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Diversity Issues

JUNE 2013
153rd Online Issue

Editor: Mimi Lozano ©2000-2013

Official design for the 2013 campaign to create a National American Latino Museum:
Congratulations to Ana Maria Villegas, Contest winner, 
from Coral Springs, FL 
who will be flying to  Washington, D.C. for a special unveiling event.

Somos Primos Staff
Mimi Lozano, Editor
Mercy Bautista Olvera
Roberto Calderon, Ph,D.
Bill Carmena
Lila Guzman, Ph.D
John Inclan
Galal Kernahan
Juan Marinez
J.V. Martinez, Ph.D
Dorinda Moreno
Rafael Ojeda
Ángel Custodio Rebollo
Tony Santiago
John P. Schmal

Submitters to the June Issue

Rudy Acuna
Reinaldo Agredo Tobar
Amber Amaya
Valerie Amezcua
Dan Arellano 
Jose Bacedoni

Salomon Baldenegro
Francisco J. Barragan
Carlos Alberto Bautista Ramos
Mercy Bautista-Olvera 
Delia Benavides 
Eddie Calderon, Ph.D.
Bill Carmena
Angel Cervantes
Gus Chavez
Pauline Chavez Bent
Jorge Chino
Sylvia Contreras
Laura Cummings 
Salvador Del Valle
Gervasio Di Cesare
Connie Dominguez
Maria Embry 
Joel Escamilla
Jim Estrada
Jimmy Franco Sr.
Diana I. Fullerton
Luis Alvaro Gallo Martinez 
Dr. Lino Garcia, Jr.
Daisy Wanda Garcia
Fern Glazer
Celeste González de Bustamante
Ron Gonzales 
Gilbert Gonzalez
Sylvia M. Gonzalez 
Ana M. Grande
Odell Harwell 
Howard Hernandez
Armando Ibarra, Ph.D.

Jade Idarraga
John Inclan
Larry Kirkpatrick
Yolanda Kirkpatrick
Rick Leal
Eve A. Ma, Ph.D.
Jan Mallet 
Sylvia Manzano 
Dr. Christine Marin 
Leroy Martinez
Jesus Cantu Medel, M.Ed. 
Mary Lou Montagna
David Montejano
Sylvia Morales
Xochitl Mora Garcia
Rafael Ojeda
Natalie Ojeda
Mercedes Olivera
Ricardo Raul Palmerin Cordero
Karren Pederson
Ernesto Perales
Devon G. Pena, Ph.D.
Letty Pena Rodella 
Joe Perez
Angel Custodio Rebollo
Armando Rendon
Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez, Ph.D.
Alicia Rojas 

Santino J. Rivera 
Rudi Rodriguez
Viola Rodriquez Sadler
Maria Cristina Romero 
Alicia Rojas 
Norman Rozeff
Otto Santa Ana 
Louis F. Serna
Heather Silver
Corinne Staacke
Tom Saenz 
John P. Schmal
Dustin Skousen
Robert Smiith
Dr. Frank Talamantes, Ph.D.
Javier Tobon
Elena Torrens Tortosa
Sergio Troncoso
Antonio Uribe
Ernesto Uribe
Joe Uribe
Roberto Uribe
Jo Ann Valentin
Carlos B. Vega, Ph.D.
Sylvia Valero 
Jesse O. Villarreal, Sr.
Yomar Villarreal 
Douglas Weston
Kirk Whisler

The Natural tendency of every government is to grow steadily worse, that is, to grow more satisfactory
 to those who constitute it and less satisfactory to those who support it. 
M.L. Mencken




June 17-22 LULAC National Convention & Exposition
Elizabeth Perez-Halperin A Wise Latina by Mercy Bautista-Olvera    
A Live Interview with Jimmy Franco Sr., writer and editor of Latino Point of
Hispanics Breaking Barriers, 2nd Vol., 18th Issue by Mercy Bautista-Olvera
U.S. Air Force spouse wins award for bringing awareness to military spouses by Kristina Puga 
America's Charters of Freedom 
“NCLR Annual Conference and National Latino Family Expo,  July 20-23, New Orleans”

84th Annual LULAC National Convention & Exposition in Las Vegas, Nevada from June 17 through June 22, 2013. For convention information and registration, please contact the LULAC National Office at (202) 833-6130 or visit our website 

Somos Primos will be assisting at the Legacy of Valor booth.

Rick Leal has invited producer and friend John Valadez as one of  the guests "that will be joining us at our booth at the upcoming LULAC National Conference June 17-22 in Las Vegas. 

John Valadez, (Longoria Affair) Latino film producer is completing a Landmark Six-Hour Documentary featuring interviews with Nearly 100 Latinos and more than 500 Years of history premieres Fall 2013.
All universities, colleges and community organizations are encouraged to meet and invite Mr. Valadez to present his latest PBS Latino Americans films to their groups. Do come to the Hispanic Medal of Honor booth and meet John.  Schedule
John to show a 15 minute trailer of the film WAR AND PEACE at their event, or a 15-minute trailer of John's PBS documentary WWII LATINOS, scheduled to air this fall in September 2013.

With thanks to sponsors, LULAC and Southwest Airlines" 

 Elizabeth Perez-Halperin    

 A Wise Latina

      By Mercy Bautista-Olvera  

Elizabeth Perez-Halperin

Elizabeth Perez-Halperin is the President and Founder of GC Green, a renewable energy company GC Greeny.

Elizabeth Perez-Halperin’s father originated from Jalisco, Mexico and served in the U.S. Army for 20 years. He has always been Elizabeth’s inspiration. She has two children.

Perez-Halperin was the first in her family to graduate from high school and the first in her family to finish college.  She has a degree in Professional Aeronautics from Embry-Riddle University with a Minor in Logistics, Business & Safety Management. She took courses at University of California, San Diego and earned certifications in the environmental/green industry.

At the age of 17 when her father passed away, she decided to follow his example and joined the military in 1997. “I grew up learning to sustain what we have, that’s always been my passion,” stated Perez-Halperin.

Perez-Halperin served in the Navy for almost nine years, completing 13 deployments. On October 12, 2000, Perez-Halperin vividly remembers, as “the day that changed my life forever.” That was when terrorists blew a hole in the U.S. destroyer Cole docked off Yemen, killing 17 sailors. One of those victims was her closest friend from Navy boot camp, Lakiba Nicole Palmer of San Diego.

(Photo/Courtesy Elizabeth Perez)
  Elizabeth, deployment in Bahrain

During her military service she served as an Aviation Logistics Specialist providing combat support for U.S. and NATO forces. In Bahrain and other places she was in charge of transporting and ordering fuel supplies. She received an honorable discharge as a 9/11 Wounded Warrior veteran.

Perez-Halperin then launched a San Diego-based startup company called GC Green that secures funding from public and private sources to train and connect veterans to jobs in the green energy field, such as filling a need for energy auditors to help homeowners save on utility bills.

In 2009, Perez-Halperin stated, I approached the company I was with about training veterans, and they didn’t see it,” says Perez. “They weren’t really going to hire veterans, so I started my own company.” She serves on the San Diego State Sustainability Advisory Board as a job creation champion, and is Chairman of the Board of the Jonas Project. 

Perez-Halperin also works hard by promoting alternatives to oil.  In Sacramento she spoke to the California Air Resources Board urging them to continue a controversial regulation aimed at forcing oil companies to reduce the carbon content in transportation fuels.

GC Green has helped train over 600 auditors statewide, most of them veterans, in collaboration with other organizations.  “She’s certainly helped grow my business,” stated Bruce Cheney, a disabled veteran who owns Anchors Aweigh Energy in San Diego. “We would not be where we are today without working with GC Green.”

Perez-Halperin credits several groups with providing support. Among those: the San Diego offices of the Conservation Services Group and Mission Continues, which helps disabled veterans give back through public service. She also attended Entrepreneurs Bootcamp for Veterans based in Syracuse, New York.

Perez-Halperin stated that she is even more determined to help those returning to civilian life find jobs. She is also driven by memories of another friend who returned home from Afghanistan deeply depressed. “This stuff is real. It is not TV,” stated Perez-Halperin. “These are real issues that America needs to face and address. What do we do when they all come home?”

Perez-Halperin has trained more than 900 contractors in California, nearly 100 of which are veterans in building analyst performance with Energy Upgrade California.    

She is also a Mission Continues fellow and is volunteering her time to connect veterans directly with companies in the clean environment field. She says there is a desperate need for companies to reach out to Veterans with opportunities.

“We can make the connection between the job-seeker and the employer, both win,” stated Ismael Ortiz, Deputy Assistant Secretary for veterans’ employment and training.    
GC Green has established a specialized program called Green Culture Generation to actively participate in a growing network of education, training, apprenticeship, and project placement opportunities in energy efficiency and alternative energy systems for Veterans and displaced workers in California.

She is also a member of the North Fork Mono Indian tribe located in California and is proud of her Native American culture.

In 2010, she collaborated with the Southern California Tribal Chairmen’s Association on an energy efficiency grant which was recently awarded to 10 tribes in California.  Perez is a candidate for the Indian Energy Commission for the National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGA) for the Western Region of the United States.

It’s probably not surprising that Perez-Halperin took this path. When she was just 12, she wrote an essay on freedom that touched on Operation Desert Storm to drive Saddam Hussein’s Iraqi forces out of Kuwait; she received an A on the essa


podcast series moderated by: Armando F. Sanchez
A live interview with Jimmy Franco Sr., writer and editor of:


Second Volume, 18th Issue

By Mercy Bautista-Olvera  

The 18th issue in the series “Hispanics Breaking Barriers” focuses on contributions of Hispanic leadership in United States government. Their contributions have improved not only the local community but the country as well. Their struggles, stories, and accomplishments will by example; illustrate to our youth and to future generations that everything and anything is possible.  

David Valadao:  U.S. House of Representatives, California, 21st Congressional District  
Judge Carmen Espinosa:
 Connecticut Supreme Court Justice  
Antonio (Tony) Joseph Mendez: 
CIA Agent, Retired  
Judge Salvador Mendoza:
 Superior Court Judge, Washington State 
Judge Linda Reyna Yañez:
  Appellate Justice, Texas, 13th Court of Appeals  

      David Valadao                                                                      
David Valadao is a member of the United States House of representatives, California, 21st Congressional District.  

David Valadao was born and raised in Hanford, California. He is the son of Eduardo Valadao and Maria Goncalves-Valadao.  In 1969, the Valadao family emigrated from the Azores Islands of Portugal to the United States, and settled in the Central Valley in California. David was born on April 14, 1977.

In 1973, His father started a small dairy farm in Kings County.  As young men, David and his brothers learned the value of hard work by rising early in the morning to labor in the dairy alongside their parents.  The Valadao’s are proud of the business they have built as a family. They consider their many employees to be a part of their extended family.

In 1995, David Valadao graduated from Hanford High School, and attended the College of the Sequoias in Visalia. In 1999, David married his high school sweetheart, Terra, together, they have three children.   

He is the managing partner of Valadao Dairy, which he owns with his brothers.  

One of the issues Valadao is involved with is to improve the water infrastructure; he opposes the construction of a high speed rail system. He co-authored legislation that would allow California voters to stop the project; he stated this project would hurt taxpayers.  

Valadeo wrote a bill requiring government agencies to make public, the economic impact of new regulations before they are implemented. He supports constructing the Keystone oil pipeline from Canada to Texas, so we end our dependency on Middle East oil.   

Valadao supports expanding vocational and trade school options for our students to affording students more opportunities.  

 As a lifelong resident of the Central Valley, David has been active in agriculture and dairy industry groups, as well as many local causes including a Children’s Hospital Central California, 4-H, Future Farmers of America, and various Catholic Charities.  

Judge Carmen Espinosa
Judge Carmen Espinosa of Southington is the first Hispanic to serve as a Justice of the Connecticut Supreme Court.  She replaces Justice C. Ian McLachlan, who reached the mandatory age of retirement for state judges.

Judge Carmen Espinosa was born in Yabucoa, Puerto Rico and raised in New Britain, Connecticut.

In 1971, Espinosa graduated from Central Connecticut State University, received her Master’s Degree in Hispanic Studies from Brown University in 1973, and received her Law Degree from George Washington University Law School in 1976.  

She taught French and Spanish in the Southington public school system. While at George Washington University she enrolled in Law Students in Court, and that was her first taste of being in the court.  

In 1980, Judge Espinosa worked as an Assistant US Attorney as a federal prosecutor until her appointment to the bench.

Judge Espinosa served on the Sentence Review Division, the Client Security Fund Committee, and was a member of the Judicial Branch Education Committee of the Connecticut Judges’ Institute.   

She served as an FBI agent and an Assistant U.S. Attorney. In 1992, former Connecticut Governor Lowell P. Weicker Jr., appointed Judge Espinosa to serve on the Superior Court, she was the first Hispanic to serve.

In 2001, Judge Espinosa was sworn in as an Appellate Court judge.

In 2012, Connecticut Governor Dannel (Dan) Malloy nominated Judge Espinosa to serve as Justice of the Connecticut Supreme Court.  

“It is an honor to have the opportunity to name a woman with such a distinct and respected background to our state’s highest court,” Governor Malloy said.  “Judge Carmen Espinosa has had an impressive career and is among our state’s most respected jurists. She will serve the people well when confirmed to the bench.

Judge Espinosa stated, “I would like to especially thank Governor Malloy for his continued commitment to diversity in our judiciary. Not only does he honor me with this nomination, but he has honored the Hispanic community as well,” Judge Espinosa further stated, “I fully understand the responsibility that will fall upon my shoulders if confirmed as the first Hispanic to sit as a Supreme Court Justice in our great state.  It is a responsibility which I will gladly accept and one that I would fulfill with diligence and dedication. I hope that my nomination to the Supreme Court serves as an example to young Hispanic children that anything is possible if they stay in school and use education as the bridge to success.” She continued “It’s an immense honor that the government had the trust in my abilities to appoint me to such a prestigious seat, being a Supreme Court judge is the pinnacle of my career.”

She says although she’s also enjoyed her jobs as an FBI agent, assistant U.S. attorney, and a French and Spanish teacher in Connecticut public schools, having achieved this position is “extraordinarily satisfying.”  

“All of them were building blocks to my present status,” says Espinosa, explaining all of her previous jobs gave her the skills she needs today — gathering facts, building cases, and enforcing the laws.

She says she realizes the importance of a strong support system, because her parents were always there for her. “I could see how hard they worked to give us a better life,” says Espinosa. “They sacrificed everything to give us what they didn’t have. My mother worked in a factory, my father worked in a lumber yard, and no matter what the weather…What did inspire me was my father. He used to tell me when things were difficult to never give up. He always encouraged me to keep going…I would always call home, and he would say, ‘You could do it.’”

Antonio (Tony) Mendez and former President Jimmy Carter  
(Photo courtesy: CIA)

Antonio Joseph “Tony” Mendez was born in Eureka, Nevada. His father is of Mexican descent and his mother is of Italian and Irish descent. He moved with his mother to Colorado in his early teens. Mendez and first wife Karen have two sons; Ian and Antonio Tobias and one daughter; Amanda.  (Karen died of cancer in 1986). Their son Ian (died of colon cancer in 2010). In 1990, Mendez married Jonna Goeser, a CIA veteran.

Mendez studied at the University of Colorado-Boulder. He began his career as an illustrator and designer until the CIA recruited him to become an espionage artist.

Mendez continued to work as an artist after college. He supported himself by working as an illustrator and tool designer for Martin Marrietta.

In 1965 Mendez answered a blind advertisement for a graphic artist. He was hired by the Central Intelligence Agency.   

Mendez worked as a CIA officer in South Asia and the Middle East. His work in the agency dealt with forging documents, creating disguises and handling other graphical work related to espionage.

In January 1980, Mendez was widely known for his on-the scene management of the   the Iran hostage crisis in which he helped six American diplomats from Iran escape. He posed as a Canadian film director, accompanied by Dennis Packer, a CBC cameraman. The Canadian government helped the diplomats with passports to document them as Canadian citizens.

On March 12, 1980, Mendez was awarded the “Intelligence Star.”  He served in the CIA for 25 years.

The October 2012 film “Argo” was based on Mendez’ heroic experiences, the film won the Academy  Award for Best Motion Picture, yet Antonio (Tony) Joseph Mendez is causing waves for something completely unrelated to his career: his ethnicity.

When “Argo” came to theaters nationally, several Hispanics thought it was curious that Ben Affleck was portraying a man with the surname Mendez. Some were more than curious, however, they felt cheated.

During his 25 years of service in the CIA, Mendez’ ethnicity had rarely been called into question, but when director, actor and producer Ben Affleck chose himself to portray Mendez, some filmgoers from the Hispanic community were not pleased.

“The concern I am focusing on here is the director/producer’s choice to portray Tony as if he is a white, non-Latino, so he could play the role,” wrote award-winning producer, community activist and CEO of Maya Cinemas, Moctesuma Esparza in an editorial. “There is no reasonable justification for this choice as the film could have been cast otherwise without affecting its commerciality.” “Not only did a Latino actor not play Tony, but his ethnicity is stolen from the Latino community at a time when Latinos have been demonized,” wrote Esparza.  “The film actually goes out of its way to obscure Tony Mendez’ ethnicity, nowhere in the movie does the viewer learn that hero is Mexican- American.”

Mendez served on the International Spy Museum’s Advisory Board of Directors and Advisory Council where they took part in the Spy Speaker Series.

Mendez has written three non-fiction books based on his experiences while working in the Central Intelligence Agency.  In 2000, “Master of Disguise: My secret Live in the CIA” memoir of his CIA experience. In 2003 together with his second wife Jonna Goeser, and Bruce B. Henderson, “Spy Dust: Two Masters of Disguise Reveal the Tools and Operations that Helped Win the Cold War”, and in 2012, with Matt Baglio, “Argo: How the CIA and Hollywood Pulled Off the Most Audacious Rescue in History. 

Judge Salvador Mendoza
Washington State Governor Jay Inslee appointed Salvador Mendoza, Jr. to serve as Superior Court judge for Benton and Franklin counties in Washington State.

Judge Mendoza, who was raised in a family of migrant farm workers, is currently a Judge Pro-Tempore in Benton County Superior Court and Franklin County Juvenile District Court. He is also a partner in a Kennewick law firm with an emphasis on adult and juvenile criminal law.

Judge Mendoza helped start the Juvenile Drug Court program. he has been a proponent of equal access to justice through his work with Benton-Franklin Legal Aid Society, and served as a Columbia Basin College trustee.

“Salvador has an impressive legal resume and an equally inspiring background that will serve him well as a judge for the people of Benton and Franklin counties,” said Inslee. “He has deep roots in the Tri-Cities community and is deeply respected for his work and expertise. He definitely stood out as an exceptional choice for this job.”

Mendoza will be the only Latino Superior, District or Municipal court judge serving in Eastern Washington.

Judge Mendoza will replace retiring Superior Court Judge Craig J. Matheson, who is stepping down after 26 years of dedicated service. Matheson endorsed Mendoza, saying “I have the greatest respect for Sal Mendoza. He is honest, dedicated and intelligent.  He is the type of person who will become a leader in our court.”

Benton County Prosecuting Attorney Andy Miller praised Mendoza saying, “Sal not only has the legal qualities that would make him an excellent judge, but also the human qualities. Sal has done an excellent job of balancing his successful career with strong community involvement and his priority of his family life.”

Franklin County Prosecuting Attorney Shawn Sant endorsed Mendoza, saying “His experience and work ethic are recognized by members of both civil and criminal bars. He strives for justice and equality in the legal profession.”

Judge Linda Reyna Yañez  

Judge Linda Yañez was the first Hispanic female appellate judge in Texas history serving the 13th Court of Appeals.

When she was born, her family had lived in Rio Hondo in the Rio Grande Valley in the south of Texas for generations, but without connections that could help them overcome their status as working poor. Her parents, both manual laborers and each the oldest in their families, helped put their younger brothers and sisters through school. Jobs in the Valley in the 1960s were scarce for people without much education, so by the time Yañez reached high school, her parents had moved to Illinois for steady factory jobs; she stayed with her grandmother in Rio Hondo, where she thrived as an honor student, cheerleader, and carnival queen.

She had spent earlier summers picking cotton in Texas, but the hard work paid off at the end of each summer, when she and four siblings used the money they’d earned to buy school supplies and clothes.

Yañez received her Bachelor of Arts from the University of Texas Pan American.
She received her LLM from the University of Virginia Law School, and Juris Degree from Texas Southern University Law School.

She married and had a child. After a year, she returned to the Valley to raise her daughter. In 1971, she settled in Weslaco and took a job as a first grade teacher.

Teaching by day, she volunteered evenings and weekends with voter drives for the 1972 George McGovern presidential campaign, an effort headed in the Rio Grande Valley by David Hall Director of Texas.

After graduating, she took a job with the Legal Assistance Foundation of Chicago. . She was eight-and-a-half months pregnant with her second daughter when she took the bar exam in Chicago in a room separate from the men. She says some had complained she might go into labor and distract them. Other female students volunteered to take the test with her.

As a young lawyer Yañez worked on immigration and Fourth Amendment rights. Defending workers, some were U.S. citizens and detained on immigration raids in Midwestern factories.

From 1976 to 1981, she returned to Rio Grande Valley with her two young daughters and took over the immigration program with Texas Rio Grande Legal Aide; however,     during the Reagan Administration funding was cut.

In 1991, she worked full time as a clinical instructor at Harvard Law School.  

In 1993, Governor Ann Richards appointed Linda Reyna Yañez to serve on an appeals court in the state of Texas, and is the first woman, and first Hispanic to serve on the 13th Court of Appeals.  

In 2003, Judge Yañez was elected to the American Law Institute. She has served on the Committee on International Judgements and Jurisdiction and on the Committee on Revisions to the Model Penal Code, Sentencing Project.

She taught at the Harvard Law School. She has served on and chaired numerous committees and boards, for the State Bar Associations in Texas, Illinois, and Massachusetts, and nationally on the American Bar Association. She is licensed in Texas and Illinois and practiced extensively in both state and federal courts.

She has served as consulting attorney to the Mexican Consul Generals in Brownsville, Texas and Boston, Massachusetts and on United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Committee. She has worked on refugee issues with United Nations Non-governmental Organizations (NGO's) and other organizations traveling to Switzerland, the former Soviet Union, and Latin America.

She has also served as Regional Counsel to the Mexican American Legal Defense Fund.

Judge Yañez was named "Outstanding Lawyer" and "Lawyer of the Year" by the Mexican American Bar Association of Texas and "Outstanding Alumnus" by the Houston Latino Lawyers and Law Students Association and is recipient of the "Lifetime Achievement Award" of the Hispanic Bar Association.

In 2001, she received the "Reynaldo Garza Lifetime Achievement Award" by the   Hispanic Issues Section of the State Bar of Texas. In 2006, the Hispanic Issues Section of the State Bar of Texas awarded her with the   “Pioneer Award.”



U.S. Air Force spouse wins award for bringing awareness to military spouses

by Kristina Puga, 
Source: NBC Latino  05/16/2013

Air Force Spouse of the Year, Alabama, Military Spouse Magazine, Military Spouse of the Year, Montgomery, Security Forces Commander Tony Castillo, U.S. Air Force.

Verenice Castillo accepting her Air Force Spouse of the Year Award on May 9, 2013 (Courtesy Military Spouse magazine)
Verenice Castillo got to meet First Lady Michelle Obama and Prince Harry last week as she received the 2013 Armed Forces Insurance Air Force Spouse of the Year Award ®. Military Spouse magazine selected her out of 2,200 nominations for her contribution to the U.S. Air Force community as a whole.

As a Security Forces spouse and a Key Spouse Mentor for two years, Castillo grew used to seeing spouses struggle with the challenges of deployments and reintegration to civilian life. She took it upon herself to develop the Strength for Spouses Program (S4S) at Maxwell Air Force Base, in Montgomery, Ala., where she is based with her family. Her program educates military spouses on how to be resilient, the benefits available during deployments, and reintegration tips, including suicide and PTSD prevention.

“I want spouses to be ready, resilient, and strong to confront the challenges that deployments and reintegrations [sic] bring,” says Castillo. “As a Spouse of the Year, not only I would work with the Air Force, but with all branches and raise awareness on the lack of support that military spouses and families have.”

Throughout her time as a Key Spouse Mentor — a position she says is key to all squadrons all over the country — she realized that many spouses were not asking for assistance.

“The S4S program that I developed focuses on training and educating spouses on the resources already available at the base and throughout the Air Force,” says Castillo. “The Air Force is giving us the resources, so let’s use them. We have so many programs that are not being used. If we don’t use them, they’re going to get rid of them, so I’m raising awareness about our own resources. I’m not asking for anything, I’m bringing solutions.”

She says she also trains spouses by bringing counselors to the base.

“When our spouses come back, we are in different routines and are adjusted to be without each other,” explains Castillo. “It’s very difficult for families to readjust. We cover how to have a successful marriage, tips on what to do…stuff that will help around the house, and we also train them on how to identify the red flags of PTSD and suicide.”

The Key Spouse Crisis Intervention course is another program she provides, which offers five classes on how to deal with domestic violence and suicidal thoughts.

“If you are not trained enough, we might lose that spouse,” says Castillo. “We also train them on how to take care of yourself.”

The 37-year-old mother of two boys ages 12 and 6, is also a social psychology student. She says she does her schoolwork online at around 11pm when all of her other work is done, and her children are asleep.

Verenice Castillo (center) with her family, Tony (left) 12, and Alex (right) 6, 
and husband Security Forces Commander Tony Castillo, Jr. (Photo/Dianna Paulk Photography)

She says she met her husband, Security Forces Commander Tony Castillo, Jr., in El Paso, Texas, when he was already an active duty member in the Air Force, and they got married in 2000. She was born in Juarez, Mexico, but moved with her family to El Paso when she was 16.

“At first, I didn’t want to go [to high school], because I did not know the language,” says Castillo. “It was difficult, but I was able to overcome the challenges. As I got older, I realized I had the opportunity to come to this great country. I always told myself I would pay it back. I always had the desire of helping others.”

She remembers she thought her impact was going to be at her husband’s squadron, but quickly she saw the potential of going beyond that.

“I did it,” Castillo says excitedly. “I never thought I would be nominated for this award and impact other spouses at the Air Force level. I’m giving everything that I have so I can say, ‘Thank you.’ I can never say thank you enough to be able to come here and do what I wanted to do.”

Sent by Mercy Bautista Olvera 

AMERICA'S CHARTERS OF FREEDOM in English and Spanish: Declaration of Independence, Constitution, Bill of Rights, and Gettysburg Address. Second Edition. Translated by Carlos B. Vega, Ph.D. and Carlos L. Vega, Ph.D. Paperback, 2nd Ed., 2012, Illus., 120 pp.  

This book contains for the first time “Americas Charters of Freedom” in English and Spanish—Declaration of Independence, Constitution, Bill of Rights, and the Gettysburg Address. The Spanish translations are original, authentic, highly praised by a host of prominent individuals and institutions including the U.S. Congress, U.S. Department of Education, U.S. Supreme Court, National Archives, and the Library of Congress. To many, it is the finest Spanish translations ever undertaken largely because of its accuracy and faithfulness to the originals.

It is meant to facilitate the knowledge of these basic documents to millions of Hispanic-Americans eager to learn the democratic principles that have governed our nation for the past two centuries. It can also serve as a magnificent tool for Spanish and bilingual education courses.


"Your edition of three of America's greatest documents is a most meaningful addition to my library and will serve as a reminder of your friendship and goodwill."

— President Ronald Reagan

"Prof. Vega is an able, dedicated, and zealous patriot, with a deep concern that Spanish-speaking people would understand and appreciate the esteemed writings of our founding fathers."

— Senator Gerald Cardinale

"Prof. Vega, a Bergen County resident, has distinguished himself as an individual interested in the promotion of better understanding and relations between Hispanics and the community at large. His translation, edition, and publication work throughout the years has assisted his goal of unity. As Governor, I take great pride in commending his work.

— Jim Florio, Governor of New Jersey

"Prof. Vega deserves to be commended for this fine contribution to the body of bilingual literature. His work will provide the non- English proficient Hispanics an opportunity to read these important documents and perhaps to appreciate the foundations of our country and our democratic society. His initiative is a novel venture which replicates with such accuracy and authenticity the spirit of the original documents."

— T.H. Bell, U.S. Secretary of Education

"I don't know of what political persuasion Mr. Carlos B. Vega (Nuestro, Dec. 1981) is, but it seems to me that the Reagan Administration should take note of all the good he is doing in the field of bilingual education. He has developed the "Tele-Guía," a phonetic, bilingual communication system to be used during emergencies; a bilingual pocket guide for policemen; a book of basic hospital vocabulary to be used by Hispanic patients, an English-Spanish legal dictionary, and a basic vocabulary book in the areas of banking, insurance, and taxes to boot.

"This is more than the U.S. Department of Education has done in years. I think Mr. Vega deserves commendation of some sort for doing the job of paper-pushing bureaucrats in Washington. Maybe it is just inherent that there is more creative thought outside of the shadow of the great capitol dome."

— Gabriela Calderón, Teacher, New York City Public Schools

"These translated documents, which have served to form and preserve our "great experiment," will be invaluable resources to the millions of Spanish-speaking residents of our nation.

Dr. Vega is to be commended for his role in this most worthy effort."

— Ruth J. Winerfeld, Chair, League of Women Voters

ISBN: 978-1-59641-283-5

Sent by Carlos B. Vega, Ph.D.


“NCLR Annual Conference and 
National Latino Family Expo, 
 July 20-23, New Orleans”

The 2013 NCLR Annual Conference, with over 50 workshops along 11 different topic tracks, four town halls, multiple networking events, and five key meal events, including the Latinas Brunch and the NCLR Awards gala, is poised to be our biggest Conference yet! NCLR is also excited to bring the National Latino Family Expo®, a free event for everyone in the community, to New Orleans. The National Latino Family Expo is the ideal family fair because it offers something for everyone, such as educational experiences and the most cutting-edge games, prizes, live entertainment, product samples, health screenings, and more at various themed pavilions. Join us July 20–23 at the Morial Convention Center for four incredible days in New Orleans, Louisiana!

For more information, go to



2013 Cinco de Mayo Celebration at Olvera St., Los Angeles
Civil War History Mystery Solved by Norman Rozeff
Rudi Rodriguez Testifies in Austin

2013 Cinco de Mayo Celebration at Olvera St., Los Angeles  

Cinco de Mayo was celebrated at La Plaza de Cultura y Artes, 501 N. Main Street, Los Angeles, CA 90012.  The event was held outside of the building area, from 12 P.M. to 2 P.M.  More entertainment continued until 5 P.M.  

Under the leadership of Retired Army Colonel Eric Rojo and Civil War Commander 6th Military District Sons of Veterans Reserve Will Tisch were the Sons of Veterans Reserve members Tom Helmantoler, Ken Walker, and Linn Malaznik. Both the American and Mexican flags were carried on the parade through the Olvera Street Plaza Square. The American and Mexican flags were simultaneously presented and left on the performing stage, followed by a military salute.  The Mexican flag was carried by Leroy Martinez in an earlier period uniform.   Some Color Guard re-enactors came from long distances to participate in the ceremony. Host speaker and comedian was Ernie G  

Primary presentation was by Retired Army Colonel Eric Rojo who articulated the parallel and connection of Abraham Lincoln and Benito Juarez of Mexico, during the 1860's.  Both Presidents aided each other in their internal struggles.  

Dr. David Hayes-Bautista gave a presentation in reference to his new book El Cinco de Mayo: An American Tradition. Dr. Hayes-Bautista’s presentation includes details about the origins of Cinco de Mayo, and why we in the United States celebrate Cinco de Mayo. This celebration originated in California by Latinos already living in the United States. Latinos in California were overjoyed that freedom and democracy had finally won a major victory over forces of slavery and elitism.  

The Cultura y Artes Teatro performers provided a historical theme with comedy, singing, and dancing.  The audience was engaged by dancing with the performers. It was an entertaining and educational day for all of us.  The performers clothing was designed specifically for the 1860's characters.  

The Cinco de Mayo celebration in the old district of Los Angeles was an inspiring event that brought Civil War and Mexican soldiers together, history of Abraham Lincoln and Benito Juarez connection, and how Cinco de Mayo was originated in California.  The Cultura y Artes performers were the highlight of this 2013 Cinco de Mayo.  

DSC08416.jpg DSC08377.jpg DSC08436.jpg

Retired Army Colonel Eric Rojo
giving his presentation


Color guard parading 
through Olvera St. Plaza  

Teatro performers, speakers, 
and color guard  

Leroy Martinez  
Photographer Eileen Tisch, wife of Compatriot SAR Will Tisch.


Ignacio Zamora headstone, Penitas Cemetery 

Civil War History Mystery Solved

Norman Rozeff

American Legion Honor Guard, Mission, Texas

A McAllen Monitor article that was reprinted in the Valley Morning Star (Harlingen, TX) on 1/7/13 has led to the resolution of a long-standing question. The article dealt with the efforts of Eloy Zamora of Palmview to secure a Federal military grave marker for the grave of his great grandfather Sgt. Ignacio Zamora. The sergeant had served with the 2nd Texas Cavalry (U. S.) in the Civil War after enlisting in 1864. Eloy was successful in his pursuit and now a military marker sits over his ancestor's grave in the small Penitas (TX) Cemetery.

In the course of the article written by Gail Burkhardt, there was note of the 26 year old sergeant participating in a skirmish at Santa Rosa. Civil War scholar, Wilson Bourgeois, and I have been looking for information on Santa Rosa and this skirmish since Wilson uncovered a map with a list of South Texas regional skirmishes in the Civil War. All could be accounted for and documented except the mysterious one at Santa Rosa. To make matters even more complicated, there were several Santa Rosa locations in South Texas.

A telephone call to Eloy by me elicited clarification. He had uncovered miltary records in the website that spelled out what had occurred. It was Charles Spillman's Santa Rosa Ranch just east of present-day Sebastian, Texas that was involved. On March 15, 1864 a force of 25 men of the 2nd Texas Cavalry (U.S.) -- as opposed to and not to be confused with the the 2nd Texas Cavalry (Confederate States of America)-- had ridden from Brownsville and were in the vicinity of the Santa Rosa Ranch. They may have been on a mission to secure cattle (beeves) to bring back to Fort Brown to provision the Union troops stationed there.

         Elroy Zamora and Master Sgt.  Blas Loya, Jr. Penitas Marker dedication

In any event, the party under the command of Second Lieutenant Santos Cardena were met and attacked by a “largely dispersed force”. It is very likely that these men were part of a reconnaissance force sent out by the CSA's Col. John “RIP” Ford to feel out the Federals in the area. A two hour gunfight ensued. The reported casualties for the Union soldiers were one killed, two missing, and one wounded. The extent of enemy casualties was unknown. The 30-year old Cardena had been recruited and commissioned by Texas Unionist Brig. General Edmund J. Davis on December 10, 1863.

The former cowboy, Ignacio, who had been born August 1, 1835 would remain in the service until he was mustered out in San Antonio in November 1865. Having been promised a $100 bonus for each year he served, Ignacio was given the princely sum, for that time, of $300. This was generous on the part of the government seeing that Ignacio had only served 22 months of his enlistment hitch.

He would die in 1917 at the age of 82. Now ninety-five years after his death, we recognize Ignacio's military contributions to his country, thanks to the persistence and diligence of his great grandson Eloy Zamora, also a miltary veteran.

Ignacio Zamora headstone, Penitas Cemetery 


Surprisingly Zamora's grave marker is a short distance from another Civil War veteran, Jose Maria Loya. He is the great granduncle of current serviceman Master Sgt. Blas Loya Jr. Jose Maria Loya was a 33 year old 6 foot Mexican farmer when recruited by Captain Adrian Vidal 
who paid allegiance at different times to the Confederate States of America, then the Union and finally to Emperor Maximillian.  Jose apparently was a loyal Vidal follower and followed him, along with others, when the charismatic Vidal went astray and led his Union unit into Mexico.

Loya signed on November 12, 1863 for a one-year term. Jose, a private in the Independent Partisan Rangers Texas Cavalry, was recorded as absent from muster in March & April 1864 when his unit was in the field. He disappeared while on a march with his unit from Brownsville to Brazos de Santiago where the Union had a depot on the north end of Brazos Island and was officially listed as a deserter on 7/28/1864.

In spite of these odd circumstances, Loya has a Federal veterans marker in the cemetery where 
he is buried. While Vidal would be captured and executed by Republican loyalists, Loya would, 
after the war, become a Brownsville, Texas area resident, a ranch owner, and a family man.

Bas Loya headstone
Penitas Cemetery
Rudi Rodriguez testifies in Austin

Rudi Rodriguez testifies in Austin

San Antonio – May 15, 2013 - The Hispanic Heritage Center of Texas is a San Antonio based 501.c.3 non-profit whose mission is to champion historical Hispanic legacy and heritage from the 17th, 18th, and 19th Centuries. Unfortunately, little is known about Tejanos and their contributions and accomplishments in early Texas. The Center is proud to lead the way to champion our ancestor’s history.
As a result of the Center’s efforts to find an initial downtown location, we are pleased to report that we are currently working to finalize a lease, we hope to conclude negotiations early this summer. Along with this milestone, we are pursuing various funding sources.
State Rep. Phil Cortez attached a rider to house bill 3211 to secure funding in this year’s legislative session. As such, on April 9th, 2013, Chairman of the Hispanic Heritage Center of Texas, Mr. Rudi R. Rodriguez traveled to Austin to testify on behalf of the Center during a hearing for house bill 3211. A vote was taken and it was approved and has been moved forward for a final vote for appropriations. Then, on May 14th, Rodriguez returned to Austin to testify during a hearing before the Senate Committee. The rider to the house bill was cosponsored by Sen. Judith Zaffirini and Sen. Leticia Van de Putte. We are pleased to announce that the bill was voted on and passed.
State funding will help ensure that the Center can provide the programming to educate the community and tourists about Tejano heritage. “In the future, the Center will be able to display and tell the story of Tejanos and the role they played in the development of Texas.” says Rodriguez. This initial location will help tell the story of San Antonio and Texas, but will also be a preview of what will be done on a grander scale in HemisFair Park, where the Center will be able to complete its master plan.
Sent by Tom Saenz 



Corporation for Public Broadcasting has NO LATINOS on its board.

Defend the Honor Greetings, May 21st, 2013 

In this day and age, at a time when Latinos are the fast-growing segment of our population and have made tremendous contributions to our country -- President Obama has appointed another member to the Corporation for Public Broadcasting Board of Directors. Nothing against the new appointee, Brent Nelson, a political science professor in South Carolina. But MAJOR problem that CPB has NO LATINOS on its board. Yep, you read it right. 

Why is that important to all Defenders? Because, from the CPB's own website: "Since 1968, CPB has been the steward of the federal government's investment in public broadcasting and the largest single source of funding for public radio, television, and related online and mobile services. For approximately $1.35 per American per year, CPB provides essential operational support for the nearly 1,300 locally-owned and -operated public television and radio stations, which reach virtually every household in the country."

Translation: CPB funds the public broadcasting we enjoy on PBS and NPR and local stations. And Latinos should be decision-makers at all levels - including CPB. NPR has done well with its five-person board: Patricia Diaz-Dennis (born in New Mexico) and Eduardo Hauser (Venezuela native who has a long track record in media and technology). PBS less so. Unless there is a Latino who can't be easily identified from the PBS website, looks like there is a lone Latina, Helen Hernandez of the Imagen Foundation out of Encino, Ca.-- of 26 directors. 

And the Big Mama of both PBS and NPR is CPB. So... when CPB has zero Latinos and CPB is the entity that "provides essential operational support for the nearly 1,300 locally-owned and -operated public television and radio stations" -- it's time to write to your congressman/woman and your U.S. senators and let them know that in 2013, diversity should mean inclusion at all levels.

Gus Chavez & Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez 
Co-Founders, Defend the Honor


Raymond L. Telles, El Paso's 1st Mexican-American elected mayor, dies at 97
Sept 15, 1915 -  March 8, 2013

Mario Machado, Los Angeles television news anchor & reporter, dies at 78 years of age
April 22, 1935 - May 4, 2013

Barbara Salinas Norman,
writer, artist, activist, and folklore specialist,
dies at 72 years of age

Reuben Porras, former Dallas cinematographer, award winner for NFL Films, dies at 61 
Born June 15, 1951- May 1, 2013

Raymond L. Telles, El Paso's 1st Mexican-American elected mayor, dies at 97 
By Ramón Rentería / El Paso
Posted:   03/08/2013 11:34:07 

First Mexican-American ambassador Raymond Telles named by President John Kennedy, pictured here during John F. Kennedy's visit to El Paso in 1963. (Times file photo)

Raymond L. Telles, a pioneer in El Paso politics, a friend and close adviser of President John F. Kennedy, a former ambassador to Costa Rica, and the first Mexican-American elected mayor of El Paso, died Friday in Sherman Oaks, Calif. He was 97.

Telles had been in failing health in recent years. Family members said he died at the home of one of his daughters.

Telles was best known as the first Mexican-American mayor of a major city in the Southwest, long before Henry Cisneros in San Antonio and Federico Pena in Denver.

Over the years, Telles was widely applauded for challenging the political circles dominated by whites in El Paso in the 1940s and 1950s and for disproving the notion that Mexican-Americans could not be elected to public office or effectively run a city.

Telles devoted his life to public service, serving four times as El Paso County clerk and twice as El Paso mayor (1957-1961). He also devoted more than 30 years of service in the military and as a civilian troubleshooter and adviser for the federal government.

Ever modest about his El Paso legacy, Telles said in a 2005 interview: "I attempted to unite the people of El Paso. It didn't make any difference whether you were Hispanic or Anglo or Chinese or whatever."

His biographer, Mario T. Garcia, once described Telles' election as the first Mexican-American mayor of El Paso in 1957 as a groundbreaking event in the history of El Paso and in the history of Mexican-American and Latino politics in the United States. An El Paso native, Garcia is a professor of history and Chicano studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara.

"As the Hispanic population of this country continues to grow, Ambassador Telles will surely be recognized as one of the founding fathers of contemporary Latino politics in the United States," Garcia said in a 2005 interview.

Nestor Valencia, an artist and former El Paso city planner, worked many years with Telles. He once painted Telles' portrait at the family's request.  Valencia said Telles is credited with helping to obtain what is now described as the priceless Kress art collection housed in the El Paso Art Museum. 

"The collection has some of the finest art the world has ever known," Valencia said. "He did a terrific job as mayor of El Paso. His whole life has been an example for everyone."

Bert Williams, who was hired by Telles as the city attorney in the 1960s and was mayor during 1971-73, called the death "tragic."  "I can't tell you how shaken I am," Williams said. "He was a great citizen and a wonderful man. Era un hombre buen hecho ."

Williams said he not only learned a lot about politics and government from Telles, but also learned what it meant to be a good man. "As a person and as politician, he always took time to listen. He was very polite and very friendly and always was willing to help others," he said.

03/13/1959 THE TELLES TEAM PICTURED ABOVE - Left to Right: Ernest Craigo, Alderman; Ralph Seitsinger, Alderman; Raymond L. Telles,Jr., Mayor; Ted Bender, Alderman; Jack C. White, Alderman. (Times file photo)

Telles was El Paso's outstanding elder statesman. He always looked like a diplomat, well-dressed in a business suit with a trademark American flag in his lapel. A symbol of dignity, Telles has been most applauded as the leader who gave Mexican-Americans a voice in El Paso politics.

Telles' tenacity to challenge the status quo in El Paso politics later inspired others like Alicia Chacon, who served as a county clerk, on the Ysleta school board and as county judge and city representative.  "He was the model for a whole generation, the one who absolutely proved that it could be done, that you could win elections and that you could break the mold," Chacon once said in an interview.

Chacon applauded Telles for running his campaigns with dignity, even when his opponents and El Paso newspapers questioned his qualifications for holding public office.

Telles was one of the highest-ranking Mexican-Americans in the federal government in the 1960s. He became a close friend of President Kennedy and part of the president's inner circle of advisers.

Telles once accompanied Kennedy to El Paso and had been scheduled to travel in 1963 to Dallas with Kennedy, who was about to appoint him ambassador to Mexico. Telles remained ambassador to Costa Rica in the Lyndon Baines Johnson administration after Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas.

Telles never bragged about his achievements. He preferred instead to talk about his experiences with men in power, locking horns with Johnson and Richard Nixon, the tremendous loss he felt when Kennedy died, and the big disappointment when he lost his only race, against U.S. Rep. Richard White.

He usually credited the men who ran on his People's Ticket as aldermen -- Ted Bender, Ernest Craigo, Jack White and Ralph Seitsinger -- for helping him accomplish everything he proposed. Telles insisted that the fire and police departments hire more Hispanics.

Telles was born Sept. 5, 1915, in El Paso to Ramon and Angela Telles, who he said taught him to value service, loyalty, patriotism and community. His father always emphasized the importance of electing honest leaders in government.

Telles was preceded in death by his wife, Delfina, who was married to him for more than 65 years. He is survived by two daughters, Cynthia A. Telles and Patricia Telles-Irvin, both working professionals in academics, and various grandchildren.

Telles received numerous recognitions in his lifetime, including recognition in 2006 as Mayor Emeritus of El Paso.

At that time, then 34th District Court Judge William E. Moody described Telles as "a true pioneer, a true leader, one of the brightest lights that El Paso has ever produced." Moody originated the idea of honoring Telles in a special way.

In 2008, the El Paso-based Hispanos Triunfadores Awards program presented Telles its lifetime achievement recognition.

Telles' family had moved him to California in recent years for medical care.  In one of the last interviews that he granted, Telles reminisced about growing up in El Paso and his various experiences as a public servant.  "You never know how long you're going to live," he said. "But I've tried to live a clean life. I never smoked. I never drank."

Ramón Rentería may be reached at; 546-6146.
 Follow him on Twitter@RamonRrenteria. Copyright 2012 El Paso Times. All rights reserved.

Editor: Still politically active in California. Dr. Telles was one of the original members of the UCLA Chicano Studies Research Center Director's Advisory Board, and was a central figure in the CSRC fundraising campaign that led to the renovation of the CSRC Library in 2011.

Sent by Mercy Bautista Olvera 
Mario Machado  

Mario Machado, a longtime Los Angeles television news anchor and reporter was an eight-time Emmy Award-winning television and radio broadcaster.  He also played a newsman in a number of films and television shows, has died at a West Hills convalescent facility, said his daughter Michelle.  He was 78.

Machado, who worked for many years at KCBS-TV Channel 2, its predecessor KNXT and other local stations, died Saturday, May 4th  of complications of pneumonia, his daughter said. He had been ill for some time with Parkinson’s disease.


Machado was born in Shanghai, China,  April 22, 1935, in Shanghai to a Portuguese father and Chinese-Portuguese mother.  His father, Carlos Jacinto de Lourdes Gouveia Furtado Machado was a vice-chancellor of the Portuguese Consulate in Shanghai, and his mother, Chinese-Portuguese Maria Teresa de Sousa, was a homemaker.

Machado appeared in such films as “Oh, God!” in 1977, “Rocky III” in 1982 and the 1971 TV movie “Brian’s Song.”  He also played reporter Casey Wong in three “RoboCop” films.

Sent by Mercy Bautista Olvera


Barbara 'Bobbi' Salinas Norman

Writer, artist, activist, and folklore specialist

Dies at 72 years of age

Daisy Wanda Garcia


Indo-Hispanic Folk Art Traditions I: Salinas, Bobbi

9780934925044: Indo Hispanic Folk Art Traditions II

The Three Pigs Nacho Tito and Miguel Los Tres Cerdos: Bobbi Salinas Indo Hispanic Folk Art Traditions I, II
Spanish and English

The Three Pigs / Los Tres Cerdos Nacho, Tito and Miguel
Spanish and English

[On May 13, 2013 Bobbi-Salinas Norman was found dead in her home; the reason and date of her death is unknown.] 

The news articles about Bobbi Salinas really touched my heart.  Since I am on the Hispanic 
blogs, I received the many notices about her passing.  As the news unfolded, each update was progressively more horrific.  I wondered how something like this happens.  I never knew the lady, but from her photographs and the descriptions of her many talents, she was blessed with many gifts.  Bobbi was an activist - was physically very beautiful. - was a successful writer. So how does a person like this become disenfranchised from the mainstream and eventually fall through the cracks of the social services safety net.  What went wrong? Where were her friends-her family?  When her mummified remains were found by responders, the one comment made was how filthy her home was. How could anyone live like that?  It was obvious from all the papers and trash everywhere that Bobbi was a hoarder.   Her front door was unlocked. Her utilities were turned off. The articles never disclosed if it was because of lack of money to pay or if she just did not pay her bills. Her home was in foreclosure.  She went to the library to go over her documents and use the facilities. Bobbi slept in her automobile to avoid the mice crawling on her while she slept. Her friend and family thought she had moved to Spain and that was the reason they had not heard from Bobbi. What a sad tale-the woman was virtually one step from living under a bridge.  Bobbie was so removed from the mainstream that one year passed before her body was discovered.                                            
                                                                        Los Tres Cerdos: Nacho, Tito and Miguel

I will never know why or what happened to Bobbie. In any case her life was a tragedy. It is always a tragedy when an individual with so much potential ends up in these circumstances. Perhaps one cause was her mental state.  Perhaps the result of the choices she made in life. No one will ever know for sure.  Her circumstances could be ours. What was Bobbi’s legacy? Perhaps the many books she wrote; perhaps the lessons of her life. The lessons I learned from Bobbie’s life are how fragile life is -to .love your friends and family for none of us lives forever and tomorrow is not a guarantee.  Always keep in contact with loved ones and those who are alone. When you don’t hear from them, don’t assume that all is well. Finally, our society tends to blame the victim-to assume if people are homeless it is their fault. Another simplistic comment I hear from my friends when they see a homeless person, why don’t they get a job. It never dawns on those individuals that the homeless person may not be able to work because of mental issues.  Many of these are veterans who have not been treated for PTSD.  My response is usually, “By the grace of God go I”. May God bless Bobbie.

Cinderella Latina/La Cenicienta Latina
English/Spanish version
Bobbi Salinas-Norman , Enrique E. Lamadrid



Reuben Porras, former Dallas cinematographer, award winner for NFL Films, dies at 61 
Born June 15, 1951- May 1, 2013
As a Dallas high school student, Reuben Porras Jr. planned to earn a degree in English literature as a natural outlet for his creative energy. He discovered his passion and his life’s work, however, during a college photography course.  He became a cinematographer, winning awards that included Emmys in 1991 and 1995 for his work with NFL Films.
By JOE SIMNACHER The Dallas Morning News Staff Writer, Published: 6 May 2013 

Porras collapsed at Turner Field in Atlanta while setting up lighting for sportscaster Bob Costas’ interview with Atlanta Braves twins B.J. and Justin Upton. Trainers for the visiting Washington Nationals immediately began administering CPR with an automated external defibrillator.

Porras, 61, died later Wednesday at Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta, Ga. Services were held at Resurrection Lutheran Church in Newnan, Ga., where Porras was a founding member.  “He passed away doing what he loved. … He was passionate about his work,” said his sister, Mercedes Olivera, a Dallas Morning News columnist. “He had a huge work ethic.”

Porras was born in Dallas, where he graduated from Jesuit Preparatory High School in 1969. “My brother was so creative,” Olivera said. “He was always writing short stories. When he was in high school, he would crank out a short story like every two or three weeks, because he had all this nervous energy and creative imagination.”  The would-be English literature major took a photography class in college. “That just set him free,” his sister said. “That really just stirred his imagination and creative juices.”

Porras received a bachelor’s degree in radio, film, and television in 1973 from North Texas State University, now the University of North Texas. He worked for television stations in Dallas and Fort Worth until he became a freelance cinematographer in the late 1970s.

In 1983, he moved to Atlanta, nearer to many of his East Coast assignments. He traveled the world covering summer and winter Olympics and major professional sports, including NASCAR.

In addition to his sister, Porras is survived by his mother, Catalina Scott of Newnan; a son, Noah Porras of Newnan; and two grandchildren.  Memorials may be made to Resurrection Lutheran Church, 1250 Lora Smith Road, Newnan, Ga. 30265.

Sent by Mercy Bautista Olvera


“Faith on the Move: The Religious Affiliation of International Migrants.”
Vladimir Putin, Russian president, speaks about tensions with minorities in Russia:
Muslims Identified by Press as Devout Muslims put into Policy Making Positions.
List of Islamic (Global) terrorist attacks
Fueled by War on Drugs, Mexican Death Toll Could Exceed 120,000 Geothermal
Andrea Guerrero, Immigration Speaker
Energy: More Exciting than Media Thinks

Faith on the Move: The Religious Affiliation of International Migrants.”

Geographic Origins 
The geographic origins of new permanent residents have shifted markedly during the past two decades, according to U.S. government data. In 1992, a total of 41% of new permanent residents came from the Asia-Pacific region, the Middle East-North Africa region or sub-Saharan Africa. By 2012, more than half (53%) of new green card holders were from those regions.

Conversely, the annual percentage of legal immigrants coming from Europe and the Americas has decreased. In 1992, well over half (59%) of all new legal immigrants came from Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean or North America. By 2012, fewer than half (47%) came from those regions

Over the past 20 years, the United States has granted permanent residency status to an average of about 1 million immigrants each year. These new “green card” recipients qualify for residency in a wide variety of ways – as family members of current U.S. residents, recipients of employment visas, refugees and asylum seekers, or winners of a visa lottery – and they include people from nearly every country in the world. But their geographic origins gradually have been shifting. U.S. government statistics show that a smaller percentage come from Europe and the Americas than did so 20 years ago, and a growing share now come from Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East-North Africa region.

With this geographic shift, it is likely that the religious makeup of legal immigrants also has been changing. The U.S. government, however, does not keep track of the religion of new permanent residents. As a result, the figures on religious affiliation in this report are estimates produced by combining government statistics on the birthplaces of new green card recipients over the period between 1992 and 2012 with the best available U.S. survey data on the religious self-identification of new immigrants from each major country of origin.

While Christians continue to make up a majority of legal immigrants to the U.S., the estimated share of new legal permanent residents who are Christian declined from 68% in 1992 to 61% in 2012. Over the same period, the estimated share of green card recipients who belong to religious minorities rose from approximately one-in-five (19%) to one-in-four (25%). This includes growing shares of Muslims (5% in 1992, 10% in 2012) and Hindus (3% in 1992, 7% in 2012).

Unauthorized immigrants, by contrast, come primarily from Latin America and the Caribbean, and the overwhelming majority of them – an estimated 83% – are Christian. That share is slightly higher than the percentage of Christians in the U.S. population as a whole (estimated at just under 80% of U.S. residents of all ages, as of 2010).2

These are among the key findings of a new study by the Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion & Public Life examining recent trends in the geographic origins and religious affiliation of immigrants to the United States.

Editor:  It really strikes me that the Mexican born in the United States are listed as 0, ignoring our ancestors who in 1850 were already living in present day US. 



On February 4th, 2013
2013, Vladimir Putin, the Russian president, addressed the Duma, (Russian
Parliament), and gave a speech about the tensions with minorities in Russia:

"In Russia live Russians. Any minority, from anywhere, if it wants to live in Russia, to work and eat in Russia, should speak Russian, and should respect the Russian laws. If they prefer Sharia Law, then we advise them to go to those places where that's the state law. Russia does not need minorities. Minorities need Russia, and we will not grant them special privileges, or try to change our laws to fit their desires, no matter how loud they yell 'discrimination'. We better learn from the suicides of America, England,
Holland and France, if we are to survive as a nation. The Russian customs and traditions are not compatible with the lack of culture or the primitive ways of most minorities. When this honorable legislative body thinks of creating new laws, it should have in mind the national interest first, observing that the minorities are not Russians."

The politicians in the Duma gave Putin a five minute standing ovation.
Sent by Yomar Villarreal Cleary


More Muslims Identified by the Press as Devout Muslims put into Policy Making Positions.
Sent by Yomar Villarreal Cleary, who asks . . 
Has anyone ever heard a new government official being identified as a 'devout Catholic," a "devout Jew" or a "devout Protestant"?

  Arif Alikhan: 
Appointed as
Assistant Secretary for Policy Development
Kareem Shora: born in Damascus, Syria, sworn in as ADC National Executive Director as a member of the Homeland Security Advisory Council ( HSAC ).

List of Islamic (Global) terrorist attacks 
Source: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia  

These identified acts are only a partial list of acts of terrorism committed by Islamic extremists for the purpose of achieving varying political and/or religious ends. The total number of deaths as a result of the acts of terrorism listed on this page is 8969.

Editor:  As Americans we may think solely of attacks against our country; the list however includes terrorist activities all over the world.  The list starts with "Munich Massacre" in Germany by Islamic "Black September" militants, 1972, to the latest 15 April 2013. Boston Marathon bombings. Two brothers, Tamerlan and Dzhokhar Tsarnev, planted two bombs near the finish line of the Boston Marathon. The blast killed 3 and injured 183 others. [56] 

This is an incomplete list, which may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries.

Click for photos of how Islamic radicalization changes nations. 




Extract of information from a report
Fueled by War on Drugs, Mexican Death Toll Could Exceed 120,000 As Calderon Ends Six-Year Reign

by Mark Karlin, Truthout, November 28, 2012

National Institute of Statistics and Geography of Mexico has released startling figures: 27,199 homicides were recorded in 2011; between 2007 and 2011, the total came to 95,632 murders. On the basis of the trend in recent months, an estimated 120,000 homicides will have occurred during the term of Calderon. This is more than double the figure often mentioned - already staggering - of 50,000.

This carnage is by far the deadliest conflict in the world in recent years. The official homicide statistics are an implacable revelation that gangrene has overtaken the nation. But beyond the number of deaths allegedly related strictly to the fight against drugs there has developed a number of industries engaging in kidnapping, extortion, prostitution, trafficking of persons and bodies - and widespread disappearances. The map of the homicides in Mexico shows that homicides are no longer only confined to the regions of strong presence of gangs, but tend to spread over most of the territory. (Translated from the French)

Although the now estimated 120,000 to 130,000 intentional homicides in Mexico - called "homicidios dolosos" - outraged Le Monde, few other prominent news organizations in the United States or Mexico took notice. Mexico's La Reforma was an exception, when in August it estimated 95,000 homicides, based on newly released government statistics. A few other US and Mexican publications have mentioned the new figures in passing, but without recognizing the implications.

Molly Molloy, a librarian at New Mexico State University in Las Cruces (who is cited in the "Truthout on the Border" series). Molloy runs a web site and listserv that informs many Mexico violence-watchers of information that is not readily available through either the Mexican or US media.

Molloy analyzed a data dump earlier in 2012 from Mexico's National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI); she then used a second Mexican source of data to extrapolate intentional homicides through the end of Calderon's term on November 30. These forecast figures for the end of 2012 came from an analysis of data reported by the National System for Public Security (SNSP), which compiles crime statistics sent in by local and state police agencies.

According to Molloy, INEGI compiles data from death certificates that list a cause of death as determined by a medical examiner. "None of these numbers include even an estimate of the missing, the disappeared, the bodies from mass graves, etc.," she said.

As the year has progressed Molloy estimated the total number of intentional homicides could rise above 120,000 for the six-year Calderon administration. This would compare to 60,162 intentional homicides during the six-year term of Vicente Fox. (Molloy has recently upped the potential death toll to possibly reach an estimated 150,000 from violence. Many of the deaths, however, would not be verifiable due to challenges such as the porous Mexican reporting system and unreported deaths.)

Molly laid out her perspective on government criminal justice figures in a July 26 story in the alternative Phoenix New Times
Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.



Andrea Guerrero, Immigration Speaker

Andrea Guerrero, a San Diego Latina leader, gives an excellent and inspiring presentation on immigration reform. She has given presentations on this important issue in many places across the nation. Please open the following youtube and share with others. Thanks, Gus Chavez

Geothermal Energy: More Exciting than Media Thinks
Geothermal energy is hands down THE best renewable energy avenue out there: The Earth is always generating heat, and there won’t be any “peak heat”, nor could we ever extract this energy at the same pace with which the Earth generates it. The process has a carbon footprint that is negligible compared to other fossil fuel and renewable energy processes. Yet geothermal power gets decidedly little press.

The idea of geothermal power has been around for ages: Italy built the world’s first power plant that generated electricity from the Earth’s heat over a hundred years ago. In 1957, New Zealand was next to latch onto the idea with its own geothermal power plant, followed two years later by the US, which today boasts the largest geothermal power capacity in the world.

It’s a simple idea in terms of physics: Water heated up within the Earth emerges as steam and is used to turn a turbine that produces electricity. Geothermal power plants include dry steam plants (like Italy’s first), flash steam plants (the most common), and binary cycle plants (today’s favored).

• Dry Steam Plants: A well is drilled and the steam (150°C or higher) that comes from this well turns a turbine, cools back into water through a compressor and sends the cooled water back to Earth via a secondary well.

• Flash Steam Plants: Highly pressurized hot water (180°C or higher) is extracted and fed into lower pressure tanks and then sent on to turn a turbine

• Binary Cycle Plants: This process uses lower temperature water (minimum of 57°C) in combination with a liquid that turns to steam into order to turn the turbine.

While geothermal power appears to be the least attractive of energy subjects for the mainstream media, it is constantly evolving. Now we have new potential for an “enhanced geothermal system” that could be a game-changer because it would significantly increase the amount of electricity we could generate from this process (more on this further down).

Right now, the world has almost 11 gigawatts of geothermal electricity-generating capacity in 24 countries, with the US in the lead.

But there are a number of newcomers to this scene who are gearing up for a much more ambitious geothermal electricity-generation strategy, including Indonesia, Mexico, Costa Rica, Japan and Kenya. And most recently, Chile is considering that perhaps its feared volcanoes actually have something to offer by way of geothermal power.

While the US market is the leading one in terms of geothermal, its growth is slowing, and any significant uptick (for now) on geothermal expansion is thanks to the idea’s increasing attractiveness in Central America, East Africa, and Asia.

Let’s look at some of the key existing and emerging markets …

Chile: Virgin Territory for Geothermal Exploration

For now, Chile has massive untapped geothermal energy capabilities, but lacks initiative and investment incentives. That said, New Zealand is jumping in on this scene and could provide the impetus necessary to get the geothermal ball rolling—finally. Chile’s geothermal power will hinge on its volcanic chain—the longest in the world. In fact, 10% of the all the world’s volcanoes are in Chile, which means it could be a geothermal bonanza. For a country that depends on 70% imports for its energy needs, geothermal could be a God-send (literally). Chile’s academics believe that the country could generate 16,000 megawatts of geothermal power, which is beyond its 9,000 megawatts of demand.

So far, Chile has granted 76 concessions for geothermal exploration, with 42 currently being processed and another 24 under review. It’s never gone beyond exploration, though, and the country still produces no geothermal electricity. Why? It’s simple: a lack of investment incentive, and specifically the absence of any risk insurance for geothermal drilling failures.

This is where New Zealand comes in. Chile has struck a strategic partnership with this geothermal leader to work towards the goal of seeing 15% of all electricity in Chile produced from geothermal. What New Zealand offers is technological know-how, project planning, and public relations—dealing with indigenous communities who fear geothermal power generation and do not understand the benefits, and making them stakeholders.

And the indigenous communities are a major hurdle. They believe volcanoes are to be feared, and a botched geothermal drilling attempt in 2008 caused an eruption that no one in the area will soon forget.

There are two other venues where we see a lot of untapped potential in Central America: Nicaragua and Panama. Panama has geothermal potential of 5,000MW, and it’s ripe for development. Nicaragua has a smaller capacity, but still impressive at 2,000MW, and it’s also open for business, announcing the construction of a $190 million geothermal plant in 2010.

Mexico: The World’s Largest Geothermal Plant

Mexico has 958MW of installed geothermal capacity, accounting for 3% of its total energy production. It also houses the world’s largest geothermal plant, the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Power Station.

The Philippines: Geothermal Growth with Strong Govt Support

The Philippines—the second in the world in terms of capacity--generates over 1,900MW of geothermal electricity, accounting for 27% of total energy production, and its success has in large part been due to the fact that geothermal energy has very strong government support.

The Philippines is also a bit of a geothermal pioneer, having harnessed this power source since 1977. Chevron is a key player here, having invested over $2 billion to date on geothermal energy installations.

Europe: Italy and Iceland Dominate, but Turkey will Challenge

Italy, home to the first geothermal project over a century ago, is still a major geothermal force in Europe. Italy has 843MW of installed geothermal capacity, accounting for 10% of its total energy production. Iceland has 575 MW of installed capacity, accounting for 30% of its total energy production. (Iceland even heats its streets with geothermal energy).

Together, Italy and Iceland hold more than 90% of all of Europe’s geothermal energy capacity. But ambitious Turkey is working to challenge this, having already installed 100MW of geothermal electricity-generating capacity, making it for now the third largest in Europe. By 2015, it could reach 550WM of geothermal electricity capacity, with enough investment.

Kenya: More Geothermal Power than China

Not only is the East African Rift a major oil venue, it is also a sweet geothermal energy spot. Kenya generates over eight times (202MW) the geothermal electricity that China does (24MW) as of 2012.

Indonesia: Massive Volcanic Potential

Indonesia is situated on the Pacific Ring of Fire, so lots of volcanic activity, and tons of geothermal potential that’s barely been tapped into. In fact, most experts will say that Indonesia has the biggest potential in the world.

Right now, Indonesia has 1,197 MW of installed geothermal capacity, accounting for 3.7% of its total energy production. The country holds 40% of the world’s geothermal potential, and is on track to develop 44 new geothermal power plants by 2014, raising capacity to 4,000 MW. By 2025, it could be generating 9000 MW from geothermal sources.

US: Geothermal Leader, with Slowing Growth

The US has 3,187 MW of installed geothermal electricity-generating capacity as of 2012—more than any other country in the world. Over 28% of all geothermal electricity production is from the US. There are 77 geothermal plants in the US, generating 15 billion kilowatt hours of electricity per year. This impressive growth is slowing, however, but what we’re really looking at are some advancements that could change this game.

In partnership with Ormat Technologies (featured below) and GeothermEx, the US Department of Energy has successfully produced 1.7 additional megawatts of electricity from an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) project inside an existing wellfield at Ormat’s Desert Peak 2 geothermal power plant in Churchill County, Nevada. This will be the first EGS project that connects up to the US electricity grid.

What the project does is to stimulate an existing sub-commercial injection well to boost power output by 38%, using new subsurface technologies. Essentially, the technology expands the existing hydrothermal fractures deep within the Earth’s crust, while EGS technology enhances the permeability of underperforming wells. What that does is allow them to extract additional heat from a reservoir’s rocks and inject geothermal fluid at higher flow rates. Even better, these are air-cooled power plants, so they don’t consume water in the conversion process. All the geothermal fluids are re-injected.

Ormat dumped $2.6 million into the project, while the DOE contributed $5.4 million. It’s taken four years, but now we’re there.

Two US companies worth watching on the geothermal scene:

US Geothermal Inc (NYSE:HTM)

This company’s stock took a hit last week when its CEO retired, but it will bounce back. Right now it’s a leading geothermal developer, producer and seller of geothermal electricity. It operates a number of geothermal projects in Idaho, Nevada and Oregon. But it’s also expanding now to Central America, with the development of El Ceibillo just outside Guatemala City. El Ceibillo is an advanced stage, steam geothermal prospect sitting on an almost 25,000-acre concession. The project is part of a wholly owned subsidiary, US Geothermal Guatemala SA, and well drilling was launched on 29 April.

Stateside, the company’s projects are now generating positive net income and cash flow, and the Guatemala expansion looks promising, especially since US Geothermal has 100% in the acreage.

A year ago, we would have said it was too early to consider US Geothermal attractive. Not so now. We think this year will end up being US Geothermal’s first year of full profitability, and from here we should see more nice gains.

Ormat Technologies (NYSE:ORA)

Engaged in the geothermal and recovered energy power business, Ormat is looking good these days, with analysts at Barclays Capital last week raising their price target on shares from $22 to $23. Ormat’s one-year low is $16.67, while its one-year high is $23.49, with a market cap of $1.034 billion.

The most recent big event was the achievement of commercial operations this month at its Plant 2 in the Olkaria III complex in Naivasha, Kenya. The commercial operation of this plant boosts Ormat’s total electricity-generating capacity by 36MW to 611WM worldwide. In 2014, Ormat will bring a third plant online in Kenya, which should add another 16MW of capacity. Even better, Ormat has a 20-year power purchase agreement with Kenya—so there’s a guaranteed market for this. And it’s got the capital to meet its Kenya ambitions, too: the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), which already provided Ormat with $265 million to build its first two plants in Kenya, will provide another $45 million for the third plant. As of March 31, 2013, the company had available committed lines of credit with commercial banks aggregating $440.9 million, of which $152.9 million was unused.

Ormat’s got its hands in a number of markets, with its 611MW of capacity spread out over the US, Guatemala, Kenya and Nicaragua. It’s also got a 20-year power purchase agreement Southern California Public Power Authority (SCPPA) for its Nevada generation.

Plus, Ormat is in on this game-changing new technology that could put geothermal electricity-generation back on the map in a very big way.



New Mexico Museum to hold 'Curanderismo' Exhibit  by Russel Contreras
New Science Shows How Maggots Heal Wounds by Carrie Arnold

New Mexico Museum
to hold 'CURANDERISMO' Exhibit

Russel Contreras
Date: March 25, 2013
Source: AP The Big Story


ALBUQUERQUE, N.M. (AP) — Evil eye. Magical fright. A sick soul.  These are all afflictions usually treated by traditional Mexican healers known as curanderos. And this summer, an Albuquerque museum is planning an exhibit on the magical art of curanderismo, or the practice of traditional Mexican folk healing.  

In May, the Maxwell Museum of Anthropology is scheduled to open an exhibit that will offer displays on curandero healing through herbs to getting a soul cleansing, also known as a limpia. Also on display will be popular curandero instruments from incense burners used in rituals to cups necessary to cure a spiritual illness.

"We're going to try to fit as much as we can so people can understand the roots of curanderismo and understand how it's used and practiced," said Devorah Romanek, curator of exhibits for the Maxwell Museum of Anthropology.  

The exhibit will coincide with a University of New Mexico curanderismo class that is expected to draw more than 200 people from around the nation.  

Curanderismo is the art of using traditional healing methods like herbs and plants to treat various ailments. Long practiced in indigenous villages of Mexico and other parts of Latin America, curanderos also could be found in parts of New Mexico, south Texas, Arizona and California. In recent years, some curanderos have been found practicing in New York and in Georgia as immigration from Mexico has expanded into that areas.  

Anthropologists believe curanderismo remained popular among poor Latinos because they didn't have access to health care. But they believe the field now is gaining traction among those who seek to use alternative medicine.  

Among the ailments curanderos treat are mal de ojo, or evil eye, and susto, magical fright. Mal de ojo is the belief that an admiring look or a stare can weaken someone, mainly a child, leading to bad luck, even death. Susto is a folk illness linked to fright experience like an automobile accident or tipping over an unseen object. Those who believe they are inflicted with susto say only a curandero can cure them.  

Eliseo "Cheo" Torres, the curator of the exhibit and author of "Curandero: A Life in Mexican Folk Healing," said curanderismo is gaining in popularity in the U.S. due to immigration from Latin America. "But there are also new people who want to learn about the field and appreciate its value," he said. "They also incorporate Chinese and Cuban traditional healing."  

Torres is the lead teacher of the University of New Mexico curanderismo workshop in July and said the class typically attracts people from New York, California and Indiana.  

The Maxwell Museum of Anthropology exhibit, which will be housed next to where classes will take place, will serve as a another educational outlet for visiting students wishing to learn more about the field, Torres said. Included in the exhibit will be popular modern images related to curanderismo like folk saints La Santa Muerte and Jesus Malverde, said Romanek.  

La Santa Muerte, or Saint Death, is a popular folk saint in Mexican and parts of the U.S. that devotees pray to help with employment or stop a lover from cheating. Jesus Malverde, a saint popular with drug cartels, also claims followers seeking protection.  "Curanderismo is so diverse now," said Torres. "It is evolving."



New Science Shows How Maggots Heal Wounds
Carrie Arnold

April 7, 2013
Scientific American 

From ancient times until the advent of antibiotics, physicians used maggots to help clean injuries and prevent infection. Because the maggots feed solely on dead flesh, doctors did not have to worry about bugs feasting on healthy tissue. The arrival of antibiotics relegated medical maggots to an ancient artifact. Widespread antibiotic resistance, however, rekindled interest in the use of medical maggots, and in 2004 the FDA approved them as a valid “medical device." 


Latino High School Grads Enter College At Record Rate, Outpace Whites and Blacks
April 27, 2013 l California State University at Northridge (CSUN)
Santa Ana Conservation Society needs public support to save Univison Building.
Latino High School Grads
Enter College At Record Rate
Editor:  This is more like an alert: The good news is that our kids are going on with their education, at higher percentages, but I think the article below may be either purposely misleading, or maybe not be looking deep enough  for societal connections.  
T the
The headline seems to suggest that more Latinos are going to college than Whites and Blacks . . . Our PERCENTAGE has increased, yes, but we are NOT outpacing Whites and Blacks in NUMBERS, attending college. 
It concerns me that this information can be used negatively to keep grants and support away from our kids. The public reaction may be . .  "More Latino going to our colleges, many illegas.  The Dream Act is going to drain the nation's resources."
I suggest we approach with caution and analyze with more wisdom what the actual figures reveal.  Are the tracking of the students figures based on an individual both entering kindergarten and graduating high school.  At what point are the dropping out rates collected.  My dad thought that graduating middle school was enough education. . . that is 8th grade.  What states were used in gathering the information, and how were Latinos identified?  A sampling of East Coast Latinos is going to be very different from West Coast Latinos.  

Thirty years ago, I attended a conference in Washington, DC on Bilingual Education.  The buzz through out the event was that new research figures revealed that among Mexican-American, it was not the first, or the second, but it was the third generation of youth that were dropping out.  The concern among many of the educators at that conference was the realization that perhaps the foundation problem was not limited English speaking skills, but another factor that was not being addressed. By the third generation, many drop-outs were dominant English speaking.  Why were they dropping out in such high numbers in the third generation?  What need was not being met?  

What happened?  What has changed? 

I think we should recognize and give credit to all the Latino activists, educators, historians, family history researchers, whether individuals or groups whose thousands of projects, programs, and efforts for promoting education, historical and heritage understanding has resulted in shifts in attitude among our youth, parents and ourselves.  More visibility and respecting our contributions to the United States is helping our youth realize that they are important, needed, and have a future.  

Our youth can envision a life of success and potential because we are finally showing them the truth of their potential, their ancestors, in a way that encourages, inspires, promotes, and gives them hope that life can be better. They can make it happen.  


Seven in 10 Latino high school graduates in the class of 2012 went to college, according to a recent report by the Pew Hispanic Center.


That's a record-high college enrollment rate for Latinos, and it's the first time Latinos have surpassed white and black students, even as they lag behind Asian-Americans. The Latino high school dropout rate has fallen by half over the past decade - from 28 percent in 2000 to 14 percent in 2011.


The Pew report did not get into exactly why more Latino students are enrolling in college. But its co-authors, Richard Fry and Paul Taylor, note that the recession may have spurred more young Latinos to stay in school and delay entering the job market.


A more compelling theory may be a generational shift within the Latino population, says Marcelo Suarez-Orozco, dean of UCLA's Graduate School of Education and Information Studies. Suarez-Orozco, who studies immigration and education issues, sees the increase of Latinos entering college as part of a natural cycle of the American immigration story.


"I think the story here is really the story of the maturing of the second generation," he says. "These are U.S.-born kids, and these are kids who have higher ambitions. They want to do better than their parents. And they're connecting with colleges."


Click Here to Read Full Story

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April 27, 2013 l California State University at Northridge (CSUN)

“If your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more and become more, you are a leader.” -John Quincy Adams

Chicana/o Studies San Fernando Valley State 1968-1973. They are still active. 
The Department would not have survived without them.  

Rudy Acuña Diana Borrego got award, belated, for her contributions to the founding of the Chicana/o Studies Department department. She was arrested for civil disobedience on Jan 9, 1989 along with Miguel Vergugo, Hank Lopez, Frank Lechuga. Ismael Campuzano, Everto Ruiz and 400 plus other students. The photo presented was on the front page of the Los Angeles Times. She has always been an inspiration.

Sent by
Wednesday, May 01, 2013
Cal State University Alumni Reunion Photos (300) Past and Present


Santa Ana Conservation Society needs public support to save Univison Building.

On May 17th, I wrote about Greystar, a national builder based out of Charleston, planning to build a multi-story apartment building on the site of San Antonio’s Univision television. The building is significant to Latino historic preservation due to its relationship to Raoul A. Cortez, a pioneer of Spanish radio and television in the United States. Further, the Mid-Century Modern building also has significant architectural importance.

On Thursday, May 16th, the San Antonio Conservation Society announced its position on the matter by deeming the Univision building worthy of landmark recognition. Read more about the Conservation Society’s position by clicking here:

The San Antonio Conservation Society would like to see the building saved from demolition and hopes others will make their voices heard.

Sylvia M. Gonzalez | Manager of Public Programs, Villa Finale: Museum & Gardens
A National Trust Historic Site | Office: 122 Madison; Site: 401 King William; San Antonio, TX 78204
Office: 210-223-9800 ext. 34323 | Mobile Phone: 626-475-2224
E-mail: | Website:



Mother and daughter savor their tearoom business
David Gomez, Convention Chairman of 2013 USHCC National Convention


Mother and daughter savor
  their tearoom business
Author: Jan Norman
Date: May 13, 2013

As a teenager, Vivian Heredia and her four siblings spent many weekends working at the "farm," the family nickname for their mother's dream home, the historical McCharles House built in 1885 in what is now Old Town Tustin.  

"It was love at first sight," Audrey Heredia, now 73, said of the Victorian home on C Street, which was named for building contractor David L. McCharles, who built the dwelling for his schoolteacher wife, Florence, and their son, Carl. After Mary and Charles Strader bought the house in 1948, it was a preschool for 30 years.  

The Heredia family lived nearby, and Audrey Heredia owned an art studio on Main Street, frequently passing the McCharles House. Carlos and Audrey jumped at the chance to buy it for $130,000 as soon as it hit the market in 1979, not intending to live there but to fulfill Audrey's dream to own it.  

At that time, she didn't imagine that she and daughter Vivian would one day convert the McCharles House into a tearoom and restaurant. The family spent weekends scraping seven layers of paint off the walls and refurbishing the place according to Audrey's plans.  "Dad always stepped back and let mom make all the decisions," said Vivian, now 51. "And if he hadn't, she would have done it anyway."  

Initially, Audrey set up an art studio upstairs and rented space to other entrepreneurs with dreams: a book seller, a publisher, a children's clothing retailer. But while the other siblings went on to other careers, Vivian, who studied entrepreneurship at USC, remained, and mother and daughter opened the restaurant in the house in 1985.  

"We're of like minds; it obviously has worked," Audrey said of the 28-year partnership. Vivian added, "It's a joy, a pleasure. I tell people that I went to McCharles University."  Initially, the McCharles House was a traditional tearoom. Customers made reservations, were seated at a specific table and 10 to 15 staffers waited on them.  

One of the early customers was fine art painter Noah Elias, 42, who went to the McCharles House for tea with his mother, sister and grandmother when it first opened and continues to visit regularly today. "I am an artist; I own my own business and pride myself on finding places that have a magical essence about them," the Santa Ana resident said. "Anybody can serve tea. Anybody can own a house. But it's how they do it at McCharles House that makes it one of the last gems in Orange County."

 As the restaurant thrived, mother and daughter refurbished and added to the house and 10,000-square-foot grounds.

They replaced the back parking lot with gardens, converted a porch into a drawing room, planted natural gardens with meandering paths and built a mountain-style lodge for private parties and quiet meetings. Audrey was so particular about the Sequoia Lodge, as she named it, that she made the contractor build it twice. "They have been wonderful custodians of that house with the remodeling and beautiful gardens," Linda Jennings of the Tustin Preservation Conservancy said. "It enhances the cultural resource overlay district."  

Guests started giving the Heredias furnishings for the house. One woman gave an elegant dining table, others contributed chandeliers. A Disney employee arranged for the wedding gazebo from the Disneyland Hotel to be moved to the McCharles House after the hotel remodeled.  "It has been a wonderful relationship with our guests," Vivian said. "We've had wonderful sponsors donate things: Dunn Edwards Paint, Old California Lantern Company, Rogers Gardens."  

The dwelling became a favorite for home and garden magazines, including Victoria and Bon Appétit. Mother and daughter were regular guests on "The Christopher Lowell Show," an interior design programming on the Discovery Channel.  

In 2008, Vivian became very ill and had to step away from the business. Audrey didn't want to run the tearoom herself, so for several years the McCharles House was closed.

"It was a very prominent place to go for tea, very revered in this area," Jennings said. "People used to have tea or lunch there every day. They missed it."  

Audrey said she and her daughter didn't contemplate selling the McCharles House. Instead, the hiatus gave the pair a different perspective on life and business.  

Doctors gave Vivian the go-ahead for a soft reopening in January 2011. "She finally was given a free rein to celebrate Mother's Day of that year (right after celebrating the McCharles House's 26th anniversary)," Audrey said. "That was a wonderful Mother's Day gift to me, to know that she was well."  "I'm not the same business owner I was before," Vivian said. Her mother quickly added, "Nor am I. There's so much that's not important to argue about."  

One of the most significant changes is that the McCharles House is open less often – only 13 days in May, for instance, and 11 days in June. Monthly schedules of open days are posted on the restaurant's website. The pair host "Someday Get-Togethers" in which guests are handed a glass of punch and invited to stroll through the grounds rather than sit at one table. Vivian leads a group cooking session in the kitchen.  

"We cater mostly to women. We share ideas," she explained. "It's not just about food. It's not McCharles Restaurant. It's more than that; people who come here know that." Audrey said, "It's like having people come into our homes. We tell them stories. People have come to McCharles House for years. They compare what it was before. Now it's special."   

Longtime customer Elias agreed. The temporary closure "was the smartest thing they ever did; it's better now. People tend to take things for granted. When people go there now, everything is much more intentional."  



The United States Hispanic Chamber of Commerce (USHCC) announced David Gomez, President and CEO of David Gomez & Associates, as Board Convention Chairman of the 2013 USHCC National Convention. The annual event is the largest gathering of Hispanic business leaders in America and a forum to address the most important challenges and opportunities affecting our nation’s small business community. The Convention will take place September 15-17 in Chicago, IL.

“The USHCC is proud to have Mr. David Gomez serve as this year’s Board Convention Chairman. Mr. Gomez is not only an industry expert, but also a champion for utilizing an inclusive methodology within his recruiting services for our nation’s Fortune 500 companies, as well as healthcare and government organizations,” said USHCC Chairman & CEO Javier Palomarez.
Gomez founded David Gomez & Associates, Inc. (DG&A) in 1978, a retained executive search firm that has greatly enhanced the human capital consulting industry over the past 35 years, by being technologically innovative and filling positions in a third of the time in today’s rapidly changing marketplace. DG&A prides itself in partnering with their clients to create a more targeted approach with the mindset of developing long-term strategic hiring solutions. He is a respected voice in national and trade publications, including the Wall Street Journal, Latino Leaders and Dinero magazines.

Gomez formerly served as a Region IV chair and was previously USHCC Board of Directors Nominations & Governance Chair. Throughout his career, he has garnered numerous accolades, including Minorities in Business’ Entrepreneurial Spirit Award and Hispanic Businesses’ Corporate Elite Award.

“Mr. Gomez exemplifies leadership in the private sector, ensuring our nation’s brightest and most qualified minority talent have a seat at the table. Not only does our community benefit from his work, but our nation’s top organizations, from Fortune 500 companies to the federal government, are greatly enriched by diversifying their workforce. David’s work demonstrates that diversity and inclusion is not only a good practice, it is a great business practice. The USHCC is honored by his service as a member of our Board of Directors and as Board Convention Chair,” said USHCC Chairman Marc Rodriguez.
The USHCC National Convention is the largest gathering of Hispanic business leaders in the United States. It serves as the premier networking venue for building relationships and establishing strategic partnerships with Hispanic entrepreneurs, government agencies, procurement officers, corporate representatives, community leaders and chamber executives. 

US Hispanic Chamber of Commerce
1424 K Street NW, Suite 401
Washington, DC 20005


The last wood shop teacher by Frank Mickadeit
Federal Pell Grants
"Political Salsa y Más" in Latinopia
Class Matters by By Paul Fain
No Rich Child Left Behind
Green Dot
MEChA UW-Madison
The last wood shop teacher
Author: Frank Mickadeit

Date: May 14, 2013

I walked into Jim Peat's classroom a couple of months ago and my eye immediately went to a small, three-piece wood bookshelf put together with dowels, screws and a modest bit of joinery. I know that shelf because the identical one I made in ninth grade sits on my desk in the newsroom.



The bookshelf sits in Jim Peat's classroom because it was made there. Peat is literally the last wood shop teacher in Santa Ana. Figuratively, I think of Peat as The Last Woodshop Teacher in America, given our nation's educational emphasis away from industrial arts and vocational education.  

Peat may be bucking the trend, but in Santa Ana, he has had no problem getting kids to rest their iPhones for a moment to learn the art of woodworking. And in an extraordinary burst of passion that blossomed from one girl's inquiry last year, he has started a guitar-making club that instantly drew 27 students who meet after school. I have dropped in several times to watch their progress.

I'm there the day the guitar kits arrive at the Sierra Preparatory Academy on Grand Avenue. The kids — sixth-, seventh- and eighth-graders — open the flat cardboard boxes and pull out the pieces they will cut into their final shapes, finish and assemble. In each kit is a body that comes in the rough shape of one of five iconic guitars: Jaguar, Stratocaster, Telecaster, Les Paul and Precision Bass. There are matching necks, tuning keys and other hardware, and the electronics that they'll learn to install and wire up.  

The kits retail for $110 to $175, which many of these kids couldn't afford. Peat got the manufacturer to sell him the kits at cost, and Principal Jeff Bishop found the money somewhere.

Peat's goal is both to teach the art of woodworking and to prepare them if they want to work at a guitar shop or factory after high school. "There are over 30 guitar factories within a seven-hour drive of here," he tells the class. "There are places that when you know how to do this, they will hire you."  

Peat, 52, knows this because between college at Cal State Fullerton and obtaining his teaching credential, he worked in the industry. He apprenticed for a guitar-maker in Michigan and eventually came back to the West Coast to work for Fender. He then had his own repair business before coming to Sierra, where he has taught math, history and industrial arts for 13 years.  

Every once in awhile, he would bring one of his personal guitar projects to the shop to work on after school. Last year, that caught the eye of then seventh-grader Rosemary Corrales, who was in his regular wood shop class. After she'd made the mandatory projects like the bookshelf, she asked if she could make a guitar like his.  

Peat decided to give it a try. He got her a kit with a Telecaster-style body and she started shaping it to her own likes. This meant using a disk sander to form a concave backside and using a band saw to cut a custom headstock. Then there were hours of sanding on the basswood body and maple neck to prep for a multi-stage finishing process that included a cherry red lacquer finish and a hand-rubbed clear coat.  

The result is every bit as good as you'd find at a retail guitar shop, and better than most Telecaster knockoffs I've seen. She named it "Mama."  "The first strum sounded amazing on the amp," Rosemary tells me one day. "I was so excited. My parents thought I bought it. I said, 'No, I handmade it.'"  

With Rosemary's enthusiasm and success, Peat got the idea to start the after-school club. Unlike his regular shop classes, the club is non-credit and meets once a week and on some Saturdays. Rosemary is back, making another guitar and helping the other students. Even though she'll go to Santa Ana High next year and plans to become a veterinarian, she tells me she's not leaving the guitar club. "I'm going to come back and get my volunteer hours by helping out," she says.  

Peat hopes several of the intermediate-schoolers will return to do their mandatory community service. He wants to get to the point the kids in the club can fashion the wooden parts completely from scratch, he told me last week as he showed students how to precisely align the neck, body and bridge with a micrometer and a straightedge.  

"It's so nice to have the opportunity to pass this on," he says of his craft. "It gives them self-confidence and a chance to express themselves artistically."



Federal Pell Grants

A Federal Pell Grant, unlike a loan, does not have to be repaid. Federal Pell Grants usually are awarded only to undergraduate students who have not earned a bachelor's or a professional degree. (In some cases, however, a student enrolled in a postbaccalaureate teacher certification program might receive a Federal Pell Grant.) You are not eligible to receive a Federal Pell Grant if you are incarcerated in a federal or state penal institution or are subject to an involuntary civil commitment upon completion of a period of incarceration for a forcible or nonforcible sexual offense.

Amounts can change yearly. The maximum Federal Pell Grant award is $5,550 for the 2012–13 award year (July 1, 2012 to June 30, 2013). The amount you get, though, will depend on

  • your financial need,
  • your cost of attendance,
  • your status as a full-time or part-time student, and
  • your plans to attend school for a full academic year or less.

Editor:  Apparently, you do not have to be a citizen, because each of  the two Boston Bombers Muslim brothers received Federal Prell Grants.  

"Political Salsa y Más" in Latinopia

Estimadas/os: For those who may be interested, my latest “Political Salsa y Más” blog, in which I address what I consider the proper way to honor César Chávez, is on “Latinopia”—the link is below.

While you’re in “Latinopia,” check out its other great features. One of these is a tribute by journalist Luis Torres to Sal Castro, a Chicano giant—in education and civil rights—whom we just lost to cancer. Sal was a key figure in the 1968 high-school walkouts (aka “Blowouts”) in East LA, a defining moment in our community’s history, one which precipitated fundamental changes in the educational system and its treatment of Chicana/o students. 

In the wake of the walkouts, for his role in inspiring students to demand a quality education, Sal was arrested and charged with multiple felony counts, charges that were later dropped. The ELA Blowouts were memorialized in the 2006 HBO film “Walkout.” 

Luis Torres is a former student of Sal Castro’s, one of the thousands whom Sal Castro taught, mentored, coached, and inspired in his long and extraordinary career. Sal’s catch phrase was “No seas menso [“Don’t be a fool”]—go to college and graduate!” 

The second part to that advice was that after you graduate from college, return to your community and give back to it and help others achieve a better life. Thousands of Chicana/o students took Sal’s advice, and our community is the richer for it. 

QEPD Sal Castro—Presente!
Salomon Baldenegro 


Class Matters by By Paul Fain
May 2, 2013 

SAN FRANCISCO -- Poverty influences where even valedictorians go to college, new research has found.
High schools generally fail to provide adequate college admissions guidance to top students, according to research by Alexandria Walton Radford, who directs studies on students’ transition to college for RTI International, a nonprofit research group. And lower-income valedictorians are more likely than their wealthier peers to be “undermatched” in less selective colleges.

Without good counseling, students must rely on themselves, their families and social networks when applying to colleges, said Radford, who presented her findings here this week at the American Educational Research Association’s annual meeting. And that can help reinforce social stratification in college admissions.

Poorer students remain underrepresented at America's top colleges, research has shown. And their academic preparation isn't the only reason, according to Radford's study of valedictorians, who should be considered well-prepared.

“Less-affluent valedictorians were less likely to know someone who had enrolled in a most selective institution and thus had a harder time envisioning their own attendance,” Radford wrote in a summary of her research.

The theme of the research association’s meeting this year was “Education and Poverty.” And Radford was among many who presented research on class inequity in higher education, which academics say remains deeply problematic at most colleges. Her study comes at a time of increased focus on how, despite plenty of outreach efforts, much of the talent at low-income high schools isn't getting recruited to top colleges.

Radford worked with data from the High School Valedictorian Project, a survey of 900 class valedictorians who graduated from public high schools between 2003 and 2006. She also drew from 55 in-depth interviews with the students. The University of Chicago Press soon will publish a book by Radford on her findings.

The valedictorians reported that the information high school guidance offices were provided on college admissions, financial aid and college choices was woefully lacking. Common descriptions included “pretty lousy” and “pretty incompetent,” Radford said.

That critique ranged across all family income levels. But the repercussions were more troubling for students from needier families, the research found.

Guidance offices tend to provide advice to large groups of students, Radford said. As a result, they focus on college options that are the most common. And that leads to a paradox where the top students actually get worse guidance than average ones.

In the absence of formal guidance from their high schools, needier students turn to who they know for help.
Among those surveyed, only 32 percent of valedictorians from lower socioeconomic backgrounds enrolled in private colleges described as being the most selective, compared to 51 percent of their wealthier peers. And 11 percent of the lower-income students enrolled in the most selective public institutions, compared to 21 percent of the wealthier group.

“Leaving college guidance to families instead of providing it to all students in school enables social class to have an unnecessarily strong influence on where students ultimately enroll,” wrote Radford.

Enrollment choices matter, she said, because studies show that students who go to top colleges generally fare better in higher education and in the job market.

"Because of the effect college destinations has on individuals’ socioeconomic futures," Radford wrote, "this system of entrusting college guidance to families allows the advantages (and disadvantages) of one generation to be passed on to the next generation."

Dr. Frank Talamantes, Ph.D,
Professor of Endocrinology (Emeritus)
University of California
Santa Cruz, California, 95060


No Rich Child Left Behind

By Sean F. Reardon, The New York Times, 
28 April 13

ere's a fact that may not surprise you: the children of the rich perform better in school, on average, than children from middle-class or poor families. Students growing up in richer families have better grades and higher standardized test scores, on average, than poorer students; they also have higher rates of participation in extracurricular activities and school leadership positions, higher graduation rates and higher rates of college enrollment and completion.

Whether you think it deeply unjust, lamentable but inevitable, or obvious and unproblematic, this is hardly news. It is true in most societies and has been true in the United States for at least as long as we have thought to ask the question and had sufficient data to verify the answer.

What is news is that in the United States over the last few decades these differences in educational success between high- and lower-income students have grown substantially.

One way to see this is to look at the scores of rich and poor students on standardized math and reading tests over the last 50 years. When I did this using information from a dozen large national studies conducted between 1960 and 2010, I found that the rich-poor gap in test scores is about 40 percent larger now than it was 30 years ago.

To make this trend concrete, consider two children, one from a family with income of $165,000 and one from a family with income of $15,000. These incomes are at the 90th and 10th percentiles of the income distribution nationally, meaning that 10 percent of children today grow up in families with incomes below $15,000 and 10 percent grow up in families with incomes above $165,000.

In the 1980s, on an 800-point SAT-type test scale, the average difference in test scores between two such children would have been about 90 points; today it is 125 points. This is almost twice as large as the 70-point test score gap between white and black children. Family income is now a better predictor of children's success in school than race.

The same pattern is evident in other, more tangible, measures of educational success, like college completion. In a study similar to mine, Martha J. Bailey and Susan M. Dynarski, economists at the University of Michigan, found that the proportion of students from upper-income families who earn a bachelor's degree has increased by 18 percentage points over a 20-year period, while the completion rate of poor students has grown by only 4 points.

In a more recent study, my graduate students and I found that 15 percent of high-income students from the high school class of 2004 enrolled in a highly selective college or university, while fewer than 5 percent of middle-income and 2 percent of low-income students did.

These widening disparities are not confined to academic outcomes: new research by the Harvard political scientist Robert D. Putnam and his colleagues shows that the rich-poor gaps in student participation in sports, extracurricular activities, volunteer work and church attendance have grown sharply as well.

In San Francisco this week, more than 14,000 educators and education scholars have gathered for the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. The theme this year is familiar: Can schools provide children a way out of poverty?

We are still talking about this despite decades of clucking about the crisis in American education and wave after wave of school reform.Whatever we've been doing in our schools, it hasn't reduced educational inequality between children from upper- and lower-income families.

Part of knowing what we should do about this is understanding how and why these educational disparities are growing. For the past few years, alongside other scholars, I have been digging into historical data to understand just that. The results of this research don't always match received wisdom or playground folklore.

The most potent development over the past three decades is that the test scores of children from high-income families have increased very rapidly. Before 1980, affluent students had little advantage over middle-class students in academic performance; most of the socioeconomic disparity in academics was between the middle class and the poor. But the rich now outperform the middle class by as much as the middle class outperform the poor. Just as the incomes of the affluent have grown much more rapidly than those of the middle class over the last few decades, so, too, have most of the gains in educational success accrued to the children of the rich.

Before we can figure out what's happening here, let's dispel a few myths.

The income gap in academic achievement is not growing because the test scores of poor students are dropping or because our schools are in decline. In fact, average test scores on the National Assessment of Educational Progress, the so-called Nation's Report Card, have been rising - substantially in math and very slowly in reading - since the 1970s. The average 9-year-old today has math skills equal to those her parents had at age 11, a two-year improvement in a single generation. The gains are not as large in reading and they are not as large for older students, but there is no evidence that average test scores have declined over the last three decades for any age or economic group.

The widening income disparity in academic achievement is not a result of widening racial gaps in achievement, either. The achievement gaps between blacks and whites, and Hispanic and non-Hispanic whites have been narrowing slowly over the last two decades, trends that actually keep the yawning gap between higher- and lower-income students from getting even wider. If we look at the test scores of white students only, we find the same growing gap between high- and low-income children as we see in the population as a whole.

It may seem counterintuitive, but schools don't seem to produce much of the disparity in test scores between high- and low-income students. We know this because children from rich and poor families score very differently on school readiness tests when they enter kindergarten, and this gap grows by less than 10 percent between kindergarten and high school. There is some evidence that achievement gaps between high- and low-income students actually narrow during the nine-month school year, but they widen again in the summer months.

That isn't to say that there aren't important differences in quality between schools serving low- and high-income students - there certainly are - but they appear to do less to reinforce the trends than conventional wisdom would have us believe.

If not the usual suspects, what's going on? It boils down to this: The academic gap is widening because rich students are increasingly entering kindergarten much better prepared to succeed in school than middle-class students. This difference in preparation persists through elementary and high school.

My research suggests that one part of the explanation for this is rising income inequality. As you may have heard, the incomes of the rich have grown faster over the last 30 years than the incomes of the middle class and the poor. Money helps families provide cognitively stimulating experiences for their young children because it provides more stable home environments, more time for parents to read to their children, access to higher-quality child care and preschool and - in places like New York City, where 4-year-old children take tests to determine entry into gifted and talented programs - access to preschool test preparation tutors or the time to serve as tutors themselves.

But rising income inequality explains, at best, half of the increase in the rich-poor academic achievement gap. It's not just that the rich have more money than they used to, it's that they are using it differently. This is where things get really interesting.

High-income families are increasingly focusing their resources - their money, time and knowledge of what it takes to be successful in school - on their children's cognitive development and educational success. They are doing this because educational success is much more important than it used to be, even for the rich.

With a college degree insufficient to ensure a high-income job, or even a job as a barista, parents are now investing more time and money in their children's cognitive development from the earliest ages. It may seem self-evident that parents with more resources are able to invest more - more of both money and of what Mr. Putnam calls "‘Goodnight Moon' time" - in their children's development. But even though middle-class and poor families are also increasing the time and money they invest in their children, they are not doing so as quickly or as deeply as the rich.

The economists Richard J. Murnane and Greg J. Duncan report that from 1972 to 2006 high-income families increased the amount they spent on enrichment activities for their children by 150 percent, while the spending of low-income families grew by 57 percent over the same time period. Likewise, the amount of time parents spend with their children has grown twice as fast since 1975 among college-educated parents as it has among less-educated parents. The economists Garey Ramey and Valerie A. Ramey of the University of California, San Diego, call this escalation of early childhood investment "the rug rat race," a phrase that nicely captures the growing perception that early childhood experiences are central to winning a lifelong educational and economic competition.

It's not clear what we should do about all this. Partly that's because much of our public conversation about education is focused on the wrong culprits: we blame failing schools and the behavior of the poor for trends that are really the result of deepening income inequality and the behavior of the rich.

We're also slow to understand what's happening, I think, because the nature of the problem - a growing educational gap between the rich and the middle class - is unfamiliar. After all, for much of the last 50 years our national conversation about educational inequality has focused almost exclusively on strategies for reducing inequalities between the educational successes of the poor and the middle class, and it has relied on programs aimed at the poor, like Head Start and Title I.

We've barely given a thought to what the rich were doing. With the exception of our continuing discussion about whether the rising costs of higher education are pricing the middle class out of college, we don't have much practice talking about what economists call "upper-tail inequality" in education, much less success at reducing it.

Meanwhile, not only are the children of the rich doing better in school than even the children of the middle class, but the changing economy means that school success is increasingly necessary to future economic success, a worrisome mutual reinforcement of trends that is making our society more socially and economically immobile.

We need to start talking about this. Strangely, the rapid growth in the rich-poor educational gap provides a ray of hope: if the relationship between family income and educational success can change this rapidly, then it is not an immutable, inevitable pattern. What changed once can change again. Policy choices matter more than we have recently been taught to think.

So how can we move toward a society in which educational success is not so strongly linked to family background? Maybe we should take a lesson from the rich and invest much more heavily as a society in our children's educational opportunities from the day they are born. Investments in early-childhood education pay very high societal dividends. That means investing in developing high-quality child care and preschool that is available to poor and middle-class children. It also means recruiting and training a cadre of skilled preschool teachers and child care providers. These are not new ideas, but we have to stop talking about how expensive and difficult they are to implement and just get on with it.

But we need to do much more than expand and improve preschool and child care. There is a lot of discussion these days about investing in teachers and "improving teacher quality," but improving the quality of our parenting and of our children's earliest environments may be even more important. Let's invest in parents so they can better invest in their children.

This means finding ways of helping parents become better teachers themselves. This might include strategies to support working families so that they can read to their children more often.. It also means expanding programs like the Nurse-Family Partnership that have proved to be effective at helping single parents educate their children; but we also need to pay for research to develop new resources for single parents.

It might also mean greater business and government support for maternity and paternity leave and day care so that the middle class and the poor can get some of the educational benefits that the early academic intervention of the rich provides their children. Fundamentally, it means rethinking our still-persistent notion that educational problems should be solved by schools alone.

The more we do to ensure that all children have similar cognitively stimulating early childhood experiences, the less we will have to worry about failing schools. This in turn will enable us to let our schools focus on teaching the skills - how to solve complex problems, how to think critically and how to collaborate - essential to a growing economy and a lively democracy.



Green Dot

Green Dot is a non-profit group of public charter schools that serves over 10,000 of the lowest-income students in Los Angeles. Many of our students live in areas where more than 60% of kids are dropping out of school. But at Green Dot schools in the same communities, 83% of all students graduate and over 74% enroll in college. 

Dear Mimi: 

Early this morning, winners were announced in the My LA2050 competition sponsored by the Goldhirsh Foundation. Scanning the list with a mix of hope and trepidation, I was overjoyed to see that The Salamander Project, a partnership between Green Dot Public Schools and No Right Brain Left Behind, was awarded one of the ten $100,000 grants.

This joy is amplified by the knowledge that we won in large part because of your strong support in particular and further broad support from the citizens of Los Angeles. Over 70,000 people voted in this competition!  

Our mission is to transform public education so that every child in LA can go to a good school. This grant will be used to transform the library at Locke High School into an innovation hub that redefines the purpose of the school library for the 21st Century. Additionally, the project will pilot creativity generators designed by our friends at No Right Brain Left Behind that will stimulate creativity in classrooms across all subjects.

We want to thank the Goldhirsh Foundation, who sponsored the My LA2050 Challenge, for this award. We want to acknowledge the inspiration we have found in the tremendous diversity and creativity of our fellow competitors. And we also want to thank you.

The Challenge received 279 submissions, and more than 70,000 people voted to determine the finalists. The Goldhirsh Foundation says they were blown away by the diversity and the high quality of the submissions, making the selection process was extremely competitive. Frankly, I'm blown away by your strong show of support for Green Dot Public Schools.

Thank you again. I look forward to updating you on our progress and other ways you can help.
Thank you for your support in helping the youth of our city.

Douglas Weston | Director of Development
MEChA UW-Madison
Colegas, I have had the opportunity to be the faculty advisor for MEChA (Movimiento Estudiantil Chicana/o de Aztlán) at UW-Madison during an exciting and challenging time.

I share with you a docu-video that the Mechistas put together as part of a campaign, that they won, to find a respectable and safe place on campus. The result of this campaign is a three-story house that is currently being renovated. MEChA will have a Open House ceremony at the beginning of the fall 2013 semester.

They are currently producing a second video that continues to document their transition into the new space. 

Armando Ibarra, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor, School for Workers
Department of Labor Education
Faculty Affiliate, Chican@ Latin@ Studies
University of Wisconsin

Sent by Gilbert Gonzalez gggonzal@UCI.EDU 


The Dreamers: a Bloodline
OC Art Legend Emigdio Vasquez Honored in Santa Ana’s Artists Village
Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society, Editor, Jorge Chino

Sony in El Salvador


May 31 - June 15

Cara Mía Theatre Co. presents  THE DREAMERS: A BLOODLINE, part one of a trilogy on immigration, has been selected as a recipient of a grant  from the TACA Donna Wilhelm Family New Works Fund.

Sony, Javi, Chorus




Alicia, Rosa, Sony w baby, Nori

La Guitarra

Photos by Fabián Aguirre

In 2009, Cara Mía began offering programs for youth and now reaching over 10,000 children per year. But we are in position
to reach more. In a city that is over 40% Latino and a Dallas ISD that is at least 70%, DFW needs Cara Mía Theatre Co. to reach more young people who are hungry and in need of authentic cultural experiences. CLICK HERE TO DONATE ONLINE
or mail a contribution to: Cara Mía Theatre Co.
P.O. Box 226144    Dallas, Texas 75222
"Un pueblo sin teatro es un pueblo sin cara."  


OC Art Legend Emigdio Vasquez to be Honored in Santa Ana’s Artists Village

Renowned Artist to Receive LAN Maestro Award on Sat., May 25 AT OCCCA


Emigdio Vasquez, one of the most prolific and famous artists to come out of Orange County, CA has been selected for the prestigious “Maestro” award from the Latino Arts Network (LAN), a California association of Latino Museums and Cultural Centers in partnership with the California Arts Council.   The award & reception took place Saturday, May 25.  The event was hosted by local arts leader United Artists of Santa Ana (UASA) and Orange County Center for Contemporary Art (OCCCA). OCCCA will also feature an exhibition of Mr. Vasquez’s work in March 2014.

In depicting multi-cultural mid-century Santa Ana, Emigdio Vasquez excelled in portraying many Orange County landmarks & personalities: Fruit Pickers, Labor Leaders, Zoot Suits, Pachucos, and Nostalgic Neighborhoods & Street Scenes.  Mr. Vasquez has created over 400 paintings and 22 murals in Orange County. Additionally, his work hangs in the residence of the US Ambassador to the United Nations stationed in Rome, Italy.

Mr. Vasquez was recently honored by Cal State Fullerton and featured in both the OC Weekly & OC Register as a major Orange County artist. Presenting the award will be Latino Arts Network Executive Director, Rebecca Nevarez, and President, Tomas Benitez.

In addition to LAN & UASA representatives, several local speakers  paid tribute to Emigdio Vasquez, including OC Weekly Editor and nationally-syndicated columnist Gustavo Arellano.

Emigdio Vasquez’s website

For more information about United Artists of Santa Ana, please visit
For more information about the Latino Arts Network, please visit

Contact: Alicia Rojas – UASA  or 714-907-5468


Jorge Chino, Publisher 
Aman Sium, Managing Editor

Articles : Vol 2, No 1 (2013) 

Savage Representations in the Discourse of Modernity: Liberal Ideology and the Impossibility of Nativist Longing . . .   S. Lily Mendoza

Indigenous Place: Thought and Agency: The Land Under our Feet . . . Vanessa Watts

Spirituality as Decolonizing Elders: Albert Desjarlais, George McDermott, and Tom McCallum Share: Understandings of Life in Healing Practices . . . Judy Iseke 

What do We Mean by Decolonizing Research Strategies? Lessons from Decolonizing. Indigenous Research Projects in New Zealand and Latin America . . . Miguel Zavala

But it's our story. Read it": Stories My Grandfather Told Me and Writing for Continuance . . . Mallory Whiteduck

Reclaiming Indigenous Knowledge: Challenges, Resistence, and Opportunities
. . . Njoki Nathani Wane

The psychiatrization of our children or an autoethnographic narrative of perpetuating First Nations genocide through 'benevolent' institutions . . . Brenda A. LeFrancois


List of some of the top College Newspapers on campuses today by Heather Silver
Myths and Facts About South Texas Spanish by Dr. Lino García,Jr.
Update of Somos en escrito Magazine for April-May 2013 by Armando Rendon


While the journalism industry undergoes serious upheaval as online publishing platforms become more accessible and capture more attention, student newspapers continue to be an integral part of college and university life, and a great way for new journalists to gain entree into an important but rapidly transforming career path. Student newspapers not only serve to inform a college’s students about campus happenings, but also provide a unique perspective on local and global news. Most importantly, student journalists learn to see stories everywhere and communicate them with diverse audiences. In an increasingly information-saturated culture, having storytellers to pluck relevant narratives out of the noise is more important than ever.

The student papers listed here, from colleges and universities throughout the United States and even some international institutes, are some of the best places for budding journalists to hone their craft, and for newsreaders to get new perspectives on current events. These papers aren’t ranked in any particular order, but are listed together here as fantastic examples of student journalism done right.

I just completed an extensive list of some of the top College Newspapers on campuses today and posted it on my site:    It is complete with some of the best places for budding journalists to hone their craft, and for newsreaders to get new perspectives on current events.  Scroll down on the left side to the heading LIBRARY and click.

A lot of research went into finding these newspapers along with their great reputation throughout their universities. If you have any suggestions of ones to add that would be great.  Thanks again and I look forward to feedback from any of your readers.

Best, Heather Silver  

Editor Mimi:  This looks like a good resources.  Do check it out. 



Dr. Lino García,Jr.

This author has heard multiple miss-interpretations of “ South Texas Spanish” , a term I accept to value the use of the Spanish language. Terms which are demeaning are: Tex-Mex, Pocho, Border Spanish, and Spanglish, none of which truly explains this linguistic phenomena.

Spanish was developed from the Latin, and was later invaded by the Greek, Visigoth, Celtic, Hebrew, Basque, and Arabic languages as these groups invaded Spain, with Latin being the primary source. Thus what we now have is really a mixture of various languages. 

Myth: residents of South Texas speak a non- acceptable language that is not close to the real Spanish, especially one called Castilian Spanish. They are not truly no bi-lingual because many do not know the grammar or how to write Spanish . 

Fact: Random College Dictionary states ( page 135) : bilingual: “.. able to speak two languages..”; and nothing is said about writing the language nor knowledge of grammar. There is no such linguistic activity known as Castilian Spanish. It is a invention by individuals who sometimes lacked real knowledge of the language, and are prone to consider it more elegant than the Spanish spoken here. Regions have developed words spoken only in certain areas or parts of the world, and that via time have become part of ordinary standard Spanish. This linguistic phenomena is true of all languages, and can also be applied to the English spoken in England, in the south, in New York, and in South Texas , and have a regional usage, a sort of variety peculiar to the area. Does that make English any different from other parts, and should we call it anything else but English ? Absolutely NOT ! Both the English and Spanish languages are traveling via normal linguistic patterns strictly established by users everywhere in the world. 

Myth: most Hispanics in the South Texas speak what some individuals call Tex-Mex or Spanglish. 

Fact: The Spanish spoken in South Texas is mostly a speaking/comprehension ability, since there are few occasions to write anything in Spanish; and the speaking /comprehension component is done at various levels of performance reflecting the person’s level of education, awareness, and immersion. Throughout the years I have taught countless classes in Spanish Composition and Grammar at UTPA to a great number of South Texas students, many of whom have shown excellent ability to write decent paragraphs, and long essays in the standard Spanish. I was born and raised in South Texas, and wrote both my M.A. thesis ( University of North Texas) and Ph.D dissertation in Spanish ( Tulane) and both were accepted by eminent professors at this distinguished institutions.

Myth: some parents of Hispanic origin want their children to learn Spanish first and then English as a second language.

Fact: not so! The majority of Hispanic parents are demanding that their children be taught the language of the USA as the primary language. The reason ? Gone are the days when Hispanic parents merely dreamed of having their sons and daughters finish high school. 21st. century Hispanic parents are demanding that their children be well prepared for high paying and eminent professions, and these same parents know and understand that a perfect knowledge of the English language is essential for a successful professional life in the USA. However, knowledge of Spanish is highly desirable also, and both can be attained early in life.

A Texas bilingual society existed during the first decades after Esteban F. Austin brought in his colonies to this state in 1824 at the invitation of the then Mexican controlled Texas, as one of the provisions was that each family receiving four thousand acres of land would learn the Spanish language. Thus the historical circle has met its point of origin, as Hispanics are poised to be a force in the social and political arenas, they will bring to its fruition a truly bi-lingual society in which both English and Spanish will be given the respect each is due.

Proceed !
Dr. Lino García,Jr., is Professor Emeritus of Spanish Literature at UTPA 
and can be reached at : LGarcja@UTPA.Edu 


Update of Somos en escrito Magazine for April-May 2013

This past March and April period for Somos en escrito Magazine has favored us with an incredible range and quality of genre:
Going back from the most recent, we start off with an extract from the latest book by Rudolfo Anaya, the Chicano master of fiction, a story that dwells on loss of a loved one after a half century of being together.
A short story by a new writer, flexing his literary muscles on a short story that mixes chisme in the confessional with the true confession of a gentle sign of peace as the mark of forgiveness.
Somos en escrito’s most constant essayist and thought provoker, Felipe de Ortego y Gasca, launches what may become a regular column, Pensamientos Literarios, in these pages, not only an innovation for us, but an invitation to other writers and students of writing to correspond and offer their own views.
The translations by Arturo Mantecón of the works of Leopoldo María Panero—who literally (no pun intended) resides in an insane asylum in the Canary Islands—reveal for the first time to the English-speaking world the manic brilliance of perhaps the greatest living Spanish poet.
The thoughts of one of the most esteemed American Indian leaders of our time Russell Means, offer an inkling of the richness and depth of the pool of spirituality that his last writing offers us to sample and savor: first in a series we call, “Our Other Voices”.
An essay by activist historian Rudy Acuña explores and speculates on the status of Chicana/o studies as this discipline contends with resistance from some educators and politicians with the potential to become eventually part and parcel of curricula across all disciplines.
The Director of Voter Protection for the Advancement Project, a national civil rights organization, analyzes the impact of changing Latino demographics in an essay on the 2012 elections and the crucial importance of ensuring the right to vote for Latinos to continue to wield growing strength in elections to come.
A reminder of the call for poetry and writings about poetry for a competition around the theme: Latin American and Latina/o Poetry in the 21st Century.
One closing request: Please use the SUBSCRIBE TO or FOLLOW functions on SOMOS EN ESCRITO Magazine’s front page; it’s easy and ensures you get the latest obras immediately.
Thank you for reading, and spread the words.
Armando Rendón, Editor
Call for Photographers! Somos en escrito is interested in contributions from photographers of their works to publish as virtual exhibitions or to illustrate items in the magazine. We welcome photos to illustrate already published items (we’re totally digital, so we can do that). Proper attribution will be given to all who contribute their visual wares. – Armando Rendón, Editor
Here’s our monthly Wanted Poster:
Se Necesitan: Escritores De Reseñas — Wanted: Book Reviewers<!--[if !supportNestedAnchors]--><!--[endif]-->
Books by Latina and Latino writers on all kinds of topics and genres are being published everyday but they’re not always getting proper reviews and enough exposure. Somos en escrito aims to focus more attention on our writers, but we need some of our readers to become reviewers. Send a note to, listing your areas of interest and background, sort of a mini-resume. You often get to read books before they’re in bookstores, and have a hand in helping give a book a boost, if it’s deserving; plus the copy is free.
Cada día se publican libros por escritores Latinas o Latinos tratando de una variedad de temas y géneros, pero usualmente no se les ofrece críticas apropiadas ni bastante publicidad. Somos en escrito intenta enfocar su atención a nuestros escritores, pero necesitamos que algunos de nuestros lectores se conviertan en críticos de esos libros. Comuníquese con, incluyendo sus intereses y experiencias, como un mini-resumen. Estos críticos, frecuentemente tienen la oportunidad de leer los libros antes de que lleguen a las librerías, y así podrá ayudar que el libro, si lo merece, tenga un buen éxito; además la copia es gratis.
Armando Rendón, Editor
Somos en escrito Magazine
510-219-9139 Cell



Arizona Firestorm by Otto Santa Ana  and Celeste González de Bustamante
Pachucas and Pachucos in Tucson, by Laura Cummings 
The ABCs and Ñ of America’s Cultural Evolution by Jim Estrada
Sancho's Journal by David Montejano
Our Lost Border: Essays on Life amid the Narco-Violence by Sergio Troncoso
Arizona Firestorm by Otto Santa Ana & Celeste González de Bustamante

The U.S. Supreme Court ruling on SB 1070, Arizona’s fiercely debated immigration law, did not put an end to the debate about the nation’s immigration policy. Nor did President Obama’s executive order exempting young college-attending non-citizens from deportation fears. Immigration continue to create anxiety across the nation, especially when partisan sound-bites drown out rational authoritative voices.
In their just released volume, Otto Santa Ana and Celeste González de Bustamante, co-editors of ARIZONA FIRESTORM, bring together top scholars in the fields of globalization, economics, immigration law, ethnic studies, education, and news media. The scholars cover critical aspects of Arizona’s anti-immigrant politics that the news media hasn’t addressed. In very accessible chapters these experts explain the factors that compel immigrants to leave their homelands; they lay out the historical context behind Arizona’s political acts, and consequences of these actions; and they describe the media’s role in shaping national opinion about the subject.

“To maintain a strong democracy, Americans need more than the sound-bites that political opportunists repeat ad nauseam that create such anxiety across the nation, they need facts and more perspective on these issues. ARIZONA FIRESTORM's writers shed light on these issues with accessible and authoritative chapters,” said co-editor Otto Santa Ana.

ARIZONA FIRESTORM presents a range of political viewpoints, including that of former US Attorney General Alberto Gonzales, who rejects efforts to end birthright citizenship. His chapter is extremely topical, in light of President Obama’s recent executive order to halt deportations of law-abiding undocumented youth. 

ARIZONA FIRESTORM also has chapters on the state’s ban on Mexican American studies, a ban on teachers speaking English with a Spanish "accent," and dubious state regulations that reinstitute separate but "equal," classrooms for immigrant children, the notorious "Mexican classroom" of the days before Brown v. Board of Education. It also has an authoritative fiscal analysis of the positive economic contribution of immigrants to Arizona's fiscal and state economy.

Juan González, Democracy Now radio co-host, writes that ARIZONA FIRESTORM is “timely and remarkable” and that its "most important contribution could well be its examination of how news media…have failed to provide ordinary Americans… adequate facts and context to understand this enormous movement of peoples between the two countries.

“Immigration is a critical topic for all Americans. We hope that ARIZONA FIRESTORM diminishes the rhetoric of extremists and partisans by adding sense and balance to the discussion,” said coeditor Celeste González de Bustamante.

Check out our Facebook page:

For review copies, please contact:
Lisa McAllister
Publicity & Advertising for Rowman & Littlefield  
301-459-3366 x5619 
Hello, Mimi. I hope this finds you well. Thanks for the posting on “From Coveralls to Zoot Suits.” I happen to have an interest in pachucismo and that era, so I’m going to obtain a copy.

A good companion book to “From Coveralls to Zoot Suits” by Elizabeth Escobedo  is Laura Cummings’ work, “Pachucas and Pachucos in Tucson: Situated Border Lives” (University of Arizona Press, 2011).

This innovative study examines the pachuco phenomenon from an anthropological perspective. Exploring its growth in Tucson, Arizona, the book combines ethnography, history and sociolinguistics to contextualize the early years of the phenomenon, its diverse cultural roots, and its language development. Pachucas and Pachucos in Tucson (they were sometimes called "zootsuiters"), is based on oral history and linguistic interviews with nineteen older women and men of Mexican, Seri, Apache, Mayo, Yaqui and Spanish ancestry, along with sources in the literature, and original research. Tucson interviewees speak of the very early years of the phenomenon and the great depression. This misunderstood and even maligned culture was widespread, having existed up and down the west coast and in the Southwest and Midwest. The study explores the ethos and driving forces of the culture.

The book relates 19th C. historical antecedents of the group and examines Indian influences both from Mexico and the United States. Generally, pachuco has been described as a Mexican American subculture. However, Indian influences run deep. Indeed, some Indian terms have been retained as the culture's key symbols. Their semantics are explored, with revealing and sometimes humorous results.

While much of the literature on pachuco culture and language has claimed it is a male culture, and that females did not speak the language, the Tucson interviewees speak of the pachucas. Older female interviewees recount memories and perspectives, and comment on dynamics of use of the "taboo" language for females. The book examines ways in which pachucas were especially stigmatized and marginalized. Cross cultural analysis is used to examine why many of the young women's behaviors were seen as "unfeminine" and even scandalous.

While most people conversant with the culture and language do not subscribe to the dynamics of contemporary hardcore gangs, the language and cultural sensibilities live on today in Mexican American communities across the Southwest and throughout the United States.

Laura is a former colleague at the University of Arizona. I was Assistant Dean of Students, Director of the Chicano/Hispano Student Resource Center, and Chair of the Mexican American Studies and Research Center Faculty Advisory Board (I taught for the MASRC) and Laura was Associate Director of the Women's Studies Program at the University of Arizona. She and I collaborated on several projects. After the UA, Laura went Baja California, Mexico, where she lived and worked for 11 years. She was employed as an anthropologist with the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California commissioned to Mexico's Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia. Laura has also worked with the Hopi Tribe in Arizona as a linguistic consultant on the Hopi Dictionary Project.

“Pachucas and Pachucos in Tucson: Situated Border Lives” has received good reviews. Here’s an excerpt from one of them: “A strong critical understanding of the intersections of class, ethnicity, gender, and sexuality.”
 —Rosalía Solórzano, co-editor of Chicana/o Studies: Survey and Analysis.

Salomon Baldenegro

“The ABCs and Ñ of America’s Cultural Evolution: A Primer on the Growing Influence of Hispanics, Latinos, and Mestizos in the USA” by Jim Estrada is a journalist’s perspective of 500 years of cultural evolution by the Western Hemisphere's mestizo, which includes most of today’s 52 million U.S. Hispanics and Latinos.

Friends & Colleagues:

This collection of essays provides readers a "primer" on our nation’s largest and fastest growing ethnic consumers, employees, students, taxpayers and voters in the USA. "The ABCs and Ñ" focuses on a variety of basic issues—from omission of their contributions and debunking of unsubstantiated stereotypes, to their growing influence in America—essential to understanding the cultural evolution they represent to mainstream society. The author’s personal experiences, as a community advocate, television news reporter, public and private sector executive—and marketing communications consultant to some of the most recognized corporations and nonprofits in the USA—give readers a practical perspective on how to create better relationships with our country's largest ethnic group. The author explains how similar histories and cultures have helped members of this diverse ethnic group adapt to two of the greatest world powers of their respective times: Spain and the USA. Hispanics, Latinos, and mestizos are already creating a "tipping point" in our nation's economic, educational, political, and workforce arenas. "The ABCs and Ñ" is intended to help readers understand this fast-growing population and how they can add a little cultural relevance (and competence) to their own personal and professional communication efforts.

Go to to learn more about this unique “insider’s” perspectives of our nation’s largest—and still growing—ethnic consumer, student, taxpayer, voter, and workforce segments of the population.

Un abrazo,
President & CEO

Estrada Communications Group, Inc.
13359 Research Boulevard • Suite 406 • Austin, TX • 78750  Tel: (512) 789-8367
Web:  • Face Book: 

“Add a little spice to your communications.”

Sancho's Journal by David Montejano

How do people acquire political consciousness, and how does that consciousness transform their behavior? This question launched the scholarly career of David Montejano, whose masterful explorations of the Mexican American experience produced the award-winning books Anglos and Mexicans in the Making of Texas, 1836-1986, a sweeping outline of the changing relations between the two peoples, and Quixote's Soldiers: A Local History of the Chicano Movement, 1966-1981, a concentrated look at how a social movement "from below" began to sweep away the last vestiges of the segregated social-political order in San Antonio and South Texas. Now in Sancho's Journal, Montejano revisits the experience that set him on his scholarly quest—"hanging out" as a participant-observer with the South Side Berets of San Antonio as the chapter formed in 1974.

Sancho's Journal presents a rich ethnography of daily life among the "batos locos" (crazy guys) as they joined the Brown Berets and became associated with the greater Chicano movement. Montejano describes the motivations that brought young men into the group and shows how they learned to link their individual troubles with the larger issues of social inequality and discrimination that the movement sought to redress. He also recounts his own journey as a scholar who came to realize that, before he could tell this street-level story, he had to understand the larger history of Mexican Americans and their struggle for a place in U.S. society. Sancho's Journal completes that epic story.


David Montejano’s Sancho’s Journal is a tour de force. I employ this overused phrase because it is the only one that appropriately captures this amazing and beautifully written creative journey that is, in fact, ‘a feat requiring great virtuosity or strength, often deliberately undertaken for its difficulty.’ Montejano is Sancho the chronicler who, after a thirty-year separation from his original fieldwork, returns to try to understand a small cultural and social space that is duplicated thousands of times worldwide and that consists of those most oppressed by economic and racialist ideologies and actions. These cultural and social spaces are made up of thousands, if not millions, seeking through their agencies to struggle against the forces of negation and reduction by which their basic humanity has been limited, constrained, and defined. Yet, like Don Quixote, they arise, as did the Brown Berets of the southwestern United States, from circumstances that undeniably would test the humanity of us all. Montejano gives us an unvarnished narrative of hope, struggle, and failure—the very marks of being human. But the work is also a revelatory ethnography that diligently marks the changes and shifts of the author in relation to the persons with whom he worked. This narrative is a personal history of the manner in which a social science has had to amend its reductionist premises to an engaged, unromantic, and grounded approach in which human beings, with all of their warts and failings, still strive for recognition and a place as part of the larger processes of political action. This work is one of virtuosity, in which the difficulty and complexity of the material could have drowned Montejano in romanticism or reductionist parody. This did not happen. Sancho’s Journal will be known for its singular attention to truth and to understanding ourselves and those with whom we interact, whether as social scientists or as human beings. (Carlos G. Vélez-Ibáñez, Regents’ Professor and Director of the School of Transborder Studies, Arizona State University )
  • Hardcover: 219 pages
  • Publisher: University of Texas Press (November 15, 2012)


About the Author

David Montejano is Professor of Ethnic Studies and History at the University of California, Berkeley. His fields of specialization include community studies, historical and political sociology, and race and ethnic relations. In addition to his books Anglos and Mexicans in the Making of Texas, 1836–1986 and Quixote’s Soldiers, he is the editor of Chicano Politics and Society in the Late Twentieth Century.


Our Lost Border Our Lost Border: Essays on Life amid the Narco-Violence
by Sergio Troncoso
Dear Friends:

My fifth book, Our Lost Border: Essays on Life amid the Narco-Violence, debuted in April month with a great review from Publishers Weekly, which rarely reviews essay collections:

This eye-opening collection of essays details struggles of Mexican and American citizens affected by drug cartels along the Mexican-American border. Editors Cortez (Walking Home) and Troncoso (Crossing Border: Personal Essays) shift between the journalistic and the personal....Oscillating between gruesome and hopeful, the collection "was born of a vision to bear witness to how this violence has shattered life on the border," yet is imbued with optimism....Indeed, these essayists posit that widespread hope for the region begins with the involvement of the individual: "This should be our struggle." (4-15-13, Publishers Weekly)
This anthology, features Mexican and American authors writing about how the violence along the U.S.-Mexico border has disrupted the bi-national, bi-cultural life that was, and is, so important to many of us who grew up in Ysleta, Texas and beyond. As this multicultural life of the border travels beyond the border into the United States, we can strive to learn what has worked and what has not in these borderlands. I co-edited the anthology with Sarah Cortez, and it was published by Arte Publico Press: 
Please check my website for future readings, news and events: 

Saludos,  Sergio Troncoso 

Latino soldiers
 Cebu, Phillipines, WW II


Carlos Aguilar's brush gives thanks by Amber Amaya & Ron Gonzales
Medal of Honor Recipients: Jay R. Vargas and Alfred Rascon
"Survivor" by Frank N. Lovato
Petty Officer 1st Class Benny Flores was awarded Silver Star
Proclamation & Ceremony for 45th Anniversary of TET Offensive
Video: Makin Island
Video: San Jose, CA Vietnam War Memorial Dedication
Video: Alex "Plumas" Madrigal
Video: 60th Anniversary of the end of the Korean War
Artist's brush gives thanks to veterans by 

Date: April 19, 2013

SANTA ANA – Honor. Courage. Valor. Loyalty.  Within a couple of weeks, Santa Ana artist Carlos Aguilar expects to complete a mural depicting those words, and more than 50 portraits of Orange County veterans for a World War II memorial that he's painting on the side of La Chiquita Restaurant and market in Santa Ana's historic Logan Barrio.  

The two-story mural has presented both a physical and emotional challenge, he said. He's met former officers and foot soldiers, sailors and airmen. He's met men who served under MacArthur, Patton and Eisenhower. He's met their sons and daughters."Grown men come and cry to me and want to hug me and shake my hand," he said. "I can't describe the feeling I get when I shake the hands of these men."  

On the wall you'll find the four Duron brothers – Paul, Ruben, Henry and Frank – whose parents' home still stands across the street. You'll see scenes of soldiers in combat, and helping brothers in arms to safety. Joining them will be an image of Augustine Martinez, a soldier from Santa Ana who was severely wounded in Europe, captured by the Germans and returned home with half his left leg gone.  

Aguilar, 33, was working on a sign when he was approached by Sam Montoya, owner of La Chiquita, to update his business sign.  Soon Aguilar and Montoya agreed to the idea of a mural. In learning about the Logan Barrio, Aguilar discovered that dozens of Logan men – some the sons of Mexican immigrants, and some immigrants themselves -- had served in World War II. Last May, Aguilar began power-washing the wall. About a month later, his scaffolding arrived.  

Residents were curious about the artist on his two-story scaffold, and as they found out the purpose of the mural, the onlookers started bringing photographs and stories of their veteran family members. What started as a simple sketch of an eagle and the American flag grew.  

Montoya said he wanted Aguilar to have an opportunity to showcase his talent for the neighborhood. Though Montoya couldn't pay Aguilar for the mural, he has helped the artist with supplies. With brushes and paint tubes costing anywhere from $15 to $25 each, Aguilar at times has run out of supplies for his mural. He estimates he has put about $2,000 in supplies into it.  

"What I saw in Carlos was his talent hiding, and it needed to be out. God gives you and I and everybody a talent. In our culture, we are brought up to go to work and that's all you do for the rest of your life, but I try to get people out of that and get them out there and doing something," Montoya said. "If I did it, you can do it. It's just that sometimes you just need help from somebody."  

Every photograph he has received is more than just a face to Aguilar, who grew up in Mission Viejo and Santa Ana.
 It represents someone's father, brother, uncle, or grandfather, and so he says he recreates each portrait with care.  

"I was in the area and (Aguilar) asked me if my dad was in the service, and he said he could put him on the wall," Peter Scott, whose dad was a World War II veteran, said. "It is a tribute to the older guys ... they're all dying off now, but this mural is a tribute to them."  

The mural is more than a display of Aguilar's talent; it is
 a gift to the neighborhood, said Montoya, whose works 
dot Santa Ana in such locales as a downtown laundry and at Kidworks.  

"I don't know if I will be here tomorrow; Carlos doesn't know if he will be here tomorrow, but at least the neighborhood is going to have the mural," Montoya said. "Hopefully, one day when I'm not here and Carlos is not here, somebody will protect it."  

The artist is looking forward to finishing his work, and fulfilling the promises he has made to the veterans and their families. His mural will bring art to neighborhood children who, perhaps, have never set foot in a museum. His mural will tell them the stories of men who decades ago played on the same streets they play on.  

For Aguilar, who immigrated as a child from Ixtaro, Michoacan, his work represents an expression of his gratitude.  "I want to thank everybody, especially veterans, for giving me the freedom to express myself," he said. "For all veterans, I've learned a lot of great respect. "


Medal of Honor Recipients:   Jay R. Vargas and Alfred Rascon
Jay R. Vargas, Medal of Honor, Vietnam War

On May 2, 1968, after three days of intense fighting in the village of Dai Do, Vietnam, Captain Jay Vargas rescued a fellow Marine and dragged his wounded battalion commander over a hundred yards to an evacuation point, firing at the enemy as he went. He received the Medal of Honor on May 14, 1970.

Alfred Rascon, Medal of Honor, Vietnam War 


Army medic Alfred Rascon, himself injured, tended to the wounded while under devastating fire in Long Khanh Province on March 16, 1966. On February 8, 2000, after a reevaluation of his recommendation prompted by the men in his battalion, Rascon received the Medal of Honor.  

Read more about Vargas and Rascon and other MEDAL OF HONOR recipients at:
Sent by

"SURVIVOR" by Frank N. Lovato

Estimada Mimi, I met Francisco Lovato at his book signing here at McChord Air Force Base,Washington, now Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington.     

The next day he went over to Ft Lewis and also met more of our American GI Forum members from WW II, Korea and  Vietnam.  Francisco is working on a documentary. 

Rafael Ojeda
Tacoma WA

Rafael Ojeda
(253) 576-9547

Photo by Rafael's daughter, Nathalie Ojeda

"SURVIVOR" is a dynamic and emotional account of one of the most tragic periods in American history. Told through the eyes and soul of Frank Lovato to his son, Francisco Lovato, a retired psychotherapist, the story leaps from tears to cheers as Frank and his buddies survive the travails of being a formidable combatant and subsequently a POW of the Japanese in WWII. Amazingly, Frank, two other Americans and 25 Filipino troops were the first to engage the invading Imperial Japanese forces of General Masaharu Homma on the beaches of Northern Lingayen Bay on December 22, 1941. This fact, virtually lost to the history books, tells of how MacArthur had positioned most of his forces over 45 miles away from where the 44,000 Japanese actually landed. Frank's 4 half track battery, equipped with 75-mm cannons sunk approximately 30 Japanese landing craft before pulling off the beach as Japanese troops, who had landed farther northward attempted to surround them. REVIEWS "SURVIVOR" is many things at once-a warrior's story; and epic of endurance and survival; an insider's account of the Bataan tragedy; and above all an act of filial fealty by Francisco Lovato who has established in this narrative his father's rightful place as an authentic American hero." Peter Collier- NY Times Bestselling biographer-Kennedy's, Rockefellers,Fords,Roosevelts "In this feelingly told biography, Lovato and his son honor that most essential imperative of all wars-which is simply to remember, no matter how painful the memories may be. SURVIVOR is a vivid memoir of resilience, sacrifice, and courage." Hampton Sides -Author of Ghost Soldiers

Within the first few pages this book sucked my imagination into a well-told illustration of a hero's life. The narrative and story will pull you into a world, long but not forgotten, and arouses great feelings of appreciation toward the sacrifice of our Nation's greatest generation. This book holds a permanent spot in my professional library, and will definitely be read again and again!
Amazon Verified Purchase
Possibly one of the best books I've ever read,all the way through it he talks with such feeling,you never want the book to end.The book is not for the faint hearted and you really feel for these men through his writings,he tells it from the heart.On parallel with the book Shades of Grey.An excellent book and I would recommend it for anyone who reads POW books.
To read this book is to understand the immense suffering that each and every one of the Bataan soldiers went through. It is a true eye opener to the hero's of our military, then and now. Francisco was strong enough to survive this ordeal and share his story with the rest of the world. I highly recommend this book not only for those with an interest in military history, but for all to understand what courage it took from those men to help build what our country has become today.



Johnston High School Viet Nam Heroes Honored
The Legacy of Eastside Memorial High School
The Official Unveiling of the Johnston Memorial Monument, Austin

We are proud to announce that we installed the granite that contains the names of the Johnston Heroes and as of May 19 the monument is now complete.

The public is invited to attend the official unveiling of the monument Saturday May 25th at 1-3 PM at Eastside Memorial High School, 1012 Arthur Stiles Road in Austin. A reception will follow the unveiling ceremony.

The passage of time can never diminish the debt this country owes to those whose lives were cut tragically short in it’s service, and it is indeed appropriate to pay homage to the immeasurable courage, commitment, and sacrifice of the 55 young men from Albert Sydney Johnston High School who perished in the Viet Nam War and as victims of Agent Orange.

Our Salute to the Fallen!
Our Thanks to the Veteran!
Our Appreciation to the Families!

Dan Arellano President
Memorial Committee

Unveiling ceremony was attended by over 400 people and included the Mayor & other elected officials. 

This album has 26 photos and will be available on SkyDrive until 8/23/2013
Photos by Ernest Perales

Dan, Pete and Larry, What a great job! The turnout was tremendous, the whole program was very touching. Many of the relatives of the Honorees told me that it was way beyond their dreams. These great heroes will never be forgotten. Everyone involved did a great job and should be congratulated.  May God Bless you!    Ernest Perales


Corpsman lauded for saving Marines by Erika I. Richie

CAMP PENDLETON – A Navy corpsman humbly accepted the Silver Star, the nation's third-highest medal for valor, during a ceremony at the Marine base on Friday.

Petty Officer 1st Class Benny Flores was awarded the medal by Major Gen. Charles "Mark" Guganus, commanding general of Regional Command South, I Marine Expeditionary Force, for lifesaving actions when a convoy he was riding came under attack. Flores is commended for giving lifesaving care to Marines and Afghan Uniform Police despite suffering serious injuries.  

On April 28, 2012, Flores accompanied civilian contractors and other military personnel in Zaranj. The convoy was returning to the command post after checking a construction project at a checkpoint near the Afghanistan and Iran border when a blast from a suicide bomber struck it.  

Flores was in the bed of a Ford Ranger pickup and was hit by shrapnel. The truck was thrown to the center of the road and Flores took a hit to his back and arm.  

With blood running down his body, Flores raced to the nearest Marine. Just as he finished treating him, gunfire erupted. Flores pulled the Marine to cover. He ran to treat a wounded Afghan Uniform Police Officer and moved him to cover. Then he raced back to the truck and under enemy fire, he applied a tourniquet and with the help of others he carried a Marine pinned in the truck to cover. Then under suppression fire from Marines, Flores went into the street to treat a fourth Marine.  

"By his extraordinary guidance, zealous initiative, and total dedication to duty, Hospital Corpsman First Class Flores reflected great credit upon himself and upheld the highest traditions of the Marine Corps," Guganus said.   "If that doesn't touch your heart, you're in the wrong business," Guganus told family, friends, Marines and sailors who gathered. "Marines don't go to war without their weapons and Marines don't go to war without their docs."  

Flores, who's served in the U.S. Navy for 12 years, was treated for his injuries. Despite being offered an opportunity to cut short his deployment, he stayed on. He called the award "unexpected."  

"We lost one guy, Master Sgt. Scott Pruitt, he's always in my thoughts and prayers," Flores said at the ceremony. "He was suppose to retire this year."  "I'm one little speck in the environment of what a corpsman do on the battle field," Flores added.


Proclamation, Recognition Ceremony for 45th Anniversary of  TET Offensive

May 5, 2013 2:00 p.m. a ceremony was held at the Jarvis Plaza in Laredo, TX.  The public was invited to attend the ceremony, which included among other elements, a proclamation read by Mayor Raul G.  Salinas that recognizes the 45th Anniversary of the TET Offensive, the bloodiest battle of the Vietnam War. A roll call of the Laredoans lost during Vietnam was be read. A replica of the Vietnam War Monument that will be placed on the grounds of the Texas State Capitol later this year was on display.

Below is text from a resolution passed by the Texas House of Representatives read earlier this year:

WHEREAS, January 30, 2013, marks the 45th anniversary of the launching of the Tet offensive during the Vietnam War, and this is a fitting opportunity to remember the nearly 4,000 American military personal who made the ultimate sacrifice during those harrowing weeks and months; and. . .

WHEREAS, Nearly half a century later, the courage displayed by American troops during the Tet Offensive continues to exemplify the highest standard of bravery, and those who paid the last full measure of devotion are forever deserving of remembrance and honor by the country they served.

Xochitl Mora Garcia
City of Laredo
Public Information Office
O: 956-791-7461 
M: 956-337-3639

Video:  Makin Island

I believe that everyone I'm sending this to does or has had a member of their family in the military. This is the reason that I want to share this amazing video with you. It is, without a doubt, one of the most amazing videos I've seen in a long time. 

A true story about 19 marines killed on an island (defending against the Japanese). They had to retreat, so asked the islanders to please bury them for us.

Years later, they checked and found a man who had been a teenager then and remembered where they were buried. They sent a C130 and an honor guard over there and found all 19 had been buried with their helmets on, their rifles in their hands, in perfect condition. The islanders had really done a wonderful job. As they were loading the bodies, a voice from out of nowhere started singing "The Marine Hymn"..........gave everyone goose bumps. Turns out, the voice was from a man who spoke no English but remembered a song the Marines taught him when they landed. Very touching. They got all 19 and their photos are at the end. This of course was WW2! 


Click on link below: 
Sent by Ernesto Uribe
and Karren Pederson 

San Jose, CA Vietnam War Memorial Dedication 

Forumeers and Supporters,  I had the honor of attending this dedication to the Sons of San Jose. I would recommend everyone take a few minutes to view the video, give thanks and provide a prayer. 

Thank you.
Howard Hernandez, AGIF California State Commander
City of Commerce American GI Forum Chapter Commander
Video: Alex "Plumas" Madrigal is a Desert Storm era US Marine. Plumas has been honoring the memory of the fallen since the start of the OEF (Afghanistan) and OIF (Iraq) wars, primarily in Orange County, but also throughout Southern California. Semper Fi to my US Marine brother Santa Ana resident Alex Plumas Madrigal.

Semper Fi to Marine Cpl Madrigal!!!!

click below for VIDEO: 

Francisco J. Barragan - aka "Paco"

Video:  60th Anniversary of the end of the Korean War 

Estimada Mimi, I watched these two videos this weekend. With the 60th Anniversary of the end of the Korean War on JULY 27,2013, think that these two videos give all visuals of us what our men and women went through. I was surprise to lean that the I Corps (nicknamed "Eye Corps") remained in Korea until 1971. It was transferred to Ft Lewis in the mid 80th. 

The 65th Infantry Regiment of Puerto Rico served with the 3rd Army Division which was assigned to the I-Corps. The 24th and 25th Inf all African Americans and the Filipino 10th and 17th CBT were also assigned to the I-Corps. Some of the Filipinos were integrated with the 65th, because the Army thought that they spoke Spanish.
John L. Scott Real Estate Agent Broker With Memorial Day coming up it will be good for Americans to remember all of our Veterans. Then on NOV 11 this year we will continue to honor our men and women on the 50th Anniversary of the Vietnam War.
God's Blessings to all our Veterans and their families.
Rafael Ojeda  (253) 576-9547


Y lograron llegar por Ángel Custodio Rebollo y Jose Bacedoni
Jessie Villarreal's Tejano Patriots of the American Revolution 1776-1783, receives citation
Film: Loreta Velezquez, American Civil War Confederate Soldier and Spy 
San Antonio Granaderos y Damas de Galvez meet Spanish delegation in New Orleans
Read All About It, Third In A Series by Joe Perez
Texas Before the Alamo

Y lograron llegar
por Ángel Custodio Rebollo

Dibujos de La Pinta, La Niña y La Santa Maria por José Bacedoni

 Aunque la voz popular dice que tres fueron las carabelas que participaron en la expedición del Almirante Cristobal Colón que, partiendo el 3 de agosto de 1492 del puerto de Palos de la Frontera, y que llegaron a las costas de América casi tres meses después, no podemos estar de acuerdo porque la flota estaba compuesta por dos carabelas, La Pinta y La Niña y una nao, La Santa María.

Quiero aprovechar unos bonitos dibujos del artista onubense José Bacedoni, y comentar aunque sea brevemente, algunos pormenores de los tres barcos.


 “La Pinta”, cuando fue construida en los astilleros de Palos, se llamó “La Pintá”, al parecer por derivación del nombre de los propietarios, la familia Pinto, de aquella localidad.

Siempre se dijo que “La Pinta” tenía unas excelentes cualidades de navegación, las mejores de los tres barcos.


Otra de las carabelas fue “La Niña”, que la habían construido en los astilleros de ribera de Moguer, para los hermanos Niño. Su nombre original fue el de “Santa Clara”, en honor del Convento de monjas existente en Moguer y que se denomina con el nombre de esta santa.

Sobre el tercer barco, que ya no era una carabela, era una nao, aunque existen discrepancias entre algunos historiadores sobre su nombre inicial, se le asigna el primitivo nombre de “La gallega”, porque había sido construida en unos astilleros de Galicia. Otros creen que su nombre inicial era “Marigalante”, aunque para la expedición colombina se le asignó el de “Santa Maria”.

Era propiedad del conocido cartógrafo Juan de la Cosa y al elegir a la “Santa María” como nave capitana, lo que creemos normal porque era la de mayor tonelaje, fue en la que hizo el viaje Cristóbal Colon. Hubo un hundimiento algo confuso el día de Navidad y los restos de la madera de la “Santa María” fueron empleados para construir un Fuerte, donde Colón dejó un buen número de personas, que cuando regresó en el siguiente viaje, se encontró que todos habían muerto o desaparecido.

Actualmente en el llamado “Muelle de las Carabelas”, existente en los alrededores del Monasterio de La Rabida, están fondeadas reproducciones de los tres barcos, a tamaño natural, que son muy visitadas por el turismo que acude al Monasterio.

Dibujos.-  José Bacedoni                       Texto.- Ángel Custodio Rebollo




 book  by Jesse O. Villarreal, Sr. receives citation from the  San Antonio Conservation Society

I have some wonderful news to share with you about my book TEJANO PATRIOTS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1776-1783. On March 22, 2013, I was honored by the San Antonio Conservation Society and accepted a citation from them. I was one of 10 other authors, including Phil Collins for his book THE ALAMO AND BEYOND: A COLLECTOR'S JOURNEY. 

The information is provided in their newsletter you can access it on their website  

Scroll down to the Newsletter and you can read the information on page 4.  

We have not seen any of the photos that the Society took during the reception but if I can locate them I will forward them to you. We'll see what happens.

I continue to be so grateful and feel very fortunate that I was able to work on this project with the Honorable Judge Robert H. Thonhoff and will be forever indebted to him for his mentorship.
Please stay well and we thank you for all that you do!!
Jesse O. Villarreal, Sr.  (on the left in the photo)
INFORMATION FROM WEBSITE:  Every other year, the Society invites authors and publishers to submit their most recently published works on Texas history to the Society’s Publication Awards program. Since 1949, the Society has used awards to encourage the publication of works that document Texas history and culture in a way that both educates the public and inspires a deeper appreciation for our regional heritage.

This year, the Society received 32 entries, including books on historic places, heroes, and villains, cultural history, and historical fiction for children. It took an extremely dedicated group of volunteer readers to narrow the nominations to the top ten books. This year’s winners focused on people and places that have shaped history within the borders of Texas and sometimes beyond.

On March 22, 2013, the Society recognized the winning authors at an awards luncheon held at The Argyle. Attendees met the authors a a book signing before and after the luncheon and presentation of awards.

The Society congratulates the authors of the following award-winning books for 2013:

The Alamo and Beyond: A Collector’s Journey by Phil Collins. Buffalo Gap, Texas: State House Press, 2012.

Devils River: Treacherous Twin to the Pecos, 1535-1900 by Patrick Dearen. Fort Worth: Texas Christian University Press, 2011.

Grace & Gumption: The Women of El Paso edited by Marcia Hatfield Daudistel. Fort Worth: Texas Christian University Press, 2011.

James Riely Gordon: His Courthouses and Other Public Architecture by Chris Meister. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2011.

José Antonio Navarro: In Search of the American Dream in Nineteenth Century Texas by David McDonald. Denton: Texas State Historical Association, 2010.

Last Farm Standing on Buttermilk Hill: Voelcker Roots Run Deep in Hardberger Park by Gayle Brennan Spencer. San Antonio: LJB CommuniCo for the Max and Minnie Tomerlin Voelcker Fund, 2010.

Tejano Patriots of the American Revolution, 1776-1783 by Jesse O. Villarreal, Sr. San Antonio: Published by author, 2011.

Texas Furniture: The Cabinetmakers and Their Work, 1840-1880, Revised Edition, Vol. 1 by Lonn Taylor and David B. Warren. Austin: The University of Texas Press, 2012.

Texas State Cemetery by Jason Walker and Will Erwin. Austin: The University of Texas Press, 2011.

Unprecedented Power: Jesse Jones, Capitalism, and the Common Good by Steven Fenberg. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2011.

Loreta Velezquez, American Civil War Confederate Soldier and Spy 

On May 24th PBS  aired a true story about a Latina who fought in the Civil War. This film was made by award winning director Maria Agui Carter, who is the current chair of NALIP, the most important organization for Latinos in the film industry. 

New Documentary Explores the Secret Life of Loreta Velazquez --

Cuban immigrant, Confederate Soldier turned Union Spy

 Shrouded in mystery and long the subject of debate, the amazing story of Loreta Velazquez is one of the Civil War’s most gripping forgotten narratives. While the U.S. military may have recently lifted the ban on women in combat, Loreta Janeta Velazquez, a Cuban immigrant from New Orleans, was fighting in battle 150 years ago — one of the estimated 1000 women who secretly served as soldiers during the American Civil War. Who was she? Why did she fight? And what made her so dangerous that she has been virtually erased from history? REBEL a riveting new film written and directed by María Agui Carter, premieres nationally on PBS on Friday, May 24, 2013 at 10:00 p.m. ET (check local listings).  

It’s the 150th anniversary of the American Civil War and little has been written in the history books about Latino participation in this war.  10,000 Mexicans, entire battalions of Latin recruits from Texas to Florida, and Spanish surnamed soldiers who can be found in muster rolls from South Carolina to Vermont took sides during this war. Even Latina women participated as spies, and one as a soldier.  Her name was Loreta Velazquez.  A Cuban immigrant raised in New Orleans, she disguised herself as a man to fight for the Confederacy, then spied for the Union.  For over a century, she has been erased from history, but her testimony survived in a memoir, The Woman In Battle, one of the only two published memoirs by a Latina woman in 19th century North America.  Loreta broke all the social rules of her time and decried the corruption of wartime society.  She was attacked by prominent Southern leaders for her criciticsm of the Confederacy and her story has been erased from history, until now.   In a labor of love that took her twelve years to complete, Agui Carter has created a must-see detective film about a woman, a myth, and the politics of national memory.  Her beautiful film continues where Ken Burns’s Civil War series left off.  

With beautifully directed dramatic sequences and major battle scenes worthy of blockbuster feature period films, Maria’s compelling film is a great accomplishment, even more so when we reflect that Latinos represent only 2% of the directors working on TV and film, less than 1% of the writers, and 4-6% of the actors in media today.  The National Parks will also be screening Loreta’s story at visitors centers and National Battlefields parks around the country, as they commemorate the involvement of Latinos during the 150th anniversary of the American Civil War.  Bonus videos and learning tools for teachers are available on and you can like her facebook page at to hear about theatrical screenings in your area.

Sent by Kirk Whisler



 San Antonio Granaderos y Damas de Galvez meet 
in New Orleans, Louisiana, with a delegation from Spain.

The announcement below is from Governor General Joel Escamilla about our group being represented at a meeting in New Orleans, Louisiana, with a delegation from Spain.

Pensacola Galvez Celebration, 2013. Antonio Campos Garin, the Mayor of Macharaviaya, Spain, and a Spanish delegation will visit Pensacola, Florida, as part of this year’s celebration. The multiple events will take place from May 6 to Saturday 11, and will emphasize Spain’s historic link to Florida.

Before returning to Spain, Mayor Campos Garin and the delegation will host members of the Granaderos y Damas de Galvez and other guests at the Galvez Restaurant in New Orleans. The Founding Chapter of the Granaderos will be represented at this event by five of its members: Joel and Sylvia Escamilla, Clifford and Lynda Normand, and Richard Whynot. Members of other Granaderos y Damas chapters will also be present. Click on the hypertext address shown below, for details of the events that will take place in Pensacola. 

Thank you, Joel, Sylvia, Clifford, Lynda and Richard for representing our chapter!  Joe


Read All About It, Third In A Series by Joe Perez

The mission of our organization is to educate the public about Spain’s contributions to the American Revolution. Invariably, that includes the valiant efforts of General Bernardo de Gálvez in aiding the American  cause through his successful Gulf Coast campaign against British forces. While many of our members have given presentations about Gálvez, a few of our members have written books about him. This is the third article in a series on Granaderos who have written books about General Bernardo de Galvez.


The parents of G. Roland Vela taught him at a young age to work for the things he wanted in life and that is what he has been doing for more than eighty years. He was born in Eagle Pass but grew up near downtown San Antonio. His family spoke only Spanish at home but he and his brother spoke English everywhere else in public. When he wanted money as a young boy, he worked hard selling newspapers. He learned early that working hard would get him what he wanted.

He started at San Antonio Junior College on scholastic probation but studied hard and made the honor roll after one year. He earned an Associate’s degree and went on to the University of Texas in Austin. His favorite subject was science and when it came time to select a major, his room mate asked him to take a course in bacteriology so they could share the cost of the text book. After that, he made bacteriology his major. He worked several jobs to support himself while going to school and earned his Bachelor’s Degree in 1950. Studying hard from seven a.m. to midnight every day, he earned his Master’s Degree in only one year with a major in bacteriology and a minor in chemistry in 1951.Just prior to starting his doctorate program, he married a beautiful nursing student named Emma Lamar Codina Longoria. They have been together ever since and have raised four children.
He went on to earn his Ph.D. in microbiology and biochemistry from the University of Texas in Austin in 1964, after which, he began teaching graduate and undergraduate courses in microbiology at the University of North Texas in Denton where he served as a professor for 35 years. He taught a course that had no text book so he wrote the book himself, Applied Food Microbiology, as well as its accompanying lab manual.

When asked to name an accomplishment for which he is proud, he states, “I graduated twenty Doctoral students and forty four Masters students.” Our Governor General, Joel Escamilla, is one of those Doctoral students.

In his teaching career, he published some 75 research papers in microbiology and taught research techniques upon invitation at the University of Chihuahua, University of Torreon, University of Barcelona, National University of Colombia and the University of Javeriana, also in Colombia
He has kept very busy through the years serving in different capacities for various organizations such as the American Society for Microbiology and the American Academy of Microbiology. He served on the Board of Directors for the Texas Municipal Power Company, which is still the largest power plant in Texas.He served on the Denton Airport Advisory Board, was the first Hispanic to serve on the City Council of Denton and there is currently a proposal to name part of a Denton city park after him. He even has a species of bacteria named after him and Latino Monthly magazine named him one of the top 100 Texas Latinos of the 20th Century.

Ever the educator, he published the book “The Men Named Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna”, a biography of the Mexican General and President. Not long after that, while flipping through TV channels, he saw part of a documentary about Bernardo de Gálvez, which stoked his interest to learn more about this forgotten historical figure. His curiosity led him to conduct thorough research which led to his publishing the book, Bernardo de Gálvez Spanish Hero of the American Revolution” in 2006. During that time, he learned about the Order of Granaderos y Damas de Gálvez and he and his wife, Emma, have been members ever since. Always working, he is now writing a book documenting the history of the Musquiz family. Even after a lifetime of achievements, he never considered himself very smart, just someone who worked very hard.
Source: Granaderos Newsletter November,
Sent by Joe Perez


The Dallas Mexican American Historical League (DMAHL), in partnership with Mexican American Studies (MAS) and the Department of History at the University of North Texas (UNT), present a Spanish Texas History Symposium and Premier of the new documentary film by director and producer Bill Millet, "Texas Before The Alamo" (Millet Films). The event is scheduled for Wednesday, June 19, 2013 at the Latino Cultural Center in Dallas, Texas.

Filmed at actual historic sites in Texas and Mexico with noted historians and professional actors, "Texas Before The Alamo" is about the founding of Texas and the Spanish who established Missions, Presidios and Trails now known as Goliad, the Alamo, San Antonio Missions and El Camino Real de los Tejas. The film is dedicated to the research and tenacity of authors, archaeologists, historical organizations and researchers of Spanish Texas who have been consultants and producers for this project. 

The rich Tejano culture of this State descended from Spanish Texas, and was manifested by the establishment and unveiling of the Tejano Monument on the grounds of the State Capital Building in 2012. This film is an outreach of that project and the efforts of Tejano activists like Adina de Zavala, whose struggles ensured that the Franciscan Missions in San Antonio, including the Alamo, would survive to be nominated as a UNESCO World Heritage site. 

“Texas Before The Alamo,” a film about the true founders of modern Texas, will be broadcast on PBS (public television stations) Fall of 2013.

Contact: Jo Ann Valentin |  or
Maria Cristina Romero | 

The palest ink is better than the best memory.
-- Chinese Proverb

The Girl Raised by a Village by Valerie Amezcua
Stove Top Organizing by Ana M. Grande

The Girl Raised by a Village by Valerie Amezcua 

When I was born , my parents were very young teenagers, and I was a gift to my grandmother, Linda.  She took me in as one of her own children. He had 10 children and I was her first grandchild. As far back as I can remember she was  my “rock.”  She is one of the most important people in my life. She taught me to be a proud Latina.

As I grew older I knew my parents were young and stop by and visit. I would go visit with them sometimes, but no matter what I always had home where I say and where my family was, all of them.

Sometimes, I felt out of place and I look around me and see all my: aunts and uncles were like brothers and sisters. They would,, keeps me about life. No matter what the situation was, at night, all of us girls slept in one room, we would talk and laugh until we fell asleep.

We were poor, but I did not know it, I just thought the blue lunch ticket was normal. I knew it Christmas we would have a few gifts and I was happy with that because it was not the gifts I received, it was all the family around. The fun, the laughter, sometimes tears, and other times I really missed my parents. But at the end of the day, I had my grandmother Linda.

My grandma was Stern and she expected me to clean, do well in school, be respectful and be proud of who I was. Although she had a second-grade education, she would always tell me how important graduating from high school was, and she constantly told me to go to college. “Be someone mija,” she would say. “No matter where you are or where you live, go to school. Be someone mija.”

My aunts and uncles would tease me because I love to read, and it was my escape. They were special, two. They taught me to be rough and to learn how to protect myself. They all played a part in my upbringing. Each one was different: some were rough, some were gang members, one had trouble with the law, one was a Chicana activist and no matter who they were they worked hard to help my grandma.

As I became an adult and later apparent I realized how fortunate I was to have been raised by a ”Village.” Each and every one of my aunts and uncles, who really were my big brothers and sisters, help my grandma Linda Ray’s me. Each one of them played a very important role in my life, whether it was teaching me about the ”street life,”  telling me to NEVER get arrested, always stay in school all, be “better” than they were, and no matter what or where I was in life they loved me. It did not matter that I was a grandchild. All that mattered was that I was a member of the family.

I believe God knew someday I would have a career in law enforcement, where I would need to be strong, wise, resilient, and as a woman worked three times as hard as my male partners.

One day in my career, I was assigned to the Tri-Agency Gang Violence and Suppression unit. This unit specialized in gang suppression, arresting those who were creating havoc in the community. I was the only woman on the team. I had to work hard to prove myself, and I had to be strong and smart. However, no matter where I was her how dangerous the situation, I always felt like my grandma Linda was there with me, protecting me, praying for me and reminding me to “Be someone, mija.” She is my pillar, and to me she is brilliant. My aunts and uncles are still like my big brothers and sisters; it’s just a little different now that I am grown no one tells me to be tough they tell me to be EDUCATED!!  I am the little girl who was raised by a VILLAGE.

Valerie Amezcua is a supervising probation  officer at the Central Youth and Family Resource Center in the city of Santa Ana.

Editor:  Valerie's mini-bio was published in 36 STORIES UP, a journal celebrating the stories of 36 inspirational women. It was published for and distributed at a young woman and career conference: Framing Your Future, Saturday, March 17, 2012 by the Anaheim Union high school District, Anaheim, CA.  I am included in the Journal and shared my story in the March 2013 issue of Somos Primos, How Did it Happen? under CUENTOS.   

Below is another selection from
36 STORIES UP, written by Ana M. Grande.

Stove Top Organizing by Ana M. Grande
it's hard to believe that at the age of seven, I was taught to organize. Every time I state this, people find it hard to believe. How could a seven year old be trained to organize? At seven, children barely remember the lesson learned at school; therefore organizing was out of the question. Yet, that was not true in my case. My learning to organize stemmed from seeing the power that women held in their community. Women knew how to turn up the heat like the bean soup that boiled on the stove top. It was the women in the kitchen who showed me not only how to make soup, but also how to build a consensus in a strategic way.

During my childhood, in the mid-1980s, there was an influx of Central American migration to the US due to the civil wars. Fortunately, my parish, Blessed Sacrament, was one of the few Catholic Church involved with the sanctuary and solidarity movement of that time. The church utilized its former convent as a sanctuary for all refugees on the second floor you'd find the man strategizing for an immigration reform, while on the first floor you would usually find the children in the computer room and the women in the kitchen.

Without a doubt, there were gender roles that were played, or so it seemed. It wasn't until meals were served that real conversations would began and strategies were developed. The man could have strategized all they wanted during the afternoons, but when meals were served, the women interjected their opinions and revitalized not only our stomachs but also our mind. The women would discuss the need for families to stay together, how US policies toward them apart in their own Latin American countries, how they left children behind in order to survive, and, most importantly, to whom they were advocating in order to achieve their common goals.

The men would agree on whom to outreach and what to say, and then they'd go back to the drawing board to redo and implement what the women had suggested. The greatest lesson in all this was not that you should let being soak at least four hours before you cook them or how you should add the minced garlic it was the power women had to change the course of things. The women would build broader consensus on a strategy that would benefit all and, more so, would have their voices be heard. It was never about the women being submissive, but it was always about them feeting us, so while we ate, we, especially the men, could hear their wisdom

That's the power that we have as women. We are naturally consensus builders; we have a voice and a say on things that affect us, our families and our communities. Our power is unlimited.

Ana M. Grande is field director for the office of Council member Richard Alarcon of Los Angeles



Familias que cruzaron fronteras, Conferencia Iberoamericana de Genealogía 2013
U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Records
FamilySearch Adds to Dominican Republic, Italy, Peru, Spain, US Collections DNA has acquired GeneTree & DNA related assets from Sorenson
Molecular Genealogy Foundation. 

Familias que cruzaron fronteras
Conferencia Iberoamericana de Genealogía 2013
La Universidad de Brigham Young (BYU) y FamilySearch International extienden una invitación cordial y calurosa a la Conferencia Iberoamericana de Genealogía a todos los que deseen participar, ya sea como asistentes o como ponentes. Esta conferencia se efectuará en Estados Unidos de América, el tercer país con más número de hispanohablantes en el mundo, del 9 al 14 de septiembre de 2013.
                 U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Records 
USCIS History and Genealogy News
USCIS Genealogy Program >  

May 2013, Genealogy Notebook: Researching Deportation Records

The USCIS Genealogy mailbox regularly receives questions about locating historical deportation or exclusion records. The question usually follows discovery of a passenger list record or List of Aliens Held for Special Inquiry showing an immigrant excluded and returned, or comes from a family story of a relative deported many years ago. If the event occurred after 1892 there is a chance records may still exist. Visit the site

Research Guide: Quick Guide to finding INS Case and Correspondence Files Related to Specific Individuals

The vast collection of historical Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) subject, policy and correspondence files now stored at the National Archives in Washington, D.C. includes thousands of files related to all aspects of immigration policy during the years 1906-1956.

Up to half of these files relate to specific individuals, making them a potential goldmine of information for researchers. This quick guide offers tips for navigating available finding aids. Visit the site

Tell Your Friends! Subscribe and receive monthly updates.  


FamilySearch Adds to Dominican Republic, Italy, Peru, Spain, and the United States Collections

FamilySearch has added more than 1.5 million index records and images this week from Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Italy, Peru, South Africa, Spain, and the United States. Notable collection updates include the 217,016 index records from the U.S., Idaho, Eastport, Arrival Manifests, 1924-1956, collection, the 151,020 index records and images from the United States, Civil War Widows and Other Dependents Pension Files collection, and the 163,314 images from the South Africa, Orange Free State, Estate Files, 1951-2006, collection. See the table below for the full list of updates. Search these diverse collections and more than 3.5 billion other records for free at

Searchable historic records are made available on through the help of thousands of volunteers from around the world. These volunteers transcribe (index) information from digital copies of handwritten records to make them easily searchable online. More volunteers are needed (particularly those who can read foreign languages) to keep pace with the large number of digital images being published online at Learn more about volunteering to help provide free access to the world's historic genealogical records online at



Great News!

We are pleased to announce that DNA has acquired GeneTree and the DNA related assets from the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation. We are excited to work with DNA and continue to advance the field of genetic genealogy. More information to come. Click here for the announcement about this exciting news.



New app helps Icelanders avoid accidental incest by Jenna Gottlieb
Europeans had common ancestors 1,000 years ago, By Frank Jordans, APress
The Geography of Recent Genetic Ancestry across Europe by Peter Ralph
Title: New app helps Icelanders avoid accidental incest
Jenna Gottlieb
Date: April 18, 2013
Source: The Marietta Daily Journal
REYKJAVIK, Iceland (AP) — You meet someone, there's chemistry, and then come the introductory questions: What's your name? Come here often? Are you my cousin?  

In Iceland, a country with a population of 320,000 where most everyone is distantly related, inadvertently kissing cousins is a real risk. A new smartphone app is on hand to help Icelanders avoid accidental incest. The app lets users "bump" phones, and emits a warning alarm if they are closely related. "Bump the app before you bump in bed," says the catchy slogan.  

Some are hailing it as a welcome solution to a very Icelandic form of social embarrassment. "Everyone has heard the story of going to a family event and running into a girl you hooked up with some time ago," said Einar Magnusson, a graphic designer in Iceland's capital, Reykjavik. "It's not a good feeling when you realize that girl is a second cousin. People may think it's funny, but (the app) is a necessity."  

The Islendiga-App — "App of Icelanders" — is an idea that may only be possible in Iceland, where most of the population shares descent from a group of 9th-century Viking settlers, and where an online database holds genealogical details of almost the entire population.   

The app was created by three University of Iceland software engineering students for a contest calling for "new creative uses" of the Islendingabok, or Book of Icelanders, an online database of residents and their family trees stretching back 1,200 years. Arnar Freyr Adalsteinsson, one of the trio, said it allows any two Icelanders to see how closely related they are, simply by touching phones.  

"A small but much talked about feature is the loosely translated 'Incest Prevention Alarm' that users can enable through the options menu which notifies the user if the person he's bumping with is too closely related," Adalsteinsson said.  

It's the latest twist on a long-standing passion for genealogy in Iceland, a volcanically active island in the North Atlantic that was unpopulated before Norse settlers arrived in A.D. 874. Their descendants built a small, relatively homogenous and — crucially — well-organized country, home to the world's oldest parliament and devoted to thorough record-keeping.  

"The Icelandic sagas, written about 1,000 years ago, all begin with page after page of genealogy. It was the common man documenting his own history," said Kari Stefansson, chief executive of Icelandic biotech company deCODE Genetics, which ran the contest behind the app.  

The Book of Icelanders database was developed in 1997 by deCODE and software entrepreneur Fridrik Skulason. Compiled using census data, church records, family archives and a host of other information sources, it claims to have information on 95 percent of all Icelanders who have lived in the last 300 years.  

The database can be scoured online by any Icelandic citizen or legal resident. The app makes the data available to Icelanders on their mobile phones — and adds the anti-incest feature. Currently available for Android phones, it has been downloaded almost 4,000 times since it was launched earlier this month. The creators also hope to develop an iPhone version.  

Stefansson says the "bump" feature is an attention-grabbing but relatively minor aspect of an app that brings Icelanders' love of genealogy into the 21st century. He also hopes it won't convey the wrong impression about Iceland.  

"The Icelandic nation is not inbred," he said. "This app is interesting. It makes the data much more available. But the idea that it will be used by young people to make sure they don't marry their cousins is of much more interest to the press than a reflection of reality."  It may also be of limited use. Currently the alarm only alerts users if they and their new acquaintance have a common 
grandparent, and most people already know who their first cousins are.

Adalsteinsson stresses that the app has other, less sexual uses. "We added a birthday calendar to make sure you don't forget your relatives' birthdays," he said.



Europeans had common ancestors 1,000 years ago
By Frank Jordans, Associated Press

BERLIN (AP) — Europeans appear to be more closely related than previously thought.

Scientists who compared DNA samples from people in different parts of the continent found that most had common ancestors living just 1,000 years ago.

The results confirm decade-old mathematical models, but will nevertheless come as a surprise to Europeans accustomed to thinking of ancient nations composed of distinct ethnic groups like "Germans," ''Irish" or "Serbs."

"What's remarkable about this is how closely everyone is related to each other," said Graham Coop of the University of California, Davis, who co-wrote the study published Tuesday in the journal PLoS Biology.

Coop and his fellow author Peter Ralph of the University of Southern California used a database containing more than 2,250 genetic samples to look for shared DNA segments that would point to distant shared relatives.

While the number of common genetic ancestors is greater the closer people are to each other, even individuals living 2,000 miles (3,220 kilometers) apart had identical sections of DNA that can be traced back roughly to the Middle Ages.

The findings indicate that there was a steady flow of genetic material between countries as far apart as Turkey and Britain, or Poland and Portugal, even after the great population movements of the first millennium A.D. such as the Saxon and Viking invasions of Britain, and the westward drive of the Huns and Slavic peoples.

The study did find subtle regional variations. For reasons still unclear, Italians and Spaniards appear to be less closely related than most Europeans to people elsewhere on the continent.

"The analysis is pretty convincing. It comes partly from the enormous number of ancestors each one of us have," said Mark A. Jobling, a professor of genetics at the University of Leicester, England, who wasn't involved in the study.

Since the number of ancestors each person has roughly doubles with each generation, "we don't have to go too far back to find someone who features in all of our family trees," he said.

Jobling cited a scientific paper published in 2004 that went so far as to predict that every person on the planet shares ancestors who lived just 4,000 years ago.

Experts say the study's findings need to be compared with what we know about population movements in Europe and elsewhere from other fields, including archeology and linguistics.

"Although, as the authors note, the approach is inherently 'noisy' (i.e. error-prone), it still does give results for European populations that are in reasonable agreement with historical expectations," said Mark Stoneking, a professor evolutionary anthropology at the University of Leipzig, Germany, who also wasn't involved in the study. "It would be interesting to see this applied in situations where we don't have such good historical information."

Coop and Ralph said the findings might change the way Europeans think about their neighbors on a continent that has had its fair share of struggle and strife.

"The basic idea that we're all related much more recently than one might think has been around for a while, but it is not widely appreciated, and still quite surprising to many people, even scientists working in population genetics, including ourselves," they said in an email to The Associated Press. "The fact that we share all our ancestors from a time period where we recognize various ethnic identities also points at how we are like a family — we have our differences, but are all closely related."

Just don't expect news of closer family ties to prompt a surge of brotherly love in Europe or elsewhere.

"There have been many studies that we've been involved in showing that groups which are fighting each other furiously all the time are actually extremely closely genetically related. But that's never had any impact on whether they continue to fight each other," Jobling said.

"So for example Jewish and non-Jewish populations in the Middle East are extremely similar genetically, but to tell them they are genetic close relatives isn't going to change their ways."

Author's FAQ on the study: 

Sent by John Inclan 



The Geography of Recent Genetic Ancestry across Europe by Peter Ralph 


The recent genealogical history of human populations is a complex mosaic formed by individual migration, large-scale population movements, and other demographic events. Population genomics datasets can provide a window into this recent history, as rare traces of recent shared genetic ancestry are detectable due to long segments of shared genomic material. We make use of genomic data for 2,257 Europeans (in the Population Reference Sample [POPRES] dataset) to conduct one of the first surveys of recent genealogical ancestry over the past 3,000 years at a continental scale. We detected 1.9 million shared long genomic segments, and used the lengths of these to infer the distribution of shared ancestors across time and geography. We find that a pair of modern Europeans living in neighboring populations share around 2–12 genetic common ancestors from the last 1,500 years, and upwards of 100 genetic ancestors from the previous 1,000 years. These numbers drop off exponentially with geographic distance, but since these genetic ancestors are a tiny fraction of common genealogical ancestors, individuals from opposite ends of Europe are still expected to share millions of common genealogical ancestors over the last 1,000 years. There is also substantial regional variation in the number of shared genetic ancestors. For example, there are especially high numbers of common ancestors shared between many eastern populations that date roughly to the migration period (which includes the Slavic and Hunnic expansions into that region). Some of the lowest levels of common ancestry are seen in the Italian and Iberian peninsulas, which may indicate different effects of historical population expansions in these areas and/or more stably structured populations. Population genomic datasets have considerable power to uncover recent demographic history, and will allow a much fuller picture of the close genealogical kinship of individuals across the world. 


June 8th, SHHAR Monthly Meeting
July 27th, Save the Date, SHHAR Special Recognition Luncheon
Bringing History Forward, Cypress St. barrio in downtown Orange
Historic Orange barrio still vibrant after 100 years by Fermin Leal
LULAC, Westminster Council 3017, 2013 Scholarship recipients

JUNE 8, 2013
Linda Serna – Spanish land grants of the Southwest

Linda Serna, an experienced genealogical researcher and lecturer, will speak on Spanish land grants of the Southwest. Ms. Serna has lectured extensively to genealogical groups in New Mexico and California. In addition to her public speaking, Ms.Serna also loves history, writing and traveling. She is a member of several professional organizations including: the Southern California chapter of the Association of Professional Genealogists (SCCAPG), the Genealogical Speakers Guild (GSG), the California State Genealogical Alliance (GSGA), the Polish Genealogical Society (PGS), and the Genealogical Society of Hispanic America (GSGA-CA), she is also Vice President of programs for the Orange County California genealogical Society (OCCGS).

The free presentation will take place at the
Orange Family History Center,
674 S. Yorba St., Orange

Volunteers will provide research assistance from 9 -10 a.m., 
Linda Serna will speak from 10 -11:30 a.m. 
For information, contact Letty Rodella at




Descendants of immigrants from Mexico who lived in the Cypress St. barrio in downtown Orange formed the Orange Barrio Historical Society in 2003 under the leadership of Augie Morales. They were concerned that the history of their community was being lost as buildings in their neighborhood were acquired and scheduled for demolition.

One building especially had been an important feature in their lives, the Cypress St. Elementary School, which served Mexican children in the barrio from 1931 to 1944. The school may be the only segregated school building in California still standing. 
No formal records of the school can be found. The society prevailed upon Chapman University, the owner of the site, to restore the school building and include a special room for the use of the historical society. 

After many years of reconstruction, Chapman University recently opened the school at 544 N. Cypress to serve as a maternal and child health facility. Included is a room for the exclusive use of the Orange Barrio Historical Society.

The Orange Barrio Historical Society’s mission is to continue documenting, preserving and promoting recognition of the important contributions made by the Mexican American community in the City of Orange and to gain official city recognition of the Cypress Street barrio. Their annual pot luck picnic on Jun 29 from 11:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. in Hart Park will be another opportunity for Cypress St. families to share happy memories of growing up in Orange, and add to the society’s collection of information, photographs of weddings, community events and the many men from the barrio who voluntarily served in WWII. The families are proud of their contributions to the success of the growth of the city and were as American as they could be. For more information and contributions to assist the Orange Barrio Historical Society in their pursuit, contact President Leo Castro at (714) 538-3758 or Maria Lavalle (714) 612-9902 or

Title: Fifth Grade Class at Cypress Street School, Orange, California, 1935

Summary: Fifth Grade Class at Cypress Street School, Orange, California, 1935. 
Donor Fred Barrera is in the first row, dead center, in suspenders. Row 1, left to right: Alphonso Alvarado, Librado Alonzo, Angel Robles, Johnie Rodriguez, Angel Martinez, Fred Barrera, John Montoya, Clyde Lopez, Jesus Gallardo, Lalo Garcia, Manuel Valdivia. 2nd row: Maria Macias, Amelia De Leon, Rebecca Escobedo, Lorenza Garcia, Nicolas Pacaso, Angelina Flores, Celia Cruz , Joe Martinez, Ermelinda Peralta, Arthur Munoz. 3rd row: Ema Cornejo, Lupe Cornejo, Elvira Salcedo, Jose Luna, Esther Luna, Ramona Beltran, Carmen Escobedo. 4th row, top left: Mrs. Robinson, Teacher, Martha Martinez, Lola Macias, Eisabel Flores, Vivian Martines, Josie Chavez, Helen Diaz, Crecentia Peralta, Concha Poblano.  (10586715)

Key * = deceased and ** = killed in World War II. 
Row 1, left to right: Alphonso Alvarado, Librado Alonzo, Angel Robles, Johnie Rodriguez *, Angel Martinez *, Fred Barrera, John Montoya, Clyde Lopez *, Jesus Gallardo, Lalo Garcia, Manuel Valdivia **. 2nd row: Maria Macias, Amelia De Leon, Rebecca Escobedo, Lorenza Garcia, Nicolas Pacaso *, Angelina Flores, Celia Cruz *, Joe Martinez, Ermelinda Peralta, Arthur Munoz. 3rd row: Ema Cornejo, Lupe Cornejo *, Elvira Salcedo, Jose Luna, Esther Luna, Ramona Beltran *, Carmen Escobedo. 4th row - Top left: Mrs. Robinson, Teacher, Martha Martinez, Lola Macias *, Eisabel Flores, Vivian Martines *, Josie Chavez, helen Diaz, Crecentia Peralta, Concha Poblano *. Identified by Esther Luna Poblano, January 25, 2004. (10554282)

Title: Johnny Atliano with Vasquez Family, Orange, California, ca. 1945

Summary: Johnny Atliano with the Vasquez Family, in front of the Cypress Street School, Orange, California, ca. 1945. 
Left to right, sitting on the steps of the school are: In front, brothers Harvey Vasquez and Emigdio Vasquez with their dog, Frank; in back, Johnny Atliano (cousin and serviceman, in army uniform), and Santiago Vasquez (father of the boys). (10586750)
Title: Young orange grove workers, Orange, California, ca. 1940

Summary: Javier (Harvey) Vasquez, Everett Vasquez, Santiago Vasquez, and Matt Vasquez in a local orange grove in Orange, California, ca. 1940. Javier, Everett and Santiago were brothers. Matt is a cousin. The boys were picking oranges to buy shoes and clothes to go to school. (10586741)

Flower girls, right to left: Nancy Aguirre and Taressa Beltran. Top row, left to right: Kate San Roman, Esther Cruiz. Middle row, left to right: Nina Aguirre, unknown, Helen Martinez, unknown, unknown, Ysidoro Aguirre. Bottom row, left to right: unknown, Lucy Beltran, Frances Aguirre, Jesusita Aguirre, Gregorio Aguirre, Teddy Aguirre, Joe Beltran, unknown. (10586602)

Title: Aguirre wedding, Orange, California, 1936

Summary: The wedding of Gregorio and Jesusita Aguirre, at Holy Family Church, located on the corner of East Chapman Avenue and North Shaffer Street, Orange, California, ca. 1936. 
Title: Children playing on North Cypress Street, Orange, California , 1964

Summary: Children playing on the 400 block of North Cypress Street, across the street from Luna's Grocery Store, April, 1964. Left to right: Carmen Guzman (with bandaged foot, donor's sister), #7 is Irma Santos (donor's sister), #8 Frank Guzman, donor's brother. The rest of the children are unidentified.

Subject: Portraits Luna's Market--Orange (Calif.) (10586623)
Title: Liz Vasquez, Lucy Duran and Enedira De Leon, Orange, California

Summary: Three young women on the front steps of Enedira De Leon's home on North Cypress Street, Orange, California, ca. 1945. They are, left to right: Liz Vasquez (related to Emidigio Vasquez), Lucy Duran, and Enedira De Leon. ( 10586635)


Title: Santiago Orange Growers Association, Orange, California, 1948

Summary: Employees in the Santiago Orange Growers Association packing house break room, North Cypress Street, Orange, California, 1948. Left to right: Helen Poblano, Jennie Ramirez, Ema Salcedo, Esther Poblano and Ema Cornejo. (10586677)
Summary: Men's baseball team "The Padres,"Orange, California, 1946. The baseball team would travel to other barrios and play other barrio teams. When playing locally, they played in an open field located on West Walnut Avenue, west of the railroad, adjacent to the tracks in Orange, California. Money collected through general collections and concession stand went towards purchasing equipment for their team. 

Title: The Padres, men's baseball team, Orange, California, 1946

Members of the team are: Bottom row, left to right: Mike Cruz, unknown, Pete Montoyo, Jack De Leon, Henry Martinez, Paul Guzman, Reggie Martinez, Manuel Salcido, Felix Orozco. Top row, left to right: Frank Enriquez, Vidal Chavez, Chilo Beltran, Cirilio Gomez, Augustin Camarena, Salvador Felix, Father Collins, Salvador [ ? ], Albert Salcido, Rosano Alonzo ("Chayo"). Gentleman in hat between Gomez and Camarena (in top row) is Doroteo De Leon, father of Jack De Leon. Gentleman between Camarena and Felix is Robert Figueroa. (10599369)
Special thanks to Tomas Saenz  
and  Lizeth Ramirez,
Archivist/Reference Librarian, Orange Public Library & History Center  (714)288-2449




Title: Historic Orange barrio still vibrant after 100 years
Author: Fermin Leal
Date: May 8, 2013
ORANGE - Leo Castro's head floods with memories every time he walks along Cypress Street. The 85-year-old remembers growing up here in the Cypress Street Barrio, a vibrant immigrant community. It's a neighborhood that flourished for decades thanks to the golden age of the citrus industry. "That's where the old market was that had the best snow cones," he said, standing next to a vacant storefront.  

On the other side of the street, he points to an empty lot: "Over there was the pool hall. There were so many wedding receptions, so many good times."  

The historic barrio, a slice of Old Towne Orange� and more than a century old, served as one of the first immigrant communities in Orange County. Its packinghouses, railroads and citrus fields attracted laborers who built homes and business.  

Today, the packinghouses are closed, and the neighborhood's immigrant personality has faded. The barrio is evolving into a trendy neighborhood, one buzzing with college students and half-million-dollar homes.  

But Castro, who in the 1970s moved to elsewhere in Orange, believes the barrio will always keep part of its identity: "This neighborhood represents an important piece of Orange's history."

Birth of a community  

The burgeoning citrus industry's desperate need for laborers drew scores of immigrants to Orange in the early 1900s. The barrio's first home was built in 1906, across from the railroads that shipped oranges, lemons, pecans and other fruits across the country.  

The residents came mostly from the Mexican states of Jalisco, Michoacan and Zacatecas. Many escaped their native country during the Mexican Revolution.  

Maria Guzman Lavalle's grandmother arrived in 1917 from Jalisco, eventually marrying and forming one of the barrio's founding families. "The barrio helped establish Orange," said Guzman Lavelle, who serves on the Orange Barrio Historical Society's board. By 1920, the barrio was firmly established.  

The barrio's boom years  

Most longtime residents say the barrio's renaissance came in the boom years after World War II. Young men returning from the war found work at prospering businesses such as Anaconda Wire and Cable Co., Western Cordage and the packinghouses, especially the Santiago Orange Growers Association Packinghouse, which later became the Villa Park Orchards Association Packinghouse.  

By the late 1940s and during the 1950s, the barrio thrived. Residents opened grocery stores, pool halls, barbershops, restaurants and mechanic shops.  

Philip Colin's family ran Azteca Tortilleria out of a wing they added to the family home. The Simon Luna Grocery Store across the street sold fresh produce to moms and syrupy snow cones to kids. Street peddlers hawked everything from fruits and tamales to toys and hats.  

The annual Jamaica Fiesta included a street fair and parade. Hundreds from across the region packed the barrio to see the crowning of the Jamaica queen.  

"Everything we could ever need, we had here," said Colin, 79. "We worked, shopped and celebrated all within a few blocks of where we lived." But it was more than just convenience that kept the immigrant community centered in the barrio. Racial segregation of the time left the Latino community with few options outside the neighborhood.  

The barrio itself lacked some amenities available to the rest of Orange. Many properties didn't have basic utilities. Dirt paths served as sidewalks. Some homes were just shanty trailers packed into small lots.  

The community's elementary students had to attend the "Mexican schools," including the Cypress Street Schoolhouse at the barrio's northern end. "We knew we were different than the English speakers in town, and we knew that maybe we didn't have it as well," Castro said. "But the life in the barrio is what we were used to. We were happy here."  

By the 1970s and 1980s, as the citrus industry's era ended, most of the local business disappeared. Many residents left, looking for jobs and a better life elsewhere.

New image called good for the barrio  

Today, the barrio is a gentrified mix of old and new, fueled by Chapman University's growing footprint and the resurgence of the nearby Orange Plaza area.  The university is now the largest landowner along Cypress Street and continues to buy more properties as they become available.  

Chapman's Dodge College of Film and Arts sits toward the southern end. Chapman's law school is a couple of blocks east. The university also owns the former Santiago Orange Growers Packinghouse and the Cypress Street Schoolhouse, which was partially turned into a museum dedicated to the neighborhood's history.  

Local business leaders talk about adding coffee shops and restaurants. A weekly farmers market on a lot at Cypress Street and Palm Avenue draws young families, retired couples and hipsters who buy up artisan breads, organic fruits and fresh honey.  

The neighborhood's modest bungalows and cottages, once home to citrus pickers and laborers, now sell for $500,000 or more."It sure looks a lot different today than from my young days in the neighborhood," Castro said. "I think all this new development has been good for the barrio.  

"A lot of these old buildings are getting fixed up. It's not the same barrio I grew up in, but I like what it's becoming."




League of United Latin American Citizens Westminster Council 3017
2013 Scholarship recipients

Name           Award Amount      Graduating School    Major College/University Attending

Maria G. Alvarez $300.00 Westminster H.S. Undeclared/Business CSU Long Beach

Dulce P. Laris Avila $500.00 Westminster H.S. Nursing  CSU Long Beach

Jean Carla Escobar $300.00 Fullerton College Child Development CSU Fullerton

Julissa Hernandez $500.00 Westminster H.S. Political Science/Law UC Santa Barbara

Kevin Hernandez $300.00 Westminster HS Architecture/Business CSU Dominquez Hills

Sarah J. Ibrahim $500.00 Westminster H.S. Economics UC San Diego

Maritza Martinez $500.00 Westminster H.S. Business CSU Long Beach

Jacqueline Palacios $500.00 Westminster H.S. Business/Financial Mgmt CSU Long Beach

Eduardo Ponce $500.00 Ocean View H.S.. Theater Arts Pepperdine University

Evelin Vasquez $500.00 Westminster H.S. Nursing CSU Long Beach

Christina L. Veloz $500.00 Westminster H.S. Science/Pre-Med CSU Long Beach

Erendida Zarate $500.00 Westminster H.S. Cosmetology Goldenwest College

Editor:  I am proud to say that this is my LULAC Chapter.  The main fund raising activity was selling tamales during the city's summer concert in the park series.  Cris Villasenior is the president.  



Society of Advancement of Chicanos & Native Americans in Science Archive Opens
June 8th, Dominguez Rancho Adobe Museum, Open House for Volunteers
Society for Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science Archive Opens at UCLA
May 23, 2013, SACNAS founders, staff, and local area members at this special reception during the 40th anniversary year.  SACNAS is a society of scientists dedicated to fostering the success of Hispanic/Chicano and Native American scientists—from college students to professionals—to attain advanced degrees, careers, and positions of leadership.

The SACNAS collection at CSRC contains organizational papers including photographs, membership records, committee papers, and audio & visual materials.

About CSRC was established in 1969, the UCLA Chicano Studies Research Center Library was the first library in the United States to focus on the Mexican- descent population.Today the CSRC Library is considered to have the largest and most important research collections on the Chicana and Chicano experience in the world.

LOCATION: Chicano Studies Research Center Library
144 Haines Hall
University of California, Los Angeles
For more information, please contact:
RSVP to Marilú Chávez at or by phone at 831-459-0170, ext. 234 
Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.


Dominguez Rancho Adobe Museum, 
June 8th Open House for Volunteers
11 am.  Learn how great volunteering can be!

Our volunteer open house will offer you a chance to learn about the Adobe, our wonderful volunteer opportunities, and meet some of our wonderful volunteers. You and your family will be able to choose from 3 activities. Pick one and find out how fun history can be: Paper airplane activity in the Air Meet room/ Mosaic activity on the Spanish veranda/ Kitchen chat in the kitchen

Upcoming 2013 Events: 
Volunteer Open House, June 8th, 11am to 1pm

History of Banning, Speaker Series, June 22nd, 1pm to 3pm
Ice Cream Social, Aug. 11th, 12pm to 3pm
Grandparents Day, Sept. 7th, 11am to 3pm
Japanese Argonauts on the Rancho, Speaker Series Sept. 14th, 1pm to 3pm
Hispanic Heritage Day, Sept. 28th, 11am to 3pm 
Battle Renactment of the Old Woman's Gun, Oct. 12th & 13th
Pumpkin Decorating, Oct. 26th, 1pm to 3pm
Candle Making Class, Nov. 2nd, 1pm to 4pm
FATHER SERRA's 300th BIRTHDAY, Nov. 16th, 12pm to 3pm
History of Compton, Speaker Series, Dec. 7th, 1pm to 3pm
Living History Afternoon, Dec. 14th, 3pm to 5pm

For more information, please contact the museum at (310) 603-0088 or our website @
Sent by Bob Smith, Past President of the Los Pobladores 200 And a member of SAR



Stepping Stones Through Genealogy, Part 6 by Sylvia Contreras
June 20-22nd, Annual Conference of California Historical Societies Conference
Unknown Angel By Fern Glazer
Editor: For those not familiar with California history,  Baja California and Alta California were once Las Californias, until the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo which deeded Alta California to the United States, while Baja California remained under the control of Mexico.  Many early Spanish families living in the San Diego area were divided by 1848 Treaty, some becoming Americans and some remaining Mexicans. In Alta California, those early Spanish Californian families had only recently become Mexicans. The Mexican Revolution against Spain for Independence was started in 1810 by the efforts of Father Hidalgo and concluded in 1821. Those in California became Mexican citizens in 1821 and then American citizens in 1848.


PART 6  - Los Cabos by Sylvia Contreras

What does one do upon arriving to an out-of-the-country beach resort, but for a different kind of vacation, such as to search for ancestral roots? And what if the resort is equipped with cabanas, pools, and swim-up bars that can serve you margaritas on the rocks?  Park Royal in San Jose del Cabo (SJD) is such a resort.  Yet my eagerness to find family roots outweighed the taste for margaritas.  My drive to achieve results kept me on track – and sober!  

Ten years or more had passed since my last vacation to Los Cabos (two cities, SJD and Cabos San Lucas).  Returning in November 2012 I embarked upon an unrecognizable San Jose del Cabo due to the changes and growth catering to the international traveler.  Cabo San Lucas looked the same.  

My estranged and deceased father, Efrain Ojeda Cosio (1935-2006) had roots in the small towns between San Jose del Cabo and La Paz, on the east side of the peninsula.  My paternal grandparents, Abelino Ojeda (1884-1938) and Leocadia Cosio (1900/02-1986) were born and lived along the same area all their lives.  My grandfather died at the age of 54-years old.  On May 18, 2013, I turned 54-years old and may outlive my ancestor.      

My flight was a one-way ticket because unfolding a taste of lifetime mysteries in family history could take several days, in the first trip.  The vacation itinerary would be developed as newfound clues and connections surfaced.  Returning to Los Angeles would be determined soon enough.  

So much happened during my genealogy quest, and to tell my stories, would take a book.  But for now, short day-by-day synopsis may suffice for those who may wonder what it could be like to plan such a trip.  Here are three days of adventures of how I enjoyed my vacation staying at a beach resort.  Keep abreast for more in future Somos Primos issues and a forthcoming presentation on Sept 14, 2013.  

Sat/Nov 3:  

The details of this day are described in May 2013 issue as  Stepping. . . Part 5 –The Return.”  Here is a brief recap:  Arrived late afternoon to San Jose del Cabo airport from Los Angeles, CA.  On the way to Park Royal, the driver pointed out an “Ojeda” merchant facility as a lead.  After unpacking, the first place to visit was the Plaza center to see Mission San Jose del Cabo (est. 1740; one of 30+ missions in Baja California).  The church doors were open and people arrived.  There was singing followed by worship service and more singing.  After service, I approached the priest, hoping he was Padre Juvencio (spelling?), whom I planned to seek out.  Yes he was.  I asked if late 19th century church records were available for viewing.  Yes, it could be arranged, but to return during office hours.  The evening ended with a late dinner under a gigantic palapa.  It was a quiet, peaceful, and very long walk back to the resort.  I was ready for new adventures. What a perfect way to start my ancestral search. 


Sun/Nov 4:  

Traveled 25 miles from San Jose del Cabo to Cabo San Lucas to browse around.  There was a resort with a gorgeous reception designed with lots of history in beautiful art, including the story of where the name California originated.  The clerks watched as I shot photos.  One clerk commented that guests usually do not pay attention to the art.  Once I explained my interest in Baja California’s history, the clerk showed pride, was all smiles, and posed with a “thumbs up” for a photo.  The resort had a guest, my new friend, Alexis.  We met on the plane to Los Cabos, exchanged contact info and planned to meet in San Jose del Cabo later in the week when her travel companions had departed.  And yet, of all the resorts to choose from in Cabo San Lucas, hers is the one I visited and did not know it while on site.  Go figure . . .

I walked around Cabo San Lucas, rode the local bus to sightsee through non-tourist areas and found a bus terminal.  “Aguila” was the local greyhound bus that offered service to the other small towns and to La Paz.  Plus “Aguila” had a terminal near my resort too.  These busses looked clean, comfortable, and had TV screens - great!  For safe measure, I had already signed up for a tour to La Paz that traveled up the peninsula on the east and west sides, stopping at small towns.  It would give me a good idea of road conditions when traveling alone. Then I purchased a cell phone that was on sale for $20 and purchased air-time credit to dial Baja California phone numbers (Tel-Mex).  This service was much cheaper than using my U.S.A. cell phone for local calls.   

Park Royal is situated on a dead-end street, slightly uphill on curvy and crumbling asphalt road, alongside a green and lush golf course, and past a few huge residential homes.  Yet, it was only about four long blocks to a fairly new shopping center that included a MEGA store (like a supersize Walmart), a McDonalds, and a Starbucks with free WIFI too!  (There was actually a Walmart about ½ mile away – right across the Aguila bus terminal in San Jose del Cabo).  There as an awesome burrito stand I frequented. And the MEGA center had the most lovely framed ocean and sky view from a food court ever seen.  At the end of my street, preparations were made for a grand opening of an “OXXO,” popular mini-grocery stores in Mexico.  I walked that road from my resort to the shopping center area, every day to reach the local bus stop.  Yes, there were taxis too.  The ones allowed to pick-up guests at resorts (expensive), and the ones that the locals ride (cheap), but are prohibited from entering resort areas.   

In that MEGA store, I spoke to a young sales clerk in the liquor department. He suggested a bottle of tequila that was too much liquor for me to drink alone.  He became curious about my being alone at a beach resort.  He had not met anyone that traveled to Los Cabos for a genealogy search.  It held his interest while I talked, and then, offered an “Ojeda” lead. 

MEGA had a “deal” for Park Royal guests.  I could take the shopping cart to carry my groceries back to the resort and “park” the cart in the designated area.  A MEGA employee picks up all carts daily.  I even borrowed the cart to haul my belongings down the hill too!  It worked fine, except for the clanging noise the steel cart made on that lumpy asphalt road; early in the morning, late at night – clankity clank, clankity clank. I felt like the bag lady on a mission!   No worries, no cares.  

Mon/Nov 5

I returned to the Plaza to meet with the priest.  There were only three people in line, and I still waited an hour in the rectory.  When we met, I explained my genealogy quest as I started to pull books out of my bag.  The first book shown was “Gateway to Alta California” by Harry Crosby which he seemed to be acquainted with. The next was a genealogy book titled “Las Californias” by Greg Cosio from El Monte, CA (my newfound cousin in 2012 via  The priest was very impressed by Greg’s book 
and commented he would like to have a copy.  

Behind the priest’s desk were bookshelves.  One of his books was “Guia Familia de Baja California 1700-1900,” by Pablo L. Martinez, the 2012 reprint.  I had my own copy with me and planned to purchase a copy in La Paz.  Another book in my bag was “History of Baja California,” also by PLM, a 1960 English translation.  

Pablo L. Martinez
is a famous Baja California historian (1898-1970), born in the local area and evidently buried in San Jose del Cabo cemetery.  In one of my walks back to the resort, I stopped at an interesting looking gate before I realized it was a cemetery entrance.  I did not know Pablo L. Martinez was buried there until it was too late for a return visit. 
Showing my research books may have helped substantiate my reason to view the 19th century church records.  But the main task was done – speaking with the priest (for only 10 minutes), permission granted to view baptismal records (1823-1840) and take photos.  Many people came to the office to meet with the priest. Only one person after me made it in time to see him before his office hours were done – WHEW!  Upon my departure, it was clear that a few more visits would be needed to finish the task.  No problem to return.  No fuss – no “red tape,” easy.

Then I started to talk to people in the Plaza, get a feel of what their thoughts were about genealogy in general.  Here was a tourist for research, an uncommon reason to visit Los Cabos. Taking one stepping stone at a time, I had to be quick as time was of essence.  At first it seemed most were shy to talk to a stranger inquiring about Ojeda genealogy.  Some were curious, others wondered – why the interest in the deceased?  A mental itinerary formulated throughout the day with possible leads. 

Back in the states, I shopped at Ross-Dress-for-Less for a fanny-pack to take on my trip.  I wanted a black one.  All I could find was a funky looking fanny-pack with a large word, “Quiksilver,” embroidered in silver thread on the front.   Was the word a brand name?  No time to shop another day, so I bought it.
In the plaza, there is a half-rotunda with famous people busts (not there 10 years ago).  One of those busts is Pablo L. Martinez which I visited on 11/3, but returned for daytime photos with my books.  I put the books on a ledge to get the camera ready.  The PLM book, “History of Baja California” popped open.  I glanced at the page, looked away, and thought, “hmmm, did I just see what I thought I saw?”  Were my eyes playing tricks on me in the heat?  I started to read the page, and then I found it – a paragraph referencing silver mining and taxes on “quicksilver.” Dumbstruck, I asked myself, where have I seen that word before? Then, it hit me, my new “Quiksilver” fanny-pack, although a slight change in spelling.  I searched for the word quicksilver in other pages, none.  I used the book as a reference source, but had not read it page by page.  Uncanny?  I think so.
After my photo shoot, I continued sightseeing through town, and asked locals if there was a bookstore and/or library in the local area.  Yes there was, just a few blocks down the other side of the street.  I started walking – and walked  -  and walked  -  and walked.  Excuse me, is there a library or bookstore nearby?  Yes, just a few blocks away . . . walked, and walked some more, meanwhile, a couple of busses passing me by.  Of course, photos were necessary along the way.  Hot, thirsty, weighed down by my books, laptop, and cameras, I stopped.  There was a mustard colored building with big bold letters – “Biblioteca” (library) – finally!  But then I saw the name “Pablo L. Martinez” – what?  Surprise, surprise!

Upon entering the facility, there were many books with prices.  Where are the books to borrow?  This is a bookstore, the library is next door.  It was the PLM bookstore which had ONE single worn PLM paperback book.  I thought it best to wait and find a better copy in La Paz.  I left the bookstore and headed for the library.  Its foyer had a table of books to entice visitors (including Anne Frank), bits of history on the door to read and “Dias de los Muertos” decorations too (which were removed by my return visit).  The librarian accommodated my requests for research material (more PLM books).  It showed he cared for those treasures and seemed pleased that a tourist had interest in their little library rather than taking in sun rays at the beach.  I commented that the locals did not seem to know much about the library.  

Well, that was because the library barely opened about two years ago.  One book they had was “Historia de Alta California,” by PLM.  It had a drawing of an 18th century “soldado de cuera,” leather-jacket soldier, just the kind included in my docent tour at Dominguez Rancho. (Two soldiers, Juan Jose Dominguez and Gabriel Ojeda, my probable great-great-great-great…grandfather, traveled on the 1769 expedition to Alta California in those uniforms).  Later, I learned that my cousin, Greg, had visited the library in July and donated a copy of his genealogy book, “Las Californias.  Unfortunately, his book was missing.  But the few old and hard-to-find history books the library owned were a wealth of information. 

In my several hours between two visits to that library, there were a handful of people using the resources, and most were in the computer room!  I hope that library remains open for my next trip.

Greg called me at the resort offering suggestions and insight about Los Cabos from his recent travels.  My husband called every morning and night – am I safe?  Yes I am.  However, I still didn’t have a return date to Los Angeles – by plane nor bus.  But what a great three fun-fact filled days so far!  Excitement filled me as I prepared for a long day group tour to La Paz on Tuesday, Nov 6. 
June 20-22nd, Annual Conference of California Historical Societies Conference
60th Anniversary Celebration in Sacramento!
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Join us for an incredible weekend of discovering the gold rush town while celebrating the 60th Anniversary of CCHS! Enjoy tours of the State Capitol and the California State Library, travel back in time at Sutter's Fort and visit Old Sacramento to see firsthand where it all began! We will also be recognizing the accomplishments of CCHS and its members at the Annual Awards Luncheon!  

Our Annual Awards Luncheon being held from 12 to 3 pm, honors those who have made major contributions to the preservation of California history. It will be held at Ten22 in historic Old Sacramento. 

Somos Primos Editor, Mimi Lozano will be receiving the 2013 Award of Merit.


Unknown Angel By Fern Glazer


As the historic immigration station at Angel Island marks its 100th anniversary, much of its past has come to light. Here’s how to find your family’s hidden part of that story.
Almost every family history has some painful truth: an untimely death, a child out of wedlock, a fortune lost. Attempts to cover up these events can leave gaping holes in family history research. For people with relatives who immigrated via the West Coast in the early 20th century, that secret might hide detention at the Angel Island immigrant processing center in San Francisco Bay.
Ellis Island and the Statue of Liberty welcomed the majority of the largely European tired, poor and huddled masses entering on the East Coast during the era of immigration. But most of America’s West Coast arrivals—Australians, New Zealanders, Canadians, Mexicans, Central and South Americans, Russians and especially Asians—were met with the harsh wooden buildings and fierce interrogations of Angel Island.
Opened a century ago, Angel Island served a different role from its East Coast counterpart. Ellis Island was designed chiefly to process passengers and send them on their way. “Angel Island was really erected so people could be held there,” says Eddie Wong, executive director of Angel Island Immigration Station Foundation (AIISF). “A lot of people didn’t have a good experience.”
Immigrants often were detained for days or months before finally being granted entry in the United States—or forced to return to their home countries. Many of the detainees were so embarrassed about the experience or fearful of deportation that once they left the island, they also left behind their true history.
“A lot of people just don’t know about Angel Island,” says Judy Yung, a historian and co-author of Angel Island: Immigrant Gateway to America (Oxford University Press). “Those who came through, particularly Chinese, they didn’t want to remember. They didn’t want to share this with relatives.”
Did your ancestor arrive on the West Coast between 1910 and 1940? Do you suspect he or she was detained? That history isn’t lost. You can discover Angel Island’s past and your family’s story there—here’s how.
Recounting truth, lies and poetry
Around the mid-19th century, America needed inexpensive labor to develop the Western frontier. At the same time, many young men in southern China’s Guangdong province wanted to find work opportunities abroad. To buy steamship tickets, they’d pull together all the funds they could muster from family or borrowed from US business agents against their future wages.
More than 123,000 Chinese immigrants, nearly all men, arrived on US shores between 1871 and 1880. Most found work in mines, on railroads and at low-end wage labor, intending to return home with their savings. But when the US economy took a downturn in the 1870s, many Americans laid blame for job scarcity on this visible minority. An anti-Chinese campaign led to a series of laws culminating in the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act, which put a 10-year moratorium on the immigration of Chinese laborers. Only merchants, clergy, diplomats, teachers and students were exempt from the ban. The law was renewed for another 10 years in 1892 and again, with no termination date, in 1902. Congress didn’t repeal it until 1943.
The 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire provided a way to work the system when it destroyed the city’s birth records. Chinese immigrants could claim they were born in the United States and request to bring family from China. They’d pad their number of children, use the necessary papers for their own families, and use or sell the extra “slots” to bring in relatives, other village residents, even strangers. These illegal immigrants were called “paper sons”; “paper daughters” were rarer.
Enforcing the immigration restrictions required a new facility—one that would prevent suspicious newcomers from communicating with those in San Francisco and isolate those with communicable diseases. Like the prison on nearby Alcatraz Island, the facility would have to be escape-proof. Despite the objections of Chinese community leaders, this hastily built immigration station was opened on the northeastern edge of Angel Island in January 1910.
Immigrants whose papers checked out disembarked in San Francisco. Others were ferried to Angel Island. There, they disrobed and were examined, measured with metal calipers and tested for disease. Those suspected of illegal entry were assigned a bunk in the detention dormitory to await interrogation by the Board of Special Inquiry, a government team of two immigrant inspectors, a stenographer and a translator. Detentions could last from a few days to several weeks; the longest was 22 months.
Officials, who’d quickly caught on to the paper son phenomenon, perfected a system of arduous interrogation that made it difficult even for legal immigrants to enter the country. Over the course of hours or days, immigrant applicants called before the Board of Special Inquiry had to recount minute details only a genuine applicant would know about his family history and his village. Most immigrants, determined to make a new life in America, prepared by studying coaching books containing hundreds of possible questions and answers. They spent months committing detailed responses to memory. Their witnesses—other family members detained at the station or living in the United States—were called to corroborate these answers. The slightest inconsistency could trigger prolonged interrogation and risk deportation for the applicant and his family.
Conditions at Angel Island were notoriously bad. The food, mostly stews of rice and vegetables, was barely edible. Public health officials deemed the buildings overcrowded, filthy, vermin-infested firetraps. Commissioner general of immigration Anthony Caminetti formally recommended removing the processing center to the mainland. Held under lock and key, many detainees poured out their frustration by carving poems into the wooden walls of the barracks. Below is a translated example that an unknown author scratched on the wall:
Imprisoned in the wooden building day after day, My freedom is withheld; how can I bear to talk about it? I look to see who is happy but they only sit quietly. I am anxious and depressed and cannot fall asleep. The days are long and bottle constantly empty; My sad mood even so is not dispelled. Nights are long and the pillow cold; who can pity my loneliness? After experiencing such loneliness and sorrow, why not just return home and learn to plow the fields?

After gaining admittance, many immigrants kept these details from even those closest to them. “They kept it a secret partly because they were humiliated by the treatment they got,” says Yung, whose parents were detained at Angel Island. “My dad was always afraid they would find him and he would be deported.”
Only around 1980, after Yung began work on her book Island: Poetry and History of Chinese Immigrants on Angel Island 1910-1940 (University of Washington Press), did her father begin to tell the truth about his history. To learn more about Angel Island history, view photographs, read barrack poems and listen to interviews with former detainees, visit AIISF online.
Revealing the past
Now you can begin to shed some light on your own family’s Angel Island secrets. The majority of Angel Island immigrants weren’t detained, but if you think your ancestor was, look for an immigration case file investigating his claims. The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) Pacific Region research facility in San Bruno, Calif., houses more than 200,000 such case files. Some are for Russians, Indians and Pakistanis, but most are for Asians—Chinese, Japanese, Koreans—because they were detained more often. The files are rich with information, including the person’s place and date of birth, a physical description, birth and marriage certificates, documents related to his other US arrivals and departures, interrogation transcripts, family photographs and maps immigrants drew of their home villages. Follow these steps to retrace your ancestor’s paper trail.
Step 1: Establish when your relative may have arrived in the United States, and the name used at arrival. Talk to older relatives and gather any copies of old immigration documents such as certificates of identity, certificates of residence or steamship tickets. Search for the case file number using the free partial name index at <>. This index contains more than 90,000 names with some vital information about the individual.
Step 2: If your ancestor isn’t in the partial name index, try to find him on a ship’s passenger list. Then you can deduce the number from the arrival year and the “ship number” on the day of arrival. Search passenger lists on subscription website , which has an index to California passenger arrivals from 1893 to 1957. When you find the person, note the five-digit ship number written or stamped at the top of the page—this is the first part of the case file number. Then note the manifest page number and the line number (to the left of the person listed). This gives you the second part of the case file number. So, for Wah Lak, the person highlighted in this list, the case number is 14084/007-23.
Case file numbers were updated to reflect subsequent journeys to and from the United States. For example, if you know that your ancestor first immigrated to the United States in 1910, left to visit family in 1920 and came back for good in 1921, the case file number may have been changed accordingly. You would need to find the passenger list from 1921 and follow the above steps.
Step 3: Once you’ve found the case file number, you’ll want to either visit NARA in San Bruno or order copies of the records. For information on sending your request to NARA, contact the archives by e-mail or by calling (650) 238-3501.
Step 4: If you can’t find a case file on your ancestor, try searching for another family member. Many case files include a page with file numbers for related cases, so your uncle’s file will likely reference your father’s file. If your ancestor had some action relating to his status as an alien resident or citizens after 1944, his immigration case files may have been placed into an Alien Case File, or A-File, in the custody of the US Citizenship and Immigration Service (USCIS). For information about how to request these files, visit  USCIS Genealogy Program.
Some who immigrated under false identities participated in the Chinese Amnesty Program, informally known as the Confession Program, to correct their status. These participants often subsequently changed their names to reflect their true identities. Case files of Angel Island immigrants who participated in the Chinese Amnesty Program also are in the USCIS A-Files.
Step 5: If your ancestor filed a lawsuit related to the Chinese Exclusion Acts, those records may be at a NARA research facility. has an index to these cases in its database US Chinese Immigration Case Files, 1883-1924. Use the information to request the full case file from NARA. By taking these steps to research your hidden family history, you’ll both reveal the truth and honor the past.
More Online, Free Web Content
From the August 2010 Family Tree Magazine



Mining Town Kids - We're Everywhere by Sal Baldenegro
DNA presentation on the New Mexico DNA Project

Small towns are like big barrios. People know and take care of each other. Which is why Arizona’s mining communities impress me greatly. That, and the people they produce. Some are two towns separated by a hyphen—Hayden-Winkelman, Globe-Miami, Clifton-Morenci—but for all practical purposes they are one community.

They are union towns, in which the International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers (IUMMSW), which became the United Steelworkers (USW), combined its labor function with civil-rights and community functions. The union fought the “Mexican wage” system, by which Mexican-descent workers were paid less than their white counterparts for the same work and desegregated public facilities. The union also organized Christmas parties for the kids, blood-donation and voter registration drives, and sponsored community-wide family picnics.

These towns are proud of their own. In Hayden, pictures of all the graduating classes are displayed on the walls of the high-school gym. Miami converted its old elementary school, the Bullion Plaza school, into a local history museum, which chronicles the town’s history. The contributions of the union stand out as does the memorabilia of local veterans—many of them decorated heroes—who fought in WW II, Korea, and Viet Nam.

The headquarters of the historic 1983 strike that pitted the Clifton-Morenci copper miners against Phelps Dodge and Democratic Governor Bruce Babbitt was the Morenci Miners United Steelworkers Local 616 Union Hall in Clifton. After the strike the union moved, and the hall was bought by Jeff Gaskin, who converted it into a museum of the union and the 1983 strike. A mural that chronicles the strike takes up one entire wall. The community’s pride in the history of the union and the unionists is impressive and moving.

These mining towns have produced some outstanding people. Maclovio Barraza, the late labor and civil-rights leader and founding Chairman of the Southwest Council of La Raza (which evolved into the National Council of La Raza), was from Superior.

The late Juanita Loroña, from Hayden, was a relentless campaigner against discriminatory laws and policies, including the common Arizona practice of allowing children of Mexican descent to swim in public pools only one day a week, after the white kids had used the pool for six days.

Winkelman gave us Cecilia “Ceci” Cruz, longtime civil-rights and political activist in Tucson and one of the founders of the Tucson Women’s Commission. Ceci is the daughter of one of the founders of the IUMMSW Local 886 in Hayden-Winkelman.

Alfredo Gutierrez is from Miami. First elected to the Arizona senate at age 25, Alfredo served as the majority and minority leader in the state senate. During the 1970s, as the Senate Majority Leader, Alfredo was arguably the state’s most powerful elected official.

Globe gave us Dr. Christine Marín, whose father was active in Miami Local 586 of the IUMMSW (later, the Steelworkers). Dr. Marín is a highly respected and nationally known historian and activist scholar who founded the nationally acclaimed Chicano Research Collection Archives at Arizona State University.

Between Globe and Miami is tiny Claypool, the hometown of U.S. Congressman Ed Pastor, who made history in 1992 as Arizona’s first Mexican American elected to Congress.

Morenci gave us the late Octavio “Tavi” Márquez, a lawyer who grew up in a union family. During the halcyon days of the Chicano Movement, when mainstream lawyers would not even talk to us because we were too “radical,” Tavi sought us out and became our lawyer, on a pro-bono basis.

From Bisbee hails one of the country’s most distinguished educators, Adalberto “Beto” Guerrero. Beto made history by spearheading the educational-rights movement in the 1960s that resulted in the U.S. Congress authorizing and funding Bilingual Education in American schools.

From Douglas came Tony Bracamonte, recently retired Dean of Student Services at South Mountain Community College (Phoenix). Tony put his college education on hold for two years to become a full-time organizer, for a stipend of $5 a week, for the Chicano Movement in Tucson. Tony’s signature is on the many political, social, educational, and economic changes brought about by the Chicano Movement.

Also from Douglas is Antonio D. “Tony” Bustamante. As a third-year law student Tony organized a national movement that led to the prosecution of the Hanigan brothers in Arizona for the torture of Mexican farm workers. This was an historical achievement in that this was the first time in our country’s history that the United States government brought a prosecution to vindicate the human-rights protections of undocumented workers who had been physically abused in the U.S.

I’m proud to be from Douglas also and to have worked alongside the two Tonys described above.  And Arizona’s first, and only, Mexican American Governor, Raúl Castro, is from Douglas.  As Dr. Christine Marín says: “Mining town kids: they love us or they hate us in Arizona…because we’re everywhere!”

Many of the people discussed above were and are involved in civil rights activism. I believe that is due to the culture of people standing up for what’s right, people helping people, etc., which the unions fomented in Arizona’s mining towns.

“Big cities” can learn much from the small towns. Maybe we should hire some of these fine folks as consultants to teach us about how to build community.

Copyright 2013 by Sal Baldenegro

To contact Sal: 

Dr. Christine Marin, Professor Emeritus . 
Grant Consultant. Chicana/o Research Collection & Archives.
Department of Archives & Special Collections. 
Hayden Library. Arizona State University. 
PO Box 871006. Tempe, AZ. 85287-1006. (mail)
300 E. Orange Mall. Tempe, AZ. 85281. (delivered packages) 

DNA presentation on the New Mexico DNA Project

DNA presentation on the New Mexico DNA Project and how genetic genealogy works in family history and ethnic identity. The presentation will be held on June 3, 2013 at 1:00 pm, through the Oasis program. Here is a link to sign up for the presentation:

Best Regards, Ángel de Cervantes  



by Pauline Chavez Bent

Atarque is a glimpse into New Mexico's history. Settlements like Atarque dotted the landscape as New Mexico moved from a territory to statehood. Unfortunately, many of these villages and settlements are now disappearing. Pauline Chavez Bent has helped to tell some of the stories of New Mexico's villages, sharing the joy and struggles of its people. She introduces us to some of the people who lived with the hardships of life in western New Mexico and celebrated the struggles and joys that make up the soul of New Mexico.


What people are saying:

"The vivid descriptions of the families of this rural community paint a mural of life, love, and Spanish culture which resound in New Mexico. The book explains the traditions that developed the self reliance of the Hispanic soul. It tells of a time when people in a community worked together as a family, which would apply to all settlements in the southwest that still endure; after all, we are 'primos, que no?' The silence of the village can be felt like sand erasing the traces of a culture. ATARQUE: NOW ALL IS SILENT beautifully preserves the memories of those who laid the foundation for future generations."
- Conchita Marquez de Lucero, a founding member and past President of the New Mexican Hispanic Cultural Preservation League

"As a descendant of the 'atarquenos de la familia Chavez,' I have found Pauline Chavez Bent's work a gateway to my own history and cultural legacy. This book is a testament to the vitality of oral tradition as well as the need for the 'nuevo mexicano' families to persevere in an ever-changing society. Because of her work, the 'atarquenos' have a solid place in history and although the town itself is now silent, the legacy left behind will continue."
- Vanessa Fonseca, University of New Mexico Southwest Studies
"It is important that we recognize our cultural treasures before they slide into oblivion. That is exactly what Pauline Chavez Bent has done in her book. Ever since I, a fellow New Mexican, arrived in the area of Gallup, New Mexico, to begin my new field of activity, I have been somehow attracted by this present-day ghost town. I was not satisfied until I could join a companion-Franciscan, with Pauline Chavez Bent as our guide, and make a tour of this once thriving Hispanic village. Now New Mexcio will be forever indebted to Pauline for passing its colorful history down to posterity."
-Fr. Cormac Antram, O.F.M.
"The pioneer spirit and enduring pastoral culture of the Atarqueños is captured by Pauline Chavez Bent in this richly embroidered memoir of the almost forgotten frontiers of western Nuevo Mexico. Faith, family, and culture sustained Hispano homesteaders and their immense flocks of sheep as their fortunes rose and fell with the demands of the twentieth century. The vivid memories of a faithful daughter are enhanced in these pages by an extraordinary photographic and genealogical record. As a child, Pablita played the role of 'La Cautiva Marcelina,' a Comanche captive in a devotional folk play. The power of healing and understanding comes from those who live between cultures."
-Enrique Lamadrid, Literary Folklorist and University of New Mexico Professor of Spanish and Director of Chicano Hispano Mexicano Studies




Railroad tracks. 
The U.S. Standard railroad gauge (distance between rails) is 4 feet, 8.5 inches. That's an exceedingly odd number.

Why was that gauge used? Because that's the way they built them in England , and English expatriates designed the U.S. Railroads.

Why did the English build them like that? Because the first rail lines were built by the same people who built the pre-railroad 
tramways, and that's the gauge they used.

Why did 'they' use that gauge then? Because the people who built the tramways used the same jigs and toolsthat they had used for 
building wagons, which used that wheel spacing.

Why did the wagons have that particular Odd wheel spacing? Well, if they tried to use any other spacing, the wagon wheels would break on some of the old, long distance roads in England, because that's the spacing of the wheel ruts ..

So, who built those old rutted roads? Imperial Rome built the first long distance roads in Europe (including England )
for their legions. Those roads have been used ever since.

And the ruts in the roads? Roman war chariots formed the initial ruts, which everyone else had to match for fearof destroying their wagon wheels.

Since the chariots were made for Imperial Rome , they were all alike in the matter of wheel spacing. Therefore, the United States standard railroad gauge of 4 feet, 8.5 inches is derived from the original specifications for an Imperial Roman war chariot. In other words, bureaucracies live forever.

So the next time you are handed a specification, procedure, or process, and wonder, 'What horse's ass came up with this?', you may be exactly right. Imperial Roman army chariots were made just wide enough to accommodate the rear ends of two war horses ...

Now, the twist to the story:

When you see a Space Shuttle sitting on its launch pad, you will notice that there are two big booster rockets attached to the sides of the main fuel tank. These are solid rocket boosters, or SRBs. The SRBs are made by Thiokol at their factory in Utah.

The engineers who designed the SRBs would have preferred to make them a bit larger, but the SRBs had to be shipped by train from the factory to the launch site. The railroad line from the factory happens to run through a tunnel in the mountains, and the SRBs had to fit through that tunnel. The tunnel is slightly wider than the railroad track, and the railroad track, as you now know, is about as wide as two horses' behinds.

So, a major Space Shuttle design feature: Of what is arguably the world's most advanced transportation system was determined over two thousand years ago by the width of a horse's ass. 

An Open Letter to the Denver Public Library Commission

by Santino J. Rivera on May 14, 2013 in El Now
An Open Letter to the Denver Public Library Commission:

I am writing in response to the so-called “ire” that was reported in the Denver Post regarding the new West Denver library being named after Rodolfo Corky Gonzales.

I am an author/publisher and a Denver native. I am also Chicano. My roots in Denver run deep and though I may live far from the Mile High City now, Denver will always be home.

How can one convey to you in such a limited space how iconic Gonzales is? The man is legend, not just in Colorado but nationally. Though the Chicano/a movement is not what it used to be in Denver, its roots are still there. There are those who would balk at this library – those who would like nothing more than to wipe Corky’s memory from the history books, just as they are trying to do with our books and history in Arizona, despite the fact that these things are as American as anything else. Ignorance speaks volumes.

Chicano/a history is American history!

The current establishment loves to frame the 60’s and 70’s as a time of free spirit and of rebellion but only through their own lens. They revere their own heroes but demonize ours. Chicano/as have our own memories/heroes of that time and they are often hushed by the same establishment, deemed too “radical” because they are not in line with their politics. But people forget…

People have forgotten how the Denver police were found to be racist when they started beating high school girls with their batons during a demonstration at the park across the street from West High School. People have forgotten how the Denver Public School System was found guilty of actively pursuing segregation, which put them under Federal Court order to de-segregate by Judge Richard Matsch.

People have forgotten that Corky Gonzales stood up to this oppression, locally and nationally and inspired Chicanos/as to rise up and fight back. People have forgotten that he helped to make the very word “Chicano/a” part of the national lexicon during that era. The Crusade for Justice is part of Denver’s proud history. His poem I Am Joaquin continues to inspire to this day – it is one of the most powerful poems of the modern era.

The need for Chicano/a studies proves itself repeatedly because here we are once again, floating in a sea of ignorance and fear – people trembling at the mere mention of a man’s name. A man who should be revered as a civil rights icon is demonized by know-nothings and bigots who have never bothered to learn his story.

I am not sure you realize how powerful seeing role models such as Gonzales can be to young minds, especially young brown minds, ones who would be directly affected by this library. And by power I mean literacy, community and education – all things Corky stood for.

We need heroes. This library naming is a small gesture, but it is also a giant gesture, especially where the youth are concerned. Let’s help to inspire young minds to pursue their goals by looking up to a man who championed community activism.

The fact that people are calling this decision “controversial” is not only absurd but laughable. But it’s all too common these days. Gonzales is celebrated in forums and festivals around the country. His name should have been engraved on a public building or memorial years ago.

The time is now. Denver is not Tucson. Colorado is not Arizona. Of all places, the Denver Public Library should revere Gonzales. At the very least, he should have this library named after him.

Children are taught to know the greatness of Martin Luther King, Jr. and it’s high time that they learn about Rodolfo Corky Gonzales as well.

In closing, I would just like to say that I wish everyone could have experienced the positive energy that I experienced on my recent book tour in L.A. The brotherhood & sisterhood, the reverence for our history, our elders and our culture – that’s what Chicanismo is all about.

It’s why we continue fight to preserve it, coast to coast and to celebrate and educate others with it. That’s what Rodolfo Corky Gonzales was all about. It is not the fear and loathing that the media and politicos sell but community and empowerment through positive actions.

Corky matters. Chicano/a history matters – yesterday, today and tomorrow. We are all Joaquin and we will endure!

Do the right thing and name this new library after a Denver icon and hero.

Santino J. Rivera
Broken Sword Publications, LLC
Saint Augustine, Florida

Sent by Mercy Bautista Olvera


How the Wild West REALLY looked: Gorgeous sepia-tinted pictures show the landscape as it was charted for the very first time
By Rob Cooper
Nuestro Rio's websites in both English and Spanish, different opportunities for people to become engaged with their work and take action on environmental issues important to the Latino community.  
Sylvia Manzano  
Sent by Rafael Ojeda  (253) 576-9547 

Looking for "Outstanding People" 

This week I sent out several invitations to people who I felt would be "Outstanding People" to post on my website as an inspiration to others and especially young folks who could use some inspiration, along with a "questionaire" to help as a guideline to prepare your article..! As I expected, almost everyone is very busy with their daily obligations and committments, yet everyone who has responded so far, told me that it was a really good idea and that they would be sending me their articles, based on the questionaire I sent to everyone as soon as they could..!

Juan Jose Pena
was especially complimentary about the idea of "showcasing" outstanding people, but because of other commitments, he said that he would like to send me his Biographical Data File to use until he has the time to "do" an article. I was so impressed with Juan's life biographical story that I have posted it as he sent it to me and I invite you to visit my website to learn more about Juan Jose and his outstanding life achievements..! Just go to and scroll down to his Bio.... Feel free to email him, and me with your thoughts and comments...

Of course, I am anxious to receive YOUR articles so I can highlight YOU as an Outstanding Person. Remember to send me your photo so I can post it with your article..!

Your friend,
Louis F. Serna,
(505) 933-3168



Nuestro Rio 

Latino Decisions 
Thanks for your note and kind words. Here is a link to Nuestro Rio's websites in English and Spanish, they have many different opportunities for people to become engaged with their work and take action on environmental issues important to the Latino community.  
Sylvia Manzano  

Sent by Rafael Ojeda  (253) 576-9547 


Granaderos y Damas of San Antonio in Macharaviaya, New Orleans
Society of St Bernard Islenos 
Louisiana Letters: 1678 ~ 1803
May 10, Granaderos y Damas, Joel Escamilla, Sylvia Escamilla, Clifford Normand, Lynda Normand, Richard Whynot and Roland Salazar had lunch with the Mayor of Macharaviaya at the Galvez Restaurant in New Orleans. Here are a couple of links to TV and newspaper coverage of Galvez Celebration Week which kicked off this week in Pensacola.

For those interested in the culture and society of St Bernard Islenos, be sure to join the group:

Wade Falcon, posted in Canary Islanders of Louisiana
Sent by Bill Carmena 

Louisiana Letters: 1678 ~ 1803

“…Louisiana covered an area that re-presents a third of the United States…the regions bounded on the north by the Great Lakes, to the east by the chain of Appalachian mountains, and to the west by the Rocky Mountains.”

From the Introduction, Announcing one of the great reference books for the French in America: Published three decades ago by France’s National Archives to commemorate the United States bicentennial, this “American edition” is the first time the calendar of these documents has been widely available to researchers throughout the English-speaking world.

Originally titled Correspondance à l’arrivée en provenance de la Louisiane, the introductions and foreword have been translated. The original title is somewhat misleading, for, although the documents originated in the Province of Louisiana, a significant number (relating to the Province) relate to responses from royal officials in France. A new preface by Winston De Ville provides perspective and guidance for using the French-language inventory.

Today, many research centers have the entire collection of letters, reports, and other documents on microfilm. The subject scope is wide, ranging from governors to individual colonists, to slaves and Indians. The two-volume work, referencing thousands of documents, millions of pages, is now available in one, with a comprehensive index of 52 pages. As the preface states, “Spotting proper names, geographical features, ships, and subjects is easy. Then, being provided with an adequate citation, the reader requests a copy of the document from any number of institutions.”

786 pages, 8½ x 11, enlarged type, wrappers. $75.00 per copy. ISBN 1-59804-674-8. Please, see ordering comments below. 

Post~Office Box 261333 Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70826    for ordering information: 


TCARA present the Battles of 1813, speaker, Larry Kirkpatrick
Coy Family Reunion III, Save the Date: Saturday, October 5, 2013
First Declaration of Independence of Texas - Honor the Memory of Don Bernardo
Message to members of Los Bexareños and to those who wish to become members
Texas Historical Commission compiling travel guide of Hispanic heritage sites
Most accurate story of the town of San Ygnacio, Texas, the Treviño-Uribe Rancho and the  fortified home  by Roberto D. Uribe, edited by Antonio Uribe, with comments by Joe Uribe
JUNE 5, 2013  TCARA PRESENTS THE BATTLES OF 1813 AT BEXAR.  Speaker, Larry Kirkpatrick, 11:30 AM Buffet
The Petroleum Club, San Antonio.  Excellent food and desserts, including prime rib and much more. $25.00 Per Person.  Your check is your reservation.  
Send your check to Corinne Staacke, 
527 Country Lane, San Antonio, TX 78209-1608.  More information call, (210) 824-6019

Save the Date:  Saturday, October 5, 2013
Coy Family Reunion III . . . Please contact: 
Sylvia Valero at or (210) 627-2443
or Yolanda or Larry Kirkpatrick:  or (210) 522-9276


Don Keil, the Mayor of Seguin.Texas invited the Battle of Medina Historical Society to share the history of the reenactment of the Battle of Medina in the form of a lecture at the Seguin library at 707 College St.  on Thursday May 9th at 9 AM.
The event was free and the public is invited. 

The attachment is a resolution acknowledging the First Constitutional Government of Texas founded on April 6th, 1813

Dan Arellano President
Battle of Medina Historical Society

To members of Los Bexareños and to those who wish to become members:


This year marks the 30th Anniversary of Los Bexareños Genealogical and Historical Society. As you know, we are planning a banquet to commemorate this historical marker. This event will take place on August 25, 2013.
We were asked to create an LBGHS Member Directory - Commemorative Edition as part of this celebration.
In the past, Los Bexareños has had a directory of members.
Other Hispanic genealogy societies have member directories as well.
This is a huge project. Many members have been asking for a directory, and now is a good opportunity for all to get on board with this project.
It was Gloria Cadena’s wish, the founder of Los Bexareños Genealogical Society, that we share our genealogical research, our ancestry, and our history. What better way to share with each other than with a directory that lists the names and places that we are researching. It would be another great addition to our library collection as well. The main purpose of this directory is to share the information of your research (those whom you are currently researching), so that others who are researching the same individuals can contact you.
The goal is to have this directory ready by August 25, 2013. This can be accomplished with your help, but we need everyone to participate and to provide the needed information in a timely manner. We would like to reach 100% completion with everyone’s participation.
We also want to add a recent photo of yourself (yourselves if you have a joint membership). Email your photo (in the largest format) to If you cannot provide a photo, Luis will be happy to take one of you, if you live in or near the San Antonio area. This can take place at your home or at a mutually agreed upon location. Call (210) 291-7702.
You are not obligated to provide all of the information we are requesting. If you prefer to leave out one or more details of your information, just write “Private” in the appropriate space on the form. PLEASE NOTE: If you do not provide your contact information, your fellow genealogists cannot communicate with you.
The LBGHS Member Directory will be prepared for your personal, non-political, non-commercial use. It is intended that the information contained in the directory remain confidential and that it be used ONLY for genealogy research. The use of it for any mass mailing or solicitation is strictly prohibited to insure the safety and peace of mind of our members. Any violation of this confidentiality may result in legal action.
- The Board of Directors

The above paragraph will also be included throughout the directory.
If you have any questions or if we can assist you, please call me at (210) 291-7702.
Thank you, 
Sylvia Morales
2013 LBGHS Member Directory Project
(210) 291-7702


Texas Historical Commission is now planning the development of a travel guide to Hispanic heritage sites in Texas. They are compiling a list of a number of conceptual points. I plan to attend their charter committee meeting to submit up to 25 Tejano sites across the state to them with a brief location or description on each one.

Please send me a few such sites that you know so that I can forward to the committee. I will need to submit my list by next week, so just e-mail them to me. Thank you. Below is a short list of the sites I’m proposing so far:

1. Treviño-Uribe Fort in San Ygnacio, Texas
2. San Antonio Viejo. - Jim Hogg County near Hebbronville
-“History of Historic Roma Bell," The Rio Grande Herald (Rio Grande City, Tex.), Vol. 40, No. 12, Ed. 1 Thursday, January 23, 1986, p. 2  URL:
3. San Diego, Texas town plaza
4. Colegio Altamirano, Hebbronville
5. Randado Ranch
6. San Ignacio church and ranch buildings
Following is the summary of the THC Hispanic Heritage Guide:
Project Summary
In 2010 the THC launched African Americans in Texas: A Lasting Legacy. This printed guide, produced in part with Texas Heritage Trails Program funding from TxDOT’s Statewide Transportation Enhancement Program, serves as the model for the layout and scope of the Hispanic heritage guide. The same funding source will produce the Hispanic heritage guide as well as new mobile applications for both guides. The purpose of the guides is to promote and develop the ten Texas Heritage Trail Regions as travel destinations.
They are using the model of their “African Americans in Texas: A Lasting Legacy” using the following organizational components:
· Introductory narrative featuring several significant historical events
· Map organized by THC’s ten Texas Heritage Trail Regions (Independence Trail, Mountain Trail…)
· Distribution of approximately 40 featured cities and 79 sites within Heritage Trail Regions.
· Key describing a site’s historical designations or markers
· Nine sidebar /theme pages highlighting significant historical and cultural movements, individuals, and groups contributing to the big story of African Americans in Texas
· Timeline
· Visitor information
They now want the Hispanic heritage guide to highlight major, integral stories and to direct the public to the best places that provide an accessible, vicarious experience of those stories and events. Along with thinking carefully about the historical significance of a site, town or collection of sites, visitor readiness criteria must also be considered.

For the benefit of the traveling public a travel guide must be useful as a travel tool. It will not tell a complete story, but it should motivate and facilitate travel. Here are some very basic criteria to consider for site selection.
Site is open to the public and maintains regular hours.
Site is safe and poses no threat to visitors.
Site is vital in representing the heritage/culture of the region.
Promotion of the site preserves and protects the resource.
Site has on-premises signage.
Site provides adequate interpretation to enhance the visit.



Most accurate story of the town of San Ygnacio, Texas.
the Treviño-Uribe Rancho and the fortified home

By Roberto D. Uribe
Edited, with added memories by Antonio Uribe
Comments: Joe Uribe

First, a brief story of how the Trevino-Uribe Fort was built, written by Antonio Uribe.  

Built in sections, it was started in 1830 by don Jesus Treviño, continued by don Blas Maria Uribe in 1850 and final construction and/or modifications by don Jose D. Uribe.

Picture a room, eighteen foot by twenty foot built in 1830. A large room started in 1850 and finished in 1851, built to the west, facing river, adjacent to original room. A second room and an open kitchen to the west of large room. This addition faces the river. Wall was built on south and east sides. Enclosure is approximate 120 feet by 100 feet. The latter room, open kitchen and wall were finished in 1854.

In 1870, a room was added to northeast section of fort and finished in 1871. Additions, improvements and repairs were done in late 1800 and early 1900 by Jose D. Uribe who in the end bought out his brothers and was sole owner of the fort.
Story following was taken from Roberto D. Uribe's "Story of San Ygnacio" and edited by me, Antonio E. Uribe, to include the building of the Fort only.

THE TREVIÑO INDIAN FORT in San Ygnacio (also known as the Treviño-Uribe Fort)

In 1828, don Jesus Treviño from Revilla purchased land from the lower portion of the Corralitos section of the Vasquez Borrego land grant. In 1830, don Jesus together with his two sons in law, don Vicente Gutierrez and don Manuel Benavides went looking for a place to to set up a ranch house for the new bought land. They found the place on the river banks of the Rio Grande and the Arroyo Grullo. A high flat spot area with the Rio Grande on the west and the Arroyo Grullo on the north. By building there, they would be protected on the north by the arroyo and on the west by the river. They would only have two sides that the indians could attack from. The ranch was called San Ygnacio. Don Jesus erected the first stone building in 1830. This room with thick stone walls became the principal ranch quarters on this newly bought land.

Land was cleared and a room about 18 feet by 20 feet was built. . The room was built of local stones, some from the river banks and some from the hills east of the ranch site. The river stones are called "almendria" and were very hard to break or shape. The stones were dragged from the river banks on hides and pulled by oxen to the site and they were used as they were. The other stone was called "cantera" and is a soft sandstone that could be shaped to fit. The walls of the room are about 18 inches thick. The floor is the natural dirt. The room had no windows and only one entrance, facing south.
The door is made of solid mesquite, about 2 inches thick. It has no metal nails or hinges. It is held together with wood dowels and wedges. The door swings on two mesquite heart pins resting on almendria stones. On the inside, it has a mesquite cross bar that slides into a hole in the stone... The door swings free to this date.

The room had a flat roof made of river trees and mesquite. On the southwest corner of the roof, there was a lookout perch. The roof has long been replaced but on the southeast corner of the wall, the stepping stones for the perch can be seen sticking out of the wall.

Outside of the door, two turrets were built. One on each side of the door. The turrets were about 5 feet tall with cutouts for firing the muskets. The turrets had an opening facing the door to be able to retreat into the room. The turrets were removed in approximately 1851 when more rooms were added to the building. You can still see the circular foundations for the turrets on the stone walk outside the door. A compartment was built on the east wall of the room to keep what ever valuables they had. By removing a stone from the wall, there was a deep hole and this was the compartment. Today, this room is known as "El Cuarto Viejo" or just "El Cuarto."

The room or ranch house was used mainly for protection from the indians and for Don Jesus to stay when visiting the ranch. Don Jesus and his family lived in Revilla and only visited to supervise the operation of the ranch. Workers cleared land around the ranch and built their jacales, "shacks", to live in.

In 1843 on one of his trips to his other ranch, La Realdeña in Sabinas Hidalgo where his son lived, , don Jesus took sick and passed away.

In 1850, don Blas Maria Uribe, who inherited the land thru his wife, and his family decided to move to the ranch. Don Blas Maria and his son Fernando laid out the new site for the house they decided to build next door to don Jesus room and build a wall enclosure. The first room on the west side of the existing room started in 1851. The floors for the two rooms were done and the wall was started. The first room was finished in October 2, 1851. an outside kitchen was built with a chimney. The roof was extended 20 feet beyond the outside wall of the 1851 room to the southwest corner of the wall. On top of that corner was a lookout perch. The top of the wall had cutouts there. The second room and walls were completed in May 10, 1854. The walled enclosure is 100 feet by 120 feet. A gate of cypress was on the north side of the wall. The roof beams were cypress or pine. These beams were floated down from upriver from somewhere around where around where the Pecos and Rio Grande rivers meet. An Inscription is written on one of the beams of the 1854 room which reads, "PAZ Y LIBERTAD OBREMOS".. Work for Peace and Liberty. This part of the house is known as "La Casa Larga," The Long House.

The walls are about 18 inches thick and 12 feet high. It had "Troneras" every 10 to 15 feet. Troneras are loop holes for firing muskets from the inside of the compound. With time, some of the troneras were covered but there are still 3 or 4 open. The room and walls were made of cantera stone. A sandstone that is very plentiful in the hills just east of San Ygnacio. The stone is about 2 feet under the soil and us in layers of 12 to 18 inches thick. By using wedges and pry bars, it could be broken off and shaped to the desired size. Most of the sandstone houses in San Ygnacio were built from the same quarry.

The roofs and floors were made from "chipichil," a mix of very fine river stones mixed with lime, cal in spanish. The lime was made of local materials. Stones, called caliche was found about 15 miles northeast of the ranch.

At the time that the walled fort was built, a sundial was set above the portals of the entrance gate. The sundial has a story that goes with it. Don Blas Maria and his family moved back to their new home in San Ygnacio in 1851. The fort was the first real stone house in San Ygnacio.  In the late 1800s and early 1900s, don Jose Dionicio made some additions to the fort. The kitchen in "la Casa Larga" was enclosed and a chimney added.  In 1856, don blas Maria's wife, doña Maria Juliana Treviño passed away. She was buried in the old cemetery that is on the north side of the arroyo Grullo, west of the existing Uribe cemetery on the high area of the river bank.

Don Blas Maria remarried and added another room to the fort for his new wife. The new room was built on the northeast side of the wall, next to the main gate. The inside walls had garden and floral murals painted about ten feet high all around the room. The house was to become known as "La Casa Pinta," the pink house. That house was completed in December 10, 1871. Two roof beams have writing on them. On one it has the date and "LA PAZ DE JESUCRISTO SEA CON NOSOTROS." "The Peace of Jesus Christ be with Us." On the other, "SAN YGNACIO, RUEGA POR NOSOTROS" "Saint Ignatius, pray for us."

Don Jose Dionicio and his wife lived in the fort with don Blas Maria. Don Jose Dionicio occupied "la Casa Larga" (rooms facing river)and don Blas Maria "la Casa Pinta." (room at far end on left)

In the late 1800s and early 1900s, don Jose Dionicio made some additions to the fort. The kitchen in "la Casa Larga" was enclosed and a chimney added.

In the early 1900s, don Jose Dionicio made additions to 'la Casa Pinta" Across the gate using the west wall of "el Cuarto Viejo" he built another kitchen with a large chimney built diagonally on the northwest corner.
Edited by Antonio E. Uribe, from story "San Ygnacio" by Roberto D.


Sundial . . . . This story is part of story of the Treviño/Uribe Fort.

At the time that the walled fort was built(possibly 1853), a sundial was set above the portals of the entrance gate. The sundial has a story that goes with it.
To tell the story you have to go back a few years to Revilla. Cosme Damian Martinez and his cousin, Jose villareal, as 13 year olds, were captured by the indians and taken north into Texas. After about ten days of traveling, they managed to escape. First, they traveled north guided by the north star to throw off the indians then south, traveling at night and hiding during the day. After traveling for days they reached Palafox, a small town north of Laredo. There they were nursed back to health and taken back to Revilla.

Jose never forgot the importance of the stars for directions. When he was older on one of his trips to the interior of Mexico, he saw a sundial set to point to the north star with an arrow in the center. He asked how it was done and learned all he could about making one. When don Blas Maria was building the fort, Jose asked don Blas Maria if he could make and set a sundial on the entrance. Jose was given permission to set the sundial. Jose made two stone blocks, polished on both sides with a small hole on the center for the iron arrow to be set. The hole was also used to set the stone on its final resting place on the mortar. The stone had to be set during the equinox. The equinox is when the sun is directly over the equator, which is either March 21 or September 23. The stone had to be set at night with the hole for the arrow pointing to the north star. The arrow was then set on the hole to read time. The sundial shows time on the north side in the summer and the south side in the winter except for 2 or 3 days during the year.

The original entrance to the fort was flat on top of the gate. The
round part was added by don Blas Maria to accommodate the sundial.

This was the monument that Jose Villareal made to the north star in appreciation for guiding him away from the indians and back to his home in Revilla.
The reason for Jose making 2 stones was in case one broke, he already had a second one ready. The second stone that was never used was wrapped in hides and buried in the fort grounds. To this day, it has never been found..
Antonio Uribe.


And now the memories of Roberto D. Uribe  . . . . . . . .   Introduction

I started thinking about writing this book when I was a youngster roaming the streets of San Ygnacio. Although my family lived in Laredo, I spent most of my summers with my aunts and uncles in San Ygnacio, sometimes staying in the old fort or in the house of my great-uncle, don Fernando Uribe. Most nights we would sit around listening to stories about the old days, of the beginning of the village of San Ygnacio. My great-grandmother, Olalla Gutierrez de Uribe, was still alive and she would tell us stories of our ancestors, going back to my Great-great- great-grandfathers don Jesus Treviño and don Vicente Gutierrez I. She still lived with my aunts in the old fort that was also know as la casa larga. One aunt lived with her in la casa larga which is parallel to the river and my other aunt lived in la casa pinta, just on the other side of the fort. Our great-grandmother, who was the first decedent of don Jesus Treviño to be born in San Ygnacio, loved to tell us stories, some true, some not so true, but all were most enjoyable. And since this was before electricity had been introduced to San Ygnacio, story telling was still a very important source of entertainment.

Because the summer nights in San Ygnacio were so hot, my brothers and I would often sleep outdoors with all our cousins. Sometimes we would spend the night in the balcony of don Fernando's house, or inside the yard of the old fort. I still remember sleeping in the fort yard, where we would awaken in the morning to the wonderful fragrance of the blooming jasmine bushes that my grandmother had planted next to the cocina vieja.

My mother, doña Esther Sanchez de Uribe, was raised in the old fort by her grandparents, don José Dionicio Uribe II and doña Olalla Gutierrez de Uribe. My mother and her four sisters went to live with her grandparents when my grandmother, doña Amada Uribe de Sanchez passed away when my mother was nine years old. Greatgrand-parents also had to raise two other granddaughters, the children from their other daughter, Maria Dolores Uribe de Sanchez who also passed away. .
As a young woman, mother wrote down many of the stories told by her grandparents and she continued to write stories and record the genealogy of our family into the 1980s. She always wanted to write this book but never seemed to have the time to put it together.

I have taken all my mother's notes and old papers she was keeping, and with the aid of the computer, I hope I will be able to assemble the story that she wanted to share with our family and all who might be interested in our town of San Ygnacio.
Among the papers in my mother's possession were: the 1827 order for the survey of the lower portion of Corralitos, which is part of the Vasquez Borrego land grant, for the purpose of the sale to don Jesus Treviño. The Alejandro Vidauri's will dated 1806. A partial bill of sale from Jose Alejandro Vidauri in what appears to be 1828. Don Jesus' inventory of all his belongings after his death, dated 1849. Doña Viviana Gutierrez Treviño's will. The Zapata County survey dated December 18, 1876. Don Fernando Uribe's will dated December 19, 1887. (Don Fernando's will was loaned by doña Margarita Sanchez de Uribe and her son Fernando E. Uribe), and the will of Don Blas Maria Uribe, dated May 23, 1894.

After reading other books on San Ygnacio, I realized that they did not have any of the above mentioned papers to back up their claims. Most of what has been written in the past has been based on what people found by investigating other sources or by word of mouth.  I am almost certain that someone will dispute what I have written, but I have most of *the documents to support my case, and it is my sincere belief that this will be the most accurate story of the town of San Ygnacio, Texas.
Roberto D. Uribe

"San Ygnacio Texas" is a story about a person buying land on the north side of the Rio Grande in 1828 and building a ranch house on the property for the protection against the indians and also to be used as a storage room. The room grew into a full sized fort and from there, the rancho named San Ygnacio became a town by the same name. It is also a story of the people that were touched by the growing of this town and their part in it. Some people will be named while others will not be. It was not my intention to exclude anybody but am writing stories that were told to me and some did not include names.
In 1828, don Jesus Treviño purchased approximately half of the Vasquez Borrego land grant. The township of San Ygnacio was to be built on this land grant by a few landowners and the workers they brought with them from Mexico. In the beginning, both the patrons and the workers had to endure the same hardships in this untamed land. The first signs of civilization was when Don Jesus erected the 
first stone building in 1830. This room with thick stone walls became the principal ranch quarters on this newly bought land.

The present day San Ygnacio is not to be confused with San Ygnacio viejo, "Old San Ygnacio," the older settlement established by the original owners of the land. That settlement, situated in the southwest corner of the Vasquez Borrego land grant failed in the late 1700s. The stones of those old houses can still be seen scattered where they once stood.
To understand the beginning of San Ygnacio, you have to go back in history to the mid 1700s when Mexico and all the southwest was known as New Spain and trace the principal names of the colonizers. Names like Treviño, Gutierrez de Lara, Uribe, and Benavides.

In 1746, don Jose Cayetano de Treviño was an established rancher in Sabinas Hidalgo. His son, don Juan Jose de Treviño joined don Vicente Guerra in Queretaro as part of a group chosen to colonize Nuevo Santander. Nuevo Santander in the 1700s was what is now the state of Tamaulipas in Mexico. With permission from don Jose de Escandon, don Vicente Guerra took families and established a vista or settlement on the banks of the Rio Grande and the Rio Salado. Don Jose de Escandon was governor and captain general of the state of Nuevo Santander. He was responsible for the first settlements along the Rio Grande between Laredo and Brownsville. Don Jose de Escandon was born in Spain in the year 1700.

Don Jose de Escandon granted don Vicente Guerra approximately 110,000 acres for the settlement which was founded in October of 1750 and was named San Ygnacio de Loyola de Revilla. The name was changed to Guerrero in the mid 1800s. The settlement grew and in 1757, the census showed about 60 families living in Revilla.

Don Juan Jose Treviño married doña Ana Gutierrez de Lara. A son, Don Jose de Jesus, was born in Revilla, became a successful business man and rose to alderman of Revilla. He married doña Maria Viviana Gutierrez de Lara.

The Gutierrez de Lara were successful ranchers in Sabinas Hidalgo and Monterrey. Don Santiago Gutierrez de Lara married doña Rosa Maria de Uribe. Don Santiago passed away in 1798 and doña Rosa passed away in 1816 in the township of Revilla. Two of their sons, Jose Antonio Apolinario Gutierrez de Lara Uribe, born in 1760, became a catholic priest working among the indians and Jose Bernardo Maximiliano born in 1776, was instrumental in Mexican Revolution for Independence from Spain. Don Jose Bernardo Maximiliano Gutierrez de Lara was named Colonel of the Insurgent Army of the North, was Hidalgo's Emissary to Washington D. C., was first President of the the First Republic of Texas (1814) and first Governor of Tamaulipas, Mexico, among others. Don Jose Bernardo died in 1841.

Don Vicente Gutierrez de Lara I, another son of don Santiago, married doña Olalla Gutierrez de Lara Villareal. Don Vicente II was born in 1807, the same year his father, Vicente I died. His sons, Blas Maria and Vicente II would be instrumental in the purchase of the Vasquez Borrego land together with don Jesus Treviño who was married to Maria Viviana Gutierrez de Lara, don Vicente I sister in law.

The Uribe family were also successful ranchers in Monterrey and Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon., Mexico. Among them was don Francisco Javier married to Maria Apolonia Bermudez in Monterrey. One of their daughters, Rosa Maria del Carmen married don Jose Santiago Gutierrez de Lara.

Don Jose Luis Francisco Uribe, Francisco Javier's son, married doña Magdalena Gutierrez de Lara. Among their children were Maria Josefa who married Jose Bernardo Maximiliano Gutierrez de Lara and Jose Dionicio Vicente, (Jose Dionicio I) married several times. First to Maria Josefa de la Peña, second to (no name given) Benavides and third to Maria Ignacia Gutierrez de Lara Villareal.

Don Blas Maria, born from the third marriage, was very instrumental in building of San Ygnacio.  To bring story of San Ygnacio we go back to the founding of the Dolores Vista on the Texas side of the Rio Grande and the mouth of the Arroyo Dolores. Don Jose Vasquez Borrego, owner of a large ranch, San Juan del Alamo, in Monclova, Coahuila was granted approximately 110,000 acres for starting the Vista at Dolores. The settlement started with about 15 families and in 1753, don Jose Vasquez Borrego was granted approximately 110,000 acres more. These 220,000 acres of land covered from the Arroyo Dolores to the present day Ramireño north fence and from the river approximately 40 miles to the northeast.

The settlement called Nuestra Señora de los Dolores, prospered and supplied a much needed ferry service across the river. After about 20 years and constant indian attacks, the village was abandoned. Don Jose Vasquez Borrego died and the land was split in two parts. The Dolores or northern portion was inherited by doña Manuela Borrego de Vidauri and the
southern or San Jose de Corralitos portion was inherited by don 
Jose Fernando Vidauri, grandson of don Jose Vasquez Borrego.

According to don Fernando's will dated November 20, 1806, he was deeply in debt and claimed Corralitos was given to him in the year 1766 by his grandfather don Jose Vasquez Borrego. In approximately 1808. don Fernando died and his sons, Alejandro, Fernando and Ildefonso put the lower portion of Corralitos land for sale. That portion is now known as the San Ygnacio Subdivision.

In 1827, don Jose de Jesus Treviño and his son in law and nephew, don Vicente (II) Gutierrez de Lara and his brother don Blas Maria decided to buy the lower portion of the Corralitos Ranch from the heirs of don Fernando Vidauri. They bought 110,000 acres. Don Jesus made a second purchase in 1828 of 60,980 acres giving him approximately 101,400 acres.

In 1830, don Jesus together with his two sons in law, Don Vicente Gutierrez (II) and don Manuel Benavides went looking for a place to to set up a ranch house for the new bought land. They found the place on the river banks of the Rio Grande and the Arroyo Grullo. A high flat spot area with the Rio Grande on the west and the Arroyo Grullo on the north. By building there, they would be protected on the north by the arroyo and on the west by the river. They would only have two sides that the indians could attack from. The ranch was called San Ygnacio.

Land was cleared and a room was built about 18 feet by 20 feet. The room was built of local stones, some from the river banks and some from the hills east of the ranch site. The walls of the room are about 18 inches thick. The floor is the natural dirt. The room had no windows and only one entrance, facing south. The door facing south is made of solid mesquite, about 2 inches thick. It has no metal nails or hinges. It is held together with wood dowels and wedges. The door swings on two mesquite heart pins resting on almendria stones. On the inside, it has a mesquite cross bar that slides into a hole in the stone... The door swings free to this date.

The room was made with a flat roof made of river trees and mesquite. On the southwest corner of the roof, there was a lookout perch. The roof has long been replaced but on the southeast corner of the wall, the stepping stones for the perch can be seen sticking out of the wall.

Outside of the door, two turrets were built. One on each side of the door. The turrets were about 5 feet tall with cutouts for firing the muskets. The turrets had an opening facing the door to be able to retreat into the room. The turrets were removed in approximately 1851 when more rooms were added to the building. Circular foundations for the turrets on the stone walk outside the door can still be seen. A compartment was built on the east wall of the room to keep what ever valuables they had. By removing a stone from the wall, there was a deep hole and this was the compartment. Today, this room is known as "El Cuarto Viejo" or just "El Cuarto."

Room in foreground was an addition in 1850. As you would follow to right are other room and open kitchen (finished 1854)(not seen)Kitchen was enclosed later. Following to left.. room between room in foreground and kitchen, is original room. Door seen was added much later. 

Only door the room had was opposite side (south). Kitchen follows (built early 1900s), entrance to interior of fort with rounded top section where sundial is. and last is room addition of 1871. At end, where  the man is sitting, was the house of M. M. Uribe, built later across the street from the fort.

The room or ranch house was used mainly for protection from the Indians and for Don Jesus to stay when visiting the ranch. Don Jesus and his family lived in Revilla and only visited to supervise the operation of the ranch. Workers cleared land around the ranch and built their jacales, "shacks", to live in. On the north side, between the ranch house and the arroyo, land was cleared and a log fence was built from the southwest corner of the ranch house about 100 feet, 90 degrees east about a hundred feet, 90 degrees north about 120 feet and then 90 degrees west to the northeast corner of the ranch house. The last part of the fence had a gate. When fort was finished, live stock were brought into the compound for protection during indian raids. This Story was told to doña Olalla Gutierrez de Uribe by her grand mother doña Olalla Gutierrez de Gutierrez.

When the cuarto was built, it was very hard times due to the constant Indian raids. The live stock had to be kept close to the compound during the raids. More land was cleared for planting seasonal crops like corn, squash and melons. The other thing that was done was to bring cactus from the other side of the river and plant it on the open range. The original purpose of the planting of the cactus is a puzzle but thru the years, especially the drought years, cactus has been a feed for the live stock.

Blas Maria Uribe and doña Maria Juliana Treviño were married 1832 and had six children, five boys and one girl. As they grew, the boys worked the ranch and later, don Blas Maria had specific assignments for each. Don Blas Maria and doña Juliana built their house in Guerrero The town of Revilla had the name changed to Guerrero. Don Blas Maria Uribe and doña Maria Juliana lived there for a few years. The house still stands in Old Guerrero. It has the name Blas Maria Uribe carved in its front door portal. Don Blas Maria kept that house until his death in 1895. Don Blas Maria continued to transport goods up and down the river. He and his wife, doña Maria Juliana became very active helping don Jesus run the ranch, San Ygnacio. Doña Maria Juliana became her father's Don Jesus, right hand in running the ranch. The son-in-law, don Blas Maria , would transport don Jesus' stock to sell in various parts of Mexico and Texas..

In 1843 on one of his trips to his other ranch, La Realdeña in Sabinas Hidalgo where his son lived, , don Jesus took sick and passed away.

Doña Maria Juliana inherited the ranch seat and 1/7 part of the land. Don Blas Maria bought two of his brother-in-law's parts.
In 1850, don Blas Maria Uribe and his family decided to move to the ranch. Don Blas Maria and his son Fernando laid out the new site for the house they built next door to don Jesus original room and also built a wall enclosure. The first room on the west side of the existing room started in 1851. The floors for the two rooms were done and the wall was started. The first room was finished in 1851. An outside kitchen was built with a chimney. The roof was extended 20 feet beyond the outside wall of the 1851 room to the southwest corner of the wall. On top of that corner was a lookout perch. The top of the wall had cutouts there. The second room and walls were completed in 1854. The walled enclosure is 100 feet by 120 feet. A gate of cypress was on the north side of the wall. The roof beams were cypress or pine. These beams were floated down from upriver from somewhere around where around where the Pecos and Rio Grande rivers meet. An Inscription is written on one of the beams of the 1854 room which reads, "PAZ Y LIBERTAD OBREMOS".. Work for Peace and Liberty. This part of the house is known as "La Casa Larga,"

The Long House.
The walls are about 18 inches thick and 12 feet high. It had "Troneras" every 10 to 15 feet. Troneras are loop holes for firing muskets from the inside of the compound. With time, some of the troneras were covered but there are still 3 or 4 open. The room and walls were made of cantera stone. A sandstone that is very plentiful in the hills just east of San Ygnacio. The stone is about 2 feet under the soil and us in layers of 12 to 18 inches thick. By using wedges and pry bars, it could be broken off and shaped to the desired size. Most of the sandstone houses in San Ygnacio were built from the same quarry. The roofs and floors were made from "chipichil," a mix of very fine river stones mixed  with lime, cal in Spanish.

At the time that the walled fort was built, a sundial was set above the portals of the entrance gate. The sundial has a story that goes with it.  To tell the story you have to go back a few years to Revilla. Cosme Damian Martinez and his cousin, Jose Villareal, as 13 year olds, were captured by the indians and taken north into Texas. After about ten days of traveling, they managed to escape. First, they traveled north guided by the north star to throw off the Indians then south, traveling at night and hiding during the day. After traveling for days they reached Palafox, a small town north of Laredo. There they were nursed back to health and taken back to Revilla.

Gate is entrance to yard.. Sundial is seen on top..  Right to left.. Carmen S. Benavidez, Rodolfo Sanches, half brother and 
Margarita S. Uribe..Carmen Passed away few years ago and Margarita passed away this year at 106 years. 

Jose never forgot the importance of the stars for directions. When he was older on one of his trips to the interior of Mexico, he saw a sundial set to point to the north star with an arrow in the center. He asked how it was done and learned all he could about making one. When don Blas Maria was building the fort, Jose asked don Blas Maria if he could make and set a sundial on the entrance. Jose was given permission to set the sundial. Jose made two stone blocks, polished on both sides with a small hole on the center for the iron arrow to be set. The hole was also used to set the stone on its final resting place on the mortar. The stone had to be set during the equinox. The equinox is when the sun is directly over the equator, which is either March 21 or September 23. The stone had to be set at night with the hole for the arrow pointing to the north star. The arrow was then set on the hole to read time. The sundial shows time on the north side in the summer and the south side in the winter except for 2 or 3 days during the year.

This was the monument that Jose Villareal made to the north star in appreciation for guiding him away from the indians and back to his home in Revilla.

The original entrance to the fort was flat on top of the gate. The round part was added by don Blas Maria to accommodate the sundial.

Don Blas Maria and his family moved back to their new home in San Ygnacio in 1851. The fort was the first real stone house in San Ygnacio. Before that there were jacales, shacks made of mesquite lumber by the workers.

In approximately 1854, don Vicente Gutierrez II built a house on the east side of the fort for his mother, doña Olalla Gutierrez de Gutierrez. In this house, Maria Olalla Gutierrez Treviño was born. She was the first descendant of don Jesus Treviño to be born in San Ygnacio. Maria Olalla was born in 1857. She was don Jesus grand daughter and the daughter of don Vicente Gutierrez II and doña Maria Trinidad Treviño de Gutierrez.

The house that don Vicente II built was the first church meeting place in San Ygnacio. Doña Olalla set one room aside for church services. Doña Olalla later sold the house to don Blas Maria and don Blas Maria gave the house to one of his sons, don Jose Maria Uribe. Don Jose Maria's daughters lived in that house until their death in the 1960s. The first dairy in San Ygnacio was run by doñas Simona and Rosita Uribe out of that house. That house is known today as "La casa de las tias Uribe." the house of the aunts Uribe (Uribe Aunts). It is actually a Gutierrez house. In 1849, don Vicente Gutierrez, his wife, doña Maria Trinidad, and their family built their house on their land about 3 miles north of the town (San Ygnacio). The Gutierrez house, known as San Francisco, also had troneras, loopholes, but made a little different than the troneras in the fort. The troneras in San Francisco are holes made in the mesquite beams. The house still stands with an additional house built approximately in the 1870s. In about 1870, a second house was built in San Francisco by don Vicente's son , don Antonio Gutierrez. That house still stands today. Later, don Antonio built another house in San Ygnacio. That house sits across from the Plaza on the west side.

The years of 1851 to the 1880s were rough and strenuous for don Blas Maria's son Fernando. The family was growing and they needed houses to live in. The ranch was now turning into a town. Don Fernando laid out the streets and the Plaza. He supervised the building of the fort for his father, don Blas Maria. He also designed his own home across from the fort. The house consisted of two large rooms and a porch facing the river. That part was completed in November, 1868.

After finishing that part of the house, he was again busy supervising the building of his aunt's, doña Maria Dionicia and don Manuel Benavidez house. The house was completed in 1872. That house is across from the fort on the north side. Next, he supervised the building of his brother Manuel Maria's house. It was completed in in 1873. That house is across from the fort on the northwest corner. He also supervised, at the same time, the building of his sister and brother-in-law's house, don Proceso Martinez and doña Maria de Jesus house which was completed in 1873. That house is diagonal from the fort on the northwest corner. The don Trinidad Uribe's house was the first two story house. It was completed in 1870.

In 1856, don blas Maria's wife, doña Maria Juliana Treviño passed away. She was buried in the old cemetery that is on the north side of the arroyo Grullo, west of the existing Uribe cemetery on the high area of the river bank.

Don Blas Maria remarried to doña Maria Tomasa Gutierrez Treviño. For her, don Blas Maria had another house added to the fort. The new house was built on the northeast side of the wall, next to the main gate. The inside walls had garden and floral murals painted about ten feet high all around the room. The house was to become known as "La Casa Pinta," the pink house. That house was completed in December 10, 1871. Two roof beams have writing on them. On one it has the date and "LA PAZ DE JESUCRISTO SEA CON NOSOTROS." "The Peace of Jesus Christ be with Us." On the other, "SAN YGNACIO, RUEGA POR NOSOTROS" "Saint Ignatius, pray for us."

On completion of La Casa Pinta, doña Maria Tomasa asked don Blas to build a church for the growing town. Don Blas Maria granted her the wish and donated the land, material and labor. The church was built by the same workers that had built La Casa Pinta. The church was completed in 1872. Don Blas Maria donated the church and grounds for the promotion of the catholic faith. Credit to the church should go to doña Maria Tomasa Gutierrez de Uribe. The church was to be named "San Ygnacio de Loyola" and a delegation was sent looking for a statue of the saint. None was found and "Nuestra Señora del Refugio" Our Lady of the Refuge, was brought instead so name was changed to "Nuestra Señora del Refugio.

By the 1870s there were hardly any more Indian raids. The town was growing. By 1878, there were about seven stone houses. and the jacales were being replaced with houses being built with the now available lumber. A lot of workers were given lots by don Blas Maria to build their own homes. By the 1880s, there were about 75 families living in San Ygnacio.

Don Fernando Uribe was very active in the building of houses and helping don Blas Maria run the business end of the ranch. Don Fernando was one of the first surveyors and tax collectors in Zapata County. Also, the first postmaster of San Ygnacio.

Don Fernando added a second story to the house and enclosed the patio in 1878. That house utilized the flat roof to collect rain water into a cistern.

Manuel Maria Uribe married doña Maria del Refugio Gutierrez and they had four children. Don Manuel Maria was very active helping don Blas Maria with the ranch. He was in charge of stores and supplies. Also being one of the first sheriffs of Zapata County.
Don Jose Trinidad Uribe marriage doña Francisca Garza. Their house, up the street from the fort on Uribe Street was built in 1870 by his brother don Fernando Uribe . It was the first 2 story house in San Ygnacio.

Don Trinidad also built a stone house across from the plaza on the northeast corner. It is now the post office in San Ygnacio. There he had a dry goods store until the early 1900s.

Don Jose Dionicio married doña Olalla Gutierrez, don Vicente's II youngest daughter. Don Jose Dionicio was a rancher and he was the one who helped his father, don Blas Maria in the ranch. He was the one that took the herds to market. He also ran the wagons to transport goods to and from Mexico for their own use and for sale in the area.

Don Jose Dionicio was also sheriff and tax collector of Zapata County. He and his wife lived in the fort with don Blas Maria. Don Jose Dionicio occupied "la Casa Larga" and don Blas Maria "la Casa Pinta." Don Jose Dionicio and doña Olalla with their family lived all their married life in the fort. Some stories here came from doña Olalla Gutierrez de Uribe as she told them to her daughters and grand daughters. Some of the stories were hand written by her grand daughter, Esther Sanchez Uribe as they were being told to her by doña Olalla.

In the late 1800s and early 1900s, don Jose Dionicio made some additions to the fort. The kitchen in "la Casa Larga" was enclosed and a chimney added. In one of the new walls. In one of the walls for the kitchen there is a steel crankshaft sticking out. Nobody knows the purpose for it but the origin of the crankshaft goes back to 1860.

The saying is that don Blas Maria was the only rancher to have open passage thru "La Kineña," the Kings Ranch. Captain King and don Blas had a mutual agreement. Don Blas Marias herds could pass thru Kings land and captain Kings herds and wagon trains could go thru Uribe land. At the time the river was very wide and navigable with flat boats. Captain King used to keep a river boat tied to the banks of the river just across from the fort, with permission from don Blas Maria. The riverboat was used to transport cattle and dry goods or cotton to Brownsville or even to New Orleans. During a very heavy storm the boat was destroyed. Parts from the boat were around the fort for the longest time. The part that is on the wall is the crank that used to turn the paddlewheel.

In the early 1900s, don Jose Dionicio made additions to 'la Casa Pinta" Across the gate using the west wall of "el Cuarto Viejo" he built another kitchen with a large chimney built diagonally on the northwest corner. Doña Olalla had seen a chimney built on the corner on San Antonio during one of her trips there. The chimney used to be open all the way to the floor. but in approximately 1909, one of her granddaughters crawled inside the fireplace. That very same day, with the help of one of the "barrileros", water carriers, named Pablo Garza Salas, "Chino Salas" for short, they built the bottom of the fireplace to the present height.

Don Jose Maria married Benita Martinez. He helped his father, don Blas Maria, in the operation of the ranches and was responsible for moving cattle from one ranch to the other. Don Jose Maria and his family lived in don Vicente Gutierrez I house after his father, don Blas Maria Uribe bought it from doña Olalla Gutierrez de Gutierrez.

Don Proceso Martinez I was a very successful business man. He had had stores in Laredo and Guerrero. He moved to San Ygnacio in 1869 and married the señorita Maria de Jesus Uribe. He built and taught in the first schoolhouse in San Ygnacio. He opened a store, brought the first kerosene lamps and steel plows to San Ygnacio. He was one of the first successful cotton ranchers in Zapata county. He operated the store until the early 1900s.

Doña Maria de Jesus Uribe Martinez passed away in 1886 and was buried in the Uribe cemetery.

After his daughter was buried, don Blas Maria told the people at the Uribe cemetery, "the day that my daughter, Maria Josefa de Jesus was married, I lost half of my life. Today that we buried her I lost the other half. From this day on, I do not exist and as far as anybody is concerned, I have died." From the cemetery, he went home to the fort, packed his belongings, and left to his ranch, "San Jose del Barrosito," with the intention of never to return to San Ygnacio But he did return to the town he was very instrumental in building. Don Blas Maria Uribe I passed away in the year of our Lord 1895 and was brought back to San Ygnacio to be buried close to his wife, doña Maria Juliana Treviño de Uribe, his daughter, doña Maria de Jesus Uribe de Martinez, and his second wife, doña Tomasa Gutierrez de Uribe. He was brought back after he passed away in one of his ranches.

When don Blas Maria Uribe I passed away bells tolled for three days in San Ygnacio in his honor. The town had lost a very important citizen.

There are conflicting stories of where he died. Some say he died in "San Jose del Barrocito" and others say he died in "El Ranchito" Ranch.
Don Proceso martinez I died in 1934. His son Proceso II took over store and ranch management. He was also a very successful cotton farmer way into the 40s in his ranch on "Casa Verde"

By the late 1800s, there were many self employed people. Some would cut, gather and sell firewood to the towns people. Others worked as "barrileros" and would supply the town with water. By taking a set of wagon wheels and attaching two wooden rails as support for a wooden barrel laying flat with a spout on the back side at the bottom. The rails were also used to hitch the mule to. The barrel was tied down with rawhide and a square hole on top between the steel bands. The same wood cut for the hole was tied together and used as a lid. On the back of the rails stuck out long enough to hand up two shortening buckets with handles. The top of the bucket was cut off and a wire handle installed. The barrileros would go down the river shallows, drive into the river until the water was up to the hubs of the wheels. Then he would get on all fours, still on top of the wagon , and scoop river water with one of the buckets and fill the barrel thru the square hole on top. He would then go to town and deliver barrel of water. When one of the barrels of water at home was empty, a barrel of water was ordered. By having two barrels it gave the newly filled time to settle before it was used. When delivering the water, the barrilero would fill one bucket and when full, a second bucket was placed on the spigot to fill while the first was emptied and this procedure continued until all the water was emptied into the barrel in the house. Some of the barrileros in the 1940s were Amador Pruneda, Pablo (El Chino) Garza Salas, Daniel Garza, and David Gutierrez to name a few..

At the time and up until the 40s, the river water was clean. It was used for drinking and cooking without fear of contamination
In 1894, Don Blas Maria made his will at his ranch. He left everything in order by spelling out how everything was to be divided. He left everything to his six children or their heirs to be divided equally and peacefully among themselves with the exception of the farm called "San Julian" that he left to his son don Manuel Maria and a house that was in need of repairs, don Blas Maria left to his son don Jose Maria. Don Blas named his 4 sons and don Erasmo Uribe to represent the deceased son, don Fernando and don Proceso Martinez to represent the deceased doña Maria de Jesus Uribe Martinez. If by circumstances all six could not get together, a majority of 4 could act as trustees to divide the property. If a majority of 4 was to be used, one of the 4 had to be his son don Manuel Maria.

Don Blas Maria divided his main ranch of 25,000 acres into 18,000 to be divided 6 ways leaving 7000 acres for "San Jose del Barrosito" ranch for his disposal or to be divided later. He divided another 18,000 acres that he had inherited from his first wife, doña Maria Juliana, six ways, in most cases saying where the boundaries were to be. Another 6,000 acres in the town site with river frontage, don Blas Maria appointed his sons, don Jose Dionicio and don Jose Maria to distribute 6 ways so that all 6 parts were equal in value.

At the end of the will, don Blas Maria mentioned that he had given his daughter, doña Jesusita, some land called "Los Camotes" and was to be for her heirs, not part of the divided portions.

The execution of the will was carried out in 1896 with the exception of the division of the fort. This was done in 1897. Don Jose Dionicio, already living in the fort since 1873, bought the other 5 parts of the fort and became sole owner.

The times in the 1800s were very good for ranchers. The demand for good horses , mules and cattle were growing. The development of the american farm made great demand for mules and horses. With all the new machines being developed for the use of farming using mules, it was very good business to raise mules.

Raising beef was still the most paying. The ranchers also raised sheep, goats and hogs. These were raised mainly for their own use. Some of the wool was sold but most was held back and used for making their own quilts. Goats were a good source food. They multiplied fast and provided milk, cheese and meat. Having no way to keep fresh food for long times, goats were small enough to butcher and use fast. Some of the meat was preserved by making it into "carne seca" or jerky. The goats milk was preserved a little longer by boiling it and some of the milk was used to make cheese and that would keep for long periods of time. One other point worth mentioning is that goats would withstand the dry seasons or droughts better than any other animal. When times were slim, you always had the goats to pull you thru.

From the sheep, wool was provided to make quilts or to sell. To make quilts, the wool was washed and softened. After the wool was washed, it was placed in a large clean area to dry. After it was dry, it was softened by beating it with a long stick, usually a long straight, clean dry jara from the river. You beat the wool over and over until it was soft and fluffy. This job was usually done by young boys and supervised by an older lady to keep the boys from spreading the wool all over and to give the word when it was ready. After it was softened, it was put in sacks for storage. Some of the wool was left out for making quilts. To prepare the wool for quilting, it had to be combed into thin squares. To do that, you tool a pair of "cardas," wool cards. They are two wooden rectangles about 3 inches by 8 inches with handles in the middle of the 8 inches and have hundreds of short pins about 3/8ths of an inch long sticking out on one side of the 3 inch by 8 inch side. You place a small amount of wool between the "cardas" and pull the "cardas" against each other in the same direction. When the "cardas" are full of smooth wool, then you go in the reverse direction only to pull the wool off the pins in the cardas. Now you remove the 3 by 8 combed rectangle and stack it for later use. You repeat this process until you have enough rectangles to cover a quilt by putting the rectangles side by side . Remember that this was your batting in those years.

To start a quilt, a rack was setup with a set width and adjustable length. A nice looking cloth was picked and put on the rack with the length shortened, squares of wool were placed on the cloth with overlapping layers to the thickness wanted. Another cloth was placed over the wool and sewn to the bottom cloth. A pattern was marked on the top cloth and women would sew the two cloths together. After that was sewn, the rack was extended another short length. This process was repeated until the quilt was done.
Quilts was a pastime and means of women getting together in the evenings. Women would spend lots of evenings making one quilt. It was also a way to keep up with what was going on in the town.

Raising pigs was good in many ways because pork was easy to preserve. After butchering a pig, the blood was saved for use later. After using boiling water on the skin, it was shaved of all the hair. It was skinned and the skin in small pieces and the fat was placed in a large vat, cast iron pot with a fire under it. The fat was brought to a boiling point , the skin was removed from the vat and let the skin cool down. This are called chicharrones, pork rinds. The meat was then placed in the vat with the boiling fat, some chile powder was added and partially cooked. After this phase, the meat and the fat were placed in a barrel and left to cool down and turn to thick lard. The meat inside the thick lard would keep for a long time as long as the air did not touch it. As the meat was needed, it was pulled out with a steel hook one piece at a time. The lard with the chile was also used as a starter when they cooked the food. The innards were cleaned and sometimes made into blood sausage called "Murcilla" The head was usually used to make tamales and some of the meat could be made into "chorizo," sausage. By using the tripe and washing it over and over until it was very thin and it was blown up as a balloon and let dry. This was the skin that was filled up with the chorizo mixture. Chorizo was meat mixed with lots of spices, chile and vinegar. The dried tripe was filled with the mixture and tied every 4 to 6 inches and left to dry for week or two. The tying made into links and when ready, they would use as many links as needed. The dried "chorizo" would keep for a long time.

((The Last Chapter.. Bob did not finish the book.  Not knowing what Bob's intentions were, I added nothing to it..
 I have edited his writings for easier reading but not his thoughts or intentions) ..... .Antonio E. Uribe

As for my contributions:  I will relate some stories by my great-grandmother, Mama Olayita.. This were bedtime stories during our stay in San Ygnacio and sleeping in the corralon (inside the fort walls) Some of this stories took place in San Francisco, her father's property but feel they merit mentioning here. Indian Stories.. When San Francisco was just getting started when they had trouble with indian raids and indians destroying the crops. A second indian tribe would come and ask don Vicente for food which he gave them crops as well as cattle. sheep and goats. When raids from first tribe continued, he sent someone to talk to the Indian chief and made a deal with him, Don Vicente would plant equal crops of corn squash melons and other crops ant when ready, he sent word to chief that crops were ready to harvest, Chief would send a scout and don Vicente would show scout which was his crop and which was Indians. Indians would settle on their section and when they left, ground was bare but don Vicente's was not touched. When Indians were on war path, Chief would send a scout and tell Vicente so people had to defend themselves but came next season, everything was back to original agreement...

Story about of the wedding of the Indian Chiefs daughter in San Francisco...
Mama Olayita related this story as an event that happened one summer when the Indians came to gather their share of the crop that her father don Vicente Gutierrez planted for them... She said the ceremony lasted three days and there were dances and events during all that time... She said she was very young when this took place and couldnt remember more than this...

About he Confederates and Union Armies during the Civil War.. San Francisco.
On different occasions, they were visited by units of both Union and Confederate armies.. She said, the Union captain would ask for food and always paid for what they took.. be it chickens. pigs or cattle while the Confederacy soldiers would chase pigs or chicken and confiscate them.. One time that the Union soldiers were there, don Vicente was given 72 hours to move his belongings to the Mexican side... During that time, everything was moves except a heavy peice of furniture which was tied down to a tree.. On the last trip, don Vicente placed each of his two youngest daughters, one being mama Olayita, on his shoulders and started walking across the river.. Reaching deep water, he started to swim standing up using his feet only to propell him.. The milk cows would cross the river to the mexican side in the afternoon but crossed over to the Texas side to pasture during the day... When they returned to the Texas side, they ropero tied to the tree was still there and in good condition..

The Stars at night.. When we slept outside inside the Fort.
Most nights, the sky was clear and the statrs were visible.. She would point out stars and name them.. This was the story for the night.. El carro grande y el carro chico y la estrella del norte....The big and little dippers and the north star.. Las tres Marias (Three Marys) a group of three stars in an arch, the center one a little higher then the others and all with different magnitudes of brilliance.. La estrella de la mañana o "el lucero" .. The morning star.. El camino del patron Santiago.. The Milky Way.. There were so many she would name.. Some of us would fall asleep as she pointed the stars out.. Other names I vaguely remember.. "el Perro" "el Buey" "el Flechero" (the dog, the ox, the archer)

About don Vicente Gutierrez, Mama Olayitas father..
In his  story, Bob mentioned he was a man that was 6"3" tall.. he did not mention his stregnth... Don Vicente's property had a big stone as one of the markers.. Mama Olayita said it took 6 men to lift the stone.. Tata Vicente was able to lift it and set it on his knees...

Another story about tata Vicente... One time, oxen were pulling a cart on a steep incline. One of the oxen laid down for he could pull no more.. Don Vicente told the men to unhitch the fallen ox.. "What are you going to do" they asked him.. "Voy a ayudarle al otro buey" (going to help the other ox) he answered He took off his vest and placing it on the yoke helped the other ox make the climb. Mama Olayita used to say her father had vast stregnth.





Biografia de Marcos F. Hernandez, El Hero de Palacio Nacional
por Carlos Alberto Bautista Ramos
Genealogía de Nochistlán Antiguo Reino de la Nueva Galicia
Families of Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, May 2013, Volume 4, by Crispin Rendon

Investigación genealógica de Tte. Corl. Intdte. Ret. Ricardo Raúl Palmerín Cordero:
La Familia de Don Joseph Joachin de Ecay y Musquiz
Para mis hermanos del Héroico Colegio Militar
Bautismo del General Sinaloense Rafael Buelna
Registro de bautismo de María del Carmen Anacleta Goribar Múzquiz:
El registro eclesiástico de la defunción del Señor General de División
Don Pedro Ampudia
Bautismo de Benito Luis Narciso Juárez Maza






Ofrendó su vida para salvar al presidente Francisco I. Madero

Por Carlos Alberto Bautista Ramos  
18 de febrero de 2013


Marcos Fortino Hernández González, En traje de charro.

Colección Marcelo J. Madero Hernández.

El ingeniero, Marcos Fortino Hernández González nació en la ciudad de Monterrey, Nuevo León, el 12 de agosto de 1871, es bautizado el 7 de noviembre del mismo año en la parroquia de La Purísima Concepción de Monterrey, Nuevo León. Sus padres fueron el licenciado José Antonio Víctor Hernández Benavides y Ana María Librada de los Dolores González Treviño. Tuvo por hermanos a María Luisa, Antonio José, Rafael Lorenzo, Ricardo Dionisio, Aurelio Tereso, Lorenzo Luis, Octavio Melesio, Pilar Margarita, Ana Rosario, Eva Andrea y Abel Valentín Hernández González. Por su línea paterna era tío de Francisco Ignacio Madero González y por la materna era su primo hermano. Marcos Fortino realizó estudios en el extranjero y se recibió de ingeniero agrónomo. A principios del siglo XX se dedicó a la investigación y cultivo del Guayule. Se parecía físicamente a su primo Francisco I. Madero, gozando de su amistad y de su confianza, también simpatizó con sus ideas y sus actividades políticas acompañándolo en algunos de sus recorridos de campaña. Marcos se casó con su prima hermana María Elena González Sada, ella nació en 1886 en Mapimí, Durango, y era hija de José Mario Cesario González Treviño y de María de la Concepción Tomasa Sada Muguerza. Marcos y Elena tuvieron dos hijas: la primera que murió siendo muy pequeña se llamaba María Elena y la segunda que nació en 1911 se llamaba María de la Luz. Al triunfo de la revolución su hermano el licenciado Rafael Lorenzo Hernández González es designado Ministro de Fomento y de Gobernación en el gabinete de su primo el presidente Madero. Como a la una de la tarde del martes 18 de febrero de 1913 se encontraba en el Palacio Nacional de la ciudad de México en compañía del presidente Madero y de los miembros del gabinete cuando irrumpió en el lugar un grupo de soldados traidores que llevaban la intención de arrestar al presidente, como Madero y sus oficiales opusieron resistencia, entonces los soldados dispararon sus armas contra ellos, Marcos al ver que la vida de su primo Madero estaba en peligro interpuso su cuerpo entre los agresores y el presidente recibiendo parte de la descarga por lo que cayó herido de muerte, la bala que lo mató pegó en unas monedas que traía en su chaleco y se le incrustó en el hígado. Tal parece que algunos de los presentes lo trataron de auxiliar pero resultó en vano. El cuerpo de Marcos quedó ahí abandonado en el salón hasta que su hermano Rafael Lorenzo solicitó permiso para recogerlo y arreglar su funeral. Durante muchos años se pudo ver la mancha que dejó su sangre en la alfombra. Fue sepultado en el Panteón Español de la ciudad de México. La acción oportuna y heroica de Marcos permitió que la vida de Madero se prolongara otros días más. Su viuda María Elena González Sada y su hija María de la Luz Hernández González partieron al exilio hacia los Estados Unidos en compañía de varios de sus familiares y regresaron muy pobres a México teniendo que trabajar para poder subsistir. María Elena enfermó de embolia cerebral y murió en la ciudad de México en 1962 siendo sepultada junto a su esposo.  


Monedas de Marcos que fueron atravesadas por la bala el 18 de febrero de 1913.  
Colección Marcelo J. Madero Hernández.

   Agradezco a Marcelo J. Madero Hernández (q.e.p.d.)  y a su hijo Diego Marcelo Madero Ibarrola por haberme compartido su información y sus documentos familiares.

Colección Marcelo J. Madero Hernández.
“Relación de la familia Madero”, Carlos B. Madero, 1973.
Registros parroquiales de La Purísima Concepción de Monterrey, Nuevo León.
Registros parroquiales de San Fernando, Mapimí, Durango.


Genealogía de Nochistlán Antiguo Reino de la Nueva Galicia
en el Siglo XVII según sus Archivos Parroquiales by José Luis Vázquez y Rodríguez de Frías
100 Chapters, 500 pages, 6500+ name Index, 40 trees, 50 signatures, baptisms, confirmations, marriages, wills, dispensations, statistics, deaths, padrinos, testigos, dates, half of book in paleography of the original documents, 5 years of research, a MUST for the genealogist who wants to go into the XVII century in the Nochistlán Area (Jalos, Tepa, Aguscalientes, Mesticacan, etc.) Based on the census of 1649 and 1664 published for the first time (the originals have been "misplaced" at the Sagrada Mitra). With the collaboration of top genealogists Mary Lou Montagna, José Alfonso Rodríguez de Carbajal (historiador de Mesticacán), Consuelo Domínguez, and others (+). Only 300 copies to be printed in the first edition. Tentative price $50.00 plus 5.00 shipping in the US and Méjico.

Reserve your copy or put yourself on the list. Complete this form and send to Connie Domínguez or Mary Lou Montagna or call him at 011 52 1 615 3924 in Juárez, Méjico.

Lista de Pobladores del Valle de Nochistlán según los Padrones de 1649 y 1664
y demás Información Tratados en Capítulos en esta Obra.

Capítulo 1 Descendencia de Mari Gómez española viuda de Miguel Rodríguez
Capítulo 2 Descendencia de Juan Ximón Durán y Regina de Aguayo
Capítulo 3 Descendencia de Diego de Aguayo e Ysabel Beatris de Vergara Arzaga
Capítulo 4 Descendencia de Diego de Salazar y Melchora de los Reyes
Capítulo 5 Descendencia de Catalina Cortés viuda de Juan de Moscoso y Sandobal el Viejo
Capítulo 6 Descendencia de Diego de Moscoso Sandoval y María Delgadillo o Rodríguez de Carvajal
Capítulo 7 Descendencia de Juan Lozano y Josepha Vázquez de Sandobal
Capítulo 8 Descendencia de Diego González de Isla y Cecilia Vázquez o de Sandoval
Capítulo 9 Descendencia de Antonio de Belasco y Beatriz de Amaya
Capítulo 10 Descendencia de Gerónimo de Aránbulo

Capítulo 11 Descendencia de Juan Méndez de Ávila y María Rodríguez de la Mora
Capítulo 12 Descendencia de Juan de Rentería e Ysabel de Calderón Orozco
Capítulo 13 Descendencia de Juan Delgadillo y María de la Concepción de Islas
Capítulo 14 Descendencia de Pedro Martín y Juana González
Capítulo 15 Descendencia de Juan Rodríguez de Frías y Jertrudis de Amaya
Capítulo 16 Descendencia de Melchora de los Reyes Rodríguez de Carbajal viuda de Luis Delgadillo
Capítulo 17 Descendencia de Juan Diego de Morones e Ysabel de Bellocillo o Delgadillo
Capítulo 18 Descendencia de Juan Yáñez del Monte y María de Medinilla
Capítulo 19 Descendencia de Gerónimo González de Aramburu y Elvira de Carabajal

Capítulo 20 Descendencia de Juan de Estrada y Catalina Rodríguez de la Mora
Capítulo 21 Descendencia de Juan de Chávez Salguero y Francisca de Siordia
Capítulo 22 Descendencia de Gerónima de Benavides viuda de Francisco de Páez
Capítulo 23 Descendencia de Juana de Lomelín viuda de Rodrigo de Carbajal y Ullóa
Capítulo 24 Descendencia de María de Benavides viuda de Carlos Lomellini
Capítulo 25 Descendencia de Diego Hernández y Mariana Ýñiguez
Capítulo 26 Descendencia de Juan de Carbajal y Ullóa y Jacinta de Oliva
Capítulo 27 Descendencia de Lorenzo Yáñez y María Rodríguez de la Mora
Capítulo 28 Descendencia de Domingo de Lomelín y Juana de Mendoza
Capítulo 29 Descendencia de Lucas de Lomelín y Antonia Mazías

Capítulo 30 Descendencia de Lorenzo Mexía viudo de Inés de Estrada
Capítulo 31 Descendencia de Martín López y Elvira de Carvajal
Capítulo 32 Descendencia de Francisco Básques y Andrea Cortés
Capítulo 33 Descendencia de Bernardo de Ysla y María o Mariana Catharina de Sandoval
Capítulo 34 Descendencia de Luis Delgadillo el mozo y Cata de Yslas
Capítulo 35 Descendencia de Nicolás Mexía y Elvira de Yslas
Capítulo 36 Descendencia de Matheo de Rubalcava y Ana de Yslas
Capítulo 37 Descendencia de Juo de Estrada y Juana de Siordia
Capítulo 38 Descendencia de Nicolás Rodríguez (de Frías e Ýñiguez) y Antonia de Híjar y Mesa
Capítulo 39 Descendencia de Sebastián Ýñiguez y María de Messa

Capítulo 40 Descendencia de Nicolás Íñigues y María de Ullóa
Capítulo 41 Descendencia de Nicolás Carrillo y Agustina Ximénez
Capítulo 42 Descendencia de Matheo Pérez de Frías y Thomasa de la Cruz
Capítulo 43 Descendencia de Lorenzo de Rubalcava y Catalina González
Capítulo 44 Descendencia de Juan de Aguayo y Catalina de la Cruz o de Salas
Capítulo 45 Descendencia de Juo de Sandoval y Madalena Gonsález
Capítulo 46 Descendencia de Diego de Aguayo el viejo e Ysabel de Silva
Capítulo 47 Descendencia de Alonso Martín Bermejo e Isabel Pérez de Gardéa
Capítulo 48 Descendencia de Juan de la Cruz Bermejo y Andrea González de la Besares
Capítulo 49 Descendencia del Capitán Juan Lozano e Inés Martínez

Capítulo 50 Descendencia de Pedro Hernández y de Antonia Delgadillo
Capítulo 51 Descendencia de Esteban de Tejeda y Luisa Delgadillo o Bellocillo
Capítulo 52 Descendencia de Antonio de Aguayo y Luisa de Islas
Capítulo 53 Descendencia de Benito o Bernardino de Ysla y Magdalena de la Besares
Capítulo 54 Descendencia de Juan Rodríguez de la Mora e Ysabel Delgadillo
Capítulo 55 Descendencia de Juan de la Cruz y María de Gabáy
Capítulo 56 Descendencia de Nicolás de Venavides y Ana de Santiago o Pérez o González
Capítulo 57 Descendencia de Diego de Benavides y Juana Delgadillo
Capítulo 58 Descendencia de Martín Navarro y Petronila de Moctezuma
Capítulo 59 Descendencia de Descendencia de Jerónimo de Benavides y Catalina Cortés

Capítulo 60 Descendencia de Pedro Cortés Natural de los Reinos de Castilla
Capítulo 61 Descendencia de Andrés de Cuevas y María de Benavides
Capítulo 62 Descendencia de Diego Sánchez Carranza y Ana Muñoz
Capítulo 63 Descendencia de Juan de Sepúlveda el Viejo y Magda Rodríguez o López
Capítulo 64 Ascendencia de Doña Antonia de Híjar y Mesa
Capítulo 65 Descendencia de Nicolás de Navarrete y Argote y Beatriz de Villegas Barrientos o Bracamonte
Capítulo 66 Descendencia de Bernardo González Domínguez y María Florençia Yáñez
Capítulo 67 Descendencia de Antonio Ýñiguez y Jacinta de Cuevas
Capítulo 68 Descendencia de Pedro González y María de Frías
Capítulo 69 Descendencia de Matheo de Rubalcava y Cecilia Vázquez de Isla

Capítulo 70 Descendencia de Gonzalo Yáñez del Monte y Gerónima de Benavides
Capítulo 71 Descendencia de Juan del Castillo e Ysabel de Rojas
Capítulo 72 Descendencia del Capitán Don Diego de las Marinas y Luisa de Aguayo
Capítulo 73 Descendencia de Luis de Medina Baldivia y María de Siordia
Capítulo 74 Descendencia de Diego Ximénez y Catarina de Arellano
Capítulo 75 Descendencia de Juan Ýñiguez y Andrea Cortés
Capítulo 76 Descendencia de Miguel Rodríguez de Cuevas
Capítulo 77 Descendencia de Francisco González Martínez y Magdalena de la Besares
Capítulo 78 Rodrigo de Frías Conquistador de Cíbola
Capítulo 79 Descendencia de Hernando de Frías

Capítulo 80 Los Pérez de Frías o Pérez Burgeño o Pérez Espinoza de Santa María de los Lagos a Principios del Siglo XVII - Descendencia de Juan Pérez de Frías y María López de Elizalde
Capítulo 81 Descendencia de Juan López de Elizalde y Aberruza y de Leonor Becerra y Sánchez de Mendoza
Capítulo 82 Descendencia de Juan Pérez de Frías y Ana o María López
Capítulo 83 Descendencia de Sebastián Pérez de Frías y la India de Tlaltenango Magdalena de Bobadilla
Capítulo 84 Descendencia de Diego Morán y Luisa Delgadillo
Capítulo 85 Descendencia de Ysidro de Araujo Guerrero y Beatriz Burgeño Pérez o López
Capítulo 86 Descendencia de Juan Rodríguez de Carbajal y Josepha de Frías o Delgadillo
Capítulo 87 Sumario de los Juan Pérez de Frías
Capítulo 88 Los Frías de Tlaltenango
Capítulo 89 Los Frías de Zacatecas

Capítulo 90 Descendencia de Nicolás Rodríguez de Frías y Torres y de Phelipa de Santiago Valdivia
Capítulo 91 Descendencia de Joséf Cristóbal Rodríguez de Frías y Valdivia y María Juana Gertrudis Martín
Capítulo 92 Descendencia de Juan Joséf María Rodríguez de Frías y María Manuela Gertrudis de Anda
Capítulo 93 Descendencia de Jossé Guadalupe Rodríguez de Frías e Ysabel de los Dolores Casillas y Cabrera
Capítulo 94 Descendencia de José Feliciano Rodríguez de Frías y María Marcelina Gallo Romo  de Vivar
Capítulo 95 Descendencia de Cristóbal Rodríguez de Frías y María Sostenes Limón López
Capítulo 96 Descendencia de Anastasio F Rodríguez de Frías y Fortunata Contreras
Capítulo 97 Descendencia de Miguel Pedro Rodríguez de Frías y María Asunción Gallardo
Capítulo 98 Descendencia de Prisciliano Rodríguez de Frías y Emerenciana Guajardo
Capítulo 99 Descendencia de Ramón Rodríguez de Frías y Delfina Franco
Capítulo 100 Ascendencia de Arturo Vázquez y León

Apéndice 1 Lista de Registros Parroquiales en Microfilm por la Academia de Genealogía y Heráldica Mejicana y la Iglesia de los Santos de los Últimos Días Utilizados en Esta Obra

Apéndice 2 Padrón del partido de Nochistlán y sus subjetos, estansias, pobladores y Ranchos Fho en 20 de Septiembre de 1649

Apéndice 3 Padrón de las personas de Confessión y Comon de este partido de Nochistlán deste año de 1664

Apéndice 4 Extractos del Segundo Ynterrogatorio General para La Bissita deste Reyno que sale el Señor Licenciado don Juo Dávalos y toledo del cono del Rey Nto Sor Oydor de la Rl Audia de Guadalajara

Apéndice 5 Lista Parcial de Alcaldes y Tenientes de Alcalde de la Jurisdicción de Nochistlán y Lares Cercanos
Índice de Figuras, Figuras, Firmas

Contact: Connie Dominguez, or Mary Lou Montagna,
Sent by: John P. Schmal,  and
John Inclan

Families of Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. May 2013, Volume 4, 356pp. By Crispin Rendon 


Don Joseph Joachin de Ecay y Musquiz

Investigación genealógica de Don Joseph Joachin de Ecay y Musquiz hijo del Peninsular y genearca de esta familia, 
Fundador de Presidios General Don Joseph Antonio de Ecay y Musquiz 
Por Tte. Corl. Intdte. Ret. Ricardo Raúl Palmerín Cordero  

Don Joseph Joachin  era  hijo del genearca de esta familia  el peninsular  General  Don Joseph Antonio de Ecay y Musquiz fundador de Presidios, otra de sus hijas  Doña Juana Ecay y Musquiz  se casó con el también ultramarino  Don Bartolomé Torralba, antepasados de mi esposa Sra. Gloria Martha Pérez Tijerina de Palmerín.

 Matrimonio de Don Joseph Joachin.  

En la Villa de Santiago de la Monclova en beinte días del mes de Febrero de mil setecientos y treinta y cinco años. Vele infacie eclesie a Dn. Joseph Joachin de Ecay y Musquiz con Da. Mariana de la Garza aviendose el dicho casado por poder que dio al Capitan Dn. Miguel de la Garza el día treinta de Octubre del año próximo pasado. Aviendo presedido todas las diligencias dispuestas por el Santo Concilio de Trento y a la celebrazion de dicha velación fueron testigos los Capitanes Dn. Pedro de Rivera Ygnacio Guerra y Dn. Joachin de Urrutia quien fue padrino con Da. Maria Candelaria de la Garza. y para que conste lo firme. Joseph Flores.

Registros de los bautismos de  sus hijas nacidas en la Villa de la Monclova.

1.- 22 de Noviembre de 1735, Juana Antonia Martina a quien por necesidad antes se le administró el Santo Baptismo fueron padrinos Don Blas de la Garza y Doña Beatriz de Villarreal. Br. Joseph Flores.

2.- 8 de Noviembre de 1739, Juana Xaviera Narciza, de ocho días de nacida fueron padrinos Don Bartolome de Torralba y Da. Juana de Ecay Musquiz. Br. Joseph Flores.

Registros  de los bautismos de sus hijos nacidos en  el Real Presidio del Santísimo Sacramento  Cd.  M. Múzquiz, Coah.

1.- 12 de Diciembre de 1740, María Guadalupe Antonia. Española  de ocho días de nacida, fueron sus padrinos  Don Joseph de Abrego y Doña Juana Hernandez. Br. Carlos Sanchez de Zamora.

2.- 6 de Enero de 1742, Joseph Antonio.  Español  de ocho días de nacido fueron sus padrinos Don Clemente de la Garza y Doña Manuela Guerra Cañamar. Br. Carlos Sanchez de Zamora.

3.-3 de Mayo de 1744, Blas Maria. Español  de ocho días de nacido fueron sus padrinos  Don Clemente de la Garza y Doña Manuela Guerra su esposa. Br. Carlos Sanchez de Zamora.

4.-26 de Octubre de 1746, Lucas Francisco. Español  fueron sus padrinos Don  Miguel de la Garza y Doña Phelipa Rosa de Castro. Br. Carlos Sanchez de Zamora.

5.- 17 de Marzo de 1748, Joseph Maria. Español de ocho días de nacido fueron sus padrinos Don Pablo Mauricio de la Garza y Doña Phelipa Rosa Martinez. Br. Jph. María Lorenzo Guaxardo.

6.-19 de Febrero de 1750, Francisco Xabiel Rumualdo. Español  de ocho días de nacido fueron sus padrinos Don Clemente de la Garza  y Doña Marzela de la Garza. Br. Carlos Sanchez de Zamora.

7.-27 de Setiembre  de 1752, Maria Getrudis de la Luz. Española de ocho días de nacida fueron sus padrinos Don Joseph Conti y Doña Marzela de la Garza. Br. Carlos Sanchez de Zamora.

A continuación transcribo el registro del matrimonio de Don Blas de Ecay y Muzquiz con Doña Juana Francisca de Arrieta  de los Santos Coy efectuado en la Villa de la Monclova,   hijo de Don Joseph Joachin y de Doña Mariana de la Garza Falcón.

Don Blas de Cay Musques con Doña Juana de Arrieta- Españoles.

7 de Mayo de 1773.

En siete de dho. en la Yglesia Parroquial, de esta Billa case y bele infacie eclesie, por palabras  de presente que hacen verdadero matrimonio a Dn. Blas de Caimusques hijo lexitimo de Dn. Joseph de Caimusques y de Dña. Mariana de la Garza Falcon  Espls. y besinos del Baye de Sta. Rosa, con Dña. Juana de Arrieta originaria desta Billa hija lexitima de Dn. Joachin de Arrieta, y de Dña. Rita de los Santos Coy. Espls. y besina dha. Señora de la Billa del Saltillo, habiendo practicado todas las diligencias dispuestas por el Sto. Consilio de Trehento, y amonestados en tres días festivos intermisarum solemnia que lo fueron Domingo diez y siete de habril domingo beinte y quatro de dho. y sábado primero de Mayo, dia  de Sn. Phe. y San de cuyas proclamas no resulto impedimento alguno, y fueron presentes a dho. matrimonio, Pedro de Abrego Juan Antonio de Olivares y Dn. Joachin Santos Coy quien fue padrino con Dña. Theresa de la pas, y para que conste lo firme. Br. Miguel Sanchez Navarro   

El Theniente Don Blas María de Ecay y Musquiz  de la Garza Falcón y su esposa Dona Juana Francisca de Arrieta, fueron los padres de Don Josep Ventura Melchor Siriaco Múzquiz de Arrieta, Insurgente, General, Gobernador y Presidente de la República y en su honor el Valle de Santa Rosa  lleva su nombre por haber nacido en el  siendo  bautizado  de ocho días de nacido el día 14 de Abril de 1788.

El General Don  Melchor Múzquiz de Arrieta, tuvo un hermano mayor que fué bautizado en la Villa del Saltillo, su registro dice así:-

En la Yglesia Parrochial de esta Villa del Saltillo en quatro de Mayo de mil setecientos ochenta y tres,  el Br. Dn. Pedro Cepeda Theniente de Cura baptizó solemnemente a un niño de cinco días nacido a quien se le puso por nombre Jose Melchor Atanacio, Español hijo lexmo. de Dn. Blas Cay Musquiz y de Doña Juana Francisca de Arrieta vecinos de Coahuila y residentes en esta Villa. Padrinos Don Melchor Lovo Guerrero y Doña Rita de Arrieta.

 Br. José Quintín de Arizpe         Br. Pedro Cepeda

Envío de este trabajo solo las imágenes de cuatro registros que son las siguientes:

1.- Matrimonio de Don Joseph Joachin de Ecay y Muzquiz. Año de 1735

2.- Matrimonio de su hijo  Don Blas de Ecay y Muzquiz. Año de 1773.

3.-Bautismo de José Melchor Atanacio Cay Musquiz  de Arrieta año de 1783, en esta imagen incluyo  por encontrarse enseguida el de José Antonio Felipe hijo legítimo de Don Antonio de la Fuente y Doña Gertrudis González  y cuyos   padrinos fueron mis ancestros maternos Don Phelipe Calzado y su esposa Doña  María Isabel de la Mata y Cos.

4.- Bautismo de José Ventura Melchor Siriaco  Musquiz de Arrieta  el 14 de Abril de 1788 de ocho días de nacido. (Insurgente que luchó por la Independencia, Gobernador del Estado de México y  Presidente de la República )

Nota. se observa que en el registro de matrimonio de Don Blas ( 1773) y bautismo de su hijo José Melchor Atanacio (1783) escribieron su apellido Cay Musques y  la firma en los documentos del genearca de esta familia está escrito  de su puño y letra como  Don Joseph Antonio de Ecay y Musquiz.

Investigué estos registros hace varios años de los cuales hago su paleografía y transcribo tal como están escritos, conservando copias de los mismos.

Fuentes. Family Search. Iglesia de Jesucristo de los Santos de los Últimos Días.

                                                San Luis Potosí. S.L.P. a 20 de Enero de 2013 
Tte. Corl. Intdte. Ret. Ricardo Raúl Palmerín Cordero
Miembro de la Sociedad de Genealogía de Nuevo León y  de Genealogía de México


1.- Matrimonio de Don Joseph Joachin de Ecay y Muzquiz. Año de 1735  

2.- Matrimonio de su hijo  Don Blas de Ecay y Muzquiz. Año de 1773.  

3.-Bautismo de José Melchor Atanacio Cay Musquiz  de Arrieta año de 1783 

4.- Bautismo de José Ventura Melchor Siriaco  Musquiz de Arrieta 


Para mis hermanos del Héroico Colegio Militar

Envío a Uds. la siguiente información de cuando mi Padre en esos años Teniente y Capitán 2° de Caballería Delfino Palmerín Mejía pertenecía al Legendario Décimo Regimiento de Caballería (desde fines del año de 1929 hasta mediados de 1935 ), era su Comandante el Coronel de Caballería Don Juan de la Torre Villalbazo, su Equipo de Polo era nombrado por la Prensa Los Invictos Polistas del Décimo, uno de los más fuertes de la Federación Mexicana de Polo en esa época.

1.- México, D.F. año de 1933. Foto del Polo Club Chapultepec ( se observan Gral. Rodolfo Casillas García, el " Chato " Coronel de Caballería Don Juan de la Torre, Gral. Bonifacio Salinas Leal, Generales, Jefes y Oficiales integrantes de los diferentes equipos, mi padre está en la última fila solo se vé su cara ).

2.- Mención Honorífica otorgada al personal de Jefes, Oficiales y Tropa del Décimo Regimiento de Caballería. año de 1932. ( dedicada a mi Padre por el Corl. Don Juan de la Torre ).

    3.- Orden girada a mi Padre en Lagos de Moreno, Jal. el 21 de Nov. de 1934 al C. Cap.2°. Delfino Palmerín Mejía. San Juan, Jal. " Sirvase salir mañana seis horas con una Seccción rumbo Hacienditas pues tienese conocimiento objeto investigar paradero de José María Ramirez y gavilla procurando hacer una minuciosa búsqueda por puntos indicados tenga cuidado porque es posible que en su recorrido se encuentre con fuerzas se estan movilizando mismo------- de Teocaltiche ".

Bautismo del General Sinaloense Rafael Buelna

Envío a Uds. el registro de bautismo del General Sinaloense Rafael Buelna " Grano de Oro " ameritado y valiente revolucionario quién murió en combate el día 14 de Enero de 1924 en el ataque y toma de la Cd. de Morelia, Mich. a la edad de 34 años.
Fuentes. Family Search. Iglesia de Jesucristo de los Santos de los últimos Días.

Margen izq. Rafael. 231:  En Mocorito, á veinte y cuatro de de Mayo de Mil ochocientos noventa, yo el Pbro. Rafael S Cortés, Cura de esta parroquia bautisé solemnemnete a Rafael que nació en esta Villa el veinte y tres del corriente, de sus legitimos padres Pedro Buelna y Marcelina Tenorio.A.A.PP. Miguel Buelna y Sabas Castro, AA.MM. Carlos Ma.Tenorio y Felipa Gutierrrez, padrinos Rosalio Tenorio y Felipa Gutierrez, a quienes adverti su obligacion y parentesco espiritual. Doy. Fé. Pbro. Rafael Cortés.

Investigó y paleografió.
Tte. Corl. Ricardo Raúl Palmerín Cordero.
Miembro de Genealogía de México y de la Soc. de Genealogía de Nuevo León.



Registro de bautismo de María del Carmen Anacleta Goribar Múzquiz:

Fuentes. Family Search. Iglesia de Jesucristo de los Santos de los últimos Días.
Sagrario Metropolitano de la Cd. de México

Márgen izq. Maria del Carmen Anacleta Goribar Muzquiz.

En quince de Julio de mil ochocientos treinta con licencia del D.D. Manuel Posada primer Cura interino de esta Santa Yglesia Yó el B.D. José Antonio Fuentes, bautizé á una niña que nació antier pusele por nombres María del Carmen, Anacleta hija legitima y de legitimo matrimonio de D. Juan Goribar y de D. María Muzquiz, nieta por linea paterna A.P. Julian Goribar y D. María Josefa Arrieta, y por la materna de D. Blas Muzquiz y D. Maria Juana Arrieta; fueron padrinos el Sor. General de Brigada y Gobernador del Estado de Mejico D. Melchor Muzquiz y D. Roberta Goribar advertidos de su obligacion. Manuel Posada.

Envío también el Decreto de 14 de Julio de 1824, en que queda prohibida para siempre la esclavitud en el territorio de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos, el comercio y tráfico de esclavos, procedentes de cualquier potencia, y bajo cualquier bandera..

Investigó y paleografió.
Tte. Corl. Ricardo Palmerín Cordero.
Miembro de Genealogía de México y de la Sociedad de Genealogía de Nuevo León.

El registro eclesiástico de la defunción del Señor General de División Don Pedro Ampudia


Márgen izq. 10. El Señor General Don Pedro Ampudia.

En siete de Agosto de mil ochocientos sesenta y ocho se dió sepultura eclesiastica en San Fernando al cadáver de Pedro Ampudia de sesenta y tres años de edad, viudo de Doña Barbara González murió de cancer en el Ygado recibió los Santos Sacramentos y para que conste lo firmé. José. M. Borja Vivanco.

Investigó y localizó dicha partida.
Tte. Corl. Ricardo R. Palmerín Cordero.
Miembro de Genealogía de México y de la Sociedad de Genealogía de Nuevo León.
Fuentes. Family Search. Iglesia de Jesucristo de los Santos de los últimos Días.


Bautismo de Benito Luis Narciso Juárez Maza
Hola amigas y amigos.
Envío a uds. el registro de bautismo de Benito Luis Narciso Juárez Maza.
Fuentes. Family Search. Iglesia de Jesucristo de los Santos de los últimos Días.
Santa Yglesia Catedral de Oajaca.

Márgen izq. 1202. Benito Luis Narciso

En el Sagrario de esta Sta. Yglesia Catedral de Oajaca a dos de Noviembre de mil ochocientos cincuenta y dos, con mi licencia el Señor Cura de la Parroquia de Yolos Br. Dn. Lorenzo Gonzalez bautisó solemnemente á Benito Luis Narciso que nació el veinte y nueve del pp°°. hijo lejmo. de lejmo. matrimonio del Lic. Don Benito Juarez y Doña Margarita Maza, fué padrino Don Luis Carbó aquien recordé su obligación y parentesco espiritual y lo firmé. yo el Cura.

Investigó y paleografió.
Tte. Corl. Ricardo Raúl Palmerín Cordero.
Miembro de Genealogía de México y de la Sociedad de Genealogía de Nuevo León.



Museo Guadalupe Aztlan (Houston)
Conversation on Native Americans and immigration by Devon G. Peña, Ph.D.
'Island of the Blue Dolphins' woman's cave believed found


Pom = Incense +  Incense Burners of Ancient Mexico (Exhibit & Lecture)

This rare and exciting exhibit of artifacts and lecture will delve into the history and culture of pom, a word from the ancient Olmecs, meaning incense), while underscoring the current practice among Chicano/a, Mexican and Native American communities.

Museo Guadalupe Aztlan, the host of the event, was founded in March 1994 in Houston, Texas. The mission of the Museo is to promote indigenous folk art of the Americas, to include the Chicano/a community. At present, the Museo operates as a museum-on-wheels, taking its events to local educational institutions. 

Incense and incense burners are still in use daily among indigenous dance groups and curanderas/folk medicine healers in the Mexico, the U.S, and Central America. These traditions predate the arrival of Europeans to the Western Hemisphere, such as the arrival of the Spanish at the ports of Veracruz, Mexico in 1519.  

In the state of Texas,for example, numerous Chicano/a, Mexican and Native American communities utilize copal and burners in ceremonies and other cultural events. Some of these dance groups in Texas include Danza Azteca Taxcayolotl, Houston); Teocalli (San Antonio);.Kalpulli Quetzalcoatl and Tlaltecutli (Austin); Tlaltecutli Papalotzin (Corpos Christi); Chikawa - Chitontiquizaliztli (Conroe), and others. Moreover, curanderas that dot urban and rural communities include this aromatic substance in the limpias, or cleansings of the spirits, with their clients of all ages.  

Jesus Cantu Medel, M.Ed., a lecturer on Mesoamerican culture at Houston Community College-Northline Campus (HCC), will provide a historical perspective on incense and incense burners on the opening day of the exhibit, June 13, 2013, 7:00pm., at Houston Community College-Northline Campus, 8002 Fulton Street, Houston, Texas 77022.  Contact information is as follows: Mr. Medel 713.231.4037 or

HCC Reception Desk, 713.718.8000. Exhibit and lecture are free to the general public. Exhibit at the HCC Gallery runs June 13-July 13, 2013, from 9am-5pm, Mondays through Fridays. Docent-guided tours are upon request by contacting Mr. Medel.  

Sponsors of the event are Museo Guadalupe Aztlan, Chicano@ Studies Network, Center for Mexican American/Latino Studies at HCC, Harrisburg Information Center and Gonzo Residential Foundations.

 JESUS CANTU MEDEL, M.ED.  713 231 4037


 Conversation on Native Americans and immigration 

Colleagues: Here is a summary of an hour-long interview and conversation on Native Americans and immigration with a link to the entire recording on SoundCloud. This was from last Friday's Native American Calling radio program broadcast from the studios of Native Voice One in Albuquerque.

The program description: National debates over immigration continue to divide the US Congress and some communities. Some states have created their own laws for dealing with immigration on a local level. What do changes in immigration policy mean for Native America? What's your take on the issue of immigration debate? How do border policies around Turtle Island impact Indigenous communities? What are tribes doing to make sure their voice is heard at the table when it comes to regulation and policies on immigration?

Devon G. Peña, Ph.D.


'Island of the Blue Dolphins' woman's cave believed found

A Navy archaeologist and his crew are digging out a cave on San Nicolas Island that seems likely to have sheltered the woman made famous by the 1960 award-winning book.,0,1564818.story

Rene Vellanoweth of Cal State L.A. shows a cave on San Nicolas Island where it's believed the Native American woman who came to be known as the Lone Woman of San Nicolas lived from 1835 to 1853. Navy archaeologist Steve Schwartz had searched the island for the cave for 20 years without success. (Steve Schwartz, U.S. Navy)

By Steve Chawkins, Los Angeles Times, 
October 29, 2012, 7:19 p.m.

The yellowing government survey map of San Nicolas Island dated from 1879, but it was quite clear: There was a big black dot on the southwest coast and, next to it, the words "Indian Cave."

For more than 20 years, Navy archaeologist Steve Schwartz searched for that cave. It was believed to be home to the island's most famous inhabitant, a Native American woman who survived on the island for 18 years, abandoned and alone, and became the inspiration for "Island of the Blue Dolphins," one of the 20th century's most popular novels for young readers.

The problem for Schwartz was that San Nicolas, a wind-raked, 22-square-mile chunk of sandstone and scrub, has few caves, all of them dank, wet hollows where the tides surge in and nobody could live for long.  Year after year, he scoured the beaches and cliffs....


New Evidence Unearthed for the Origins of the Maya 
Ancient Maya Were Cultural Sponges by Rachel Nuwer
Guatemala excavates early Mayan ruler's tomb 
US returns 4,000 archaeological relics to Mexico
New Evidence Unearthed 
for the Origins of the Maya 

April 25, 2013

The ancient Maya benefited from contact with other peoples across Mesoamerica between 1,000 to 700 BCE. This wider world of cultural experience may have helped shape Mayan culture. 
Archaeologists excavate through the A-24 platform to reach the foundations, dated to about 1,000 B.C., Takeshi Inomata - 
National Geographic, New Evidence Unearthed for the Origins of the Maya 

Civilizations rise and fall, often in dramatic fashion. Their origins, though, are subtler and tend to be overlooked or poorly understood. In the case of the Maya, a new paper in Science magazine sheds surprising light on that murky early period.

The classic period of the lowland Maya in Mesoamerica (A.D. 300 to 950) is a popular topic in archaeology, but little is known about the early preclassic era (before 1000 B.C.). Scientists are typically split between two theories on the subject: Either the Maya developed directly from an older "mother culture" known as the Olmec, or they sprang into existence independently.

Takeshi Inomata, professor of anthropology at the University of Arizona and a National Geographic research grantee, disagrees with both theories. In his work at the archaeological site of Ceibal in Guatemala, he has unearthed evidence for a more complex origin story.

Early Ritual Spaces
The Maya are usually associated with monumental architecture. Massive pyramids and immense plazas testify to a complex and fascinating culture. One can hardly hear the word "Maya" without imagining elaborately decorated kings and priests climbing the long, steep stairs of pyramids like those at Tikal.

But pyramids don't just spring out of the jungle overnight, nor does a complex culture merely appear. Inomata and his team dug below the monumental architecture at Ceibal to see how such structures began.

Inomata assumed that the now iconic classic architecture probably stood on earlier sites used for similar purposes. His assumption turned out to be correct. He found smaller platforms built of earth beneath the pyramids of stone, signaling a formal ritual complex at Ceibal dating to around 1000 B.C.

The presence of ritual architecture early in the development of the Maya is an indication of a settled lifestyle with complex agriculture, religion, and a stratified society—all of which add up to a unified culture and the beginnings of a larger civilization.

Redefining the Olmec Connection
Experts have traditionally believed that when the Olmec were busy building their civilization at large sites such as La Venta, near the Gulf coast in modern Mexico, the people who would become the Maya were living in loosely associated nomadic groups in the jungles to the east and southeast. This theory holds that the Maya derived their entire society—including their architecture and social structure—directly from the Olmec.

But Inomata's work has revealed that the Olmec is not an older civilization. In fact, Ceibal pre-dates La Venta by as long as two centuries. And although some Olmec cities are indeed older than both La Venta and Ceibal, they likely did not interact with the Maya.

"This does not mean that the Maya developed independently," Inomata says. Instead, he believes, the influence flowed both ways. La Venta and Ceibal appear to have developed in tandem in a great cultural shift throughout the region. "It seems more likely that there was a broad history of interactions across these regions, and through these interactions, a new form of society developed."

More Flexible Definitions
To further complicate matters, Inomata stresses that the evidence doesn't show clear distinctions between the Olmec and Maya at the preclassic stage.

The two civilizations are easy to differentiate during the classic period, since the Maya had by then developed a distinct language and culture. But the period between 1000 and 700 B.C. is more transitional. With La Venta and Ceibal freely trading ideas, technologies, cultural elements, and perhaps even population, it's difficult to call one Olmec and the other Maya.

"Determining labels for these early people is quite a tricky question—we're not sure if residents of early Ceibal were wholly Mayan," says Inomata. "We have decided to take a much more flexible approach, avoiding fixed labels in favor of looking at patterns of interaction and how more stable identities developed."

An Agricultural Revolution
Inomata and his team will spend the next three years analyzing the findings from Ceibal. They will then begin to excavate outside the site's center, hoping to gain an understanding of what day-to-day life was like in the preclassic period.

The peripheral areas, separated from the ritual plazas and temples, could hold more keys to the origins of the Maya. Inomata believes that the residential and agricultural areas are particularly important.

Around 1000 B.C. the previously nomadic groups that became the Maya began to build urban ritual areas. "Instead of starting with villages," Inomata says, "they made a ceremonial center." The idea for that may have come from the people who later created La Venta.

A radical shift in agriculture at that time may also have played an important role in the move to a more settled lifestyle. Corn, the principal crop of the Maya, "became much more productive," says Inomata. "And then it made sense to cut down forests and increase agriculture."

Inomata believes this agricultural revolution may have been rooted in genetic changes in the corn plant itself. But this, like so many other ideas about the rise and fall of the Maya civilization, still requires much more evidence to prove.

Ancient Maya Were Cultural Sponges by Rachel Nuwer
Smithsonian Magazine
April 25, 2013

Ancient Maya were mathematical, engineering and artistic experts, but anthropologists still aren’t sure exactly how they developed such a rich culture. Most adhere to one of two theories when discussing the Maya’s origins. One group assumes that the Maya developed on their own in the Central American jungles without the influence of other cultures. The second group believes that the Maya were indeed significantly influenced by other civilizations, specifically the older Olmecs, the first major civilization known in Mexico.

New research, published in the journal Science, tells a third story. This new study, which is based on several years of excavation work in Guatemala, found that ancient Maya benefited from a melting pot of contact with other peoples across Mesoamerica between 1,000 to 700 BCE. This wider world of cultural experience may have helped kickstart and shape Mayan culture.

A husband-and-wife duo led the research team that undertook excavations at Ceibal, a Mayan site in Guatemala. The site, they found, was built before La Venta, a major Olmec center, by around 200 years. This means that, since it did not exist yet, La Venta couldn’t have been a significant influence on Ceibal.

Still, the Olmecs were around at the time, and they could have come into contact with the Maya. The researchers think that both La Venta and Ceibal represent a general, complex shift in cultures around that time period. In other words, one site did not provide the model for the other, even though similarities such as pyramids and evidence of ritual practices unite them.

“Basically, there was a major social change happening from the southern Maya lowlands to possibly the coast of Chiapas and the southern Gulf Coast, and this site of Ceibal was a part of that broader social change,” the researchers say in a statement. “The emergence of a new form of society – with new architecture, with new rituals – became really the important basis for all later Mesoamerican civilizations.”   

Guatemala excavates early Mayan ruler's tomb

GUATEMALA CITY (AP) — Archaeologists announced Thursday they have uncovered the tomb of a very early Mayan ruler, complete with rich jade jewelry and decoration.

Experts said the find at Guatemala's Tak'alik Ab'aj temple site could help shed light on the formative years of the Mayan culture.

Government archaeologist Miguel Orrego said carbon-dating indicates the tomb was built between 700 and 400 B.C., several hundred years before the Mayan culture reached its height. He said it was the oldest tomb found so far at Tak'alik Ab'aj, a site in southern Guatemala that dates back about 2,200 years.

Orrego said a necklace depicting a vulture-headed human figure appeared to identify the tomb's occupant as an "ajaw," or ruler.

This photo taken on May 25, 2012, released on Thursday, Oct. 25, 2012 by Tak'alik Ab'aj Archaeological Project shows a jade piece in the tomb of a very early Mayan ruler at Tak'alik Ab'aj archaeological site in Retalhuleu, south of Guatemala City. Archaeologists in Guatemala announced Friday they have uncovered the tomb complete with rich jade jewelry and decoration. Government archaeologist Miguel Orrego says carbon-dating indicates the tomb was built between 700 and 400 B.C., several hundred years before the Mayan culture reached its apogee (AP Photo/Tak'alik Ab'aj Archaeological Project)"This symbol gives this burial greater importance," Orrego said. "This glyph says he ... is one of the earliest rulers of Tak'alik Ab'aj."

No bones were found during the excavation of the tomb in September, probably because they had decayed.

Experts said the rich array of jade articles in the tomb could provide clues about production and trade patterns.

Susan Gillespie, an archaeologist at the University of Florida who was not involved in the excavation, said older tombs have been found from ruling circles at the Mayan site of Copan in Honduras as well as in southern Mexico, where the Olmec culture, a predecessor to the Mayas, flourished.

Olmec influences are present in the area around Tak'alik Ab'aj, indicating possible links.  Gillespie said that because it is near a jadeite production center, the find could shed light on early techniques and trade in the stone, which was considered by the Maya to have sacred properties.

Associated Press/Tak'alik Ab'aj Archaeological Project - This photo taken on May 25, 2012, released on Thursday, Oct. 25, 2012 by Tak'alik Ab'aj Archaeological Project shows a jade piece in the tomb of a verymore early Mayan ruler at Tak'alik Ab'aj archaeological site in Retalhuleu, south of Guatemala City. Archaeologists in Guatemala announced Friday they have uncovered the tomb complete with rich jade jewelry and decoration. Government archaeologist Miguel Orrego says carbon-dating indicates the tomb was built between 700 and 400 B.C., several hundred years before the Mayan culture reached its apogee (AP Photo/Tak'alik Ab'aj Archaeological Project) less.  

US returns 4,000 archaeological relics to Mexico

EL PASO, Texas (AP) — More than 4,000 archaeological artifacts looted from Mexico and seized in the U.S. have been returned to Mexican authorities in what experts say is one of the largest such repatriations between the countries.

The items returned Thursday mostly date from before European explorers landed in North America and include items from hunter-gatherers in pre-Columbian northern Mexico, such as stones used to grind corn, statues, figurines and copper hatchets, said Pedro Sanchez, president of the National Archaeological Council of Mexico.

U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement agents seized the relics in El Paso, Phoenix, Chicago, Denver, San Diego and San Antonio, though most of the artifacts — including items traced to a 2008 theft from a museum in Mexico — turned up in Fort Stockton, a Texas town about 230 miles southeast of El Paso.

 Trooper John Albert Barragan, left, looks at some of the items. 


Homeland Security Investigations Assistant Director, Janice Ayala speaks during a news conference, October 26, 2012 at the Mexican Consulate. . 

More than two dozen pieces of pottery were seized in Kalispell, Mont., where Homeland Security agents discovered that a consignor had paid Mexican Indians to loot items from burial sites deep in the Mexican Copper Canyon in Chihuahua, Mexico, authorities said.

Although most of the items turned over are arrowheads, several are of "incalculable archaeological value," Sanchez told The Associated Press. He said it was the biggest archaeological repatriation in terms of the number of items that the U.S has made to Mexico.

U.S. officials displayed the relics at the Mexican Consulate in El Paso before handing them over during a ceremony Thursday. The artifacts will eventually be taken to the National Institute of Anthropology and History in Mexico City, where they will be studied, cataloged and distributed to museums across Mexico.

Most of the items were uncovered during a string of seizures in West Texas in 2009, following a tip about relics illegally entering the U.S. at a border crossing in Presidio, Texas.

Homeland Security special agent Dennis Ulrich said authorities executing a search warrant in Fort Stockton found the largest portion of the cache. Further investigation revealed that the two men behind the smuggling were also involved in drug trafficking from Mexico to the U.S., he said.

Sanchez said some of the relics found in Fort Stockton were stolen from a private collection at the Cuatro Cienagas museum in the Mexican state of Coahuila.

The items also include arrows, hunting bows and even extremely well conserved textile items such as sandals and pieces of baskets.




20th Anniversary National Tribute, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum 
Jewish Encyclopedia

20th Anniversary National Tribute, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum 

"This Holocaust memorial will be our conscience and will be here as our conscience from now on, forever."
– President Bill Clinton, at the Museum's 20th Anniversary National Tribute to Holocaust Survivors and World War II Veterans
With these words—and in the presence of Founding Chairman Elie Wiesel, 875 survivors, and 140 veterans—President Clinton reaffirmed the importance to our nation of the enduring mission of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: To honor memory by inspiring action.  It was deeply moving to see members of the wartime generation gathered in such large numbers, some for the last time, as thousands paid tribute to their courage and sacrifice and to all they have done for the Museum.

Be part of this extraordinary experience by watching this short video.
The theme for the Museum's 20th anniversary commemoration—Never Again. What You Do Matters—is more than a promise to never forget. We want the millions we reach each year not only to look back at the Holocaust and ask, "What would I have done?" but also to look ahead and ask, "What will I do?"

As a member of the Museum community, you know the power of this history to change the world. Today, as we begin our third decade, it is up to us to ensure that Holocaust memory remains a transformative force in the 21st century.

Please watch the video of our anniversary event: 

Thank you,  Sara J. Bloomfield

Sent by Bill Carmena



Jewish Encyclopedia 

The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
Below is an example of what you can expect to find.  


he The various branches of this family are all of Spanish and Portuguese origin. Soon after the establishment of the Inquisition, members of the family emigrated to Bordeaux, Bayonne, Hamburg, and other cities in the Netherlands, and later, in the United States; to-day their descendants are found scattered throughout Turkey, Egypt, Holland, Germany, England, and Italy. Some branches of the family have continued to bear the simple name of "De Castro"; others are known by the following names: De Castro-Osorio; De Castro Sarmento; De Castro-Castello-Osorio; Pereira de Castro; De Castro Vieira de Pinto; Rodriguez de Castro; Orobio de Castro; De Castro de Paz; Henriquez de Castro, etc.

Arms of De Castro Family.

Among the members of this family, of some of whom a more detailed account will be found below, are the following: Aaron de Castro, or Crasto, parnas, Amsterdam, 1834; Abraham de Castro, who was among the Jews who returned to Amsterdam from Brazil when that country was lost to the Hollanders in 1654 ("Publ. Am. Jew. Hist. Soc." iii. 17); Abraham Nahamias de Castro, London, 1769; Dr. Baruch de Castro, Amsterdam, 1597-1684; Daniel de Castro, brother of Baruch; Daniel Gomez de Castro, parnas, Amsterdam, 1772; Dr. Ezekiel de Castro, Verona, 1639; Imanuel de Imanuel Nahmias de Crasto, parnas, Amsterdam, 1773; Dr. Isaac de Castro, surgeon, Amsterdam, 1683; Joseph Mendes de Castro, London, 1694; Mordecai de Castro, Amsterdam, 1650; Moses Gomez de Castro, parnas, ib., 1784; Nissim de Castro, Constantinople, nineteenth century; Pedro Fernandes de Castro, alias Julio Fernandez de Castro of Valladolid, son-in-law of Simon Vaez "Publ. Am. Jew. Hist. Soc." iii. p. 57), Los Valles, Mexico; as a Judaizing heretic, Pedro Fernandez became reconciled in 1647 (ib., vii. 4); Dr. Rodrigo de Castro, 1550-1629; Dr. Jacob de Castro-Sarmento, F.R.S., 1691-1761; David de Abraham de Castro-Tartas (often spelled "de Crasto)," noted printer in Amsterdam, seventeenth century. The only branch of the family of which it is possible to make a definite pedigree is the Dutch, as follows:

  • Kayserling, Bibl. Esp.-Port.-Jud. pp. 35 et seq.;
  • De Castro, Keur van Grafsteenen, pp. 24, 25, 27, 38 et seq.;
  • Stam en Wapenboek van Aanzienlijke Nederlandsche Familien, pp. 139, 140, Groningen, 1885.


Rosenwald School

A Rosenwald School was the name informally applied to over five thousand schools, shops, and teachers' homes in the United States which were built primarily for the education of African-Americans in the early 20th century. The need arose from the chronic underfunding of public education for African-American children in the South, who were required to attend segregated schools. Julius Rosenwald, an American clothier who became part-owner and president of Sears, Roebuck and Company, was the founder of The Rosenwald Fund, through which he contributed seed money for many of the schools and other philanthropic causes. To promote collaboration between white and black citizens, Rosenwald required communities to commit public funds to the schools, as well as to contribute additional cash donations. Millions of dollars were raised by African-American rural communities across the South to fund better education for their children. Despite Rosenwald's matching donations toward the construction of black schools, by the mid-1930s, white schools in the South were worth, per student, over five times what black schools were worth per student (in majority-black Mississippi, this ratio was more than 13 to one).[1]   Wikipedia encyclopedia  

How Many Rosenwald Schools Remain IN TENNESSEE ?
The Tennessee Division of Archaeology is currently conducting an archaeological site survey of Tennessee’s Rosenwald Schools. Samuel D. Smith and Benjamin C. Nance, historical archaeologists with the Division, are involved in the project. The Division’s survey includes archival research, including maps, Department of Education records, photographs, and local histories. This research is followed by field visits to each site and interviews with local informants. Each site is assessed for its potential archaeological remains and recorded in the statewide database of archaeological sites maintained by the Tennessee Division of Archaeology. Smith and Nance have visited approximately 130 sites so far. 

The Rosenwald Fund helped construct 354 schools, 9 teachers’ homes, and 10 industrial shops in Tennessee. To date, Smith and Nance have seen 20 standing school buildings that are still on their original sites, and one industrial shop, as well as two school buildings that have been moved from the original site and are in use. Current uses include community centers, private residences, a night club where James Brown once performed, a tobacco barn, and abandoned schools. The industrial shop is a city maintenance facility. One unique feature identified on several sites is a cast concrete drinking fountain. Look for more information on these fountains in your next Rosenwald Schools E-news. 

The Tennessee Historical Commission funded the $36,788 survey of Rosenwald Schools within the state of Tennessee through the Historic Preservation Funds grant program. Such projects are designed to identify and to record historic districts, sites, buildings, structures and objects built before 1960 that are significant to Tennessee's history.


The History of the Short-Lived Independent Republic of Florida
Fairfax County Virginia Wildlife
Starving Settlers in Jamestown Colony Resorted to Cannibalism

The History of the Short-Lived Independent Republic of Florida

For a brief period in 1810, Florida was truly a country of its own


In the predawn fog of September 23, 1810, about 50 men, led by Revolutionary War veteran Philemon Thomas, walked in the open gate of Fort San Carlos in Baton Rouge. An additional 25 men on horseback rode through a gap in the fort’s wall. Spanish soldiers discharged a handful of muskets before Thomas’ men let go a single volley that killed or wounded five Spaniards. The remaining soldados surrendered or fled.

Revolutions come in all shapes and sizes, but the West Florida Rebellion holds the record as the shortest. In less than one minute it was over, setting in motion a chain of events that would transform the United States into a continental and, eventually, world power.

The nation’s expansion had begun seven years earlier, when President Thomas Jefferson purchased the Louisiana Territory from France. But Spain, which had ceded the territory to Napoleon, maintained that it did not include the area known as West Florida, which stretched from the Perdido River across southern Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana to the Mississippi River. For its part, the United States believed West Florida was its own, but rather than risk confrontation and war, Jefferson and his successor James Madison allowed Spain to administer it until an opportunity arose.

Things were peaceful until 1808, when Spain appointed Col. Charles Delassus as governor. The inefficiency and corruption of officials under him threatened the prosperity of American colonists in West Florida, who presented demands for political reform. Delassus pretended to go along, while secretly plotting to arrest the ringleaders.

Learning of Delassus’ duplicity, the Americanos struck first. After capturing Fort San Carlos, they declared the Republic of West Florida, replacing the Spanish flag with their banner—a white star on a field of blue. Some derided what one U.S. newspaper editor called “the little mimick Revolution,” but President Madison knew that his strategy of passive expansionism had evicted Spain at no expense to the United States.

On December 10, 1810, the Republic of West Florida’s lone star came down and the Stars and Stripes took its place. For the first time, the United States had acquired significant territory from another sovereignty without war or compensation.

It didn’t take long for other territories to follow West Florida’s example. In 1835-36, Texas rose in revolt against Mexico, fighting under West Florida’s lone star flag and voluntarily submitting to U.S. annexation in 1845. (The five-point star had emerged as a symbol of enlightenment and defiance against tyranny—and would remain a motif for the flag of the Texas Republic.)

A year later at Sonoma, a small band of American and Mexican settlers declared the California Republic. The subsequent revolt against local authorities lasted 26 days before the United States took over. In the ensuing war with Mexico, the United States acquired all of California and most or all of Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Arizona, Wyoming, Utah and Oklahoma.

While much has been written about the U.S.-Mexican War, the event that started it all, the 1810 revolution, has largely been viewed as a footnote. As a historian, it became clear to me that there was more at work here than a small band of unruly, land-hungry American colonists. West Florida became the template for Manifest Destiny—a near-perfect embodiment of the men and forces that would propel Americans across their continent.

Smithsonian magazine, May 2013


Fairfax County Virginia Wildlife 

We live just eight miles from the US Capitol in a suburban community close to Annandale in Fairfax County Virginia.  All kinds of wildlife, many mammals and almost all the birds in the northeaster US visit our back yard throughout the year.
We have squirrels, chipmunks, raccoons, possums, , red foxes, even deer visit our back yard year round.

But for the very first time, today I saw a coyote in our back yard. It was eight in the morning and I was sitting in the dining room having my second cup of coffee looking out the window when this coyote came trotting across my back yard just as cool as he pleased.

Yes, that wylie critter we grew up with in South Texas listening to their howls and yapping at night. I was aware that coyotes had already reached Fairfax County and have even been seen in New York City's Central Park, but I was really happy to see one in my back yard. 
Maybe soon we will hear them yapping and howling in the night. Now that would really make me homesick for Zapata County! However, I'm afraid our neighbors will not feel the same way about our new invader when they discover Wylie Coyote in their yard..

Ernesto Uribe
Historical Information:  Historically, coyotes were most common on the Great Plains. Their range now extends from Central America to the Arctic. Except for Hawaii, coyotes live in all U.S. states, Canada, and Mexico. Coyotes have only recently began to inhabit Delaware and Maryland. Due to Delaware’s geography (a peninsula), coyotes have been slow to range into the state from the North. But Delaware definitely has a share of the coyote population; whether it's a proportionate share to surrounding states remains to be determined.

In spite of being hunted and trapped for more than 200 years, more coyotes exist today than when U.S. Constitution was signed. Hardly any animal in America is more adaptable to changing conditions--the coyote can live in deserts, swamps, tundra, grasslands and dense forests, from below sea level to high mountains. They have now learned to live in suburbs and cities.


Extract from: Starving Settlers in Jamestown Colony Resorted to Cannibalism

New archaeological evidence and forensic analysis reveals that a 14-year-old girl was cannibalized in desperation
It’s long been speculated that the harsh conditions faced by the colonists of Jamestown might have made them desperate enough to eat other humans—and perhaps even commit murder to do so. The colony was founded in 1607 by 104 settlers aboard three ships, the Susan Constant, Discovery and Godspeed, but only 38 survived the first nine months of life in Jamestown, with most succumbing to starvation and disease (some researchers speculate that drinking water poisoned by arsenic and human waste also played a role). Because of difficulties in growing crops—they arrived in the midst of one of the worst regional droughts in centuries and many settlers were unused to hard agricultural labor—the survivors remained dependent on supplies brought by subsequent missions, as well as trade with Native Americans.

Despite this and other textual references to cannibalism, though, there had never been hard physical evidence that it had occurred—until now. Kelso’s team discovered the girl’s remains during the summer of 2012. "We found a deposit of refuse that contained butchered horse and dog bones. That was only done in times of extreme hunger. As we excavated, we found human teeth and then a partial human skull," says Kelso. 


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La existencia de Cuba, como la del continente americano en general, era prácticamente desconocida por los europeos hasta finales del siglo XV. Cristóbal Colón llegó a tierra americana el 12 de octubre de 1492 que desembarcó en una pequeña isla del archipiélago de las Bahamas. Los nativos llamaban a aquella isla Guanahaní (actualmente Watling). Él la llamó San Salvador, por ser la que lo salvó del desastre.

El día 27 de octubre de 1492 Colón llegó a Cuba, a la que llamó Juana en honor del príncipe Juan, primogénito de los Reyes Católicos. En 1515, la misma isla sería llamada Fernandina, por decisión de Fernando el Católico; pero incluso durante los primeros tiempos de la colonización se impuso en nombre de Cuba, que era como la conocían sus pobladores primitivos.


Sent by Dinorah



Homenaje al Dia de la Tradicion, Argentina
Búsqueda de personas, Argentina
Regalo Historico Buenas Aires 1932 . . . Una Verdadera Joya Historica
Panama Canal:The Big Dig of Central America
Las Lajas Cathedral, Columbia

Boletin de Genealogias Colombianas, Editor: Luis Álvaro Gallo Martínez
Reunión de la familia Giraldo. Jade Idarraga
Sobre Apellidos Vascos
Nombres Mas Comunes en Colomia
Feria del Libro en Bogota
Conferencia Americana de Genealogia
Convocatoria de Poencias y Clases
Apellido Yepes por Reinaldo Ágredo Tobar.

Genealogía Salteña, Argentina 
Búsqueda De Personas   Search multiple engines for búsqueda de personas
If you have any lines in Argentina, be sure and check this out. Thousands of names with family pedigrees.

We lived in Buenos Aires for four years 2001-2015 and loved it. Many of the monuments and sights in this 1932 movie are still there today.. the narration is in English and the filming is well done and a real treat to watch... enjoy.  It made me homesick for our apartment on the 21st floor in Palermo with a clear view of the Palermo race track shown in the movie.

Vean ésto... una filmación turística de la Metro hablada en inglés mostrando Buenos Aires en 1932. s una joya. !!!  Se ve la calle Florida, los bañistas en la Costanera Sur, los monumentos, Plaza de Mayo, un policía dirigiendo el tránsito en una esquina, un tipo que va ordeñando una vaca por la calle, El Tigre, el Hipódromo de Palermo, etc.  Hermosas jovenes, que seguramente fueron contemporaneas de nuestras madres o abuelas.   Una joyita perdida en el tiempo (Bs. As. año 1932)  
Ernesto Uribe  


Panama Canal:The Big Dig of Central America

By: Mary Reed

It cost the U.S. $375 million, thousands of lives, a movement for national independence — and a Nicaraguan postage stamp — to take over and finish construction of the Panama Canal, rightly chosen in 1996 by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) as one of the engineering wonders of the world.

And now, Panama is gearing up for the largest modernization plan in its 92-year history. Voters in October approved a $5.25 billion expansion of the canal that will include a third set of locks on the Atlantic and Pacific sides to handle the world’s largest ships.

Construction will begin in 2007 and is expected to last eight years.

A canal was first conceived in the early 16th century by King Charles V of Spain, who ordered the governor of the region of Panama to survey a route following the Chagres River to the Pacific. This was the first survey for a proposed ship canal through Panama, and more or less followed the course of the present Panama Canal.

The desire to build such a canal gained additional impetus during the 1848 Gold Rush, when prospectors could either sail around Cape Horn, cross the Great Plains, or journey across the isthmus by foot or canoe and then take ship north from the Pacific coast. The first interoceanic railroad in the world was constructed on the isthmus in 1855 but the opening of a canal would mean travelers sailing from, as an example, San Francisco to New York went from a journey of 14,000 mi. (22,500 km) around Cape Horn at the bottom of the continent to one of a mere 6,000 mi. (9,500 km).

The United States had long been interested in the possibility of building a canal and in the latter half of the 1890s set up two Canal Commissions to look into the question of the best route. Both recommended running the canal through Nicaragua.

The French, however, had already begun the endeavor and were continuing with the task of constructing a canal located in Panama. The Compagnie Universelle du Canal Interoceanique had been granted a concession to do so in 1878 and had been at work on it since 1881. Headed by Count Ferdinand de Lesseps, world famous for building the Suez Canal, the company planned a sea-level canal, which it estimated would take 12 years to build at a cost of approximately $l30 million.

Tens of thousands flocked to invest in the project, but in late 1889 the company was declared bankrupt, defeated by months of tropical weather whose torrential rain caused constant mud and rock slides, disease-carrying mosquitoes, deadly snakes, inadequate equipment and management, and a work site situated in dense jungle spread out over mountainous terrain.

Undaunted by this spectacular although understandable failure, another French company — Company Nouvelle du Canal de Panama — was started up in l894 and took over the job. However, it too was unable to complete the canal and its assets, rights, and equipment were therefore offered for sale.

A Volcano Sways Voting

Although both Canal Commissions had recommended Nicaragua as the best place to build a canal, the engineers consulted were in favor of Panama, David McCullough wrote in “The Path Between The Seas: The Creation of the Panama Canal 1870-1914.”

There were a number of reasons to choose Panama. Among them were the canal would be shorter by more than 100 mi. (161 km), the proposed Panamanian route already possessed a railroad, and overall running costs would be lower.

Efforts to convince American legislators that Panama was a better choice were aided by two investors in the French company, Philippe Bunau-Varilla and William Cromwell. They mounted an effort to swing the vote to Panama, which would benefit them and other stockholders if the bankrupt company in which they held shares was sold to the United States. To this end they lectured, issued pamphlets, and purchased numerous advertisements in various publications, all pointing out the benefits of building the canal in Panama as opposed to Nicaragua — and in particular stressing the suggested canal site in the latter was only 20 mi. (32 km) from an active volcano.

The question was debated during the 1902 legislative session. When the matter came up for voting in the Senate, Bunau-Varilla and Cromwell carried out a masterly piece of persuasion by sending every senator a Nicaraguan stamp featuring the volcano in full eruption.

The legislature chose Panama as the site of the proposed canal, although the vote was very close, and President Theodore Roosevelt signed the Panama Canal Act into law on June 28, 1902.

The Act authorized Roosevelt to acquire not only all rights and property of every kind, “real, personal, and mixed,” and all other assets possessed by the French company, but also the necessary strip of land from Colombia, there to exercise “the right to use and dispose of the waters thereon, and to excavate, construct, and to perpetually maintain, operate, and protect thereon a canal.”

There is no doubt Roosevelt viewed the canal as being of prime importance, having declared in his December 1901 State of the Union address that “No single great material work which remains to be undertaken on this continent is of such consequence to the American people as the building of a canal across the Isthmus connecting North and South America.”

It appears his views were heavily influenced by a book written by Alfred Thayer Mahan, U.S. naval officer and scholar. This book, “The Influence of Sea Power Upon History,” was published in 1890 and advanced the theory that national and commercial supremacy were directly related to control of the sea. This point of view was important in the drive for construction of the Panama Canal.

Panama Gains Independence

Even so, the project was not set for plain sailing since before construction could begin, the United States had to negotiate a treaty with Colombia, which then controlled Panama. Despite a very generous offer — $l0 million to be paid immediately, followed by $250,000 each year of a century-long lease for 6 mi. (10 km) of land on each side of the canal — the Colombian government turned it down. It was a time for bold action.

Panama rose up and demanded its independence. The USS Nashville arrived with an official mission to protect American citizens, thwarting any attempt by Colombia to send troops to Panama by sea. The jungle prevented them from bringing military forces over a land route, so they were unable to crush the Panamanian movement.

Thus it was the Republic of Panama came into being on Nov. 3, 1903. The U.S. government obtained a treaty later that year, under which the United States gained the right to build a canal under essentially the same terms as had been offered to Colombia.

The United States began to move forward in 1904. As laid down in the Act, it purchased Compagnie Nouvelle du Canal de Panama’s assets for $40 million, taking over the project on May 4, 1904. An Isthmian Canal Commission was set up to govern the Canal Zone, although overall supervision of construction was in the hands of the U.S. Secretary of War. Expectations about the canal were plainly stated by Roosevelt:

“What this nation will insist upon is that results be achieved.”

The man who arrived in June 1904 to take up the post of chief engineer was a civilian, John Findley Wallace.

A State of Chaos

Wallace discovered the project in a state of chaos. While the French had constructed housing and other facilities for the benefit of their workforce, many of these buildings were now inhabitable. Their huge fleet of abandoned equipment — much of which was in various stages of decay — had to be examined, repaired or rehabilitated if possible, and then card-indexed for swift location as needed.

While most of the professional workers were American, laborers were largely recruited from various Caribbean countries, including Barbados, Guadeloupe and Martinique. Dozens of nations were represented by the workforce, and interpreters were in demand. Beyond skills more directly concerned with construction of the canal, many other professions were represented, ranging from secretaries, accountants to shop clerks and pharmacists, doctors and nurses.

William R. Scott spent five months in Panama, three as an employee of the Isthmian Canal Commission. In l913 he published “The Americans in Panama,” in which he mentions workers’ wages and salaries. Hourly remuneration ranged from l0 to 25 cents an hour for apprentices to 65 cents for bricklayers and up to the same amount for carpenters, coppermiths, pipefitters and linesmen. Ironworkers and machinists were paid as much as 70 cents an hour. A steam shovel operator earned between $2l0 and $240 a month. While these rates appear small, they were far more than would be paid for comparable work in the United States, and were in addition to free housing and medical care at no cost.

Wiping Out Disease

One of the first major jobs the Americans undertook was carrying out sanitary improvements to deal with the high death toll from disease, most often malaria and yellow fever. At the time, the discovery both illnesses were carried by mosquitoes was only beginning to be accepted. The effort was led by Chief Sanitary Officer William C. Gorgas of the U.S. Army. Even so, it was an uphill battle which ultimately involved adding screens to doors and windows, fumigating dwellings, and laying oil weekly on cesspools and cisterns to kill insect larvae.

In addition, the United States paved streets and constructed water and sewage systems for Panama City and Colon. Once this was done, the hitherto common use of barrels to store water for domestic use was ended, thus removing thousands of potential mosquito breeding grounds.

Rufus E. Forde contributed recollections of working on the canal to the Isthmian Historical Society in l963. Forde recalled that from a gang composed of approximately l25 workers, 40 or so would come down with malaria before noon. It was a sight so frightening, he said, that “sometimes you don’t come back after dinner.”

Canal workers were instructed to drink quinine to treat malaria, but its taste was so vile many claimed they had taken theirs when they had not in fact done so, he added.

Wallace had not supported Gorgas’ efforts because he did not believe the diseases were transmitted by mosquito, and while John F. Stevens, the chief engineer who replaced him, admitted to not being entirely convinced as to the efficacy of Gorgas’ proposed eradication program, he nonetheless supported it. Ira E. Bennett’s “History of the Panama Canal” quoted Stevens’ opinion there were three diseases on the isthmus:

“Yellow fever, malaria, and cold feet.”

Gorgas’ draconian measures succeeded and it was announced in December 1905 that yellow fever had finally been eradicated from the isthmus. However, malaria still caused many deaths among workers because surviving it did not make the patient immune to further attacks. Hospital records show that 5,609 people died from disease or accidents during the American construction era, and 4,500 of them were black employees.

Once under control, stern measures were taken to keep the isthmus disease-free. Quarantines were rigidly enforced and inoculations mandatory. Scott’s book mentions an incident in 1905 when a number of workers from Martinique initially refused to leave their ship because they believed vaccination scars were intended to mark them so they could not go home. He related that they were removed from their vessel at bayonet point and then inoculated.

Facilities for the Workforce

Chief Engineer Wallace found the going difficult. Despite all efforts, housing and food for the workers were not of acceptable quality. He expressed anger about “red tape” constantly interfering with the running of the project, and also was worried about his family being stricken with disease, particularly after his secretary’s wife died of yellow fever. There had been personality clashes with the chairman of the commission and although the commission was dissolved and a new one set up, Wallace, who had received an offer of a better paid job in the United States, resigned a year after his arrival.

Another civilian, John F. Stevens, took over as chief engineer in July 1905. He had excellent references, having been in charge of the construction of the Great Northern Railroad in the Pacific Northwest.

After Stevens’ arrival, the United States used 12,000 of its workforce to construct buildings as well as carry out excavation work. Between 1905 and 1907 clinics and hospitals, laundries, libraries, mess halls, churches, hotels, social and fraternal clubs, and many other amenities were built. Numerous workers had brought their wives and families with them, and schools were provided. Fire departments, courts and post offices came into being and shops sold household goods, canned items and perishables kept in refrigerated storage.

Saturday night dances were held at hotels and firework displays, lectures, and other types of entertainment (including a circus on at least one occasion) also were available to the workforce.

The Panama Record, published weekly, provided news of sporting events and contests, social gatherings, and notices of various sorts, as well as committee reports and official announcements.

Recreational facilities eventually included bowling alleys, gyms, ice cream parlors, billiard rooms, tennis courts and baseball parks. Contests involving various sports were held, with keen competition between teams.

The immense logistical problems involved in providing life’s necessities can be demonstrated by noting meals for the workforce required the annual baking of more than 60,000 rolls and 6 million loaves, as well as approximately 110,000 lbs. of cake.

Improving a Vital Rail Link

Another task to be accomplished was improving transportation. The Panama Railroad ran past the excavations but had descended into a degraded state. Its efficient operation was vital to the job, since there were no highways and the railroad had to move everything needed from construction equipment and building materials to food, medical supplies, and excavated material, not to mention the workforce itself.

The French company’s holdings included a number of locomotives and wagons. Most were considered too lightweight for the tasks they had to accomplish, although some were eventually rehabilitated. The rail system was overhauled and more robust American rolling stock suitable for handling the movement of heavy equipment and to haul excavated material away from the diggings were shipped in. The workforce included experienced American rail staff whose task was run the railroad — once it had been built from components shipped to Panama in a dismantled state.

Make the Dirt Fly

Roosevelt had made it plain workers were expected to “make the dirt fly,” but construction plans had to be flexible in order to meet challenges as work continued. For example, the width of the Culebra Cut was changed from 200 to 300 ft. (61 to 91 m) while after a request from the U.S. Navy lock chambers were increased to 110 ft. (34 m) wide. This was to ensure the canal would allow passage of vessels, which at the time were still themselves in the design stages.

Landslides continued to be a continual and often fatal occurrence. Exacerbated by the tropical rainy season, they also destroyed equipment and buildings and filled in newly excavated portions of the canal, which then had to be redug.

Accidents, of course, were unavoidable. A number of people who had worked on the canal reminisced about that aspect of the job at a gathering organized by the Isthmian Historical Society in 1958.

Reed E. Hopkins, former railroad conductor, recalled standing orders that if anyone was hurt, conductors had to take them immediately to the hospital. It happened daily, since although dynamite blasts were usually timed for 11:30 a.m. and 5:30 p.m., they were sometimes set off without warning and flying debris took its toll.

Gertrude B. Hoffman, a teacher, spoke about a premature blast at Bas Obispo, where the father of one of her pupils took cover in the dipper of a steam shovel. The shovel ended up entirely covered with chunks of rocks.

Charles F. Williams described seeing a train in Colon Station, its luggage car marked funeral car and behind it a coach for passengers being taken to hospital. Such cars were, he said, “regular equipment on the Panama Railroad.”

Third Chief Engineer Arrives

Chief Engineer Stevens was instrumental in persuading President Roosevelt and Congress that the canal should be built with locks, rather than the proposed sea level waterway. In strongly-worded evidence to the House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, he declared the greatest problem in the construction of any canal across the isthmus was going to be controlling the Chagres River — and equally emphatic that a system of locks would solve it. In June l906 the final vote was taken, and a lock canal was approved, albeit by a narrow margin.

However, Stevens resigned in 1907, citing personal reasons. A third commission was set up to oversee the project. It was composed mainly of military men and George Washington Goethals, then holding the rank of major in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, became chief engineer of the project. Being in an officer in the army, unlike the two previous chief engineers he could not leave the project until permitted to go elsewhere.

Goethals was not one to mince words. Bennett’s book relates he addressed his workforce in the stirring fashion of an army man.

“I am commanding the Army of Panama; the enemy is Culebra Cut and the locks and the dams.”

Nor did he exaggerate. The Culebra Cut is approximately 9 mi. (14.5 km) long and had to be dug through the Continental Divide. When the Americans took over, the two French companies had already excavated more than 78 million cu. yds. (60 million cu m) of which approximately 18,600 cu. yds. (14,220 cu m) of material had been taken from the Cut.

Ralph E. Avery described the French excavators in his 1913 work “America’s Triumph” in Panama. They were the type fitted with chains on buckets, which dropped spoil into hoppers which then transferred it into dump cars. It was to be over a year before steam shovels completely replaced these excavators.

Dynamite and Steampower

By today’s standards, the construction of the canal was carried out by primitive methods, since it was largely accomplished by laborers, dynamite and steam power.

Preparation for rock blasting was carried out by drills run on compressed air piped from three plants some five miles away from the work site. Operating in sets of up to a dozen, set between 6 and 16 ft. (2 and 5 m) apart, the drills cut down as deep as 27 ft. (8 m).

Steel hand drills also were used. Bennett related that holes were originally fired with the use of batteries and later by electrical current. He mentioned the largest single blast involved setting off a number of holes which together contained 52,000 lbs. (23,587 kg) of dynamite.

Goethals described the extensive use of explosives in a talk given to the National Geographic Society in 1911. Apart from blasting, dynamite also was used to break up rocks too large for the steam shovels to handle. Goethals related that in those cases three or on occasion more sticks of dynamite were laid on the rock, covered in mud, and set off by use of a slow match. Most of the dynamite was used at the Culebra Cut.

Disposal of the massive amounts of spoil involved was handled by trains pulling a score or so of Lidgerwood flat cars, each capable of hauling approximately l9 cu. yds. (15 cu m) of material. These cars were one-sided and steel plates joined each car into what amounted to a continual surface, necessary for the method used to unload them.

This was accomplished by means of attaching a car carrying a plow and another featuring an unloader at opposite ends of the train. Unloaders had a steam-driven windlass around which a wrist-thick steel cable was wound. Thus equipped, the train was driven under a frame to which the cable was attached and as the train moved on, the cable paid out until it reached, and could be attached to, the plow. Rewinding the cable pulled the plow forward, pushing excavated material off the cars to the waiting spreaders. The plow and unloader were detached and the empty train returned to the diggings. This work also was handled with Western dump cars, which ran on compressed air, and some unloading was done by hand.

As much of this excavated material as possible was recycled for such purposes as constructing a 3-mi. (5 km) long breakwater constructed as an anti-silting measure as well as building the Gatun Dam, which tamed the Chagres River and created Gatun Lake. It also was used to reclaim 500 acres (202 ha) of the Pacific. In addition, millions of cubic yards of material was dumped into the jungle.

The disposed material often included a large amount of rock and earth from landslides. In his lecture to the National Geographic Society, Goethals stated in fiscal year 1908 alone approximately 6 percent of the material removed was deposited by slides, while two years later the proportion had risen to 18 percent.

The problem was finally resolved by grading the slopes of the Cut to a less steep angle than had hitherto been attempted.

Record Amounts of Excavation

Goethals’ arrival heralded the onset of a period of record accomplishment. Bennett stated that despite the fact it was the rainy season, in August 1907 a record 1 million cu. yds. (764,555 cu m) was excavated, a figure doubled and then tripled during the following months. The workforce kept up the pace and in two years had removed approximately 73 million cu. yds. (55.8 million cu m).

In 1907 the equipment fleet increased to include 100 steam shovels, 560 drills, more than 50 cranes and 20 dredges. The annual consumption of fuel was approximately 500,000 barrels of oil and 350,000 tons (317,515 t) of coal.

Numerous American companies sent their equipment to Panama.

Among them, the Bucyrus Company of South Milwaukee, Wis., manufactured the majority of the steam shovels used on the job. Shovels also were supplied by the Marion Steam Shovel Company of Marion, Ohio, and the Harry A. Lord Company of Allegheny, Pa.

The largest shovels were 95 ton (86 t) models with 5-cu.-yd. (4 cu m) dippers, and 45- and 70-ton (41 t and 64 t) shovels also were used. In May 1912 a Marion model 9l steam shovel set a world record by moving more than 5,550 cu. yds. (4,243 cu m) of material.

One or two of the steam shovels, which worked on the canal have been traced. A Marion model 60 present in Panama in l904 was reported fronting a museum at the University of Costa Rica. Another canal-era Bucyrus steam shovel was borrowed from a private owner in Montana and exhibited in “Let The Dirt Fly,” the 1999 Smithsonian Institution exhibition devoted to the construction of the canal.

Harry A. Franck worked on the project for several months in 1912, first as a census enumerator and subsequently as a policeman. “Zone Policeman 88: A Close Range Study of the Panama Canal and its Workers,” his lively memoir of the time he spent in the Panama Zone, was one of the best selling books of 1913. He provided a colorful picture of the work carried out by the steam shovels, describing their mammoth strength coupled with the ability to work at delicate tasks such as picking up a single railroad spike.

“They ate away the rocky hills,” he wrote, “and cast them in great giant handfuls on the train of one-sided flat-cars that moved forward bit by bit at the flourish of the conductor’s yellow flag.”

Steam shovel crews consisted of a craneman who perched on its arm and the engineer who operated the controls, each shovel being accompanied by a gang of laborers. The latter came from many nations and sometimes unexpected professions. Franck noted a Spanish laborer killed at the Culebra Cut by a dynamite explosion was discovered to be a celebrated lawyer in his home country.

Steam Shovel Work Honored

The sterling work of the steam shovels is recalled in a bronze plaque commemorating Lieut. Col. David DuBose Gaillard, who oversaw excavation at the Culebra Cut between the summers of 1908 and 1913, and after whom the Cut was subsequently renamed. The plaque shows two laborers digging in the Cut, a pair of steam shovels in the background. It is now displayed at the bottom of the steps in front of the Canal Administration building in Balboa, close to the Goethals Memorial.

In addition, a stamp issued in 1951 depicted laborers from the West Indies working on the Culebra Cut, with a steam shovel shown on the far left. Steam shovels and other equipment also can be seen in murals decorating the rotunda of the Canal Administration’s building, which record work at the Cut, the Gatun Dam, and the locks.

Steam shovels working on the canal were mounted on cars running on rail lines, which were relocated as necessary by track shifters invented by William G. Bierd, who previously held the post of general manager of the Panama Railroad. With their aid, whole sections of tracks could be quickly moved between approximately 2.5 and 9 ft. (.7 and 3 m) in one “throw” when the task in hand required it.

Dredges and Hoists

Dredges working on the project included a 20-in. (51 cm) hydraulic pipe line model, manufactured by the Ellicott Machine Company of Baltimore, Md. It cost $158,000 and could excavate 750 cu. yds. (573 cu m) of material an hour.

Other dredging equipment was supplied by the Haywood Company and Froment & Company, both based in New York City, as well as the Atlantic Gulf & Pacific Company, also of New York.

A. L. Ide & Son, based in Springfield, Ill., supplied dredge engines, while centrifugal pumps were provided by the Morris Machine Works of Baldwinsville, N.Y.

The equipment fleet also included four rebuilt iron-hulled ladder dredges salvaged from the holdings of the French company. The buckets of these dredges could move 15 cu. ft. (.4 cu m) of material, working down to a 45 ft. (14 m) depth.

Equipment provided by the Brown Hoisting Machinery Company of Cleveland, Ohio, handled heavier work, such as unloading coal. Coaling cranes manufactured by Orton & Steinbrenner of Chicago, Ill., also worked on the job, and another Cleveland manufacturer with a similar name, the Browning Engineering Company, provided cranes.

Scott reported the cost of the canal up to July 1912 was $260 million, including the $40 million used to purchase the French company. By then construction and engineering had cost $152 million and sanitary improvements $15 million. Bennett set the cost of excavating the Calubra Cut alone at between $l0 million and $l5 million a mile.

Building the Locks

The construction of the canal’s giant locks provided another snapshot of just one part of the huge task facing the builders.

Some notion of the vast size of these locks is indicated by the numbers: the walls bisecting the locks into two chambers are themselves 60 ft. (18 m) wide. The thickness of side walls ranges between 45 to 50 ft. (12 and 15 m) on the lock floor, and the culverts, which carry water to the locks have a diameter of 18 ft. (5.5 m).

During the construction of the Gatun Locks, concrete was delivered by a new method involving a circular electric railroad.

Steel cars divided into two compartments (one for premeasured amounts of sand and stone and the other for cement) were loaded and sent to eight concrete mixers, each with a 64 cu. ft. (1.8 cu m) capacity. Once mixed, concrete was loaded into rail cars and rerouted to 85 ft. (26 m) high Lidgerwood cableways spanning the locks. Full buckets were caught up and carried across the lock for placement as necessary, while the empty buckets for which they were exchanged were already returning to be refilled with material for the concrete mixers so the cycle could begin again.

At Pedro Miguel and Miraflores on the Pacific end of the canal a similar system for mixing and placing concrete was operated with the aid of cranes and steam locomotives Lt. Col. Harry F. Hodges was in charge of the design and erection of the lock gates. McClintic-Marshall Construction Company, of Pittsburgh, Pa., was awarded the contract for this part of the job. Ranging in height from 47 to 82 ft. (14 to 25 m), the gates are 7 ft. (2 m) thick, and comprise two leaves over 60 ft. (18 m) wide, weighing between 390 and 730 tons (354 and 662 t) apiece.

Franck’s book provides a glimpse of the construction of the Gatun Locks. Describing its steel gates, which he saw standing ajar, as akin to “an opening in the Great Wall of China.” He goes on to say, “On them resounded the roar of the compressed-air riveters and all the way up the sheer faces, growing smaller and smaller as they neared the sky, were McClintic-Marshall men driving into place red-hot rivets,” tossed up to them from workers at the forges, their trajectory “glaring like comets’ tails against the twilight void.”

Ships are not permitted to pass through the locks under their own power. General Electric in Schenectady, N.Y., provided “mules,” as the electric locomotives, which pull vessels through the locks are known.

A Greater Work Than They Realized

The importance of the canal was highlighted in November 1906 when Theodore Roosevelt visited Panama to inspect progress on the job, the first time a sitting president had left the country.

In a speech to the workforce at Colon, after complimenting the “steam-shovel man” as “the American who is setting the mark for the rest of you to live up to.” Roosevelt went on, “This is one of the great works of the world; it is a greater work than you, yourselves, at the moment realize.”

In his speech, Roosevelt promised to see if he could arrange for “some little memorial, some mark, some badge, which will always distinguish the man who did his work well on the Isthmus,” and indeed this came to pass. Medals struck from scrap metal taken from abandoned French equipment were issued to Americans who had worked for two years on either construction or the railroad. Bars marking each subsequent two year period of service on the project were issued thereafter.

The distribution of 50,000 bronze Panama Canal Completion Medals marked the opening of the s-shaped 51-mi. (82 km) long waterway on Aug. 15 1914.

When the United States took over building the canal — and for some time afterwards — naysayers said such a waterway could never be built. Yet in only 10 years persistence, grit, and technical knowledge, aided by an army of laborers and heavy equipment, saw the job through to completion. CEG


Las Lajas Cathedral, Columbia  
Beautiful.  The wall of miracles was very touching.
Sent by Bonnie & Ruben Chapa 


Número 116
Marzo 2013
Editor: Luis Álvaro Gallo Martínez
Calle 94 A Número 63-28
Teléfono (57-1) 2264081
Bogotá D.C. – COLOMBIA
ISSN. 1794-8959
Boletín Olano.
Ya está en el blog el Boletín Olano, del mes de abril 
Sobre italianos: Como país, Italia, puede ser la nación, después de España, con más apellidos en Colombia. (Aclaramos que como región, bajo las denominaciones de turcos y árabes, éstos son los más numerosos, éstos abarcan diversos países).  
Por eso nos parece interesante esta información sobre apellidos italianos. 

Ancestros Italianos: STATO CIVILE TOSCANO: En el Portale Antenati ya se pueden consultar las imágenes de los libros del registro civil conservadas en el Archivo de Estado de Firenze, que incluyen registros de las provincias de Pisa, Arezzo, Lucca, Grosseto, Prato, Massa Carrara, Pistoia. Livorno e incluso algunas comunas de la provincia de Forlí-Cesena. Los registros comienzan en 1806/8. Lo pueden consultar en este link. 

El próximo 13 de julio a las 10.00 a.m., en el Hotel Karlaká, de Armenia, Quindío, se dará comienzo a la reunión de la familia Giraldo, evento que durará los días 13 y 14.

El costo por persona es de $ 100.000,00, que incluye: Alojamiento en el Hotel, almuerzo y cena del día sábado 13. Desayuno y almuerzo, del día domingo. Material y actividades de integración. Reunión social del sábado en la noche. 

Depositar el 50% de la cuota (por persona) al representante de cada familia A MAS TARDAR EL 15 DE MAYO, y entregar nombres y acomodación de su preferencia (doble o múltiple). Con esto se garantiza la reserva de los cupos en el hotel.
Depositar el 50% restante el 30 DE JUNIO. En ambos depósitos sumar costos de transferencia bancaria.
Podrán llegar al hotel el sábado antes de almuerzo y cada familia y/o habitación podrá abrir cuenta independiente para consumos extras y de licor.

GIRALDO – RAMIREZ: Gloria María (314 750 7202)
ZULUAGA – GIRALDO: Blanca Alicia ó Silvio Alberto (310 375 8467)
GIRALDO – OROZCO: Nancy Giraldo R. (310 415 7823)
GIRALDO – LONDOÑO: Germán Aníbal (315 361 1111)
gervasio di cesare < 

Asunto: Genealogista en Euskal Herria: Les escribo para informarles de mis servicios como genealogista en Euskal Herria, donde resido en Pamplona. Tengo una experiencia de más de 20 años en el tema y he escrito varias publicaciones al respecto. Creo que sería interesante divulgar entre los socios estos servicios ya que muchas veces desde la distancia es imposible o muy complicado poder realizar este tipo de investigaciones.

Les facilito la dirección del blog que hemos creado junto con Luis Mc Garrell distinguido heraldista, donde podrán encontrar mayor información: 

Consulta de archivos de periódicos en el mundo: Google ha puesto en línea un fácil sistema para encontrar archivos de periódicos del mundo y otras publicaciones afines.  Pueden encontrarlos en 
Debajo de cada título encontrarán el detalle de los diarios que conservan archivos

De acuerdo a la revista Nuestra Huella, de la Registraduría Nacional del Estado Civil, nos presenta un análisis sobre los nombres más comunes en Colombia.

Cita, que el nombre, en hombres, es de Juan David, existen 112.160 registros, le sigue Andrés Felipe, con 94.409. Y luego Juan Sebastián con 75.950. Esto en nombres compuestos.

En nombres sencillos, masculinos, son: Santiago con 98.405; Sebastián con 59.305; Samuel con 36.415.
Con respecto a nombre femeninos, tenemos en compuestos: María José con 68.106; Luis Fernanda, con 64.099; María Camila, con 61.362. Y con un solo nombre: Valentina, con 85.559; Mariana con 60.522. Daniela con 44.762.
Estos datos corresponden a una recopilación desde el año 2000 a febrero del presente año de 2013.
En este certamen que estará abierto hasta el próximo miércoles 1 de mayo, contamos con la participación así: Francisco Hernando Muñoz Atuesta, quién está haciendo presencia en el Stand 125 del Pabellón 3, primer piso, donde promueve la segunda edición de su libro “Cartagena de Indias, Compilación Histórica”.   Mayores informes en: 

Y en el stand 326 del Pabellón 1, primer piso, se encuentran a la venta distintos libros de genealogía. Allí atiende con gusto el sr. Darío Amaya.  Cualquier consulta u orientación en el celular 3134186012.  Mayores informes en: 

Pregunta 116-1
Estamos buscando información sobre Carlos Adolfo Urueta, posiblemente de origen cartagenero, y casado en Medellín con una hija del General Rafael Uribe Uribe.

Pregunta 116-2
Por favor, alguien sabe si el testamento del doctor Dionisio Pérez Manrique, Marques de Santiago, y que fuera Presidente de la Real audiencia de Santa Fe de Bogotá, está en el Archivo General de la Nación o quien puede tener copia de este documento. Lo estoy buscando para documentar un artículo que se va a publicar en el Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Historia del Ecuador.
El testamento fue otorgado el 7 de julio de 1678.
Gregorio Larrea: 
Christy FillerUp APGQ nombrado Jefe de Redacción 
La Asociación de Genealogistas Profesionales (APG ®) ha nombrado FillerUp Christy de Salt Lake City, Utah, como jefe de redacción de la publicación trimestral de la Asociación de Genealogistas Profesionales Trimestral (APGQ). APGQ ha servido a la comunidad de la genealogía desde 1979 con artículos escritos por el personal y contribuyó sobre todos los aspectos de la profesión. 

Christy FillerUp se desempeña como director del Salt Lake Instituto de Genealogía. Ella es miembro de la junta directiva de la Asociación Genealógica de Utah, y es un ex editor de su revista Encrucijada. En 2007 fundó la Transición Genealogistas Forum, Como jefe de redacción, FillerUp será responsable de la producción total de la APGQ, en consonancia con el estilo de alta calidad de la revista y un contenido atractivo. Ella trabajará con layout editor Matthew Wright y coordinará contento con eNews APG editor Phyllis McLaughlin.

Utah, septiembre 9 a 14 de 2013.
¡10 dólares diarios de hotel!

Así como lo oye. En el hotel Howard Johnson ese es el costo por persona adicional en una habitación. Vea aquí también información útil para conseguir boleto de avión económico.

No deje perder esta oportunidad de participar de este magnífico programa, conocer a genealogistas experimentados de toda Hispanoamérica con los cuales puede avanzar sus propias investigaciones y establecer contacto con muchos usuarios en Estados Unidos que añoran tener la ayuda de personas como usted.

En septiembre de 2013 cumpla el sueño de todo genealogista de conocer la Meca de la genealogía mundial, Salt Lake City, Utah, y de recibir ayuda de la biblioteca genealógica más grande del mundo para avanzar en su genealogía. 

El costo del congreso es de 90 dólares. 

El viernes y sábado habrá clases gratuitas abiertas a todo el público

Los preparativos para la Conferencia Iberoamericana en septiembre 9-14 van de maravilla.

Faltan cinco meses para el evento y ya tenemos ¡más de 110 inscripciones de 21 países! ¡Más de 90 de fuera de los Estados Unidos! Va a ser un evento magnífico.

Hay una docena de propuestas de ponencia que están en revisión y otra cantidad igual de ponencias que nos han anunciado. Le invitamos a hacer propuestas adicionales antes del 30 de mayo.

También hay una buena cantidad de clases propuestas para el viernes y sábado, las cuales servirán para compartir consejos en cuanto a cómo buscar genealogía de los diferentes países Hispanoamericanos, pero en especial para establecer enlaces y comunicación con descendientes de cada uno de estos países, y que necesitan ayuda de personas que vivan en el país de sus antepasados.

A aquellos que no se han inscrito aún, les informamos que inscribirse en El costo por participar en la Conferencia completa y los demás eventos asociados es de 90 dólares. La participación en las clases a la comunidad los días viernes y sábado no tendrá costo.

Igualmente estamos alistando todo en la Biblioteca de Historia Familiar para ayudarles a avanzar en sus investigaciones. Recuerden informarnos de qué lugares y fechas están haciendo investigación, para poder sugerirles y alistarles material pertinente.

No deje de revisar las actualizaciones que se hicieron recientemente al programa de la conferencia, ingresando a la página principal de la conferencia,, y haciendo clic en Programa.

Desde ya les decimos... ¡Bienvenidos a la Meca de la genealogía y la historia familiar!

La Universidad Brigham Young y FamilySearch anuncian la solicitud de ponencias y clases para la Conferencia Iberoamericana de Genealogía 2013.

Acerca de la Conferencia
Este importante evento con más de cincuenta años de tradición se realizó por muchos años en diferentes países con el nombre de Reunión Americana de Genealogía. Últimamente ha tenido una participación de más países y ha logrado un más amplio
espectro en sus temáticas, incluyendo a Europa, ganando en sus últimas versiones esta nueva denominación de Conferencia Iberoamericana de Genealogía.

Los participantes de este evento siempre han enriquecido y complementado las investigaciones de los demás participantes al tiempo que comparten los últimos hallazgos de sus investigaciones genealógicas, siempre procurando compartir las fuentes
y métodos utilizados para sus descubrimientos.

Al realizarse esta vez en Estados Unidos, que es el tercer país con mayor número de hispanohablantes del mundo, corresponde a la XVIII Reunión Americana de Genealogía y VIII Congreso Iberoamericano de las Ciencias Genealógica y Heráldica. En esta
oportunidad se ha delegado a la Universidad Brigham Young, en cabeza del Doctor George Ryskamp, la cual con el apoyo de FamilySearch desea lograr una cooperación mucho más sólida y permanente entre genealogistas de toda Hispanoamérica,
incluyendo a la numerosa población hispana de Estados Unidos. También se propone lograr la mayor cantidad de asistentes de cada país hispanoamericano.

Acerca de las presentaciones
Invitamos a investigadores y autores de toda Hispanoamérica a ofrecer ponencias y clases en las áreas en las que tienen mayor experiencia investigativa. Una ponencia es una presentación en la cual se comparten principalmente los resultados de una
investigación genealógica, aunque recomendamos que se haga énfasis en las fuentes consultadas y los métodos empleados. Una clase tiene el objetivo de enseñar métodos y cursos para la investigación genealógica, para lo cual es muy útil mostrar ejemplos
prácticos. Las ponencias tendrán una duración máxima de 20 minutos y las clases de 50 minutos. Se permitirá a los asistentes un corto tiempo de preguntas y respuestas al final de cada ponencia y clase.

Al preparar su presentación siempre debe considerar la manera en que ella contribuye a los tres objetivos básicos de esta Conferencia, tal como se describen en la página de inscripción  .

Para mayor información o para enviar sus propuestas, comunicarse con Javier Tobón .

Aceptación de propuestas
El Comité Organizador enviará las cartas de aceptación o no aceptación antes del 1 de abril de 2013. Asegúrese de incluir nombre completo, dirección de correo electrónico y números de 

Ayuda para su investigación
El Comité Organizador desea que los asistentes logren el mayor avance posible en sus investigaciones genealógicas para lo cual ofrece su ayuda para tener listos todos los materiales que utilizará para este propósito. Vea más información en la página principal:

Convocatoria a la Conferencia de Genealogía 2013
A partir de hoy se inicia la campaña informativa sobre la Conferencia Iberoamericana de Genealogía, que se celebrará del 9 al 14 de septiembre de 2013 en las ciudades de Salt Lake City y Provo, en el estado de Utah, Estados Unidos.

Apellido Yepes por Reinaldo Ágredo Tobar.
Estamos anexando con el presente Boletín un estudio sobre el apellido Yepes, elaborado por Reinaldo Ágredo Tobar, de quien ya hemos presentado otros trabajos.

Reinaldo Ágredo T., viene haciendo unos estudios sobre diversos apellidos que tuvieron participación muy activa en la Colonización Antioqueña en el Occidente Colombiano.

Este trabajo se presenta en Adobe Acrobat Estándar, 8 páginas.   
Reinaldo Ágredo Tobar:  

Apellido Vieira, por Julio Correo Restrepo.
Julio Correa Restrepo, nos presenta en esta oportunidad su investigación sobre el apellido Vieira, el cual está en 10 páginas siendo su deseo al hacerlo público, el contar con la colaboración de los lectores para poder avanzar en este estudio.
Julio Correa R.


“El apellido Yepes proviene del hebreo antiguo yöpe que significa “los que vienen de más allá del delta”. El linaje Yöpe tiene su origen en los israelitas que partieron de Egipto con Moisés hacia el año 1240 antes de Cristo. Tras la diáspora hebrea, los Yöpe que migraron hacia España, tomaron el denominativo Yepe (o Yepes), el cual fue dado también a la población ubicada en Castilla–La Mancha por ellos fundada. En el año de 1600, amenazados por la Inquisición, se convierten al cristianismo”
1. Dos españoles, sevillanos, trajeron a la hoy Colombia el apellido Yepes.

El primero: Juan Antonio de Yepes, esposo de la gaditana Dorotea Gertrudis Pérez de Hurtado, matrimonio del que nació Catalina de Yepes, esposa del cartagenero Diego José de Lore y de Pasos, padres de los cartageneros Pablo José y María Rita Josefa de Lore y Yepes. Y el segundo:

Mateo de Yepes (2º del nombre), fundador del linaje objeto del presente documento. El español Mateo de Yepes (2º del nombre)2, nacido hacia 1603, vecino de Sevilla, posteriormente radicado en Cartagena, fue hijo de los españoles Mateo de Yepes (1º del nombre) y Lucía Martín, naturales de Osuna en Andalucía. Casó con la posiblemente cartagenera María de Sandoval Barrios, nacida hacia 1611, hija de Brígida de Sandoval Rodríguez viuda en 1631.

ijos del matrimonio Yepes Sandoval fueron los dos siguientes, ambos cartageneros:
A. DIEGO DE YEPES (1º del nombre) SANDOVAL
1 En “Familia Ágredo Solano”.
2 Mateo de Yepes (2º del nombre): “En mayo 17 de 1631, cuando declaró que era de edad de 28 años, solicitó permiso para pasar al Perú, en compañía de su esposa María de Sandoval Barrios de 20 años; de su suegra viuda Brígida de Sandoval Rodríguez, de 40; y de su hijo Diego de Yepes Sandoval de dos años y medio. No se fue al Perú y se quedó en Cartagena de Indias, en donde tuvo, alrededor de 1635, a Juan de Yepes Sandoval” (en “Serie de apellidos antioqueños” del diario “El Colombiano”).

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Nacido hacia 1628. Se desconoce su suerte.
Nacido “alrededor de 1635”4, enterrado el 16 de mayo de 1676 en Medellín (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 19)5. Había casado el 29 de junio de 1666, en dicha ciudad, con la medellinense Juana María de Morga6, actuando como testigos Nicolás Guerra y Gertrudis de Villacreces (Parroquia de La Candelaria de Medellín, libro 1 de matrimonios, folio 16); matrimonio del que nacieron, según los libros parroquiales de La Candelaria: B.1 Gabriel Pedro, y B.II Rafael Bernardo Yepes Morga.

Confirmado en Medellín en 1670 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 66 vuelto).
Bautizado en Medellín el 4 de septiembre de 1672 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 7). 3 Dice el abogado y genealogista Rodrigo Escobar Restrepo en la “Serie de apellidos antioqueños”, refiriéndose a Juan de Yepes Sandoval, que “su nombre completo era Juan Mateo”, aseveración que no hemos podido confirmar en ningún documento. En el proceso de “Disentimiento interpuesto para impedir el matrimonio entre don José Ignacio Franco y Acevedo y doña María Jesús de Arango y Ortega – Medellín, 1798”, mencionado en el Tomo II, pag. 570 de la obra “Nobles, blancos y mestizos en la villa de Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria de Medellín – Probanzas de nobleza, familia y mestizaje del Cabildo, 1674-1812”, se da erróneamente a un Miguel de Yepes y a Juana Benítez Colmenero como los padres de Juana de Yepes, esposa del “europeo” José de San Martín. Que Juan de Yepes Sandoval, y no Miguel de Yepes, fue el padre de Juana de Yepes Benítez consta en el folio 91 del libro 1º de bautismos, y en el folio 82 vuelto del libro 1º de matrimonios de la Parroquia de La Candelaria de Medellín (ver B.III), transcritos por el ingeniero y genealogista Carlos Ignacio Córdova Sevillano. En la “Serie de apellidos antioqueños” del 19 de agosto de 2004, se menciona que Juana Benítez Colmenero declaró en su testamento: “De su primer marido, Juan de Yepes Sandoval, dijo que había sido“natural de Cartagena en estas Indias, hijo de Mateo de Yepes y de María de Sandoval””.
4 En “Yepes” de la “Serie de apellidos antioqueños”, publicación de 19 de agosto de 2004 en el diario “El
Colombiano” de Medellín.
5 Todos los registros parroquiales mencionados en el presente documento pertenecen al trabajo de
transcripción adelantado por el ingeniero y genealogista Carlos Ignacio Córdoba Sevillano.
6 El doctor Rodrigo Escobar Restrepo erróneamente afirma en la “Serie de apellidos antioqueños” que Juan
de Yepes Sandoval “había casado en el sitio de Aná, en junio de 1666, con Juana Benítez Colmenero
Tabares, de la cual fue el primer marido”.

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Juan de Yepes Sandoval con Juana Benítez Colmenero7, hija del capitán Mateo Benítez Colmenero y Catalina Tabares, fueron los padres de: B.III Juana, B.IV Agustina Rosa, B.V Juana Gertrudis, y B.VI Miguel Yepes Benítez.
Bautizada en Medellín el 1º de febrero de 1671 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 91). Casada en Medellín, el 29 de enero de 1690 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 82 vuelto), con el español José de San Martín, hijo de los madrileños Pascual de San Martín y María de la Fuente. Padres de:
Bautizada en Medellín el 5 de agosto de 1691 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 132 vuelto). Esposa de Felipe Acevedo Mesa8, casados el 20 de junio de 1712 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 32), hijo del capitán Jacinto de Acevedo Torreblanca y Ana María de Mesa Villavicencio. Con descendencia.
Bautizada en Medellín el 22 de septiembre de 1674 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 15 vuelto). Casada en Medellín el 1º de noviembre de 1698 con Andrés de León y Zuluaga, vecino de Santafé de Antioquia, hijo de Domingo de León y Zuluaga y Andrea de la Torre y Santiago (Parroquia de La Candelaria, libro 2, folio 11). Con descendencia.
Hija póstuma, bautizada en Medellín el 26 de noviembre de 1676 (Parroquia de La
Candelaria, folio 29 vuelto).
O Miguel Yepes Sandoval Benítez, como es llamado en la “Enciclopedia Abad-Zurek. Apellidos de Colombia” y en la “Serie de apellidos antioqueños”. Casado en Medellín el 30 de junio de 1688 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 73), con Andrea de Burgos
Antolinez (o Andrea Rangel Antolinez de Burgos como es llamada en la “Enciclopedia 7 Juana Benítez Colmenero: “Testó en Medellín, el 6 de junio de 1699”. Casó con Pedro de Salazar (en “Serie de apellidos antioqueños”, publicación del 19 de agosto de 2004). 8 Felipe Acevedo: el nombre de sus padres y el de su esposa consta también en el proceso de “Disentimiento
propuesto para impedir el matrimonio entre don Ignacio Franco y Acevedo y doña María Jesús de Arango y Ortega – Medellín ,1798” (en “Nobles, blancos y mestizos…”, Tomo 2, pag. 570). 9 Escobar Restrepo en la nota número 196 de las “Genealogías de Salamina”, reporta el testamento de Miguel Yepes en Medellín en 1745.

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Abad-Zurek. Apellidos de Colombia”; o Andrea Rangel-Antolines, o Andrea Rangel de Mendoza, o Andrea de Burgos-Antolines como se le registra en la “Serie de apellidos antioqueños”), bautizada en el sitio de Aná el 13 de febrero de 1673, hija de Josefa de Burgos y Antolinez (Parroquia de la Candelaria de Medellín, folio 8 vuelto). Hay otro registro con igual información e igual número de folio, con fecha del 30 de junio de 1692 en el libro 1 de matrimonios, quedando así la duda sobre el año real en que fue celebrado dicho matrimonio. Miguel y Andrea, padres de: B.VI.1 Fernando Félix, B.VI.2 Josefa,
B.VI.3 Felipe, B.VI.4 Juan Francisco, B.VI.5 José Felipe Santiago, B.VI.6 Diego (2º del
nombre), B.VI.7 Manuel Mateo, B.VI.8 María Luisa, B.VI.9 Petronila, B.VI.10 Miguel
(2º), B.VI.11 Francisco Javier, y B.VI.12 José Patricio Yepes Burgos.
O Fernando Yepes Rangel Antolines, como se le llama en la “Enciclopedia Abad-Zurek Apellidos de Colombia”, o Fernando de Yepes Sandoval como se le denomina en su registro matrimonial. Bautizado en Medellín el 3 de junio de 1690 (Parroquia de La
Candelaria, folio 120 vuelto). Casado el 14 de enero de 1714 con Bernarda López Tuesta, hija de Jacinto López Tuesta y Manuela de Betancur y Velasco (Parroquia de La Candelaria, libro 2 de matrimonios, folio 37), registro en donde a la madre de Fernando
Félix se le llama Andrea Rangel de Mendoza. Padres de los siguientes tres, medellinenses todos:
B.VI.1.1 JUAN IGNACIO YEPES LÓPEZ, bautizado el 22 de noviembre de 1716 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 94 vuelto).
B.VI.1.2 MARÍA LUCÍA DE LA PAZ YEPES LÓPEZ, bautizada el 18 de febrero de 1723 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 20 vuelto).
B.VI.1.3 BERNARDA MARGARITA YEPES LÓPEZ, bautizada el 29 de mayo de 1724 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 33).
B.VI.2 JOSEFA YEPES BURGOS Llamada Josefa Petronila Yepes Sandoval Rangel en “Enciclopedia Abad-Zurek. Apellidos de Colombia”. Casada en Medellín el 26 de junio de 1729 con Cristóbal ortínez (o Cristóbal Ruiz Cortínez), hijo de Domingo Cortínez y Juana de Toro (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 20). Padres de:
B.VI.2.1 IGNACIA BASILIA RUIZ YEPES, bautizada en Medellín el 17 de junio de 1732 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 149).
B.VI.3 FELIPE YEPES BURGOS Bautizado en Medellín el 15 de enero de 1692 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 134 vuelto).
Llamado Juan Francisco Ángel Yepes Rangel en “Enciclopedia Abad-Zurek. Apellidos de Colombia”. Bautizado en Medellín el 15 de enero de 1695 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, 10 Juan Francisco Yepes Burgos: posiblemente el Juan Francisco de Yepes que en Medellín el 9 de octubre de 1769 rindió testimonio en causa sobre limpieza de sangre de la familia Muñoz (en “Nobles, blancos y mestizos…”, Tomo 2, pags. 427 y 456). El 13 de marzo de 1737, siendo alcalde de la Santa Hermandad, con José de Restrepo fueron testigos de la boda de Manuel Ignacio Mejía con Josefa de Salazar (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 37 vuelto).

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folio 7). Casado con Ángela de la Calle (llamada María Ángela de la Calle Toro en la “Enciclopedia Abad-Zurek. Apellidos de Colombia”). Padres de los cinco siguientes: 
B.VI.4.1 FRANCISCO ÁNGEL YEPES DE LA CALLE, bautizado en Medellín el 28 de abril de 1735 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 174). Casado en Medellín el 26 de mayo de 1766, dispensadas en Popayán los impedimentos de consanguinidad en cuarto grado, con María Trinidad de Arango11 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 108). Padres, según la “Enciclopedia Abad-Zurek. Apellidos de Colombia”, de los siguientes siete, bautizados y vecinos todos de Medellín:
B.VI.4.1.1 JOSÉ ANTONIO YEPES ARANGO, casado con Juana Mejía, con descendencia registrada en la Enciclopedia citada.
B.VI.4.1.2 MARÍA ANTONIA YEPES ARANGO, casada el 8 de septiembre de 1789 con Juan Antonio Euse (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 56), “hijo de Pedro Euse y Tomasa Macías Rojo”. Con descendencia registrada en la mencionada Enciclopedia.
B.VI.4.1.3 MARÍA JOSEFA YEPES ARANGO, “con Luis Palacio Vélez, hijo de Ignacio Indalecio Palacio Guerra y Rosa Vélez Gómez”. Con descendencia registrada en la mencionada Enciclopedia.
B.VI.4.1.4 JOAQUÍN YEPES ARANGO, “casado en El Peñol”. 
B.VI.4.1.5 FRANCISCO YEPES ARANGO, “con Romualda Piedrahita Yarce, hija de Francisco Piedrahita y María Yarce Puerta”. Con descendencia registrada en la mencionada Enciclopedia.
B.VI.4.1.6 PEDRO ILDEFONSO YEPES ARANGO, bautizado el 25 de enero de 1783 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 32).
B.VI.4.1.7 JOSÉ GREGORIO FRANCISCO ÁNGEL YEPES ARANGO, bautizado el 8 de mayo de 1786 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 98).
B.VI.4.2 JOSÉ JOAQUÍN LEÓN YEPES CALLE, bautizado el 5 de julio de 1750 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 238). “Vecino de Medellín. Con Ana Rita Ruiz”, su primera esposa, padres de los cinco siguientes:
B.VI.4.2.1 MARÍA ROSA YEPES RUIZ, “vecina de San Cristóbal, casada el 25 de  febrero de 1802 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 881), con Benito María Maya Ochoa, bautizado el 24 de marzo de 1782, hijo de Salvador Maya Álvarez y María Tomasa Ochoa Tirado”. Con descendencia registrada en la Enciclopedia antes citada. B.VI.4.2.2 MARÍA SALVADORA YEPES RUIZ, “casada el 15 de octubre de 1806 en Medellín con Matías Jaramillo Gaviria, hijo de José Nicolás Antonio Pascual Jaramillo Molina y Andrea Gaviria Gallón”. Con descendencia registrada en la mencionada
B.VI.4.2.3 JOSÉ SALVADOR YEPES RUIZ, “bautizado en Medellín el 25 de marzo de 1793, sepultado allí el 24 de agosto de 1819; presbítero”.
B.VI.4.2.5 CLETO YEPES (1º del nombre) RUIZ, posiblemente muerto en su infancia. De la segunda unión de José Joaquín León Yepes Calle, con María Josefa González Ruiz, “hija de Vicente González de Castro y Gertrudis Ruiz Espinar” fueron hijos los tres
11 María Trinidad Natividad Arango Peláez: “Hija de Fernando Antonio de Arango Vélez y Jerónima Peláez y Echeverri”, según la obra “Enciclopedia Abad-Zurek. Apellidos de Colombia”.

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B.VI.4.2.6 CLETO YEPES (2º del nombre) GONZÁLEZ, “vecino de Aná, con María Silvestra Gallón Cobaleda, vecina de Ana, hija de Félix Gallón Ochoa y María Irene Cobaleda Barreneche”. Con descendencia registrada en la “Enciclopedia Abad-Zurek…”.
B.VI.4.2.7 FELIPE YEPES GONZÁLEZ, “vecino de Medellín, casado en San Pedro con
Petrona o Pastora Gutiérrez Gutiérrez, hija de Juan Nepomuceno Gutiérrez Mejía y
María Luisa o Lucía Gutiérrez Robledo”. Con descendencia registrada en la antes citada
B.VI.4.3 JUANA MARÍA IGNACIA YEPES CALLE, bautizada el 2 de agosto de 1733 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 159). “Casada con Pedro José García”. Con descendencia registrada en la mencionada Enciclopedia.
B.VI.4.4 MARÍA JACINTA YEPES CALLE, bautizada el 19 de septiembre de 1738 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 196).
B.VI.4.5 ANA MARÍA ROSALÍA YEPES CALLE12, bautizada el 10 de marzo de 1743 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 212).
Quien de acuerdo con la “Enciclopedia Abad-Zurek…”, “testó el 12 de julio de 1723 y en diciembre de 1725”. Casado el 3 de febrero de 1721 con Juana de los Ríos Dávila13 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 52). Padres de: B.VI.5.1 José María Patricio, B. VI.5.2 María Úrsula Joaquina, y B.VI.5.3 María Francisca de Yepes Dávila. 
B.VI.5.1 JOSÉ MARÍA PATRICIO YEPES DÁVILA, bautizado el 28 de marzo de 1731 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 131). Casado el 16 de noviembre de 1758 con Juana María de Cuartas, hija de Francisco Javier Cuartas y de Ignacia Gómez de Ureña
(Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 69). “Casado con Juana María o Rosa Cuartas Gómez14, hija de Francisco Javier Cuartas Gómez y María Ignacia Gómez Garcés”, se lee en la “Enciclopedia Abad-Zurek…”. Padres de:
B.VI.5.1.1 JUAN JOSÉ YEPES CUARTAS, bautizado el 1º de julio de 1767 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 181).
B.VI.5.1.2 MARÍA JOSEFA TIBURCIA YEPES CUARTAS, bautizada el 15 de agosto de 1769 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 214). 12 Una Ana María Rosa Yepes Calle, hija de Francisco Yepes y Nicolasa Calle fue bautizada el 20 de noviembre de 1765 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 153). - Otra Ana María Yepes casó con Rafael de Cárdenas el 15 de febrero de 1771 (Parroquia de La candelaria, folio 140 vuelto) siendo los padres de las niñas María Mercedes y María de la Luz, bautizadas el 8 de enero de 1772 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 249), del niño José Miguel Eduardo, bautizado el 16 de octubre de 1775 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 301), de Fidelia casada el 26 de julio de 1796 con José de Acosta (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 450), y de Josefa de Cárdenas Yepes casada el 13 de octubre de 1800 con José Ignacio de Toro (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 766). - Otra Ana María Yepes con Pedro Molina fueron padres de José Ignacio Ramón Molina Yepes, bautizado el 30 de octubre de 1773 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 272). - El 10 de diciembre de 1786 casaron Javier Escobar y Ana María Yepes (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 220 vuelto). 13 Llamada Juana María Dávila en el registro bautismal de su hijo José María Patricio (B.VI.5.1), y Juana de Ávila en el de su hija María Úrsula Joaquina (B.VI.5.2). 14 Llamada Ana María Cuartas en el registro bautismal de su hija María Micaela (B.VI.5.1.9), Rosa Cuartas en el de sus hijos Roque José Jacinto (B.VI.5.1.10) y María Josefa Sebastiana (B.VI.5.1.7), y Juana en el de su hijo Miguel Eufrasio del Sacramento (B.VI.5.1.5) y en el de su hija Ana María Joaquina (B.VI.5.1.11).

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B.VI.5.1.3 FELIPE ANTONIO YEPES CUARTAS, bautizado el 5 de mayo de 1772 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 253), “vecino de Belén, con María Antonia Restrepo Mejía, nacida hacia 1782, hija de José Antonio de Restrepo Zamora y Juana Mejía”. Con descendencia registrada en la “Enciclopedia Abad-Zurek…”. B.VI.5.1.4 JOAQUÍN YEPES CUARTAS, “con mercedes Escobar Rivera, hija de José Jesús Escobar Bustamante y María Josefa Teresa Rivera y Gutiérrez”.
B.VI.5.1.5 MIGUEL EUFRASIO DEL SACRAMENTO YEPES CUARTAS, bautizado el 30 de mayo de 1780 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 384), “vecino de Sonsón”. B.VI.5.1.6 ROSALÍA YEPES CUARTAS, casada el 11 de septiembre de 1786 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 218 vuelto) “con Juan de Dios Betancourt Jiménez, medellinense nacido en 1762, hijo de Pedro Ignacio Betancourt Tello de Meneses e Isabel Jiménez Duque”. Con descendencia registrada en la mencionada Enciclopedia.
B.VI.5.1.7 MARÍA JOSEFA SEBASTIANA YEPES CUARTAS, bautizada el 20 de marzo de 1770 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 225). “Vecina de Belén, casada el 22 de mayo de 1787 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 223 vuelto) con Juan José Duque
Vásquez, natural de Marinilla, hijo de José Ignacio Duque Benjumea y Agustina Vásquez Rivera”. Con descendencia registrada en la mencionada Enciclopedia.
B.VI.5.1.8 MARÍA RITA YEPES CUARTAS, casada el 16 de noviembre de 1796 con José Miguel Álvarez (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 476), “hijo de Ventura Álvarez y María de Tapia Penagos Gil”. Con descendencia registrada en la mencionada
B.VI.5.1.9 MARÍA MICAELA YEPES CUARTAS, bautizada el 22 de mayo de 1760 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 63), “vecina de Hatoviejo, casada el 25 de septiembre de 1781 en Medellín con Francisco Ignacio Dávila y González”.
B.VI.5.1.10 ROQUE JOSÉ JACINTO YEPES CUARTAS, bautizado el 26 de agosto de 1763 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 106).
B.VI.5.1.11 ANA MARÍA JOAQUINA YEPES CUARTAS, bautizada el 11 de enero de 1764 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 112).
B.VI.5.1.12 MARÍA RAMONA JOSEFA YEPES CUARTAS, bautizada el 1º de septiembre de 1765 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 149). Casada el 10 de diciembre de 1783 con Miguel Rondón, con dispensa del cuarto grado de consanguinidad dada por el obispo de Popayán Jerónimo Antonio de Obregón y Mena (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 195 vuelto). Con descendencia registrada en la mencionada Enciclopedia.
B.VI.5.2 MARÍA ÚRSULA JOAQUINA DE YEPES DE LOS RÍOS15, bautizada el 14 de noviembre de 1735 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 177). Casada el 30 de junio de 1753 con Lucas Antonio Rendón, hijo del sargento Juan José Rendón y María Faustina Valdés (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 64 vuelto). “Con Lucas Antonio Rendón Martínez, hijo de Juan José Rendón o Rondón y María Faustina Martínez de Coy Acevedo”, se dice en la “Enciclopedia Abad-Zurek”. Con descendencia registrada en la mencionada Enciclopedia.
B.VI.5.3 MARÍA FRANCISCA DE YEPES DÁVILA, “con Lucas Antonio Rendón Valdés, hijo de Juan José Rendón y María Francisca Valdés”.
B.VI.6 DIEGO YEPES (2º del nombre) BURGOS (o YEPES RANGÉL) 15 Llamada Joaquina Yepes Dávila en el registro bautismal de su hija María Trinidad Rendón Yepes (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 147, del 18 de julio de 1765).

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“Sepultado en Rionegro el 5 de noviembre de 1778. Licenciado, ordenado sacerdote el 24 de febrero de 1737”.
B.VI.8 MARÍA LUISA DE YEPES “Bautizada el 28 de agosto de 1697 en Medellín”.
Bautizada en Medellín el 28 de agosto de 1697 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 19).
B.VI.10 MIGUEL YEPES (2º del nombre) BURGOS Llamado Miguel Mateo Yepes Rangel en la “Enciclopedia Abad-Zurek. Apellidos de Colombia”. Bautizado en Medellín el 20 de febrero de 1699 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 24 vuelto). Esposo, según la citada Enciclopedia, de “Gertrudis González Escudero Velásquez, vecina de Rionegro, hija de Isidoro González Escudero y María Manuela Osorio Velásquez”.
Bautizado en Medellín el 11 de marzo de 1702 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 48).
Bautizado el 2 de mayo de 1714 (Parroquia de La Candelaria, sin información sobre el número del folio). Posiblemente el Patricio Yepes casado el 5 de enero de 1737 con María Peláez (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 37), quien viuda volvió a casar el 8 de septiembre de 1740 con Manuel Tamayo (Parroquia de La Candelaria, folio 44 vuelto).

ÁGREDO TOBAR, REINALDO DARÍO. Notas biográficas y genealógicas - Tomo I,Familia Ágredo Solano. En preparación.
ARANGO MEJÍA, GABRIEL. Genealogías de Antioquia y Caldas (4ª edición). Medellín, Litoarte Ltda., 1993, dos tomos.
BOTERO ARANGO, FIDEL. Enciclopedia Abad-Zurek - Apellidos de Colombia. Bogotá, Tecimpre S.A. Impresores,1999-2000 
CÓRDOBA SEVILLANO, CARLOS IGNACIO. Transcripción de libros parroquiales de Bogotá y del Departamento de Antioquia. Medellín, 20XX-2011.
DIARIO EL COLOMBIANO de Medellín. Serie de apellidos antioqueños. Medellín, publicada entre el 5 de junio de 2003 y el 28 de julio de 2005; Foro de apellidos antioqueños, 2003-2006.

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DUQUE BOTERO, GUILLERMO. Genealogías de Salamina (1ª edición). Bogotá, Instituto Colombiano de Cultura Hispánica / Editorial Kelly, 1993. INSTITUTO COLOMBIANO DE CULTURA HISPÁNICA. Nobles, blancos y mestizos en la villa de Nuestra Señora de La Candelaria de Medellín – Probanzas de nobleza, familia y mestizaje del cabildo 1674-1812 (1ª edición). Bogotá, Giro Editores Ltda., 2000, Tomo 2.  PARROQUIA DE LA CANDELARIA de Medellín. Libros de bautismos,
confirmaciones, matrimonios y defunciones.


The Internet, a Revisit by Eddie AAA Calderón, Ph.D.
F. Sionil Jose possible first Filipino to win Nobel Prize for Literature by Maria Embry

The Internet, a Revisit 
by Eddie AAA Calderón, Ph.D.

I just wrote an article on this topic PHILIPPINES and still could not believe that the many benefits that the internet has provided me and to others also. The wonders of the internet communication have opened up many unexpected but welcomed opportunities for me to meet in particular new relatives as well as interacting with my known relatives from my father's side. I of course acknowledge that the internet communication has brought me closer too with my maternal relatives. My sister and I do communicate almost on a daily basis with our maternal first cousin. 

In the past if you want to communicate from foreign lands to your relatives and friends in the Philippines and vice versa, you had to spend a lot of money to pay for telephone communication. Writing letters and mailing them through the post office does not take that much time to do, but it usually takes weeks or even a month to get a response. But with the internet, communicating with your relatives and friends and receiving a response are instant if they choose to respond right away. Fortunately the means to communicate are free if you have computer with internet access (of course one has to pay monthly for having internet access and usage.). You can even see and talk to them via skype when you are in the internet communication.

My paternal relatives are very much active in cyberspace communication and there are more than a dozen facebook accounts of their memberships in various associations involving relatives and countrymates in Aurora, the Philippines, my father's home province that is very beautiful and picturesque overlooking the Pacific Ocean. My maternal relatives from another province in the Philippines appear unable to compete with the very active internet involvement of my paternal relatives and their friends.

The internet communication with my paternal relatives even gets interesting when one talks of politics. I am then concentrating my article on politics and the effects of cyberspace communication. Last month was a national election event in my country and many of our country mates voted including those living abroad. The election this year in my country was not a presidential election but it involved major branches of the government from congress down to the provinces, cities, and towns. The internet then became also the important means of communication for very hectic political campaigns other than the usual person to person, group and telephonic contacts. 

My father's relatives have been into politics even before our country became independent in 1946. In this year's election held last month, some of my paternal relatives participated in the election and won seats in the lower and upper houses of congress, provincial and municipal offices (mayors, vice-mayors, town councils, ec). At present a relative is a senator and has been in that position for decades. His son ran for the senator position this year and won. The current senator's younger sister who is the present governor of the province won the lone congressional seat for the province during the last month election. She had been a congresswoman before she decided to become a governor and let her nephew, the son of the present senator, run for that congressional office she left which he later won. Again her nephew is now a newly elected senator. Another relative got re-elected as a town mayor . The newly elected and re-elected officials will assume/continue their positions in June, 2013.

There are also relatives of mine who were victorious in various offices in the provincial council and in many town administrations in this year's election. At least one relative acknowledged his loss and congratulated the winner; but there are others who may not exhibit this same attitude. I just wish that those who did not win in the election will not ruin the kinship due to political rivalries. It is true that especially in the Philippines that politics for many is thicker than blood or kinship, and relatives have become estranged and even have become enemies when they both compete for the same elected positions or they belong to different political parties which are by nature in competition with each others.

Politics is indeed a very interesting if not an intriguing subject matter that my countrymates and relatives thoroughly and constantly discuss and argue. My interest in politics has initially been the over-all picture of my country and any country in the world. But my rediscovering paternal roots and communicating with my relatives via internet daily has made me go deeper than just merely discussing general politics with them.

I am really very much surprised to know and thanks to the internet that I have so many relatives in my father's hometown. I also learnt of my family tree starting with my great-great grandparents and their relatives from a cousin who likes to keep records of our lineage. Now my newly discovered relatives want me to come home and visit them. I too am equally surprised to know that many of my countrymates on my father's sides including relatives are PATIPERROS in Chilean Spanish or "LAGALAG" in the Filipino language as they are found all over the world. There are 196 countries in the world and 193 of them are members of the United Nations -- 

Since my countrymates are all over the world like in the Middle East, Africa, Oceania, Asia, North --Central --South Americas, Eastern and Western Europe including the islands of Cyprus, Palma de Majorca/Mallorca, Iceland, etc., one may be tempted to say that they can be found in all 196 countries which include distant and seemingly not so popular places. I myself had been to one of those islands that a few has ever visited or I was the first Filipino to ever set my foot in that very remote and tiny island belonging to Chile and that is the Easter Island or Isla de Pascua.

Just to underscore this point which is not above all inclusive of the total data, let us refer to the official account of the Philippine Overseas Absentee Voting Committe of the Commission on Election (cited from the The online news portal of TV5). The countries cited below are the only ones that indicate Filipino residents who registered to vote in Philippine election via absentee ballots. for the 2013 election. Again the data here do not include all 61+ countries in which the Philippines has diplomatic offices. .. 

(Please be informed that the majority of the oversea Filipinos, including those in the USA, Canada, Europe, and countries were the Philippines has no formal diplomatic relations do not vote by absentee ballots during Philippine elections. The names of the countries are therefore not included below.)

Africa and the Middle East: Burundi, Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, and Zambia

Western Europe: The Netherlands and Turkey

Former USSR and Eastern Europe: Estonia and Latvia, former republics of the USSR; Bulgaria, Hungary; Poland; Bosnia/Herzegovina and Macedonia from the former Yugoslavia

Central and South America including Mexico, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Surinam (Dutch South America), Venezuela

The North American continents: Canada and the USA

Indian Ocean: Mauritius 

There are lots of Filipinos in all parts of Asia also including Mainland China, India, Pakistan, Indonesia, etc, the Pacific Ocean that includes Australia, New Zealand, Tahiti, etc, that are not included on the above list. Filipinos are all over the world and the internet has made them keep in touch with their relatives and friends as though they were living next door to them like neighbours.

I would naturally say with enthusiasm about our countrymates who are "mga lagalag" or "patiperros" because I myself was one in 1970 when I went on a world journey for 5 months. And in the year 2001, I again was a "patiperro" when I travelled to Kyrgyzstan for the first time to fulfill my dream in the autumn life of ending my being a bachelor for all those years. I was the first Filipino to ever set foot in that remote Muslim Central Asian Country that was once a republic of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic like my travel experience to Isla de Pascua. And again my courtship to end up being single was done through the internet.

And in particular with my intention of underscoring the major worldwide activity of Filipinos, this was what 91 year old Prince Philip told a Filipina nurse in a hospital in the UK:

'Your country must be half empty, you're all here running the NHS!' What Philip jokingly told Filipino nurse

Refer to:  

I am so happy to be able to get in touch with a lot of people especially my relatives via email and facebook accounts almost everyday.

Author and family at home, Easter 2008
Baby Eddnard-Placido was 6 months old.

A resort by the coast of Aurora Province in the Philippines, overlooking the Pacific Ocean. 

The province of Aurora is a rural community while Quezon City and Manila, the biggest city in the Philippines,  are urban communities.  Eddie Calderon, was was born in Quezon City, the capital of the Philippines and lived there until he came to the USA in September. 1964. 



F. Sionil Jose could become the first Filipino 
to win the Nobel Prize for Literature...


Francisco Sionil Jose, Asia's white hope (or tan stand?) for the Nobel, has been translated into every major language, including the Scandinavian, and is, hands down, the most widely read Filipino author. Nick Joaquin, Philippine Graphic outstanding saga writer. If ever a Nobel Prize in literature will be awarded to a Southeast Asia writer, it will be F. Sionil Jose... The Mainichi Shimbun , Tokyo

Considered by many to be Asia's most likely candidate for the Nobel Prize for Literature... The Singapore Straits Times

F. Sionil Jose could become the first Filipino to win the Nobel Prize for Literature...he's a fine writer and it would be welcome recognition of cultural achievement in his troubled country. (He) is widely known and acclaimed in Asia. John Griffin, The Honolulu Advertiser 

Sionil Jose has the ability to write evocatively. ..his descriptions of the rural environment have an intense glow and a lyrical shine...Linguistica lly and artistically he has developed his craft and is now the complete master of an American style...he is no longer an author depending on a language and psychology whose origins are in colonialism but is truly an emancipated stylist, an interpreter of character and analyst of society. Artur Lundkvist, The Swedish Academy , Svenska Dagbladet, Stockholm

Tolstoy himself, not to mention Italo Svevo, would envy the author of this story; Flaubert would resent the portrait of himself in the narrator, who tells us in the first person, never understanding it himself, how it is impossible to love another without loving, or at least liking oneself. This short...scorching work whets our appetite for Sionil Jose's masterpiece, the five-novel Rosales saga. Joseph Coates Chicago Tribune

...[Jose] never flattens his characters in the service of rhetoric...more impressive is Jose's ability to tell important stories in lucid, but never merely simple prose...It's refreshing to see a politically engaged writer who dares to reach for a broader audience. Laura Miller San Francisco Chronicle

Jose's writing is simple and direct, appearing deceptively unsophisticated at times. But the stories ring true, and taken together, they provide a compelling picture of the difficulties of modern life and love in this beleaguered island nation.  
Chronicle San Francisco

The foremost Filipino novelist in English...his novels deserve a much wider readership than the Philippines can offer. His major work, the Rosales Saga, can be read as an allegory for the Filipino in search of an identity. Ian Buruma New York Review of Books

Jose's collection is an incisive comment on the Philippines powerful matriarchal foundation. ...His reputation was built largely on the marvelous "Rosales Saga"— a series of novels published in the Philippines spanning nearly a century— "Three Filipino Women" represents slight shift...a contemporary, introspective, and "quieter" work, where history and politics—the manipulation and oppression of the poor by generations of elites—although present, are less pronounced. Peter Bacho, The Christian Science Monitor  

Jose's identity had equipped him to be fully sensitive to his nation's miseries without succumbing, like many of his characters, to corruption or despair. James Fallows, The Atlantic

America has no counterpart. one who is simultaneously a prolific novelist, a social and political organizer, an editor and journalist, and a small-scale entrepreneur. ..As a writer, Jose is famous for two bodies of work. One is the Rosales sequence, a set of five novels published over a twenty-year span which has become a kid of national saga...Jose Rizal's Noli Me Tangere, published in Spanish (despite its Latin title) in the late nineteenth century, was an influential Uncle Tom's cabin-style polemic about Spanish rule. The Rosales books are a more literarily satisfying modern equivalent. James Fallows

...I like to announce that we have among us the first great Filipino novels written in english and that the author, Francisco Sionil Jose, has spoken the awful truths and grappled with the fearful realities that centrally confront us, not in just one novel but in five books which, taken together, are the most impressive legacy of any writer to Philippine culture... Ricaredo Demetillo , University of the Philippines , Diamond Jubilee Lecture of the best and most active writers of contemporary Philippine literature in English. His touch with language is rivaled, perhaps, only by N.V.M. Gonzalez or Nick Joaquin among contemporary writers in English in the Philippines and his stories are moving portraits of Philippine society. Joseph A. Galdon SJ, Philippine Studies

Sionil Jose writes English prose with a passion that, at its best moments, transcends the immediate scene. (He) is a masterful short story writer. Christine Chapman, International Herald Tribune, Paris

One of the [Philippines] most distinguished men of letters...  Time

F. Sionil Jose writes with an urgency that recalls D.H. Lawrence and preoccupations resembling those of Hemingway. (His) prose has, at its best sustained intensity that is highly impressive. His work is an important part of the Filipinos' search for a nobler sense of themselves.  David Burleigh, Mainichi Daily News , Tokyo

His stories truly carry the reader into the petty, debilitating, nepotistic and often nightmarish world of politics and power.
David McElveen, Asiaweek , Hong Kong

In Filipino literature in recent years, the creative work of Francisco Sionil Jose occupies a special place...the advocate of Filipino originality (he) is a master not so much of cultural as of social analysis, uncovering the essence of contemporary processes in the Philippines. .. Jose is a great is often the case, the creative work of the artist is broader and deeper than his rigid artistic declarations. Igor Podberezsky, Institute of Oriental Studies , Moscow

Readers will be tantalized by these glimpses of lives...Joses elegiac tone complements his narratives.. . Publishers Weekly

Francisco Sionil Jose is perhaps the most prominent contemporary Filipino novelist, as well as a noted journalist, editor, publisher and political activist... Jose's writing is simple and direct, appearing deceptively unsophisticated at times. But the stories ring true, and taken together, they provide a compelling picture of the difficulties of modern life and love in this beleaguered island nation. Steve Heilig, San Francisco Chronicle

He has readers in 22 languages, with his popularity greatest in Russia and the Netherlands, where his novel Mass was a bestseller. Vernon Loeb, Philadelphia Inquirer

The only writier who had produced a series of novels that constitutes an epic creation of a century of Philippine life...a rich, composite picture. Contemporary Novelists

I am impressed with the complex interweaving of the personal and the public in these stories...I admire the vigor of the writing. Kathye S. Bergin, Houston Chronicle

The reader of this slim volume of well-crafted stories will learn more about the Philippines, its people and its concerns than from any journalistic account or from a holiday trip there. Jose's book takes us to the heart of the Filipino mind and soul, to the strengths and weaknesses of its men, women and culture. Lynne Bundesen, Los Angeles Times

(Sionil Jose) captures the spirit of his country's sullen and corrupt bureaucracy (and) tells the readers far more about Philippine society than many, far lengthier works of non-fiction. .. Steve Vines, South China Morning Post , Hong Kong

If we had to choose only one set of literary texts to represent the 20th century, it might arguably—vociferously arguably—be the only prose epic of our time, F. Sionil Jose's Rosales Novels and perhaps Viajero the only sustained modern narrative in novel form, following and keeping alive the ancient epic tradition of heroes unable to achieve heroism without the active help of the community, an achievement that in small measure owes its success to its continuing the Rizal tradition of romantic realism or realistic romanticism. Isagani R. Cruz , Playwright, critic a moving account of Filipino history and as such, a valuable contribution to the French-speaking world. Fernando Ainsa, UNESCO, Paris

By remaking the history of the Philippines, Jose (in VIAJERO) remakes the history of modernism to allow a place for Filipino identity. John McLaren, Editor, OVERLAND, Melbourne

Seldom has a writer reflected so well the qualities and the failing of his people. Francisco Sionil Jose is one of the best-known writers in his country and abroad. He crossed this century embracing the hopes and the disillusions of his land: his essays and his articles as well as his novels are inseparable from the modern history of the Philippines. Philippe Pons, Le Monde des livres , Paris

What surprises at first glance is the historical density in Francisco Sionil Joseճ writings, as if his aim were to write a fragmentary chronicle of the history of the Philippines. Didier Garcia, Le Marticule de anges , Paris

My Brother, My Executioner (of the Rosales Saga) stands out as, perhaps, the most politically sophisticated Filipino novel in English... Bienvenido Lumbera, Magsaysay Awardee in Literature

The (five-novel saga) about the people of Rosales is the closest you can get to a Filipino national epic. Jan Eklund, Dagens Nyheter

Moving and richly textured, this great Philippine novel (PO-ON) is possessed of a grand, brooding material and metaphorical imanence that seems to guide all of Sionil Jose's work...the tale is suspenseful and gripping, invested as it is with an Old Testament sense of tribulation and destiny... Reamy Jansen, The Bloomsbury Review

Don Vicente' is)...accessible. ..vivid David Walton, The New York Times

Like Dickens, Jose is a master storyteller, breeding characters from setting and social condition. Like Donne, Jose is a poet, seeking the spiritual ramifications of his subjects. (In Don Vicente) so powerful is Jose's sense of soul that he infuses not only his characters with it, but his readers as well. The Baltimore Sun

Fascinating and worthwhile introduction to a culture and history too often ignored in the West. Christopher Atamian, The New York Times Book Review

The mere mention of his name provokes the most partisan debates, but because of his prodigious output and the singeing social and moral vision that animates his best fiction, Jose (born 1924) is deserving of the National Artist Award. No Filipino novelist in English has written as adeptly, movingly, and in a language that is its own sole, freshly created universe about the Filipino's quest for a just moral order. Jose's fiction—limn and define a shining vision of today's Filipino: a future that is more fair, more just, more caring and ultimately more creative. Editorial, Philippine Daily Inquirer

With the novels of Graham Greene, Andre Malraux, Joseph Conrad, Han Suyin, Yukio Mishima, F. Sionil Jose's Ermita is "one of the top ten novels written in Southeast Asia." Ron Rennard, Discovery Magazine, March 2002

Wikipedia & other online sources

Sent by Maria Embry



Small businesses in Spain’s economic crisis by Eve A. Ma
Señoríos by Ángel Custodio Rebollo
Mis antespasados: John Inclan's Lineage back to Santo Fernando III
Archivo Histórico de Tarragona (AHAT)

Small businesses in Spain’s economic crisis

            By Eve A. Ma  

Plaza Plateros, Jerez, a favorite spot in the old city, is home to many bar/restaurants as well as numerous small shops selling almost everything.
Although the city of Jerez de la Frontera does have supermarkets and even corner stores, many people in the center of two purchase their food from the Mercado de Abastos which is open six days a week. Each stall is rented by a different small business and each has its own specialties.

It is ironic, after the so-called “Second Conquest” of Latin America by Spain during the years leading up to the current economic crisis, that the Spanish government is now courting Latin American businesses and asking them to invest in Spain, to save Spain’s economy.   

This may seem even stranger in light of the fact that the backbone of Spain’s economy is not big, multi-national  businesses, but the small mom and pop shops that abound in every neighborhood of the large cities, in every small town.  Some sources have claimed, in obvious exaggeration but with a grain of truth, that these small businesses make up 95% of Spain’s economy.  

And why should you, the reader of this article, who does not live in Spain and may never go there, be interested in the situation and problems faced by these small businesses?  You should be interested partly because Spain’s economic problems have an effect on Europe, and Europe affects the rest of the world.  In addition, these small businesses are not all that different from small businesses the world over, and we can learn much from looking at their plight.   

Instead of doing a scientific study, I decided to interview the owners of four small businesses in the southern Spanish city of Jerez de la Frontera, where I was staying, with the idea that this more human look at the situation would be of greater interest.  The four shops I chose are a small clothing/jewelry/cosmetics store owned and operated by Malena, a beauty shop owned by Francis, a paper goods/copy shop/school & office supply store owned by José Luis Delgado Herrerapicazo and his wife, and a bar/restaurant owned by Antonia Balao.  

In these four studies, we’ll see their reactions to the economic crisis and their vision of the future…not a very positive vision.  They are all hurting.


Malena - Butikalé

We´ll start with Malena.  She opened her shop just two months ago – a courageous move in view of the current crisis.  It´s called Butikalé, and is located on a major street two doors down from her father´s bar/restaurant.  She opened it with money that her husband saved, and she runs it with her adult daughter.  

The day I interviewed her, she was just opening the store.  There were customers waiting for her to unlock the door…but the two other times that I tried to find her, when her daughter was running the shop, there were no customers at all.  

The customers waiting for Malena – two women with their children – made some purchases.  One bought a blouse, a pair of long pants, and a necklace which together cost under 10 Euros (about $13).  Clearly, the prices are designed to move merchandise.  I rather wonder if the clothes might not be second hand.  

The customer wanted to buy other things, but didn´t have the money.  Malena explained, after the customer had left, that the purchaser had a job with the school district, but the school district was not paying its employees – a shocking but unfortunately common occurrence since the onset of the crisis.

The other customer, also a school district employee (and also not getting paid), made a very small purchase of one necklace for 3 Euros ($5).  

Malena commented that yes, the first year is always the hardest for a small business and December and January are the worse months.  She has not yet been able to pay herself any salary at all, but she is covering her costs.  

She says that things now are particularly hard.  Many people don´t even have enough money for food, and are going hungry or getting food from charitable agencies (I assume these would be the Catholic charities that are so important here).  And most people don´t have the money to buy clothes for themselves or for their children.

Malena thinks that if things continue on like this for a year or two, people will be patient but if they continue on for, say, five years, there will be a war or revolution.

Francis – of Francis Peluquero

Francis owns and operates a small beauty shop near the city´s central market.   When I went to interview him, there were several customers but this was at the time of Feria, when “everyone” wants to get their hair done.   

Before the crisis, when a special event was going on, the wait could well be an hour and a half or two hours if you didn´t have an appointment.  On the day I went, however, there was less than a 30 minute wait – the first effect I noticed of the crisis.  

Francis has been in business for over 20 years.  He commented to me that things are slower now than they have ever been.  Going to the beauty shop is not a necessity, like food, and that has contributed to the downturn of his business.  People who before would come in twice a week now come in only once a week, and so forth.  

It´s been a long time since he was able to go on a trip, or even take a vacation.  He has two young women working for him during busy times, such as during the annual Feria, because his customers don´t like to be kept waiting and if he doesn´t have the two young women, he won´t have any business at all.  When there is no special event going on, he is no longer able to have anyone help him out.  

Francis believes it´s going to take a long time for Spain to recover from the crisis.  He does not believe the government´s statement that things will start getting better in another year.  Beyond that, he doesn´t want to speculate about what will happen in the future.  

José Luis Delgado Herrerapicazo and his wife, Amparo, of  Papeleria Laso

Papeleria Laso is located at the corner of two major avenues, right on the edge of the historic district in the city´s center.  It´s next door to a bank, and right around the corner from many small business and a grammar school.  It is a great location for a paper good/copy shop/ and school and office supply

He has been running the shop for 50 years.  His wife helps him out.  They explained to me that they´ve had hard times before but this is definitely the worse.  No one has any money, everyone is just scraping by.  And like Francis, what they sell is not a necessity so people who used to purchase often now go without.  

Luis told me that the businesses that are suffering the most are the small businesses.  He and his wife have no idea how the country and the economy are going to get out of this mess.  They take the government at its word when it says things will get better after another year simply because they don´t know of anything better to do.  

I´ll give a short story here to illustrate their situation.  They are motorcycle enthusiasts, each with his/her own motorcycle and they belong to a motorcycle club.  (The wife is very small, and I find it charming to imagine her on a big, muscle motorcycle.)  

About five years ago, they had planned to go to the United States and drive their motorcycles across the country, but then the crisis struck, and they weren´t able to go.  Now, they can no longer even afford to leave the city for a vacation, so last year, they stayed open all year and didn´t take any time off.  They expect to do the same this year.


Antonia Balao – Bar el Garage

The last person I interviewed was Antonia Balao (Toni to her friends) who runs the Bar el Garage, one of the bar/restaurants so common in Spain.  Bar el Garage, which offers breakfast along with a lunch menu, tapas, and all forms of drink (from sodas to beer and wine to hard liquor) is located across the street from several city agencies in the heart of the old city.  Due to this location, it has a built-in clientele for breakfast and lunch.

In the evenings, it caters to a fairly young crowd and is somewhat of a sports bar.  Its tapas menu is varied and it offers newer fare like eggplant Parmesan, hamburgers, and a salad with greens, cheese, jam and chocolate sauce (yes, for real), as well as more traditional Spanish tapas.  

The evening crowd has almost disappeared, although there are still customers from the city offices for breakfast.  Some of these also return for lunch, although noticeably fewer than in past years.

Antonia commented to me that she is always working.  She is no longer making any money to pay herself.  She is just trying to pay her expenses so that she can stay open and wait for things to get better.  She lives with her parents, and they take her in their car to make her purchases because she doesn´t even own a motor scooter. 

In the summer months when it is so very, very hot in Jerez (a city south of Sevilla, not far from the Atlantic coast), she normally rents space from the city to put tables outdoors.  Because it gets to be so hot inside the bar/restaurant, without this outdoor space, she wouldn´t have any customers but this year, she doesn´t have the money to pay the city for the outdoor space.  She doesn´t know what she´s going to do.  

And a story about her as well:  two years ago, she ran the bar part-time while her older sister, Paloma, cover the other shifts, did the over-all management, and also had a catering business.  They ran things with the help of their respective boyfriends.  But about a year ago, Paloma went to Peru to work for a short while because there was not enough money to be made from the bar/restaurant.  The “short while” has now stretched into a year, with no end in sight, because Paloma can make a living in Peru, but not in Spain.  

As Antonia remarked, money isn´t moving in Spain.  No one has money to spend, and no one can afford to go out to eat, or go out for a drink.  This – going out for tapas, or for the lunch menu, or for a drink in the evening – is one of the favorite pastimes in Spain.  It really says a lot when you find that people aren´t going out to the bar/restaurants any more.  

Antonia also remarked that everyone is making sacrifices but at a certain point, lots of business owners simply give up.  They can´t continue on.  The crisis is hardest on the small businesses but even big businesses are shutting down, and foreigners don´t want to invest in the country because they see it as an economic disaster.  

Her last comments to me were that people are losing their homes, lots of people don´t have enough to eat and have to beg for food or get food from charitable organizations.  

So there you have it:  four different viewpoints from four different shop owners.  None of them felt very optimistic.  All of them are hurting.  It is unclear how many of them will survive another year under the current situation, much less the four or five years that it may take for the economy to turn around.  Will there be some kind of major, social upheaval?  I don’t know.

May, 2013    

NOTE:  Eve A. Ma is a filmmaker (and former college professor, former administrator of a cultural organization, and former practicing lawyer) who just completed filming a drama about the economic crisis in Spain called Domino:  Caught in the Crisis (Dominó;  agarrado por la crisis).  To find out about her work, you can sign up for her newsletter at or check out her web site at




La Real Academia describe la palabra “Señorío” como: “Dominio o mando sobre una cosa./Territorio perteneciente al señor”. ¿Pero que fueron los señoríos em la época medieval?

Cuando se quería premiar a una persona, a alguien a quien les profesaba un personal cariño (amantes o concubinas) , a una orden militar, a una abadía o monasterio, a una diócesis, el regalo que hacia el rey, era el “Señorío” de aquellas tierras, aquella villa o núcleo de población, o un simple castillo. En la última época, por las circunstancias que explicaremos, además de los “Señorios” se unía al galardón un título nobiliario.. Esta costumbre no fue solo del Medievo, porque continuó en toda la Edad Moderna.

El “Señorío” transfería una serie de derechos u obligaciones, especificadas en cada caso e incluso, en algunos, había limitaciones sobre la duración de algunas prerrogativas.

.Las hazañas bélicas que se realizaron en Andalucía para su reconquista, fueron premiadas con este tipo de obsequios, lo que hizo que en nuestras tierras proliferaran los “Señoríos”de forma muy llamativa.

Estas donaciones alcanzaron cada vez una mayor importancia, lo que hizo que la nobleza se viera menospreciada por ello, con lo que las protestas de los nobles ante la monarquía, hizo que muchos de estos títulos fueran a parar a la hidalguía, aunque en la época de los Trastamara, hubo muchos “señoríos” que se concedieron acompañados de la creación de un nuevo título nobiliario.

En nuestra provincia hubo muchas concesiones de señoríos, como la de Moguer, para los Portocarrero; la de Ayamonte, Lepe y la Redondela, para los Zuñiga; además que la de Gibraleón que en diferentes ocasiones, la ostentaron la familia La Cerda, los Stuñiga y el Duque de Béjar, que también pertenecía a una de estas familias.

Aunque el “Señorío” de mayor dimensión, más de cuatro mil kilómetros cuadrados, fue el otorgado por Alfonso XI y que fue repartido, la mitad para Leonor de Guzmán, que comprendía villas y aldeas de Sevilla, Cádiz y Córdoba y la otra mitad que fue para el infante Don Fernando, a quien se le otorgó el Señorío de Niebla. Hubo también “señoríos” eclesiásticos, como los de Zalamea y Almonaster al Arzobispado de Sevilla.

Esta costumbre no solo se realizó en nuestro País, muchos de los países europeos efectuaron estas licencias, aunque utilizando otras denominaciones y formas.

Ángel Custodio Rebollo

Mis antespasados:  John Inclan's Lineage back to Santo Fernando III, 
Rey de Castilla y Leon cc Elizabeth (Beatriz) Hohenstaufen de Swabia
Su hijo: Manuel, Infante de Castilla, Senor de Escalona cc Constanza, Infanta de Aragon
Su hija: Violante Manuel, Infanta de Castilla cc Alfonso, Infante de Portugal
Su hija: Maria Alfonso, Infanta de Portugal, 
              vuida de Tel Alfonso-de-Molina, VIII Senor de Lord Menezes cc Fernando Diaz-de-Haro, Senor de Orduna
Su hija: Maria Diaz-de-Haro cc Juan Enriquez, Alguacil Mayor de Toledo
Su hija: Violante Enriquez-de-Castilla cc Pedro Ponce-de-Cabrera, V Senor de Torres Cabrera
Su hijo: Fernando Diaz-de-Cabrera, VI Senor de Torres Cabrera cc Mayor de Venegas-y-Tolosan
Su hijo: Pedro I de Cabrera-y-Venegas cc Inez Alfonso-de-Alcazar
Su hija: Pedro II de Cabrera-y-Alcazar cc Beatriz Ruiz-de-Aguayo
Su hija: Ines de Cabrera-y-Aguayo cc Lope de Sosa-y-Mesa, (Governor and Captain General of the Canary Islands)
Su hijo: Juan-Alonso Sosa-de-Cabrera cc Ana Estrada-de-la-Caballeria
Su hijo: Juan Alonso (Sosa) de Estrada cc Mariana de Guevara-y-Barrios
Su hijo: Esteban de Sosa-Guevara cc Ana de Albornoz
Su hijo: Francisco de Sosa-Guevara-y-Albornoz cc Ines de Tapia-y-Sosa
Su hijo: Alonso de Sosa-Albornoz cc Maria-Beatriz Navarro-Rodriguez-Castano-Sosa
Su hija: Maria-Ana de Sosa-Albornoz-Navarro cc General Alonso de Farias-Trevino

Los hijos
1) Ana Farias-Sosa cc Alfonso Hernando Arredondo-Aguero-Fernandez
2) Maria de Sosa Farias cc Captain Vicente de Saldivar-y-Reza
3) Francisca de Sosa-y-Farias cc Captain Juan de Arredondo-y-Aquero
4) Alonso de Farias-Sosa cc? Su hijo Juan de Farias-de-Sosa cc Margarita Arredondo-Saenz
5) Juan Farias-de-Sosa



Archivo Histórico de Tarragona (AHAT) 


Ya se pueden consultar a la web del Archivo Histórico de Tarragona (AHAT) la siguiente documentación del fondo parroquial de Sant Esteve, diacono y protomártir, de Vila-seca digitalizado grtacias al patrocinio del Ajuntamiento de Vila-seca

Ja es poden consultar al web de l'AHAT la següent documentació del fons parroquial de Sant Esteve, diaca i protomàrtir, de Vila-seca digitalitzada gràcies al patrocinat per l'ajuntament de Vila-seca:
Llibres sagramentals: Libros sacramentales
aptismes// Bautismos (1566-1913)
Confirmacions// Confirmaciones (1655-1913)
Matrimonis// Matrimonios (1566-1913)
Òbits Óbitos (1588-1913)
Compliments pasquals// cumplimiento pascual (1771-1913)
Administració econòmica// Administración ecoómica (1588-1957)
Beneficis// Beneficios (1486-1866)
Hospital // Hospital(1625-1886)
Confraries i associacions// Cofradias y asociaciones (1777-1882)
Santuari de la Mare de Déu de la Pineda// Santuario de la Madre de Dios de la Pinesa (1797-1921)
Manual notarials// Manuales notariales (1416-1741)
Manuals de Capítols matrimonials// Manuales de Capítulos matrimoniales (1583-1763)
Manuals de Testaments // Manuales de Testamentos (1615-1913)

Arxiu Històric Arxidiocesà de Tarragona
C/ Sant Pau, 2 • 43003 TARRAGONA
Tel. 977 233 412 ext. 214

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notificarlo inmediatamente a la persona que lo ha enviado y borrar el mensaje original junto con sus ficheros anexos sin leerlo ni grabarlo, totalmente o parcialmente. Gracias.
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Mensaje mandado por Elena Torrens Tortosa


Islamic Radicalization Changes People & Nations, photos sent by Salvador Del Valle 
A German View of Islam by Dr. Emanuel Tanya, Psychiatrist
1899, Winston Churchill on Islam
Facts Don't Lie: Do You Remember?



Photos sent by Salvador del Valle 

IRAN 1970 IRAN 2012


EGYPT (Cairo University) 1959
EGYPT (Cairo University) 2012

NETHERLANDS (Amsterdam) 1980

NETHERLANDS (Amsterdam) 2012

Mother of Tamerlan and Dzhokhar Tsarev 
Prior to radicalization 



by Dr.Emanuel Tanya, Psychiatrist 

A man, whose family was German aristocracy prior to World War II, owned a number of large industries and estates.

When he was asked how many German people were true Nazis, the answer he gave can guide our attitude toward fanaticism. 
'Very few people were true Nazis,' he said, 'but many enjoyed the return of German pride, and many more were too busy to care.

I was one of those who just thought the Nazis were a bunch of fools. So, the majority just sat back and let it all happen. Then, before we knew it, they owned us, and we had lost control, and the end of the world had come.

My family lost everything. I ended up in a concentration camp and the Allies destroyed my factories.'
We are told again and again by 'experts' and 'talking heads' that Islam is the religion of peace and that the vast majority of Muslims just want to live in peace.

Although this unqualified assertion may be true, it is entirely irrelevant. It is meaningless fluff, meant to make us feel better, and meant to somehow diminish the specter of fanatics rampaging across the globe in the name of Islam.
The fact is that the fanatics rule Islam at this moment in history.
It is the fanatics who march.
It is the fanatics who wage any one of 50 shooting wars worldwide.
It is the fanatics who systematically slaughter Christian or tribal groups throughout Africa and are gradually taking over the entire continent in an Islamic wave.
It is the fanatics who bomb, behead, murder, or honour-kill. It is the fanatics who take over mosque after mosque.

It is the fanatics who zealously spread the stoning and hanging of rape victims and homosexuals.
It is the fanatics who teach their young to kill and to become suicide bombers.
The hard, quantifiable fact is that the peaceful majority, the 'silent majority,' is cowed and extraneous.

Communist Russia was comprised of Russians who just wanted to live in peace, yet the Russian Communists were responsible for the murder of about 20 million people. The peaceful majority were irrelevant.

China's huge population was peaceful as well, but Chinese Communists managed to kill a staggering 70 million people..
The average Japanese individual prior to World War II was not a warmongering sadist. Yet, Japan murdered and slaughtered its way across South East Asia in an orgy of killing that included the systematic murder of 12 million Chinese civilians; most killed by sword, shovel, and bayonet.

And who can forget Rwanda, which collapsed into butchery. Could it not be said that the majority of Rwandans were 'peace loving'?
History lessons are often incredibly simple and blunt, yet for all our powers of reason, we often miss the most basic and uncomplicated of points: Peace-loving Muslims have been made irrelevant by their silence.

Peace-loving Muslims will become our enemy if they don't speak up, because like my friend from Germany, they will awaken one day and find that the fanatics own them, and the end of their world will have begun.
Peace-loving Germans, Japanese, Chinese, Russians, Rwandans, Serbs, Afghans, Iraqis, Palestinians, Somalis, Nigerians, Algerians, and many others have died because the peaceful majority did not speak up until it was too late.
Now Islamic prayers have been introduced into Toronto and other public schools in Ontario, and, yes, in Ottawa too while the Lord's Prayer was removed (due to being so offensive?) The Islamic way may be peaceful for the time being in our country until the fanatics move in.
In Australia, and indeed in many countries around the world, many of the most commonly consumed food items have the halal emblem on them.

Just look at the back of some of the most popular chocolate bars, and at other food items in your local supermarket.
Food on aircraft have the halal emblem, just to appease the privileged minority who are now rapidly expanding within the nation’s shores.
In the U.K, the Muslim communities refuse to integrate and there are now dozens of “no-go” zones within major cities across the country that the police force dare not intrude upon.

Sharia law prevails there, because the Muslim community in those areas refuse to acknowledge British law.
As for us who watch it all unfold, we must pay attention to the only group that counts - the fanatics who threaten our way of life.
Lastly, anyone who doubts that the issue is serious and just deletes this email without sending it on, is contributing to the passiveness that allows the problems to expand.
So, extend yourself a bit and send this on and on and on! Let us hope that thousands, world-wide, read this and think about it, and they also continue to send it on - before it's too late.
And we are silent......

Sent by Jan Mallet  




"Individual Muslims may show splendid qualities, but the influence of the religion paralyses the social development of those who follow it. 
No stronger retrograde force exists in the world."
Unbelievable, but the speech below was written in 1899... (check Wikipedia - The River War). The attached short speech from Winston Churchill, was delivered by him in 1899 when he was a young soldier and journalist. It probably sets out the current views of many, but expresses in the wonderful Churchillian turn of phrase and use of the English language, of which he was a past master. Sir Winston Churchill was, without doubt, one of the greatest men of the late 19th and 20th centuries.
He was a brave young soldier, a brilliant journalist, an extraordinary politician and statesman, a great war leader and British Prime Minister, to whom the Western  world must be forever in his debt. He was a prophet in his own time. He died on 24th January 1965, at the grand old age of 90 and, after a lifetime of service to his country, was accorded a State funeral.



"How dreadful are the curses which Mohammedanism lays on its votaries! Besides the fanatical frenzy, which is as dangerous in a man as hydrophobia in a dog, there is this fearful fatalistic apathy. The effects are apparent in many countries, improvident habits, slovenly systems of agriculture, sluggish methods of commerce, and insecurity of property exist wherever the followers of the Prophet rule or live.
A degraded sensualist deprives this life of its grace and refinement, the next of its dignity and sanctity. The fact that in Mohammedan law every woman must belong to some man as his absolute property, either as a child, a wife, or a concubine, must delay the final extinction of slavery until the faith of Islam has ceased to be a great power among men.
Individual Muslims may show splendid qualities, but the influence of the religion paralyses the social development of those who follow it. No stronger retrograde force exists in the world. Far from being moribund, Mohammedanism is a militant and proselytizing faith.
It has already spread throughout Central Africa, raising fearless warriors at every step; and were it not that Christianity is sheltered in the strong arms of science, the science against which it had vainly struggled, the civilization of modern Europe might fall, as fell the civilization of ancient Rome ..."

Sir Winston Churchill; (Source: The River War,
first edition, Vol II, pages 248-250 London).

Churchill knew it before anyone else...


FACTS DON'T LIE . . . These events are actual events from history. 
They really happened!  Do You Remember?

1. In 1968, Bobby Kennedy was shot and killed...By a Muslim male.

2. In 1972 at the Munich Olympics, athletes were kidnapped and massacred...By Muslim males.

3. In 1972 a Pan Am 747 was hijacked and eventually diverted to an Arab country where a fuse was lit on final approach and it was blown up shortly after landing...By Muslim males.

4. In 1973 a Pan Am 707 was destroyed in Rome, with 33 people killed, when it was attacked with grenades...By Muslim males.

5. In 1979, the US embassy in Iran was taken over...By Muslim males.

6. During the 1980's a number of Americans were kidnapped in Lebanon...By Muslim males.

7. In 1983, the US Marine barracks in Beirut was blown up...By Muslim males.

8. In 1985, the cruise ship Achille Lauro was hijacked and a 70 year old American passenger was murdered and thrown overboard in his wheelchair...By Muslim males.

9. In 1985, TWA flight 847 was hijacked at Athens, and a US Navy diver trying to rescue passengers was murdered...By Muslim males.

10. In 1988, Pan Am Flight 103 was bombed...By Muslim males.

11. In 1993, the World Trade Center was bombed the first time...By Muslim males.

12. In 1998, the US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania were bombed...By Muslim males.

13. On 9/11/01, four airliners were hijacked; two were used as missiles to take down the World Trade Centers and of the remaining two, one crashed into the US Pentagon,
and the other was diverted and crashed by the passengers. Thousands of people were killed...By Muslim males.

14. In 2002, the United States and Canada and others fought a war in Afghanistan...Against Muslim males.

15. In 2002, reporter Daniel Pearl was kidnapped and beheaded by---You guessed it---Muslim males.

16. In 2012 ... US Consulate in Benghazi.....Muslim males. 

17. In 2013 ... Boston marathon bombers....Muslim males. 

18. In 2013…VIA Rail bombing thwarted…..Muslim males.

19. May 2013. British soldier murdered in the street in broad daylight by . . . . . Muslim males.

Sent by Yomar Villarreal 

The world is involved in a religious war,  freedom of belief  verses coercion of belief. 

                                05/30/2013 12:56 PM