Mark Twain and Ring Lardner."

    Minneapolis Star Tribune
    "In Brownsville, a book that continues in the tradition of such great place-novels as Sherwood Anderson's Winesburg, Ohio, Casares keeps it simple. There is a gentleness in these stories—even stories about bullying and bullied men—that is hard to resist."

    Dallas Morning News
    "This is the real thing, the real life of south Texas mexicanos, without the mumbo jumbo."

    Washington Post
    "Marvelous....Brownsville has more to do with class than nationality, resembling early Steinbeck work more than anything else: Casares deals with work and its dignity, poverty and its challenges, the narrowness of human existence under constant assault by ingenious women and men."

    Back Bay Books, $13.95 paperback


    The First Texas Independence, 1813
    Unlikely Tejano, José Bernardo Gutiérrez de Lara

    By José Antonio López



    Summarizes the life and triumphs of José Bernardo Gutiérrez de Lara Uribe, the first President of Texas.

    SAN ANTONIO, September 29 - Ask Tejano history aficionados about Lt. Colonel José Bernardo Gutiérrez de Lara, and they’ll quickly tell you that he is a most respected Tejano hero.

    However, many of them may be surprised to learn that he was not a Tejano. In reality, he was a “Neo Santanderense,” who was born, raised, and lived in the Province of Nuevo Santander. (Up until 1848, the Lower Rio Grande was entirely in Nuevo Santander (renamed Tamaulipas), since the Texas southern border was the Nueces River, not the Rio Grande.)

    So, how did Don José Bernardo Gutiérrez de Lara Uribe earn his place in Tejano history as the leader of the First Texas Revolution (1813)? The answer has two parts (see below). Part I follows the trail back to the planting of the earliest Spanish European roots of Texas. Then, Part II follows Don Bernardo’s fascinating career.


    Part I. In the early 1500s, the region known as Tejas (Texas) was familiar to Spanish government officials. Still, its exploration was an unhurried undertaking. Thriving communities were already slowly spreading west, north, and east from Mexico City. So, as regards far-off Texas, the Spanish were not about to over-extend their supply lines until they could do it effectively. Hence, it was not a matter of if, but when Tejas would be settled.

    In 1519, Captain Álvarez de Piñeda sailed by the Texas coast. Adhering to the Spanish reputation for good record keeping, he was the first to sketch the Texas coastline. In 1528, Cabeza de Vaca and three shipmates were washed ashore the upper Texas coast as a result of a devastating shipwreck. After their rescue, Cabeza de Vaca published a detailed account of their eight-year long experience. Very soon after, the Spanish made additional plans to explore Texas, but did not implement them. Reports from shipwreck survivors and Coronado’s and De Soto’s simultaneous travels from New Mexico and Florida increased interest in Texas.

    In 1691, Domingo Terán de los Rios became the first Texas governor, giving birth to Texas. In 1700, the San Juan Bautista Presidio and several missions were built along the strategic location near today’s Eagle Pass, Texas. Situated just south of the Rio Grande, the presidio became the “Gateway to Texas.” No European could enter Texas without first checking in at the presidio. By this time, the Spanish were concerned of encroachment on its lands by French agents looking to establish a foothold in the Mississippi River area of the Gulf of Mexico. As such, Spain decided to aggressively settle Texas to establish a defensive position. It was then that the first Spanish Mexican civilians came to Texas.

    It must be noted that volunteer pioneers who initially came to Texas, became its first citizens. Members of a rare breed of Spaniards, they were a hardy, independent people of faith and will. From 1718 – 1755, they sowed the first seeds of European-style civilization deep in the heart of Texas – San Antonio, Nacogdoches, La Bahia (Goliad), and the Villas del Norte along the Lower Rio Grande. (Although the Villas were in Nuevo Santander, not Texas, they were considered vital to the Texas homeland defense system against French and other intruders.)

    Part II. Bernardo Gutiérrez de Lara and his colleagues were the products of a unique Las Villas del Norte “live and let live” frontline mindset. Each man was expected to follow a dual-track of responsibilities - sustaining the family and military duties. In times of crisis along the Lower Rio Grande, there were no soldiers to rely on. If they didn’t defend themselves, no one was going to do it for them. By their very independence nature, the Villas functioned as a vanguard position with its lightning-strike force of citizen soldiers (Compañía Volante).

    It wasn’t long before the chasm between New Spain aristocrats (peninsulares) and the rest of Mexico’s population (criollos, mestizos, and peasants) widened. Inequality was the rule, not the exception. Soon, as far as the lower social classes were concerned, unjust Spanish colonial policies were as problematic as French threats. The point of no return came on September 16, 1810, when Father Miguel Hidalgo issued his famous “Grito” taking freedom to the next level of equality for all, especially Mexico’s poor. Following is Don Bernardo’s brilliant military career:

    1811: Commissioned a Lt Colonel in Mexican Revolutionary Army; Chief General, Army of the North (First Texas Army); First Ambassador to the U.S.

    1812-1813: Commanded his troops in five successful battles: Nacogdoches, La Bahia, Rosillo, Bexar, and Alazán.

    April 1-2, 1813: As Texas’ First President; occupied Spanish Governor’s Mansion; took possession of The Alamo Presidio; On April 6, 1813, wrote and issued first Texas Declaration of Independence; On April 17, 1813, issued first Texas Constitution.

    1815: Led Tejano troops in Battle of New Orleans; 1820, Vice-President of Second Texas Republic under Gen. Long.

    1824: First Governor of Tamaulipas; Colonel of the Cavalry of Tamaulipas Colonel of the Active Militia of Tamaulipas; Commandant General of Tamaulipas. Commandant General (CEO) of the Eastern Interior States (Texas, Coahuila, Tamaulipas, and Nuevo Leon).

    Sadly, in 1825 Don Bernardo was forced to medically retire to his Revilla home. He had lost all his wealth and his request for a pension was denied. Showing no bitterness, he never blamed anyone for his loss. He lived his life to the fullest doing what he loved best: serving others. He died in Villa de Santiago, Nuevo Leon, in 1841.

    To learn more of our hero, please purchase my new bi-lingual Book, “The First Texas Independence, 1813,” which contains a short biography of Don Bernardo. It may be ordered through your local bookstore’s order desk or at these online bookstores: Amazon.com, Barnesandnoble.com, and Xlibris.com (by phone at 1-888-795-4274 ext. 7879).

    José Antonio (Joe) López was born and raised in Laredo, Texas, and is a USAF Veteran. He now lives in Universal City, Texas. He is the author of three previous books: “The Last Knight (Don Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara Uribe, A Texas Hero),”; “Nights of Wailing, Days of Pain (Life in 1920s South Texas)”, and “The First Texas Independence, 1813”. Lopez is also the founder of the Tejano Learning Center, LLC, and www.tejanosunidos.org, a Web site dedicated to Spanish Mexican people and events in U.S. history that are mostly overlooked in mainstream history books.

    Published: 2013 
    Pages: 384 
    Illustrations: 19 photos, 10 tables, 3 maps 

    Paperback: $26.95 - In Stock 
    Cloth: $99.95 - In Stock 
    Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D. beto@unt.edu

    Sent by Juan Marinez
    Contact Joe Lopez jlopez8182@satx.rr.com


    Domestic Negotiations:
    Gender, Nation, and Self-Fashioning in US Mexicana and Chicana Literature and Art by Marci McMahon

    Beto and all, Wanted to call your attention to a new book by our Tejas Mexican American Studies colega Marci McMahon, Domestic Negotiations: Gender, Nation, and Self-Fashioning in US Mexicana and Chicana Literature and Art (Rutgers, 2013). Note that director and actor Diane Rodriguez is the subject of Chapter 6! Please help me spread the word 

    Here are some links to the book:  




    Dr. Sonia Hernandez 
    Associate Professor of History 
    956-665-2323 (office) www.utpa.edu/history 
    Department of History & Philosophy 
    Co-Director, CHAPS www.utpa.edu/chaps 
    Mexican American Studies www.utpa.edu/mas 
    University of Texas-Pan American 

    Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D. beto@unt.edu 


    Roxanne Ocampo, A Wise Latina by Mercy Bautista-Olvera
    Less educated Hispanic population presents both a promise and a challenge
    Cuento: My Father, the Miracle Maker by Esther Bonilla Read
    Why Your Mind is a Hurt Locker
    Ivan Enrique Espinosa Takes First Place in Texas A&M University
    Mandarin Returns Home -- SAT Scores Climb for Asian Americans
    Second Feria Educativa was held at the 2013 7th Annual "Festival Cardenas" 

    Roxanne Ocampo

     A Wise Latina

    By Mercy Bautista-Olvera

    Author of “Flight of the Quetzal Mama: 
    How to Raise Latino Superstars and Get them into the Best Colleges.” 

    Author Roxanne Ocampo – aka “Quetzal Mama” is a College Admissions Coach; her practice focuses exclusively on Latino students.

    Roxanne Ocampo was born and raised in San Jose, California in the Bay Area. She is married to Dr. Arturo E. Ocampo, a Civil Rights and Education Law Attorney. Together they have raised three children following the 10 Quetzal Mama Principles.

    Ocampo earned both a Bachelor’s and Master’s Degrees in English from California State University East Bay. 

    She strategized her own children’s pathway to Harvard and the University of Southern California. Roxanne Ocampo “Quetzal Mama” shares her strategies in her book, “Flight of the Quetzal Mama: How to Raise Latino Superstars and Get them into the Best Colleges.”

    Ocampo’s book was written for Latino parents, her advice for parents is not to look to understand why their children should go to college, but rather on how to get them there. Her writing comes from working directly with Latino students including traditional, non-traditional, first-generation, migrant, as well as undocumented students. It includes culturally authentic language and examples, recognizable colloquialisms, personal, and relatable stories. She addresses specific needs and challenges.

    Dolores Huerta, the Dolores Huerta Foundation President, stated “Quetzal Mama is empowering Latino students and parents to break down the barriers to their college success.”     

    "Impressive, well written, and straightforward. Quetzal Mama cuts to the chase. She doesn’t just tell you why your Latino children should go to college. She shows you how to get them there. ¡Apúrate! Get this book!” stated Fred M. Tovar, Director of Students Affairs, and Assistant Director of Admissions Stanford University School of Medicine.

    She travels throughout California conducting student and parent workshops regarding college admissions, and competitive scholarships. The students from her practice have earned national scholarship awards and admission to prestigious universities including the Ivy Leagues.

    She is a contributing author for “Joaquin” magazine. She is partnered with Project Ivy League USA, and at the 25th Annual Latino Leadership Network Conference in Long Beach, California.  

    She conducts workshops throughout California for middle school and high school students. The students from her practice have earned national scholarship award and admission to the most prestigious universities.

    Her book provides resources, tips, strategies, and practical wisdom. The content appeals to Latino students as each chapter includes culturally-authentic language and examples, recognizable colloquialisms, personal and relatable stories, and addresses our specific needs and challenges.

    This book will empower Latino parents so their children can achieve academic excellence, become the leaders they were intended to be, and make a valuable contribution to the country.



    Less educated Hispanic population presents both a promise and a challenge  

    By Juan Castillo


    Everyone talks about the Latino population boom in the Austin region, but did you know that Hispanic residents will become the largest portion of the Central Texas workforce sometime in the near future?

    What’s not clear is whether they will be driving the region’s economy or will be left behind, my colleague Dan Zehr writes in Sunday’s American-Statesman. That’s because the fast-growing Latino  population tends to be less educated as a whole, and skill levels required for meaningful, well-paying jobs keep rising.

    Zehr and I teamed up for an in-depth look at what some describe as an intersection between worrisome trends and encouraging opportunities.

    Latino higher education gaps are closing, thanks in part to the work of scholars and community, business and education leaders who have sought for more than a decade to better understand the wide range of factors that can influence educational outcomes for Latinos.

    One of the strategies they’ve employed is mentoring projects like the one at the University of Texas’ Project MALES (Mentoring to Achieve Latino Educational Success).  There, students like Jacob Campos, a second-year biology pre-med major at UT, mentor younger students like Justin Mello, a junior at Austin’s Travis High.

    Though he was a top student at his Amarillo high school, Campos didn’t know who to turn to when it came time to apply for college and financial aid. He got help from a college talent search program targeting Latino students, and he won scholarships. Now Campos is giving back through his work at Project MALES.

    With his smallish frame and uber youthful looks, Campos, 19, seems perfect for the movie role of the high school undercover cop. The students he counsels are not much younger than him, and to get in their heads, Campos must do a delicate dance between nurturing trusting relationships and offering advice some might not want to hear.

    In 2012, Campos told Mello that he would need to lift his grades if he wanted to achieve his dream of going to UT. Campos thought Mello at first did not appreciate the advice.

    But mentoring is important and rewarding, Campos said. Mello picked up his grades and he credits Campos for his advice to keep a schoolwork to-do list, “to keep track of all the important stuff.”

    Mello, 16, said a good mentor is one who leads by example. “Jacob’s helped me,” he said.

    Zehr and I interviewed more than two dozen people for our stories, including researchers, mentors and education advocates who said Latino students can succumb to a culture of low expectations fed by various factors, including an unequal education and an educational system that treats Latinos differently, and textbooks which ignore their history, contributions and role models.

    Wanda Garcia, daughter of the late Mexican American civil rights icon Hector P. Garcia, said her parents drilled the expectation of a college education for their children. At home she could look across the dinner table and see the face of a civil rights warrior, but in the classroom, her textbooks did not hold up a mirror to Latino contributions.

    “There was no history for me to look at, to take pride in my culture,” Wanda Garcia said. “Mexican-Americans fought and died at the Alamo, but when you go to school, do you hear about them?”

    Garcia, who graduated from UT with degrees in zoology and chemistry, said that in being left out of textbooks and the historical record of Texas, Mexican Americans do not have a cultural identity.

    “Nor do we know our history,” she said. “When we don’t know our history, that takes away pride in our culture. I know I was called “dirty Mexican.” I was told I was stupid. Other kids had to go through this.”

    In recent years, Latino leaders have criticized state Board of Education decisions blocking efforts to include more Latino figures in textbooks, charging Republican board members with trying to rewrite history.

    “We have to make education more relevant, more factual,” said Jim Estrada, an Austin consultant and author who is on the board of the American Association for Hispanics in Higher Education. “We’re surrounded by cities like San Antonio, Laredo and all these names of rivers and states and people, yet we don’t know what’s occurring with our culture and our contributions.”

    Sent by Wanda Garcia 





    My Father, the Miracle Maker
    by Esther Bonilla Read

    My father, an immigrant from Mexico, began working in Calvert, a small  town in Central Texas for a gentleman Monroe Miller sometime in the 1920s. He and my mother, also an immigrant from Mexico, married in 1927 and began a family.
    In those years schools were separate institutions for the various ethnic groups, Hispanics, the Blacks and the Anglos. Central Texas, where my parents settled, was no different from the other parts of the state: separate schools.
    My father was a hard-working, reliable, and trustworthy individual. In other words, his employer respected him and didn’t want to lose him. In 1935 my oldest brothers were eligible to begin public school. The problem was that their school, or the school assigned to Latinos was out of town and was a one room schoolhouse. The school for the Anglos was a two story building with a basement and it was located in town. The Blacks attended a school in their respective neighborhood.
    If my father drove his boys out to the one room country schoolhouse, he would be late for work. So he told his boss about the problem. His employer, an important citizen in our small hometown, spoke to the school board and the problem was solved. The town school would accept Latinos in their school. In other towns and states the schools remained segregated.
    Several years later when I was five years old and had to watch all my brothers and sister walk to a wonderful place called school, I asked my father why I couldn’t go. My father inquired about his five year old daughter attending first grade and it was approved. My first day of school was one of the happiest days of my life.
    Years after we had grown up, and married, I returned to our hometown to attend a reunion where I found out something else my father had done. A friend Jimmy Montelongo told me an interesting story.
    He said, “When I graduated from high school I was at loose ends. I walked from my home to the downtown area and back home. Your dad Ruben Bonilla stopped me as I passed his Texaco Service Station. He always asked, ‘Why aren’t you going to college?’”
    “I answered something politely, of course, but I didn’t even know how one even went to college. He kept on urging me and every time I walked by his place he always said, ‘Go to college. You are a smart boy. Look into it.’
    “I never looked into going to college, but after I married and my children began growing up I thought about what your dad had said. It wouldn’t leave my mind. So I sent the first child to college…and then the second one until all five went to college. At one time I worked four jobs, but my children went to college, and it was all because of your dad’s advice.”
    And so my father, the Miracle Maker, made a big difference in our educational lives, and in the lives of others Latinos. He did his job well.
    I saw the Latino stories last night, the stories dealing with the schools in LA. I thought about my education-small town but Great English teacher-just one English teacher. Typical small town approach.
    She made us learn 200 lines of poetry, some of which I can still recite. We read Shakespeare and the literature in the anthologies requred of High School students.
    We didn't have city type things like choir, drama, music etc., but a very good basic ed. I am so thankful.
    Esther Bonilla


    Why Your Mind is a Hurt Locker by Sean Brenner
    IS HEARTBREAK more than just a metaphor? Absolutely says UCLA professor of psychology Matthew Lieberman, whose research shows that as far as our brains are concerned, social rejection is just like physical pain. In his new book, Social: Why Our Brains Are Wired to connect, Lieberman explains that the human brain is hardwired to seek interaction with other people, and that those connections are at least as important to human survival as food, water and shelter.

    Lieberman uses functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to analyze people's brain activity as they react to social scenarios. In one experiment, subjects lay down inside and machine while wearing electronic goggles that enable them to play a virtual game of catch with two other people (actually just avatars program into the game). At first the players shared the ball equally, but after a few minutes the virtual players toss the ball only between themselves, excluding the real person. Research subjects felt slighted, but their brain scans revealed something else.

    "When you're rejected, the parts of the brain that register physical pain are more active than when you are being included," Lieberman explained. " 'So hurt feelings' or 'heartbreak' are really metaphor."

    Lieberman's research also reveals that the human brain has an innate ability to consider what's important to other people – a system called mentalizing  That system is almost completely distinct from our system of thinking and reasoning about everything else in the world, he says. The metallizing system tends to activate almost immediately when the analytical system idles.

    This insight could improve how we learn. Lieberman says. Most teaching is aimed at the analytical system, but studies now suggest that the brain's social system can be highly effective for learning.

    "Math and science aren't intrinsically social, but we could turn teaching them into a social process, with 10th-graders teaching eighth-graders and eighth graders teaching sixth graders," Lieberman says.  The student who would improve most are the people doing the teaching.

    Source: UCLA, October 2013, pg. 12


    Ivan Enrique Espinosa Takes First Place in Texas A&M University

    Cal State Fullerton senior Ivan Enrique Espinosa took First Place in Texas A&M University's Dwight Look College of 
    Engineering's Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) poster contest.  The mathematics and computer science major presented research he conducted through the Computing for Disasters REU summer program at Texas A&M University, funded by the National Science Foundation.  

    Espinoza's research focused on improving "Zero-Touch" software to make a virtural camera that can be read by other softrwaerd and to optimize the graphical performance.  He plans to pursue a doctorate in computer science and is vice president of CSUF's Video Game Design Club.  Orange County Register, Santa Ana, Oct 3, 2013 




    'Mandarin Returns Home' -- SAT Scores Climb for Asian Americans


    By Andrew Lam, New America Media, Commentary

    28 September 2013  

    According to The National Center for Fair and Open Testing, there’s a disturbing trend in SAT scores in America.

    Since 2006, the score over all has fallen 20 points, dropping from 1518 to 1498 in 2012, six years later. White students’ average score has fallen by a relatively small 4 points, though other ethnic groups have fallen by as much as 22 points.

    There’s one exception, however. Asian American students are scoring higher than ever before, and on average this population has seen their score rise by a shocking 41 points.

    The news does not shock the population that scores the highest, of course. Academic achievements have long been a nourished dream for many Asian Americans, a population in which 2 out of 3 are immigrants. It harkens back to the imperial courts of China and Japan and Vietnam. And these dreams of academic success have survived long journeys and refugee camps and, for many, they became a reality in America, where two out of three in the Asian American population are immigrants.

    Take my friend H. for example. In his first semester at UC Berkeley, H. painted a picture that harked back to a foreign and distant past. In it, a young mandarin in silk brocade and hat, flanked by banner-carrying soldiers, rides an ornate carriage down the road along which peasants stand and watch.

    We had just met then, and when he saw me looking at his painting, H. said, “Do trang nguyen ve lang” — Vietnamese for “Mandarin returns home after passing the Imperial Exam.”

    But H. didn’t need to explain. Like many Asian students from Confucian-bound countries — Vietnam, Singapore, Korea, Japan, and of course, China, what a family friend often called “chopstick nations” — I could easily decipher the image.

    In some ways, for us scholarship boys, it is the equivalent of Michael Jordan flying in the air like a god doing a slam-dunk — a dream of glorious achievement.

    H. was driven by an iron will to achieve academic success.

    While his dorm-mates put up posters of movie stars and sports heroes, the image he drew and hung above his desk was a visual sutra that would help him focus. There was no question of failure. Back home, an army of hungry, ambitious and capable young men and women were dying to take his place, and for H., a boat person who barely survived his perilous journey across the South China Sea, “dying to” was no mere idiomatic expression.

    No surprise then that almost three decades since my college days, Asian Americans dominate higher education.

    Though less than five percent of the country’s population, Asian Americans typically make up 11 to 30 percent at the country’s best colleges. In California, Asians form the majority of the UC system. And at Berkeley, Asian undergraduates reached the 39 percent mark in 2012, whereas whites are at 29 percent.

    The dream of upward mobility in Asia existed long before America ever existed. For over a millenia something of the American Dream had already taken place in East Asia, through the system of Mandarin examinations.

    Clans and villages pooled resources and sent their brightest to compete in the imperial court in hopes of having one of their own becoming a mandarin.

    Mandarins of various rankings, indeed, were selected by how well they fared through the extremely rigorous examinations. Those brilliant few who passed were given important bureaucratic duties and it was they who ran the day-to-day operations of imperial court.

    A mandarin could become governor, a judge, or even marry into the royal family. They oversaw the daily organizing of the government. A peasant thus could rise high above his station, honoring his ancestors and clans in the process. And it all hinged on his ability to pass the exams.

    That penchant for education hasn’t changed a whole lot since the fall of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). If anything it has become intensified because the modern education system in various countries — but especially in the United States — has given opportunities to far more people than ever before.

    Given this shared value, it is no surprise that many Asian parents work three jobs, live in two separate continents for the sake of their children, or spend all their savings for private schools and private tutors in order that their children will have a chance at a good education. And consequently, their children, sharing a deep sense of filial piety and obligation, find that they need to honor and fulfill their debt by achieving academic success.

    The danger is that many learned to measure the world, themselves and their children solely through a pedagogic lens. That is, education is so worshiped that not getting good grades often means failing to achieve one’s destiny and thereby failing one’s own and one’s family’s expectations, bringing shame and loosing face.

    Indeed, what's barely explored, sadly, is the darker narrative, that subterraneous stream that runs parallel to this shining path to academic success. And for those who fail to make the grade, for those who buckled under the academic pressure, there's often a profound identity crisis that often leads to disappointment, depression, and, in some cases, even suicide.

    Besides, the real struggle begins after graduation. For many who did well on tests as students, that same momentum and drive fades when they reached professional life. Then there's the glass ceiling that barely cracks: for despite enormous change and progress, there's the persistent view of Asian Americans -- preserving ties to their homeland and private cultures -- as permanent outsiders.

    The reality is that to become real mandarins in America, it takes more than high scores on the SAT.

    Andrew Lam is the author of “Perfume Dreams: Reflections on the Vietnamese Diaspora,” “East Eats West: Writing in Two Hemispheres,” and, his latest, “Birds of Paradise Lost,” a collection of story about Vietnamese refugees in the Bay Area, which is now available on Kindle

    Source: From: Carlos Munoz [mailto:cmjr1040@gmail.com]
    Sent: Monday, September 30, 2013 4:32 PM
    Subject: Fwd: Someone has sent you a message from NationofChange

    Sent by Roberto Calderon   beto@unt.edu  


     Second FERIA EDUCATIVA was held at the 
    2013 7th Annual "Festival Cardenas"
    Held Sunday October 27, 2013 
    at the Auto Club Speedway in Fontana

    With more than 100,000 people in projected attendance, the IE Regional Collaborative coordinated by the Latino Education and Advocacy Days (LEAD) Organization, will host its second FERIA EDUCATIVA to be held at the 2013 Annual "Festival Cardenas". 

    With the theme of "UNA BUENA EDUCACION", the educational zone will take place alongside the full day of free fun, food and entertainment for the entire family, and will be the “Most Attended Educational Expo for Latino Students and Families EVER!”. 

    The educational expo zone designed to provide students and their families with information and resources that will facilitate student academic achievement and their pathway to college will take place on Sunday October 27, 2013 at the Auto Club Speedway in Fontana, and runs from 9am to 1pm. The goal is to create a rich interactive space at the annual "Festival Cardenas" to help Latino students and families empower themselves with knowledge that will help them chart educational pathways; and along with providing quality food and entertainment, Cardenas Markets is dedicated to giving back to the community.

    Present and past recipients of the Cardenas Scholarships, alongside Puente Project students will serve as educational "ambassadors," with online social media components that will accompany the in-person exhibits and interactive activities provided by specified non-profits, school districts, governmental agencies, educational institutions, initiatives and projects, and the colleges and universities that make up a fraction of the IE Regional Collaborative. The larger event will also provide experiential field opportunities for students from the Public Relations Student Society of America - CSUSB Chapter.

    Among the specified joint planners and partners providing informational exhibits and interactive activities are:
    - University of La Verne
    - Mexican Consulate
    - Parent Institute for Quality Education (PIQE)
    - San Bernardino County Superintendent of Schools, Alliance for Education and MESA
    - Ontario/Montclair School District, Promise Scholars
    - Bright Prospect 
    - Chaffey College, Latino Faculty and Staff Association
    - New Futuro
    - Financial Aid Office and Student Admissions, California State University, San Bernardino

    *The 7th annual "Festival Cardenas" will feature headliner group “Los Tigres del Norte” and the larger event runs from 9am to 5pm at the Auto Club Speedway in Fontana. Two free tickets to the event are available with the purchase of $50 or more in merchandise excluding liquor, tobacco, tax and California Refund Value at Cardenas Markets stores; kids 10 and under are FREE.

    The FERIA EDUCATIVA is a community-engagement activity where we inform and inspire, including...

    1. Enthuse a college-going and career-readiness culture for all students to be prepared for a full range of post-secondary options; 

    2. Engage parents and families, with special efforts to reach Latinos, as a critical component in believing that their children are "college material" and offer opportunities to understand their role in the college process, as well as other post-secondary career opportunities; 

    3. Distribute/exhibit/present educational and career information and post-secondary opportunities, and other materials pertinent to community well-being, and be available to support families; and

    4. Build collective commitment and a partnership model that includes active involvement from all sectors of the regional community.

    With a steering committee composed of a broad array of community stakeholders and organizations, coordinated by LEAD, and jointly planned with the Partners of the IE Regional Collaborative, our Educational Zone is intended to involve, engage, inspire, and inform families along their educational journey. 

    Thank you - Gracias, EM 

    Enrique G. Murillo, Jr., Ph.D., Professor and Executive Director
    LEAD Organization
    California State University San Bernardino
    5500 University Parkway / Room CE-305
    San Bernardino, CA 92407 
    Tel: 909-537-5632
    Fax: 909-537-7040


    My Days as a Colonist/Soldier with Don Juan de Onate - Part 1 by Louis F. Serna
    Voices de la Luna, Quarterly Poetry & Arts Magazine, Editor: Mo. H. Saidi, MD, ALM

    Editor Mimi:  The piece below is in a category that Somos Primos will be identifying as Fiction/Non-Fiction.   I invite others who have written historical short stories to share with Somos Primos readers. 

    My Days as a Colonist / Soldier with Don Juan de Onate


    Louis F. Serna

    Oct 2013


    This is the story of Luis Martinez, a colonist soldier who served in the Expedition of Don Juan de Onate’s great Entrada into what is now Nuevo Mejico in 1598. Luis is in fact a fictional character born in the mind of Louis Serna, noted author of some twelve books on the history of New Mexico.

    This is the only “fictional” work by Louis, in his forty plus year career of writing about New Mexico’s history and is based on actual facts of Onate’s epic journey into NM in 1598, as Louis relives the journey through his character, Luis, and what it must have been like to suffer through the incredibly difficult journey by intrepid men, women and children in the worst of traveling conditions, in the worst weather for traveling on foot, and in the face of possible Indian attacks and all kinds of dangers that one might encounter on such a trip. Serna’s literary style tries to capture the “feelings” of young Luis, and his fears and his accomplishments as a member of the Onate Expedition, with just a touch of humor and drama added.

    Louis acknowledges Paul Horgan, author of “Great River” and Manuel Encinias and his book, “Two Lives for Onate”, as his reference  for this series of articles. My thanks to these two authors and their wonderful books.


    My Days as a Colonist / Soldier with Don Juan de Onate – Part 1

    Louis F. Serna
    October 2013

    ….. Well here I am along with two hundred and seventy other single men and a hundred and thirty families, waiting for word to come that we are finally ready to start our journey up into the mysterious country that is el Nuevo Mejico…! it’s been just a few days since I joined this rabble of human beings, cattle, pigs, goats, chickens, grumbling women, crying children, happy children, groaning oxen pulling noisy caretas, vaqueros on horses racing back and forth kicking up dust and leaving steaming piles of manure everywhere I step. Our so-called leaders are yelling out orders and cursing animals, people, the heat, and everything that seems to make them miserable…! I ask myself, “What am I doing here..???” It seems that there is a plan that we’re all expected to follow as we all head in the same direction, “para el Norte”, even though we’re spread out what seems like miles in all directions..! At the head of the “march” is the gran Gobernador himself, Don Juan de Onate, and his lieutenants, all clinging close to him as if to say, “look at me Don Juan… I am your faithful servant just waiting for your next order so I can gain a place in your good standing”…!

    I awoke this morning on the bare ground, wrapped in my mochila which I keep in the soldier’s carreta…, along with my weapons and basic survival kit… even though I really wasn’t sleeping thanks to all the noise around me… Will it ever stop..? I have other belongings, including my armor that are packed away in one of the many carretas carrying goods of other soldiers and I am trying to keep track of that carreta for the day when I will need my armor and weapons. Do our leaders really think that we are going to meet any welcome Indian tribes up ahead..? What with all the noise and dust we are kicking up that can be seen for miles ahead of us? I heard that the natives will have plenty of food in store for us, anxious to trade for our trinkets and our items that will be curious and useful to them.., but I’m afraid that they will be scared off by the time we get to their camps, in view of how we must look to them as we approach in this heavy cloud of dust we are kicking up, and all the noise being made by the drovers and the ever-complaining livestock, anxious to stop and feed and even more anxious to drink their fill of life giving water up ahead…!  I hope that the Indians we do meet will be in awe of us, as we are of them and will choose not to fight us. We were told that if we just let our officers and Indian scouts do the interfacing with the Indians we meet, we will be alright. We were also told to follow the great river, so we will always have water… but we were not told that there would be swamps, quicksand, mud, cliffs to descend and ascend, and endless sinkholes where the wheels of our carretas sink all the way to the cajon…! Getting everything wet, muddy and impossible to move… Dear Lord, forgive me for complaining so much, but why weren’t we told that our travel along this route would be such a penance..??? and why weren’t we told that the dangers of our travels would be just as deadly from all the rattlesnakes that seem to be everywhere, as the danger of ambush by the many Indians we have encountered along the outer edges of our caravan already, who like the wily coyote, snatch away the young borregitas and cabritas, as well as our chickens and anything else they can carry away on the run….! They seem to know that it is not worth the time and effort for us to chase them down over a small animal they obviously need for food. They know that we fear that a whole herd of bauling cattle might suddenly stampede away from the main herd if we run off to chase them..! After all, they live by any available opportunity to catch game or gather food however and wherever they can find it..! and their wives and children are just as hungry as ours..! and isn’t it wise to allow them this small prize in exchange for peaceful co-existance? Thank God that until now, those savages have only resorted to taking our animals for food and have not attacked us to kill or maim us as we were told to expect..! Our leaders have told us to pray that we do not encounter a large war party which would rather see us dead than as neighbors in this seemingly God forsaken country! We all agree among ourselves that at some point up ahead, we will surely have such a terrible encounter for it is probably what we ourselves would do if our homes and homelands were suddenly invaded by a large group of strangers with intentions of taking our homes, food sources, and our lands to use as their own..! and yet, the promises made to us in the beginning of this journey were that we would all become “men of worth” in this new land…, “Hidalgos…!!!” and that the lands and the riches up ahead would become ours to own for ourselves and for our families… our future generations would finally enjoy what we could never have in our mother country, Espana..!  and so we trudge along for another day in this long journey, and we suffer the hazards, the discomfort, the choking dust, the noise, and all the dangers to ourselves… always with our eyes on the prize…! The thought of owning our own destiny..! God willing, it will be worth it…. And God willing, Don Juan de Onate will at least fulfill just a few of his promises… and yet, if I should fall… perhaps a final time… it will have been worth it..! In any case, I will soon know my fate as it is already April of 1598 and the last of the expedition have joined up with us and we are only waiting for Don Juan to evoke his blessing so we can start this moving monstrosity northward.

    I see a group of men already building an altar under a grove of trees by the river, in preparation for tomorrow’s Mass. At last, we are finally ready to go and everyone is preparing themselves and their belongings for tomorrow’s departure following the Mass. We are all jubilant, despite our discomfort at having waited so long and the trip to this point… At last, we are ready to see this new kingdom that will become our home. God willing, we will all survive the journey….

    Louis Serna 


    Louis F. Serna explains, the premise is that insight is gained by viewing the small details of the everyday life, of one of the colonist / soldiers as he trudges along, suffering the trials and tribulations that they all suffered, as they slowly trudged along the trail that led up to "El Norte"... the final destination of the Onate Expedition... It is a Fiction / Non-fiction piece. As you read this, put yourself in the shoes of the traveler and try to imagine what he is experiencing, what he is seeing and what he is thinking as they all move along in a great mass of humanity... heading "para el Norte", to the "promised land"  . . . 

     Voices de la Luna
    A Quarterly Poetry & Arts Magazine
    Editor: Mo H Saidi, MD, ALM
    Voices Online, Voices Facebook, Voices Blog, Voices Twitter
    Quarterly poetry and arts magazine with international flavor and a commitment to inspire, educate, and heal community members through the arts.

    Short-short bio:  

    Dr. Mo H Saidi was born in Iran and moved to the U.S. in 1969. He became a U.S. citizen in 1975. While teaching gynecology surgery at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, he founded an OB/GYN group practice in San Antonio, Texas. He published over fifty scientific papers in American medical journals and a book, Female Sterilization: A Handbook For Women (Garland Publishing Co.). He has written over thirty short stories and completed two novels, Persian Marchers: A Novel and The Grant Writer. His first book of poetry, Art in the City, won the 2007 Eakin Award of the Poetry Society of Texas; his second book, The Color of Faith, was published by St. Mary’s University’s Pecan Grove Press in 2010, and a collection of short fiction, The Garden of Milk and Wine in 2012. His third book of poetry is scheduled to be published by Wings Press this year. He has published poems, essays, and short stories in literary and medical periodicals. He is the Managing Editor of Voices de la Luna: A Quarterly Poetry & Arts Magazine. He is a member of The Authors Guild. Saidi is married and has three adult children and three grandchildren.



    Mo H Saidi, MD, ALM
    Managing Editor, Voices de la Luna
    A Quarterly Poetry & Arts Magazine
    Voices Online, Voices Facebook, Voices Blog, Voices Twitter
    Invites all to check out his website.


    Serna's Santos
    The Flamenco Peñas in Southern Spain  
    Ramón “Chunky” Sánchez,: NEA National Heritage Fellowships Concert Webcast 
    Martha González, Musician, Dancer, College Professor, Activist , Author
    Latina Icon Magdalena Gómez Donates personal papers to University of Connecticut Archives
    Documentary: Paper Cutouts to Steel, The Art of Carmen Lomas Garza
    Sandias y Cascarones
    Statement by Armando Durón about Artist Jose Ramirez

    Statement by Armando Durón about Artist Ramon Ramirez

    Nuestra Senora de la Purisima Concepcion

    Nuestra Senora de la Purisima Concepcion


    Hello..! My name is Louis F. Serna and I live in Albuquerque, New Mexico. I have enjoyed many "vocations" during my life, and in 2012, at age 72, I decided that I would combine my interests / talents as an artist, historian, author and woodcarver, to learn the wonderful art of creating wood carved Santos and Bultos in the traditional old Spanish / New Mexico style. 

    I was very fortunate to study and learn under the tutilage of Alcario Otero, renowned Master Santero of New Mexico and to work with other santeros such as Adan Carriaga, outstanding Santero of Albuquerque, who has built a beautiful Capilla in the rear of his Studio near Old Town Albuquerque. Adan, Alcario and others founded a Santero "school" which they call "La Escuelita de el Santo Nino de Atocha". 

    Other friends who are also santeros, some in training meet at the Escuelita regularly to carve, learn, and enjoy the company of others, dedicated to the art of santerismo.

    Contact me at sernabook@comcast.net or my cell (505) 933-3168 
    or home; (505) 291-0261.



    Christ on the Cross
    The Key to the Kingdom of Heaven Our Lady of Guadalupe - 24" tall
    Our Lady of Guadalupe San Antonio
    The Crucifixion - 
    13" X18" For Sale
    Key to the Kingdom of Heaven     For Sale Our Lady of Guadalupe Our Lady of Guadalupe
    18" For Sale
    San Antonio
    14" Tall - For Sale
    San Antonio y el Nino Jesus
    Nuestra Senora de la Purisima Concepcion
    Nuestra Senora de el Rosario Nuestra Senora de el Rosario Closeup
    Nuestra Senora de el Rosario
    San Antonio y el Nino Jesus Nuestra Senora de la Purisima Concepcion Nuestra Senora de el Rosario,  
    42" Tall - For Sale


    Nuestra Senora de el Rosario
    24" Tall - For Sale
    Santo Nino de Atocha de Cebu
    Michael the ArchAngel
    La Virgen Maria
    SANTA CECILIA San Francisco de Assis
    Santo Nino de Atocha de Cebu  
    19" Tall - for Sale
    Michael the ArchAngel
    17" Tall - For Sale
    La Virgen Maria
    14" Tall - For Sale
    Santa Cecilia
    18" Tall 
    San Francisco de Assis


    The Flamenco Peñas 
    in Southern Spain

    In Jerez de la Frontera, a city in lower Andalucía in southern Spain, one of the coolest things to do at night is to go to one of the flamenco peñas.  A peña is simply a social club, but in Jerez (and in many other cities and towns in the region), a whole lot of these clubs are run by and for people who love flamenco.  

    Jerez is often called the “cradle of flamenco” (la cuna del flamenco), so it´s not surprising that there are lots of flamenco peñas.  Some of the members are professional performers, but most are not.  Some are gitanos (Spanish Gypsies), but many are not.  All of them love flamenco, and love to talk about the flamenco greats – those of yesteryear as much as those of today.  

    Usually, the peñas are open every day in the evening, and members gather to drink and shoot the breeze.  The conversation usually revolves around flamenco, with a smattering of talk about soccer and the disastrous state of national affairs.  When they have had enough to drink, someone will start to sing.  

    And the singing continues on, and on, and on.  


    Palmas are essential to flamenco. 
      Photo by Antonio de la Malena

                                  The stage of Peña Chacón

    The members not only talk about flamenco – and sing – but the peñas have stages and seating, so that they can put on performances with local talent – and local talent consists of some of the finest professionals the art has to offer.   

    One of the unwritten rules of these performances is that they must be free and open to the public.  

    Yes, free flamenco.  Free GOOD flamenco!  

    (I can actually remember when one of the peñas, which had just moved into a large, new, well-appointed and clearly very expensive building, discussed charging an entrance fee, but that idea was shocking and was quickly shot down.)  



    In Jerez, the 6-8 peñas in the old part of town each used to put on one month of flamenco a year, with one performance a week during that month.  In addition, during the two-week long, internationally famous annual flamenco festival, the peñas would rotate the honor of hosting a late night show, starting around 1am, after all the theater presentations were over.   

    Now, some of them still do this but others no longer have the money for it.   

    In the past, city government provided the peñas with quite a bit of financial support but the economic crisis has eliminated that.  The savings and loans, local wineries (Jerez is home to sherry and fine brandies), and other big businesses also used to donate substantial amounts of  funding but again, the economic crisis has cut off a lot this money.  

    As a result, some of the peñas are on the verge of closing their doors, and others have drastically cut the rates that they pay the performers.  

    But there are still enough peñas presenting their month of performances (some specializing in the singing, others in the dance, and one even offering a month´s worth of free lessons in the complexities of the different flamenco forms) so as to keep flamenco very much alive for the aficionado, including those who come to the city from abroad purely to learn more about that lively, beautiful and emotional art form.  

                                    Dancer Carmen Herrera


    Singer Antonio de la Malena  
    Photo by Miguel Ángel Gonzales

    La Paquera, another famous singer from Jerez, recently deceased

                            Young guitarist Malena Hijo

    Eve A. Ma (Eva Ma; Dr. L. Eve Armentrout Ma, Esq.),
    Producer-Director, PALOMINO Productions


    Manuel Torres,  famous Jerez singer of a generation ago.

    The author of this article, filmmaker Eve A. Ma, has shot a number of videos in Jerez de la Frontera and is currently working on a documentary about flamenco that she will co-direct with a famous flamenco singer from Jerez named Antonio de la Malena.  The documentary´s web site is www.FlamencotheLandMovie.com.  You can keep up with the news of its progress plus learn about her other work by signing up for Ma´s newsletter at www.PalominoProDVD-CD.com, where you will also have access to video clips and music from the documentary.  


    Ramón “Chunky” Sánchez,: NEA National Heritage Fellowships Concert Webcast 

    Ramón “Chunky” Sánchez, a Chicano musician & culture bearer from San Diego, California, was honored at the 2013 National Endowment for the Arts National Heritage Fellowships evening Concert evening, September 27 at George Washington University's Lisner Auditorium in Washington, DC.   The concert was free, open to the public and was also streamed live at www.arts.gov.  An archive of this event and other special events will be made available.

    A child of farm laborers with his own experience in the fields, Ramón “Chunky” Sánchez began composing music that touched on the struggles of the farm labor movement, leading to a long career of activism. He was frequently asked to play by César Chávez at rallies and marches for the United Farm Workers Union.


    Liz Auclair
    Public Affairs Specialist | National Endowment for the Arts
    1100 Pennsylvania Ave. NW | Room 525 | Washington, DC 20506
    auclaire@arts.gov | 202-682-5744 (p) | 202-682-5084 (f)
    arts.gov/artworks | @NEAarts  ??   

    Sent by Dorinda Moreno 




    Martha González, Musician, Dancer, College Professor, Activist , Author

    Hi Mimi,
    I just wanted to call to your attention this young woman, Martha González    Wise Latina
    Musician, dancer, college professor, Activist , author, Alma Awards, Grammy winner with band Quetzal.
    M Guangorena  


    http://today.uconn.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/magdalena-Gomez1.jpg Latina Icon Magdalena Gómez Donates personal papers to University of Connecticut Archives

    October 4, 2013

    By: Suzanne Zack, University Libraries

    Magdalena Gómez in rehearsal for a production of her work: ‘Dancing in My Cockroach Killers,’ at Pregones Theater in New York City. The work is being presented Off-Broadway this fall. (Kayla Creamer Photo )

    A decade after Puerto Rico became a United States “protectorate” in the 1950s, scores of islanders streamed into New York City. Among them were poets, writers, musicians, and artists who used poetry and prose to question and examine their newfound identity, culture, and history in what became known as the Nuyorican Literary Movement.

    Magdalena Gómez, a figure in that nascent movement, who used her voice to decry the oppression she observed and encouraged the disenfranchised to work to realize their potential, has recently given her personal papers to the UConn Libraries’ Archives & Special Collections in the Thomas J. Dodd Research Center.

    “Magdalena Gómez can be considered the quintessential Renaissance woman: poet, playwright, performer, writer, and social activist,” says Marisol Ramos, curator of the Latin American and Caribbean Collections and librarian for Latin American & Caribbean Studies, Latino Studies, Spanish, and Anthropology. “She is committed to Latina/o issues, and the rights of youth, women, and prisoners, as well as human rights as represented in her art, her writings, and her performances.”

    Ramos believes the campus community and those well beyond its borders will find Gómez and her personal papers a rich resource.

    Says Fany Hannon, director of the Puerto Rican/Latin American Cultural Center, “I’m thrilled the University has acquired the papers and works of a Latina icon like Magdalena Gómez. With negative Latino stereotypes perpetuated in the media, it is both refreshing and empowering to have the positive example of a person who strives to succeed every day. Anyone, regardless of gender, ethnicity, cultural background, or social status, can identify with her work, which is synonymous with activism, community advocacy, and perseverance.”

    Gómez began as a performance poet at the age of 17 in New York, and was championed by scores of notable poets, but eventually left the Nuyorican Movement to follow her own path.

    For most of her life, both in New York City and, more recently, in Springfield, Mass., she has created her own unique style. She has toured nationally as a motivational speaker and teacher, and with Maria Luisa Arroyo, co-edited a book on bullying, Bullying: Replies, Rebuttals, Confessions, and Catharsis (2012), which gives voice to affected people, from young teens to those in their 80s.

    She recently witnessed the off-Broadway production of her work, “Dancing in My Cockroach Killers,” by the Puerto Rican Traveling Theater and Pregones Theater, which opened to considerable acclaim on Sept. 19 and runs through Oct. 13. The production is a selection of her work, adapted and musicalized for theater.

    “Magdalena Gómez is a prolific, fierce writer whose work can find a voice in other artistic forms, like theater, music, even dance,” according to veteran performer, theater director, and dramaturge Rosalba Rolon, who directed Gómez’s production in New York.

    In addition to her writing, Gómez is the co-founder and artistic director of Teatro V!da, the first Latino theater in the history of Springfield, Mass., started in 2007 with support from the Latino Breakfast Club. She received a National Association of Latino Arts and Culture artist’s grant for her work on anti-bullying initiatives with Teatro V!da in 2010, and was named a Master Artist by National Endowment for the Arts presenters, the Pregones Theater.

    Gómez’s connection with UConn began several years ago, when she performed in Hartford with Fred Ho, an American jazz saxophonist, writer, and social activist. History professor and founding director of the Asian American Studies Institute Roger Buckley, who attended the performance, was so struck by Gómez’s poetry that he invited her to speak in his class. During the class, Gómez performed a monologue in which she drew an analogy between the American treatment of Japanese during the war and the physical violence she herself had experienced as a young woman, describing both actions as demonstrating a profound effect on the human condition.

    Gómez credits Ho (whose personal papers are also housed in UConn’s Archives & Special Collections) with introducing her to UConn through Buckley and Asian American Cultural Center director Angela Rola.

    “On the journey to liberation, we must be able to differentiate the essential self from the influences that have formed the cascara or outward shell of who we present to the world,” Gómez says. “Critical thinking and the questioning of authority allows us to embrace the liberating effects of imagination, invites us to honor our intuition, and encourages us to activate an intentional creative practice.”

    A special event will celebrate Gómez’s life and career and the arrival of her personal papers in the UConn Libraries’ Archives & Special Collections on Oct. 9 at 4 p.m. in the Student Union Theatre. For additional information, contact Marisol Ramos: Marisol.ramos@uconn.edu, or 860-486-2734.

    Enjoy!  Marisol

    Marisol Ramos
    Subject/Liaison Librarian for
    Latin American & Caribbean Studies,
    Puerto Rican/Latino Studies, Spanish & Anthropology
    & Curator of the Latin American and Caribbean Collections
    Thomas J. Dodd Research Center

    http://today.uconn.edu/blog/2013/10/latina-icon-donates-papers-to-uconn-archives /

    Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D. beto@unt.edu 




    Estos cascarones fueron cortados con un láser de presisión de alta intensidad. Esto nos da una muy buena idea de lo que puede ser logrado con la tecnología láser. ¡Es increíble lo que se puede hacer con un cascarón de huevo y un láser!

    Nos podemos imaginar de lo que se trata una cirugía láser cuando se lleva a cabo en el ojo de alguna persona. Después de ver esto, ¿Cabe alguna duda de cómo la visión de alguien puede ser mejorada en tan sólo unos cuantos momentos? La ciencia es aveces maravillosa, y todavía está en la frontera de ganar nuevos conocimientos. 


    Sent  by  strelkas9@speedy.com.ar


    Documentary: Paper Cutouts to Steel, The Art of Carmen Lomas Garza

    A captivating documentary that traces the creative process by which Chicana artist Carmen Lomas Garza's paper cutouts become two-story steel murals that celebrate culture and transform an old motel into award-winning housing in a Houston barrio.
    Produced and Directed by Arturo L. Garza, Katudi Productions.

    The World Premiere was held in September during the California WINE COUNTRY FILM FESTIVAL. 

    Wine Country Film Festival website: http://wcff.us/2013/shorts-programs/art-transforms-an-arts-in-film-short-program /

    Katudi Productions website: http://papercutoutstosteel.com 

    Review in  http://www.elinkstoday.com/2013/09/01/documentary-paper-cutouts-to-steel-continues-to-another-festival/ 

    Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.  beto@unt.edu  


    Statement by Armando Durón about Artist Jose Ramirez


    Jose Ramirez’s latest work for Avenue 50 Gallery is both a leap of faith and of vision for this veteran artist. Ramirez has long been known as a painter in the naïve style, with the continued use of a primary pallet for many years. Yet his works have always had social and political context that lie just below the surface of all those innocent faces. Two works in this exhibition are true to that genre.

    But it is his new works that are at once monumental and evocative of a change in style. Heaven n Hell and Mapa del Jardin can be called expressionist. Ramirez has used the same composition as in his previous works but has left images unfinished in a way that suggests suffering, death and even decomposition. Heaven n Hell is especially haunting. Using red to the point of complete saturation, Ramirez has called to mind global warming, bloody revolution or hell—take your pick. In his earlier work, Ramirez would have continued to paint until those familiar colors distinguished the people and the scenery. Here, Ramirez forces the viewer to take a closer look. By painting less, he has achieved more. The various stages of completion suggest the various stages of life as it is lived by those subjected to oppression, famine, war, violence and all their permutations.

    While some might think the piece is more about hell than heaven, this would be a misreading. The key is found in Mapa del Jardin where the same vegetation found in the background of Heaven n Hell is now in the foreground. The viewer is invited to navigate through the lush vegetation of Ramirez’s Eden garden to experience the other side of humanity, where, once past the suffering, heaven is just a step away. Our task is to find our way through to the city on the hill. The path is there but we can’t see it unless we deal with that suffering humanity that faces us.

    These works are a natural progression for an artist deeply committed to his art and to his long-held beliefs. It is important for the viewer to come along on this adventure. We too must grow out of our comfort zones; we too must confront our demons if we are to experience the lush garden of artistic satisfaction.

    -Armando Durón


    Avenue 50 Studioa 501(c)(3) non-profit art galleryMenuSkip to content 


    Statement by Armando Durón about Artist Ramon Ramirez

    Sky predominates in the latest work by Ramon Ramirez. Like an overture to a great movie or ballet, it sets the mood and hints at what Ramirez is trying to tell us. For us to hear, we need to see beyond that sky in each work to understand that these pieces are not about the cityscapes we see. They are beyond seeing…and into experiencing.

    The use of oils on canvas is considered ill-advised today as artists rush to finish as many works as they can as quickly as possible. Ramirez returned to oils in order to take his time in developing not only those skies and those structures below, but so that we too may contemplate the moment when we can reflect on where we have been and where we are going. Equally, this work is not about the constructed buildings that appear in the lower third of the canvas, which Ramirez as a trained architect is more than capable of drafting. Instead, the structures serve as the walls that keep one from gazing up and beyond our daily lives, often until our days are nearly done and it is too late to turn back. Their flatness against the canvas allows us to see past the structures and those skies.

    In the six works that comprise this series, Ramirez is showing us how we can make negative space the focus, if we let it. Here, it is the space in between the sky and the buildings and the palms. It is the space where the intellectual in conceptualism and the most spiritual in Zen quietly meet. It pulls us with a special gravitas that compels one to wonder where (s)he is ultimately headed.

    By omitting the cityscape in They Came to Watch Us Fall, Ramirez is taking this vector to its final point in the hope that we will take that moment we need to see what we might become if we are not careful. The palms are already ghosts—sometimes we already are—lamenting at the end of life, but now knowing why. Ramirez is gently warning us against this proclivity in the human condition.

    These contemplative works do not rely on metaphor or devise. They are straight forward if we only take that second to stop and look, listen and experience our existential selves. Can we take it? Yes, we can. Thanks Ramon!

    ̶ Armando Durón

    Avenue 50 Studioa 501(c)(3) non-profit art galleryMenuSkip to content 

    Spanish SURNAMES . . . Fernandez

    Fernandez Genealogical Reunion
    27 July 2013 
    Corpus Christi, Texas

    Presentation 2: The First Fernandez to the New World 
    & God’s Intervention in Evangelization of the New World

    By Refugio S. Fernandez

    1492- 1750

    Most of the images in this presentation come from google.com/images of _____.

    The story of the presentation comes mostly from the following books/sites, but there are others not identified here:

    1- Don Pedro Salazar de Mendoza, “Monarquia de Espana,” Don Bartholome Ulloa, Mercader de Libros, Madrid, 1770;

    2- Eugenio del Hoyo, “Historia del Nuevo Reino de Leon, 1577-1723” Editorial Libros de Mexico, S.A. Mexico, D.F., 1979;

    3- William H. Prescott, “History of the Conquest of Mexi , & History of the Conquest of Peru,” cooper Square Press, Inc imprint of the Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, New York, “Mexico” first published in 1843, and “Peru” first published in 1847;

    4- Hammond Ennis, “The Conquistadors,” Alfred A. Knopf, NY, 1969;

    5- Hugh Thomas, “Rivers of Gold, The Rise of the Spanish Empire, from Columbus to Magellan,” Random House Trade Paperbacks, New York, 2003;

    6- Hernan Mexia Mirabal, “Biografia Historica: Los Antepasados, a lo largo y mas alla de la Historia Argentina,” Carlos F. Ibarguren, 1983;

    7- www.catholic.org, “Our Lady of Guadalupe.”

    1- In early 1492, Spain conquered the last remaining stronghold of the Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula, at Granada. King Ferdinand and Queen Isabela “la Catolica,” permitted the emir at Granada to leave with his Muslim horde in peace out of Spain.

    2- (miscosas-y-yo.blogspot.com) 

    Columbus had attempted several times to get funding from the Spanish crown for a voyage west, a shortcut he estimated to the Orient, to the Sp e Islands, Japan, and China. He would line up with peasants, citizens and rich 
    people every week at different towns where all spoke of grievances, health, and/or food shortages with the king & queen face to face. But Ferdinand and Isabella gave full attention to driving the Muslims out of Spain. When 1492 arrived, and Spain was able to finally conquer the last Muslim stronghold in Granada, Ferdinand and Isabella turned their attention to their countrymen and other initiatives.



    Queen Isabela “La Catolica” threatened to pawn her jewels to fund Columbus’ trip. 

    Spain’s treasury was virtually empty. Finally, the Church in Spain came up with funds  from its coffers for the trip.

    Print, colorized by author. 

    The first Fernandez men to come to the New World in the first voyage with Columbus were Rui Fernandez from Andalucia, Spain and two Gonzalo Fernandez men from Segovia. Rui was a close friend of Columbus, and he traveled with Columbus on the Santa Maria, the biggest ship. 


    Columbus departed Seville
    with his ships in early Aug 1492. He stopped near Cadiz, at the Franciscan monastery La Rabida. Columbus is said to have prayed before the Christ of La Rabida. Before he departed, Columbus and his crew were blessed by the monks Fray Francisco de Bolanos, Fray Juan Perez and Fray Antonio de Marchena who were instrumental in getting the Spanish monarchs to listen to Columbus.



    Spain funded three ships, the Nina, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria, with 90 men, 24 on the Nina, 26 on the Pinta, and 40 on the Santa Maria.


    (Colorized by Author) The color green identifies the islands and coastlines plored or observed by Columbus. He did not know the shapes nor zes of La Espaniola or Juana (Cuba).

    In early September 1492, after a month at the Canary Islands, loading food and supplies, he sailed west to search for the shortcut to the Orient. God must have been looking after him because during the months of th hurricane season in the tropics, he did not encounter any hurricane or bad weather. He arrived at San Salvador in early October. He named all the islands h encountered, starting with San Salvador, then Santa Maria de la Concepcion, Fernandina, Isabela, Juana (now called Cuba), Inagua Grande, and finally La Espaniola, or Haiti and Santo Domingo, as called today.




    He landed on the first island he discovered and claimed it for King Ferdinand and Queen Isabela. When they got to “Juana”, the captain of the Nina, Alonso Pinzon, mutinied with his crew. He left Columbus, the Pinta and the Santa Maria behind and went to look for gold.

    Columbus first met native men, who were oblivious to their nakedness. The women stayed hidden behind trees or bushes. When the omen finally did come out in the open, Columbus’ men wanted to marry them right away, when they saw all those lovely Taino Indian women, naked. Nobod on the islands knew about covering their private parts.



    Things were going well for Columbus until the ships reached the northwest coast of La Espaniola.  There, the Santa Maria hit a reef. The Taino Indians saw the Spaniards’ predicament and helped rescue them, and helped them transport their goods to the island.

    The Santa Maria could not be repaired. Because all th paniards could not return home on the smaller Pinta, Columbus had the Santa Maria dismantled and the lumber used to construct a fort to protect forty Spaniards, who had to stay behind. The fort was called La Navidad, because it was built on 25 Dec 1492. It was built near Taino settlements, not a good idea. The two Gonzalo Fernandez men were left behind. And Columbus sailed back to Spain in early January 1493. Along the way back near the islands, he encountered onso Pinzon, who was very apologetic, and showed Columbus a few pieces of gold he had found on some of the islands he had explored. They sailed to Spain with Columbus planning to take Pinzon to court for his mutiny. They got separated because of very violent storms at sea and arrived at different places in Spain. Pinzon died almost immediately after arriving in Spain.  

    Fernando and Isabela were overjoyed to see Columbus back so soon. Columbus came before the king and queen with six Taino Indians, exotic fruits like pineapples, exotic animals like parrots, and some gold. He was immediately rewarded with funding for another expedition. Excitedly, Columbus claimed there were “Rivers of Gold,” which was not true.


    This second voyage the fleet consisted of 17 ships and 1500 men with some women. Many rich people along with soldiers, priests, sailors and laborers sailed to La Espaniola. Queen Isabela did not want women to go because she feared they could become prostitutes with so many men. The historian Bartolome de las Casas noted that if these personages from high society, “had known what the work would be, I do not believe that any one of them w have gone,” to the New World. They expected to easily find gold on top of the ground next to rivers and streams.

                                  Poster by author.


    Map by author

    Those locations in green are ones Columbus saw or explored. Borequin was the name that the natives, the Tianos, called it. Today it is known as Puerto Rico. Columbus sailed from the south, north, northwest, and found many more islands along the way to La Navidad, and he named them all. He found cannibals, called Caribs, and the remains of human parts, cooked or ready to be ooked. It appears that Columbus was very excited about his discoveries b se his ships sailed west and found some islands, then northwest and found some more; then north, then northeast, northwest, and west, then north again, than south, and finally west again. He discovered about 10 more islands.

    Columbus sailed from the south, north, northwest, and found many more islands along the way to La Navidad, and he named them all. He found cannibals, called Caribs, and the remains of human parts, cooked or ready to be ooked. It appears that Columbus was very excited about his discoveries b se his ships sailed west and found some islands, then northwest and found some more; then north, then northeast, northwest, and west, then north again, than south, and finally west again. He discovered about 10 more islands.

    When they arrived at La Navidad, the fort had been burned down. All the Spaniards, except for a doctor Juan Lepe, (Mary Johnston, “1492,”Little, Brown & Company, 1922 1922)                                                                                                                             Illustration by author
    After the return of Columbus, the Spaniards built another settlement, Monte Cristo, on the north o the island near the coast. They also found “crosses” and thought Christianity had gotten to the islands. But those crosses were used by the natives to warn when a hurricane was approaching. Because of extensive damage from hurricanes, Columbus had his brother Bartolome establish another settlement on the south side of the island for protection against the fury of hurricanes. The new settlement was called Santo

    Map by author.
    Red lines indicate a voyage away from Monti Cristi; where levander indicates the exploratory trip back to Monti Cristi.  

    Columbus made other discoveries during this voyage. Gold was discovered and mined in Espaniola. However, many well to do Spaniards returned to Spain after finding that gold did not lay on top of the ground rea to be picked up. They had to sweat and toil hard to get it out of the ground. They had not come prepared to work. Most of the laborers and farmers stayed in the new land where they could get their own land and slaves to work their land for free from the royal crown, plus no taxes for ten years. They could become Hidalgos, rich men of non-royal or non-noble blood.


    Map by author.

    Historians have not found a listing of passengers in the third voyage of Columbus. It is known that he had great difficulty in obtaining passengers because word had gotten out that Columbus’s enthusiastic stories of his discoveries were not totally true. Gold could not be found easily in La Espaniola. In the spring of 1498, he bought six ships for supplies and personnel for Santo Domingo on La Espaniola. In late May 1498, he sent three ships directly to La Espaniola while the other three he took explore the New World from the south. He discovered the northern tip of Venezuela and the Windward and Leeward Islands all the way to the northern tip of Cuba. He always thought he was near Japan and China, but he was not even half way there.


    Map by author.

    During his fourth voyage in 1502, Columbus discovered the Yucatan Peninsula down to Costa Rica.” In Jamaica, Columbus’ ships broke up due to termite damage. Two men had to sail in a canoe to Hispaniola to get help.  In the early 1520s, a rich merchant named Juan Fernandez de Castro, hopefully, not in our direct linage, got permission from the Spanish government to bring two thousand slaves. After this accomplishment, he asked for permission to bring another four thousand.

    (en.wikipedia.org) A legend existed among the natives of the New World which told the Aztecs that their god of learning,
    Quetzalcoatl, who was tall in stature, of white skin, black flowing hair, and with a beard, was going to come back from the East and was go g to change their civilization. The description came to be to the Aztecs, that of Hernando Cortez, the commander of the Spanish forces. The Incas and the Mayas had similar fears. In March 1519, the long expected “white god,” Hernando Cortez, arrived at the eastern shore of Mexico with eleven ships and five hundred conquistadors to conquer New Spain (Mexico) for Spain.7 Conquistadores were fearless fighters and battle hardened during the many battles in Spain again the Muslims. Therefore, three months later, the Aztecs were conquered. One of the first Christian acts of the Spaniards upon arrival at the port now called Veracruz was to participate in a Mass. The Tabasco Indians were amazed to see all these Spanish warriors in battle armor kneeling before a crucifix. Many Indians were baptized after that first Mass.

    Fourteen Fernandez soldiers came with Cortez, and a few survived the bloody battles with the Aztecs to become important personages as royal officials and soldiers in the
    formation of Mexico. The three from Sevilla and the two from the Province of Extremadura may be cousins or nephews in our Fernandez line.

    Graphic by Author

    It is said that the Spanish soldiers prayed before they went into battle with the Aztecs. The war lasted three months. The soldiers  said they had never experience a warrior so persistent in battle as the Aztecs. Hundreds of thousands of Aztecs appeared from all over Mexico. Montezuma died during the battles.

    During that “sad night,” Cortez barely escaped with many of his troops from the royal city. Thousands of Tlaxcalans were killed. And 40 conquistadors were captured. Some were tortured, quartered, cooked, eaten, and their roasted heads then thrown at Cortez’ army to terrorize it. Others were taken up to the pyramid of sacrifices and their hearts were taken out amid their agonizing screams, which Cortez and his troops heard from six miles away. They could do nothing about it except pray for their souls. When more Spanish reinforcement arrived, Cortez led his huge army of conquistadores and allied Indian nations against the Aztec capital.
    They killed almost every Aztec and burned all the buildings to the ground Then, there remained just an eerie silence in the city.


    In 1530, Nuno de Guzman explored among the Zacatecan & Chichimecan Indians of Nueva Galicia. Four Fernandez soldiers were with him. e, Alonso de Fernandez from Badajoz may have been a relative. In 1540, more Spanish soldiers arrived with three Fernandez. Two Francisco Fernandez, one from Caceres and one from Sevilla may have been our relatives. Also in 1540, one Fernandez accompanied Francisco de Coronado to southwestern United States. I have no formation on him.
    Graphics by Author
    From 1513 through 1538 a number of Fernandez men and women traveled to Santo Domingo, Cuba, Venezuela, Central America, interior of South America, and Guatemala, and Mexico. But our one ancestor, our 8th Generation grandfather, Juan Fernandez de Castro arrived from Spain at Santo Domingo in the spring of 1535.   

    Graphic by Author

    Around 1480, our 9th generation Fernandez grandfather, Hernando de Castro was born in Caceres, Extremadura, Spain. It is next to the border with Portugal. He came from a noble Jewish family who served several kings of Spain. In the Middle Ages, the De Castro family was one of the top five rulers and land owners in the peninsula. The family was very powerful and wealthy. This De Castro family, along with others from Portugal or near the Portuguese border had been Jews, but, were forced to convert to Christianity or Catholic, in order not to be forced out of Spain. So, they were “new Christians.”  In 1504, Hernando married Teresa Lopez de Figueroa, a lady-in-waiting for Queen Isabela.

    Royal records indicate that on 30 March 1504, the treasurer of Prince Felipe I and Dona Juana (la Loca), gave Teresa funds for her lady-in-waiting royal dress. Then about April 1504, Ochoa de Landa, the Royal Treasurer, gave Teresa funds for her wedding dress. I estimate that she and Hernando got married around June 1504. They had three sons: Hernando de Castro Figueroa, born in 1506; Juan Fernandez de Castro Figueroa, born around 1520; and Pedro Figueroa de Castro born around 1521. If you wonder why
    there is so much difference in years between the first son and the other sons, Hernando de Castro was sent by the king on diplomatic missions which took months and years of travel, especially to China, by sailing ship via South Africa. So, they were separated often.

    Report From Fernandez Pedigree Tree,  compiled by Refugio S Fernandez, Jul 2013
    Below is an alphabetical surname listing of all the ancestors on the tree from these dates 700 AD to 1492 AD

    Name                     Birth date                    Death date Name                      Birth date                     Death date

    Adosinda Abt. 718

    Estafania Alfonso

    Alfonso I 693 757

    Alfonso II Abt. 759 842

    Alfonso III Abt. 848 December 20, 910

    Estafania Alonso

    Luis de Acuna y Altamirano

    Munina of Alva

    Dona Maria Alvarez

    Dona Toda Alvarez

    Elo Alvarez

    Fernando Alvarez

    Toda Alvarez

    Teresa Ansurez

    Andregota Galindez of Aragon

    Aurelius Abt. 740 774



    Enrique de Benavidez Bazán

    La Infanta Beatriz

    Cristina Bermudez

    Doña Inés de Rioboó Bermúdez

    Pedro Bermudez


    Bermudo I Abt. 738 Abt. 797

    Bermudo II Abt. 939

    Pedro José Baltasar de Castro Cabrera y Bobadill 1631

    Andrés de Castro Cabrera y Bobadilla

    Doña Teresa de la Cueva y Bobadilla

    Félix de Castro y Bobadilla

    Francisca de Cárdenas Castro Cabrera y Bobadilla

    Francisca de Castro Cabrera y Bobadilla

    Inés de Castro Cabrera y Bobadilla

    Pedro Fernández de Castro Cabrera y Bobadilla 1570

    Rodrigo de Castro y Bobadilla

    Doña María Teresa de Pedrosa y Bracamonte

    Doña Juana de Almendros y Bustamante

    Alonso Carnero

    King Pedro I of Castilla

    Per Afán de Ribera y Castilla

    Fernan Gonzalez of Castille

    Dona Catalina de Mazuelo y Castro

    Doña María Josefa de Zúñiga y Castro

    Gregorio de Castro y Mazuelo Castro

    Joaquin de Acuna y Castro

    José Dávila Vergara Coello y Castro

    Juan de Acuna y Castro Castro

    Margarita Rosa Dávila Vergara Coello y Castro

    Maria de Acuna y Castro

    Maria Magdalena de Mazuelo y Castro

    María Teresa de Zúñiga y Castro

    Doña Ana Francisca Hermenegildade Borja y Centel

    Doña Rafaela Luisa de Castro y Centurión

    María Antonia de Castro y Centurión  April 06, 1690

    Rafaela Luisa de Castro y Centurión February 26, 1692/93

    Rosa María de las Nieves de Castro y Centurión

    August 26, 1691 March 14, 1772

    Juan Ruiz de Vergara Dávila y Coello

    Maria Conde

    Baltasar de Moscoso y Córdova

    Alvaro Gonzalez Coutin

    Alvaro Coutiño

    Diego Lopez Davalos

    Juan Vazquez de Acuna

    Mariana de Acuna

    Martín Vázquez de Acuña

    Antonia de Alencastre

    Mencia de Alencastre

    Diego Lopez de Arriaga

    Jimena de Asturias

    Alvaro Gonzalez de Ataide

    Doña Isabel de Ataide

    Martín González de Ataide

    María Luisa de Castro y Girón de Austria

    Antonio Vázquez de Bazán

    Pedro Gonzalez de Bazan

    Doña Isabel de Borja

    San Francisco de Borja

    Teodosio de Braganza

    Pedro de Cantabria  Abt. 675 730

    Alonso de Castilla

    Don Juan Infante de Castilla

    Fadrique de Castilla

    Juana Alfonso de Castilla

    Sancho de Castilla

    Violante Sanchez de Castilla

    Agustin de Castro

    Alfonso de Portugal y de Castro

    Alonso de Castro

    Alonso Jacinto de Castro

    Alonso Nino de Castro

    Alonso Osorio de Castro 1441 August 19, 1467

    Alvar or Alvaro Perez de Castro 1240

    Alvar Perez de Castro Abt. 1384

    Alvaro de Castro

    Ana de Castro

    Andres de Castro

    Andres Fernandez de Castro

    Angela de Castro

    Antonio de Castro

    Antonio Fernandez de Castro

    Antonio Fernandez de Castro

    Antonio Fernandez de Castro

    Bartolomé de Castro

    Beatriz de Castro

    Beatriz de Castilla y de Castro

    Bernarda de Castro

    Brianda de Castro

    Carlos de Castro

    Constanza de Castro

    Cristobal de Castro

    Diego de Castro

    Diego Lopez de Castro

    Dionis de Castro

    Dionisio de Castro

    Dona Juana Garcia de Castro

    Elio Fernandez de Castro

    Ello o Eilo o Eulalia Perez de Castro

    Emilia o Muja Andres de Castro

    Esperanza de Castro

    Esteban Fernandez de Castro

    Eusebia de Castro

    Fadrique de Castilla y de Castro

    Felipe de Castro

    Fernan Guitierrez de Castro

    Fernan Perez de Castro

    Fernan Rodriguez de Castro

    Fernan Ruiz de Castro

    Fernando de Castro

    Fernando Ruiz de Castro

    Francisca de Castro

    Francisco de Castro

    Francisco Benito de Castro

    Francisco Fernandez de Castro

    Garcia de Castro

    Gaspar Fernandez de Castro 1667

    Gaston de Castro

    Gonzalo Fernandez de Castro April 16, 1586

    Gregorio de Castro

    Guiomar de Castro

    Guiomar Fernandez de Castro

    Gutierre Fernandez de Castro

    Gutierre Ruiz de Castro

    Gutierrez de Castro

    Ines de Castro

    Inez Fernandez de Castro

    Inigo de Acuna y de Castro

    Isabel de Castro

    Jeronima de Castro

    José de Castro

    Juan de Castro

    Juan Alonso de Castro April 12, 1716

    Juan Fernandez de Castro

    Juan Fernandez de Castro Abt. 1520 1604

    Juan Garcia de Castro

    Juan Lopez de Castro

    Juan Luis de Castro

    Juana de Castro

    Juana Garcia de Castro

    Juana Ruiz de Castro

    Leonor de Castro

    Leonor Ruiz de Castro

    Lorenzo de Castro

    Luisa de Castro

    Magdalena de Castro

    Magdalena de Riano y de Castro

    Manuel de Castro

    Manuel Fernandez de Castro

    Manuela de Castro

    Mari Alvarez de Castro

    Maria de Castro

    Maria Andres de Castro

    Maria Josefa de Castro

    Maria o Sancha Guitierrez de Castro

    Mariana de Castro

    Mariana Francisca de Castro

    Martin Fernandez de Castro

    Mencía de Castro

    Mencia Alvarez de Castro

    N. Fernandez de Castro

    Nicholas Fernandez de Castro

    Nicolas de Castro

    Nicolas Fernandez de Castro

    Pedro de Castro

    Pedro Fernandez de Castro June 1343

    Pedro Fernandez de Castro

    Pedro Fernandez de Castro Abt. 1155 August 18, 1214

    Pedro Ruiz de Castro
    Polonia de Castro

    Ponce Guerao de Castro

    Rodrigo de Castro

    Rodrigo Fernandez de Castro

    Rodrigo Fernandez de Castro Abt. 1090 Abt. 1142

    Sancha Fernandez de Castro

    Sancho Fernandez de Castro

    Sancho Garcia de Castro

    Teresa de Castro

    Teresa Fernandez de Castro

    Urraca Fernandez de Castro

    Ventura de Acuna y de Castro

    Urzinda Munialona de Coimbra

    Domingo de Guzmán Fernández de Córdova

    Doña Francisca Josefa Centurión de Córdova  1668   1694

    Doña Juana Enríquez de Córdova

    Dona Isabel Maria Vazquez de Coronado

    Anton Garcia de Escalante

    Teresa de Figueroa  Abt. 1489

    Aldonza Vazquez de Fornelos

    Fernando Ruiz de Castro y Portugal Lignano de Ga

    Doña Lucrecia Lignano de Gatinara

    Alvar Ruiz de Guzman

    Dona Maria Ramirez de Guzman

    Dona Mencia de Guzman

    Francisco de Guzmán

    Diego Lopez de Haro

    Mencia Lopez de Haro

    Pedro de Haro

    Urraca Diaz de Haro

    Urraca Lopez de Haro

    Fernando Garcia de Hita    Abt. 1065  Abt. 1134

    Dona Francisca de la Camara

    Francisco de Castro y de la Camara

    Juan Alonso de Castro de la Camara

    Doña Catalina de la Cerda

    Maria Porcallo de la Cerda

    Pedro de Moncada y de la Cerda

    Beltrán de la Cueva

    Beltrán de Castro y de la Cueva

    Doña Jerónima de Córdova y de la Cueva

    Francisco de la Cueva

    Isabel de Castro y de la Cueva

    Juan de la Cueva

    Teresa de Castro y de la Cueva

    Dona Francisca de la Moneda

    Dona Victoria Sforza de la Somaglia

    Alvaro de la Torre

    Dona Isabel de la Torre
    Imbaut de la Tremoilla

    Dona Mencia Diaz de la Vega

    Mencia Diaz de la Vega

    Isabel de Lancastre

    Leonor Gonzales de Lara

    Pedro Nunez de Lara

    Doña Ana de Larrinaga

    Dona Mayor de Leguizamon

    Aldonza Rodriguez de Leon

    Countess Maria Ponce de Leon

    Fernando Alfonso de Leon

    Isabel Ponce de Leon

    Maria Ponce de Leon

    Rodrigo Alfonso de Leon

    Dona N. de Lila

    Gonzalo Yanez de Lima

    Doña Francisca de Londoño

    Doña Isabel de Losada

    Constanza de Lucio

    Doña Bárbara Alonso de Maluenda

    Martin de Maluenda

    Dona Barbara de Matanza

    Juan de Mazuelo

    Andres de Melgosa

    Doña Manuela Antonia de Mena

    Diego Sarmiento de Mendoza

    Doña Aldonza de Mendoza

    Doña Catalina Mariana de Silva y Haro de Mendoza

    Emilia Iniguez de Mendoza

    García Hurtado de Mendoza

    Ines de Mendoza

    Pedro Gonzalez de Mendoza

    Doña Leonor Téllez de Meneses

    Suero Tellez de Meneses

    Emilia Iniguez de Mondoza

    Margarita de Monferrato

    N. Diaz de Montenegro

    Rodrigo de Moscoso

    Doña Jerónima de Noroña

    Juan Rodriguez de Palencia

    Dona Maria de Polanco

    Maria de Polanco

    Alvaro Jacinto Colon de Portugal

    Dionis de Portugal

    Fernando Ruiz de Castro y de Portugal 
              July 11, 1505 July 19, 1575

    Jorge Alberto de Portugal

    Leonor de Castro y de Portugal

    Pedro de Castro y de Portugal 1506

    Pedro Nuño Colón de Portugal

    Leonor de Renteria

    Mayor de Renteria

    Diego de Riano

    Doña Inés Enríquez de Ribera

    Fernando Joaquín de la Cueva Arias de Saavedra

    Juan de Salamanca

    Luisa de Salamanca

    Doña Mariana de Salazar

    Dona Isabel de Salinas

    Jorge Negreiros de Silva

    Alfonso Vázquez de Sousa

    Diego Lopez de Sousa

    Doña Leonor López de Sousa

    Doña Mentía de Sousa

    Martin Gil de Sousa

    Martin Gil de Soverosa

    Doña Inés Enríquez de Tavera

    Luis Colón de Toledo

    Dona Tomasina de Torquemada

    Estefania Perez de Trava

    Aldonza Lopez de Ulloa

    Lope Sanchez de Ulloa

    Doña María Constanza o Doña Mayor de Valcárcel

    Alonso de Valencia

    Fernando Alonso de Valencia

    Fernando Alonso de Valencia


    Aldonza Lorenzo de Valladares

    Dona Maria de Velasco

    Sancho Diaz de Velasco

    Doña María de Zúñiga

    Mencia de Zuniga

    Garcia Alvarez (born dead)

    Dona Maria del Castillo

    Dona Francisca del Peso

    Garcia del Peso

    Juan del Peso

    Lope Diaz


    Leonor Enriques


    Princesa Estafania

    Alfonso Felipe

    Prince Felipe

    Juan Fernandez

    Trigidia Fernandez


    King Don Fernando II

    Hernando de Castro y Figueroa Abt. 1506

    Pedro Fernandez de Castro y Figueroa Abt. 1521

    Senora Flamenca
    Fruela I 722 768

    Fruela II Abt. 872

    Alvaro Gallo

    Urraca Garces

    Garcia I Abt. 870

    Juan Garcia

    Alejandro de Castro y Gatinara

    Doña Antonia Girón

    Doña Leonor de Acuña Girón

    Doña Teresa Téllez Girón

    Leonor de la Cueva y Girón


    Sancha Gomez

    Ximena Gomez

    Vizconde D. Guerao

    Adosinda Gutierrez

    Doña Mariana de la Piedad Osorio y Guzmán


    Maria Iniguez

    Rodrigo JerónimoPortocarrero

    Inigo Jimenez

    Jimeno Jimenez

    Sancha Jimenez

    Diego de Castro Bobadilla y la Cerda

    Diego Martinez de Soria y Lerma

    Francisco Fernández de Castro y Portugal Lignan

    Francisco de Riano Llantallida

    Maria Lobo

    Mencia Lopez

    Gil Manrique

    Constanza Manuel

    Eylo o Dona Ello Martinez

    Rodrigo Martinez

    Catalina de Castro y Matanza

    Dona Catalina de Castro y Matanza

    Mauregatus Abt. 724 789

    Dona Catalina de Castro y Mazuelo

    Gregorio de Castro y Mazuelo

    Dona Antonia Josefa Melendez

    Dona Leonor Melendez

    Francisco de Castro y Melendez

    Francisco Antonio de Castro y Mena

    Rodrigo de Castro y Mena

    Doña Francisca de Sardeneta y Mendoza

    Dona Maria Serafina de Figueroa y Mendoza

    Doña Mariana Jerónima Baeza y Mendoza

    Inigo Lopez de la Cerda y Mendoza

    Juan Manuel López de Zúñiga Sotomayor y Mendoza

    Elvira Menendez


    Dona Leonor Munoz
    Pedro Nino



    Garcia Ordonez Abt. 1062 May 29, 1108

    Ordono Ordonez Abt. 1020 Abt. 1073

    Ordono I 821 866

    Ordono II Abt. 871 June 924

    Ordono III

    Elvira Ozores u Osorez

    Alvaro Osorio

    Ana de Castro Osorio

    Antonio de Castro Osorio

    Beatriz de Castro Osorio

    Doña Teresa Osorio

    Juan Alvarez Osorio

    Luis Osorio

    Maria de Castro Osorio

    Pedro Alvarez Osorio

    Rodrigo de Castro Osorio

    Rodrigo de Moscoso Osorio

    Rodrigo Enríquez Osorio o de Castro Osorio 1451 1521

    Teresa Osorio

    Elvira Ozores

    Dona Maria Pardo

    Alfonso Pedro

    Beatriz Pedro

    Dionis Pedro

    Juan Pedro

    King Pedro I

    King Pedro III

    Maria Gonzalez Pereyra

    Doña Leonor Pimentel Ponce

    D. Guerao Ponce

    Dona Isabel Paula de Soto y Portillo

    Guillén Ramón de Moncada y Portocarrero

    Antonio de Castro y Portugal

    Catalina de Castro y Portugal

    Catalina Fernández de Castro Girón y Portugal

    Doña María Alberta Fernándezde Castro y Portugal 1665 1706

    Fernando Ruiz de Castro Andrade y Portugal

    1548 October 19, 1601

    Fernando Ruiz de Castro y Portugal 1580 September 20, 1608

    Francisco Ruiz de Castro y Portugal

    Ginés Fernández Ruiz de Castro y Portugal

    Ginés Fernando Ruiz de Castro y Portugal 1666 1741

    Lucrecia Antonia de Castro y Portugal

    Lucrecia de Castro y Portugal

    María Catalina de Castro y Portugal

    María de Castro y Portugal

    Mariana Francisca de Castro y Portugal

    Nuño Fernando de Castro y Portugal

    Pedro Antonio Fernández de Castro y Portugal

    Pedro Fernández de Castro Andrade y Portugal

    June 29, 1524 August 21, 1590

    Pedro Fernández de Castro y Portugal 1576

    Salvador Francisco Ruiz de Castro y Portugal

    Victoria de Castro y Portugal

    Ordono Ramirez  Abt. 981 Abt. 1023

    Teresa Ramirez

    Ramiro I          Abt. 790 February 01, 849/50

    Ramiro II         Abt. 898 950

    Ramiro III         961      June 26, 985

    Elvira Fernandez de Castro Renteria

    Gonzalo Fernandez de Castro Renteria 1598 Abt. 1646

    Juan Fernandez de Castro Renteria

    Luis Fernandez de Castro Renteria

    Maria Fernandez de Castro Renteria

    Doña María de Balboa Rivadeneyra

    Francisco Gómez de Sandoval y Rojas

    Urraca Ruiz

    José Zorrilla y Salamanca

    Garcia Sanchez I

    Garcia Sanchez I Abt. 919 February 22, 969/70

    Jimeno Sanchez

    Maria Sanchez

    Martin Sanchez

    Ramiro Sanchez

    Toda Sanchez

    Urraca Sanchez

    Sancho I 935 966

    Catalina de Portugal Castro y Sandoval

    Doña Catalina de la Cerda y Sandoval

    Doña Catalina de Zúñiga y Sandoval

    Alvaro de Santa Cruz

    Silo 783


    Doña Mariana de Aliaga y Solís

    Joaquín Alvaro López de Zúñiga Sotomayor  October 10, 1777

    Manuel Joaquín Diego López de Zúñiga Sotomayor

    Suero Tellez


    Antonio de Fonseca yToledo

    Doña Teresa de Andrade Zúñiga y Ulloa


    Doña Mencía Vázquez-Coutiño

    Doña Bernardina Vicentelo

    Doña Leonor Francisca de Portugal y Vicentelo

    Vimorano Abt. 720

    Gonzalo del Rio y Zorilla

    Diego Fernández de Castro y Zúñiga

    José Alejo Antonio de Cárdenas Ulloa y Zúñiga

    María de Castro y Zúñiga

    Mariana de Castro y Zúñiga

    N. de Castro y Zúñiga 




    Researching the DNA of Historical Figures 

    Abstract: Researching the DNA of Historical Figures 

    Genetic analysis strongly increases the opportunity to identify skeletal remains or other biological samples from historical figures. However, validation of this identification is essential and should be done by DNA typing of living relatives. Based on the similarity of a limited set of Y-STRs, a blood sample and a head were recently identified as those belonging respectively to King Louis XVI and his paternal ancestor King Henry IV. Here, we collected DNA samples from three living males of the House of Bourbon to validate the since then controversial identification of these remains. 

    The three living relatives revealed the Bourbon’s Y-chromosomal variant on a high phylogenetic resolution for several members of the lineage between Henry IV and Louis XVI. This ‘true’ Bourbon’s variant is different from the published Y-STR profiles of the blood as well as of the head. The earlier identifications of these samples can therefore not be validated. Moreover, matrilineal genealogical data revealed that the published mtDNA sequence of the head was also different from the one of a series of relatives. This therefore leads to the conclusion that the analyzed samples were not from the French kings. 

    Our study once again demonstrated that in order to realize an accurate genetic identification of historical remains DNA typing of living persons, who are paternally or maternally related with the presumed donor of the samples, is required.

    Keywords: genetic identification; ancient DNA; Y-chromosome; mitochondrial DNA; Louis XVI; Henri IV


    "Memory is a moral obligation, all the time."
    -J. Derrida
    Sent by Devon G. Peña, Ph.D.

    Four Stories About Seniors by Ben Romero
    Chicken Nuggets
    Mutton Jeff
    The Closet Ballerina
    Life's Disappointments


    Editor:  The following four stories written by Ben Romero is based on the lives of residents in a senior facility, at which he is an administrator.


    A short story by Ben Romero  

    Hers is an old name, well-suited for a woman of her generation: Hilda. She loves to tell the story of her working life, and how she retired from the US Postal Service when she was a mere sixty. That was thirty-two years ago. Now her body is frail, but her mind is sharp, her voice strong.

    “I was the best damned clerk they ever had,” she says, straightening up in her recliner. We’ve shared our past so she knows our backgrounds are similar. For her, moving up in the organization had been out of the question. “When you love what you do and nobody can do it as good as you, it makes no sense to do anything else.”

    She had mastered many clerical duties during her thirty-five year postal career, but spent most of her time working the Register Room. It was a position that called for a responsible person with a strong mind and serious disposition. She would have liked to work five more years, but her ailing husband insisted they move from Phoenix to the central San Joaquin Valley. I asked what her favorite duties had been and was surprised when she said, “Handling the nuggets in the spring.”

    I had almost forgotten about the in-house postal term for day-old chicks in the mail.

    “Those chicken nuggets were the cutest things to handle. I liked them much more than the sacks of honeybees. That’s for sure.” A sly smile crosses her face, brightening up her eyes, if only for a moment. “Of course I also enjoyed handing the boxes over to the young fellas who came in to pick them up. Something about men in jeans can turn a woman on.”

    I take the opportunity to tease her. “When the doctor comes in to see you today, maybe he’ll be wearing jeans.”

    “Bah!” she says. “Before this killer cancer invaded my body I only went to the doctor if I was really sick. Five times I went over the years, and it seems each time the rabbit died.” She was referring, of course, to the old pregnancy tests.

    “I’ve met three of your children so far,” I say, hoping to keep her talking. I know the pain medication is wearing out and I want to keep her mind on other things.

    “One of my boys won’t be here,” she says. She blinks rapidly and a tear finds its way down her pale cheek. “He’s in prison… for tax evasion. Don’t ask me what got into him. That’s not the way his dad and I raised him.”

    “I’m sorry to hear that,” I say. “And your other child?”

    “Honey, my other child is older than you are. He was here last night. Let me show you what he brought me.” She wiggles in her chair to expose the thick cushion beneath her bottom. “It feels like a marshmallow.”

    She tries to laugh, but the pain overpowers her and she shuts her eyes and clenches her teeth.

    “Fifteen more minutes,” I say softly. That’s how long before her next dose of morphine. When our residents are placed on hospice, there is little we can do for them, except offer comfort and lend an ear.

    Hilda sits in silence for a long moment before opening her eyes. “Do you know what I wish?” she says. “I wish I could hold one of those baby chicken nuggets. Do you think I ever will?”

    “Probably,” I say, hating myself for lying. The unmistakable shadow of death is on her face. I doubt if she’ll last more than a few days. I leave her side and ask the caregiver to bring her morphine.



    A short story by Ben Romero

    His given name was Jacobo Monsanto, the same as his father, who came from the old country with his parents when he was just a boy. Somewhere along the way he adopted the name Jeff. He claimed it suited him well, even for a “Basque on American soil,” as he liked to say.

    From the first day he came to live in the assisted living facility, we had trouble keeping Jeff indoors, even after dark. He said he’d spent a lifetime tending sheep and was not accustomed to spending so much time under a roof.

    Jeff’s niece had a recliner delivered, along with a twin size bed and a small dresser, but he preferred to sit on an old ottoman.

    On quiet evenings he spoke about his life as a sheepherder. “I was often alone,” he liked to say, “but seldom lonely. The sheep were not great company, but Curly was the best companion a man could have. He was more than a dog. He was my family for twelve or fifteen years.” Each time he said those words his voice trembled and he wiped tears from his eyes with the back of a calloused hand. “Oh, I had a number of loyal dogs after Curly, but there was just not another like him.”

    Aside from his dogs, was there anything in particular he missed? “The nights were so quiet; I could hear the crickets a mile away. The stars were crystal clear, nothing like what you see here,” he said. “I never had use for a clock, just kept track of the position of the stars. I guess there’s too much distraction from artificial lights and polluted air in the city.”

    If not for the painful arthritis that plagued his joints, I believe Jeff would have continued his solitary existence in the remote high plains of northern New Mexico and eastern Arizona – even at eighty-five. “I’m reduced to using a walker to get around,” he sighed in frustration one afternoon. Even so, he refused to wear slippers, loafers, or tennis shoes, insisting on his worn work boots, which looked older than the faded jeans and checkered shirts that were his trademark.

    The day Jeff left us was both a sad and happy day. The other residents reasoned that he had been taken away to be in a better place. And they were right.

    It had been love at first sight. Sherry, the physical therapist was spending a few hours a week helping Jeff cope with diminishing mobility. One morning her car would not start and her elderly aunt, Gretchen, graciously gave her a ride to the facility. When Sherry introduced her to Jeff, there was an immediate attraction. She started visiting Jeff every afternoon, expanding her visits each time. And soon, he had no need for a walker. In fact, he developed a spring to his step. Eventually, he stopped grieving for old Curly and started taking pleasure in playing cards and exchanging stories with the other residents.

    After a few months, Jeff and Gretchen announced their plan to move in together. Jeff had been single his entire life and had no intention of getting hitched this late in the game, but living “in sin” with his “little leg of lamb” as he called her, was too good to pass up at any age.

    The last we heard of Jeff, he and Gretchen had purchased a new pick up truck, a camper, and a sheep dog and were planning a trip to Kansas in search of wide open spaces.  




    A short story by Ben Romero  

    Gail is tall and slim, her frame solid and straight for a woman in her eighties. She moves with poise and elegance from room to room, often humming to herself. Sometimes, late at night, she does stretching exercises in her room. The only dessert she’ll allow herself is fresh fruit, preferably berries, and nuts. Whipped cream is absolutely out of the question.

    Before Gail’s sons placed her in assisted living, due to cognitive decline, she had spent her entire adult life as a homemaker. Her husband of fifty years was a successful banker and shrewd businessman who refused to retire. Five years ago, he slumped forward into his dinner plate one evening and died. The image plays itself in Gail’s mind frequently, when out of the blue, she’ll sit up straight and say, “He had mashed potatoes on his forehead and the paramedics wouldn’t let me wipe him clean. Nobody should have to die like that.”

    In the back of her closet, Gail keeps a pair of ballerina shoes, which are her treasure. She wears them only when the other residents are sleeping. Standing in front of her full-length mirror, she stretches and dances to music that is only in her head.

    Gail’s parents were immigrants from Poland. They worked hard and raised half a dozen children during the Great Depression. “I wanted to be a dancer,” she blurted out one day during dinner. “Momma understood, but Daddy wouldn’t hear of it. He assured Momma that giving me more household responsibilities would make me forget such nonsense.”

    In Gail’s room, there is a picture of a soldier in full uniform, shaking hands with General Dwight D. Eisenhower, who later became President of the United States. “Rex swept me off my feet,” recounts Gail, full of enthusiasm. “He was dashing and handsome, afraid of nothing at all. At least that was what I thought at the time. I met him at a victory dance at the close of the war. I told Daddy I was going to my cousin, Nicolasa’s house to help her sew dresses for her sister’s wedding reception, and instead went to the dance and fell in love.”

    Days pass before I hear more about Gail’s life. As I drove her to a dentist appointment she must have felt compelled to share. “When I married Rex, we were not well off, but I was fortunate to not have to work. More than anything, I wanted to take dance lessons and pursue my passion as a ballerina.”

    “What stopped you?” I asked, pretending to be less interested than I really was.

    “My mother-in-law. Her husband died shortly after Rex and I married, and his mother came to stay with us – just temporarily, I was assured. Little did I know that she would be so controlling, and my fearless Rex was deathly afraid of her. She didn’t approve of a young bride dancing. And that was the end of that.”

    “How long did she stay with you?” I asked, pulling into the dentist’s parking lot.

    “Three years and seven months. She died in her sleep just two weeks before my first child was born.”

    “So then you had a baby to care for,” I concluded, opening the car door for her.

    “Oh, I didn’t mind caring for my baby,” she assured me. “I figured once she was weaned I could find a good nanny to help out and I could pursue my dancing. But shortly after she learned to walk, my daughter contracted polio.”

    Gail’s eyes welled with tears and I dropped the subject until we were headed back after the dentist appointment. “God knows I tried to love my daughter,” Gail began. “I just felt hopelessly trapped, and Rex was always so busy building his career. I wanted a normal daughter, one that might share my love for dancing, so I could encourage her to reach for the stars and become the person I could never be. I’m sorry to say I was actually relieved when our little Anna died, especially since I was already six months pregnant with Andrew.”

    Our conversation resumed shortly after dinner, while other residents were getting ready for bed. “Rex was the happiest man I ever knew. Louis was born to us when Andrew was three, and two years after that came Russell – you’ve met him. The boys loved sports as much as their father did, and guess who got stuck taking them to every practice and ballgame they were involved with. Me. The good Lord did not send us any more daughters, and I blame myself for that. No granddaughters either. Andrew never married, and Louis and Russell each have two boys. None of them has any interest in dancing.”

    I waited a long moment before asking my final question on the subject. “So what happens now?”

    Gail sighed deeply, brushing a tuft of thin white hair away from her forehead. “We all have our destiny and we do what we are compelled to do. Now, I dance for me,” she said, matter-of-factly. Closing her eyes, she smiled with satisfaction.

    In my profession as a care provider I’ve learned that some things are best left alone.  



    A short story by Ben Romero

    Dora had been a resident in the assisted living facility for several years when I began my employment there. She was friendly with the voice and demeanor of a woman much younger than her ninety-five years. Although she had been diagnosed with slight dementia many years prior, there was no indication that it was advancing. I suspect the diagnosis was wrong.

    “How long have you lived here?” I dared ask her one afternoon.

    “Longer than I care to remember,” she responded from the comfort of her worn recliner. Her walking was limited to short trips to the bathroom or to her bedroom, always clutching her bright-red walker, but moving with a steady gait. Most of her waking hours, however, were spent in her recliner, watching old Perry Mason reruns on television.

    I found myself speechless and she must have interpreted my silence as a need for further explanation.

    She smiled behind clear blue eyes, but it was a sad smile at best. “You see,” she continued, “I no longer measure time on a day-to-day basis as I used to when I was young. I measure it by life’s disappointments.”

    I immediately felt as if I could learn a lot from this woman and felt compelled to spend time conversing with her. During one of many talks that ensued, she surprised me with blunt details about her life.

    “I lost a son to the Viet Kong,” she remarked, without emotion. “He joined the military so he could learn to fly, hoping someday to become a commercial airplane pilot like his father. He would have done it, too, but fate plays cruel tricks on us sometimes. My husband had such high hopes for him, that he never could accept that he was gone. He drank himself to an early death, God bless his soul.”

    As we sat in the back patio one morning sipping coffee and discussing the wide assortment of flowers growing out of barrels, her mood seemed livelier than usual. She squinted against the morning sun, revealing deep lines on her forehead, and yet, her cheeks looked soft to the touch. A small cloud passed overhead, temporarily blocking the sun, and she shivered.

    “It was cold on the morning when my daughter passed away,” she said. “I shouldn’t complain. She was sixty-nine and lived a good life. With her husband dead and her kids off on their own, we had discussed moving in together like sisters. She was my oldest child and we had always been close.”

    “Is that when you came to live here?” I asked.

    Dora buttoned up her sweater and nodded. “A mother is not supposed to outlive her children. What else could I do? To be honest with you, I never expected to linger this long. I checked myself in, thinking I wouldn’t last the winter. But here I am, six years later.”

    The sun broke through the moving cloud. “And your grandkids?” I asked.

    She smiled and I could see her eyes sparkle. “They’re good kids,” she said. “The oldest is in her forties, owns her own business and never married. Her brother has a whole passel of kids, but has been divorced twice. They all send me cards and letters from time to time.”

    Dora abruptly left the facility while I was away on vacation. Unknown to me, her granddaughter had arranged to take her to live with her in San Diego. I treasure the postcard she sent me from Catalina, California a few weeks later. The only words on the card, written in bold letters with a shaky hand, were 



    Gloria Candelaria, Crossroads 
    Cuento: A Future Homemaker for America by Michele Bonilla "Lillie"
    A Library for the People by Steve Mencher
    Historical necrologies can be important sources of information
    Reporte parcial de la Conferencia Iberoamericana de Genealogía
    From Kimberly Powell, your Guide to Genealogy

    Gloria Candelaria

    The Advocate  featured Hispanics in the Crossroads through Oct. 15 for Hispanic Heritage Month.

    Video by J.R. Ortega

    Using only a fingertip, Gloria Candelaria has the power to travel 220 years into the past.

    "The red line is where I come from," said the 75-year-old Victoria woman, tracing the family tree - her family line - that she drew nearly 40 years ago.

    The fading ink on the yellowing paper is framed in gold, about 4-by-3 feet and goes through every line of her family, not just her direct line.

    "It took me 30 days to print and 30 years to find the information," she said.

    Candelaria first became interested in genealogy at 10 years old, when her grandmother and grandfather would argue over who had the stronger ancestral history.

    Her grandfather's family, she learned, helped establish Albuquerque, N.M., in the early 1700s; and her grandmother's side established San Antonio soon after, she said.

    Her family migrated mostly from Spain to Texas, she added.

    Those moments were all Candelaria needed to be where she is now - an author of at least seven books. She has also taught several classes on genealogy and Crossroads Hispanic history.

    Her family tree dates back to 1794 and took her years of traveling across the U.S. and Spain to figure out.

    Most of the answers, however, were found in Austin and archives through birth, death and deed records.

    Any one, Hispanic or not, can learn their history, all it takes is patience and persistence, she said.

    "You just start off by putting your name down," she said.

    As she became older, Candelaria even roped her kids into the research process, spending Sunday afternoons visiting area cemeteries to write down names and dates in an attempt to piece together the family puzzle.

    Robert Shook, a Victoria historian who has known Candelaria for years, said the knowledge of her history and the histories of other families in the area is an asset to the community.

    Her curiosity to always know and learn more is a quality Shook wishes more people had.

    "I've found that she is not only very helpful with our Hispanics, but she has supported me and a couple of the project I've undertaken," he said. "Her attitude is very positive."

    Shook said Candelaria has taken time to help others with their histories as well.

    Over time, Hispanics have disconnected somewhat from their heritage, by ways of language and culture, he said.

    Though people get further from their roots, Shook has seen some interest about ancestry in today's youth.

    "I've been very optimistic about our attitudes in terms of the value of our past," he said.

    If there is any imprint Candelaria wants to leave on the world, it's the knowledge of her history, she said.

    She's proud that her Hispanic heritage has so much to offer communities. Every region needs a little flavor, she said.  "You're nothing if you don't know where you came from," she said.

    Go to for a video by J.R. Ortega and information of books written by Gloria Candelaria.  




    By Michele Bonilla "Lillie"

    Most people have only one family, but I have two; the family in which I was born and my foster family! When I was young, all the children in my class worked on family trees. The teacher gave each of us a form to fill out. Because I was living in a foster home, I added the names of my foster family. At that time I didn't know much about my birth-family, but I do now.

    I enjoy being a student at Bingham High School and try very hard to get good grades. Last year as a freshman, I enjoyed running cross-country. This year I am really involved in the Future Homemakers of America. Our major goal is to build good homes for America's future. As we study to become good homemakers, we learn many useful skills. One of my goals this year has been to improve my cooking, so I have been taking a home-ec class, saving recipes and doing more cooking at home for the family. In F.H.A. we look forward to the time when we can have happy families of our own.

    In January a special friend of mine had a dream about me and how I love to bake. We were mixing a huge cake to serve many people. The cake represented my genealogy. How great it could be to gather the records of my ancestors and share them with my other relatives. We needed some money to help pay for the project but not too much. We were so happy and excited about our super project. I realized that genealogy is much greater than I ever thought it would be, interesting and not too difficult. My friend wrote her dream and gave me a copy to keep.

    Last February, for one of our F.H.A. club projects, we were in charge of the Valentine's Day festivities for Sweetheart's Week. In order to qualify for the Sweetheart's Queen, we were judged on baking a cake, wearing a formal gown, and being able to answer questions about F.H.A.

    I thought about my cake for several days. I wanted it to be different and special. On Saturday, while I was mixing and baking my cake, I was thinking about how I would decorate it. When I finally opened the oven door, the fragrant lemon smell was wonderful! I laid the two heart-shaed layers on a cake board to cool, and placed them side-by-side like a twin valentine. I iced them with vanilla frosting, then decorated the shell borders and lettering in red.' The inscription read, "Home Is Where The Heart Is." As the finishing touch, I put a little brown frosted house by the word "Home," and a red heart after the words "Heart Is." It looked really pretty. I was chosen to be second attendant to the queen, and I had a wonderful time!

    I let my interest in genealogy slump for a while, but now that I am fifteen years old, I have started finding new and interesting things about my families.

    My foster parents, Ralph and Emily Lillie, have been good examples in my life. I am very happy in this family for we try hard to accomplish many fun things that we have set out to do. They support me in F.H.A. and other school activities. We work together in the garden and oh many different projects that must be done. They help me fulfill my short and long-term goals. I have enjoyed the other foster children that have come and gone through the years.

    My foster mom has told me much about the history of our family. Records have been kept and much genealogy has been done. Mom's family came from Denmark and Sweden; Dad's from England. Grandma has a large family history book. We enjoy reading about the families and attending reunions. Mom has encouraged me to find out more about my birth family.

    When I visit my birth parents, Frank and Margaret Bonilla, we sometimes talk about our family history. I learned that my father's parents sailed from Europe to San Francisco, then were sent to the Hawaiian Islands where they lived for many years. Some of my relatives live there today.

    My birth-mother's family also originated in Europe, but many years ago. She has helped me find much new information. I have learned many things about her background from reading old letters and books that belonged to my great-aunt. One day while working at my friend's home, it took me twice as long to finish because I was exchanging family information on the phone! The next day one of our Sunday School teachers was ill, and I was invited to take her place and share all my research experiences. It was really exciting and so much fun!

    I appreciated my friend's dream about mixing the huge.genealogy cake because I often dream. One night I dreamed that my friend, Jeanene Bateman, and I were sitting in my Spanish class. Jeanene had brought her lunch to class which was very unusual. I had brought Italian dressing to add a little spice to her salad. While we were sitting together at a class table, I spilled the dressing, and it ran all over the table. I tried putting the dressing back in the bottle but couldn't. I remember telling Jeanene that I couldn't put it back. Then I woke up.

    At first I thought it was just an ordinary dream, but later I thought that maybe it wasn't. I felt that this dream had something to do with my family history, so I call my birth-father to ask him where his mother was born. He answered, "She came from Barcelona, Spain." That evening I learned that many of my ancestors were Spanish. I wonder, if the Indian dressing, some of them had not "spilled over" from Italy. It will be exciting to find that out one day. I have encouraged Jeanen to start working on her own genealogy.

    I strongly believe it is important to learn about your family background. I am finish my second year of Spanish, saving my money and looking forward happily to a trip to Spain.

    Source: Roots & Branches by Connie Rector and Diane Deputy, pg. 12-15




    A Library for the People by Steve Mencher

    Imagine your local library filled with books that tell stories written by your friends and neighbors.  And those books were painstakingly made by hand, and the stories inscribed on the pages by hand, too.  That's the People's Library, a  project launched by a team led by arts activist Mark Standquist at the Richmond Public Library in Virginia.  He sees libraries "not as a space for disseminating histories, but for producing them."

    The process begins with discarded books which are used in papermaking workshops.  The recycled paper is then bound into old book covers. The library offers classes on writing memoirs, attracting aspiring autobiographers like Meldon D. Jenkins-Jones, 63. "I'm not going to be here forever," she says, "and all this information - my life, my legacy - is going to be for naught if it's not passed on."

    One day, after Jenkins-Jones writes her story, her book will take its place alongside bestsellers and classics.  Richmond residents will check it out, learn about her life and return it.

    Source: AARP Bulletin, September 2013


    Obituary - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    A necrology is a register or list of records of the deaths of people related to a particular ... Historical necrologies can be important sources of information.


    La Conferencia Iberoamericana de Genealogía 


    Adjunto el reporte parcial de la Conferencia Iberoamericana de Genealogía que se desarrolló recientemente en Salt Lake City. Fueron 6 días pero tenemos hasta ahora los primeros 4.  Fue una experiencia maravillosa.



    Agradecemos a Luis Jose Prieto Nouel por su excelente y detallada crónica de los acontecimientos que hicieron historia en la Conferencia Iberoamericana de Genealogía, a la que se suma una selección impresionante de fotografías y como si fuera poco, las ponencias del día.

    Haz clic para ver la cronica del Día 1.
    Haz clic para ver la cronica del Día 2.
    Haz clic para ver la cronica del Día 3.
    Haz clic para ver la cronica del Día 4.


    From Kimberly Powell, your Guide to Genealogy
    More Than One Choice: U.S. Census Records Online
    Most of us have a favorite resource for searching and browsing U.S. federal census records. But what do you do when you can't find an ancestor where you expect him to be? Or can't read a census image because it is blurry or faded? Don't miss the many other online alternatives for searching and viewing U.S. census records -- many of them free!
    Search Related Topics: us census us genealogy census records

    Top 10 Deadliest U.S. Natural Disasters

    Environmental and natural disasters have claimed the lives of thousands of people in the United States, wiped out entire cities and towns, and destroyed precious historical and genealogical documents. If your family lived in Texas, Florida, Louisiana, Pennsylvania, New England, California, Georgia, South Carolina, Missouri, Illinois or Indiana, then your family history may have been changed forever by one of these ten deadliest U.S. disasters.
    Search Related Topics: natural disasters timelines local history

    The Influenza Epidemic of 1918

    If you have ancestors who died or disappeared from your family tree between 1918 and 1919, then they may have been victims of the deadly flu pandemic, which infected an estimated 500 million people, nearly a third of the world's population, and caused the deaths of an estimated 50 million people.


    Nov 9th: SHHAR meeting: Using Picture with your Genealogy and Personal Stories  
    Orange County 1800s Cultural Intermarrying



    November 9th: 
    Using pictures with your genealogy and personal stories  
       Hints and Tidbits from the Jones Family      
    FREE presentation, 10 am to 11:30
    Orange County Family Search Library
    674 S. Yorba
    Orange, CA  92863-6471

    Jim Jones, retired engineer, son, Jeffery Jones, working engineer and grandson, Anthony Jones, college student, will team up in making  a presentation on how to organize and manage your  picture in your computer. They will specifically discuss  scanning techniques, storing photos in folders by categories, and how to edit and enhance your pictures.  They will also show how pictures can effectively be used with your genealogy and family history.  A demo DVD  will be shown that will demonstrate how a picture collection can be developed with music that can be shown on special family occasions.  

    As the facility enlarged its book collection and added more computers for public use, it was renamed to Orange County Family Search Library.  Computer stations and volunteer assistance is available for free.  It is closed Sunday and Monday.
    On Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, the facility is open from 9 am to 9 pm.  On Friday and Saturday, open from 9 am to 5 pm.  

    SHHAR meetings are held the second Saturday of the month.  From 9 to 10 assisted use of the computer by SHHAR Board members.  Presentation by special guest speakers or SHHAR Board members, from 10-11:30 am.

    For more information, please contact President, Letty Rodella, 714-776-5177  lettyr@sbcglobal.net 




    Extract of information on the Children of: Juan Pacifico Ontiveros & Maria Martina Osuna 
    from The Ranches of Don Pacifico Ontiveros by Virginia L. Carpenter, 1982

    Editor Mimi: Juan Pacifico Ontiveros was the grandson of a soldier who come from Mexico to California in 1781. Juan received the Rancho San Juan Cajon de Santa Ana grant in Orange County. He married Maria Martina Osuna in 1825. Their children's and grandchildren's and great grandchildren's marriages demonstrate the cultural mix and intermingling of Spanish blood lines with other groups. Notice the great grandchildren have lost Spanish given names, as well as surnames.

    1831 Maria Petra de Jesus Ontiveros— August F. Langenberger
    Grandchildren of Juan Pacifico Ontiveros and Maria Martina Osuna:
    Carola ——Louis Halberstadt
    Maria Regina —George Crockett Knox
    Adelaide -—Edward Schubert

    1833 Maria de la los Dolores Ontiveros/ Prudencio Yorba
    Angelina—Samuel Kraemer Zoraida ——J. Coleman Travis
    1835 Ramon Gulllermo Domingo Ontiveros/Magdalena Perez
    Marta Antonia —James W. Goodchild Adela——John T. Goodchild

    1837 Juan Nicolas Ontiveros/Marta Eustaquida Serrano
    Francisco—Clara Wegis 
    Celeste Cregoria—Crisonogo Chapman

    1840 Jose Florentine Ontiveras/Tomasa Arellanes
    1866 Esequel/Eva Mary Estudillo de la Guerra
    Great grandchildren of Juan Pacificio Ontiveros/Martina Osuna.
    Lawrence Frank—-Evelyn Thornton
    Alfonso T. Peter—Gertrude Brinkman
    Clarence Z.——Mildred Hartman
    Bernie A. ——Jessie M. Miller
    Marcella Thelma Mary-Crystal Marion Clover
    Richard B. -—Anna Sawyer
    Daniel Martin —Dolores Revane

    1842 Maria Rita Ontiveros/Juan Baptiste Ruifz
    David——Olivia Sturgeon
    Maria Presentacion- Bernard Pemassee
    Estanis——lnez Foxen

    1844 Salvador Ontiveros/Maria Zoraida Olivera
    Zoraida Gabriela—Louis F. Hughes
    Salvador Fulgencio-Henrietta Lee Lancaster 
    Maria Erolinda—Jacob Portenstein 
    Ernest Lesandro—Estelle Heller

    1846 Jose Dolores Ontiveros/Augustia Flores
    Abner——Carolee Butts 
    Hortensia——Ramon Goodchild 
    Delilah—-Patrick E. Hourihan

    1848 Abraham Ontiveros/Doraliza Vidal
    Eramus ——Edith Blanche Benett Frances 
    Edmund——Frances Plummer 
    Ida——Charles Nelson Fowler


    Vintage Photographs of Los Angeles, Figueroa Tunnels and Angels Flight
    Nov. 23: Introduction to Navajo and Cherokee Nation Genealogy Research
    Cuento: A Brief Write up of my Life by Sister Mary Sevilla, Ph.D.
    Cuento: Filming to Find Grandma Rita by
    Sister Mary Sevilla, Ph.D.  
    Cuento: Wobblies in San Pedro by Arthur A. Almeida, Part 1